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Sample records for tetrazoles

  1. Microwave alkylation of lithium tetrazolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Danny; Knoll, Christian; Weinberger, Peter

    2017-01-01

    N1-substituted tetrazoles are interesting ligands in transition metal coordination chemistry, especially in the field of spin crossover. Their synthesis is performed in most cases according to the Franke-synthesis, using a primary amine as reagent introducing the substitution pattern. To enhance flexibility in means of substrate scope, we developed a new protocol based on alkylation of lithium tetrazolate with alkyl bromides. The N1-N2 isomerism of the tetrazole during the alkylation was successfully suppressed by use of highly pure lithium tetrazolate and 30 vol.% aqueous ethanol as solvent, leading to pure N1-substituted products. The feasibility of this reaction was demonstrated by a selection of different substrates.

  2. Easy Synthesis of Two Positional Isomeric Tetrazole Libraries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Yuanze; Patil, Pravin; Dömling, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    A fast and efficient synthesis of libraries of positional isomeric 1H-tetrazoles and 5H-tetrazoles, for the purpose of testing binding hypothesis of isomeric tetrazoles in fragment-based drug discovery, is described.

  3. Hydrazine in the Ugi Tetrazole Reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patil, Pravin; Zhang, Ji; Kurpiewska, Katarzyna; Kalinowska-Tłuścik, Justyna; Dömling, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    We describe the hitherto unknown use of N-Boc-protected hydrazine in the Ugi tetrazole reaction to access a library of highly substituted 5-(hydrazinomethyl)-1-methyl-1H-tetrazoles. The reaction is very versatile and good to high yielding. A one-pot, two-step procedure is given.

  4. The first organocopper tetrazole derivative: synthesis and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voitekhovich, Sergei V; Grigoriev, Yuri V; Lyakhov, Alexander S; Ivashkevich, Ludmila S; Ivashkevich, Oleg A

    2016-09-14

    1-(5-Amino-3-azapentyl)tetrazole dihydrochloride (HL·2HCl) was prepared by heterocyclization of diethylenetriamine with triethyl orthoformate and sodium azide followed by treatment with potassium carbonate and hydrochloric acid. The reaction of CuCl2, HL·2HCl and triethylamine (NEt3) in a molar ratio of 1 : 1 : 3 in water was found to generate a novel organometallic tetrazole derivative Cu2L2Cl2. This compound is present as a binuclear centrosymmetric molecular complex, in which C-deprotonated tetrazole L acts as a chelating ligand via the two amino N and tetrazole ring C coordination sites and the two copper atoms are linked together through two tetrazole ring N(4)-C(5) bridges. This complex is the first organocopper tetrazole derivative. When the molar ratio of the reagents in the abovementioned reaction was changed to 1 : 2 : 2, the complex Cu(HL)2Cl2 was formed along with Cu2L2Cl2. Pure Cu(HL)2Cl2 was isolated after reaction of the reagents in a molar ratio of 1 : 3 : 6. The complex Cu(HL)2Cl2 is present as a mononuclear molecular complex, with a chelating coordination mode of HL via the two amino N atoms only. Both complexes as well as HL·2HCl were characterized by single-crystal X-ray analysis.

  5. Tetrazole acetic acid: Tautomers, conformers, and isomerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo-Andrade, C. [Unidad Académica de Física de la Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas, Zacatecas (Mexico); Department of Chemistry, University of Coimbra, 3004-535 Coimbra (Portugal); Reva, I., E-mail: reva@qui.uc.pt; Fausto, R. [Department of Chemistry, University of Coimbra, 3004-535 Coimbra (Portugal)

    2014-02-14

    Monomers of (tetrazol-5-yl)-acetic acid (TAA) were obtained by sublimation of the crystalline compound and the resulting vapors were isolated in cryogenic nitrogen matrices at 13 K. The conformational and tautomeric composition of TAA in the matrix was characterized by infrared spectroscopy and vibrational calculations carried out at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level. TAA may adopt two tautomeric modifications, 1H- and 2H-, depending on the position of the annular hydrogen atom. Two-dimensional potential energy surfaces (PESs) of TAA were theoretically calculated at the MP2/6-311++G(d,p) level, for each tautomer. Four and six symmetry-unique minima were located on these PESs, for 1H- and 2H-TAA, respectively. The energetics of the detected minima was subsequently refined by calculations at the QCISD level. Two 1H- and three 2H-conformers fall within the 0–8 kJ mol{sup −1} energy range and should be appreciably populated at the sublimation temperature (∼330 K). Observation of only one conformer for each tautomer (1ccc and 2pcc) is explained in terms of calculated barriers to conformational rearrangements. All conformers with the cis O=COH moiety are separated by low barriers (less than 10 kJ mol{sup −1}) and collapse to the most stable 1ccc (1H-) and 2pcc (2H-) forms during deposition of the matrix. On the trans O=COH surfaces, the relative energies are very high (between 12 and 27 kJ mol{sup −1}). The trans forms are not thermally populated at the sublimation conditions and were not detected in matrices. One high-energy form in each tautomer, 1cct (1H-) and 2pct (2H-), was found to differ from the most stable form only by rotation of the OH group and separated from other forms by high barriers. This opened a perspective for their stabilization in a matrix. 1cct and 2pct were generated in the matrices selectively by means of narrow-band near-infrared (NIR) irradiations of the samples at 6920 and 6937 cm{sup −1}, where the first OH stretching overtone

  6. 3-(1H-Tetrazol-5-ylbenzoic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Cheng

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C8H6N4O2, is a difunctional compound with a carboxylate and a tetrazole residue. In the crystal structure, molecules are linked into two-dimensional sheets by intermolecular N—H...O and O—H...N hydrogen bonds.

  7. Synthesis, characterization and study of antibacterial activity of some novel tetrazole derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramaniyan Arulmurugan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This work aims at synthesizing novel tetrazole derivatives from phenothiazine. Phenothiazine is first converted into corresponding nitrile by reacting it with aldehyde, sodium metabisulphite and sodium cyanide. The nitrile on treatment with NaN3/DMF yielded the tetrazole derivative. In this work two tetrazole derivatives, viz., Dimethyl-{4-[phenothiazin-10-yl-(1H-tetrazol-5-ylmethyl]-phenyl}-amine and 10-[(4-Methoxy-phenyl-(1H-tetrazole-5-yl-methyl-10H-phenothiazine were prepared. The compounds were synthesized in good yields and their structures were confirmed by IR, 1H-NMR, mass and elemental analysis. The tetrazole compounds were screened for antimicrobial activity against bacteria and fungi. The results of the study show that the compounds present good antimicrobial activity.

  8. 3-(2H-Tetrazol-5-ylpyridinium trifluoroacetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhang

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In the cation of the title compound, C6H6N5+·CF3COO−, the pyridine and tetrazole rings are nearly coplanar, making a dihedral angle of 2.49 (19°. In the crystal, the cations and anions are connected by intermolecular N—H...O and N—H...(F,O hydrogen bonds, forming centrosymmetric [2 + 2] aggregates, which stack along the a axis.

  9. Synthesis of 4-[10H-Phenothiazin-10-yl(1H-tetrazol-5-yl-methyl]phenol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bathey R. Venkatraman

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This present work aims at synthesizing a novel tetrazole from phenothiazine. Phenothiazine is converted into a nitrile by reacting it with 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, sodium metabisulphite and sodium cyanide. The nitrile on treatment with NaN3/DMF yielded the corresponding tetrazole. The tetrazole obtained was characterized by IR, 1H NMR, EI-MS and elemental analysis.

  10. A versatile and an efficient synthesis of 5-substituted-1H-tetrazoles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tetrazole-based compounds have also shown good coordination properties and are able to form stable complexes with several metal ions.7 Furthermore, the tetrazole ring has strong electronwithdrawing property and tetrazolyl halides have been successfully used in organic synthesis as derivatising agents for the chem-.

  11. Diastereoselective one pot five-component reaction toward 4-(tetrazole)-1,3-oxazinanes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chandgude, Ajay L.; Narducci, Daniele; Kurpiewska, Katarzyna; Kalinowska-Tluscik, Justyna; Domling, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    A diastereoselective one pot five-component reaction toward the synthesis of 4-(tetrazole)-1,3-oxazinanes has been reported. The sonication-accelerated, catalyst-free, simple, general and highly time efficient, Asinger-Ugi-tetrazole reaction was used for the synthesis of diverse

  12. Exothermic or Endothermic Decomposition of Disubstituted Tetrazoles Tuned by Substitution Fashion and Substituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yu-Hui; Yang, Kai-Xiang; Chen, Shi-Lu; Huang, Mu-Hua

    2018-01-11

    Nitrogen-rich compounds such as tetrazoles are widely used as candidates in gas-generating agents. However, the details of the differentiation of the two isomers of disubstituted tetrazoles are rarely studied, which is very important information for designing advanced materials based on tetrazoles. In this article, pairs of 2,5- and 1,5-disubstituted tetrazoles were carefully designed and prepared for study on their thermal decomposition behavior. Also, the substitution fashion of 2,5- and 1,5- and the substituents at C-5 position were found to affect the endothermic or exothermic properties. This is for the first time to the best of our knowledge that the thermal decomposition properties of different tetrazoles could be tuned by substitution ways and substitute groups, which could be used as a useful platform to design advanced materials for temperature-dependent rockets. The aza-Claisen rearrangement was proposed to understand the endothermic decomposition behavior.

  13. A novel approach for the synthesis of 5-substituted-1H-tetrazoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhlaghinia, Batool; Rezazadeh, Soodabeh, E-mail: akhlaghinia@um.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    A series of 5-substituted-1H-tetrazoles (RCN{sub 4}H) have been synthesized by cycloaddition reaction of different aryl and alkyl nitriles with sodium azide in DMSO using CuSO{sub 4}{center_dot}5H{sub 2}O as catalyst. A wide variety of aryl nitriles underwent [3+2] cycloaddition to afford tetrazoles under mild reaction conditions in good to excellent yields. The catalyst used is readily available and environmentally friendly. Short reaction times, good to excellent yields, safe process and simple workup make this method an attractive and useful contribution to present organic synthesis of 5-substituted-1H-tetrazoles. (author)

  14. Tridentate benzimidazole-pyridine-tetrazolates as sensitizers of europium luminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavaleev, Nail M; Eliseeva, Svetlana V; Scopelliti, Rosario; Bünzli, Jean-Claude G

    2014-05-19

    We report on new anionic tridentate benzimidazole-pyridine-tetrazolate ligands that form neutral 3:1 complexes with trivalent lanthanides. The ligands are UV-absorbing chromophores that sensitize the red luminescence of europium with energy-transfer efficiency of 74-100%. The lifetime and quantum yield of the sensitized europium luminescence increase from 0.5 ms and 12-13% for the as-prepared solids to 2.8 ms and 41% for dichloromethane solution. From analysis of the data, the as-prepared solids can be described as aqua-complexes [Ln(κ(3)-ligand)2(κ(1)-ligand)(H2O)x] where the coordinated water molecules are responsible for the strong quenching of the europium luminescence. In solution, the coordinated water molecules are replaced by the nitrogen atoms of the κ(1)-ligand to give anhydrous complexes [Ln(κ(3)-ligand)3] that exhibit efficient europium luminescence. X-ray structures of the anhydrous complexes confirm that the lanthanide ion (La(III), Eu(III)) is nine-coordinate in a distorted tricapped trigonal prismatic environment and that coordination of the lanthanide ion by tetrazolate is weaker than by carboxylate.

  15. Tautomer selective photochemistry in 1-(tetrazol-5-yl)ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismael, A; Cristiano, M L S; Fausto, R; Gómez-Zavaglia, A

    2010-12-23

    A combined matrix isolation FTIR and theoretical DFT/B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) study of the molecular structure and photochemistry of 1-(tetrazol-5-yl)ethanol [1-TE] was performed. The potential energy surface landscapes of the 1H and 2H tautomers of the compound were investigated and the theoretical results were used to help characterize the conformational mixture existing in equilibrium in the gas phase prior to deposition of the matrices, as well as the conformers trapped in the latter. In the gas phase, at room temperature, the compound exists as a mixture of 12 conformers (five of the 1H tautomer and seven of the 2H tautomer). Upon deposition of the compound in an argon matrix at 10 K, only three main forms survive, because the low barriers for conformational isomerization allow extensive conformational cooling during deposition. Deposition of the matrix at 30 K led to further simplification of the conformational mixture with only one conformer of each tautomer of 1-TE surviving. These conformers correspond to the most stable forms of each tautomer, which bear different types of intramolecular H-bonds: 1H-I has an NH···O hydrogen bond, whereas 2H-I has an OH···N hydrogen bond. Upon irradiating with UV light (λ > 200 nm), a matrix containing both 1H-I and 2H-I forms, an unprecedented tautomer selective photochemistry was observed, with the 2H tautomeric form undergoing unimolecular decomposition to azide + hydroxypropanenitrile and the 1H-tautomer being photostable.

  16. Tetrahedral tetrazolate frameworks for high CO2 and H2 uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Hou, Duan-Chuan; Yang, Hui; Kang, Yao; Zhang, Jian

    2014-02-28

    Three tetrahedral tetrazolate frameworks with two different 4-connected topologies including lonsdaleite (lon, for 1) and diamond (dia, for 2 and 3) have been synthesized, and the lon-type framework with high CO2 and H2 uptake capacity can irreversibly transform to the dia-type framework via solvent-exchange.

  17. Synthesis and Characterization of 5-Substituted 1H-Tetrazoles in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICOLAAS

    the addition of azide ions to organic nitriles or cyanamides.11. Later Sharpless and co-workers reported an ... sized tetrazoles by the addition of TMSN3 to organic nitriles using 10 mol% TBAF as catalyst.13 Several .... mine the minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) and mini- mum bactericidal concentration (MBC).

  18. Coordination studies of copper(II), cobalt(II) and iron(II) with isomeric pyridyl-tetrazole ligands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bond, A. D.; Fleming, A.; Gaire, J.

    2012-01-01

    The reaction of 2-(2H-tetrazol-5-yl)pyridine (L1) with 1,6-dibromohexane results in formation of the isomers 2-(6 ''-bromohexyl)-(1-tetrazol-5-yl)pyridine (12) and 2-(6 ''-bromohexyl)-(2-tetrazol-5-yl)pyridine (L3). Coordination reactions of 12 and 13 with CuCl2 center dot 2H(2)O, Co(SCN)(2) and Fe......(II) compounds. X-ray crystal structures were obtained for complexes 1-5. In each complex, ligands L2 and L3 coordinate to the metal centre through the pyridyl N atom and the 1-N site of the tetrazole ring, and the pyridyl-tetrazole ligand remains planar in all cases except 3. Complexes 1 and 2 comprise...... a central Cu2Cl2 dimeric core with Cu(II) in an essentially square-pyramidal coordination environment. Complexes 3 and 4 contain co(II) in a distorted octahedral coordination environment. In 3, the pyridyl and tetrazole rings of L2 are twisted with respect to each other and the complex adopts a puckered...

  19. Consecutive hydrazino-Ugi-azide reactions: synthesis of acylhydrazines bearing 1,5-disubstituted tetrazoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica de Fátima S. Barreto

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Isocyanide-based multicomponent reactions (IMCRs allow the construction of relatively complex molecules through a one-pot synthesis. The combination of IMCRs in a consecutive or sequential fashion further extends the complexity of the molecules obtained. Herein, we report the efficient application of this approach to the synthesis of acylhydrazines bearing 1,5-disubstituted tetrazoles. Our strategy was accomplished in only three steps: first, a one-pot hydrazino-Ugi-azide four-component reaction; second a hydrazinolysis and finally an additional hydrazino-Ugi-azide reaction. This sequence provides the title compounds in moderate to excellent yields. The products synthesized herein contain functional groups within their structures that can be easily modified to obtain new acylhydrazino 1,5-disubstituted tetrazoles.

  20. Tetrazoles in the Presence of Nano-TiCl 4 .SiO 2

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nano-TiCl4.SiO2 was found to be an extremely efficient catalyst for the preparation of 5-substituted 1H-tetrazole derivatives. Nano-TiCl4.SiO2 is a solid Lewis-acid was synthesized by the reaction of nano-SiO2 and TiCl4. The structure characterization of this acid was achieved with X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric ...

  1. Unusual behavior in the reactivity of 5-substituted-1H-tetrazoles in a resistively heated microreactor

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    Dominique M. Roberge

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The decomposition of 5-benzhydryl-1H-tetrazole in an N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone/acetic acid/water mixture was investigated under a variety of high-temperature reaction conditions. Employing a sealed Pyrex glass vial and batch microwave conditions at 240 °C, the tetrazole is comparatively stable and complete decomposition to diphenylmethane requires more than 8 h. Similar kinetic data were obtained in conductively heated flow devices with either stainless steel or Hastelloy coils in the same temperature region. In contrast, in a flow instrument that utilizes direct electric resistance heating of the reactor coil, tetrazole decomposition was dramatically accelerated with rate constants increased by two orders of magnitude. When 5-benzhydryl-1H-tetrazole was exposed to 220 °C in this type of flow reactor, decomposition to diphenylmethane was complete within 10 min. The mechanism and kinetic parameters of tetrazole decomposition under a variety of reaction conditions were investigated. A number of possible explanations for these highly unusual rate accelerations are presented. In addition, general aspects of reactor degradation, corrosion and contamination effects of importance to continuous flow chemistry are discussed.

  2. Metal-organic coordination architectures of tetrazole heterocycle ligands bearing acetate groups: Synthesis, characterization and magnetic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bo-Wen; Zheng, Xiang-Yu; Ding, Cheng

    2015-12-01

    Two new coordination complexes with tetrazole heterocycle ligands bearing acetate groups, [Co(L)2]n (1) and [Co3(L)4(N3)2·2MeOH]n (2) (L=tetrazole-1-acetate) have been synthesized and structurally characterized. Single crystal structure analysis shows that the cobalt-complex 1 has the 3D 3,6-connected (42.6)2(44.62.88.10)-ant topology. By introducing azide in this system, complex 2 forms the 2D network containing the [Co3] units. And the magnetic properties of 1 and 2 have been studied.

  3. Targeted water soluble copper-tetrazolate complexes: interactions with biomolecules and catecholase like activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Manideepa; Das, Mriganka; Nasani, Rajendar; Choudhuri, Indrani; Yousufuddin, Muhammed; Nayek, Hari Pada; Shaikh, Mobin M; Pathak, Biswarup; Mukhopadhyay, Suman

    2015-12-14

    Two new mononuclear water soluble copper(II) complexes, [Cu{(5-pyrazinyl)tetrazolate}2(1,10-phenanthroline)] 1 and [Cu{(5-pyrazinyl)tetrazolate}(1,10-phenanthroline)2](NO3)0.5(N3)0.5 2, have been synthesized using the metal mediated [2 + 3] cycloaddition reaction between copper bound azide and pyrazinecarbonitrile. The interactions of these copper tetrazolate complexes 1 and 2 with biomolecules like DNA and bovine serum albumin (BSA) are studied and the catecholase like catalytic activity of compound 2 is also explored. Structural determination reveals that both compounds 1 and 2 are octahedral in nature. Screening tests were conducted to quantify the binding ability of complexes (1 and 2) towards DNA and it was revealed that complex 2 has a stronger affinity to bind to CT-DNA. DFT studies indicated that a lower HOMO-LUMO energy gap between the DNA fragment and metal complexes might be the reason for this type of stronger interaction. DNA cleavage activity was explored by gel-electrophoresis and moderate to strong DNA cleavage properties were observed in the presence and absence of co-reagents. Inhibition of cleavage in the presence of sodium azide indicates the propagation of the activity through the production of singlet molecular oxygen. Furthermore enzyme kinetic studies reflect that complex 2 is also effective in mimicking catecholase like activities. An ESI-MS spectral study indicates the probable involvement of dimeric species [(phen)2Cu-(OH)2-Cu(phen)2](2+) in the catalytic cycle.

  4. Electrical polymerization of a tetrazole polymer-modified electrode and its catalytic reaction toward dopamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Mu-Tao; Whang, Thou-Jen

    2017-02-01

    A conducting polymer-modified electrode was proposed in this article, which was fabricated by electropolymerization of 5-amino-1H-tetrazole (ATet) on a glassy carbon electrode. Electrochemical studies such as differential pulse voltammetry and chronoamperometry were performed for the evaluation of the rate constant of the catalytic reaction, the diffusion coefficient of the analyte dopamine, and the linear dynamic range of the analyte determination. The film modified electrode has superior resolving power in quantitative determination from the mixture of analytes and it was found to be an efficient functionalized electrode for its sensitivity and selectivity toward the analyte of interest.

  5. Smart tetrazole-based antibacterial nanoparticles as multifunctional drug carriers for cancer combination therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakerzadeh, Elham; Salehi, Roya; Mahkam, Mehrdad

    2017-12-01

    Due to multidrug resistance of cancer tissues and immune-suppression of cancerous patients during chemotherapy in one hand and the use of tetrazole derivatives in medicine because of its anticancer, antifungal, and antiviral properties, on the other, we were encouraged to design novel smart antibacterial nanocomposites-based polymer of tetrazole as dual anticancer drug delivery systems. The structures of nanocomposites characterized by FTIR, 1 H NMR, FESEM-EDX, and TGA analyzes and antibacterial activity of smart carriers were evaluated by determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values against some bacteria and fungi. Then, the pH-responsive manner of both nanocomposites was proved by checking their release profiles at pH of the physiological environment (pH 7.4) and pH of tumor tissues (mildly acidic). Finally, the potential antitumoral activity of these nanocomposite systems against MCF7 cell lines was evaluated by MTT assay and cell cycle studies. The results demonstrated that the novel developed nanocomposites not only meet our expectations about simultaneous release of two anticancer drugs according to the predicted profile but also showed antibacterial and anticancer properties in vitro experimental. Moreover, it was proved that these carriers have tremendous potential in multifunctional drug delivery in cancer therapy.

  6. Regioselective synthesis and preliminary cytotoxic activity properties of tetrazole appendage N-substituted piperazine derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kommula Dileep

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A series of 1-(4-substituted-4-(3-((1-(substituted-1H-tetrazol-5-ylthiopropylpiperazine derivatives were ( 6a-t synthesized by KF-Al2O3 mediated S-alkylation of 5-thio-substituted tetrazole with 1-(3-chloropropyl-4-(4-substitutedpiperazine. The structures of the newly synthesized compounds were characterized by NMR and MS spectral data. Further, the regioselective formation of C-S bond was unambiguously confirmed by single crystal X- ray diffraction. All the synthesized compounds were screened for their in vitro cytotoxic activities against two cancer cell lines: DU-145 (prostate cancer and HeLa (cervical cancer. These cell lines were utilized in MTT assays and the obtained results were compared to doxorubicin, and their IC 50 values were determined. Among the compounds tested, 6f, 6j, 6m, 6n, 6o, 6q, 6r and 6t showed considerable potent activity, while the compound 6p exhibited significant potent activity against DU-145 and HeLa cancer cell lines compare to standard Doxorubicin.

  7. New metal-organic complexes based on bis(tetrazole) ligands: Synthesis, structures and properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Ceng-Ceng; Fan, Jian-Zhong; Wang, Xin-Fang; Zhou, Sheng-Bin; Wang, Duo-Zhi

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, a series of new complexes, [Zn2(HL1)2(H2O)4]·H2O (1), [Co2(HL1)2]·TEA (2), [Co3(HL1)2(H2L1)2(H2O)4]n (3), [Cu(HL1)(H2O)2]n (4), {[Cu5(HL2)2(OH)4(ClO4)2]·4H2O}n (5) and [Cu2(L3)]n (6) were successfully prepared by utilizing three bis(tetrazole) ligands [bis-(1H-tetrazol-5-ylmethyl)-amine (H3L1), bis-(1H-tetrazol-5-ylethyl)-amine (H3L2) and 1,5-bis(5-tetrazolo)-3-thiapentane (H2L3)], all of which have been characterized by elemental analyses, FT-IR spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), thermogravimetric analyses as well as single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses showing different dimensionalities (0D, 1D and 3D). Complexes 1 and 2 are 0D structures, 1 shows a dinuclear structure, 2 displays two crystallographically different mononuclear structures, 1 and 2 are further assembled to form 3D supramolecular framework and 2D supramolecular network by hydrogen-bonding interactions, respectively. Complexes 3, 4 and 5 are 1D structures, 3 features a mononuclear unit and a 1D chain, which are arranged into 3D supramolecular architecture by hydrogen-bonding interactions, 4 presents a zigzag chain, 5 shows an infinite chain structure constructed from pentanuclear Cu(II) subunits and ClO4- anions. Complex 6 exhibits a 3D coordination framework based on cyclic [Cu4(L3)2] dimmer subunits as nodes possessing an 8-connected network topology with the point symbol {424·64}. Further, semiconductor behaviors, the solid-state luminescent properties of the complexes 1-3 and 6 were measured and studied seriously at room temperature.

  8. Energetic salts based on furazan-functionalized tetrazoles: routes to boost energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hao; Zhang, Jiaheng; He, Chunlin; Shreeve, Jean'ne M

    2015-06-01

    Based on the backbone of the furazan-tetrazole structure, routes were developed to improve the properties of energetic materials. Two types of high-density energetic salts were designed, prepared, and fully characterized. Single-crystal X-ray analyses support the structural characteristics for two amino salts. A majority of the salts exhibited good detonation properties, high thermal stabilities, and relatively low impact and friction sensitivities. Hydroxylammonium and hydrazinium salts, 1-3 and 1-4, which have relatively high densities (1.84 and 1.74 g cm(-3,) , respectively), acceptable impact and friction sensitivities (14 J, 160 N and 28 J, 360 N), and good detonation pressures (38.3 and 32.2 GPa) and velocities (9323 and 9094 m s(-1) ), have performance properties superior to 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazinane (RDX) and triaminotrinitrobenzene (TATB). © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Two new inorganic anions directed Zn(II)-tetrazole frameworks: Syntheses, structures and photoluminescent properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Ji, Xiao-Hui; Li, Jiang-Tao

    2017-11-01

    Two new coordination polymers directed by different inorganic anions, namely [Zn2(mtz)(SO4)(OH)(H2O)]n (1) and [Zn6(mtz)9(NO3)2]n (2) (Hmtz = 5-methyl-1H-tetrazole) were synthesized under solvothermal conditions and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. Compound 1 features a three-dimensional (3D) framework based on one dimensional [Zn(OH)(mtz)]n chains, whereas compound 2 features a 3D (3, 4)-connected tpd topological framework based on one-dimensional 1D [Zn(mtz)]n nano-tubes. The different coordination modes of mtz- ligand may be induced by different inorganic anions. Moreover, the thermal stabilities and luminescent properties of compounds 1 and 2 were also investigated in detail.

  10. 1-Phenyl-5-{[2-(trimethylsilylethyl]sulfonyl}-1H-tetrazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Tymann

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C12H18N4O2SSi, was synthesized to be employed in a Julia–Kocieński olefination. In the molecule, the dihedral angle between the phenyl ring and the tetrazole ring is 41.50 (5°. The significantly longer Si—C(methylene bond [1.8786 (13 Å] and the shortened adjacent C—C bond [1.5172 (18 Å], as well as the significant deviation of the corresponding Si—C—C angle [114.16 (9°] from the ideal tetrahedral angle, can be attributed to the β-effect of silicon. In the crystal, molecules are held together by van der Waals interactions.

  11. Crystal structure of 4-methylsulfanyl-2-(2H-tetrazol-2-ylpyrimidine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Thomann

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C6H6N6S, crystallized with two independent molecules (A and B in the asymmetric unit. The conformation of the two molecules differs slightly. While the tetrazole ring is inclined to the pyrimidene ring by 5.48 (7 and 4.24 (7° in molecules A and B, respectively, the N—C—S—C torsion angles of the thiomethyl groups differ by ca 180°. In the crystal, the A and B molecules are linked via a C—H...N hydrogen bond. They stack along the b-axis direction forming columns within which there are weak π–π interactions present [shortest inter-centroid distance = 3.6933 (13 Å].

  12. N-[3-Methyl-1-phenyl-1-(1H-tetrazol-1-ylbutan-2-yl]acetamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvaraj Geetha

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In the molecule of the title compound, C14H19N5O, the dihedral angle formed between the tetrazole and phenyl rings is 68.39 (4°. In the crystal, molecules are linked by N—H...N, C—H...N and C—H...O hydrogen bonds to form two-dimensional networks extending parallel to the bc plane.

  13. Synthesis, characterization and DNA cleavage studies of isomeric pyridyl-tetrazole ligands and their Ni(II and Zn(II complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Surendra Babu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A new series of Ni(II and Zn(II complexes were synthesized from bidentate isomeric pyridyl tetrazole ligands such as 2-(1-vinyl-1H-tetrazol-5-ylpyridine (L1, N,N-dimethyl-3-(5-(pyridin-2-yl-1H-tetrazol-1-ylpropan-1-amine(L2, 2-(2-vinyl-2H-tetrazol-5-ylpyridine(L3, N,N-dimethyl-3-(5-(pyridin-2-yl-2H-tetrazol-2-ylpropan-1-amine (L4. All the complexes were characterized by the elemental analysis, molar conductance, FTIR, UV–vis and magnetic studies. The conductance and spectroscopic data suggested that, the ligands act as monobasic bidentate ligands and form octahedral complexes with general formula [M(L1−42Cl2], (M = Ni(II and Zn(II. In addition metal complexes displayed good antioxidant and moderate nematicidal activities. The cytotoxicity of ligands and their metal complexes have been evaluated by MTT assay. The DNA cleavage activity of the metal complexes was performed using agarose gel electrophoresis in the presence and absence of oxidant H2O2. All metal complexes showed significant nuclease activity in the presence of H2O2.

  14. A periodic density functional theory investigation of tetrazole derivatives adsorbed on anatase TiO2 surface applied in dye-sensitized solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, Marzieh; Beni, Ali Reza Salimi; Hosseinzadeh, Behzad

    2017-10-01

    In the current investigation, four different additives namely 2H-tetrazole (2HTz), 2H-tetrazole-5-amine (5ATz), 2H-tetrazole-5-thiol (5TTz) and 4-tert-butylpyridine (TBP) are utilized to examine the interaction of these additives with anatase TiO2 (101), (100) and (001) surfaces under vacuum condition. In addition, analyses of adsorption mode and electronic structure using a periodic density functional theory method is performed to find the interaction of acetonitrile solvent. The obtained results revealed that these four additives are adsorbed into the sorbent surface as the following order of (100) dye-sensitized solar cells. Besides, the obtained results demonstrated that although addition of the acetonitrile solvent leads to a reduction in adsorption energy, it improves the shift trend of Fermi energy except for 2HTz and 5TTz-TiO2 (001) systems.

  15. Synthesis, characterization, crystal structure, in-vitro anti-inflammatory and molecular docking studies of 5-mercapto-1-substituted tetrazole incorporated quinoline derivative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sureshkumar, K.; Maheshwaran, V.; Dharma Rao, T.; Themmila, Khamrang; Ponnuswamy, M. N.; Kadhirvel, Saraboji; Dhandayutham, Saravanan

    2017-10-01

    A novel 5-mercapto-1-substituted tetrazole incorporated quinoline analog was synthesized. The compound 2-Cyclopropyl-4-(4-fluorophenyl)-3-{1-[2-(4-methoxybenzyloxy)ethyl]1H-tetrazol-5-ylsulfanylmethyl}quinoline was characterized by IR, Mass, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopic techniques. Molecular structure was confirmed by using single crystal X-ray diffraction technique. Thermal behavior was studied by using TGA and DSC techniques. Further, in vitro anti-inflammatory and in silico docking analysis has been carried out to study the activity of the compound.

  16. Effect of magnesium sulfate on hyperthermia and pentylen-tetrazol-induced seizure in developing rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadimkhani, Maryam; Saboory, Ehsan; Roshan-Milani, Shiva; Mohammdi, Sedra; Rasmi, Yousef

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Febrile seizures (FS) are the most common type of convulsive events among children. Its prevalence has been estimated to be 2-5% in children between 3 months and 5 years old. Also, blood and CSF magnesium levels have been demonstrated to be reduced in children with FS. This study investigates the effect of MgSo4 pretreatment on the behaviors caused by hyperthermia (HT) and effect of these two on pentylen-tetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizure later in life. Materials and Methods: Thirty two Wistar rats were assigned to 2 groups: saline-hyperthermia-pentylentetrazol (SHP) and magnesium-hyperthermia-pentylentetrazol (MHP). In both groups, HT was induced at the age of 18-19 days old. Before the HT, MHP group received MgSo4 and SHP group received normal saline intraperitoneally (IP). Behaviors of the rats were recorded during the HT. Then, in half of each group (n=8) at the age of 25-26 days old and in other half at the age of 78-79 days, seizure was induced by PTZ. Results: The HT successfully caused convulsive behaviors in the rats and pretreatment with MgSo4 before HT attenuated HT-induced convulsive behaviors. PTZ-induced seizures a week later was more severe than those of 2 months later. Conclusion: It can be concluded that pretreatment with MgSO4 inhibits HT-induced seizure and, in a long run, this intervention reduced PTZ-induced seizure later in life. PMID:27482341

  17. 2,4,6-tris[bis(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)amino]-1,3,5-triazine as a nitrogen-rich ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MUDDAMARRI HANUMANTHA RAO

    2 (Scheme 1).14,15 The crude product 2 was obtained as a precipitate, which was isolated by filtration. The compound 2 was characterized using FTIR and NMR spectral data. In the FTIR spectrum, the stretching vibration of dicyanamide ion disappeared, and new peaks related to tetrazole was observed at 795, 1081, 1460, ...

  18. Isomeric luminescent Zn(II) coordination polymers based on pyridinecarboxylate and 5-methyl-1H-tetrazole ligands

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Zhe; Gao, Jing; Zhu, Ling

    2013-12-01

    Two new metal-organic frameworks, namely [Zn(nic)(mtz)]n (1) and [Zn(isonic)(mtz)]n (2) (Hnic = nicotinic acid, Hisonic = isonicotinic acid, Hmtz = 5-methyl-1H-tetrazole), have been obtained through the solvothermal reactions of Zn(NO3)2, Htmz and Hnic or Hisonic. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that compound 1 features a 2D layered structure with sql topology, which is further extended into a 3D supramolecular framework via weak CH…π interactions, and compound 2 is 2-fold interpenetrated 3D framework with dia topology. Luminescent investigation shows that both of them emit blue luminescence at room temperature.

  19. Ultrasound-promoted one-pot three component synthesis of tetrazoles catalyzed by zinc sulfide nanoparticles as a recyclable heterogeneous catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeimi, Hossein; Kiani, Fatemeh

    2015-11-01

    Ultrasound irradiation was applied for the appropriate and rapid synthesis of 1-substituted tetrazoles through cyclization reaction of various primary amines, sodium azide and triethyl orthoformate. This reaction was effectively catalyzed by ZnS nanoparticles as an efficient, recoverable and reusable catalyst. Compared with conventional methods, this method has the considerable advantages such as shorter reaction times, easier work-up, purer products with high yields and mild conditions. The ZnS nanoparticles catalyst is an excellent instance to replace Brønsted acids for the preparation of 1-substituted tetrazole derivatives in very short reaction times with excellent yields. The catalyst can be recovered and reused several times without significant loss of its catalytic activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. ZnS nanoparticles as an efficient and reusable heterogeneous catalyst for synthesis of 1-substituted-1 H-tetrazoles under solvent-free conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeimi, Hossein; Kiani, Fatemeh; Moradian, Mohsen

    2014-09-01

    An efficient and green protocol for the synthesis of 1-substituted-1 H-tetrazoles through cyclization reaction of various primary amines, sodium azide, and triethyl orthoformate was described. In this method, a series of tetrazole derivatives was synthesized by using ZnS nanoparticles as an effective, recoverable, and reusable catalyst under solvent-free conditions. This strategy is a magnificent improvement for the synthesis of these heterocycles due to the non-acidic, clean, and solvent-free conditions via a solid recyclable catalyst. The catalyst was separated by simple filtration and reused seven times without significant loss of activity. The ZnS nanoparticles with high surface area and fine monodisperse particles were prepared using the simple microwave-assisted method without using any surfactant. The ZnS nanoparticle catalyst is a good candidate to replace brønsted acids and metal salts or other catalyst for the preparation of 1-substituted-1 H-tetrazoles in high yields and has potential values for industrial applications.

  1. Application of tetrazole-functionalized thioethers with different spacer lengths in the self-assembly of polyoxometalate-based hybrid compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiuli; Hu, Hailiang; Tian, Aixiang; Lin, Hongyan; Li, Jin

    2010-11-15

    Three metal-organic networks based on Keggin-type polyoxometalates (POMs) have been hydrothermally synthesized by tuning the spacer lengths of bis(tetrazole)-functionalized thioether ligands and structurally characterized: [Cu(4)(bmtm)(4)][SiW(12)O(40)]·2H(2)O (1), [Cu(4)(bmte)(3.5)][SiW(12)O(40)] (2), and [Cu(4)(bmtp)(4)][SiW(12)O(40)] (3) [bmtm = 1,1'-bis(1-methyl-5-mercapto-1,2,3,4-tetrazole)methane, bmte = 1,2-bis(1-methyl-5-mercapto-1,2,3,4-tetrazole)ethane, and bmtp = 1,5-bis(1-methyl-5-mercapto-1,2,3,4-tetrazole)pentane]. The spacer lengths and sulfhydryl of bis(tetrazole)-functionalized thioether ligands play important roles in the final framework formation, as shown by X-ray diffraction analysis. In compound 1, with the connection of a N,S bridge of bmtm, two kinds of binuclear Cu(I) units are formed and linked to construct a one-dimensional (1D) chain. The [SiW(12)O(40)](4-) (SiW(12)) cluster provides four terminal O atoms linking four binuclear units to generate a two-dimensional layer with (8(3))(2)(8(5)·10) topology. In compound 2, centrosymmetric octameric moieties composed of two equivalent tetrameric Cu(I) units are bridged by bmte ligands to form a 1D chain. The SiW(12) clusters show an unusual (2,8)-connected mode to connect with the 1D chain and construct a four-connected three-dimensional (3D) network with 5(3)·6(2)·7 topology. Compound 3 exhibits a rare 3D host framework with a type of large cavity and two types of small windows. The SiW(12) clusters as templates are strongly cemented into the large cavities and completely encircled by small windows. Furthermore, the compound 2 bulk-modified carbon-paste electrode (2-CPE) displays good electrocatalytic activity toward the reduction of nitrite.

  2. Synthesis and physical-chemical properties of 6-(5-(1Н-tetrazole-1-ylmethyl-4-R-1,2,4-triazole-3-ylthiopyridin-3-amines and 6-((5-(1Н-tetrazole-1-ylmethil-4-R-1,2,4-triazole-3-ylthiopyridin-3-yl-(alk,ar,heterylmethanimines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. S. Hulina

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade the number of publications, that contain different aspects of chemistry and use of triazoles and tetrazoles have been doubled and continues to grow. Puplications of recent years show that heterocycles with 1,2,3,4-teterazoles and 1,2,4-triazoles are biologically active compounds with a broad spectrum of action. This fact indicates the interest to these compounds as potential objects of modern pharmaceutical market, namely to those compounds which contain both heterocycles. Purpose – synthesis and establishment of physical-chemical properties of 6-(5-(1Н-tetrazole-1-ylmethyl-4-R-1,2,4-triazole-3-ylthiopyridin-3-amines and 6-((5-(1Н-tetrazole-1-ylmethil-4-R-1,2,4-triazole-3-ylthiopyridin-3-yl-(alk,ar,heterylmethanimines. Materials and methods. The melting point has been determined by capillary method. The elemental composition of compounds has been set with the help of elemental analyzer Elementar Vario L cube (CHNS. 1H NMR spectra of obtained compounds has been set with the help of Varian Mercury VX-200, solvent – DMSO-d6, internal standart – Tetramethylsilane. Chromatography-mass spectrometry studies have been conducted on gas-liquid chromatograph Agilent 1260 Infinity HPLC equipped with a mass spectrometer Agilent 6120. 5-(1H-Tetrazole-1-ylmethyl-4-R-1,2,4-triazole-3-thioles were used as starting materials for 6-(5-(1Н-tetrazole-1-ylmethyl-4-R-1,2,4-triazole-3-ylthiopyridin-3-amines. Synthesis of the compounds was carried out in a medium of propyl alcohol in the presence of 5-amino-2-chloropyridine. 6-((5-(1Н-tetrazole-1-ylmethil-4-R-1,2,4-triazole-3-ylthiopyridin-3-yl-(alk,ar,heterylmethanimines were obtained reacting 6-(5-(1Н-tetrazole-1-ylmethyl-4-R-1,2,4-triazole-3-ylthiopyridin-3-amines with the appropriate aldehydes (acetaldehyde, m-anisaldehyde, 2-hydroxybenzaldehyde, 3-fluorobenzaldehyde, 4-fluorobenzaldehyde, 4-diethylaminobenzaldehyd, hydroxynaphthalene in the acetic acid medium. Results. 11 New

  3. Lewis acid mediated tandem reaction of propargylic alcohols to tetrazoles involving C-O- and C-C-bond cleavage reactions and a C-N-bond formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xian-Rong; Han, Ya-Ping; Qiu, Yi-Feng; Qiu, Zi-Hang; Liu, Xue-Yuan; Xu, Peng-Fei; Liang, Yong-Min

    2014-09-15

    A novel and direct synthesis of 1-aryl-5-arylvinyl-tetrazoles from easily prepared propargylic alcohols and TMSN3 is developed in the presence of TMSCl under mild conditions (TMS = trimethylsilyl). The process involves an allenylazide intermediate, followed by a C-C-bond cleavage and C-N-bond formation to afford the desired products. Moreover, this method offers a good functional-group applicability and can be scaled-up to grams (yield up to 85 %). © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Syntheses, crystal structures and characterization of nitrogen-rich salts based on bis (1H-tetrazol-5-yl) methanone oxime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xinyu; Guo, Weiming; Zhang, Tianhe; Huang, Jingru; Tong, Yi; Zhang, Tonglai

    2017-08-01

    Two nitrogen-rich energetic salts (NH4)2(bto) (1) and (NH3OH)2(bto)·H2O (2) [H2bto = Bis (1H-tetrazol-5-yl) methanone oxime] were synthesized by an improved method in which water was used as solvent. These compounds were characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy, elemental analysis and single crystal X-ray diffraction. Their crystal structures were confirmed to belong to monoclinic system with space group P21 for 1 and Pc for 2, respectively. The detailed thermal behaviours were investigated by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric method (TG) (decomposition temperature >250 °C). The enthalpies of formation were calculated through the experimental values of combustion enthalpy. In addition, the sensitivities toward impact and friction were tested with standard methods, and those results indicated that two compounds are all insensitive (impact >40 J and friction >360 N). In short, both of the compounds show potential usages as energetic materials. The improved process opens a door for exploring nitrogen-rich salts based on Bis (1H-tetrazol-5-yl) methanone oxime.

  5. A Study of 5-(1,2,4-Triazol-C-yl)tetrazol-1-ols: Combining the Benefits of Different Heterocycles for the Design of Energetic Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dippold, Alexander A; Izsák, Dániel; Klapötke, Thomas M

    2013-09-02

    The synthesis and full structural and spectroscopic characterization of three 5-(1,2,4-triazol-C-yl)tetrazol-1-ol compounds with selected energetic moieties including nitrimino (5), nitro (6) and azido (7) groups are reported. The influence of those energetic moieties as well as the C-C connection of a tetrazol-1-ol and a 1,2,4-triazole on structural and energetic properties has been investigated. All compounds were well characterized by various means, including IR and multinuclear NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and DSC. The molecular structures of 5-8 were determined in the solid state by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The standard heats of formation were calculated on the CBS-4M level of theory utilizing the atomization energy method, revealing highly positive values for all compounds. The detonation parameters were calculated with the EXPLO5 program and compared to the common secondary explosive RDX. Additionally, sensitivities towards impact, friction and electrostatic discharge were determined. Copyright © 2013 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. A new three-dimensional CdII supramolecular framework constructed from the 1-[(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)methyl]-1,4-diazoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Wang, Hui-Ting; Zhou, Lin

    2015-02-01

    A new tetrazole-metal supramolecular compound, di-μ-chlorido-bis(trichlorido{1-[(1H-tetrazol-5-yl-κN(2))methyl]-1,4-diazoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane}cadmium(II)), [Cd2(C8H16N6)2Cl8], has been synthesized and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. In the structure, each Cd(II) cation is coordinated by five Cl atoms (two bridging and three terminal) and by one N atom from the 1-[(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)methyl]-1,4-diazoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane ligand, adopting a slightly distorted octahedral coordination geometry. The bridging bicyclo[2.2.2]octane and chloride ligands link the Cd(II) cations into one-dimensional ribbon-like N-H...Cl hydrogen-bonded chains along the b axis. An extensive hydrogen-bonding network formed by N-H...Cl and C-H...Cl hydrogen bonds, and interchain π-π stacking interactions between adjacent tetrazole rings, consolidate the crystal packing, linking the poymeric chains into a three-dimensional supramolecular network.

  7. Characteristics of the Emotional and Behavioral Reactions of Rats under Chronic Stress Immobilization During Treatment with 5-R-thio-tetrazol [1,5-c] quinazoline Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. Y. Tozyuk

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Hypokinesia can reduce physical performance and impair human health, which is evident by significant morphofunctional changes in the body. To correct these abnormalities and prevent their occurrence actoprotectors are used in hospitals. In previous studies [Stepanyuk G.I, 2012] we found that 5-R-thio-tetrazol [1,5-c] quinasoline derivatives quite clearly improved physical performance of rats according to swimming test. In terms of actoprotective activity compound-leader КВ-28 (sodium 2-( tetrazol [1,5-с] quinazolin -5- ylthioacetate for certain predominated over reference compound bemityl. WORK OBJECTIVE. To describe the influence of course administration of sodium 2-( tetrazol [1,5-с] quinazolin -5- ylthio acetate in comparison with bemityl on the behavioral reactions of rats under 18-day hypokinesia. RESEARCH MATERIALS AND METHODS. Chronic stress immobilization was modeled by keeping rats in small wooden cases for 16 hours / day for 18 days. Animals were divided into 4 groups of 6 animals in each: I - intact animals, II - rats stressed with hypokinesia without correction (control, III and IV - hypokinetic rats who one-time within 18 days take daily intraperitoneally КВ -28 (1,7 mg/kg and bemityl (32 mg/kg at doses equal to their ED50 according to swimming test. Orientative-searching and emotional activity were assessed by neuroethological "open field" test [Buresh, 1991] on the 4th, 12th and 18th day of experiment, that accordingly characterize the stage of anxiety, resistance and exhaustion of general adaptation syndrome [Stefanov, 2001]. To analyze the behavior the following neurophysiological indices were used: horizontal motor activity (number of the crossed squares, vertical activity (number of racks, number of examined holes and autonomic balance: number of washings (grooming and defecation acts (number of boluses and urinations. Duration of observation was 3 min. RESULTS AND THEIR DISCUSSION. In the course of the experiment a

  8. Bis(1-methyl-1H-tetrazol-5-yl)diazene and two its copper(I) chloride complexes poly[[[mu-1,2-bis(1-methyl-1H-tetrazol-5-yl)diazene-kappa4N',N4:N,N4']dicopper(I)]-di-mu-chloro] and catena-poly[[chlorocopper(I)]-mu-1,2-bis(1-methyl-1H-tetrazol-5-yl)diazene-kappa4N',N4:N,N4'].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyakhov, Alexander S; Serebryanskaya, Tatiyana V; Gaponik, Pavel N; Voitekhovich, Sergei V; Ivashkevich, Ludmila S

    2006-06-01

    While bis(1-methyl-1H-tetrazol-5-yl)diazene, C4H6N10, (I), has no crystallographically imposed symmetry, in the two title chlorocopper(I) complexes, [Cu2Cl2(C4H6N10)]n, (II), and [CuCl(C4H6N10)]n, (III), the organic ligands lie across centres of inversion; in (III), the Cu and Cl atoms additionally lie about a twofold rotation axis in the space group P2/c. Complex (II) forms a two-dimensional coordination polymer containing tetrahedrally coordinated Cu(I) atoms, and complex (III) forms a one-dimensional coordination polymer containing five-coordinate square-pyramidal Cu(I) atoms.

  9. OSU-6: A Highly Efficient, Metal-Free, Heterogeneous Catalyst for the Click Synthesis of 5-Benzyl and 5-Aryl-1H-tetrazoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baskar Nammalwar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available OSU-6, an MCM-41 type hexagonal mesoporous silica with mild Brönsted acid properties, has been used as an efficient, metal-free, heterogeneous catalyst for the click synthesis of 5-benzyl and 5-aryl-1H-tetrazoles from nitriles in DMF at 90 °C. This catalyst offers advantages including ease of operation, milder conditions, high yields, and reusability. Studies are presented that demonstrate the robust nature of the catalyst under the optimized reaction conditions. OSU-6 promotes the 1,3-dipolar addition of azides to nitriles without significant degradation or clogging of the nanoporous structure. The catalyst can be reused up to five times without a significant reduction in yield, and it does not require treatment with acid between reactions.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of 3,6-bis(1H-1,2,3,4-tetrazol-5-ylamino)-1,2,4,5-tetrazine (BTATz): novel high-nitrogen content insensitive high energy material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikia, A; Sivabalan, R; Polke, B G; Gore, G M; Singh, Amarjit; Subhananda Rao, A; Sikder, A K

    2009-10-15

    This paper reports the synthesis, characterization and thermolysis studies of 3,6-bis(1H-1,2,3,4-tetrazol-5-ylamino)-1,2,4,5-tetrazine (BTATz) and 3-(1H-1,2,3,4-tetrazol-5-ylamino)-6-(3,5-dimethyl-pyrazol-1-yl)-s-tetrazine monohydrate (TADPTz). The synthesized BTATz and TADPTz have been characterized by spectroscopic techniques and the data obtained confirm their structure. TGA and DSC results suggested that BTATz decomposes in the range 265-350 degrees C and TADPTz in the range 245-275 degrees C respectively. The calculated energy of activation of BTATz and TADPTz is 212.69 and 257.29kJ/mol respectively. The experimentally determined DeltaH(f) value matches with theoretically computed heat of explosion. The computed volume of gases indicates that they can find application in gas generating compositions.

  11. Pharmacological characterization of LY233053: A structurally novel tetrazole-substituted competitive N-methyl-D-aspartic acid antagonist with a short duration of action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoepp, D.D.; Ornstein, P.L.; Leander, J.D.; Lodge, D.; Salhoff, C.R.; Zeman, S.; Zimmerman, D.M. (Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN (USA))

    1990-12-01

    This study reports the activity of a structurally novel excitatory amino acid receptor antagonist, LY233053 (cis-(+-)-4-((2H-tetrazol-5-yl)methyl)piperidine-2-carboxylic acid), the first tetrazole-containing competitive N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) antagonist. LY233053 potently inhibited NMDA receptor binding to rat brain membranes as shown by the in vitro displacement of (3H) CGS19755 (IC50 = 107 +/- 7 nM). No appreciable affinity in (3H)alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA) or (3H)kainate binding assays was observed (IC50 values greater than 10,000 nM). In vitro NMDA receptor antagonist activity was further demonstrated by selective inhibition of NMDA-induced depolarization in cortical wedges (IC50 = 4.2 +/- 0.4 microM vs. 40 microM NMDA). LY233053 was effective after in vivo systemic administration in a number of animal models. In neonatal rats, LY233053 selectively blocked NMDA-induced convulsions (ED50 = 14.5 mg/kg i.p.) with a relatively short duration of action (2-4 hr). In pigeons, LY233053 potently antagonized (ED50 = 1.3 mg/kg i.m.) the behavioral suppressant effects of 10 mg/kg of NMDA. However, a dose of 160 mg/kg, i.m., was required to produce phencyclidine-like catalepsy in pigeons. In mice, LY233053 protected against maximal electroshock-induced seizures at lower doses (ED50 = 19.9 mg/kg i.p.) than those that impaired horizontal screen performance (ED50 = 40.9 mg/kg i.p.). Cholinergic and GABAergic neuronal degenerations after striatal infusion of NMDA were prevented by single or multiple i.p. doses of LY233053. In summary, the antagonist activity of LY233053 after systemic administration demonstrates potential therapeutic value in conditions of neuronal cell loss due to NMDA receptor excitotoxicity.

  12. Novel tetrazole and cyanamide derivatives as inhibitors of cyclooxygenase-2 enzyme: design, synthesis, anti-inflammatory evaluation, ulcerogenic liability and docking study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamie, Phoebe F; Philoppes, John N; Azouz, Amany A; Safwat, Nesreen M

    2017-12-01

    Nineteen new compounds containing tetrazole and/or cyanamide moiety have been designed and synthesised. Their structures were confirmed using spectroscopic methods and elemental analyses. Anti-inflammatory activity for all the synthesised compounds was evaluated in vivo. The most active compounds 4c, 5a, 5d-f, 8a and b and 9a and b were further investigated for their ulcerogenic liability and analgesic activity. Pyrazoline derivatives 9b and 8b bearing trimethoxyphenyl part and SO2NH2 or SO2Me pharmacophore showed equal or nearly the same ulcerogenic liability (UI: 0.5, 0.75, respectively), to celecoxib (UI: 0.50). Most of tested compounds showed potent central and/or peripheral analgesic activities. Histopathological investigations were done to evaluate test compounds effect on rat's gastric tissue. The obtained results were in consistent with the in vitro data on COX evaluation. Docking study was also done for all the target compounds inside COX-2-active site.

  13. Corrosion inhibition in 2.0 M sulfuric acid solutions of high strength maraging steel by aminophenyl tetrazole as a corrosion inhibitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherif, El-Sayed M., E-mail: emsherif@gmail.com [Center of Excellence for Research in Engineering Materials (CEREM), Advanced Manufacturing Institute, King Saud University, PO. Box 800, Al-Riyadh 11421 (Saudi Arabia); National Research Centre (NRC), Electrochemistry and Corrosion Laboratory, Department of Physical Chemistry, National Research Centre (NRC), Dokki, 12622 Cairo (Egypt)

    2014-02-15

    The corrosion of high strength maraging steel after varied immersion times in concentrated solution, 2.0 M, of sulfuric acid has been investigated. The work was also extended to study the effect of 5-(3-aminophenyl)-tetrazole (APTA) on the inhibition of the steel corrosion. The study has been carried out using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), potentiodynamic polarization and scanning electron microscope (SEM) along with energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (EDX) investigations. EIS spectra showed that the corrosion and polarization resistances decrease with increasing the immersion time of the steel before measurement and increase in the presence of APTA and the increase of its concentration. Polarization data agreed with the EIS measurements and indicated that the increase of immersion time increases the corrosion of steel by increasing its corrosion current and corrosion rate and lowering its polarization resistance. On the other hand, the addition of APTA and the increase of its concentration minimized the corrosion of steel through decreasing the corrosion current and corrosion rate and increasing the polarization resistance at all exposure test periods. SEM and EDX investigations confirmed that the inhibition of the maraging steel in the 2.0 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solutions is achieved via the adsorption of the APTA molecules onto the steel protecting its surface from being dissolved easily.

  14. DFT, Hirshfeld surfaces, spectral and in vivo cytotoxic studies of 7a-Aza-B-homostigmast-5-eno [7a,7-d] tetrazole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Mahboob; Alam, Mohammad Jane; Nami, Shahab A. A.; Khan, Mohd Shoeb; Ahmad, Shabbir; Lee, Dong-Ung

    2015-11-01

    The DFT (B3LYP) calculations on a synthetic steroidal molecule 7a-Aza-B-homostigmast-5-eno [7a,7-d] tetrazole, C29H48N4, have been performed. The molecular structure, IR and NMR (13C and 1H) spectra of the present compound were interpreted using experiments (XRD, FTIR, NMR) as well as theoretical, B3LYP/6-311 + G(2d,p), calculations. The vibrational bands appearing in FTIR are assigned with great accuracy using animated modes. Molecular properties like HOMO-LUMO analysis, chemical reactivity descriptors, MEP mapping, dipole moment and Mullikan's atomic charges have been presented at the same level of theory. The theoretical results are found in good correlation with experimental data. Moreover, the Hirshfeld analysis was carried out to ascertain the secondary interactions and associated 2D fingerprint plots. The in vivo cytotoxicity of 7a-Aza-B-homostigmast-5-eno [7a,7-d] has also been carried out against brine shrimp nauplii by lethality bioassay.

  15. Hydrogen bonding and coordination bonding in the electronically excited states of Cu2(L)2 (L = 5-(4-pyridyl)tetrazole)MeOH: A TDDFT study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yanfang; Zhang, Chunqing; Ji, Min; Hao, Ce; Qiu, Jieshan

    2013-05-01

    The luminescent metal organic framework (MOF), Cu2(L)2·MeOH (L = 5-(4-pyridyl)tetrazole), was studied using time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT). A combination of frontier molecular orbitals and electronic configuration analysis revealed that the emission mechanism was a ligand to metal charge transition (LMCT) rather than a metal to ligand charge transfer (MLCT). Hydrogen bonding significantly changed the nature of the frontier orbital and the luminescence. Electronic transition energies predicted that the hydrogen bonding in excited state would become weaker with an electronic spectral blue-shift. The bond lengths, frequencies, and binding energies indicated weakening of the hydrogen bonding in the excited state, which can affect emissions in two ways, including: (i) a decrease in the electronic coupling between methanol and the motif and suppressing the occurrence of the photo-induced electron transfer (PET); and (ii) increasing the energy gap between S1 and S0, leading to radiative transition. Coordination bonding was also investigated in the excited state through bond lengths, frequencies, and bond orders. Coordination bonds were found to become stronger in the excited state leading to an enhancement of the luminescence.

  16. A new cephalosporin. SCE-963: 7-[2-(2-aminothiazol-4-yl)-acetamido]-3-[[[1-(2-dimethylaminoethyl)-1h-tetrazol-5-yl]-thio]methyl]ceph-3-em-4-carboxylic acid. Chemistry and structure-activity relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numata, M; Minamida, I; Yamaoka, M; Shiraishi, M; Miyawaki, T; Akimoto, H; Naito, K; Kida, M

    1978-12-01

    The synthesis and the in vitro and in vivo antimicrobial activities of a series of 7-[2-(2-aminothiazol-4-yl)acetamido]cephalosporins (1) having varied 3-substituents, such as methyl, hydroxymethyl, acetoxymethyl, pyridiniomethyl and heterocyclicthiomethyls, are described. The derivatives having five membered heterocyclicthiomethyls exhibited strong inhibitory activities against Gram-negative organisms including some strains of Escherichia coli and Proteus morganii which are insensitive to cefazolin and cephaloridine. Pronounced activities were noted with 7-[2-(2-aminothiazol-4-yl)-acetamido]-3-[[[1-(2-dimethylaminoethyl)-1H-tetrazol-5-yl]thio]methyl]ceph-3-em-4-carboxylic acid (1y; SCE-963).

  17. Tetrakis(dimethylammonium trans-dichloridobis[5,5′-(pyrazine-2,3-diylbis(1H-tetrazol-1-ido-κN1]copper(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Hsiou Liao

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, (C2H8N4[Cu(C6H2N102Cl2], consists of an anionic complex which is composed of a CuII ion surrounded by four N atoms from two pyrazine-2,3-diylbis(1H-tetrazol-1-ide ligands, and two Cl− atoms in a trans-Cl2N4 coordination geometry; the CuII atom lies on a site of symmetry 2/m. The Cu—Cl distance of 2.8719 (5 Å is long due to the Jahn–Teller distortion of the d9 electron configuration of CuII ion. The tetrazole and pyrazine rings make an N—C—C—N torsion angle of 38.25 (17°. The charge of the anionic complex is balanced by four dimethylammonium cations, which interact with the anionic complexes via N—H...N and N—H...Cl hydrogen bonds.

  18. Two new Zn(II) and Cd(II) coordinastion polymers based on amino-tetrazole and phenylcarboxylate: Syntheses, topological structures and photoluminescent properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Dong-Sheng, E-mail: liudongsheng@jgsu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Institute of Applied Chemistry, Jinggangshan University, Ji' an, Jiangxi 343009 (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350108 (China); Sui, Yan; Chen, Weng-Tong; Huang, Jian-Gen [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Institute of Applied Chemistry, Jinggangshan University, Ji' an, Jiangxi 343009 (China); Chen, Jian-Zhong [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350108 (China); Huang, Chang-Cang, E-mail: cchuang@fzu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350108 (China)

    2012-12-15

    Two Zn(II) and Cd(II) compounds with the in-situ generated ligand of 5-amino-tetrazolate (atz{sup -}) were prepared from the hydrothermal reactions of the corresponding Cd or Zn(II) salts with phenylcarboxylate, and characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy, and TGA. The results of X-ray crystallographic analysis reveal that compound [Zn{sub 2}(BZA)(atz){sub 2}(OH)]{sub n} (1) (BZA=benzoic acid) presents a two-dimensional (2D) 'hcb' topological network constructed from the ZnN{sub 2}O{sub 2} tetrahedra. In compound [Cd{sub 6}(atz){sub 6}(PTA){sub 3}]{sub n} (2) (PTA=terephthalic acid), the identical [Cd{sub 3}(atz){sub 3})]{sup 3+}{sub n} clusters are connected by atz ligands to generate a 2D cationic layer, and the neighboring cationic layers are pillared by PTA giving birth to 3D network. After simplifying, the complicated 3D network of 2 can be presented as an unprecedented (4, 4, 10)-connected trinodal topology. The formations of the structures show a good example that using the combination of the in-situ generated ligand and other coligand synthetic strategy can construct interesting topological structures. The thermal stabilities and fluorescent properties of the complexes have also been studied. - Graphical abstract: Two d{sup 10} metal complexes have been synthesized by employing mixed-ligand synthetic approach. Complex 1 presents a 2D 'hcb' topological network. Complex 2 shows an unprecedented (4, 4, 10)-connected trinodal topology. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Coligand synthetic strategy was applied to obtain new MOFs with useful properties. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two new Zn(II) and Cd(II) complexes were constructed from the mixed-ligand. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Topologically, compound 2 presented an unprecedented (4, 4, 10)-connected trinodal topology. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The two compounds may be excellent candidates for potential photoactive material.

  19. Effects of Immersion Time and 5-Phenyl-1H-tetrazole on the Corrosion and Corrosion Mitigation of Cobalt Free Maraging Steel in 0.5 M Sulfuric Acid Pickling Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Sayed M. Sherif

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of exposure time and 5-phenyl-1H-tetrazole on the corrosion and corrosion mitigation of cobalt free maraging steel in 0.5 M H2SO4 pickling solutions has been reported using electrochemical and spectroscopic investigations. Potentiodynamic polarization data showed that the increase of immersion time from 0 min to 120 min increases the corrosion rate and decreases the polarization resistance of the maraging steel. On the other hand, the addition of PHTA and the increase of its concentration decrease all the corrosion parameters of the steel at all exposure test periods. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements agreed with the obtained polarization data. Scanning electron spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray investigations confirmed that the inhibition of the steel corrosion is achieved via the adsorption of the PHTA molecules onto the steel precluding its surface from being dissolved.

  20. Green synthesis, characterization and catalytic activity of natural bentonite-supported copper nanoparticles for the solvent-free synthesis of 1-substituted 1H-1,2,3,4-tetrazoles and reduction of 4-nitrophenol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Rostami-Vartooni

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Cu nanoparticles were immobilized on the surface of natural bentonite using Thymus vulgaris extract as a reducing and stabilizing agent. The natural bentonite-supported copper nanoparticles (Cu NPs/bentonite were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD, X-ray fluorescence (XRF, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, selected area electron diffraction (SAED and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET analysis. Afterward, the catalytic performance of the prepared catalyst was investigated for the solvent-free synthesis of 1-substituted 1H-1,2,3,4-tetrazoles and reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP in water. It was found that the Cu NPs/bentonite is a highly active and recyclable catalyst for related reactions.

  1. Two Zinc(II) metal-organic frameworks with mixed ligands of 5-amino-tetrazolate and l,2,4,5-benzenetetracarboxylate: Synthesis, structural diversity and photoluminescent properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiao-Bing [Department of Chemistry, Shaoguan University, Shaoguan, Guangdong 512005 (China); Lu, Wen-Guan, E-mail: lwg@sgu.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Shaoguan University, Shaoguan, Guangdong 512005 (China); Zhong, Di-Chang [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Gannan Normal University, Ganzhou 341000 (China)

    2017-06-15

    The reactions of Zn(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}·6H{sub 2}O with mixed ligands of 5-amino-tetrazole (Hatz) and l,2,4,5-benzenetetracarboxylic acid (H{sub 4}btec) under hydro(solvo)thermal conditions, gave two three-dimensional (3D) porous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) of ([Zn{sub 3}(atz){sub 2}(btec)(DMF){sub 2}]·DMF·2H{sub 2}O){sub n} (1) and [Zn{sub 2}(Hprz)(atz)(btec)(H{sub 2}O)]{sub n} (2) in the absence and presence of piperazine (prz), respectively. 1 and 2 were characterized by infrared spectra (IR), elemental analyses (EA) and single-crystal/powder X-ray diffraction. In 1, the adjacent 1D [Zn{sub 3}(btec)]{sub n}{sup 2n+} chains are linked together by atz{sup −} ligands to form a 3D porous MOF with 1D tetragonal channels filled with coordinated and guest DMF, and lattice water molecules. In 2, the adjacent 2D [Zn{sub 2}(btec)]{sub n} wavelike sheets are pillared through atz{sup −} ligands to generate a 3D layered-pillared porous MOF with 1D open channels, which are occupied by coordinated Hprz{sup +} cations and coordinated water molecules. Additionally, thermal stabilities and photoluminescent properties of both compounds in the solid-state at room temperature have been investigated and discussed in detail. - Graphical abstract: Two new MOFs constructed from Zn(II) salts with mixed ligands of 5-amino-tetrazole and l,2,4,5-benzenetetracarboxylic acid were synthesized under different reaction conditions. Structural diversities indicate that the reaction solvent system or the presence of organic base play crucial roles in modulating structures of these compounds. And more, their thermal stability and luminescence are also discussed. - Highlights: • Two new Zn(II) MOFs based on mixed ligands were synthesized. • The two Zn(II) MOFs exhibit different structural motifs. • The two Zn(II) MOFs are photoluminscent in the solid state at room temperature.

  2. Syntheses, crystal structures, and luminescence of two lanthanide coordination polymers based on 5-(3‧,4‧-bis(tetrazol-5″-yl)phenoxy)isophthalic acid and 1,10-phenanthroline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoli; Li, Congcong; Ai, Fengfeng; Qu, Xu; Liu, Kang

    2017-04-01

    Two new lanthanide coordination polymers, [Ln(btpa)(phen)2(OH)]n·nH2O (Ln= Tb 1, Pr 2) (H2btpa=5-(3‧,4‧-bis(tetrazol-5″-yl)phenoxy)isophthalic acid, phen=1,10-phenanthroline), have been successfully synthesized and structurally characterized by elemental analyses, IR spectroscopy, single-crystal X-ray diffraction, TGA and powder X-ray diffraction analyses. Coordination polymers 1-2 are isomorphism structures, showing a 1D chain bearing hooks structure. LnⅢ ion in 1-2 adopt nine-coordinated mode to construct a tricapped trigonal prism configuration. The adjacent chains form a 2D supramolecular network via π … π stacking interactions between the pyridine rings of phen ligands. Then the neighbouring 2D supramolecular networks recognizing each other form a 3D supramolecular structure through π … π interaction between benzene rings of (btpa)2- ligands. The luminescence experiments show that TbIII complex exhibits typical metal-centered emissions in the visible region in the solid state.

  3. Study of Six Green Insensitive High Energetic Coordination Polymers Based on Alkali/Alkali-Earth Metals and 4,5-Bis(tetrazol-5-yl)-2 H-1,2,3-triazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dong; Jing, Dong; Zhang, Qi; Xue, Xianggui; Gou, Shaohua; Li, Hongzhen; Nie, Fude

    2017-09-23

    Constructing insensitive high-performance energetic coordination polymers (ECPs) with alkali/alkali-earth metal ions and a nitrogen-rich organic backbone has been proved to be a feasible strategy in this work. Six diverse dimensional novel ECPs (compounds 1-6) were successfully synthesized from NaI , CsI , CaII , SrII , BaII ions and a nitrogen-rich triheterocyclic 4,5-bis(tetrazol-5-yl)-2 H-1,2,3-triazole (H3 BTT). All compounds show outstanding stability and low sensitivity, the thermal stability of these ECPs are significantly improved as the structural reinforcement increases from 1D to 3D, in which the decomposition temperature of 3D BaII based compound 6 is as high as 397 °C. Long-term storage experiments show that compounds 5 and 6 are stable enough at high temperature. Moreover, the six compounds hold considerable detonation performances, in which CaII based compound 5 possesses the detonation velocity of 9.12 km s-1 , along with the detonation pressure of 34.51 GPa, exceeding those of most energetic coordination polymers. Burn tests further certify that the six compounds can be versatile pyrotechnics. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Nitrogen-Rich Energetic Metal-Organic Framework: Synthesis, Structure, Properties, and Thermal Behaviors of Pb(II Complex Based on N,N-Bis(1H-tetrazole-5-yl-Amine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiangqiang Liu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The focus of energetic materials is on searching for a high-energy, high-density, insensitive material. Previous investigations have shown that 3D energetic metal–organic frameworks (E-MOFs have great potential and advantages in this field. A nitrogen-rich E-MOF, Pb(bta·2H2O [N% = 31.98%, H2bta = N,N-Bis(1H-tetrazole-5-yl-amine], was prepared through a one-step hydrothermal reaction in this study. Its crystal structure was determined through single-crystal X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and elemental analysis. The complex has high heat denotation (16.142 kJ·cm−3, high density (3.250 g·cm−3, and good thermostability (Tdec = 614.9 K, 5 K·min−1. The detonation pressure and velocity obtained through theoretical calculations were 43.47 GPa and 8.963 km·s−1, respectively. The sensitivity test showed that the complex is an impact-insensitive material (IS > 40 J. The thermal decomposition process and kinetic parameters of the complex were also investigated through thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry. Non-isothermal kinetic parameters were calculated through the methods of Kissinger and Ozawa-Doyle. Results highlighted the nitrogen-rich MOF as a potential energetic material.

  5. A series of novel metal-organic coordination polymers constructed from the new 5-(4-imidazol-1-yl-phenyl)-2H-tetrazole spacer and aromatic carboxylates: Synthesis, crystal structures, and luminescence properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiayin; Zhang, Daojun; Wang, Li; Zhang, Renchun; Wang, Junjie; Zeng, Ying; Zhan, Jinling; Xu, Jianing; Fan, Yong

    2013-10-01

    Using bifunctional organic ligand 5-(4-imidazol-1-yl-phenyl)-2H-tetrazole (HL) and different aromatic carboxylates as secondary ligands, four novel metal-organic coordination polymers, [Zn(L)(1,4-bdc)0.5] (1), [Zn1.5(L)(2,5-pydc)] (2), [Zn(HL)(1,2,4,5-btec)0.5] (3), and [Cd(HL)(1,2,4,5-btec)0.5] (4) (1,4-bdc, 1,4-benzenedicarboxylate; 2,5-pydc, 2,5-pyridinedicarboxylate; 1,2,4,5-btec, 1,2,4,5-benzenetetracarboxylate) have been successfully synthesized and analyzed. Compound 1 features the 2D [Zn(L)]n layers built by μ3-L bridging ligands and Zn(II) ions, which are further linked by pillared 1,4-bdc2- ligands to form a 2-fold interpenetrating dmc framework. The 3D network of compound 2 can be simplified as a rare 2-nodal (3,6)-connected rtl (rutile) topology. Compound 3 possesses a 2D layer structure which is accomplished by connecting ladder-chains to L ligands. Compound 4 exhibits 2D [Cd(1,2,4,5-btec)] layers with infinite Cd-O-Cd rods and the adjacent 2D networks are further pillared by L with terminal bidentate coordination mode to generate the final 3D structure. The solid-state luminescent studies show that compounds 1-4 display intense fluorescent emissions.

  6. New broad-spectrum cephalosporins with anti-pseudomonal activity. II. Synthesis and antibacterial activity of 7 beta-[2-acylamino-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)acetamido]-3-[ (1-methyl-1H-tetrazol-5-yl)thiomethyl]ceph-3-em-4-carboxylic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, H; Tobiki, H; Jimpo, K; Gooda, K; Takeuchi, Y; Ueda, S; Komatsu, T; Okuda, T; Noguchi, H; Irie, K; Nakagome, T

    1983-05-01

    The influence of the chirality of the 7-acyl side chain and of various N-acyl moieties (A-CO-) on the in vitro activity of 7 beta-[2-acylamino-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)acetamido ]-3-[(1-methyl-1H-tetrazol-5-yl)thiomethyl]ceph-3-em-4-carboxylic acids (6) was investigated. A cephalosporin having a 7-acyl side chain of S-configuration (6r) was only weakly active against Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae and was inactive against the other species tested. Among the various N-acyl moieties in the cephalosporins having a 7-acyl side chain of the R-configuration, the 4-hydroxypyridine-3-carbonyl moiety, unsubstituted or substituted with 5-bromo and/or 6-alkyl groups and the 4-hydroxy-1,5-naphthyridine-3-carbonyl moiety, unsubstituted or substituted with a 6-methyl and a 6-methoxy group gave the most active compounds. N-Ethylation of the 4-hydroxy-1,5-naphthyridine-3-carbonyl derivative and the 4-hydroxypyridine-3-carbonyl derivative (6p, 6q) resulted in a decrease of the in vitro activity.

  7. Preparation of 1-acyloxyethyl esters of 7-[2-(2-aminothiazol-4-yl)acetamido]-3-[[[1-(2-dimethylaminoe thy l)-1H-tetrazol-5-yl]thio]-methyl]ceph-3-em-4-carboxylic acid (cefotiam) and their oral absorption in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Y; Hamaguchi, N; Yashiki, T

    1986-09-01

    In a separate study on the orally active acyloxymethyl esters (1) of 7-[2-(2-aminothiazol-4-yl)acetamido]-3-[[[1-(2-dimethylaminoethyl) - 1H-tetrazol-5-yl]thio]methyl]ceph-3-em-4-carboxylic acid (cefotiam, CTM), we have shown, by quantitative structure-oral bioavailability (BA) relation analysis, that the R2 group in the acyl group R2CO must have both an adequate lipophilicity (Hansch's lipophilic parameter, pi) and steric hindrance (Taft's Es value). However, to satisfy these requirements, a complex alkyl group R2 must be employed, the ester of which is difficult to synthesize and has unique metabolic fate. In this study, we selected and prepared the 1-acyloxyethyl esters (2) of CTM instead of 1 to avoid R2 groups that are too complicated. We found that the esters (2) gave improved oral BAs over 1: the 1-(3-methyl-valeryloxy)ethyl ester (2h) showed the highest peak plasma CTM level (Cmax) comparable to that obtained after subcutaneous injection of CTM. The 1-(cyclohexylacetoxy)ethyl ester (2t), the 1-(2-ethylbutyryloxy)ethyl ester (2j), and 2h showed BAs near 100%. For these esters (2), good correlations were also observed among the pi, the Es values of R2, and the log Cmax and log BA in the analysis of the quantitative structure-oral bioavailability relation: an ester having an alkyl group as R2 with a pi value of 3.07 or 3.08 and a Es value of -1.04 or -1.29 gave the highest Cmax or BA, respectively. As expected, the optimal pi values are almost the same as those obtained with 1 but the optimal Es values are larger (Es = -2.07). Thus, it has been confirmed by preparing 1-acyloxyethyl esters (2) of CTM that the oral bioavailability of CTM can further be improved without preparing acyloxymethyl esters (1) with a complicated acyl group.

  8. Tetrazole substituted polymers for high temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henkensmeier, Dirk; My Hanh Duong, Ngoc; Brela, Mateusz

    2015-01-01

    interesting for use in a high temperature fuel cell (HT PEMFC). Based on these findings, two polymers incorporating the proposed TZ groups were synthesised, formed into membranes, doped with PA and tested for fuel cell relevant properties. At room temperature, TZ-PEEN and commercial meta-PBI showed...

  9. Bis[(1-methyl-1H-tetrazol-5-ylsulfanyl]methane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wei

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The molecule of the title compound, C5H8N8S2, lies on a twofold rotation axis that relates on 1-methyltetrazolyl group to the other; the five-membered rings are twisted by 53.1 (1°.

  10. Bis[(1-methyl-1H-tetrazol-5-ylsulfanyl]ethane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Rong Li

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C6H10N8S2, was prepared by the nucleophilic substitution reaction of 5-mercapto-1-methyltetrazole and dichloroethane. In the crystal, the molecule possesses an approximate non-crystallographic twofold symmetry axis. The crystal packing is stabilized by weak intermolecular C—H...N and π–π interactions [centroid–centroid distances = 3.448 (6, 3.5085 (5 and 3.4591 (2 Å]. The two five-membered rings form a dihedral angle of 1.9 (2°.

  11. Biopharmaceutical Characterization and Bioavailability Study of a Tetrazole Analog of Clofibric Acid in Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Vara-Gama

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In the current investigation, the physicochemical, biopharmaceutical and pharmacokinetic characterization of a new clofibric acid analog (Compound 1 was evaluated. Compound 1 showed affinity by lipophilic phase in 1 to 5 pH interval, indicating that this compound would be absorbed favorably in duodenum or jejunum. Also, Compound 1 possess two ionic species, first above of pH 4.43 and, the second one is present over pH 6.08. The apparent permeability in everted sac rat intestine model was 8.73 × 10−6 cm/s in duodenum and 1.62 × 10−5 cm/s in jejunum, suggesting that Compound 1 has low permeability. Elimination constant after an oral administration of 50 μg/kg in Wistar rat was 1.81 h−1, absorption constant was 3.05 h−1, Cmax was 3.57 μg/mL at 0.33 h, AUC0–α was 956.54 μ/mL·h and distribution volume was 419.4 mL. To IV administration at the same dose, ke was 1.21 h−1, Vd was 399.6 mL and AUC0–α was 747.81 μ/mL·h. No significant differences were observed between pharmacokinetic parameters at every administration route. Bioavailability evaluated was 10.4%. Compound 1 is metabolized to Compound 2 probably by enzymatic hydrolysis, and it showed a half-life of 9.24 h. With these properties, Compound 1 would be considered as a prodrug of Compound 2 with potential as an antidiabetic and anti dyslipidemic agent.

  12. trans-Dichloridotetrakis[1-(2-hydroxyethyl-1H-tetrazole-κN4]cobalt(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander S. Lyakhov

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The title cobalt(II complex, [CoCl2(C3H6N4O4], was obtained from metallic cobalt by direct synthesis. There are two Co atoms in the asymmetric unit, each lying on an inversion centre and adopting a distorted octahedral coordination. Classical and non-classical hydrogen bonds are responsible for formation of a three-dimensional polymeric network in the crystal.

  13. The Tetrazole VT-1161 Is a Potent Inhibitor of Trichophyton rubrum through Its Inhibition of T. rubrum CYP51.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrilow, Andrew G S; Parker, Josie E; Price, Claire L; Garvey, Edward P; Hoekstra, William J; Schotzinger, Robert J; Wiederhold, Nathan P; Nes, W David; Kelly, Diane E; Kelly, Steven L

    2017-07-01

    Prior to characterization of antifungal inhibitors that target CYP51, Trichophyton rubrum CYP51 was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified, and characterized. T. rubrum CYP51 bound lanosterol, obtusifoliol, and eburicol with similar affinities (dissociation constant [Kd ] values, 22.7, 20.3, and 20.9 μM, respectively) but displayed substrate specificity, insofar as only eburicol was demethylated in CYP51 reconstitution assays (turnover number, 1.55 min(-1); Km value, 2 μM). The investigational agent VT-1161 bound tightly to T. rubrum CYP51 (Kd = 242 nM) with an affinity similar to that of clotrimazole, fluconazole, ketoconazole, and voriconazole (Kd values, 179, 173, 312, and 304 nM, respectively) and with an affinity lower than that of itraconazole (Kd = 53 nM). Determinations of 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) using 0.5 μM CYP51 showed that VT-1161 was a tight-binding inhibitor of T. rubrum CYP51 activity, yielding an IC50 of 0.14 μM, whereas itraconazole, fluconazole, and ketoconazole had IC50s of 0.26, 0.4, and 0.6 μM, respectively. When the activity of VT-1161 was tested against 34 clinical isolates, VT-1161 was a potent inhibitor of T. rubrum growth, with MIC50, MIC90, and geometric mean MIC values of ≤0.03, 0.06, and 0.033 μg ml(-1), respectively. With its selectivity versus human CYP51 and drug-metabolizing cytochrome P450s having already been established, VT-1161 should prove to be safe and effective in combating T. rubrum infections in patients. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  14. Crystal structure of 1-(5-amino-2H-tetrazol-2-yl-2-methylpropan-2-ol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Sik Park

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C5H11N5O, crystallized with two independent molecules in the asymmetric unit. The two molecules differ in the orientation of the 2-methylpropan-2-ol unit, with the hydroxy H atoms pointing in opposite directions. In the crystal, molecules are linked via O—H...O and N—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming ribbons propagating along [10-1]. The ribbons are linked via N—H...N hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional structure.

  15. Crystal structure of 1-(5-amino-2H-tetrazol-2-yl)-2-methylpropan-2-ol

    OpenAIRE

    Hyun Sik Park; Ji Yeon Ryu; Junseong Lee

    2015-01-01

    The title compound, C5H11N5O, crystallized with two independent molecules in the asymmetric unit. The two molecules differ in the orientation of the 2-methylpropan-2-ol unit, with the hydroxy H atoms pointing in opposite directions. In the crystal, molecules are linked via O—H...O and N—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming ribbons propagating along [10-1]. The ribbons are linked via N—H...N hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional structure.

  16. CdS nanoparticles capped with 1-substituted 5-thiotetrazoles: Synthesis, characterization, and thermolysis of the surfactant

    OpenAIRE

    Voitekhovich, Sergei V.; Talapin, Dmitri V.; Klinke, Christian; Kornowski, Andreas; Weller, Horst

    2013-01-01

    We propose a new type of surfactants, namely, tetrazole derivatives which can be controllably removed from the nanoparticle surface. Tetrazoles are a peculiar class of heterocyclic compounds. The presence of four nitrogen atoms in the tetrazole ring determines their interesting physical and chemical properties. Tetrazoles show high thermal stability below 200C while decomposing at higher temperature with formation of gaseous products and no or very little solid residue. Moreover, the tetrazol...

  17. CCDC 954771: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : Dimethylammonium tri-yttrium tris(4'-(tetrazol-2-id-5-yl)biphenyl-4-carboxylate) tetrahydroxide trihydrate unknown solvate

    KAUST Repository

    Xue, Dongxu

    2013-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  18. CCDC 954774: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : Dimethylammonium tri-terbium tris(4'-(tetrazol-2-id-5-yl)biphenyl-4-carboxylate) tetrahydroxide trihydrate unknown solvate

    KAUST Repository

    Xue, Dongxu

    2013-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  19. CCDC 954776: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : Dimethylammonium tri-yttrium tris(4-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)benzoate) tetrahydroxide nonacosahydrate

    KAUST Repository

    Xue, Dongxu

    2013-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  20. 7-(4-Methoxyphenyl-5-methyl-9-phenyl-7H-pyrrolo[2′,3′:4,5]pyrimido[1,6-d]tetrazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh M. Jotani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C20H16N6O, is composed of a tetrazolo ring and a 4-methoxyphenyl and a benzene-substituted pyrrole ring at the 7 and 9 positions fused to a pyrimidine ring in a nearly planar fashion [maximum deviation of 0.018 (1 Å for the fused ring system]. A methyl group at the 5 position is also in the plane of the hetero cyclic system. The dihedral angle between the mean planes of the benzene and 4-methoxyphenyl rings is 40.4 (2°. The dihedral angles between the mean planes of the pyrimidine and the benzene and 4-methoxyphenyl rings are 15.6 (5° and 52.6 (7°, respectively. A weak intramolecular C—H...N hydrogen bond interaction, which forms an S(7 graph-set motif, helps to establish the relative conformations of the tetrazolo and benzene rings. In the crystal, weak intermolecular C—H...O, C—H...π and π–π stacking interactions [centroid–centroid distances = 3.5270 (16, 3.5113 (16, 3.7275 (17 and 3.7866 (17 Å] link the molecules into a two-dimensional array obliquely parallel to (101 and propagating along the b axis.

  1. CCDC 954773: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : Dimethylammonium tri-terbium tris(4-(tetrazol-2-id-5-yl)benzoate) tetrahydroxide trihydrate unknown solvate

    KAUST Repository

    Xue, Dongxu

    2013-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  2. CCDC 954775: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : Dimethylammonium tri-terbium tris(2-fluoro-4-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)benzoate) tetrahydroxide tetradecahydrate

    KAUST Repository

    Xue, Dongxu

    2013-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  3. CCDC 1044083: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : catena-[(mu-5-(5-amino-1H-tetrazol-1-yl)isophthalato)-copper unknown solvate

    KAUST Repository

    Hu, Tong-Liang

    2015-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  4. Tetrazolium Compounds: Synthesis and Applications in Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Xi Wei

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Tetrazoles represent a class of five-membered heterocyclic compounds with polynitrogen electron-rich planar structural features. This special structure makes tetrazole derivatives useful drugs, explosives, and other functional materials with a wide range of applications in many fields of medicine, agriculture, material science, etc. Based on our research works on azoles and other references in recent years, this review covers reported work on the synthesis and biological activities of tetrazole derivatives.

  5. Sulfonic acid-functionalized silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles as an efficient reusable catalyst for the synthesis of 1-substituted 1H-tetrazoles under solvent-free conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeimi, Hossein; Mohamadabadi, Samaneh

    2014-09-14

    Regarding green chemistry goals, silica-coated magnetite nanoparticles open up a new avenue to introduce a very useful and efficient system for facilitating catalyst recovery in different organic reactions. Therefore, in this paper the preparation of sulfonic acid-functionalized silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles with core-shell structure (Fe3O4@silica sulfonic acid) is presented by using Fe3O4 spheres as the core and silica sulfonic acid nanoparticles as the shell. The catalyst was characterized by infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, dynamic light scattering, thermogravimetric analysis and vibrating sample magnetometry. Nanocatalyst can be recovered using an external magnet and reused for subsequent reactions 6 times without noticeable deterioration in catalytic activity.

  6. CCDC 884451: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : catena-(hexakis(mu~6~-5'-(4-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)benzamido)benzene-1,3-dioato)-bis(mu~3~-oxo)-tetracosa-aqua-dodeca-copper)

    KAUST Repository

    Eubank, J.F.

    2013-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  7. CCDC 866710: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : catena-(dodecakis(mu~6~-4'-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)biphenyl-3,5-dicarboxylato)-tetrakis(mu~3~-oxo)-tetracosa-aqua-tetracosa-copper)

    KAUST Repository

    Eubank, J.F.

    2013-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  8. A stable metal-organic framework with suitable pore sizes and rich uncoordinated nitrogen atoms on the internal surface of micropores for highly efficient CO2 capture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bao, S.J.; Krishna, R.; He, Y.B.; Qin, J.S.; Su, Z.M.; Li, S.L.; Xie, W.; Du, D.Y.; He, W.W.; Zhang, S.R.; Lan, Y.Q.

    2015-01-01

    An air-stable tetrazolate-containing framework, [ZN(2)L(2)]center dot 2DMF (NENU-520, H2L = 4-(1H-tetrazole-5-yl) biphenyl-4-carboxylic acid), with uncoordinated N atoms on its internal surface was solvothermally synthesized and structurally characterized. This metal-organic framework (MOF)

  9. Calcium oxalate crystal growth modification; investigations with confocal Raman microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMulkin, Calum J.; Massi, Massimiliano; Jones, Franca

    2017-06-01

    Confocal Raman Microscopy (CRM) in combination with a photophysical investigation has been employed to give insight into the interaction between calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) and a series of tetrazole containing crystal growth modifier's (CGM's), in conjunction with characterisation of morphological changes using scanning electron and optical microscopy. The tetrazole CGM's were found to interact by surface adsorption with minimal morphological changes to the COM crystals however, significant interactions via chemisorption were observed; it was discovered that the chemisorption is sufficiently strong for aggregation of the tetrazole species to occur within the crystal during crystallisation.

  10. Low Mass Ions in Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry of 1-Methoxy-5-aminotetrazole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Soo Gyeong; Bae, Kwang Tae; Goh, Eun Mee; Bae, Se Won [Agency for Defense Development, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Ik-Soo [Soongsil University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    The development of novel energetic molecules (EMs) with high power, good safety features, great chemical stability, and environmentally less harmful nature is of great interest in the satellite launcher, missile warhead, ammunition, and pyrotechnic researches. Recently, many researchers have focused on aromatic nitrogen heterocycles such as pyrazole, imidazole, triazole, tetrazole, and pentazole as promising candidates to replace the current EMs used in civilian and military applications. We performed MALDI and LDI experiments with energetic tetrazole derivatives which were of great interest for the application of high performance explosives and fast burning propellants. Particularly, LDI experiments provided low mass ion peaks from decomposition of MAT, which were useful to analyze decomposition mechanism of tetrazoles at TOF MS in high vacuum. The LDI experiments showed various decomposed ion products, which implied several decomposition mechanisms including the detachment of side function groups and the fragmentation of tetrazole ring. The high-level DFT calculations also supported the peaks obtained from LDI experiments.

  11. A universal isocyanide for diverse heterocycle syntheses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patil, Pravin; Dömling, Alexander; Khoury, Kareem; Herdtweck, Eberhardt

    2014-01-01

    Novel scaffolds are of uttermost importance for the discovery of functional material. Three different heterocyclic scaffolds easily accessible from isocyanoacetaldehyde dimethylacetal 1 by multicomponent reaction (MCR) are described. They can be efficiently synthesized by a Ugi tetrazole

  12. 133–137 Synthesis and Characterization of 5-Substituted 1H ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kametani Koichi

    5-yl)pyridine (expand). Figure S38. 13C NMR of 4-(1H-tetrazole-5-yl)pyridine. 2 .... 13C-NMR (125 MHz, DMSO) δ = 28.8, 130.2, 131.6, 131.8, 174.8 ppm. Figure S31: FT-IR (KBr) 5-((3,4-dichlorophenyl)methyl)tetrazole. N. H. N N. N. Cl. Cl ...

  13. Synthesis and characterization of dinucleoside phosphorodithioates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, John; Brill, Wolfgang K D; Caruthers, Marvin H.

    1988-01-01

    Dinucleoside phosphoramidites, H2S, and tetrazole react to form dinucleoside H-phosphonothioates. Oxidation with sulfur yields phosphorodithioates. Iodine oxidation in the presence of amines, alcohols, or water yields phosphorothioamidates, thiotriesters or thiodiesters.......Dinucleoside phosphoramidites, H2S, and tetrazole react to form dinucleoside H-phosphonothioates. Oxidation with sulfur yields phosphorodithioates. Iodine oxidation in the presence of amines, alcohols, or water yields phosphorothioamidates, thiotriesters or thiodiesters....

  14. Versatile Protecting-Group Free Tetrazolomethane Amine Synthesis by Ugi Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Pravin; de Haan, Michel; Kurpiewska, Katarzyna; Kalinowska-Tłuścik, Justyna; Dömling, Alexander

    2016-03-14

    The use of ammonia in the Ugi reaction is often problematic due to low yields and multiple side reactions. Here, we report the use of ammonia in the tetrazole Ugi variation providing a clean, good-to-high yielding reaction, especially with ketones as oxo components. The scope and limitations of this reaction and a structure-reactivity relationship are provided by performing >85 reactions. The primary amine component of the α-amino tetrazole is a versatile starting material for further reactions.

  15. Methylation of Ir(iii)-tetrazolato complexes: an effective route to modulate the emission outputs and to switch to antimicrobial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorini, Valentina; Zanoni, Ilaria; Zacchini, Stefano; Costa, Anna Luisa; Hochkoeppler, Alejandro; Zanotti, Valerio; Ranieri, Anna Maria; Massi, Massimiliano; Stefan, Alessandra; Stagni, Stefano

    2017-09-28

    Two neutral cyclometalated Ir(iii)-tetrazolato complexes that differ by variations of the substituents on either the phenylpyridine or the tetrazolate ligand have been converted into the corresponding methylated and cationic analogues. NMR ((1)H and (13)C) characterization of the Ir(iii) complexes provided the results in agreement with the chemo- and regioselective character of methylation at the N-3 position of the Ir(iii)-coordinated tetrazolato ring. This evidence was further corroborated by the analysis of the molecular structures of the cationic complexes obtained by X-ray diffraction. In view of the photophysical properties, the addition of a methyl moiety to neutral Ir(iii) tetrazolates, which behave as sky-blue or orange phosphors, caused a systematic red shift of their phosphorescence output. The transformation of neutral Ir(iii) tetrazolates into cationic Ir(iii)-tetrazole complexes was screened for any eventual antimicrobial activity in vitro against Gram negative (E. coli) and Gram positive (D. radiodurans) microorganisms. While both kinds of complexes were not active against E. coli, the conversion of the neutral Ir(iii) tetrazolates into the corresponding methylated and cationic Ir(iii)tetrazole derivatives determined the turn-on of a good to excellent antimicrobial activity toward Gram positive Deinococcus radiodurans, a non-pathogenic bacterium that is listed as one of the toughest microorganisms in light of its outstanding resistance to radiation and oxidative stress.

  16. Resolution, configurational assignment, and enantiopharmacology of 2-amino-3-[3-hydroxy-5-(2-methyl-2H- tetrazol-5-yl)isoxazol-4-yl]propionic acid, a potent GluR3- and GluR4-preferring AMPA receptor agonist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogensen, S B; Jensen, H S; Stensbøl, T B

    2000-01-01

    -Tet-AMPA was resolved using preparative chiral HPLC. Zwitterion (-)-2-Me-Tet-AMPA was assigned the (R)-configuration based on an X-ray crystallographic analysis supported by the elution order of (-)- and (+)-2-Me-Tet-AMPA using four different chiral HPLC columns and by circular dichroism spectra. None of the compounds...

  17. CCDC 866709: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : catena-(dodecakis(mu~6~-5'-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)-1,1':3',1''-terphenyl-4,4''-dicarboxylato)-tetrakis(mu~3~-oxo)-hexatriaconta-aqua-tetracosa-copper nitrate monohydrate)

    KAUST Repository

    Eubank, J.F.

    2013-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  18. Two metal-organic frameworks constructed from one-dimensional cobalt(II) ferrimagnetic chains with alternating antiferromagnetic/ferromagnetic and AF/AF/FM interaction: synthesis, structures, and magnetic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fen; Li, Baiyan; Xu, Wei; Li, Guanghua; Zhou, Qi; Hua, Jia; Shi, Zhan; Feng, Shouhua

    2012-06-18

    Here, we report two three-dimensional metal-organic frameworks of formula [Co(2)(4-ptz)(2)(bpp)(N(3))(2)](n) (1) and [Co(3)(OH)(2)(bdt)(2)(bpp)(2)(H(2)O)(2)](n) (2), which were synthesized by hydrothermal reaction from the respective tetrazole ligand (5-(4-pyridyl)tetrazole (4-H-ptz) for 1 and 5,5'-(1,4-phenylene)bis(1-H-tetrazole) (H(2)bdt) for 2), long and flexible pyridyl-containing ligand 1,3-bi(4-pyridyl)propane (bpp), NaN(3), and CoCl(2). Both 1 and 2 consist of well-isolated one-dimensional cobalt(II) alternating chains further linked by the bpp and/or the tetrazole ligand, while their chain structures are totally different. The chains of 1 are formed by Co(2+) ions bridged by single μ-EE-N(3) and triple (μ-EO-N(3))(μ-tetrazole)(2) alternately, whereas the Co(2+) ions are bridged by μ(3)-OH to form Co(3)(OH)(2) chains in compound 2. Magnetic measurements demonstrate that compound 1 contains an alternating antiferromagnetic (AF)/ferromagnetic (FM) ferrimagnetic chain, while compound 2 exhibits the coexistence of spin canting, slow magnetic dynamics, and finite-size effect, with alternating AF/AF/FM ferrimagnetic chains.

  19. Polymer-Fullerene Network Formation via Light-Induced Crosslinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, Yuuki; Hiltebrandt, Kai; Blasco, Eva; Barner-Kowollik, Christopher

    2016-09-01

    A facile and efficient methodology for the formation of polymer-fullerene networks via a light-induced reaction is reported. The photochemical crosslinking is based on a nitrile imine-mediated tetrazole-ene cycloaddition reaction, which proceeds catalyst-free under UV-light irradiation (λmax = 320 nm) at ambient temperature. A tetrazole-functionalized polymer (Mn = 6500 g mol(-1) , Ð = 1.3) and fullerene C60 are employed for the formation of the hybrid networks. The tetrazole-functionalized polymer as well as the fullerene-containing networks are carefully characterized by NMR spectrometry, size exclusion chromatography, infrared spectroscopy, and elemental analysis. Furthermore, thermal analysis of the fullerene networks and their precursors is carried out. The current contribution thus induces an efficient platform technology for fullerene-based network formation. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Poly[bis(μ2-5-n-butyltetrazolato-κ2N1:N4zinc(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Lan Tong

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the title complex, [Zn(C5H9N42]n, the ZnII center is coordinated by four N atoms of different tetrazolate ligands with a slightly distorted tetrahedral geometry [Zn—N distances and N—Zn—N angles are in the ranges 1.991 (2–2.007 (2 Å and 104.22 (8–116.13 (8°, respectively]. Each ligand links two ZnII atoms through its 1- and 4-position tetrazole N atoms, forming a single, fully connected three-dimensional framework with a diamond-like topology. In the crystal structure, the Zn...Zn separations across each tetrazole unit are 6.115 (2 and 6.134 (2 Å and the Zn...Zn...Zn angles are in the range 107.77 (8–116.83 (8°.

  1. Poly[(μ2-azido-κ2N1:N1[μ2-5-(8-quinolyloxymethyltetrazolato-κ4N1,O,N5:N4]zinc(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-ling Cai

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, [Zn(C11H8N5O(N3]n, the Zn atom is hexacoordinated by five N atoms and one O atom in a distorted octahedral geometry. The chelating 5-(8-quinolyloxymethyltetrazolate ligands are approximately planar, with a dihedral angle of 3.6 (2° between the quinoline and tetrazole planes. Adjacent Zn atoms are linked by two bridging azide ligands across a centre of inversion, and further coordination by one N atom of an adjacent tetrazole unit forms two-dimensional frameworks in (100. C—H...N interactions exist between ligands in neighbouring layers.

  2. Design and synthesis of highly active Alzheimer's beta-secretase (BACE1) inhibitors, KMI-420 and KMI-429, with enhanced chemical stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Tooru; Shuto, Daisuke; Hamada, Yoshio; Igawa, Naoto; Kasai, Soko; Liu, Ping; Hidaka, Koushi; Hamada, Takashi; Hayashi, Yoshio; Kiso, Yoshiaki

    2005-01-03

    Recently, we reported potent and small-sized BACE1 inhibitors KMI-358 and KMI-370 in which the Glu residue is replaced by a beta-N-oxalyl-DAP (l-alpha,beta-diaminopropionyl) residue at the P(4) position. The beta-N-oxalyl-DAP group is important for enhancing BACE1 inhibitory activity, but these inhibitors isomerized to alpha-N-oxalyl-DAP derivatives in solvents. Hence, we used a tetrazole moiety as a bioisostere of the free carboxylic acid of the oxalyl group. KMI-420 and KMI-429, containing a tetrazole ring, showed improved stability and potent enzyme inhibitory activity.

  3. synthesis and crystal structure of trinuclear potassium(i)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    water molecule. In the crystal structure, intra- and intermolecular hydrogen bonding interactions as well as weak ... high nitrogen content, high energy density, good thermal stability, and low melting point [1–6]. ... as, nitramine or tetrazole-functionalized based furazan had been investigated and were found to have shown.

  4. A short and efficient synthesis of valsartan via a Negishi reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Ghosh

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available An efficient synthesis of the angiotensin-II inhibitor valsartan (Diovan® is presented. Directed ortho-metalation of 5-phenyl-1-trityl-1H-tetrazole (6 and its Negishi coupling with aryl bromide 5 are the key steps of the synthesis. This method overcomes many of the drawbacks associated with previously reported syntheses.

  5. Picomolar Traces of Americium(III) Introduce Drastic Changes in the Structural Chemistry of Terbium(III): A Break in the "Gadolinium Break".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Jan M; Müller, Danny; Knoll, Christian; Wilkovitsch, Martin; Giester, Gerald; Ofner, Johannes; Lendl, Bernhard; Weinberger, Peter; Steinhauser, Georg

    2017-10-16

    The crystallization of terbium 5,5'-azobis[1H-tetrazol-1-ide] (ZT) in the presence of trace amounts (ca. 50 Bq, ca. 1.6 pmol) of americium results in 1) the accumulation of the americium tracer in the crystalline solid and 2) a material that adopts a different crystal structure to that formed in the absence of americium. Americium-doped [Tb(Am)(H 2 O) 7 ZT] 2 ZT⋅10 H 2 O is isostructural to light lanthanide (Ce-Gd) 5,5'-azobis[1H-tetrazol-1-ide] compounds, rather than to the heavy lanthanide (Tb-Lu) 5,5'-azobis[1H-tetrazol-1-ide] (e.g., [Tb(H 2 O) 8 ] 2 ZT 3 ⋅6 H 2 O) derivatives. Traces of Am seem to force the Tb compound into a structure normally preferred by the lighter lanthanides, despite a 10 8 -fold Tb excess. The americium-doped material was studied by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, vibrational spectroscopy, radiochemical neutron activation analysis, and scanning electron microcopy. In addition, the inclusion properties of terbium 5,5'-azobis[1H-tetrazol-1-ide] towards americium were quantified, and a model for the crystallization process is proposed. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Application of cyclic ketones in MCR: Ugi/amide coupling based synthesis of fused tetrazolo[1,5-a][1,4]benzodiazepines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yerande, Swapnil; Newase, Kiran; Singh, Bhawani; Boltjes, André; Dömling, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Azido-Ugi reaction involving cyclic ketone, primary amine, isonitrile, and azide afforded substituted tetrazole derivatives 5. These intermediates were hydrolyzed to corresponding acid derivatives. EDAC/HOBt mediated amide bond formation of 5 gave fused tetrazolo[1,5-a][1,4]benzodiazepine 6 in high

  7. Ammonia-Promoted One-Pot Tetrazolopiperidinone Synthesis by Ugi Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Pravin; Kurpiewska, Katarzyna; Kalinowska-Tłuścik, Justyna; Dömling, Alexander

    2017-05-08

    Ammonia in the tetrazole Ugi variation together with α-amino acid methyl ester-derived isocyanides provides tetrazolopiperidinones in good to high yields in one pot. The scope and limitations of this reaction were investigated by performing >70 reactions. The scaffold is useful to fill high-throughput screening decks and in structure-based drug design.

  8. Ammonia-Promoted One-Pot Tetrazolopiperidinone Synthesis by Ugi Reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patil, Pravin; Kurpiewska, Katarzyna; Kalinowska-Tłuścik, Justyna; Dömling, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Ammonia in the tetrazole Ugi variation together with α-amino acid methyl ester-derived isocyanides provides tetrazolopiperidinones in good to high yields in one pot. The scope and limitations of this reaction were investigated by performing >70 reactions. The scaffold is useful to fill

  9. Enhanced deep-blue emission from Pt(II) complexes bound to 2-pyridyltetrazolate and an ortho-xylene-linked bis(NHC)cyclophane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MaGee, Karen D M; Wright, Phillip J; Muzzioli, Sara; Siedlovskas, Claire M; Raiteri, Paolo; Baker, Murray V; Brown, David H; Stagni, Stefano; Massi, Massimiliano

    2013-03-28

    The coordination of 2-pyridyltetrazolate and ortho-xylene-linked bis(NHC)cyclophane to Pt(II) yielded a novel complex characterised by enhanced pure deep-blue emission, whose intensity can be modulated via methylation of the tetrazole ring.

  10. Journal of Chemical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences. HUIYUAN MA. Articles written in Journal of Chemical Sciences. Volume 128 Issue 5 May 2016 pp 825-830 Regular Article. Hydrothermal synthesis and electrochemical properties of a coordination polymer based on dinuclear (Pyrazinyl tetrazolate) Copper(II) cations and ...

  11. Crystal structure of methyl 2-[5-(2-hy-droxy-phen-yl)-2H-tetra-zol-2-yl]acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seul Gi; Ryu, Ji Yeon; Lee, Junseong

    2017-12-01

    The title compound, C10H10N4O3, was synthesized by the esterification of hy-droxy-phenyl tetra-zole. There is an intra-molecular O-H⋯N hydrogen bond present involving the hy-droxy group and the tetra-zole ring. The tetra-zole ring is inclined to the phenol ring by 2.85 (13)°, while the methyl acetate group is almost normal to the tetra-zole ring, making a dihedral angle of 82.61 (14)°. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked by pairs of C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming inversion dimers. Within the dimers, the phenol rings are linked by offset π-π inter-actions [inter-centroid distance = 3.759 (2) Å]. There are no further significant inter-molecular inter-actions present in the crystal. The hy-droxy group is disordered about positions 2 and 6 on the benzene ring, with a refined occupancy ratio of 0.531 (5):0.469 (5).

  12. Application of 2-cyanoethyl n,n,n′,n′-tetraisopropylphosphorodiamidite for in situ preparation of deoxyribonucleoside phosphoramidites and their use in polymer-supported synthesis of oligodeoxyribonucleotides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, John; Taagaard, Michael; Marugg, John E.

    1986-01-01

    Deoxyribonucleoside phosphoramidites are prepared in situ from 5′-O,N-protected deoxyribonucleosides and 2-cyanoethyl N,N,N′,N′-tetraisopropylphosphorodiamidite with tetrazole as catalyst, and the solutions applied directly on an automatic solid-phase DNA synthesizer. Using LCAA-CPG support...

  13. Hydrothermal synthesis and electrochemical properties of a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 128; Issue 5. Hydrothermal synthesis and electrochemical properties of a coordination polymer based on dinuclear (Pyrazinyl tetrazolate) Copper(II) cations and βOctamolybdate Anions. SHAOBIN LI LI ZHANG HUIYUAN MA HAIJUN PANG. Regular Article Volume ...

  14. Preliminary evaluation of the combined anticonvulsant activities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study, local Nigerian plants (Newbouldia laevis, Melissa officinalis, Musa paradisiaca) used folklorically against epilepsy, were evaluated for combined anticonvulsant activity in combination. Their anticonvulsant activity, individually and in combination was evaluated in mice using the pentylene tetrazole model ...

  15. Synthesis, Crystal Structure and Luminescent Property of A Novel Cd(II) Coordination Polymer with Bis-imidazole Ligand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Yong Hong [Huaibei Normal Univ., Huaibei (China)

    2013-04-15

    The key to the successful design of metal-organic coordination polymers is the judicious selection of organic ligand. Recently, polydentate aromatic nitrogen heterocyclic ligands with five-membered rings have been well-studied in the construction of supramolecular structure for their N-coordinated sites apt to coordinating to transition metals. Similar to six-membered N-heterocyclic ligands, the azole-based five-membered N-heterocyclic ligands, such as imidazoles, triazoles and tetrazoles have been extensively employed in the construction of various coordination polymers with diverse topologies and interesting properties. The bis(azole) ligands in which N-donor azole rings (imidazole, triazole, or tetrazole) are separated by alkyl, (CH{sub 2}){sub n}, spacers are good choices for flexible bridging ligands. The conformational flexibility of the spacers makes the ligands adaptable to various coordination networks with one-, two-, and three dimensional structures.

  16. Synthesis and biological properties of amino acids and peptides containing a tetrazolyl moiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, E. A.; Trifonov, R. E.

    2015-09-01

    Literature data published mainly in the last 15 years on the synthesis and biological properties of amino acid analogues and derivatives containing tetrazolyl moieties are analyzed. Tetrazolyl analogues and derivatives of amino acids and peptides are shown to be promising for medicinal chemistry. Being polynitrogen heterocyclic systems comprising four endocyclic nitrogen atoms, tetrazoles can behave as acids and bases and form strong hydrogen bonds with proton donors (more rarely, with acceptors). They have high metabolic stability and are able to penetrate biological membranes. The review also considers the synthesis and properties of linear and cyclic peptides based on modified amino acids incorporating a tetrazolyl moiety. A special issue is the discussion of the biological properties of tetrazole-containing amino acids and peptides, which exhibit high biological activity and can be used to design new drugs. The bibliography includes 200 references.

  17. The reactions of 2-ethoxymethylidene-3-oxo esters and their analogues with 5-aminotetrazole as a way to novel azaheterocycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina V. Goryaeva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of 2-ethoxymethylidene-3-oxo esters and their analogues with 5-aminotetrazole is an efficient synthetic approach to novel azaheterocycles. 2-Ethoxymethylidene-3-oxo esters bearing alkyl substituents react with 5-aminotetrazole to form ethyl 2-azido-4-alkylpyrimidine-5-carboxylates which are capable of subsequent nucleophilic substitution. The use of diethyl 2-ethoxymethylidenemalonate in this reaction resulted in ethyl 7-hydroxytetrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine-6-carboxylate, while ethyl 2-ethoxymethylidenecyanoacetate yielded 5-[2,6-diamino-3,5-bis(ethoxycarbonylpyridinium-1-yl]tetrazol-1-ide through an alternative pathway. Ethyl 2-benzoyl-3-ethoxyprop-2-enoate reacted with 5-aminotetrazole by two reaction routes to form ethyl 2-benzoyl-3-(1H-tetrazol-5-ylaminoprop-2-enoate and ethyl 7-(1-ethoxy-1,3-dioxo-3-phenylpropan-2-yl-5-phenyl-4,7-dihydrotetrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine-6-carboxylate.

  18. Bifunctional 3D porous Cu(I) metal-organic framework with gas sorption and luminescent properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Guang'en; Zhang, Yan; Cao, Xiulian

    2017-10-01

    A new Cu(I) metal-organic framework, namely [Cu(L)]2n·n(H2O) (1 HL = 5-(4-Pyridyl)-1H-tetrazole), has been successfully synthesized via the solvothermal reactions of CuI and 5-(4-Pyridyl)-1H-tetrazole ligand, and further characterized by elemental analysis, powder X-ray diffraction analysis, thermal analysis and single crystal X-ray structural analysis. The L- ligand displays a μ4-N2, N3, N4, N5 coordination mode bridging Cu(I) ions into a 3D porous framework with the opened 1D channels filled by the lattice water molecules. Gas sorption investigations indicated that compound 1 can selectively adsorb CO2 over N2 at 298 K, and luminescent properties investigations revealed that compound 1 features luminescent sensing function for nitrobenzene.

  19. Synthesis of Framework Isomer MOFs Containing Zinc and 4-Tetrazolyl Benzenecarboxylic Acid via a Structure Directing Solvothermal Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ordonez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The solvothermal synthesis of framework isomers was carried out using the hybrid carboxylate and tetrazolate functional ligand, 4-tetrazolyl benzenecarboxylic acid (H2TBC, TBC = 4-tetrazolyl benzenecarboxylate and zinc. H2TBC was also synthesized with the solvothermal approach, and is referred herein as structure 1. Using single-crystal X-ray diffraction, we found that the tetrazolate groups of TBC show an unusual “opposite-on” coordination mode with zinc. Three previously characterized metal-organic frameworks (MOFs were obtained by systematically changing the solvents of the H2TBC-Zn reaction, (1 ZnTBC, 2, which has a non-porous structure; (2 Zn2(TBC2(H2O, 3, which has an amphiphilic pore structure and (3 Zn2(TBC2{guest}, 4, which is porous and has channels containing uncoordinated N heteroatoms. Fluorescence spectra of 4 reveal a strong blue emission mainly from the TBC ligands.

  20. Aquachloridobis[5-(2-pyridyl-1H-tetrazolato-κN1]iron(III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Wang

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, [Fe(C6H4N52Cl(H2O], was synthesized by hydrothermal reaction of FeCl3 with 2-(1H-tetrazol-5-ylpyridine. The iron(III metal centre exhibits a distorted octahedral coordination geometry provided by four N atoms from two bidentate organic ligands, one water O atom and one chloride anion. The pyridine and tetrazole rings are nearly coplanar [dihedral angles = 4.32 (15 and 5.04 (14°]. In the crystal structure, intermolecular O—H...N hydrogen bonds link the complex molecules into a two-dimensional network parallel to (100.

  1. Losartan and its interaction with copper(II): biological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etcheverry, Susana B; Ferrer, Evelina G; Naso, Luciana; Barrio, Daniel A; Lezama, Luis; Rojo, Teófilo; Williams, Patricia A M

    2007-10-01

    Losartan, the potassium salt of 2-n-butyl-4-chloro-5-hydroxymethyl-1-[(2'-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)biphenyl-4-yl)methyl]imidazol, is an efficient antihypertensive drug. The vibrational FTIR and Raman spectra of Losartan (its anionic and protonated forms) are discussed. In addition, the copper(II) complex of Losartan was obtained and characterized as a microcrystalline powder. The metal center is bound to the ligand through the nitrogen atoms of the tetrazolate moiety as determined by vibrational spectroscopy. The compound is a dimer with the metal centers in a tetragonal distorted environment but the presence of a monomeric impurity has been determined by EPR spectroscopy. The antioxidant properties of the complex (superoxide dismutase mimetic activity) and its effect on the proliferation and morphology of two osteoblast-like cells in culture are reported. The new compound exerted more toxic effects on tumoral cells than the copper(II) ion and Losartan.

  2. Toxicologic Characterization of a Novel Explosive, Triaminoguanidinium-1-methyl-5-nitriminotetrazolate (TAG-MNT), in Female Rats and in vitro Assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    579-86. Maksay G (1993). Partial and full agonists/inverse agonists affect [35S]TBPS binding at different occupancies of central benzodiazepine ...tetrazoles are highly correlated with actions on GABA/ benzodiazepine /picrotoxin receptor complexes in brain. Life Sci., 35(14): 1439-1444. Stone WJ...www.aniara.com/ pdf /literature/ICT-ANIARA-MPF-PENTA- AD.pdf. pp. 1-28.

  3. Picomolar traces of americium(III) introduce drastic changes in the structural chemistry of terbium(III). A break in the ''gadolinium break''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, Jan M. [TU Wien, Atominstitut, Vienna (Austria); Mueller, Danny; Knoll, Christian; Wilkovitsch, Martin; Weinberger, Peter [TU Wien, Institute of Applied Synthetic Chemistry, Vienna (Austria); Giester, Gerald [University of Vienna, Institute of Mineralogy and Crystallography, Vienna (Austria); Ofner, Johannes; Lendl, Bernhard [TU Wien, Institute of Chemical Technologies and Analytics, Vienna (Austria); Steinhauser, Georg [Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Institute of Radioecology and Radiation Protection (Germany)

    2017-10-16

    The crystallization of terbium 5,5{sup '}-azobis[1H-tetrazol-1-ide] (ZT) in the presence of trace amounts (ca. 50 Bq, ca. 1.6 pmol) of americium results in 1) the accumulation of the americium tracer in the crystalline solid and 2) a material that adopts a different crystal structure to that formed in the absence of americium. Americium-doped [Tb(Am)(H{sub 2}O){sub 7}ZT]{sub 2} ZT.10 H{sub 2}O is isostructural to light lanthanide (Ce-Gd) 5,5{sup '}-azobis[1H-tetrazol-1-ide] compounds, rather than to the heavy lanthanide (Tb-Lu) 5,5{sup '}-azobis[1H-tetrazol-1-ide] (e.g., [Tb(H{sub 2}O){sub 8}]{sub 2}ZT{sub 3}.6 H{sub 2}O) derivatives. Traces of Am seem to force the Tb compound into a structure normally preferred by the lighter lanthanides, despite a 10{sup 8}-fold Tb excess. The americium-doped material was studied by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, vibrational spectroscopy, radiochemical neutron activation analysis, and scanning electron microscopy. In addition, the inclusion properties of terbium 5,5{sup '}-azobis[1H-tetrazol-1-ide] towards americium were quantified, and a model for the crystallization process is proposed. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. Theoretical studies on BTA-Metal (M=Ni, Cu) Complexes as High ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Metal complexes of Nickel and Copper with the dianion of bidentate chelating agent BTA [N,N- bis(1(2)H-tetrazole-5-yl)-amine] along with NH3 and NH2NO2 ligands were designed. A total of four metal complexes having the compositions such as M(BTA)(NH3)(NH2NO2) and M(BTA)(NH2NO2)2 where M is the.

  5. "Green" pyrotechnics: a chemists' challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhauser, Georg; Klapötke, Thomas M

    2008-01-01

    Fireworks are probably the application of chemistry which resonates best with the general public. However, fireworks and (civil and military) pyrotechnic applications cause environmental pollution and thus have given rise to the development of new, environmentally friendly pyrotechnic compounds and formulations. Nitrogen-rich energetic materials, such as the derivatives of tetrazoles and tetrazines, are about to revolutionize traditional pyrotechnic compositions. This Review summarizes the sources of pollution in current formulations and recent efforts toward "green" pyrotechnics.

  6. Synthesis and docking analysis of new heterocyclic system of tetrazolo[5',1':2,3][1,3,4]thiadiazepino [7,6-b]quinolines as aldose reductase inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Saadatmandzadeh

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: All of the best models formed strong hydrogen bonds with Trp 111 and Tyr 209 via tetrazole moiety. It was found that pi-pi interaction between Tyr 209, Trp 20 and His 110 side chain and quinolin moiety was one of the common factors in enzyme-inhibitor junction. It was found that both hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions are important in the structure and function of biological molecules, especially for inhibition in a complex.

  7. Synthesis crystal structure, photoluminescence and photocatalytic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this study the preparation and characterization of a zinc MOF which gives blue luminescence and photocatalytic activity have been described The reaction of 2cyanopyridine, Zn(NO3)2·4H2O and NaN3 yielded a new 3D Zn(II) coordination polymer {(2PTZ)2Zn}n (1), where 2PTZ=5(2pyridyl)tetrazolate via in situ [2+3] ...

  8. Nano indium oxide as a recyclable catalyst for the synthesis of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Synthesis of arylaminotetrazoles by the hydra- zoic acid. HN3, FeCl3-SiO2 and glacial HOAc, 1-(4-nitrophenyl)-. 5-amino-1H-tetrazole (isomer B) or a mixture of iso- mers (A + B) was obtained. The mechanism of the catalysis may originate from the nitrile group coordinating with the surface of the solid acid. The solid acid is ...

  9. SYNTHESIS OF C-GLYCOSYL AMINO ACIDS AS STABLE BUILDING BLOCKS FOR MODIFIED GLYCOPEPTIDE SYNTHESIS

    OpenAIRE

    ALDHOUN, MOHAMMAD MOUSA

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis, we have studied and synthesized new class of C-glycosly amino acids whose structure features a hetrocycle ring holding the carbohydrate and the amino acid fragments. Pyridine and tetrazole rings were used as hetrocycle linkers in this project. This class of C-glycosyl amino acids is of interest as new chealtors and as building building blocks for cotranslational glycopeptides synthesis. In the first part, C-Glycosylmethyl pyridylalanines were synthesized via therma...

  10. A 2D [Fe-II-bistetrazole] coordination polymer exhibiting spin-crossover properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quesada, Manuel; Prins, Ferry; Roubeau, Olivier; Gamez, Patrick; Teat, Simon J.; van Koningsbruggen, Petra J.; Haasnoot, Jaap G.; Reedijk, Jan

    2007-01-01

    The reaction of 1,3-bis(tetrazol-1-yl)-2-propanol (btzpol) with Fe(BF4)(2) center dot 6H(2)O in acetonitrile yields the remarkable 2D coordination polymer [Fe-II(btzpol)(1.8)(btzpol-OBF3)(1.2)](BF4)(0.8) center dot (H2O)(0.8)(CH3CN) (1). This compound has been structurally characterized using an

  11. Developing Ionic Liquid Know-How for the Design of Modular Functionality, Versatile Platforms, and New Synthetic Methodologies for Energetic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-05

    60 where the N-CH2CN groups may cyclize or polymerize upon heating to form thermally stable ring-containing or polymeric systems. Summary. In...assisted synthesis of imidazolium-tetrazolate bi- heterocyclic zwitterions 18 with variable alkyl bridge length 6. Synthesis, limitations, and thermal ... polymers that utilize azole building blocks; thus allowing multi- heterocycle design while retaining the properties of a liquid. Objective 3 was

  12. Novel Energetic Materials for Counter WMD Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    TNT. Thermal and hydrolytic stabilities are acceptable. Polymer salts ofN-vinyl triazolium monomeric salts were prepared by polymerization of the N...0 0 _, 0 •1. .1𔃿. ’SUBJECT TERMS ,. high energy heterocycles , pentafluorosulfanyl monomers and polymers , high nitrogen species, density, heat...Nitroimino tetrazoles were considerably more energetic than their nitroimino triazole counterparts; however, the triazoles are more stable thermally . In

  13. Syntheses, structures and tunable luminescence of lanthanide metal-organic frameworks based on azole-containing carboxylic acid ligand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dian; Rao, Xingtang; Yu, Jiancan; Cui, Yuanjing; Yang, Yu; Qian, Guodong

    2015-10-01

    Design and synthesis of a series of isostructural lanthanide metal-organic frameworks (LnMOFs) serving as phosphors by coordinate the H2TIPA (5-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)isophthalic acid) ligands and lanthanide ions is reported. The color of the luminescence can be tuned by adjusting the relative concentration of the lanthanide ions in the host framework GdTIPA, and near-pure-white light emission can be achieved.

  14. Radioiodinated fatty acid analogs for myocardial imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruyan, M.K.

    1993-01-01

    Fatty acids are the preferred substrate for the normoxic heart. About sixty percent of the energy required by the myocardium is provided by fatty acid [beta]-oxidation. Many scientists have focused on the alterations in fatty acid metabolism in the ischemic heart for the development of radiolabelled fatty acids for functional imaging of the heart. Three main categories of compounds were synthesized: tetrazoles (1 and 2), glycidic and [alpha]-methylene acids (3-5), and analogs of oleic acid (6,7 and 7A). The tetrazole group has a similar pKa and size to that of a carboxyl group; however, such fatty acid analogs cannot undergo normal fatty acid metabolism. Glycidic and [alpha]-methylene analogs are potential irreversible inhibitors of fatty acid metabolism. Oleic acid analogs were investigated to assess the affect of stereochemical consequences on biodistribution. The key intermediates in the synthesis of the target compounds were [omega]-nitrophenyl alkylcarboxylic acids and alcohols, which were made using a variety of cross-coupling reactions. The Wittig reaction, which was used in the synthesis of tetrazole 1 and glycidic acid 3, gave low yields of the cross-coupled products. The remaining target compounds were synthesized by condensation of appropriate RCu (CN) ZnI and substituted benzyl bromides or by Pd[sup II] catalyzed cross-coupling of substituted arylhalides with suitable alkynes. The latter two reactions produced much higher yields of the desired products. All of the target compounds were radiolabeled with [sup 125]I by various Cu(I) catalyzed radioiodine exchange procedures and were then subjected to tissue biodistribution (TD) studies in rats. Except for the 15-(4-iodophenyl)-2-methylene-pentadecanoic acid (5), all of the fatty acid analogs failed to surpass clinically-used 15-(4-iodophenyl)pentadecanoic acid (IPPA) in their ability to be taken up and retained by the rat myocardium.

  15. Reassessment of the unique mode of binding between angiotensin II type 1 receptor and their blockers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-Ichiro Miura

    Full Text Available While the molecular structures of angiotensin II (Ang II type 1 (AT1 receptor blockers (ARBs are very similar, they are also slightly different. Although each ARB has been shown to exhibit a unique mode of binding to AT1 receptor, different positions of the AT1 receptor have been analyzed and computational modeling has been performed using different crystal structures for the receptor as a template and different kinds of software. Therefore, we systematically analyzed the critical positions of the AT1 receptor, Tyr(113, Tyr(184, Lys(199, His(256 and Gln(257 using a mutagenesis study, and subsequently performed computational modeling of the binding of ARBs to AT1 receptor using CXCR4 receptor as a new template and a single version of software. The interactions between Tyr(113 in the AT1 receptor and the hydroxyl group of olmesartan, between Lys(199 and carboxyl or tetrazole groups, and between His(256 or Gln(257 and the tetrazole group were studied. The common structure, a tetrazole group, of most ARBs similarly bind to Lys(199, His(256 and Gln(257 of AT1 receptor. Lys(199 in the AT1 receptor binds to the carboxyl group of EXP3174, candesartan and azilsartan, whereas oxygen in the amidecarbonyl group of valsartan may bind to Lys(199. The benzimidazole portion of telmisartan may bind to a lipophilic pocket that includes Tyr(113. On the other hand, the n-butyl group of irbesartan may bind to Tyr(113. In conclusion, we confirmed that the slightly different structures of ARBs may be critical for binding to AT1 receptor and for the formation of unique modes of binding.

  16. 1,4-Diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (DABCO 5-aminotetrazolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herwig Schottenberger

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structures of four salts of 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (DABCO and 5-aminotetrazole are described. Anhydrous 1:1 (Pbca, Rgt = 0.041 and 1:2 (P, Rgt = 0.038 salts form hydrogen-bonded layers of anions and cations. The monohydrate of the 1:1 compound (P21/c, Rgt = 0.038 shows infinite chains of DABCO cations and an undulated layer of anions and water molecules. The octahydrate of the 3:2 compound (P21/c, Rgt = 0.042 features DABCO triples and clusters of four tetrazolate ions in a network of water molecules.

  17. Multicolour optical coding from a series of luminescent lanthanide complexes with a unique antenna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartenberg, Nicolas; Raccurt, Olivier; Bourgeat-Lami, Elodie; Imbert, Daniel; Mazzanti, Marinella

    2013-03-04

    The bis-tetrazolate-pyridine ligand H(2)pytz sensitises efficiently the visible and/or near-IR luminescence emission of ten lanthanide cations (Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb). The Ln(III) complexes present sizeable quantum yields in both domains with a single excitation source. The wide range of possible colour combinations in water, organic solvents and the solid state makes the complexes very attractive for labelling and encoding. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Antinociceptive Effect of Some Biuret Derivatives on Formalin Test in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Adibpour, Neda; Poornajjari, Ali; Khodayar, Mohammad Javad; Rezaee, Saeed

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The current study was designed to investigate the antinociceptive effects of several biuret derivatives with N, N`-diphenyl, N-phenyl-N`-alkylphenyl, N,N`-bis alkylphenyl, 2-methylquinoline-4-yl, benzo[d]thiazol-2-ylthio and (1-phenyl-1H-tetrazol-5-yl)thio substituents on the formalin-evoked pain in mice. Methods: Antinociceptive activity of the nine biurets derivatives were assessed at different doses in mice using formalin test and the results were compared with those of indomet...

  19. Diaquabis[5-(2-pyridyltetrazolato-κ2N1,N5]iron(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Hu

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The title complex, [Fe(C6H4N52(H2O2], was synthesized by the reaction of ferrous sulfate with 5-(2-pyridyl-2H-tetrazole (HL. The FeII atom, located on a crystallographic center of inversion, is coordinated by four N-atom donors from two planar trans-related deprotonated L ligands and two O atoms from two axial water molecules in a distorted octahedral geometry. The FeII mononuclear units are further connected by intermolecular O—H...N and C—H...O hydrogen-bonding interactions, forming a three-dimensional framework.

  20. Synthesis and P1' SAR exploration of potent macrocyclic tissue factor-factor VIIa inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ladziata, Vladimir (Uladzimir); Glunz, Peter W.; Zou†, Yan; Zhang, Xiaojun; Jiang, Wen; Jacutin-Porte, Swanee; Cheney, Daniel L.; Wei, Anzhi; Luettgen, Joseph M.; Harper, Timothy M.; Wong, Pancras C.; Seiffert, Dietmar; Wexler, Ruth R.; Priestley, E. Scott (BMS)

    2016-10-01

    Selective tissue factor-factor VIIa complex (TF-FVIIa) inhibitors are viewed as promising compounds for treating thrombotic disease. In this contribution, we describe multifaceted exploratory SAR studies of S1'-binding moieties within a macrocyclic chemotype aimed at replacing cyclopropyl sulfone P1' group. Over the course of the optimization efforts, the 1-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)cyclopropane P1' substituent emerged as an improved alternative, offering increased metabolic stability and lower clearance, while maintaining excellent potency and selectivity.

  1. Synthesis of Phosphorus Based Haptens for Monoclonal Catalytic Antibody Production. Phase 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-03-22

    menthyl)phosphine (30) by l-(-)- menthol (31) in the presence of 1H-tetrazole. Treatment tN(i-Pr) 2 CH 3 - -P N(i’-Pr)2 HOH (30) (31) (32) 0 (19...those engaged in industrial production of insecticides, and the general public who might be accidently exposed to toxic organophosphorus compounds. Such a...of bis(N,N-diisopropylamine)(methyl)phosphine (30) (1.71gm, 6.904mmol) in dry dichloromethane (50ml) were added l-(-)- menthol (31) (1.1gm, 7.04mmol

  2. Diaquabis[5-(1-oxidopyridin-1-ium-2-yl-1,2,3,4-tetrazolido]manganese(II dihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Gao

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, [Mn(C6H4N5O2(H2O2]·2H2O, the MnII ion is situated on an inversion centre and is coordinated by the O and N atoms of two bis-chelating 5-(2-pyridyl-1-oxidetetrazolate ligands and two O atoms of two water molecules in a distorted octahedral geometry. All the water H atoms are involved in O—H...N and O—H...O hydrogen bonds with uncoordinated water O atoms and tetrazole N atoms, which link the molecules into a three-dimensional network.

  3. An approach to the stereoselective synthesis of Sp-dinucleoside phosphorothioates using phosphotriester chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosstick, R; Williams, D M

    1987-12-10

    An approach to the stereoselective synthesis of Sp- dinucleoside phosphorothioates has been investigated which utilizes phosphotriester chemistry. The stereoselectivity of internucleotide bond formation between N4-benzoyl-5'-O-(4,4'-dimethoxytrityl)-2'-deoxycytidine-3'-O-(S2-cyano-e thyl) phosphorothioate (3) and 3'-O-acetylthymidine has been studied using either mesitylenesulphonyl-5-(pyridin-2-yl)tetrazole (MSPy) or 1-mesitylenesulphonyl-3-nitro-1,2,4-triazole (MSNT) as the activating agent. The removal of the cyanoethyl group from the protected dinucleoside phosphorothioate has been studied, and conditions are reported which provide rapid deprotection without concomittant desulphurisation.

  4. Crystal structures of (Z)-5-[2-(benzo[b]thio-phen-2-yl)-1-(3,5-di-meth-oxy-phen-yl)ethen-yl]-1H-tetra-zole and (Z)-5-[2-(benzo[b]thio-phen-3-yl)-1-(3,4,5-tri-meth-oxy-phen-yl)ethen-yl]-1H-tetra-zole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penthala, Narsimha Reddy; Yadlapalli, Jaishankar K B; Parkin, Sean; Crooks, Peter A

    2016-05-01

    (Z)-5-[2-(Benzo[b]thio-phen-2-yl)-1-(3,5-di-meth-oxy-phen-yl)ethen-yl]-1H-tetrazole methanol monosolvate, C19H16N4O2S·CH3OH, (I), was prepared by the reaction of (Z)-3-(benzo[b]thio-phen-2-yl)-2-(3,5-di-meth-oxy-phen-yl)acrylo-nitrile with tri-butyl-tin azide via a [3 + 2]cyclo-addition azide condensation reaction. The structurally related compound (Z)-5-[2-(benzo[b]thio-phen-3-yl)-1-(3,4,5-tri-meth-oxy-phen-yl)ethen-yl]-1H-tetra-zole, C20H18N4O3S, (II), was prepared by the reaction of (Z)-3-(benzo[b]thio-phen-3-yl)-2-(3,4,5-tri-meth-oxy-phen-yl)acrylo-nitrile with tri-butyl-tin azide. Crystals of (I) have two mol-ecules in the asymmetric unit (Z' = 2), whereas crystals of (II) have Z' = 1. The benzo-thio-phene rings in (I) and (II) are almost planar, with r.m.s deviations from the mean plane of 0.0084 and 0.0037 Å in (I) and 0.0084 Å in (II). The tetra-zole rings of (I) and (II) make dihedral angles with the mean planes of the benzo-thio-phene rings of 88.81 (13) and 88.92 (13)° in (I), and 60.94 (6)° in (II). The di-meth-oxy-phenyl and tri-meth-oxy-phenyl rings make dihedral angles with the benzo-thio-phene rings of 23.91 (8) and 24.99 (8)° in (I) and 84.47 (3)° in (II). In both structures, mol-ecules are linked into hydrogen-bonded chains. In (I), these chains involve both tetra-zole and methanol, and are parallel to the b axis. In (II), mol-ecules are linked into chains parallel to the a axis by N-H⋯N hydrogen bonds between adjacent tetra-zole rings.

  5. Sulforaphane Analogues with Heterocyclic Moieties: Syntheses and Inhibitory Activities against Cancer Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye-Hui Shi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that sulforaphane (SFN selectively inhibits the growth of ALDH+ breast cancer stem-like cells.Herein, a series of SFN analogues were synthesized and evaluated against breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and SUM-159, and the leukemia stem cell-like cell line KG-1a. These SFN analogues were characterized by the replacement of the methyl group with heterocyclic moieties, and the replacement of the sulfoxide group with sulfide or sulfone. A growth inhibitory assay indicated that the tetrazole analogs 3d, 8d and 9d were significantly more potent than SFN against the three cancer cell lines. Compound 14c, the water soluble derivative of tetrazole sulfide 3d, demonstrated higher potency against KG-1a cell line than 3d. SFN, 3d and 14c significantly induced the activation of caspase-3, and reduced the ALDH+ subpopulation in the SUM159 cell line, while the marketed drug doxrubicin(DOX increased the ALDH+ subpopulation.

  6. A unique zinc-organic framework constructed through in situ ligand synthesis for conversion of CO2 under mild conditions and as a luminescence sensor for Cr2O72-/CrO42.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Tian-Qun; Dong, Jie; Gao, Hong-Ling; Cui, Jian-Zhong; Zhao, Bin

    2017-10-17

    A novel zinc-organic framework, {[Zn3(tza)2(μ2-OH)2(H2O)2]·H2O}n (1) (H2tza = 1H-tetrazolate-5-acetic acid), was synthesized through an in situ generated tetrazole ligand under hydrothermal conditions. In compound 1, tza2- ligands and Zn2+ are interlinked to form 2D layers, which are further pillared through μ2-OH groups to generate a 3D framework. Thermogravimetric analysis and powder X-ray diffraction confirm that 1 has high thermal stability, pH stability and solvent stability. Catalytic studies show that 1 exhibits excellent catalytic ability for the cycloaddition of CO2 with epoxides under 50 °C and 0.1 MPa. Importantly, 1 can be reused at least six times. Furthermore, luminescence investigations indicate that 1 can serve as a recyclable luminescence sensor to efficiently detect Cr2O72-/CrO42-, and the detection limit can reach 10-6 mol L-1 and 4 × 10-6 mol L-1, respectively.

  7. New anthracene-based-phtalocyanine semi-conducting materials: Synthesis and optoelectronic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahouech, M.S. [Laboratoire de Chimie Organique et Analytique, Institut Supérieur de l' Education et de la Formation Continue (Université El Manar), Bardo 2000 (Tunisia); Hriz, K., E-mail: khaledhriz@gmail.com [Laboratoire des Interfaces et Matériaux Avancés (LIMA), Faculté des Sciences de Monastir (Université de Monastir), Bd. de l' Environnement, Monastir 5019 (Tunisia); Touaiti, S.; Bassem, J. [Laboratoire de Chimie Organique et Analytique, Institut Supérieur de l' Education et de la Formation Continue (Université El Manar), Bardo 2000 (Tunisia)

    2016-03-15

    Highlights: • Synthesis of tow phtalocyanines based on the anthracene and tetrazole. • Semi-conducting supramolecular material. • Good PL quantum yield. • The film morphology of the phtalocynine containing tetrazole group enhanced the carrier mobility. - Abstract: A new anthracene-based semi-conducting phtalocyanines AnPc and AnPc-Tr were synthesized in solvent-free conditions. The supramolecular structure of these compounds was confirmed by NMR and FT-IR spectroscopies. Their optical properties were investigated by UV–vis and photoluminescence spectroscopies. The optical gaps were estimated from the absorption-onsets films, and the obtained values were of 1.50 eV and 1.47 eV for AnPc-Tr and AnPc respectively. In solid state, a weaker π–π-interactions of conjugated systems were obtained in the case of AnPc-Tr in comparison with AnPc. This behavior was explained by steric hindrance of triazol groups, which decrease the planarity of macromolecular structure. The HOMO and LUMO levels were estimated using cyclic voltammetry analysis; two phtalocyanine derivatives show a comparable ionization potential. The phtalacyanine containing triazole groups (AnPc-Tr) reveals a higher electron affinity in comparison with AnPc. Single-layer diode devices were fabricated and showed relatively low turn-on voltages.

  8. Identification of highly selective and potent orexin receptor 1 antagonists derived from a dual orexin receptor 1/2 antagonist based on the structural framework of pyrazoylethylbenzamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futamura, Aya; Nozawa, Dai; Araki, Yuko; Tamura, Yunoshin; Tokura, Seiken; Kawamoto, Hiroshi; Tokumaru, Yuichi; Kakihara, Sora; Aoki, Takeshi; Ohtake, Norikazu

    2017-10-15

    The design, synthesis, and structure activity relationships of the novel class of pyrazolylethylbenzamide orexin receptor 1-selective antagonists are described. Further derivatization of the prototype dual orexin receptor 1/2 antagonist lead (1) by installing a (S)-methyl group into the ethyl linker moiety between the pyrazole ring and benzamide resulted in an increase of the antagonist potency against orexin receptor 1/2 receptors. Optimization of the benzamide and pyrazole parts of compounds 2 and 9b led to the identification of N-ethyl-5-fluoro-N-{(2S)-1-[5-(4-fluorophenyl)-2H-tetrazol-2-yl]propan-2-yl}-2-(pyrimidin-2-yl)benzamide (24), which exhibited excellent antagonistic activity against orexin receptor 1 with an IC50 of 2.01nM and a 265-fold selectivity for orexin receptor 1 over orexin receptor 2. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Synthesis and methemoglobinemia-inducing properties of benzocaine isosteres designed as humane rodenticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conole, Daniel; Beck, Thorsten M; Jay-Smith, Morgan; Tingle, Malcolm D; Eason, Charles T; Brimble, Margaret A; Rennison, David

    2014-04-01

    A number of isosteres (oxadiazoles, thiadiazoles, tetrazoles and diazines) of benzocaine were prepared and evaluated for their capacity to induce methemoglobinemia-with a view to their possible application as humane pest control agents. It was found that an optimal lipophilicity for the formation of methemoglobin (metHb) in vitro existed within each series, with 1,2,4-oxadiazole 3 (metHb%=61.0±3.6) and 1,3,4-oxadiazole 10 (metHb%=52.4±0.9) demonstrating the greatest activity. Of the 5 candidates (compounds 3, 10, 11, 13 and 23) evaluated in vivo, failure to induce a lethal end-point at doses of 120mg/kg was observed in all cases. Inadequate metabolic stability, particularly towards hepatic enzymes such as the CYPs, was postulated as one reason for their failure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Synthesis, characterization and biological activity of some novel benzimidazole derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahamed A. Jafar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The reaction of o-phenylenediamine with anthranillic acid yield compound 2-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-ylaniline (AOP. The compound AOP was condensed with aromatic acid chlorides in the presence of pyridine to get compound N-(2-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-ylphenyl benzamide (AB. Further it to then treated with PCl5 to get an intermediate compound then reacted with NaN3 to yield compound 2-(2-(5-phenyl-1H-tetrazol-1-ylphenyl-1H-benzo[d]imidazole (ABC. The compounds were synthesized in good yields and their structures were confirmed by IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR spectral data and elemental analysis. Antimicrobial activity against bacteria and fungi was studied. The results of preliminary biological tests showed that of these compounds possess good biological activities.

  11. Synthesis, characterization and biological activity of some novel benzimidazole derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahamed A. Jafar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The reaction of o-phenylenediamine with anthranillic acid yield compound 2-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-ylaniline (AOP. The compound AOP was condensed with aromatic acid chlorides in the presence of pyridine to get compound N-(2-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-ylphenyl benzamide (AB. Further it to then treated with PCl5 to get an intermediate compound then reacted with NaN3 to yield compound 2-(2-(5-phenyl-1H-tetrazol-1-ylphenyl-1H-benzo[d]imidazole (ABC. The compounds were synthesized in good yields and their structures were confirmed by IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR spectral data and elemental analysis. Antimicrobial activity against bacteria and fungi was studied. The results of preliminary biological tests showed that of these compounds possess good biological activities.

  12. Molecular and supramolecular characterization of Ni(II)/losartan hydrophobic nanoprecipitate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Lorrayne O.; Goulart, Pedro P.; Correa, Jéssyca L.; Abrishamkar, Afshin; Da Silva, Jeferson G.; Mangrich, Antonio S.; de França, Amanda A.; Denadai, Ângelo M. L.

    2014-09-01

    In this work, a contribution to understanding of the formation of metal(II)/losartan hydrophobic nanoprecipitate is reported. A Ni(II)/Los system was prepared and characterized in solid state and in solution. Solubility studies confirmed the formation of hydrophobic precipitate. Obtained spectroscopic data suggest a sort of coordination between tetrazolic ring as well as OH, and a D4h geometry around the nickel cation. Thermodynamic studies demonstrated that complexation is a stepwise process, with equal enthalpic and entropic contributions for free energy of complexation. DLS and zeta potential titrations indicate the formation of stable nanoparticles of size and charge dependent on the molar ratio. Finally, rheological studies demonstrate a Bingham plastic behavior for Ni(II)/Los suspension.

  13. Tunable rare-earth fcu-MOFs: A platform for systematic enhancement of CO2 adsorption energetics and uptake

    KAUST Repository

    Xue, Dongxu

    2013-05-22

    A series of fcu-MOFs based on rare-earth (RE) metals and linear fluorinated/nonfluorinated, homo/heterofunctional ligands were targeted and synthesized. This particular fcu-MOF platform was selected because of its unique structural characteristics combined with the ability/potential to dictate and regulate its chemical properties (e.g., tuning of the electron-rich RE metal ions and high localized charge density, a property arising from the proximal positioning of polarizing tetrazolate moieties and fluoro-groups that decorate the exposed inner surfaces of the confined conical cavities). These features permitted a systematic gas sorption study to evaluate/elucidate the effects of distinctive parameters on CO2-MOF sorption energetics. Our study supports the importance of the synergistic effect of exposed open metal sites and proximal highly localized charge density toward materials with enhanced CO2 sorption energetics. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  14. Syntheses, structures and tunable luminescence of lanthanide metal-organic frameworks based on azole-containing carboxylic acid ligand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Dian; Rao, Xingtang; Yu, Jiancan; Cui, Yuanjing, E-mail: cuiyj@zju.edu.cn; Yang, Yu; Qian, Guodong, E-mail: gdqian@zju.edu.cn

    2015-10-15

    Design and synthesis of a series of isostructural lanthanide metal-organic frameworks (LnMOFs) serving as phosphors by coordinate the H{sub 2}TIPA (5-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)isophthalic acid) ligands and lanthanide ions is reported. The color of the luminescence can be tuned by adjusting the relative concentration of the lanthanide ions in the host framework GdTIPA, and near-pure-white light emission can be achieved. - Graphical abstract: Lanthanide metal-organic frameworks (LnMOFs) with tunable luminescence were synthesized using an azole-containing carboxylic acid as ligand. - Highlights: • A series of isostructural LnMOFs serving as phosphor is reported. • We model the GdTIPA: Tb{sup 3+}, Eu{sup 3+} which can tune color and emit white light. • The scheme and mechanism of luminescent LnMOFs are also presented and discussed.

  15. Chlorine-Free Red-Burning Pyrotechnics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatini, Jesse J; Koch, Ernst-Christian; Poret, Jay C; Moretti, Jared D; Harbol, Seth M

    2015-09-07

    The development of a red, chlorine-free pyrotechnic illuminant of high luminosity and spectral purity was investigated. Red-light emission based solely on transient SrOH(g) has been achieved by using either 5-amino-1H-tetrazole or hexamine to deoxidize the combustion flame of a Mg/Sr(NO3 )2 /Epon-binder composition and reduce the amount of both condensed and gaseous SrO, which emits undesirable orange-red light. The new formulations were found to possess high thermal onset temperatures. Avoiding chlorine in these formulations eliminates the risk of the formation of PCBs, PCDDs, and PCDFs. This finding, hence, will have a great impact on both military pyrotechnics and commercial firework sectors. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Discovery and evaluation of potent P1 aryl heterocycle-based thrombin inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Mary Beth; Barrow, James C; Glass, Kristen L; Lundell, George F; Newton, Christina L; Pellicore, Janetta M; Rittle, Kenneth E; Selnick, Harold G; Stauffer, Kenneth J; Vacca, Joseph P; Williams, Peter D; Bohn, Dennis; Clayton, Franklin C; Cook, Jacquelynn J; Krueger, Julie A; Kuo, Lawrence C; Lewis, S Dale; Lucas, Bobby J; McMasters, Daniel R; Miller-Stein, Cynthia; Pietrak, Beth L; Wallace, Audrey A; White, Rebecca B; Wong, Bradley; Yan, Youwei; Nantermet, Philippe G

    2004-06-03

    In an effort to discover potent, clinically useful thrombin inhibitors, a rapid analogue synthetic approach was used to explore the P(1) region. Various benzylamines were coupled to a pyridine/pyrazinone P(2)-P(3) template. One compound with an o-thiadiazole benzylic substitution was found to have a thrombin K(i) of 0.84 nM. A study of ortho-substituted five-membered-ring heterocycles was undertaken and subsequently demonstrated that the o-triazole and tetrazole rings were optimal. Combination of these potent P(1) aryl heterocycles with a variety of P(2)-P(3) groups produced a compound with an extraordinary thrombin inhibitory activity of 1.4 pM. It is hoped that this potency enhancement in P(1) will allow for more diversification in the P(2)-P(3) region to ultimately address additional pharmacological concerns.

  17. Hydrolytic degradation of azimsulfuron, a sulfonylurea herbicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschin, Giovanna; D'Agostina, Alessandra; Antonioni, Cristina; Locati, Daniela; Arnoldi, Anna

    2007-07-01

    The chemical degradation of the herbicide azimsulfuron was investigated in aqueous solutions at different pH values. The hydrolysis rate, determined by HPLC analyses, was pH dependent and was much faster in acidic than in neutral or weakly basic conditions. The metabolites formed at different pH values were compared with standards when possible or isolated and identified using ESI-LC-MS/MS, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR. The two main products of hydrolysis in mild acidic solution were identified as 2-amino-4,6-dimethoxy-pyrimidine and 2-methyl-4-(2-methyl-2H-tetrazol-5-yl)-2H-pyrazole-3-sulfonamide, both produced as a result of the sulfonylurea bridge cleavage. Under basic conditions, a new product, a substituted 2-pyrimidinamine, deriving from the contraction of the sulfonylurea bridge, was isolated and completely characterized for the first time.

  18. Synthesis and biological activities of piperazine derivatives as antimicrobial and antifungal agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant R. Suryavanshi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Apart from thiazole, benzimidazole, and tetrazole family, some of the piperazine analogs also show significant pharmacophoric activities. The synthesis of piperazine through intermediate 3 occurred via coupling of substituted benzenethiol with chloro-nitrobenzene. The nitro group of the isolated intermediate was reduced via an iron-acetic acid system. The aniline intermediate was cyclized with bis(2-chloroethylamine hydrochloride to obtain piperazine moiety. The synthesized substituted piperazine derivatives were screened for antibacterial and antifungal activities. The antibacterial activity was tested against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptomyces epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli, and antifungal activity was tested against Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus fumigatus. As a result, many of the synthesized compounds showed significant antimicrobial and antifungal properties.

  19. FLUORESCENT OLIGONUCLEOTIDES CONTAINING A NOVEL PERYLENE 2 '-AMINO-alpha-L-LNA MONOMER: SYNTHESIS AND ANALYTICAL POTENTIAL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astakhova, I. V.; Kumar, T. S.; Wengel, J.

    2011-01-01

    efficiency of the resulting perylene-2'-amino-alpha-L-LNA monomer (T*) into synthetic oligonucleotides was significantly improved by replacement of the typically used 1H-tetrazole activator with pyridine hydrochloride. Generally, oligonucleotides containing monomer T* showed high binding affinity towards...... incorporations of monomers T* was quenched (quantum yield Phi(F) = 0.21) relative to duplexes of this probe with complementary DNA and RNA (Phi(F) = 0.42 and 0.35, respectively). On the contrary, a strong fluorescence quenching upon target binding was demonstrated by two short oligonucleotides of analogues...... sequences containing monomers T* at 5'- and 3'-terminal positions. We explain the hybridization-induced light-up effect observed for double-labeled probe by a reduction of fluorescence quenching due to precise positioning of the fluorophores within the double-stranded complexes. Furthermore, we propose...

  20. Design of pentapeptidic BACE1 inhibitors with carboxylic acid bioisosteres at P1' and P4 positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagad, Harichandra D; Hamada, Yoshio; Nguyen, Jeffrey-Tri; Hamada, Takashi; Abdel-Rahman, Hamdy; Yamani, Abdellah; Nagamine, Ayaka; Ikari, Hayato; Igawa, Naoto; Hidaka, Koushi; Sohma, Youhei; Kimura, Tooru; Kiso, Yoshiaki

    2010-05-01

    We previously reported potent BACE1 inhibitors KMI-420 and KMI-570 possessing a hydroxymethylcarbonyl isostere as a substrate transition-state mimic. Acidic moieties at the P(1)(') and P(4) positions of KMI inhibitors are thought to be unfavorable in terms of membrane permeability across the blood-brain barrier. Herein, we replaced acidic moieties at the P(4) position with hydrogen bond accepting groups and acidic moieties at the P(1)(') position with less acidic and similar molecular-size moieties (carboxylic acid or tetrazole bioisosteres). These inhibitors exhibited improved BACE1 inhibitory activities and a thorough quantitative structure-activity relationship study was performed. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Novel BACE1 inhibitors with a non-acidic heterocycle at the P1' position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kenji; Hamada, Yoshio; Nguyen, Jeffrey-Tri; Kiso, Yoshiaki

    2013-11-01

    We have reported potent peptidic and non-peptidic BACE1 inhibitors with a hydroxymethylcarbonyl (HMC) isostere as a substrate transition-state mimic. However, our potent inhibitors possess a tetrazole ring at the P1' position. It is desirable that central nervous system (CNS) drugs do not possess an acidic moiety. In this study, we synthesized non-acidic BACE1 inhibitors with heterocyclic derivatives at the P1' position. KMI-1764 (27) exhibited potent inhibitory activity (IC50=27nM). Interestingly, these non-acidic inhibitors tended to follow the quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) equation and interacted with BACE1-Arg235 in the binding model. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Fluorescent guanosine-nucleotide analogs suitable for photoaffinity-labeling experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, G; Kaleja, R

    1976-06-01

    The synthesis and properties of strongly fluorescent derivative of inosine and its nucleotides are described. Reaction of 2-chloro-inosinic acid with sodium azide leads to a product bearing the tetrazole ring between position 2 and 3. Methylation at N1 was effected with dimethyl sulfate. The corresponding nucleosides and their 5'-triphosphates were also prepared. Only the non-methylated series is at equilibrium with small concentrations of their azido forms, and can be photolyzed by wavelengths above 300 nm. Both series are strongly fluorescent, their emission and excitation fluorescence spectra, as well as their quantum yields were measured. The nucleoside 5'-triphosphates are able to initiate and sustain polymerization of porcine brain tubulin.

  3. A nanosized {Ag@Ag12} "molecular windmill" templated by polyoxometalates anions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Yang, Weiting; Zhu, Wei; Guan, Xingang; Xie, Zhigang; Sun, Zhong-Ming

    2014-11-03

    Reaction of multidentate 5-(4-imidazol-1-yl-phenyl)-2H-tetrazole (L) ligand with Ag(I) ions in the existence of H3PW12O40 as anionic template under hydrothermal conditions results in tridecanuclear silver cluster-polyoxometalates hybrid: {Ag13L12}{PW12O40}4·30H2O (1). X-ray single crystal diffraction analysis indicates that the main structural feature of 1 is a nanosized molecular windmill-shaped polynuclear Ag cluster with intriguing {M@M12}-type cuboctahedral topology. The as-synthesized compound exhibits effective photocatalytic activity in the photodegradation of Rhodamine-B (RhB) and antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, respectively.

  4. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Novel 5,7-Dichloro-1,3-benzoxazole Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. D. Jayanna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new class of 5,7-dichloro-1,3-benzoxazole derivatives 4–11 were synthesized by fusing 5,7-dichloro-2-hydrazino-1,3-benzoxazole 3 nucleus with aliphatic acids, active methylene compounds, and with selected esters to form heterocyclic ring systems like 1,2,4-triazoles, pyrazoles, and triazine moieties. The compound 3 on diazotization reaction affords the tetrazole compound. The synthesized compounds were characterized by 1H NMR, IR, Mass, and 13C NMR spectral data and screened for cytotoxic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and antilipase activities. The compounds 4, 5, and 8 have shown significant antimicrobial activities, whereas compounds 6 and 8 have been emerged as leading cytotoxic agents. The compounds 9, 10, and 11 were found to be strong enzyme inhibitors.

  5. The Photochemistry of Benzotriazole Derivatives. Part 2: Photolysis of 1-Substituted Benzotriazole Arylhydrazones: New Route to Phenanthridin-6-yl-2-phenyldiazines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nouria A. Al-Awadi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Irradiation of 1-substituted benzotriazole arylhydrazones 3a–c, 4a,b and 5a,b with a 16 W low pressure mercury arc-lamp (254 nm for 24 h gave phenanthridin-6-yl-2-phenyldiazines 9a–c, phenanthridin-6(5H-ones 10a–c, 1-anilinobenzimidazoles 11a–c, 2-aryl-1H-benzimidazoles 12a–c, 1-arylamino-1H-benzimidazol-2-carboxylic acid ethyl esters 14a,b, 1-aryl-1H, 9H-benzo [4,5][1,2,3] triazolo[1,2-a]tetrazole-3-carboxylic acid ethyl esters 16a,b, 1-arylamino-2-benzoylbenzimidazoles 18a,b and 2-benzoylbenzoxazole 21.

  6. Bioisosteric modifications of 2-arylureidobenzoic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valgeirsson, Jon; Nielsen, Elsebet O; Peters, Dan

    2004-01-01

    of the AUBAs with other structurally related linkers. Replacing the acid with neutral substituents led to inactive compounds in all instances, showing that an acidic moiety is necessary for activity. Replacing the carboxylic moiety in 2a with a sulfonic acid (5c) or a tetrazole ring (5d) improved the potency...... at GluR5 receptors (compounds 5c and 5d showed IC(50) values of 1.5 and 2.0 muM, respectively, compared to compound 2a with IC(50) = 4.8 muM). Compound 5c did not show improved in vivo activity in the ATPA rigidity test compared to 2a, whereas compound 5d was 4 times more potent than 2a. All compounds...

  7. Novel Conformationally Constrained Analogues of Agomelatine as New Melatoninergic Ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marouan Rami

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Novel conformationally restricted analogues of agomelatine were synthesized and pharmacologically evaluated at MT1 and MT2 melatoninergic receptors. Replacement of the N-acetyl side chain of agomelatine by oxathiadiazole-2-oxide (compound 3, oxadiazole-5(4H-one (compound 4, tetrazole (compound 5, oxazolidinone (compound 7a, pyrrolidinone (compound 7b, imidazolidinedione (compound 12, thiazole (compounds 13 and 14 and isoxazole moieties (compound 15 led to a decrease of the melatoninergic binding affinities, particularly at MT1. Compounds 7a and 7b exhibiting nanomolar affinity towards the MT2 receptors subtypes have shown the most interesting pharmacological results of this series with the appearance of a weak MT2-selectivity.

  8. Preparation and Characterization some New of Naproxen Drug Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasan abdul Razzaq Mahmood

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this research four steps of the new derivatives of Naproxen drug have been made which are known as a high medicinal effectiveness; the first step involved converting Naproxen into the corresponding ester (A by reaction Naproxen with methanol absolute in presence H2SO4. While the second step involved treatment methyl Naproxen ester (A with hydrazine hydrate 80% in presence of ethanol .The third reaction requires synthesis of Schiff bases (C1-C10 by condensation. of Naproxen hydrazide (B with many substituted aromatic aldehydes . Finally, the fourth step synthesized new tetrazole derivatives ( D1- D10 by the reaction of the prepared Schiff bases (in the third step with Sodium azide in THF as a solvent .The prepared compounds were characterized by physical properties ,(FT-IR ,UV, and somewhat of them by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR spectroscopy

  9. NMR investigation and theoretical calculations of the solvent effect on the conformation of valsartan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chashmniam, Saeed; Tafazzoli, Mohsen

    2017-11-01

    Structure and conformational properties of valsartan were studied by advanced NMR techniques and quantum calculation methods. Potential energy scanning using B3LYP/6-311++g** and B3LYP-D3/6-311++g** methods were performed and four conformers (V1-V4) at minimum points of PES diagram were observed. According to the NMR spectra in acetone-d6, there are two conformers (M and m) with m/M = 0.52 ratio simultaneously and energy barriers of the two conformers were predicted from chemical shifts and multiplicities. While, intramolecular hydrogen bond at tetrazole ring and carboxylic groups prevent the free rotation on N6sbnd C11 bond in M-conformer, this bond rotates freely in m-conformer. On the other hand, intramolecular hydrogen bond at carbonyl and carboxylic acid can be observed at m-conformer. So, different intramolecular hydrogen bond is the reason for the stability of both M and m structures. Quite interestingly, 1H NMR spectra in CDCl3 show two distinct conformers (N and n) with unequal ratio which are differ from M-m conformers. Also, intramolecular hydrogen bond seven-member ring involving five-membered tetrazole ring and carboxylic acid group observed in both N and n-conformers Solvent effect, by using a set of polar and non-polar solvents including DMSO-d6, methanol-d4, benzene-d6, THF-d8, nitromethane-d3, methylene chloride-d2 and acetonitrile-d3 were investigated. NMR parameters include chemical shifts and spin-spin coupling constants were obtained from a set of 2D NMR spectra (H-H COSY, HMQC and HMBC). For this purpose, several DFT functionals from LDA, GGA and hybrid categories were used which the hybrid method showed better agreement with experiment values.

  10. Unique binding behavior of the recently approved angiotensin II receptor blocker azilsartan compared with that of candesartan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Shin-ichiro; Okabe, Atsutoshi; Matsuo, Yoshino; Karnik, Sadashiva S; Saku, Keijiro

    2013-02-01

    The angiotensin II type 1 (AT(1)) receptor blocker (ARB) candesartan strongly reduces blood pressure (BP) in patients with hypertension and has been shown to have cardioprotective effects. A new ARB, azilsartan, was recently approved and has been shown to provide a more potent 24-h sustained antihypertensive effect than candesartan. However, the molecular interactions of azilsartan with the AT(1) receptor that could explain its strong BP-lowering activity are not yet clear. To address this issue, we examined the binding affinities of ARBs for the AT(1) receptor and their inverse agonist activity toward the production of inositol phosphate (IP), and we constructed docking models for the interactions between ARBs and the receptor. Azilsartan, unlike candesartan, has a unique moiety, a 5-oxo-1,2,4-oxadiazole, in place of a tetrazole ring. Although the results regarding the binding affinities of azilsartan and candesartan demonstrated that these ARBs interact with the same sites in the AT(1) receptor (Tyr(113), Lys(199) and Gln(257)), the hydrogen bonding between the oxadiazole of azilsartan-Gln(257) is stronger than that between the tetrazole of candesartan-Gln(257), according to molecular docking models. An examination of the inhibition of IP production by ARBs using constitutively active mutant receptors indicated that inverse agonist activity required azilsartan-Gln(257) interaction and that azilsartan had a stronger interaction with Gln(257) than candesartan. Thus, we speculate that azilsartan has a unique binding behavior to the AT(1) receptor due to its 5-oxo-1,2,4-oxadiazole moiety and induces stronger inverse agonism. This property of azilsartan may underlie its previously demonstrated superior BP-lowering efficacy compared with candesartan and other ARBs.

  11. Synthesis and Physicochemical Characterization of the Process-Related Impurities of Olmesartan Medoxomil. Do 5-(Biphenyl-2-yl)-1-triphenylmethyltetrazole Intermediates in Sartan Syntheses Exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dams, Iwona; Ostaszewska, Anna; Puchalska, Maria; Chmiel, Justyna; Cmoch, Piotr; Bujak, Iwona; Białońska, Agata; Szczepek, Wojciech J

    2015-12-01

    During the process development for multigram-scale synthesis of olmesartan medoxomil (OM), two principal regioisomeric process-related impurities were observed along with the final active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). The impurities were identified as N-1- and N-2-(5-methyl-2-oxo-1,3-dioxolen-4-yl)methyl derivatives of OM. Both compounds, of which N-2 isomer of olmesartan dimedoxomil is a novel impurity of OM, were synthesized and fully characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), infrared spectroscopy (IR), nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and high-resolution mass spectrometry/electrospray ionization (HRMS/ESI). Their ¹H, (13)C and (15)N nuclear magnetic resonance signals were fully assigned. The molecular structures of N-triphenylmethylolmesartan ethyl (N-tritylolmesartan ethyl) and N-tritylolmesartan medoxomil, the key intermediates in OM synthesis, were solved and refined using single-crystal X-ray diffraction (SCXRD). The SCXRD study revealed that N-tritylated intermediates of OM exist exclusively as one of the two possible regioisomers. In molecular structures of these regioisomers, the trityl substituent is attached to the N-2 nitrogen atom of the tetrazole ring, and not to the N-1 nitrogen, as has been widely reported up to the present. This finding indicates that the reported structural formula of N-tritylolmesartan ethyl and N-tritylolmesartan medoxomil, as well as their systematic chemical names, must be revised. The careful analysis of literature spectroscopic data for other sartan intermediates and their analogs with 5-(biphenyl-2-yl)tetrazole moiety showed that they also exist exclusively as N-2-trityl regioisomers.

  12. Structural stability, vibrational, and bonding properties of potassium 1, 1'-dinitroamino-5, 5'-bistetrazolate: An emerging green primary explosive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yedukondalu, N.; Vaitheeswaran, G.

    2015-08-01

    Potassium 1,1'-dinitroamino-5,5'-bistetrazolate (K2DNABT) is a nitrogen rich (50.3% by weight, K2C2N12O4) green primary explosive with high performance characteristics, namely, velocity of detonation (D = 8.33 km/s), detonation pressure (P = 31.7 GPa), and fast initiating power to replace existing toxic primaries. In the present work, we report density functional theory (DFT) calculations on structural, equation of state, vibrational spectra, electronic structure, and absorption spectra of K2DNABT. We have discussed the influence of weak dispersive interactions on structural and vibrational properties through the DFT-D2 method. We find anisotropic compressibility behavior (btoxic lead azide and harder than the most sensitive cyanuric triazide. A complete assignment of all the vibrational modes has been made and compared with the available experimental results. The calculated zone center IR and Raman frequencies show a blue-shift which leads to a hardening of the lattice upon compression. In addition, we have also calculated the electronic structure and absorption spectra using recently developed Tran Blaha-modified Becke Johnson potential. It is found that K2DNABT is a direct band gap insulator with a band gap of 3.87 eV and the top of the valence band is mainly dominated by 2p-states of oxygen and nitrogen atoms. K2DNABT exhibits mixed ionic (between potassium and tetrazolate ions) and covalent character within tetrazolate molecule. The presence of ionic bonding suggests that the investigated compound is relatively stable and insensitive than covalent primaries. From the calculated absorption spectra, the material is found to decompose under ultra-violet light irradiation.

  13. Photoelectron Spectroscopy of Nitrogen Containing Molecules of Biological and Industrial Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Rui Montenegro Val-do-Rio

    The work presented herein is based on the gas-phase spectroscopic characterization of several molecules of high nitrogen content which are relevant to organic synthesis, industry and fundamental research on molecular physics. It is mainly an experimental enterprise on selected organic azides and tetrazoles, with heavy support on theoretical results from readily available computational methods. Part of the work relies on the design and construction of scientific apparatus, which substantially improve the existing equipment and extend the limits of the experiment. The electronic structure and gas-phase thermal decomposition of methyl 2-azidopropionate (M2AP, N3CH3CHCO2CH 3), benzyl azide (BA, C6H5CH2N 3), 2-, 3- and 4- methyl benzyl azide (2-, 3- and 4-MBA, CH3C 6H4CH2N3), 5-aminotetrazole (5ATZ, NH2CN4H), and 5-methyltetrazole (5MTZ, CH3CN 4H) are investigated through photoelectron spectroscopy, using either He(I) (21.22 eV) or synchrotron radiation in the Xray range. Relevant information obtained from mass spectrometry and matrix-isolation infrared spectroscopy is used to complement characterization of the samples. Regarding each molecules' thermal decomposition, pathways are proposed which account for the observed end products. Conformational analysis is performed, and the special case of annular tautomerism is addressed in the tetrazole compounds. High-temperature pyrolysis work is performed in collaboration with the University of Southampton, and XPS analysis using synchrotron radiation is performed at Elettra, the multidisciplinary synchrotron light laboratory in Trieste, Italy. Experimental findings are rationalized using different computational methods, based on post-Hartree-Fock approaches: many-body perturbation theory (MPn), configuration interaction (CI) and Green's function methods (OVGF, P3), as well as density functional theory (DFT), are used extensively to obtain optimized molecular geometries, ionization energies, orbital contours, relative energies

  14. Aspirin and probenecid inhibit organic anion transporter 3-mediated renal uptake of cilostazol and probenecid induces metabolism of cilostazol in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong; Wang, Changyuan; Liu, Qi; Meng, Qiang; Cang, Jian; Sun, Huijun; Peng, Jinyong; Ma, Xiaochi; Huo, Xiaokui; Liu, Kexin

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the transporter-mediated renal excretion mechanism for cilostazol and to characterize the mechanism of drug-drug interaction (DDI) between cilostazol and aspirin or probenecid. Concentrations of cilostazol and its metabolites OPC-13015 [6-[4-(1-cyclohexyl-1H-tetrazol-5-yl)butoxy]-2(1H)-quinolinone] and OPC-13213 [3,4-dihydro-6-[4-[1-(trans-4-hydroxycyclohexyl)-1H-tetrazol-5-yl]butoxy]-2-(1H)-quinolinone] in rat biologic or cell samples were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Coadministration with probenecid, benzylpenicillin, or aspirin decreased the cumulative urinary excretion of cilostazol and renal clearance. Concentrations of cilostazol and OPC-13213 in plasma decreased, and the concentration of OPC-13015 increased in the presence of probenecid. By contrast, rat plasma cilostazol, in combination with benzylpenicillin or aspirin, sharply increased, and concentrations of OPC-13015 and OPC-13213 did not change. In urine, OPC-13015 was below the level of detection. The cumulative urinary excretion of OPC-13213 decreased in the presence of probenecid, benzylpenicillin, or aspirin. Cilostazol was distributed in the kidney and liver, with tissue to plasma partition coefficient (Kp) values of 8.4 ml/g and 16.3 ml/g, respectively. Probenecid and aspirin reduced cilostazol distribution in the kidney. Probenecid did not affect cilostazol metabolism in the kidney but increased cilostazol metabolism in the liver, and aspirin had no effect on cilostazol metabolism. Benzylpenicillin, aspirin, and cyclo-trans-4-l-hydroxyprolyl-l-serine (JBP485) reduced cilostazol uptake in kidney slices and human organic anion transporter 3 (hOAT3)-human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells, whereas p-aminohippuric acid did not. Compared with the vector, hOAT3-HEK293 cells accumulated more cilostazol, whereas hOAT1-HEK293 cells did not. OAT3 and Oat3 play a major role in cilostazol renal excretion, whereas OAT1 and Oat1 do not. Oat3 and Cyp

  15. Synthesis, spectral and luminescence study, crystal structure determination and DFT calculation of binuclear palladium(II) complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfi, S.; Alizadeh, R.; Darvish Ganji, M.; Amani, V.

    2018-02-01

    Binuclear palladium(II) complexes with metal-metal (d8-d8) bonding interaction were synthesized by reactions of the 1-methyl-1H-1,2,3,4-tetrazole-5-thiol (Hmtzt) or a mixture of Hmtzt and 1,3-propanediamine (1,3-pda) ligands. Complex [Pd2(μ-mtzt)4]·2CH3CN (1) was synthesized by the reaction of Pd(OAc)2 with Hmtzt dissolved in acetonitrile and complex [Pd2(μ-mtzt)2(mtzt)2(1,3-pda)] (2) was synthesized by reaction of a mixture of Hmtzt and 1,3-propanediamine (dissolved in methanol) with PdCl2 (dissolved in acetonitrile) and were identified through elemental analysis, IR, UV-Vis, 1H NMR, luminescence spectroscopy as well as single-crystal X-ray diffraction method. A single-crystal of complex 1 shows that two Pd(II) centers are linked together by four bridging tetrazole ligands providing a paddle wheel-like arrangement. Also a crystal structure of complex 2 shows that this complex possesses a symmetric structure in which one Pd atom is tetra-coordinated by four sulfur atoms to forms PdS4 and other Pd atom is tetra-coordinated by four nitrogen to forms PdN4 coordination sphere. Density functional theory (DFT) was performed in this study for the Hmtzt ligand and binuclear palladium(II) complexes (1) and (2). The DFT calculation shows PdII-PdII bond lengths of 2.831 and 3.086 Å in complex 1 and 2, respectively which are close to the observed bond lengths of 2.802(11) and 3.0911(17) Å from single-crystal X-ray structure. The optimized geometry of the complexes is shown good agreement by X-ray data. Structural properties and molecular descriptors including bond lengths, bond angles, chemical hardness, dipole moment, HOMO-LUMO energy levels, electron transfer were analyzed. The IR spectroscopy was performed using VEDA4 software and UV-Vis spectra were analyzed using time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) method. The theoretical and experimental data were also compared with each other.

  16. Antimony(III) complexes with 2-amino-4,6-dimethoxypyrimidines: Synthesis, characterization and biological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunç, Turgay; Karacan, Mehmet Sayım; Ertabaklar, Hatice; Sarı, Musa; Karacan, Nurcan; Büyükgüngör, Orhan

    2015-12-01

    Novel pyrimidine compound bearing disulfide bridge, 5,5'-disulfanediylbis(2-amino-4,6-dimetoxypyrimidine) (3) was synthesized by reduction of 2-amino-4,6-dimethoxy-5-thiocyanatopyrimidine for the first time, and its structure was confirmed by X-ray crystallographic analysis. Novel binuclear antimony(III) compound of (3), {Sb[5,5'-disulfanediylbis(2-amino-4,6-dimetoxypyrimidine)]Cl3}2 (4) and mononuclear antimony(III) compounds, SbL2Cl3, [L: 2-amino-5-thiol-4,6-dimethoxy pyrimidine (2) and 2-amino-5-(1H-tetrazol-5-ylthio)-4,6-dimethoxypyrimidine (6)] were synthesized and characterized with the help of elemental analysis, molecular conductivity, FT-IR, (1)H-NMR and LC-MS techniques. The geometrical structures optimized by a DFT/B3LYP/LANL2DZ method of the compounds, indicated that monomeric compounds have square pyramidal shape. Both antileishmanial activity against Leishmania tropica promastigote and glutathione reductase inhibitory activity were determined in vitro. The results showed that (3) has the best biological activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Tethered naphthalene diimide-based intercalators for DNA triplex stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianolio, Diego A.; Segismundo, Joanna M.; McLaughlin, Larry W.

    2000-01-01

    The synthesis and triplex stabilizing properties of oligodeoxyribonucleotides functionalized at the 5′- and/or 3′-termini with a naphthalene diimide-based (NDI) intercalator is described. The NDI intercalator was prepared in a single step from the corresponding dianhydride and was attached to the 5′-terminus of an oligodeoxyribonucleotide following a reverse coupling procedure. The DMT protecting group was removed and the sequence phosphitylated to generate the phosphoramidite derivative on the 5′-terminus of the support-bound oligodeoxyribonucleotide. The NDI intercalator with a free hydroxyl was then added in the presence of tetrazole. Attachment of the NDI to the 3′-terminus relied upon a tethered amino group that could be functionalized first with the naphthalene dianhydride, which was subsequently converted to the diimide. Using both procedures, an oligonucleotide conjugate was prepared having the NDI intercalator at both the 5′- and 3′-termini. Thermal denaturation studies were used to determine the remarkable gain in stability for triplexes formed when the NDI-conjugated oligonucleotide was present as the third strand in the complex. PMID:10773082

  18. Cytotoxicity evaluation of three light-cured dentin adhesive materials on human gingival fibroblasts, ex vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierklo, A; Pawińska, M; Tokajuk, G; Popławska, B; Bielawska, A

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the cytotoxic effects of three current light-cured dentin adhesives, in both uncured and post-cured conditions, on human gingival fibroblasts. The materials tested were Heliobond, Adper Single Bond 2 and Xeno V, which are characterized by various compositions and application procedures. Each agent, in volumes of 5 and 10 μL, was tested after polymerization, and those unpolymerized were diluted in DMEM to 10-3 and 10-5. The cytotoxicity of the adhesives was assessed on the basis of a test of cell viability in a culture of human gingival fibroblasts, with the use of tetrazolic salt (MTT assay). The results showed that, among the adhesive/bonding systems tested, Xeno V was the least cytotoxic. There were statistically significant differences in cell survival between polymerized Xeno V, Adper Single Bond 2 and Heliobond in the amount of 5 μL as well as between the Xeno V and Adper Single Bond 2 in 10-5 dilutions. The tested adhesives were more toxic in the polymerized form than in the dilutions. Samples of 10 μL resulted in a lower survival percentage of fibroblasts compared to 5 μL. All the tested adhesives demonstrated cytopathic effects towards human gingival fibroblasts, but varied in their cytotoxicity. This has clinical implications. Dentists should follow the rules of adhesive application, precisely dose them and not allow direct contact with the gums as, even after polymerization, adhesive agents exhibit potential cytotoxic activity.

  19. New broad-spectrum cephalosporins with anti-pseudomonal activity. III. Synthesis and antibacterial activity of 7 beta-[D-2-(4-hydroxy-6-methylpyridine-3-carbonylamino)-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl) acetamido]-3-(methyl or substituted methyl)-ceph-3-em-4-carboxylic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, H; Tobiki, H; Jimpo, K; Komatsu, T; Okuda, T; Noguchi, H; Nakagome, T

    1983-05-01

    The influence of various 3-substituents on the antibacterial activity of 7 beta-[D-2-(4-hydroxy-6-methylpyridine-3-carbonylamino)-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl) acetamido]ceph-3-em-4-carboxylic acids (III) was investigated. Introduction of an acidic substituent, such as a sulfo or a carboxyl group, to a 3-(1-methyl-1H-tetrazolyl)thiomethyl substituent (IIIf--i) resulted in a marked loss of activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Enterobacter aerogenes, in contrast to an in crease of activity against Proteus mirabilis. Displacement of the acetoxy group of IIIb with pyridines (IIIm--p) enhanced the activity against P. aeruginosa and E. aerogenes: their activity against those strains were superior to that of the cephalosporin IIId having a 3-(1-methyl-1H-tetrazolyl)thiomethyl substituent. As a result of extensive studies in addition to the study of in vitro activity in this series, 7 beta-[D-2-(4-hydroxy-6-methylpyridine-3-carbonylamino)-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl) acetamido]-3-[(1-methyl-1H-tetrazol-5-yl)thiomethyl]ceph-3-em-4-carboxylic acid, code No. SM-1652, cefpiramide (generic name), was selected as a candidate for further biological and clinical investigations.

  20. High-energy coordination polymers (CPs) exhibiting good catalytic effect on the thermal decomposition of ammonium dinitramide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Han, Jing; Zhang, Sheng; Zhai, Lianjie; Wang, Bozhou; Yang, Qi; Wei, Qing; Xie, Gang; Chen, Sanping; Gao, Shengli

    2017-09-01

    High-energy coordination polymers (CPs) not only exhibit good energetic performances but also have a good catalytic effect on the thermal decomposition of energetic materials. In this contribution, two high-energy CPs Cu2(DNBT)2(CH3OH)(H2O)3·3H2O (1) and [Cu3(DDT)2(H2O)2]n (2) (H2DNBT = 3,3‧-dinitro-5,5‧-bis(1H-1,2,4-triazole and H3DDT = 4,5-bis(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)-2H-1,2,3-triazole) were synthesized and structurally characterized. Furthermore, 1 was thermos-dehydrated to produce Cu2(DNBT)2(CH3OH)(H2O)3 (1a). The thermal decomposition kinetics of 1, 1a and 2 were studied by Kissinger's method and Ozawa's method. Thermal analyses and sensitivity tests show that all compounds exhibit high thermal stability and low sensitivity for external stimuli. Meanwhile, all compounds have large positive enthalpy of formation, which are calculated as being (1067.67 ± 2.62) kJ mol-1 (1), (1464.12 ± 3.12) kJ mol-1 (1a) and (3877.82 ± 2.75) kJ mol-1 (2), respectively. The catalytic effects of 1a and 2 on the thermal decomposition of ammonium dinitramide (ADN) were also investigated.

  1. Recent developments in azole compounds as antibacterial and antifungal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xin-Mei; Cai, Gui-Xin; Zhou, Cheng-He

    2013-08-01

    Azole compounds are an important class of nitrogen heterocycles with electron-rich property. This special structure endows azole-based derivatives easily bind with the enzymes and receptors in organisms through noncovalent interactions such as hydrogen bonds, coordination bonds, ion-dipole, cation-π,π-π stacking and hydrophobic effect as well as van der Waals force etc., thereby possessing various applications in medicinal chemistry, especially their protrudent effects such as imidazoles and triazoles against fungal strains. The design, synthesis and antimicrobial activity of azole derivatives have been extensively investigated and have become one of the highly active highlights in recent years, and the progress is quite rapid. In particular, a large number of azole-based antibacterial and antifungal agents have been penetratingly studied as candidates and even some of them have been used in clinic, which have shown the great potential and development value of azole compounds. Based on our researches on azole compounds and referring to other literature, this work scientifically reviewed the researches and developments of azole-based compounds as antibacterial and antifungal agents, including oxazole, imidazole, benzimidazole, triazole, benzotriazole, pyrazole, thiazole, carbazole as well as tetrazole in recent three years. It is hopeful that azole compounds may continue to serve as an important direction for the exploitation of azole-based antibacterial and antifungal drugs with better curative effect, lower toxicity, less side effects, especially fewer resistances and so on.

  2. Synthesis and anti-tubercular activity of 3-substituted benzo[b]thiophene-1,1-dioxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Susantha Chandrasekera

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrated that the 3-substituted benzothiophene-1,1-dioxide class of compounds are effective inhibitors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis growth under aerobic conditions. We examined substitution at the C-3 position of the benzothiophene-1,1-dioxide series systematically to delineate structure–activity relationships influencing potency and cytotoxicity. Compounds were tested for inhibitory activity against virulent M. tuberculosis and eukaryotic cells. The tetrazole substituent was most potent, with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of 2.6 µM. However, cytotoxicity was noted with even more potency (Vero cell TC50 = 0.1 µM. Oxadiazoles had good anti-tubercular activity (MICs of 3–8 µM, but imidazoles, thiadiazoles and thiazoles had little activity. Cytotoxicity did not track with anti-tubercular activity, suggesting different targets or mode of action between bacterial and eukaryotic cells. However, we were unable to derive analogs without cytotoxicity; all compounds synthesized were cytotoxic (TC50 of 0.1–5 µM. We conclude that cytotoxicity is a liability in this series precluding it from further development. However, the series has potent anti-tubercular activity and future efforts towards identifying the mode of action could result in the identification of novel drug targets.

  3. A new strategy for storage and transportation of sensitive high-energy materials: guest-dependent energy and sensitivity of 3D metal-organic-framework-based energetic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sheng; Liu, Xiangyu; Yang, Qi; Su, Zhiyong; Gao, Wenjuan; Wei, Qing; Xie, Gang; Chen, Sanping; Gao, Shengli

    2014-06-23

    Reaction of Co(II) with the nitrogen-rich ligand N,N-bis(1H-tetrazole-5-yl)-amine (H2bta) leads to a mixed-valence, 3D, porous, metal-organic framework (MOF)-based, energetic material with the nitrogen content of 51.78%, [Co9(bta)10(Hbta)2(H2O)10]n⋅(22 H2O)n (1). Compound 1 was thermohydrated to produce a new, stable, energetic material with the nitrogen content of 59.85% and heat of denotation of 4.537 kcal cm(-3), [Co9(bta)10(Hbta)2(H2O)10]n (2). Sensitivity tests show that 2 is more sensitivity to external stimuli than 1, reflecting guest-dependent energy and sensitivity of 3D, MOF-based, energetic materials. Less-sensitive 1 can be regarded as a more safe form for storage and transformation to sensitive 2. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Antinociceptive Effect of Some Biuret Derivatives on Formalin Test in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Adibpour

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The current study was designed to investigate the antinociceptive effects of several biuret derivatives with N, N`-diphenyl, N-phenyl-N`-alkylphenyl, N,N`-bis alkylphenyl, 2-methylquinoline-4-yl, benzo[d]thiazol-2-ylthio and (1-phenyl-1H-tetrazol-5-ylthio substituents on the formalin-evoked pain in mice. Methods: Antinociceptive activity of the nine biurets derivatives were assessed at different doses in mice using formalin test and the results were compared with those of indomethacin(20 mg/kg and vehicle of the compounds. Area under the pain score curve against time (AUEC up to 60 minutes was used as the measure of pain behavior. Results: A rather good analgesic effect was seen for most of the tested biuret derivatives. Significant reduction in median AUEC0-5 minutes was observed at the doses of 50 and 25 mg/kg for biurets with either benzyl and 2-methylquinoline-4-yl (C8 or phenylethyl and benzo[d]thiazol-2-ylthio(C9 moieties, respectively(p-value<0.0044. Antinociceptive activities of compound C7 (with bis phenylropyl substituent, C8 and C9 during the late phase of formaldehyde-induced pain were comparable to that of indomethacin. Conclusion: Unlike indomethacin, the tested biuret compounds are able to induce antinociception in both phases of formalin test and could be considered comparable to indomethacin at the selected doses.

  5. Antinociceptive effect of some biuret derivatives on formalin test in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adibpour, Neda; Poornajjari, Ali; Khodayar, Mohammad Javad; Rezaee, Saeed

    2014-01-01

    The current study was designed to investigate the antinociceptive effects of several biuret derivatives with N, N`-diphenyl, N-phenyl-N`-alkylphenyl, N,N`-bis alkylphenyl, 2-methylquinoline-4-yl, benzo[d]thiazol-2-ylthio and (1-phenyl-1H-tetrazol-5-yl)thio substituents on the formalin-evoked pain in mice. Antinociceptive activity of the nine biurets derivatives were assessed at different doses in mice using formalin test and the results were compared with those of indomethacin(20 mg/kg) and vehicle of the compounds. Area under the pain score curve against time (AUEC) up to 60 minutes was used as the measure of pain behavior. A rather good analgesic effect was seen for most of the tested biuret derivatives. Significant reduction in median AUEC0-5 minutes was observed at the doses of 50 and 25 mg/kg for biurets with either benzyl and 2-methylquinoline-4-yl (C8) or phenylethyl and benzo[d]thiazol-2-ylthio(C9) moieties, respectively(p-valuetested biuret compounds are able to induce antinociception in both phases of formalin test and could be considered comparable to indomethacin at the selected doses.

  6. Diversity and exploration of bioactive marine actinomycetes in the Bay of Bengal of the Puducherry coast of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suthindhiran, Krish; Kannabiran, Krishnan

    2010-03-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the Puducherry coast of the Bay of Bengal, India for the diversity of bioactive actinomycetes. A total of 50 actinomycete strains were isolated from the marine sediments and most of the strains were belongs to Streptomyces. These strains were identified by means of morphological physiological, biochemical and cultural characteristics. The isolates were subjected to shake flask fermentation and the secondary metabolites were extracted with ethyl acetate and screened for cytotoxicity, hemolytic activity and antimicrobial activity against selected bacterial and fungal pathogens. The cytotoxic activity was evaluated using HeLa cell lines by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, a tetrazole (MTT) assay, hemolytic activity on mouse erythrocytes and the antifungal activity was evaluated by MTT cytotoxic assay against Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans. The antibacterial activity was studied against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The cytotoxicity and antimicrobial activity of secondary metabolite was found to be concentration dependent and nearly 24% of isolates showed significant antimicrobial, hemolytic and cytotoxic activity. The results of our study indicate the diversity and bioactive potential of marine actinomycetes isolated in the Puducherry coast.

  7. Crystal structure study and investigation of solid-state cyclization for AMG 222, a channel hydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiang, Y-H; Nagapudi, Karthik; Liu, Jodi; Staples, Richard J; Jona, Janan

    2013-01-30

    In this study, we investigate the solid-state structure and stability of AMG 222 (5-(2-[2-(2-cyano-pyrrolidin-1-yl)-2-oxo-ethylamino]-propyl)-5-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cycloheptene-2,8 dicarboxylic acid bisdimethylamide), a small molecule DPP-IV inhibitor. Crystal structure of AMG 222 has been solved from single crystal X-ray analysis. Crystallographic data are as follows: monoclinic, P2(1) (no. 4), a=9.0327(5)Å, b=18.6177(8)Å, c=21.4927(10)Å, β=90.126(3)°, V=3614.4(3)Å(3), Z=4. Based on single crystal structure, AMG 222 is a pentahydrate with the water molecules sitting in channels formed by the drug framework. There are three distinct crystal structures of AMG 222 between 0 and 95% relative humidity (RH), namely the anhydrate, hemihydrate, and pentahydrate forms. Solid-state stability of the GMP batch showed a high level of cyclized degradation product. It was postulated that the degradation was promoted by increased amorphous content generated as a result of excessive drying that was employed to remove residual crystallization solvent. Material produced using a modified procedure using a humidified nitrogen purge had lower amorphous content and lower levels of cyclic degradation when compared to the GMP batch. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Two polyoxometalate-directed 3D metal-organic frameworks with multinuclear silver-ptz cycle/belts as subunits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiuli; Li, Na; Tian, Aixiang; Ying, Jun; Liu, Guocheng; Lin, Hongyan; Zhang, Juwen; Yang, Yang

    2013-10-01

    Two new polyoxometalate (POM)-based metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) constructed from multinuclear silver-ptz cycle/belts, namely [Ag7(ptz)4(NO3)(H2O)][H4P2W18O62]·5H2O () and [Ag6(ptz)4(H2O)2][HPMo12O40]·3H2O () (ptzH = 5-(3-pyridyl)-1H-tetrazole), have been successfully synthesized under hydrothermal conditions via changing the polyoxoanions and adjusting the pH. Compound exhibits a 3D framework constructed from the Wells-Dawson [P2W18O62](6-) anion and a 2D layer based on two types of multinuclear Ag-ptz cycles. In compound , the 1D infinite multinuclear Ag-ptz belts consisting of repeated tetranuclear subunits [(Ag1)2(Ag2)2(ptz)4] are connected by Ag3 ions to form a 2D layer. The adjacent 2D layers are further linked by tetra-dentate Keggin [PMo12O40](3-) anions to construct a 3D framework. The structural analyses reveal that the different polyoxoanions have a great influence on the Ag(I)-ptz multinuclear cycle/belts and the whole structures. The influences of the pH and molar ratio of initial reactants in the hydrothermal process were also discussed. The electrochemical and photocatalytic properties of the title compounds have been studied in detail.

  9. Click hydrogels, microgels and nanogels: emerging platforms for drug delivery and tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yanjiao; Chen, Jing; Deng, Chao; Suuronen, Erik J; Zhong, Zhiyuan

    2014-06-01

    Hydrogels, microgels and nanogels have emerged as versatile and viable platforms for sustained protein release, targeted drug delivery, and tissue engineering due to excellent biocompatibility, a microporous structure with tunable porosity and pore size, and dimensions spanning from human organs, cells to viruses. In the past decade, remarkable advances in hydrogels, microgels and nanogels have been achieved with click chemistry. It is a most promising strategy to prepare gels with varying dimensions owing to its high reactivity, superb selectivity, and mild reaction conditions. In particular, the recent development of copper-free click chemistry such as strain-promoted azide-alkyne cycloaddition, radical mediated thiol-ene chemistry, Diels-Alder reaction, tetrazole-alkene photo-click chemistry, and oxime reaction renders it possible to form hydrogels, microgels and nanogels without the use of potentially toxic catalysts or immunogenic enzymes that are commonly required. Notably, unlike other chemical approaches, click chemistry owing to its unique bioorthogonal feature does not interfere with encapsulated bioactives such as living cells, proteins and drugs and furthermore allows versatile preparation of micropatterned biomimetic hydrogels, functional microgels and nanogels. In this review, recent exciting developments in click hydrogels, microgels and nanogels, as well as their biomedical applications such as controlled protein and drug release, tissue engineering, and regenerative medicine are presented and discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Quantification of genistein and daidzein in two endemic Genista species and their antioxidant activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIMIR JEVREMOVIĆ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the cytotoxicity of a Co–Cr alloy used for the rapid manufacture of removable partial denture frameworks using murine fibroblasts L929 cell lines and three test methods: the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, a yellow tetrazole assay, the agar diffusion test (ADT and the dye exclusion test (DET. Two groups of disc specimens (5 mm diameter, 1 mm thick were fabricated. The first group was cast using a conventional method (CM in a Nautilus CC casting. The second group was fabricated using selective laser melting (SLM in SLM Realiser The total cell number and viability of cells pre-incubated with CM and SLM alloys were comparable to the control sample. Differences between the growth inhibitory effects of the CM and SLM alloys in the MTT assay were below 30 %. Results of two independent agar diffusion tests with CM and SLM alloys showed neither detectable discoloration around or under the discs nor a detectable difference in staining intensity. As the cell response for both CM and SLM alloys was 0/0, the discs can be rated as non-cytotoxic. The results suggested that the F75 Co–Cr alloy used for the SLM process did not release harmful material that could cause acute effects against L929 cells under the given experimental conditions.

  11. New URJC-1 Material with Remarkable Stability and Acid-Base Catalytic Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Leo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Emerging new metal-organic structures with tunable physicochemical properties is an exciting research field for diverse applications. In this work, a novel metal-organic framework Cu(HIT(DMF0.5, named URJC-1, with a three-dimensional non-interpenetrated utp topological network, has been synthesized. This material exhibits a microporous structure with unsaturated copper centers and imidazole–tetrazole linkages that provide accessible Lewis acid/base sites. These features make URJC-1 an exceptional candidate for catalytic application in acid and base reactions of interest in fine chemistry. The URJC-1 material also displays a noteworthy thermal and chemical stability in different organic solvents of different polarity and boiling water. Its catalytic activity was evaluated in acid-catalyzed Friedel–Crafts acylation of anisole with acetyl chloride and base-catalyzed Knoevenagel condensation of benzaldehyde with malononitrile. In both cases, URJC-1 material showed very good performance, better than other metal organic frameworks and conventional catalysts. In addition, a remarkable structural stability was proven after several consecutive reaction cycles.

  12. Discovery of a Series of Imidazo[4,5-b]pyridines with Dual Activity at Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor and Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-[gamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casimiro-Garcia, Agustin; Filzen, Gary F.; Flynn, Declan; Bigge, Christopher F.; Chen, Jing; Davis, Jo Ann; Dudley, Danette A.; Edmunds, Jeremy J.; Esmaeil, Nadia; Geyer, Andrew; Heemstra, Ronald J.; Jalaie, Mehran; Ohren, Jeffrey F.; Ostroski, Robert; Ellis, Teresa; Schaum, Robert P.; Stoner, Chad (Pfizer)

    2013-03-07

    Mining of an in-house collection of angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonists to identify compounds with activity at the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) revealed a new series of imidazo[4,5-b]pyridines 2 possessing activity at these two receptors. Early availability of the crystal structure of the lead compound 2a bound to the ligand binding domain of human PPAR{gamma} confirmed the mode of interaction of this scaffold to the nuclear receptor and assisted in the optimization of PPAR{gamma} activity. Among the new compounds, (S)-3-(5-(2-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)phenyl)-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-1-yl)-2-ethyl-5-isobutyl-7-methyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (2l) was identified as a potent angiotensin II type I receptor blocker (IC{sub 50} = 1.6 nM) with partial PPAR{gamma} agonism (EC{sub 50} = 212 nM, 31% max) and oral bioavailability in rat. The dual pharmacology of 2l was demonstrated in animal models of hypertension (SHR) and insulin resistance (ZDF rat). In the SHR, 2l was highly efficacious in lowering blood pressure, while robust lowering of glucose and triglycerides was observed in the male ZDF rat.

  13. Cyanation of arenes via iridium-catalyzed borylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liskey, Carl W; Liao, Xuebin; Hartwig, John F

    2010-08-25

    We report a method to conduct one-pot meta cyanation of arenes by iridium-catalyzed C-H borylation and copper-mediated cyanation of the resulting arylboronate esters. This process relies on a method to conduct the cyanation of arylboronic esters, and conditions for this new transformation are reported. Conditions for the copper-mediated cyanation of arylboronic acids are also reported. By the resulting sequence of borylation and cyanation, 1,3-disubstituted and 1,2,3-trisubstituted arenes and heteroarenes containing halide, ketone, ester, amide, and protected alcohol functionalities are converted to the corresponding meta-substituted aryl nitriles. The utility of this methodology is demonstrated through the conversion of a protected 2,6-disubstituted phenol to 4-cyano-2,6-dimethylphenol, which is an intermediate in the synthesis of the pharmaceutical etravirine. The utility of the method is further demonstrated by the conversion of 3-chloro-5-methylbenzonitrile, produced through the one-pot C-H borylation and cyanation sequence, to the corresponding 3,5-disubstituted aldehydes, ketones, amides, carboxylic acids, tetrazoles, and benzylamines.

  14. Construction of three lanthanide metal-organic frameworks: Synthesis, structure, magnetic properties and highly selective sensing of metal ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiu-Mei; Li, Peng; Gao, Wei; Liu, Feng; Liu, Jie-Ping

    2016-12-01

    Three lanthanide metal-organic frameworks (Ln-MOFs), [Ln(TZI)(H2O)4]·3H2O (Ln=Gd (1) and Tb (2) and Dy (3), H3TZI=5-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)isophthalic acid), have been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. Single crystal X-ray diffraction reveals that 1-3 are isostructural and display a 1D double chain based on dinuclear motifs with (μ-COO)2 double bridges. Magnetic studies indicate antiferromagnetic interactions in 1, ferromagnetic interactions in 2 and 3. Furthermore, compound 3 displays a slow relaxation behavior. Compound 2 exhibits intense characteristic green emission of Tb(III) ions in the solid state, which can be observed by the naked eye under UV light. Interestingly, 2 can selectively sense Pb2+ and Fe3+ ions through luminescence enhancement and quenching, respectively. The luminescence quenching mechanisms have been investigated in detail. The study on luminescence Ln-MOFs as a probe for sensing Pb2+ and Fe3+ ions is exceedingly rare example.

  15. A microporous anionic metal-organic framework for sensing luminescence of lanthanide(III) ions and selective absorption of dyes by ionic exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jun-Sheng; Zhang, Shu-Ran; Du, Dong-Ying; Shen, Ping; Bao, Shao-Juan; Lan, Ya-Qian; Su, Zhong-Min

    2014-05-05

    Herein, a novel anionic framework with primitive centered cubic (pcu) topology, [(CH3 )2 NH2 ]4 [(Zn4 dttz6 )Zn3 ]⋅15 DMF⋅4.5 H2 O, (IFMC-2; H3 dttz=4,5-di(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)-2H-1,2,3-triazole) was solvothermally isolated. A new example of a tetranuclear zinc cluster {Zn4 dttz6 } served as a secondary building unit in IFMC-2. Furthermore, the metal cluster was connected by Zn(II) ions to give rise to a 3D open microporous structure. The lanthanide(III)-loaded metal-organic framework (MOF) materials Ln(3+) @IFMC-2, were successfully prepared by using ion-exchange experiments owing to the anionic framework of IFMC-2. Moreover, the emission spectra of the as-prepared Ln(3+) @IFMC-2 were investigated, and the results suggested that IFMC-2 could be utilized as a potential luminescent probe toward different Ln(3+) ions. Additionally, the absorption ability of IFMC-2 toward ionic dyes was also performed. Cationic dyes can be absorbed, but not neutral and anionic dyes, thus indicating that IFMC-2 exhibits selective absorption toward cationic dyes. Furthermore, the cationic dyes can be gradually released in the presence of NaCl. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Initial mechanisms for the decomposition of electronically excited energetic salts: TKX-50 and MAD-X1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Bing; Yu, Zijun; Bernstein, Elliot R

    2015-03-26

    Decomposition of energetic salts TKX-50 and MAD-X1 (dihydroxylammonium 5,5'-bistetrazole-1,1'-diolate and dihydroxylammonium 3,3'-dinitro-5,5'-bis-1,2,4-triazole-1,1'-diol, respectively), following electronic state excitation, is investigated both experimentally and theoretically. The NO and N2 molecules are observed as initial decomposition products from the two materials subsequent to UV excitation. Observed NO products are rotationally cold (hot (>1500 K). The vibrational temperature of the NO product from TKX-50 is (2600 ± 250) K, (1100 ± 250) K hotter than that produced from MAD-X1. Observed N2 products of these two species are both rotationally cold (forming N2 and NO products. N2 products are released by the opening of the tetrazole or triazole rings of TKX-50 and MAD-X1. NO products are released from the amine N-oxide moiety of TKX-50, and for MAD-X1, they are produced through nitro-nitrite isomerizations. The observed rotational energy distributions for NO and N2 products are consistent with the final structures of the respective transition states for each molecule on its S0 potential energy surface.

  17. Tailor-Making Fluorescent Hyaluronic Acid Microgels via Combining Microfluidics and Photoclick Chemistry for Sustained and Localized Delivery of Herceptin in Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Huang, Ke; Chen, Qijun; Deng, Chao; Zhang, Jian; Zhong, Zhiyuan

    2018-01-31

    Antibody therapeutics, though representing a most used biomedicine, suffers from poor in vivo stability, rapid degradation, and frequent injections. Here, we report that fluorescent hyaluronic acid microgels (HMGs) tailor-made by combining microfluidics and "tetrazole-alkene" photoclick chemistry enable sustained and localized delivery of Herceptin in ovarian tumors. HMGs were obtained with a defined size (25-50 μm), narrow size distribution, high stability, and strong green fluorescence. Notably, HMGs exhibited a remarkably high loading of proteins such as Herceptin and IgG with a loading efficiency exceeding 90% at a theoretical protein-loading content of 30 wt %. In vitro protein release experiments revealed a sustained and hyaluronidase (HAase)-dependent release of Herceptin from HMGs, in which 80.6% of Herceptin was released at 1 U/mL HAase in 10 days. The released Herceptin maintained its secondary structure and antitumor activity. In vivo imaging results demonstrated obviously better tumoral retention for Cy5-labeled Herceptin-loaded HMGs following subcutaneous (sc) injection than for the free-protein counterpart. Interestingly, sc injection of the Herceptin-loaded HMGs into SKOV-3 human ovarian tumor-bearing nude mice at a dose of 30 mg Herceptin equiv/kg induced nearly complete tumor suppression, which was significantly more effective than the sc or systemic injection of free Herceptin. These tailor-made fluorescent HMGs appeared as a robust injectable platform for sustained and localized delivery of therapeutic proteins.

  18. Beverage-induced enhanced bioavailability of carbamazepine and its consequent effect on antiepileptic activity and toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanmoy Karmakar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to investigate the food–drug interaction of carbamazepine (CBZ. Common fruit juices [grapefruit juice (GFJ, lime juice (LJ], known to inhibit the enzyme cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4, and some widely consumed beverages [milk (M, black tea (BT] were involved in this study in the presence of CBZ, as might happen during clinical therapy. The effects of the beverages on the pharmacokinetics and drug-induced toxicity of CBZ was observed after concomitant administration for a period of 28 days. Accordingly, the influence of altered bioavailability of CBZ on its antiepileptic activity was investigated. A significant shift in the Cmax as well as Tmax of CBZ was observed in the presence of LJ and GFJ. This increase in bioavailability significantly enhanced hepatotoxicity and delayed the onset of tremor and piloerection against pentylene tetrazole (PTZ-induced seizure in experimental animals. However, increased toxicity of CBZ was found to be absent with BT. Thus, from our observation, LJ or GFJ in the presence of CBZ significantly increased the bioavailability of CBZ, which might lead to increased toxicity and antiepileptic activity of the drug.

  19. Modeling and optimization of nanoemulsion containing Sorafenib for cancer treatment by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadiyan, Zahra; Basri, Mahiran; Fard Masoumi, Hamid Reza; Abedi Karjiban, Roghayeh; Salim, Norazlinaliza; Shameli, Kamyar

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is the development of nanoemulsions for intravenous administration of Sorafenib, which is a poorly soluble drug with no parenteral treatment. The formulation was prepared by a high energy emulsification method and optimized by response surface methodology. The effects of overhead stirring time, high shear rate, high shear time, and cycles of high-pressure homogenizer were studied in the preparation of nanoemulsion loaded with Sorafenib. Most of the particles in nanoemulsion are spherical in shape, the smallest particle size being 82.14 nm. The results of the 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, a tetrazole reveal that the optimum formulation does not affect normal cells significantly in low drug concentrations but could remove the cancer cells. Finally, a formulation containing Sorafenib retained its properties over a period of 90 days. With characterization, the study of the formulated nanoemulsion has the potential to be used as a parenteral nanoemulsion in the treatment of cancer. Graphical abstractSchematic figure of high pressure homogenizer device.

  20. Parallel Chemistry Approach to Identify Novel Nuclear Receptor Ligands Based on the GW0742 Scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teske, Kelly A; Rai, Ganesha; Nandhikonda, Premchendar; Sidhu, Preetpal S; Feleke, Belaynesh; Simeonov, Anton; Yasgar, Adam; Jadhav, Ajit; Maloney, David J; Arnold, Leggy A

    2017-10-09

    We describe the parallel synthesis of novel analogs of GW0742, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARδ) agonist. For that purpose, modified reaction conditions were applied, such as a solid-phase palladium-catalyzed Suzuki coupling. In addition, tetrazole-based compounds were generated as a bioisostere for carboxylic acid-containing ligand GW0742. The new compounds were investigated for their ability to activate PPARδ mediated transcription and their cross-reactivity with the vitamin D receptor (VDR), another member of the nuclear receptor superfamily. We identified many potent PPARδ agonists that were less toxic than GW0742, where ∼65 of the compounds synthesized exhibited partial PPARδ activity (23-98%) with EC50 values ranging from 0.007-18.2 μM. Some ligands, such as compound 32, were more potent inhibitors of VDR-mediated transcription with significantly reduced PPARδ activity than GW0742, however, none of the ligands were completely selective for VDR inhibition over PPARδ activation of transcription.

  1. Occurrence and fate of the angiotensin II receptor antagonist transformation product valsartan acid in the water cycle--a comparative study with selected β-blockers and the persistent anthropogenic wastewater indicators carbamazepine and acesulfame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nödler, Karsten; Hillebrand, Olav; Idzik, Krzysztof; Strathmann, Martin; Schiperski, Ferry; Zirlewagen, Johannes; Licha, Tobias

    2013-11-01

    The substantial transformation of the angiotensin II receptor antagonist valsartan to the transformation product 2'-(2H-tetrazol-5-yl)-[1,1'-biphenyl]-4-carboxylic acid (referred to as valsartan acid) during the activated sludge process was demonstrated in the literature and confirmed in the here presented study. However, there was a severe lack of knowledge regarding the occurrence and fate of this compound in surface water and its behavior during drinking water treatment. In this work a comparative study on the occurrence and persistency of valsartan acid, three frequently used β-blockers (metoprolol, atenolol, and sotalol), atenolol acid (one significant transformation product of atenolol and metoprolol), and the two widely distributed persistent anthropogenic wastewater indicators carbamazepine and acesulfame in raw sewage, treated wastewater, surface water, groundwater, and tap water is presented. Median concentrations of valsartan acid in the analyzed matrices were 101, 1,310, 69, waters valsartan acid was found just as relevant as the analyzed β-blockers and the anticonvulsant carbamazepine. Regarding its persistency in surface waters it was comparable to carbamazepine and acesulfame. Furthermore, removal of valsartan acid during bank filtration was poor, which demonstrated the relevance of this compound for drinking water suppliers. Regarding drinking water treatment (Muelheim Process) the compound was resistant to ozonation but effectively eliminated (≥90%) by subsequent activated carbon filtration. However, without applying activated carbon filtration the compound may enter the drinking water distribution system as it was demonstrated for Berlin tap water. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of a series of new 3-methyl-1,4-disubstituted-piperidine analgesics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalinde, N; Moliterni, J; Wright, D; Spencer, H K; Ossipov, M H; Spaulding, T C; Rudo, F G

    1990-10-01

    The synthesis and intravenous analgesic activity of a series of 3-methyl-4-(N-phenyl amido)piperidines, entries 34-79, is described. The methoxyacetamide pharmacophore produced a series of compounds with optimal analgesic potency and short duration of action. cis-42 was 13,036 times more potent than morphine and 29 times more potent than fentanyl; however, the corresponding diastereomer 43 was only 2778 and 6 times more potent, respectively. Compounds 40, 43, 47, and 57 are extremely short acting; all had durations of action of about 2 min, which was about 1/5 of that of fentanyl in the mouse hot-plate test at a dose equivalent to 2 times the ED50 analgesic dose. Among the many compounds that displayed exceptional analgesic activity, duration of action was one of the main factors for choosing a candidate for further pharmacological investigation. At present, cis-1-[2-(4-ethyl-4,5-dihydro-5-oxo-1H-tetrazol-1-yl)ethyl]-3-meth yl-4- [N-in equilibrium 2-fluorophenyl)methoxyacetamido]piperidine hydrochloride (40) (Anaquest, A-3331.HCl, Brifentanil) is in clinical evaluation. Opiate analgesics that possess short duration of action are excellent candidates for short surgical procedures in an outpatient setting where a rapid recovery is required.

  3. Highly luminescent charge-neutral europium(iii) and terbium(iii) complexes with tridentate nitrogen ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthil Kumar, Kuppusamy; Schäfer, Bernhard; Lebedkin, Sergei; Karmazin, Lydia; Kappes, Manfred M; Ruben, Mario

    2015-09-21

    We report on the synthesis of tridentate-nitrogen pyrazole-pyridine-tetrazole (L(1)H) and pyrazole-pyridine-triazole (L(2)H) ligands and their complexation with lanthanides (Ln = Gd(iii), Eu(iii) and Tb(iii)) resulting in stable, charge-neutral complexes Ln(L(1))3 and Ln(L(2))3, respectively. X-ray crystallographic analysis of the complexes with L(1) ligands revealed tricapped trigonal coordination geometry around the lanthanide ions. All complexes show bright photoluminescence (PL) in the solid state, indicating efficient sensitization of the lanthanide emission via the triplet states of the ligands. In particular, the terbium complexes show high PL quantum yields of 65 and 59% for L(1) and L(2), respectively. Lower PL efficiencies of the europium complexes (7.5 and 9%, respectively) are attributed to large energy gaps between the triplet states of the ligands and accepting levels of Eu(iii). The triplet state energy can be reduced by introducing an electron withdrawing (EW) group at the 4 position of the pyridine ring. Such substitution of L(1)H with a carboxylic ester (COOMe) EW group leads to a europium complex with increased PL quantum yield of 31%. A comparatively efficient PL of the complexes dissolved in ethanol indicates that the lanthanide ions are shielded against nonradiative deactivation via solvent molecules.

  4. Two Water Stable Copper Metal-Organic Frameworks with Performance in the Electrocatalytic Activity for Water Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xiuping

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Two novel water stable metal-organic frameworks, [Cu(L·(4,4′-bipy·(ClO4]n (1, [Cu(L·(phen·(ClO4·(H2O]2 (2, have been constructed by HL=[5-Mercapto-1-methyl] tetrazole acetic acid and Cu (II salt in the presence of assistant N-containing ligands. MOF 1 and MOF 2 with open CuII sites, resulting the framework 1 and 2 show electrocatalytic activity for water oxidation in alkaline solution. The electrochemical properties of complex for oxygen evolution reaction (OER were evaluated by linear sweep voltammetry (LSV and the Tafel slopes. Complex 1 has a higher LSV activity with a lower over potential of 1.54 V and a much higher increase in current density. Meanwhile, the Tafel slope of complex 1 (122.0 mV dec-1 is much lower than complex 2 (243.5 mV dec-1. This phenomenon makes complex 1 a promising porous material for electrocatalytic activity.

  5. Role of basic amino acids of the human angiotensin type 1 receptor in the binding of the non-peptide antagonist candesartan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges Vauquelin

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available To explain the insurmountable/long-lasting binding of biphenyltetrazole-containing AT1-receptor antagonists such as candesartan, to the human angiotensin II type 1-receptor, a model is proposed in which the basic amino acids Lys199 and Arg 167 of the receptor interact respectively with the carboxylate and the tetrazole group of the antagonists. To validate this model, we have investigated the impact of substitution of Lys199 by Ala or Gln and of Arg167 by Ala on the binding properties of [3H]candesartan and on competition binding by candesartan, EXP3174, irbesartan, losartan, angiotensin II (Ang II and [Sar1-Ile8]angiotensin. Our results indicate that both amino acids play an important role in the AT1-receptor ligand binding. Whereas the negative charge of Lys 199 is involved in an ionic bond with the end-standing carboxylate group of the peptide ligands, its polarity also contributes to the non-peptide antagonist binding. Substitution of Arg167 by Ala completely abolished [3H]Ang II, as well as [3H] candesartan, binding. Whereas these results are in line with the proposed model, it cannot be excluded that both amino acid residues are important for the structural integrity of the AT1-receptor with respect to its ligand binding properties.

  6. Novel screening system for high-affinity ligand of heredity vitamin D-resistant rickets-associated vitamin D receptor mutant R274L using bioluminescent sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mano, Hiroki; Nishikawa, Miyu; Yasuda, Kaori; Ikushiro, Shinichi; Saito, Nozomi; Sawada, Daisuke; Honzawa, Shinobu; Takano, Masashi; Kittaka, Atsushi; Sakaki, Toshiyuki

    2017-03-01

    Hereditary vitamin D-resistant rickets (HVDRR) is caused by mutations in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene. Arg274 located in the ligand binding domain (LBD) of VDR is responsible for anchoring 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1α,25(OH)2D3) by forming a hydrogen bond with the 1α-hydroxyl group of 1α,25(OH)2D3. The Arg274Leu (R274L) mutation identified in patients with HVDRR causes a 1000-fold decrease in the affinity for 1α,25(OH)2D3, and dramatically reduces vitamin D- related gene expression. Recently, we successfully constructed fusion proteins consisting of split-luciferase and LBD of the VDR. The chimeric protein LucC-LBD-LucN, which displays the C-terminal domain of luciferase (LucC) at its N-terminus, can detect and discriminate between VDR agonists and antagonists. The LucC-LBD (R274L)-LucN was constructed to screen high-affinity ligands for the mutant VDR (R274L). Of the 33 vitamin D analogs, 5 showed much higher affinities for the mutant VDR (R274L) than 1α,25(OH)2D3, and 2α-[2-(tetrazol-2-yl)ethyl]-1α,25-(OH)2D3 showed the highest affinity. These compounds might be potential therapeutics for HVDRR caused by the mutant VDR (R274L). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Structure-Function Basis of Attenuated Inverse Agonism of Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers for Active-State Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takezako, Takanobu; Unal, Hamiyet; Karnik, Sadashiva S; Node, Koichi

    2015-09-01

    Ligand-independent signaling by the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) can be activated in clinical settings by mechanical stretch and autoantibodies as well as receptor mutations. Transition of the AT1R to the activated state is known to lower inverse agonistic efficacy of clinically used AT1R blockers (ARBs). The structure-function basis for reduced efficacy of inverse agonists is a fundamental aspect that has been understudied not only in relation to the AT1R but also regarding other homologous receptors. Here, we demonstrate that the active-state transition in the AT1R indeed attenuates an inverse agonistic effect of four biphenyl-tetrazole ARBs through changes in specific ligand-receptor interactions. In the ground state, tight interactions of four ARBs with a set of residues (Ser109(TM3), Phe182(ECL2), Gln257(TM6), Tyr292(TM7), and Asn295(TM7)) results in potent inverse agonism. In the activated state, the ARB-AT1R interactions shift to a different set of residues (Val108(TM3), Ser109(TM3), Ala163(TM4), Phe182(ECL2), Lys199(TM5), Tyr292(TM7), and Asn295(TM7)), resulting in attenuated inverse agonism. Interestingly, V108I, A163T, N295A, and F182A mutations in the activated state of the AT1R shift the functional response to the ARB binding toward agonism, but in the ground state the same mutations cause inverse agonism. Our data show that the second extracellular loop is an important regulator of the functional states of the AT1R. Our findings suggest that the quest for discovering novel ARBs, and improving current ARBs, fundamentally depends on the knowledge of the unique sets of residues that mediate inverse agonistic potency in the two states of the AT1R. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  8. Reactions of sulfur-nitrosyl iron complexes of "g=2.03" family with hemoglobin (Hb): kinetics of Hb-NO formation in aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanina, N A; Syrtsova, L A; Shkondina, N I; Rudneva, T N; Malkova, E S; Bazanov, T A; Kotel'nikov, A I; Aldoshin, S M

    2007-03-01

    NO-donating ability of nitrosyl [Fe-S] complexes, namely, mononuclear dinitrosyl complexes of anionic type [Fe(S2O3)2(NO)2]-(I) and neutral [Fe2(SL1)2(NO)2] with L1=1H-1,2,4-triazole-3-yl (II); tetranitrosyl binuclear neutral complexes [Fe2(SL2)2(NO)4] with L2=5-amino-1,2,4-triazole-3-yl (III); 1-methyl-1H-tetrazole-5-yl (IV); imidazole-2-yl (V) and 1-methyl-imidazole-2-yl (VI) has been studied. In addition, Roussin's "red salt" Na2[Fe2S2(NO)4] x 8H2O (VII) and Na2[Fe(CN)5NO] x H2O (VIII) have been investigated. The method for research has been based on the formation of Hb-NO adduct upon the interaction of hemoglobin with NO generated by complexes I-VIII in aqueous solutions. Kinetics of NO formation was studied by registration of absorption spectra of the reaction systems containing Hb and the complex under study. For determination of HbNO concentration, the experimental absorption spectra were processed during the reaction using standard program MATHCAD to determine the contribution of individual Hb and HbNO spectra in each spectrum. The reaction rate constants were obtained by analyzing kinetic dependence of Hb interaction with NO donors under study. All kinetic dependences for complexes I-VI were shown to be described well in the frame of formalism of pseudo first-order reactions. The effective first-order rate constants for the studied reactions have been determined. As follows from the values of rate constants, the rate of interaction of sulfur-nitrosyl iron complexes (I-VI) with Hb is limited by the stage of NO release in the solution.

  9. The green synthesis, characterization, and evaluation of the biological activities of silver nanoparticles synthesized from Leptadenia reticulata leaf extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumara Swamy, M.; Sudipta, K. M.; Jayanta, K.; Balasubramanya, S.

    2015-01-01

    Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag Nps) was carried out using methanol leaves extract of L. reticulata. Ag Nps were characterized based on the observations of UV-visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. These Ag Nps were tested for antimicrobial activity by agar well diffusion method against different pathogenic microorganisms and antioxidant activity was performed using DPPH assay. Further, the in vitro cytotoxic effects of Ag Nps were screened against HCT15 cancer cell line and viability of tumor cells was confirmed using MTT ((3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, a yellow tetrazole)) assay. The nuclear condensation was studied using the propidium iodide-staining method. The color change from green to dark brown and the absorbance peak at about 420 nm indicated the formation of nanoparticles. XRD pattern showed characteristic peaks indexed to the crystalline planes (111), (200) and (220) of face-centered cubic silver. The nanoparticles were of spherical shape with varying sizes ranging from 50 to 70 nm. Biosynthesized Ag Nps showed potent antibacterial activity and effective radical scavenging activity. MTT assay revealed a dose-dependent decrease in cell viability. Microscopic observations showed distinct cellular morphological changes indicating unhealthy cells, whereas the control appeared normal. Increase in the number of propidium iodide positive cells were observed in maximum concentration. Methanolic leaf extract of L. reticulata acts as an excellent capping agent for the formation of silver nanoparticles and demonstrates immense biological activities. Hence, these Ag NPs can be used as antibacterial, antioxidant as well as cytotoxic agent in treating many medical complications.

  10. Assembly of three new POM-based Ag(I) coordination polymers with antibacterial and photocatalytic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Xin-Xin; Luo, Yu-Hui [Institute of Polyoxometalate Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Northeast Normal University, Changchun, Jilin 130024, PR China (China); Lu, Chen [School of Pharmaceutical and Life Sciences,Changzhou University, Changzhou, Jiangsu 213164 (China); Chen, Xin, E-mail: xinchen@cczu.edu.cn [School of Pharmaceutical and Life Sciences,Changzhou University, Changzhou, Jiangsu 213164 (China); Zhang, Hong, E-mail: zhangh@nenu.edu.cn [Institute of Polyoxometalate Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Northeast Normal University, Changchun, Jilin 130024, PR China (China)

    2015-12-15

    Three new silver coordination polymers, namely, {Ag_3(bpy)_6[PW_1_2O_4_0]} (1), {Ag_5(H_2biim)_2(Hbiim-NO_2)_2[PW_1_2O_4_0]} (2), {Ag_7(pytz)_4[PW_1_2O_4_0]} (3) (bpy=2,2′-bipyridine, H{sub 2}biim=2,2′-biimidazole, pytz=4-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)pyridine), have been synthesized under hydrothermal condition. Compound 1 shows a 3D supramolecular framework based on 0D moieties. Compound 2 exhibits an attractive 2D biologic screw axis. Compound 3 displays a 3D structure, which consists of Ag(I)···π interactions, π···π stacking and weak Ag···Ag interactions. It is noteworthy that nitration happens to compound 2 during the hydrothermal condition, which is quite rare. Through contrasting the antibacterial activities of gram negative and gram positive bacteria, we find compounds 1–3 have better antibacterial property in gram negative bacteria than gram positive bacteria. In addition, compounds 1–3 also exhibit efficiency of photocatalytic decomposition of organic dyes. Those compounds may be used as potential multifunctional materials in wastewater treatment, because they not only can kill bacteria but also degrade organic pollutants. - Highlights: • Three new silver coordination polymers have been synthesized under hydrothermal condition. • Due to different coordination modes of rigid N-donor ligands, structures of the title compounds vary from 0D to 3D frameworks. • It is noteworthy that nitration happens to compound 2 during the hydrothermal condition, which is quite rare. • In addition, these compounds exhibit efficiency of photocatalytic decomposition of dyes and antibacterial activities.

  11. Osteoblast-like cell attachment and proliferation on turned, blasted, and anodized titanium surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pae, Ahran; Kim, Si-Seok; Kim, Hyeong-Seob; Woo, Yi-Hyung

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the cellular activities of MG63 osteoblast-like cells on modified titanium surfaces. MG63 osteoblast-like cells were cultured on titanium disks (n = 20 in each group) with turned, resorbable blast media (RBM)-treated, or anodized surfaces. The surfaces of commercially available implants of Osstem (Osstem Implant) were reproduced for the titanium disks. The morphology of cells cultured on these disks was examined using scanning electron microscopy. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was employed for the analysis of surface chemistry. Specimens were also evaluated with an initial cell adhesion assay to compare initial adhesion, with a methyl tetrazol sulfate (MTS) assay to compare the proliferation ability, and with an alkaline phosphatase (ALP) assay to compare the differentiation ability. Statistical significance of the differences was determined using the Kruskal-Wallis test for the cell adhesion assay and analysis of variance for the MTS and ALP assays. Attached cells with more defined lamellopodia and flattened morphology were observed on the anodized and RBM surfaces than on the turned surfaces. The titanium surfaces were all oxidized as titanium oxide and polluted by carbon determinants, as determined by XPS. Anodized titanium surfaces exhibited calcium and phosphorus peaks. Initial cell attachment activity, cell proliferation activity, and ALP activity were higher on the anodized surfaces than on the other surfaces. Cell differentiation on the anodized surfaces at culture day 10 was significantly higher (P < .05) than on the other surfaces. Surface treatment by anodization may improve initial attachment of cells, proliferation ability, and differentiation activity, which play important roles in providing better osseointegration of implants. More rapid and stronger osseointegration of implants may make it possible to offer the best anchorage and shorten the healing time required prior to functional loading.

  12. Substrate recognition and motion mode analyses of PFV integrase in complex with viral DNA via coarse-grained models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianping Hu

    Full Text Available HIV-1 integrase (IN is an important target in the development of drugs against the AIDS virus. Drug design based on the structure of IN was markedly hampered due to the lack of three-dimensional structure information of HIV-1 IN-viral DNA complex. The prototype foamy virus (PFV IN has a highly functional and structural homology with HIV-1 IN. Recently, the X-ray crystal complex structure of PFV IN with its cognate viral DNA has been obtained. In this study, both Gaussian network model (GNM and anisotropy network model (ANM have been applied to comparatively investigate the motion modes of PFV DNA-free and DNA-bound IN. The results show that the motion mode of PFV IN has only a slight change after binding with DNA. The motion of this enzyme is in favor of association with DNA, and the binding ability is determined by its intrinsic structural topology. Molecular docking experiments were performed to gain the binding modes of a series of diketo acid (DKA inhibitors with PFV IN obtained from ANM, from which the dependability of PFV IN-DNA used in the drug screen for strand transfer (ST inhibitors was confirmed. It is also found that the functional groups of keto-enol, bis-diketo, tetrazole and azido play a key role in aiding the recognition of viral DNA, and thus finally increase the inhibition capability for the corresponding DKA inhibitor. Our study provides some theoretical information and helps to design anti-AIDS drug based on the structure of IN.

  13. Green synthesis, antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of silver nanoparticles using Eucalyptus chapmaniana leaves extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Ghassan Mohammad; Mohammed, Wasnaa Hatif; Marzoog, Thorria Radam; Al-Amiery, Ahmed Abdul Amir; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H.; Mohamad, Abu Bakar

    2013-01-01

    Objective To synthesize silver nanopaticles from leaves extract of Eucalyptus chapmaniana (E. chapmaniana) and test the antimicrobial of the nanoparticles against different pathogenic bacteria, yeast and its toxicity against human acute promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60) cell line. Methods Ten milliliter of leaves extract was mixed with 90 mL of 0.01 mmol/mL or 0.02 mmol/mL aqueous AgNO3 and exposed to sun light for 1 h. A change from yellowish to reddish brown color was observed. Characterization using UV-vis spectrophotometery and X-ray diffraction analysis were performed. Antimicrobial activity against six microorganisms was tested using well diffusion method and cytoxicity test using 3-(4, 5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, a yellow tetrazole was obtained on the human leukemia cell line (HL-60). Results UV-vis spectral analysis showed silver surface plasmon resonance band at 413 nm. X-ray diffraction showed that the particles were crystalline in nature with face centered cubic structure of the bulk silver with broad beaks at 38.50° and 44.76°. The synthesized silver nanoparticles efficiently inhibited various pathogenic organisms and reduced viability of the HL-60 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusions It has been demonstrated that the extract of E. chapmaniana leaves are capable of producing silver nanoparticles extracellularly and the Ag nanoparticles are quite stable in solution. Further studies are needed to fully characterize the toxicity and the mechanisms involved with the antimicrobial and anticancer activity of these particles. PMID:23570018

  14. Green Nanotechnology Serving the Bioeconomy: Natural Beauty Masks to Save the Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierfrancesco Morganti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available According to United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP, ensuring a clean and healthy environment will provide multiple benefits to society and economy. Sustainable production, followed by appropriate management of industrial and agricultural waste, will protect and enhance biodiversity and ecosystem services. To achieve this objective, specific policies must be put in place and specific actions performed for making a low-carbon and resource-efficient economy with reduced production of petrol-derived goods. The aim of the study has been to produce effective and safe anti-age beauty masks made of non-woven tissues based on the use of chitin nanofibril (CN and nanolignin (LG, obtained from crustaceans and plant biomass, respectively. To this purpose, nanoparticles and electrospun fibres have been characterized by Dynamic Light Scattering and SEM, while the safeness and effectiveness of the obtained tissues was verified in vitro on a culture of keratinocytes and fibroblasts, and controlled in vivo by expert dermatologists on 30 volunteer photo-aged women, by subjective and objective bioengineered methods. The in vitro results have shown that the beauty masks have no toxic effects on the viability of keratinocytes and fibroblasts treated by the Dimethyl Tetrazole (MTT method, and exhibit a decreased expression of cytokines, playing a central role in the regulation of immune and inflammatory responses in premature aging and environmental assaults. The reparative and antiaging effectiveness of these innovative beauty masks have been also verified on the release of Metallo Proteinase I (MMP-1 and the increased synthesis of collagen type I, reduced in skin aging. The first preliminary in vivo results, obtained by engineering methods, have confirmed the protective and rejuvenating activity shown by the in vitro study conducted on 30 voluntary women exhibiting signs of photoaging. The raw materials used are of natural origin being also respectful of the

  15. Identification by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of an active-site hydrogen-bond network in human monoacylglycerol lipase (hMGL): implications for hMGL dynamics, pharmacological inhibition, and catalytic mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karageorgos, Ioannis; Tyukhtenko, Sergiy; Zvonok, Nikolai; Janero, David R; Sallum, Christine; Makriyannis, Alexandros

    2010-08-01

    Intramolecular hydrogen bonding is an important determinant of enzyme structure, catalysis, and inhibitor action. Monoacylglycerol lipase (MGL) modulates cannabinergic signaling as the main enzyme responsible for deactivating 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), a primary endocannabinoid lipid messenger. By enhancing tissue-protective 2-AG tone, targeted MGL inhibitors hold therapeutic promise for managing pain and treating inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases. We report study of purified, solubilized human MGL (hMGL) to explore the details of hMGL catalysis by using two known covalent hMGL inhibitors, the carbamoyl tetrazole AM6701 and N-arachidonoylmaleimide (NAM), that act through distinct mechanisms. Using proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) with purified wild-type and mutant hMGLs, we have directly observed a strong hydrogen-bond network involving Asp239 and His269 of the catalytic triad and neighboring Leu241 and Cys242 residues. hMGL inhibition by AM6701 alters this hydrogen-bonding pattern through subtle active-site structural rearrangements without influencing hydrogen-bond occupancies. Rapid carbamoylation of hMGL Ser122 by AM6701 and elimination of the leaving group is followed by a slow hydrolysis of the carbamate group, ultimately regenerating catalytically competent hMGL. In contrast, hMGL titration with NAM, which leads to cysteine alkylation, stoichiometrically decreases the population of the active-site hydrogen bonds. NAM prevents reformation of this network, and in this manner inhibits hMGL irreversibly. These data provide detailed molecular insight into the distinctive mechanisms of two covalent hMGL inhibitors and implicate a hydrogen-bond network as a structural feature of hMGL catalytic function.

  16. Green synthesis, antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of silver nanoparticles using Eucalyptus chapmaniana leaves extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Ghassan Mohammad; Mohammed, Wasnaa Hatif; Marzoog, Thorria Radam; Al-Amiery, Ahmed Abdul Amir; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H; Mohamad, Abu Bakar

    2013-01-01

    To synthesize silver nanopaticles from leaves extract of Eucalyptus chapmaniana (E. chapmaniana) and test the antimicrobial of the nanoparticles against different pathogenic bacteria, yeast and its toxicity against human acute promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60) cell line. Ten milliliter of leaves extract was mixed with 90 mL of 0.01 mmol/mL or 0.02 mmol/mL aqueous AgNO3 and exposed to sun light for 1 h. A change from yellowish to reddish brown color was observed. Characterization using UV-vis spectrophotometery and X-ray diffraction analysis were performed. Antimicrobial activity against six microorganisms was tested using well diffusion method and cytoxicity test using 3-(4, 5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, a yellow tetrazole was obtained on the human leukemia cell line (HL-60). UV-vis spectral analysis showed silver surface plasmon resonance band at 413 nm. X-ray diffraction showed that the particles were crystalline in nature with face centered cubic structure of the bulk silver with broad beaks at 38.50° and 44.76°. The synthesized silver nanoparticles efficiently inhibited various pathogenic organisms and reduced viability of the HL-60 cells in a dose-dependent manner. It has been demonstrated that the extract of E. chapmaniana leaves are capable of producing silver nanoparticles extracellularly and the Ag nanoparticles are quite stable in solution. Further studies are needed to fully characterize the toxicity and the mechanisms involved with the antimicrobial and anticancer activity of these particles.

  17. Prostacyclin mediates endothelial COX-2-dependent neuroprotective effects during excitotoxic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Y

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Ying An,1,2 Natalya Belevych,1,2 Yufen Wang,1,2 Hao Zhang,1 Jason S Nasse,3 Harvey Herschman,4 Qun Chen,1,2 Andrew Tarr,1,2 Xiaoyu Liu,1,2 Ning Quan1,21Institute for Behavior Medicine Research, 2Department of Oral Biology, College of Dentistry, 3Neuroscience Graduate Studies Program, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA; 4Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USAAbstract: In a previous study, we found that intracerebral administration of excitotoxin (RS-(tetrazole-5yl glycine caused increased neural damage in the brain in an endothelial COX-2 deleted mouse line (Tie2Cre COX-2flox/flox. In this study, we investigated whether prostacyclin might mediate this endothelial COX-2-dependent neuroprotection. Administration of excitotoxin into the striatum induced the production of prostacyclin (PGI2 in wild type, but not in endothelial COX-2 deleted mice. Inhibition of PGI2 synthase exacerbated brain lesions induced by the excitotoxin in wild type, but not in endothelial COX-2 deleted mice. Administration of a PGI2 agonist reduced neural damage in both wild type and endothelial COX-2 deleted mice. Increased PGI2 synthase expression was found in infiltrating neutrophils. In an ex vivo assay, PGI2 reduced the excitotoxin-induced calcium influx into neurons, suggesting a cellular mechanism for PGI2 mediated neuroprotection. These results reveal that PGI2 mediates endothelial COX-2 dependent neuroprotection.Keywords: neural injury, prostaglandins, neutrophil, conditional COX-2 deletion, PGI2

  18. Syntheses, crystal structures, and properties of four coordination polymers based on mixed multi-N donor and polycarboxylate ligands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shui-Sheng; Guo, Xing-Zhe; Zhao, Yue; Li, Wei-Dong

    2018-02-01

    Four new coordination polymers [Ni2(HL1)2(L1)3(BTC)2]·6H2O (1), [Ni2(L1)3(HBTC)2]·4H2O (2), [Cd2(L2)(BTC)(H2O)3]·2H2O (3) and [Cd2(HL2)(BTCA)] (4) were synthesized by reactions of nickel(II)/ cadmium(II) salts with rigid ligands of 1,4-di(1H-imidazol-4-yl)benzene (L1), 1,3-di(1-imidazolyl)-5-(4H-tetrazol-5-yl)benzene (HL2) and polycarboxylic acids of 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylic acid (H3BTC), 1,2,4,5-benzenetetracarboxylic acid (H4BTCA), respectively. The structures of the complexes were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The complex 1 is one-dimensional (1D) chain while 2 is a (4, 4)-connected two-dimensional (2D) layered structure with 2D → 2D parallel interpenetration. Complex 3 is a rare tetranodal (3,4)-connected three-dimensional (3D) CrVTiSc architecture with Point (Schläfli) symbol of (4·82)(4·84·10)(42·82·102)(83), and compound 4 has the 2D network with (4,4) topology based on the [Cd2(COO)4] SBUs. The weak interactions such as hydrogen bonds and π···π stacking contribute to stabilize crystal structure and extend the low-dimensional entities into high-dimensional frameworks. The UV-vis absorption spectra of 1 - 4 are discussed. Moreover, the photo luminescent properties of 3 and 4 and gas sorption property of 2 have been investigated.

  19. High pressure study of a highly energetic nitrogen-rich carbon nitride, cyanuric triazide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laniel, Dominique; Desgreniers, Serge [Laboratoire de physique des solides denses, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 (Canada); Downie, Laura E. [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 4R2 (Canada); Smith, Jesse S. [High Pressure Collaborative Access Team, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Savard, Didier; Murugesu, Muralee [Department of Chemistry, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 (Canada)

    2014-12-21

    Cyanuric triazide (CTA), a nitrogen-rich energetic material, was compressed in a diamond anvil cell up to 63.2 GPa. Samples were characterized by x-ray diffraction, Raman, and infrared spectroscopy. A phase transition occurring between 29.8 and 30.7 GPa was found by all three techniques. The bulk modulus and its pressure derivative of the low pressure phase were determined by fitting the 300 K isothermal compression data to the Birch-Murnaghan equation of state. Due to the strong photosensitivity of CTA, synchrotron generated x-rays and visible laser radiation both lead to the progressive conversion of CTA into a two dimensional amorphous C=N network, starting from 9.2 GPa. As a result of the conversion, increasingly weak and broad x-ray diffraction lines were recorded from crystalline CTA as a function of pressure. Hence, a definite structure could not be obtained for the high pressure phase of CTA. Results from infrared spectroscopy carried out to 40.5 GPa suggest the high pressure formation of a lattice built of tri-tetrazole molecular units. The decompression study showed stability of the high pressure phase down to 13.9 GPa. Finally, two CTA samples, one loaded with neon and the other with nitrogen, used as pressure transmitting media, were laser-heated to approximately 1100 K and 1500 K while compressed at 37.7 GPa and 42.0 GPa, respectively. In both cases CTA decomposed resulting in amorphous compounds, as recovered at ambient conditions.

  20. Effect of growth intensity of bulls on the microstructure of musculus longissimus lumborum and meat quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Młynek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of growth intensity of 43 bulls with different growth intensity (. Commercial crosses of Polish Lowland black-and-white cows with Charolais and Limousin bulls were used in this study; within the particular genetic groups the hybrids had similar slaughter weight (447.6 and 517.2 kg and age (526 and 606 days, respectively. The share of fibres with active tetrazole dehydragenase in the more intensively growing animals was smaller. For fibres with myofibrillar ATPase activity, the intensively growing animals produced higher standard deviation values than the other groups. Further analysis of the muscular tissue in this group revealed that out of the 24 muscles, 9 had giant fibres. In comparison with the less intensively growing animals, the muscles of the bulls that gained more than 900 g/day in weight were found to contain significantly less glycogen (P ≤ 0.01 and, consequently, the meat was less acidic. The difference of the pH ranged from 0.19 in the case of pH24 (P ≤ 0.01 to 0.06 for pH48 (P ≤ 0.01. It should be noted that the intensively growing animals were found to have a relatively high pH variability (SD = 0.69 and 0.49, respectively. The pH24 and pH48 values, as well as pH variability show that the meat of this group was dark, firm and dry.

  1. Silica/potassium ferrite nanocomposite: Structural, morphological, magnetic, thermal and in vitro cytotoxicity analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khanna, Lavanya, E-mail: lavanshya@yahoo.co.in; Verma, N.K.

    2013-11-01

    Highlights: • Silica coating on potassium ferrite nanoparticles is reported. • Their structural, morphological, thermal behaviour is studied and compared. • Both bare and coated nanoparticles are superparamagnetic and biocompatible. -- Abstract: The coating of silica on potassium ferrite (KFeO{sub 2}) nanoparticles has been reported in the present study. The X-ray diffraction pattern revealed the formation of orthorhombic structure of bare potassium ferrite nanoparticles, which was also retained after the silica coating, along with a broad band near 2θ ∼ 20–25° pertaining to the presence of amorphous silica. The size of bare and coated potassium ferrite nanoparticles was found to be 4–8 nm and 10–22 nm, respectively, as observed from transmission electron microscope. The presence of silica was also revealed by the Fourier transform infrared spectrum and high resolution transmission electron microscope. In vibrating sample magnetometer analysis, both bare as well as coated potassium ferrite nanoparticles exhibited superparamagnetic behaviour with magnetic saturation values, 49.01 and 21.17 emu/g, respectively. Dose-dependent cellular toxicity was observed in the in vitro MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, a tetrazole) – assay study on Jurkat cells, where both bare as well as silica coated nanoparticles exhibited non-toxicity below 250 μg/ml. An augmentation of cell viability was observed in case of silica coated potassium ferrite nanoparticles. The nanosize, superparamagnetic behaviour and enhanced cell viability make silica coated potassium ferrite nanoparticles a potential claimant for biomedical applications.

  2. Crystal structures of the three closely related compounds: bis-[(1H-tetra-zol-5-yl)meth-yl]nitramide, tri-amino-guanidinium 5-({[(1H-tetra-zol-5-yl)meth-yl](nitro)-amino}-meth-yl)tetra-zol-1-ide, and di-ammonium bis-[(tetra-zol-1-id-5-yl)meth-yl]nitramide monohydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Lauren A; Imler, Gregory H; Parrish, Damon A; Deschamps, Jeffrey R; Leonard, Philip W; Chavez, David E

    2017-07-01

    In the mol-ecule of neutral bis-[(1H-tetra-zol-5-yl)meth-yl]nitramide, (I), C4H6N10O2, there are two intra-molecular N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds. In the crystal, N-H⋯N hydrogen bonds link mol-ecules, forming a two-dimensional network parallel to (-201) and weak C-H⋯O, C-H⋯N hydrogen bonds, and inter-molecular π-π stacking completes the three-dimensional network. The anion in the molecular salt, tri-amino-guanidinium 5-({[(1H-tetra-zol-5-yl)meth-yl](nitro)-amino}-meth-yl)tetra-zol-1-ide, (II), CH9N6+·C4H5N10O2-, displays intra-molecular π-π stacking and in the crystal, N-H⋯N and N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the components of the structure, forming a three-dimensional network. In the crystal of di-ammonium bis-[(tetra-zol-1-id-5-yl)meth-yl]nitramide monohydrate, (III), 2NH4+·C4H4N10O22-·H2O, O-H⋯N, N-H⋯N, and N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the components of the structure into a three-dimensional network. In addition, there is inter-molecular π-π stacking. In all three structures, the central N atom of the nitramide is mainly sp2-hybridized. Bond lengths indicate delocalization of charges on the tetra-zole rings for all three compounds. Compound (II) was found to be a non-merohedral twin and was solved and refined in the major component.

  3. Three Toxic Gases Meet in the Mitochondria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A Decreau

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The rationale of the study was two-fold : (i develop a functional synthetic model of the Cytochrome c oxidase (CcO active site, (ii use it as a convenient tool to understand or predict the outcome of the reaction of CcO with ligands (physiologically relevant gases and other ligands. At physiological pH and potential, the model catalyzes the 4-electron reduction of oxygen. This model was immobilized on self-assembled-monolayer (SAM modified electrode. During catalytic oxygen reduction, electron delivery through SAMs is rate limiting, similar to the situation in CcO. This model contains all three redox-active components in CcO’s active site, which are required to minimize the production of partially-reduced-oxygen-species (PROS: Fe¬-heme (heme a3 in a myoglobin-like model fitted with a proximal imidazole ligand, and a distal tris-imidazole Copper (CuB complex, where one imidazole is cross-linked to a phenol (mimicking Tyr244. This functional CcO model demonstrates how CcO itself might tolerate the hormone NO (which diffuses through the mitochondria. It is proposed that CuB delivers superoxide to NO bound to Fe-heme forming peroxynitrite, then nitrate that diffuses away. Another toxic gas, H2S, has exceptional biological effects: at ~80 ppm, H2S induces a state similar to hibernation in mice, lowering the animal's temperature and slowing respiration. Using our functional CcO model, we have demonstrated that at the same concentration range H2S can reversibly inhibit catalytic oxygen reduction. Such a reversible catalytic process on the model was also demonstrated with an organic compound, tetrazole (TZ. Following studies showed that TZ reversibly inhibits respiration in isolated mitochondria, and induces deactivation of platelets, a mitochondria-rich key component of blood coagulation. Hence, this program is a rare example illustrating the use of a functional model to understand and predict physiologically important reactions at the active site

  4. Crystal Structure of the New Investigational Drug Candidate VT-1598 in Complex with Aspergillus fumigatus Sterol 14α-Demethylase Provides Insights into Its Broad-Spectrum Antifungal Activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hargrove, Tatiana Y.; Garvey, Edward P.; Hoekstra, William J.; Yates, Christopher M.; Wawrzak, Zdzislaw; Rachakonda, Girish; Villalta, Fernando; Lepesheva, Galina I.

    2017-05-01

    ABSTRACT

    Within the past few decades, the incidence and complexity of human fungal infections have increased, and therefore, the need for safer and more efficient, broad-spectrum antifungal agents is high. In the study described here, we characterized the new tetrazole-based drug candidate VT-1598 as an inhibitor of sterol 14α-demethylase (CYP51B) from the filamentous fungusAspergillus fumigatus. VT-1598 displayed a high affinity of binding to the enzyme in solution (dissociation constant, 13 ± 1 nM) and in the reconstituted enzymatic reaction was revealed to have an inhibitory potency stronger than the potencies of all other simultaneously tested antifungal drugs, including fluconazole, voriconazole, ketoconazole, and posaconazole. The X-ray structure of the VT-1598/A. fumigatusCYP51 complex was determined and depicts the distinctive binding mode of the inhibitor in the enzyme active site, suggesting the molecular basis of the improved drug potency and broad-spectrum antifungal activity. These data show the formation of an optimized hydrogen bond between the phenoxymethyl oxygen of VT-1598 and the imidazole ring nitrogen of His374, the CYP51 residue that is highly conserved across fungal pathogens and fungus specific. Comparative structural analysis ofA. fumigatusCYP51/voriconazole andCandida albicansCYP51/VT-1161 complexes supports the role of H bonding in fungal CYP51/inhibitor complexes and emphasizes the importance of an optimal distance between this interaction and the inhibitor-heme iron interaction. Cellular experiments using twoA. fumigatusstrains (strains 32820 and 1022) displayed a direct

  5. Chemical oxidation of unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine transformation products in water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madi Abilev

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Oxidation of unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH during a water treatment has several disadvantages including formation of stable toxic byproducts. Effectiveness of treatment methods in relation to UDMH transformation products is currently poorly studied. This work considers the effectiveness of chemical oxidants in respect to main metabolites of UDMH – 1-formyl-2,2-dimethylhydrazine, dimethylaminoacetontrile, N-nitrosodimethylamine and 1-methyl-1H-1,2,4-triazole. Experiments on chemical oxidation by Fenton's reagent, potassium permanganate and sodium nitrite were conducted. Quantitative determination was performed by HPLC. Oxidation products were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in combination with solid-phase microextraction. 1-Formyl-2,2-dimethylhydrazine was completely oxidized by Fenton's reagent with formation of formaldehyde N-formyl-N-methyl-hydrazone, 1,4-dihydro-1,4-dimethyl-5H-tetrazol-5-one by the action of potassium permanganate and N-methyl-N-nitro-methanamine in the presence of sodium nitrite. Oxidation of 1-formyl-2,2-dimethylhydrazine also resulted in formation of N-nitrosodimethylamine. Oxidation of dimethylaminoacetontrile proceeded with formation of hydroxyacetonitrile, dimethylformamide and 1,2,5-trimethylpyrrole. After 30 days, dimethylaminoacetontrile was not detected in the presence of Fenton’s reagent and potassium permanganate, but it’s concentration in samples with sodium nitrite was 77.3 mg/L. In the presence of Fenton’s reagent, potassium permanganate and sodium nitrite after 30 days, N-nitrosodimethylamine concentration decreased by 85, 80 and 50%, respectively. In control sample, N-nitrosodimethylamine concentration decreased by 50%, indicating that sodium nitrite has no effect of on N-nitrosodimethylamine concentration. Only Fenton's reagent allowed to reduce the concentration of 1-methyl-1H-1,2,4-triazole to 50% in 30 days. In the presence of other oxidants, 1-methyl-1H-1,2,4-triazole

  6. Evaluation of [(11)C]methyl-losartan and [(11)C]methyl-EXP3174 for PET imaging of renal AT1receptor in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Basma; Hadizad, Tayebeh; Antoun, Rawad; Lortie, Mireille; deKemp, Robert A; Beanlands, Rob S B; DaSilva, Jean N

    2015-11-01

    The angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) is responsible for the main effects of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), and its expression pattern is altered in several diseases. The [(11)C]methylated derivatives of the clinically used AT1R blocker (ARB) losartan and its active metabolite EXP3174, that binds with higher affinity to AT1R, were evaluated as potential PET imaging tracers in rat kidneys. [(11)C]Methyl-losartan and [(11)C]methyl-EXP3174 were synthesized by [(11)C]methylation of the tetrazole-protected analogs using [11C]methyl iodide. Tissue uptake and binding selectivity of [(11)C]methyl-losartan were assessed by ex-vivo biodistribution and in-vitro autoradiography. Radiolabeled metabolites in rat plasma and kidneys were analysed by column-switch HPLC. Both tracers were evaluated with small animal PET imaging. Due to better pharmacokinetics, [(11)C]methyl-EXP3174 was further investigated via PET by co-injection with AT1R antagonist candesartan or the AT2R antagonist PD123,319. Binding selectivity to renal AT1 over AT2 and Mas receptors was demonstrated for [(11)C]methyl-losartan. Plasma metabolite analysis at 10 min revealed stability of [(11)C]methyl-losartan and [(11)C]methyl-EXP3174 with the presence of unchanged tracer at 70.8 ± 9.9% and 81.4 ± 6.0%, of total radioactivity, respectively. Contrary to [(11)C]methyl-losartan, co-injection of candesartan with [(11)C]methyl-EXP3174 reduced the proportion of unchanged tracer (but not metabolites), indicating that these metabolites do not bind to AT1R in rat kidneys. MicroPET images for both radiotracers displayed high kidney-to-background contrast. Candesartan significantly reduced [(11)C]methyl-EXP3174 uptake in the kidney, whereas no difference was observed following PD123,319 indicating binding selectivity for AT1R. [(11)C]Methyl-EXP3174 displayed a favorable binding profile compared to [(11)C]methyl-losartan for imaging renal AT1Rs supporting further studies to assess its full potential as a

  7. Simulations of hydrogen sorption in rht-MOF-1: identifying the binding sites through explicit polarization and quantum rotation calculations

    KAUST Repository

    Pham, Tony

    2014-01-01

    Grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulations of hydrogen sorption were performed in rht-MOF-1, a metal-organic framework (MOF) that consists of isophthalate groups joined by copper paddlewheel clusters and Cu3O trimers through tetrazolate moeities. This is a charged rht-MOF that contains extra-framework nitrate counterions within the material. For the simulations performed herein, excellent agreement with experiment was achieved for the simulated hydrogen sorption isotherms and calculated isosteric heat of adsorption, Qst, values only when using a polarizable potential. Thermodynamic agreement is demonstrated via comparing to experimental isotherms and binding sites are revealed by combining simulation and inelastic neutron scattering (INS) data. Simulations involving explicit many-body polarization interactions assisted in the determination of the binding sites in rht-MOF-1 through the distribution of the induced dipoles that led to strong adsorbate interactions. Four distinct hydrogen sorption sites were determined from the polarization distribution: the nitrate ions located in the corners of the truncated tetrahedral cages, the Cu2+ ions of the paddlewheels that project into the truncated tetrahedral and truncated octahedral cages (Cu1 ions), the Cu2+ ions of the Cu3O trimers (Cu3 ions), and the sides of the paddlewheels in the cuboctahedral cage. The simulations revealed that the initial sorption sites for hydrogen in rht-MOF-1 are the nitrate ions; this site corresponds to the high initial Qst value for hydrogen (9.5 kJ mol-1) in the MOF. The radial distribution functions, g(r), about the Cu2+ ions at various loadings revealed that the Cu1 ions are the preferred open-metal sorption sites for hydrogen at low loading, while the Cu3 ions become occupied at higher loadings. The validation of the aforementioned sorption sites in rht-MOF-1 was confirmed by calculating the two-dimensional quantum rotational levels about each site and comparing the levels to the

  8. Ab initio kinetics and thermal decomposition mechanism of mononitrobiuret and 1,5-dinitrobiuret

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hongyan; Vaghjiani, Ghanshyam L.

    2015-05-01

    Mononitrobiuret (MNB) and 1,5-dinitrobiuret (DNB) are tetrazole-free, nitrogen-rich, energetic compounds. For the first time, a comprehensive ab initio kinetics study on the thermal decomposition mechanisms of MNB and DNB is reported here. In particular, the intramolecular interactions of amine H-atom with electronegative nitro O-atom and carbonyl O-atom have been analyzed for biuret, MNB, and DNB at the M06-2X/aug-cc-pVTZ level of theory. The results show that the MNB and DNB molecules are stabilized through six-member-ring moieties via intramolecular H-bonding with interatomic distances between 1.8 and 2.0 Å, due to electrostatic as well as polarization and dispersion interactions. Furthermore, it was found that the stable molecules in the solid state have the smallest dipole moment amongst all the conformers in the nitrobiuret series of compounds, thus revealing a simple way for evaluating reactivity of fuel conformers. The potential energy surface for thermal decomposition of MNB was characterized by spin restricted coupled cluster theory at the RCCSD(T)/cc-pV∞ Z//M06-2X/aug-cc-pVTZ level. It was found that the thermal decomposition of MNB is initiated by the elimination of HNCO and HNN(O)OH intermediates. Intramolecular transfer of a H-atom, respectively, from the terminal NH2 group to the adjacent carbonyl O-atom via a six-member-ring transition state eliminates HNCO with an energy barrier of 35 kcal/mol and from the central NH group to the adjacent nitro O-atom eliminates HNN(O)OH with an energy barrier of 34 kcal/mol. Elimination of HNN(O)OH is also the primary process involved in the thermal decomposition of DNB, which processes C2v symmetry. The rate coefficients for the primary decomposition channels for MNB and DNB were quantified as functions of temperature and pressure. In addition, the thermal decomposition of HNN(O)OH was analyzed via Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus/multi-well master equation simulations, the results of which reveal the formation

  9. Ab Initio Kinetics and Thermal Decomposition Mechanism of Mononitrobiuret and 1,5- Dinitrobiuret

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Hongyan; Vaghjiani, Ghanshyam G.

    2015-05-26

    Mononitrobiuret (MNB) and 1,5-dinitrobiuret (DNB) are tetrazole-free, nitrogen-rich, energetic compounds. For the first time, a comprehensive ab initio kinetics study on the thermal decomposition mechanisms of MNB and DNB is reported here. In particular, the intramolecular interactions of amine H-atom with electronegative nitro O-atom and carbonyl O-atom have been analyzed for biuret, MNB, and DNB at the M06-2X/aug-cc-pVTZ level of theory. The results show that the MNB and DNB molecules are stabilized through six-member-ring moieties via intramolecular H-bonding with interatomic distances between 1.8 and 2.0 Å, due to electrostatic as well as polarization and dispersion interactions. Furthermore, it was found that the stable molecules in the solid state have the smallest dipole moment amongst all the conformers in the nitrobiuret series of compounds, thus revealing a simple way for evaluating reactivity of fuel conformers. The potential energy surface for thermal decomposition of MNB was characterized by spin restricted coupled cluster theory at the RCCSD(T)/cc-pV∞ Z//M06-2X/aug-cc-pVTZ level. It was found that the thermal decomposition of MNB is initiated by the elimination of HNCO and HNN(O)OH intermediates. Intramolecular transfer of a H-atom, respectively, from the terminal NH2 group to the adjacent carbonyl O-atom via a six-member-ring transition state eliminates HNCO with an energy barrier of 35 kcal/mol and from the central NH group to the adjacent nitro O-atom eliminates HNN(O)OH with an energy barrier of 34 kcal/mol. Elimination of HNN(O)OH is also the primary process involved in the thermal decomposition of DNB, which processes C2v symmetry. The rate coefficients for the primary decomposition channels for MNB and DNB were quantified as functions of temperature and pressure. In addition, the thermal decomposition of HNN(O)OH was analyzed via Rice–Ramsperger–Kassel–Marcus/multi-well master equation simulations, the results of which reveal the

  10. Accurate Thermochemical Properties for Energetic Materials Applications. II. Heats of Formation of Imidazolium-, 1,2,4-Triazolium-, and Tetrazolium-Based Energetic Salts fromIsodesmic and Lattice Energy Calculations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutowski, Keith E; Rogers, Robin D; Dixon, David A

    2007-03-01

    The research described in this product was performed in part in the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, a national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. A computational approach to the prediction of the heats of formation (ΔHf°’s) of solid-state energetic salts from electronic structure and volume-based thermodynamics (VBT) calculations is described. The method uses as its starting point reliable ΔHf°’s for energetic precursor molecules and ions. The ΔHf°’s of more complex energetics species such as substituted imidazole, 1,2,4-triazole, and tetrazole molecules and ions containing amino, azido, and nitro (including methyl) substituents are calculated using an isodesmic approach at the MP2/complete basis set level. On the basis of comparisons to experimental data for neutral analogues, this isodesmic approach is accurate to <3 kcal/mol for the predicted cation and anion ΔHf°’s. The ΔHf°’s of the energetic salts in the solid state are derived from lattice energy (UL) calculations using a VBT approach. Improved values for the ∝ and β parameters of 19.9 (kcal nm)/mol and 37.6 kcal/mol for the UL equation were obtained on the basis of comparisons to experimental UL’s for a series of 23 salts containing ammonium, alkylammonium, and hydrazinium cations. The total volumes are adjusted to account for differences between predicted and experimental total volumes due to different shapes of the ions (flat vs spherical). The predicted ΔHf°’s of the energetic salts are estimated to have error bars of 6-7 kcal/mol, on the basis of comparisons to established experimental ΔHf°’s of a subset of the salts studied. Energetic salts with the highest positive ΔHf°’s are predicted for azido-containing cations, coupled with heterocyclic anions containing nitro substituents. The substitution of functional groups on

  11. Lymphatic endothelial cells efferent to inflamed joints produce iNOS and inhibit lymphatic vessel contraction and drainage in TNF-induced arthritis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Qianqian; Ju, Yawen; Chen, Yan; Wang, Wensheng; Li, Jinlong; Zhang, Li; Xu, Hao; Wood, Ronald W; Schwarz, Edward M; Boyce, Brendan F; Wang, Yongjun; Xing, Lianping

    2016-03-12

    In this study, we sought to determine the cellular source of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) induced in lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) in response to tumor necrosis factor (TNF), the effects of iNOS on lymphatic smooth muscle cell (LSMC) function and on the development of arthritis in TNF-transgenic (TNF-Tg) mice, and whether iNOS inhibitors improve lymphatic function and reduce joint destruction in inflammatory erosive arthritis. We used quantitative polymerase chain reactions, immunohistochemistry, histology, and near-infrared imaging to examine (1) iNOS expression in podoplanin + LECs and lymphatic vessels from wild-type (WT) and TNF-Tg mice, (2) iNOS induction by TNF in WT LECs, (3) the effects of iNOS inhibitors on expression of functional muscle genes in LSMCs, and (4) the effects of iNOS inhibitors on lymphatic vessel contraction and drainage, as well as the severity of arthritis, in TNF-Tg mice. LECs from TNF-Tg mice had eight fold higher iNOS messenger RNA levels than WT cells, and iNOS expression was confirmed immunohistochemically in podoplanin + LECs in lymphatic vessels from inflamed joints. TNF (0.1 ng/ml) increased iNOS levels 40-fold in LECs. LSMCs cocultured with LECs pretreated with TNF had reduced expression of functional muscle genes. This reduction was prevented by ferulic acid, which blocked nitric oxide production. Local injection of L-N(6)-(1-iminoethyl)lysine 5-tetrazole-amide into inflamed paws of TNF-Tg mice resulted in recovery of lymphatic vessel contractions and drainage. Treatment of TNF-Tg mice with ferulic acid reduced synovial inflammation as well as cartilage and bone erosion, and it also restored lymphatic contraction and drainage. iNOS is produced primarily by LECs in lymphatic vessel efferent from inflamed joints of TNF-Tg mice in response to TNF and inhibits LSMC contraction and lymph drainage. Ferulic acid represents a potential new therapy to restore lymphatic function and thus improve inflammatory

  12. Three toxic gases meet in the mitochondria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decréau, Richard A.; Collman, James P.

    2015-01-01

    The rationale of the study was two-fold: (i) develop a functional synthetic model of the Cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) active site, (ii) use it as a convenient tool to understand or predict the outcome of the reaction of CcO with ligands (physiologically relevant gases and other ligands). At physiological pH and potential, the model catalyzes the 4-electron reduction of oxygen. This model was immobilized on self-assembled-monolayer (SAM) modified electrode. During catalytic oxygen reduction, electron delivery through SAMs is rate limiting, similar to the situation in CcO. This model contains all three redox-active components in CcO's active site, which are required to minimize the production of partially-reduced-oxygen-species (PROS): Fe-heme (“heme a3”) in a myoglobin-like model fitted with a proximal imidazole ligand, and a distal tris-imidazole Copper (“CuB”) complex, where one imidazole is cross-linked to a phenol (mimicking “Tyr244”). This functional CcO model demonstrates how CcO itself might tolerate the hormone NO (which diffuses through the mitochondria). It is proposed that CuB delivers superoxide to NO bound to Fe-heme forming peroxynitrite, then nitrate that diffuses away. Another toxic gas, H2S, has exceptional biological effects: at ~80 ppm, H2S induces a state similar to hibernation in mice, lowering the animal's temperature and slowing respiration. Using our functional CcO model, we have demonstrated that at the same concentration range H2S can reversibly inhibit catalytic oxygen reduction. Such a reversible catalytic process on the model was also demonstrated with an organic compound, tetrazole (TZ). Following studies showed that TZ reversibly inhibits respiration in isolated mitochondria, and induces deactivation of platelets, a mitochondria-rich key component of blood coagulation. Hence, this program is a rare example illustrating the use of a functional model to understand and predict physiologically important reactions at the active

  13. A novel in vitro three-dimensional retinoblastoma model for evaluating chemotherapeutic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Moutushy; Mohanty, Chandana; Harilal, Anju; Maheswari, Uma K; Sahoo, Sanjeeb Kumar; Krishnakumar, Subramanian

    2012-01-01

    Novel strategies are being applied for creating better in vitro models that simulate in vivo conditions for testing the efficacy of anticancer drugs. In the present study we developed surface-engineered, large and porous, biodegradable, polymeric microparticles as a scaffold for three dimensional (3-D) growth of a Y79 retinoblastoma (RB) cell line. We evaluated the effect of three anticancer drugs in naïve and nanoparticle-loaded forms on a 3-D versus a two-dimensional (2-D) model. We also studied the influence of microparticles on extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis and whole genome miRNA-gene expression profiling to identify 3D-responsive genes that are implicated in oncogenesis in RB cells. Poly(D,L)-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA) microparticles were prepared by the solvent evaporation method. RB cell line Y79 was grown alone or with PLGA-gelatin microparticles. Antiproliferative activity, drug diffusion, and cellular uptake were studied by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, a yellow tetrazole (MTT) assay, fluorescent microscope, and flow cytometry. Extra cellular matrix (ECM) synthesis was observed by collagenase assay and whole genome miRNA-microarray profiling by using an Agilent chip. With optimized composition of microparticles and cell culture conditions, an eightfold increase from the seeding density was achieved in 5 days of culture. The antiproliferative effect of the drugs in the 3-D model was significantly lower than in the 2-D suspension, which was evident from the 4.5 to 21.8 fold differences in their IC(50) values. Using doxorubicin, the flow cytometry data demonstrated a 4.4 fold lower drug accumulation in the cells grown in the 3-D model at 4 h. The collagen content of the cells grown in the 3-D model was 2.3 fold greater than that of the cells grown in the 2-D model, suggesting greater synthesis of the extracellular matrix in the 3-D model as the extracellular matrix acted as a barrier to drug diffusion. The microarray

  14. Lanthanide metal-organic frameworks as multifunctional luminescent sensor for detecting cations, anions and organic solvent molecules in aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Gao, Wei; Li, Peng; Zhang, Xiu-Mei; Liu, Jie-Ping

    2017-09-01

    A series of water-stable isostructural mono/bimetallic lanthanide metal-organic frameworks (Ln-MOFs) {[Eu5xTb5(1-x)(OH)6(TZI)3(DMA)1.5(H2O)10.5]·DMA·0.5H2O}n (x = 1.0 (1), 0.5 (3), 0.4 (4), 0.3 (5), 0.2 (6), 0.1 (7), 0.05 (8), 0 (2), H3TZI = 5-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)isophthalic acid) were synthesized. These Ln-MOFs exhibit 3D frameworks in which 1D chains based on pentanuclear [Ln5(μ3-OH)6(COO)5]4+ clusters are linked by TZI backbones. The luminescent investigations revealed that compounds 1 and 2 not only exhibit characteristic Eu3+ and Tb3+ emissions in the red and green regions, respectively, but also can sensitively and selectively detect Fe3+ cations, CO32-, PO43-, AsO43- anions and acetone molecules in aqueous solution. In addition, the luminescent colors of the bimetallic (Tb5(1-x):Eu5x) compounds can easily be tuned by doping isostructural Ln- MOFs with Eu3+ and Tb3+ ions. This work presents some good candidate materials for the potential multifunctional sensors. Eight water-stable isostructural 3D Ln-MOFs {[Eu5xTb5(1-x)(OH)6(TZI)3(DMA)1.5(H2O)10.5]·DMA·0.5H2O}n based on pentanuclear clusters were prepared. The Ln-MOFs represented the rapid and drastic emission quenching induced by Fe3+ cations, CO32-, PO43-, AsO43- anions and acetone molecules in aqueous solution. the luminescence colors of the bimetallic (Tb5(1-x):Eu5x) compounds can easily be tuned by doping isostructural Ln-MOFs with Eu3+ and Tb3+ ions.

  15. Series of solvent-induced single-crystal to single-crystal transformations with different sizes of solvent molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yuan-Chun; Yang, Jin; Liu, Ying-Ying; Ma, Jian-Fang

    2014-07-21

    A highly stable soft porous coordination polymer (PCP), namely [Cu3(TP)4(N3)2(DMF)2]·2H2O·2DMF (1), has been synthesized via an in situ synthesis of 4-tetrazole pyridine (TP) under solvothermal conditions (DMF = N,N'-dimethylformamide). Remarkably, the solvent molecules in 1 can be respectively exchanged with cyclohexane (C6H12), cyclopentane (C5H10), decahydronaphthalene (C10H18), 1,4-dioxane (C4H8O2), and tetrahydropyrane (C5H10O) in single-crystal to single-crystal (SCSC) manners to yield [Cu3(TP)4(N3)2(DMF)2]·3C6H12 (1a), [Cu3(TP)4(N3)2(DMF)2]·2C5H10 (1b), [Cu3(TP)4(N3)2(DMF)2]·H2O·C10H18 (1c), [Cu3(TP)4(N3)2(DMF)2]·C4H8O2 (1d), [Cu3(TP)4(N3)2]·3C4H8O2 (1e), and [Cu3(TP)4(N3)2]·2H2O·C5H10O (1f). Further, the occluded cyclohexane molecules in 1a can be removed by heating to give its porous guest-free form [Cu3(TP)4(N3)2(DMF)2] (1g). Particularly, in water, 1 can lose its coordinated N3(-) anions to generate [Cu(TP)2(H2O)4]·4H2O (1h). More interestingly, the soft PCP (1) demonstrates the guest selectivity for the cycloalkane solvents, namely cyclohexane, cyclopentane, and decahydronaphthalene, in SCSC manners for the first time, attributed to the synergy effect between the size and geometry of the solvent and the shape of the framework cavity. Moreover, the desolvated samples of 1e show the highly selective gas adsorption of CO2 over N2, indicating its potential application in the separation of the CO2/N2 mixture.

  16. Ab initio kinetics and thermal decomposition mechanism of mononitrobiuret and 1,5-dinitrobiuret

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Hongyan, E-mail: hongyan.sun1@gmail.com, E-mail: ghanshyam.vaghjiani@us.af.mil; Vaghjiani, Ghanshyam L., E-mail: hongyan.sun1@gmail.com, E-mail: ghanshyam.vaghjiani@us.af.mil [Propellants Branch, Rocket Propulsion Division, Aerospace Systems Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, AFRL/RQRP, 10 E. Saturn Blvd., Edwards AFB, California 93524 (United States)

    2015-05-28

    Mononitrobiuret (MNB) and 1,5-dinitrobiuret (DNB) are tetrazole-free, nitrogen-rich, energetic compounds. For the first time, a comprehensive ab initio kinetics study on the thermal decomposition mechanisms of MNB and DNB is reported here. In particular, the intramolecular interactions of amine H-atom with electronegative nitro O-atom and carbonyl O-atom have been analyzed for biuret, MNB, and DNB at the M06-2X/aug-cc-pVTZ level of theory. The results show that the MNB and DNB molecules are stabilized through six-member-ring moieties via intramolecular H-bonding with interatomic distances between 1.8 and 2.0 Å, due to electrostatic as well as polarization and dispersion interactions. Furthermore, it was found that the stable molecules in the solid state have the smallest dipole moment amongst all the conformers in the nitrobiuret series of compounds, thus revealing a simple way for evaluating reactivity of fuel conformers. The potential energy surface for thermal decomposition of MNB was characterized by spin restricted coupled cluster theory at the RCCSD(T)/cc-pV∞ Z//M06-2X/aug-cc-pVTZ level. It was found that the thermal decomposition of MNB is initiated by the elimination of HNCO and HNN(O)OH intermediates. Intramolecular transfer of a H-atom, respectively, from the terminal NH{sub 2} group to the adjacent carbonyl O-atom via a six-member-ring transition state eliminates HNCO with an energy barrier of 35 kcal/mol and from the central NH group to the adjacent nitro O-atom eliminates HNN(O)OH with an energy barrier of 34 kcal/mol. Elimination of HNN(O)OH is also the primary process involved in the thermal decomposition of DNB, which processes C{sub 2v} symmetry. The rate coefficients for the primary decomposition channels for MNB and DNB were quantified as functions of temperature and pressure. In addition, the thermal decomposition of HNN(O)OH was analyzed via Rice–Ramsperger–Kassel–Marcus/multi-well master equation simulations, the results of which

  17. Identification of potential drug targets by subtractive genome analysis of Escherichia coli O157:H7: an in silico approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mondal SI

    2015-12-01

    . coli O157:H7 were prioritized and proved to have the eligibility to become novel broad-spectrum antibiotic targets and DNA polymerase III alpha (dnaE was the top-ranked among these targets. Moreover, druggability of each of the identified drug targets was evaluated by the DrugBank database. In addition, 3D structure of the dnaE was modeled and explored further for in silico docking with ligands having potential druggability. Finally, we confirmed that the compounds N-coeleneterazine and N-(1,4-dihydro-5H-tetrazol-5-ylidene-9-oxo-9H-xanthene-2-sulfonamide were the most suitable ligands of dnaE and hence proposed as the potential inhibitors of this target protein. The results of this study could facilitate the discovery and release of new and effective drugs against E. coli O157:H7 and other deadly human bacterial pathogens. Keywords: E. coli O157:H7, KEGG metabolic pathways, novel and broad-spectrum antibiotic targets, DNA polymerase III alpha, homology modeling