WorldWideScience

Sample records for tev blazar 1es

  1. γ-Ray Emission from the Extreme Blazar 1ES 0229+200 J. Li, T ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Based on the traditional Synchrotron Self-Compton (SSC) model, we consider a secondary γ-ray emission component to an extreme blazar 1ES 0229 + 200 for the multiwavelength radiation. By assuming a suitable electron spectra and Inter-Galactic Magnetic Field (IGMF), we obtained excellent fits to observed ...

  2. TeV Blazars and Cosmic Infrared Background Radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Aharonian, F. A.

    2001-01-01

    The recent developments in studies of TeV radiation from blazars are highlighted and the implications of these results for derivation of cosmologically important information about the cosmic infrared background radiation are discussed.

  3. A Search for Quasi-periodic Oscillations in the Blazar 1ES 1959+650

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiao-Pan; Luo, Yu-Hui; Yang, Hai-Yan; Cai, Yan; Yang, Hai-Tao [Department of Physics, Zhaotong University, Zhaotong, 657000 (China); Yang, Cheng, E-mail: lxpzrc@163.com [College of Photoelectron and Communication Engineering, Yunnan Open University, Kunming, 650223 (China)

    2017-09-20

    We have searched quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) in the 15 GHz light curve of the BL Lac object 1ES 1959+650 monitored by the Owens Valley Radio Observatory 40 m telescope during the period from 2008 January to 2016 February, using the Lomb–Scargle Periodogram, power spectral density (PSD), discrete autocorrelation function, and phase dispersion minimization (PDM) techniques. The red noise background has been established via the PSD method, and no QPO can be derived at the 3 σ confidence level accounting for the impact of the red noise variability. We conclude that the light curve of 1ES 1959+650 can be explained by a stochastic red noise process that contributes greatly to the total observed variability amplitude, dominates the power spectrum, causes spurious bumps and wiggles in the autocorrelation function and can result in the variance of the folded light curve decreasing toward lower temporal frequencies when few-cycle, sinusoid-like patterns are present. Moreover, many early supposed periodicity claims for blazar light curves need to be reevaluated assuming red noise.

  4. FACT — LONGTERM MONITORING OF BRIGHT TeV BLAZARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Meier

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The First G-APD Cherenkov Telescope (FACT, located on the Canary Island of La Palma, has been taking data since October 2011. FACT has been optimized for longterm monitoring of bright TeV blazars, to study their variability time scales and flare probability. G-APD photo-sensors allow for observations even under strong moonlight conditions, and the telescope can be operated remotely. The monitoring strategy of FACT is discussed and preliminary results of the flare of Mrk501 in June 2012 are shown.

  5. X-Ray Intraday Variability of Five TeV Blazars with NuSTAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, Ashwani; Gupta, Alok C. [Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences (ARIES), Manora Peak, Nainital 263002 (India); Wiita, Paul J., E-mail: ashwanitapan@gmail.com, E-mail: acgupta30@gmail.com, E-mail: wiitap@tcnj.edu [Department of Physics, The College of New Jersey, 2000 Pennington Road, Ewing, NJ 08628-0718 (United States)

    2017-06-01

    We have examined 40 Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array ( NuSTAR ) light curves (LCs) of five TeV emitting high synchrotron peaked blazars: 1ES 0229+200, Mrk 421, Mrk 501, 1ES 1959+650, and PKS 2155−304. Four of the blazars showed intraday variability in the NuSTAR energy range of 3–79 keV. Using an autocorrelation function analysis we searched for intraday variability timescales in these LCs and found indications of several between 2.5 and 32.8 ks in eight LCs of Mrk 421, a timescale around 8.0 ks for one LC of Mrk 501, and timescales of 29.6 and 57.4 ks in two LCs of PKS 2155-304. The other two blazars’ LCs do not show any evidence for intraday variability timescales shorter than the lengths of those observations; however, the data were both sparser and noisier for them. We found positive correlations with zero lag between soft (3–10 keV) and hard (10–79 keV) bands for most of the LCs, indicating that their emissions originate from the same electron population. We examined spectral variability using a hardness ratio analysis and noticed a general “harder-when-brighter” behavior. The 22 LCs of Mrk 421 observed between 2012 July and 2013 April show that this source was in a quiescent state for an extended period of time and then underwent an unprecedented double-peaked outburst while monitored on a daily basis during 2013 April 10–16. We briefly discuss models capable of explaining these blazar emissions.

  6. INVESTIGATING BROADBAND VARIABILITY OF THE TeV BLAZAR 1ES 1959+650

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliu, E.; Archambault, S.; Arlen, T.; Aune, T.; Barnacka, A.; Beilicke, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Benbow, W.; Cerruti, M.; Berger, K.; Bird, R.; Collins-Hughes, E.; Bouvier, A.; Chen, X.; Ciupik, L.; Connolly, M. P.; Cui, W.; Dumm, J.; Eisch, J. D.

    2014-01-01

    We summarize broadband observations of the TeV-emitting blazar 1ES 1959+650, including optical R-band observations by the robotic telescopes Super-LOTIS and iTelescope, UV observations by Swift Ultraviolet and Optical Telescope, X-ray observations by the Swift X-ray Telescope, high-energy gamma-ray observations with the Fermi Large Area Telescope, and very-high-energy (VHE) gamma-ray observations by VERITAS above 315 GeV, all taken between 2012 April 17 and 2012 June 1 (MJD 56034 and 56079). The contemporaneous variability of the broadband spectral energy distribution is explored in the context of a simple synchrotron self Compton (SSC) model. In the SSC emission scenario, we find that the parameters required to represent the high state are significantly different than those in the low state. Motivated by possible evidence of gas in the vicinity of the blazar, we also investigate a reflected emission model to describe the observed variability pattern. This model assumes that the non-thermal emission from the jet is reflected by a nearby cloud of gas, allowing the reflected emission to re-enter the blob and produce an elevated gamma-ray state with no simultaneous elevated synchrotron flux. The model applied here, although not required to explain the observed variability pattern, represents one possible scenario which can describe the observations. As applied to an elevated VHE state of 66% of the Crab Nebula flux, observed on a single night during the observation period, the reflected emission scenario does not support a purely leptonic non-thermal emission mechanism. The reflected emission model does, however, predict a reflected photon field with sufficient energy to enable elevated gamma-ray emission via pion production with protons of energies between 10 and 100 TeV

  7. Impact of seeing and host galaxy into the analysis of photo-polarimetric microvariability in blazars. Case study of the nearby blazars 1ES 1959+650 and HB89 2201+044

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, M. S.; von Essen, C.; Andruchow, I.; Cellone, S. A.

    2017-11-01

    Blazars, a type of Active Galactic Nuclei, present a particular orientation of their jets close to the line of sight. Their radiation is thus relativistically beamed, giving rise to extreme behaviors, specially strong variability on very short timescales (I.e., microvariability). Here we present simultaneous photometric and polarimetric observations of two relatively nearby blazars, 1ES 1959+650 and HB89 2201+044, that were obtained using the Calar Alto Faint Object Spectrograph mounted at the 2.2 m telescope in Calar Alto, Spain. An outstanding characteristic of these two blazars is the presence of well resolved host galaxies. This particular feature allows us to produce a study of their intrinsic polarization, a measurement of the polarization state of the galactic nucleus unaffected by the host galaxy. To carry out this work, we computed photometric fluxes from which we calculated the degree and orientation of the blazars polarization. Then, we analyzed the depolarizing effect introduced by the host galaxy with the main goal to recover the intrinsic polarization of the galactic nucleus, carefully taking into consideration the spurious polarimetric variability introduced by changes in seeing along the observing nights. We find that the two blazars do not present intra-night photo-polarimetric variability, although we do detect a significant inter-night variability. Comparing polarimetric values before and after accounting for the host galaxies, we observe a significant difference in the polarization degree of about 1% in the case of 1ES 1959+650, and 0.3% in the case of HB89 2201+044, thus evidencing the non-negligible impact introduced by the host galaxies. We note that this host galaxy effect depends on the waveband, and varies with changing seeing conditions, so it should be particularly considered when studying frequency-dependent polarization in blazars. Based on observations collected at the Centro Astronómico Hispano Alemán (CAHA) at Calar Alto, operated

  8. DETECTION OF VERY HARD γ -RAY SPECTRUM FROM THE TEV BLAZAR MRK 501

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shukla, A.; Chitnis, V. R.; Acharya, B. S. [Department of High Energy Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India); Mannheim, K.; Dorner, D. [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Universität Würzburg, D-97074 Würzburg (Germany); Roy, J. [UM-DAE Center for Excellence in Basic Sciences, Mumbai 400098 (India); Hughes, G.; Biland, A. [ETH Zurich, Institute for Particle Physics, Otto-Stern-Weg 5, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2016-12-01

    The occasional hardening of the GeV-to-TeV spectrum observed from the blazar Mrk 501 has reopened the debate on the physical origin of radiation and particle acceleration processes in TeV blazars. We have used the ∼7 years of Fermi -LAT data to search for the time intervals with unusually hard spectra from the nearby TeV blazar Mrk 501. We detected hard spectral components above 10 GeV with photon index <1.5 at a significance level of more than 5 sigma on 17 occasions, each with 30 day integration time. The photon index of the hardest component reached a value of 0.89 ± 0.29. We interpret these hard spectra as signatures of intermittent injection of sharply peaked and localized particle distributions from the base of the jet.

  9. EVIDENCE FOR SECONDARY EMISSION AS THE ORIGIN OF HARD SPECTRA IN TeV BLAZARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Y. G.; Kang, T.

    2013-01-01

    We develop a model for the possible origin of hard, very high energy (VHE) spectra from a distant blazar. In the model, both the primary photons produced in the source and secondary photons produced outside it contribute to the observed high-energy γ-ray emission. That is, the primary photons are produced through the synchrotron self-Compton process, and the secondary photons are produced through high-energy proton interactions with background photons along the line of sight. We apply the model to a characteristic case of VHE γ-ray emission in the distant blazar 1ES 1101-232. Assuming suitable electron and proton spectra, we obtain excellent fits to the observed spectra of this blazar. This indicated that the surprisingly low attenuation of the high-energy γ-rays, especially the shape of the VHE γ-ray tail of the observed spectra, can be explained by secondary γ-rays produced in interactions of cosmic-ray protons with background photons in intergalactic space.

  10. Implication of the detection of very hard spectra from the TeV blazar Mrk 501

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shukla, Amit; Hughes, Gareth; Biland, Adrian [ETH Zurich, Institute for Particle Physics (Switzerland); Mannheim, Karl; Dorner, Daniela [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Universitaet Wuerzburg (Germany); Chitnis, Varsha R. [Department of High Energy Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai (India); Roy, Jayashree; Acharya, Bannanje Sripathi [Center for Excellence in Basic Sciences, UM-DAE Mumbai (India)

    2016-07-01

    The emission from active galactic nuclei ranges from radio to TeV energies and shows high variability. The origin of the high energy emission is highly debated. The observed emission could be due to a complex superposition of emission from multiple zones. New evidence of the detection of very hard intrinsic gamma-ray spectra obtained from Fermi-LAT observations have challenged the theories about origin of VHE gamma-rays. We have used the 7 years of Fermi-LAT data to search for time intervals with unusually hard spectra from the nearby TeV blazar Mrk 501. In the presentation, we discuss a few possible explanations for the origin of these hard spectra within a leptonic scenario.

  11. THE COSMOLOGICAL IMPACT OF LUMINOUS TeV BLAZARS. II. REWRITING THE THERMAL HISTORY OF THE INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Philip; Broderick, Avery E; Pfrommer, Christoph [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada)

    2012-06-10

    The universe is opaque to extragalactic very high energy gamma rays (VHEGRs, E > 100 GeV) because they annihilate and pair produce on the extragalactic background light. The resulting ultrarelativistic pairs are commonly assumed to lose energy primarily through inverse Compton scattering of cosmic microwave background (CMB) photons, reprocessing the original emission from TeV to GeV energies. In Broderick et al., we argued that this is not the case; powerful plasma instabilities driven by the highly anisotropic nature of the ultrarelativistic pair distribution provide a plausible way to dissipate the kinetic energy of the TeV-generated pairs locally, heating the intergalactic medium (IGM). Here, we explore the effect of this heating on the thermal history of the IGM. We collate the observed extragalactic VHEGR sources to determine a local VHEGR heating rate. Given the pointed nature of VHEGR observations, we estimate the correction for the various selection effects using Fermi observations of high- and intermediate-peaked BL Lac objects. As the extragalactic component of the local VHEGR flux is dominated by TeV blazars, we then estimate the evolution of the TeV blazar luminosity density by tying it to the well-observed quasar luminosity density and producing a VHEGR heating rate as a function of redshift. This heating is relatively homogeneous for z {approx}< 4, but there is greater spatial variation at higher redshift (order unity at z {approx} 6) because of the reduced number of blazars that contribute to local heating. We show that this new heating process dominates photoheating in the low-redshift evolution of the IGM and calculate the effect of this heating in a one-zone model. As a consequence, the inclusion of TeV blazar heating qualitatively and quantitatively changes the structure and history of the IGM. Due to the homogeneous nature of the extragalactic background light, TeV blazars produce a uniform volumetric heating rate. This heating is sufficient to

  12. THE COSMOLOGICAL IMPACT OF LUMINOUS TeV BLAZARS. II. REWRITING THE THERMAL HISTORY OF THE INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Philip; Broderick, Avery E.; Pfrommer, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    The universe is opaque to extragalactic very high energy gamma rays (VHEGRs, E > 100 GeV) because they annihilate and pair produce on the extragalactic background light. The resulting ultrarelativistic pairs are commonly assumed to lose energy primarily through inverse Compton scattering of cosmic microwave background (CMB) photons, reprocessing the original emission from TeV to GeV energies. In Broderick et al., we argued that this is not the case; powerful plasma instabilities driven by the highly anisotropic nature of the ultrarelativistic pair distribution provide a plausible way to dissipate the kinetic energy of the TeV-generated pairs locally, heating the intergalactic medium (IGM). Here, we explore the effect of this heating on the thermal history of the IGM. We collate the observed extragalactic VHEGR sources to determine a local VHEGR heating rate. Given the pointed nature of VHEGR observations, we estimate the correction for the various selection effects using Fermi observations of high- and intermediate-peaked BL Lac objects. As the extragalactic component of the local VHEGR flux is dominated by TeV blazars, we then estimate the evolution of the TeV blazar luminosity density by tying it to the well-observed quasar luminosity density and producing a VHEGR heating rate as a function of redshift. This heating is relatively homogeneous for z ∼< 4, but there is greater spatial variation at higher redshift (order unity at z ∼ 6) because of the reduced number of blazars that contribute to local heating. We show that this new heating process dominates photoheating in the low-redshift evolution of the IGM and calculate the effect of this heating in a one-zone model. As a consequence, the inclusion of TeV blazar heating qualitatively and quantitatively changes the structure and history of the IGM. Due to the homogeneous nature of the extragalactic background light, TeV blazars produce a uniform volumetric heating rate. This heating is sufficient to increase

  13. Multi-epoch VLBA Imaging of 20 New TeV Blazars: Apparent Jet Speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piner, B. Glenn; Edwards, Philip G.

    2018-01-01

    We present 88 multi-epoch Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) images (most at an observing frequency of 8 GHz) of 20 TeV blazars, all of the high-frequency-peaked BL Lac (HBL) class, that have not been previously studied at multiple epochs on the parsec scale. From these 20 sources, we analyze the apparent speeds of 43 jet components that are all detected at four or more epochs. As has been found for other TeV HBLs, the apparent speeds of these components are relatively slow. About two-thirds of the components have an apparent speed that is consistent (within 2σ) with no motion, and some of these components may be stationary patterns whose apparent speed does not relate to the underlying bulk flow speed. In addition, a superluminal tail to the apparent speed distribution of the TeV HBLs is detected for the first time, with eight components in seven sources having a 2σ lower limit on the apparent speed exceeding 1c. We combine the data from these 20 sources with an additional 18 sources from the literature to analyze the complete apparent speed distribution of all 38 TeV HBLs that have been studied with very long baseline interferometry at multiple epochs. The highest 2σ apparent speed lower limit considering all sources is 3.6c. This suggests that bulk Lorentz factors of up to about 4, but probably not much higher, exist in the parsec-scale radio-emitting regions of these sources, consistent with estimates obtained in the radio by other means such as brightness temperatures. This can be reconciled with the high Lorentz factors estimated from the high-energy data if the jet has velocity structures consisting of different emission regions with different Lorentz factors. In particular, we analyze the current apparent speed data for the TeV HBLs in the context of a model with a fast central spine and a slower outer layer.

  14. Time dependent approach of TeV blazars based on a model of inhomogeneous stratified jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boutelier, T.

    2009-05-01

    The study of the emission and variability mechanisms of TeV blazars has been the subject of intensive research for years. The homogeneous one-zone model commonly used is puzzling since it yields very high Lorentz factor, in contradiction with other observational evidences. In this work, I describe a new time dependent multi-zone approach, in the framework of the two-flow model. I compute the emission of a full jet, where relativistic electron-positron pairs distributed in pileup propagate. The evolution and the emission of the plasma is computed taking into account a turbulent heating term, some radiative cooling, and a pair production term due to photo-annihilation process. Applied to PKS 2155-304, the model allows the reproduction of the full spectra, as well as the simultaneous multi wavelength variability, with a relatively small Lorentz factor. The variability is explained by the instability of the pair creation process. Nonetheless, the value is still high to agree with other observational evidences in radio. Hence, I show in the last part of this work how to conciliate high Lorentz factor with the absence of apparent superluminal movement in radio, by taking into account the effect of the opening angle on the appearance of relativistic jets. (author)

  15. Long term monitoring of Gamma-Ray emission from the BL Lacertae object (1ES 2200+420)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawardhana, Isuru; VERITAS Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    Blazars are a class of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) that have relativistic jets pointing along the observer line of sight. Blazars exhibit variable emission extending from radio to TeV energies. The variability timescale of the TeV flux is a key component of understanding the location of the very high energy emission zones. Deep observations of the quiescent state measurements are also required to disentangle the flaring state emission from quiescent state emission, a prerequisite for understanding the origin of blazar spectral variability. BL Lacertae (also known as 1ES 2200+420), as the namesake for all BL Lac objects, is a prime example of one such blazar. The VERITAS Observatory, an Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescope (IACT) array sensitive to gamma rays in the range from 85 GeV to 30 TeV, dedicates approximately 110 hours per year on deep observations of known gamma-ray blazars. In this talk, I will describe the TeV photon flux variability of BL Lacertae measured by VERITAS from 2013 to 2015.

  16. Multiwavelength Observations of the Blazar BL Lacertae: A New Fast TeV Gamma-Ray Flare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeysekara, A. U.; Benbow, W.; Bird, R.; Brantseg, T.; Brose, R.; Buchovecky, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Connolly, M. P.; Cui, W.; Daniel, M. K.; Falcone, A.; Feng, Q.; Finley, J. P.; Fortson, L.; Furniss, A.; Gillanders, G. H.; Gunawardhana, I.; Hütten, M.; Hanna, D.; Hervet, O.; Holder, J.; Hughes, G.; Humensky, T. B.; Johnson, C. A.; Kaaret, P.; Kar, P.; Kertzman, M.; Krennrich, F.; Lang, M. J.; Lin, T. T. Y.; McArthur, S.; Moriarty, P.; Mukherjee, R.; O’Brien, S.; Ong, R. A.; Otte, A. N.; Park, N.; Petrashyk, A.; Pohl, M.; Pueschel, E.; Quinn, J.; Ragan, K.; Reynolds, P. T.; Richards, G. T.; Roache, E.; Rulten, C.; Sadeh, I.; Santander, M.; Sembroski, G. H.; Shahinyan, K.; Wakely, S. P.; Weinstein, A.; Wells, R. M.; Wilcox, P.; Williams, D. A.; Zitzer, B.; The VERITAS Collaboration; Jorstad, S. G.; Marscher, A. P.; Lister, M. L.; Kovalev, Y. Y.; Pushkarev, A. B.; Savolainen, T.; Agudo, I.; Molina, S. N.; Gómez, J. L.; Larionov, V. M.; Borman, G. A.; Mokrushina, A. A.; Tornikoski, M.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Chamani, W.; Enestam, S.; Kiehlmann, S.; Hovatta, T.; Smith, P. S.; Pontrelli, P.

    2018-04-01

    Combined with measurements made by very-long-baseline interferometry, the observations of fast TeV gamma-ray flares probe the structure and emission mechanism of blazar jets. However, only a handful of such flares have been detected to date, and only within the last few years have these flares been observed from lower-frequency-peaked BL Lac objects and flat-spectrum radio quasars. We report on a fast TeV gamma-ray flare from the blazar BL Lacertae observed by the Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System (VERITAS). with a rise time of ∼2.3 hr and a decay time of ∼36 min. The peak flux above 200 GeV is (4.2 ± 0.6) × 10‑6 photon m‑2 s‑1 measured with a 4-minute-binned light curve, corresponding to ∼180% of the flux that is observed from the Crab Nebula above the same energy threshold. Variability contemporaneous with the TeV gamma-ray flare was observed in GeV gamma-ray, X-ray, and optical flux, as well as in optical and radio polarization. Additionally, a possible moving emission feature with superluminal apparent velocity was identified in Very Long Baseline Array observations at 43 GHz, potentially passing the radio core of the jet around the time of the gamma-ray flare. We discuss the constraints on the size, Lorentz factor, and location of the emitting region of the flare, and the interpretations with several theoretical models that invoke relativistic plasma passing stationary shocks.

  17. THE COSMOLOGICAL IMPACT OF LUMINOUS TeV BLAZARS. I. IMPLICATIONS OF PLASMA INSTABILITIES FOR THE INTERGALACTIC MAGNETIC FIELD AND EXTRAGALACTIC GAMMA-RAY BACKGROUND

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broderick, Avery E; Chang, Philip; Pfrommer, Christoph [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada)

    2012-06-10

    Inverse Compton cascades (ICCs) initiated by energetic gamma rays (E {approx}> 100 GeV) enhance the GeV emission from bright, extragalactic TeV sources. The absence of this emission from bright TeV blazars has been used to constrain the intergalactic magnetic field (IGMF), and the stringent limits placed on the unresolved extragalactic gamma-ray background (EGRB) by Fermi have been used to argue against a large number of such objects at high redshifts. However, these are predicated on the assumption that inverse Compton scattering is the primary energy-loss mechanism for the ultrarelativistic pairs produced by the annihilation of the energetic gamma rays on extragalactic background light photons. Here, we show that for sufficiently bright TeV sources (isotropic-equivalent luminosities {approx}> 10{sup 42} erg s{sup -1}) plasma beam instabilities, specifically the 'oblique' instability, present a plausible mechanism by which the energy of these pairs can be dissipated locally, heating the intergalactic medium. Since these instabilities typically grow on timescales short in comparison to the inverse Compton cooling rate, they necessarily suppress the ICCs. As a consequence, this places a severe constraint on efforts to limit the IGMF from the lack of a discernible GeV bump in TeV sources. Similarly, it considerably weakens the Fermi limits on the evolution of blazar populations. Specifically, we construct a TeV-blazar luminosity function from those objects currently observed and find that it is very well described by the quasar luminosity function at z {approx} 0.1, shifted to lower luminosities and number densities, suggesting that both classes of sources are regulated by similar processes. Extending this relationship to higher redshifts, we show that the magnitude and shape of the EGRB above {approx}10 GeV are naturally reproduced with this particular example of a rapidly evolving TeV-blazar luminosity function.

  18. BeppoSAX Observations of the TeV Blazar Mkn 421

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fossati, G.; Chiappetti, L.; Celotti, A.; Ghisellini, G.; Maraschi, L.; Tagliaferri, G.; Tanzi, E.G.; Treves, A.; Bassani, L.; Cappi, M.; Comastri, A.; Frontera, F.; Giarrusso, S.; Grandi, P.; Molendi, S.; Palumbo, G.; Perola, C.; Pian, E.; Salvati, M.; Raiteri, C.; Villata, M.; Urry, C.M

    1999-01-01

    The blazar Mkn 421 has been observed, as part of the AO1 Core Program, five times from 2 to 7 May 1997. In the LECS+MECS energy band the spectrum shows convex curvature, well represented by a broken power-law. Flux variability (more than a factor 2) has been detected over the entire 0.1-10 keV range, accompanying which the spectrum steepens with the decrease in intensity. Mkn 421 has been also detected with the PDS instrument. Our preliminary analysis indicates that the PDS spectrum lies significantly above the extrapolation from the MECS, suggesting a contribution from a flatter high energy component.

  19. BeppoSAX Observations of the TeV Blazar Mkn 421

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fossati, G.; Chiappetti, L.; Celotti, A.; Ghisellini, G.; Maraschi, L.; Tagliaferri, G.; Tanzi, E.G.; Treves, A.; Bassani, L.; Cappi, M.; Comastri, A.; Frontera, F.; Giarrusso, S.; Grandi, P.; Molendi, S.; Palumbo, G.; Perola, C.; Pian, E.; Salvati, M.; Raiteri, C.; Villata, M.; Urry, C.M.

    1999-01-01

    The blazar Mkn 421 has been observed, as part of the AO1 Core Program, five times from 2 to 7 May 1997. In the LECS+MECS energy band the spectrum shows convex curvature, well represented by a broken power-law. Flux variability (more than a factor 2) has been detected over the entire 0.1-10 keV range, accompanying which the spectrum steepens with the decrease in intensity. Mkn 421 has been also detected with the PDS instrument. Our preliminary analysis indicates that the PDS spectrum lies significantly above the extrapolation from the MECS, suggesting a contribution from a flatter high energy component

  20. THE COSMOLOGICAL IMPACT OF LUMINOUS TeV BLAZARS. III. IMPLICATIONS FOR GALAXY CLUSTERS AND THE FORMATION OF DWARF GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfrommer, Christoph; Chang, Philip; Broderick, Avery E.

    2012-01-01

    A subset of blazars are powerful TeV emitters, dominating the extragalactic component of the very high energy gamma-ray universe (E ∼> 100 GeV). These TeV gamma rays generate ultrarelativistic electron-positron pairs via pair production with the extragalactic background light. While it has generally been assumed that the kinetic energy of these pairs cascades to GeV gamma rays via inverse Compton scattering, we have argued in Broderick et al. (Paper I in this series) that plasma beam instabilities are capable of dissipating the pairs' energy locally on timescales short in comparison to the inverse Compton cooling time, heating the intergalactic medium (IGM) with a rate that is independent of density. This dramatically increases the entropy of the IGM after redshift z ∼ 2, with a number of important implications for structure formation: (1) this suggests a scenario for the origin of the cool core (CC)/non-cool core (NCC) bimodality in galaxy clusters and groups. Early-forming galaxy groups are unaffected because they can efficiently radiate the additional entropy, developing a CC. However, late-forming groups do not have sufficient time to cool before the entropy is gravitationally reprocessed through successive mergers—counteracting cooling and potentially raising the core entropy further. This may result in a population of X-ray dim groups/clusters, consistent with X-ray stacking analyses of optically selected samples. Hence, blazar heating works differently than feedback by active galactic nuclei, which we show can balance radiative cooling but is unable to transform CC into NCC clusters on the buoyancy timescale due to the weak coupling between the mechanical energy to the cluster gas. (2) We predict a suppression of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) power spectrum template on angular scales smaller than 5' due to the globally reduced central pressure of groups and clusters forming after z ∼ 1. This allows for a larger rms amplitude of the density power

  1. Search for muon-neutrino emission from GeV and TeV gamma-ray flaring blazars using five years of data of the ANTARES telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collaboration: ANTARES Collaboration

    2015-12-01

    The ANTARES telescope is well-suited for detecting astrophysical transient neutrino sources as it can observe a full hemisphere of the sky at all times with a high duty cycle. The background due to atmospheric particles can be drastically reduced, and the point-source sensitivity improved, by selecting a narrow time window around possible neutrino production periods. Blazars, being radio-loud active galactic nuclei with their jets pointing almost directly towards the observer, are particularly attractive potential neutrino point sources, since they are among the most likely sources of the very high-energy cosmic rays. Neutrinos and gamma rays may be produced in hadronic interactions with the surrounding medium. Moreover, blazars generally show high time variability in their light curves at different wavelengths and on various time scales. This paper presents a time-dependent analysis applied to a selection of flaring gamma-ray blazars observed by the FERMI/LAT experiment and by TeV Cherenkov telescopes using five years of ANTARES data taken from 2008 to 2012. The results are compatible with fluctuations of the background. Upper limits on the neutrino fluence have been produced and compared to the measured gamma-ray spectral energy distribution.

  2. Probing the Diffuse Optical-IR Background with TeV Blazars Detected with the MAGIC Telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prandini, Elisa [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia “G. Galilei”, University of Padova, Padua (Italy); Domínguez, Alberto [Departamento de Física Atómica, Universidad Complutense, Madrid (Spain); Fallah Ramazani, Vandad [Tuorla observatory, University of Turku, Turku (Finland); Hassan, Tarek [IFAE, The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology, Bellaterra (Spain); Mazin, Daniel [Max Planck Institute for Physics, Munich (Germany); Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Moralejo, Abelardo [IFAE, The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology, Bellaterra (Spain); Nievas Rosillo, Mireia [Departamento de Física Atómica, Universidad Complutense, Madrid (Spain); Vanzo, Gaia; Vazquez Acosta, Monica, E-mail: prandini@pd.infn.it [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Tenerife (Spain); Departamento de Astrofisica, Universidad de La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2017-11-22

    Blazars are radio loud quasars whose jet points toward the observer. The observed emission is mostly non-thermal, dominated by the jet emission, and in some cases extends up to the very high energy gamma rays (VHE; E > 100 GeV). To date, more than 60 blazars have been detected at VHE mainly with ground-based imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs) such as MAGIC, H.E.S.S., and VERITAS. Energetic photons from a blazar may interact with the diffuse optical and IR background (the extragalactic background light, EBL) leaving an imprint on the blazar energy spectrum. This effect can be used to constrain the EBL, with basic assumptions on the intrinsic energy spectrum. Current generation of IACTs is providing valuable measurements of the EBL density and energy spectrum from optical to infrared frequencies. In this contribution, we present the latest results obtained with the data taken with the MAGIC telescopes: using 32 spectra from 12 blazars, the scale factor of the optical density predicted by the EBL model from Domínguez et al. (2011) is constrained to be 0.95 (+0.11, −0.12){sub stat} (+0.16, −0.07){sub sys}, where a value of 1 means the perfect match with the model.

  3. Probing the Diffuse Optical-IR Background with TeV Blazars Detected with the MAGIC Telescopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Prandini

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Blazars are radio loud quasars whose jet points toward the observer. The observed emission is mostly non-thermal, dominated by the jet emission, and in some cases extends up to the very high energy gamma rays (VHE; E > 100 GeV. To date, more than 60 blazars have been detected at VHE mainly with ground-based imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs such as MAGIC, H.E.S.S., and VERITAS. Energetic photons from a blazar may interact with the diffuse optical and IR background (the extragalactic background light, EBL leaving an imprint on the blazar energy spectrum. This effect can be used to constrain the EBL, with basic assumptions on the intrinsic energy spectrum. Current generation of IACTs is providing valuable measurements of the EBL density and energy spectrum from optical to infrared frequencies. In this contribution, we present the latest results obtained with the data taken with the MAGIC telescopes: using 32 spectra from 12 blazars, the scale factor of the optical density predicted by the EBL model from Domínguez et al. (2011 is constrained to be 0.95 (+0.11, −0.12stat (+0.16, −0.07sys, where a value of 1 means the perfect match with the model.

  4. ROLE OF LINE-OF-SIGHT COSMIC-RAY INTERACTIONS IN FORMING THE SPECTRA OF DISTANT BLAZARS IN TeV GAMMA RAYS AND HIGH-ENERGY NEUTRINOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essey, Warren; Kusenko, Alexander; Kalashev, Oleg; Beacom, John F.

    2011-01-01

    Active galactic nuclei (AGNs) can produce both gamma rays and cosmic rays. The observed high-energy gamma-ray signals from distant blazars may be dominated by secondary gamma rays produced along the line of sight by the interactions of cosmic-ray protons with background photons. This explains the surprisingly low attenuation observed for distant blazars, because the production of secondary gamma rays occurs, on average, much closer to Earth than the distance to the source. Thus, the observed spectrum in the TeV range does not depend on the intrinsic gamma-ray spectrum, while it depends on the output of the source in cosmic rays. We apply this hypothesis to a number of sources and, in every case, we obtain an excellent fit, strengthening the interpretation of the observed spectra as being due to secondary gamma rays. We explore the ramifications of this interpretation for limits on the extragalactic background light and for the production of cosmic rays in AGNs. We also make predictions for the neutrino signals, which can help probe the acceleration of cosmic rays in AGNs.

  5. PROBING THE TRANSITION BETWEEN THE SYNCHROTRON AND INVERSE-COMPTON SPECTRAL COMPONENTS OF 1ES 1959+650

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottacini, E.; Schady, P.; Rau, A.; Zhang, X.-L.; Greiner, J.; Boettcher, M.; Ajello, M.; Fendt, C.

    2010-01-01

    1ES 1959+650 is one of the most remarkable high-peaked BL Lacertae objects (HBL). In 2002, it exhibited a TeV γ-ray flare without a similar brightening of the synchrotron component at lower energies. This orphan TeV flare remained a mystery. We present the results of a multifrequency campaign, triggered by the INTEGRAL IBIS detection of 1ES 1959+650. Our data range from the optical to hard X-ray energies, thus covering the synchrotron and inverse-Compton components simultaneously. We observed the source with INTEGRAL, the Swift X-Ray Telescope, and the UV-Optical Telescope, and nearly simultaneously with a ground-based optical telescope. The steep spectral component at X-ray energies is most likely due to synchrotron emission, while at soft γ-ray energies the hard spectral index may be interpreted as the onset of the high-energy component of the blazar spectral energy distribution (SED). This is the first clear measurement of a concave X-ray-soft γ-ray spectrum for an HBL. The SED can be well modeled with a leptonic synchrotron self-Compton model. When the SED is fitted this model requires a very hard electron spectral index of q ∼ 1.85, possibly indicating the relevance of second-order Fermi acceleration.

  6. FACT. More than four years of blazar monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorner, Daniela [Universitaet Wuerzburg (Germany); Collaboration: FACT-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    Since October 2011, the First G-APD Cherenkov Telescope (FACT) has been collecting more than 5500 hours of physics data. Thanks to the silicon based photosensors (SiPMs, aka G-APDs), observations during bright ambient light like full moon can be carried out without degradation of the sensors. Keeping the gain of the SiPMs stable using an online feedback system, a stable and homogeneous detector performance is achieved. Based on this and an automatic data taking procedure, an unbiased longterm data sample is collected. An automatic quick look analysis provides results shortly after the data are taken allowing to send flare alerts within the same night. The main targets for FACT are the bright TeV blazars Mrk 421 and Mrk 501 which are monitored since January 2012. In addition, several other sources like for example the Crab Nebula, 1ES 1959+650, 1ES 2344+54.1 are observed. In this presentation, the results from more than four years of monitoring are summarized. Several flares from Mrk 501 and Mrk 421 are discussed in the multi-wavelength (MWL) context. Mrk 501 underwent major outbursts in June 2012 and June 2014 during the yearly MWL campaigns. Mrk 421 showed a bright flare in April 2013 where also MWL observations are available. 1ES 1959+650 showed enhanced flux in autumn 2015. Results from these observations are discussed.

  7. Search for muon-neutrino emission from GeV and TeV gamma-ray flaring blazars using five years of data of the ANTARES telescope

    OpenAIRE

    Adrián-Martínez, S.; Albert, A.; André, M.; Anton, G.; Ardid, M.; Aubert, J. -J.; Baret, B.; Barrios-Martí, J.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bogazzi, C.; Bormuth, R.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Bouwhuis, M. C.

    2015-01-01

    The ANTARES telescope is well-suited for detecting astrophysical transient neutrino sources as it can observe a full hemisphere of the sky at all times with a high duty cycle. The background due to atmospheric particles can be drastically reduced, and the point-source sensitivity improved, by selecting a narrow time window around possible neutrino production periods. Blazars, being radio-loud active galactic nuclei with their jets pointing almost directly towards the observer, ...

  8. Blazars in Hard X-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghisellini, Gabriele

    2009-05-01

    Although blazars are thought to emit most of their luminosity in the γ-ray band, there are subclasses of them very prominent in hard X-rays. These are the best candidates to be studied by Simbol-X. They are at the extremes of the blazar sequence, having very small or very high jet powers. The former are the class of TeV emitting BL Lacs, whose synchrotron emission often peaks at tens of keV or more. The latter are the blazars with the most powerful jets, have high black hole masses accreting at high (i.e. close to Eddington) rates. These sources are predicted to have their high energy peak even below the MeV band, and therefore are very promising candidates to be studied with Simbol-X.

  9. The role of plasma instabilities in the propagation of gamma-rays from distant Blazars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saveliev, A.; Evoli, C.; Sigl, G. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2013-11-15

    The observation in the GeV band of distant blazars has been recently used to put constraints on the Extragalactic Background Light (EBL) and Extragalactic Magnetic Fields (EGMF). To support such claims one has to assume that the leptonic component of the electromagnetic cascade initiated by blazar gamma-rays is deflected away by strong enough EGMF, suppressing the signal in the Fermi window. Apart from magnetic fields, the development of such a cascade might be affected by plasma instabilities due to interactions with the ionized component of the Intergalactic Medium (IGM). In this paper we model the electromagnetic cascade through a Monte Carlo simulation in which both effects are taken into account separately, and we derive constraints on these scenarios from the combined Fermi-HESS data set. In the specific case of 1ES 0229+200 observations, we show that both explanations of the GeV flux suppression are compatible with the available data, specifically by assuming a magnetic field of B >or similar 10{sup -16} G or an IGM temperature of T TeV objects will help to distinguish magnetic field and plasma effects on electromagnetic cascades in the IGM.

  10. A Very High Energy Gamma-Ray Spectrum of 1ES 2344+514

    OpenAIRE

    Schroedter, M.; Badran, H. M.; Buckley, J. H.; Gordo, J. Bussons; Carter-Lewis, D. A.; Duke, C.; Fegan, D. J.; Fegan, S. F.; Finley, J. P.; Gillanders, G. H.; Grube, J.; Horan, D.; Kenny, G. E.; Kertzman, M.; Kosack, K.

    2005-01-01

    The BL Lacertae (BL Lac) object 1ES 2344+514 (1ES 2344), at a redshift of 0.044, was discovered as a source of very high energy (VHE) gamma rays by the Whipple Collaboration in 1995 \\citep{2344Catanese98}. This detection was recently confirmed by the HEGRA Collaboration \\citep{2344Hegra03}. As is typical for high-frequency peaked blazars, the VHE gamma-ray emission is highly variable. On the night of 20 December, 1995, a gamma-ray flare of 5.3-sigma significance was detected, the brightest ou...

  11. R-band host galaxy contamination of TeV γ-ray blazar Mrk 501: effects of aperture size and seeing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Hai-Cheng; Liu, Hong-Tao; Zhao, Ying-He; Bai, Jin-Ming; Wang, Fang; Fan, Xu-Liang

    2018-02-01

    We simulated the R-band contribution of the host galaxy of TeV γ-ray BL Lac object Mrk 501 in different aperture sizes and seeing conditions. An intensive set of observations was acquired with the 1.02 m optical telescope, managed by Yunnan Observatories, from 2010 May 15 to 18. Based on the host subtraction data usually used in the literature, the subtraction of host galaxy contamination results in significant seeing-brightness correlations. These correlations would lead to illusive large amplitude variations at short timescales, which will mask the intrinsic microvariability, thus giving rise to difficulty in detecting the intrinsic microvariability. Both aperture size and seeing condition influence the flux measurements, but the aperture size impacts the result more significantly. Based on the parameters of an elliptical galaxy provided in the literature, we simulated the host contributions of Mrk 501 in different aperture sizes and seeing conditions. Our simulation data of the host galaxy obviously weaken these significant seeing-brightness correlations for the host-subtracted brightness of Mrk 501, and can help us discover the intrinsic short timescale microvariability. The pure nuclear flux is ∼8.0mJy in the R band, i.e., the AGN has a magnitude of R ∼ 13.96 mag.

  12. HIGH-ENERGY NEUTRINOS FROM RECENT BLAZAR FLARES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halzen, Francis; Kheirandish, Ali [Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophysics Center and Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The energy density of cosmic neutrinos measured by IceCube matches the one observed by Fermi in extragalactic photons that predominantly originate in blazars. This has inspired attempts to match Fermi sources with IceCube neutrinos. A spatial association combined with a coincidence in time with a flaring source may represent a smoking gun for the origin of the IceCube flux. In 2015 June, the Fermi Large Area Telescope observed an intense flare from blazar 3C 279 that exceeded the steady flux of the source by a factor of 40 for the duration of a day. We show that IceCube is likely to observe neutrinos, if indeed hadronic in origin, in data that are still blinded at this time. We also discuss other opportunities for coincident observations that include a recent flare from blazar 1ES 1959+650 that previously produced an intriguing coincidence with AMANDA observations.

  13. The classification of flaring states of blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resconi, E.; Franco, D.; Gross, A.; Costamante, L.; Flaccomio, E.

    2009-08-01

    Aims: The time evolution of the electromagnetic emission from blazars, in particular high-frequency peaked sources (HBLs), displays irregular activity that has not yet been understood. In this work we report a methodology capable of characterizing the time behavior of these variable objects. Methods: The maximum likelihood blocks (MLBs) is a model-independent estimator that subdivides the light curve into time blocks, whose length and amplitude are compatible with states of constant emission rate of the observed source. The MLBs yield the statistical significance in the rate variations and strongly suppresses the noise fluctuations in the light curves. We applied the MLBs for the first time on the long term X-ray light curves (RXTE/ASM) of Mkn 421, Mkn 501, 1ES 1959+650, and 1ES 2155-304, more than 10 years of observational data (1996-2007). Using the MLBs interpretation of RXTE/ASM data, the integrated time flux distribution is determined for each single source considered. We identify in these distributions the characteristic level, as well as the flaring states of the blazars. Results: All the distributions show a significant component at negative flux values, most probably caused by an uncertainty in the background subtraction and by intrinsic fluctuations of RXTE/ASM. This effect concerns in particular short time observations. To quantify the probability that the intrinsic fluctuations give rise to a false identification of a flare, we study a population of very faint sources and their integrated time-flux distribution. We determine duty cycle or fraction of time a source spent in the flaring state of the source Mkn 421, Mkn 501, 1ES 1959+650 and 1ES 2155-304. Moreover, we study the random coincidences between flares and generic sporadic events such as high-energy neutrinos or flares in other wavelengths.

  14. GAMMA-RAY OBSERVATIONAL PROPERTIES OF TeV-DETECTED BLAZARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Şentürk, G. D.; Errando, M.; Mukherjee, R.; Böttcher, M.

    2013-01-01

    The synergy between the Fermi-LAT and ground-based Cherenkov telescope arrays gives us the opportunity for the first time to characterize the high-energy emission from blazars over 5 decades in energy, from 100 MeV to 10 TeV. In this study, we perform a Fermi-LAT spectral analysis for TeV-detected blazars and combine it with archival TeV data. We examine the observational properties in the γ-ray band of our sample of TeV-detected blazars and compare the results with X-ray and GeV-selected populations. The spectral energy distributions (SEDs) that result from combining Fermi-LAT and ground-based spectra are studied in detail. Simple parameterizations such as a power-law function do not always reproduce the high-energy SEDs, where spectral features that could indicate intrinsic absorption are observed.

  15. FACT. Flare alerts from blazar monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorner, Daniela [Universitaet Wuerzburg (Germany); Bretz, Thomas [RWTH Aachen (Germany); Collaboration: FACT-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    One of the major goals of the First G-APD Cherenkov Telescope is the longterm monitoring of bright TeV blazars. For more than three years, FACT has observed the blazars Mrk 421 and Mrk 501 and a few other sources on a regular basis. To understand these highly variable objects, simultaneous data at different wavelengths are very useful. FACT is not only taking part in multi-wavelength campaigns, but also sending alerts to other instruments in case of enhanced flux, to study flares within the multi-wavelength frame. To send fast alerts, an automatic quick look analysis was set up on site. Once the data are written on disk, they are automatically processed, and the analysis results are published on a website where other observers can monitor the activity of the source in the very high energy band. In addition, alerts are sent in case the flux is higher than a certain predefined value. In 2014, more than five alerts have been sent. Results from three years of monitoring are presented.

  16. On the Redshift of TeV BL Lac Objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paiano, Simona; Falomo, Renato [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5 I-35122 Padova (PD) (Italy); Landoni, Marco; Righi, Chiara [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Via E. Bianchi 46 I-23807 Merate (Italy); Treves, Aldo [Università degli Studi dell’Insubria, Via Valleggio 11 I-22100 Como (Italy); Scarpa, Riccardo [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, C/O Via Lactea, s/n E38205—La Laguna (Tenerife) (Spain)

    2017-03-10

    We report results of a spectroscopic campaign carried out at the 10 m Gran Telescopio Canarias for a sample of 22 BL Lac objects detected (or candidates) at TeV energies, aiming to determine or constrain their redshift. This is of fundamental importance for the interpretation of their emission models and for population studies and is also mandatory for studying the interaction of high-energy photons with the extragalactic background light using TeV sources. Optical spectra with high signal-to-noise ratios in the range 4250–10000 Å were obtained to search for faint emission or absorption lines from both the host galaxy and the nucleus. We determine a new redshift for PKS 1424+240 ( z = 0.604) and a tentative one for 1ES 0033+595 ( z = 0.467). We are able to set new spectroscopic redshift lower limits for three other sources on the basis of Mg ii and Ca ii intervening absorption features: BZB J1243+3627 ( z > 0.483), BZB J1540+8155 ( z > 0.672), and BZB 0J2323+4210 ( z > 0.267). We confirm previous redshift estimates for four blazars: S3 0218+357 ( z = 0.944), 1ES 1215+303 ( z = 0.129), W Comae ( z = 0.102), and MS 1221.8+2452 ( z = 0.218). For the remaining targets, in seven cases (S2 0109+22, 3C 66A, VER J0521+211, S4 0954+65, BZB J1120+4214, S3 1227+25, BZB J2323+4210), we do not validate the proposed redshift. Finally, for all sources of still-unknown redshift, we set a lower limit based on the minimum equivalent width of absorption features expected from the host galaxy.

  17. Power-law to Power-law Mapping of Blazar Spectra from Intergalactic Absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stecker, F W; Scully, S T

    2007-01-01

    We have derived a useful analytic approximation for determining the effect of intergalactic absorption on the γ-ray spectra of TeV blazars the energy range 0.2 TeV γ γ ) is approximately logarithmic. The effect of this energy dependence is to steepen intrinsic source spectra such that a source with an approximate power-law spectral index Γ s is converted to one with an observed spectral index Γ o ≅ Γ s + ΔΓ(z) where ΔΓ(z) is a linear function of z in the redshift range 0.05-0.4. We apply this approximation to the spectra of 7 TeV blazars

  18. Multi-TeV flaring from blazars: Markarian 421 as a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahu, Sarira; Miranda, Luis Salvador [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Mexico, DF (Mexico); Rajpoot, Subhash [California State University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Long Beach, CA (United States)

    2016-03-15

    The TeV blazar Markarian 421 underwent multi-TeV flaring during April 2004 and simultaneously observations in the X-ray and TeV energies were made. It was observed that the TeV outbursts had no counterparts in the lower energy range. One implication of this is that it might be an orphan flare. We show that Fermi-accelerated protons of energy ≤ 168 TeV can interact with the low energy tail of the background synchrotron self-Compton photons in the inner region of the blazar to produce the multi-TeV flare and our results fit very well with the observed spectrum. Based on our study, we predict that the blazars with a deep valley in between the end of the synchrotron spectrum and the beginning of the SSC spectrum are possible candidates for orphan flaring. Future possible candidates for this scenario are the HBLs Mrk 501 and PG 1553 + 113 objects. (orig.)

  19. Blazar Sequence in Fermi Era Liang Chen

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper, we review the latest research results on the topic of blazar sequence. It seems that the blazar sequence is phenomenally ruled out, while the theoretical blazar sequence still holds. We point out that black hole mass is a dominated parameter accounting for high-power- high-synchrotron-peaked and ...

  20. Gamma-Ray and Multiwavelength Emission from Blazars Meg Urry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Blazars are now well understood as approaching relativistic jets aligned with the line of sight. The long-time uncertainty about the demographics of blazars is starting to become clearer: since the Fermi blazar sample includes a larger fraction of high-frequency peaked blazars. (like the typical X-ray-selected blazars ...

  1. Six-year optical monitoring of the BL Lacertae object 1ES 0806+52.4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Man, Zhongyi; Zhang, Xiaoyuan; Wu, Jianghua [Department of Astronomy, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Zhou, Xu [Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20A Datun Road, Beijing 100012 (China); Yuan, Qirong, E-mail: jhwu@bnu.edu.cn [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical Physics, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210046 (China)

    2014-12-01

    We present the results of the first systematic long-term multicolor optical monitoring of the BL Lacertae object 1ES 0806+52.4. The monitoring was performed in multiple passbands with a 60/90 cm Schmidt telescope from 2005 December to 2011 February. The overall brightness of this object decreased from 2005 December to 2008 December but was regained after that. A sharp outburst probably occurred around the end of our monitoring program. Overlapping the long-term trend are some short-term small-amplitude oscillations. No intranight variability was found in the object, which is in accordance with the historical observations before 2005. By investigating the color behavior, we found a strong bluer-when-brighter chromatism for the long-term variability of 1ES 0806+52.4. The total amplitudes at the c, i, and o bands are 1.18, 1.12, and 1.02 mag, respectively. The amplitudes tend to increase toward shorter wavelengths, which may be a major cause of the bluer-when-brighter chromatism. Such bluer-when-brighter chromatisms are also found in other blazars, such as S5 0716+714, OJ 287. The hard-X-ray data collected from the Swift/BAT archive was correlated with our optical data. No positive result was found, the reason for which may be that the hard-X-ray flux is a combination of the synchrotron and inverse Compton emission, but with different timescales and cadences under the leptonic synchrotron self-Compton model.

  2. THE CONTRIBUTION OF FERMI -2LAC BLAZARS TO DIFFUSE TEV–PEV NEUTRINO FLUX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aartsen, M. G. [Department of Physics, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, 5005 (Australia); Abraham, K. [Physik-department, Technische Universität München, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Ackermann, M. [DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen (Germany); Adams, J. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch (New Zealand); Aguilar, J. A.; Ansseau, I. [Université Libre de Bruxelles, Science Faculty CP230, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Ahlers, M. [Dept. of Physics and Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophysics Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Ahrens, M. [Oskar Klein Centre and Dept. of Physics, Stockholm University, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Altmann, D.; Anton, G. [Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Andeen, K. [Department of Physics, Marquette University, Milwaukee, WI, 53201 (United States); Anderson, T.; Arlen, T. C. [Dept. of Physics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Archinger, M.; Baum, V. [Institute of Physics, University of Mainz, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Arguelles, C.; Axani, S. [Dept. of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Auffenberg, J. [III. Physikalisches Institut, RWTH Aachen University, D-52056 Aachen (Germany); Bai, X. [Physics Department, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, SD 57701 (United States); Barwick, S. W., E-mail: thorsten.gluesenkamp@fau.de [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Collaboration: IceCube Collaboration; and others

    2017-01-20

    The recent discovery of a diffuse cosmic neutrino flux extending up to PeV energies raises the question of which astrophysical sources generate this signal. Blazars are one class of extragalactic sources which may produce such high-energy neutrinos. We present a likelihood analysis searching for cumulative neutrino emission from blazars in the 2nd Fermi -LAT AGN catalog (2LAC) using IceCube neutrino data set 2009-12, which was optimized for the detection of individual sources. In contrast to those in previous searches with IceCube, the populations investigated contain up to hundreds of sources, the largest one being the entire blazar sample in the 2LAC catalog. No significant excess is observed, and upper limits for the cumulative flux from these populations are obtained. These constrain the maximum contribution of 2LAC blazars to the observed astrophysical neutrino flux to 27% or less between around 10 TeV and 2 PeV, assuming the equipartition of flavors on Earth and a single power-law spectrum with a spectral index of −2.5. We can still exclude the fact that 2LAC blazars (and their subpopulations) emit more than 50% of the observed neutrinos up to a spectral index as hard as −2.2 in the same energy range. Our result takes into account the fact that the neutrino source count distribution is unknown, and it does not assume strict proportionality of the neutrino flux to the measured 2LAC γ -ray signal for each source. Additionally, we constrain recent models for neutrino emission by blazars.

  3. Frequency dependent polarization in blazars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoernsson, C.I.

    1984-10-01

    It is argued that the intrinsic frequency dependent polarization in blazars finds its most straightforward explanations in terms of a single rather than a multicomponent sourcemodel. In order to reproduce the observations, under the assumption that the emission mechanism is optically thin synchrotron radiation, both a well ordered magnetic field and an electron distribution with a sharp break or cuttoff are necessary. Non-uniform pitch angle distribution and/or environments where synchrotron losses are important are both conducive to producing strong frequency dependent polarization. Reasons are put forth as to why such conditions ar expected to occur in blazars. Two specific models are discussed in detail and it is shown that they are both able to produce strong frequency dependent polarization, even when the spectral index changes by a small amount only. (orig.)

  4. Automated Blazar Light Curves Using Machine Learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Spencer James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-07-27

    This presentation describes a problem and methodology pertaining to automated blazar light curves. Namely, optical variability patterns for blazars require the construction of light curves and in order to generate the light curves, data must be filtered before processing to ensure quality.

  5. BLAZAR SPECTRAL PROPERTIES AT 74 MHz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massaro, F.; Funk, S. [SLAC National Laboratory and Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Giroletti, M. [INAF Istituto di Radioastronomia, via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Paggi, A.; D' Abrusco, R. [Harvard-Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Tosti, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia (Italy)

    2013-10-01

    Blazars are the most extreme class of active galactic nuclei. Despite a previous investigation at 102 MHz for a small sample of BL Lac objects and our recent analysis of blazars detected in the Westerbork Northern Sky Survey, a systematic study of the blazar spectral properties at frequencies below 100 MHz has been never carried out. In this paper, we present the first analysis of the radio spectral behavior of blazars based on the recent Very Large Array Low-frequency Sky Survey (VLSS) at 74 MHz. We search for blazar counterparts in the VLSS catalog, confirming that they are detected at 74 MHz. We then show that blazars present radio-flat spectra (i.e., radio spectral indices of ∼0.5) when evaluated, which also about an order of magnitude in frequency lower than previous analyses. Finally, we discuss the implications of our findings in the context of the blazars-radio galaxies connection since the low-frequency radio data provide a new diagnostic tool to verify the expectations of the unification scenario for radio-loud active galaxies.

  6. Search for Magnetically Broadened Cascade Emission from Blazars with VERITAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archambault, S.; Griffin, S. [Physics Department, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada); Archer, A.; Bugaev, V. [Department of Physics, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Benbow, W.; Cerruti, M. [Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Amado, AZ 85645 (United States); Buchovecky, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Connolly, M. P. [School of Physics, National University of Ireland Galway, University Road, Galway (Ireland); Cui, W.; Finley, J. P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Falcone, A. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Alonso, M. Fernández [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (IAFE, CONICET-UBA), CC 67—Suc. 28, (C1428ZAA) Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Fleischhack, H.; Hütten, M. [DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Fortson, L. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Furniss, A. [Department of Physics, California State University—East Bay, Hayward, CA 94542 (United States); Hervet, O.; Johnson, C. A. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics and Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Holder, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and the Bartol Research Institute, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Humensky, T. B., E-mail: elisa.pueschel@ucd.ie, E-mail: weisgarber@physics.wisc.edu [Physics Department, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); and others

    2017-02-01

    We present a search for magnetically broadened gamma-ray emission around active galactic nuclei (AGNs), using VERITAS observations of seven hard-spectrum blazars. A cascade process occurs when multi-TeV gamma-rays from an AGN interact with extragalactic background light (EBL) photons to produce electron–positron pairs, which then interact with cosmic microwave background photons via inverse-Compton scattering to produce gamma-rays. Due to the deflection of the electron–positron pairs, a non-zero intergalactic magnetic field (IGMF) would potentially produce detectable effects on the angular distribution of the cascade emission. In particular, an angular broadening compared to the unscattered emission could occur. Through non-detection of angularly broadened emission from 1ES 1218+304, the source with the largest predicted cascade fraction, we exclude a range of IGMF strengths around 10{sup −14} G at the 95% confidence level. The extent of the exclusion range varies with the assumptions made about the intrinsic spectrum of 1ES 1218+304 and the EBL model used in the simulation of the cascade process. All of the sources are used to set limits on the flux due to extended emission.

  7. Core shift effect in blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, A.; Mohan, P.; Gupta, Alok C.; Mangalam, A.; Volvach, A. E.; Aller, M. F.; Aller, H. D.; Gu, M. F.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Tornikoski, M.; Volvach, L. N.

    2017-07-01

    We studied the pc-scale core shift effect using radio light curves for three blazars, S5 0716+714, 3C 279 and BL Lacertae, which were monitored at five frequencies (ν) between 4.8 and 36.8 GHz using the University of Michigan Radio Astronomical Observatory (UMRAO), the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory (CrAO) and Metsähovi Radio Observatory for over 40 yr. Flares were Gaussian fitted to derive time delays between observed frequencies for each flare (Δt), peak amplitude (A) and their half width. Using A ∝ να, we infer α in the range of -16.67-2.41 and using Δ t ∝ ν ^{1/k_r}, we infer kr ∼ 1, employed in the context of equipartition between magnetic and kinetic energy density for parameter estimation. From the estimated core position offset (Ωrν) and the core radius (rcore), we infer that opacity model may not be valid in all cases. The mean magnetic field strengths at 1 pc (B1) and at the core (Bcore) are in agreement with previous estimates. We apply the magnetically arrested disc model to estimate black hole spins in the range of 0.15-0.9 for these blazars, indicating that the model is consistent with expected accretion mode in such sources. The power-law-shaped power spectral density has slopes -1.3 to -2.3 and is interpreted in terms of multiple shocks or magnetic instabilities.

  8. Multiwavelength Emission from Blazars – Conference Summary ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    emission—radio emission—host galaxies—blazar demographics— .... We still need a comprehensive analysis of the selection effects operating in existing ... to the M-sigma relation, or to investigate the evolution of the fundamental plane for.

  9. Radio core dominance of Fermi blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Zhi-Yuan; Fan, Jun-Hui; Liu, Yi; Yuan, Yi-Hai; Cai, Wei; Xiao, Hu-Bing; Lin, Chao; Yang, Jiang-He

    2016-07-01

    During the first 4 years of mission, Fermi/LAT detected 1444 blazars (3FGL) (Ackermann et al. in Astrophys. J. 810:14, 2015). Fermi/LAT observations of blazars indicate that Fermi blazars are luminous and strongly variable with variability time scales, for some cases, as short as hours. Those observations suggest a strong beaming effect in Fermi/LAT blazars. In the present work, we will investigate the beaming effect in Fermi/LAT blazars using a core-dominance parameter, R = S_{core}/ S_{ext.}, where S_{core} is the core emission, while S_{ext.} is the extended emission. We compiled 1335 blazars with available core-dominance parameter, out of which 169 blazars have γ-ray emission (from 3FGL). We compared the core-dominance parameters, log R, between the 169 Fermi-detected blazars (FDBs) and the rest non-Fermi-detected blazars (non-FDBs), and we found that the averaged values are R+(2.25±0.10), suggesting that a source with larger log R has larger V.I. value. Thirdly, we compared the mean values of radio spectral index for FDBs and non-FDBs, and we obtained < α_{radio}rangle =0.06±0.35 for FDBs and < α_{radio}rangle =0.57±0.46 for non-FDBs. If γ-rays are composed of two components like radio emission (core and extended components), then we can expect a correlation between log R and the γ-ray spectral index. When we used the radio core-dominance parameter, log R, to investigate the relationship, we found that the spectral index for the core component is α_{γ}|_{core} = 1.11 (a photon spectral index of α_{γ}^{ph}|_{core} = 2.11) and that for the extended component is α_{γ}|_{ext.} = 0.70 (a photon spectral index of α_{γ}^{ph}|_{ext.} = 1.70). Some discussions are also presented.

  10. Multi-wavelength studies of TeV γ-ray emitting BL Lac objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaufmann, Sarah Sabine

    2012-12-21

    The discovery of TeV γ-ray emission of BL Lac objects gave new insights in the particle acceleration and the emission processes of the highly relativistic jets. To shed light on the conditions in the high energetic jets of the TeV γ-ray emitting BL Lac objects, I have studied in great detail the spectral energy distribution (SED) of sources with different characteristics. BL Lac objects with exceptional very high energy spectra (soft and hard spectra) and with large differences in the emission peak frequencies, to cover the different classes of BL Lac objects, have been chosen. The basic aim of this thesis was, to study with new, simultaneous multi- avelength (MWL) observations, if the emission processes of these extreme cases of TeV BL Lac objects can be explained by the synchrotron Self-Compton (SSC) model which is well established for the class of BL Lac objects at lower energies. We proposed MWL observations in the optical, UV and X-ray regime, to be conducted simultaneous to very high energy observations with the H.E.S.S. experiment, to study the emission processes. Simultaneous observations are crucial, since BL Lac objects are variable at all wavebands. I have analysed the MWL observations and conducted detailed variability and spectral studies in each wavelength range. The different kind of absorption at each wavelength as well as the influence of the host galaxy of the AGN has been considered to obtain the intrinsic jet spectrum. I have then applied the commonly used theoretical jet model, the SSC model, to the SED. I conducted a MWL campaign on a BL Lac object with the softest TeV spectrum, PKS 2005-489, during which it was observed in a very bright X-ray state. The good spectral coverage of the emission peaks allowed a detailed study of the SSC model. The extreme BL Lac object 1ES 0229+200 exhibits a hard intrinsic TeV spectrum. With my MWL campaign I found a clear cut-off in the optical range and therefore a high minimum Lorentz factor is needed to

  11. Multi-wavelength studies of TeV γ-ray emitting BL Lac objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufmann, Sarah Sabine

    2012-01-01

    The discovery of TeV γ-ray emission of BL Lac objects gave new insights in the particle acceleration and the emission processes of the highly relativistic jets. To shed light on the conditions in the high energetic jets of the TeV γ-ray emitting BL Lac objects, I have studied in great detail the spectral energy distribution (SED) of sources with different characteristics. BL Lac objects with exceptional very high energy spectra (soft and hard spectra) and with large differences in the emission peak frequencies, to cover the different classes of BL Lac objects, have been chosen. The basic aim of this thesis was, to study with new, simultaneous multi- avelength (MWL) observations, if the emission processes of these extreme cases of TeV BL Lac objects can be explained by the synchrotron Self-Compton (SSC) model which is well established for the class of BL Lac objects at lower energies. We proposed MWL observations in the optical, UV and X-ray regime, to be conducted simultaneous to very high energy observations with the H.E.S.S. experiment, to study the emission processes. Simultaneous observations are crucial, since BL Lac objects are variable at all wavebands. I have analysed the MWL observations and conducted detailed variability and spectral studies in each wavelength range. The different kind of absorption at each wavelength as well as the influence of the host galaxy of the AGN has been considered to obtain the intrinsic jet spectrum. I have then applied the commonly used theoretical jet model, the SSC model, to the SED. I conducted a MWL campaign on a BL Lac object with the softest TeV spectrum, PKS 2005-489, during which it was observed in a very bright X-ray state. The good spectral coverage of the emission peaks allowed a detailed study of the SSC model. The extreme BL Lac object 1ES 0229+200 exhibits a hard intrinsic TeV spectrum. With my MWL campaign I found a clear cut-off in the optical range and therefore a high minimum Lorentz factor is needed to

  12. Steady-state emission of blazars at very high energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoehne-Moench, Daniel

    2010-07-01

    One key scientific program of the MAGIC telescope project is the discovery and detection of blazars. They constitute the most prominent extragalactic source class in the very high energy (VHE) {gamma}-ray regime with 29 out of 34 known objects. Therefore a major part of the available observation time was spent in the last years on high-frequency peaked blazars. The selection criteria were chosen to increase the detection probability. As the X-ray flux is believed to be correlated to the VHE {gamma}-ray flux, only X-ray selected sources with a flux F{sub X}>2 {mu}Jy at 1 keV were considered. To avoid strong attenuation of the -rays in the extragalactic infrared background, the redshift was restricted to values between z<0.15 and z<0.4, depending on the declination of the objects. The latter determines the zenith distance during culmination which should not exceed 30 (for z<0.4) and 45 (for z<0.15), respectively. Between August 2005 and April 2009, a sample of 24 X-ray selected high-frequency peaked blazars has been observed with the MAGIC telescope. Three of them were detected including 1ES 1218+304 being the first high-frequency peaked BL Lacertae object (HBL) to be discovered with MAGIC in VHE {gamma}-rays. One previously detected object was not confirmed as VHE emitter in this campaign by MAGIC. A set of 20 blazars previously not detected is treated more closely in this work. In this campaign, during almost four years {proportional_to}450 hrs or {proportional_to}22% of the available observation time for extragalactic objects were dedicated to investigate the baseline emission of blazars and their broadband spectral properties in this emission state. For the sample of 20 objects in a redshift range of 0.018

  13. Optical spectroscopic observations of blazars and γ-ray blazar candidates in the sloan digital sky survey data release nine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massaro, F.; Masetti, N.; D' Abrusco, R.; Paggi, A.; Funk, S.

    2014-09-09

    We present an analysis of the optical spectra available in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data release nine (SDSS DR9) for the blazars listed in the ROMA-BZCAT and for the γ-ray blazar candidates selected according to their IR colors. First, we adopt a statistical approach based on Monte Carlo simulations to find the optical counterparts of the blazars listed in the ROMA-BZCAT catalog. Then, we crossmatched the SDSS spectroscopic catalog with our selected samples of blazars and γ-ray blazar candidates, searching for those with optical spectra available to classify our blazar-like sources and, whenever possible, to confirm their redshifts. Our main objectives are to determine the classification of uncertain blazars listed in the ROMA-BZCAT and to discover new gamma-ray blazars. For the ROMA-BZCAT sources, we investigated a sample of 84 blazars, confirming the classification for 20 of them and obtaining 18 new redshift estimates. For the γ-ray blazars, indicated as potential counterparts of unassociated Fermi sources or with uncertain nature, we established the blazar-like nature of 8 out of the 27 sources analyzed and confirmed 14 classifications.

  14. Astronomical Plate Archives and Binary Blazars Studies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hudec, René

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 32, 1-2 (2011), s. 91-95 ISSN 0250-6335. [Conference on Multiwavelength Variability of Blazars. Guangzhou, 22,09,2010-24,09,2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/08/1207 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA102/09/0997; MŠMT(CZ) ME09027 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : astronomical plates * plate archives archives * binary blazars Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 0.400, year: 2011

  15. The CLASS blazar survey - II. Optical properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caccianiga, A; Marcha, MJ; Anton, S; Mack, KH; Neeser, MJ

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the optical properties of the objects selected in the CLASS blazar survey. Because an optical spectrum is now available for 70 per cent of the 325 sources present in the sample, a spectral classification, based on the appearance of the emission/absorption lines, is possible. A

  16. Comparison Of Optical, UV, X-ray, And Gamma-ray Variations Of Selected Blazars In 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consiglio, Santina; Marscher, A. P.; Jorstad, S. G.; Walker, G.

    2012-01-01

    We present multi-wavelength observations of several gamma-ray bright blazars. We combine optical data obtained at Maria Mitchell Observatory on Nantucket Island with space- and ground-based observations carried out with a variety of instruments. These include a number of other optical telescopes, the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope at photon energies of 0.1-200 GeV, the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer at 2.4-10 keV, and the Swift satellite at 0.3-10 keV plus optical and UV wavelengths. Three of the observed blazars proved to be particularly active - BL Lac, 3C 279, and PKS 1510-089. BL Lac was of special interest, varying greatly in optical brightness from night to night. In addition, as reported by the VERITAS group, it exhibited a remarkable, short-lived flare at TeV gamma-ray energies on one of the nights. We cross-correlate the variations in the different wavebands in an effort to guide theoretical interpretations of the optical and high-energy emission from blazars. This project was supported by NSF/REU grant AST-0851892 and by the Nantucket Maria Mitchell Association. The research at Boston University was supported in part by NSF grants AST-0907893, and by NASA through Fermi grants NNX08AV65G and NNX11AQ03G.

  17. Measurement of the blazar Mrk421 flux above 60 GeV with the CELESTE experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Gallou, R.

    2001-11-01

    The CELESTE experiment is based on an ancient solar plant that has been turned into a detector able to detect the particle showers triggered by the interactions of high energy cosmic photons with the earth atmosphere nuclei. The purpose of the CELESTE experiment is to study the emissions of photons by cosmic objects like supernovae remnants, pulsars or active cores of galaxies such as blazars. Blazars are very interesting objects to study because they allow us to investigate matter that is in extreme conditions and to probe a very far past. The aim of this work has been to develop methods for the analysis of the data collected by CELESTE and to validate them. A specific effort has been achieved for the selection of efficient hadronic rejection criteria in order to optimize the sensitivity of the detector. The physics of the detector is detailed from the particle showers to the data analysis. The detector acceptance has been assessed through Monte-Carlo simulations that have been shown that the detection threshold is 30 GeV at the triggering point and 60 GeV after the analysis cuts. The validation tests have been performed on the Crab nebula that is a standard in gamma astronomy for its stability and intensity. CELESTE has been operating since November 1999 in a satisfactory way and has accumulated data on 4 blazars among them Mrk421. Several bursts have been detected on Mrk421 and an average photon flux has been determined. A correlation has been deduced from the activity detected by CELESTE and the activities in the TeV and X ranges which agrees with the simulations

  18. Jets, black holes and disks in blazars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghisellini Gabriele

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Fermi and Swift satellites, together with ground based Cherenkov telescopes, has greatly improved our knowledge of blazars, namely Flat Spectrum Radio Quasars and BL Lac objects, since all but the most powerful emit most of their electro–magnetic output at γ–ray energies, while the very powerful blazars emit mostly in the hard X–ray region of the spectrum. Often they show coordinated variability at different frequencies, suggesting that in these cases the same population of electrons is at work, in a single zone of the jet. The location of this region along the jet is a matter of debate. The jet power correlates with the mass accretion rate, with jets existing at all values of disk luminosities, measured in Eddington units, sampled so far. The most powerful blazars show clear evidence of the emission from their disks, and this has revived methods of finding the black hole mass and accretion rate by modelling a disk spectrum to the data. Being so luminous, blazars can be detected also at very high redshift, and therefore are a useful tool to explore the far universe. One interesting line of research concerns how heavy are their black holes at high redshifts. If we associate the presence of a relativistic jets with a fastly spinning black hole, then we naively expect that the accretion efficiency is larger than for non–spinning holes. As a consequence, the black hole mass in jetted systems should grow at a slower rate. In turn, this would imply that, at high redshifts, the heaviest black holes should be in radio–quiet quasars. We instead have evidences of the opposite, challenging our simple ideas of how a black hole grows.

  19. Ringo2 Optical Polarimetry of Blazars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Jermak

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We present polarimetric and photometric observations from a sample of 15 γ-ray bright blazars with data from the Tuorla blazar monitoring program (KVA DIPOL and Liverpool Telescope (LT Ringo2 polarimeters (supplemented with γ-ray data from Fermi-LAT. We find that (1 The optical magnitude and γ-ray flux are positively correlated; (2 electric vector position angle rotations can occur in any blazar subclass; (3 there is no difference in the γ-ray flaring rates in the sample between subclasses; flares can occur during and outside of rotations with no preference for this behaviour; (4 the average degree of polarisation (P, optical magnitude and γ-ray flux are lower during a rotation compared with during non-rotation; (5 the number of observed flaring events and optical polarisation rotations are correlated and (6 the maximum observed P increases from ∼10% to ∼30% to ∼40% for subclasses with synchrotron peaks at high, intermediate and low frequencies respectively.

  20. Multi-Band Spectral Properties of Fermi Blazars Benzhong Dai ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... FSRQs, 41 AGNs of other types and 72 AGNs of unknown type (Abdo et al. 2010a). This large sample enable us to investigate the spectral shapes of blazars from optical to X-ray to γ-ray in more detail than has been done before. For this purpose, we collected data for all Fermi blazars having available spectral information.

  1. Signature of inverse Compton emission from blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaur, Haritma; Mohan, Prashanth; Wierzcholska, Alicja; Gu, Minfeng

    2018-01-01

    Blazars are classified into high-, intermediate- and low-energy-peaked sources based on the location of their synchrotron peak. This lies in infra-red/optical to ultra-violet bands for low- and intermediate-peaked blazars. The transition from synchrotron to inverse Compton emission falls in the X-ray bands for such sources. We present the spectral and timing analysis of 14 low- and intermediate-energy-peaked blazars observed with XMM-Newton spanning 31 epochs. Parametric fits to X-ray spectra help constrain the possible location of transition from the high-energy end of the synchrotron to the low-energy end of the inverse Compton emission. In seven sources in our sample, we infer such a transition and constrain the break energy in the range 0.6-10 keV. The Lomb-Scargle periodogram is used to estimate the power spectral density (PSD) shape. It is well described by a power law in a majority of light curves, the index being flatter compared to general expectation from active galactic nuclei, ranging here between 0.01 and 1.12, possibly due to short observation durations resulting in an absence of long-term trends. A toy model involving synchrotron self-Compton and external Compton (EC; disc, broad line region, torus) mechanisms are used to estimate magnetic field strength ≤0.03-0.88 G in sources displaying the energy break and infer a prominent EC contribution. The time-scale for variability being shorter than synchrotron cooling implies steeper PSD slopes which are inferred in these sources.

  2. Blazars with arcminute-scale radio halos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulvestad, J.S.; Antonucci, R.R.J.; Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD)

    1986-01-01

    About 10-arcsec resolution 20-cm wavelength maps are presented for three nearby BL Lac objects: Mkn 180, whose halo has a linear size of 85 kpc, 2155-304, with a halo about 375 kpc across, and 1727 + 502, whose one-sided diffuse emission extends to a distance of about 145 kpc from its radio core. Little evidence is found for strong radio variability in the cores of the three blazars; these and other results obtained are consistent with the assertion that the three objects should be classified as normal low luminosity double radio galaxies with optically dull nuclei, if seen from other directions. 20 references

  3. Effective spectral index properties for Fermi blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, JiangHe; Fan, JunHui; Liu, Yi; Zhang, YueLian; Tuo, ManXian; Nie, JianJun; Yuan, YuHai

    2018-05-01

    Blazars are a special subclass of active galactic nuclei with extreme observation properties. This subclass can be divided into two further subclasses of flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) and BL Lacertae objects (BL Lacs) according to their emission line features. To compare the spectral properties of FSRQs and BL Lacs, the 1.4 GHz radio, optical R-band, 1 keV X-ray, and 1 GeV γ-ray flux densities for 1108 Fermi blazars are calculated to discuss the properties of the six effective spectral indices of radio to optical ( α RO), radio to X-ray ( α RX), radio to γ ray ( α Rγ), optical to X-ray ( α OX), optical to γ ray ( α Oγ), and X-ray to γ ray ( α Xγ). The main results are as follows: For the averaged effective spectral indices, \\overline {{α _{OX}}} > \\overline {{α _{Oγ }}} > \\overline {{α _{Xγ }}} > \\overline {{α _{Rγ }}} > \\overline {{α _{RX}}} > \\overline {{α _{RO}}} for samples of whole blazars and BL Lacs; \\overline {{α _{Xγ }}} ≈ \\overline {{α _{Rγ }}} ≈ \\overline {{α _{RX}}} for FSRQs and low-frequency-peaked BL Lacs (LBLs); and \\overline {{α _{OX}}} ≈ \\overline {{α _{Oγ }}} ≈ \\overline {{α _{Xγ }}} for high-synchrotron-frequency-peaked BL Lacs (HBLs). The distributions of the effective spectral indices involving optical emission ( α RO, α OX, and α Oγ) for LBLs are different from those for FSRQs, but if the effective spectral index does not involve optical emission ( α RX, α Rγ, and α Xγ), the distributions for LBLs and FSRQs almost come from the same parent population. X-ray emissions from blazars include both synchrotron and inverse Compton (IC) components; the IC component for FSRQs and LBLs accounts for a larger proportion than that for HBLs; and the radiation mechanism for LBLs is similar to that for FSRQs, but the radiation mechanism for HBLs is different from that for both FSRQs and LBLs in X-ray bands. The tendency of α Rγ decreasing from LBLs to HBLs suggests that the synchrotron self

  4. THE WISE BLAZAR-LIKE RADIO-LOUD SOURCES: AN ALL-SKY CATALOG OF CANDIDATE γ-RAY BLAZARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Abrusco, R.; Paggi, A.; Smith, H. A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Massaro, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Torino, via Pietro Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Masetti, N. [INAF/IASF di Bologna, via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Landoni, M. [INAF/Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Via E. Bianchi 46, I-23807 Merate (Italy); Tosti, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia (Italy)

    2014-11-01

    We present a catalog of radio-loud candidate γ-ray emitting blazars with WISE mid-infrared colors similar to the colors of confirmed γ-ray blazars. The catalog is assembled from WISE sources detected in all four WISE filters, with colors compatible with the three-dimensional locus of the WISE γ-ray emitting blazars, and which can be spatially cross-matched with radio sources from one of the three radio surveys: NVSS, FIRST, and/or SUMSS. Our initial WISE selection uses a slightly modified version of previously successful algorithms. We then select only the radio-loud sources using a measure of the radio-to-IR flux, the q {sub 22} parameter, which is analogous to the q {sub 24} parameter known in the literature but which instead uses the WISE band-four flux at 22 μm. Our final catalog contains 7855 sources classified as BL Lacs, FSRQs, or mixed candidate blazars; 1295 of these sources can be spatially re-associated as confirmed blazars. We describe the properties of the final catalog of WISE blazar-like radio-loud sources and consider possible contaminants. Finally, we discuss why this large catalog of candidate γ-ray emitting blazars represents a new and useful resource to address the problem of finding low-energy counterparts to currently unidentified high-energy sources.

  5. THE SPECTRAL INDEX PROPERTIES OF FERMI BLAZARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, J. H.; Yang, J. H.; Yuan, Y. H.; Wang, J.; Gao, Y., E-mail: jhfan_cn@yahoo.com.cn [Center for Astrophysics, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2012-12-20

    In this paper, a sample of 451 blazars (193 flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs), 258 BL Lacertae objects) with corresponding X-ray and Fermi {gamma}-ray data is compiled to investigate the correlation both between the X-ray spectral index and the {gamma}-ray spectral index and between the spectral index and the luminosity, and to compare the spectral indexes {alpha}{sub X}, {alpha}{sub {gamma}}, {alpha}{sub X{gamma}}, and {alpha}{sub {gamma}X{gamma}} for different subclasses. We also investigated the correlation between the X-ray and the {gamma}-ray luminosity. The following results have been obtained. Our analysis indicates that an anti-correlation exists between the X-ray and the {gamma}-ray spectral indexes for the whole sample. However, when we considered the subclasses of blazars (FSRQs, the low-peaked BL Lacertae objects (LBLs) and the high-peaked BL Lacertae objects (HBLs)) separately, there is not a clear relationship for each subclass. Based on the Fermi-detected sources, we can say that the HBLs are different from FSRQs, while the LBLs are similar to FSRQs.

  6. Exploring the Variability of the Fermi LAT Blazar Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macomb, Daryl J.; Shrader, C. R.

    2014-01-01

    The flux variability of the approximately 2000 point sources cataloged by the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope provide important clues to population characteristics. This is particularly true of the more than 1100 source that are likely AGN. By characterizing the intrinsic flux variability and distinguishing this variability from flaring behavior, we can better address questions of flare amplitudes, durations, recurrence times, and temporal profiles. A better understanding of the responsible physical environments, such as the scale and location of jet structures responsible for the high-energy emission, may emerge from such studies. Assessing these characteristics as a function of blazar sub-class is a further goal in order to address questions about the fundamentals of blazar AGN physics. Here we report on progress made in categorizing blazar flare behavior, and correlate these behaviors with blazar sub-type and other source parameters.

  7. Extended radio emission and the nature of blazars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonucci, R.R.J.; Ulvestad, J.S.

    1985-01-01

    The VLA has been used at 20 cm to map all 23 of the 54 confirmed blazars listed in the Angel and Stockman review paper that had not been mapped before at high resolution. (Blazars include BL Lac objects and optically violently variable quasars.) In addition, data on most of the previously mapped blazars have been reprocessed in order to achieve higher dynamic range. Extended emission has been detected associated with 49 of the 54 objects. The extended radio emission has been used to test the hypothesis that blazars are normal radio galaxies and radio quasars viewed along the jet axes. We find that blazars have substantial extended power, consistent with this hypothesis. Many have extended powers as high as the luminous Fanaroff-Riley class 2 radio doubles. The projected linear sizes are small, as expected from foreshortening of the extended sources, and many blazars have the expected core-halo morphology. There are also several small doubles, a head-tail source, and some one-sided sources, and these could be in cases where the line of sight is slightly off the jet axis, or projections of asymmetrical radio galaxies and quasars. The ratio of core to extended radio emission has been studied as a possible indicator of viewing aspect or beaming intensity. It is found to correlate with optical polarization, optical and radio core variability, and one-sided radio morphology. We can go beyond these consistency checks and work toward a proof of the hypothesis under discussion. The flux from the extended emission alone is sufficient in some blazars to qualify them for inclusion in the 3C and 4C catalogs. Suppose that the radio core emission is anisotropic, but the extended emission is predominantly isotropic. The isotropy of the extended emission implies that these blazars would be in the catalogs even if viewed from the side

  8. Multi-waveband Behavior of Blazars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marscher Alan P.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The author reviews recent progress toward understanding blazars that multi-waveband monitoring observations have advanced. The primary techniques include the compilation of multi-waveband light curves, multi-epoch VLBI images at radio wavelengths, plots of linear polarization vs. time at radio through optical wavelengths, and spectral energy distributions (SEDs. Correlations and the coincidence or lag of events across wavebands and in the images indicate where the events take place relative to the “core” that lies ≳ 0.5 pc from the central engine. Rotations of the polarization electric vector suggest a helical geometry of the magnetic field upstream of the millimeter-wave core, while rapid fluctuations in degree and position angle of polarization imply that the jet plasma is turbulent in and downstream of the core. The author is developing a numerical model that simulates the emission from such turbulence as it interacts with a conical standing shock in the core region.

  9. BROADBAND OBSERVATIONS OF HIGH REDSHIFT BLAZARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paliya, Vaidehi S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Clemson University, Kinard Lab of Physics, Clemson, SC 29634-0978 (United States); Parker, M. L.; Fabian, A. C. [Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Stalin, C. S., E-mail: vpaliya@g.clemson.edu [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Block II, Koramangala, Bangalore-560034 (India)

    2016-07-01

    We present a multi-wavelength study of four high redshift blazars, S5 0014+81 ( z = 3.37), CGRaBS J0225+1846 ( z = 2.69), BZQ J1430+4205 ( z = 4.72), and 3FGL J1656.2−3303 ( z = 2.40) using quasi-simultaneous data from the Swift , Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array ( NuSTAR ) and the Fermi -Large Area Telescope (LAT) and also archival XMM-Newton observations. Other than 3FGL J1656.2−3303, none of the sources were known as γ -ray emitters, and our analysis of ∼7.5 yr of LAT data reveals the first time detection of statistically significant γ -ray emission from CGRaBS J0225+1846. We generate the broadband spectral energy distributions (SED) of all the objects, centering at the epoch of NuSTAR observations and reproduce them using a one-zone leptonic emission model. The optical−UV emission in all the objects can be explained by radiation from the accretion disk, whereas the X-ray to γ -ray windows of the SEDs are found to be dominated by inverse Compton scattering off the broad line region photons. All of them host black holes that are billions of solar masses. Comparing the accretion disk luminosity and the jet power of these sources with a large sample of blazars, we find them to occupy a high disk luminosity–jet power regime. We also investigate the X-ray spectral properties of the sources in detail with a major focus on studying the causes of soft X-ray deficit, a feature generally seen in high redshift radio-loud quasars. We summarize that this feature could be explained based on the intrinsic curvature in the jet emission rather than being due to the external effects predicted in earlier studies, such as host galaxy and/or warm absorption.

  10. Science with the ASTRI mini-array for the Cherenkov Telescope Array: blazars and fundamental physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnoli, Giacomo; Tavecchio, Fabrizio; Giuliani, Andrea; Bigongiari, Ciro; Di Pierro, Federico; Stamerra, Antonio; Pareschi, Giovanni; Vercellone, Stefano; ASTRI Collaboration; CTA Consortium

    2016-05-01

    ASTRI (“Astronomia a Specchi con Tecnologia Replicante Italiana”) is a flagship project of the Italian Ministry of Research (MIUR), devoted to the realization, operation and scientific validation of an end-to-end prototype for the Small Size Telescope (SST) envisaged to become part of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). The ASTRI SST-2M telescope prototype is characterized by a dual mirror, Schwarzschild-Couder optical design and a compact camera based on silicon photo-multipliers. It will be sensitive to multi-TeV very high energy (VHE) gamma rays up to 100 TeV, with a PSF ~ 6’ and a wide (9.6°) unaberrated optical field of view. Right after validation of the design in single-dish observations at the Serra La Nave site (Sicily, Italy) during 2015, the ASTRI collaboration will be able to start deployment, at the final CTA southern site, of the ASTRI mini-array, proposed to constitute the very first CTA precursor. Counting 9 ASTRI SST-2M telescopes, the ASTRI mini-array will overtake current IACT systems in differential sensitivity above 5 TeV, thus allowing unprecedented observations of known and predicted bright TeV emitters in this band, including some extragalactic sources such as extreme high-peaked BL Lacs with hard spectra. We exploited the ASTRI scientific simulator ASTRIsim in order to understand the feasibility of observations tackling blazar and cosmic ray physics, including discrimination of hadronic and leptonic scenarios for the VHE emission from BL Lac relativistic jets and indirect measurements of the intergalactic magnetic field and of the extragalactic background light. We selected favorable targets, outlining observation modes, exposure times, multi-wavelength coverage needed and the results expected. Moreover, the perspectives for observation of effects due to the existence of axion-like particles or to Lorentz invariance violations have been investigated.

  11. An Investigation of Blazars without Redshifts: Not a Missing Population at High Redshift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, Peiyuan; Urry, C. Megan [Yale Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Physics Department, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States)

    2017-06-01

    We investigate a sample of 622 blazars with measured fluxes at 12 wavebands across the radio-to-gamma-ray spectrum but without spectroscopic or photometric redshifts. This sample includes hundreds of sources with newly analyzed X-ray spectra reported here. From the synchrotron peak frequencies, estimated by fitting the broadband spectral energy distributions (SEDs), we find that the fraction of high-synchrotron-peaked blazars in these 622 sources is roughly the same as in larger samples of blazars that do have redshifts. We characterize the no-redshift blazars using their infrared colors, which lie in the distinct locus called the WISE blazar strip, then estimate their redshifts using a KNN regression based on the redshifts of the closest blazars in the WISE color–color plot. Finally, using randomly drawn values from plausible redshift distributions, we simulate the SEDs of these blazars and compare them to known blazar SEDs. Based on all these considerations, we conclude that blazars without redshift estimates are unlikely to be high-luminosity, high-synchrotron-peaked objects, which had been suggested in order to explain the “blazar sequence”—an observed trend of SED shape with luminosity—as a selection effect. Instead, the observed properties of no-redshift blazars are compatible with a causal connection between jet power and electron cooling, i.e., a true blazar sequence.

  12. The Gamma-Ray Blazar Content of the Northern Sky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michelson, Peter

    2003-07-16

    Using survey data, we have re-evaluated the correlation of flat spectrum radio sources with EGRET sources in the Northern sky. An analysis incorporating the radio and X-ray properties and the {gamma}-ray source localization is used to gauge the reliability of associations and to search for counterparts of previously unidentified EGRET sources. Above |b|=10{sup o}, where the classification is complete, we find that 70% of the Northern EGRET sources have counterparts similar to the bright EGRET blazars. For several of these we identify known blazar counterparts more likely than the earlier proposed 3EG association; for {approx}20 we have new identifications. Spectroscopic confirmation of these candidates is in progress and we have found flat spectrum radio quasars and BL Lac counterparts with redshifts as high as 4. We also find strong evidence for a set of 28 objects with no plausible counterpart like the known EGRET blazars. These thus represent either a new extragalactic population or a population of Galactic objects with a large scale height. The survey has been extended into the plane, where we find several new blazar candidates; the bulk of the sources are, however, Galactic. Looking ahead to the GLAST era, we predict that several of the present 3EG sources are composite and that higher resolution data will break these into multiple blazar IDs.

  13. Long-term spectral and temporal behavior of the high-frequency peaked BL LAC object 1ES 1959+650

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backes, M.; Uellenbeck, M.; Hayashida, M.; Satalecka, K.; Tescaro, D.; Terzić, T.; MAGIC Collaboration; Fuhrmann, L.; Nestoras, I.; F-GAMMA project; Lähteenmäki, A.; Tornikoski, M.; Nieppola, E.; Metsähovi; Böttcher, M.; Collmar, W.; Weidinger, M.

    2012-12-01

    The high-frequency peaked BL Lac object 1ES 1959+650 is well-known for an exceptional outburst, which was observed at very high energy (VHE) γ-rays by the Whipple 10m and HEGRA telescopes in 2002. Remarkably, this outburst lacked associated X-ray emission (a socalled "orphan flare") and by this cannot easily be described by standard Synchrotron Self Compton (SSC) models. Models based on hadronic emission processes have also been proposed to explain the observed behavior. Subsequent multi-wavelength observations during a low flux state at TeV energies in 2006 can, instead, be explained by a standard single-zone SSC model. In this context, 1ES 1959+650 has been regularly monitored by the MAGIC telescope since 2005. During these years, no significant variation in the VHE γ-ray flux has been observed. The low energy part of this is in very good agreement with the high-energy part of the time-integrated energy spectrum as measured by Fermi-LAT. Based on this constant flux level in VHE γ-rays, we assembled the time-integrated spectral energy distribution (SED) of 1ES 1959+650 from radio to VHE γ-rays. Despite the non-variability at very high energies, significant flux and spectral variations have been observed at optical and X-ray frequencies in the meanwhile. Furthermore, the shape of the SED at high energy γ-rays as measured by Fermi-LAT is essentially flat which cannot be explained by either conventional single-zone SSC models, or models invoking external radiation fields (EC).

  14. Blazar origin of some IceCube events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, Luis Salvador; Leon, Alberto Rosales de; Sahu, Sarira [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior, C.U., Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Mexico, DF (Mexico)

    2016-07-15

    Recently the ANTARES collaboration presented a time dependent analysis of a selected number of flaring blazars to look for upward going muon events produced from the charge current interaction of the muon neutrinos. We use the same list of flaring blazars to look for a possible positional correlation with the IceCube neutrino events. In the context of the photohadronic model we propose that the neutrinos are produced within the nuclear region of the blazar where Fermi accelerated high energy protons interact with the background synchrotron/SSC photons. Although we found that some objects from the ANTARES list are within the error circles of a few IceCube events, the statistical analysis shows that none of these sources have a significant correlation. (orig.)

  15. Polarization Properties of 24 Fermi-Detected Blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linford, Justin; Taylor, G. B.; Schinzel, F. K.; Zavala, R. T.

    2013-01-01

    Gamma-ray emitting blazars have been shown to frequently have significant polarization at radio wavelengths. In early 2012, we obtained Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) observations of 24 blazars detected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. These observations utilized the new 2 gigabit-per-second mode of the VLBA. We observed each source with full polarization at 8.4 GHz, 15 GHz, and 22 GHz with 256 MHz of total bandwidth per polarization. Our sample contains 14 flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) and 10 BL Lacertae objects (BL Lacs). We analyze the spectral index, rotation measure, and magnetic field structures of these 24 gamma-ray loud blazars.

  16. Roma-BZCAT: a multifrequency catalogue of blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massaro, E.; Giommi, P.; Leto, C.; Marchegiani, P.; Maselli, A.; Perri, M.; Piranomonte, S.; Sclavi, S.

    2009-02-01

    We present a new catalogue of blazars based on multifrequency surveys and on an extensive review of the literature. Blazars are classified as BL Lacertae objects, as flat spectrum radio quasars or as blazars of uncertain/transitional type. Each object is identified by a root name, coded as BZB, BZQ and BZU for these three subclasses respectively, and by its coordinates. This catalogue is being built as a tool useful for the identification of the extragalactic sources that will be detected by present and future experiments for X and gamma-ray astronomy, like Swift, AGILE, Fermi-GLAST and Simbol-X. An electronic version is available from the ASI Science Data Center web site at http://www.asdc.asi.it/bzcat.

  17. Intrinsic brightness temperatures of blazar jets at 15 GHz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hovatta Talvikki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a new Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo method to deconvolve light curves of blazars into individual flares, including proper estimation of the fit errors. We use the method to fit 15GHzlight curves obtained within the OVRO 40-m blazar monitoring program where a large number of AGN have been monitored since 2008 in support of the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope mission. The time scales obtained from the fitted models are used to calculate the variability brightness temperature of the sources. Additionally, we have calculated brightness temperatures of a sample of these objects using Very Long Baseline Array data from the MOJAVE survey. Combining these two data sets enables us to study the intrinsic brightness temperature distribution in these blazars at 15 GHz. Our preliminary results indicate that the mean intrinsic brightness temperature in a sample of 14 sources is near the equipartition brightness temperature of ~ 1011K.

  18. The Study on the Physical Properties of Blazar Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, S. J.

    2017-09-01

    Active galactic nuclei (AGNs) belong to a special class of active galaxies, and have violent active phenomena and intense physical processes in the nuclei. Blazar is a subclass of AGNs, and has a relativistic jet with a small jet viewing angle. Therefore, the boosting effect is very important, and almost all the observed radiation is dominated by the jet. The relativistic jet physics is not very clear yet, such as the jet formation, collimation, and matter content etc. The multi-waveband radiation of blazar is dominated by jet, which provides an ideal laboratory for studying the jet physics. The first chapter of this thesis introduces the recent progress of AGNs and blazars. We further introduce the jet model that commonly used in blazars in the second chapter. In the third chapter, we fit simultaneously (or quasi-simultaneously) the multi-waveband spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for a sample of low-synchrotron-peaked (LSP) blazars with the jet model and χ2 procedure, which takes into account different soft photon fields (broad line region or a molecular torus). We find that the SED fitting with an external soft photon from IR torus is systematically better than that from the broad line region (BLR) based on a χ2 test, which suggests that the γ-ray emitting region most possibly stays outside the BLR. The minimum electron Lorentz factor, γmin, is constrained from the modeling of these LSP blazars with good soft X-ray data, and in a range from 5 to 160 (with a median value of 55), which plays a key role in jet power estimation. Assuming one-to-one ratio of proton and electron, we find that the jet power for LSP blazars is systematically higher than that of Fanaroff-Riley type II (FR II) radio galaxies. A possible reason for this is that there are some positrons in the jets of these blazars. If this is the case, the jet power will be reduced. Therefore, we propose a mixed composition of e±-p in the jets of these LSP blazars. If we assume that the jet power

  19. What We Talk about When We Talk about Blazars?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foschini, Luigi, E-mail: luigi.foschini@brera.inaf.it [INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Lecco (Italy)

    2017-07-11

    After the discovery of powerful relativistic jets from Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 Galaxies, and the understanding of their similarity with those of blazars, a problem of terminology was born. The word blazar is today associated to BL Lac Objects and Flat-Spectrum Radio Quasars, which are somehow different from Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 Galaxies. Using the same word for all the three classes of AGN could drive either toward some misunderstanding, or to the oversight of some important characteristics. I review the main characteristics of these sources, and finally I propose a new scheme of classification.

  20. TeV AND MULTI-WAVELENGTH OBSERVATIONS OF Mrk 421 IN 2006-2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acciari, V. A.; Benbow, W.; Aliu, E.; Arlen, T.; Aune, T.; Beilicke, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Dickherber, R.; Boltuch, D.; Bradbury, S. M.; Byrum, K.; Cannon, A.; Cesarini, A.; Ciupik, L.; Cui, W.; Finley, J. P.; Duke, C.; Falcone, A.; Finnegan, G.

    2011-01-01

    We report on TeV γ-ray observations of the blazar Mrk 421 (redshift of 0.031) with the VERITAS observatory and the Whipple 10 m Cherenkov telescope. The excellent sensitivity of VERITAS allowed us to sample the TeV γ-ray fluxes and energy spectra with unprecedented accuracy where Mrk 421 was detected in each of the pointings. A total of 47.3 hr of VERITAS and 96 hr of Whipple 10 m data were acquired between 2006 January and 2008 June. We present the results of a study of the TeV γ-ray energy spectra as a function of time and for different flux levels. On 2008 May 2 and 3, bright TeV γ-ray flares were detected with fluxes reaching the level of 10 Crab. The TeV γ-ray data were complemented with radio, optical, and X-ray observations, with flux variability found in all bands except for the radio wave band. The combination of the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer and Swift X-ray data reveal spectral hardening with increasing flux levels, often correlated with an increase of the source activity in TeV γ-rays. Contemporaneous spectral energy distributions were generated for 18 nights, each of which are reasonably described by a one-zone synchrotron self-Compton model.

  1. Relation between Radio Polarization and Spectral Index of Blazars ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Introduction. Blazars are a very special class of extragalactic objects showing some special proper- ties, including rapid variability, high and variability polarization, high luminosity and superluminal motion, etc. Their optical variability timescales can cover a range of hours to years from radio to γ-rays (Fan et al. 2004; Ulrich ...

  2. High-redshift Blazars through NuSTAR Eyes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcotulli, L.; Paliya, V. S.; Ajello, M.; Kaur, A.; Hartmann, D. H.; Gasparrini, D.; Greiner, J.; Rau, A.; Schady, P.; Baloković, M.; Stern, D.; Madejski, G.

    2017-01-01

    The most powerful sources among the blazar family are MeV blazars. Often detected at z > 2, they usually display high X- and γ -ray luminosities, larger-than-average jet powers, and black hole masses ≳10 9 M ☉ . In the present work, we perform a multiwavelength study of three high-redshift blazars: 3FGL J0325.5+2223 ( z = 2.06), 3FGL J0449.0+1121 ( z = 2.15), and 3FGL J0453.2−2808 ( z = 2.56), analyzing quasi-simultaneous data from GROND, Swift -UVOT and XRT, Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array ( NuSTAR ), and Fermi -LAT. Our main focus is on the hard X-ray band recently unveiled by NuSTAR (3–79 keV) where these objects show a hard spectrum that enables us to constrain the inverse Compton (IC) peak and the jet power. We found that all three targets resemble the most powerful blazars, with the synchrotron peak located in the submillimeter range and the IC peak in the MeV range, and therefore belong to the MeV blazar class. Using a simple one-zone leptonic emission model to reproduce the spectral energy distributions, we conclude that a simple combination of synchrotron and accretion disk emission reproduces the infrared–optical spectra, while the X-ray to γ -ray part is well reproduced by the IC scattering of low-energy photons supplied by the broad-line region. The black hole masses for each of the three sources are calculated to be ≳4 × 10 8 M ☉ . The three studied sources have jet power at the level of, or beyond, the accretion luminosity.

  3. Redshift measurement of Fermi blazars for the Cherenkov telescope array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pita, S.; Goldoni, P.; Boisson, C.; Cotter, G.; Lefaucheur, J.; Lenain, J.-P.; Lindfors, E.; Williams, D. A.

    2017-01-01

    Blazars are active galactic nuclei, and the most numerous High Energy (HE) and Very High Energy (VHE) γ-ray emitters. Their optical emission is often dominated by non-thermal, and, in the case of BL Lacs, featureless continuum radiation. This makes the determination of their redshift extremely difficult. Indeed, as of today only about 50% of γ-ray blazars have a measured spectroscopic redshift. The knowledge of redshift is fundamental because it allows the precise modeling of the VHE emission and also of its interaction with the extragalactic background light (EBL). The beginning of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) operations in the near future will allow the detection of several hundreds of new blazars. Using the Fermi catalogue of sources above 50 GeV (2FHL), we performed simulations which indicate that a significant fraction of the 2FHL blazars detectable by CTA will not have a measured redshift. As a matter of fact, the organization of observing campaigns to measure the redshift of these blazars has been recognized as a necessary support for the AGN Key Science Project of CTA. We are planning such an observing campaign. In order to optimize our chances of success, we will perform preliminary deep imaging observations aimed at detecting or setting upper limits to the host galaxy. We will then take spectra of the candidates with the brightest host galaxies. Taking advantage of the recent success of an X-shooter GTO observing campaign, these observations will be different with respect to previous ones due to the use of higher resolution spectrographs and of 8 meter class telescopes. We are starting to submit proposals for these observations. In this paper we briefly describe how candidates are selected and the corresponding observation program.

  4. CLUSTERING OF γ-RAY-SELECTED 2LAC FERMI BLAZARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allevato, V.; Finoguenov, A. [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Gustaf Hällströmin katu 2a, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Cappelluti, N. [University of Maryland, Baltimore County, 1000 Hilltop Circle, Baltimore, MD 21250 (United States)

    2014-12-20

    We present the first measurement of the projected correlation function of 485 γ-ray-selected blazars, divided into 175 BL Lacertae (BL Lacs) and 310 flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) detected in the 2 year all-sky survey by the Fermi-Large Area Telescope. We find that Fermi BL Lacs and FSRQs reside in massive dark matter halos (DMHs) with log M{sub h} = 13.35{sub −0.14}{sup +0.20} and log M{sub h} = 13.40{sub −0.19}{sup +0.15} h {sup –1} M {sub ☉}, respectively, at low (z ∼ 0.4) and high (z ∼ 1.2) redshift. In terms of clustering properties, these results suggest that BL Lacs and FSRQs are similar objects residing in the same dense environment typical of galaxy groups, despite their different spectral energy distributions, power, and accretion rates. We find no difference in the typical bias and hosting halo mass between Fermi blazars and radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs), supporting the unification scheme simply equating radio-loud objects with misaligned blazar counterparts. This similarity in terms of the typical environment they preferentially live in, suggests that blazars tend to occupy the center of DMHs, as already pointed out for radio-loud AGNs. This implies, in light of several projects looking for the γ-ray emission from DM annihilation in galaxy clusters, a strong contamination from blazars to the expected signal from DM annihilation.

  5. High-redshift Blazars through NuSTAR Eyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcotulli, L.; Paliya, V. S.; Ajello, M.; Kaur, A.; Hartmann, D. H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Clemson University, Kinard Lab of Physics, Clemson, SC 29634-0978 (United States); Gasparrini, D. [Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI) Science Data Center, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Greiner, J.; Rau, A.; Schady, P. [Max Planck Institute für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Baloković, M. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Stern, D. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Madejski, G., E-mail: lmarcot@g.clemson.edu, E-mail: vpaliya@g.clemson.edu [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)

    2017-04-20

    The most powerful sources among the blazar family are MeV blazars. Often detected at z > 2, they usually display high X- and γ -ray luminosities, larger-than-average jet powers, and black hole masses ≳10{sup 9} M {sub ☉}. In the present work, we perform a multiwavelength study of three high-redshift blazars: 3FGL J0325.5+2223 ( z = 2.06), 3FGL J0449.0+1121 ( z = 2.15), and 3FGL J0453.2−2808 ( z = 2.56), analyzing quasi-simultaneous data from GROND, Swift -UVOT and XRT, Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array ( NuSTAR ), and Fermi -LAT. Our main focus is on the hard X-ray band recently unveiled by NuSTAR (3–79 keV) where these objects show a hard spectrum that enables us to constrain the inverse Compton (IC) peak and the jet power. We found that all three targets resemble the most powerful blazars, with the synchrotron peak located in the submillimeter range and the IC peak in the MeV range, and therefore belong to the MeV blazar class. Using a simple one-zone leptonic emission model to reproduce the spectral energy distributions, we conclude that a simple combination of synchrotron and accretion disk emission reproduces the infrared–optical spectra, while the X-ray to γ -ray part is well reproduced by the IC scattering of low-energy photons supplied by the broad-line region. The black hole masses for each of the three sources are calculated to be ≳4 × 10{sup 8} M {sub ☉}. The three studied sources have jet power at the level of, or beyond, the accretion luminosity.

  6. IDENTIFICATION OF NEW GAMMA-RAY BLAZAR CANDIDATES WITH MULTIFREQUENCY ARCHIVAL OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowperthwaite, Philip S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States); Massaro, F. [SLAC National Laboratory and Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); D' Abrusco, R.; Paggi, A.; Smith, Howard A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Tosti, G., E-mail: pcowpert@umd.edu [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università Degli Studi di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia (Italy)

    2013-11-01

    Blazars are a highly variable, radio-loud subclass of active galactic nuclei. In order to better understand such objects we must be able to easily identify candidate blazars from the growing population of unidentified sources. Working toward this goal, we attempt to identify new gamma-ray blazar candidates from a sample of 102 previously unidentified sources. These sources are selected from The Astronomer's Telegram and the literature on the basis of non-periodic variability and multi-wavelength behavior. We then attempt to associate these objects to an IR counterpart in the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer all-sky survey. We are able to identify 16 candidate sources whose IR colors are consistent with those of the blazar population. Of those, 13 sources have IR colors indicative of being gamma-ray emitting blazar candidates. These sources all possess archival multi-wavelength observations that support their blazar-like nature.

  7. Data reduction and analysis of the multiband optical images of the blazar Mrk180

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Sabzi Sarvestani

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available  Nearly simultaneous multiband monitoring of blazars is very limited and most studies reported in literature are conflicting, too. Although optical variability on intra-night timescales is now a well established phenomenon for blazars, its relationship to long-term variability remains unclear. Possible clues could come from monitoring the optical spectrum for correlation with brightness. The presence or absence of bluer color in blazar color index, when its luminosity is increased on intra-night and inter-night timescales, can provide interesting clues to the origin of blazar variability from hourly to much longer timescales. Luminosity of blazars varies at all wavelengths over a variety of timescales. Various models have been proposed to explain blazar variability. However, the mechanism responsible for variability is not conclusively understood. One factor which can discriminate the various variability models is that of color (spectral index variations of blazars. This factor may help to better understand the mechanism of blazar variability. Therefore, it was initially proposed, by the second author of this paper to the OHP observatory, to carry out quasi-simultaneous multiband monitoring of one of the brightest blazer, Mrk180. Fortunately, it was accepted by the scientific team of the observatory and the 1.20m telescope time was allocated to the project from 23 to 28 April 2009. Because of the weather conditions, we could only monitor this blazar for three nights. Raw data processing and data reduction were performed using the standard system of Europe Southerner Observatory, ESO-MIDAS. We considered two reference stars and measured the magnitudes of the reference stars and the blazar Mrk 180 and then plotted the light curves and the color index diagrams. The light curves showed the optical variations of the blazar. The maximum amplitude value of its variations was 0.185 mag for the V filter. Investigating the blazar color index shows its

  8. QUASI-PERIODICITIES AT YEAR-LIKE TIMESCALES IN BLAZARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandrinelli, A.; Treves, A. [Università degli Studi dell’Insubria, Dipartimento di Scienza ed Alta Tecnologia, Via Valleggio 11, I-22100 Como (Italy); Covino, S. [INAF—Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Via Emilio Bianchi 46, I-23807 Merate (Italy); Dotti, M. [Università degli Studi di Milano Bicocca, Dipartimento di Fisica G. Occhialini, Piazza della Scienza 3, I-20126 Milano (Italy)

    2016-03-15

    We searched for quasi-periodicities on year-like timescales in the light curves of six blazars in the optical—near-infrared bands and we made a comparison with the high energy emission. We obtained optical/NIR light curves from Rapid Eye Mounting photometry plus archival Small and Moderate Aperture Research Telescope System data and we accessed the Fermi light curves for the γ-ray data. The periodograms often show strong peaks in the optical and γ-ray bands, which in some cases may be inter-related. The significance of the revealed peaks is then discussed, taking into account that the noise is frequency dependent. Quasi-periodicities on a year-like timescale appear to occur often in blazars. No straightforward model describing these possible periodicities is yet available, but some plausible interpretations for the physical mechanisms causing periodic variabilities of these sources are examined.

  9. The broadband spectral energy distributions of SDSS blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huai-Zhen; Chen, Luo-En; Jiang, Yun-Guo; Yi, Ting-Feng

    2015-07-01

    We compiled the radio, optical and X-ray data of blazars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey database, and presented the distribution of luminosities and broadband spectral indices. The distribution of luminosities shows that the averaged luminosity of flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) is larger than that of BL Lacertae (BL Lac) objects. On the other hand, the broadband spectral energy distribution reveals that FSRQs and low energy peaked BL Lac objects have similar spectral properties, but high energy peaked BL Lac objects have a distinct spectral property. This may be due to the fact that different subclasses of blazars have different intrinsic environments and are at different cooling levels. Even so, a unified scheme is also revealed from the color-color diagram, which hints that there are similar physical processes operating in all objects under a range of intrinsic physical conditions or beaming parameters. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China.

  10. Photohadronic scenario in interpreting the February-March 2014 flare of 1ES 1011+496

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahu, Sarira [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Circuito Exterior, Mexico (Mexico); RIKEN, Astrophysical Big Bang Laboratory, Wako, Saitama (Japan); Rosales de Leon, Alberto [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Circuito Exterior, Mexico (Mexico); Salvador Miranda, Luis [University of Johannesburg, Department of Physics, Auckland Park (South Africa)

    2017-11-15

    The extraordinary multi-TeV flare from 1ES 1011+496 during February-March 2014 was observed by the MAGIC telescopes for 17 nights and the average spectrum of the whole period has a non-trivial shape. We have used the photohadronic model and a template extragalactic background light model to explain the average spectrum which fits the flare data well. The spectral index α is the only free parameter in our model. We have also shown that the non-trivial nature of the spectrum is due to the change in the behavior of the optical depth above ∝ 600 GeV γ-ray energy accompanied with the high SSC flux. This corresponds to an almost flat intrinsic flux for the multi-TeV γ-rays. Our model prediction can constrain the SSC flux of the leptonic models in the quiescent state. (orig.)

  11. Photohadronic scenario in interpreting the February-March 2014 flare of 1ES 1011+496

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Sarira; de León, Alberto Rosales; Miranda, Luis Salvador

    2017-11-01

    The extraordinary multi-TeV flare from 1ES 1011+496 during February-March 2014 was observed by the MAGIC telescopes for 17 nights and the average spectrum of the whole period has a non-trivial shape. We have used the photohadronic model and a template extragalactic background light model to explain the average spectrum which fits the flare data well. The spectral index α is the only free parameter in our model. We have also shown that the non-trivial nature of the spectrum is due to the change in the behavior of the optical depth above ˜ 600 GeV γ -ray energy accompanied with the high SSC flux. This corresponds to an almost flat intrinsic flux for the multi-TeV γ -rays. Our model prediction can constrain the SSC flux of the leptonic models in the quiescent state.

  12. RELAXATION OF BLAZAR-INDUCED PAIR BEAMS IN COSMIC VOIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miniati, Francesco [Physics Department, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, ETH-Zuerich, CH-8093 Zuerich (Switzerland); Elyiv, Andrii, E-mail: fm@phys.ethz.ch [Institut d' Astrophysique et de Geophysique, Universite de Liege, B-4000 Liege (Belgium)

    2013-06-10

    The stability properties of a low-density ultrarelativistic pair beam produced in the intergalactic medium (IGM) by multi-TeV gamma-ray photons from blazars are analyzed. The problem is relevant for probes of magnetic field in cosmic voids through gamma-ray observations. In addition, dissipation of such beams could considerably affect the thermal history of the IGM and structure formation. We use a Monte Carlo method to quantify the properties of the blazar-induced electromagnetic shower, in particular the bulk Lorentz factor and the angular spread of the pair beam generated by the shower, as a function of distance from the blazar itself. We then use linear and nonlinear kinetic theory to study the stability of the pair beam against the growth of electrostatic plasma waves, employing the Monte Carlo results for our quantitative estimates. We find that the fastest growing mode, like any perturbation mode with even a very modest component perpendicular to the beam direction, cannot be described in the reactive regime. Due to the effect of nonlinear Landau damping, which suppresses the growth of plasma oscillations, the beam relaxation timescale is found to be significantly longer than the inverse Compton loss time. Finally, density inhomogeneities associated with cosmic structure induce loss of resonance between the beam particles and plasma oscillations, strongly inhibiting their growth. We conclude that relativistic pair beams produced by blazars in the IGM are stable on timescales that are long compared with the electromagnetic cascades. There appears to be little or no effect of pair beams on the IGM.

  13. BLAZAR OPTICAL VARIABILITY IN THE PALOMAR-QUEST SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, Anne; Baltay, Charles; Coppi, Paolo; Ellman, Nancy; Jerke, Jonathan; Rabinowitz, David; Scalzo, Richard

    2009-01-01

    We study the ensemble optical variability of 276 flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) and 86 BL Lacs in the Palomar-QUEST Survey with the goal of searching for common fluctuation properties, examining the range of behavior across the sample, and characterizing the appearance of blazars in such a survey so that future work can more easily identify such objects. The survey, which covers 15,000 deg 2 multiple times over 3.5 years, allows for the first ensemble blazar study of this scale. Variability amplitude distributions are shown for the FSRQ and BL Lac samples for numerous time lags, and also studied through structure function analyses. Individual blazars show a wide range of variability amplitudes, timescales, and duty cycles. Of the best-sampled objects, 35% are seen to vary by more than 0.4 mag; for these, the fraction of measurements contributing to the high-amplitude variability ranges constantly from about 5% to 80%. Blazar variability has some similarities to that of type I quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) but includes larger amplitude fluctuations on all timescales. FSRQ variability amplitudes are particularly similar to those of QSOs on timescales of several months, suggesting significant contributions from the accretion disk to the variable flux at these timescales. Optical variability amplitudes are correlated with the maximum apparent velocities of the radio jet for the subset of FSRQs with MOJAVE Very Long Baseline Array measurements, implying that the optically variable flux's strength is typically related to that of the radio emission. We also study CRATES radio-selected FSRQ candidates, which show similar variability characteristics to known FSRQs; this suggests a high purity for the CRATES sample.

  14. Steady-state emission of blazars at very high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoehne-Moench, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    One key scientific program of the MAGIC telescope project is the discovery and detection of blazars. They constitute the most prominent extragalactic source class in the very high energy (VHE) γ-ray regime with 29 out of 34 known objects. Therefore a major part of the available observation time was spent in the last years on high-frequency peaked blazars. The selection criteria were chosen to increase the detection probability. As the X-ray flux is believed to be correlated to the VHE γ-ray flux, only X-ray selected sources with a flux F X >2 μJy at 1 keV were considered. To avoid strong attenuation of the -rays in the extragalactic infrared background, the redshift was restricted to values between z X-γ between the X-ray range at 1 keV and the VHE γ-ray regime at 200 GeV were calculated. The majority of objects show a spectral behaviour as expected from the source class of HBLs: The energy output in the VHE regime is in general lower than in X-rays. For the stacked blazar sample the broad-band spectral index was calculated to α X-γ =1.09, confirming the result found for the individual objects. Another evidence for the revelation of the baseline emission is the broad-band spectral energy distribution (SED) comprising archival as well as contemporaneous multi-wavelength data from the radio to the VHE band. The SEDs of known VHE γ-ray sources in low flux states matches well the SED of the stacked blazar sample. (orig.)

  15. Modeling Blazar Spectra by Solving an Electron Transport Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Tiffany; Finke, Justin; Becker, Peter A.

    2018-01-01

    Blazars are luminous active galaxies across the entire electromagnetic spectrum, but the spectral formation mechanisms, especially the particle acceleration, in these sources are not well understood. We develop a new theoretical model for simulating blazar spectra using a self-consistent electron number distribution. Specifically, we solve the particle transport equation considering shock acceleration, adiabatic expansion, stochastic acceleration due to MHD waves, Bohm diffusive particle escape, synchrotron radiation, and Compton radiation, where we implement the full Compton cross-section for seed photons from the accretion disk, the dust torus, and 26 individual broad lines. We used a modified Runge-Kutta method to solve the 2nd order equation, including development of a new mathematical method for normalizing stiff steady-state ordinary differential equations. We show that our self-consistent, transport-based blazar model can qualitatively fit the IR through Fermi g-ray data for 3C 279, with a single-zone, leptonic configuration. We use the solution for the electron distribution to calculate multi-wavelength SED spectra for 3C 279. We calculate the particle and magnetic field energy densities, which suggest that the emitting region is not always in equipartition (a common assumption), but sometimes matter dominated. The stratified broad line region (based on ratios in quasar reverberation mapping, and thus adding no free parameters) improves our estimate of the location of the emitting region, increasing it by ~5x. Our model provides a novel view into the physics at play in blazar jets, especially the relative strength of the shock and stochastic acceleration, where our model is well suited to distinguish between these processes, and we find that the latter tends to dominate.

  16. Detecting The EBL Attenuation Of Blazars With GLAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Luis C.

    2006-09-01

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board GLAST (Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope) due for launch in Fall 2007 will study the gamma-ray sky in the energy range 20 MeV to >300 GeV. GLAST-LAT's improved sensitivity with respect to previous missions will increase the number of known Blazars from about 100 to thousands, with redshifts up to z 5. Since Gamma rays with energy above 10 GeV interact via pair-production with photons from the Extragalactic Background Light (EBL), the systematic attenuation of GLAST-detected Blazars as a function of redshift would constitute and effective and unique probe to the optical-UV EBL density and its evolution over cosmic history. Based on the GLAST-LAT instrument performance, detailed simulations of expected blazar populations attenuated by EBL have been performed. In this poster we present an analysis of such simulations in order to measure the EBL attenuation, ensuing a clear distinction between competing EBL models.

  17. UV and X-ray Variability of Blazars Alok C. Gupta

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    mostly soft X-rays hardness ratio show correlations with blazar luminos- ity and different modes of variability might be operating for different time scales and ... The real cause of blazar variability on diverse time scales is not yet well under- stood. ... stereoscopic system (HESS) at a 45σ significance level (Aharonian et al.

  18. SMARTScience Tools: Interacting With Blazar Data In The Web Browser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Imran; Isler, Jedidah; Urry, C. Megan; MacPherson, Emily; Buxton, Michelle; Bailyn, Charles D.; Coppi, Paolo S.

    2014-08-01

    The Yale-SMARTS blazar group has accumulated 6 years of optical-IR photometry of more than 70 blazars, mostly bright enough in gamma-rays to be detected with Fermi. Observations were done with the ANDICAM instrument on the SMARTS 1.3 m telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory. As a result of this long-term, multiwavelength monitoring, we have produced a calibrated, publicly available data set (see www.astro.yale.edu/smarts/glast/home.php), which we have used to find that (i) optical-IR and gamma-ray light curves are well correlated, supporting inverse-Compton models for gamma-ray production (Bonning et al. 2009, 2012), (ii) at their brightest, blazar jets can contribute significantly to the photoionization of the broad-emission-line region, indicating that gamma-rays are produced within 0.1 pc of the black hole in at least some cases (Isler et al. 2014), and (iii) optical-IR and gamma-ray flares are symmetric, implying the time scales are dominated by light-travel-time effects rather than acceleration or cooling (Chatterjee et al. 2012). The volume of data and diversity of projects for which it is used calls out for an efficient means of visualization. To this end, we have developed a suite of visualization tools called SMARTScience Tools, which allow users to interact dynamically with our dataset. The SMARTScience Tools is publicly available via our webpage and can be used to customize multiwavelength light curves and color magnitude diagrams quickly and intuitively. Users can choose specific bands to construct plots, and the plots include features such as band-by-band panning, dynamic zooming, and direct mouse interaction with individual data points. Human and machine readable tables of the plotted data can be directly printed for the user's convenience and for further independent study. The SMARTScience Tools significantly improves the public’s ability to interact with the Yale-SMARTS 6-year data base of blazar photometry, and should make

  19. EXTENDED RADIO EMISSION IN MOJAVE BLAZARS: CHALLENGES TO UNIFICATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharb, P.; Lister, M. L.; Cooper, N. J.

    2010-01-01

    We present the results of a study on the kiloparsec-scale radio emission in the complete flux density limited MOJAVE sample, comprising 135 radio-loud active galactic nuclei. New 1.4 GHz Very Large Array (VLA) radio images of six quasars and previously unpublished images of 21 blazars are presented, along with an analysis of the high-resolution (VLA A-array) 1.4 GHz emission for the entire sample. While extended emission is detected in the majority of the sources, about 7% of the sources exhibit only radio core emission. We expect more sensitive radio observations, however, to detect faint emission in these sources, as we have detected in the erstwhile 'core-only' source, 1548+056. The kiloparsec-scale radio morphology varies widely across the sample. Many BL Lac objects exhibit extended radio power and kiloparsec-scale morphology typical of powerful FRII jets, while a substantial number of quasars possess radio powers intermediate between FRIs and FRIIs. This poses challenges to the simple radio-loud unified scheme, which links BL Lac objects to FRIs and quasars to FRIIs. We find a significant correlation between extended radio emission and parsec-scale jet speeds: the more radio powerful sources possess faster jets. This indicates that the 1.4 GHz (or low-frequency) radio emission is indeed related to jet kinetic power. Various properties such as extended radio power and apparent parsec-scale jet speeds vary smoothly between different blazar subclasses, suggesting that, at least in terms of radio jet properties, the distinction between quasars and BL Lac objects, at an emission-line equivalent width of 5 A, is essentially an arbitrary one. While the two blazar subclasses display a smooth continuation in properties, they often reveal differences in the correlation test results when considered separately. This can be understood if, unlike quasars, BL Lac objects do not constitute a homogeneous population, but rather include both FRI and FRII radio galaxies for

  20. Extended Radio Emission in MOJAVE Blazars: Challenges to Unification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharb, P.; Lister, M. L.; Cooper, N. J.

    2010-02-01

    We present the results of a study on the kiloparsec-scale radio emission in the complete flux density limited MOJAVE sample, comprising 135 radio-loud active galactic nuclei. New 1.4 GHz Very Large Array (VLA) radio images of six quasars and previously unpublished images of 21 blazars are presented, along with an analysis of the high-resolution (VLA A-array) 1.4 GHz emission for the entire sample. While extended emission is detected in the majority of the sources, about 7% of the sources exhibit only radio core emission. We expect more sensitive radio observations, however, to detect faint emission in these sources, as we have detected in the erstwhile "core-only" source, 1548+056. The kiloparsec-scale radio morphology varies widely across the sample. Many BL Lac objects exhibit extended radio power and kiloparsec-scale morphology typical of powerful FRII jets, while a substantial number of quasars possess radio powers intermediate between FRIs and FRIIs. This poses challenges to the simple radio-loud unified scheme, which links BL Lac objects to FRIs and quasars to FRIIs. We find a significant correlation between extended radio emission and parsec-scale jet speeds: the more radio powerful sources possess faster jets. This indicates that the 1.4 GHz (or low-frequency) radio emission is indeed related to jet kinetic power. Various properties such as extended radio power and apparent parsec-scale jet speeds vary smoothly between different blazar subclasses, suggesting that, at least in terms of radio jet properties, the distinction between quasars and BL Lac objects, at an emission-line equivalent width of 5 Å, is essentially an arbitrary one. While the two blazar subclasses display a smooth continuation in properties, they often reveal differences in the correlation test results when considered separately. This can be understood if, unlike quasars, BL Lac objects do not constitute a homogeneous population, but rather include both FRI and FRII radio galaxies for

  1. M rate at TE. Monitoring at TeV energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorner, Daniela [Universitaet Wuerzburg (Germany); Bretz, Thomas [RWTH Aachen (Germany); Gonzalez, Magdalena; Alfaro, Ruben [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico); Tovmassian, Gagik [Instituto de Astronomia Sede Ensenada (Mexico)

    2016-07-01

    A dedicated long-term monitoring programm at TeV energies has been started by the FACT project about four years ago. Being limited to one site, gaps due to the rotation of the Earth remain in the measured light curves. This makes it difficult to study typical variability time scales of few hours to one day. To allow for systematic studies of continuous observations over up to 12 hours, a second telescope is being installed at a site in about six hours distance in longitude. For the M rate at TE (Monitoring at TeV energies) telescope, a mount from a previous experiment is being refurbished and will be equipped with a new camera. Using silicon based photo sensors like in FACT, an excellent and stable performance will be achieved. M rate at TE is a joint project of German and Mexican universities which aims at extending the blazar monitoring to so far unexplored time ranges. In the presentation, the status of this emerging project is reported.

  2. A SEARCH FOR SPECTRAL HYSTERESIS AND ENERGY-DEPENDENT TIME LAGS FROM X-RAY AND TeV GAMMA-RAY OBSERVATIONS OF Mrk 421

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abeysekara, A. U.; Flinders, A.; Archambault, S.; Feng, Q.; Archer, A.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Benbow, W.; Cerruti, M.; Bird, R.; Buchovecky, M.; Cardenzana, J. V; Eisch, J. D.; Chen, X.; Ciupik, L.; Connolly, M. P.; Cui, W.; Finley, J. P.; Falcone, A.; Fleischhack, H.

    2017-01-01

    Blazars are variable emitters across all wavelengths over a wide range of timescales, from months down to minutes. It is therefore essential to observe blazars simultaneously at different wavelengths, especially in the X-ray and gamma-ray bands, where the broadband spectral energy distributions usually peak. In this work, we report on three “target-of-opportunity” observations of Mrk 421, one of the brightest TeV blazars, triggered by a strong flaring event at TeV energies in 2014. These observations feature long, continuous, and simultaneous exposures with XMM-Newton (covering the X-ray and optical/ultraviolet bands) and VERITAS (covering the TeV gamma-ray band), along with contemporaneous observations from other gamma-ray facilities (MAGIC and Fermi -Large Area Telescope) and a number of radio and optical facilities. Although neither rapid flares nor significant X-ray/TeV correlation are detected, these observations reveal subtle changes in the X-ray spectrum of the source over the course of a few days. We search the simultaneous X-ray and TeV data for spectral hysteresis patterns and time delays, which could provide insight into the emission mechanisms and the source properties (e.g., the radius of the emitting region, the strength of the magnetic field, and related timescales). The observed broadband spectra are consistent with a one-zone synchrotron self-Compton model. We find that the power spectral density distribution at ≳4 × 10 −4 Hz from the X-ray data can be described by a power-law model with an index value between 1.2 and 1.8, and do not find evidence for a steepening of the power spectral index (often associated with a characteristic length scale) compared to the previously reported values at lower frequencies.

  3. A SEARCH FOR SPECTRAL HYSTERESIS AND ENERGY-DEPENDENT TIME LAGS FROM X-RAY AND TeV GAMMA-RAY OBSERVATIONS OF Mrk 421

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abeysekara, A. U.; Flinders, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Archambault, S.; Feng, Q. [Physics Department, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada); Archer, A.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V. [Department of Physics, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Benbow, W.; Cerruti, M. [Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Amado, AZ 85645 (United States); Bird, R.; Buchovecky, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Cardenzana, J. V; Eisch, J. D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Chen, X. [Institute of Physics and Astronomy, University of Potsdam, D-14476 Potsdam-Golm (Germany); Ciupik, L. [Astronomy Department, Adler Planetarium and Astronomy Museum, Chicago, IL 60605 (United States); Connolly, M. P. [School of Physics, National University of Ireland Galway, University Road, Galway (Ireland); Cui, W.; Finley, J. P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Falcone, A. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Fleischhack, H. [DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Collaboration: VERITAS Collaboration; MAGIC Collaboration; and others

    2017-01-01

    Blazars are variable emitters across all wavelengths over a wide range of timescales, from months down to minutes. It is therefore essential to observe blazars simultaneously at different wavelengths, especially in the X-ray and gamma-ray bands, where the broadband spectral energy distributions usually peak. In this work, we report on three “target-of-opportunity” observations of Mrk 421, one of the brightest TeV blazars, triggered by a strong flaring event at TeV energies in 2014. These observations feature long, continuous, and simultaneous exposures with XMM-Newton (covering the X-ray and optical/ultraviolet bands) and VERITAS (covering the TeV gamma-ray band), along with contemporaneous observations from other gamma-ray facilities (MAGIC and Fermi -Large Area Telescope) and a number of radio and optical facilities. Although neither rapid flares nor significant X-ray/TeV correlation are detected, these observations reveal subtle changes in the X-ray spectrum of the source over the course of a few days. We search the simultaneous X-ray and TeV data for spectral hysteresis patterns and time delays, which could provide insight into the emission mechanisms and the source properties (e.g., the radius of the emitting region, the strength of the magnetic field, and related timescales). The observed broadband spectra are consistent with a one-zone synchrotron self-Compton model. We find that the power spectral density distribution at ≳4 × 10{sup −4} Hz from the X-ray data can be described by a power-law model with an index value between 1.2 and 1.8, and do not find evidence for a steepening of the power spectral index (often associated with a characteristic length scale) compared to the previously reported values at lower frequencies.

  4. The RINGO2 and DIPOL optical polarization catalogue of blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jermak, H.; Steele, I. A.; Lindfors, E.; Hovatta, T.; Nilsson, K.; Lamb, G. P.; Mundell, C.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Berdyugin, A.; Kadenius, V.; Reinthal, R.; Takalo, L.

    2016-11-01

    We present ˜2000 polarimetric and ˜3000 photometric observations of 15 γ-ray bright blazars over a period of 936 days (2008-10-11 to 2012-10-26) using data from the Tuorla blazar monitoring program (KVA DIPOL) and Liverpool Telescope (LT) RINGO2 polarimeters (supplemented with data from SkyCamZ (LT) and Fermi-LAT γ-ray data). In 11 out of 15 sources we identify a total of 19 electric vector position angle (EVPA) rotations and 95 flaring episodes. We group the sources into subclasses based on their broad-band spectral characteristics and compare their observed optical and γ-ray properties. We find that (1) the optical magnitude and γ-ray flux are positively correlated, (2) EVPA rotations can occur in any blazar subclass, four sources show rotations that go in one direction and immediately rotate back, (3) we see no difference in the γ-ray flaring rates in the sample; flares can occur during and outside of rotations with no preference for this behaviour, (4) the average degree of polarization (DoP), optical magnitude and γ-ray flux are lower during an EVPA rotation compared with during non-rotation and the distribution of the DoP during EVPA rotations is not drawn from the same parent sample as the distribution outside rotations, (5) the number of observed flaring events and optical polarization rotations are correlated, however we find no strong evidence for a temporal association between individual flares and rotations and (6) the maximum observed DoP increases from ˜10 per cent to ˜30 per cent to ˜40 per cent for subclasses with synchrotron peaks at high, intermediate and low frequencies, respectively.

  5. The radio-γ-ray connection in Fermi blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghirlanda, G.; Ghisellini, G.; Tavecchio, F.; Foschini, L.; Bonnoli, G.

    2011-05-01

    We study the correlation between the γ-ray flux (Fγ), averaged over the first 11 months of the Fermi survey and integrated above 100 MeV, and the radio flux density (Fr at 20 GHz) of Fermi sources associated with a radio counterpart in the 20-GHz Australia Telescope Compact Array (AT20G) survey. Considering the blazars detected in both bands, the correlation is highly significant and has the form Fγ∝F0.85±0.04r, similar to BL Lacertae objects and flat-spectrum radio quasars. However, only a small fraction (˜1/15) of the AT20G radio sources with flat radio spectra are detected by Fermi. To understand if this correlation is real, we examine the selection effects introduced by the flux limits of both the radio and the γ-ray surveys, and the importance of variability of the γ-ray flux. After accounting for these effects, we find that the radio-γ-ray flux correlation is real, but its slope is steeper than the observed one, that is, Fγ∝Fδr with δ in the range 1.25-1.5. The observed Fγ-Fr correlation and the fraction of radio sources detected by Fermi are reproduced assuming a long-term γ-ray flux variability, following a lognormal probability distribution with standard deviation σ≥ 0.5 (corresponding to Fγ varying by at least a factor of 3). Such a variability is compatible, even if not necessarily equal, with what is observed when comparing, for the sources in common, the EGRET and the Fermi γ-ray fluxes (even if the Fermi fluxes are averaged over ˜1 yr). Another indication of variability is the non-detection of 12 out of 66 EGRET blazars by Fermi, despite its higher sensitivity. We also study the strong linear correlation between the γ-ray and the radio luminosity of the 144 AT20G-Fermi associations with known redshift and show, through partial correlation analysis, that it is statistically robust. Two possible implications of these correlations are discussed: the contribution of blazars to the extragalactic γ-ray background and the prediction

  6. Simultaneous optical and infrared polarization measurements of blazars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brindle, C.; Hough, J.H.; Bailey, J.A.; Axon, D.J.; Hyland, A.R.

    1986-01-01

    Measurements are presented of the polarization and flux of a sample of 28 blazars (21 BL Lacs and 7 OVV quasars) at optical and near-infrared wavelengths, with repeated observations for some objects. For 20 objects, these are the first reported polarization measurements in either the optical or infrared, and for most of them the first simultaneous measurements at these wavelengths. Out of a total of 42 observations a spectral dependence of polarization level and position angle is found, although not necessarily occurring together, on 15 occasions. (author)

  7. High-energy sources at low radio frequency: the Murchison Widefield Array view of Fermi blazars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giroletti, M.; Massaro, F.; D’Abrusco, R.; Lico, R.; Burlon, D.

    2016-01-01

    Low-frequency radio arrays are opening a new window for the study of the sky, both to study new phenomena and to better characterize known source classes. Being flat-spectrum sources, blazars are so far poorly studied at low radio frequencies. In this paper, we characterize the spectral properties of the blazar population at low radio frequency, compare the radio and high-energy properties of the gamma-ray blazar population, and search for radio counterparts of unidentified gamma-ray sources. We cross-correlated the 6100 deg"2 Murchison Widefield Array Commissioning Survey catalogue with the Roma blazar catalogue, the third catalogue of active galactic nuclei detected by Fermi-LAT, and the unidentified members of the entire third catalogue of gamma-ray sources detected by Fermi-LAT. When available, we also added high-frequency radio data from the Australia Telescope 20 GHz catalogue. We find low-frequency counterparts for 186 out of 517 (36%) blazars, 79 out of 174 (45%) gamma-ray blazars, and 8 out of 73 (11%) gamma-ray blazar candidates. The mean low-frequency (120–180 MHz) blazar spectral index is (α_l_o_w) = 0.57 ± 0.02: blazar spectra are flatter than the rest of the population of low-frequency sources, but are steeper than at ~GHz frequencies. Low-frequency radio flux density and gamma-ray energy flux display a mildly significant and broadly scattered correlation. Ten unidentified gamma-ray sources have a (probably fortuitous) positional match with low radio frequency sources. Low-frequency radio astronomy provides important information about sources with a flat radio spectrum and high energy. However, the relatively low sensitivity of the present surveys still misses a significant fraction of these objects. Finally, upcoming deeper surveys, such as the GaLactic and Extragalactic All-Sky MWA (GLEAM) survey, will provide further insight into this population.

  8. A Model of Polarisation Rotations in Blazars from Kink Instabilities in Relativistic Jets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Nalewajko

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a simple model of polarisation rotation in optically thin relativistic jets of blazars. The model is based on the development of helical (kink mode of current-driven instability. A possible explanation is suggested for the observational connection between polarisation rotations and optical/gamma-ray flares in blazars, if the current-driven modes are triggered by secular increases of the total jet power. The importance of intrinsic depolarisation in limiting the amplitude of coherent polarisation rotations is demonstrated. The polarisation rotation amplitude is thus very sensitive to the viewing angle, which appears to be inconsistent with the observational estimates of viewing angles in blazars showing polarisation rotations. Overall, there are serious obstacles to explaining large-amplitude polarisation rotations in blazars in terms of current-driven kink modes.

  9. CHARACTERIZING THE OPTICAL VARIABILITY OF BRIGHT BLAZARS: VARIABILITY-BASED SELECTION OF FERMI ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruan, John J.; Anderson, Scott F.; MacLeod, Chelsea L.; Becker, Andrew C.; Davenport, James R. A.; Ivezić, Željko; Burnett, T. H.; Kochanek, Christopher S.; Plotkin, Richard M.; Sesar, Branimir; Stuart, J. Scott

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the use of optical photometric variability to select and identify blazars in large-scale time-domain surveys, in part to aid in the identification of blazar counterparts to the ∼30% of γ-ray sources in the Fermi 2FGL catalog still lacking reliable associations. Using data from the optical LINEAR asteroid survey, we characterize the optical variability of blazars by fitting a damped random walk model to individual light curves with two main model parameters, the characteristic timescales of variability τ, and driving amplitudes on short timescales σ-circumflex. Imposing cuts on minimum τ and σ-circumflex allows for blazar selection with high efficiency E and completeness C. To test the efficacy of this approach, we apply this method to optically variable LINEAR objects that fall within the several-arcminute error ellipses of γ-ray sources in the Fermi 2FGL catalog. Despite the extreme stellar contamination at the shallow depth of the LINEAR survey, we are able to recover previously associated optical counterparts to Fermi active galactic nuclei with E ≥ 88% and C = 88% in Fermi 95% confidence error ellipses having semimajor axis r < 8'. We find that the suggested radio counterpart to Fermi source 2FGL J1649.6+5238 has optical variability consistent with other γ-ray blazars and is likely to be the γ-ray source. Our results suggest that the variability of the non-thermal jet emission in blazars is stochastic in nature, with unique variability properties due to the effects of relativistic beaming. After correcting for beaming, we estimate that the characteristic timescale of blazar variability is ∼3 years in the rest frame of the jet, in contrast with the ∼320 day disk flux timescale observed in quasars. The variability-based selection method presented will be useful for blazar identification in time-domain optical surveys and is also a probe of jet physics.

  10. SYSTEMATIC STUDY OF GAMMA-RAY-BRIGHT BLAZARS WITH OPTICAL POLARIZATION AND GAMMA-RAY VARIABILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, Ryosuke; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Kanda, Yuka; Shiki, Kensei; Kawabata, Miho; Nakaoka, Tatsuya; Takaki, Katsutoshi; Takata, Koji; Ui, Takahiro [Department of Physical Science, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Nalewajko, Krzysztof; Madejski, Greg M. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, 2575 Sand Hill Road M/S 29, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Uemura, Makoto; Tanaka, Yasuyuki T.; Kawabata, Koji S.; Akitaya, Hiroshi; Ohsugi, Takashi [Hiroshima Astrophysical Science Center, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Schinzel, Frank K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Moritani, Yuki [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), The University of Tokyo Institutes for Advanced Study, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Sasada, Mahito [Institute for Astrophysical Research, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Yamanaka, Masayuki, E-mail: itoh@hep01.hepl.hiroshima-u.ac.jp, E-mail: itoh@hp.phys.titech.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Konan University, Okamoto, Kobe, Hyogo 658-8501 (Japan); and others

    2016-12-10

    Blazars are highly variable active galactic nuclei that emit radiation at all wavelengths from radio to gamma rays. Polarized radiation from blazars is one key piece of evidence for synchrotron radiation at low energies, and it also varies dramatically. The polarization of blazars is of interest for understanding the origin, confinement, and propagation of jets. However, even though numerous measurements have been performed, the mechanisms behind jet creation, composition, and variability are still debated. We performed simultaneous gamma-ray and optical photopolarimetry observations of 45 blazars between 2008 July and 2014 December to investigate the mechanisms of variability and search for a basic relation between the several subclasses of blazars. We identify a correlation between the maximum degree of optical linear polarization and the gamma-ray luminosity or the ratio of gamma-ray to optical fluxes. Since the maximum polarization degree depends on the condition of the magnetic field (chaotic or ordered), this result implies a systematic difference in the intrinsic alignment of magnetic fields in parsec-scale relativistic jets between different types of blazars (flat-spectrum radio quasars vs. BL Lacs) and consequently between different types of radio galaxies (FR I versus FR II).

  11. OPTICAL SPECTROSCOPIC OBSERVATIONS OF GAMMA-RAY BLAZAR CANDIDATES. V. TNG, KPNO, AND OAN OBSERVATIONS OF BLAZAR CANDIDATES OF UNCERTAIN TYPE IN THE NORTHERN HEMISPHERE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Álvarez Crespo, N.; Massaro, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Torino, via Pietro Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Masetti, N. [INAF—Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica di Bologna, via Gobetti 101, I-40129, Bologna (Italy); Ricci, F.; La Franca, F. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Università Roma Tre, via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146, Roma (Italy); Landoni, M. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Via Emilio Bianchi 46, I-23807 Merate (Italy); Patiño-Álvarez, V.; Chavushyan, V.; Torrealba, J. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Óptica y Electrónica, Apartado Postal 51-216, 72000 Puebla, México (Mexico); D’Abrusco, R.; Paggi, A.; Smith, Howard A. [Harvard—Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Jiménez-Bailón, E. [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apdo. Postal 877, Ensenada, 22800 Baja California, México (Mexico); Latronico, L. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Torino, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Tosti, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    The extragalactic γ-ray sky is dominated by emission from blazars, a peculiar class of active galactic nuclei. Many of the γ-ray sources included in the Fermi-Large Area Telescope Third Source catalog (3FGL) are classified as blazar candidates of uncertain type (BCUs) because there are no optical spectra available in the literature to confirm their nature. In 2013, we started a spectroscopic campaign to look for the optical counterparts of the BCUs and of the unidentified γ-ray sources to confirm their blazar nature. Whenever possible we also determine their redshifts. Here, we present the results of the observations carried out in the northern hemisphere in 2013 and 2014 at the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo, Kitt Peak National Observatory, and Observatorio Astronómico Nacional in San Pedro Mártir. In this paper, we describe the optical spectra of 25 sources. We confirmed that all of the 15 BCUs observed in our campaign and included in our sample are blazars and we estimated the redshifts for three of them. In addition, we present the spectra for three sources classified as BL Lacs in the literature but with no optical spectra available to date. We found that one of them is a quasar (QSO) at a redshift of z = 0.208 and the other two are BL Lacs. Moreover, we also present seven new spectra for known blazars listed in the Roma-BZCAT that have an uncertain redshift or are classified as BL Lac candidates. We found that one of them, 5BZB J0724+2621, is a “changing look” blazar. According to the spectrum available in the literature, it was classified as a BL Lac, but in our observation we clearly detected a broad emission line that led us to classify this source as a QSO at z = 1.17.

  12. Radio variability of the blazar AO 0235 + 164

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'dell, S.L.; Dennison, B.; Broderick, J.J.; Altschuler, D.R.; Condon, J.J.; Payne, H.E.; Mitchell, K.J.

    1988-01-01

    The high-redshift blazar A0 0235 + 164 exhibits flux-density variations which are primarily of the less common variety in which low-frequency flux-density variations track the high-frequency variations but are delayed and of smaller amplitude. Observational results based on five years of monitoring are presented which are correlated over at least a factor of 50 frequency range in the sense expected for an expanding synchrotron component: outbursts propagating toward lower frequencies with diminishing amplitudes. A simple, semiempirical jet model is developed which accounts reasonably well for the radio properties of the object. The predictions of the model are compared with observations, examining the radio flux-density histories, the radio spectral evolution, the radio structure, and evidence for relativistic bulk motion. 59 references

  13. The VLBA-BU-BLAZAR Multi-Wavelength Monitoring Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Jorstad

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe a multiwavelength program of monitoring of a sample of bright γ-ray blazars, which the Boston University (BU group has being carrying out since June 2007. The program includes monthly monitoring with the Very Long Baseline Array at 43 GHz, optical photometric and polarimetric observations, construction and analysis of UV and X-ray light curves obtained with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE and Swift satellites, and construction and analysis of γ-ray light curves based on data provided by the Large Area Telescope of the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. We present general results about the kinematics of parsec-scale radio jets, as well as the connection between γ-ray outbursts and jet events.

  14. Shaping the GeV-spectra of bright blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunger, L.; Reimer, A.

    2016-05-01

    Aims: The non-thermal spectra of jetted active galactic nuclei (AGN) show a variety of shapes and degrees of curvature in their low- and high energy components. From some of the brightest Fermi-LAT blazars, prominent spectral breaks at a few GeV have been regularly detected, which is inconsistent with conventional cooling effects. We study the effects of continuous time-dependent injection of electrons into the jet with differing rates, durations, locations, and power-law spectral indices, and evaluate its impact on the ambient emitting particle spectrum that is observed at a given snapshot time in the framework of a leptonic blazar emission model. With this study, we provide a basis for analyzing ambient electron spectra in terms of injection requirements, with implications for particle acceleration modes. Methods: The emitting electron spectrum is calculated by Compton cooling the continuously injected electrons, where target photons are assumed to be provided by the accretion disk and broad line region (BLR). From this setup, we calculate the non-thermal photon spectra produced by inverse Compton scattering of these external target radiation fields using the full Compton cross-section in the head-on approximation. Results: By means of a comprehensive parameter study we present the resulting ambient electron and photon spectra, and discuss the influence of each injection parameter individually. We found that varying the injection parameters has a notable influence on the spectral shapes, which in turn can be used to set interesting constraints on the particle injection scenarios. By applying our model to the flare state spectral energy distribution (SED) of 3C 454.3, we confirm a previous suggestion that explained the observed spectral changes at a few GeV by a combination of the Compton-scattered disk and BLR radiation. We determine the required injection parameters for this scenario. We also show that this spectral turn-over can also be understood as Compton

  15. Multiwavelength Study of Gamma-Ray Bright Blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozova, Daria; Larionov, V. M.; Hagen-Thorn, V. A.; Jorstad, S. G.; Marscher, A. P.; Troitskii, I. S.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate total intensity radio images of 6 gamma-ray bright blazars (BL Lac, 3C 279, 3C 273, W Com, PKS 1510-089, and 3C 66A) and their optical and gamma-ray light curves to study connections between gamma-ray and optical brightness variations and changes in the parsec-scale radio structure. We use high-resolution maps obtained by the BU group at 43 GHz with the VLBA, optical light curves constructed by the St.Petersburg State U. (Russia) team using measurements with the 0.4 m telescope of St.Petersburg State U. (LX200) and the 0.7 m telescope of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory (AZT-8), and gamma-ray light curves, which we have constructed with data provided by the Fermi Large Area Telescope. Over the period from August 2008 to November 2009, superluminal motion is found in all 6 objects with apparent speed ranging from 2c to 40c. The blazars with faster apparent speeds, 3C 273, 3C 279, PKS 1510-089, and 3C 66A, exhibit stronger variability of the gamma-ray emission. There is a tendency for sources with sharply peaked gamma-ray flares to have faster jet speed than sources with gamma-ray light curves with no sharp peaks. Gamma-ray light curves with sharply peaked gamma-ray flares possess a stronger gamma-ray/optical correlations. The research at St.Petersburg State U. was funded by the Minister of Education and Science of the Russian Federation (state contract N#P123). The research at BU was funded in part by NASA Fermi Guest Investigator grant NNX08AV65G and by NSF grant AST-0907893. The VLBA is an instrument of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, a facility of the National Science Foundation operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  16. BLAZAR ANTI-SEQUENCE OF SPECTRAL VARIATION WITHIN INDIVIDUAL BLAZARS: CASES FOR MRK 501 AND 3C 279

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jin; Zhang, Shuang-Nan; Liang, En-Wei, E-mail: zhang.jin@hotmail.com [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2013-04-10

    The jet properties of Mrk 501 and 3C 279 are derived by fitting broadband spectral energy distributions (SEDs) with lepton models. The derived {gamma}{sub b} (the break Lorenz factor of the electron distribution) is 10{sup 4}-10{sup 6} for Mrk 501 and 200 {approx} 600 for 3C 279. The magnetic field strength (B) of Mrk 501 is usually one order of magnitude lower than that of 3C 279, but their Doppler factors ({delta}) are comparable. A spectral variation feature where the peak luminosity is correlated with the peak frequency, which is opposite from the blazar sequence, is observed in the two sources. We find that (1) the peak luminosities of the two bumps in the SEDs for Mrk 501 depend on {gamma}{sub b} in both the observer and co-moving frames, but they are not correlated with B and {delta} and (2) the luminosity variation of 3C 279 is dominated by the external Compton (EC) peak and its peak luminosity is correlated with {gamma}{sub b} and {delta}, but anti-correlated with B. These results suggest that {gamma}{sub b} may govern the spectral variation of Mrk 501 and {delta} and B would be responsible for the spectral variation of 3C 279. The narrow distribution of {gamma}{sub b} and the correlation of {gamma}{sub b} and B in 3C 279 would be due to the cooling from the EC process and the strong magnetic field. Based on our brief discussion, we propose that this spectral variation feature may originate from the instability of the corona but not from the variation of the accretion rate as does the blazar sequence.

  17. On the intrinsic shape of the gamma-ray spectrum for Fermi blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Shi-Ju; Wu, Qingwen; Zheng, Yong-Gang; Yin, Yue; Song, Jia-Li; Zou, Hang; Feng, Jian-Chao; Dong, Ai-Jun; Wu, Zhong-Zu; Zhang, Zhi-Bin; Wu, Lin-Hui

    2018-05-01

    The curvature of the γ-ray spectrumin blazarsmay reflect the intrinsic distribution of emitting electrons, which will further give some information on the possible acceleration and cooling processes in the emitting region. The γ-ray spectra of Fermi blazars are normally fitted either by a single power-law (PL) or a log-normal (call Logarithmic Parabola, LP) form. The possible reason for this difference is not clear. We statistically explore this issue based on the different observational properties of 1419 Fermi blazars in the 3LAC Clean Sample.We find that the γ-ray flux (100MeV–100GeV) and variability index follow bimodal distributions for PL and LP blazars, where the γ-ray flux and variability index show a positive correlation. However, the distributions of γ-ray luminosity and redshift follow a unimodal distribution. Our results suggest that the bimodal distribution of γ-ray fluxes for LP and PL blazars may not be intrinsic and all blazars may have an intrinsically curved γ-ray spectrum, and the PL spectrum is just caused by the fitting effect due to less photons.

  18. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Blazars equivalent widths and radio luminosity (Landt+, 2004)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landt, H.; Padovani, P.; Perlman, E. S.; Giommi, P.

    2004-07-01

    Blazars are currently separated into BL Lacertae objects (BL Lacs) and flat spectrum radio quasars based on the strength of their emission lines. This is performed rather arbitrarily by defining a diagonal line in the Ca H&K break value-equivalent width plane, following Marcha et al. (1996MNRAS.281..425M). We readdress this problem and put the classification scheme for blazars on firm physical grounds. We study ~100 blazars and radio galaxies from the Deep X-ray Radio Blazar Survey (DXRBS, Cat. and ) and 2-Jy radio survey and find a significant bimodality for the narrow emission line [OIII]{lambda}5007. This suggests the presence of two physically distinct classes of radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGN). We show that all radio-loud AGN, blazars and radio galaxies, can be effectively separated into weak- and strong-lined sources using the [OIII]{lambda}5007-[OII]{lambda}3727 equivalent width plane. This plane allows one to disentangle orientation effects from intrinsic variations in radio-loud AGN. Based on DXRBS, the strongly beamed sources of the new class of weak-lined radio-loud AGN are made up of BL Lacs at the ~75 per cent level, whereas those of the strong-lined radio-loud AGN include mostly (~97 per cent) quasars. (4 data files).

  19. Parsec-Scale Properties of Gamma-Ray Bright Blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linford, Justin Dee

    The parsec-scale radio properties of blazars detected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope have been investigated using observations with the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA). Comparisons between LAT and non-LAT detected samples were made using both archival and contemporaneous data. In total, 244 sources were used in the LAT-detected sample. This very large, radio flux-limited sample of active galactic nuclei (AGN) provides insights into the mechanism that produces strong gamma-ray emission. It has been found that LAT-detected BL Lac objects are very similar to the non-LAT BL Lac objects in most properties, although LAT BL Lac objects may have longer jets. The LAT flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) are significantly different from non-LAT FSRQs and are likely extreme members of the FSRQ population. Archival radio data indicated that there was no significant correlation between radio flux density and gamma-ray flux, especially at lower flux levels. However, contemporaneous observations showed a strong correlation. Most of the differences between the LAT and non-LAT populations are related to the cores of the sources, indicating that the gamma-ray emission may originate near the base of the jets (i.e., within a few pc of the central engine). There is some indication that LAT-detected sources may have larger jet opening angles than the non-LAT sources. Strong core polarization is significantly more common among the LAT sources, suggesting that gamma-ray emission is related to strong, uniform magnetic fields at the base of the jets of the blazars. Observations of sources in two epochs indicate that core fractional polarization was higher when the objects were detected by the LAT. The low-synchrotron peaked (LSP) BL Lac object sample shows indications of contamination by FSRQs which happen to have undetectable emission lines. There is evidence that the LSP BL Lac objects are more strongly beamed than the rest of the BL Lac

  20. Infrared polarimetry of the nucleus of Centaurus A: the nearest blazar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, J; Sparks, W B; Hough, J H; Axon, D J

    1986-07-10

    As one of the nearest examples of an active galaxy, NGC5128 (Centaurus A) has been studied in detail over a wide range of wavelengths. The authors have made polarization observations of the infrared nucleus at wavelengths from 1.2 to 3.8 ..mu..m. The nucleus is found to have a large intrinsic polarization of approx.=9% at position angle 147/sup 0/. This position angle is perpendicular to the direction of the X-ray and radio jet. The polarized emission from the nucleus is interpreted as synchrotron radiation from a region whose magnetic field is parallel to the jet direction. The properties of the Cen A nucleus are essentially identical to those of the much more luminous blazars. This suggest that blazar-type activity extends over a very wide range in luminosity, and low-luminosity blazars may be common in elliptical galaxies.

  1. Polarization and brightness of the blazar S5 0716+714 in 1991-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doroshenko, V. T.; Kiselev, N. N.

    2017-06-01

    We investigate the photometric and polarimetric behavior of the blazar S5 0716+714 based on the observations carried out in 1991-2004 at the 125-cm Crimean Astrophysical Observatory telescope (AZT11) with a photopolarimeter that allows simultaneous polarization and brightness measurements to be made in the U BV RI bands. We also provide the U BV photometry for the blazar obtained in 2000-2009 with a 60-cm telescope at the Crimean Station of the Sternberg Astronomical Institute. The pattern of flux variability and the correlation between the brightness, color, and polarization variations have been investigated. In this time interval the blazar showed a significant brightness and polarization variability similar to noise processes.

  2. Stochastic modeling of the Fermi/LAT γ-ray blazar variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobolewska, M. A.; Siemiginowska, A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Kelly, B. C. [Department of Physics, Broida Hall, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93107 (United States); Nalewajko, K., E-mail: malgosia@camk.edu.pl [JILA, University of Colorado and National Institute of Standards and Technology, 440 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)

    2014-05-10

    We study the γ-ray variability of 13 blazars observed with the Fermi/Large Area Telescope (LAT). These blazars have the most complete light curves collected during the first four years of the Fermi sky survey. We model them with the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck (OU) process or a mixture of the OU processes. The OU process has power spectral density (PSD) proportional to 1/f {sup α} with α changing at a characteristic timescale, τ{sub 0}, from 0 (τ >> τ{sub 0}) to 2 (τ << τ{sub 0}). The PSD of the mixed OU process has two characteristic timescales and an additional intermediate region with 0 < α < 2. We show that the OU model provides a good description of the Fermi/LAT light curves of three blazars in our sample. For the first time, we constrain a characteristic γ-ray timescale of variability in two BL Lac sources, 3C 66A and PKS 2155-304 (τ{sub 0} ≅ 25 days and τ{sub 0} ≅ 43 days, respectively, in the observer's frame), which are longer than the soft X-ray timescales detected in blazars and Seyfert galaxies. We find that the mixed OU process approximates the light curves of the remaining 10 blazars better than the OU process. We derive limits on their long and short characteristic timescales, and infer that their Fermi/LAT PSD resemble power-law functions. We constrain the PSD slopes for all but one source in the sample. We find hints for sub-hour Fermi/LAT variability in four flat spectrum radio quasars. We discuss the implications of our results for theoretical models of blazar variability.

  3. Characterizing the Optical Variability of Bright Blazars: Variability-based Selection of Fermi Active Galactic Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, John J.; Anderson, Scott F.; MacLeod, Chelsea L.; Becker, Andrew C.; Burnett, T. H.; Davenport, James R. A.; Ivezić, Željko; Kochanek, Christopher S.; Plotkin, Richard M.; Sesar, Branimir; Stuart, J. Scott

    2012-11-01

    We investigate the use of optical photometric variability to select and identify blazars in large-scale time-domain surveys, in part to aid in the identification of blazar counterparts to the ~30% of γ-ray sources in the Fermi 2FGL catalog still lacking reliable associations. Using data from the optical LINEAR asteroid survey, we characterize the optical variability of blazars by fitting a damped random walk model to individual light curves with two main model parameters, the characteristic timescales of variability τ, and driving amplitudes on short timescales \\hat{\\sigma }. Imposing cuts on minimum τ and \\hat{\\sigma } allows for blazar selection with high efficiency E and completeness C. To test the efficacy of this approach, we apply this method to optically variable LINEAR objects that fall within the several-arcminute error ellipses of γ-ray sources in the Fermi 2FGL catalog. Despite the extreme stellar contamination at the shallow depth of the LINEAR survey, we are able to recover previously associated optical counterparts to Fermi active galactic nuclei with E >= 88% and C = 88% in Fermi 95% confidence error ellipses having semimajor axis r beaming. After correcting for beaming, we estimate that the characteristic timescale of blazar variability is ~3 years in the rest frame of the jet, in contrast with the ~320 day disk flux timescale observed in quasars. The variability-based selection method presented will be useful for blazar identification in time-domain optical surveys and is also a probe of jet physics.

  4. “Orphan” γ-Ray Flares and Stationary Sheaths of Blazar Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Nicholas R.; Jorstad, Svetlana G.; Marscher, Alan P.

    2017-11-01

    Blazars exhibit flares across the entire electromagnetic spectrum. Many γ-ray flares are highly correlated with flares detected at longer wavelengths; however, a small subset appears to occur in isolation, with little or no correlated variability at longer wavelengths. These “orphan” γ-ray flares challenge current models of blazar variability, most of which are unable to reproduce this type of behavior. MacDonald et al. have developed the Ring of Fire model to explain the origin of orphan γ-ray flares from within blazar jets. In this model, electrons contained within a blob of plasma moving relativistically along the spine of the jet inverse-Compton scatter synchrotron photons emanating off of a ring of shocked sheath plasma that enshrouds the jet spine. As the blob propagates through the ring, the scattering of the ring photons by the blob electrons creates an orphan γ-ray flare. This model was successfully applied to modeling a prominent orphan γ-ray flare observed in the blazar PKS 1510-089. To further support the plausibility of this model, MacDonald et al. presented a stacked radio map of PKS 1510-089 containing the polarimetric signature of a sheath of plasma surrounding the spine of the jet. In this paper, we extend our modeling and stacking techniques to a larger sample of blazars: 3C 273, 4C 71.01, 3C 279, 1055+018, CTA 102, and 3C 345, the majority of which have exhibited orphan γ-ray flares. We find that the model can successfully reproduce these flares, while our stacked maps reveal the existence of jet sheaths within these blazars.

  5. Long-term monitoring of blazars - the DWARF network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backes, Michael; Biland, Adrian; Boller, Andrea; Braun, Isabel; Bretz, Thomas; Commichau, Sebastian; Commichau, Volker; Dorner, Daniela; von Gunten, Hanspeter; Gendotti, Adamo; Grimm, Oliver; Hildebrand, Dorothée; Horisberger, Urs; Krähenbühl, Thomas; Kranich, Daniel; Lustermann, Werner; Mannheim, Karl; Neise, Dominik; Pauss, Felicitas; Renker, Dieter; Rhode, Wolfgang; Rissi, Michael; Rollke, Sebastian; Röser, Ulf; Stark, Luisa Sabrina; Stucki, Jean-Pierre; Viertel, Gert; Vogler, Patrick; Weitzel, Quirin

    The variability of the very high energy (VHE) emission from blazars seems to be connected with the feeding and propagation of relativistic jets and with their origin in supermassive black hole binaries. The key to understanding their properties is measuring well-sampled gamma-ray lightcurves, revealing the typical source behavior unbiased by prior knowledge from other wavebands. Using ground-based gamma-ray observatories with exposures limited by dark-time, a global network of several telescopes is needed to carry out fulltime measurements. Obviously, such observations are time-consuming and, therefore, cannot be carried out with the present state of the art instruments. The DWARF telescope on the Canary Island of La Palma is dedicated to monitoring observations. It is currently being set up, employing a costefficient and robotic design. Part of this project is the future construction of a distributed network of small telescopes. The physical motivation of VHE long-term monitoring will be outlined in detail and the perspective for a network for 24/7 observations will be presented.

  6. Search for neutrino emission from gamma-ray flaring blazars with the ANTARES telescope

    OpenAIRE

    Adrián-Martínez, S.; Al Samarai, Imen; Albert, A.; André, Michel; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Astraatmadja, T.; Aubert, J.-J.; Baret, B.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bigongiari, C.

    2011-01-01

    The ANTARES telescope is well-suited to detect neutrinos produced in astrophysical transient sources as it can observe a full hemisphere of the sky at all times with a high duty cycle. Radio-loud active galactic nuclei with jets pointing almost directly towards the observer, the so-called blazars, are particularly attractive potential neutrino point sources. The all-sky monitor LAT on board the Fermi satellite probes the variability of any given gamma-ray bright blazar in the sky on time scal...

  7. Blazar Sheath Illumination of the Outer Molecular Torus: A Resolution of the Seed Photon Problem for the Far-GeV Blazar Flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breiding, Peter; Georganopoulos, Markos; Meyer, Eileen T.

    2018-01-01

    Recent multiwavelength work led by the Boston University blazar group (e.g., Marscher et al.) strongly suggests that a fraction of the blazar flares seen by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) take place a few to several pc away from the central engine. However, at such distances from the central engine, there is no adequate external photon field to provide the seed photons required for producing the observed GeV emission under leptonic inverse Compton (IC) models. A possible solution is a spine-sheath geometry for the emitting region (MacDonald et al., but see Nalewajko et al.). Here we use the current view of the molecular torus (e.g., Elitzur; Netzer), in which the torus extends a few pc beyond the dust sublimation radius with dust clouds distributed with a declining density for decreasing polar angle. We show that for a spine-sheath blazar jet embedded in the torus, the wide beaming pattern of the synchrotron radiation of the relatively slow sheath will heat molecular clouds with subsequent IR radiation that will be highly boosted in the spine comoving frame, and that under reasonable conditions this photon field can dominate over the sheath photons directly entering the spine. If the sheath is sufficiently luminous it will sublimate the dust, and if the sheath synchrotron radiation extends to optical-UV energies (as may happen during flares), this will illuminate the sublimated dust clouds to produce emission lines that will vary in unison with the optical-UV continuum, as has been very recently reported for blazar CTA 102 (Jorstad et al.).

  8. Variability of Spectral Energy Distribution of Blazar S5 0716+714 B ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    one-zone BPL model is over-simplified in accounting for the radio-optical blazar emission. ... a number of authors (e.g., Vittorini et al. 2009; Raiteri et ... contribution from starlight to the optical bands, which will modify the calculated synchrotron ...

  9. UPPER LIMITS FROM FIVE YEARS OF BLAZAR OBSERVATIONS WITH THE VERITAS CHERENKOV TELESCOPES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archambault, S. [Physics Department, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada); Archer, A.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V. [Department of Physics, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Benbow, W.; Cerruti, M. [Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Amado, AZ 85645 (United States); Bird, R. [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Biteau, J. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics and Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Buchovecky, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Byrum, K. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Chen, X. [Institute of Physics and Astronomy, University of Potsdam, D-14476 Potsdam-Golm (Germany); Ciupik, L. [Astronomy Department, Adler Planetarium and Astronomy Museum, Chicago, IL 60605 (United States); Connolly, M. P. [School of Physics, National University of Ireland Galway, University Road, Galway (Ireland); Cui, W.; Feng, Q.; Finley, J. P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Eisch, J. D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Errando, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Barnard College, Columbia University, NY 10027 (United States); Falcone, A. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Fleischhack, H., E-mail: wystan.benbow@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: matteo.cerruti@lpnhe.in2p3.fr, E-mail: caajohns@ucsc.edu [DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Collaboration: VERITAS collaboration; and others

    2016-06-01

    Between the beginning of its full-scale scientific operations in 2007 and 2012, the VERITAS Cherenkov telescope array observed more than 130 blazars; of these, 26 were detected as very-high-energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) γ -ray sources. In this work, we present the analysis results of a sample of 114 undetected objects. The observations constitute a total live-time of ∼570 hr. The sample includes several unidentified Fermi -Large Area Telescope (LAT) sources (located at high Galactic latitude) as well as all the sources from the second Fermi -LAT catalog that are contained within the field of view of the VERITAS observations. We have also performed optical spectroscopy measurements in order to estimate the redshift of some of these blazars that do not have spectroscopic distance estimates. We present new optical spectra from the Kast instrument on the Shane telescope at the Lick observatory for 18 blazars included in this work, which allowed for the successful measurement or constraint on the redshift of four of them. For each of the blazars included in our sample, we provide the flux upper limit in the VERITAS energy band. We also study the properties of the significance distributions and we present the result of a stacked analysis of the data set, which shows a 4 σ excess.

  10. On the origin of gamma rays in Fermi blazars: beyond the broad line region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costamante, L.; Cutini, S.; Tosti, G.; Antolini, E.; Tramacere, A.

    2018-05-01

    The gamma-ray emission in broad-line blazars is generally explained as inverse Compton (IC) radiation of relativistic electrons in the jet scattering optical-UV photons from the Broad Line Region (BLR), the so-called BLR External Compton scenario. We test this scenario on the Fermi gamma-ray spectra of 106 broad-line blazars detected with the highest significance or largest BLR, by looking for cut-off signatures at high energies compatible with γ-γ interactions with BLR photons. We do not find evidence for the expected BLR absorption. For 2/3 of the sources, we can exclude any significant absorption (τmax 5). We conclude that for 9 out of 10 objects, the jet does not interact with BLR photons. Gamma-rays seem either produced outside the BLR most of the time, or the BLR is ˜100 × larger than given by reverberation mapping. This means that i) External Compton on BLR photons is disfavoured as the main gamma-ray mechanism, vs IC on IR photons from the torus or synchrotron self-Compton; ii) the Fermi gamma-ray spectrum is mostly intrinsic, determined by the interaction of the particle distribution with the seed-photons spectrum; iii) without suppression by the BLR, broad-line blazars can become copious emitters above 100 GeV, as demonstrated by 3C 454.3. We expect the CTA sky to be much richer of broad-line blazars than previously thought.

  11. Methods for the Quasi-Periodic Variability Analysis in Blazars Y. Liu ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the variability analysis in blazars in optical and radio bands, to search for possible quasi-periodic signals. 2. Power spectral density (PSD). In statistical signal processing and physics, the power spectral density (PSD) is a positive real function of a frequency variable associated with a stationary stochas- tic process. Intuitively ...

  12. Neutrinos and ultra-high-energy cosmic-ray nuclei from blazars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Xavier; Fedynitch, Anatoli; Gao, Shan; Boncioli, Denise; Winter, Walter

    2017-11-01

    We discuss the production of ultra-high-energy cosmic ray (UHECR) nuclei and neutrinos from blazars. We compute the nuclear cascade in the jet for both BL Lac objects and flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs), and in the ambient radiation zones for FSRQs as well. By modeling representative spectral energy distributions along the blazar sequence, two distinct regimes are identified, which we call ''nuclear survival'' - typically found in low-luminosity BL Lacs, and ''nuclear cascade'' - typically found in high-luminosity FSRQs. We quantify how the neutrino and cosmic-ray (CR) emission efficiencies evolve over the blazar sequence, and demonstrate that neutrinos and CRs come from very different object classes. For example, high-frequency peaked BL Lacs (HBLs) tend to produce CRs, and HL-FSRQs are the more efficient neutrino emitters. This conclusion does not depend on the CR escape mechanism, for which we discuss two alternatives (diffusive and advective escape). Finally, the neutrino spectrum from blazars is shown to significantly depend on the injection composition into the jet, especially in the nuclear cascade case: Injection compositions heavier than protons lead to reduced neutrino production at the peak, which moves at the same time to lower energies. Thus, these sources will exhibit better compatibility with the observed IceCube and UHECR data.

  13. Observations Of Gamma-ray Loud Blazars With The VLBA At 5 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linford, Justin; Taylor, G. B.; Romani, R.; Readhead, A. C. S.; Reeves, R.; Richards, J. L.; Helmboldt, J. F.

    2011-01-01

    The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has been scanning the sky for more than a year. About half of the sources detected by Fermi's Large Area Telesope (LAT) are active galactic nuclei (AGN). Nearly all of these gamma-ray loud AGN are blazars; strong, compact radio emitters that exhibit variability in their flux and apparent superluminal motion in their jets. Several groups are currently monitoring the radio properties of these gamma-ray loud blazars. We present results from both archival and contemporaneous observations of 200 LAT-detected blazars using the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) at a frequency of 5 GHz (wavelength of 6 cm). Our large, flux-limited sample provides unique insights into the mechanism that produces strong gamma-ray emissions. We explore the parsec-scale properties of the cores and jets of these highly energetic objects, including core polarization. We compare the gamma-ray loud blazars to their gamma-ray quiet counterparts in the VLBA Imaging and Polarimetry Survey (VIPS). We also investigate the differences between the BL Lacertae objects (BL Lacs) and flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs).

  14. Models for Very Rapid High-Energy γ-Ray Variability in Blazars G. E. ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    blazar PKS 2155−304 and present synthetic light-curves of the kind that ... radio wavelengths led to a similar situation (see Wagner & Witzel 1995 for a review). Some of the ... If the instabilities grow, the two components will eventually mix.

  15. Yet another NIR flare of the Blazar BZBJ1454+5124

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, L.; Porras, A.; Recillas, E.; Escobedo, G.; Chavushyan, V.

    2018-05-01

    We call attention on our recent observation of the Gamma Ray source 3FGLJ1454.5+5124 related with the quasar SBS1452+516 (z=1.0831) On March 28th,2018,(JD24582015.0015), we found this blazar to be in a new outburst.

  16. UPPER LIMITS FROM FIVE YEARS OF BLAZAR OBSERVATIONS WITH THE VERITAS CHERENKOV TELESCOPES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archambault, S.; Archer, A.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Benbow, W.; Cerruti, M.; Bird, R.; Biteau, J.; Buchovecky, M.; Byrum, K.; Chen, X.; Ciupik, L.; Connolly, M. P.; Cui, W.; Feng, Q.; Finley, J. P.; Eisch, J. D.; Errando, M.; Falcone, A.; Fleischhack, H.

    2016-01-01

    Between the beginning of its full-scale scientific operations in 2007 and 2012, the VERITAS Cherenkov telescope array observed more than 130 blazars; of these, 26 were detected as very-high-energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) γ -ray sources. In this work, we present the analysis results of a sample of 114 undetected objects. The observations constitute a total live-time of ∼570 hr. The sample includes several unidentified Fermi -Large Area Telescope (LAT) sources (located at high Galactic latitude) as well as all the sources from the second Fermi -LAT catalog that are contained within the field of view of the VERITAS observations. We have also performed optical spectroscopy measurements in order to estimate the redshift of some of these blazars that do not have spectroscopic distance estimates. We present new optical spectra from the Kast instrument on the Shane telescope at the Lick observatory for 18 blazars included in this work, which allowed for the successful measurement or constraint on the redshift of four of them. For each of the blazars included in our sample, we provide the flux upper limit in the VERITAS energy band. We also study the properties of the significance distributions and we present the result of a stacked analysis of the data set, which shows a 4 σ excess.

  17. Position Angle Changes of Inner-Jets in a Sample of Blazars Ligong ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Position Angle Changes of Inner-Jets in a Sample of Blazars. Ligong Mi1,3,∗ & Xiang Liu1,2. 1Xinjiang Astronomical Observatory, CAS, 150 Science 1-Street, Urumqi 830011,. People's Republic of China. 2Key Laboratory of Radio Astronomy, CAS, Nanjing 210008, People's Republic of China. 3University of Chinese ...

  18. Models for High-Energy Radiation from Blazars G. E. Romero1 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We discuss on the modelling of blazar jets as emitters of multiwavelength radiation with the implementation of a lepto-hadronic treatment. Assuming that injection of non-thermal electrons and protons can take place at the base of the jet, the stationary particle distributions can be found using an inhomogeneous ...

  19. Multi-Frequency Observations of Gamma-Ray Blazar 1633+382 SG ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gamma-rays—quasars: 1633+382(4C+38.41)—radio jets— polarization. 1. Introduction. Blazars are the most numerous objects in the γ-ray sky (Abdo et al. 2010). They show dramatic variability across the electromagnetic spectrum (e.g., Jorstad et al. 2010; Marscher et al. 2010). Both these properties (strong γ-ray emission.

  20. NUSTAR, SWIFT, and GROND Observations of the Flaring MEV Blazar PMN J0641-0320

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ajello, M.; Ghisellini, G.; Paliya, V. S.

    2016-01-01

    Area Telescope and subsequent follow-up observations with NuSTAR, Swift, and GROND of a new member of the MeV blazar family: PMN J0641-0320. Our optical spectroscopy provides confirmation that this is a flat-spectrum radio quasar located at a redshift of z = 1.196. Its very hard NuSTAR spectrum (power...

  1. Spectral Index Changes with Brightness for γ-Ray Loud Blazars J. H. ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    spectral index changes depending on γ-ray brightness is obtained. ... the γ-ray band. Key words. Active galactic nuclei (AGN): blazars: γ-ray emission: spectral index. 1. Introduction. Generally, the spectrum of one source changes with its .... Pearl River Scholar Funded Scheme (GDUPS) (2009), Yangcheng Scholar Funded.

  2. Neutrinos and ultra-high-energy cosmic-ray nuclei from blazars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Xavier; Fedynitch, Anatoli; Gao, Shan; Boncioli, Denise; Winter, Walter

    2017-11-15

    We discuss the production of ultra-high-energy cosmic ray (UHECR) nuclei and neutrinos from blazars. We compute the nuclear cascade in the jet for both BL Lac objects and flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs), and in the ambient radiation zones for FSRQs as well. By modeling representative spectral energy distributions along the blazar sequence, two distinct regimes are identified, which we call ''nuclear survival'' - typically found in low-luminosity BL Lacs, and ''nuclear cascade'' - typically found in high-luminosity FSRQs. We quantify how the neutrino and cosmic-ray (CR) emission efficiencies evolve over the blazar sequence, and demonstrate that neutrinos and CRs come from very different object classes. For example, high-frequency peaked BL Lacs (HBLs) tend to produce CRs, and HL-FSRQs are the more efficient neutrino emitters. This conclusion does not depend on the CR escape mechanism, for which we discuss two alternatives (diffusive and advective escape). Finally, the neutrino spectrum from blazars is shown to significantly depend on the injection composition into the jet, especially in the nuclear cascade case: Injection compositions heavier than protons lead to reduced neutrino production at the peak, which moves at the same time to lower energies. Thus, these sources will exhibit better compatibility with the observed IceCube and UHECR data.

  3. Simultaneous Planck, Swift, and Fermi Observations of X-ray and Gamma-ray Selected Blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giommi, P.; Polenta, G.; Laehteenmaeki, A.; Thompson, D. J.; Capalbi, M.; Cutini, S.; Gasparrini, D.; Gonzalez, Nuevo, J.; Leon-Tavares, J.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; hide

    2012-01-01

    We present simultaneous Planck, Swift, Fermi, and ground-based data for 105 blazars belonging to three samples with flux limits in the soft X-ray, hard X-ray, and gamma-ray bands, with additional 5 GHz flux-density limits to ensure a good probability of a Planck detection. We compare our results to those of a companion paper presenting simultaneous Planck and multi-frequency observations of 104 radio-loud northern active galactic nuclei selected at radio frequencies. While we confirm several previous results, our unique data set allows us to demonstrate that the selection method strongly influences the results, producing biases that cannot be ignored. Almost all the BL Lac objects have been detected by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT), whereas 30% to 40% of the flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) in the radio, soft X-ray, and hard X-ray selected samples are still below the gamma-ray detection limit even after integrating 27 months of Fermi-LAT data. The radio to sub-millimetre spectral slope of blazars is quite flat, with (alpha) approx 0 up to about 70GHz, above which it steepens to (alpha) approx -0.65. The BL Lacs have significantly flatter spectra than FSRQs at higher frequencies. The distribution of the rest-frame synchrotron peak frequency (nu(sup s)(sub peak)) in the spectral energy distribution (SED) of FSRQs is the same in all the blazar samples with (nu(sup s)(sub peak)) = 10(exp 13.1 +/- 0.1) Hz, while the mean inverse Compton peak frequency, (nu(sup IC)(sub peak)), ranges from 10(exp 21) to 10(exp 22) Hz. The distributions of nu(sup s)(sub peak) and nu(sup IC)(sub peak) of BL Lacs are much broader and are shifted to higher energies than those of FSRQs; their shapes strongly depend on the selection method. The Compton dominance of blazars. defined as the ratio of the inverse Compton to synchrotron peak luminosities, ranges from less than 0.2 to nearly 100, with only FSRQs reaching values larger than about 3. Its distribution is broad and depends

  4. Simultaneous Planck, Swift, and Fermi observations of X-ray and γ-ray selected blazars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giommi, P.; Polenta, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Thompson, D. J.; Capalbi, M.

    2012-01-01

    We present simultaneous Planck, Swift, Fermi, and ground-based data for 105 blazars belonging to three samples with flux limits in the soft X-ray, hard X-ray, and γ-ray bands, with additional 5GHz flux-density limits to ensure a good probability of a Planck detection. We compare our results to those of a companion paper presenting simultaneous Planck and multi-frequency observations of 104 radio-loud northern active galactic nuclei selected at radio frequencies. While we confirm several previous results, our unique data set allows us to demonstrate that the selection method strongly influences the results, producing biases that cannot be ignored. Almost all the BL Lac objects have been detected by the Fermi Large AreaTelescope (LAT), whereas 30% to 40% of the flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) in the radio, soft X-ray, and hard X-ray selected samples are still below the γ-ray detection limit even after integrating 27 months of Fermi-LAT data. The radio to sub-millimetre spectral slope of blazars is quite flat, with >α> ~ 0 up to about 70GHz, above which it steepens to ~ -0.65. The BL Lacs have significantly flatter spectra than FSRQs at higher frequencies. The distribution of the rest-frame synchrotron peak frequency (ν_p_e_a_k"S) in the spectral energy distribution (SED) of FSRQs is the same in all the blazar samples with ν_p_e_a_k"I"C>, ranges from 1021 to 1022 Hz. The distributions of ν_p_e_a_k"S and ν_p_e_a_k"I"C of BL Lacs are much broader and are shifted to higher energies than those of FSRQs; their shapes strongly depend on the selection method. The Compton dominance of blazars, defined as the ratio of the inverse Compton to synchrotron peak luminosities, ranges from less than 0.2 to nearly 100, with only FSRQs reaching values larger than about 3. Its distribution is broad and depends strongly on the selection method, with γ-ray selected blazars peaking at ~7 or more, and radio-selected blazars at values close to 1, thus implying that the common

  5. PATCHY BLAZAR HEATING: DIVERSIFYING THE THERMAL HISTORY OF THE INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamberts, Astrid; Chang, Philip; Pfrommer, Christoph; Puchwein, Ewald; Broderick, Avery E.; Shalaby, Mohamad

    2015-01-01

    TeV-blazars potentially heat the intergalactic medium (IGM) as their gamma rays interact with photons of the extragalactic background light to produce electron–positron pairs, which lose their kinetic energy to the surrounding medium through plasma instabilities. This results in a heating mechanism that is only weakly sensitive to the local density, and therefore approximately spatially uniform, naturally producing an inverted temperature–density relation in underdense regions. In this paper we go beyond the approximation of uniform heating and quantify the heating rate fluctuations due to the clustered distribution of blazars and how this impacts the thermal history of the IGM. We analytically compute a filtering function that relates the heating rate fluctuations to the underlying dark matter density field. We implement it in the cosmological code GADGET-3 and perform large-scale simulations to determine the impact of inhomogeneous heating. We show that because of blazar clustering, blazar heating is inhomogeneous for z ≳ 2. At high redshift, the temperature–density relation shows an important scatter and presents a low temperature envelope of unheated regions, in particular at low densities and within voids. However, the median temperature of the IGM is close to that in the uniform case, albeit slightly lower at low redshift. We find that blazar heating is more complex than initially assumed and that the temperature–density relation is not unique. Our analytic model for the heating rate fluctuations couples well with large-scale simulations and provides a cost-effective alternative to subgrid models

  6. Comparisons of Jet Properties between GeV Radio Galaxies and Blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Zi-Wei; Zhang, Jin; Cui, Wei; Liang, En-Wei; Zhang, Shuang-Nan

    2017-09-01

    We compile a sample of spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of 12 GeV radio galaxies (RGs), including eight FR I RGs and four FR II RGs. These SEDs can be represented with the one-zone leptonic model. No significant unification, as expected in the unification model, is found for the derived jet parameters between FR I RGs and BL Lacertae objects (BL Lacs) and between FR II RGs and flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs). However, on average FR I RGs have a larger {γ }{{b}} (break Lorentz factor of electrons) and lower B (magnetic field strength) than FR II RGs, analogous to the differences between BL Lacs and FSRQs. The derived Doppler factors (δ) of RGs are on average smaller than those of blazars, which is consistent with the unification model such that RGs are the misaligned parent populations of blazars with smaller δ. On the basis of jet parameters from SED fits, we calculate their jet powers and the powers carried by each component, and compare their jet compositions and radiation efficiencies with blazars. Most of the RG jets may be dominated by particles, like BL Lacs, not FSRQs. However, the jets of RGs with higher radiation efficiencies tend to have higher jet magnetization. A strong anticorrelation between synchrotron peak frequency and jet power is observed for GeV RGs and blazars in both the observer and co-moving frames, indicating that the “sequence” behavior among blazars, together with the GeV RGs, may be intrinsically dominated by jet power.

  7. X-ray Time Lags in TeV Blazars X. Chen1,∗ , G. Fossati1, E. Liang1 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We use Monte Carlo/Fokker–Planck simulations to study the. X-ray time lags. Our results show that soft lags will be observed as long as the decay of the flare is dominated by radiative cooling, even when acceleration and cooling time scales are similar. Hard lags can be pro- duced in the presence of a competitive ...

  8. Identification of the OGLE Blazars behind the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Żywucka

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We report the selection of blazar candidates behind the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds. Both flat spectrum radio quasar and BL Lacreate objects were selected based on the long-term, multi-colour Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment photometric data. We cross-correlated the Magellanic Quasar Survey catalogue of spectroscopically confirmed quasars and quasar candidates located behind the Magellanic Clouds with the radio data at six frequencies from 0.8 to 20 GHz. Among the 1654 objects visible in optical range, we identified a sample of 44 newly selected blazar candidates, including 27 flat spectrum radio quasars and 17 BL Lacs. We examined selected objects with respect to their radio, optical, and mid-infrared properties.

  9. A Diagnostic Test for Determining the Location of the GeV Emission in Powerful Blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotson, Amanda; Georganopoulos, Markos; Kazanas, Demosthenes; Perlman, Eric

    2011-01-01

    An issue currently under debate in the literature is how far from the black hole is the Fermi-observed GeV emission of powerful blazars emitted. Here we present a clear diagnostic tool for testing whether the Ge V emission site is located within the sub-pc broad emission line (BLR) region or further out in the few pc scale molecular torus (MT) environment. Within the BLR the scatteri takes place at the onset of the Klein-Nishina regime, causing the electron cooling time to become almost energy independent and as a result, the variation of high-energy emission is expected to be achromatic. Contrarily, if the emission site is located outside the BLR, the expected GeY variability is energy-dependent and with amplitude increasing with energy. We demonstrate this using time-dependent numerical simulations of blazar variability.

  10. 3 mm GMVA Observations of Total and Polarized Emission from Blazar and Radio Galaxy Core Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Casadio

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We present total and linearly polarized 3 mm Global mm-VLBI Array (GMVA; mm-VLBI: Very Long Baseline Interferometry observations at millimetre wavelengths images of a sample of blazars and radio galaxies from the VLBA-BU-BLAZAR 7 mm monitoring program designed to probe the innermost regions of active galactic nuclei (AGN jets and locate the sites of gamma-ray emission observed by the Fermi-LAT. The lower opacity at 3 mm and improved angular resolution—on the order of 50 microarcseconds—allow us to distinguish features in the jet not visible in the 7 mm VLBA data. We also compare two different methods used for the calibration of instrumental polarisation and we analyze the resulting images for some of the sources in the sample.

  11. The Evolution of Swift/BAT blazars and the origin of the MeV background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ajello, M.; /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Costamante, L.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Sambruna, R.M.; Gehrels, N.; /NASA, Goddard; Chiang, J.; /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Rau, A.; /Caltech; Escala, A.; /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Cerro Calan Observ.; Greiner, J.; /Garching, Max Planck Inst., MPE; Tueller, J.; /NASA, Goddard; Wall, J.V.; /British Columbia U.; Mushotzky, R.F.; /NASA, Goddard

    2009-10-17

    We use 3 years of data from the Swift/BAT survey to select a complete sample of X-ray blazars above 15 keV. This sample comprises 26 Flat-Spectrum Radio Quasars (FSRQs) and 12 BL Lac objects detected over a redshift range of 0.03 < z < 4.0. We use this sample to determine, for the first time in the 15-55 keV band, the evolution of blazars. We find that, contrary to the Seyfert-like AGNs detected by BAT, the population of blazars shows strong positive evolution. This evolution is comparable to the evolution of luminous optical QSOs and luminous X-ray selected AGNs. We also find evidence for an epoch-dependence of the evolution as determined previously for radio-quiet AGNs. We interpret both these findings as a strong link between accretion and jet activity. In our sample, the FSRQs evolve strongly, while our best-fit shows that BL Lacs might not evolve at all. The blazar population accounts for 10-20% (depending on the evolution of the BL Lacs) of the Cosmic X-ray background (CXB) in the 15-55 keV band. We find that FSRQs can explain the entire CXB emission for energies above 500 keV solving the mystery of the generation of the MeV background. The evolution of luminous FSRQs shows a peak in redshift (z{sub c} = 4.3 {+-} 0.5) which is larger than the one observed in QSOs and X-ray selected AGNs. We argue that FSRQs can be used as tracers of massive elliptical galaxies in the early Universe.

  12. The Electrostatic Instability for Realistic Pair Distributions in Blazar/EBL Cascades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vafin, S.; Rafighi, I.; Pohl, M.; Niemiec, J.

    2018-04-01

    This work revisits the electrostatic instability for blazar-induced pair beams propagating through the intergalactic medium (IGM) using linear analysis and PIC simulations. We study the impact of the realistic distribution function of pairs resulting from the interaction of high-energy gamma-rays with the extragalactic background light. We present analytical and numerical calculations of the linear growth rate of the instability for the arbitrary orientation of wave vectors. Our results explicitly demonstrate that the finite angular spread of the beam dramatically affects the growth rate of the waves, leading to the fastest growth for wave vectors quasi-parallel to the beam direction and a growth rate at oblique directions that is only a factor of 2–4 smaller compared to the maximum. To study the nonlinear beam relaxation, we performed PIC simulations that take into account a realistic wide-energy distribution of beam particles. The parameters of the simulated beam-plasma system provide an adequate physical picture that can be extrapolated to realistic blazar-induced pairs. In our simulations, the beam looses only 1% of its energy, and we analytically estimate that the beam would lose its total energy over about 100 simulation times. An analytical scaling is then used to extrapolate the parameters of realistic blazar-induced pair beams. We find that they can dissipate their energy slightly faster by the electrostatic instability than through inverse-Compton scattering. The uncertainties arising from, e.g., details of the primary gamma-ray spectrum are too large to make firm statements for individual blazars, and an analysis based on their specific properties is required.

  13. The WEBT Campaign on the Blazar 3C 279 in 2006

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Böttcher, M.; Basu, S.; Joshi, M.; Villata, M.; Arai, A.; Aryan, N.; Asfandiyarov, I. M.; Bach, U.; Bachev, R.; Berdyugin, A.; Blažek, Martin; Buemi, C.S.; Castro-Tirado, A.J.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Frasca, A.; Fuhrmann, L.; Hagen-Thorn, V.A.; Henson, G.; Hovatta, T.; Hudec, René; Ibrahimov, M.A.; Ishii, Y.; Ivanidze, R.; Jelínek, M.; Kamada, M.; Kapanadze, B.; Katsuura, M.; Kotaka, D.; Kovalev, Y.Y.; Kovalev, Yu.A.; Kubánek, Petr; Kurosaki, M.; Kurtanidze, O.M.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lanteri, L.; Larionov, V.M.; Larionova, L.; Lee, C.-U.; Leto, P.; Lindfors, E.; Marilli, E.; Marshall, K.; Miller, H.R.; Mingaliev, M.G.; Mirabal, N.; Mizoguchi, S.; Nakamura, K.; Nieppola, E.; Nikolashvili, M.G.; Nilsson, K.; Nishiyama, S.; Ohlert, J.M.; Osterman, M.A.; Pak, S.; Pasanen, M.; Peters, C.S.; Pursimo, T.; Raiteri, C.M.; Robertson, J.; Robertson, T.; Ryle, W.T.; Sadakane, K.; Sadun, A.C.; Sigua, L.A.; Sohn, B.-W.; Strigachev, A.; Sumitomo, N.; Takalo, L.O.; Tamesue, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Thorstensen, J.R.; Tosti, G.; Trigilio, C.; Umana, G.; Vennes, S.; Vítek, S.; Volvach, A.; Webb, J.; Yamanaka, M.; Yim, S.-H.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 670, č. 2 (2007), s. 968-977 ISSN 0004-637X Grant - others:EU(XE) ESA-PECS project No. 98023 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : blazars * active galactic nuclei Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 6.405, year: 2007

  14. Relation between X-Ray and γ-Ray Emissions for Fermi Blazars ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Using γ-ray band data detected by Fermi Large Area Tele- scope (LAT) and X-ray band data for 78 blazars, we find a medium cor- relation between X-ray and γ-ray fluxes in the average state. A medium anticorrelation is also found between X-ray (1 KeV) mean spectral index αx and γ-ray mean spectral index αγ for ...

  15. OPTICAL AND INFRARED PHOTOMETRY OF THE BLAZAR PKS 0537-441: LONG AND SHORT TIMESCALE VARIABILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Impiombato, D.; Treves, A.; Covino, S.; Foschini, L.; Fugazza, D.; Pian, E.; Tosti, G.; Ciprini, S.; Nicastro, L.

    2011-01-01

    We present a large collection of photometric data on the blazar PKS 0537-441 in the VRIJHK bands taken in 2004-2009. At least three flare-like episodes with months duration and >3 mag amplitude are apparent. The spectral energy distribution is consistent with a power law, and no indication of a thermal component is found. We searched for short timescale variability, and an interesting event was identified in the J band, with a duration of ∼25 minutes.

  16. CONTEMPORANEOUS VLBA 5 GHz OBSERVATIONS OF LARGE AREA TELESCOPE DETECTED BLAZARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linford, J. D.; Taylor, G. B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, MSC07 4220, Albuquerque, NM 87131-0001 (United States); Romani, R. W. [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Helmboldt, J. F. [Naval Research Laboratory, Code 7213, 4555 Overlook Avenue SW, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Readhead, A. C. S.; Reeves, R.; Richards, J. L. [Astronomy Department, California Institute of Technology, Mail Code 247-17, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2012-01-10

    The radio properties of blazars detected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope have been observed contemporaneously by the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA). In total, 232 sources were observed with the VLBA. Ninety sources that were previously observed as part of the VLBA Imaging and Polarimetry Survey (VIPS) have been included in the sample, as well as 142 sources not found in VIPS. This very large, 5 GHz flux-limited sample of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) provides insights into the mechanism that produces strong {gamma}-ray emission. In particular, we see that {gamma}-ray emission is related to strong, uniform magnetic fields in the cores of the host AGN. Included in this sample are non-blazar AGNs such as 3C84, M82, and NGC 6251. For the blazars, the total VLBA radio flux density at 5 GHz correlates strongly with {gamma}-ray flux. The LAT BL Lac objects tend to be similar to the non-LAT BL Lac objects, but the LAT flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) are significantly different from the non-LAT FSRQs. Strong core polarization is significantly more common among the LAT sources, and core fractional polarization appears to increase during LAT detection.

  17. CONTEMPORANEOUS VLBA 5 GHz OBSERVATIONS OF LARGE AREA TELESCOPE DETECTED BLAZARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linford, J. D.; Taylor, G. B.; Romani, R. W.; Helmboldt, J. F.; Readhead, A. C. S.; Reeves, R.; Richards, J. L.

    2012-01-01

    The radio properties of blazars detected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope have been observed contemporaneously by the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA). In total, 232 sources were observed with the VLBA. Ninety sources that were previously observed as part of the VLBA Imaging and Polarimetry Survey (VIPS) have been included in the sample, as well as 142 sources not found in VIPS. This very large, 5 GHz flux-limited sample of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) provides insights into the mechanism that produces strong γ-ray emission. In particular, we see that γ-ray emission is related to strong, uniform magnetic fields in the cores of the host AGN. Included in this sample are non-blazar AGNs such as 3C84, M82, and NGC 6251. For the blazars, the total VLBA radio flux density at 5 GHz correlates strongly with γ-ray flux. The LAT BL Lac objects tend to be similar to the non-LAT BL Lac objects, but the LAT flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) are significantly different from the non-LAT FSRQs. Strong core polarization is significantly more common among the LAT sources, and core fractional polarization appears to increase during LAT detection.

  18. Contemporaneous VLBA 5 GHz Observations of Large Area Telescope Detected Blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linford, J. D.; Taylor, G. B.; Romani, R. W.; Helmboldt, J. F.; Readhead, A. C. S.; Reeves, R.; Richards, J. L.

    2012-01-01

    The radio properties of blazars detected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope have been observed contemporaneously by the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA). In total, 232 sources were observed with the VLBA. Ninety sources that were previously observed as part of the VLBA Imaging and Polarimetry Survey (VIPS) have been included in the sample, as well as 142 sources not found in VIPS. This very large, 5 GHz flux-limited sample of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) provides insights into the mechanism that produces strong γ-ray emission. In particular, we see that γ-ray emission is related to strong, uniform magnetic fields in the cores of the host AGN. Included in this sample are non-blazar AGNs such as 3C84, M82, and NGC 6251. For the blazars, the total VLBA radio flux density at 5 GHz correlates strongly with γ-ray flux. The LAT BL Lac objects tend to be similar to the non-LAT BL Lac objects, but the LAT flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) are significantly different from the non-LAT FSRQs. Strong core polarization is significantly more common among the LAT sources, and core fractional polarization appears to increase during LAT detection.

  19. Polarization Signatures of Kink Instabilities in the Blazar Emission Region from Relativistic Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Haocheng; Taylor, Greg; Li, Hui; Guo, Fan

    2017-01-01

    Kink instabilities are likely to occur in the current-carrying magnetized plasma jets. Recent observations of the blazar radiation and polarization signatures suggest that the blazar emission region may be considerably magnetized. While the kink instability has been studied with first-principle magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations, the corresponding time-dependent radiation and polarization signatures have not been investigated. In this paper, we perform comprehensive polarization-dependent radiation modeling of the kink instability in the blazar emission region based on relativistic MHD (RMHD) simulations. We find that the kink instability may give rise to strong flares with polarization angle (PA) swings or weak flares with polarization fluctuations, depending on the initial magnetic topology and magnetization. These findings are consistent with observations. Compared with the shock model, the kink model generates polarization signatures that are in better agreement with the general polarization observations. Therefore, we suggest that kink instabilities may widely exist in the jet environment and provide an efficient way to convert the magnetic energy and produce multiwavelength flares and polarization variations.

  20. Polarization Signatures of Kink Instabilities in the Blazar Emission Region from Relativistic Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Haocheng; Taylor, Greg [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Li, Hui; Guo, Fan [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Kink instabilities are likely to occur in the current-carrying magnetized plasma jets. Recent observations of the blazar radiation and polarization signatures suggest that the blazar emission region may be considerably magnetized. While the kink instability has been studied with first-principle magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations, the corresponding time-dependent radiation and polarization signatures have not been investigated. In this paper, we perform comprehensive polarization-dependent radiation modeling of the kink instability in the blazar emission region based on relativistic MHD (RMHD) simulations. We find that the kink instability may give rise to strong flares with polarization angle (PA) swings or weak flares with polarization fluctuations, depending on the initial magnetic topology and magnetization. These findings are consistent with observations. Compared with the shock model, the kink model generates polarization signatures that are in better agreement with the general polarization observations. Therefore, we suggest that kink instabilities may widely exist in the jet environment and provide an efficient way to convert the magnetic energy and produce multiwavelength flares and polarization variations.

  1. Revisiting the incidence of Mg II absorbers along the blazar sightlines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Sapna; Chand, Hum; Gopal-Krishna; Joshi, Ravi

    2018-04-01

    It is believed that the cool gas clouds traced by Mg II absorption, within a velocity offset of 5000 km/s from the background quasar, are associated with the quasar itself, whereas the absorbers seen at larger velocity offsets towards us are intervening systems and hence their existence is completely independent of the background quasar. Recent evidence by Bergeron et al. 2011 (hereafter BBM), however, seriously questions this canonical view, by showing that the number density of intervening Mg II absorbers along the sightlines towards 45 blazars is, on average, 2 times the expectation based on the Mg II absorption systems seen on the sightlines to normal QSOs. Given the serious implications of this finding, it becomes important to revisit this issue by enlarging the source sample and subjecting it to an independent analysis. Here, we first report our results based on a re-analysis of the spectroscopic data for the BBM sample; this has reproduced their factor 2 excess in dN/dz along blazar sightlines, vis-a-vis the normal QSOs. Next, we assemble a 6 times larger sample of blazar sightlines, albeit with lower SNR. Using this enlarged sample together with the BBM sample, our analysis shows that the dN/dz of Mg II absorbers statistically matches that known for normal QSO sightlines.

  2. SPECTRAL PROPERTIES OF BRIGHT FERMI-DETECTED BLAZARS IN THE GAMMA-RAY BAND

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Borgland, A. W.; Bouvier, A.; Atwood, W. B.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bonamente, E.; Brigida, M.

    2010-01-01

    The gamma-ray energy spectra of bright blazars of the LAT Bright AGN Sample (LBAS) are investigated using Fermi-LAT data. Spectral properties (hardness, curvature, and variability) established using a data set accumulated over 6 months of operation are presented and discussed for different blazar classes and subclasses: flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs), low-synchrotron peaked BLLacs (LSP-BLLacs), intermediate-synchrotron peaked BLLacs (ISP-BLLacs), and high-synchrotron peaked BLLacs (HSP-BLLacs). The distribution of photon index (Γ, obtained from a power-law fit above 100 MeV) is found to correlate strongly with blazar subclass. The change in spectral index from that averaged over the 6 months observing period is < 0.2-0.3 when the flux varies by about an order of magnitude, with a tendency toward harder spectra when the flux is brighter for FSRQs and LSP-BLLacs. A strong departure from a single power-law spectrum appears to be a common feature for FSRQs. This feature is also present for some high-luminosity LSP-BLLacs, and a small number of ISP-BLLacs. It is absent in all LBAS HSP-BLLacs. For 3C 454.3 and AO 0235+164, the two brightest FSRQ source and LSP-BLLac source, respectively, a broken power law (BPL) gives the most acceptable of power law, BPL, and curved forms. The consequences of these findings are discussed.

  3. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Sample of Fermi Blazars (Chen+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y.-Y.; Zhang, X.; Xiong, D.-R.; Wang, S.-J.; Yu, X.-L.

    2016-04-01

    We tried to select a large number of blazars with reliable redshift, radio core and extended radio luminosity at 1.4GHz. Firstly, we considered the following samples of blazars to get the radio core luminosity and extended luminosity at 1.4GHz: Kharb et al. (2010, J/ApJ/710/764), Antonucci & Ulvestad (1985ApJ...294..158A), Cassaro et al. (1999A&AS..139..601C), Murphy et al. (1993MNRAS.264..298M), Landt & Bignall (2008MNRAS.391..967L), Caccianiga & Marcha (2004, Cat. J/MNRAS/348/973), Giroletti et al. (2004). We cross-correlated these samples with the Fermi LAT Third Source Catalog (3FGL), and we acquired the 3FGL spectral index and energy flux at 0.1-100GeV from clean sources in 3FGL (Fermi-LAT Collaboration 2015, J/ApJS/218/23) Using these catalogs, we compiled 201 Fermi blazars. (1 data file).

  4. OPTICAL SPECTROSCOPIC OBSERVATIONS OF GAMMA-RAY BLAZAR CANDIDATES. IV. RESULTS OF THE 2014 FOLLOW-UP CAMPAIGN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricci, F.; Massaro, F.; Landoni, M.; D’Abrusco, R.; Milisavljevic, D.; Paggi, A.; Smith, Howard A.; Stern, D.; Masetti, N.; Tosti, G.

    2015-01-01

    The extragalactic γ-ray sky is dominated by the emission arising from blazars, one of the most peculiar classes of radio-loud active galaxies. Since the launch of Fermi several methods were developed to search for blazars as potential counterparts of unidentified γ-ray sources (UGSs). To confirm the nature of the selected candidates, optical spectroscopic observations are necessary. In 2013 we started a spectroscopic campaign to investigate γ-ray blazar candidates selected according to different procedures. The main goals of our campaign are: (1) to confirm the nature of these candidates, and (2) whenever possible, determine their redshifts. Optical spectroscopic observations will also permit us to verify the robustness of the proposed associations and check for the presence of possible source class contaminants to our counterpart selection. This paper reports the results of observations carried out in 2014 in the northern hemisphere with Kitt Peak National Observatory and in the southern hemisphere with the Southern Astrophysical Research telescopes. We also report three sources observed with the Magellan and Palomar telescopes. Our selection of blazar-like sources that could be potential counterparts of UGSs is based on their peculiar infrared colors and on their combination with radio observations both at high and low frequencies (i.e., above and below ∼1 GHz) in publicly available large radio surveys. We present the optical spectra of 27 objects. We confirm the blazar-like nature of nine sources that appear to be potential low-energy counterparts of UGSs. Then we present new spectroscopic observations of 10 active galaxies of uncertain type associated with Fermi sources, classifying all of them as blazars. In addition, we present the spectra for five known γ-ray blazars with uncertain redshift estimates and three BL Lac candidates that were observed during our campaign. We also report the case for WISE J173052.85−035247.2, candidate counterpart of the

  5. OPTICAL SPECTROSCOPIC OBSERVATIONS OF GAMMA-RAY BLAZAR CANDIDATES. IV. RESULTS OF THE 2014 FOLLOW-UP CAMPAIGN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricci, F. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Università Roma Tre, via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146, Roma (Italy); Massaro, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Torino, via Pietro Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Landoni, M. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Via Emilio Bianchi 46, I-23807 Merate (Italy); D’Abrusco, R.; Milisavljevic, D.; Paggi, A.; Smith, Howard A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Stern, D. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Mail Stop 169-221, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Masetti, N. [INAF-Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica di Bologna, via Gobetti 101, I-40129, Bologna (Italy); Tosti, G., E-mail: riccif@fis.uniroma3.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia (Italy)

    2015-05-15

    The extragalactic γ-ray sky is dominated by the emission arising from blazars, one of the most peculiar classes of radio-loud active galaxies. Since the launch of Fermi several methods were developed to search for blazars as potential counterparts of unidentified γ-ray sources (UGSs). To confirm the nature of the selected candidates, optical spectroscopic observations are necessary. In 2013 we started a spectroscopic campaign to investigate γ-ray blazar candidates selected according to different procedures. The main goals of our campaign are: (1) to confirm the nature of these candidates, and (2) whenever possible, determine their redshifts. Optical spectroscopic observations will also permit us to verify the robustness of the proposed associations and check for the presence of possible source class contaminants to our counterpart selection. This paper reports the results of observations carried out in 2014 in the northern hemisphere with Kitt Peak National Observatory and in the southern hemisphere with the Southern Astrophysical Research telescopes. We also report three sources observed with the Magellan and Palomar telescopes. Our selection of blazar-like sources that could be potential counterparts of UGSs is based on their peculiar infrared colors and on their combination with radio observations both at high and low frequencies (i.e., above and below ∼1 GHz) in publicly available large radio surveys. We present the optical spectra of 27 objects. We confirm the blazar-like nature of nine sources that appear to be potential low-energy counterparts of UGSs. Then we present new spectroscopic observations of 10 active galaxies of uncertain type associated with Fermi sources, classifying all of them as blazars. In addition, we present the spectra for five known γ-ray blazars with uncertain redshift estimates and three BL Lac candidates that were observed during our campaign. We also report the case for WISE J173052.85−035247.2, candidate counterpart of the

  6. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Jet kinematics of blazars at 43GHz with the VLBA (Jorstad+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorstad, S. G.; Marscher, A. P.; Morozova, D. A.; Troitsky, I. S.; Agudo, I.; Casadio, C.; Foord, A.; Gomez, J. L.; MacDonald, N. R.; Molina, S. N.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Tammi, J.; Tornikoski, M.

    2018-04-01

    The VLBA-BU-BLAZAR monitoring program consists of approximately monthly observations with the VLBA at 43GHz of a sample of AGNs detected as γ-ray sources. In this paper, we present the results of observations from 2007 June to 2013 January. The sample consists of 21 FSRQs, 12 BLLacs, and 3 radio galaxies (RGs). It includes the blazars and radio galaxies detected at γ-ray energies by EGRET with average flux density at 43GHz exceeding 0.5Jy, declination north of -30°, and optical magnitude in the R band brighter than 18.5. (5 data files).

  7. Research and characterisation of blazar candidates among the Fermi/LAT 3FGL catalogue using multivariate classifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefaucheur, Julien; Pita, Santiago

    2017-06-01

    Context. In the recently published 3FGL catalogue, the Fermi/LAT collaboration reports the detection of γ-ray emission from 3034 sources obtained after four years of observations. The nature of 1010 of those sources is unknown, whereas 2023 have well-identified counterparts in other wavelengths. Most of the associated sources are labelled as blazars (1717/2023), but the BL Lac or FSRQ nature of 573 of these blazars is still undetermined. Aims: The aim of this study was two-fold. First, to significantly increase the number of blazar candidates from a search among the large number of Fermi/LAT 3FGL unassociated sources (case A). Second, to determine the BL Lac or FSRQ nature of the blazar candidates, including those determined as such in this work and the blazar candidates of uncertain type (BCU) that are already present in the 3FGL catalogue (case B). Methods: For this purpose, multivariate classifiers - boosted decision trees and multilayer perceptron neural networks - were trained using samples of labelled sources with no caution flag from the 3FGL catalogue and carefully chosen discriminant parameters. The decisions of the classifiers were combined in order to obtain a high level of source identification along with well controlled numbers of expected false associations. Specifically for case A, dedicated classifications were generated for high (| b | >10◦) and low (| b | ≤10◦) galactic latitude sources; in addition, the application of classifiers to samples of sources with caution flag was considered separately, and specific performance metrics were estimated. Results: We obtained a sample of 595 blazar candidates (high and low galactic latitude) among the unassociated sources of the 3FGL catalogue. We also obtained a sample of 509 BL Lacs and 295 FSRQs from the blazar candidates cited above and the BCUs of the 3FGL catalogue. The number of expected false associations is given for different samples of candidates. It is, in particular, notably low ( 9

  8. Parsec-Scale Radio Properties of Gamma-ray Bright Blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linford, Justin

    2012-01-01

    The parsec-scale radio properties of blazars detected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope have been investigated using observations with the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA). Comparisons between LAT and non-LAT detected samples were made using both archival and contemporaneous data. In total, 244 sources were used in the LAT-detected sample. This very large, radio flux-limited sample of active galactic nuclei (AGN) provides insights into the mechanism that produces strong gamma-ray emission. It has been found that LAT-detected BL Lac objects are very similar to the non-LAT BL Lac objects in most properties, although LAT BL Lac objects may have longer jets. The LAT flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) are significantly different from non-LAT FSRQs and are likely extreme members of the FSRQ population. Archival radio data indicated that there was no significant correlation between radio flux density and gamma-ray flux, especially at lower flux levels. However, contemporaneous observations showed a strong correlation. Most of the differences between the LAT and non-LAT populations are related to the cores of the sources, indicating that the gamma-ray emission may originate near the base of the jets (i.e., within a few pc of the central engine). There is some indication that LAT-detected sources may have larger jet opening angles than the non-LAT sources. Strong core polarization is significantly more common among the LAT sources, suggesting that gamma-ray emission is related to strong, uniform magnetic fields at the base of the jets of the blazars. Observations of sources in two epochs indicate that core fractional polarization was higher when the objects were detected by the LAT. Included in our sample are several non-blazar AGN such as 3C84, M82, and NGC 6251.

  9. On the origin of X-ray spectra in luminous blazars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikora, Marek; Janiak, Mateusz; Moderski, Rafał; Nalewajko, Krzysztof; Madejski, Greg M.

    2013-01-01

    Gamma-ray luminosities of some quasar-associated blazars imply jet powers reaching values comparable to the accretion power even if assuming very strong Doppler boosting and very high efficiency of gamma-ray production. With much lower radiative efficiencies of protons than of electrons, and the recent reports of very strong coupling of electrons with shock-heated protons indicated by particle-in-cell simulations, the leptonic models seem to be strongly favored over the hadronic ones. However, the electron-proton coupling combined with the external-radiation-Compton (ERC) models of gamma-ray production in leptonic models predict extremely hard X-ray spectra, with energy indices α x ∼ 0. This is inconsistent with the observed 2-10 keV slopes of blazars, which cluster around α x ∼ 0.6. This problem can be resolved by assuming that electrons can be efficiently cooled down radiatively to non-relativistic energies, or that blazar spectra are entirely dominated by the synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) component up to at least 10 keV. Here, we show that the required cooling can be sufficiently efficient only at distances r < 0.03 pc. SSC spectra, on the other hand, can be produced roughly co-spatially with the observed synchrotron and ERC components, which are most likely located roughly at a parsec scale. We show that the dominant SSC component can also be produced much further than the dominant synchrotron and ERC components, at distances of ≳ 10 pc. Hence, depending on the spatial distribution of the energy dissipation along the jet, one may expect to see γ-ray/optical events with either correlated or uncorrelated X-rays. In all cases the number of e + e – pairs per proton is predicted to be very low. The direct verification of the proposed SSC scenario, and particularly the question of the co-spatiality of the SSC component with other spectral components, requires sensitive observations in the hard X-ray band. This is now possible with the deployment of the Nu

  10. Broad Band Observations of Gravitationally Lensed Blazar during a Gamma-Ray Outburst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Sitarek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available QSO B0218+357 is a gravitationally lensed blazar located at a cosmological redshift of 0.944. In July 2014 a GeV flare was observed by Fermi-LAT, triggering follow-up observations with the MAGIC telescopes at energies above 100 GeV. The MAGIC observations at the expected time of arrival of the trailing component resulted in the first detection of QSO B0218+357 in Very-High-Energy (VHE, >100 GeV gamma rays. We report here the observed multiwavelength emission during the 2014 flare.

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: The CLASS blazar survey. I. (Marcha+, 2001)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcha, M. J.; Caccianiga, A.; Browne, I. W. A.; Jackson, N.

    2002-04-01

    This paper presents a new complete and well-defined sample of flat-spectrum radio sources (FSRS) selected from the Cosmic Lens All-Sky Survey (CLASS), with the further constraint of a bright (mag<=17.5) optical counterpart. The sample has been designed to produce a large number of low-luminosity blazars in order to test the current unifying models in the low-luminosity regime. In this first paper the new sample is presented and the radio properties of the 325 sources contained therein are discussed. (1 data file).

  12. DECIPHERING CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE EXTRAGALACTIC GAMMA-RAY BACKGROUND FROM 2 GeV TO 2 TeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisanti, Mariangela; Mishra-Sharma, Siddharth; Necib, Lina; Safdi, Benjamin R.

    2016-01-01

    Astrophysical sources outside the Milky Way, such as active galactic nuclei and star-forming galaxies, leave their imprint on the gamma-ray sky as nearly isotropic emission referred to as the extragalactic gamma-ray background (EGB). While the brightest of these sources may be individually resolved, their fainter counterparts contribute diffusely. In this work, we use a recently developed analysis method, called the Non-Poissonian Template Fit, on up to 93 months of publicly available data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope to determine the properties of the point sources (PSs) that comprise the EGB. This analysis takes advantage of photon-count statistics to probe the aggregate properties of these source populations below the sensitivity threshold of published catalogs. We measure the source-count distributions and PS intensities, as a function of energy, from ∼2 GeV to 2 TeV. We find that the EGB is dominated by PSs, likely blazars, in all seven energy sub-bins considered. These results have implications for the interpretation of IceCube’s PeV neutrinos, which may originate from sources that contribute to the non-blazar component of the EGB. Additionally, we comment on implications for future TeV observatories such as the Cherenkov Telescope Array. We provide sky maps showing locations most likely to contain these new sources at both low (≲50 GeV) and high (≳50 GeV) energies for use in future observations and cross-correlation studies.

  13. DECIPHERING CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE EXTRAGALACTIC GAMMA-RAY BACKGROUND FROM 2 GeV TO 2 TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisanti, Mariangela; Mishra-Sharma, Siddharth [Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Necib, Lina; Safdi, Benjamin R. [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Astrophysical sources outside the Milky Way, such as active galactic nuclei and star-forming galaxies, leave their imprint on the gamma-ray sky as nearly isotropic emission referred to as the extragalactic gamma-ray background (EGB). While the brightest of these sources may be individually resolved, their fainter counterparts contribute diffusely. In this work, we use a recently developed analysis method, called the Non-Poissonian Template Fit, on up to 93 months of publicly available data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope to determine the properties of the point sources (PSs) that comprise the EGB. This analysis takes advantage of photon-count statistics to probe the aggregate properties of these source populations below the sensitivity threshold of published catalogs. We measure the source-count distributions and PS intensities, as a function of energy, from ∼2 GeV to 2 TeV. We find that the EGB is dominated by PSs, likely blazars, in all seven energy sub-bins considered. These results have implications for the interpretation of IceCube’s PeV neutrinos, which may originate from sources that contribute to the non-blazar component of the EGB. Additionally, we comment on implications for future TeV observatories such as the Cherenkov Telescope Array. We provide sky maps showing locations most likely to contain these new sources at both low (≲50 GeV) and high (≳50 GeV) energies for use in future observations and cross-correlation studies.

  14. Spectral properties of blazars. I. Objects observed in the far-ultraviolet. II. An X-ray observed sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghisellini, G.; Maraschi, L.; Treves, A.; Tanzi, E. G.; Milano Universita, Italy; CNR, Istituto di Fisica Cosmica, Milan, Italy)

    1986-01-01

    All blazars observed with the IUE are studied and shown to form a well-defined subgroup according to their spectral properties. These properties are discussed with respect to theoretical models and are compared with those of quasars. Radio, ultraviolet, and X-ray fluxes are used to construct composite spectral indices, and systematic differences between X-ray selected and otherwise selected objects are discussed. It is confirmed that X-ray selected objects have flatter overall spectra, and are therefore weaker radio emitters relative to their X-ray emission than objects selected otherwise. It is found that X-ray selected blazars have the same average X-ray luminosity as blazars selected otherwise and are underluminous at UV and radio frequencies. This finding is used to argue that the radio-weak, X-ray selected BL Lac objects are, in terms of space density, the dominant members of the blazar population. The results are interpreted in the framework of synchrotron emission models involving relativistic plasma jets. 134 references

  15. Spectral properties of blazars. I. Objects observed in the far-ultraviolet. II. An X-ray observed sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghisellini, G.; Maraschi, L.; Treves, A.; Tanzi, E. G.

    1986-11-01

    All blazars observed with the IUE are studied and shown to form a well-defined subgroup according to their spectral properties. These properties are discussed with respect to theoretical models and are compared with those of quasars. Radio, ultraviolet, and X-ray fluxes are used to construct composite spectral indices, and systematic differences between X-ray selected and otherwise selected objects are discussed. It is confirmed that X-ray selected objects have flatter overall spectra, and are therefore weaker radio emitters relative to their X-ray emission than objects selected otherwise. It is found that X-ray selected blazars have the same average X-ray luminosity as blazars selected otherwise and are underluminous at UV and radio frequencies. This finding is used to argue that the radio-weak, X-ray selected BL Lac objects are, in terms of space density, the dominant members of the blazar population. The results are interpreted in the framework of synchrotron emission models involving relativistic plasma jets. 134 references.

  16. Extremes of the jet-accretion power relation of blazars, as explored by NuSTAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sbarrato, T.; Ghisellini, G.; Tagliaferri, G.

    2016-01-01

    .366) and B0222+185 (at z = 2.690) have been observed twice by the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) simultaneously with Swift/X-ray Telescope, showing different variability behaviours. We found that NuSTAR is instrumental to explore the variability of powerful high-redshift blazars, even when...

  17. Results of the first simultaneous X-ray, optical, and radio campaign on the blazar PKS 1622-297

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, Angela Osterman; Miller, H. Richard; Marshall, Kevin; Ryle, Wesley T.; Aller, Hugh; Aller, Margo; McFarland, John P.; Pollock, Joseph T.; Reichart, Daniel E.; Crain, J. Adam; Ivarsen, Kevin M.; LaCluyze, Aaron P.; Nysewander, Melissa C.

    Coordinated X-ray, optical, and radio observations of the blazar PKS 1622-297 were obtained during a three-week campaign in 2006 using the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE), the University of Michigan Radio Astronomy Observatory, and optical telescopes at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory.

  18. Intra-night Optical Variability Monitoring of Fermi Blazars: First Results from 1.3 m J. C. Bhattacharya Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paliya, Vaidehi S.; Ajello, M.; Kaur, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Clemson University, Kinard Lab of Physics, Clemson, SC 29634-0978 (United States); Stalin, C. S., E-mail: vpaliya@g.clemson.edu [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Block II, Koramangala, Bangalore-560034 (India)

    2017-07-20

    We report the first results obtained from our campaign to characterize the intra-night-optical variability (INOV) properties of Fermi detected blazars, using the observations from the recently commissioned 1.3 m J. C. Bhattacharya telescope (JCBT). During the first run, we were able to observe 17 blazars in the Bessel R filter for ∼137 hr. Using C- and scaled F -statistics, we quantify the extent of INOV and derive the duty cycle (DC), which is the fraction of time during which a source exhibits a substantial flux variability. We find a high DC of 40% for BL Lac objects and the flat spectrum radio quasars are relatively less variable (DC ∼ 15%). However, when estimated for blazars sub-classes, a high DC of ∼59% is found in low synchrotron peaked (LSP) blazars, whereas, intermediate and high synchrotron peaked objects have a low DC of ∼11% and 13%, respectively. We find evidence of the association of the high amplitude INOV with the γ -ray flaring state. We also notice a high polarization during the elevated INOV states (for the sources that have polarimetric data available), thus supporting the jet based origin of the observed variability. We plan to enlarge the sample and utilize the time availability from the small telescopes, such as 1.3 m JCBT, to strengthen/verify the results obtained in this work and those existing in the literature.

  19. Testing the Equivalence Principle and Lorentz Invariance with PeV Neutrinos from Blazar Flares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zi-Yi; Liu, Ruo-Yu; Wang, Xiang-Yu

    2016-04-15

    It was recently proposed that a giant flare of the blazar PKS B1424-418 at redshift z=1.522 is in association with a PeV-energy neutrino event detected by IceCube. Based on this association we here suggest that the flight time difference between the PeV neutrino and gamma-ray photons from blazar flares can be used to constrain the violations of equivalence principle and the Lorentz invariance for neutrinos. From the calculated Shapiro delay due to clusters or superclusters in the nearby universe, we find that violation of the equivalence principle for neutrinos and photons is constrained to an accuracy of at least 10^{-5}, which is 2 orders of magnitude tighter than the constraint placed by MeV neutrinos from supernova 1987A. Lorentz invariance violation (LIV) arises in various quantum-gravity theories, which predicts an energy-dependent velocity of propagation in vacuum for particles. We find that the association of the PeV neutrino with the gamma-ray outburst set limits on the energy scale of possible LIV to >0.01E_{pl} for linear LIV models and >6×10^{-8}E_{pl} for quadratic order LIV models, where E_{pl} is the Planck energy scale. These are the most stringent constraints on neutrino LIV for subluminal neutrinos.

  20. Blazar Variability from Turbulence in Jets Launched by Magnetically Arrested Accretion Flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riordan, Michael O’; Pe’er, Asaf [Physics Department, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland); McKinney, Jonathan C., E-mail: michael_oriordan@umail.ucc.ie [Department of Physics and Joint Space-Science Institute, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2017-07-10

    Blazars show variability on timescales ranging from minutes to years, the former being comparable to and in some cases even shorter than the light-crossing time of the central black hole. The observed γ -ray light curves can be described by a power-law power density spectrum (PDS), with a similar index for both BL Lacs and flat-spectrum radio quasars. We show that this variability can be produced by turbulence in relativistic jets launched by magnetically arrested accretion flows (MADs). We perform radiative transport calculations on the turbulent, highly magnetized jet launching region of a MAD with a rapidly rotating supermassive black hole. The resulting synchrotron and synchrotron self-Compton emission, originating from close to the black hole horizon, is highly variable. This variability is characterized by PDS, which is remarkably similar to the observed power-law spectrum at frequencies less than a few per day. Furthermore, turbulence in the jet launching region naturally produces fluctuations in the plasma on scales much smaller than the horizon radius. We speculate that similar turbulent processes, operating in the jet at large radii (and therefore a high bulk Lorentz factor), are responsible for blazar variability over many decades in frequency, including on minute timescales.

  1. TIME-DEPENDENT ELECTRON ACCELERATION IN BLAZAR TRANSIENTS: X-RAY TIME LAGS AND SPECTRAL FORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Tiffany R.; Becker, Peter A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030-4444 (United States); Finke, Justin D., E-mail: pbecker@gmu.edu, E-mail: tlewis13@gmu.edu, E-mail: justin.finke@nrl.navy.mil [U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Code 7653, 4555 Overlook Avenue SW, Washington, DC 20375-5352 (United States)

    2016-06-20

    Electromagnetic radiation from blazar jets often displays strong variability, extending from radio to γ -ray frequencies. In a few cases, this variability has been characterized using Fourier time lags, such as those detected in the X-rays from Mrk 421 using Beppo SAX. The lack of a theoretical framework to interpret the data has motivated us to develop a new model for the formation of the X-ray spectrum and the time lags in blazar jets based on a transport equation including terms describing stochastic Fermi acceleration, synchrotron losses, shock acceleration, adiabatic expansion, and spatial diffusion. We derive the exact solution for the Fourier transform of the electron distribution and use it to compute the Fourier transform of the synchrotron radiation spectrum and the associated X-ray time lags. The same theoretical framework is also used to compute the peak flare X-ray spectrum, assuming that a steady-state electron distribution is achieved during the peak of the flare. The model parameters are constrained by comparing the theoretical predictions with the observational data for Mrk 421. The resulting integrated model yields, for the first time, a complete first-principles physical explanation for both the formation of the observed time lags and the shape of the peak flare X-ray spectrum. It also yields direct estimates of the strength of the shock and the stochastic magnetohydrodynamical wave acceleration components in the Mrk 421 jet.

  2. Detection of the cosmic γ-ray horizon from multiwavelength observations of blazars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez, A. [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States); Finke, J. D. [U.S. Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States); Prada, F. [Campus of International Excellence UAM_CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia, Granada (Spain); Primack, J. R. [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Kitaura, F. S. [Leibniz-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Potsdam (Germany); Siana, B. [Univ. Of California, Riverside, CA (United States); Paneque, D. [Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States). Kavli Inst. sor Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology; Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Munich (Germany)

    2013-05-24

    The first statistically significant detection of the cosmic γ-ray horizon (CGRH) that is independent of any extragalactic background light (EBL) model is presented. The CGRH is a fundamental quantity in cosmology. It gives an estimate of the opacity of the Universe to very high energy (VHE) γ-ray photons due to photon-photon pair production with the EBL. The only estimations of the CGRH to date are predictions from EBL models and lower limits from γ-ray observations of cosmological blazars and γ-ray bursts. Here, we present homogeneous synchrotron/synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) models of the spectral energy distributions of 15 blazars based on (almost) simultaneous observations from radio up to the highest energy γ-rays taken with the Fermi satellite. These synchrotron/SSC models predict the unattenuated VHE fluxes, which are compared with the observations by imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. The comparison provides an estimate of the optical depth of the EBL, which allows a derivation of the CGRH through a maximum likelihood analysis that is EBL-model independent. We find that the observed CGRH is compatible with the current knowledge of the EBL.

  3. Blazar Variability from Turbulence in Jets Launched by Magnetically Arrested Accretion Flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riordan, Michael O’; Pe’er, Asaf; McKinney, Jonathan C.

    2017-01-01

    Blazars show variability on timescales ranging from minutes to years, the former being comparable to and in some cases even shorter than the light-crossing time of the central black hole. The observed γ -ray light curves can be described by a power-law power density spectrum (PDS), with a similar index for both BL Lacs and flat-spectrum radio quasars. We show that this variability can be produced by turbulence in relativistic jets launched by magnetically arrested accretion flows (MADs). We perform radiative transport calculations on the turbulent, highly magnetized jet launching region of a MAD with a rapidly rotating supermassive black hole. The resulting synchrotron and synchrotron self-Compton emission, originating from close to the black hole horizon, is highly variable. This variability is characterized by PDS, which is remarkably similar to the observed power-law spectrum at frequencies less than a few per day. Furthermore, turbulence in the jet launching region naturally produces fluctuations in the plasma on scales much smaller than the horizon radius. We speculate that similar turbulent processes, operating in the jet at large radii (and therefore a high bulk Lorentz factor), are responsible for blazar variability over many decades in frequency, including on minute timescales.

  4. The Ringo2 Optical Polarisation Catalogue of 13 High-Energy Blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barres de Almeida, Ulisses; Jermak, Helen; Mundell, Carole; Lindfors, Elina; Nilsson, Kari; Steele, Iain

    2015-08-01

    We present the findings of the Ringo2 3-year survey of 13 blazars (3 FSRQs and 10 BL Lacs) with regular coverage and reasonably fast cadence of one to three observations a week. Ringo2 was installed on the Liverpool Robotic Telescope (LT) on the Canary Island of La Palma between 2009 and 2012 and monitored thirteen high-energy-emitting blazars in the northern sky. The objects selected as well as the observational strategy were tuned to maximise the synergies with high-energy X- to gamma-ray observations. Therefore this sample stands out as a well-sampled, long-term view of high-energy AGN jets in polarised optical light. Over half of the sources exhibited an increase in optical flux during this period and almost a quarter were observed in outburst. We compare the optical data to gamma (Fermi/LAT) and X-ray data during these periods of outburst. In this talk we present the data obtained for all sources over the lifetime of Ringo2 with additional optical data from the KVA telescope and the SkyCamZ wide-field camera (on the LT), we explore the relationship between the change in polarisation angle as a function of time (dEVPA/dMJD), flux and polarisation degree along with cross correlation comparisons of optical and high-energy flux.

  5. Discovery of a GeV Blazar Shining Through the Galactic Plane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandenbroucke, J.; Buehler, R.; Ajello, M.; Bechtol, K.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Bellini, A.; /Padua U., Astron. Dept. /Baltimore, Space Telescope Sci.; Bolte, M.; /UC, Santa Cruz; Cheung, C.C.; /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /NAS, Washington, D.C.; Civano, F.; /Smithsonian Astrophys. Observ.; Donato, D.; /NASA, Goddard; Fuhrmann, L.; /Bonn, Max Planck Inst., Radioastron.; Funk, S.; Healey, S.E.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Hill, A.B.; /Joseph Fourier U.; Knigge, C.; /Southampton U.; Madejski, G.M.; Romani, R.W.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Santander-Garcia, M.; /IAC, La Laguna /Isaac Newton Group /Laguna U., Tenerife; Shaw, M.S.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Steeghs, D.; /Warwick U.; Torres, M.A.P.; /Smithsonian Astrophys. Observ.; Van Etten, A.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /Texas U., Astron. Dept.

    2011-08-11

    The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) discovered a new gamma-ray source near the Galactic plane, Fermi J0109+6134, when it flared brightly in 2010 February. The low Galactic latitude (b = -1.2{sup o}) indicated that the source could be located within the Galaxy, which motivated rapid multi-wavelength follow-up including radio, optical, and X-ray observations. We report the results of analyzing all 19 months of LAT data for the source, and of X-ray observations with both Swift and the Chandra X-ray Observatory. We determined the source redshift, z = 0.783, using a Keck LRIS observation. Finally, we compiled a broadband spectral energy distribution (SED) from both historical and new observations contemporaneous with the 2010 February flare. The redshift, SED, optical line width, X-ray obsorption, and multi-band variability indicate that this new Gev source is a blazar seen through the Galactic plane. Because several of the optical emission lines have equivalent width > 5 {angstrom}, this blazar belongs in the flat-spectrum radio quasar category.

  6. OPTICAL SPECTROSCOPIC OBSERVATIONS OF GAMMA-RAY BLAZAR CANDIDATES. VI. FURTHER OBSERVATIONS FROM TNG, WHT, OAN, SOAR, AND MAGELLAN TELESCOPES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Álvarez Crespo, N.; Massaro, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Torino, via Pietro Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Milisavljevic, D.; Paggi, A.; Smith, Howard A. [Harvard—Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Landoni, M. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Via Emilio Bianchi 46, I-23807 Merate (Italy); Chavushyan, V.; Patiño-Álvarez, V. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica, Apartado Postal 51-216, 72000 Puebla, México (Mexico); Masetti, N. [INAF—Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica di Bologna, via Gobetti 101, I-40129, Bologna (Italy); Jiménez-Bailón, E. [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apdo. Postal 877, Ensenada, 22800 Baja California, México (Mexico); Strader, J.; Chomiuk, L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Katagiri, H.; Kagaya, M. [College of Science, Ibaraki University, 2-1-1, Bunkyo, Mito 310-8512 (Japan); Cheung, C. C. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); D’Abrusco, R. [Department of Physical Sciences, University of Napoli Federico II, via Cinthia 9, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Ricci, F.; La Franca, F. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Università Roma Tre, via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146, Roma (Italy); and others

    2016-04-15

    Blazars, one of the most extreme classes of active galaxies, constitute so far the largest known population of γ-ray sources, and their number is continuously growing in the Fermi catalogs. However, in the latest release of the Fermi catalog there is still a large fraction of sources that are classified as blazar candidates of uncertain type (BCUs) for which optical spectroscopic observations are necessary to confirm their nature and their associations. In addition, about one-third of the γ-ray point sources listed in the Third Fermi-LAT Source Catalog (3FGL) are still unassociated and lacking an assigned lower-energy counterpart. Since 2012 we have been carrying out an optical spectroscopic campaign to observe blazar candidates to confirm their nature. In this paper, the sixth of the series, we present optical spectroscopic observations for 30 γ-ray blazar candidates from different observing programs we carried out with the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo, William Herschel Telescope, Observatorio Astronómico Nacional, Southern Astrophysical Research Telescope, and Magellan Telescopes. We found that 21 out of 30 sources investigated are BL Lac objects, while the remaining targets are classified as flat-spectrum radio quasars showing the typical broad emission lines of normal quasi-stellar objects. We conclude that our selection of γ-ray blazar candidates based on their multifrequency properties continues to be a successful way to discover potential low-energy counterparts of the Fermi unidentified gamma-ray sources and to confirm the nature of BCUs.

  7. GAMMA-RAY EMISSION FROM TWO BLAZARS BEHIND THE GALACTIC PLANE: B2013+370 AND B2023+336

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kara, E.; Errando, M.; Aliu, E.; Mukherjee, R.; Max-Moerbeck, W.; Readhead, A. C. S.; Richards, J. L.; Böttcher, M.; Fortin, P.; Halpern, J. P.

    2012-01-01

    B2013+370 and B2023+336 are two blazars at low-galactic latitude that were previously proposed to be the counterparts for the EGRET unidentified sources 3EG J2016+3657 and 3EG J2027+3429. Gamma-ray emission associated with the EGRET sources has been detected by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, and the two sources, 1FGL J2015.7+3708 and 1FGL J2027.6+3335, have been classified as unidentified in the 1 year catalog. This analysis of the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) data collected during 31 months reveals that the 1FGL sources are spatially compatible with the blazars and are significantly variable, supporting the hypothesis of extragalactic origin for the gamma-ray emission. The gamma-ray light curves are compared with 15 GHz radio light curves from the 40 m telescope at the Owens Valley Radio Observatory. Simultaneous variability is seen in both bands for the two blazar candidates. The study is completed with the X-ray analysis of 1FGL J2015.7+3708 using Swift observations that were triggered in 2010 August by a Fermi-detected flare. The resulting spectral energy distribution shows a two-component structure typical of blazars. We also identify a second source in the field of view of 1FGL J2027.6+3335 with similar characteristics to the known LAT pulsars. This study gives solid evidence favoring blazar counterparts for these two unidentified EGRET and Fermi sources, supporting the hypothesis that a number of unidentified gamma-ray sources at low-galactic latitudes are indeed of extragalactic origin.

  8. SDSS J14584479+3720215: A BENCHMARK JHK{sub S} BLAZAR LIGHT CURVE FROM THE 2MASS CALIBRATION SCANS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davenport, James R. A.; Ruan, John J.; Becker, Andrew C. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Macleod, Chelsea L. [Physics Department, The United States Naval Academy, 572c Holloway Road, Annapolis, MD 21402 (United States); Cutri, Roc M., E-mail: jrad@astro.washington.edu [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2015-04-10

    Active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are well-known to exhibit flux variability across a wide range of wavelength regimes, but the precise origin of the variability at different wavelengths remains unclear. To investigate the relatively unexplored near-IR (NIR) variability of the most luminous AGNs, we conduct a search for variability using well sampled JHK{sub s}-band light curves from the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) calibration fields. Our sample includes 27 known quasars with an average of 924 epochs of observation over three years, as well as one spectroscopically confirmed blazar (SDSS J14584479+3720215) with 1972 epochs of data. This is the best-sampled NIR photometric blazar light curve to date, and it exhibits correlated, stochastic variability that we characterize with continuous auto-regressive moving average (CARMA) models. None of the other 26 known quasars had detectable variability in the 2MASS bands above the photometric uncertainty. A blind search of the 2MASS calibration field light curves for active galactic nucleus (AGN) candidates based on fitting CARMA(1,0) models (damped-random walk) uncovered only seven candidates. All seven were young stellar objects within the ρ Ophiuchus star forming region, five with previous X-ray detections. A significant γ-ray detection (5σ) for the known blazar using 4.5 yr of Fermi photon data is also found. We suggest that strong NIR variability of blazars, such as seen for SDSS J14584479+3720215, can be used as an efficient method of identifying previously unidentified γ-ray blazars, with low contamination from other AGNs.

  9. Pulsar TeV Halos Explain the Diffuse TeV Excess Observed by Milagro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, Tim; Buckman, Benjamin J

    2018-03-23

    Milagro observations have found bright, diffuse TeV emission concentrated along the galactic plane of the Milky Way. The intensity and spectrum of this emission is difficult to explain with current models of hadronic γ-ray production, and has been named the "TeV excess." We show that TeV emission from pulsars naturally explains this excess. Recent observations have detected "TeV halos" surrounding pulsars that are either nearby or particularly luminous. Extrapolating this emission to the full population of Milky Way pulsars indicates that the ensemble of "subthreshold" sources necessarily produces bright TeV emission diffusively along the Milky Way plane. Models indicate that the TeV halo γ-ray flux exceeds that from hadronic γ rays above an energy of ∼500  GeV. Moreover, the spectrum and intensity of TeV halo emission naturally matches the TeV excess. Finally, we show that upcoming HAWC observations will resolve a significant fraction of the TeV excess into individual TeV halos, conclusively confirming, or ruling out, this model.

  10. The Imprint of the Extragalactic Background Light in the Gamma-Ray Spectra of Blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Schady, P.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bellazzini, R; Blandford, R. D.; hide

    2012-01-01

    The light emitted by stars and accreting compact objects through the history of the universe is encoded in the intensity of the extragalactic background light (EBL). Knowledge of the EBL isimportant to understand the nature of star formation and galaxy evolution, but direct measurements of the EBL are limited by galactic and other foreground emissions. Here, we report an absorption feature seen in the combined spectra of a sample of gamma-ray blazars out to a redshift of z approx. 1.6. This feature is caused by attenuation of gamma rays by the EBL at optical to ultraviolet frequencies and allowed us to measure the EBL flux density in this frequency band.

  11. Probing stochastic inter-galactic magnetic fields using blazar-induced gamma ray halo morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duplessis, Francis [Physics Department, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Vachaspati, Tanmay, E-mail: fdupless@asu.edu, E-mail: tvachasp@asu.edu [Maryland Center for Fundamental Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Inter-galactic magnetic fields can imprint their structure on the morphology of blazar-induced gamma ray halos. We show that the halo morphology arises through the interplay of the source's jet and a two-dimensional surface dictated by the magnetic field. Through extensive numerical simulations, we generate mock halos created by stochastic magnetic fields with and without helicity, and study the dependence of the halo features on the properties of the magnetic field. We propose a sharper version of the Q-statistics and demonstrate its sensitivity to the magnetic field strength, the coherence scale, and the handedness of the helicity. We also identify and explain a new feature of the Q-statistics that can further enhance its power.

  12. Fermi-LAT View of Bright Flaring Gamma-Ray Blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastieri, D.; Ciprini, S.; Gasparrini, D.

    2011-06-01

    The Fermi LAT provides a continuous and uniform monitoring of the Universe in the gamma-ray band. During the first year many gamma-ray blazar flares, some unidentified transients and emission by the Sun while in a quiet state were promptly detected. This is mainly due to the design of the mission, featuring a detector, the LAT with a wide field of view, and to the operation of the spacecraft itself, that can cover every region of the sky every 3 hours. Nevertheless, the scientific exploitation of this monitoring is more fruitful when early information about transients reaches a broader community. In this respect, the indefatigable activity of flare advocates, who worked on weekly shifts to validate the results and quickly broadcast information about flares and new detections, was the key to most scientific results.

  13. Variations of the Blazar AO 0235+164 in 2006-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen-Thorn, V. A.; Larionov, V. M.; Morozova, D. A.; Arkharov, A. A.; Hagen-Thorn, E. I.; Shablovinskaya, E. S.; Prokop'eva, M. S.; Yakovleva, V. A.

    2018-02-01

    The results of optical, radio, and gamma-ray observations of the blazar AO 0235+16 are presented, including photometric ( BV RIJHK) and polarimetric ( R)monitoring carried out at St. Petersburg State University and the Central (Pulkovo) Astronomical Observatory in 2007-2015, 43 GHz Very Long Baseline Interferometry radio observations processed at Boston University, and a gamma-ray light curve based on observationswith the Fermi space observatory are presented. Two strong outbursts were detected. The relative spectral energy distributions of the variable components responsible for the outbursts are determined; these follow power laws, but with different spectral indices. The degree of polarization was high in both outbursts; only an average relationship between the brightness and polarization can be found. There was no time lag between the variations in the optical and gamma-ray, suggesting that the sources of the radiation in the optical and gamma-ray are located in the same region of the jet.

  14. The extreme blazar AO 0235+164 as seen by extensive ground and space radio observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutkin, A. M.; Pashchenko, I. N.; Lisakov, M. M.; Voytsik, P. A.; Sokolovsky, K. V.; Kovalev, Y. Y.; Lobanov, A. P.; Ipatov, A. V.; Aller, M. F.; Aller, H. D.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Tornikoski, M.; Gurvits, L. I.

    2018-04-01

    Clues to the physical conditions in radio cores of blazars come from measurements of brightness temperatures as well as effects produced by intrinsic opacity. We study the properties of the ultra-compact blazar AO 0235+164 with RadioAstron ground-space radio interferometer, multifrequency VLBA, EVN, and single-dish radio observations. We employ visibility modelling and image stacking for deriving structure and kinematics of the source, and use Gaussian process regression to find the relative multiband time delays of the flares. The multifrequency core size and time lags support prevailing synchrotron self-absorption. The intrinsic brightness temperature of the core derived from ground-based very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) is close to the equipartition regime value. In the same time, there is evidence for ultra-compact features of the size of less than 10 μas in the source, which might be responsible for the extreme apparent brightness temperatures of up to 1014 K as measured by RadioAstron. In 2007-2016 the VLBI components in the source at 43 GHz are found predominantly in two directions, suggesting a bend of the outflow from southern to northern direction. The apparent opening angle of the jet seen in the stacked image at 43 GHz is two times wider than that at 15 GHz, indicating a collimation of the flow within the central 1.5 mas. We estimate the Lorentz factor Γ = 14, the Doppler factor δ = 21, and the viewing angle θ = 1.7° of the apparent jet base, derive the gradients of magnetic field strength and electron density in the outflow, and the distance between jet apex and the core at each frequency.

  15. Linear accelerators for TeV colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, P.B.

    1985-05-01

    This paper summarizes four tutorial lectures on linear electron accelerators: Electron Linacs for TeV Colliders, Emittance and Damping Rings, Wake Fields: Basic Concepts, and Wake Field Effects in Linacs

  16. New Gener. High-Energy Spectra of the Blazar 3C 279 with XMM-Newton and GLAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collmar, Werner

    2007-10-01

    We propose two 20 ksec XMM-Newton observations of the X-ray bright gamma-ray blazar 3C~279 simultaneous with GLAST/LAT. The main goal is to measure its X-ray properties (spectrum, variability) in order to (1) improve our knowledge on the X-ray emission of the blazar, and (2) to supplement and correlate them to simultaneous GLAST/LAT Gamma-ray observations (30 MeV-300 GeV). Simultaneous GLAST observations of 3C 279 are guaranteed (assuming proper operation then). The high-energy data will be supplemented by ground-based measurements, adding finally up to multifrequency spectra which have unprecedented accuracy and will extend up to high-energy gamma-rays. Such high-quality SEDs will provide severe constraints on their modeling and have the potential to discriminate among models.

  17. Equipartition gamma-ray blazars and the location of the gamma-ray emission site in 3C 279

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dermer, Charles D.; Cerruti, Matteo; Lott, Benoit; Boisson, Catherine; Zech, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Blazar spectral models generally have numerous unconstrained parameters, leading to ambiguous values for physical properties like Doppler factor δ D or fluid magnetic field B'. To help remedy this problem, a few modifications of the standard leptonic blazar jet scenario are considered. First, a log-parabola function for the electron distribution is used. Second, analytic expressions relating energy loss and kinematics to blazar luminosity and variability, written in terms of equipartition parameters, imply δ D , B', and the peak electron Lorentz factor γ pk ′ . The external radiation field in a blazar is approximated by Lyα radiation from the broad-line region (BLR) and ≈0.1 eV infrared radiation from a dusty torus. When used to model 3C 279 spectral energy distributions from 2008 and 2009 reported by Hayashida et al., we derive δ D ∼ 20-30, B' ∼ few G, and total (IR + BLR) external radiation field energy densities u ∼ 10 –2 -10 –3 erg cm –3 , implying an origin of the γ-ray emission site in 3C 279 at the outer edges of the BLR. This is consistent with the γ-ray emission site being located at a distance R ≲ Γ 2 ct var ∼ 0.1(Γ/30) 2 (t var /10 4 s) pc from the black hole powering 3C 279's jets, where t var is the variability timescale of the radiation in the source frame, and at farther distances for narrow-jet and magnetic-reconnection models. Excess ≳ 5 GeV γ-ray emission observed with Fermi LAT from 3C 279 challenges the model, opening the possibility of a second leptonic component or a hadronic origin of the emission. For low hadronic content, absolute jet powers of ≈10% of the Eddington luminosity are calculated.

  18. Comparison of Optical and Multi-Waveband Variations of Selected Gamma-ray Bright Blazars in 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Benjamin; Jorstad, S. G.; Marscher, A. P.; Williamson, K. E.; Walker, G. E.

    2013-01-01

    We present multi-wavelength observations of several gamma-ray bright blazars. We combine optical data obtained with the 17-inch CCD telescope of Maria Mitchell Observatory with space- and ground-based observations carried out with a variety of instruments. These include a number of other optical telescopes, the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope at photon energies of 0.1-200 GeV, and the Swift satellite at 0.3-10 keV plus optical and UV wavelengths. Three of the observed blazars proved to be particularly active - BL Lac, Mrk501, and CTA-102. BL Lac was of special interest, displaying remarkable activity in multiple wavelengths during this observation period, including the optical, in which it underwent its largest observed flare in a number of years. In addition, CTA-102 has recently undergone an unprecedented multi-wavelength outburst. We cross-correlate the variations in the different wavebands in an effort to guide theoretical interpretations of the optical and high-energy emission from blazars. This project was supported by NSF/REU grant AST-0851892 and the Nantucket Maria Mitchell Association. The research at Boston University was supported in part by NSF grant AST-0907893 and by NASA through Fermi grant NNX11AQ03G.

  19. The WEBT Campaign on the Blazar 3C 279 in 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttcher, M.; Basu, S.; Joshi, M.; Villata, M.; Arai, A.; Aryan, N.; Asfandiyarov, I. M.; Bach, U.; Bachev, R.; Berduygin, A.; Blaek, M.; Buemi, C.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.; De Ugarte Postigo, A.; Frasca, A.; Fuhrmann, L.; Hagen-Thorn, V. A.; Henson, G.; Hovatta, T.; Hudec, R.; Ibrahimov, M.; Ishii, Y.; Ivanidze, R.; Jelínek, M.; Kamada, M.; Kapanadze, B.; Katsuura, M.; Kotaka, D.; Kovalev, Y. Y.; Kovalev, Yu. A.; Kubánek, P.; Kurosaki, M.; Kurtanidze, O.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lanteri, L.; Larionov, V. M.; Larionova, L.; Lee, C.-U.; Leto, P.; Lindfors, E.; Marilli, E.; Marshall, K.; Miller, H. R.; Mingaliev, M. G.; Mirabal, N.; Mizoguchi, S.; Nakamura, K.; Nieppola, E.; Nikolashvili, M.; Nilsson, K.; Nishiyama, S.; Ohlert, J.; Osterman, M. A.; Pak, S.; Pasanen, M.; Peters, C. S.; Pursimo, T.; Raiteri, C. M.; Robertson, J.; Robertson, T.; Ryle, W. T.; Sadakane, K.; Sadun, A.; Sigua, L.; Sohn, B.-W.; Strigachev, A.; Sumitomo, N.; Takalo, L. O.; Tamesue, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Thorstensen, J. R.; Tosti, G.; Trigilio, C.; Umana, G.; Vennes, S.; Vitek, S.; Volvach, A.; Webb, J.; Yamanaka, M.; Yim, H.-S.

    2007-12-01

    The quasar 3C 279 was the target of an extensive multiwavelength monitoring campaign from 2006 January through April. An optical-IR-radio monitoring campaign by the Whole Earth Blazar Telescope (WEBT) collaboration was organized around target-of-opportunity X-ray and soft γ-ray observations with Chandra and INTEGRAL in 2006 mid-January, with additional X-ray coverage by RXTE and Swift XRT. In this paper we focus on the results of the WEBT campaign. The source exhibited substantial variability of optical flux and spectral shape, with a characteristic timescale of a few days. The variability patterns throughout the optical BVRI bands were very closely correlated with each other, while there was no obvious correlation between the optical and radio variability. After the ToO trigger, the optical flux underwent a remarkably clean quasi-exponential decay by about 1 mag, with a decay timescale of τd~12.8 days. In intriguing contrast to other (in particular, BL Lac type) blazars, we find a lag of shorter wavelength behind longer wavelength variability throughout the RVB wavelength ranges, with a time delay increasing with increasing frequency. Spectral hardening during flares appears delayed with respect to a rising optical flux. This, in combination with the very steep IR-optical continuum spectral index of α0~1.5-2.0, may indicate a highly oblique magnetic field configuration near the base of the jet, leading to inefficient particle acceleration and a very steep electron injection spectrum. An alternative explanation through a slow (timescale of several days) acceleration mechanism would require an unusually low magnetic field of B<~0.2 G, about an order of magnitude lower than inferred from previous analyses of simultaneous SEDs of 3C 279 and other flat-spectrum radio quasars with similar properties. For questions regarding the availability of the data from the WEBT campaign presented in this paper, please contact the WEBT President Massimo Villata at villata@oato.inaf.it.

  20. Fine Structure of the Core of the Blazar OJ 287-I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matveyenko, L. I.; Sivakon', S. S.

    2017-12-01

    The fine structure of the active region, the bulge, of the blazar OJ 287 has been investigated with a resolution of 20 μas (0.1 pc) at a wavelength of 7 mm, the epochs of 2007-2017. The structure and kinematics correspond to a vortex nature. The surrounding matter, the plasma, is transferred to the center along two arms from opposite directions. The emerging excess angular momentum is carried away along the rotation axis by bipolar outflows, rotating coaxial tubes, in a direction X ≈ -120° in the plane of the sky as it is accumulated. The central high-velocity bipolar outflow has a helical shape. The diameters of the low-velocity flows are ø1 ≈ 0.3 and ø2 ≈ 0.65 mas, or 1.4 and 3 pc, respectively. Ring currents whose tangential directions are observed as parallel chains of components are excited in the flow walls. The peak brightness temperature of the nozzle reaches Tb ≈ 1012-1013 K. A "disk" with a diameter ø ≈ 0.5 mas (≈2.2 pc) is observed by the absorption of synchrotron radiation. The disk is inclined to the plane of the sky at an angle of 60° in the jet direction. The fragments are seen from a distance of ˜0.2 mas outside the absorption zone. The jet sizes exceed considerably the counterjet ones. An enhanced supply of plasma from the northern arm gives rise to an independent vortex 0.2 mas away from the central one in the NW direction. As in the first case, the helical central bipolar outflow is surrounded by a low-velocity component ø ≈ 0.28 mas in diameter with built-in ring currents. The jet is ejected in the direction X = -50° in the plane of the sky. The jet orientation changes, X = -130° at a distance of 1 mas. A high activity of the central and two side nozzles spaced 0.22 mas apart in the direction X = -40° is occasionally observed simultaneously. The active region of the blazar is observed through an ionized medium, a screen, whose influence is significant even at a wavelength of 7 mm. The absorption and refraction of the

  1. TeV gamma-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Wei

    2009-01-01

    The field of ground-based gamma-ray astronomy has enjoyed rapid growth in recent years. As an increasing number of sources are detected at TeV energies, the field has matured and become a viable branch of modern astronomy. Lying at the uppermost end of the electromagnetic rainbow, TeV photons are always preciously few in number but carry essential information about the particle acceleration and radiative processes involved in extreme astronomical settings. Together with observations at longer wavelengths, TeV gamma-ray observations have drastically improved our view of the universe. In this review, we briefly describe recent progress in the field. We will conclude by providing a personal perspective on the future of the field, in particular, on the significant roles that China could play in advancing this young but exciting field. (invited reviews)

  2. Characteristics of Gamma-Ray Loud Blazars in the VLBA Imaging and Polarimetry Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linford, J. D.; Taylor, G. B.; Romani, R. W.; Healey, S. E.; Helmboldt, J. F.; Readhead, A. C.; Reeves, R.; Richards, J. L.; Cotter, G.

    2010-01-01

    The radio properties of blazars detected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope have been observed as part of the VLBA Imaging and Polarimetry Survey. This large, flux-limited sample of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) provides insights into the mechanism that produces strong gamma-ray emission. At lower flux levels, radio flux density does not directly correlate with gamma-ray flux. We find that the LAT-detected BL Lac objects tend to be similar to the non-LAT BL Lac objects, but that the LAT-detected FSRQs are often significantly different from the non-LAT FSRQs. The differences between the gamma-ray loud and quiet FSRQS can be explained by Doppler boosting; these objects appear to require larger Doppler factors than those of the BL Lac objects. It is possible that the gamma-ray loud FSRQs are fundamentally different from the gamma-ray quiet FSRQs. Strong polarization at the base of the jet appears to be a signature for gamma-ray loud AGNs.

  3. On the Direct Correlation between Gamma-Rays and PeV Neutrinos from Blazars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Shan; Pohl, Martin; Winter, Walter, E-mail: shan.gao@desy.de [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany)

    2017-07-10

    We study the frequently used assumption in multi-messenger astrophysics that the gamma-ray and neutrino fluxes are directly connected because they are assumed to be produced by the same photohadronic production chain. An interesting candidate source for this test is the flat-spectrum radio quasar PKS B1424-418, which recently called attention to a potential correlation between an IceCube PeV neutrino event and its burst phase. We simulate both the multi-waveband photon and the neutrino emission from this source using a self-consistent radiation model. We demonstrate that a simple hadronic model cannot adequately describe the spectral energy distribution for this source, but a lepto-hadronic model with a subdominant hadronic component can reproduce the multi-waveband photon spectrum observed during various activity phases of the blazar. As a conclusion, up to about 0.3 neutrino events may coincide with the burst, which implies that the leptonic contribution dominates in the relevant energy band. We also demonstrate that the time-wise correlation between the neutrino event and burst phase is weak.

  4. Bulk Comptonization: new hints from the luminous blazar 4C+25.05

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammoun, E. S.; Nardini, E.; Risaliti, G.; Ghisellini, G.; Behar, E.; Celotti, A.

    2018-01-01

    Blazars are often characterized by a spectral break at soft X-rays, whose origin is still debated. While most sources show a flattening, some exhibit a blackbody-like soft excess with temperatures of the order of ∼0.1 keV, similar to low-luminosity, non-jetted Seyferts. Here, we present the analysis of the simultaneous XMM-Newton and NuSTAR observations of the luminous flat-spectrum radio quasar 4C+25.05 (z = 2.368). The observed 0.3-30 keV spectrum is best described by the sum of a hard X-ray power law (Γ = 1.38_{-0.03}^{+0.05}) and a soft component, approximated by a blackbody with kT_BB = 0.66_{-0.04}^{+0.05} keV (rest frame). If the spectrum of 4C+25.05 is interpreted in the context of bulk Comptonization by cold electrons of broad-line region photons emitted in the direction of the jet, such an unusual temperature implies a bulk Lorentz factor of the jet of Γbulk ∼ 11.7. Bulk Comptonization is expected to be ubiquitous on physical grounds, yet no clear signature of it has been found so far, possibly due to its transient nature and the lack of high-quality, broad-band X-ray spectra.

  5. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Five years of blazar observations with VERITAS (Archambault+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archambault, S.; Archer, A.; Benbow, W.; Bird, R.; Biteau, J.; Buchovecky, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Byrum, K.; Cerruti, M.; Chen, X.; Ciupik, L.; Connolly, M. P.; Cui, W.; Eisch, J. D.; Errando, M.; Falcone, A.; Feng, Q.; Finley, J. P.; Fleischhack, H.; Fortin, P.; Fortson, L.; Furniss, A.; Gillanders, G. H.; Griffin, S.; Grube, J.; Gyuk, G.; Hutten, M.; Hakansson, N.; Hanna, D.; Holder, J.; Humensky, T. B.; Johnson, C. A.; Kaaret, P.; Kar, P.; Kelley-Hoskins, N.; Kertzman, M.; Kieda, D.; Krause, M.; Krennrich, F.; Kumar, S.; Lang, M. J.; Maier, G.; McArthur, S.; McCann, A.; Meagher, K.; Moriarty, P.; Mukherjee, R.; Nguyen, T.; Nieto, D.; O'Faolain de Bhroithe, A.; Ong, R. A.; Otte, A. N.; Park, N.; Perkins, J. S.; Pichel, A.; Pohl, M.; Popkow, A.; Pueschel, E.; Quinn, J.; Ragan, K.; Reynolds, P. T.; Richards, G. T.; Roache, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Santander, M.; Sembroski, G. H.; Shahinyan, K.; Smith, A. W.; Staszak, D.; Telezhinsky, I.; Tucci, J. V.; Tyler, J.; Vincent, S.; Wakely, S. P.; Weiner, O. M.; Weinstein, A.; Williams, D. A.; Zitzer, B.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we present the results of the analysis of most of the non-detected blazars observed by VERITAS from 2007 (the beginning of full-scale scientific operations) to 2012 August (before the upgrade of the VERITAS array, see Kieda 2013arXiv1308.4849D). The VERITAS (Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System) telescope array is composed of four IACTs of 12 m diameter each, located at the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory, on the slopes of Mount Hopkins, in southern Arizona (31°40'N, 110°57'W). Each telescope has a segmented mirror that focuses light onto a camera composed of 499 photomultipliers located at the focal plane. The instrument FOV is 3.5°. For further details on the VERITAS instrument, see Holder et al. (2006APh....25..391H) and Holder (2011ICRC...12..137H). The VERITAS observations here have an average length of 20 minutes (referred to as a run), before switching targets or wobble directions. (7 data files).

  6. CHARACTERISTICS OF GAMMA-RAY LOUD BLAZARS IN THE VLBA IMAGING AND POLARIMETRY SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linford, J. D.; Taylor, G. B.; Romani, R. W.; Healey, S. E.; Helmboldt, J. F.; Readhead, A. C. S.; Reeves, R.; Richards, J. L.; Cotter, G.

    2011-01-01

    The radio properties of blazars detected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope have been observed as part of the VLBA Imaging and Polarimetry Survey. This large, flux-limited sample of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) provides insights into the mechanism that produces strong γ-ray emission. At lower flux levels, radio flux density does not directly correlate with γ-ray flux. We find that the LAT-detected BL Lac objects tend to be similar to the non-LAT BL Lac objects, but that the LAT-detected FSRQs are often significantly different from the non-LAT FSRQs. The differences between the γ-ray loud and quiet FSRQs can be explained by Doppler boosting; these objects appear to require larger Doppler factors than those of the BL Lac objects. It is possible that the γ-ray loud FSRQs are fundamentally different from the γ-ray quiet FSRQs. Strong polarization at the base of the jet appears to be a signature for γ-ray loud AGNs.

  7. Characteristics of Gamma-ray Loud Blazars in the VLBA Imaging and Polarimetry Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linford, J. D.; Taylor, G. B.; Romani, R. W.; Healey, S. E.; Helmboldt, J. F.; Readhead, A. C. S.; Reeves, R.; Richards, J. L.; Cotter, G.

    2011-01-01

    The radio properties of blazars detected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope have been observed as part of the VLBA Imaging and Polarimetry Survey. This large, flux-limited sample of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) provides insights into the mechanism that produces strong γ-ray emission. At lower flux levels, radio flux density does not directly correlate with γ-ray flux. We find that the LAT-detected BL Lac objects tend to be similar to the non-LAT BL Lac objects, but that the LAT-detected FSRQs are often significantly different from the non-LAT FSRQs. The differences between the γ-ray loud and quiet FSRQs can be explained by Doppler boosting; these objects appear to require larger Doppler factors than those of the BL Lac objects. It is possible that the γ-ray loud FSRQs are fundamentally different from the γ-ray quiet FSRQs. Strong polarization at the base of the jet appears to be a signature for γ-ray loud AGNs.

  8. Multiwavelength Picture of the Blazar S5 0716+714 during Its Brightest Outburst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Manganaro

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available S5 0716+714 is a well known BL Lac object, and one of the brightest and most active blazars. The discovery in the Very High Energy band (VHE, E > 100 GeV by MAGIC happened in 2008. In January 2015, the source went through the brightest optical state ever observed, triggering MAGIC follow-up and a VHE detection with ∼ 13 σ significance (ATel ♯ 6999 . Rich multiwavelength coverage of the flare allowed us to construct the broad-band spectral energy distribution of S5 0716+714 during its brightest outburst. In this work, we will present the preliminary analysis of MAGIC and Fermi-LAT data of the flaring activity in January and February 2015 for the HE (0.1 < HE < 300 GeV and VHE band, together with radio (Metsähovi, OVRO, VLBA, Effelsberg, sub-millimeter (SMA, optical (Tuorla, Perkins, Steward, AZT-8+ST7, LX-200, Kanata, X-ray and UV (Swift-XRT and UVOT, in the same time-window and discuss the time variability of the multiwavelength light curves during this impressive outburst.

  9. Multi-Frequency Blazar Micro-Variability as a Tool to Investigate Relativistic Jets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R. Webb

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available For the past 12 years we have been studying optical micro-variability of a sample of 15 Blazars. We summarize the results of this study and draw some basic conclusions about the characteristics of micro-variability. The intermittency, the stochastic nature, and the similar profile shapes seen in micro-variations at different times and in different objects have led us to a possible model to explain the observed micro-variations. The model is based on a strong shock propagating down a relativistic jet and encountering turbulence which causes density or magnetic field enhancements. We use the theory of Kirk, Reiger, and Mastichiadis (1998 to describe the pulse of synchrotron emission emanating from individual density enhancements energized by the shock. By fitting these “pulses” to micro-variability observations, we obtain excellent fits to actual micro-variations. The model predicts that the spectral index changes as a function of pulse duration. This effect should be observable in multi-frequency micro-variability data. We present the theoretical model, model fits of our micro-variability light curves, and preliminary multi-frequency micro-variability observations that support this model. A further test that has yet to be carried out involves observing polarization changes in different pulses.

  10. A New Statistical Approach to the Optical Spectral Variability in Blazars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose A. Acosta-Pulido

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a spectral variability study of a sample of about 25 bright blazars, based on optical spectroscopy. Observations cover the period from the end of 2008 to mid 2015, with an approximately monthly cadence. Emission lines have been identified and measured in the spectra, which permits us to classify the sources into BL Lac-type or FSRQs, according to the commonly used EW limit. We have obtained synthetic photometry and produced colour-magnitude diagrams which show different trends associated with the object classes: generally, BL Lacs tend to become bluer when brighter and FSRQs become redder when brighter, although several objects exhibit both trends, depending on brightness. We have also applied a pattern recognition algorithm to obtain the minimum number of physical components which can explain the variability of the optical spectrum. We have used NMF (Non-Negative Matrix Factorization instead of PCA (Principal Component Analysis to avoid un-realistic negative components. For most targets we found that 2 or 3 meta-components are enough to explain the observed spectral variability.

  11. SUZAKU OBSERVATIONS OF THE EXTREME MeV BLAZAR SWIFT J0746.3+2548

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Shin; Sato, Rie; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Edwards, Philip G.; Kataoka, Jun; Madejski, Greg; Romani, Roger; Sikora, Marek; Tavecchio, Fabrizio; Sambruna, Rita; Pursimo, Tapio

    2009-01-01

    We report the Suzaku observations of the high luminosity blazar SWIFT J0746.3+2548 (J0746) conducted in 2005 November. This object, which, with z = 2.979, is the highest redshift source observed in the Suzaku Guaranteed Time Observer period, is likely to show high gamma-ray flux peaking in the MeV range. As a result of the good photon statistics and high signal-to-noise ratio spectrum, the Suzaku observation clearly confirms that J0746 has an extremely hard spectrum in the energy range of 0.3-24 keV, which is well represented by a single power-law with a photon index of Γ ph ≅ 1.17 and Galactic absorption. The multiwavelength spectral energy distribution of J0746 shows two continuum components, and is well modeled assuming that the high-energy spectral component results from Comptonization of the broad-line region photons. In this paper, we search for the bulk Compton spectral features predicted to be produced in the soft X-ray band by scattering external optical/UV photons by cold electrons in a relativistic jet. We discuss and provide constraints on the pair content resulting from the apparent absence of such features.

  12. A Multiwavelength Study of Flaring Activity in the High-energy Peaked BL Lac Object 1ES 1959+650 During 2015–2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Navpreet; Chandra, S.; Baliyan, Kiran S; Sameer; Ganesh, S. [Astronomy and Astrophysics Division, Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad, Gujarat 380009 (India)

    2017-09-10

    We present the results from a multiwavelength study of the flaring activity in the high-energy peaked BL Lac object 1ES 1959+650 during 2015 January–2016 June. The source underwent two major outbursts, during 2015 March and 2015 October, across the whole electromagnetic spectrum (EMS). We used data from Fermi -LAT and Swift -XRT/UVOT, and optical data from Mt. Abu InfraRed Observatory and Steward Observatory to look for possible correlations between the emissions at different energies and the nature of the variability during the flaring state. During the 2015 October outburst, the nightly averaged V -band brightest magnitude, 14.45(0.03), and faintest magnitude, 14.45(0.03), were recorded. Apart from long-term flares, rapid and short-term variabilities were noticed at all energies. Our study suggests that the flaring activities at all frequencies, with diverse flare durations and time lags, are correlated. The magnetic field strength is estimated to be 4 G using the synchrotron-cooling timescale (2.3 hr), and the upper limits on the sizes of both emission regions, γ -ray and optical, are estimated to be of the order of 10{sup 16} cm. The quasi-simultaneous flux enhancements in 15 GHz and VHE γ -ray emissions indicate a fresh injection of plasma into the jet, which interacts with a standing submillimeter core, resulting in co-spatial emissions across the EMS. The synchrotron peak shifts to higher frequency in the spectral energy distribution while the γ -ray spectra softens during the flaring. The shape of the inverse-Compton spectra indicates a change in the particle energy distribution pre- and post-flare.

  13. TeV. The dream energy scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murayama, Hitoshi

    2006-01-01

    In this talk, I'd like to explain why the TeV, 1,000,000,000,00 electron volt, is a particularly interesting energy scale in physics. I being recapitulating what particle physics is all about, citing two big questions: what the Universe is made of, and Einstein's dream of unification. TeV energy appears to be relevant to both questions, suggesting rich and complex physics at this energy. I outline how two facilities, LHC and ILC, will work together with reveal what is going on at this exciting energy scale. (author)

  14. Optical Spectroscopic Observations of γ-Ray Blazar Candidates. III. The 2013/2014 Campaign in the Southern Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landoni, M.; Massaro, F.; Paggi, A.; D'Abrusco, R.; Milisavljevic, D.; Masetti, N.; Smith, H. A.; Tosti, G.; Chomiuk, L.; Strader, J.; Cheung, C. C.

    2015-05-01

    We report the results of our exploratory program carried out with the southern Astrophysical Research telescope aimed at associating counterparts and establishing the nature of the Fermi Unidentified γ-ray Sources (UGSs). We selected the optical counterparts of six UGSs from the Fermi catalog on the basis of our recently discovered tight connection between infrared and γ-ray emission found for the γ-ray blazars detected by the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer in its all-sky survey. We perform for the first time a spectroscopic study of the low-energy counterparts of the Fermi UGSs, in the optical band, confirming the blazar-like nature of the whole sample. We also present new spectroscopic observations of six active galaxies of uncertain type associated with Fermi sources which appear to be BL Lac objects. Finally, we report the spectra collected for six known γ-ray blazars belonging to the Roma BZCAT that were obtained to establish their nature or better estimate their redshifts. Two interesting cases of high redshift and extremely luminous BL Lac objects (z ≥ 1.18 and z ≥ 1.02, based on the detection of Mg ii intervening systems) are also discussed. Based on observations obtained at the southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the U.S. National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU).

  15. Equipartition gamma-ray blazars and the location of the gamma-ray emission site in 3C 279

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dermer, Charles D. [Code 7653, Space Science Division, U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Cerruti, Matteo [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Lott, Benoit [Centre d' Études Nucléaires Bordeaux Gradignan, Université de Bordeaux, CNRS/IN2P3, UMR 5797, F-33175 Gradignan (France); Boisson, Catherine; Zech, Andreas, E-mail: charles.dermer@nrl.navy.mil, E-mail: matteo.cerruti@cfa.harvard.edu [Laboratoire Univers et THeories (LUTH), Observatoire de Paris-Meudon, 5 Place Jules Janssen, F-92195 Meudon Cedex (France)

    2014-02-20

    Blazar spectral models generally have numerous unconstrained parameters, leading to ambiguous values for physical properties like Doppler factor δ{sub D} or fluid magnetic field B'. To help remedy this problem, a few modifications of the standard leptonic blazar jet scenario are considered. First, a log-parabola function for the electron distribution is used. Second, analytic expressions relating energy loss and kinematics to blazar luminosity and variability, written in terms of equipartition parameters, imply δ{sub D}, B', and the peak electron Lorentz factor γ{sub pk}{sup ′}. The external radiation field in a blazar is approximated by Lyα radiation from the broad-line region (BLR) and ≈0.1 eV infrared radiation from a dusty torus. When used to model 3C 279 spectral energy distributions from 2008 and 2009 reported by Hayashida et al., we derive δ{sub D} ∼ 20-30, B' ∼ few G, and total (IR + BLR) external radiation field energy densities u ∼ 10{sup –2}-10{sup –3} erg cm{sup –3}, implying an origin of the γ-ray emission site in 3C 279 at the outer edges of the BLR. This is consistent with the γ-ray emission site being located at a distance R ≲ Γ{sup 2} ct {sub var} ∼ 0.1(Γ/30){sup 2}(t {sub var}/10{sup 4} s) pc from the black hole powering 3C 279's jets, where t {sub var} is the variability timescale of the radiation in the source frame, and at farther distances for narrow-jet and magnetic-reconnection models. Excess ≳ 5 GeV γ-ray emission observed with Fermi LAT from 3C 279 challenges the model, opening the possibility of a second leptonic component or a hadronic origin of the emission. For low hadronic content, absolute jet powers of ≈10% of the Eddington luminosity are calculated.

  16. Through the Ring of Fire: A Study of the Origin of Orphan Gamma-ray Flares in Blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Nicholas R.; Marscher, Alan P.; Jorstad, Svetlana G.; Joshi, Manasvita

    2014-06-01

    Blazars exhibit flares across the electromagnetic spectrum. Many gamma-ray flares are highly correlated with flares detected at optical wavelengths; however, a small subset appear to occur in isolation, with no counterpart in the other wave bands. These "orphan" gamma-ray flares challenge current models of blazar variability, most of which are unable to reproduce this type of behavior. We present numerical calculations of the time variable emission of a blazar based on a proposal by Marscher et al. (2010) to explain such events. In this model, a plasmoid ("blob") consisting of a power-law distribution of electrons propagates relativistically along the spine of a blazar jet and passes through a synchrotron emitting ring of electrons representing a shocked portion of the jet sheath. This ring supplies a source of seed photons that are inverse-Compton scattered by the electrons in the moving blob. As the blob approaches the ring, the photon density in the co-moving frame of the plasma increases, resulting in an orphan gamma-ray flare that then dissipates as the blob passes through and then moves away from the ring. The model includes the effects of radiative cooling and a spatially varying magnetic field. Support for the plausibility of this model is provided by observations by Marscher et al.(2010) of an isolated gamma-ray flare that was correlated with the passage of a superluminal knot through the inner jet of quasar PKS 1510-089. Synthetic light-curves produced by this new model are compared to the observed light-curves from this event. In addition, we present polarimetric observations that point to the existence of a jet sheath in the quasar 3C 273. A rough estimate of the bolometric luminosity of the sheath results in a value of ~10^45 erg s^-1 10% of the jet luminosity). This inferred sheath luminosity indicates that the jet sheath in 3C 273 can provide a significant source of seed photons that need to be taken into account when modeling the non

  17. Possible Accretion Disk Origin of the Emission Variability of a Blazar Jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Ritaban; Roychowdhury, Agniva; Chandra, Sunil; Sinha, Atreyee

    2018-06-01

    We analyze X-ray light curves of the blazar Mrk 421 obtained from the Soft X-ray Imaging Telescope (SXT) and the Large Area X-ray Proportional Counter (LAXPC) instrument on board the Indian space telescope AstroSat and archival observations from Swift. We show that the X-ray power spectral density (PSD) is a piece-wise power-law with a break; i.e., the index becomes more negative below a characteristic “break timescale.” Galactic black hole (BH) X-ray binaries and Seyfert galaxies exhibit a similar characteristic timescale in their X-ray variability that is proportional to their respective BH mass. X-rays in these objects are produced in the accretion disk or corona. Hence, such a timescale is believed to be linked to the properties of the accretion flow. Any relation observed between events in the accretion disk and those in the jet can be used to characterize the disk–jet connection. However, evidence of such a link has been scarce and indirect. Mrk 421 is a BL Lac object that has a prominent jet pointed toward us and a weak disk emission, and it is assumed that most of its X-rays are generated in the jet. Hence, the existence of the break in its X-ray PSD may indicate that changes in the accretion disk, which may be the source of the break timescale, are translating into the jet where the X-rays are produced.

  18. EXTERNAL COMPTON SCATTERING IN BLAZAR JETS AND THE LOCATION OF THE GAMMA-RAY EMITTING REGION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finke, Justin D., E-mail: justin.finke@nrl.navy.mil [U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Code 7653, 4555 Overlook Ave. SW, Washington, DC, 20375-5352 (United States)

    2016-10-20

    I study the location of the γ -ray emission in blazar jets by creating a Compton-scattering approximation that is valid for all anisotropic radiation fields in the Thomson through Klein–Nishina regimes, is highly accurate, and can speed up numerical calculations by up to a factor of ∼10. I apply this approximation to synchrotron self-Compton, external Compton scattering of photons from the accretion disk, broad line region (BLR), and dust torus. I use a stratified BLR model and include detailed Compton-scattering calculations of a spherical and flattened BLR. I create two dust torus models, one where the torus is an annulus and one where it is an extended disk. I present detailed calculations of the photoabsorption optical depth using my detailed BLR and dust torus models, including the full angle dependence. I apply these calculations to the emission from a relativistically moving blob traveling through these radiation fields. The ratio of γ -ray to optical flux produces a predictable pattern that could help locate the γ -ray emission region. I show that the bright flare from 3C 454.3 in 2010 November detected by the Fermi Large Area Telescope is unlikely to originate from a single blob inside the BLR. This is because it moves outside the BLR in a time shorter than the flare duration, although emission by multiple blobs inside the BLR is possible. Also, γ -rays are unlikely to originate from outside of the BLR, due to the scattering of photons from an extended dust torus, since the cooling timescale would be too long to explain the observed short variability.

  19. MOJAVE. XII. ACCELERATION AND COLLIMATION OF BLAZAR JETS ON PARSEC SCALES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homan, D. C. [Department of Physics, Denison University, Granville, OH 43023 (United States); Lister, M. L.; Richards, J. L. [Department of Physics, Purdue University, 525 Northwestern Avenue, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Kovalev, Y. Y. [Astro Space Center of Lebedev Physical Institute, Profsoyuznaya 84/32, 117997 Moscow (Russian Federation); Pushkarev, A. B.; Savolainen, T.; Ros, E. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Kellermann, K. I., E-mail: homand@denison.edu [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States)

    2015-01-10

    We report on the acceleration properties of 329 features in 95 blazar jets from the MOJAVE Very Long Baseline Array program. Nearly half the features and three-quarters of the jets show significant changes in speed and/or direction. In general, apparent speed changes are distinctly larger than changes in direction, indicating that changes in the Lorentz factors of jet features dominate the observed speed changes rather than bends along the line of sight. Observed accelerations tend to increase the speed of features near the jet base, ≲ 10-20 pc projected, and decrease their speed at longer distances. The range of apparent speeds at a fixed distance in an individual jet can span a factor of a few, indicating that shock properties and geometry may influence the apparent motions; however, we suggest that the broad trend of jet features increasing their speed near the origin is due to an overall acceleration of the jet flow out to deprojected distances of the order of 10{sup 2} pc, beyond which the flow begins to decelerate or remains nearly constant in speed. We estimate intrinsic rates of change of the Lorentz factors in the galaxy frame of the order of Γ-dot /Γ≃10{sup −3} to 10{sup –2} yr{sup –1}, which can lead to total Lorentz factor changes of a factor of a few on the length scales observed here. Finally, we also find evidence for jet collimation at projected distances of ≲ 10 pc in the form of the non-radial motion and bending accelerations that tend to better align features with the inner jet.

  20. Optical flare observed in the flaring gamma-ray blazar CGRaBS J0809+5341 (87GB 080551.6+535010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pursimo, Tapio; Galindo-Guil, F. J.; Serrano, Pere Blay; Ojha, Roopesh

    2017-11-01

    We report optical photometry of the blazar CGRaBS J0809+5341 (87GB 080551.6+535010), obtained with the 2.56m Nordic Optical Telescope in La Palma, to look for any enhanced optical activity associated with a recent flare in the daily averaged gamma-ray flux (ATel#10905).

  1. Modelling blazar flaring using a time-dependent fluid jet emission model - an explanation for orphan flares and radio lags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, William J.

    2018-01-01

    Blazar jets are renowned for their rapid violent variability and multiwavelength flares, however, the physical processes responsible for these flares are not well understood. In this paper, we develop a time-dependent inhomogeneous fluid jet emission model for blazars. We model optically thick radio flares for the first time and show that they are delayed with respect to the prompt optically thin emission by ∼months to decades, with a lag that increases with the jet power and observed wavelength. This lag is caused by a combination of the travel time of the flaring plasma to the optically thin radio emitting sections of the jet and the slow rise time of the radio flare. We predict two types of flares: symmetric flares - with the same rise and decay time, which occur for flares whose duration is shorter than both the radiative lifetime and the geometric path-length delay time-scale; extended flares - whose luminosity tracks the power of particle acceleration in the flare, which occur for flares with a duration longer than both the radiative lifetime and geometric delay. Our model naturally produces orphan X-ray and γ-ray flares. These are caused by flares that are only observable above the quiescent jet emission in a narrow band of frequencies. Our model is able to successfully fit to the observed multiwavelength flaring spectra and light curves of PKS1502+106 across all wavelengths, using a transient flaring front located within the broad-line region.

  2. NuSTAR DETECTION OF THE BLAZAR B2 1023+25 AT REDSHIFT 5.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sbarrato, T. [Dipartimento di Scienza e Alta Tecnologia, Università dell' Insubria, Via Valleggio 11, I-22100 Como (Italy); Tagliaferri, G.; Ghisellini, G. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, via E. Bianchi 46, I-23807 Merate (Italy); Perri, M.; Puccetti, S.; Giommi, P. [ASI-Science Data Center, via Galileo Galilei, I-00044 Frascati (Italy); Baloković, M.; Harrison, F. A.; Hovatta, T. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Nardini, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica G. Occhialini, Università di Milano Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 3, I-20126 Milano (Italy); Stern, D. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Boggs, S. E. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Brandt, W. N. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Christensen, F. E. [DTU Space-National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Greiner, J.; Rau, A.; Schady, P.; Sudilovsky, V. [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Hailey, C. J. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Madejski, G. M., E-mail: tullia.sbarrato@brera.inaf.it [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); and others

    2013-11-10

    B2 1023+25 is an extremely radio-loud quasar at z = 5.3 that was first identified as a likely high-redshift blazar candidate in the SDSS+FIRST quasar catalog. Here, we use the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) to investigate its non-thermal jet emission, whose high-energy component we detected in the hard X-ray energy band. The X-ray flux is ∼ 5.5 x 10{sup -14} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} (5-10 keV) and the photon spectral index is Γ{sub X} ≅ 1.3-1.6. Modeling the full spectral energy distribution, we find that the jet is oriented close to the line of sight, with a viewing angle of ∼3°, and has significant Doppler boosting, with a large bulk Lorentz factor ∼13, which confirms the identification of B2 1023+25 as a blazar. B2 1023+25 is the first object at redshift larger than 5 detected by NuSTAR, demonstrating the ability of NuSTAR to investigate the early X-ray universe and to study extremely active supermassive black holes located at very high redshift.

  3. TeV gravity in four dimensions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calmet, Xavier; Hsu, Stephen D.H.

    2008-01-01

    We describe a model in which the fundamental scale M * of the theory which unifies gravity and quantum mechanics is in the TeV range, but without requiring additional spacetime dimensions. The weakness of gravity at low energies is due to a large vacuum expectation of a dilaton like field. The model requires a small dimensionless parameter (the self-coupling of the dilaton) but no fine-tuning. We discuss in detail the dynamical assumptions about non-perturbative quantum gravity required within the model. We observe that M * could be quite small, less than a TeV, and that the model could lead to copious strong coupling effects at the LHC. However, semiclassical black holes will not be produced

  4. Precision muon detectors in the Tev region

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, U; Fukushima, M; Rykaczewski, H; Ting, Samuel C C; Harris, M; Wittgenstein, F; Hofer, H; Lecomte, P

    1986-01-01

    We present a design study, based on our experience in the construction of the L3 detector at LEP, of a large solid angle muon detector for a high luminosity (> 1033 cm−2/sec) pp collider. It is shown that a resolution of ΔM/M ∼ 1% can be reached for a one TeV particle T→μ+μ−. Hadron jets can also be measured.

  5. MULTIWAVELENGTH EVIDENCE FOR QUASI-PERIODIC MODULATION IN THE GAMMA-RAY BLAZAR PG 1553+113

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, M.; Buehler, R. [Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Ajello, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Clemson University, Kinard Lab of Physics, Clemson, SC 29634-0978 (United States); Albert, A.; Baldini, L.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bottacini, E.; Caliandro, G. A. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Atwood, W. B. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, Department of Physics and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California at Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Ballet, J. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA-IRFU/CNRS/Université Paris Diderot, Service d’Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Barbiellini, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Bastieri, D.; Buson, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Becerra Gonzalez, J. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Bellazzini, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bissaldi, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Bonino, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Torino, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Bregeon, J. [Laboratoire Univers et Particules de Montpellier, Université Montpellier, CNRS/IN2P3, Montpellier (France); Bruel, P., E-mail: David.J.Thompson@nasa.gov, E-mail: sara.cutini@asdc.asi.it, E-mail: stefano.ciprini@asdc.asi.it, E-mail: stefan@astro.su.se, E-mail: stamerra@oato.inaf.it [Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet, École polytechnique, CNRS/IN2P3, Palaiseau (France); and others

    2015-11-10

    We report for the first time a γ-ray and multiwavelength nearly periodic oscillation in an active galactic nucleus. Using the Fermi Large Area Telescope we have discovered an apparent quasi-periodicity in the γ-ray flux (E > 100 MeV) from the GeV/TeV BL Lac object PG 1553+113. The marginal significance of the 2.18 ± 0.08 year period γ-ray cycle is strengthened by correlated oscillations observed in radio and optical fluxes, through data collected in the Owens Valley Radio Observatory, Tuorla, Katzman Automatic Imaging Telescope, and Catalina Sky Survey monitoring programs and Swift-UVOT. The optical cycle appearing in ∼10 years of data has a similar period, while the 15 GHz oscillation is less regular than seen in the other bands. Further long-term multiwavelength monitoring of this blazar may discriminate among the possible explanations for this quasi-periodicity.

  6. MULTIWAVELENGTH EVIDENCE FOR QUASI-PERIODIC MODULATION IN THE GAMMA-RAY BLAZAR PG 1553+113

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackermann, M.; Buehler, R.; Ajello, M.; Albert, A.; Baldini, L.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bottacini, E.; Caliandro, G. A.; Atwood, W. B.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Buson, S.; Becerra Gonzalez, J.; Bellazzini, R.; Bissaldi, E.; Bonino, R.; Bregeon, J.; Bruel, P.

    2015-01-01

    We report for the first time a γ-ray and multiwavelength nearly periodic oscillation in an active galactic nucleus. Using the Fermi Large Area Telescope we have discovered an apparent quasi-periodicity in the γ-ray flux (E > 100 MeV) from the GeV/TeV BL Lac object PG 1553+113. The marginal significance of the 2.18 ± 0.08 year period γ-ray cycle is strengthened by correlated oscillations observed in radio and optical fluxes, through data collected in the Owens Valley Radio Observatory, Tuorla, Katzman Automatic Imaging Telescope, and Catalina Sky Survey monitoring programs and Swift-UVOT. The optical cycle appearing in ∼10 years of data has a similar period, while the 15 GHz oscillation is less regular than seen in the other bands. Further long-term multiwavelength monitoring of this blazar may discriminate among the possible explanations for this quasi-periodicity

  7. A Search for QPOs in the Blazar OJ287: Preliminary Results from the 2015/2016 Observing Campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Zola

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We analyse the light curve in the R band of the blazar OJ287, gathered during the 2015/2016 observing season. We did a search for quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs using several methods over a wide range of timescales. No statistically significant periods were found in the high-frequency domain both in the ground-based data and in Kepler observations. In the longer-period domain, the Lomb–Scargle periodogram revealed several peaks above the 99% significance level. The longest one—about 95 days—corresponds to the innermost stable circular orbit (ISCO period of the more massive black hole. The 43-day period could be an alias, or it can be attributed to accretion in the form of a two-armed spiral wave.

  8. The polarization dependence of γγ absorption—implications for γ-ray bursts and blazars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Böttcher, M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the dependence of the opacity for high-energy γ-rays to γγ absorption by low-energy photons on the polarization of the γ-ray and target photons. This process has so far only been considered using the polarization-averaged γγ absorption cross section. It is demonstrated that in the case of polarized γ-ray emission, subject to source-intrinsic γγ absorption by polarized target photons, this may lead to a slight overestimation of the γγ opacity by up to ∼10% in the case of a perfectly ordered magnetic field. Thus, for realistic astrophysical scenarios with partially ordered magnetic fields, the use of the polarization-averaged γγ cross section is justified for practical purposes, such as estimates of minimum Doppler factors inferred for γ-ray bursts and blazars, based on γγ transparency arguments; this paper quantifies the small error incurred by the unpolarized-radiation approximation. Furthermore, it is shown that polarization-dependent γγ absorption of initially polarized γ-rays can lead to a slight increase in the polarization beyond the spectral break caused by γγ absorption. This amount is distinctly different from the change in polarization expected if the same spectral break were produced by a break in the underlying electron distribution. This may serve as a diagnostic of whether γγ absorption is relevant in sources such as γ-ray bursts and blazars where the γ-ray emission may be intrinsically highly polarized.

  9. MULTIWAVELENGTH VARIABILITY OF THE BLAZARS Mrk 421 AND 3C 454.3 IN THE HIGH STATE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaur, Haritma; Gupta, Alok C. [Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences (ARIES), Manora Peak, Nainital 263129 (India); Wiita, Paul J., E-mail: haritma@aries.res.in [Department of Physics, College of New Jersey, P.O. Box 7718, Ewing, NJ 08628 (United States)

    2012-01-15

    We report the results of photometric observations of the blazars Mrk 421 and 3C 454.3 designed to search for intraday variability (IDV) and short-term variability (STV). Optical photometric observations were spread over 18 nights for Mrk 421 and 7 nights for 3C 454.3 during our observing run in 2009-2010 at the 1.04 m telescope at Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences, India. Genuine IDV is found for the source 3C 454.3 but not for Mrk 421. Genuine STV is found for both sources. Mrk 421 was revealed by the Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image (MAXI) X-ray detector on the International Space Station to be in an exceptionally high flux state in 2010 January-February. We performed a correlation between the X-ray and optical bands to search for time delays and found a weak correlation with higher frequencies leading the lower frequencies by about 10 days. The blazar 3C 454.3 was found to be in a high flux state in 2009 November-December. We performed correlations in optical observations made at three telescopes, along with X-ray data from the MAXI camera and public release {gamma}-ray data from the Fermi space telescope. We found strong correlations between the {gamma}-ray and optical bands at a time lag of about four days, but the X-ray flux is not correlated with either. We briefly discuss the possible reasons for the time delays between these bands within the framework of existing models for X-ray and {gamma}-ray emission mechanisms.

  10. Multiwaveband Variability of Blazars from Turbulent Plasma Passing through a Standing Shock: The Mother of Multi-zone Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marscher, Alan P.

    2011-09-01

    Multi-wavelength light curves of bright gamma-ray blazars (e.g., 3C 454.3) are compared with the model proposed by Marscher and Jorstad. In this scenario, much of the optical and high-energy radiation in a blazar is emitted near the 43 GHz core of the jet as seen in VLBA images, parsecs from the central engine. The main physical features are a turbulent ambient jet plasma that passes through a standing recollimation shock in the jet. The model allows for short time-scales of optical and gamma-ray variability by restricting the highest-energy electrons radiating at these frequencies to a small fraction of the turbulent cells, perhaps those with a particular orientation of the magnetic field relative to the shock front. Because of this, the volume filling factor at high frequencies is relatively low, while that of the electrons radiating below about 10 THz is near unity. Such a model is consistent with the (1) red-noise power spectra of flux variations, (2) shorter time-scales of variability at higher frequencies, (3) frequency dependence of polarization and its variability, and (4) breaks in the synchrotron spectrum by more than the radiative loss value of 0.5. Simulated light curves are generated by a numerical code that (as of May 2011) includes synchrotron radiation as well as inverse Compton scattering of seed photons from both a dust torus and a Mach disk at the jet axis. The latter source of seed photons produces more pronounced variability in gamma-ray than in optical light curves, as is often observed. More features are expected to be added to the code by the time of the presentation. This research is supported in part by NASA through Fermi grants NNX08AV65G and NNX10AO59G, and by NSF grant AST-0907893.

  11. Hints of an axion-like particle mixing in the GeV gamma-ray blazar data?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mena, Olga [IFIC, Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, E-46071, Valencia (Spain); Razzaque, Soebur, E-mail: omena@ific.uv.es, E-mail: srazzaque@uj.ac.za [Department of Physics, University of Johannesburg, PO Box 524, Auckland Park 2006 (South Africa)

    2013-11-01

    Axion-Like Particles (ALPs), if exist in nature, are expected to mix with photons in the presence of an external magnetic field. The energy range of photons which undergo strong mixing with ALPs depends on the ALP mass, on its coupling with photons as well as on the external magnetic field and particle density configurations. Recent observations of blazars by the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope in the 0.1–300 GeV energy range show a break in their spectra in the 1–10 GeV range. We have modeled this spectral feature for the flat-spectrum radio quasar 3C454.3 during its November 2010 outburst, assuming that a significant fraction of the gamma rays convert to ALPs in the large scale jet of this blazar. Using theoretically motivated models for the magnetic field and particle density configurations in the kiloparsec scale jet, outside the broad-line region, we find an ALP mass m{sub a} ∼ (1−3)⋅10{sup −7} eV and coupling g{sub aγ} ∼ (1−3)⋅10{sup −10} GeV{sup −1} after performing an illustrative statistical analysis of spectral data in four different epochs of emission. The precise values of m{sub a} and g{sub aγ} depend weakly on the assumed particle density configuration and are consistent with the current experimental bounds on these quantities. We apply this method and ALP parameters found from fitting 3C454.3 data to another flat-spectrum radio quasar PKS1222+216 (4C+21.35) data up to 400 GeV, as a consistency check, and found good fit. We find that the ALP-photon mixing effect on the GeV spectra may not be washed out for any reasonable estimate of the magnetic field in the intergalactic media.

  12. Analysis of the correlation between γ-ray and radio emissions from γ-ray loud Blazar using the discrete correlation function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Yong; Zhang Xiong; Wu Lin; Mao Weiming; You Lisha

    2006-01-01

    The authors collect 119 γ-ray-loud Blazar (97 flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) and 22 BL Lacertae objects (BL Lac)), and investigate respectively the correlation between the γ-ray emission (maximum, minimum, and average data) at 1 GeV and the radio emission at 8.4 GHz by discrete correlation function (DCF) method. Our main results are as follows: there is good correlation between the γ-ray in high state and average state and radio emissions for the whole 119 Blazar and 97 FSRQs. And there are no correlation between γ-ray emission and radio emission in low state. Our result shows that the γ-rays are associated with the radio emission from the jet, and that the γ-ray emission is likely to have come from the synchrotron self-compton model (SSC) process in this case. (authors)

  13. TeV gravity at neutrino telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Illana, J I; Meloni, D

    2005-01-01

    Cosmogenic neutrinos reach the Earth with energies around 10^9 GeV, and their interactions with matter will be measured in upcoming experiments (Auger, IceCube). Models with extra dimensions and the fundamental scale at the TeV could imply signals in these experiments. In particular, the production of microscopic black holes by cosmogenic neutrinos has been extensively studied in the literature. Here we make a complete analysis of gravity-mediated interactions at larger distances, where they can be calculated in the eikonal approximation. In these processes a neutrino of energy E_\

  14. Standard model beyond the TeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurenche, P.

    1987-01-01

    The phenomenology of the standard model in the hadronic reactions in the 10 TeV range is described. The predictions of the model concerning the hadronic cross sections being based on the parton model, we first discuss the behaviour of the structure functions at the low values of X (x > 10 -4 ) which are attained at these energies and we show that the development of the leading logarithms equations allow us to calculate them. The production of W, Z, and gauge bosons and gauge boson pairs are reviewed. The Higgs boson production is discussed in detail according to his mass value [fr

  15. First Nustar Observations of the Bl Lac-Type Blazar Pks 2155-304: Constraints on the Jet Content and Distribution of Radiating Particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madejski, G. M.; Nalewajko, K.; Madsen, K. K.

    2016-01-01

    We report the first hard X-ray observations with NuSTAR of the BL Lac-type blazar PKS 2155-304, augmented with soft X-ray data from XMM-Newton and γ-ray data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope, obtained in 2013 April when the source was in a very low flux state. A joint NuSTAR and XMM spectrum, ...

  16. INTEGRAL observations of the GeV blazar PKS 1502+106 and the hard X-ray bright Seyfert galaxy Mkn 841

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pian, E.; Ubertini, P.; Bazzano, A.; Beckmann, V.; Eckert, D.; Ghisellini, G.; Pursimo, T.; Tagliaferri, G.; Tavecchio, F.; Türler, M.; Bianchi, S.; Bianchin, V.; Hudec, René; Maraschi, L.; Raiteri, C.M.; Soldi, S.; Treves, A.; Villata, M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 526, February (2011), A125/1-A125/7 ISSN 0004-6361 Grant - others:ESA(XE) ESA PECS project No.98023; GA ČR(CZ) ga102/09/0997 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : active galaxies * blazar PKS 1502+106 Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.587, year: 2011

  17. UNVEILING THE NATURE OF THE UNIDENTIFIED GAMMA-RAY SOURCES. III. GAMMA-RAY BLAZAR-LIKE COUNTERPARTS AT LOW RADIO FREQUENCIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massaro, F.; Funk, S. [SLAC National Laboratory and Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); D' Abrusco, R.; Paggi, A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Giroletti, M. [INAF Istituto di Radioastronomia, via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Masetti, N. [INAF-Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica di Bologna, via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Tosti, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Nori, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Bologna, viale Berti Pichat 6/2, I-40127 Bologna (Italy)

    2013-07-01

    About one-third of the {gamma}-ray sources listed in the second Fermi Large Area Telescope catalog (2FGL) have no firmly established counterpart at lower energies and so are classified as unidentified gamma-ray sources (UGSs). Here, we propose a new approach to find candidate counterparts for the UGSs based on the 325 MHz radio survey performed with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope in the northern hemisphere. First, we investigate the low-frequency radio properties of blazars, the largest known population of {gamma}-ray sources; then we search for sources with similar radio properties combining the information derived from the Westerbork Northern Sky Survey (WENSS) with those of the NRAO Very Large Array Sky Survey. We present a list of candidate counterparts for 32 UGSs with at least one counterpart in the WENSS. We also performed an extensive research in the literature to look for infrared and optical counterparts of the {gamma}-ray blazar candidates selected using the low-frequency radio observations to confirm their nature. On the basis of our multifrequency research, we identify 23 new {gamma}-ray blazar candidates out of the 32 UGSs investigated. Comparison with previous results on the UGSs is also presented. Finally, we speculate on the advantages of using low-frequency radio observations to associate UGSs and to search for {gamma}-ray pulsar candidates.

  18. Study of 23 day periodicity of Blazar Mkn501 in 1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osone, S.

    2006-10-01

    We confirm a 23 day periodicity during a large flare in 1997 for X-ray data of X-ray satellite RXTE all sky monitor (ASM), 2 TeV gamma ray data from Utah Seven Telescope and HEGRA, with a Fourier analysis. We found the three results to be the same with a newly estimated error. We confirm the presence of a frequency dependent power (1/ f noise) in a frequency-power diagram. Further, we calculated a chance probability of the occurrence of the 23 day periodicity by considering the 1/ f noise and obtained a chance probability 4.88 × 10 -3 for the HEGRA data: this is more significant than the previous result by an order. We also obtained an indentical periodicity with another kind of timing analysis-epoch folding method for the ASM data and HEGRA data. We strongly suggest an existence of the periodicity. We divided the HEGRA data into two data sets, analyzed them with a Fourier method, and found an unstableness of the periodicity with a 3.4 sigma significance. We also analyzed an energy spectra of the X-ray data of a RXTE proportional counter array and we found that a combination of three physical parameters—a magnetic field, a Lorentz factor, and a beaming factor—is related to the periodicity.

  19. TeV gravity at neutrino telescopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illana, J.I.; Masip, M.; Meloni, D.

    2005-01-01

    Cosmogenic neutrinos reach the Earth with energies around 10 9 GeV, and their interactions with matter will be measured in upcoming experiments (Auger, IceCube). Models with extra dimensions and the fundamental scale at the TeV could imply signals in these experiments. In particular, the production of microscopic black holes by cosmogenic neutrinos has been extensively studied in the literature. Here we make a complete analysis of gravity-mediated interactions at larger distances, where they can be calculated in the eikonal approximation. In these processes a neutrino of energy E ν interacts elastically with a parton inside a nucleon, loses a small fraction y of its energy, and starts a hadronic shower of energy yE ν ν . We analyze the ultraviolet dependence and the relevance of graviton emission in these processes, and show that they are negligible. We also study the energy distribution of cosmogenic events in AMANDA and IceCube and the possibility of multiple-bang events. For any neutrino flux, the observation of an enhanced rate of neutral current events above 100 TeV in neutrino telescopes could be explained by TeV-gravity interactions. The values of the fundamental scale of gravity that IceCube could reach are comparable to those to be explored at the LHC

  20. Probing the TeV energy scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Despite its spectacular success, the Standard Model (SM) is widely believed to be incomplete. In fact there are good reasons to expect that new degrees of freedom, not present within the SM framework, will show up in particle collisions at TeV energies. Novel phenomena are, therefore, anticipated when this energy regime is explored at proton supercolliders such as the SSC or the LHC, and at the next generation of linear electron-positron colliders. Almost two hundred physicists, with roughly equal representation from North America, Europe and Asia, got together to discuss the physics possibilities of such colliders at the Second International Workshop on Physics and Experiments at Linear Electron-Positron Colliders, held during the last week of April in Waikoloa on the Big Island of Hawaii. It was the second in a series of international workshops which began in Saariselkä, Lapland, Finland in September 1991. The main theme of the workshop was the physics reach of, and the feasibility of experiments at, linear electron-positron colliders in the 300 GeV - 2 TeV collision energy region. Also discussed were the prospects for physics at electron-photon, photon-photon and electron-electron colliders

  1. TeV scale singlet dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponton, Eduardo; Randall, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    It is well known that stable weak scale particles are viable dark matter candidates since the annihilation cross section is naturally about the right magnitude to leave the correct thermal residual abundance. Many dark matter searches have focused on relatively light dark matter consistent with weak couplings to the Standard Model. However, in a strongly coupled theory, or even if the coupling is just a few times bigger than the Standard Model couplings, dark matter can have TeV-scale mass with the correct thermal relic abundance. Here we consider neutral TeV-mass scalar dark matter, its necessary interactions, and potential signals. We consider signals both with and without higher-dimension operators generated by strong coupling at the TeV scale, as might happen for example in an RS scenario. We find some potential for detection in high energy photons that depends on the dark matter distribution. Detection in positrons at lower energies, such as those PAMELA probes, would be difficult though a higher energy positron signal could in principle be detectable over background. However, a light dark matter particle with higher-dimensional interactions consistent with a TeV cutoff can in principle match PAMELA data.

  2. TeV Diffuse Emission From the Inner Galaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amid Nayerhoda

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The TeV diffuse emission from the Galactic plane is produced by multi TeV electrons and nuclei interacting with radiation fields and ambient gas, respectively. Measurements of the TeV diffuse emission help constrain CR origin and transport properties. We present a preliminary analysis of HAWC diffuse emission data from the inner Galaxy. The HAWC measurements will be used to constrain particle transport properties close to the Galaxy center correlating the HAWC maps with predictions of the DRAGON code.

  3. THE DISCOVERY OF γ-RAY EMISSION FROM THE BLAZAR RGB J0710+591

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acciari, V. A.; Benbow, W.; Aliu, E.; Arlen, T.; Aune, T.; Bautista, M.; Beilicke, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Dickherber, R.; Boettcher, M.; Boltuch, D.; Bradbury, S. M.; Byrum, K.; Cannon, A.; Cesarini, A.; Ciupik, L.; Cui, W.; Duke, C.; Falcone, A.

    2010-01-01

    The high-frequency-peaked BL Lacertae object RGB J0710+591 was observed in the very high-energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) wave band by the VERITAS array of atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. The observations, taken between 2008 December and 2009 March and totaling 22.1 hr, yield the discovery of VHE gamma rays from the source. RGB J0710+591 is detected at a statistical significance of 5.5 standard deviations (5.5σ) above the background, corresponding to an integral flux of (3.9 ± 0.8) x 10 -12 cm -2 s -1 (3% of the Crab Nebula's flux) above 300 GeV. The observed spectrum can be fit by a power law from 0.31 to 4.6 TeV with a photon spectral index of 2.69 ± 0.26 stat ± 0.20 sys . These data are complemented by contemporaneous multiwavelength data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope, the Swift X-ray Telescope, the Swift Ultra-Violet and Optical Telescope, and the Michigan-Dartmouth-MIT observatory. Modeling the broadband spectral energy distribution (SED) with an equilibrium synchrotron self-Compton model yields a good statistical fit to the data. The addition of an external-Compton component to the model does not improve the fit nor brings the system closer to equipartition. The combined Fermi and VERITAS data constrain the properties of the high-energy emission component of the source over 4 orders of magnitude and give measurements of the rising and falling sections of the SED.

  4. Summary of the TeV33 working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagley, P.P.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Colestock, P.

    1996-10-01

    This summary of the TeV33 working group at Snowmass reports on work in the areas of Tevatron store parameters, the beam-beam interaction, Main Injector intensity (slip stacking), antiproton production, and electron cooling

  5. Studies for Muon Colliders at Center-of-Mass Energies of 10 TeV and 100 TeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, Bruce J.

    1999-01-01

    Parameter lists are presented for speculative muon colliders at center-of-mass energies of 10 TeV and 100 TeV. The technological advances required to achieve the given parameters are itemized and discussed, and a discussion is given of the design goals and constraints. An important constraint for multi-TeV muon colliders is the need to minimize neutrino radiation from the collider ring

  6. Heavy Higgs bosons at 14 TeV and 100 TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajer, Jan [Department of Physics, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong S.A.R., P.R.C. (China); Jockey Club Institute for Advanced Study,The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong S.A.R., P.R.C. (China); Li, Ying-Ying; Liu, Tao; Shiu, John F.H. [Department of Physics, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong S.A.R., P.R.C. (China)

    2015-11-18

    Searching for Higgs bosons beyond the Standard Model (BSM) is one of the most important missions for hadron colliders. As a landmark of BSM physics, the MSSM Higgs sector at the LHC is expected to be tested up to the scale of the decoupling limit of O(1) TeV, except for a wedge region centered around tan β∼3–10, which has been known to be difficult to probe. In this article, we present a dedicated study testing the decoupled MSSM Higgs sector, at the LHC and a next-generation pp-collider, proposing to search in channels with associated Higgs productions, with the neutral and charged Higgs further decaying into tt and tb, respectively. In the case of neutral Higgs we are able to probe for the so far uncovered wedge region via pp→bbH/A→bbtt. Additionally, we cover the the high tan β range with pp→bbH/A→bbττ. The combination of these searches with channels dedicated to the low tan β region, such as pp→H/A→tt and pp→ttH/A→tttt potentially covers the full tan β range. The search for charged Higgs has a slightly smaller sensitivity for the moderate tan β region, but additionally probes for the higher and lower tan β regions with even greater sensitivity, via pp→tbH{sup ±}→tbtb. While the LHC will be able to probe the whole tan β range for Higgs masses of O(1) TeV by combining these channels, we show that a future 100 TeV pp-collider has a potential to push the sensitivity reach up to ∼O(10) TeV. In order to deal with the novel kinematics of top quarks produced by heavy Higgs decays, the multivariate Boosted Decision Tree (BDT) method is applied in our collider analyses. The BDT-based tagging efficiencies of both hadronic and leptonic top-jets, and their mutual fake rates as well as the faking rates by other jets (h, Z, W, b, etc.) are also presented.

  7. Long-Term Multi-Band and Polarimetric View of Mkn 421: Motivations for an Integrated Open-Data Platform for Blazar Optical Polarimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulisses Barres de Almeida

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, by making use of the large software and database resources made available through online facilities such as the ASI Science Data Center (ASDC, we present a novel approach to the modelling of blazar emission whereby the multi-epoch SED for Mkn 421 is modelled considering, in a self-consistent way, the temporal lags between bands (both in short and long-timescales. These are obtained via a detailed cross-correlation analysis, spanning data from radio to VHE gamma-rays from 2008 to 2015. In addition to that, long-term optical polarisation data is used to aid and complement our physical interpretation of the state and evolution of the source. Blazar studies constitute a clear example that astrophysics is becoming increasingly dominated by “big data”. Specific questions, such as the interpretation of polarimetric information—namely the evolution of the polarisation degree (PD and specially the polarisation angle (PA of a source—are very sensitive to the density of data coverage. Improving data accessibility and integration, in order to respond to these necessities, is thus extremely important and has a potentially large impact for blazar science. For this reason, we present also the project to create an open-access database for optical polarimetry, aiming to circumvent the issues raised above, by integrating long-term optical polarisation information on a number sources from several observatories and data providers in a consistent way. The platform, to be launched by the end of 2017 is built as part of the Brazilian Science Data Center (BSDC, a project hosted at CBPF, in Rio de Janeiro, and developed with the support of the Italian Space Agency (ASI and ICRANet. The BSDC is Virtual Observatory-compliant and is built in line with “Open Universe”, a global space science open-data initiative to be launched in November under the auspices of the United Nations.

  8. MULTIFREQUENCY PHOTO-POLARIMETRIC WEBT OBSERVATION CAMPAIGN ON THE BLAZAR S5 0716+714: SOURCE MICROVARIABILITY AND SEARCH FOR CHARACTERISTIC TIMESCALES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatta, G.; Stawarz, Ł.; Ostrowski, M. [Astronomical Observatory of Jagiellonian University, ul. Orla 171, 30-244 Krakow (Poland); Markowitz, A. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, CA 92093-0424 (United States); Akitaya, H. [Hiroshima Astrophysical Science Center, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Arkharov, A. A. [Main (Pulkovo) Astronomical Observatory of RAS, Pulkovskoye shosse, 60, 196140 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Bachev, R. [Institute of Astronomy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72, Tsarigradsko Shosse Blvd., 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Benítez, E. [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico DF (Mexico); Borman, G. A. [Crimean Astrophysical Observatory, P/O Nauchny, Crimea, 298409 (Russian Federation); Carosati, D. [EPT Observatories, Tijarafe, La Palma (Spain); Cason, A. D. [Private address, 105 Glen Pine Trail, Dawnsonville, GA 30534 (United States); Chanishvili, R. [Abastumani Observatory, Mt. Kanobili, 0301 Abastumani, Georgia (United States); Damljanovic, G. [Astronomical Observatory, Volgina 7, 11060 Belgrade (Serbia); Dhalla, S. [Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199 (United States); Frasca, A. [INAF—Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania (Italy); Hiriart, D. [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ensenada (Mexico); Hu, S-M., E-mail: gopalbhatta716@gmail.com [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy and Solar-Terrestrial Environment, Institute of Space Sciences, Shandong University at Weihai, 264209 Weihai (China); and others

    2016-11-01

    Here we report on the results of the Whole Earth Blazar Telescope photo-polarimetric campaign targeting the blazar S5 0716+71, organized in 2014 March to monitor the source simultaneously in BVRI and near-IR filters. The campaign resulted in an unprecedented data set spanning ∼110 hr of nearly continuous, multiband observations, including two sets of densely sampled polarimetric data mainly in the R filter. During the campaign, the source displayed pronounced variability with peak-to-peak variations of about 30% and “bluer-when-brighter” spectral evolution, consisting of a day-timescale modulation with superimposed hour-long microflares characterized by ∼0.1 mag flux changes. We performed an in-depth search for quasi-periodicities in the source light curve; hints for the presence of oscillations on timescales of ∼3 and ∼5 hr do not represent highly significant departures from a pure red-noise power spectrum. We observed that, at a certain configuration of the optical polarization angle (PA) relative to the PA of the innermost radio jet in the source, changes in the polarization degree (PD) led the total flux variability by about 2 hr; meanwhile, when the relative configuration of the polarization and jet angles altered, no such lag could be noted. The microflaring events, when analyzed as separate pulse emission components, were found to be characterized by a very high PD (>30%) and PAs that differed substantially from the PA of the underlying background component, or from the radio jet positional angle. We discuss the results in the general context of blazar emission and energy dissipation models.

  9. MULTIFREQUENCY PHOTO-POLARIMETRIC WEBT OBSERVATION CAMPAIGN ON THE BLAZAR S5 0716+714: SOURCE MICROVARIABILITY AND SEARCH FOR CHARACTERISTIC TIMESCALES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatta, G.; Stawarz, Ł.; Ostrowski, M.; Markowitz, A.; Akitaya, H.; Arkharov, A. A.; Bachev, R.; Benítez, E.; Borman, G. A.; Carosati, D.; Cason, A. D.; Chanishvili, R.; Damljanovic, G.; Dhalla, S.; Frasca, A.; Hiriart, D.; Hu, S-M.

    2016-01-01

    Here we report on the results of the Whole Earth Blazar Telescope photo-polarimetric campaign targeting the blazar S5 0716+71, organized in 2014 March to monitor the source simultaneously in BVRI and near-IR filters. The campaign resulted in an unprecedented data set spanning ∼110 hr of nearly continuous, multiband observations, including two sets of densely sampled polarimetric data mainly in the R filter. During the campaign, the source displayed pronounced variability with peak-to-peak variations of about 30% and “bluer-when-brighter” spectral evolution, consisting of a day-timescale modulation with superimposed hour-long microflares characterized by ∼0.1 mag flux changes. We performed an in-depth search for quasi-periodicities in the source light curve; hints for the presence of oscillations on timescales of ∼3 and ∼5 hr do not represent highly significant departures from a pure red-noise power spectrum. We observed that, at a certain configuration of the optical polarization angle (PA) relative to the PA of the innermost radio jet in the source, changes in the polarization degree (PD) led the total flux variability by about 2 hr; meanwhile, when the relative configuration of the polarization and jet angles altered, no such lag could be noted. The microflaring events, when analyzed as separate pulse emission components, were found to be characterized by a very high PD (>30%) and PAs that differed substantially from the PA of the underlying background component, or from the radio jet positional angle. We discuss the results in the general context of blazar emission and energy dissipation models.

  10. Elementary design of a 30 TeV on 30 TeV proton antiproton collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Takahiko

    1984-01-01

    A crude conceptual design was made for a 30TeV on 30TeV antiproton-proton collider. The choice of energy and antiproton-proton (instead of PP) are somewhat arbitrary. The basic parameters of the main ring are listed in a table; the bending radius, ring radius and circumference are 11.1km, 14.4km, and 90.6km, respectively; 7680 dipole magnets with maximum field of 9 Tesla; 1280 quadrupole magnets with maximum gradient of 200Tesla/m. The development of high-field, low-heat loss dipoles and quadrupoles are essential, together with the consideration for their mass production method. On the other hand, the possibility of obtaining antiproton-proton luminosity exceeding 10 32 /cm 2 sec is suggested without any fundamental limitation. With such high luminosity, however, it should be pointed out that particle detectors must face their limitation due to extremely high rate, high multiplicity interaction, requiring large steps of detector research and development efforts. (Aoki, K.)

  11. Gamma-Ray Flaring Activity from the Gravitationally Lensed Blazar PKS 1830-211 Observed by Fermi LAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdo, A. A.; et al.

    2015-01-23

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope routinely detects the MeV-peaked flat-spectrum radio quasar PKS 1830–211 (z = 2.507). Its apparent isotropic γ-ray luminosity (E > 100 MeV), averaged over ~3 years of observations and peaking on 2010 October 14/15 at 2.9 × 10(50) erg s(–)(1), makes it among the brightest high-redshift Fermi blazars. No published model with a single lens can account for all of the observed characteristics of this complex system. Based on radio observations, one expects time-delayed variability to follow about 25 days after a primary flare, with flux about a factor of 1.5 less. Two large γ-ray flares of PKS 1830–211 have been detected by the LAT in the considered period, and no substantial evidence for such a delayed activity was found. This allows us to place a lower limit of about 6 on the γ-ray flux ratio between the two lensed images. Swift XRT observations from a dedicated Target of Opportunity program indicate a hard spectrum with no significant correlation of X-ray flux with the γ-ray variability. The spectral energy distribution can be modeled with inverse Compton scattering of thermal photons from the dusty torus. The implications of the LAT data in terms of variability, the lack of evident delayed flare events, and different radio and γ-ray flux ratios are discussed. Microlensing effects, absorption, size and location of the emitting regions, the complex mass distribution of the system, an energy-dependent inner structure of the source, and flux suppression by the lens galaxy for one image path may be considered as hypotheses for understanding our results.

  12. Rapid variability of blazar 3C 279 during flaring states in 2013-2014 with joint FERMI-LAT, NuSTAR, swift, and ground-based multi-wavelength observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayashida, M.; Nalewajko, K.; Madejski, G. M.

    2015-01-01

    We report the results of a multiband observing campaign on the famous blazar 3C 279 conducted during a phase of increased activity from 2013 December to 2014 April, including first observations of it with NuSTAR. The γ-ray emission of the source measured by Fermi-LAT showed multiple distinct flar...

  13. Physics at TeV e+e- linear colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanowitz, M.S.

    1992-01-01

    A survey is presented of the physics opportunities at TeV e + e - linear colliders. Examples are given of physics that might emerge in e + e - collisions and in γγ collisions using the back-scattered laser technique, including γγ → ZZ scattering as a probe of ultraheavy quanta. The second portion of the talk focuses on physics that must emerge at or below the TeV scale--the mechanism of electroweak symmetry breaking. In particular a very rough estimate is presented of the most challenging possible signal of symmetry breaking, strong WW scattering, as a function of collider energy. A subtheme, made explicit in the concluding section, is the continuing complementarity of e + e - and pp colliders in the domain of TeV physics

  14. VERY HIGH ENERGY γ-RAYS FROM THE UNIVERSE’S MIDDLE AGE: DETECTION OF THE z = 0.940 BLAZAR PKS 1441+25 WITH MAGIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahnen, M. L.; Biland, A. [ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Ansoldi, S.; Biasuzzi, B. [Università di Udine, and INFN Trieste, I-33100 Udine (Italy); Antonelli, L. A.; Bonnoli, G.; Carosi, A. [INAF National Institute for Astrophysics, I-00136 Rome (Italy); Antoranz, P. [Università di Siena, and INFN Pisa, I-53100 Siena (Italy); Babic, A. [Croatian MAGIC Consortium, Rudjer Boskovic Institute, University of Rijeka, University of Split and University of Zagreb (Croatia); Banerjee, B. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1\\AF Bidhannagar, Salt Lake, Sector-1, Kolkata 700064 (India); Bangale, P.; Almeida, U. Barres de; Borracci, F. [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, D-80805 München (Germany); Barrio, J. A.; Bonnefoy, S. [Universidad Complutense, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Bednarek, W. [University of Łódź, PL-90236 Lodz (Poland); Bernardini, E. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Blanch, O. [IFAE, Campus UAB, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Bretz, T. [Universität Würzburg, D-97074 Würzburg (Germany); Carmona, E., E-mail: fabrizio.tavecchio@brera.inaf.it, E-mail: miguelnievas@ucm.es, E-mail: manganaro@iac.es, E-mail: josefa.becerra@nasa.gov [Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas, Medioambientales y Tecnológicas, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Collaboration: MAGIC Collaboration; Fermi-LAT Collaboration; and others

    2015-12-20

    The flat-spectrum radio quasar PKS 1441+25 at a redshift of z = 0.940 is detected between 40 and 250 GeV with a significance of 25.5σ using the MAGIC telescopes. Together with the gravitationally lensed blazar QSO B0218+357 (z = 0.944), PKS 1441+25 is the most distant very high energy (VHE) blazar detected to date. The observations were triggered by an outburst in 2015 April seen at GeV energies with the Large Area Telescope on board Fermi. Multi-wavelength observations suggest a subdivision of the high state into two distinct flux states. In the band covered by MAGIC, the variability timescale is estimated to be 6.4 ± 1.9 days. Modeling the broadband spectral energy distribution with an external Compton model, the location of the emitting region is understood as originating in the jet outside the broad-line region (BLR) during the period of high activity, while being partially within the BLR during the period of low (typical) activity. The observed VHE spectrum during the highest activity is used to probe the extragalactic background light at an unprecedented distance scale for ground-based gamma-ray astronomy.

  15. The Connection between the Radio Jet and the γ-ray Emission in the Radio Galaxy 3C 120 and the Blazar CTA 102

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Casadio

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We present multi-wavelength studies of the radio galaxy 3C 120 and the blazar CTA 102 during unprecedented γ-ray flares for both sources. In both studies the analysis of γ-ray data has been compared with a series of 43 GHz VLBA images from the VLBA-BU-BLAZAR program, providing the necessary spatial resolution to probe the parsec scale jet evolution during the high energy events. To extend the radio dataset for 3C 120 we also used 15 GHz VLBA data from the MOJAVE sample. These two objects which represent very different classes of AGN, have similar properties during the γ-ray events. The γ-ray flares are associated with the passage of a new superluminal component through the mm VLBI core, but not all ejections of new components lead to γ-ray events. In both sources γ-ray events occurred only when the new components are moving in a direction closer to our line of sight. We locate the γ-ray dissipation zone a short distance from the radio core but outside of the broad line region, suggesting synchrotron self-Compton scattering as the probable mechanism for the γ-ray production.

  16. 2 TeV HEB beam abort at the SSCL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schailey, R.; Bull, J.; Clayton, T.; Kocur, P.; Mokhov, N.

    1993-05-01

    The High Energy Booster (HEB) of the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory (SSCL) will require a full aperture beam abort over a dynamic energy range of 200 GeV to 2 TeV. Since the HEB is a bi-polar machine, both clockwise (CW) and the counter-clockwise (CCW) beam aborts are required. Also, the stored beam energy of 6.55 MJ in the superconducting HEB imposes upon the full aperture requirement. In this report, we describe the abort channels in the HEB utility straight sections, aperture restrictions, mechanical interferences and solutions, kicker misfires, and a 1 TeV beam absorber

  17. 2 TeV HEB beam abort at the SSCL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schailey, R.; Bull, J.; Clayton, T.; Kocur, P.; Mokhov, N.V.

    1993-01-01

    The High Energy Booster (HEB) of the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory (SSCL) will require a full aperture beam abort over a dynamic energy range of 200 GeV to 2 TeV. Since the HEB is a bi-polar machine, both clockwise (CW) and counter-clockwise (CCW) beam aborts are required. Also, the stored beam energy of 6.55 MJ in the superconducting HEB imposes the full aperture requirement. In this report, the authors describe the abort channels in the HEB utility straight sections, aperture restrictions, mechanical interferences and solutions, kicker misfires, and a 2 TeV beam absorber

  18. Substructure and strong interactions at the TeV scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peskin, M.E.

    1985-12-01

    A review is given of the current status of the three main theoretical ideas relevant to strong-interaction 1 TeV physics. These are composite vector bosons, Higgs bosons (''Technicolor''), and matter fermions. All involve the assumption that some object which is assumed to be fundamental in the standard model actually has dynamical internal structure. Complex, mechanistic models of the new physics are discussed. A brief digression is then made on how the weak interaction allows probing for this new structure. Direct manifestations of new 1 TeV strong interactions are discussed. 125 refs., 18 figs

  19. TeV e+e- linear colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Duff, J.

    1987-12-01

    The basic philosophy and performance and technical constraints of linear e + e - colliders at TeV energies are summarized. Collider luminosity, pinch effects due to beam interaction, beam-beam bremsstrahlung, and typical parameters for an e + e - linear collider are discussed. Accelerating structures, HF power sources, electron guns, positron production, and storage rings are considered [fr

  20. Verifiable origin of neutrino mass at TeV scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Ernest

    2002-01-01

    The physics responsible for neutrino mass may reside at or below the TeV energy scale. The neutrino mass matrix in the (ν e ν μ ν gt ) basis may then be deduced from future high-energy accelerator experiments. The newly observed excess in the muon anomalous magnetic moment may also be related

  1. TeV GAMMA RAYS: OBSERVATIONS VERSUS EXPECTATIONS & THEORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Krennrich

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this paper is to discuss two important questions relevant for TeV γ-ray astronomy; the pursuit to reveal the origin of cosmic rays in our galaxy, and the opacity of the universe in γ-rays. The origin of cosmic rays stipulated the field of TeV astronomy in the first place, and led to the development of the atmospheric Cherenkov technique; significant progress has been made in the last decade through the detection of several supernova remnants, the primary suspects for harboring the acceleration sites of cosmic rays. TeV γ-rays propagate mostly unhindered through the galactic plane, making them excellent probes of processes in SNRs and other galactic sources. Key results related to the SNR origin of cosmic rays are discussed. TeV γ-ray spectra from extragalactic sources experience significant absorption when traversing cosmological distances. The opacity of the universe to γ-rays above 10 GeV progressively increases with energy and redshift; the reason lies in their pair production with ambient soft photons from the extragalactic background light (EBL. While this limits the γ-ray horizon, it offers the opportunity to gain information about cosmology, i.e. the EBL intensity, physical conditions in intergalactic space, and potentially new interaction processes. Results and implications pertaining to the EBL are given.

  2. Parton Distributions at a 100 TeV Hadron Collider

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rojo, Juan

    2016-01-01

    The determination of the parton distribution functions (PDFs) of the proton will be an essential input for the physics program of a future 100 TeV hadron collider. The unprecedented center-of-mass energy will require knowledge of PDFs in currently unexplored kinematical regions such as the ultra

  3. Minimum bias measurement at 13 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Orlando, Nicola; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The modelling of Minimum Bias (MB) is a crucial ingredient to learn about the description of soft QCD processes and to simulate the environment at the LHC with many concurrent pp interactions (pile-up). We summarise the ATLAS minimum bias measurements with proton-proton collision at 13 TeV center-of-mass-energy at the Large Hadron Collider.

  4. Early 13 TeV Results from the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment has recorded almost 200 pb-1 of collision data at 13 TeV centre-of-mass energy. The seminar presents the status of the data taking, the commissioning of the event reconstruction, focusing on the key techniques that have allowed to quickly reach a good understanding of the basic physics objects, and early physics results.

  5. Search for TeV gamma rays from Geninga

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fegan, D.J.; Akerlof, C.W.; Breslin, A.C.; Cawley, M.F.; Chantell, M.; Fennell, S.; Gaidos, J.A.; Hagan, J.; Hillas, A.M.; Kerrick, A.D.; Lamb, R.C.; Lawrence, M.A.; Lewis, D.A.; Mayer, D.I.; Mohanty, G.; O'Flaherty, K.S.; Punch, M.; Reynolds, P.T.; Rovero, A.; Schubnell, M.; Sembroski, G.; Weekes, T.C.; West, M.

    1993-01-01

    Recently the Tata group have reported (1) the detection of TeV γ-rays from Geminga. Results of a search by the Whipple observatory Collaboration are presented here, based on observations made during 1989--90 and 1990--91, using the 10 m high resolution imaging cerenkov camera

  6. ATLAS 13 TeV event displays - 2017 Summer Conferences

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Summer 2017: The ATLAS Collaboration released an impressive number of results using data collected at 13 TeV. Some of the corresponding event displays are grouped here for media and press. The reference to the conference note is given in the caption. Read more on ATLAS results with the links provided below.

  7. Scaling linear colliders to 5 TeV and above

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, P.B.

    1997-04-01

    Detailed designs exist at present for linear colliders in the 0.5-1.0 TeV center-of-mass energy range. For linear colliders driven by discrete rf sources (klystrons), the rf operating frequencies range from 1.3 GHz to 14 GHz, and the unloaded accelerating gradients from 21 MV/m to 100 MV/m. Except for the collider design at 1.3 GHz (TESLA) which uses superconducting accelerating structures, the accelerating gradients vary roughly linearly with the rf frequency. This correlation between gradient and frequency follows from the necessity to keep the ac open-quotes wall plugclose quotes power within reasonable bounds. For linear colliders at energies of 5 TeV and above, even higher accelerating gradients and rf operating frequencies will be required if both the total machine length and ac power are to be kept within reasonable limits. An rf system for a 5 TeV collider operating at 34 GHz is outlined, and it is shown that there are reasonable candidates for microwave tube sources which, together with rf pulse compression, are capable of supplying the required rf power. Some possibilities for a 15 TeV collider at 91 GHz are briefly discussed

  8. Transplanckian collisions in TeV scale gravity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Collisions at transplanckian energies offer model independent tests of TeV scale gravity. One spectacular signal is given by black-hole production, though a full calculation of the corresponding cross-section is not yet available. Another signal is given by gravitational elastic scattering, which may be less spectacular but ...

  9. ATLAS events at 13 TeV - 2016 conferences

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS collaboration has released in 2016 an impressive number of results using data collected at 13 TeV. Some of the corresponding event displays are grouped here for media and press. The reference to the conference note is given in the caption. Read more on ATLAS results with the links provided below.

  10. Heavy flavour production in 13 TeV pp collisions

    CERN Multimedia

    Braun, Svende Annelies

    2015-01-01

    This summer first data at the unprecedented energy of 13 TeV is collected at the LHC. This opens a new era in searches for new particles and precision tests of the Standard Model. Heavy flavour production plays an important role both as precision QCD test and as backgrounds for new particles. The first measurements of heavy flavour production are presented.

  11. Event displays in 13 TeV data

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    This performance note presents some illustrative event displays at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. The data set consists of the first proton-proton collision data recorded by the CMS detector in 2015 with a magnetic field of 3.8 Teslas.

  12. Event displays in 13 TeV data

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    This performance note presents some illustrative event displays together with kinematic quantities for diboson production candidates at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. The data set consists of the proton-proton collision data recorded by the CMS detector in 2016 with a magnetic field of 3.8 Teslas.

  13. Event displays at 13 TeV of 2016 data

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    This performance note presents some illustrative event displays at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. The data set consists of the proton-proton collision data recorded by the CMS detector in 2016 with a magnetic field of 3.8 Tesla.

  14. + jets in collisions at 7 TeV with ATLAS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Measurements of differential cross-sections of boson production in association with jets, and jets containing hadrons are presented. The measurements are based on 35 pb-1 of collisions at s = 7 TeV collected with the ATLAS detector at the LHC, using the electron and muon decay channels of the boson.

  15. Long-Term and Rapid Radio Variability of the Blazar 3C 454.3 in 2010-2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorshkov, A. G.; Ipatov, A. V.; Ipatova, I. A.; Konnikova, V. K.; Mardyshkin, V. V.; Mingaliev, M. G.; Kharinov, M. A.

    2018-03-01

    The article presents the results of observations of the blazar 3C 454.3 (J2253+1608), obtained in 2010-2017 on the RATAN-600 radio telescope of the Special Astrophysical Observatory at 4.6, 8.2, 11.2, and 21.7 GHz and on the 32-m Zelenchuk and Badary radio telescopes of the Quasar VLBI Network of the Institute of Applied Astronomy at 4.84 and 8.57 GHz. Long-term variability of the radio emission is studied, as well as variability on time scales of several days and intraday variability (IDV). Two flares were observed in the long-term light curve, in 2010 and in 2015-2017. The flux density at 21.7 GHz increased by a factor of ten during these flares. The delay in the maximum of the first flare at 4.85 GHz relative to the maximum at 21.7 GHz was six months. The time scale for variability on the descending branch of the first flare at 21.7 GHz was τvar = 1.2 yrs, yielding an upper limit on the linear size of the emitting region of 0.4 pc, corresponding to an angular size of 0.06 mas. The brightness temperature during the flare exceeded the Compton limit, implying a Doppler factor δ = 3.5, consistent with the known presence of a relativistic jet oriented close to the line of sight. No significant variability on time scales from several days to several weeks was found in five sets of daily observations carried out over 120 days. IDV was detected at 8.57 GHz on the 32-m telescopes in 30 of 61 successful observing sessions, with the presence of IDV correlated with the maxima of flares. The characteristic time scale for the IDV was from two to ten hours. A number of IDV light curves show the presence of a time delay in the maxima in the light curves for simultaneous observations carried out on the Badary and Zelenchuk antennas, which are widely separated in longitude. This demonstrates that the IDV most like arises in the interstellar medium.

  16. Detection techniques for the H.E.S.S. II telescope, data modeling of gravitational lensing and emission of blazars in HE-VHE astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnacka, Anna

    2013-01-01

    This thesis presents the study of four aspects of high energy astronomy. The first part of my thesis is dedicated to an aspect of instrument development for imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes, namely the Level 2 trigger system of the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.). My work on the project focused on the algorithm development and the Monte Carlo simulations of the trigger system and overall instrument. The hardware implementation of the system is described and its expected performances are then evaluated. The H.E.S.S. array has been used to observe the blazar PKS 1510-089. The second part of my thesis deals with the data analysis and modeling of broad-band emission of this particular blazar. In part II of my thesis, I am presenting the analysis of the H.E.S.S. data: the light curve and spectrum of PKS 1510-089, together with the FERMI data and a collection of multi-wavelength data obtained with various instruments. I am presenting the model of PKS 1510-089 observations carried out during a flare recorded by H.E.S.S.. The model is based on a single zone internal shock scenario. The third part of my thesis deals with blazars observed by the FERMI-LAT, but from the point of view of other phenomena: a strong gravitational lensing. This part of my thesis shows the first evidence for gravitational lensing phenomena in high energy gamma-rays. This evidence comes from the observation of a gravitational lens system induced echo in the light curve of the distant blazar PKS 1830-211. Traditional methods for the estimation of time delays in gravitational lensing systems rely on the cross-correlation of the light curves from individual images. In my thesis, I used 300 MeV-30 GeV photons detected by the Fermi-LAT instrument. The FERMI-LAT instrument cannot separate the images of known lenses. The observed light curve is thus the superposition of individual image light curves. The FERMI-LAT instrument has the advantage of providing long, evenly spaced, time series

  17. Very Rapid High-amplitude Gamma-Ray Variability in Luminous Blazar PKS 1510-089 Studied with Fermi-LAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, S.; Stawarz, L.; Tanaka, Y.T.; Takahashi, T.; Madejski, G.; D' Ammando, F.

    2013-03-20

    Here we report on the detailed analysis of the γ-ray light curve of a luminous blazar PKS 1510-089 observed in the GeV range with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) onboard the Fermi satellite during the period 2011 September - December. By investigating the properties of the detected three major flares with the shortest possible time binning allowed by the photon statistics, we find a variety of temporal characteristics and variability patterns. This includes a clearly asymmetric profile (with a faster flux rise and a slower decay) of the flare resolved on sub-daily timescales, a superposition of many short uncorrelated flaring events forming the apparently coherent longer-duration outburst, and a huge single isolated outburst unresolved down to the timescale of three-hours. In the latter case we estimate the corresponding γ-ray flux doubling timescale to be below one hour, which is extreme and never previously reported for any active galaxy

  18. Modelling the flaring activity of the high-z, hard X-ray-selected blazar IGR J22517+2217: Flaring activity of IGR J22517+2217

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanzuisi, G.; De Rosa, A.; Ghisellini, G.; Panessa, F.

    2012-01-01

    We present new Suzaku and Fermi data and re-analysed archival hard X-ray data from the INTErnational Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) and Swift–Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) surveys to investigate the physical properties of the luminous, high-redshift, hard X-ray-selected blazar IGR J22517+2217, through the modelling of its broad-band spectral energy distribution (SED) in two different activity states. Through analysis of new Suzaku data and flux-selected data from archival hard X-ray observations, we build the source SED in two different states, one for the newly discovered flare that occurred in 2005 and one for the following quiescent period. Both SEDs are strongly dominated by the high-energy hump peaked at 10 20 –10 22 Hz, which is at least two orders of magnitude higher than the low-energy (synchrotron) one at 10 11 –10 14 Hz and varies by a factor of 10 between the two states. In both states the high-energy hump is modelled as inverse Compton emission between relativistic electrons and seed photons produced externally to the jet, while the synchrotron self-Compton component is found to be negligible. In our model the observed variability can be accounted for by a variation of the total number of emitting electrons and by a dissipation region radius changing from inside to outside the broad-line region as the luminosity increases. In its flaring activity, IGR J22517+2217 is revealed as one of the most powerful jets among the population of extreme, hard X-ray-selected, high-redshift blazars observed so far.

  19. BL Lacertae Objects Beyond Redshift 1.3 - UV-to-NIR Photometry and Photometric Redshift for Fermi/LAT Blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, A.; Schady, P.; Greiner, J.; Salvato, M.; Ajello, M.; Bottacini, E.; Gehrels, N.; Afonso, P. M. J.; Elliott, J.; Filgas, R.; hide

    2011-01-01

    Context. Observations of the gamma-ray sky with Fermi led to significant advances towards understanding blazars, the most extreme class of Active Galactic Nuclei. A large fraction of the population detected by Fermi is formed by BL Lacertae (BL Lac) objects, whose sample has always suffered from a severe redshift incompleteness due to the quasi-featureless optical spectra. Aims. Our goal is to provide a significant increase of the number of confirmed high-redshift BL Lac objects contained in the 2 LAC Fermi/LAT catalog. Methods. For 103 Fermi/LAT blazars, photometric redshifts using spectral energy distribution fitting have been obtained. The photometry includes 13 broad-band filters from the far ultraviolet to the near-IR observed with Swift/UVOT and the multi-channel imager GROND at the MPG/ESO 2.2m telescope. Data have been taken quasi-simultaneously and the remaining source-intrinsic variability has been corrected for. Results. We release the UV-to-near-IR 13-band photometry for all 103 sources and provide redshift constraints for 75 sources without previously known redshift. Out of those, eight have reliable photometric redshifts at z > or approx. 1.3, while for the other 67 sources we provide upper limits. Six of the former eight are BL Lac objects, which quadruples the sample of confirmed high-redshift BL Lac. This includes three sources with redshifts higher than the previous record for BL Lac, including CRATES J0402-2615, with the best-fit solution at z approx. = 1.9.

  20. SUSY simplified models at 14, 33, and 100 TeV proton colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, Timothy; Golling, Tobias; Hance, Mike; Henrichs, Anna; Howe, Kiel; Loyal, Joshua; Padhi, Sanjay; Wacker, Jay G.

    2014-01-01

    Results are presented for a variety of SUSY Simplified Models at the 14 TeV LHC as well as a 33 and 100 TeV proton collider. Our focus is on models whose signals are driven by colored production. We present projections of the upper limit and discovery reach in the gluino-neutralino (for both light and heavy flavor decays), squark-neutralino, and gluino-squark Simplified Model planes. Depending on the model a jets + E T miss , mono-jet, or same-sign di-lepton search is applied. The impact of pileup is explored. This study utilizes the Snowmass backgrounds and combined detector. Assuming 3000/,fb −1 of integrated luminosity, a gluino that decays to light flavor quarks can be discovered below 2.3 TeV at the 14 TeV LHC and below 11 TeV at a 100 TeV machine

  1. Hadron supercolliders: The 1-TeV scale and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quigg, C.

    1990-01-01

    Greater understanding of the connection between the weak and electromagnetic interactions is central to progress in elementary-particle physics. A definitive exploration of the mechanism for electroweak symmetry breaking will require collisions between fundamental constituents at energies on the order of 1 TeV. This goal drives the design of high-energy, high-luminosity hadron colliders that will be commissioned during the next decade, but by no means completely defines their scientific potential. These three lectures are devoted to a review of the standard-model issues that motivated an experimental assault on the 1-TeV scale, an introduction to the machines and the experimental environment they will present, and a survey of possibilities for measurement and discovery with a multi-TeV hadron collider. 72 refs., 29 figs

  2. Prospects for Galactic TeV Neutrino Astronomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kistler, Matthew D [Department of Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)

    2007-03-15

    In just the last few years, the catalog of known Galactic TeV gamma-ray sources has grown dramatically, due to the abilities of current air Cerenkov telescopes to measure both the spectrum and morphology of the TeV emission. While these properties can be very well measured, they are not necessarily sufficient to determine whether the gamma rays are produced by leptonic or hadronic processes. However, if the gamma-ray emission is hadronic, there must be an accompanying flux of neutrinos, which can be determined from the observed gamma-ray spectrum. The upcoming km3 neutrino telescopes will allow for a direct test of the gamma-ray production mechanism and the possibility of examining the highest possible energies, with important consequences for our understanding of Galactic cosmic-ray production.

  3. Prospects for Galactic TeV Neutrino Astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kistler, Matthew D

    2007-01-01

    In just the last few years, the catalog of known Galactic TeV gamma-ray sources has grown dramatically, due to the abilities of current air Cerenkov telescopes to measure both the spectrum and morphology of the TeV emission. While these properties can be very well measured, they are not necessarily sufficient to determine whether the gamma rays are produced by leptonic or hadronic processes. However, if the gamma-ray emission is hadronic, there must be an accompanying flux of neutrinos, which can be determined from the observed gamma-ray spectrum. The upcoming km3 neutrino telescopes will allow for a direct test of the gamma-ray production mechanism and the possibility of examining the highest possible energies, with important consequences for our understanding of Galactic cosmic-ray production

  4. Controlling multibunch beam breakup in TeV linear colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, K.A.; Ruth, R.D.

    1989-01-01

    To obtain luminosities near 10 34 cm/sup /minus/2/sec/sup /minus/1/ in a TeV linear collider, it will probably be essential to accelerate many bunches per RF fill in order to increase the energy transfer efficiency. In this paper we study the transverse dynamics of multiple bunches in a linac, and we examine the effects of several methods of controlling the beam blow-up that would otherwise be induced by transverse dipole wake fields. The methods we study are: damping the transverse modes, adjusting the frequency of the dominant transverse modes so that bunches may be placed near zero-crossings of the transverse wake, and bunch-to-bunch variation of the transverse focusing. We study the utility of these cures in the main linacs of an example of a TeV collider. 16 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  5. WW + jet at 14 and 100 TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, John [Fermilab; Miller, David [Glasgow U.; Robens, Tania [Dresden, Tech. U.

    2016-11-05

    In the current LHC run, an accurate understanding of Standard Model processes is extremely important. Processes including electroweak gauge bosons serve as standard candles for SM measurements, and equally constitute important backgrounds for Beyond-the-Standard Model (BSM) searches. We present here the next-to-leading order (NLO) QCD virtual contributions to W+W- + jet in an analytic format obtained through unitarity methods. We present results for the full process using the Monte Carlo event generator MCFM, and discuss total as well as differential cross-sections for the LHC with 14 TeV center-of-mass energy, as well as a future 100 TeV proton-proton machine.

  6. TeV Gamma Rays From Galactic Center Pulsars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooper, Dan [Fermilab; Cholis, Ilias [Johns Hopkins U.; Linden, Tim [Ohio State U., CCAPP

    2017-05-25

    Measurements of the nearby pulsars Geminga and B0656+14 by the HAWC and Milagro telescopes have revealed the presence of bright TeV-emitting halos surrounding these objects. If young and middle-aged pulsars near the Galactic Center transfer a similar fraction of their energy into TeV photons, then these sources could dominate the emission that is observed by HESS and other ground-based telescopes from the innermost ~10^2 parsecs of the Milky Way. In particular, both the spectral shape and the angular extent of this emission is consistent with TeV halos produced by a population of pulsars. The overall flux of this emission requires a birth rate of ~100-1000 neutron stars per Myr near the Galactic Center, in good agreement with recent estimates.

  7. Leptogenesis, dark matter and Higgs phenomenology at TeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, P.-H.; Sarkar, Utpal

    2008-01-01

    We propose an interesting model of neutrino masses to realize leptogenesis and dark matter at the TeV scale. A real scalar is introduced to naturally realize the Majorana masses of the right-handed neutrinos. We also include a new Higgs doublet that contributes to the dark matter of the universe. The neutrino masses come from the vacuum expectation value of the triplet Higgs scalar. The right-handed neutrinos are not constrained by the neutrino masses and hence they could generate leptogenesis at the TeV scale without subscribing to resonant leptogenesis. In our model, all new particles could be observable at the forthcoming Large Hardon Collider or the proposed future International Linear Collider

  8. Transplanckian collisions in TeV scale gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Rattazzi, Riccardo

    2004-01-01

    Collisions at transplanckian energies offer model independent tests of TeV scale gravity. One spectacular signal is given by black-hole production, though a full calculation of the corresponding cross- section is not yet available. Another signal is given by gravitational elastic scattering, which may be less spectacular but which can be nicely computed in the forward region using the eikonal approximation. In this talk I discuss the distinctive signatures of eikonalized scattering at future accelerators.

  9. 3.5 TeV : a good start!

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    To the pessimists out there, the 3.5 TeV starting energy of the LHC will be like a half-empty glass. However, the thousands of physicists working at the experiments certainly do not share these feelings. On the contrary, they are as excited as ever since they will be the first to observe what happens to matter in these (still) unprecedented conditions.

  10. Cosmic Ray and Tev Gamma Ray Generation by Quasar Remnants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldt, Elihu; Loewenstein, Michael; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Results from new broadband (radio to X-ray) high-resolution imaging studies of the dormant quasar remnant cores of nearby giant elliptical galaxies are now shown to permit the harboring of compact dynamos capable of generating the highest energy cosmic ray particles and associated curvature radiation of TeV photons. Confirmation would imply a global inflow of interstellar gas all the way to the accretion powered supermassive black hole at the center of the host galaxy.

  11. Precision muon detectors in the TeV region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, U.; Chen, M.; Fukushima, M.; Rykaczewski, H.; Ting, S.C.C.; Harris, M.; Wittgenstein, F.; Hofer, H.; Lecomte, P.

    1986-12-15

    We present a design study, based on our experience in the construction of the L3 detector at LEP, of a large solid angle muon detector for a high luminosity (> 10/sup 33/ cm/sup -2//sec) pp collider. It is shown that a resolution of ..delta..M/Mproportional to 1% can be reached for a one TeV particle T->..mu../sup +/..mu../sup -/. Hadron jets can also be measured.

  12. Electron-positron physics at 1 TeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, G.J.

    1988-03-01

    We discuss the motivation for TeV e + e/sup /minus// linear colliders, some aspects of their design, and the experimental consequences that follow from the design. After a brief discussion of the general physics environment, we consider the discovery potential of these colliders by examining three sample processes: the detection of new heavy leptons, standard Higgs bosons, and charged Higgs bosons. 13 refs., 22 figs., 5 tabs

  13. Flat beams in a 50 TeV hadron collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peggs, S.; Harrison, M.; Pilat, F.; Syphers, M.

    1997-01-01

    The basic beam dynamics of a next generation 50 x 50 TeV hadron collider based on a high field magnet approach have been outlined over the past several years. Radiation damping not only produces small emittances, but also flat beams, just as in electron machines. Based on open-quotes Snowmass 96close quotes parameters, we investigate the issues associated with flat beams in very high energy hadron colliders

  14. Phenomenology of NMSSM in TeV scale mirage mediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagimoto, Kei [Department of Physics, Kyushu University,744, Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Kobayashi, Tatsuo [Department of Physics, Hokkaido University,Kita 10, Nishi 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Makino, Hiroki; Okumura, Ken-ichi [Department of Physics, Kyushu University,744, Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Shimomura, Takashi [Faculty of Education and Culture, University of Miyazaki,1-1, Gakuen Kibanadai Nishi, Miyazaki 889-2192 (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    We study the next-to-minimal supersymmetric standard model (NMSSM) with the TeV scale mirage mediation, which is known as a solution for the little hierarchy problem in supersymmetry. Our previous study showed that 125 GeV Higgs boson is realized with O(10)% fine-tuning for 1.5 TeV gluino (1 TeV stop) mass. The μ term could be as large as 500 GeV without sacrificing the fine-tuning thanks to a cancellation mechanism. The singlet-doublet mixing is suppressed by tan β. In this paper, we further extend this analysis. We argue that approximate scale symmetries play a role behind the suppression of the singlet-doublet mixing. They reduce the mixing matrix to a simple form that is useful to understand the results of the numerical analysis. We perform a comprehensive analysis of the fine-tuning including the singlet sector by introducing a simple formula for the fine-tuning measure. This shows that the singlet mass of the least fine-tuning is favored by the LEP anomaly for moderate tan β. We also discuss prospects for the precision measurements of the Higgs couplings at LHC and ILC and direct/indirect dark matter searches in the model.

  15. LHC Report: First 13TeV collisions

    CERN Multimedia

    Jan Uythoven for the LHC team

    2015-01-01

    On Wednesday 20 May at around 10.30 p.m., protons collided in the LHC at the record-breaking energy of 13 TeV for the first time. These test collisions were to set up various systems and, in particular, the collimators. The tests and the technical adjustments will continue in the coming days.   The CCC was abuzz as the LHC experiments saw 13 TeV collisions.   Preparation for the first physics run at 6.5 TeV per beam has continued in the LHC. This included the set-up and verification of the machine protection systems. In addition, precise measurements of the overall focusing properties of the ring – the so-called “optics” – were performed by inducing oscillations of the bunches, and observing the response over many turns with the beam position monitors (BPM). The transverse beam size in the accelerator changes from the order of a millimetre around most of the circumference down to some tens of microns at the centre of the exper...

  16. Phenomenology of NMSSM in TeV scale mirage mediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagimoto, Kei; Kobayashi, Tatsuo; Makino, Hiroki; Okumura, Ken-ichi; Shimomura, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    We study the next-to-minimal supersymmetric standard model (NMSSM) with the TeV scale mirage mediation, which is known as a solution for the little hierarchy problem in supersymmetry. Our previous study showed that 125 GeV Higgs boson is realized with O(10)% fine-tuning for 1.5 TeV gluino (1 TeV stop) mass. The μ term could be as large as 500 GeV without sacrificing the fine-tuning thanks to a cancellation mechanism. The singlet-doublet mixing is suppressed by tan β. In this paper, we further extend this analysis. We argue that approximate scale symmetries play a role behind the suppression of the singlet-doublet mixing. They reduce the mixing matrix to a simple form that is useful to understand the results of the numerical analysis. We perform a comprehensive analysis of the fine-tuning including the singlet sector by introducing a simple formula for the fine-tuning measure. This shows that the singlet mass of the least fine-tuning is favored by the LEP anomaly for moderate tan β. We also discuss prospects for the precision measurements of the Higgs couplings at LHC and ILC and direct/indirect dark matter searches in the model.

  17. TeV Particle Astrophysics 2010, Booklet of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    None, C.; Davide Ferella, A.; Pato, M.; Catena, R.; Salucci, P.; Rielage, K.; Kobayashi, K.; Degunda, U.; Estrada, J.; Yue, Q.; Benbow, W.; Maestro, P.; Berghaus, P.; Benzvi, S.; Gallant, Y.; Coniglione, R.; Frey, R.; Besson, D.; Odrowski, S.; Ernenwein, J.P.; Dios Zornosa, J. de; Colnard, C.; Cavalcante de Souza, J.; Fraija, N.; Cerdeno, D.; Moroi, T.; Kumar, J.; Slatyer, T.; Yaguna, C.; Thomson, G.; Tameda, Y.; Taylor, A.; Giacinti, G.; Calvez, A.; Kotera, K.; Shinozaki, K.; Aharonian, F.; Essey, W.; Ahlers, M.; Fargion, D.; Canadas, B.; Boehm, C.; Palomares-Ruiz, S.; Panci, P.; Sanchez-Conde, M.A.; Hensley, B.; Vivier, M.; Hooper, D.; Finkbeiner, D.; Dobler, G.; Malyshev, D.; Mertsch, P.; Giannios, D.; Dalton, M.; Casandijan, J.M.; Mukherjee, R.; Morlino, G.; Ando, S.; Gilmore, R.; Medina, C.; Weitzel, Q.; Caprioli, D.; Vovk, I.; Vincent, S.; Delahaye, T.; Lavalle, J.; Galli, S.; Crocker, R.; Catena, R.; Cholis, I.; Sandick, P.; Rydberg, C.E.; Hulss, J.P.; Danninger, M.; Tran, D.; Spolyar, D.; Belanger, G.; Ronga, F.; Montanino, D.; Fornasa, M.; Regoes, E.; Caprioli, D.; Morlino, G.; Ostapchenko, S.; Kawanaka, N.; Kalli, S.; Whitehorn, N.; Boutayeb, B.; Casanellas, J.; Lopes, I.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the conference is to bring together theorists and experimentalists working in the fields of Particle Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology, with a shared interest in physical processes at the TeV energy scale. After decades of theoretical speculation, the exploration of the TeV energy frontier has now in fact begun, with the results provided by ground-based and space-born observatories of gamma-rays (Fermi, HESS, Magic, Veritas, Cangaroo, Milagro), anti-matter (PAMELA, ATIC, HESS and soon AMS-02) and neutrinos (IceCube, Antares), with a large number of ongoing direct Dark Matter search experiments exploiting different detection techniques, and with the TeV particle accelerators Tevatron and the Large Hadron Collider. The physics underlying these experiments involves many intertwined issues, such as the nature of Dark Matter, Physics beyond the Standard Model, the origin of Cosmic Rays and the distribution of Dark and visible matter in the Universe. This document gathers only the abstracts of the papers. (authors)

  18. B-factory via conversion of 1-TeV electron beams into 1-TeV photon beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mtingwa, S.K.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the study of CP violation and rare decays of beauty particles which are pressing problems in high-energy physics. It is known that one should analyze beauty decays of at least the order of 10 8 or 19 9 . Thus, numerous proposals for beauty factories are being discussed now, although some of these projects are likely to supply much smaller numbers of beauty events. At the same time, at present several projects, such as CLIC (Cern Linear Collider), expect to build linear e + e - colliders with beam energies up to 1 TeV. The aim of this work is to show that the possibility exists of using the unique features of the discussed teraelectron volt electron linacs to obtain a facility for the production of beauty via photoproduction of nuclei. Unique features of high-energy photoproduction are as follows. The rather large fraction (∼2 x 10 -4 ) of events with beauty at E γ ∼ 1 TeV. Beauty particles are produced with about equally large momenta ∼0.05 E γ and at rather large transverse momenta p t ∼ m b . The following scheme can be envisioned. The 1-TeV electron beam is Compton scattered off a low-energy (∼ 1-eV) laser pulse. The laser photons are thus converted into a highly collimated beam of energy E γ ∼ E e , directed along the electron's original line of motion. Such schemes to produce high-energy photon beams have been discussed. These 1-TeV photons are subsequently scattered onto a nuclear target to produce b bar b pairs

  19. Hadronic origin of the TeV flare of M87 in April 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahu, Sarira [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Circuito Exterior, C.U., A., Postal 70-543, Mexico, DF (Mexico); Palacios, Eddie [Universidad Veracruzana, Facultad de Fisica e Inteligencia Artificial, Xalapa, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2015-02-01

    M87 is a giant radio galaxy with FR-I morphology. It underwent three episodes of TeV flaring in recent years with the strongest one in April 2010 which was jointly monitored by MAGIC, VERITAS and H.E.S.S. We explain its spectral energy distribution in the energy range 0.3-5 TeV by assuming that the flaring occurs in the innermost region of the jet. In this region the low energy SSC photons serve as the target for the Fermi-accelerated high energy protons of energy ≤30 TeV to form a delta resonance. The TeV photons are produced from the subsequent decay of the delta resonance to neutral pions. In this scenario the observed TeV flux of April 2010 flare is fitted very well. (orig.)

  20. Hadronic origin of the TeV flare of M87 in April 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahu, Sarira; Palacios, Eddie

    2015-01-01

    M87 is a giant radio galaxy with FR-I morphology. It underwent three episodes of TeV flaring in recent years with the strongest one in April 2010 which was jointly monitored by MAGIC, VERITAS and H.E.S.S. We explain its spectral energy distribution in the energy range 0.3-5 TeV by assuming that the flaring occurs in the innermost region of the jet. In this region the low energy SSC photons serve as the target for the Fermi-accelerated high energy protons of energy ≤30 TeV to form a delta resonance. The TeV photons are produced from the subsequent decay of the delta resonance to neutral pions. In this scenario the observed TeV flux of April 2010 flare is fitted very well. (orig.)

  1. Plot of invariant mass distribution of diphoton candidates after all selections of the inclusive analysis for the combined 7 TeV and 8 TeV data

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS, Collaboration

    2013-01-01

    Invariant mass distribution of diphoton candidates after all selections of the inclusive analysis for the combined 7 TeV and 8 TeV data. The result of a fit to the data with the sum of a SM Higgs boson signal (with mH =126.8 GeV and free signal strength) and background is superimposed. The residuals of the data with respect to the fitted background are displayed in the lower panel.

  2. Measurement of the gamma ray flux between 50 and 350 GeV from the Mrk 501 Blazar with the experiment CELESTE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brion, E.

    2005-10-01

    The blazar Mrk 501 has a non-thermal emission spectrum with 2 components. The first one, located between radio waves and X-rays, is due to the synchrotron emission of the magnetized jet, while the second one, emitted in the high energy gamma-ray domain, is still not fully understood. Until 1999, this last domain had only been covered between 100 MeV and 4 GeV as well as above 300 GeV. This energy gap was filled by the creation of the CELESTE experiment, recording Cherenkov emission produced by gamma-rays between 50 and 350 GeV penetrating the atmosphere. Mrk 501, which has a variable emission, was observed in 2000 and 2001, and was detected in 2000. A flux has been calculated which constrains the high energy emission models, presented in this thesis. Crab nebula flux measurements validate the method since this source is the standard candle for atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. Analysis cuts for Mrk 501 are determined using data from the blazar Mrk 421, which has nearly the same declination as Mrk 501. Finally, improved detector simulations were used to calculate the effective area of the instrument, taking the atmosphere quality into account, yielding the flux for Mrk 501 during observations taken between April and June 2000. This flux was compared with a synchrotron self-Compton emission model and with data taken in X-rays. It shows that Mrk 501 was slightly more active during this period compared to the remainder of the year and to the year 2001. A flux upper limit is calculated for other measurements. This is the first measurement in the energy range 50 - 350 GeV (this range represents the limits in energy for which the trigger rate, that is the convolution between the source spectrum and the effective area of the instrument, is higher than 20% of the trigger maximum). It helps to constrain the position of the inverse Compton emission maximum and tends to favor, in this particular case, X- and gamma-ray emission processes from 2 different electron populations

  3. 2 TeV walking technirho at LHC?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidenori S. Fukano

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The ATLAS collaboration has recently reported an excess of about 2.5 σ global significance at around 2 TeV in the diboson channel with the boson-tagged fat dijets, which may imply a new resonance beyond the standard model. We provide a possible explanation of the excess as the isospin-triplet technivector mesons (technirhos, denoted as ρΠ±,3 of the walking technicolor in the case of the one-family model as a benchmark. As the effective theory for the walking technicolor at the scales relevant to the LHC experiment, we take a scale-invariant version of the hidden local symmetry model so constructed as to accommodate technipions, technivector mesons, and the technidilaton in such a way that the model respects spontaneously broken chiral and scale symmetries of the underlying walking technicolor. In particular, the technidilaton, a (pseudo Nambu–Goldstone boson of the (approximate scale symmetry predicted in the walking technicolor, has been shown to be successfully identified with the 125 GeV Higgs. Currently available LHC limits on those technihadrons are used to fix the couplings of technivector mesons to the standard-model fermions and weak gauge bosons. We find that the technirhos are mainly produced through the Drell–Yan process and predominantly decay to the dibosons, which accounts for the currently reported excess at around 2 TeV. The consistency with the electroweak precision test and other possible discovery channels of the 2 TeV technirhos are also addressed.

  4. Probing TeV gravity with the ATLAS detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lendermann, Victor

    2009-01-01

    Models with compactified extra space dimensions offer a new way to address outstanding problems in and beyond the Standard Model. In these models, the strength of gravity is strongly increased at small distances, which opens up the possibility of observing quantum gravity effects in the TeV energy range reachable by the LHC. One of the most spectacular phenomena would be the production of microscopic black holes. Searches for black holes are foreseen in the ATLAS experiment with the start-up of data taking in 2009. We present feasibility studies for the triggering, selection and reconstruction of the black hole event topologies, the black hole discovery potential and their identification.

  5. Study of Diffractive Bremsstrahlung at 13 TeV LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Czekierda, Sabina

    2016-01-01

    Feasibility studies of the diffractive bremsstrahlung measurement at the LHC at $\\sqrt s$ = 13 TeV are presented. The method considered for this measurement uses the ATLAS detector and, in particular, the Zero Degree Calorimeter and the ATLAS Forward Proton detectors. The signal and background processes were generated with GenEx and PYTHIA 8.2 generators, respectively. The obtained fiducial cross sections are 1.2 ub for the signal and 6 ub for the background. Further reduction of the background is possible by the optimisation of event selection cuts.

  6. A 30 GHz 5-TeV Linear Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, Perry B

    2003-01-01

    We present parameters for a linear collider with a 3 to 5 TeV center-of-mass energy that utilizes conventional rf technology operating at a frequency around 30 GHz. We discuss the scaling laws and assumed limitations that lead to the parameters described and we compare the merits and liabilities of different technological options including rf power source, accelerator structure, and final focus system design. Finally, we outline the components of the collider while specifying the required alignment and construction tolerances

  7. MAXI INVESTIGATION INTO THE LONG-TERM X-RAY VARIABILITY FROM THE VERY-HIGH-ENERGY γ-RAY BLAZAR Mrk 421

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isobe, Naoki [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Sato, Ryosuke; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Hayashida, Masaaki; Shidatsu, Megumi; Kawamuro, Taiki [Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Ueno, Shiro; Matsuoka, Masaru [ISS Science Project Office, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), 2-1-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8505 (Japan); Sugizaki, Mutsumi; Sugimoto, Juri; Mihara, Tatehiro [MAXI team, Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Negoro, Hitoshi, E-mail: n-isobe@ir.isas.jaxa.jp [Department of Physics, Nihon University, 1-8-14 Kanda-Surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-8308 (Japan)

    2015-01-01

    The archetypical very-high-energy γ-ray blazar Mrk 421 was monitored for more than three years with the Gas Slit Camera on board Monitor of All Sky X-ray Image (MAXI), and its long-term X-ray variability was investigated. The MAXI light curve in the 3-10 keV range was transformed into the periodogram in the frequency range f = 1 × 10{sup –8}-2 × 10{sup –6} Hz. The artifacts on the periodogram, resulting from data gaps in the observed light curve, were extensively simulated for variations with a power-law-like power spectrum density (PSD). By comparing the observed and simulated periodograms, the PSD index was evaluated as α = 1.60 ± 0.25. This index is smaller than that obtained in the higher-frequency range (f ≳ 1 × 10{sup –5} Hz), namely, α = 2.14 ± 0.06 in the 1998 ASCA observation of the object. The MAXI data impose a lower limit on the PSD break at f {sub b} = 5 × 10{sup –6} Hz, consistent with the break of f {sub b} = 9.5 × 10{sup –6} Hz suggested from the ASCA data. The low-frequency PSD index of Mrk 421 derived with MAXI falls well within the range of typical values among nearby Seyfert galaxies (α = 1-2). The physical implications from these results are briefly discussed.

  8. The Optical Variability of the Blazar 3C 454.3 over Three Decades from the Colgate University Foggy Bottom Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balonek, Thomas J.; Weaver, Zachary R.; Didio, Nicholas; Jenks, Leah; Morris, Carolyn; Stahlin, Ryan; Zagorac, Jovana; Chapman, Katie; D'Auteuil, Brian; Karnes, Katherine L.; Reding, Joshua S.; Sabyr, Alina; Zhang, Saiyang; Boni, Samantha; Rose, Caitlin; Rilinger, Anneliese

    2017-01-01

    Using images from the ongoing quasar monitoring program at Colgate University’s Foggy Bottom Observatory (FBO), we present a twenty-eight year light curve of the blazar 3C 454.3 in Johnson-Cousins V, R, and I filters. Using additional data from several sources, we construct an historic light curve going back to 1899. We compare the variations in several outbursts beginning with the great outburst of 2005. Following its historic minimum in 2012 (R=16.4 magnitude), 3C 454.3 has exhibited several outbursts, always remaining above a base level of 15.8 magnitude. Short timescale activity with duration of hours to days and brightness range of a magnitude or smaller are superposed on the longer-term events. We investigate the characteristic timescales and intensities of these events. We observe V-R and R-I color index variations that are correlated with brightness. The most recent flare, June 2016, has been studied by Weaver & Balonek (2017, at this conference). We gratefully acknowledge support through Colgate University’s Justus and Jayne Schlichting Student Research and NASC Division funds, a National Science Foundation REU grant (AST-1005024) to the Keck Northeast Astronomy Consortium, and the NASA / New York Space Grant.

  9. Life is good at 13 TeV

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2014-01-01

    The second run of the LHC will start in 2015, when the beams of protons will reach 6.5 TeV of energy and the collisions will happen at 13 TeV. What will physicists look for after the discovery of the Higgs boson?   Life beyond the discovery of the Higgs boson is full of exciting possibilities. “When we were looking for the Higgs boson, we knew it would be difficult to discover but we also knew where to search and how,” says Ignatios Antoniadis, Head of the Theory Unit of CERN’s Physics Department. “The electroweak precision tests of LEP and other experiments had already suggested that the Higgs boson should exist and should be light, not very far from the LEP boundary. Now that we have completed the picture of the Standard Model, we are entering a totally new territory.” The new territory is what scientists call “beyond the Standard Model” physics. It is populated by open-ended questions, including: What is Dark Matter mad...

  10. Flavor and top physics @ 100 TeV workshop

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    A 100 TeV collider will have the ability to probe directly our microscopic nature at distances well beyond that of the LHC or any other known experiment. It would thus become the most powerful microscope ever built. Furthermore, such a machine would be potentially capable of producing more than 1011 tops and an order of magnitude more bottom and charm quarks than the LHC. Thus, it would allow for an exploration of the complementary weakly coupled regime with unprecedented accuracy. This fantastic large number of heavy flavor object in principle might lead to qualitatively new ways of looking for non-Standard Model physics, in a way that complement known existing experimental strategies as well as the searches at the boundary of the energy frontier. We therefore propose to organise a 4-day focused workshop during March 4 - 7, 2015 at the IHEP that would bring world experts, in both theory and experiment, to discuss top and flavor physics at a 100 TeV future facility.

  11. Little String Theory at a TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Antoniadis, Ignatios; Giveon, Amit; Antoniadis, Ignatios; Dimopoulos, Savas; Giveon, Amit

    2001-01-01

    We propose a framework where the string scale as well as all compact dimensions are at the electroweak scale $\\sim$ TeV$^{-1}$. The weakness of gravity is attributed to the small value of the string coupling $g_s \\sim 10^{-16}$, presumably a remnant of the dilaton's runaway behavior, suggesting the possibility of a common solution to the hierarchy and dilaton-runaway problems. In spite of the small $g_s$, in type II string theories with gauge interactions localized in the vicinity of NS5-branes, the standard model gauge couplings are of order one and are associated with the sizes of compact dimensions. At a TeV these theories exhibit higher dimensional and stringy behavior. The models are holographically dual to a higher dimensional non-critical string theory and this can be used to compute the experimentally accessible spectrum and self-couplings of the little strings. In spite of the stringy behavior, gravity remains weak and can be ignored at collider energies. The Damour-Polyakov mechanism is an automatic...

  12. B-tagging in CMS at 13 TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchesini, Ivan; Schmidt, Alexander; Schumann, Svenja [Universitaet Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    At the LHC the CMS experiment investigates high energy p-p-collisions to study the Standard Model (SM) of particles physics and to search for physics beyond the Standard Model (BSM). The collisions of protons often result in processes with b quarks which hadronize in jets. The identification of these jets from b quarks is very important for BSM searches and SM measurements because it can reduce the background a lot. Based on the characteristics of b hadrons, such as long life time or presence of soft leptons, CMS has various algorithms to select jets form b quarks. The tracking system, the lepton identification and the segmented calorimeters of the CMS detector are excellent to identify jets from b quarks (b-tagging). The efficiencies of the different algorithms and the scale factors are measured with the 13 TeV data which are shown in this talk. The commissioning of b-tagging in boosted topologies at 13 TeV is also presented.

  13. hh+ {Jet} production at 100 TeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Shankha; Englert, Christoph; Mangano, Michelangelo L.; Selvaggi, Michele; Spannowsky, Michael

    2018-04-01

    Higgs pair production is a crucial phenomenological process in deciphering the nature of the TeV scale and the mechanism underlying electroweak symmetry breaking. At the Large Hadron Collider, this process is statistically limited. Pushing the energy frontier beyond the LHC's reach will create new opportunities to exploit the rich phenomenology at higher centre-of-mass energies and luminosities. In this work, we perform a comparative analysis of the hh+ {jet} channel at a future 100 TeV hadron collider. We focus on the hh→ b\\bar{b} b\\bar{b} and hh → b\\bar{b} τ ^+τ ^- channels and employ a range of analysis techniques to estimate the sensitivity potential that can be gained by including this jet-associated Higgs pair production to the list of sensitive collider processes in such an environment. In particular, we observe that hh → b\\bar{b} τ ^+τ ^- in the boosted regime exhibits a large sensitivity to the Higgs boson self-coupling and the Higgs self-coupling could be constrained at the 8% level in this channel alone.

  14. Flavor at the TeV scale with extra dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Hall, Lawrence; Smith, David; Weiner, Neal

    2000-01-01

    Theories where the standard model fields reside on a 3-brane, with a low fundamental cutoff and extra dimensions, provide alternative solutions to the gauge hierarchy problem. However, generating flavor at the TeV scale while avoiding flavor-changing difficulties appears prohibitively difficult at first sight. We argue to the contrary that this picture allows us to lower flavor physics close to the TeV scale. Small Yukawa couplings are generated by ''shining'' badly broken flavor symmetries from distant branes, and flavor and CP-violating processes are adequately suppressed by these symmetries. We further show how the extra dimensions avoid four dimensional disasters associated with light fields charged under flavor. We construct elegant and realistic theories of flavor based on the maximal U(3) 5 flavor symmetry which naturally generate the simultaneous hierarchy of masses and mixing angles. Finally, we introduce a new framework for predictive theories of flavor, where our 3-brane is embedded within highly symmetrical configurations of higher-dimensional branes. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  15. Physics of ep collisions in the TeV energy range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altarelli, G.; Mele, B.; Rueckl, R.

    1984-01-01

    We study the physics of electron-proton collisions in the range of centre-of-mass energies between √s approx.= 0.3 TeV (HERA) and √s approx.= (1-2) TeV. The latter energies would be achieved if the electron or positron beam of LEP [Esub(e) approx.= (50-100) GeV] is made to collide with the proton beam of LHC [Esub(p) approx.= (5-10) TeV]. (orig.)

  16. 'TeV Gamma-ray Crisis' and an Anisotropic Space Model

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Gi-Chol; Kamoshita, Jun-ichi; Matsunaga, Mariko; Sugamoto, Akio; Watanabe, Isamu

    2004-01-01

    To solve the `TeV gamma crisis', we examine a model whose one spatial direction is discretized at a high energy scale. Assuming the standard extra-galactic IR photon distribution, we evaluate the mean free-path of a energetic photon which acquires an effective mass in the model. For a wide range of the value of the lattice energy scale between a few TeV and around $10^{10}$ GeV, the mean free-path of a TeV energy photon can be enlarged enough to solve the `crisis'. Taking into account the eff...

  17. Di-muon event recorded by the CMS detector (Run 2, 13 TeV)

    CERN Multimedia

    Mc Cauley, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This image shows a collision event with the largest-mass muon pair so far observed by the CMS detector in proton-collision data collected in 2015. The mass of the di-muon system is 2.4 TeV. One muon, with a transverse momentum of 0.7 TeV, goes through the Drift Tubes in the central region, while the second, with a transverse momentum of 1.0 TeV, hits the Cathode Strip Chambers in the forward region. Both muons satisfy the high-transverse-momentum muon selection criteria.

  18. First 13TeV collisions, for tuning the LHC, seen by CMS

    CERN Multimedia

    McCauley, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Late at night on 20 May 2015, the LHC delivered its first 13TeV collisions to the detectors, to tune the accelerator as part of its commissioning. These event show the collisions recorded by CMS on 20 May (without the Tracker switched on) and on 21 May (with the Tracker). Read more: - http://home.web.cern.ch/about/updates/2015/05/protons-set-collide-13-tev-prepare-physics - http://home.web.cern.ch/about/updates/2015/05/first-images-collisions-13-tev

  19. A SEP tag enhances the expression, solubility and yield of recombinant TEV protease without altering its activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nautiyal, Kalpana; Kuroda, Yutaka

    2018-05-25

    Tobacco Etch Virus (TEV) protease is used in the purification of recombinant proteins, but its usage is often hampered by solubility issues. Here, we report a short, 12-residue solubility enhancing peptide (SEP) tag attached at the C-terminus of TEV (TEV-C9R). We assessed the effects of the C9R tag on the biophysical and biochemical characteristics of TEV. The yield of HPLC purified TEV-C9R expressed in E. coli grown in 200 mL LB or TB media was between 10 and 13 mg, which was up to 6.5 times higher than the yield of the untagged TEV (untagged-TEV). TEV-C9R was active over a pH range of 5-8, which was wider than that of the commonly used thrombin, and it remained active upon incubation at 60 °C much longer than the untagged-TEV, which aggregated at this temperature. Static and dynamic light scattering demonstrated the higher solubility of purified TEV-C9R. Furthermore, the thermal unfolding of TEV-C9R, as assessed by circular dichroism at pH 4.7, was almost perfectly reversible, in contrast to that of untagged-TEV, which aggregated at high temperature. These results demonstrate the improved biophysical and biochemical characteristics of TEV-C9R originating from higher solubility and provide another example of how SEP tags can enhance enzyme solubility without altering its activity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Search for new physics with tau final states at 13 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Mao, Zaixing

    2016-01-01

    Searches for four new particles: Sequential Standard Model W' and Z' bosons, right-handed W bosons and third-generation leptoquarks; are performed using pp collision data at $\\sqrt{s} = 13$ TeV recored by the CMS detector at the LHC. The events observed are found to be in good agreement with the SM predictions. At 95\\% confidence level, new mass exclusions are set for $\\text{W'}_{\\text{SSM}}$ between 1 to 3.3 TeV, for $\\text{Z'}_{\\text{SSM}}$ up to 2.1 TeV, for $\\text{W}_\\text{R}$ up to 3.2 TeV, when the $N_{\\tau}$ mass is half the mass of $\\text{W}_\\text{R}$, and for third-generation leptoquarks up to 900 GeV.

  1. Heavy Flavour distributions from CMS with 2017 data at 13 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    We report plots on heavy flavor from the data collected in 2017 by CMS at LHC at 13 TeV. B meson performance plots in two different periods, characterized by different instantaneous luminosity are included.

  2. Theoretical predictions for pp and panti p elastic scattering in the TeV energy domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourrely, C.; Martin, A.

    1984-01-01

    We present theoretical predictions on total cross-sections and elastic scattering in the TeV energy domain obtained from the present experimental situation at the ISR and the panti p Collider. (orig.)

  3. TeV electron measurement with CREST experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Nahee; Anderson, T.; Bower, C.; Coutu, S.; Gennaro, J.; Geske, M.; Muller, D.; Musser, J.; Nutter, S.

    CREST, the Cosmic Ray Electron Synchrotron Telescope is a balloon-borne experiment de-signed to measure the spectrum of multi-TeV electrons by the detection of the x-ray synchrotron photons generated in the magnetic field of the Earth. Electrons in the TeV range are expected to reflect the properties of local sources because fluxes from remote locations are suppressed by radiative losses during propagation. Since CREST needs to intersect only a portion of the kilometers-long trail of photons generated by the high-energy electron, the method yields a larger effective area than the physical size of the detector, boosting detection areas. The in-strument is composed of an array of 1024 BaF2 crystals and a set of scintillating veto counters. A long duration balloon flight in Antarctica is currently planned for the 2010-11 season.

  4. Measurement of Cosmic-Ray TeV Electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubnell, Michael; Anderson, T.; Bower, C.; Coutu, S.; Gennaro, J.; Geske, M.; Mueller, D.; Musser, J.; Nutter, S.; Park, N.; Tarle, G.; Wakely, S.

    2011-09-01

    The Cosmic Ray Electron Synchrotron Telescope (CREST) high-altitude balloon experiment is a pathfinding effort to detect for the first time multi-TeV cosmic-ray electrons. At these energies distant sources will not contribute to the local electron spectrum due to the strong energy losses of the electrons and thus TeV observations will reflect the distribution and abundance of nearby acceleration sites. CREST will detect electrons indirectly by measuring the characteristic synchrotron photons generated in the Earth's magnetic field. The instrument consist of an array of 1024 BaF2 crystals viewed by photomultiplier tubes surrounded by a hermetic scintillator shield. Since the primary electron itself need not traverse the payload, an effective detection area is achieved that is several times the nominal 6.4 m2 instrument. CREST is scheduled to fly in a long duration circumpolar orbit over Antarctica during the 2011-12 season.

  5. FEL based photon collider of TeV energy range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saldin, E.L.; Shnejdmiller, E.A.; Sarantsev, V.P.; Yurkov, M.V.

    1994-01-01

    Physical principles of operation of high energy photon linear colliders (PLC) based on the Compton backscattering of laser photons on high energy electrons are discussed. The main emphasis is put on the analysis of a possibility to construct the PLC with the center of mass energy 0.5-2 TeV. Free electron laser (FEL) is considered as a source of primary photons. Proposed FEL system consists of a tunable FEL oscillator (output power ∼ 1 - 10 MW) with subsequent amplification of the master signal in a FEL amplifier up to the power ∼ 3 x 10 11 W. The FEL parameters are optimized, restrictions on the electron beam and FEL magnetic system parameters are formulated and problems of technical realization are discussed. It is shown that the FEL technique provides the most suitable way to construct photon linear collider on the base of future generation linear collider. 22 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Inclusive photon cross section at 13 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Cueto , Ana; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of prompt photon production in proton-proton collisions provide a testing ground for perturbative QCD with a hard colourless probe. This kind of measurements were recently used to investigate novel approaches to the description of parton radiation, showcasing the importance of resummation of threshold logarithms in QCD and of electroweak corrections, further they are also sensitive at leading order to the gluon density in the proton. ATLAS has made public very recently the first measurements of inclusive photon production in the new kinematic regime opened by the 13 TeV collisions with an integrated luminosity of 3.2 fb^{-1}. The inclusive photo-production cross section is measured as a function of the photon transverse energy above 125 GeV in different regions of photon pseudorapidity. Next-to-leading-order perturbative QCD and Monte Carlo event-generator predictions are compared to the measured cross section and provide an adequate description of the data.

  7. Jet algorithms performance in 13 TeV data

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The performance of jet algorithms with data collected by the CMS detector at the LHC in 2015 with a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV, corresponding to 2.3 fb$^{-1}$ of integrated luminosity, is reported. The criteria used to reject jets originating from detector noise are discussed and the efficiency and noise jet rejection rate are measured. A likelihood discriminant designed to differentiate jets initiated by light-quark partons from jets initiated from gluons is studied. A multivariate discriminator is built to distinguish jets initiated by a single high $p_{\\mathrm{T}}$ quark or gluon from jets originating from the overlap of multiple low $p_{\\mathrm{T}}$ particles from non-primary vertices (pileup jets). Algorithms used to identify large radius jets reconstructed from the decay products of highly Lorentz boosted W bosons and top quarks are discussed, and the efficiency and background rejection rates of these algorithms are measured.

  8. ATLAS Physics Objects Status and Performance at 13 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Riu, Imma; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Important for physics analyses is the understanding and commissioning of physics objects. A first look at the 13 TeV data has proved a reasonably good Monte Carlo modelling of the objects and they have been used for first physics measurements and searches beyond the Standard Model. This talk is to be given at the Top Workshop and provides an overview of the status and performance of the physics objects with the early 13 TeV data taken in summer 2015.

  9. Multi-jet event recorded by the CMS detector (Run 2, 13 TeV)

    CERN Multimedia

    Mc Cauley, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This image shows a high-multiplicity collision event observed by the CMS detector in the search for microscopic black holes, in collision data recorded in 2015. The event contains 12 jets with transverse momenta greater than 50 GeV each, and the mass of this system is 6.4 TeV. The scalar sum of the transverse energies of all energetic objects in the event (including missing transverse energy) is 5.4 TeV.

  10. ATLAS event at 13 TeV - Highest mass dijets resonance event in 2015 data

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The highest-mass, central dijet event passing the dijet resonance selection collected in 2015 (Event 1273922482, Run 280673) : the two central high-pT jets have an invariant mass of 6.9 TeV, the two leading jets have a pT of 3.2 TeV. The missing transverse momentum in this event is 46 GeV.

  11. ATLAS event at 13 TeV - Highest mass dijets angular event in 2015 data

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The highest-mass dijet event passing the angular selection collected in 2015 (Event 478442529, Run 280464): the two central high-pT jets have an invariant mass of 7.9 TeV, the three leading jets have a pT of 1.99, 1.86 and 0.74 TeV respectively. The missing transverse momentum in this event is 46 GeV

  12. GeV partons and TeV hexons from a topological viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chew, G.F.; Issler, D.; Nicolescu, B.; Poenaru, V.

    1984-04-01

    An elementary TeV topological hadron supermultiplet breaks into GeV-scale mesons, baryons and baryoniums and TeV-scale hexons (extremely-heavy bosons corresponding to six topological constituents). Phenomena on the GeV scale are describable by parton graphs which give meaning to constituent quarks of QCD type. Hexons are responsible - through mixing - for electroweak-boson masses, may be responsible for cosmic-ray Centauro events, and promise novel TeV accelerator phenomena. 25 references

  13. GeV partons and TeV hexons from a topological viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chew, G.F.; Issler, D.; Nicolescu, B.; Poenaru, V.

    1984-04-01

    An elementary TeV topological hadron supermultiplet breaks into GeV-scale mesons, baryons and baryoniums and TeV-scale ''hexons'' (extremely-heavy bosons corresponding to six topological constituents). Phenomena on the GeV scale are described by parton graphs which give meaning to constituent quarks of QCD type. Hexons are responsible -through mixing- for electroweak-bosons masses, may be responsible for cosmic-ray Centauro events, and promise novel TeV accelerator phenomena

  14. Multi-Wave Luminosity of High-Synchrotron-Peaked TeV BL Lacs ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    LIR, Lγ) in the radio, near-infrared and γ-ray wave bands for HSP. TeV BL Lacs. The results show that there are significant intrinsic cor- relations between LR and Lγ and between LIR and Lγ in all states. (high/average/low), and suggest that for HSP TeV BL Lacs, the Syn- chrotron Self-Compton radiation (SSC) is the main ...

  15. Measurement of the diboson production cross section at 8TeV and 13TeV and limits on anomalous triple gauge couplings with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Buttinger, William; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of the cross sections of the production of pairs of electroweak gauge bosons at the LHC constitute stringent tests of the electroweak sector of the Standard Model and provide a model-independent means to search for new physics at the TeV scale. The ATLAS collaboration has performed new measurements of integrated and differential cross sections of the production of heavy di-boson pairs in fully-leptonic and semi-leptonic final states at centre-of-mass energies of 8 and 13 TeV. We present in particular new measurements of WW and WZ in semi-leptonic or hadronic decays using standard or boosted technologies and new measurements of the inclusive and differential ZZ cross section at 13 TeV in various decay modes. The results are compared to predictions at NLO (and NNLO) in pQCD and provide constraints on new physics, by setting limits on anomalous triple gauge couplings.

  16. TEV GAMMA-RAY OBSERVATIONS OF THE GALACTIC CENTER RIDGE BY VERITAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archer, A.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V. [Department of Physics, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Benbow, W.; Cerruti, M. [Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Amado, AZ 85645 (United States); Bird, R.; Collins-Hughes, E. [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Buchovecky, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Byrum, K. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Cardenzana, J. V; Eisch, J. D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Chen, X. [Institute of Physics and Astronomy, University of Potsdam, D-14476 Potsdam-Golm (Germany); Ciupik, L. [Astronomy Department, Adler Planetarium and Astronomy Museum, Chicago, IL 60605 (United States); Connolly, M. P. [School of Physics, National University of Ireland Galway, University Road, Galway (Ireland); Falcone, A. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Feng, Q.; Finley, J. P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Fleischhack, H. [DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Flinders, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Fortson, L., E-mail: asmith44@umd.edu [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); and others

    2016-04-20

    The Galactic Center ridge has been observed extensively in the past by both GeV and TeV gamma-ray instruments revealing a wealth of structure, including a diffuse component and the point sources G0.9+0.1 (a composite supernova remnant) and Sgr A* (believed to be associated with the supermassive black hole located at the center of our Galaxy). Previous very high energy (VHE) gamma-ray observations with the H.E.S.S. experiment have also detected an extended TeV gamma-ray component along the Galactic plane in the >300 GeV gamma-ray regime. Here we report on observations of the Galactic Center ridge from 2010 to 2014 by the VERITAS telescope array in the >2 TeV energy range. From these observations we (1) provide improved measurements of the differential energy spectrum for Sgr A* in the >2 TeV gamma-ray regime, (2) provide a detection in the >2 TeV gamma-ray emission from the composite SNR G0.9+0.1 and an improved determination of its multi-TeV gamma-ray energy spectrum, and (3) report on the detection of VER J1746-289, a localized enhancement of >2 TeV gamma-ray emission along the Galactic plane.

  17. Long-lived sleptons at the LHC and a 100 TeV proton collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Jonathan L.; Iwamoto, Sho; Shadmi, Yael; Tarem, Shlomit

    2015-01-01

    We study the prospects for long-lived charged particle (LLCP) searches at current and future LHC runs and at a 100 TeV pp collider, using Drell-Yan slepton pair production as an example. Because momentum measurements become more challenging for very energetic particles, we carefully treat the expected momentum resolution. At the same time, a novel feature of 100 TeV collisions is the significant energy loss of energetic muons in the calorimeter. We use this to help discriminate between muons and LLCPs. We find that the 14 TeV LHC with an integrated luminosity of 3 ab −1 can probe LLCP slepton masses up to 1.2 TeV, and a 100 TeV pp collider with 3 ab −1 can probe LLCP slepton masses up to 4 TeV, using time-of-flight measurements. These searches will have striking implications for dark matter, with the LHC definitively testing the possibility of slepton-neutralino co-annihilating WIMP dark matter, and with the LHC and future hadron colliders having a strong potential for discovering LLCPs in models with superWIMP dark matter.

  18. A Search for bursts of TeV gamma rays with Milagro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A. J.; MILAGRO Collaboration

    2001-08-01

    The Very High Energy (VHE, E > 100 GeV) component of Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) remains unmeasured, despite the fact that models predict that the spectrum of GRBs extends beyond 1 TeV. Satellite detectors capable of observing GRBs lack the sensitivity to detect γ-rays with energies greater than ≈ 30 GeV due to their small effective area. Air ˇCerenkov telescopes, capable of detecting TeV point sources with excellent sensitivity have limited sensitivity to GRBs due to their small fields of view and limited duty cycles. The detection of TeV emission from GRBs is further complicated by the attenuation of VHE photons by interaction with the intergalactic infrared radiation. This process limits the horizon for TeV observations of GRBs to z pond (4800 m2 ) instrumented with an array of photo-multiplier tubes. Milagro operates 24 hours a day and continuously observes the entire overhead sky (≈2 sr). Because of its wide field of view and high duty cycle Milagro is uniquely capable of searching for TeV emission from GRBs. An efficient algorithm has been developed to search the Milagro data for GRBs with durations from 250 microseconds to 40s. The search, while designed to search for the TeV component of GRBs, may also be sensitive to the evaporation of primordial black holes, or some other yet undiscovered phenomenon. The results of this search are presented.

  19. Review of ATLAS Open Data 8 TeV datasets, tools and activities

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The ATLAS Collaboration has released two 8 TeV datasets and relevant simulated samples to the public for educational use. A number of groups within ATLAS have used these ATLAS Open Data 8 TeV datasets, developing tools and educational material to promote particle physics. The general aim of these activities is to provide simple and user-friendly interactive interfaces to simulate the procedures used by high-energy physics researchers. International Masterclasses introduce particle physics to high school students and have been studying 8 TeV ATLAS Open Data since 2015. Inspired by this success, a new ATLAS Open Data initiative was launched in 2016 for university students. A comprehensive educational platform was thus developed featuring a second 8 TeV dataset and a new set of educational tools. The 8 TeV datasets and associated tools are presented and discussed here, as well as a selection of activities studying the ATLAS Open Data 8 TeV datasets.

  20. Investigating the Innermost Jet Structures of Blazar S5 0716+714 Using Uniquely Dense Intra-day Photo-polarimetric Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal Bhatta

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The sub-hour timescale variability commonly observed in blazars—widely known as intra-day or microvariability—has been extensively studied in optical photo-polarimetric bands over the past 25–30 years. In addition, there have been comprehensive theoretical discussions on the topic, with various models and scenarios proposed; however, the phenomenon still remains relatively poorly understood. Here we present the summary of our optical microvariability studies over the past few years based on multi-frequency photo-polarimetric Whole Earth Blazar Telescope (WEBT observation campaigns. The primary objective of the study was to explore the characteristics of the source microvariability on timescales of a few minutes to a few days using exceptionally dense photo-polarimetric observations. The results show that the source often displays fast variability with an amplitude as large as 0.3 mag within a few hours, as well as color variability on similar time scales often characterized by “bluer-when-brighter” trend. Similarly, the correlation between variability in flux and polarization appears to depend upon the configuration of the optical polarization angle relative to the positional angle of the innermost radio core of the jet. Other fascinating observations include a sudden and temporary disappearance in the observed variability lasting for ∼6 h. In addition, the modeling of individual microflares strongly suggests that the phenomenon of microvariability can be best explained by convolved emission from compact emission sites distributed stochastically in the turbulent jet. Besides, analysis of some of the well resolved micro-flares exhibiting high degrees of polarization points towards a complex magnetic geometry pervading the jet with the possible presence of small-scale regions of highly ordered and enhanced magnetic field similar to so-called “magnetic islands”.

  1. Gamma-Ray Loudness, Synchrotron Peak Frequency, and Parsec-scale Properties of Blazars Detected by the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linford, J. D.; Taylor, G. B.; Schinzel, F. K.

    2012-09-01

    The parsec-scale radio properties of 232 active galactic nuclei, most of which are blazars, detected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope have been observed contemporaneously by the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) at 5 GHz. Data from both the first 11 months (1FGL) and the first 2 years (2FGL) of the Fermi mission were used to investigate these sources' γ-ray properties. We use the ratio of the γ-ray-to-radio luminosity as a measure of γ-ray loudness. We investigate the relationship of several radio properties to γ-ray loudness and to the synchrotron peak frequency. There is a tentative correlation between γ-ray loudness and synchrotron peak frequency for BL Lac objects in both 1FGL and 2FGL, and for flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) in 2FGL. We find that the apparent opening angle tentatively correlates with γ-ray loudness for FSRQs, but only when we use the 2FGL data. We also find that the total VLBA flux density correlates with the synchrotron peak frequency for BL Lac objects and FSRQs. The core brightness temperature also correlates with synchrotron peak frequency, but only for the BL Lac objects. The low-synchrotron-peaked (LSP) BL Lac object sample shows indications of contamination by FSRQs which happen to have undetectable emission lines. There is evidence that the LSP BL Lac objects are more strongly beamed than the rest of the BL Lac object population.

  2. GAMMA-RAY LOUDNESS, SYNCHROTRON PEAK FREQUENCY, AND PARSEC-SCALE PROPERTIES OF BLAZARS DETECTED BY THE FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linford, J. D.; Taylor, G. B.; Schinzel, F. K., E-mail: jlinford@unm.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, MSC07 4220, Albuquerque, NM 87131-0001 (United States)

    2012-09-20

    The parsec-scale radio properties of 232 active galactic nuclei, most of which are blazars, detected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope have been observed contemporaneously by the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) at 5 GHz. Data from both the first 11 months (1FGL) and the first 2 years (2FGL) of the Fermi mission were used to investigate these sources' {gamma}-ray properties. We use the ratio of the {gamma}-ray-to-radio luminosity as a measure of {gamma}-ray loudness. We investigate the relationship of several radio properties to {gamma}-ray loudness and to the synchrotron peak frequency. There is a tentative correlation between {gamma}-ray loudness and synchrotron peak frequency for BL Lac objects in both 1FGL and 2FGL, and for flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) in 2FGL. We find that the apparent opening angle tentatively correlates with {gamma}-ray loudness for FSRQs, but only when we use the 2FGL data. We also find that the total VLBA flux density correlates with the synchrotron peak frequency for BL Lac objects and FSRQs. The core brightness temperature also correlates with synchrotron peak frequency, but only for the BL Lac objects. The low-synchrotron-peaked (LSP) BL Lac object sample shows indications of contamination by FSRQs which happen to have undetectable emission lines. There is evidence that the LSP BL Lac objects are more strongly beamed than the rest of the BL Lac object population.

  3. GAMMA-RAY LOUDNESS, SYNCHROTRON PEAK FREQUENCY, AND PARSEC-SCALE PROPERTIES OF BLAZARS DETECTED BY THE FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linford, J. D.; Taylor, G. B.; Schinzel, F. K.

    2012-01-01

    The parsec-scale radio properties of 232 active galactic nuclei, most of which are blazars, detected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope have been observed contemporaneously by the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) at 5 GHz. Data from both the first 11 months (1FGL) and the first 2 years (2FGL) of the Fermi mission were used to investigate these sources' γ-ray properties. We use the ratio of the γ-ray-to-radio luminosity as a measure of γ-ray loudness. We investigate the relationship of several radio properties to γ-ray loudness and to the synchrotron peak frequency. There is a tentative correlation between γ-ray loudness and synchrotron peak frequency for BL Lac objects in both 1FGL and 2FGL, and for flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) in 2FGL. We find that the apparent opening angle tentatively correlates with γ-ray loudness for FSRQs, but only when we use the 2FGL data. We also find that the total VLBA flux density correlates with the synchrotron peak frequency for BL Lac objects and FSRQs. The core brightness temperature also correlates with synchrotron peak frequency, but only for the BL Lac objects. The low-synchrotron-peaked (LSP) BL Lac object sample shows indications of contamination by FSRQs which happen to have undetectable emission lines. There is evidence that the LSP BL Lac objects are more strongly beamed than the rest of the BL Lac object population.

  4. Measurement of the diboson production cross section at 8TeV and 13TeV and limits on anomalous triple gauge couplings with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00530530; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Diboson measurements allow to test the gauge structure of the Standard Model, verify the validity of Standard Model theory predictions and probe new physics beyond the reach of the LHC in a model-independent way via anomalous triple gauge couplings (aTGC). Measurements on $WW$, $WZ$, and $ZZ$ diboson production, differential cross sections and aTGC limits obtained with these channels, have been published, using ATLAS data at center-of-mass energies of $\\sqrt{s} = $8TeV and 13TeV collected in 2012, 2015 and 2016. In the following, a short summary of these diboson measurements focusing on recent results will be given.

  5. Gamma-ray astronomy from the ground and the space: first analyses of the HESS-II hybrid array and search for blazar candidates among the unidentified Fermi-LAT sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefaucheur, Julien

    2015-01-01

    This manuscript is about high energy gamma-ray astronomy (between 30 GeV and 300 GeV) with the Fermi-LAT satellite and very high energy gamma-ray astronomy (above ∼100 GeV) via the H.E.S.S. experiment. The second phase of the H.E.S.S. experiment began in July 2012 with the inauguration of a fifth 28 m-diameter telescope added to the initial array composed of four 12 m-diameter imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. In the first part of this thesis, we present the development of an analysis in hybrid mode based on a multivariate method dedicated to detect and study sources with different spectral shapes and the first analysis results on real data. The second part is dedicated to the research of blazar candidates among the Fermi-LAT unidentified sources of the 2FGL catalog. A first development is based on a multivariate approach using discriminant parameters built with the 2FGL catalog parameters. A second development is done with the use of the WISE satellite catalog and a non-parametric technic in order to find the blazar-like infrared counterparts of the unidentified sources of the 2FGL catalog. (author)

  6. Search for high-mass diphoton resonances in proton-proton collisions at 13 TeV and combination with 8 TeV search

    CERN Document Server

    Khachatryan, Vardan; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Aşılar, Ece; Bergauer, Thomas; Brandstetter, Johannes; Brondolin, Erica; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Flechl, Martin; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; König, Axel; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Matsushita, Takashi; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rad, Navid; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schieck, Jochen; Strauss, Josef; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Dvornikov, Oleg; Makarenko, Vladimir; Zykunov, Vladimir; Alderweireldt, Sara; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Lauwers, Jasper; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Abu Zeid, Shimaa; Blekman, Freya; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Daci, Nadir; De Bruyn, Isabelle; Deroover, Kevin; Lowette, Steven; Moortgat, Seth; Moreels, Lieselotte; Olbrechts, Annik; Python, Quentin; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Parijs, Isis; Brun, Hugues; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Delannoy, Hugo; Fasanella, Giuseppe; Favart, Laurent; Goldouzian, Reza; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lenzi, Thomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Luetic, Jelena; Maerschalk, Thierry; Marinov, Andrey; Randle-conde, Aidan; Seva, Tomislav; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Vannerom, David; Yonamine, Ryo; Zenoni, Florian; Zhang, Fengwangdong; Cimmino, Anna; Cornelis, Tom; Dobur, Didar; Fagot, Alexis; Garcia, Guillaume; Gul, Muhammad; Khvastunov, Illia; Poyraz, Deniz; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Schöfbeck, Robert; Sharma, Archana; Tytgat, Michael; Van Driessche, Ward; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Beluffi, Camille; Bondu, Olivier; Brochet, Sébastien; Bruno, Giacomo; Caudron, Adrien; De Visscher, Simon; Delaere, Christophe; Delcourt, Martin; Francois, Brieuc; Giammanco, Andrea; Jafari, Abideh; Jez, Pavel; Komm, Matthias; Krintiras, Georgios; Lemaitre, Vincent; Magitteri, Alessio; Mertens, Alexandre; Musich, Marco; Nuttens, Claude; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Quertenmont, Loic; Selvaggi, Michele; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Wertz, Sébastien; Beliy, Nikita; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Fábio Lúcio; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Hensel, Carsten; Moraes, Arthur; Pol, Maria Elena; Rebello Teles, Patricia; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, Ewerton; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Huertas Guativa, Lina Milena; Malbouisson, Helena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Ahuja, Sudha; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; Dogra, Sunil; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Moon, Chang-Seong; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Romero Abad, David; Ruiz Vargas, José Cupertino; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Fang, Wenxing; Ahmad, Muhammad; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Chen, Ye; Cheng, Tongguang; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Leggat, Duncan; Liu, Zhenan; Romeo, Francesco; Shaheen, Sarmad Masood; Spiezia, Aniello; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Chunjie; Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhao, Jingzhou; Ban, Yong; Chen, Geng; Li, Qiang; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Xu, Zijun; Avila, Carlos; Cabrera, Andrés; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; González Hernández, Carlos Felipe; Ruiz Alvarez, José David; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Puljak, Ivica; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Sculac, Toni; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Ferencek, Dinko; Kadija, Kreso; Micanovic, Sasa; Sudic, Lucija; Susa, Tatjana; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Rykaczewski, Hans; Tsiakkouri, Demetra; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Carrera Jarrin, Edgar; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; El-khateeb, Esraa; Salama, Elsayed; Kadastik, Mario; Murumaa, Marion; Perrini, Lucia; Raidal, Martti; Tiko, Andres; Veelken, Christian; Eerola, Paula; Pekkanen, Juska; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Jarvinen, Terhi; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Wendland, Lauri; Talvitie, Joonas; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Couderc, Fabrice; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Favaro, Carlotta; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Ghosh, Saranya; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Kucher, Inna; Locci, Elizabeth; Machet, Martina; Malcles, Julie; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Titov, Maksym; Zghiche, Amina; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Antropov, Iurii; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Busson, Philippe; Cadamuro, Luca; Chapon, Emilien; Charlot, Claude; Davignon, Olivier; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Jo, Mihee; Lisniak, Stanislav; Miné, Philippe; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Ortona, Giacomo; Paganini, Pascal; Pigard, Philipp; Regnard, Simon; Salerno, Roberto; Sirois, Yves; Strebler, Thomas; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Aubin, Alexandre; Bloch, Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Buttignol, Michael; Chabert, Eric Christian; Chanon, Nicolas; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Coubez, Xavier; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Skovpen, Kirill; Van Hove, Pierre; Gadrat, Sébastien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Bernet, Colin; Boudoul, Gaelle; Bouvier, Elvire; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Courbon, Benoit; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fan, Jiawei; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Grenier, Gérald; Ille, Bernard; Lagarde, Francois; Laktineh, Imad Baptiste; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Pequegnot, Anne-Laure; Perries, Stephane; Popov, Andrey; Sabes, David; Sordini, Viola; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Toriashvili, Tengizi; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Feld, Lutz; Heister, Arno; Kiesel, Maximilian Knut; Klein, Katja; Lipinski, Martin; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Preuten, Marius; Raupach, Frank; Schael, Stefan; Schomakers, Christian; Schulz, Johannes; Verlage, Tobias; Weber, Hendrik; Zhukov, Valery; Albert, Andreas; Brodski, Michael; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Endres, Matthias; Erdmann, Martin; Erdweg, Sören; Esch, Thomas; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hamer, Matthias; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Knutzen, Simon; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Millet, Philipp; Mukherjee, Swagata; Olschewski, Mark; Padeken, Klaas; Pook, Tobias; Radziej, Markus; Reithler, Hans; Rieger, Marcel; Scheuch, Florian; Sonnenschein, Lars; Teyssier, Daniel; Thüer, Sebastian; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Flügge, Günter; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Künsken, Andreas; Lingemann, Joschka; Müller, Thomas; Nehrkorn, Alexander; Nowack, Andreas; Nugent, Ian Michael; Pistone, Claudia; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Arndt, Till; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Beernaert, Kelly; Behnke, Olaf; Behrens, Ulf; Bin Anuar, Afiq Aizuddin; Borras, Kerstin; Campbell, Alan; Connor, Patrick; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Costanza, Francesco; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Dolinska, Ganna; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Eichhorn, Thomas; Eren, Engin; Gallo, Elisabetta; Garay Garcia, Jasone; Geiser, Achim; Gizhko, Andrii; Grados Luyando, Juan Manuel; Gunnellini, Paolo; Harb, Ali; Hauk, Johannes; Hempel, Maria; Jung, Hannes; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Karacheban, Olena; Kasemann, Matthias; Keaveney, James; Kleinwort, Claus; Korol, Ievgen; Krücker, Dirk; Lange, Wolfgang; Lelek, Aleksandra; Leonard, Jessica; Lipka, Katerina; Lobanov, Artur; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Mankel, Rainer; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mittag, Gregor; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Ntomari, Eleni; Pitzl, Daniel; Placakyte, Ringaile; Raspereza, Alexei; Roland, Benoit; Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Saxena, Pooja; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Seitz, Claudia; Spannagel, Simon; Stefaniuk, Nazar; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Blobel, Volker; Centis Vignali, Matteo; Draeger, Arne-Rasmus; Dreyer, Torben; Garutti, Erika; Gonzalez, Daniel; Haller, Johannes; Hoffmann, Malte; Junkes, Alexandra; Klanner, Robert; Kogler, Roman; Kovalchuk, Nataliia; Lapsien, Tobias; Lenz, Teresa; Marchesini, Ivan; Marconi, Daniele; Meyer, Mareike; Niedziela, Marek; Nowatschin, Dominik; Pantaleo, Felice; Peiffer, Thomas; Perieanu, Adrian; Poehlsen, Jennifer; Sander, Christian; Scharf, Christian; Schleper, Peter; Schmidt, Alexander; Schumann, Svenja; Schwandt, Joern; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Stöver, Marc; Tholen, Heiner; Troendle, Daniel; Usai, Emanuele; Vanelderen, Lukas; Vanhoefer, Annika; Vormwald, Benedikt; Akbiyik, Melike; Barth, Christian; Baur, Sebastian; Baus, Colin; Berger, Joram; Butz, Erik; Caspart, René; Chwalek, Thorsten; Colombo, Fabio; De Boer, Wim; Dierlamm, Alexander; Fink, Simon; Freund, Benedikt; Friese, Raphael; Giffels, Manuel; Gilbert, Andrew; Goldenzweig, Pablo; Haitz, Dominik; Hartmann, Frank; Heindl, Stefan Michael; Husemann, Ulrich; Katkov, Igor; Kudella, Simon; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Mildner, Hannes; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Müller, Thomas; Plagge, Michael; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Röcker, Steffen; Roscher, Frank; Schröder, Matthias; Shvetsov, Ivan; Sieber, Georg; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Ulrich, Ralf; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wayand, Stefan; Weber, Marc; Weiler, Thomas; Williamson, Shawn; Wöhrmann, Clemens; Wolf, Roger; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Giakoumopoulou, Viktoria Athina; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Topsis-Giotis, Iasonas; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Tziaferi, Eirini; Evangelou, Ioannis; Flouris, Giannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Loukas, Nikitas; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Filipovic, Nicolas; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zsigmond, Anna Julia; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Karancsi, János; Makovec, Alajos; Molnar, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Bartók, Márton; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Bahinipati, Seema; Choudhury, Somnath; Mal, Prolay; Mandal, Koushik; Nayak, Aruna; Sahoo, Deepak Kumar; Sahoo, Niladribihari; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Bansal, Sunil; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Chawla, Ridhi; Bhawandeep, Bhawandeep; Kalsi, Amandeep Kaur; Kaur, Anterpreet; Kaur, Manjit; Kumar, Ramandeep; Kumari, Priyanka; Mehta, Ankita; Mittal, Monika; Singh, Jasbir; Walia, Genius; Kumar, Ashok; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Garg, Rocky Bala; Keshri, Sumit; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Nishu, Nishu; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Ramkrishna; Sharma, Varun; Bhattacharya, Rajarshi; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Chatterjee, Kalyanmoy; Dey, Sourav; Dutt, Suneel; Dutta, Suchandra; Ghosh, Shamik; Majumdar, Nayana; Modak, Atanu; Mondal, Kuntal; Mukhopadhyay, Supratik; Nandan, Saswati; Purohit, Arnab; Roy, Ashim; Roy, Debarati; Roy Chowdhury, Suvankar; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Thakur, Shalini; Behera, Prafulla Kumar; Chudasama, Ruchi; Dutta, Dipanwita; Jha, Vishwajeet; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Netrakanti, Pawan Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Topkar, Anita; Aziz, Tariq; Dugad, Shashikant; Kole, Gouranga; Mahakud, Bibhuprasad; Mitra, Soureek; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sur, Nairit; Sutar, Bajrang; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bhowmik, Sandeep; Dewanjee, Ram Krishna; Ganguly, Sanmay; Guchait, Monoranjan; Jain, Sandhya; Kumar, Sanjeev; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Sarkar, Tanmay; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Chauhan, Shubhanshu; Dube, Sourabh; Hegde, Vinay; Kapoor, Anshul; Kothekar, Kunal; Pandey, Shubham; Rane, Aditee; Sharma, Seema; Behnamian, Hadi; Chenarani, Shirin; Eskandari Tadavani, Esmaeel; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Naseri, Mohsen; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, Ferdos; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Felcini, Marta; Grunewald, Martin; Abbrescia, Marcello; Calabria, Cesare; Caputo, Claudio; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; Cristella, Leonardo; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Miniello, Giorgia; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Radogna, Raffaella; Ranieri, Antonio; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Venditti, Rosamaria; Verwilligen, Piet; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Battilana, Carlo; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Campanini, Renato; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Perrotta, Andrea; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Tosi, Nicolò; Albergo, Sebastiano; Costa, Salvatore; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Giordano, Ferdinando; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Viliani, Lorenzo; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Primavera, Federica; Calvelli, Valerio; Ferro, Fabrizio; Lo Vetere, Maurizio; Monge, Maria Roberta; Robutti, Enrico; Tosi, Silvano; Brianza, Luca; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Malberti, Martina; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Pigazzini, Simone; Ragazzi, Stefano; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; De Nardo, Guglielmo; Di Guida, Salvatore; Esposito, Marco; Fabozzi, Francesco; Fienga, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lanza, Giuseppe; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Sciacca, Crisostomo; Thyssen, Filip; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Benato, Lisa; Bisello, Dario; Boletti, Alessio; Carlin, Roberto; Carvalho Antunes De Oliveira, Alexandra; Checchia, Paolo; Dall'Osso, Martino; De Castro Manzano, Pablo; Dorigo, Tommaso; Dosselli, Umberto; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Gozzelino, Andrea; Lacaprara, Stefano; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Pazzini, Jacopo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Zanetti, Marco; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zumerle, Gianni; Braghieri, Alessandro; Magnani, Alice; Montagna, Paolo; Ratti, Sergio P; Re, Valerio; Riccardi, Cristina; Salvini, Paola; Vai, Ilaria; Vitulo, Paolo; Alunni Solestizi, Luisa; Bilei, Gian Mario; Ciangottini, Diego; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Leonardi, Roberto; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Androsov, Konstantin; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Castaldi, Rino; Ciocci, Maria Agnese; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Donato, Silvio; Fedi, Giacomo; Giassi, Alessandro; Grippo, Maria Teresa; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Spagnolo, Paolo; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; Cipriani, Marco; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Gelli, Simone; Longo, Egidio; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Marzocchi, Badder; Meridiani, Paolo; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Preiato, Federico; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Santanastasio, Francesco; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Bartosik, Nazar; Bellan, Riccardo; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Cenna, Francesca; Costa, Marco; Covarelli, Roberto; Degano, Alessandro; Demaria, Natale; Finco, Linda; Kiani, Bilal; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Monteil, Ennio; Monteno, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pacher, Luca; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Pinna Angioni, Gian Luca; Ravera, Fabio; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Shchelina, Ksenia; Sola, Valentina; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Traczyk, Piotr; Belforte, Stefano; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Zanetti, Anna; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Min Suk; Lee, Sangeun; Lee, Seh Wook; Oh, Young Do; Sekmen, Sezen; Son, Dong-Chul; Yang, Yu Chul; Lee, Ari; Kim, Hyunchul; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Kim, Tae Jeong; Cho, Sungwoong; Choi, Suyong; Go, Yeonju; Gyun, Dooyeon; Ha, Seungkyu; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Youngkwon; Kim, Yongsun; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Kisoo; Lee, Kyong Sei; Lee, Songkyo; Lim, Jaehoon; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Almond, John; Kim, Junho; Lee, Haneol; Oh, Sung Bin; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Seo, Seon-hee; Yang, Unki; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Yu, Geum Bong; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Hyunyong; Kim, Ji Hyun; Lee, Jason Sang Hun; Park, Inkyu; Ryu, Geonmo; Ryu, Min Sang; Choi, Young-Il; Goh, Junghwan; Hwang, Chanwook; Lee, Jongseok; Yu, Intae; Dudenas, Vytautas; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Vaitkus, Juozas; Ahmed, Ijaz; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Md Ali, Mohd Adli Bin; Mohamad Idris, Faridah; Wan Abdullah, Wan Ahmad Tajuddin; Yusli, Mohd Nizam; Zolkapli, Zukhaimira; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-De La Cruz, Ivan; Hernandez-Almada, Alberto; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Magaña Villalba, Ricardo; Mejia Guisao, Jhovanny; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Carpinteyro, Severiano; Pedraza, Isabel; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Uribe Estrada, Cecilia; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Krofcheck, David; Butler, Philip H; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmad, Muhammad; Hassan, Qamar; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khan, Wajid Ali; Saddique, Asif; Shah, Mehar Ali; Shoaib, Muhammad; Waqas, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Bluj, Michal; Boimska, Bożena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Zalewski, Piotr; Bunkowski, Karol; Byszuk, Adrian; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Olszewski, Michal; Walczak, Marek; Bargassa, Pedrame; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, Cristóvão; Calpas, Betty; Di Francesco, Agostino; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Hollar, Jonathan; Leonardo, Nuno; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Nemallapudi, Mythra Varun; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Seixas, Joao; Toldaiev, Oleksii; Vadruccio, Daniele; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Afanasiev, Serguei; Bunin, Pavel; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Matveev, Viktor; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Shulha, Siarhei; Skatchkov, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Voytishin, Nikolay; Zarubin, Anatoli; Chtchipounov, Leonid; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Sulimov, Valentin; Vorobyev, Alexey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Karneyeu, Anton; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Pozdnyakov, Ivan; Safronov, Grigory; Spiridonov, Alexander; Toms, Maria; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Bylinkin, Alexander; Chadeeva, Marina; Chistov, Ruslan; Polikarpov, Sergey; Rusinov, Vladimir; Zhemchugov, Evgenii; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Terkulov, Adel; Baskakov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Bunichev, Viacheslav; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Miagkov, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Petrushanko, Sergey; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Blinov, Vladimir; Skovpen, Yuri; Shtol, Dmitry; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Elumakhov, Dmitry; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Cirkovic, Predrag; Devetak, Damir; Dordevic, Milos; Milosevic, Jovan; Rekovic, Vladimir; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Barrio Luna, Mar; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Escalante Del Valle, Alberto; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Navarro De Martino, Eduardo; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio María; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Senghi Soares, Mara; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Missiroli, Marino; Moran, Dermot; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; González Fernández, Juan Rodrigo; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Sanchez Cruz, Sergio; Suárez Andrés, Ignacio; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Castiñeiras De Saa, Juan Ramon; Curras, Esteban; Fernandez, Marcos; Garcia-Ferrero, Juan; Gomez, Gervasio; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Trevisani, Nicolò; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Bachtis, Michail; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bonato, Alessio; Botta, Cristina; Camporesi, Tiziano; Castello, Roberto; Cepeda, Maria; Cerminara, Gianluca; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; Daponte, Vincenzo; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; De Gruttola, Michele; De Roeck, Albert; Di Marco, Emanuele; Dobson, Marc; Dorney, Brian; Du Pree, Tristan; Duggan, Daniel; Dünser, Marc; Dupont, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Fartoukh, Stephane; Franzoni, Giovanni; Fulcher, Jonathan; Funk, Wolfgang; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Girone, Maria; Glege, Frank; Gulhan, Doga; Gundacker, Stefan; Guthoff, Moritz; Hammer, Josef; Harris, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kieseler, Jan; Kirschenmann, Henning; Knünz, Valentin; Kornmayer, Andreas; Kortelainen, Matti J; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Krammer, Manfred; Lange, Clemens; Lecoq, Paul; Lourenco, Carlos; Lucchini, Marco Toliman; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Martelli, Arabella; Meijers, Frans; Merlin, Jeremie Alexandre; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Milenovic, Predrag; Moortgat, Filip; Morovic, Srecko; Mulders, Martijn; Neugebauer, Hannes; Orfanelli, Styliani; Orsini, Luciano; Pape, Luc; Perez, Emmanuelle; Peruzzi, Marco; Petrilli, Achille; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Racz, Attila; Reis, Thomas; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovere, Marco; Ruan, Manqi; Sakulin, Hannes; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Seidel, Markus; Sharma, Archana; Silva, Pedro; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Steggemann, Jan; Stoye, Markus; Takahashi, Yuta; Tosi, Mia; Treille, Daniel; Triossi, Andrea; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veckalns, Viesturs; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Verweij, Marta; Wardle, Nicholas; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Zagoździńska, Agnieszka; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Rohe, Tilman; Bachmair, Felix; Bäni, Lukas; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Casal, Bruno; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Grab, Christoph; Heidegger, Constantin; Hits, Dmitry; Hoss, Jan; Kasieczka, Gregor; Lecomte, Pierre; Lustermann, Werner; Mangano, Boris; Marionneau, Matthieu; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Masciovecchio, Mario; Meinhard, Maren Tabea; Meister, Daniel; Micheli, Francesco; Musella, Pasquale; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pata, Joosep; Pauss, Felicitas; Perrin, Gaël; Perrozzi, Luca; Quittnat, Milena; Rossini, Marco; Schönenberger, Myriam; Starodumov, Andrei; Tavolaro, Vittorio Raoul; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Wallny, Rainer; Aarrestad, Thea Klaeboe; Amsler, Claude; Caminada, Lea; Canelli, Maria Florencia; De Cosa, Annapaola; Galloni, Camilla; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hreus, Tomas; Kilminster, Benjamin; Ngadiuba, Jennifer; Pinna, Deborah; Rauco, Giorgia; Robmann, Peter; Salerno, Daniel; Yang, Yong; Zucchetta, Alberto; Candelise, Vieri; Doan, Thi Hien; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Konyushikhin, Maxim; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Lin, Willis; Lu, Yun-Ju; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Yu, Shin-Shan; Kumar, Arun; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Chen, Po-Hsun; Dietz, Charles; Fiori, Francesco; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Miñano Moya, Mercedes; Paganis, Efstathios; Psallidas, Andreas; Tsai, Jui-fa; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Asavapibhop, Burin; Singh, Gurpreet; Srimanobhas, Norraphat; Suwonjandee, Narumon; Adiguzel, Aytul; Cerci, Salim; Damarseckin, Serdal; Demiroglu, Zuhal Seyma; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Guler, Yalcin; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Kara, Ozgun; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Kiminsu, Ugur; Oglakci, Mehmet; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Turkcapar, Semra; Zorbakir, Ibrahim Soner; Zorbilmez, Caglar; Bilin, Bugra; Bilmis, Selcuk; Isildak, Bora; Karapinar, Guler; Yalvac, Metin; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Gülmez, Erhan; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Yetkin, Elif Asli; Yetkin, Taylan; Cakir, Altan; Cankocak, Kerem; Sen, Sercan; Grynyov, Boris; Levchuk, Leonid; Sorokin, Pavel; Aggleton, Robin; Ball, Fionn; Beck, Lana; Brooke, James John; Burns, Douglas; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Flacher, Henning; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Jacob, Jeson; Kreczko, Lukasz; Lucas, Chris; Newbold, Dave M; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Poll, Anthony; Sakuma, Tai; Seif El Nasr-storey, Sarah; Smith, Dominic; Smith, Vincent J; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Calligaris, Luigi; Cieri, Davide; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Thea, Alessandro; Tomalin, Ian R; Williams, Thomas; Baber, Mark; Bainbridge, Robert; Buchmuller, Oliver; Bundock, Aaron; Burton, Darren; Casasso, Stefano; Citron, Matthew; Colling, David; Corpe, Louie; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; De Wit, Adinda; Della Negra, Michel; Di Maria, Riccardo; Dunne, Patrick; Elwood, Adam; Futyan, David; Haddad, Yacine; Hall, Geoffrey; Iles, Gregory; James, Thomas; Lane, Rebecca; Laner, Christian; Lucas, Robyn; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Malik, Sarah; Mastrolorenzo, Luca; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Pela, Joao; Penning, Bjoern; Pesaresi, Mark; Raymond, David Mark; Richards, Alexander; Rose, Andrew; Seez, Christopher; Summers, Sioni; Tapper, Alexander; Uchida, Kirika; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Wright, Jack; Zenz, Seth Conrad; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leslie, Dawn; Reid, Ivan; Symonds, Philip; Teodorescu, Liliana; Turner, Mark; Borzou, Ahmad; Call, Kenneth; Dittmann, Jay; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Liu, Hongxuan; Pastika, Nathaniel; Cooper, Seth; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; West, Christopher; Arcaro, Daniel; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Gastler, Daniel; Rankin, Dylan; Richardson, Clint; Rohlf, James; Sulak, Lawrence; Zou, David; Benelli, Gabriele; Berry, Edmund; Cutts, David; Garabedian, Alex; Hakala, John; Heintz, Ulrich; Hogan, Julie Managan; Jesus, Orduna; Kwok, Ka Hei Martin; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Mao, Zaixing; Narain, Meenakshi; Piperov, Stefan; Sagir, Sinan; Spencer, Eric; Syarif, Rizki; Breedon, Richard; Breto, Guillermo; Burns, Dustin; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Erbacher, Robin; Flores, Chad; Funk, Garrett; Gardner, Michael; Ko, Winston; Lander, Richard; Mclean, Christine; Mulhearn, Michael; Pellett, Dave; Pilot, Justin; Shalhout, Shalhout; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Stolp, Dustin; Tripathi, Mani; Bravo, Cameron; Cousins, Robert; Dasgupta, Abhigyan; Everaerts, Pieter; Florent, Alice; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Mccoll, Nickolas; Saltzberg, David; Schnaible, Christian; Takasugi, Eric; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Weber, Matthias; Burt, Kira; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Ghiasi Shirazi, Seyyed Mohammad Amin; Hanson, Gail; Heilman, Jesse; Jandir, Pawandeep; Kennedy, Elizabeth; Lacroix, Florent; Long, Owen Rosser; Olmedo Negrete, Manuel; Paneva, Mirena Ivova; Shrinivas, Amithabh; Si, Weinan; Wei, Hua; Wimpenny, Stephen; Yates, Brent; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cittolin, Sergio; Derdzinski, Mark; Holzner, André; Klein, Daniel; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Olivito, Dominick; Padhi, Sanjay; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Tadel, Matevz; Vartak, Adish; Wasserbaech, Steven; Welke, Charles; Wood, John; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Zevi Della Porta, Giovanni; Amin, Nick; Bhandari, Rohan; Bradmiller-Feld, John; Campagnari, Claudio; Dishaw, Adam; Dutta, Valentina; Franco Sevilla, Manuel; George, Christopher; Golf, Frank; Gouskos, Loukas; Gran, Jason; Heller, Ryan; Incandela, Joe; Mullin, Sam Daniel; Ovcharova, Ana; Qu, Huilin; Richman, Jeffrey; Stuart, David; Suarez, Indara; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Anderson, Dustin; Apresyan, Artur; Bendavid, Joshua; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Chen, Yi; Duarte, Javier; Lawhorn, Jay Mathew; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Pena, Cristian; Spiropulu, Maria; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Xie, Si; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Andrews, Michael Benjamin; Azzolini, Virginia; Ferguson, Thomas; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Sun, Menglei; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Weinberg, Marc; Cumalat, John Perry; Ford, William T; Jensen, Frank; Johnson, Andrew; Krohn, Michael; Mulholland, Troy; Stenson, Kevin; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chaves, Jorge; Chu, Jennifer; Dittmer, Susan; Mcdermott, Kevin; Mirman, Nathan; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Ryd, Anders; Skinnari, Louise; Soffi, Livia; Tan, Shao Min; Tao, Zhengcheng; Thom, Julia; Tucker, Jordan; Wittich, Peter; Zientek, Margaret; Winn, Dave; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Apollinari, Giorgio; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bolla, Gino; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Cremonesi, Matteo; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gottschalk, Erik; Gray, Lindsey; Green, Dan; Grünendahl, Stefan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hare, Daryl; Harris, Robert M; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hirschauer, James; Hu, Zhen; Jayatilaka, Bodhitha; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Klima, Boaz; Kreis, Benjamin; Lammel, Stephan; Linacre, Jacob; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Liu, Tiehui; Lopes De Sá, Rafael; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Magini, Nicolo; Marraffino, John Michael; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Merkel, Petra; Mrenna, Stephen; Nahn, Steve; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Pedro, Kevin; Prokofyev, Oleg; Rakness, Gregory; Ristori, Luciano; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Soha, Aron; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Stoynev, Stoyan; Strobbe, Nadja; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vernieri, Caterina; Verzocchi, Marco; Vidal, Richard; Wang, Michael; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Whitbeck, Andrew; Wu, Yujun; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Carnes, Andrew; Carver, Matthew; Curry, David; Das, Souvik; Field, Richard D; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Low, Jia Fu; Ma, Peisen; Matchev, Konstantin; Mei, Hualin; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Rank, Douglas; Shchutska, Lesya; Sperka, David; Thomas, Laurent; Wang, Jian; Wang, Sean-Jiun; Yelton, John; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Ackert, Andrew; Adams, Jordon Rowe; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bein, Samuel; Diamond, Brendan; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Khatiwada, Ajeeta; Prosper, Harrison; Santra, Arka; Yohay, Rachel; Baarmand, Marc M; Bhopatkar, Vallary; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Hohlmann, Marcus; Noonan, Daniel; Roy, Titas; Yumiceva, Francisco; Adams, Mark Raymond; Apanasevich, Leonard; Berry, Douglas; Betts, Russell Richard; Bucinskaite, Inga; Cavanaugh, Richard; Evdokimov, Olga; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Jung, Kurt; Kurt, Pelin; O'Brien, Christine; Sandoval Gonzalez, Irving Daniel; Turner, Paul; Varelas, Nikos; Wang, Hui; Wu, Zhenbin; Zakaria, Mohammed; Zhang, Jingyu; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Dilsiz, Kamuran; Durgut, Süleyman; Gandrajula, Reddy Pratap; Haytmyradov, Maksat; Khristenko, Viktor; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Ogul, Hasan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Penzo, Aldo; Snyder, Christina; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yi, Kai; Anderson, Ian; Blumenfeld, Barry; Cocoros, Alice; Eminizer, Nicholas; Fehling, David; Feng, Lei; Gritsan, Andrei; Maksimovic, Petar; Martin, Christopher; Osherson, Marc; Roskes, Jeffrey; Sarica, Ulascan; Swartz, Morris; Xiao, Meng; Xin, Yongjie; You, Can; Al-bataineh, Ayman; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Boren, Samuel; Bowen, James; Bruner, Christopher; Castle, James; Forthomme, Laurent; Kenny III, Raymond Patrick; Khalil, Sadia; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Majumder, Devdatta; Mcbrayer, William; Murray, Michael; Sanders, Stephen; Stringer, Robert; Tapia Takaki, Daniel; Wang, Quan; Ivanov, Andrew; Kaadze, Ketino; Maravin, Yurii; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Toda, Sachiko; Rebassoo, Finn; Wright, Douglas; Anelli, Christopher; Baden, Drew; Baron, Owen; Belloni, Alberto; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Ferraioli, Charles; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Jabeen, Shabnam; Kellogg, Richard G; Kolberg, Ted; Kunkle, Joshua; Lu, Ying; Mignerey, Alice; Ricci-Tam, Francesca; Shin, Young Ho; Skuja, Andris; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Abercrombie, Daniel; Allen, Brandon; Apyan, Aram; Barbieri, Richard; Baty, Austin; Bi, Ran; Bierwagen, Katharina; Brandt, Stephanie; Busza, Wit; Cali, Ivan Amos; Demiragli, Zeynep; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Hsu, Dylan; Iiyama, Yutaro; Innocenti, Gian Michele; Klute, Markus; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Krajczar, Krisztian; Lai, Yue Shi; Lee, Yen-Jie; Levin, Andrew; Luckey, Paul David; Maier, Benedikt; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Mcginn, Christopher; Mironov, Camelia; Narayanan, Siddharth; Niu, Xinmei; Paus, Christoph; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Stephans, George; Sumorok, Konstanty; Tatar, Kaya; Varma, Mukund; Velicanu, Dragos; Veverka, Jan; Wang, Jing; Wang, Ta-Wei; Wyslouch, Bolek; Yang, Mingming; Zhukova, Victoria; Benvenuti, Alberto; Chatterjee, Rajdeep Mohan; Evans, Andrew; Finkel, Alexey; Gude, Alexander; Hansen, Peter; Kalafut, Sean; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Kubota, Yuichi; Lesko, Zachary; Mans, Jeremy; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rusack, Roger; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Acosta, John Gabriel; Oliveros, Sandra; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bartek, Rachel; Bloom, Kenneth; Claes, Daniel R; Dominguez, Aaron; Fangmeier, Caleb; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kamalieddin, Rami; Kravchenko, Ilya; Malta Rodrigues, Alan; Meier, Frank; Monroy, Jose; Siado, Joaquin Emilo; Snow, Gregory R; Stieger, Benjamin; Alyari, Maral; Dolen, James; George, Jimin; Godshalk, Andrew; Harrington, Charles; Iashvili, Ia; Kaisen, Josh; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Parker, Ashley; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Roozbahani, Bahareh; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Hortiangtham, Apichart; Massironi, Andrea; Morse, David Michael; Nash, David; Orimoto, Toyoko; Teixeira De Lima, Rafael; Trocino, Daniele; Wang, Ren-Jie; Wood, Darien; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Charaf, Otman; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Kubik, Andrew; Kumar, Ajay; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Pollack, Brian; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Sung, Kevin; Trovato, Marco; Velasco, Mayda; Dev, Nabarun; Hildreth, Michael; Hurtado Anampa, Kenyi; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kellams, Nathan; Lannon, Kevin; Marinelli, Nancy; Meng, Fanbo; Mueller, Charles; Musienko, Yuri; Planer, Michael; Reinsvold, Allison; Ruchti, Randy; Smith, Geoffrey; Taroni, Silvia; Wayne, Mitchell; Wolf, Matthias; Woodard, Anna; Alimena, Juliette; Antonelli, Louis; Brinson, Jessica; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Flowers, Sean; Francis, Brian; Hart, Andrew; Hill, Christopher; Hughes, Richard; Ji, Weifeng; Liu, Bingxuan; Luo, Wuming; Puigh, Darren; Winer, Brian L; Wulsin, Howard Wells; Cooperstein, Stephane; Driga, Olga; Elmer, Peter; Hardenbrook, Joshua; Hebda, Philip; Lange, David; Luo, Jingyu; Marlow, Daniel; Mc Donald, Jeffrey; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mei, Kelvin; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Palmer, Christopher; Piroué, Pierre; Stickland, David; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Tully, Christopher; Zuranski, Andrzej; Malik, Sudhir; Barker, Anthony; Barnes, Virgil E; Folgueras, Santiago; Gutay, Laszlo; Jha, Manoj; Jones, Matthew; Jung, Andreas Werner; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Schulte, Jan-Frederik; Shi, Xin; Sun, Jian; Wang, Fuqiang; Xie, Wei; Parashar, Neeti; Stupak, John; Adair, Antony; Akgun, Bora; Chen, Zhenyu; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Guilbaud, Maxime; Li, Wei; Michlin, Benjamin; Northup, Michael; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Rorie, Jamal; Tu, Zhoudunming; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Duh, Yi-ting; Ferbel, Thomas; Galanti, Mario; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Han, Jiyeon; Hindrichs, Otto; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Lo, Kin Ho; Tan, Ping; Verzetti, Mauro; Agapitos, Antonis; Chou, John Paul; Contreras-Campana, Emmanuel; Gershtein, Yuri; Gómez Espinosa, Tirso Alejandro; Halkiadakis, Eva; Heindl, Maximilian; Hidas, Dean; Hughes, Elliot; Kaplan, Steven; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, Raghav; Kyriacou, Savvas; Lath, Amitabh; Nash, Kevin; Saka, Halil; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Sheffield, David; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Thomassen, Peter; Walker, Matthew; Delannoy, Andrés G; Foerster, Mark; Heideman, Joseph; Riley, Grant; Rose, Keith; Spanier, Stefan; Thapa, Krishna; Bouhali, Othmane; Celik, Ali; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; De Mattia, Marco; Delgado, Andrea; Dildick, Sven; Eusebi, Ricardo; Gilmore, Jason; Huang, Tao; Juska, Evaldas; Kamon, Teruki; Mueller, Ryan; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Patel, Rishi; Perloff, Alexx; Perniè, Luca; Rathjens, Denis; Rose, Anthony; Safonov, Alexei; Tatarinov, Aysen; Ulmer, Keith; Akchurin, Nural; Cowden, Christopher; Damgov, Jordan; De Guio, Federico; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Faulkner, James; Gurpinar, Emine; Kunori, Shuichi; Lamichhane, Kamal; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Peltola, Timo; Undleeb, Sonaina; Volobouev, Igor; Wang, Zhixing; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Janjam, Ravi; Johns, Willard; Maguire, Charles; Melo, Andrew; Ni, Hong; Sheldon, Paul; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Xu, Qiao; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Barria, Patrizia; Cox, Bradley; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Li, Hengne; Neu, Christopher; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Sun, Xin; Wang, Yanchu; Wolfe, Evan; Xia, Fan; Clarke, Christopher; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Sturdy, Jared; Belknap, Donald; Caillol, Cécile; Dasu, Sridhara; Dodd, Laura; Duric, Senka; Gomber, Bhawna; Grothe, Monika; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Lanaro, Armando; Levine, Aaron; Long, Kenneth; Loveless, Richard; Ojalvo, Isabel; Perry, Thomas; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Polese, Giovanni; Ruggles, Tyler; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Nicholas; Smith, Wesley H; Taylor, Devin; Woods, Nathaniel

    2017-04-10

    The results of a search are presented for the resonant production of high-mass photon pairs, specifically spin-0 and spin-2 resonances with an invariant mass between 0.5 and 4.5 TeV, and with a width, relative to the mass, between $ 1.4 \\times 10^{-4} $ and $ 5.6 \\times 10^{-2} $. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 12.9 fb$^{-1}$ of proton-proton collisions collected with the CMS detector in 2016 at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. No significant excess is observed relative to the standard model expectation. The results of the search are combined statistically with those previously obtained in 2012 and 2015 at $\\sqrt{s}=$ 8 and 13 TeV, respectively, corresponding to integrated luminosities of 19.7 and 3.3 fb$^{-1}$, to derive exclusion limits on scalar resonances produced through gluon-gluon fusion, and on Randall-Sundrum gravitons. The lower mass limits for Randall-Sundrum gravitons range from 1.95 to 4.45 TeV for coupling parameters between 0.01 and 0.2. These are the most stringen...

  7. Measurement of the $WZ$ production cross section at 8 TeV and 13 TeV and limits on anomalous triple gauge couplings with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Gutschow, Christian; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Measurements of the cross sections of the production of pairs of electroweak gauge bosons at the LHC constitute stringent tests of the electroweak sector of the Standard Model and provide a model-independent means to search for new physics at the TeV scale. The ATLAS collaboration has performed detailed measurements of integrated and differential cross sections of the production of $WZ$ pairs in fully leptonic final states using data corresponding to 20.3 fb$^{-1}$ at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV. These measurements include ratios of $WZ$ pairs separated by the charge of the $W$ boson for the first time. The results are compared to predictions at NLO in pQCD and provide constraints on new physics, by setting limits on anomalous triple gauge couplings. Finally, a first measurement of $WZ$ cross sections at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV using data corresponding to 3.2 fb$^{-1}$ will be presented including the ratios to previous ATLAS measurements at 8 TeV and between $W$ charges.

  8. Hunting for TeV Scale Strings at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Bars, Itzhak

    2010-01-01

    In this paper I review the possibility of TeV scale strings that may be detectable by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). This possibility was investigated extensively in a series of phenomenological papers during 1984-1985 in connection with the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC). The work was mainly based on a model independent systematic parametrization of scattering amplitudes and cross sections, for Standard Model particles, quarks and leptons, that were assumed to behave like strings, while gluons, photons, $W^{\\pm},Z$ were taken as elementary. By using Veneziano type beta functions consistent with crossing symmetry, duality and Regge behavior, bosonic or fermionic resonances in each channel were included, while the low energy behavior was matched to effective field theory non-renormalizable interactions consistent with the Standard Model SU(3)xSU(2)xU(1) gauge symmetry as well as global flavor and family symmetries. The motivation for this approach at that time was the possible compositeness of quarks a...

  9. Observations of TeV photons at the Whipple Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamb, R.C.; Akerlof, C.W.; Cawley, M.F.; Colombo, E.; Fegan, D.J.; Hillas, A.M.; Kwok, P.W.; Lang, M.J.; Lewis, D.A.; Macomb, D.J.; Meyer, D.I.; O'Flaherty, K.S.; Reynolds, P.T.; Vacanti, G.; Weekes, T.C.

    1991-01-01

    The Whipple Observatory 10 m gamma-ray telescope has been used to search for TeV gamma-ray emission from a number of objects. This paper reports observations of six galactic and three extragalactic objects using the Cherenkov image technique. With the introduction of a high-resolution camera (1/4 degree pixel) in 1988, the Crab Nebula was detected at a significance level of 20 σ in 30 hours of on-source observation. Upper limits at a fraction of the Crab flux are set for most of the other objects, based on the absence of any significant dc excess or periodic effect when an a priori Monte Carlo determined imaging selection criterion (the ''azwidth cut'') is employed. There are weak indications that one source, Hercules X-1, may be an episodic emitter. The Whipple detection system will be improved shortly with the addition of a second reflector 11 m in diameter (GRANITE) for stereoscopic viewing of showers. The combination of the two-reflector system should have a signal-to-noise advantage of 10 3 over a simple nonimaging Cherenkov receiver

  10. 3.5 TeV: Patience pays dividends

    CERN Multimedia

    Rolf Heuer

    2010-01-01

    In my message this week, I’d like to congratulate the LHC team on accelerating two beams to 3.5 TeV in the early hours of this morning. The timing could not have been better. Coming during a week of CERN Council meetings, it allowed us to show delegates the great progress we’re making. The occasion also gave us the opportunity to set out again the prudent step-by-step approach that we’re taking to get the LHC up and running, and it was refreshing to hear one member of the Scientific Policy Committee declare on Monday that we should never forget that the LHC is not a turnkey machine.With the progress the LHC is making, that simple fact would be easy to overlook. The figures coming back from this first run are already quite remarkable. In Week 10, the LHC’s availability for the operators was over 65%: it usually takes a new accelerator years to reach that level. And over the last few weeks, operation of the LHC at 450 GeV has become routinely reproducible, which i...

  11. Beam dynamics in a TeV linear collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoya, Kaoru

    1984-01-01

    The author's group at KEK has investigated the feasibility of an electron-positron linear collider of 1x1 TeV region using the Lasertron. In this report, three major problems are discussed. That is, beam-beam interaction; beam instability in the linac; and the damping ring. As the most important parameter, the luminosity of the linear collider is analyzed, taking into account the pinch effect and the beamstrahlung. The problems in the development of final focusing system are also considered. As for the wake field in the linac, the transverse wake field is more important than the longitudinal one. The misalignment of cavity is discussed as a cause of inducing the transverse wake field. Finally, the design requirement for the damping ring is considered, and the values of some important design parameters are given: These include energy, radius, bending radius, number of bunch, transverse damping time, natural emittance, vertical-horizontal coupling, the time constant of extraction kicker, and the structure of the FODO cell. (Aoki, K.)

  12. Investigation of nuclear interactions around 20 TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Y [Waseda Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Science and Engineering Research Lab.; Sugimoto, H; Saito, T

    1976-12-01

    Nuclear interactions at a mean energy of about 20 TeV are studied by means of a nuclear emulsion chamber with jet producer. In the present analysis, particular emphasis is placed on the experimental condition. The transverse momentum spectrum of secondary ..gamma.. rays is approximated by a single exponential in a range of 0.3

  13. Physics with linear colliders in the tev CM energy region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulos, F.; Cook, V.; Hinchliffe, I.; Lane, K.; Pellet, D.; Perl, M.; Seiden, A.; Wiedemann, H.

    1982-01-01

    It may well be that the e/sup +/e/sup -/ physics beyond PEP and PETRA and up to 200 GeV CM energy will deal primarily with the verification of the standard model (SM) of weak and electromagnetic interactions. Various theoretical and experimental studies at workshops for contemplated accelerators (SLC, LEP I, Z 0 ) have assumed this. Beyond 200 GeV the picture is less clear. The absence of theoretical models with strong predictions comparable to the SM adds to the difficulty. In addition, the experimental verification of the SM itself is yet to come, and one is forced to make certain assumptions about the outcome. The following assumptions are made: Z 0 , W/sup +-/, light higgs (if M/sub H/ < 100 GeV) have all been discovered. The t quark has been discovered if its mass is < 100 GeV. QCD is basically the correct theory of the strong interactions. With these assumptions, the authors have produced an updated table of possible physics in the TeV region. This table was used as the basis for the study of specific physics. It contains best estimates of cross-section, promising signatures for final states, and some helpful comments

  14. EXCEPTIONALLY BRIGHT TEV FLARES FROM THE BINARY LS I +61° 303

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archambault, S.; Archer, A.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Aune, T.; Buchovecky, M.; Barnacka, A.; Benbow, W.; Cerruti, M.; Bird, R.; Collins-Hughes, E.; Byrum, K.; Cardenzana, J. V; Dickinson, H. J.; Eisch, J. D.; Chen, X.; Ciupik, L.; Connolly, M. P.; Cui, W.; Dumm, J.

    2016-01-01

    The TeV binary system LS I +61° 303 is known for its regular, non-thermal emission pattern that traces the orbital period of the compact object in its 26.5 day orbit around its B0 Ve star companion. The system typically presents elevated TeV emission around apastron passage with flux levels between 5% and 15% of the steady flux from the Crab Nebula (>300 GeV). In this article, VERITAS observations of LS I +61° 303 taken in late 2014 are presented, during which bright TeV flares around apastron at flux levels peaking above 30% of the Crab Nebula flux were detected. This is the brightest such activity from this source ever seen in the TeV regime. The strong outbursts have rise and fall times of less than a day. The short timescale of the flares, in conjunction with the observation of 10 TeV photons from LS I +61° 303 during the flares, provides constraints on the properties of the accelerator in the source

  15. Perspective on the Cosmic-ray Electron Spectrum above TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Kun; Wang, Bing-Bing; Bi, Xiao-Jun; Lin, Su-Jie; Yin, Peng-Fei [Key Laboratory of Particle Astrophysics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2017-02-20

    The AMS-02 has measured the cosmic-ray electron (plus positron) spectrum up to ∼TeV with unprecedented precision. The spectrum can be well described by a power law without any obvious features above 10 GeV. The satellite instrument Dark Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE), which was launched a year ago, will measure the electron spectrum up to 10 TeV with high-energy resolution. The cosmic electrons beyond TeV may be attributed to few local cosmic-ray sources, such as supernova remnants. Therefore, spectral features, such as cut-off and bumps, can be expected at high energies. In this work, we provide a careful study on the perspective of the electron spectrum beyond TeV. We first examine our astrophysical source models on the latest leptonic data of AMS-02 to give a self-consistent picture. Then we focus on the discussion about the candidate sources, which could be electron contributors above TeV. Depending on the properties of the local sources (especially on the nature of Vela), DAMPE may detect interesting features in the electron spectrum above TeV in the future.

  16. EXCEPTIONALLY BRIGHT TEV FLARES FROM THE BINARY LS I +61° 303

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archambault, S. [Physics Department, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada); Archer, A.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V. [Department of Physics, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Aune, T.; Buchovecky, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Barnacka, A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Benbow, W.; Cerruti, M. [Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Amado, AZ 85645 (United States); Bird, R.; Collins-Hughes, E. [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Byrum, K. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Cardenzana, J. V; Dickinson, H. J.; Eisch, J. D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Chen, X. [Institute of Physics and Astronomy, University of Potsdam, D-14476 Potsdam-Golm (Germany); Ciupik, L. [Astronomy Department, Adler Planetarium and Astronomy Museum, Chicago, IL 60605 (United States); Connolly, M. P. [School of Physics, National University of Ireland Galway, University Road, Galway (Ireland); Cui, W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Dumm, J., E-mail: anna.ofaolain.de.bhroithe@desy.de [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); and others

    2016-01-20

    The TeV binary system LS I +61° 303 is known for its regular, non-thermal emission pattern that traces the orbital period of the compact object in its 26.5 day orbit around its B0 Ve star companion. The system typically presents elevated TeV emission around apastron passage with flux levels between 5% and 15% of the steady flux from the Crab Nebula (>300 GeV). In this article, VERITAS observations of LS I +61° 303 taken in late 2014 are presented, during which bright TeV flares around apastron at flux levels peaking above 30% of the Crab Nebula flux were detected. This is the brightest such activity from this source ever seen in the TeV regime. The strong outbursts have rise and fall times of less than a day. The short timescale of the flares, in conjunction with the observation of 10 TeV photons from LS I +61° 303 during the flares, provides constraints on the properties of the accelerator in the source.

  17. Millisecond Pulsars, TeV Halos, and Implications For The Galactic Center Gamma-Ray Excess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooper, Dan [Fermilab; Linden, Tim [UC, Santa Cruz, Inst. Part. Phys.

    2018-03-21

    Observations by HAWC indicate that many young pulsars (including Geminga and Monogem) are surrounded by spatially extended, multi-TeV emitting regions. It is not currently known, however, whether TeV emission is also produced by recycled, millisecond pulsars (MSPs). In this study, we perform a stacked analysis of 24 MSPs within HAWC's field-of-view, finding between 2.6-3.2 sigma evidence that these sources are, in fact, surrounded by TeV halos. The efficiency with which these MSPs produce TeV halos is similar to that exhibited by young pulsars. This result suggests that several dozen MSPs will ultimately be detectable by HAWC, including many "invisible" pulsars without radio beams oriented in our direction. The TeV halos of unresolved MSPs could also dominate the TeV-scale diffuse emission observed at high galactic latitudes. We also discuss the possibility that TeV and radio observations could be used to constrain the population of MSPs that is present in the inner Milky Way, thereby providing us with a new way to test the hypothesis that MSPs are responsible for the Galactic Center GeV excess.

  18. X-ray Studies of Unidentified Galactic TeV Gamma-ray Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pühlhofer, Gerd

    2009-05-01

    Many of the recently discovered Galactic TeV sources remain unidentified to date. A large fraction of the sources is possibly associated with relic pulsar wind nebula (PWN) systems. One key question here is the maximum energy (beyond TeV) attained in the compact PWNe. Hard X-ray emission can trace those particles, but current non-focussing X-ray instruments above 10 keV have difficulties to deconvolve the hard pulsar spectrum from its surrounding nebula. Some of the new TeV sources are also expected to originate from middle-aged and possibly even from old supernova remnants (SNR). But no compelling case for such an identification has been found yet. In established young TeV-emitting SNRs, X-ray imaging above 10 keV could help to disentangle the leptonic from the hadronic emission component in the TeV shells, if secondary electrons produced in hadronic collisions can be effectively detected. As SNRs get older, the high energy electron component is expected to fade away. This may allow to verify the picture through X-ray spectral evolution of the source population. Starting from the lessons we have learned so far from X-ray follow-up observations of unidentified TeV sources, prospects for Simbol-X to resolve open questions in this field will be discussed.

  19. X-ray Studies of Unidentified Galactic TeV Gamma-ray Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puehlhofer, Gerd

    2009-01-01

    Many of the recently discovered Galactic TeV sources remain unidentified to date. A large fraction of the sources is possibly associated with relic pulsar wind nebula (PWN) systems. One key question here is the maximum energy (beyond TeV) attained in the compact PWNe. Hard X-ray emission can trace those particles, but current non-focussing X-ray instruments above 10 keV have difficulties to deconvolve the hard pulsar spectrum from its surrounding nebula.Some of the new TeV sources are also expected to originate from middle-aged and possibly even from old supernova remnants (SNR). But no compelling case for such an identification has been found yet. In established young TeV-emitting SNRs, X-ray imaging above 10 keV could help to disentangle the leptonic from the hadronic emission component in the TeV shells, if secondary electrons produced in hadronic collisions can be effectively detected. As SNRs get older, the high energy electron component is expected to fade away. This may allow to verify the picture through X-ray spectral evolution of the source population.Starting from the lessons we have learned so far from X-ray follow-up observations of unidentified TeV sources, prospects for Simbol-X to resolve open questions in this field will be discussed.

  20. An Experiment to Locate the Site of TeV Flaring in M87

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, D.E.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Massaro, F.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Cheung, C.C.; /Natl. Acad. Sci. /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C.; Horns, D.; Raue, M.; /Hamburg U.; Stawarz, L.; /JAXA, Sagamihara /Jagiellonian U., Astron. Observ.; Wagner, S.; /Heidelberg Observ.; Colin, P.; /Munich, Max Planck Inst.; Mazin, D.; /Barcelona, IFAE; Wagner, R.; /Munich, Max Planck Inst.; Beilicke, M.; /McDonnell Ctr. Space Sci.; LeBohec, S.; Hui, M.; /Utah U.; Mukherjee, R.; /Barnard Coll.

    2012-05-18

    We describe a Chandra X-ray target-of-opportunity project designed to isolate the site of TeV flaring in the radio galaxy M87. To date, we have triggered the Chandra observations only once (2010 April) and by the time of the first of our nine observations, the TeV flare had ended. However, we found that the X-ray intensity of the unresolved nucleus was at an elevated level for our first observation. Of the more than 60 Chandra observations we have made of the M87 jet covering nine years, the nucleus was measured at a comparably high level only three times. Two of these occasions can be associated with TeV flaring, and at the time of the third event, there were no TeV monitoring activities. From the rapidity of the intensity drop of the nucleus, we infer that the size of the emitting region is of order a few light days x the unknown beaming factor; comparable to the same sort of estimate for the TeV emitting region. We also find evidence of spectral evolution in the X-ray band which seems consistent with radiative losses affecting the non-thermal population of the emitting electrons within the unresolved nucleus.

  1. Prospects for Higgs physics at energies up to 100 TeV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baglio, Julien; Djouadi, Abdelhak; Quevillon, Jérémie

    2016-11-01

    We summarize the prospects for Higgs boson physics at future proton-proton colliders with centre of mass (c.m.) energies up to 100 TeV. We first provide the production cross sections for the Higgs boson of the Standard Model from 13 TeV to 100 TeV, in the main production mechanisms and in subleading but important ones such as double Higgs production, triple production and associated production with two gauge bosons or with a single top quark. We then discuss the production of Higgs particles in beyond the Standard Model scenarios, starting with the one in the continuum of a pair of scalar, fermionic and vector dark matter particles in Higgs-portal models in various channels with virtual Higgs exchange. The cross sections for the production of the heavier CP-even and CP-odd neutral Higgs states and the charged Higgs states in two-Higgs doublet models, with a specific study of the case of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model, are then given. The sensitivity of a 100 TeV proton machine to probe the new Higgs states is discussed and compared to that of the LHC with a c.m. energy of 14 TeV and at high luminosity.

  2. Medida de la sección eficaz de producción de dibosones WZ a 7 TeV y 8 TeV de energía del centro de masas en el experimento CMS.

    CERN Document Server

    Duarte Campderrós, Jordi; Rodrigo Anoro, Teresa

    The WZ associated diboson production is studied by measuring both inclusive cross section and, for the first time, the ratio between the $W^-Z$ and the $W^+Z$ cross sections. The measurements are performed using data samples of proton-proton collisions collected during the years 2011 and 2012, at 7 and 8 TeV of centre-of-mass energies, respectively, by the CMS experiment at the LHC, updating the 7 TeV cross section measurement available in CMS, and presenting the new cross section measurement in CMS at 8 TeV. The data sample used for the 7 TeV measurements correspond to an integrated luminosity of 4.9 $fb^{-1}$, whence the data for the 8 TeV correspond to $\\mathcal{L}_{int}=19.6~fb^{-1}$. The obtained results are found compatible with the Standard Model predictions.

  3. Large-mass di-jet event recorded by the CMS detector (Run 2, 13 TeV)

    CERN Multimedia

    Mc Cauley, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This image shows a collision event with the largest-mass jet pair fulfilling all analysis requirements observed so far by the CMS detector in collision data collected in 2015. The mass of the di-jet system is 6.14 TeV. Both jets are reconstructed in the barrel region and have transverse momenta of about 3 TeV each.

  4. Top-quark couplings to TeV resonances at future lepton colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, T.; Kim, Y.J.; Likhoded, A.; Valencia, G.

    2001-01-01

    We study the processes W L W L →tt-bar and W L Z L →tb-bar (t-barb) at future lepton colliders as probes of the couplings of the top quark to resonances at the TeV scale. We consider the cases in which the dominant low energy feature of a strongly interacting electroweak symmetry breaking sector is either a scalar or a vector resonance with mass near 1 TeV. We find that future lepton colliders with high energy and high luminosity have great potential to sensitively probe these physics scenarios. In particular, at a 1.5 TeV linear collider with an integrated luminosity of 200 fb -1 , we expect about 120 events for either a scalar or a vector to decay to tt-bar, tb. Their leading partial decay widths, which characterize the coupling strengths, can be statistically determined to about 10% level

  5. Measurement of Forward Energy Flow at 13 TeV with the CMS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Cerci, Salim

    2016-01-01

    The measurement of the energy flow is performed with the forward (HF: $3.15 <\\mid \\eta \\mid) < 5.2$) and very-forward (CASTOR: $-6.6 < \\eta < -5.2$) calorimeters of CMS at the centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. The data were taken during the several periods of low luminosity operation in 2015. The results are compared to Monte Carlo (MC) model predictions as well as the earlier proton-proton data taken at $\\sqrt{s} = 0.9$ TeV and 7 TeV. Furthermore, the beam fragmentation which provides valuable input for tuning of MC models used to describe high energy hadronic interactions is also studied at the regions close to the beam rapidities.

  6. Weak Depolarizing Resonances in the 3-TeV VLHC Booster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anferov, V.A.

    1999-01-01

    The possibility of polarized-proton-beam acceleration in the proposed low-field 3-TeV VLHC booster is considered. We find that the low-field combined function magnets in the booster's long FODO cells cause an inadvertent cancellation of most depolarizing fields due to a mechanism suggested earlier by Chao and Derbenev [Part.Accel.36, 25 (1991)]. The strongest spin-depolarizing resonances in the 3-TeV booster seem to be similar in strength to those in the 250-GeV RHIC. Moreover, the strength of the 3-TeV booster's strongest intrinsic depolarizing resonances decreases with energy, in contrast with the energy growth of the depolarizing resonance's strength in most proton synchrotrons. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  7. TeV scale leptogenesis in B−L model with alternative cosmologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdallah, W., E-mail: wabdallah@zewailcity.edu.eg [Centre for Theoretical Physics, Zewail City of Science and Technology, Sheikh Zayed, 12588, Giza (Egypt); Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza (Egypt); Delepine, D., E-mail: delepine@fisica.ugto.mx [Division de Ciencias e Ingenierías, Universidad de Guanajuato, C.P. 37150, León, Guanajuato (Mexico); Khalil, S., E-mail: skhalil@zewailcity.edu.eg [Centre for Theoretical Physics, Zewail City of Science and Technology, Sheikh Zayed, 12588, Giza (Egypt); Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2013-10-01

    In TeV scale B−L extension of the standard model with inverse seesaw, the Yukawa coupling of right-handed neutrinos can be of order one. This implies that the out-of-equilibrium condition for leptogenesis within the standard cosmology is not satisfied. We provide two scenarios for overcoming this problem and generating the desired value of the baryon asymmetry of the Universe. The first scenario is based on the extra-dimensional braneworld effects that modify the Friedman equation. We show that in this case the value of the baryon asymmetry of the Universe constrains the five-dimensional Planck mass to be of order 100 TeV. In the second scenario a non-thermal right-handed neutrino produced by the decay of a heavy moduli is assumed. In this case, we emphasize that it is possible to generate the required baryon asymmetry of the Universe for TeV scale right-handed neutrinos.

  8. Renaissance of the ~1 TeV Fixed-Target Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, T.; /Florida State U.; Appel, Jeffrey A.; /Fermilab; Arms, Kregg Elliott; /Minnesota U.; Balantekin, A.B.; /Wisconsin U., Madison; Conrad, Janet Marie; /MIT; Cooper, Peter S.; /Fermilab; Djurcic, Zelimir; /Columbia U.; Dunwoodie, William M.; /SLAC; Engelfried, Jurgen; /San Luis Potosi U.; Fisher, Peter H.; /MIT; Gottschalk, E.; /Fermilab /Northwestern U.

    2009-05-01

    This document describes the physics potential of a new fixed-target program based on a {approx} TeV proton source. Two proton sources are potentially available in the future: the existing Tevatron at Fermilab, which can provide 800 GeV protons for fixed-target physics, and a possible upgrade to the SPS at CERN, called SPS+, which would produce 1 TeV protons on target. In this paper we use an example Tevatron fixed-target program to illustrate the high discovery potential possible in the charm and neutrino sectors. We highlight examples which are either unique to the program or difficult to accomplish at other venues.

  9. Renaissance of the ~ 1-TeV Fixed-Target Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, T.; /Florida State U.; Appel, J.A.; /Fermilab; Arms, K.E.; /Minnesota U.; Balantekin, A.B.; /Wisconsin U., Madison; Conrad, J.M.; /MIT; Cooper, P.S.; /Fermilab; Djurcic, Z.; /Columbia U.; Dunwoodie, W.; /SLAC; Engelfried, J.; /San Luis Potosi U.; Fisher, P.H.; /MIT; Gottschalk, Erik Edward; /Fermilab; de Gouvea, A.; /Northwestern U.; Heller, K.; /Minnesota U.; Ignarra, C.M.; Karagiorgi, G.; /MIT; Kwan, S.; /Fermilab; Loinaz, W.A.; /Amherst Coll.; Meadows, B.; /Cincinnati U.; Moore, R.; Morfin, J.G.; /Fermilab; Naples, D.; /Pittsburgh U. /St. Mary' s Coll., Minnesota /New Mexico State U. /Michigan U. /Wayne State U. /South Carolina U. /Florida U. /Carnegie Mellon U. /Cincinnati U. /Columbia U. /Columbia U. /Northwestern U. /Yale U. /Fermilab /Argonne /Northwestern U. /APC, Paris

    2011-12-02

    This document describes the physics potential of a new fixed-target program based on a {approx}1 TeV proton source. Two proton sources are potentially available in the future: the existing Tevatron at Fermilab, which can provide 800 GeV protons for fixed-target physics, and a possible upgrade to the SPS at CERN, called SPS+, which would produce 1 TeV protons on target. In this paper we use an example Tevatron fixed-target program to illustrate the high discovery potential possible in the charm and neutrino sectors. We highlight examples which are either unique to the program or difficult to accomplish at other venues.

  10. Supersymmetry production from a TeV scale black hole at CERN LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamblin, Andrew; Cooper, Fred; Nayak, Gouranga C.

    2004-01-01

    If the fundamental Planck scale is near a TeV, then we should expect to see TeV scale black holes at the CERN LHC. Similarly, if the scale of supersymmetry (SUSY) breaking is sufficiently low, then we might expect to see light supersymmetric particles in the next generation of colliders. If the mass of the supersymmetric particle is of order a TeV and is comparable to the temperature of a typical TeV scale black hole, then such sparticles will be copiously produced via Hawking radiation: The black hole will act as a resonance for sparticles, among other things. In this paper we compare various signatures for SUSY production at LHC, and we contrast the situation where the sparticles are produced directly via parton fusion processes with the situation where they are produced indirectly through black hole resonances. We found that black hole resonances provide a larger source for heavy mass SUSY (squark and gluino) production than the direct perturbative QCD-SUSY production via parton fusion processes depending on the values of the Planck mass and black hole mass. Hence black hole production at LHC may indirectly act as a dominant channel for SUSY production. We also found that the differential cross section dσ/dp t for SUSY production increases as a function of the p t (up to p t equal to about 1 TeV or more) of the SUSY particles (squarks and gluinos), which is in sharp contrast with the pQCD predictions where the differential cross section dσ/dp t decreases as p t increases for high p t about 1 TeV or higher. This is a feature for any particle emission from a TeV scale black hole as long as the temperature of the black hole is very high (∼TeV). Hence the measurement of increase of dσ/dp t with p t for p t up to about 1 TeV or higher for final state particles might be a useful signature for black hole production at LHC

  11. ATLAS event at 13 TeV - Multijet Exotics Search Event Display - 2015 data

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Run 279984, Event 1079767163 A 10 jet event selected in the search for strong gravity in multijet final states (CERN-PH-EP-2015-312). The scalar sum of jet transverse momenta (HT) of the event is 4.4 TeV. Run 282712, Event 474587238 The event with the largest scalar sum of jet transverse momenta (HT) selected in the search for strong gravity in multijet final states (CERN-PH-EP-2015-312). The HT of the event is 6.4 TeV.

  12. Preliminary design for a 20 TeV Collider in a deep tunnel at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The Reference Design Study for a 20 TeV Collider demonstrated the technical and cost feasibility of a 20 TeV superconducting collider facility. Based on magnets of 3T, 5T, and 6.5T the Main Ring of the Collider would have a circumference of 164 km, 113 km, or 90 km. There would be six collision regions, of which four would be developed intially. The 5T and 6.5T rings would have twelve major refrigeration stations, while the 3T design would have 24 major refrigeration stations

  13. Measurement of Dijet Azimuthal Decorrelations in pp Collisions at √s = 7 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Abdesselam, Abdelouahab; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Acerbi, Emilio; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Aderholz, Michael; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adragna, Paolo; Adye, Tim; Aefsky, Scott; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Aharrouche, Mohamed; Ahlen, Steven; Ahles, Florian; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahsan, Mahsana; Aielli, Giulio; Akdogan, Taylan; Akesson, Torsten Paul; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Alam, Mohammad; Alam, Muhammad Aftab; Albrand, Solveig; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Aleppo, Mario; Alessandria, Franco; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Aliyev, Magsud; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral, Pedro; Amelung, Christoph; Ammosov, Vladimir; Amorim, Antonio; Amoros, Gabriel; Amram, Nir; Anastopoulos, Christos; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Andrieux, Marie-Laure; Anduaga, Xabier; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonelli, Stefano; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoun, Sahar; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Arce, Ayana; Archambault, John-Paul; Arfaoui, Samir; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Arik, Engin; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnault, Christian; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Arutinov, David; Asai, Shoji; Asfandiyarov, Ruslan; Ask, Stefan; Asman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astbury, Alan; Astvatsatourov, Anatoli; Atoian, Grigor; Aubert, Bernard; Auerbach, Benjamin; Auge, Etienne; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Austin, Nicholas; Avramidou, Rachel Maria; Axen, David; Ay, Cano; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Baccaglioni, Giuseppe; Bacci, Cesare; Bach, Andre; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Bachy, Gerard; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bahinipati, Seema; Bai, Yu; Bailey, David; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Mark; Baker, Sarah; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, Fernando; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Piyali; Banerjee, Swagato; Banfi, Danilo; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barashkou, Andrei; Galtieri, Angela Barbaro; Barber, Tom; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Bardin, Dmitri; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimaraes da Costa, Joao; Barrillon, Pierre; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartsch, Detlef; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Andreas; Battistin, Michele; Battistoni, Giuseppe; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beare, Brian; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Beckingham, Matthew; Becks, Karl-Heinz; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Begel, Michael; Behar Harpaz, Silvia; Behera, Prafulla; Beimforde, Michael; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellina, Francesco; Bellomo, Giovanni; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Beloborodova, Olga; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Ben Ami, Sagi; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Benchouk, Chafik; Bendel, Markus; Benedict, Brian Hugues; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benjamin, Douglas; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jurg; Bernardet, Karim; Bernat, Pauline; Bernhard, Ralf; Bernius, Catrin; Berry, Tracey; Bertin, Antonio; Bertinelli, Francesco; Bertolucci, Federico; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besson, Nathalie; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biscarat, Catherine; Bitenc, Urban; Black, Kevin; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blanchot, Georges; Blocker, Craig; Blocki, Jacek; Blondel, Alain; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocci, Andrea; Boddy, Christopher Richard; Boehler, Michael; Boek, Jennifer; Boelaert, Nele; Boser, Sebastian; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bogouch, Andrei; Bohm, Christian; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Bona, Marcella; Bondarenko, Valery; Boonekamp, Maarten; Boorman, Gary; Booth, Chris; Booth, Peter; Bordoni, Stefania; Borer, Claudia; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borjanovic, Iris; Borroni, Sara; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boterenbrood, Hendrik; Botterill, David; Bouchami, Jihene; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boulahouache, Chaouki; Bourdarios, Claire; Bousson, Nicolas; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozhko, Nikolay; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, Ivanka; Bracinik, Juraj; Braem, Andre; Brambilla, Elena; Branchini, Paolo; Brandenburg, George; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Brelier, Bertrand; Bremer, Johan; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Breton, Dominique; Brett, Nicolas; Bright-Thomas, Paul; Britton, Dave; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Brodbeck, Timothy; Brodet, Eyal; Broggi, Francesco; Bromberg, Carl; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, William; Brown, Gareth; Brubaker, Erik; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Brunet, Sylvie; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Buanes, Trygve; Bucci, Francesca; Buchanan, James; Buchanan, Norman; Buchholz, Peter; Buckingham, Ryan; Buckley, Andrew; Buda, Stelian Ioan; Budagov, Ioulian; Budick, Burton; Buscher, Volker; Bugge, Lars; Buira-Clark, Daniel; Buis, Ernst-Jan; Bulekov, Oleg; Bunse, Moritz; Buran, Torleiv; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burgess, Thomas; Burke, Stephen; Busato, Emmanuel; Bussey, Peter; Buszello, Claus-Peter; Butin, Francois; Butler, Bart; Butler, John; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Buttinger, William; Byatt, Tom; Cabrera Urban, Susana; Caccia, Massimo; Caforio, Davide; Cakir, Orhan; Calafiura, Paolo; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Calkins, Robert; Caloba, Luiz; Caloi, Rita; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camard, Arnaud; Camarri, Paolo; Cambiaghi, Mario; Cameron, David; Cammin, Jochen; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Canale, Vincenzo; Canelli, Florencia; Canepa, Anadi; Cantero, Josu; Capasso, Luciano; Garrido, Maria Del Mar Capeans; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capriotti, Daniele; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Caramarcu, Costin; Cardarelli, Roberto; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Bryan; Caron, Sascha; Carpentieri, Carmen; Montoya, German D.Carrillo; Carter, Antony; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, Joao; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Cascella, Michele; Caso, Carlo; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo Martin; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Cataldi, Gabriella; Cataneo, Fernando; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Cattani, Giordano; Caughron, Seth; Cauz, Diego; Cavallari, Alvise; Cavalleri, Pietro; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Cazzato, Antonio; Ceradini, Filippo; Santiago Cerqueira, Augusto; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Cevenini, Francesco; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chan, Kevin; Chapleau, Bertrand; Chapman, John Derek; Chapman, John Wehrley; Chareyre, Eve; Charlton, Dave; Chavda, Vikash; Cheatham, Susan; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Li; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Tingyang; Chen, Xin; Cheng, Shaochen; Cheplakov, Alexander; Chepurnov, Vladimir; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Cheung, Sing-Leung; Chevalier, Laurent; Chevallier, Florent; Chiefari, Giovanni; Chikovani, Leila; Childers, John Taylor; Chilingarov, Alexandre; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chizhov, Mihail; Choudalakis, Georgios; Chouridou, Sofia; Christidi, Illectra-Athanasia; Christov, Asen; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chu, Ming-Lee; Chudoba, Jiri; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciba, Krzysztof; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Ciftci, Rena; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Ciobotaru, Matei Dan; Ciocca, Claudia; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirilli, Manuela; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G.; Clark, Philip; Cleland, Bill; Clemens, Jean-Claude; Clement, Benoit; Clement, Christophe; Clifft, Roger; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H.; Coe, Paul; Cogan, Joshua Godfrey; Coggeshall, James; Cogneras, Eric; Cojocaru, Claudiu; Colas, Jacques; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collard, Caroline; Collins, Neil; Collins-Tooth, Christopher; Collot, Johann; Colon, German; Coluccia, Rita; Comune, Gianluca; Conde Muino, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Conidi, Maria Chiara; Consonni, Michele; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conventi, Francesco; Cook, James; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cooper-Smith, Neil; Copic, Katherine; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, Maria Jose; Costanzo, Davide; Costin, Tudor; Cote, David; Coura Torres, Rodrigo; Courneyea, Lorraine; Cowan, Glen; Cowden, Christopher; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Cristinziani, Markus; Crosetti, Giovanni; Crupi, Roberto; Crepe-Renaudin, Sabine; Cuenca Almenar, Cristobal; Donszelmann, Tulay Cuhadar; Cuneo, Stefano; Curatolo, Maria; Curtis, Chris; Cwetanski, Peter; Czirr, Hendrik; Czyczula, Zofia; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; D'Orazio, Alessia; Da Rocha Gesualdi Mello, Aline; Da Silva, Paulo Vitor; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dahlhoff, Andrea; Dai, Tiesheng; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dallison, Steve; Dam, Mogens; Dameri, Mauro; Damiani, Daniel; Danielsson, Hans Olof; Dankers, Reinier; Dannheim, Dominik; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darlea, Georgiana Lavinia; Daum, Cornelis; Dauvergne, Jean-Pierre; Davey, Will; Davidek, Tomas; Davidson, Nadia; Davidson, Ruth; Davies, Merlin; Davison, Adam; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Dawson, John; Daya, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; De Asmundis, Riccardo; De Castro, Stefano; De Castro Faria Salgado, Pedro; De Cecco, Sandro; de Graat, Julien; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; de la Taille, Christophe; De Lotto, Barbara; De Mora, Lee; De Nooij, Lucie; De Oliveira Branco, Miguel; De Pedis, Daniele; de Saintignon, Paul; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; de Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Dean, Simon; Dedovich, Dmitri; Degenhardt, James; Dehchar, Mohamed; Deile, Mario; del Papa, Carlo; del Peso, Jose; del Prete, Tarcisio; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delpierre, Pierre; Delruelle, Nicolas; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demirkoz, Bilge; Deng, Jianrong; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Devetak, Erik; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; DeWilde, Burton; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Dhullipudi, Ramasudhakar; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Luise, Silvestro; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diblen, Faruk; Diehl, Edward; Dietl, Hans; Dietrich, Janet; Dietzsch, Thorsten; Diglio, Sara; Yagci, Kamile Dindar; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dionisi, Carlo; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djilkibaev, Rashid; Djobava, Tamar; Barros do Vale, Maria Aline; Do Valle Wemans, Andre; Doan, Thi Kieu Oanh; Dobbs, Matt; Dobinson, Robert; Dobos, Daniel; Dobson, Ellie; Dobson, Marc; Dodd, Jeremy; Dogan, Ozgen Berkol; Doglioni, Caterina; Doherty, Tom; Doi, Yoshikuni; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolenc, Irena; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Dohmae, Takeshi; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donega, Mauro; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; dos Anjos, Andre; Dosil, Mireia; Dotti, Andrea; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Dowell, John; Doxiadis, Alexander; Doyle, Tony; Drasal, Zbynek; Drees, Jurgen; Dressnandt, Nandor; Drevermann, Hans; Driouichi, Chafik; Dris, Manolis; Drohan, Janice; Dubbert, Jorg; Dubbs, Tim; Dube, Sourabh; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudziak, Fanny; Duhrssen, Michael; Duerdoth, Ian; Duflot, Laurent; Dufour, Marc-Andre; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Duxfield, Robert; Dwuznik, Michal; Dydak, Friedrich; Dzahini, Daniel; Duren, Michael; Ebenstein, William; Ebke, Johannes; Eckert, Simon; Eckweiler, Sebastian; Edmonds, Keith; Edwards, Clive; Efthymiopoulos, Ilias; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Ehrich, Thies; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Eisenhandler, Eric; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Ellis, Katherine; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Ely, Robert; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Engelmann, Roderich; Engl, Albert; Epp, Brigitte; Eppig, Andrew; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Eriksson, Daniel; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Ernwein, Jean; Errede, Deborah; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Escobar, Carlos; Espinal Curull, Xavier; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienne, Francois; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evangelakou, Despoina; Evans, Hal; Fabbri, Laura; Fabre, Caroline; Facius, Katrine; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Falou, Alain; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farley, Jason; Farooque, Trisha; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fasching, Damon; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Fatholahzadeh, Baharak; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Fazio, Salvatore; Febbraro, Renato; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Ivan; Fedorko, Woiciech; Fehling-Kaschek, Mirjam; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Fellmann, Denis; Felzmann, Ulrich; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Fenyuk, Alexander; Ferencei, Jozef; Ferland, Jonathan; Fernandes, Bruno; Fernando, Waruna; Ferrag, Samir; Ferrando, James; Ferrara, Valentina; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrer, Maria Lorenza; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipcic, Andrej; Filippas, Anastasios; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Gordon; Fischer, Peter; Fisher, Matthew; Fisher, Steve; Flammer, Joachim; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleckner, Johanna; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Flick, Tobias; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Fohlisch, Florian; Fokitis, Manolis; Fonseca Martin, Teresa; Forbush, David Alan; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fortin, Dominique; Foster, Joe; Fournier, Daniel; Foussat, Arnaud; Fowler, Andrew; Fowler, Ken; Fox, Harald; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Frank, Tal; Franklin, Melissa; Franz, Sebastien; Fraternali, Marco; Fratina, Sasa; French, Sky; Froeschl, Robert; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gadfort, Thomas; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallas, Manuel; Gallo, Valentina Santina; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galyaev, Eugene; Gan, K.K.; Gao, Yongsheng; Gapienko, Vladimir; Gaponenko, Andrei; Garberson, Ford; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Garcia, Carmen; Garcia Navarro, Jose Enrique; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garitaonandia, Hegoi; Garonne, Vincent; Garvey, John; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaumer, Olivier; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gayde, Jean-Christophe; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gee, Norman; Geerts, Daniel Alphonsus Adrianus; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Gemmell, Alistair; Genest, Marie-Helene; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Simon; Gerlach, Peter; Gershon, Avi; Geweniger, Christoph; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghez, Philippe; Ghodbane, Nabil; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giakoumopoulou, Victoria; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Gianotti, Fabiola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Adam; Gibson, Stephen; Gieraltowski, Gerry; Gilbert, Laura; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gilewsky, Valentin; Gillberg, Dag; Gillman, Tony; Gingrich, Douglas; Ginzburg, Jonatan; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordano, Raffaele; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giovannini, Paola; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giugni, Danilo; Giusti, Paolo; Gjelsten, Borge Kile; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glazov, Alexandre; Glitza, Karl-Walter; Glonti, George; Godfrey, Jennifer; Godlewski, Jan; Goebel, Martin; Gopfert, Thomas; Goeringer, Christian; Gossling, Claus; Gottfert, Tobias; Goldfarb, Steven; Goldin, Daniel; Golling, Tobias; Golovnia, Serguei; Gomes, Agostinho; Gomez Fajardo, Luz Stella; Goncalo, Ricardo; Gonella, Laura; Gonidec, Allain; Gonzalez, Saul; Gonzalez de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Silva, Laura; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goodson, Jeremiah Jet; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorfine, Grant; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorisek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Gorokhov, Serguei; Goryachev, Vladimir; Gosdzik, Bjoern; Gosselink, Martijn; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gouanere, Michel; Gough Eschrich, Ivo; Gouighri, Mohamed; Goujdami, Driss; Goulette, Marc Phillippe; Goussiou, Anna; Goy, Corinne; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grabski, Varlen; Grafstrom, Per; Grah, Christian; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Grancagnolo, Francesco; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Grau, Nathan; Gray, Heather; Gray, Julia Ann; Graziani, Enrico; Grebenyuk, Oleg; Greenfield, Debbie; Greenshaw, Timothy; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griesmayer, Erich; Griffiths, Justin; Grigalashvili, Nugzar; Grillo, Alexander; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grishkevich, Yaroslav; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Grognuz, Joel; Groh, Manfred; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Groth-Jensen, Jacob; Gruwe, Magali; Grybel, Kai; Guarino, Victor; Guest, Daniel; Guicheney, Christophe; Guida, Angelo; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Guler, Hulya; Gunther, Jaroslav; Guo, Bin; Guo, Jun; Gupta, Ambreesh; Gusakov, Yury; Gushchin, Vladimir; Gutierrez, Andrea; Gutierrez, Phillip; Guttman, Nir; Gutzwiller, Olivier; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haas, Stefan; Haber, Carl; Hackenburg, Robert; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Hadley, David; Haefner, Petra; Hahn, Ferdinand; Haider, Stefan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haller, Johannes; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Han, Hongguang; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hance, Michael; Handel, Carsten; Hanke, Paul; Hansen, Christian Johan; Hansen, John Renner; Hansen, Jorgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hansson, Per; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hare, Gabriel; Harenberg, Torsten; Harper, Devin; Harrington, Robert; Harris, Orin; Harrison, Karl; Hartert, Jochen; Hartjes, Fred; Haruyama, Tomiyoshi; Harvey, Alex; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hassani, Samira; Hatch, Mark; Hauff, Dieter; Haug, Sigve; Hauschild, Michael; Hauser, Reiner; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawes, Brian; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Donovan; Hayakawa, Takashi; Hayden, Daniel; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Hazen, Eric; He, Mao; Head, Simon; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heinemann, Beate; Heisterkamp, Simon; Helary, Louis; Heldmann, Michael; Heller, Mathieu; Hellman, Sten; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, Robert; Henke, Michael; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Henry-Couannier, Frederic; Hensel, Carsten; Henss, Tobias; Hernandez Jimenez, Yesenia; Herrberg, Ruth; Hershenhorn, Alon David; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hessey, Nigel; Hidvegi, Attila; Higon-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Daniel; Hill, John; Hill, Norman; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirsch, Florian; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoffman, Julia; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holder, Martin; Holmes, Alan; Holmgren, Sven-Olof; Holy, Tomas; Holzbauer, Jenny; Homma, Yasuhiro; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Horazdovsky, Tomas; Horn, Claus; Horner, Stephan; Horton, Katherine; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hott, Thomas; Hou, Suen; Houlden, Michael; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howarth, James; Howell, David; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hruska, Ivan; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Huang, Guang Shun; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Hughes-Jones, Richard; Huhtinen, Mika; Hurst, Peter; Hurwitz, Martina; Husemann, Ulrich; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibbotson, Michael; Ibragimov, Iskander; Ichimiya, Ryo; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Idarraga, John; Idzik, Marek; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Yuri; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Imbault, Didier; Imhaeuser, Martin; Imori, Masatoshi; Ince, Tayfun; Inigo-Golfin, Joaquin; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Ionescu, Gelu; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Ishii, Koji; Ishikawa, Akimasa; Ishino, Masaya; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Isobe, Tadaaki; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Itoh, Yuki; Ivashin, Anton; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, John; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakubek, Jan; Jana, Dilip; Jankowski, Ernest; Jansen, Eric; Jantsch, Andreas; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Goran; Jeanty, Laura; Jelen, Kazimierz; Jen-La Plante, Imai; Jenni, Peter; Jeremie, Andrea; Jez, Pavel; Jezequel, Stephane; Jha, Manoj Kumar; Ji, Haoshuang; Ji, Weina; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Ge; Jin, Shan; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Joffe, David; Johansen, Lars; Johansen, Marianne; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johnert, Sebastian; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tegid; Jones, Tim; Jonsson, Ove; Joram, Christian; Jorge, Pedro; Joseph, John; Ju, Xiangyang; Juranek, Vojtech; Jussel, Patrick; Kabachenko, Vasily; Kabana, Sonja; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kadlecik, Peter; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kaiser, Steffen; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalinin, Sergey; Kalinovskaya, Lidia; Kama, Sami; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kanno, Takayuki; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kaplon, Jan; Kar, Deepak; Karagoz, Muge; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karr, Kristo; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasmi, Azzedine; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Mayuko; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katsoufis, Elias; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kayl, Manuel; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Kazi, Sandor Istvan; Keates, James Robert; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keil, Markus; Kekelidze, George; Kelly, Marc; Kennedy, John; Kenyon, Mike; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerschen, Nicolas; Kersevan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Ketterer, Christian; Khakzad, Mohsen; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharchenko, Dmitri; Khodinov, Alexander; Kholodenko, Anatoli; Khomich, Andrei; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khoriauli, Gia; Khovanskiy, Nikolai; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kilvington, Graham; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Min Suk; Kim, Peter; Kim, Shinhong; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; Kirk, Julie; Kirsch, Guillaume; Kirsch, Lawrence; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kiver, Andrey; Kiyamura, Hironori; Kladiva, Eduard; Klaiber-Lodewigs, Jonas; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klemetti, Miika; Klier, Amit; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinkby, Esben; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Klous, Sander; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluge, Thomas; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knobloch, Juergen; Knoops, Edith B F G; Knue, Andrea; Ko, Byeong Rok; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Koblitz, Birger; Kocian, Martin; Kocnar, Antonin; Kodys, Peter; Koneke, Karsten; Konig, Adriaan; Koenig, Sebastian; Konig, Stefan; Kopke, Lutz; Koetsveld, Folkert; Koevesarki, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kohn, Fabian; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kokott, Thomas; Kolachev, Guennady; Kolanoski, Hermann; Kolesnikov, Vladimir; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Kollar, Daniel; Kollefrath, Michael; Kolya, Scott; Komar, Aston; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Kondo, Takahiko; Kono, Takanori; Kononov, Anatoly; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kootz, Andreas; Koperny, Stefan; Kopikov, Sergey; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Koreshev, Victor; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotamaki, Miikka Juhani; Kotov, Sergey; Kotov, Vladislav; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kral, Vlastimil; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasel, Olaf; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, James; Kreisel, Arik; Krejci, Frantisek; Kretzschmar, Jan; Krieger, Nina; Krieger, Peter; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Kruger, Hans; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruth, Andre; Kubota, Takashi; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kuhn, Dietmar; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kummer, Christian; Kuna, Marine; Kundu, Nikhil; Kunkle, Joshua; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurata, Masakazu; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuykendall, William; Kuze, Masahiro; Kuzhir, Polina; Kvasnicka, Ondrej; Kwee, Regina; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rotonda, Laura; Labarga, Luis; Labbe, Julien; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramon; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Laisne, Emmanuel; Lamanna, Massimo; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lancon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Landsman, Hagar; Lane, Jenna; Lange, Clemens; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Lapin, Vladimir; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Larionov, Anatoly; Larner, Aimee; Lasseur, Christian; Lassnig, Mario; Lau, Wing; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavorato, Antonia; Lavrijsen, Wim; Laycock, Paul; Lazarev, Alexandre; Lazzaro, Alfio; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Maner, Christophe; Le Menedeu, Eve; Leahu, Marius; Lebedev, Alexander; Lebel, Celine; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Jason; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Michel; Legendre, Marie; Leger, Annie; LeGeyt, Benjamin; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehmacher, Marc; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lellouch, Jeremie; Leltchouk, Mikhail; Lendermann, Victor; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatiana; Lenzen, Georg; Lenzi, Bruno; Leonhardt, Kathrin; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lessard, Jean-Raphael; Lesser, Jonas; Lester, Christopher; Leung Fook Cheong, Annabelle; Leveque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levitski, Mikhail; Lewandowska, Marta; Lewis, George; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bo; Li, Haifeng; Li, Shu; Li, Xuefei; Liang, Zhihua; Liang, Zhijun; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lichtnecker, Markus; Lie, Ki; Liebig, Wolfgang; Lifshitz, Ronen; Lilley, Joseph; Limosani, Antonio; Limper, Maaike; Lin, Simon; Linde, Frank; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipinsky, Lukas; Lipniacka, Anna; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Chuanlei; Liu, Dong; Liu, Hao; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Shengli; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Livermore, Sarah; Lleres, Annick; Lloyd, Stephen; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Lockwitz, Sarah; Loddenkoetter, Thomas; Loebinger, Fred; Loginov, Andrey; Loh, Chang Wei; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Loken, James; Lombardo, Vincenzo Paolo; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Sterzo, Francesco Lo; Losty, Michael; Lou, Xinchou; Lounis, Abdenour; Loureiro, Karina; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Feng; Lu, Jiansen; Lu, Liang; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Ludwig, Andreas; Ludwig, Dorthe; Ludwig, Inga; Ludwig, Jens; Luehring, Frederick; Luijckx, Guy; Lumb, Debra; Luminari, Lamberto; Lund, Esben; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lundberg, Bjorn; Lundberg, Johan; Lundquist, Johan; Lungwitz, Matthias; Lupi, Anna; Lutz, Gerhard; Lynn, David; Lys, Jeremy; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Macana Goia, Jorge Andres; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Macek, Bostjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Macina, Daniela; Mackeprang, Rasmus; Madaras, Ronald; Mader, Wolfgang; Maenner, Reinhard; Maeno, Tadashi; Mattig, Peter; Mattig, Stefan; Magalhaes Martins, Paulo Jorge; Magnoni, Luca; Magradze, Erekle; Magrath, Caroline; Mahalalel, Yair; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahout, Gilles; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maio, Amelia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Mal, Prolay; Malecki, Pawel; Malecki, Piotr; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mameghani, Raphael; Mamuzic, Judita; Manabe, Atsushi; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandic, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, Jose; Mangeard, Pierre-Simon; Manjavidze, Ioseb; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Manz, Andreas; Mapelli, Alessandro; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchese, Fabrizio; Marchesotti, Marco; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marin, Alexandru; Marino, Christopher; Marroquim, Fernando; Marshall, Robin; Marshall, Zach; Martens, Kalen; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Andrew; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Franck Francois; Martin, Jean-Pierre; Martin, Philippe; Martin, Tim; Martin Dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Mario; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Mass, Martin; Massa, Ignazio; Massaro, Graziano; Massol, Nicolas; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mathes, Markus; Matricon, Pierre; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Matsushita, Takashi; Mattravers, Carly; Maugain, Jean-Marie; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; May, Edward; Mayne, Anna; Mazini, Rachid; Mazur, Michael; Mazzanti, Marcello; Mazzoni, Enrico; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; McGlone, Helen; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McLaren, Robert Andrew; Mclaughlan, Tom; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Meade, Andrew; Mechnich, Joerg; Mechtel, Markus; Medinnis, Mike; Meera-Lebbai, Razzak; Meguro, Tatsuma; Mehdiyev, Rashid; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meinhardt, Jens; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Mendoza Navas, Luis; Meng, Zhaoxia; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Menot, Claude; Meoni, Evelin; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meuser, Stefan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer, Joerg; Meyer, Thomas Christian; Meyer, W.Thomas; Miao, Jiayuan; Michal, Sebastien; Micu, Liliana; Middleton, Robin; Miele, Paola; Migas, Sylwia; Mijovic, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikulec, Bettina; Mikuz, Marko; Miller, David; Miller, Robert; Mills, Bill; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Milstein, Dmitry; Minaenko, Andrey; Minano, Mercedes; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Miralles Verge, Lluis; Misiejuk, Andrzej; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitrofanov, Gennady; Mitsou, Vasiliki A.; Mitsui, Shingo; Miyagawa, Paul; Miyazaki, Kazuki; Mjornmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mockett, Paul; Moed, Shulamit; Moeller, Victoria; Monig, Klaus; Moser, Nicolas; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohn, Bjarte; Mohr, Wolfgang; Mohrdieck-Mock, Susanne; Moisseev, Artemy; Moles-Valls, Regina; Molina-Perez, Jorge; Moneta, Lorenzo; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montesano, Simone; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Moorhead, Gareth; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Morais, Antonio; Morange, Nicolas; Morel, Julien; Morello, Gianfranco; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morii, Masahiro; Morin, Jerome; Morita, Youhei; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morone, Maria-Christina; Morozov, Sergey; Morris, John; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Mudrinic, Mihajlo; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Muller, Thomas; Muenstermann, Daniel; Muijs, Sandra; Muir, Alex; Munwes, Yonathan; Murakami, Koichi; Murray, Bill; Mussche, Ido; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakano, Itsuo; Nanava, Gizo; Napier, Austin; Nash, Michael; Nation, Nigel; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Neal, Homer; Nebot, Eduardo; Nechaeva, Polina; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Silke; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Nesterov, Stanislav; Neubauer, Mark; Neusiedl, Andrea; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicolas, Ludovic; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Niedercorn, Francois; Nielsen, Jason; Niinikoski, Tapio; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolaev, Kirill; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Henrik; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nishiyama, Tomonori; Nisius, Richard; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nomoto, Hiroshi; Nordberg, Markus; Nordkvist, Bjoern; Norton, Peter; Novakova, Jana; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozicka, Miroslav; Nozka, Libor; Nugent, Ian Michael; Nuncio-Quiroz, Adriana-Elizabeth; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; Nyman, Tommi; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'Neale, Steve; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Odier, Jerome; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohshima, Takayoshi; Ohshita, Hidetoshi; Ohska, Tokio Kenneth; Ohsugi, Takashi; Okada, Shogo; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olcese, Marco; Olchevski, Alexander; Oliveira, Miguel Alfonso; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olivito, Dominick; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Omachi, Chihiro; Onofre, Antonio; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Ordonez, Gustavo; Oreglia, Mark; Orellana, Frederik; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlov, Iliya; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Ortega, Eduardo; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Osuna, Carlos; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Ottersbach, John; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Ouyang, Qun; Owen, Mark; Owen, Simon; Oyarzun, Alejandro; Oye, Ola; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Paganis, Efstathios; Paige, Frank; Pajchel, Katarina; Palestini, Sandro; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Palmer, Jody; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panes, Boris; Panikashvili, Natalia; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Panuskova, Monika; Paolone, Vittorio; Paoloni, Alessandro; Papadelis, Aras; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Paramonov, Alexander; Park, Woochun; Parker, Andy; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passeri, Antonio; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pasztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Patricelli, Sergio; Pauly, Thilo; Pecsy, Martin; Pedraza Morales, Maria Isabel; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Peng, Haiping; Pengo, Ruggero; Penson, Alexander; Penwell, John; Perantoni, Marcelo; Perez, Kerstin; Cavalcanti, Tiago Perez; Perez Codina, Estel; Perez Garcia-Estan, Maria Teresa; Perez Reale, Valeria; Peric, Ivan; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrino, Roberto; Perrodo, Pascal; Persembe, Seda; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Onne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Jorgen; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Petschull, Dennis; Petteni, Michele; Pezoa, Raquel; Phan, Anna; Phillips, Alan; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Pickford, Andrew; Piec, Sebastian Marcin; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, Joao Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinder, Alex; Pinfold, James; Ping, Jialun; Pinto, Belmiro; Pirotte, Olivier; Pizio, Caterina; Placakyte, Ringaile; Plamondon, Mathieu; Plano, Will; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskach, Anatoly; Poblaguev, Andrei; Poddar, Sahill; Podlyski, Fabrice; Poggioli, Luc; Poghosyan, Tatevik; Pohl, Martin; Polci, Francesco; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polini, Alessandro; Poll, James; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pomarede, Daniel Marc; Pomeroy, Daniel; Pommes, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Bueso, Xavier Portell; Porter, Robert; Posch, Christoph; Pospelov, Guennady; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Prabhu, Robindra; Pralavorio, Pascal; Prasad, Srivas; Pravahan, Rishiraj; Prell, Soeren; Pretzl, Klaus Peter; Pribyl, Lukas; Price, Darren; Price, Lawrence; Price, Michael John; Prichard, Paul; Prieur, Damien; Primavera, Margherita; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Prudent, Xavier; Przysiezniak, Helenka; Psoroulas, Serena; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Purdham, John; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Pylypchenko, Yuriy; Qian, Jianming; Qian, Zuxuan; Qin, Zhonghua; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Quinonez, Fernando; Raas, Marcel; Radescu, Voica; Radics, Balint; Rador, Tonguc; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rahimi, Amir; Rahm, David; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rajek, Silke; Rammensee, Michael; Rammes, Marcus; Ramstedt, Magnus; Randrianarivony, Koloina; Ratoff, Peter; Rauscher, Felix; Rauter, Emanuel; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Reichold, Armin; Reinherz-Aronis, Erez; Reinsch, Andreas; Reisinger, Ingo; Reljic, Dusan; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Zhongliang; Renaud, Adrien; Renkel, Peter; Rensch, Bertram; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Resende, Bernardo; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richards, Alexander; Richter, Robert; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ridel, Melissa; Rieke, Stefan; Rijpstra, Manouk; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Rios, Ryan Randy; Riu, Imma; Rivoltella, Giancesare; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robinson, Mary; Robson, Aidan; Rocha de Lima, Jose Guilherme; Roda, Chiara; Roda Dos Santos, Denis; Rodier, Stephane; Rodriguez, Diego; Rodriguez Garcia, Yohany; Roe, Adam; Roe, Shaun; Rohne, Ole; Rojo, Victoria; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romanov, Victor; Romeo, Gaston; Romero Maltrana, Diego; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rose, Matthew; Rosenbaum, Gabriel; Rosenberg, Eli; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosselet, Laurent; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rossi, Lucio; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rottlander, Iris; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexander; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubinskiy, Igor; Ruckert, Benjamin; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Gerald; Ruhr, Frederik; Ruggieri, Federico; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rulikowska-Zarebska, Elzbieta; Rumiantsev, Viktor; Rumyantsev, Leonid; Runge, Kay; Runolfsson, Ogmundur; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Rust, Dave; Rutherfoord, John; Ruwiedel, Christoph; Ruzicka, Pavel; Ryabov, Yury; Ryadovikov, Vasily; Ryan, Patrick; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Rzaeva, Sevda; Saavedra, Aldo; Sadeh, Iftach; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, Jose; Salvachua Ferrando, Belen; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Samset, Bjorn Hallvard; Sandaker, Heidi; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandhu, Pawan; Sandoval, Tanya; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sandvoss, Stephan; Sankey, Dave; Sansoni, Andrea; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Saraiva, Joao; Sarangi, Tapas; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, Edward; Sarri, Francesca; Sartisohn, Georg; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Takashi; Sasao, Noboru; Satsounkevitch, Igor; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Savard, Pierre; Savinov, Vladimir; Savu, Dan Octavian; Savva, Panagiota; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, David; Says, Louis-Pierre; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scallon, Olivia; Scannicchio, Diana; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schafer, Uli; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R. Dean; Schamov, Andrey; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Scherzer, Max; Schiavi, Carlo; Schieck, Jochen; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schlereth, James; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmidt, Michael; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitz, Martin; Schoning, Andre; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schram, Malachi; Schroeder, Christian; Schroer, Nicolai; Schuh, Silvia; Schuler, Georges; Schultes, Joachim; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Jan; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwierz, Rainer; Schwindling, Jerome; Scott, Bill; Searcy, Jacob; Sedykh, Evgeny; Segura, Ester; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, Jose; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Sellden, Bjoern; Sellers, Graham; Seman, Michal; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sevior, Martin; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shank, James; Shao, Qi Tao; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaver, Leif; Shaw, Christian; Shaw, Kate; Sherman, Daniel; Sherwood, Peter; Shibata, Akira; Shimizu, Shima; Shimojima, Makoto; Shin, Taeksu; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shochet, Mel; Short, Daniel; Shupe, Michael; Sicho, Petr; Sidoti, Antonio; Siebel, Anca-Mirela; Siegert, Frank; Siegrist, James; Sijacki, Djordje; Silbert, Ohad; Silva, Jose; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Daniel; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simmons, Brinick; Simonyan, Margar; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sipica, Valentin; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjolin, Jorgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skinnari, Louise Anastasia; Skovpen, Kirill; Skubic, Patrick; Skvorodnev, Nikolai; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Sloan, Terrence; Sloper, John erik; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Ben Campbell; Smith, Douglas; Smith, Kenway; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snow, Steve; Snow, Joel; Snuverink, Jochem; Snyder, Scott; Soares, Mara; Sobie, Randall; Sodomka, Jaromir; Soffer, Abner; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldevila, Urmila; Solfaroli Camillocci, Elena; Solodkov, Alexander; Solovyanov, Oleg; Sondericker, John; Soni, Nitesh; Sopko, Vit; Sopko, Bruno; Sorbi, Massimo; Sosebee, Mark; Soukharev, Andrey; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spano, Francesco; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spila, Federico; Spiriti, Eleuterio; Spiwoks, Ralf; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; Spurlock, Barry; St. Denis, Richard Dante; Stahl, Thorsten; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staude, Arnold; Stavina, Pavel; Stavropoulos, Georgios; Steele, Genevieve; Steinbach, Peter; Steinberg, Peter; Stekl, Ivan; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stevenson, Kyle; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockmanns, Tobias; Stockton, Mark; Stoerig, Kathrin; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stonjek, Stefan; Strachota, Pavel; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strang, Michael; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Strohmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Strong, John; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strube, Jan; Stugu, Bjarne; Stumer, Iuliu; Stupak, John; Sturm, Philipp; Soh, Dart-yin; Su, Dong; Subramania, Siva; Sugaya, Yorihito; Sugimoto, Takuya; Suhr, Chad; Suita, Koichi; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Sushkov, Serge; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Yu; Sviridov, Yuri; Swedish, Stephen; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Szeless, Balazs; Sanchez, Javier; Ta, Duc; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taga, Adrian; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takahashi, Yuta; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tamsett, Matthew; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanaka, Yoshito; Tani, Kazutoshi; Tannoury, Nancy; Tappern, Geoffrey; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tardif, Dominique; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tassi, Enrico; Tatarkhanov, Mous; Taylor, Christopher; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Tennenbaum-Katan, Yaniv-David; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terwort, Mark; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Tevlin, Christopher; Thadome, Jocelyn; Therhaag, Jan; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothee; Thioye, Moustapha; Thoma, Sascha; Thomas, Juergen; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Peter; Thompson, Stan; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thun, Rudolf; Tic, Tomas; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timmermans, Charles; Tipton, Paul; Viegas, Florbela De Jes Tique Aires; Tisserant, Sylvain; Tobias, Jurgen; Toczek, Barbara; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Toggerson, Brokk; Tojo, Junji; Tokar, Stanislav; Tokunaga, Kaoru; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Tonazzo, Alessandra; Tong, Guoliang; Tonoyan, Arshak; Topfel, Cyril; Topilin, Nikolai; Torchiani, Ingo; Torrence, Eric; Torro Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Traynor, Daniel; Trefzger, Thomas; Treis, Johannes; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alesandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Trinh, Thi Nguyet; Tripiana, Martin; Triplett, Nathan; Trischuk, William; Trivedi, Arjun; Trocme, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiakiris, Menelaos; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsung, Jieh-Wen; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tua, Alan; Tuggle, Joseph; Turala, Michal; Turecek, Daniel; Turk Cakir, Ilkay; Turlay, Emmanuel; Tuts, Michael; Tykhonov, Andrii; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Typaldos, Dimitrios; Tyrvainen, Harri; Tzanakos, George; Uchida, Kirika; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ugland, Maren; Uhlenbrock, Mathias; Uhrmacher, Michael; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Underwood, David; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Unno, Yoshinobu; Urbaniec, Dustin; Urkovsky, Evgeny; Urquijo, Phillip; Urrejola, Pedro; Usai, Giulio; Uslenghi, Massimiliano; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Vahsen, Sven; Valderanis, Chrysostomos; Valenta, Jan; Valente, Paolo; Valentinetti, Sara; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Ferrer, Juan Antonio Valls; Van der Graaf, Harry; van der Kraaij, Erik; van der Leeuw, Robin; van der Poel, Egge; van der Ster, Daniel; Van Eijk, Bob; van Eldik, Niels; Van Gemmeren, Peter; van Kesteren, Zdenko; Van Vulpen, Ivo; Vandelli, Wainer; Vandoni, Giovanna; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vannucci, Francois; Varela Rodriguez, Fernando; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vassilakopoulos, Vassilios; Vazeille, Francois; Vegni, Guido; Veillet, Jean-Jacques; Vellidis, Constantine; Veloso, Filipe; Veness, Raymond; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinek, Elisabeth; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Virchaux, Marc; Viret, Sebastien; Virzi, Joseph; Vitale, Antonio; Vitells, Ofer; Viti, Michele; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vlasak, Michal; Vlasov, Nikolai; Vogel, Adrian; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Matteo; Volpini, Giovanni; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Loeben, Joerg; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobiev, Alexander; Vorwerk, Volker; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Voss, Thorsten Tobias; Vossebeld, Joost; Vovenko, Anatoly; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Anh, Tuan Vu; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wagner, Peter; Wahlen, Helmut; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walbersloh, Jorg; Walch, Shannon; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wall, Richard; Waller, Peter; Wang, Chiho; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Joshua C.; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Warsinsky, Markus; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Anthony; Waugh, Ben; Weber, Jens; Weber, Marc; Weber, Michele; Weber, Pavel; Weidberg, Anthony; Weigell, Philipp; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Wellenstein, Hermann; Wells, Phillippa; Wen, Mei; Wenaus, Torre; Wendler, Shanti; Weng, Zhili; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Werth, Michael; Wessels, Martin; Whalen, Kathleen; Wheeler-Ellis, Sarah Jane; Whitaker, Scott; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Sebastian; Whitehead, Samuel Robert; Whiteson, Daniel; Whittington, Denver; Wicek, Francois; Wicke, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik, Liv Antje Mari; Wijeratne, Peter Alexander; Wildauer, Andreas; Wildt, Martin Andre; Wilhelm, Ivan; Wilkens, Henric George; Will, Jonas Zacharias; Williams, Eric; Williams, Hugh; Willis, William; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, John; Wilson, Michael Galante; Wilson, Alan; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winkelmann, Stefan; Winklmeier, Frank; Wittgen, Matthias; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wooden, Gemma; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wraight, Kenneth; Wright, Catherine; Wrona, Bozydar; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wulf, Evan; Wunstorf, Renate; Wynne, Benjamin; Xaplanteris, Leonidas; Xella, Stefania; Xie, Song; Xie, Yigang; Xu, Chao; Xu, Da; Xu, Guofa; Yabsley, Bruce; Yamada, Miho; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamamura, Taiki; Yamaoka, Jared; Yamazaki, Takayuki; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Un-Ki; Yang, Yi; Yang, Yi; Yang, Zhaoyu; Yanush, Serguei; Yao, Weiming; Yao, Yushu; Yasu, Yoshiji; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yilmaz, Metin; Yoosoofmiya, Reza; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Riktura; Young, Charles; Youssef, Saul; Yu, Dantong; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yurkewicz, Adam; Zaets, Vassilli; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zajacova, Zuzana; Zalite, Youris; Zanello, Lucia; Zarzhitsky, Pavel; Zaytsev, Alexander; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeller, Michael; Zema, Pasquale Federico; Zemla, Andrzej; Zendler, Carolin; Zenin, Anton; Zenin, Oleg; Zenis, Tibor; Zenonos, Zenonas; Zenz, Seth; Zerwas, Dirk; Zevi Della Porta, Giovanni; Zhan, Zhichao; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Long; Zhao, Tianchi; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zheng, Shuchen; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Ning; Zhou, Yue; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhuravlov, Vadym; Zieminska, Daria; Zilka, Branislav; Zimmermann, Robert; Zimmermann, Simone; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zitoun, Robert; Zivkovic, Lidija; Zmouchko, Viatcheslav; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; Zolnierowski, Yves; Zsenei, Andras; zur Nedden, Martin; Zutshi, Vishnu; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2011-01-01

    Azimuthal decorrelations between the two central jets with the largest transverse momenta are sensitive to the dynamics of events with multiple jets. We present a measurement of the normalized differential cross section based on the full dataset (L dt = 36 pb−1) acquired by the ATLAS detector during the 2010 √s = 7 TeV proton-proton run of the LHC. The measured distributions include jets with transverse momenta up to 1.3 TeV, probing perturbative QCD in a high energy regime.

  14. TeV mini black hole decay at future colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casanova, Alex; Spallucci, Euro

    2006-01-01

    It is generally believed that mini black holes decay by emitting elementary particles with a black body energy spectrum. The original calculation leads to the conclusion that about the 90% of the black hole mass is radiated away in the form of photons, neutrinos and light leptons, mainly electrons and muons. With the advent of string theory, such a scenario must be updated by including new effects coming from the stringy nature of particles and interactions. The main modifications with respect to the original picture of black hole evaporation come from recent developments in non-perturbative string theory globally referred to as TeV-scale gravity. By taking for granted that black holes can be produced in hadronic collisions, then their decay must take into account that: (i) we live in a D3 brane embedded into a higher dimensional bulk spacetime; (ii) fundamental interactions, including gravity, are unified at the TeV energy scale. Thus, the formal description of the Hawking radiation mechanism has to be extended to the case of more than four spacetime dimensions and includes the presence of D-branes. This kind of topological defect in the bulk spacetime fabric acts as a sort of 'cosmic fly-paper' trapping electro-weak standard model elementary particles in our (3 + 1)-dimensional universe. Furthermore, unification of fundamental interactions at an energy scale many orders of magnitude lower than the Planck energy implies that any kind of fundamental particle, not only leptons, is expected to be emitted. A detailed understanding of the new scenario is instrumental for optimal tuning of detectors at future colliders, where, hopefully, this exciting new physics will be tested. In this review, we study higher dimensional black hole decay, considering not only the emission of particles according to the Hawking mechanism, but also their near-horizon QED/QCD interactions. The ultimate motivation is to build up a phenomenologically reliable scenario, allowing a clear

  15. Deriving the Contribution of Blazars to the Fermi-LAT Extragalactic γ-ray Background at E > 10 GeV with Efficiency Corrections and Photon Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Mauro, M.; Manconi, S.; Zechlin, H.-S.; Ajello, M.; Charles, E.; Donato, F.

    2018-04-01

    The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) Collaboration has recently released the Third Catalog of Hard Fermi-LAT Sources (3FHL), which contains 1556 sources detected above 10 GeV with seven years of Pass 8 data. Building upon the 3FHL results, we investigate the flux distribution of sources at high Galactic latitudes (| b| > 20^\\circ ), which are mostly blazars. We use two complementary techniques: (1) a source-detection efficiency correction method and (2) an analysis of pixel photon count statistics with the one-point probability distribution function (1pPDF). With the first method, using realistic Monte Carlo simulations of the γ-ray sky, we calculate the efficiency of the LAT to detect point sources. This enables us to find the intrinsic source-count distribution at photon fluxes down to 7.5 × 10‑12 ph cm‑2 s‑1. With this method, we detect a flux break at (3.5 ± 0.4) × 10‑11 ph cm‑2 s‑1 with a significance of at least 5.4σ. The power-law indexes of the source-count distribution above and below the break are 2.09 ± 0.04 and 1.07 ± 0.27, respectively. This result is confirmed with the 1pPDF method, which has a sensitivity reach of ∼10‑11 ph cm‑2 s‑1. Integrating the derived source-count distribution above the sensitivity of our analysis, we find that (42 ± 8)% of the extragalactic γ-ray background originates from blazars.

  16. Search for dijet resonances in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=$ 13 TeV and constraints on dark matter and other models

    CERN Document Server

    Sirunyan, Albert M; Adam, Wolfgang; Aşılar, Ece; Bergauer, Thomas; Brandstetter, Johannes; Brondolin, Erica; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Flechl, Martin; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; König, Axel; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Matsushita, Takashi; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rad, Navid; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schieck, Jochen; Strauss, Josef; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Dvornikov, Oleg; Makarenko, Vladimir; Mossolov, Vladimir; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Zykunov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Alderweireldt, Sara; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Lauwers, Jasper; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Abu Zeid, Shimaa; Blekman, Freya; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Daci, Nadir; De Bruyn, Isabelle; Deroover, Kevin; Lowette, Steven; Moortgat, Seth; Moreels, Lieselotte; Olbrechts, Annik; Python, Quentin; Skovpen, Kirill; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Parijs, Isis; Brun, Hugues; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Delannoy, Hugo; Fasanella, Giuseppe; Favart, Laurent; Goldouzian, Reza; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lenzi, Thomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Luetic, Jelena; Maerschalk, Thierry; Marinov, Andrey; Randle-conde, Aidan; Seva, Tomislav; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Vannerom, David; Yonamine, Ryo; Zenoni, Florian; Zhang, Fengwangdong; Cimmino, Anna; Cornelis, Tom; Dobur, Didar; Fagot, Alexis; Gul, Muhammad; Khvastunov, Illia; Poyraz, Deniz; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Schöfbeck, Robert; Tytgat, Michael; Van Driessche, Ward; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Beluffi, Camille; Bondu, Olivier; Brochet, Sébastien; Bruno, Giacomo; Caudron, Adrien; De Visscher, Simon; Delaere, Christophe; Delcourt, Martin; Francois, Brieuc; Giammanco, Andrea; Jafari, Abideh; Komm, Matthias; Krintiras, Georgios; Lemaitre, Vincent; Magitteri, Alessio; Mertens, Alexandre; Musich, Marco; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Quertenmont, Loic; Selvaggi, Michele; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Wertz, Sébastien; Beliy, Nikita; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Fábio Lúcio; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Hensel, Carsten; Moraes, Arthur; Pol, Maria Elena; Rebello Teles, Patricia; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, Ewerton; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Huertas Guativa, Lina Milena; Malbouisson, Helena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Ahuja, Sudha; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; Dogra, Sunil; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Moon, Chang-Seong; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Romero Abad, David; Ruiz Vargas, José Cupertino; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Fang, Wenxing; Ahmad, Muhammad; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Chen, Ye; Cheng, Tongguang; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Leggat, Duncan; Liu, Zhenan; Romeo, Francesco; Ruan, Manqi; Shaheen, Sarmad Masood; Spiezia, Aniello; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Chunjie; Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhao, Jingzhou; Ban, Yong; Chen, Geng; Li, Qiang; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Xu, Zijun; Avila, Carlos; Cabrera, Andrés; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; González Hernández, Carlos Felipe; Ruiz Alvarez, José David; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Puljak, Ivica; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Sculac, Toni; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Ferencek, Dinko; Kadija, Kreso; Mesic, Benjamin; Susa, Tatjana; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Rykaczewski, Hans; Tsiakkouri, Demetra; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Carrera Jarrin, Edgar; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Radi, Amr; Kadastik, Mario; Perrini, Lucia; Raidal, Martti; Tiko, Andres; Veelken, Christian; Eerola, Paula; Pekkanen, Juska; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Jarvinen, Terhi; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Wendland, Lauri; Talvitie, Joonas; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Couderc, Fabrice; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Favaro, Carlotta; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Ghosh, Saranya; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Kucher, Inna; Locci, Elizabeth; Machet, Martina; Malcles, Julie; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Titov, Maksym; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Antropov, Iurii; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Busson, Philippe; Cadamuro, Luca; Chapon, Emilien; Charlot, Claude; Davignon, Olivier; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Jo, Mihee; Lisniak, Stanislav; Miné, Philippe; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Ortona, Giacomo; Paganini, Pascal; Pigard, Philipp; Regnard, Simon; Salerno, Roberto; Sirois, Yves; Strebler, Thomas; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Zabi, Alexandre; Zghiche, Amina; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Aubin, Alexandre; Bloch, Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Buttignol, Michael; Chabert, Eric Christian; Chanon, Nicolas; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Coubez, Xavier; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Van Hove, Pierre; Gadrat, Sébastien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Bernet, Colin; Boudoul, Gaelle; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Courbon, Benoit; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fan, Jiawei; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Grenier, Gérald; Ille, Bernard; Lagarde, Francois; Laktineh, Imad Baptiste; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Pequegnot, Anne-Laure; Perries, Stephane; Popov, Andrey; Sabes, David; Sordini, Viola; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Toriashvili, Tengizi; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Feld, Lutz; Kiesel, Maximilian Knut; Klein, Katja; Lipinski, Martin; Preuten, Marius; Schomakers, Christian; Schulz, Johannes; Verlage, Tobias; Albert, Andreas; Brodski, Michael; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Endres, Matthias; Erdmann, Martin; Erdweg, Sören; Esch, Thomas; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hamer, Matthias; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Knutzen, Simon; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Millet, Philipp; Mukherjee, Swagata; Olschewski, Mark; Padeken, Klaas; Pook, Tobias; Radziej, Markus; Reithler, Hans; Rieger, Marcel; Scheuch, Florian; Sonnenschein, Lars; Teyssier, Daniel; Thüer, Sebastian; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Flügge, Günter; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Künsken, Andreas; Lingemann, Joschka; Müller, Thomas; Nehrkorn, Alexander; Nowack, Andreas; Pistone, Claudia; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Arndt, Till; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Beernaert, Kelly; Behnke, Olaf; Behrens, Ulf; Bin Anuar, Afiq Aizuddin; Borras, Kerstin; Campbell, Alan; Connor, Patrick; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Costanza, Francesco; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Dolinska, Ganna; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Eichhorn, Thomas; Eren, Engin; Gallo, Elisabetta; Garay Garcia, Jasone; Geiser, Achim; Gizhko, Andrii; Grados Luyando, Juan Manuel; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gunnellini, Paolo; Harb, Ali; Hauk, Johannes; Hempel, Maria; Jung, Hannes; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Karacheban, Olena; Kasemann, Matthias; Keaveney, James; Kleinwort, Claus; Korol, Ievgen; Krücker, Dirk; Lange, Wolfgang; Lelek, Aleksandra; Lenz, Teresa; Leonard, Jessica; Lipka, Katerina; Lobanov, Artur; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Mankel, Rainer; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mittag, Gregor; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Ntomari, Eleni; Pitzl, Daniel; Placakyte, Ringaile; Raspereza, Alexei; Roland, Benoit; Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Saxena, Pooja; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Seitz, Claudia; Spannagel, Simon; Stefaniuk, Nazar; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Blobel, Volker; Centis Vignali, Matteo; Draeger, Arne-Rasmus; Dreyer, Torben; Garutti, Erika; Gonzalez, Daniel; Haller, Johannes; Hoffmann, Malte; Junkes, Alexandra; Klanner, Robert; Kogler, Roman; Kovalchuk, Nataliia; Lapsien, Tobias; Marchesini, Ivan; Marconi, Daniele; Meyer, Mareike; Niedziela, Marek; Nowatschin, Dominik; Pantaleo, Felice; Peiffer, Thomas; Perieanu, Adrian; Poehlsen, Jennifer; Sander, Christian; Scharf, Christian; Schleper, Peter; Schmidt, Alexander; Schumann, Svenja; Schwandt, Joern; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Stöver, Marc; Tholen, Heiner; Troendle, Daniel; Usai, Emanuele; Vanelderen, Lukas; Vanhoefer, Annika; Vormwald, Benedikt; Akbiyik, Melike; Barth, Christian; Baur, Sebastian; Baus, Colin; Berger, Joram; Butz, Erik; Caspart, René; Chwalek, Thorsten; Colombo, Fabio; De Boer, Wim; Dierlamm, Alexander; Fink, Simon; Freund, Benedikt; Friese, Raphael; Giffels, Manuel; Gilbert, Andrew; Goldenzweig, Pablo; Haitz, Dominik; Hartmann, Frank; Heindl, Stefan Michael; Husemann, Ulrich; Katkov, Igor; Kudella, Simon; Mildner, Hannes; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Müller, Thomas; Plagge, Michael; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Röcker, Steffen; Roscher, Frank; Schröder, Matthias; Shvetsov, Ivan; Sieber, Georg; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Ulrich, Ralf; Wayand, Stefan; Weber, Marc; Weiler, Thomas; Williamson, Shawn; Wöhrmann, Clemens; Wolf, Roger; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Giakoumopoulou, Viktoria Athina; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Topsis-Giotis, Iasonas; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Tziaferi, Eirini; Evangelou, Ioannis; Flouris, Giannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Loukas, Nikitas; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Filipovic, Nicolas; Pasztor, Gabriella; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zsigmond, Anna Julia; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Karancsi, János; Makovec, Alajos; Molnar, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Bartók, Márton; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Bahinipati, Seema; Bhowmik, Sandeep; Choudhury, Somnath; Mal, Prolay; Mandal, Koushik; Nayak, Aruna; Sahoo, Deepak Kumar; Sahoo, Niladribihari; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Bansal, Sunil; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Chawla, Ridhi; Bhawandeep, Bhawandeep; Kalsi, Amandeep Kaur; Kaur, Anterpreet; Kaur, Manjit; Kumar, Ramandeep; Kumari, Priyanka; Mehta, Ankita; Mittal, Monika; Singh, Jasbir; Walia, Genius; Kumar, Ashok; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Garg, Rocky Bala; Keshri, Sumit; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Nishu, Nishu; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Ramkrishna; Sharma, Varun; Bhattacharya, Rajarshi; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Chatterjee, Kalyanmoy; Dey, Sourav; Dutt, Suneel; Dutta, Suchandra; Ghosh, Shamik; Majumdar, Nayana; Modak, Atanu; Mondal, Kuntal; Mukhopadhyay, Supratik; Nandan, Saswati; Purohit, Arnab; Roy, Ashim; Roy, Debarati; Roy Chowdhury, Suvankar; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Thakur, Shalini; Behera, Prafulla Kumar; Chudasama, Ruchi; Dutta, Dipanwita; Jha, Vishwajeet; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Netrakanti, Pawan Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Topkar, Anita; Aziz, Tariq; Dugad, Shashikant; Kole, Gouranga; Mahakud, Bibhuprasad; Mitra, Soureek; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sur, Nairit; Sutar, Bajrang; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Dewanjee, Ram Krishna; Ganguly, Sanmay; Guchait, Monoranjan; Jain, Sandhya; Kumar, Sanjeev; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Sarkar, Tanmay; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Chauhan, Shubhanshu; Dube, Sourabh; Hegde, Vinay; Kapoor, Anshul; Kothekar, Kunal; Pandey, Shubham; Rane, Aditee; Sharma, Seema; Chenarani, Shirin; Eskandari Tadavani, Esmaeel; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Naseri, Mohsen; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, Ferdos; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Felcini, Marta; Grunewald, Martin; Abbrescia, Marcello; Calabria, Cesare; Caputo, Claudio; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; Cristella, Leonardo; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Miniello, Giorgia; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Radogna, Raffaella; Ranieri, Antonio; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Sharma, Archana; Silvestris, Lucia; Venditti, Rosamaria; Verwilligen, Piet; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Battilana, Carlo; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Campanini, Renato; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Perrotta, Andrea; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Tosi, Nicolò; Albergo, Sebastiano; Costa, Salvatore; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Giordano, Ferdinando; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Russo, Lorenzo; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Strom, Derek; Viliani, Lorenzo; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Primavera, Federica; Calvelli, Valerio; Ferro, Fabrizio; Monge, Maria Roberta; Robutti, Enrico; Tosi, Silvano; Brianza, Luca; Brivio, Francesco; Ciriolo, Vincenzo; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Malberti, Martina; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Pigazzini, Simone; Ragazzi, Stefano; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; De Nardo, Guglielmo; Di Guida, Salvatore; Esposito, Marco; Fabozzi, Francesco; Fienga, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lanza, Giuseppe; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Sciacca, Crisostomo; Thyssen, Filip; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Benato, Lisa; Bisello, Dario; Boletti, Alessio; Dall'Osso, Martino; De Castro Manzano, Pablo; Dorigo, Tommaso; Dosselli, Umberto; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Gozzelino, Andrea; Lacaprara, Stefano; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Passaseo, Marina; Pazzini, Jacopo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Sgaravatto, Massimo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Ventura, Sandro; Zanetti, Marco; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zumerle, Gianni; Braghieri, Alessandro; Fallavollita, Francesco; Magnani, Alice; Montagna, Paolo; Ratti, Sergio P; Re, Valerio; Riccardi, Cristina; Salvini, Paola; Vai, Ilaria; Vitulo, Paolo; Alunni Solestizi, Luisa; Bilei, Gian Mario; Ciangottini, Diego; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Leonardi, Roberto; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Androsov, Konstantin; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Castaldi, Rino; Ciocci, Maria Agnese; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Donato, Silvio; Fedi, Giacomo; Giassi, Alessandro; Grippo, Maria Teresa; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Spagnolo, Paolo; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; Cipriani, Marco; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Gelli, Simone; Longo, Egidio; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Marzocchi, Badder; Meridiani, Paolo; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Preiato, Federico; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Santanastasio, Francesco; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Bartosik, Nazar; Bellan, Riccardo; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Cenna, Francesca; Costa, Marco; Covarelli, Roberto; Degano, Alessandro; Demaria, Natale; Finco, Linda; Kiani, Bilal; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Monteil, Ennio; Monteno, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pacher, Luca; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Pinna Angioni, Gian Luca; Ravera, Fabio; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Shchelina, Ksenia; Sola, Valentina; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Traczyk, Piotr; Belforte, Stefano; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Zanetti, Anna; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Min Suk; Lee, Sangeun; Lee, Seh Wook; Oh, Young Do; Sekmen, Sezen; Son, Dong-Chul; Yang, Yu Chul; Lee, Ari; Kim, Hyunchul; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Kim, Tae Jeong; Cho, Sungwoong; Choi, Suyong; Go, Yeonju; Gyun, Dooyeon; Ha, Seungkyu; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Youngkwon; Kim, Yongsun; Lee, Kisoo; Lee, Kyong Sei; Lee, Songkyo; Lim, Jaehoon; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Almond, John; Kim, Junho; Lee, Haneol; Oh, Sung Bin; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Seo, Seon-hee; Yang, Unki; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Yu, Geum Bong; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Hyunyong; Kim, Ji Hyun; Lee, Jason Sang Hun; Park, Inkyu; Ryu, Geonmo; Ryu, Min Sang; Choi, Young-Il; Goh, Junghwan; Hwang, Chanwook; Lee, Jongseok; Yu, Intae; Dudenas, Vytautas; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Vaitkus, Juozas; Ahmed, Ijaz; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Md Ali, Mohd Adli Bin; Mohamad Idris, Faridah; Wan Abdullah, Wan Ahmad Tajuddin; Yusli, Mohd Nizam; Zolkapli, Zukhaimira; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-De La Cruz, Ivan; Hernandez-Almada, Alberto; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Magaña Villalba, Ricardo; Mejia Guisao, Jhovanny; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Carpinteyro, Severiano; Pedraza, Isabel; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Uribe Estrada, Cecilia; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Krofcheck, David; Butler, Philip H; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmad, Muhammad; Hassan, Qamar; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khan, Wajid Ali; Saddique, Asif; Shah, Mehar Ali; Shoaib, Muhammad; Waqas, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Bluj, Michal; Boimska, Bożena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Zalewski, Piotr; Bunkowski, Karol; Byszuk, Adrian; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Olszewski, Michal; Walczak, Marek; Bargassa, Pedrame; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, Cristóvão; Calpas, Betty; Di Francesco, Agostino; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Hollar, Jonathan; Leonardo, Nuno; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Nemallapudi, Mythra Varun; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Seixas, Joao; Toldaiev, Oleksii; Vadruccio, Daniele; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Alexakhin, Vadim; Bunin, Pavel; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Matveev, Viktor; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Savina, Maria; Shmatov, Sergey; Shulha, Siarhei; Skatchkov, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Voytishin, Nikolay; Zarubin, Anatoli; Chtchipounov, Leonid; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Sulimov, Valentin; Vorobyev, Alexey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Karneyeu, Anton; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Pozdnyakov, Ivan; Safronov, Grigory; Spiridonov, Alexander; Toms, Maria; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Bylinkin, Alexander; Chadeeva, Marina; Danilov, Mikhail; Rusinov, Vladimir; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Terkulov, Adel; Baskakov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Bunichev, Viacheslav; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Miagkov, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Blinov, Vladimir; Skovpen, Yuri; Shtol, Dmitry; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Elumakhov, Dmitry; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Cirkovic, Predrag; Devetak, Damir; Dordevic, Milos; Milosevic, Jovan; Rekovic, Vladimir; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Barrio Luna, Mar; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Escalante Del Valle, Alberto; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Navarro De Martino, Eduardo; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio María; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Senghi Soares, Mara; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Missiroli, Marino; Moran, Dermot; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; González Fernández, Juan Rodrigo; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Sanchez Cruz, Sergio; Suárez Andrés, Ignacio; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Curras, Esteban; Fernandez, Marcos; Garcia-Ferrero, Juan; Gomez, Gervasio; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Trevisani, Nicolò; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Bachtis, Michail; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Botta, Cristina; Camporesi, Tiziano; Castello, Roberto; Cepeda, Maria; Cerminara, Gianluca; Chen, Yi; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; Daponte, Vincenzo; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; De Gruttola, Michele; De Roeck, Albert; Di Marco, Emanuele; Dobson, Marc; Dorney, Brian; Du Pree, Tristan; Duggan, Daniel; Dünser, Marc; Dupont, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Everaerts, Pieter; Fartoukh, Stephane; Franzoni, Giovanni; Fulcher, Jonathan; Funk, Wolfgang; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Girone, Maria; Glege, Frank; Gulhan, Doga; Gundacker, Stefan; Guthoff, Moritz; Harris, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kieseler, Jan; Kirschenmann, Henning; Knünz, Valentin; Kornmayer, Andreas; Kortelainen, Matti J; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Krammer, Manfred; Lange, Clemens; Lecoq, Paul; Lourenco, Carlos; Lucchini, Marco Toliman; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Martelli, Arabella; Meijers, Frans; Merlin, Jeremie Alexandre; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Milenovic, Predrag; Moortgat, Filip; Morovic, Srecko; Mulders, Martijn; Neugebauer, Hannes; Orfanelli, Styliani; Orsini, Luciano; Pape, Luc; Perez, Emmanuel; Peruzzi, Marco; Petrilli, Achille; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Racz, Attila; Reis, Thomas; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Seidel, Markus; Sharma, Archana; Silva, Pedro; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Steggemann, Jan; Stoye, Markus; Takahashi, Yuta; Tosi, Mia; Treille, Daniel; Triossi, Andrea; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veckalns, Viesturs; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Verweij, Marta; Wardle, Nicholas; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Zagoździńska, Agnieszka; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Rohe, Tilman; Bachmair, Felix; Bäni, Lukas; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Casal, Bruno; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Grab, Christoph; Heidegger, Constantin; Hits, Dmitry; Hoss, Jan; Kasieczka, Gregor; Lustermann, Werner; Mangano, Boris; Marionneau, Matthieu; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Masciovecchio, Mario; Meinhard, Maren Tabea; Meister, Daniel; Micheli, Francesco; Musella, Pasquale; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pata, Joosep; Pauss, Felicitas; Perrin, Gaël; Perrozzi, Luca; Quittnat, Milena; Rossini, Marco; Schönenberger, Myriam; Starodumov, Andrei; Tavolaro, Vittorio Raoul; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Wallny, Rainer; Aarrestad, Thea Klaeboe; Amsler, Claude; Caminada, Lea; Canelli, Maria Florencia; De Cosa, Annapaola; Galloni, Camilla; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hreus, Tomas; Kilminster, Benjamin; Ngadiuba, Jennifer; Pinna, Deborah; Rauco, Giorgia; Robmann, Peter; Salerno, Daniel; Yang, Yong; Zucchetta, Alberto; Candelise, Vieri; Doan, Thi Hien; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Konyushikhin, Maxim; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Lin, Willis; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Yu, Shin-Shan; Kumar, Arun; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Chen, Po-Hsun; Fiori, Francesco; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Miñano Moya, Mercedes; Paganis, Efstathios; Psallidas, Andreas; Tsai, Jui-fa; Asavapibhop, Burin; Singh, Gurpreet; Srimanobhas, Norraphat; Suwonjandee, Narumon; Adiguzel, Aytul; Cerci, Salim; Damarseckin, Serdal; Demiroglu, Zuhal Seyma; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Guler, Yalcin; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Kara, Ozgun; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Kiminsu, Ugur; Oglakci, Mehmet; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Topakli, Huseyin; Turkcapar, Semra; Zorbakir, Ibrahim Soner; Zorbilmez, Caglar; Bilin, Bugra; Bilmis, Selcuk; Isildak, Bora; Karapinar, Guler; Yalvac, Metin; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Gülmez, Erhan; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Yetkin, Elif Asli; Yetkin, Taylan; Cakir, Altan; Cankocak, Kerem; Sen, Sercan; Grynyov, Boris; Levchuk, Leonid; Sorokin, Pavel; Aggleton, Robin; Ball, Fionn; Beck, Lana; Brooke, James John; Burns, Douglas; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Flacher, Henning; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Jacob, Jeson; Kreczko, Lukasz; Lucas, Chris; Newbold, Dave M; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Poll, Anthony; Sakuma, Tai; Seif El Nasr-storey, Sarah; Smith, Dominic; Smith, Vincent J; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Calligaris, Luigi; Cieri, Davide; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Thea, Alessandro; Tomalin, Ian R; Williams, Thomas; Baber, Mark; Bainbridge, Robert; Buchmuller, Oliver; Bundock, Aaron; Burton, Darren; Casasso, Stefano; Citron, Matthew; Colling, David; Corpe, Louie; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; De Wit, Adinda; Della Negra, Michel; Di Maria, Riccardo; Dunne, Patrick; Elwood, Adam; Futyan, David; Haddad, Yacine; Hall, Geoffrey; Iles, Gregory; James, Thomas; Lane, Rebecca; Laner, Christian; Lucas, Robyn; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Malik, Sarah; Mastrolorenzo, Luca; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Pela, Joao; Penning, Bjoern; Pesaresi, Mark; Raymond, David Mark; Richards, Alexander; Rose, Andrew; Scott, Edward; Seez, Christopher; Summers, Sioni; Tapper, Alexander; Uchida, Kirika; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Wright, Jack; Zenz, Seth Conrad; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Reid, Ivan; Symonds, Philip; Teodorescu, Liliana; Turner, Mark; Borzou, Ahmad; Call, Kenneth; Dittmann, Jay; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Liu, Hongxuan; Pastika, Nathaniel; Bartek, Rachel; Dominguez, Aaron; Cooper, Seth; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; West, Christopher; Arcaro, Daniel; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Gastler, Daniel; Rankin, Dylan; Richardson, Clint; Rohlf, James; Sulak, Lawrence; Zou, David; Benelli, Gabriele; Cutts, David; Garabedian, Alex; Hakala, John; Heintz, Ulrich; Hogan, Julie Managan; Jesus, Orduna; Kwok, Ka Hei Martin; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Mao, Zaixing; Narain, Meenakshi; Piperov, Stefan; Sagir, Sinan; Spencer, Eric; Syarif, Rizki; Breedon, Richard; Burns, Dustin; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Erbacher, Robin; Flores, Chad; Funk, Garrett; Gardner, Michael; Ko, Winston; Lander, Richard; Mclean, Christine; Mulhearn, Michael; Pellett, Dave; Pilot, Justin; Shalhout, Shalhout; Shi, Mengyao; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Stolp, Dustin; Tos, Kyle; Tripathi, Mani; Bravo, Cameron; Cousins, Robert; Dasgupta, Abhigyan; Florent, Alice; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Mccoll, Nickolas; Saltzberg, David; Schnaible, Christian; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Weber, Matthias; Bouvier, Elvire; Burt, Kira; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Ghiasi Shirazi, Seyyed Mohammad Amin; Hanson, Gail; Heilman, Jesse; Jandir, Pawandeep; Kennedy, Elizabeth; Lacroix, Florent; Long, Owen Rosser; Olmedo Negrete, Manuel; Paneva, Mirena Ivova; Shrinivas, Amithabh; Si, Weinan; Wei, Hua; Wimpenny, Stephen; Yates, Brent; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cittolin, Sergio; Derdzinski, Mark; Gerosa, Raffaele; Holzner, André; Klein, Daniel; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Olivito, Dominick; Padhi, Sanjay; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Tadel, Matevz; Vartak, Adish; Wasserbaech, Steven; Welke, Charles; Wood, John; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Zevi Della Porta, Giovanni; Amin, Nick; Bhandari, Rohan; Bradmiller-Feld, John; Campagnari, Claudio; Dishaw, Adam; Dutta, Valentina; Franco Sevilla, Manuel; George, Christopher; Golf, Frank; Gouskos, Loukas; Gran, Jason; Heller, Ryan; Incandela, Joe; Mullin, Sam Daniel; Ovcharova, Ana; Qu, Huilin; Richman, Jeffrey; Stuart, David; Suarez, Indara; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Anderson, Dustin; Bendavid, Joshua; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Duarte, Javier; Lawhorn, Jay Mathew; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Pena, Cristian; Spiropulu, Maria; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Xie, Si; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Andrews, Michael Benjamin; Ferguson, Thomas; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Sun, Menglei; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Weinberg, Marc; Cumalat, John Perry; Ford, William T; Jensen, Frank; Johnson, Andrew; Krohn, Michael; Mulholland, Troy; Stenson, Kevin; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chaves, Jorge; Chu, Jennifer; Dittmer, Susan; Mcdermott, Kevin; Mirman, Nathan; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Ryd, Anders; Skinnari, Louise; Soffi, Livia; Tan, Shao Min; Tao, Zhengcheng; Thom, Julia; Tucker, Jordan; Wittich, Peter; Zientek, Margaret; Winn, Dave; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Apollinari, Giorgio; Apresyan, Artur; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bolla, Gino; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Cremonesi, Matteo; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gottschalk, Erik; Gray, Lindsey; Green, Dan; Grünendahl, Stefan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hare, Daryl; Harris, Robert M; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hirschauer, James; Hu, Zhen; Jayatilaka, Bodhitha; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Klima, Boaz; Kreis, Benjamin; Lammel, Stephan; Linacre, Jacob; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Liu, Tiehui; Lopes De Sá, Rafael; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Magini, Nicolo; Marraffino, John Michael; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Merkel, Petra; Mrenna, Stephen; Nahn, Steve; O'Dell, Vivian; Pedro, Kevin; Prokofyev, Oleg; Rakness, Gregory; Ristori, Luciano; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Soha, Aron; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Stoynev, Stoyan; Strobbe, Nadja; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vernieri, Caterina; Verzocchi, Marco; Vidal, Richard; Wang, Michael; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Whitbeck, Andrew; Wu, Yujun; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Carnes, Andrew; Carver, Matthew; Curry, David; Das, Souvik; Field, Richard D; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Low, Jia Fu; Ma, Peisen; Matchev, Konstantin; Mei, Hualin; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Rank, Douglas; Shchutska, Lesya; Sperka, David; Thomas, Laurent; Wang, Jian; Wang, Sean-Jiun; Yelton, John; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Ackert, Andrew; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bein, Samuel; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Prosper, Harrison; Santra, Arka; Yohay, Rachel; Baarmand, Marc M; Bhopatkar, Vallary; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Hohlmann, Marcus; Noonan, Daniel; Roy, Titas; Yumiceva, Francisco; Adams, Mark Raymond; Apanasevich, Leonard; Berry, Douglas; Betts, Russell Richard; Bucinskaite, Inga; Cavanaugh, Richard; Evdokimov, Olga; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Jung, Kurt; Sandoval Gonzalez, Irving Daniel; Varelas, Nikos; Wang, Hui; Wu, Zhenbin; Zakaria, Mohammed; Zhang, Jingyu; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Dilsiz, Kamuran; Durgut, Süleyman; Gandrajula, Reddy Pratap; Haytmyradov, Maksat; Khristenko, Viktor; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Ogul, Hasan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Penzo, Aldo; Snyder, Christina; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yi, Kai; Anderson, Ian; Blumenfeld, Barry; Cocoros, Alice; Eminizer, Nicholas; Fehling, David; Feng, Lei; Gritsan, Andrei; Maksimovic, Petar; Osherson, Marc; Roskes, Jeffrey; Sarica, Ulascan; Swartz, Morris; Xiao, Meng; Xin, Yongjie; You, Can; Al-bataineh, Ayman; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Boren, Samuel; Bowen, James; Castle, James; Forthomme, Laurent; Kenny III, Raymond Patrick; Khalil, Sadia; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Majumder, Devdatta; Mcbrayer, William; Murray, Michael; Sanders, Stephen; Stringer, Robert; Tapia Takaki, Daniel; Wang, Quan; Ivanov, Andrew; Kaadze, Ketino; Maravin, Yurii; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Toda, Sachiko; Rebassoo, Finn; Wright, Douglas; Anelli, Christopher; Baden, Drew; Baron, Owen; Belloni, Alberto; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Ferraioli, Charles; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Jabeen, Shabnam; Kellogg, Richard G; Kolberg, Ted; Kunkle, Joshua; Lu, Ying; Mignerey, Alice; Ricci-Tam, Francesca; Shin, Young Ho; Skuja, Andris; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Abercrombie, Daniel; Allen, Brandon; Apyan, Aram; Azzolini, Virginia; Barbieri, Richard; Baty, Austin; Bi, Ran; Bierwagen, Katharina; Brandt, Stephanie; Busza, Wit; Cali, Ivan Amos; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; Demiragli, Zeynep; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Hsu, Dylan; Iiyama, Yutaro; Innocenti, Gian Michele; Klute, Markus; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Krajczar, Krisztian; Lai, Yue Shi; Lee, Yen-Jie; Levin, Andrew; Luckey, Paul David; Maier, Benedikt; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Mcginn, Christopher; Mironov, Camelia; Narayanan, Siddharth; Niu, Xinmei; Paus, Christoph; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Stephans, George; Tatar, Kaya; Varma, Mukund; Velicanu, Dragos; Veverka, Jan; Wang, Jing; Wang, Ta-Wei; Wyslouch, Bolek; Yang, Mingming; Benvenuti, Alberto; Chatterjee, Rajdeep Mohan; Evans, Andrew; Hansen, Peter; Kalafut, Sean; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Kubota, Yuichi; Lesko, Zachary; Mans, Jeremy; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rusack, Roger; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Acosta, John Gabriel; Oliveros, Sandra; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Claes, Daniel R; Fangmeier, Caleb; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kamalieddin, Rami; Kravchenko, Ilya; Malta Rodrigues, Alan; Meier, Frank; Monroy, Jose; Siado, Joaquin Emilo; Snow, Gregory R; Stieger, Benjamin; Alyari, Maral; Dolen, James; Godshalk, Andrew; Harrington, Charles; Iashvili, Ia; Kaisen, Josh; Nguyen, Duong; Parker, Ashley; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Roozbahani, Bahareh; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Hortiangtham, Apichart; Massironi, Andrea; Morse, David Michael; Nash, David; Orimoto, Toyoko; Teixeira De Lima, Rafael; Trocino, Daniele; Wang, Ren-Jie; Wood, Darien; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Charaf, Otman; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Kumar, Ajay; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Pollack, Brian; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Sung, Kevin; Trovato, Marco; Velasco, Mayda; Dev, Nabarun; Hildreth, Michael; Hurtado Anampa, Kenyi; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kellams, Nathan; Lannon, Kevin; Marinelli, Nancy; Meng, Fanbo; Mueller, Charles; Musienko, Yuri; Planer, Michael; Reinsvold, Allison; Ruchti, Randy; Smith, Geoffrey; Taroni, Silvia; Wayne, Mitchell; Wolf, Matthias; Woodard, Anna; Alimena, Juliette; Antonelli, Louis; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Flowers, Sean; Francis, Brian; Hart, Andrew; Hill, Christopher; Hughes, Richard; Ji, Weifeng; Liu, Bingxuan; Luo, Wuming; Puigh, Darren; Winer, Brian L; Wulsin, Howard Wells; Cooperstein, Stephane; Driga, Olga; Elmer, Peter; Hardenbrook, Joshua; Hebda, Philip; Lange, David; Luo, Jingyu; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mei, Kelvin; Ojalvo, Isabel; Olsen, James; Palmer, Christopher; Piroué, Pierre; Stickland, David; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Tully, Christopher; Malik, Sudhir; Barker, Anthony; Barnes, Virgil E; Folgueras, Santiago; Gutay, Laszlo; Jha, Manoj; Jones, Matthew; Jung, Andreas Werner; Khatiwada, Ajeeta; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Schulte, Jan-Frederik; Shi, Xin; Sun, Jian; Wang, Fuqiang; Xie, Wei; Parashar, Neeti; Stupak, John; Adair, Antony; Akgun, Bora; Chen, Zhenyu; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Guilbaud, Maxime; Li, Wei; Michlin, Benjamin; Northup, Michael; Padley, Brian Paul; Roberts, Jay; Rorie, Jamal; Tu, Zhoudunming; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Duh, Yi-ting; Ferbel, Thomas; Galanti, Mario; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Han, Jiyeon; Hindrichs, Otto; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Lo, Kin Ho; Tan, Ping; Verzetti, Mauro; Agapitos, Antonis; Chou, John Paul; Gershtein, Yuri; Gómez Espinosa, Tirso Alejandro; Halkiadakis, Eva; Heindl, Maximilian; Hughes, Elliot; Kaplan, Steven; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, Raghav; Kyriacou, Savvas; Lath, Amitabh; Nash, Kevin; Saka, Halil; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Sheffield, David; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Thomassen, Peter; Walker, Matthew; Delannoy, Andrés G; Foerster, Mark; Heideman, Joseph; Riley, Grant; Rose, Keith; Spanier, Stefan; Thapa, Krishna; Bouhali, Othmane; Celik, Ali; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; De Mattia, Marco; Delgado, Andrea; Dildick, Sven; Eusebi, Ricardo; Gilmore, Jason; Huang, Tao; Juska, Evaldas; Kamon, Teruki; Mueller, Ryan; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Patel, Rishi; Perloff, Alexx; Perniè, Luca; Rathjens, Denis; Safonov, Alexei; Tatarinov, Aysen; Ulmer, Keith; Akchurin, Nural; Cowden, Christopher; Damgov, Jordan; De Guio, Federico; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Faulkner, James; Gurpinar, Emine; Kunori, Shuichi; Lamichhane, Kamal; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Peltola, Timo; Undleeb, Sonaina; Volobouev, Igor; Wang, Zhixing; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Janjam, Ravi; Johns, Willard; Maguire, Charles; Melo, Andrew; Ni, Hong; Sheldon, Paul; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Xu, Qiao; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Barria, Patrizia; Cox, Bradley; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Li, Hengne; Neu, Christopher; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Sun, Xin; Wang, Yanchu; Wolfe, Evan; Xia, Fan; Clarke, Christopher; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Sturdy, Jared; Belknap, Donald; Buchanan, James; Caillol, Cécile; Dasu, Sridhara; Dodd, Laura; Duric, Senka; Gomber, Bhawna; Grothe, Monika; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Lanaro, Armando; Levine, Aaron; Long, Kenneth; Loveless, Richard; Perry, Thomas; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Polese, Giovanni; Ruggles, Tyler; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Nicholas; Smith, Wesley H; Taylor, Devin; Woods, Nathaniel

    2017-06-10

    A search is presented for narrow resonances decaying to dijet final states in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}= $ 13 TeV using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 12.9 fb$^{-1}$. The dijet mass spectrum is well described by a smooth parameterization and no significant evidence for the production of new particles is observed. Upper limits at 95% confidence level are reported on the production cross section for narrow resonances with masses above 0.6 TeV. In the context of specific models, the limits exclude string resonances with masses below 7.4 TeV, scalar diquarks below 6.9 TeV, axigluons and colorons below 5.5 TeV, excited quarks below 5.4 TeV, color-octet scalars below 3.0 TeV, $\\mathrm{ W^{+} } ' $ bosons below 2.7 TeV, $\\mathrm{ Z }'$ bosons below 2.1 TeV and between 2.3 and 2.6 TeV, and RS gravitons below 1.9 TeV. These extend previous limits in the dijet channel. Vector and axial-vector mediators in a simplified model of interactions between quarks and dark matter are excluded below...

  17. Measurement of the exclusive $\\Upsilon$ production cross-section in $pp$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=$7 TeV and 8 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adinolfi, Marco; Affolder, Anthony; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Anderson, Jonathan; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; d'Argent, Philippe; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Batozskaya, Varvara; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Bel, Lennaert; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bertolin, Alessandro; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bien, Alexander; Bifani, Simone; Bird, Thomas; Birnkraut, Alex; Bizzeti, Andrea; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frédéric; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borghi, Silvia; Borsato, Martino; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Braun, Svende; Brett, David; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Brook, Nicholas; Bursche, Albert; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Capriotti, Lorenzo; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carniti, Paolo; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casanova Mohr, Raimon; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cavallero, Giovanni; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chiapolini, Nicola; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cogoni, Violetta; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collazuol, Gianmaria; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombes, Matthew; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Crocombe, Andrew; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Silva, Weeraddana; De Simone, Patrizia; Dean, Cameron Thomas; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Déléage, Nicolas; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Dey, Biplab; Di Canto, Angelo; Di Ruscio, Francesco; Dijkstra, Hans; Donleavy, Stephanie; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dossett, David; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dujany, Giulio; Dupertuis, Frederic; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; El Rifai, Ibrahim; Elsasser, Christian; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Färber, Christian; Farinelli, Chiara; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Ferrari, Fabio; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fol, Philip; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forty, Roger; Francisco, Oscar; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Frosini, Maddalena; Fu, Jinlin; Furfaro, Emiliano; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garofoli, Justin; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Gascon, David; Gaspar, Clara; Gastaldi, Ugo; Gauld, Rhorry; Gavardi, Laura; Gazzoni, Giulio; Geraci, Angelo; Gerick, David; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianelle, Alessio; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gligorov, V.V.; Göbel, Carla; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gotti, Claudio; Grabalosa Gándara, Marc; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graverini, Elena; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Greening, Edward; Gregson, Sam; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Grünberg, Oliver; Gui, Bin; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hall, Samuel; Hamilton, Brian; Hampson, Thomas; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heijne, Veerle; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; Hernando Morata, Jose Angel; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hoballah, Mostafa; Hombach, Christoph; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Humair, Thibaud; Hussain, Nazim; Hutchcroft, David; Hynds, Daniel; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jing, Fanfan; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kandybei, Sergii; Kanso, Walaa; Karacson, Matthias; Karbach, Moritz; Karodia, Sarah; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenyon, Ian; Kenzie, Matthew; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Kochebina, Olga; Kolpin, Michael; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Korolev, Mikhail; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krocker, Georg; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; La Thi, Viet Nga; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lambert, Dean; Lambert, Robert W; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Langhans, Benedikt; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Lees, Jean-Pierre; Lefèvre, Regis; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Yiming; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Liles, Myfanwy; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Bo; Lohn, Stefan; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lucchesi, Donatella; Lucio Martinez, Miriam; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Machefert, Frederic; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Malde, Sneha; Malinin, Alexander; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Manning, Peter Michael; Mapelli, Alessandro; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marino, Pietro; Märki, Raphael; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathad, Abhijit; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Matthieu, Kecke; Mauri, Andrea; Maurin, Brice; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McCarthy, James; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Merk, Marcel; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Mitzel, Dominik Stefan; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Müller, Janine; Müller, Katharina; Müller, Vanessa; Mussini, Manuel; Muster, Bastien; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Anh Duc; Nguyen, Thi-Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Niess, Valentin; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Ninci, Daniele; Novoselov, Alexey; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Ogilvy, Stephen; Okhrimenko, Oleksandr; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Osorio Rodrigues, Bruno; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Otto, Adam; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Aranzazu; Palano, Antimo; Palombo, Fernando; Palutan, Matteo; Panman, Jacob; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Parkes, Christopher; Passaleva, Giovanni; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Penso, Gianni; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perret, Pascal; Pescatore, Luca; Petridis, Konstantinos; Petrolini, Alessandro; Petruzzo, Marco; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pilař, Tomas; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Poikela, Tuomas; Polci, Francesco; Poluektov, Anton; Polyakov, Ivan; Polycarpo, Erica; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Price, Joseph David; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Quagliani, Renato; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rakotomiaramanana, Barinjaka; Rama, Matteo; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Rauschmayr, Nathalie; Raven, Gerhard; Redi, Federico; Reichert, Stefanie; Reid, Matthew; dos Reis, Alberto; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rihl, Mariana; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vincente; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Lopez, Jairo Alexis; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Roiser, Stefan; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Rotondo, Marcello; Rouvinet, Julien; Ruf, Thomas; Ruiz, Hugo; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sagidova, Naylya; Sail, Paul; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saunders, Daniel Martin; Savrina, Darya; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmelzer, Timon; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Semennikov, Alexander; Sepp, Indrek; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Shires, Alexander; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Simi, Gabriele; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skillicorn, Ian; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Edmund; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Soomro, Fatima; Souza, Daniel; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Spradlin, Patrick; Sridharan, Srikanth; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stenyakin, Oleg; Sterpka, Christopher Francis; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Stroili, Roberto; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Swientek, Stefan; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szczypka, Paul; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Tekampe, Tobias; Teklishyn, Maksym; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Christopher; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Todd, Jacob; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Torr, Nicholas; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Trabelsi, Karim; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Trisovic, Ana; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tuning, Niels; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vacca, Claudia; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valenti, Giovanni; Vallier, Alexis; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Vecchi, Stefania; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Vesterinen, Mika; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vollhardt, Achim; Volyanskyy, Dmytro; Voong, David; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; de Vries, Jacco; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wandernoth, Sebastian; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Weiden, Andreas; Whitehead, Mark; Wiedner, Dirk; Wilkinson, Guy; Wilkinson, Michael; Williams, Mark Richard James; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wright, Simon; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zangoli, Maria; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zhokhov, Anatoly; Zhong, Liang

    2015-09-14

    A study is presented of central exclusive production of $\\Upsilon(nS)$ states, where the $\\Upsilon(nS)$ resonances decay to the $\\mu^+\\mu^-$ final state, using $pp$ collision data recorded by the LHCb experiment. The cross-section is measured in the rapidity range $2 < y (\\Upsilon) < 4.5$ where the muons are reconstructed in the pseudorapidity range $2<\\eta(\\mu^\\pm)<4.5$. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 2.9 fb$^{-1}$ and was collected at centre-of-mass energies of $7$ TeV and $8$ TeV. The measured $\\Upsilon(1S)$ and $\\Upsilon(2S)$ production cross-sections are \\begin{eqnarray} \\sigma(pp \\to p\\Upsilon(1S)p) &=& 9.0 \\pm 2.1 \\pm 1.7\\textrm{ pb and}\

  18. Search for Resonances in the Dijet Mass Spectrum from 7 TeV pp Collisions at CMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatrchyan, Serguei [Yerevan Physics Inst. (Armenia); et al.

    2011-10-01

    A search for narrow resonances with a mass of at least 1 TeV in the dijet mass spectrum is performed using pp collisions at sqrt(s)=7 TeV corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1 inverse femtobarn, collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC. No resonances are observed. Upper limits at the 95% confidence level are presented on the product of the resonance cross section, branching fraction into dijets, and acceptance, separately for decays into quark-quark, quark-gluon, and gluon-gluon pairs. The data exclude new particles predicted in the following models at the 95% confidence level: string resonances with mass less than 4.00 TeV, E6 diquarks with mass less than 3.52 TeV, excited quarks with mass less than 2.49 TeV, axigluons and colorons with mass less than 2.47 TeV, and W' bosons with mass less than 1.51 TeV.

  19. Northern Sky Galactic Cosmic Ray Anisotropy between 10 and 1000 TeV with the Tibet Air Shower Array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amenomori, M. [Department of Physics, Hirosaki University, Hirosaki 036-8561 (Japan); Bi, X. J.; Chen, W. Y.; Ding, L. K.; Feng, Zhaoyang; Gou, Q. B.; Guo, Y. Q.; He, H. H.; Hu, H. B.; Huang, J. [Key Laboratory of Particle Astrophysics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Chen, D. [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Chen, T. L.; Danzengluobu; Hu, Haibing [Department of Mathematics and Physics, Tibet University, Lhasa 850000 (China); Cui, S. W.; He, Z. T. [Department of Physics, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050016 (China); Feng, C. F. [Department of Physics, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Feng, Z. Y. [Institute of Modern Physics, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Hibino, K. [Faculty of Engineering, Kanagawa University, Yokohama 221-8686 (Japan); Hotta, N. [Faculty of Education, Utsunomiya University, Utsunomiya 321-8505 (Japan); Collaboration: Tibet AS γ Collaboration; and others

    2017-02-20

    We report on the analysis of the 10–1000 TeV large-scale sidereal anisotropy of Galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) with the data collected by the Tibet Air Shower Array from 1995 October to 2010 February. In this analysis, we improve the energy estimate and extend the decl. range down to −30°. We find that the anisotropy maps above 100 TeV are distinct from that at a multi-TeV band. The so-called tail-in and loss-cone features identified at low energies get less significant, and a new component appears at ∼100 TeV. The spatial distribution of the GCR intensity with an excess (7.2 σ pre-trial, 5.2 σ post-trial) and a deficit (−5.8 σ pre-trial) are observed in the 300 TeV anisotropy map, in close agreement with IceCube’s results at 400 TeV. Combining the Tibet results in the northern sky with IceCube’s results in the southern sky, we establish a full-sky picture of the anisotropy in hundreds of TeV band. We further find that the amplitude of the first order anisotropy increases sharply above ∼100 TeV, indicating a new component of the anisotropy. All these results may shed new light on understanding the origin and propagation of GCRs.

  20. ATLAS event at 13 TeV - 20 May 2015 - Run 265532 Evt 3280065

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Display of a proton-proton collision event recorded by ATLAS on 20 May 2015, at 13 TeV collision energy. Tracks are reconstructed from hits in the outer parts of the inner tracking detector which were switched on at the time. The green and red bars indicate energy deposits in the Liquid Argon and Scintillating Tile calorimeters respectively.

  1. Thousand TeV in the center of mass: introduction to high-energy storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorken, J.D.

    1982-09-01

    The lecture discusses, in a pedagogic way, a hypothetical 500 TeV proton storage ring accelerator. It gives machine parameters, discusses linear optics and betatron motions, surveys questions of errors, tolerances and nonlinear resonances, and discusses some of the demands on the detection apparatus, especially the apparent inevitability of multiple interactions per bunch crossing

  2. Ultra-high energy cosmic rays and prompt TeV gamma rays from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    physics pp. 789-792. Ultra-high energy cosmic rays and prompt. TeV gamma rays from gamma ray bursts ... The origin of the observed ultra-high energy cosmic ray (UHECR) events with ... are proton and electron rest mass, respectively.

  3. J/psi polarization in pp collisions at sqrt(s)=7 TeV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ALICE Collaboration, The; Abelev, B.; Abrahantes Quintana, A.

    2012-01-01

    The ALICE Collaboration has studied J/psi production in pp collisions at sqrt(s)=7 TeV at the LHC through its muon pair decay. The polar and azimuthal angle distributions of the decay muons were measured, and results on the J/psi polarization parameters lambda_theta and lambda_phi were obtained. ...

  4. ATLAS event at 13 TeV - 21 May 2015 - Run 265545 Event 5720351

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Displays of a proton-proton collision event recorded by ATLAS on 21 May 2015, at 13 TeV collision energy. Tracks reconstructed from hits in the inner tracking detector are shown to originate from two interaction points, indicating a pile-up event.

  5. Multi-Boson Simulation for 13 TeV ATLAS Analyses

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    This note describes the Monte Carlo setup used by ATLAS to model multi-boson processes in 13 TeV $pp$ collisions. The baseline Monte Carlo generators are compared with each other in key kinematic distributions of the processes under study. Sample normalisation and assignment of systematics uncertainties are discussed.

  6. Quantum gravity at a TeV and the renormalization of Newton's constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calmet, Xavier; Hsu, Stephen D. H.; Reeb, David

    2008-01-01

    We examine whether renormalization effects can cause Newton's constant to change dramatically with energy, perhaps even reducing the scale of quantum gravity to the TeV region without the introduction of extra dimensions. We examine a model that realizes this possibility and describe experimental signatures from the production of small black holes

  7. Measurement of quarkonium production at forward rapidity in pp√s=7 TeV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    The ALICE Collaboration, ALICE Collaboration; Abelev, B.; Adam, J.; Adamová, D.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Agnello, M.; Agostinelli, A.; Agrawal, N.; Ahammed, Z.; Ahmad, N.; Ahmad Masoodi, A.; Ahmed, I.; Ahn, S. U.; Ahn, S. A.; Aimo, I.; Aiola, S.; Ajaz, M.; Akindinov, A.; Aleksandrov, D.; Alessandro, B.; Alexandre, D.; Alici, A.; Alkin, A.; Alme, J.; Alt, T.; Altini, V.; Altinpinar, S.; Altsybeev, I.; Alves Garcia Prado, C.; Andrei, C.; Andronic, A.; Anguelov, V.; Anielski, J.; Antičić, T.; Antinori, F.; Antonioli, P.; Aphecetche, L.; Appelshäuser, H.; Arbor, N.; Arcelli, S.; Armesto, N.; Arnaldi, R.; Aronsson, T.; Arsene, I. C.; Arslandok, M.; Augustinus, A.; Averbeck, R.; Awes, T. C.; Azmi, M. D.; Bach, M.; Badalà, A.; Baek, Y. W.; Bagnasco, S.; Bailhache, R.; Bala, R.; Baldisseri, A.; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F.; Baral, R. C.; Barbera, R.; Barile, F.; Barnaföldi, G. G.; Barnby, L. S.; Barret, V.; Bartke, J.; Basile, M.; Bastid, N.; Basu, S.; Bathen, B.; Batigne, G.; Batyunya, B.; Batzing, P. C.; Baumann, C.; Bearden, I. G.; Beck, H.; Bedda, C.; Behera, N. K.; Belikov, I.; Bellini, F.; Bellwied, R.; Belmont-Moreno, E.; Bencedi, G.; Beole, S.; Berceanu, I.; Bercuci, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Berenyi, D.; Bertens, R. A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/371577810; Berzano, D.; Betev, L.; Bhasin, A.; Bhat, I. R.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattacharjee, B.; Bhom, J.; Bianchi, L.; Bianchi, N.; Bianchin, C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/371578248; Bielčík, J.; Bielčíková, J.; Bilandzic, A.; Bjelogrlic, S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/355079615; Blanco, F.; Blau, D.; Blume, C.; Bock, F.; Bogdanov, A.; Bøggild, H.; Bogolyubsky, M.; Boldizsár, L.; Bombara, M.; Book, J.; Borel, H.; Borissov, A.; Bossú, F.; Botje, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070139032; Botta, E.; Böttger, S.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Bregant, M.; Breitner, T.; Broker, T. A.; Browning, T. A.; Broz, M.; Bruna, E.; Bruno, G. E.; Budnikov, D.; Buesching, H.; Bufalino, S.; Buncic, P.; Busch, O.; Buthelezi, Z.; Caffarri, D.; Cai, X.; Caines, H.; Caliva, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/411885812; Calvo Villar, E.; Camerini, P.; Carena, F.; Carena, W.; Castillo Castellanos, J.; Casula, E. A R; Catanescu, V.; Cavicchioli, C.; Ceballos Sanchez, C.; Cepila, J.; Cerello, P.; Chang, B.; Chapeland, S.; Charvet, J. L.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chelnokov, V.; Cherney, M.; Cheshkov, C.; Cheynis, B.; Chibante Barroso, V.; Chinellato, D. D.; Chochula, P.; Chojnacki, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/411888056; Choudhury, S.; Christakoglou, P.; Christensen, C. H.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, S. U.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/411888250; Cicalo, C.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Cleymans, J.; Colamaria, F.; Colella, D.; Collu, A.; Colocci, M.; Conesa Balbastre, G.; Conesa del Valle, Z.; Connors, M. E.; Contreras, J. G.; Cormier, T. M.; Corrales Morales, Y.; Cortese, P.; Cortés Maldonado, I.; Cosentino, M. R.; Costa, F.; Crochet, P.; Cruz Albino, R.; Cuautle, E.; Cunqueiro, L.; Dainese, A.; Dang, R.; Danu, A.; Das, D.; Das, I.; Das, K.; Das, S.; Dash, A.; Dash, S.; De, S.; Delagrange, H.; Deloff, A.; Dénes, E.; D’Erasmo, G.; De Caro, A.; de Cataldo, G.; de Cuveland, J.; De Falco, A.; De Gruttola, D.; De Marco, N.; De Pasquale, S.; de Rooij, R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/315888644; Diaz Corchero, M. A.; Dietel, T.; Divià, R.; Di Bari, D.; Di Liberto, S.; Di Mauro, A.; Di Nezza, P.; Djuvsland, O.; Dobrin, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/372618715; Dobrowolski, T.; Domenicis Gimenez, D.; Dönigus, B.; Dordic, O.; Dubey, A. K.; Dubla, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/355502488; Ducroux, L.; Dupieux, P.; Dutta Majumdar, A. K.; Ehlers, R. J.; Elia, D.; Engel, H.; Erazmus, B.; Erdal, H. A.; Eschweiler, D.; Espagnon, B.; Esposito, M.; Estienne, M.; Esumi, S.; Evans, D.; Evdokimov, S.; Fabris, D.; Faivre, J.; Falchieri, D.; Fantoni, A.; Fasel, M.; Fehlker, D.; Feldkamp, L.; Felea, D.; Feliciello, A.; Feofilov, G.; Ferencei, J.; Fernández Téllez, A.; Ferreiro, E. G.; Ferretti, A.; Festanti, A.; Figiel, J.; Figueredo, M. A S; Filchagin, S.; Finogeev, D.; Fionda, F. M.; Fiore, E. M.; Floratos, E.; Floris, M.; Foertsch, S.; Foka, P.; Fokin, S.; Fragiacomo, E.; Francescon, A.; Frankenfeld, U.; Fuchs, U.; Furget, C.; Fusco Girard, M.; Gaardhøje, J. J.; Gagliardi, M.; Gago, A. M.; Gallio, M.; Gangadharan, D. R.; Ganoti, P.; Garabatos, C.; Garcia-Solis, E.; Gargiulo, C.; Garishvili, I.; Gerhard, J.; Germain, M.; Gheata, A.; Gheata, M.; Ghidini, B.; Ghosh, P.; Ghosh, S. K.; Gianotti, P.; Giubellino, P.; Gladysz-Dziadus, E.; Glässel, P.; Gomez Ramirez, A.; González-Zamora, P.; Gorbunov, S.; Görlich, L.; Gotovac, S.; Graczykowski, L. K.; Grelli, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/326052577; Grigoras, A.; Grigoras, C.; Grigoriev, V.; Grigoryan, A.; Grigoryan, S.; Grinyov, B.; Grion, N.; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J. F.; Grossiord, J. Y.; Grosso, R.; Guber, F.; Guernane, R.; Guerzoni, B.; Guilbaud, M.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gulkanyan, H.; Gunji, T.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, R.; Khan, K. H.; Haake, R.; Haaland, I.M.; Hadjidakis, C.; Haiduc, M.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamar, G.; Hanratty, L. D.; Hansen, A.; Harris, J. W.; Hartmann, H.; Harton, A.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hayashi, S.; Heckel, S. T.; Heide, M.; Helstrup, H.; Herghelegiu, A.; Herrera Corral, G.; Hess, B. A.; Hetland, K. F.; Hicks, B.; Hippolyte, B.; Hladky, J.; Hristov, P.; Huang, M.; Humanic, T. J.; Hutter, D.; Hwang, D. S.; Ilkaev, R.; Ilkiv, I.; Inaba, M.; Innocenti, G. M.; Ionita, C.; Ippolitov, M.; Irfan, M.; Ivanov, M.; Ivanov, V.; Ivanytskyi, O.; Jachołkowski, A.; Jacobs, P. M.; Jahnke, C.; Jang, H. J.; Janik, M. A.; Jayarathna, P. H S Y; Jena, S.; Jimenez Bustamante, R. T.; Jones, P. G.; Jung, H.; Jusko, A.; Kadyshevskiy, V.; Kalcher, S.; Kalinak, P.; Kalweit, A.; Kamin, J.; Kang, J. H.; Kaplin, V.; Kar, S.; Karasu Uysal, A.; Karavichev, O.; Karavicheva, T.; Karpechev, E.; Kebschull, U.; Keidel, R.; Khan, M. M.; Khan, P.; Khan, S. A.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kharlov, Y.; Kileng, B.; Kim, B.; Kim, D. W.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, M.; Kim, M.; Kim, S.; Kim, T.; Kirsch, S.; Kisel, I.; Kiselev, S.; Kisiel, A.; Kiss, G.; Klay, J. L.; Klein, J.; Klein-Bösing, C.; Kluge, A.; Knichel, M. L.; Knospe, A. G.; Kobdaj, C.; Köhler, M. K.; Kollegger, T.; Kolojvari, A.; Kondratiev, V.; Kondratyeva, N.; Konevskikh, A.; Kovalenko, V.; Kowalski, M.; Kox, S.; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, G.; Kral, J.; Králik, I.; Kramer, F.; Kravčáková, A.; Krelina, M.; Kretz, M.; Krivda, M.; Krizek, F.; Krus, M.; Kryshen, E.; Krzewicki, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/362845670; Kučera, V.; Kucheriaev, Y.; Kugathasan, T.; Kuhn, C.; Kuijer, P. G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074064975; Kulakov, I.; Kumar, J.; Kurashvili, P.; Kurepin, A.; Kurepin, A. B.; Kuryakin, A.; Kushpil, S.; Kweon, M. J.; Kwon, Y.; Ladron de Guevara, P.; Lagana Fernandes, C.; Lakomov, I.; Langoy, R.; Lara, C.; Lardeux, A.; Lattuca, A.; La Pointe, S. L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/355080192; La Rocca, P.; Lea, R.; Lee, G. R.; Legrand, I.; Lehnert, J.; Lemmon, R. C.; Lenti, V.; Leogrande, E.; Leoncino, M.; León Monzón, I.; Lévai, P.; Li, S.; Lien, J.; Lietava, R.; Lindal, S.; Lindenstruth, V.; Lippmann, C.; Lisa, M. A.; Ljunggren, H. M.; Lodato, D. F.; Loenne, P. I.; Loggins, V. R.; Loginov, V.; Lohner, D.; Loizides, C.; Lopez, X.; López Torres, E.; Lu, X. G.; Luettig, P.; Lunardon, M.; Luo, J.; Luparello, G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/355080400; Luzzi, C.; Ma, R.; Maevskaya, A.; Mager, M.; Mahapatra, D. P.; Maire, A.; Majka, R. D.; Malaev, M.; Maldonado Cervantes, I.; Malinina, L.; Mal’Kevich, D.; Malzacher, P.; Mamonov, A.; Manceau, L.; Manko, V.; Manso, F.; Manzari, V.; Marchisone, M.; Mareš, J.; Margagliotti, G. V.; Margotti, A.; Marín, A.; Markert, C.; Marquard, M.; Martashvili, I.; Martin, N. A.; Martinengo, P.; Martínez, M. I.; Martínez García, G.; Martin Blanco, J.; Martynov, Y.; Mas, A.; Masciocchi, S.; Masera, M.; Masoni, A.; Massacrier, L.; Mastroserio, A.; Matyja, A.; Mayer, C.; Mazer, J.; Mazzoni, M. A.; Meddi, F.; Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Mercado Pérez, J.; Meres, M.; Miake, Y.; Mikhaylov, K.; Milano, L.; Milosevic, J.; Mischke, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/325781435; Mishra, A. N.; Miśkowiec, D.; Mitu, C. M.; Mlynarz, J.; Mohanty, B.; Molnar, L.; Montaño Zetina, L.; Montes, E.; Morando, M.; Moreira De Godoy, D. A.; Moretto, S.; Morreale, A.; Morsch, A.; Muccifora, V.; Mudnic, E.; Muhuri, S.; Mukherjee, M.; Müller, H.; Munhoz, M. G.; Murray, S.; Musa, L.; Musinsky, J.; Nandi, B. K.; Nania, R.; Nappi, E.; Nattrass, C.; Nayak, T. K.; Nazarenko, S.; Nedosekin, A.; Nicassio, M.; Niculescu, M.; Nielsen, B. S.; Nikolaev, S.; Nikulin, S.; Nikulin, V.; Nilsen, B. S.; Noferini, F.; Nomokonov, P.; Nooren, G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/07051349X; Nyanin, A.; Nystrand, J.; Oeschler, H.; Oh, S.; Oh, S. K.; Okatan, A.; Olah, L.; Oleniacz, J.; Oliveira Da Silva, A. C.; Onderwaater, J.; Oppedisano, C.; Ortiz Velasquez, A.; Oskarsson, A.; Otwinowski, J.; Oyama, K.; Sahoo, P.; Pachmayer, Y.; Pachr, M.; Pagano, P.; Paić, G.; Painke, F.; Pajares, C.; Pal, S. K.; Palmeri, A.; Pant, D.; Papikyan, V.; Pappalardo, G. S.; Pareek, P.; Park, W. J.; Parmar, S.; Passfeld, A.; Patalakha, D. I.; Paticchio, V.; Paul, B.; Pawlak, T.; Peitzmann, T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304833959; Pereira Da Costa, H.; Pereira De Oliveira Filho, E.; Peresunko, D.; Pérez Lara, C. E.; Pesci, A.; Peskov, V.; Pestov, Y.; Petráček, V.; Petran, M.; Petris, M.; Petrovici, M.; Petta, C.; Piano, S.; Pikna, M.; Pillot, P.; Pinazza, O.; Pinsky, L.; Piyarathna, D. B.; Płoskoń, M.; Planinic, M.; Pluta, J.; Pochybova, S.; Podesta-Lerma, P. L M; Poghosyan, M. G.; Pohjoisaho, E. H O; Polichtchouk, B.; Poljak, N.; Pop, A.; Porteboeuf-Houssais, S.; Porter, J.; Pospisil, V.; Potukuchi, B.; Prasad, S. K.; Preghenella, R.; Prino, F.; Pruneau, C. A.; Pshenichnov, I.; Puddu, G.; Pujahari, P.; Punin, V.; Putschke, J.; Qvigstad, H.; Rachevski, A.; Raha, S.; Rak, J.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; Ramello, L.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Räsänen, S. S.; Rascanu, B. T.; Rathee, D.; Rauf, A. W.; Razazi, V.; Read, K. F.; Real, J. S.; Redlich, K.; Reed, R. J.; Rehman, A.; Reichelt, P.; Reicher, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/32823219X; Reidt, F.; Renfordt, R.; Reolon, A. R.; Reshetin, A.; Rettig, F.; Revol, J. P.; Reygers, K.; Ricci, R. A.; Richert, T.; Richter, M.; Riedler, P.; Riegler, W.; Riggi, F.; Rivetti, A.; Rocco, E.; Rodríguez Cahuantzi, M.; Rodriguez Manso, A.; Røed, K.; Rogochaya, E.; Rohni, S.; Rohr, D.; Röhrich, D.; Romita, R.; Ronchetti, F.; Rosnet, P.; Rossegger, S.; Rossi, A.; Roukoutakis, F.; Roy, A.; Roy, C.; Roy, P.; Rubio Montero, A. J.; Rui, R.; Russo, R.; Ryabinkin, E.; Rybicki, A.; Sadovsky, S.; Šafařík, K.; Sahlmuller, B.; Sahoo, R.; Sahu, P. K.; Saini, J.; Salgado, C. A.; Salzwedel, J.; Sambyal, S.; Samsonov, V.; Sanchez Castro, X.; Sánchez Rodríguez, F. J.; Šándor, L.; Sandoval, A.; Sano, M.; Santagati, G.; Sarkar, D.; Scapparone, E.; Scarlassara, F.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schiaua, C.; Schicker, R.; Schmidt, C.; Schmidt, H. R.; Schuchmann, S.; Schukraft, J.; Schulc, M.; Schuster, T.; Schutz, Y.; Schwarz, K.; Schweda, K.; Scioli, G.; Scomparin, E.; Scott, R.; Segato, G.; Seger, J. E.; Sekiguchi, Y.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Seo, J.; Serradilla, E.; Sevcenco, A.; Shabetai, A.; Shabratova, G.; Shahoyan, R.; Shangaraev, A.; Sharma, N.; Sharma, S.; Shigaki, K.; Shtejer, K.; Sibiriak, Y.; Siddhanta, S.; Siemiarczuk, T.; Silvermyr, D.; Silvestre, C.; Simatovic, G.; Singaraju, R.; Singh, R.; Singha, S.; Singhal, V.; Sinha, B. C.; Sinha, T.; Sitar, B.; Sitta, M.; Skaali, T. B.; Skjerdal, K.; Smakal, R.; Smirnov, N.; Snellings, R. J M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/165585781; Søgaard, C.; Soltz, R.; Song, J.; Song, M.; Soramel, F.; Sorensen, S.; Spacek, M.; Sputowska, I.; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, M.; Srivastava, B. K.; Stachel, J.; Stan, I.; Stefanek, G.; Steinpreis, M.; Stenlund, E.; Steyn, G.; Stiller, J. H.; Stocco, D.; Stolpovskiy, M.; Strmen, P.; Suaide, A. A P; Sugitate, T.; Suire, C.; Suleymanov, M.; Sultanov, R.; Šumbera, M.; Susa, T.; Symons, T. J M; Szanto de Toledo, A.; Szarka, I.; Szczepankiewicz, A.; Szymanski, M.; Takahashi, J.; Tangaro, M. A.; Tapia Takaki, J. D.; Tarantola Peloni, A.; Tarazona Martinez, A.; Tauro, A.; Tejeda Muñoz, G.; Telesca, A.; Terrevoli, C.; Thäder, J.; Thomas, D.; Tieulent, R.; Timmins, A. R.; Toia, A.; Torii, H.; Trubnikov, V.; Trzaska, W. H.; Tsuji, T.; Tumkin, A.; Turrisi, R.; Tveter, T. S.; Ulery, J.; Ullaland, K.; Uras, A.; Usai, G. L.; Vajzer, M.; Vala, M.; Valencia Palomo, L.; Vallero, S.; Vande Vyvre, P.; Vannucci, L.; Van Hoorne, J. W.; van Leeuwen, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304836737; Vargas, A.; Varma, R.; Vasileiou, M.; Vasiliev, A.; Vechernin, V.; Veldhoen, M.; Velure, A.; Venaruzzo, M.; Vercellin, E.; Vergara Limón, S.; Vernet, R.; Verweij, M.; Vickovic, L.; Viesti, G.; Viinikainen, J.; Vilakazi, Z.; Villalobos Baillie, O.; Vinogradov, A.; Vinogradov, L.; Vinogradov, Y.; Virgili, T.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vodopyanov, A.; Völkl, M. A.; Voloshin, K.; Voloshin, S. A.; Volpe, G.; von Haller, B.; Vorobyev, I.; Vranic, D.; Vrláková, J.; Vulpescu, B.; Vyushin, A.; Wagner, B.; Wagner, J.; Wagner, V.; Wang, M.; Wang, Y.; Watanabe, D.; Weber, M.; Wessels, J. P.; Westerhoff, U.; Wiechula, J.; Wikne, J.; Wilde, M.; Wilk, G.; Wilkinson, J.; Williams, M. C S; Windelband, B.; Winn, M.; Xiang, C.; Yaldo, C. G.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yang, H.; Yang, P.; Yang, S.; Yano, S.; Yasnopolskiy, S.; Yi, J.; Yin, Z.; Yoo, I. K.; Yushmanov, I.; Zaccolo, V.; Zach, C.; Zaman, A.; Zampolli, C.; Zaporozhets, S.; Zarochentsev, A.; Závada, P.; Zaviyalov, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zgura, I. S.; Zhalov, M.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhigareva, N.; Zhou, D.; Zhou, F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304845035; Zhou, Y.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, X.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, A.; Zimmermann, M. B.; Zinovjev, G.; Zoccarato, Y.; Zynovyev, M.; Zyzak, M.

    2014-01-01

    The inclusive production cross sections at forward rapidity of J/ψ, ψ(2S), Υ (1S) and Υ (2S) are measured in pp collisions at s √ =7 TeV with the ALICE detector at the LHC. The analysis is based on a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.35 pb -1 . Quarkonia are reconstructed in

  8. Recent ATLAS Measurements of the Diboson Production in pp Collisions at 13 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Kordas, Konstantinos; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Recent ATLAS measurements of the WW, WZ and ZZ production in pp collisions at 13 TeV will be reported: fiducial and total cross sections, differential fiducial, and extraction of limits on anomalous Triple Gauge Couplings. A brief mention on VBS processes will be made as well.

  9. Multi-Boson Simulation for 13 TeV ATLAS Analyses

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    This note describes the Monte Carlo setup used by ATLAS to model multi-boson processes in 13 TeV pp collisions. The baseline Monte Carlo generators are compared with each other in key kinematic distributions of the processes under study. Sample normalization and assignment of systematic uncertainties are discussed.

  10. HESS J1640-465 - an exceptionally luminous TeV γ-ray supernova remnant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramowski, A.; Aharonian, F.; Benkhali, F. Ait; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Angüner, E.; Anton, G.; Balenderan, S.; Balzer, A.; Barnacka, A.; Becherini, Y.; Becker Tjus, J.; Bernlöhr, K.; Birsin, E.; Bissaldi, E.; Biteau, J.; Böttcher, M.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bordas, P.; Brucker, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bulik, T.; Carrigan, S.; Casanova, S.; Cerruti, M.; Chadwick, P. M.; Chalme-Calvet, R.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Cheesebrough, A.; Chrétien, M.; Colafrancesco, S.; Cologna, G.; Conrad, J.; Couturier, C.; Cui, Y.; Dalton, M.; Daniel, M. K.; Davids, I. D.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; deWilt, P.; Dickinson, H. J.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; Drury, L. O'C.; Dubus, G.; Dutson, K.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Edwards, T.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Espigat, P.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Feinstein, F.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fernandez, D.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Förster, A.; Füßling, M.; Gajdus, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Garrigoux, T.; Giavitto, G.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Grondin, M.-H.; Grudzińska, M.; Häffner, S.; Hahn, J.; Harris, J.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hervet, O.; Hillert, A.; Hinton, J. A.; Hofmann, W.; Hofverberg, P.; Holler, M.; Horns, D.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jahn, C.; Jamrozy, M.; Janiak, M.; Jankowsky, F.; Jung, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; Katarzyński, K.; Katz, U.; Kaufmann, S.; Khélifi, B.; Kieffer, M.; Klepser, S.; Klochkov, D.; Kluźniak, W.; Kneiske, T.; Kolitzus, D.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Krakau, S.; Krayzel, F.; Krüger, P. P.; Laffon, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lefaucheur, J.; Lemière, A.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lenain, J.-P.; Lennarz, D.; Lohse, T.; Lopatin, A.; Lu, C.-C.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Marx, R.; Maurin, G.; Maxted, N.; Mayer, M.; McComb, T. J. L.; Méhault, J.; Meintjes, P. J.; Menzler, U.; Meyer, M.; Moderski, R.; Mohamed, M.; Moulin, E.; Murach, T.; Naumann, C. L.; de Naurois, M.; Niemiec, J.; Nolan, S. J.; Oakes, L.; Ohm, S.; Wilhelmi, E. de Oña; Opitz, B.; Ostrowski, M.; Oya, I.; Panter, M.; Parsons, R. D.; Arribas, M. Paz; Pekeur, N. W.; Pelletier, G.; Perez, J.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Peyaud, B.; Pita, S.; Poon, H.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raab, S.; Raue, M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; Reyes, R. de los; Rieger, F.; Rob, L.; Romoli, C.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Sahakian, V.; Sanchez, D. A.; Santangelo, A.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schüssler, F.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schwemmer, S.; Sol, H.; Spengler, G.; Spies, F.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stinzing, F.; Stycz, K.; Sushch, I.; Szostek, A.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Tavernier, T.; Taylor, A. M.; Terrier, R.; Tluczykont, M.; Trichard, C.; Valerius, K.; van Eldik, C.; van Soelen, B.; Vasileiadis, G.; Venter, C.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Vink, J.; Völk, H. J.; Volpe, F.; Vorster, M.; Vuillaume, T.; Wagner, S. J.; Wagner, P.; Ward, M.; Weidinger, M.; Weitzel, Q.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Willmann, P.; Wörnlein, A.; Wouters, D.; Zabalza, V.; Zacharias, M.; Zajczyk, A.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zechlin, H.-S.

    2014-04-01

    The results of follow-up observations of the TeV γ-ray source HESS J1640-465 from 2004 to 2011 with the High Energy Stereoscopic System (HESS) are reported in this work. The spectrum is well described by an exponential cut-off power law with photon index Γ = 2.11 ± 0.09stat ± 0.10sys, and a cut-off energy of E_c = 6.0^{+2.0}_{-1.2} TeV. The TeV emission is significantly extended and overlaps with the northwestern part of the shell of the SNR G338.3-0.0. The new HESS results, a re-analysis of archival XMM-Newton data and multiwavelength observations suggest that a significant part of the γ-ray emission from HESS J1640-465 originates in the supernova remnant shell. In a hadronic scenario, as suggested by the smooth connection of the GeV and TeV spectra, the product of total proton energy and mean target density could be as high as WpnH ˜ 4 × 1052(d/10kpc)2 erg cm-3.

  11. Antiproton-proton elastic scattering at 1.8 TeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazal-e-Aleem; Saleem, M.; Yodh, G.B.

    1990-01-01

    The predictions, based on the generalized Chou-Yang model, are made for the most recent measurements of antiproton-proton elastic scattering at √s = 1.8 TeV. These results have been compared with the recent theoretical predictions of various models. (author)

  12. Antiproton-proton elastic scattering at 1. 8 TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fazal-e-Aleem; Saleem, M. (Punjab Univ., Lahore (Pakistan). Centre for High Energy Physics); Yodh, G.B. (California Univ., Irvine, CA (USA). Dept. of Physics)

    1990-11-01

    The predictions, based on the generalized Chou-Yang model, are made for the most recent measurements of antiproton-proton elastic scattering at {radical}s = 1.8 TeV. These results have been compared with the recent theoretical predictions of various models. (author).

  13. Electron-positron collision physics: 1 MeV to 2 TeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perl, M.L.

    1988-07-01

    An overview of electron-positron collision physics is presented. It begins at 1 MeV, the energy region of positronium formation, and extends to 2 TeV, the energy region which requires an electron- positron linear collider. In addition, the concept of searching for a lepton-specific forces is discussed. 18 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab

  14. Vector boson production and CMS performance at sqrt(s)=13 TeV

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    First results on W/Z inclusive cross section measurement at 13 TeV are presented. This measurement represents the ideal test bench for the physics commissioning of the electron, muon and missing energy reconstruction. The most precise knowledge of luminosity at Run2 is also used in this measurement.  

  15. TeV Gamma-Ray Observations of Geminga with HAWC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hao; HAWC Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    Geminga is a radio-quiet pulsar that was first detected at GeV energies. Its pulsations were first discovered in X-rays. It is one of the closest middle-aged pulsars at approximately 250 parsecs from Earth. The Geminga pulsar is one of the brightest sources in the GeV sky but there is no unambiguous evidence for the existence of a pulsar wind nebula at GeV energies. Milagro reported an extended TeV source spatially consistent with Geminga, but IACT observations using standard analysis techniques have only provided upper limits. Geminga has been interpreted as a nearby cosmic-ray accelerator, which would possibly explain the observed multi-GeV positron excess. TeV observations of Geminga are crucial to test this interpretation. The High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Observatory, located at 4100 m above see level in central Mexico, is sensitive to gamma rays between 100 GeV and 100 TeV. Thanks to its large field of view of 2 steradians, HAWC has a good sensitivity to extended sources. We will present the preliminary results for TeV gamma-ray emission from Geminga from HAWC data. Spectral and morphological analyses are on-going with a growing data set.

  16. Heavy Higgs bosons at TeV e+e- colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djouadi, A.; Ohmann, P.

    1995-12-01

    We summarize the work done by the European working group on Higgs Particles for the Workshop 'Physics with e + e - Linear Colliders', Annecy-Gran Sasso-Hamburg, Feb.-Sept. 1995. The main focus will be on the physics possibilities at a second phase e + e - linear collider with a center of mass energy of ∝1.5 TeV. (orig.)

  17. CERN Control Centre (CCC) - Collision tests at record-breaking energy of 13 TeV

    CERN Multimedia

    Brice, Maximilien

    2015-01-01

    during the night of 20 May, protons collided in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the record-breaking energy of 13 TeV for the first time. These pictures show the LHC operations team on the morning of 21 of May.

  18. Heavy Higgs bosons at low tan β: from the LHC to 100 TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig, Nathaniel [Department of Physics, University of California,Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Hajer, Jan [Department of Physics, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology,Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong S.A.R., P.R.C. (China); Institute for Advanced Study, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology,Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong S.A.R., P.R.C. (China); Li, Ying-Ying; Liu, Tao [Department of Physics, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology,Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong S.A.R., P.R.C. (China); Zhang, Hao [Department of Physics, University of California,Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)

    2017-01-05

    We present strategies to search for heavy neutral Higgs bosons decaying to top quark pairs, as often occurs at low tan β in type II two Higgs doublet models such as the Higgs sector of the MSSM. The resonant production channel is unsatisfactory due to interference with the SM background. We instead propose to utilize same-sign dilepton signatures arising from the production of heavy Higgs bosons in association with one or two top quarks and subsequent decay to a top pair. We find that for heavier neutral Higgs bosons the production in association with one top quark provides greater sensitivity than production in association with two top quarks. We obtain current limits at the LHC using Run I data at 8 TeV and forecast the sensitivity of a dedicated analysis during Run II at 14 TeV. Then we perform a detailed BDT study for the 14 TeV LHC and a future 100 TeV collider.

  19. Event shape variables in supersymmetry searches at 7 TeV LHC

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-11-15

    Nov 15, 2012 ... The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN has been running at 7 TeV since March. 2010 and has till date collected ∼5fb. −1 of data. While the early run focussed primarily on reproducing and testing Standard Model (SM) physics, a huge amount of beyond Standard. Model physics has also been probed, ...

  20. P sub(T)-flow in 100 - 1000 TeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amato, N.M.; Arata, N.; Maldonado, R.H.C.

    1983-01-01

    It is studied how the flow of transverse momenta (Σ P sub(T) or Σ ER) behaves in multi-particle production phenomena in the region of visible energy 10 -1000 TeV, using the emulsion chamber data of Brazil-Japan Collaboration. (Author) [pt

  1. VBS W±W±H production at the HL-LHC and a 100 TeV pp-collider

    OpenAIRE

    Englert, Christoph; Li, Qiang; Spannowsky, Michael; Wang, Mengmeng; Wang, Lei

    2017-01-01

    W±W±HW±W±H production at hadron colliders through vector boson scattering is a so far unconsidered process, which leads to a clean signature of two same-sign charged leptons and two widely separated jets. This process is sensitive to the HHHHHH and WWHHWWHH couplings and any deviation of these couplings from their SM predictions serves as direct evidence of new physics beyond the SM. In this paper, we perform a Monte Carlo study of this process for the s√=14TeVs=14TeV LHC and a 100 TeV pppp-c...

  2. Searches for excited leptons in √(s)=8 and 13 TeV CMS data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endres, Matthias Klaus

    2017-05-12

    This thesis is about searches for excited leptons, being performed with CMS data from proton-proton collisions. The presented analyses are based on data of an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb{sup -1} that was taken during 2012 at √(s)=8 TeV (Run I), and 2.7 fb{sup -1} from the 2015 period at √(s)=13 TeV (Run II). Excited leptons (l*) are expected to be sign for a possible lepton compositeness. Both analyses from the two different datasets consider the production of an excited muon (μ{sup *}) in association with another muon via contact interactions. The considered decay mode into another muon and a photon leads to a μμγ-final state. The factors f and f{sup '} that regulate the coupling between excited and Standard Model leptons, are assumed to be one. The observed data is consistent with the expectation from the Standard Model. Limits are set on the excluded signal cross section, as well as on the excited muon mass and the compositeness scale parameter Λ. Masses from 200 GeV up to 2.5(3) TeV≤M{sub μ{sup *}}=Λ are excluded with the Run I (Run II) analysis. At low excited muon masses, values of Λ up to 17(15) TeV are excluded. Combining the results from Run I and Run II extends the exclusion in Λ up to 19 TeV. Results from other Run I analyses that consider neutral current decays of excited electrons and muons are also evaluated. Since these channels are also sensitive to different configurations of f and f{sup '}, excited electron (muon) masses are excluded up to 2.35(2.4) TeV for the case that M{sub l{sup *}}=Λ and f=-f{sup '}=1.

  3. DISCOVERY OF TeV GAMMA-RAY EMISSION FROM CTA 1 BY VERITAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliu, E.; Errando, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Barnard College, Columbia University, NY 10027 (United States); Archambault, S. [Physics Department, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada); Arlen, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Aune, T.; Bouvier, A. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics and Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Beilicke, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Dickherber, R. [Department of Physics, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Benbow, W. [Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Amado, AZ 85645 (United States); Cesarini, A.; Connolly, M. P. [School of Physics, National University of Ireland Galway, University Road, Galway (Ireland); Ciupik, L. [Astronomy Department, Adler Planetarium and Astronomy Museum, Chicago, IL 60605 (United States); Collins-Hughes, E. [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Cui, W. [Department of Physics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Duke, C. [Department of Physics, Grinnell College, Grinnell, IA 50112-1690 (United States); Dumm, J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Dwarkadas, V. V. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Falcone, A., E-mail: muk@astro.columbia.edu, E-mail: smcarthur@ulysses.uchicago.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); and others

    2013-02-10

    We report the discovery of TeV gamma-ray emission coincident with the shell-type radio supernova remnant (SNR) CTA 1 using the VERITAS gamma-ray observatory. The source, VER J0006+729, was detected as a 6.5 standard deviation excess over background and shows an extended morphology, approximated by a two-dimensional Gaussian of semimajor (semiminor) axis 0. Degree-Sign 30 (0. Degree-Sign 24) and a centroid 5' from the Fermi gamma-ray pulsar PSR J0007+7303 and its X-ray pulsar wind nebula (PWN). The photon spectrum is well described by a power-law dN/dE = N {sub 0}(E/3 TeV){sup -{Gamma}}, with a differential spectral index of {Gamma} = 2.2 {+-} 0.2{sub stat} {+-} 0.3{sub sys}, and normalization N {sub 0} = (9.1 {+-} 1.3{sub stat} {+-} 1.7{sub sys}) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -14} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} TeV{sup -1}. The integral flux, F {sub {gamma}} = 4.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -12} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} above 1 TeV, corresponds to 0.2% of the pulsar spin-down power at 1.4 kpc. The energetics, colocation with the SNR, and the relatively small extent of the TeV emission strongly argue for the PWN origin of the TeV photons. We consider the origin of the TeV emission in CTA 1.

  4. Measurement of azimuthal correlations of D mesons with charged particles in pp collisions at √s=7 TeV and p–Pb collisions at √sNN=5.02 TeV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adam, J.; Adamová, D.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Agnello, M.; Agrawal, N.; Ahammed, Z.; Ahmad, S.; Ahn, S. U.; Aiola, S.; Akindinov, A.; Alam, S. N.; Albuquerque, D. S. D.; Aleksandrov, D.; Alessandro, B.; Alexandre, D.; Alfaro Molina, R.; Alici, A.; Alkin, A.; Almaraz, J. R. M.; Alme, J.; Alt, T.; Altinpinar, S.; Altsybeev, I.; Alves Garcia Prado, C.; Andrei, C.; Andronic, A.; Anguelov, V.; Antičić, T.; Antinori, F.; Antonioli, P.; Aphecetche, L.; Appelshäuser, H.; Arcelli, S.; Arnaldi, R.; Arnold, O. W.; Arsene, I. C.; Arslandok, M.; Audurier, B.; Augustinus, A.; Averbeck, R.; Azmi, M. D.; Badalà, A.; Baek, Y. W.; Bagnasco, S.; Bailhache, R.; Bala, R.; Balasubramanian, S.; Baldisseri, A.; Baral, R. C.; Barbano, A. M.; Barbera, R.; Barile, F.; Barnaföldi, G. G.; Barnby, L. S.; Barret, V.; Bartalini, P.; Barth, K.; Bartke, J.; Bartsch, E.; Basile, M.; Bastid, N.; Basu, S.; Bathen, B.; Batigne, G.; Batista Camejo, A.; Batyunya, B.; Batzing, P. C.; Bearden, I. G.; Beck, H.; Bedda, C.; Behera, N. K.; Belikov, I.; Bellini, F.; Bello Martinez, H.; Bellwied, R.; Belmont, R.; Belmont-Moreno, E.; Beltran, L. G. E.; Belyaev, V.; Bencedi, G.; Beole, S.; Berceanu, I.; Bercuci, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Berenyi, D.; Bertens, R. A.; Berzano, D.; Betev, L.; Bhasin, A.; Bhat, I. R.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattacharjee, B.; Bhom, J.; Bianchi, L.; Bianchi, N.; Bianchin, C.; Bielčík, J.; Bielčíková, J.; Bilandzic, A.; Biro, G.; Biswas, R.; Biswas, S.; Bjelogrlic, S.; Blair, J. T.; Blau, D.; Blume, C.; Bock, F.; Bogdanov, A.; Bøggild, H.; Boldizsár, L.; Bombara, M.; Bonora, M.; Book, J.; Borel, H.; Borissov, A.; Borri, M.; Bossú, F.; Botta, E.; Bourjau, C.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Bregant, M.; Breitner, T.; Broker, T. A.; Browning, T. A.; Broz, M.; Brucken, E. J.; Bruna, E.; Bruno, G. E.; Budnikov, D.; Buesching, H.; Bufalino, S.; Iga Buitron, S. A.; Buncic, P.; Busch, O.; Buthelezi, Z.; Butt, J. B.; Buxton, J. T.; Cabala, J.; Caffarri, D.; Cai, X.; Caines, H.; Diaz, L. Calero; Caliva, A.; Calvo Villar, E.; Camerini, P.; Carena, F.; Carena, W.; Carnesecchi, F.; Castillo Castellanos, J.; Castro, A. J.; Casula, E. A R; Ceballos Sanchez, C.; Cepila, J.; Cerello, P.; Cerkala, J.; Chang, B.; Chapeland, S.; Chartier, M.; Charvet, J. L.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chauvin, A.; Chelnokov, V.; Cherney, M.; Cheshkov, C.; Cheynis, B.; Chibante Barroso, V.; Chinellato, D. D.; Cho, Sukhee; Chochula, P.; Choi, K.; Chojnacki, M.; Choudhury, S.; Christakoglou, P.; Christensen, C. H.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, S. U.; Cicalo, C.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Cleymans, J.; Colamaria, F.; Colella, D.; Collu, A.; Colocci, M.; Conesa Balbastre, G.; Conesa del Valle, Z.; Connors, M. E.; Contreras, J. G.; Cormier, T. M.; Corrales Morales, Y.; Cortés Maldonado, I.; Cortese, P.; Cosentino, M. R.; Costa, F.; Crkovská, J.; Crochet, P.; Cruz Albino, R.; Cuautle, E.; Cunqueiro, L.; Dahms, T.; Dainese, A.; Danisch, M. C.; Danu, A.; Das, D.; Das, I.; Das, S.; Dash, A.; Dash, S.; Dasgupta, S. S.; De Caro, A.; De Cataldo, G.; De Conti, C.; De Cuveland, J.; De Falco, A.; De Gruttola, D.; De Marco, N.; De Pasquale, S.; De Souza, R. Derradi; Deisting, A.; Deloff, A.; Dénes, E.; Deplano, C.; Dhankher, P.; Di Bari, D.; Di Mauro, A.; Di Nezza, P.; Di Ruzza, B.; Diaz Corchero, M. A.; Dietel, T.; Dillenseger, P.; Divià, R.; Djuvsland, O.; Dobrin, A.; Domenicis Gimenez, D.; Dönigus, B.; Dordic, O.; Drozhzhova, T.; Dubey, A. K.; Dubla, A.; Ducroux, L.; Dupieux, P.; Ehlers, R. J.; Elia, D.; Endress, E.; Engel, H.; Epple, E.; Erazmus, B.; Erdemir, I.; Erhardt, F.; Espagnon, B.; Estienne, M.; Esumi, S.; Eum, J.; Evans, D.; Evdokimov, S.; Eyyubova, G.; Fabbietti, L.; Fabris, D.; Faivre, J.; Fantoni, A.; Fasel, M.; Feldkamp, L.; Feliciello, A.; Feofilov, G.; Ferencei, J.; Fernández Téllez, A.; Ferreiro, E. G.; Ferretti, A.; Festanti, A.; Feuillard, V. J. G.; Figiel, J.; Figueredo, M. A S; Filchagin, S.; Finogeev, D.; Fionda, F. M.; Fiore, E. M.; Fleck, M. G.; Floris, M.; Foertsch, S.; Foka, P.; Fokin, S.; Fragiacomo, E.; Francescon, A.; De Francisco, A.; Frankenfeld, U.; Fronze, G. G.; Fuchs, U.; Furget, C.; Furs, A.; Fusco Girard, M.; Gaardhøje, J. J.; Gagliardi, M.; Gago, A. M.; Gajdosova, K.; Gallio, M.; Galvan, C. D.; Gangadharan, D. R.; Ganoti, P.; Gao, C.; Garabatos, C.; Garcia-Solis, E.; Gargiulo, C.; Gasik, P.; Gauger, E. F.; Germain, M.; Gheata, M.; Ghosh, P.; Ghosh, S. K.; Gianotti, P.; Giubellino, P.; Giubilato, P.; Gladysz-Dziadus, E.; Glässel, P.; Goméz Coral, D. M.; Gomez Ramirez, A.; Gonzalez, A. S.; Gonzalez, V; González-Zamora, P.; Gorbunov, S.; Görlich, L.; Gotovac, S.; Grabski, V.; Grachov, O. A.; Graczykowski, L. K.; Graham, K. L.; Grelli, A.; Grigoras, A.; Grigoras, C.; Grigoriev, V.; Grigoryan, A.; Grigoryan, S.; Grinyov, B.; Grion, N.; Gronefeld, J. M.; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J. F.; Grosso, R.; Gruber, L.; Guber, F.; Guernane, R.; Guerzoni, B.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gunji, T.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, R.; Haake, R.; Hadjidakis, C.; Haiduc, M.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamar, G.; Hamon, J. C.; Harris, J. W.; Harton, A.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hayashi, S.; Heckel, S. T.; Hellbär, E.; Helstrup, H.; Herghelegiu, A.; Herrera Corral, G.; Hess, B. A.; Hetland, K. F.; Hillemanns, H.; Hippolyte, B.; Horak, D.; Hosokawa, R.; Hristov, P.; Hughes, C.W.; Humanic, T. J.; Hussain, N.; Hussain, T.; Hutter, D.; Hwang, D. S.; Ilkaev, R.; Inaba, M.; Incani, E.; Ippolitov, M.; Irfan, M.; Isakov, V.; Ivanov, M.; Ivanov, V.; Izucheev, V.; Jacak, B.; Jacazio, N.; Jacobs, P. M.; Jadhav, M. B.; Jadlovska, S.; Jadlovsky, J.; Jahnke, C.; Jakubowska, M. J.; Janik, M. A.; Jayarathna, P. H S Y; Jena, C.; Jena, S.; Jimenez Bustamante, R. T.; Jones, P. G.; Jusko, A.; Kalinak, P.; Kalweit, A.; Kang, J. H.; Kaplin, V.; Kar, S.; Karasu Uysal, A.; Karavichev, O.; Karavicheva, T.; Karayan, L.; Karpechev, E.; Kebschull, U.; Keidel, R.; Keijdener, D. L.D.; Keil, M.; Khan, M. Mohisin; Khan, P.M.; Khan, Shfaqat A.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kharlov, Y.; Kileng, B.; Kim, D. W.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, D.-S.; Kim, H.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, J.; Kim, M.; Kim, M.; Kim, S.; Kim, T.; Kirsch, S.; Kisel, I.; Kiselev, S.; Kisiel, A.; Kiss, G.; Klay, J. L.; Klein, C; Klein, J.; Klein-Bösing, C.; Klewin, S.; Kluge, A.; Knichel, M. L.; Knospe, A. G.; Kobdaj, C.; Kofarago, M.; Kollegger, T.; Kolojvari, A.; Kondratiev, V.; Kondratyeva, N.; Kondratyuk, E.; Konevskikh, A.; Kopcik, M.; Kour, M.; Kouzinopoulos, C.; Kovalenko, O.; Kovalenko, V.; Kowalski, M.L.; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, G.; Králik, I.; Kravčáková, A.; Krivda, M.; Krizek, F.; Kryshen, E.; Krzewicki, M.; Kubera, A. M.; Kučera, V.; Kuhn, C.; Kuijer, P. G.; Kumar, A.; Kumar, J.; Kumar, L.; Kumar, S.; Kurashvili, P.; Kurepin, A.; Kurepin, A. B.; Kuryakin, A.; Kweon, M. J.; Kwon, Y.; La Pointe, S. L.; La Rocca, P.; Ladron de Guevara, P.; Lagana Fernandes, C.; Lakomov, I.; Langoy, R.; Lapidus, K.; Lara, C.; Lardeux, A.; Lattuca, A.; Laudi, E.; Lea, R.; Leardini, L.; Lee, S.; Lehas, F.; Strunz-Lehner, Christine; Lemmon, R. C.; Lenti, V.; Leogrande, E.; León Monzón, I.; León Vargas, H.; Leoncino, M.; Lévai, P.; Li, S.; Li, X.; Lien, J.; Lietava, R.; Lindal, S.; Lindenstruth, V.; Lippmann, C.; Lisa, M. A.; Ljunggren, H. M.; Lodato, D. F.; Loenne, P. I.; Loginov, V.; Loizides, C.; Lopez, X.; López Torres, E.; Lowe, A.; Luettig, P.; Lunardon, M.; Luparello, G.; Lupi, M.; Lutz, T. H.; Maevskaya, A.; Mager, M.; Mahajan, S.; Mahmood, S. M.; Maire, A.; Majka, R. D.; Malaev, M.; Maldonado Cervantes, I.; Malinina, L.; Mal’Kevich, D.; Malzacher, P.; Mamonov, A.; Manko, V.; Manso, F.; Manzari, V.; Mao, Y.; Marchisone, M.; Mareš, J.; Margagliotti, G. V.; Margotti, A.; Margutti, J.; Marín, Alicia; Markert, C.; Marquard, M.; Martin, N. A.; Martinengo, P.; Martínez, Isabel M.; Martínez García, G.; Martinez Pedreira, M.; Mas, A.; Masciocchi, S.; Masera, M.; Masoni, A.; Mastroserio, A.; Matyja, A.; mayer, C.; Mazer, J.; Mazzoni, M. A.; McDonald, D.; Meddi, F.; Melikyan, Y.; Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Meninno, E.; Mercado Pérez, J.; Meres, M.; Mhlanga, S.; Miake, Y.; Mieskolainen, M. M.; Mikhaylov, K.; Milano, L.; Milosevic, J.; Mischke, A.; Mishra, A. N.; Miśkowiec, D.; Mitra, J.; Mitu, C. M.; Mohammadi, N.; Mohanty, B.; Molnar, L.; Montaño Zetina, L.; Montes, E.; Moreira De Godoy, D. A.; Moreno, L. A. P.; Moretto, S.; Morreale, A.; Morsch, A.; Muccifora, V.; Mudnic, E.; Mühlheim, D.; Muhuri, S.; Mukherjee, M.; Mulligan, J. D.; Munhoz, M. G.; Münning, K.; Munzer, R. H.; Murakami, H.; Murray, S.; Musa, L.; Musinsky, J.; Naik, B.; Nair, Rajiv; Nandi, B. K.; Nania, R.; Nappi, E.; Naru, M. U.; Natal Da Luz, H.; Nattrass, C.; Navarro, S. R.; Nayak, K.; Nayak, R.; Nayak, T. K.; Nazarenko, S.; Nedosekin, A.; Negrao De Oliveira, R. A.; Nellen, L.; Ng, F.; Nicassio, M.; Niculescu, M.; Niedziela, J.; Nielsen, B. S.; Nikolaev, S.; Nikulin, S.; Nikulin, V.; Noferini, F.; Nomokonov, P.; Nooren, G.; Noris, J. C. C.; Norman, J.; Nyanin, A.; Nystrand, J.; Oeschler, H.; Oh, S.; Oh, S. K.; Ohlson, A.; Okatan, A.; Okubo, T.; Olah, L.; Oleniacz, J.; Oliveira Da Silva, A. C.; Oliver, M. H.; Onderwaater, J.; Oppedisano, C.; Orava, R.; Oravec, M.; Ortiz Velasquez, A.; Oskarsson, A.; Otwinowski, J.; Oyama, K.; Ozdemir, M.; Pachmayer, Y.; Pagano, D.; Pagano, P.; Paić, G.; Pal, S. K.; Palni, P.; Pan, J.; Pandey, A. K.; Papikyan, V.; Pappalardo, G. S.; Pareek, P.; Park, J.; Park, J.-W.; Parmar, S.; Passfeld, A.; Paticchio, V.; Patra, R. N.; Paul, B.; Pei, H.; Peitzmann, T.; Peng, X.; Pereira Da Costa, H.; Peresunko, D.; Perez Lezama, E.; Peskov, V.; Pestov, Y.; Petráček, V.; Petrov, V.; Petrovici, M.; Petta, C.; Piano, S.; Pikna, M.; Pillot, P.; Pimentel, L. O. D. L.; Pinazza, O.; Pinsky, L.; Piyarathna, D. B.; Płoskoń, M.; Planinic, M.; Pluta, J.; Pochybova, S.; Podesta-Lerma, P. L M; Poghosyan, M. G.; Polichtchouk, B.; Poljak, N.; Poonsawat, W.; Pop, A.; Poppenborg, H.; Porteboeuf-Houssais, S.; Porter, J.; Pospisil, J.; Prasad, S. K.; Preghenella, R.; Prino, F.; Pruneau, C. A.; Pshenichnov, I.; Puccio, M.; Puddu, G.; Pujahari, P.; Punin, V.; Putschke, J.; Qvigstad, H.; Rachevski, A.; Raha, S.; Rajput, S.; Rak, J.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; Ramello, L.; Rami, F.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Räsänen, S.; Rascanu, B. T.; Rathee, D.; Read, K. F.; Redlich, K.; Reed, R. J.; Rehman, A.; Reichelt, P.; Reidt, F.; Ren, X.; Renfordt, R.; Reolon, A. R.; Reshetin, A.; Reygers, K.; Riabov, V.; Ricci, R. A.; Richert, T.; Richter, M.; Riedler, P.; Riegler, W.; Riggi, F.; Ristea, C.; Rocco, E.; Rodríguez Cahuantzi, M.; Rodriguez Manso, A.; Røed, K.; Rogochaya, E.; Rohr, D.; Röhrich, D.; Ronchetti, F.; Ronflette, L.; Rosnet, P.; Rossi, A.; Roukoutakis, F.; Roy, A.; Roy, C.; Roy, P.; Rubio Montero, A. J.; Rui, R.; Russo, R.; Ryabinkin, E.; Ryabov, Y.; Rybicki, A.; Saarinen, S.; Sadhu, S.; Sadovsky, S.; Šafařík, K.; Sahlmuller, B.; Sahoo, P.; Sahoo, R.; Sahoo, S.; Sahu, P. K.; Saini, J.; Sakai, S.; Saleh, M. A.; Salzwedel, J.; Sambyal, S.; Samsonov, V.; Šándor, L.; Sandoval, A.; Sano, M.; Sarkar, D.; Sarkar, N.; Sarma, P.; Scapparone, E.; Scarlassara, F.; Schiaua, C.; Schicker, R.; Schmidt, C.; Schmidt, H. R.; Schmidt, M.; Schuchmann, S.; Schukraft, J.; Schutz, Y.; Schwarz, K.; Schweda, K.; Scioli, G.; Scomparin, E.; Scott, R.; Šefčík, M.; Seger, J. E.; Sekiguchi, Y.; Sekihata, D.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Senosi, K.; Senyukov, S.; Serradilla, E.; Sevcenco, A.; Shabanov, A.; Shabetai, A.; Shadura, O.; Shahoyan, R.; Shangaraev, A.; Sharma, A.; Sharma, M.; Sharma, M.; Sharma, N.; Sheikh, A. I.; Shigaki, K.; Shou, Q. Y.; Shtejer, K.; Sibiriak, Y.; Siddhanta, S.; Sielewicz, K. M.; Siemiarczuk, T.; Silvermyr, D.; Silvestre, C.; Simatovic, G.; Simonetti, G.; Singaraju, R.; Singh, R; Singhal, V.; Sinha, T.; Sitar, B.; Sitta, M.; Skaali, T. B.; Slupecki, M.; Smirnov, N.; Snellings, R. J.M.; Snellman, T. W.; Song, J.; Song, M.; Song, Z.; Soramel, F.; Sorensen, S.; Sozzi, F.; Spiriti, E.; Sputowska, I.; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, M.; Stachel, J.; Stan, I.; Stankus, P.; Stenlund, E.; Steyn, G.; Stiller, J. H.; Stocco, D.; Strmen, P.; Suaide, A. A P; Sugitate, T.; Suire, C.; Suleymanov, M.; Suljic, M.; Sultanov, R.; Šumbera, M.; Sumowidagdo, S.; Szabo, A.; Szarka, I.; Szczepankiewicz, A.; Szymanski, M.; Tabassam, U.; Takahashi, J.; Tambave, G. J.; Tanaka, N.; Tarhini, M.; Tariq, M.; Tarzila, M. G.; Tauro, A.; Muñoz, G. Tejeda; Telesca, A.; Terasaki, K.; Terrevoli, C.; Teyssier, B.; Thäder, J.; Thakur, D.; Thomas, D.; Tieulent, R.; Tikhonov, A.; Timmins, A. R.; Toia, A.; Trogolo, S.; Trombetta, G.; Trubnikov, V.; Trzaska, W. H.; Tsuji, T.; Tumkin, A.; Turrisi, R.; Tveter, T. S.; Ullaland, K.; Uras, A.; Usai, G. L.; Utrobicic, A.; Vala, M.; Valencia Palomo, L.; Vallero, S.; Van Der Maarel, J.; Van Hoorne, J. W.; van Leeuwen, M.; Vanat, T.; Vande Vyvre, P.; Varga, D.; Vargas, A.; Vargyas, M.; Varma, R.; Vasileiou, M.; Vasiliev, A.; Vauthier, A.; Vázquez Doce, O.; Vechernin, V.; Veen, A. M.; Velure, A.; Vercellin, E.; Vergara Limón, S.; Vernet, R.; Verweij, M.; Vickovic, L.; Viinikainen, J.; Vilakazi, Z.; Villalobos Baillie, O.; Villatoro Tello, A.; Vinogradov, A.; Vinogradov, L.; Virgili, T.; Vislavicius, V.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vodopyanov, A.; Völkl, M. A.; Voloshin, K.; Voloshin, S. A.; Volpe, G.; Haller, B.; Vorobyev, I.; Vranic, D.; Vrláková, J.; Vulpescu, B.; Wagner, B.; Wagner, J.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Watanabe, D.; Watanabe, Y.; Weber, M.; Weber, S. G.; Weiser, D. F.; Wessels, J. P.; Westerhoff, U.; Whitehead, A. M.; Wiechula, J.; Wikne, J.; Wilk, G.; Wilkinson, J.; Willems, G. A.; Williams, M. C S; Windelband, B.; Winn, M.; Yalcin, S.; Yang, P.; Yano, S.; Yin, Z.; Yokoyama, H.; Yoo, I. K.; Yoon, J. H.; Yurchenko, V.; Zaborowska, A.; Zaccolo, V.; Zaman, A.; Zampolli, C.; Zanoli, H. J. C.; Zaporozhets, S.; Zardoshti, N.; Zarochentsev, A.; Závada, P.; Zaviyalov, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zgura, I. S.; Zhalov, M.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, C.; Zhigareva, N.; Zhou, D.; Zhou, Y.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, A.; Zimmermann, M. B.; Zinovjev, G.; Zyzak, M.

    2017-01-01

    The azimuthal correlations of D mesons with charged particles were measured with the ALICE apparatus in pp collisions at s=7TeV and p–Pb collisions at sNN=5.02TeV at the Large Hadron Collider. D 0, D +, and D ∗ + mesons and their charge conjugates with transverse momentum 3

  5. Search for quark compositeness in dijet angular distributions from pp collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatrchyan, Serguei [Yerevan Physics Inst. (Armenia); et al.

    2012-05-01

    A search for quark compositeness using dijet angular distributions from pp collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV is presented. The search has been carried out using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 2.2 inverse femtobarns, recorded by the CMS experiment at the LHC. Normalized dijet angular distributions have been measured for dijet invariant masses from 0.4 TeV to above 3 TeV and compared with a variety of contact interaction models, including those which take into account the effects of next-to-leading-order QCD corrections. The data are found to be in agreement with the predictions of perturbative QCD, and lower limits are obtained on the contact interaction scale, ranging from 7.5 up to 14.5 TeV at 95% confidence level.

  6. Search for quark compositeness in dijet angular distributions from pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrchyan, Serguei; Sirunyan, Albert M; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hammer, Josef; Hoch, Michael; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Krammer, Manfred; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Pernicka, Manfred; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Christine; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Taurok, Anton; Teischinger, Florian; Wagner, Philipp; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Walzel, Gerhard; Widl, Edmund; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Bansal, Sunil; Benucci, Leonardo; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Luyckx, Sten; Maes, Thomas; Mucibello, Luca; Ochesanu, Silvia; Roland, Benoit; Rougny, Romain; Selvaggi, Michele; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Maes, Michael; Olbrechts, Annik; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Charaf, Otman; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dero, Vincent; Gay, Arnaud; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Hreus, Tomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Marage, Pierre Edouard; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wickens, John; Adler, Volker; Beernaert, Kelly; Cimmino, Anna; Costantini, Silvia; Garcia, Guillaume; Grunewald, Martin; Klein, Benjamin; Lellouch, Jérémie; Marinov, Andrey; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Strobbe, Nadja; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Vanelderen, Lukas; Verwilligen, Piet; Walsh, Sinead; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Bruno, Giacomo; Ceard, Ludivine; De Favereau De Jeneret, Jerome; Delaere, Christophe; Du Pree, Tristan; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Grégoire, Ghislain; Hollar, Jonathan; Lemaitre, Vincent; Liao, Junhui; Militaru, Otilia; Nuttens, Claude; Pagano, Davide; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Schul, Nicolas; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Alves, Gilvan; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; Martins, Thiago; Pol, Maria Elena; Henrique Gomes E Souza, Moacyr; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Carvalho, Wagner; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Oguri, Vitor; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Silva Do Amaral, Sheila Mara; Soares Jorge, Luana; Sznajder, Andre; Souza Dos Anjos, Tiago; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; De Almeida Dias, Flavia; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Lagana, Caio; Da Cunha Marinho, Franciole; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Genchev, Vladimir; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Tcholakov, Vanio; Trayanov, Rumen; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Karadzhinova, Aneliya; Kozhuharov, Venelin; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Liang, Dong; Liang, Song; Meng, Xiangwei; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Jian; Wang, Jian; Wang, Xianyou; Wang, Zheng; Xiao, Hong; Xu, Ming; Zang, Jingjing; Zhang, Zhen; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Guo, Shuang; Guo, Yifei; Li, Wenbo; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Teng, Haiyun; Wang, Siguang; Zhu, Bo; Zou, Wei; Cabrera, Andrés; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Osorio Oliveros, Andres Felipe; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Plestina, Roko; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Dzelalija, Mile; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Duric, Senka; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Morovic, Srecko; Attikis, Alexandros; Galanti, Mario; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Assran, Yasser; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Khalil, Shaaban; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Radi, Amr; Hektor, Andi; Kadastik, Mario; Müntel, Mait; Raidal, Martti; Rebane, Liis; Tiko, Andres; Azzolini, Virginia; Eerola, Paula; Fedi, Giacomo; Voutilainen, Mikko; Czellar, Sandor; Härkönen, Jaakko; Heikkinen, Mika Aatos; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Kortelainen, Matti J; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Ungaro, Donatella; Wendland, Lauri; Banzuzi, Kukka; Korpela, Arja; Tuuva, Tuure; Sillou, Daniel; Besancon, Marc; Choudhury, Somnath; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Malcles, Julie; Marionneau, Matthieu; Millischer, Laurent; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Shreyber, Irina; Titov, Maksym; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Benhabib, Lamia; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Bluj, Michal; Broutin, Clementine; Busson, Philippe; Charlot, Claude; Daci, Nadir; Dahms, Torsten; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Elgammal, Sherif; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Haguenauer, Maurice; Miné, Philippe; Mironov, Camelia; Ochando, Christophe; Paganini, Pascal; Sabes, David; Salerno, Roberto; Sirois, Yves; Thiebaux, Christophe; Veelken, Christian; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Bloch, Daniel; Bodin, David; Brom, Jean-Marie; Cardaci, Marco; Chabert, Eric Christian; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Drouhin, Frédéric; Ferro, Cristina; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Greder, Sebastien; Juillot, Pierre; Karim, Mehdi; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Van Hove, Pierre; Fassi, Farida; Mercier, Damien; Baty, Clement; Beauceron, Stephanie; Beaupere, Nicolas; Bedjidian, Marc; Bondu, Olivier; Boudoul, Gaelle; Boumediene, Djamel; Brun, Hugues; Chasserat, Julien; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Falkiewicz, Anna; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Ille, Bernard; Kurca, Tibor; Le Grand, Thomas; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Perries, Stephane; Sordini, Viola; Tosi, Silvano; Tschudi, Yohann; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Lomidze, David; Anagnostou, Georgios; Beranek, Sarah; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Heracleous, Natalie; Hindrichs, Otto; Jussen, Ruediger; Klein, Katja; Merz, Jennifer; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Perieanu, Adrian; Raupach, Frank; Sammet, Jan; Schael, Stefan; Sprenger, Daniel; Weber, Hendrik; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Ata, Metin; Caudron, Julien; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Erdmann, Martin; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Klimkovich, Tatsiana; Klingebiel, Dennis; Kreuzer, Peter; Lanske, Dankfried; Lingemann, Joschka; Magass, Carsten; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Olschewski, Mark; Papacz, Paul; Pieta, Holger; Reithler, Hans; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Sonnenschein, Lars; Steggemann, Jan; Teyssier, Daniel; Weber, Martin; Bontenackels, Michael; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Davids, Martina; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Geisler, Matthias; Haj Ahmad, Wael; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Linn, Alexander; Nowack, Andreas; Perchalla, Lars; Pooth, Oliver; Rennefeld, Jörg; Sauerland, Philip; Stahl, Achim; Zoeller, Marc Henning; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Behrenhoff, Wolf; Behrens, Ulf; Bergholz, Matthias; Bethani, Agni; Borras, Kerstin; Cakir, Altan; Campbell, Alan; Castro, Elena; Dammann, Dirk; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Flossdorf, Alexander; Flucke, Gero; Geiser, Achim; Hauk, Johannes; Jung, Hannes; Kasemann, Matthias; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kleinwort, Claus; Kluge, Hannelies; Knutsson, Albert; Krämer, Mira; Krücker, Dirk; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Lange, Wolfgang; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Lutz, Benjamin; Mankel, Rainer; Marfin, Ihar; Marienfeld, Markus; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Olzem, Jan; Petrukhin, Alexey; Pitzl, Daniel; Raspereza, Alexei; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Rosin, Michele; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Schmidt, Ringo; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Sen, Niladri; Spiridonov, Alexander; Stein, Matthias; Tomaszewska, Justyna; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Autermann, Christian; Blobel, Volker; Bobrovskyi, Sergei; Draeger, Jula; Enderle, Holger; Erfle, Joachim; Gebbert, Ulla; Görner, Martin; Hermanns, Thomas; Kaschube, Kolja; Kaussen, Gordon; Kirschenmann, Henning; Klanner, Robert; Lange, Jörn; Mura, Benedikt; Nowak, Friederike; Pietsch, Niklas; Sander, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schlieckau, Eike; Schmidt, Alexander; Schröder, Matthias; Schum, Torben; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Thomsen, Jan; Barth, Christian; Berger, Joram; Chwalek, Thorsten; De Boer, Wim; Dierlamm, Alexander; Dirkes, Guido; Feindt, Michael; Gruschke, Jasmin; Guthoff, Moritz; Hackstein, Christoph; Hartmann, Frank; Heinrich, Michael; Held, Hauke; Hoffmann, Karl-Heinz; Honc, Simon; Katkov, Igor; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Kuhr, Thomas; Martschei, Daniel; Mueller, Steffen; Müller, Thomas; Niegel, Martin; Oberst, Oliver; Oehler, Andreas; Ott, Jochen; Peiffer, Thomas; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Ratnikov, Fedor; Ratnikova, Natalia; Renz, Manuel; Röcker, Steffen; Saout, Christophe; Scheurer, Armin; Schieferdecker, Philipp; Schilling, Frank-Peter; Schmanau, Mike; Schott, Gregory; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Troendle, Daniel; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Weiler, Thomas; Zeise, Manuel; Ziebarth, Eva Barbara; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Manolakos, Ioannis; Markou, Athanasios; Markou, Christos; Mavrommatis, Charalampos; Ntomari, Eleni; Gouskos, Loukas; Mertzimekis, Theodoros; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Stiliaris, Efstathios; Evangelou, Ioannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Patras, Vaios; Triantis, Frixos A; Aranyi, Attila; Bencze, Gyorgy; Boldizsar, Laszlo; Hajdu, Csaba; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Kapusi, Anita; Krajczar, Krisztian; Sikler, Ferenc; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Beni, Noemi; Molnar, Jozsef; Palinkas, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Veszpremi, Viktor; Karancsi, János; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Dhingra, Nitish; Gupta, Ruchi; Jindal, Monika; Kaur, Manjit; Kohli, Jatinder Mohan; Mehta, Manuk Zubin; Nishu, Nishu; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Sharma, Archana; Singh, Anil; Singh, Jasbir; Singh, Supreet Pal; Ahuja, Sudha; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Varun; Shivpuri, Ram Krishen; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Dutta, Suchandra; Gomber, Bhawna; Jain, Sandhya; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Sarkar, Subir; Choudhury, Rajani Kant; Dutta, Dipanwita; Kailas, Swaminathan; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Aziz, Tariq; Ganguly, Sanmay; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Saha, Anirban; Sudhakar, Katta; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Dugad, Shashikant; Mondal, Naba Kumar; Arfaei, Hessamaddin; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Hashemi, Majid; Hesari, Hoda; Jafari, Abideh; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Abbrescia, Marcello; Barbone, Lucia; Calabria, Cesare; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Lusito, Letizia; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Manna, Norman; Marangelli, Bartolomeo; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pacifico, Nicola; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Romano, Francesco; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Singh, Gurpreet; Tupputi, Salvatore; Zito, Giuseppe; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Meneghelli, Marco; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Odorici, Fabrizio; Perrotta, Andrea; Primavera, Federica; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gianni; Travaglini, Riccardo; Albergo, Sebastiano; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Frosali, Simone; Gallo, Elisabetta; Gonzi, Sandro; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Fabbricatore, Pasquale; Musenich, Riccardo; Benaglia, Andrea; De Guio, Federico; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Ghezzi, Alessio; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Martelli, Arabella; Massironi, Andrea; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Sala, Silvano; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Cavallo, Nicola; De Cosa, Annapaola; Dogangun, Oktay; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lista, Luca; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bellan, Paolo; Bisello, Dario; Branca, Antonio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Dorigo, Tommaso; Dosselli, Umberto; Fanzago, Federica; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Gozzelino, Andrea; Kanishchev, Konstantin; Lacaprara, Stefano; Lazzizzera, Ignazio; Margoni, Martino; Mazzucato, Mirco; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Nespolo, Massimo; Perrozzi, Luca; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Vanini, Sara; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zumerle, Gianni; Baesso, Paolo; Berzano, Umberto; Ratti, Sergio P; Riccardi, Cristina; Torre, Paola; Vitulo, Paolo; Viviani, Claudio; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Caponeri, Benedetta; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Lucaroni, Andrea; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Nappi, Aniello; Romeo, Francesco; Santocchia, Attilio; Taroni, Silvia; Valdata, Marisa; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Boccali, Tommaso; Broccolo, Giuseppe; Castaldi, Rino; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Fiori, Francesco; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Kraan, Aafke; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Palmonari, Francesco; Rizzi, Andrea; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Fanelli, Cristiano; Franci, Daniele; Grassi, Marco; Longo, Egidio; Meridiani, Paolo; Micheli, Francesco; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Organtini, Giovanni; Pandolfi, Francesco; Paramatti, Riccardo; Rahatlou, Shahram; Sigamani, Michael; Soffi, Livia; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Biino, Cristina; Botta, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Castello, Roberto; Costa, Marco; Dellacasa, Giulio; Demaria, Natale; Graziano, Alberto; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Musich, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Potenza, Alberto; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Belforte, Stefano; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; Marone, Matteo; Montanino, Damiana; Penzo, Aldo; Heo, Seong Gu; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Chang, Sunghyun; Chung, Jin Hyuk; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Ji Eun; Kong, Dae Jung; Park, Hyangkyu; Ro, Sang-Ryul; Son, Dong-Chul; Kim, Jae Yool; Kim, Zero Jaeho; Song, Sanghyeon; Jo, Hyun Yong; Choi, Suyong; Gyun, Dooyeon; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Tae Jeong; Lee, Kyong Sei; Moon, Dong Ho; Park, Sung Keun; Seo, Eunsung; Sim, Kwang Souk; Choi, Minkyoo; Kang, Seokon; Kim, Hyunyong; Kim, Ji Hyun; Park, Chawon; Park, Inkyu; Park, Sangnam; Ryu, Geonmo; Cho, Yongjin; Choi, Young-Il; Choi, Young Kyu; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Min Suk; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Jongseok; Lee, Sungeun; Seo, Hyunkwan; Yu, Intae; Bilinskas, Mykolas Jurgis; Grigelionis, Ignas; Janulis, Mindaugas; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-de La Cruz, Ivan; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Magaña Villalba, Ricardo; Martínez-Ortega, Jorge; Sánchez-Hernández, Alberto; Villasenor-Cendejas, Luis Manuel; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Reyes-Santos, Marco A; Krofcheck, David; Bell, Alan James; Butler, Philip H; Doesburg, Robert; Reucroft, Steve; Silverwood, Hamish; Ahmad, Muhammad; Asghar, Muhammad Irfan; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khalid, Shoaib; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Qazi, Shamona; Shah, Mehar Ali; Shoaib, Muhammad; Brona, Grzegorz; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Dominik, Wojciech; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Bialkowska, Helena; Boimska, Bozena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Gokieli, Ryszard; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Wrochna, Grzegorz; Zalewski, Piotr; Almeida, Nuno; Bargassa, Pedrame; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Musella, Pasquale; Nayak, Aruna; Pela, Joao; Ribeiro, Pedro Quinaz; Seixas, Joao; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Afanasiev, Serguei; Belotelov, Ivan; Bunin, Pavel; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Karjavin, Vladimir; Konoplyanikov, Viktor; Kozlov, Guennady; Lanev, Alexander; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Savina, Maria; Shmatov, Sergey; Smirnov, Vitaly; Volodko, Anton; Zarubin, Anatoli; Evstyukhin, Sergey; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Andrey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Matveev, Viktor; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Toropin, Alexander; Troitsky, Sergey; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Erofeeva, Maria; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Kossov, Mikhail; Krokhotin, Andrey; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Markina, Anastasia; Obraztsov, Stepan; Perfilov, Maxim; Petrushanko, Sergey; Sarycheva, Ludmila; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Rusakov, Sergey V; Vinogradov, Alexey; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Grishin, Viatcheslav; Kachanov, Vassili; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Korablev, Andrey; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Djordjevic, Milos; Ekmedzic, Marko; Krpic, Dragomir; Milosevic, Jovan; Aguilar-Benitez, Manuel; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Arce, Pedro; Battilana, Carlo; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Ferrando, Antonio; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Merino, Gonzalo; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Santaolalla, Javier; Senghi Soares, Mara; Willmott, Carlos; Albajar, Carmen; Codispoti, Giuseppe; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Chuang, Shan-Huei; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Felcini, Marta; Fernandez, Marcos; Gomez, Gervasio; Gonzalez Sanchez, Javier; Jorda, Clara; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Yaiza; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Sobron Sanudo, Mar; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Bernet, Colin; Bialas, Wojciech; Bianchi, Giovanni; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Breuker, Horst; Bunkowski, Karol; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cerminara, Gianluca; Christiansen, Tim; Coarasa Perez, Jose Antonio; Curé, Benoît; D'Enterria, David; De Roeck, Albert; Di Guida, Salvatore; Dobson, Marc; Dupont-Sagorin, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Frisch, Benjamin; Funk, Wolfgang; Gaddi, Andrea; Georgiou, Georgios; Gerwig, Hubert; Giffels, Manuel; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Giunta, Marina; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Reino Garrido, Robert; Govoni, Pietro; Gowdy, Stephen; Guida, Roberto; Guiducci, Luigi; Hansen, Magnus; Harris, Philip; Hartl, Christian; Harvey, John; Hegner, Benedikt; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hoffmann, Hans Falk; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kaadze, Ketino; Karavakis, Edward; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Lecoq, Paul; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Lourenco, Carlos; Maki, Tuula; Malberti, Martina; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Masetti, Lorenzo; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moser, Roland; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Mulders, Martijn; Nesvold, Erik; Nguyen, Matthew; Orimoto, Toyoko; Orsini, Luciano; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Perez, Emmanuelle; Petrilli, Achille; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Pimiä, Martti; Piparo, Danilo; Polese, Giovanni; Quertenmont, Loic; Racz, Attila; Reece, William; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Rolandi, Gigi; Rommerskirchen, Tanja; Rovelli, Chiara; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Santanastasio, Francesco; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Segoni, Ilaria; Sharma, Archana; Siegrist, Patrice; Silva, Pedro; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Spiga, Daniele; Spiropulu, Maria; Stoye, Markus; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Vichoudis, Paschalis; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Worm, Steven; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Gabathuler, Kurt; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; König, Stefan; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Meier, Frank; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Sibille, Jennifer; Bäni, Lukas; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Buchmann, Marco-Andrea; Casal, Bruno; Chanon, Nicolas; Chen, Zhiling; Deisher, Amanda; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Dünser, Marc; Eugster, Jürg; Freudenreich, Klaus; Grab, Christoph; Lecomte, Pierre; Lustermann, Werner; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Mohr, Niklas; Moortgat, Filip; Nägeli, Christoph; Nef, Pascal; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pape, Luc; Pauss, Felicitas; Peruzzi, Marco; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Rossini, Marco; Sala, Leonardo; Sanchez, Ann - Karin; Sawley, Marie-Christine; Starodumov, Andrei; Stieger, Benjamin; Takahashi, Maiko; Tauscher, Ludwig; Thea, Alessandro; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Treille, Daniel; Urscheler, Christina; Wallny, Rainer; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Wehrli, Lukas; Weng, Joanna; Aguilo, Ernest; Amsler, Claude; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Visscher, Simon; Favaro, Carlotta; Ivova Rikova, Mirena; Millan Mejias, Barbara; Otiougova, Polina; Robmann, Peter; Snoek, Hella; Verzetti, Mauro; Chang, Yuan-Hann; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Li, Syue-Wei; Lin, Willis; Liu, Zong-Kai; Lu, Yun-Ju; Mekterovic, Darko; Volpe, Roberta; Yu, Shin-Shan; Bartalini, Paolo; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Dietz, Charles; Grundler, Ulysses; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Kao, Kai-Yi; Lei, Yeong-Jyi; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Majumder, Devdatta; Petrakou, Eleni; Shi, Xin; Shiu, Jing-Ge; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Wan, Xia; Wang, Minzu; Adiguzel, Aytul; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Karapinar, Guler; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Polatoz, Ayse; Sogut, Kenan; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Uzun, Dilber; Vergili, Latife Nukhet; Vergili, Mehmet; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Aliev, Takhmasib; Bilin, Bugra; Bilmis, Selcuk; Deniz, Muhammed; Gamsizkan, Halil; Guler, Ali Murat; Ocalan, Kadir; Ozpineci, Altug; Serin, Meltem; Sever, Ramazan; Surat, Ugur Emrah; Yalvac, Metin; Yildirim, Eda; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Deliomeroglu, Mehmet; Gülmez, Erhan; Isildak, Bora; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Ozkorucuklu, Suat; Sonmez, Nasuf; Levchuk, Leonid; Bostock, Francis; Brooke, James John; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Flacher, Henning; Frazier, Robert; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Kreczko, Lukasz; Metson, Simon; Newbold, Dave M; Nirunpong, Kachanon; Poll, Anthony; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Vincent J; Williams, Thomas; Basso, Lorenzo; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Jackson, James; Kennedy, Bruce W; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Tomalin, Ian R; Womersley, William John; Bainbridge, Robert; Ball, Gordon; Beuselinck, Raymond; Buchmuller, Oliver; Colling, David; Cripps, Nicholas; Cutajar, Michael; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; Della Negra, Michel; Ferguson, William; Fulcher, Jonathan; Futyan, David; Gilbert, Andrew; Guneratne Bryer, Arlo; Hall, Geoffrey; Hatherell, Zoe; Hays, Jonathan; Iles, Gregory; Jarvis, Martyn; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Marrouche, Jad; Mathias, Bryn; Nandi, Robin; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Papageorgiou, Anastasios; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Pioppi, Michele; Raymond, David Mark; Rogerson, Samuel; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Rose, Andrew; Ryan, Matthew John; Seez, Christopher; Sharp, Peter; Sparrow, Alex; Tapper, Alexander; Tourneur, Stephane; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Wakefield, Stuart; Wardle, Nicholas; Wardrope, David; Whyntie, Tom; Barrett, Matthew; Chadwick, Matthew; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leslie, Dawn; Martin, William; Reid, Ivan; Symonds, Philip; Teodorescu, Liliana; Turner, Mark; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Liu, Hongxuan; Scarborough, Tara; Henderson, Conor; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Carrera Jarrin, Edgar; Fantasia, Cory; Heister, Arno; St John, Jason; Lawson, Philip; Lazic, Dragoslav; Rohlf, James; Sperka, David; Sulak, Lawrence; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Cutts, David; Ferapontov, Alexey; Heintz, Ulrich; Jabeen, Shabnam; Kukartsev, Gennadiy; Landsberg, Greg; Luk, Michael; Narain, Meenakshi; Nguyen, Duong; Segala, Michael; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Speer, Thomas; Tsang, Ka Vang; Breedon, Richard; Breto, Guillermo; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Caulfield, Matthew; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Dolen, James; Erbacher, Robin; Gardner, Michael; Houtz, Rachel; Ko, Winston; Kopecky, Alexandra; Lander, Richard; Mall, Orpheus; Miceli, Tia; Nelson, Randy; Pellett, Dave; Robles, Jorge; Rutherford, Britney; Searle, Matthew; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Tripathi, Mani; Vasquez Sierra, Ricardo; Andreev, Valeri; Arisaka, Katsushi; Cline, David; Cousins, Robert; Duris, Joseph; Erhan, Samim; Everaerts, Pieter; Farrell, Chris; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Jarvis, Chad; Plager, Charles; Rakness, Gregory; Schlein, Peter; Tucker, Jordan; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Weber, Matthias; Babb, John; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Giordano, Ferdinando; Hanson, Gail; Jeng, Geng-Yuan; Liu, Hongliang; Long, Owen Rosser; Luthra, Arun; Nguyen, Harold; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Sturdy, Jared; Sumowidagdo, Suharyo; Wilken, Rachel; Wimpenny, Stephen; Andrews, Warren; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cittolin, Sergio; Evans, David; Golf, Frank; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Lebourgeois, Matthew; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Mangano, Boris; Padhi, Sanjay; Palmer, Christopher; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pi, Haifeng; Pieri, Marco; Ranieri, Riccardo; Sani, Matteo; Sfiligoi, Igor; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Sudano, Elizabeth; Tadel, Matevz; Tu, Yanjun; Vartak, Adish; Wasserbaech, Steven; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Barge, Derek; Bellan, Riccardo; Campagnari, Claudio; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; Danielson, Thomas; Flowers, Kristen; Geffert, Paul; Incandela, Joe; Justus, Christopher; Kalavase, Puneeth; Koay, Sue Ann; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Lowette, Steven; Mccoll, Nickolas; Pavlunin, Viktor; Rebassoo, Finn; Ribnik, Jacob; Richman, Jeffrey; Rossin, Roberto; Stuart, David; To, Wing; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; West, Christopher; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Chen, Yi; Di Marco, Emanuele; Duarte, Javier; Gataullin, Marat; Ma, Yousi; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Rogan, Christopher; Timciuc, Vladlen; Traczyk, Piotr; Veverka, Jan; Wilkinson, Richard; Yang, Yong; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Akgun, Bora; Carroll, Ryan; Ferguson, Thomas; Iiyama, Yutaro; Jang, Dong Wook; Jun, Soon Yung; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Drell, Brian Robert; Edelmaier, Christopher; Ford, William T; Gaz, Alessandro; Heyburn, Bernadette; Luiggi Lopez, Eduardo; Nauenberg, Uriel; Smith, James; Stenson, Kevin; Ulmer, Keith; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Zang, Shi-Lei; Agostino, Lorenzo; Alexander, James; Chatterjee, Avishek; Eggert, Nicholas; Gibbons, Lawrence Kent; Heltsley, Brian; Hopkins, Walter; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Kreis, Benjamin; Mirman, Nathan; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Puigh, Darren; Ryd, Anders; Salvati, Emmanuele; Sun, Werner; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Vaughan, Jennifer; Weng, Yao; Winstrom, Lucas; Wittich, Peter; Biselli, Angela; Cirino, Guy; Winn, Dave; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Anderson, Jacob; Apollinari, Giorgio; Atac, Muzaffer; Bakken, Jon Alan; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bloch, Ingo; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Chetluru, Vasundhara; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Cooper, William; Eartly, David P; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Esen, Selda; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gao, Yanyan; Gottschalk, Erik; Green, Dan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hanlon, Jim; Harris, Robert M; Hirschauer, James; Hooberman, Benjamin; Jensen, Hans; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Klima, Boaz; Kunori, Shuichi; Kwan, Simon; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Miao, Ting; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Musienko, Yuri; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Pivarski, James; Pordes, Ruth; Prokofyev, Oleg; Schwarz, Thomas; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Sharma, Seema; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Tan, Ping; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vidal, Richard; Whitmore, Juliana; Wu, Weimin; Yang, Fan; Yumiceva, Francisco; Yun, Jae Chul; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Chen, Mingshui; Das, Souvik; De Gruttola, Michele; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Dobur, Didar; Drozdetskiy, Alexey; Field, Richard D; Fisher, Matthew; Fu, Yu; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Gartner, Joseph; Goldberg, Sean; Hugon, Justin; Kim, Bockjoo; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Kypreos, Theodore; Low, Jia Fu; Matchev, Konstantin; Milenovic, Predrag; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Muniz, Lana; Remington, Ronald; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Schmitt, Michael Houston; Scurlock, Bobby; Sellers, Paul; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Snowball, Matthew; Wang, Dayong; Yelton, John; Zakaria, Mohammed; Gaultney, Vanessa; Lebolo, Luis Miguel; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bochenek, Joseph; Chen, Jie; Diamond, Brendan; Gleyzer, Sergei V; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Jenkins, Merrill; Johnson, Kurtis F; Prosper, Harrison; Sekmen, Sezen; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Weinberg, Marc; Baarmand, Marc M; Dorney, Brian; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Vodopiyanov, Igor; Adams, Mark Raymond; Anghel, Ioana Maria; Apanasevich, Leonard; Bai, Yuting; Bazterra, Victor Eduardo; Betts, Russell Richard; Callner, Jeremy; Cavanaugh, Richard; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Khalatyan, Samvel; Kunde, Gerd J; Lacroix, Florent; Malek, Magdalena; O'Brien, Christine; Silkworth, Christopher; Silvestre, Catherine; Strom, Derek; Varelas, Nikos; Akgun, Ugur; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Duru, Firdevs; Griffiths, Scott; Lae, Chung Khim; McCliment, Edward; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Newsom, Charles Ray; Norbeck, Edwin; Olson, Jonathan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Sen, Sercan; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yetkin, Taylan; Yi, Kai; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Bolognesi, Sara; Bonato, Alessio; Eskew, Christopher; Fehling, David; Giurgiu, Gavril; Gritsan, Andrei; Guo, Zijin; Hu, Guofan; Maksimovic, Petar; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Swartz, Morris; Tran, Nhan Viet; Whitbeck, Andrew; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Grachov, Oleg; Kenny Iii, Raymond Patrick; Murray, Michael; Noonan, Daniel; Sanders, Stephen; Stringer, Robert; Tinti, Gemma; Wood, Jeffrey Scott; Zhukova, Victoria; Barfuss, Anne-Fleur; Bolton, Tim; Chakaberia, Irakli; Ivanov, Andrew; Khalil, Sadia; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Shrestha, Shruti; Svintradze, Irakli; Gronberg, Jeffrey; Lange, David; Wright, Douglas; Baden, Drew; Boutemeur, Madjid; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Kellogg, Richard G; Kirn, Malina; Kolberg, Ted; Lu, Ying; Mignerey, Alice; Peterman, Alison; Rossato, Kenneth; Rumerio, Paolo; Skuja, Andris; Temple, Jeffrey; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Twedt, Elizabeth; Alver, Burak; Bauer, Gerry; Bendavid, Joshua; Busza, Wit; Butz, Erik; Cali, Ivan Amos; Chan, Matthew; Dutta, Valentina; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Kim, Yongsun; Klute, Markus; Lee, Yen-Jie; Li, Wei; Luckey, Paul David; Ma, Teng; Nahn, Steve; Paus, Christoph; Ralph, Duncan; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Rudolph, Matthew; Stephans, George; Stöckli, Fabian; Sumorok, Konstanty; Sung, Kevin; Velicanu, Dragos; Wenger, Edward Allen; Wolf, Roger; Wyslouch, Bolek; Xie, Si; Yang, Mingming; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Yoon, Sungho; Zanetti, Marco; Cooper, Seth; Cushman, Priscilla; Dahmes, Bryan; De Benedetti, Abraham; Franzoni, Giovanni; Gude, Alexander; Haupt, Jason; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Pastika, Nathaniel; Rekovic, Vladimir; Rusack, Roger; Sasseville, Michael; Singovsky, Alexander; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Cremaldi, Lucien Marcus; Godang, Romulus; Kroeger, Rob; Perera, Lalith; Rahmat, Rahmat; Sanders, David A; Summers, Don; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Butt, Jamila; Claes, Daniel R; Dominguez, Aaron; Eads, Michael; Jindal, Pratima; Keller, Jason; Kravchenko, Ilya; Lazo-Flores, Jose; Malbouisson, Helena; Malik, Sudhir; Snow, Gregory R; Baur, Ulrich; Godshalk, Andrew; Iashvili, Ia; Jain, Supriya; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Shipkowski, Simon Peter; Smith, Kenneth; Wan, Zongru; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Chasco, Matthew; Trocino, Daniele; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Anastassov, Anton; Kubik, Andrew; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Ofierzynski, Radoslaw Adrian; Pollack, Brian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Stoynev, Stoyan; Velasco, Mayda; Won, Steven; Antonelli, Louis; Berry, Douglas; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kolb, Jeff; Lannon, Kevin; Luo, Wuming; Lynch, Sean; Marinelli, Nancy; Morse, David Michael; Pearson, Tessa; Ruchti, Randy; Slaunwhite, Jason; Valls, Nil; Wayne, Mitchell; Wolf, Matthias; Ziegler, Jill; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Hill, Christopher; Killewald, Phillip; Kotov, Khristian; Ling, Ta-Yung; Rodenburg, Marissa; Vuosalo, Carl; Williams, Grayson; Adam, Nadia; Berry, Edmund; Elmer, Peter; Gerbaudo, Davide; Halyo, Valerie; Hebda, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Hunt, Adam; Laird, Edward; Lopes Pegna, David; Lujan, Paul; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Piroué, Pierre; Quan, Xiaohang; Raval, Amita; Saka, Halil; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Werner, Jeremy Scott; Zuranski, Andrzej; Acosta, Jhon Gabriel; Huang, Xing Tao; Lopez, Angel; Mendez, Hector; Oliveros, Sandra; Ramirez Vargas, Juan Eduardo; Zatserklyaniy, Andriy; Alagoz, Enver; Barnes, Virgil E; Benedetti, Daniele; Bolla, Gino; Borrello, Laura; Bortoletto, Daniela; De Mattia, Marco; Everett, Adam; Gutay, Laszlo; Hu, Zhen; Jones, Matthew; Koybasi, Ozhan; Kress, Matthew; Laasanen, Alvin T; Leonardo, Nuno; Maroussov, Vassili; Merkel, Petra; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Zablocki, Jakub; Zheng, Yu; Guragain, Samir; Parashar, Neeti; Adair, Antony; Boulahouache, Chaouki; Cuplov, Vesna; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; Chung, Yeon Sei; Covarelli, Roberto; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Goldenzweig, Pablo; Gotra, Yury; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Miner, Daniel Carl; Petrillo, Gianluca; Sakumoto, Willis; Vishnevskiy, Dmitry; Zielinski, Marek; Bhatti, Anwar; Ciesielski, Robert; Demortier, Luc; Goulianos, Konstantin; Lungu, Gheorghe; Malik, Sarah; Mesropian, Christina; Arora, Sanjay; Atramentov, Oleksiy; Barker, Anthony; Chou, John Paul; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Contreras-Campana, Emmanuel; Duggan, Daniel; Ferencek, Dinko; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Hits, Dmitry; Lath, Amitabh; Panwalkar, Shruti; Park, Michael; Patel, Rishi; Richards, Alan; Rose, Keith; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Seitz, Claudia; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Cerizza, Giordano; Hollingsworth, Matthew; Spanier, Stefan; Yang, Zong-Chang; York, Andrew; Eusebi, Ricardo; Flanagan, Will; Gilmore, Jason; Kamon, Teruki; Khotilovich, Vadim; Montalvo, Roy; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Perloff, Alexx; Roe, Jeffrey; Safonov, Alexei; Sakuma, Tai; Sengupta, Sinjini; Suarez, Indara; Tatarinov, Aysen; Toback, David; Akchurin, Nural; Bardak, Cemile; Damgov, Jordan; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Jeong, Chiyoung; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Mane, Poonam; Roh, Youn; Sill, Alan; Volobouev, Igor; Wigmans, Richard; Appelt, Eric; Brownson, Eric; Engh, Daniel; Florez, Carlos; Gabella, William; Gurrola, Alfredo; Issah, Michael; Johns, Willard; Kurt, Pelin; Maguire, Charles; Melo, Andrew; Sheldon, Paul; Snook, Benjamin; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Balazs, Michael; Boutle, Sarah; Conetti, Sergio; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Goadhouse, Stephen; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Wood, John; Yohay, Rachel; Gollapinni, Sowjanya; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, Chamath; Lamichhane, Pramod; Mattson, Mark; Milstène, Caroline; Sakharov, Alexandre; Anderson, Michael; Bachtis, Michail; Belknap, Donald; Bellinger, James Nugent; Bernardini, Jacopo; Carlsmith, Duncan; Cepeda, Maria; Dasu, Sridhara; Efron, Jonathan; Friis, Evan; Gray, Lindsey; Grogg, Kira Suzanne; Grothe, Monika; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Klukas, Jeffrey; Lanaro, Armando; Lazaridis, Christos; Leonard, Jessica; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Ojalvo, Isabel; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Ross, Ian; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Wesley H; Swanson, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    A search for quark compositeness using dijet angular distributions from pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV is presented. The search has been carried out using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 2.2 inverse femtobarns, recorded by the CMS experiment at the LHC. Normalized dijet angular distributions have been measured for dijet invariant masses from 0.4 TeV to above 3 TeV and compared with a variety of contact interaction models, including those which take into account the effects of next-to-leading-order QCD corrections. The data are found to be in agreement with the predictions of perturbative QCD, and lower limits are obtained on the contact interaction scale, ranging from 7.5 up to 14.5 TeV at 95% confidence level.

  7. Neutral pion and $\\eta$ meson production in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$=0.9 TeV and $\\sqrt{s}$=7 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Abelev, B.; Adamova, D.; Adare, A.M.; Aggarwal, M.M.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Agocs, A.G.; Agostinelli, A.; Aguilar Salazar, S.; Ahammed, Z.; Ahmad, N.; Masoodi, A.Ahmad; Ahn, S.U.; Akindinov, A.; Aleksandrov, D.; Alessandro, B.; Molina, R.Alfaro; Alici, A.; Alkin, A.; Almaraz Avina, E.; Alt, T.; Altini, V.; Altinpinar, S.; Altsybeev, I.; Andrei, C.; Andronic, A.; Anguelov, V.; Anson, C.; Anticic, T.; Antinori, F.; Antonioli, P.; Aphecetche, L.; Appelshauser, H.; Arbor, N.; Arcelli, S.; Arend, A.; Armesto, N.; Arnaldi, R.; Aronsson, T.; Arsene, I.C.; Arslandok, M.; Asryan, A.; Augustinus, A.; Averbeck, R.; Awes, T.C.; Aysto, J.; Azmi, M.D.; Bach, M.; Badala, A.; Baek, Y.W.; Bailhache, R.; Bala, R.; Ferroli, R.Baldini; Baldisseri, A.; Baldit, A.; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F.; Ban, J.; Baral, R.C.; Barbera, R.; Barile, F.; Barnafoldi, G.G.; Barnby, L.S.; Barret, V.; Bartke, J.; Basile, M.; Bastid, N.; Bathen, B.; Batigne, G.; Batyunya, B.; Baumann, C.; Bearden, I.G.; Beck, H.; Belikov, I.; Bellini, F.; Bellwied, R.; Belmont-Moreno, E.; Beole, S.; Berceanu, I.; Bercuci, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Berenyi, D.; Bergmann, C.; Berzano, D.; Betev, L.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A.K.; Bianchi, N.; Bianchi, L.; Bianchin, C.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bilandzic, A.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, F.; Blau, D.; Blume, C.; Boccioli, M.; Bock, F.; Bock, N.; Bogdanov, A.; Boggild, H.; Bogolyubsky, M.; Boldizsar, L.; Bombara, M.; Book, J.; Borel, H.; Borissov, A.; Bortolin, C.; Bose, S.; Bossu, F.; Botje, M.; Bottger, S.; Boyer, B.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Bregant, M.; Breitner, T.; Broz, M.; Brun, R.; Bruna, E.; Bruno, G.E.; Budnikov, D.; Buesching, H.; Bufalino, S.; Bugaiev, K.; Busch, O.; Buthelezi, Z.; Caffarri, D.; Cai, X.; Caines, H.; Calvo Villar, E.; Camerini, P.; Canoa Roman, V.; Cara Romeo, G.; Carena, F.; Carena, W.; Carlin Filho, N.; Carminati, F.; Carrillo Montoya, C.A.; Casanova Diaz, A.; Caselle, M.; Castillo Castellanos, J.; Castillo Hernandez, J.F.; Casula, E.A.R.; Catanescu, V.; Cavicchioli, C.; Cepila, J.; Cerello, P.; Chang, B.; Chapeland, S.; Charvet, J.L.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Cherney, M.; Cheshkov, C.; Cheynis, B.; Chiavassa, E.; Chibante Barroso, V.; Chinellato, D.D.; Chochula, P.; Chojnacki, M.; Christakoglou, P.; Christensen, C.H.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, S.U.; Cicalo, C.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Cleymans, J.; Coccetti, F.; Coffin, J.P.; Colamaria, F.; Colella, D.; Conesa Balbastre, G.; Conesa del Valle, Z.; Constantin, P.; Contin, G.; Contreras, J.G.; Cormier, T.M.; Corrales Morales, Y.; Cortese, P.; Cortes Maldonado, I.; Cosentino, M.R.; Costa, F.; Cotallo, M.E.; Crescio, E.; Crochet, P.; Alaniz, E.Cruz; Cuautle, E.; Cunqueiro, L.; Dainese, A.; Dalsgaard, H.H.; Danu, A.; Das, I.; Das, K.; Das, D.; Dash, A.; Dash, S.; De, S.; De Azevedo Moregula, A.; de Barros, G.O.V.; De Caro, A.; De Cataldo, G.; de Cuveland, J.; De Falco, A.; De Gruttola, D.; Delagrange, H.; Del Castillo Sanchez, E.; Deloff, A.; Demanov, V.; De Marco, N.; Denes, E.; De Pasquale, S.; Deppman, A.; Erasmo, G.D.; de Rooij, R.; Di Bari, D.; Dietel, T.; Di Giglio, C.; Di Liberto, S.; Di Mauro, A.; Di Nezza, P.; Divia, R.; Djuvsland, O.; Dobrin, A.; Dobrowolski, T.; Dominguez, I.; Donigus, B.; Dordic, O.; Driga, O.; Dubey, A.K.; Ducroux, L.; Dupieux, P.; Dutta Majumdar, M.R.; Dutta Majumdar, A.K.; Elia, D.; Emschermann, D.; Engel, H.; Erdal, H.A.; Espagnon, B.; Estienne, M.; Esumi, S.; Evans, D.; Eyyubova, G.; Fabris, D.; Faivre, J.; Falchieri, D.; Fantoni, A.; Fasel, M.; Fearick, R.; Fedunov, A.; Fehlker, D.; Feldkamp, L.; Felea, D.; Feofilov, G.; Fernandez Tellez, A.; Ferretti, A.; Ferretti, R.; Figiel, J.; Figueredo, M.A.S.; Filchagin, S.; Fini, R.; Finogeev, D.; Fionda, F.M.; Fiore, E.M.; Floris, M.; Foertsch, S.; Foka, P.; Fokin, S.; Fragiacomo, E.; Fragkiadakis, M.; Frankenfeld, U.; Fuchs, U.; Furget, C.; Fusco Girard, M.; Gaardhoje, J.J.; Gagliardi, M.; Gago, A.; Gallio, M.; Gangadharan, D.R.; Ganoti, P.; Garabatos, C.; Garcia-Solis, E.; Garishvili, I.; Gerhard, J.; Germain, M.; Geuna, C.; Gheata, A.; Gheata, M.; Ghidini, B.; Ghosh, P.; Gianotti, P.; Girard, M.R.; Giubellino, P.; Gladysz-Dziadus, E.; Glassel, P.; Gomez, R.; Ferreiro, E.G.; Gonzalez-Trueba, L.H.; Gonzalez-Zamora, P.; Gorbunov, S.; Goswami, A.; Gotovac, S.; Grabski, V.; Graczykowski, L.K.; Grajcarek, R.; Grelli, A.; Grigoras, C.; Grigoras, A.; Grigoriev, V.; Grigoryan, A.; Grigoryan, S.; Grinyov, B.; Grion, N.; Gros, P.; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J.F.; Grossiord, J.Y.; Grosso, R.; Guber, F.; Guernane, R.; Guerra Gutierrez, C.; Guerzoni, B.; Guilbaud, M.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gunji, T.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, R.; Gutbrod, H.; Haaland, O.; Hadjidakis, C.; Haiduc, M.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamar, G.; Han, B.H.; Hanratty, L.D.; Hansen, A.; Harmanova, Z.; Harris, J.W.; Hartig, M.; Hasegan, D.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hayrapetyan, A.; Heckel, S.T.; Heide, M.; Helstrup, H.; Herghelegiu, A.; Herrera Corral, G.; Herrmann, N.; Hetland, K.F.; Hicks, B.; Hille, P.T.; Hippolyte, B.; Horaguchi, T.; Hori, Y.; Hristov, P.; Hrivnacova, I.; Huang, M.; Huber, S.; Humanic, T.J.; Hwang, D.S.; Ichou, R.; Ilkaev, R.; Ilkiv, I.; Inaba, M.; Incani, E.; Innocenti, P.G.; Innocenti, G.M.; Ippolitov, M.; Irfan, M.; Ivan, C.; Ivanov, M.; Ivanov, V.; Ivanov, A.; Ivanytskyi, O.; Jacholkowski, A.; Jacobs, P.M.; Jancurova, L.; Jang, H.J.; Jangal, S.; Janik, R.; Janik, M.A.; Jayarathna, P.H.S.Y.; Jena, S.; Jimenez Bustamante, R.T.; Jirden, L.; Jones, P.G.; Jung, W.; Jung, H.; Jusko, A.; Kaidalov, A.B.; Kakoyan, V.; Kalcher, S.; Kalinak, P.; Kalisky, M.; Kalliokoski, T.; Kalweit, A.; Kanaki, K.; Kang, J.H.; Kaplin, V.; Karasu Uysal, A.; Karavichev, O.; Karavicheva, T.; Karpechev, E.; Kazantsev, A.; Kebschull, U.; Keidel, R.; Khan, P.; Khan, M.M.; Khan, S.A.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kharlov, Y.; Kileng, B.; Kim, J.H.; Kim, D.J.; Kim, D.W.; Kim, J.S.; Kim, M.; Kim, S.H.; Kim, S.; Kim, B.; Kim, T.; Kirsch, S.; Kisel, I.; Kiselev, S.; Kisiel, A.; Klay, J.L.; Klein, J.; Klein-Bosing, C.; Kliemant, M.; Kluge, A.; Knichel, M.L.; Koch, K.; Kohler, M.K.; Kolojvari, A.; Kondratiev, V.; Kondratyeva, N.; Konevskikh, A.; Korneev, A.; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, C.; Kour, R.; Kowalski, M.; Kox, S.; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, G.; Kral, J.; Kralik, I.; Kramer, F.; Kraus, I.; Krawutschke, T.; Kretz, M.; Krivda, M.; Krizek, F.; Krus, M.; Kryshen, E.; Krzewicki, M.; Kucheriaev, Y.; Kuhn, C.; Kuijer, P.G.; Kurashvili, P.; Kurepin, A.B.; Kurepin, A.; Kuryakin, A.; Kushpil, S.; Kushpil, V.; Kvaerno, H.; Kweon, M.J.; Kwon, Y.; Ladron de Guevara, P.; Lakomov, I.; Langoy, R.; Lara, C.; Lardeux, A.; La Rocca, P.; Lazzeroni, C.; Lea, R.; Le Bornec, Y.; Lee, S.C.; Lee, K.S.; Lefevre, F.; Lehnert, J.; Leistam, L.; Lenhardt, M.; Lenti, V.; Leon, H.; Leon Monzon, I.; Leon Vargas, H.; Levai, P.; Li, X.; Lien, J.; Lietava, R.; Lindal, S.; Lindenstruth, V.; Lippmann, C.; Lisa, M.A.; Liu, L.; Loenne, P.I.; Loggins, V.R.; Loginov, V.; Lohn, S.; Lohner, D.; Loizides, C.; Loo, K.K.; Lopez, X.; Lopez Torres, E.; Lovhoiden, G.; Lu, X.G.; Luettig, P.; Lunardon, M.; Luo, J.; Luparello, G.; Luquin, L.; Luzzi, C.; Ma, R.; Ma, K.; Madagodahettige-Don, D.M.; Maevskaya, A.; Mager, M.; Mahapatra, D.P.; Maire, A.; Malaev, M.; Maldonado Cervantes, I.; Malinina, L.; Mal'Kevich, D.; Malzacher, P.; Mamonov, A.; Manceau, L.; Mangotra, L.; Manko, V.; Manso, F.; Manzari, V.; Mao, Y.; Marchisone, M.; Mares, J.; Margagliotti, G.V.; Margotti, A.; Marin, A.; Markert, C.; Martashvili, I.; Martinengo, P.; Martinez, M.I.; Martinez Davalos, A.; Martinez Garcia, G.; Martynov, Y.; Mas, A.; Masciocchi, S.; Masera, M.; Masoni, A.; Massacrier, L.; Mastromarco, M.; Mastroserio, A.; Matthews, Z.L.; Matyja, A.; Mayani, D.; Mayer, C.; Mazer, J.; Mazzoni, M.A.; Meddi, F.; Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Mercado Perez, J.; Meres, M.; Miake, Y.; Michalon, A.; Midori, J.; Milano, L.; Milosevic, J.; Mischke, A.; Mishra, A.N.; Miskowiec, D.; Mitu, C.; Mlynarz, J.; Mohanty, A.K.; Mohanty, B.; Molnar, L.; Montano Zetina, L.; Monteno, M.; Montes, E.; Moon, T.; Morando, M.; Moreira De Godoy, D.A.; Moretto, S.; Morsch, A.; Muccifora, V.; Mudnic, E.; Muhuri, S.; Muller, H.; Munhoz, M.G.; Musa, L.; Musso, A.; Nandi, B.K.; Nania, R.; Nappi, E.; Nattrass, C.; Naumov, N.P.; Navin, S.; Nayak, T.K.; Nazarenko, S.; Nazarov, G.; Nedosekin, A.; Nicassio, M.; Nielsen, B.S.; Niida, T.; Nikolaev, S.; Nikolic, V.; Nikulin, V.; Nikulin, S.; Nilsen, B.S.; Nilsson, M.S.; Noferini, F.; Nomokonov, P.; Nooren, G.; Novitzky, N.; Nyanin, A.; Nyatha, A.; Nygaard, C.; Nystrand, J.; Obayashi, H.; Ochirov, A.; Oeschler, H.; Oh, S.K.; Oh, S.; Oleniacz, J.; Oppedisano, C.; Ortiz Velasquez, A.; Ortona, G.; Oskarsson, A.; Ostrowski, P.; Otterlund, I.; Otwinowski, J.; Oyama, K.; Ozawa, K.; Pachmayer, Y.; Pachr, M.; Padilla, F.; Pagano, P.; Paic, G.; Painke, F.; Pajares, C.; Pal, S.; Pal, S.K.; Palaha, A.; Palmeri, A.; Papikyan, V.; Pappalardo, G.S.; Park, W.J.; Passfeld, A.; Pastircak, B.; Patalakha, D.I.; Paticchio, V.; Pavlinov, A.; Pawlak, T.; Peitzmann, T.; Perales, M.; Pereira De Oliveira Filho, E.; Peresunko, D.; Perez Lara, C.E.; Perez Lezama, E.; Perini, D.; Perrino, D.; Peryt, W.; Pesci, A.; Peskov, V.; Pestov, Y.; Petracek, V.; Petran, M.; Petris, M.; Petrov, P.; Petrovici, M.; Petta, C.; Piano, S.; Piccotti, A.; Pikna, M.; Pillot, P.; Pinazza, O.; Pinsky, L.; Pitz, N.; Piuz, F.; Piyarathna, D.B.; Ploskon, M.; Pluta, J.; Pocheptsov, T.; Pochybova, S.; Podesta-Lerma, P.L.M.; Poghosyan, M.G.; Polak, K.; Polichtchouk, B.; Pop, A.; Porteboeuf-Houssais, S.; Pospisil, V.; Potukuchi, B.; Prasad, S.K.; Preghenella, R.; Prino, F.; Pruneau, C.A.; Pshenichnov, I.; Puchagin, S.; Puddu, G.; Pulvirenti, A.; Punin, V.; Putis, M.; Putschke, J.; Quercigh, E.; Qvigstad, H.; Rachevski, A.; Rademakers, A.; Radomski, S.; Raiha, T.S.; Rak, J.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; Ramello, L.; Ramirez Reyes, A.; Raniwala, S.; Raniwala, R.; Rasanen, S.S.; Rascanu, B.T.; Rathee, D.; Read, K.F.; Real, J.S.; Redlich, K.; Reichelt, P.; Reicher, M.; Renfordt, R.; Reolon, A.R.; Reshetin, A.; Rettig, F.; Revol, J.P.; Reygers, K.; Riccati, L.; Ricci, R.A.; Richter, M.; Riedler, P.; Riegler, W.; Riggi, F.; Rodriguez Cahuantzi, M.; Rohr, D.; Rohrich, D.; Romita, R.; Ronchetti, F.; Rosnet, P.; Rossegger, S.; Rossi, A.; Roukoutakis, F.; Roy, P.; Roy, C.; Rubio Montero, A.J.; Rui, R.; Ryabinkin, E.; Rybicki, A.; Sadovsky, S.;