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Sample records for tetrazoles

  1. Easy Synthesis of Two Positional Isomeric Tetrazole Libraries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Yuanze; Patil, Pravin; Dömling, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    A fast and efficient synthesis of libraries of positional isomeric 1H-tetrazoles and 5H-tetrazoles, for the purpose of testing binding hypothesis of isomeric tetrazoles in fragment-based drug discovery, is described.

  2. Hydrazine in the Ugi Tetrazole Reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patil, Pravin; Zhang, Ji; Kurpiewska, Katarzyna; Kalinowska-Tłuścik, Justyna; Dömling, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    We describe the hitherto unknown use of N-Boc-protected hydrazine in the Ugi tetrazole reaction to access a library of highly substituted 5-(hydrazinomethyl)-1-methyl-1H-tetrazoles. The reaction is very versatile and good to high yielding. A one-pot, two-step procedure is given.

  3. Tetrazoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirobokov, I.Yu.; Ostrovskij, V.A.; Koldobskij, G.I.

    1980-01-01

    The kinetics and the relation of products of the reaction of 5-phenyltetrazole salts alkylation with dimethyl sulfate-d 6 in acetonitrile are studied. The reaction limiting stage is the addition of dimethyl sulfate-d 6 to 5-phenyltetrazole anion as well as during the alkylation with dimethyl sulfate. The revearse secondary kinetic isotopic effect Ksub(H)/Ksub(D)=0.85 (25 deg C) is observed at the change of dimethyl sulfate with dimethyl sulfate-d 6 . The data obtained testify to the two-stage mechanism of the reaction of 5-phenyltetrazole salts alkylation

  4. Thermodynamic properties of 5-(1-adamantyl)tetrazole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepurko, Elena N.; Paulechka, Yauheni U.; Blokhin, Andrey V., E-mail: blokhin@bsu.by; Kabo, Gennady J.; Voitekhovich, Sergei V.; Lyakhov, Alexander S.; Kohut, Sviataslau V.; Kazarovets, Tatiana E.

    2014-09-20

    Highlights: • Heat capacity, enthalpy of formation, vapor pressure, and enthalpy of sublimation were measured for 5-(1-adamantyl)tetrazole. • Crystal structure of the compound was determined from the X-ray diffraction analysis. • Ideal-gas thermodynamic properties of 5-(1-adamantyl)tetrazole were calculated. - Abstract: Temperature dependence of the heat capacity of 5-(1-adamantyl)tetrazole was studied between (5 and 370) K in a vacuum adiabatic calorimeter. From obtained data the thermodynamic properties of the compound in the condensed state were evaluated over the range of (0–370) K. The crystal structure of 5-(1-adamantyl)tetrazole was determined from the X-ray diffraction analysis. The saturated vapor pressure for crystalline 5-(1-adamantyl)tetrazole in the temperature ranges from (394 to 419) K was measured by the Knudsen effusion method, and its enthalpy of sublimation was obtained using these results. The standard enthalpy of formation for crystalline 5-(1-adamantyl)tetrazole at 298.15 K was determined in a static bomb combustion calorimeter. From these data, the standard enthalpy of formation for gaseous 5-(1-adamantyl)tetrazole was evaluated. The enthalpy of formation calculated using quantum chemical methods is in an excellent agreement with the experimental value. The thermodynamic properties of 5-(1-adamantyl)tetrazole in the ideal-gas state were calculated in the temperature range from (0 to 1000) K. The calculated entropy of gaseous 5-(1-adamantyl)tetrazole is in a good agreement with the one obtained from the experimental data.

  5. Thermodynamic properties of 5-(1-adamantyl)tetrazole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepurko, Elena N.; Paulechka, Yauheni U.; Blokhin, Andrey V.; Kabo, Gennady J.; Voitekhovich, Sergei V.; Lyakhov, Alexander S.; Kohut, Sviataslau V.; Kazarovets, Tatiana E.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Heat capacity, enthalpy of formation, vapor pressure, and enthalpy of sublimation were measured for 5-(1-adamantyl)tetrazole. • Crystal structure of the compound was determined from the X-ray diffraction analysis. • Ideal-gas thermodynamic properties of 5-(1-adamantyl)tetrazole were calculated. - Abstract: Temperature dependence of the heat capacity of 5-(1-adamantyl)tetrazole was studied between (5 and 370) K in a vacuum adiabatic calorimeter. From obtained data the thermodynamic properties of the compound in the condensed state were evaluated over the range of (0–370) K. The crystal structure of 5-(1-adamantyl)tetrazole was determined from the X-ray diffraction analysis. The saturated vapor pressure for crystalline 5-(1-adamantyl)tetrazole in the temperature ranges from (394 to 419) K was measured by the Knudsen effusion method, and its enthalpy of sublimation was obtained using these results. The standard enthalpy of formation for crystalline 5-(1-adamantyl)tetrazole at 298.15 K was determined in a static bomb combustion calorimeter. From these data, the standard enthalpy of formation for gaseous 5-(1-adamantyl)tetrazole was evaluated. The enthalpy of formation calculated using quantum chemical methods is in an excellent agreement with the experimental value. The thermodynamic properties of 5-(1-adamantyl)tetrazole in the ideal-gas state were calculated in the temperature range from (0 to 1000) K. The calculated entropy of gaseous 5-(1-adamantyl)tetrazole is in a good agreement with the one obtained from the experimental data

  6. Structural investigation of nitrogen-linked saccharinate-tetrazole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Zavaglia, A.; Ismael, A.; Cabral, L. I. L.; Kaczor, A.; Paixão, J. A.; Fausto, R.; Cristiano, M. L. S.

    2011-09-01

    The molecular structure of nitrogen-linked saccharinate-tetrazole, N-(1,1-dioxo-1,2-benzisothiazol-3-yl)-amine-1 H-tetrazole (BAT), was investigated in the crystalline state using X-ray crystallography and infrared and Raman spectroscopies, and isolated in argon matrix by infrared spectroscopy. Interpretation of the experimental results was supported by quantum chemical calculations undertaken at the DFT(B3LYP)/6-311++G(3df,3pd) level of theory. In the neat crystalline solid (space group C2/ c, a = 21.7493(3) Å, b = 8.85940(10) Å, c = 10.76900(10) Å, β = 103.3300(10) deg; Z = 8), BAT units exist in the (1 H)-tetrazole aminosaccharin tautomeric form, with the NH spacer establishing a hydrogen bond to the nitrogen in position-4 of the tetrazole group of a neighbour molecule, and the NH group of the tetrazole fragment forming a bifurcated H-bond to the saccharyl nitrogen of the same molecule and to one of the oxygen atoms of a second neighbour molecule. On the other hand, according to both the matrix isolation infrared studies and the theoretical calculations, the isolated BAT molecule exists preferentially as the (1 H)-tetrazole iminosaccharin tautomer, where the main stabilizing interaction is the intramolecular H-bond established between the NH group of the saccharyl ring and the tetrazole nitrogen atom in position 4. A detailed conformational analysis of the studied molecule and full assignment of the vibrational spectra for both the matrix-isolated compound and crystalline sample were undertaken.

  7. Tetrazole acetic acid: Tautomers, conformers, and isomerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo-Andrade, C. [Unidad Académica de Física de la Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas, Zacatecas (Mexico); Department of Chemistry, University of Coimbra, 3004-535 Coimbra (Portugal); Reva, I., E-mail: reva@qui.uc.pt; Fausto, R. [Department of Chemistry, University of Coimbra, 3004-535 Coimbra (Portugal)

    2014-02-14

    Monomers of (tetrazol-5-yl)-acetic acid (TAA) were obtained by sublimation of the crystalline compound and the resulting vapors were isolated in cryogenic nitrogen matrices at 13 K. The conformational and tautomeric composition of TAA in the matrix was characterized by infrared spectroscopy and vibrational calculations carried out at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level. TAA may adopt two tautomeric modifications, 1H- and 2H-, depending on the position of the annular hydrogen atom. Two-dimensional potential energy surfaces (PESs) of TAA were theoretically calculated at the MP2/6-311++G(d,p) level, for each tautomer. Four and six symmetry-unique minima were located on these PESs, for 1H- and 2H-TAA, respectively. The energetics of the detected minima was subsequently refined by calculations at the QCISD level. Two 1H- and three 2H-conformers fall within the 0–8 kJ mol{sup −1} energy range and should be appreciably populated at the sublimation temperature (∼330 K). Observation of only one conformer for each tautomer (1ccc and 2pcc) is explained in terms of calculated barriers to conformational rearrangements. All conformers with the cis O=COH moiety are separated by low barriers (less than 10 kJ mol{sup −1}) and collapse to the most stable 1ccc (1H-) and 2pcc (2H-) forms during deposition of the matrix. On the trans O=COH surfaces, the relative energies are very high (between 12 and 27 kJ mol{sup −1}). The trans forms are not thermally populated at the sublimation conditions and were not detected in matrices. One high-energy form in each tautomer, 1cct (1H-) and 2pct (2H-), was found to differ from the most stable form only by rotation of the OH group and separated from other forms by high barriers. This opened a perspective for their stabilization in a matrix. 1cct and 2pct were generated in the matrices selectively by means of narrow-band near-infrared (NIR) irradiations of the samples at 6920 and 6937 cm{sup −1}, where the first OH stretching overtone

  8. Tritylamine as an Ammonia Surrogate in the Ugi Tetrazole Synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Ting; Boltjes, Andre; Herdtweck, Eberhardt; Doemling, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The role of tritylamine is introduced as a convenient ammonia substitute in the Ugi tetrazole synthesis. Fifteen examples and their mild cleavage products are described In satisfactory to good yields. N-Unsubstituted alpha-aminotetrazoles are important compounds with annotated biological activities,

  9. Synthesis and Characterization of 5-Substituted 1 H -Tetrazoles in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nano-TiCl4.SiO2 was found to be an extremely efficient catalyst for the preparation of 5-substituted 1H-tetrazole derivatives. Nano-TiCl4.SiO2 is a solid Lewis-acid was synthesized by the reaction of nano-SiO2 and TiCl4. The structure characterization of this acid was achieved with X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric ...

  10. Radioprotector and antineoplastic activity of certain tetrazole derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitaeva, V.G.; Ishmetova, R.I.; Latosh, N.I.; Malkina, R.M.; Anoshina, G.M.

    1987-01-01

    For a modification of the biological activity of the 5-substituted tetrazoles that were studied earlier, the authors synthesized products of their alkylation by Mannich bases from phenols, since substances with good radioprotective properties have been detected among the phenols. The acute toxicity was determined on mice and treatment of the data on toxicity of the compounds studied was performed according to the method of Litchfield and Wilcoson, and LD 16 , LD 50 , and LD 84 were determined

  11. Exothermic or Endothermic Decomposition of Disubstituted Tetrazoles Tuned by Substitution Fashion and Substituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yu-Hui; Yang, Kai-Xiang; Chen, Shi-Lu; Huang, Mu-Hua

    2018-01-11

    Nitrogen-rich compounds such as tetrazoles are widely used as candidates in gas-generating agents. However, the details of the differentiation of the two isomers of disubstituted tetrazoles are rarely studied, which is very important information for designing advanced materials based on tetrazoles. In this article, pairs of 2,5- and 1,5-disubstituted tetrazoles were carefully designed and prepared for study on their thermal decomposition behavior. Also, the substitution fashion of 2,5- and 1,5- and the substituents at C-5 position were found to affect the endothermic or exothermic properties. This is for the first time to the best of our knowledge that the thermal decomposition properties of different tetrazoles could be tuned by substitution ways and substitute groups, which could be used as a useful platform to design advanced materials for temperature-dependent rockets. The aza-Claisen rearrangement was proposed to understand the endothermic decomposition behavior.

  12. A review of syntheses of 1,5-disubstituted tetrazole derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarvary, Afshin; Maleki, Ali

    2015-02-01

    This report provides a brief overview of the various representative literature procedures for the synthesis of 1,5-disubstituted tetrazoles (1,5-DSTs) and fused 1,5-disubstituted tetrazoles with more than 120 references. Most of the published methods for the synthesis of 1,5-DSTs include the use of nitriles, amides, thioamides, imidoyl chlorides, heterocumulenes, isocyanates, isothiocyanates, carbodiimides, ketenimines, ketones, amines, and alkenes as the starting materials. The transformation of 1- and 5-substituted tetrazoles into 1,5-DSTs is also covered in this report.

  13. A novel approach for the synthesis of 5-substituted-1H-tetrazoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhlaghinia, Batool; Rezazadeh, Soodabeh, E-mail: akhlaghinia@um.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    A series of 5-substituted-1H-tetrazoles (RCN{sub 4}H) have been synthesized by cycloaddition reaction of different aryl and alkyl nitriles with sodium azide in DMSO using CuSO{sub 4}{center_dot}5H{sub 2}O as catalyst. A wide variety of aryl nitriles underwent [3+2] cycloaddition to afford tetrazoles under mild reaction conditions in good to excellent yields. The catalyst used is readily available and environmentally friendly. Short reaction times, good to excellent yields, safe process and simple workup make this method an attractive and useful contribution to present organic synthesis of 5-substituted-1H-tetrazoles. (author)

  14. Flash Vacuum Pyrolysis of Azides, Triazoles, and Tetrazoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentrup, Curt

    2017-03-08

    Flash vacuum pyrolysis (FVP) of azides is an extremely valuable method of generating nitrenes and studying their thermal rearrangements. The nitrenes can in many cases be isolated in low-temperature matrices and observed spectroscopically. NH and methyl, alkyl, aralkyl, vinyl, cyano, aryl and N-heteroaryl, acyl, carbamoyl, alkoxycarbonyl, imidoyl, boryl, silyl, phosphonyl, and sulfonyl nitrenes are included. FVP of triazoloazines generates diazomethylazines and azinylcarbenes, which often rearrange to the energetically more stable arylnitrenes. N 2 elimination from monocyclic 1,2,3-triazoles can generate iminocarbenes, 1H-azirines, ketenimines, and cyclization products, and 1,2,4-triazoles are precursors of nitrile ylides. Benzotriazoles are preparatively useful precursors of cyanocyclopentadienes, carbazoles, and aza-analogues. FVP of 5-aryltetrazoles can result in double N 2 elimination with formation of arylcarbenes or of heteroarylcarbenes, which again rearrange to arylnitrenes. Many 5-substituted and 2,5-disubstituted tetrazoles are excellent precursors of nitrile imines (propargylic, allenic, or carbenic), which are isolable at low temperatures in some cases (e.g., aryl- and silylnitrile imines) or rearrange to carbodiimides. 1,5-Disubstituted tetrazoles are precursors of imidoylnitrenes, which also rearrange to carbodiimides or add intramolecularly to aryl substituents to yield indazoles and related compounds. Where relevant for the mechanistic understanding, pyrolysis under flow conditions or in solution or the solid state will be mentioned. Results of photolysis reactions and computational chemistry complementing the FVP results will also be mentioned in several places.

  15. New assignment of 14N NQR spectral lines for tetrazoles derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamadazizov, Sultonazar; Shelyapina, Marina G.; Kupriyanova, Galina S.; Mozzhukhin, George V.

    2018-04-01

    In recent years, considerable interest has been shown in the study of tetrazole derivatives, which attract attention as highly nitrogenous compounds for use as an isosteric substitutes for various functional groups that leads to creation of novel biologically active substances. NQR techniques, being sensitive to the local environment of 14N nuclei, provide great opportunities to study these new substances. To make investigation of complex compounds containing tetrazoles derivatives easier and more reliable a correctly assigned 14N NQR spectra of tetrazoles are required. Here we report on the results of our DFT B3LYP calculations of 14N NQR spectral parameters (quadrupole coupling constant Qcc and the asymmetry parameter of the electric field gradient η) for tetrazole, 5-aminotetrazole and 5-aminotetrazole monohydrate. It has been found that the commonly accepted assignment of the 14N NQR spectral lines for these molecules is incorrect. A new assignment for these molecules is proposed.

  16. Synthesis of selected 5-thio-substituted tetrazole derivatives and evaluation of their antibacterial and antifungal activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NALILU SUCHETHA KUMARI

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Several 5-thio-substituted tetrazole derivatives were efficiently synthesized by a three-step process. The substituted tetrazol-5-thiol, namely, 1-benzyl-1H-tetrazole-5-thiol (2 was prepared by refluxing commercially available benzyl isothiocyanate (1 with sodium azide in water. The second step was the synthesis of 1-benzyl-5-[(3-bromopropylthio]-1H-tetrazole (3 by thioalkylation of tetrazole-5-thiol 2 with 1,3-dibromopropane in tetrahydrofuran. Finally, the 5-thio-substituted tetrazole derivatives 4a–i were prepared by condensation of 3 with the corresponding amine or thiol. The structures of the newly synthesized compounds were characterized by NMR, LC/MS/MS, IR spectral data and elemental analysis. All the synthesized compounds were screened for their antibacterial and antifungal activities.

  17. Coordination studies of copper(II), cobalt(II) and iron(II) with isomeric pyridyl-tetrazole ligands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bond, A. D.; Fleming, A.; Gaire, J.

    2012-01-01

    The reaction of 2-(2H-tetrazol-5-yl)pyridine (L1) with 1,6-dibromohexane results in formation of the isomers 2-(6 ''-bromohexyl)-(1-tetrazol-5-yl)pyridine (12) and 2-(6 ''-bromohexyl)-(2-tetrazol-5-yl)pyridine (L3). Coordination reactions of 12 and 13 with CuCl2 center dot 2H(2)O, Co(SCN)(2) and ...... conformation in its equatorial plane. Complex 5 contains water molecules coordinated to Fe(II) in the axial sites, which form hydrogen bonds to the perchlorate counter anions. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  18. Dielectric spectroscopy of polymer nanocomposites based on tetrazol and KNO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, R A; Lushin, E N

    2014-01-01

    For tetrazole polymers by dielectric spectroscopy the existence of three relaxation processes in the temperature range T=273-423 K is revealed, the values of relaxation and structural parameters are determined: activation energy E A and glass transition temperature T g

  19. A versatile and an efficient synthesis of 5-substituted-1H-tetrazoles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tions.1 In general, this nitrogen-rich ring system is used in propellants,2 ... tetrazole-based compounds have also shown good ... reference. GC-MS spectra were obtained on a Shi- madzu GC-MS QP 5050A (equipped with a 30 meter.

  20. Undergraduate Organic Experiment: Tetrazole Formation by Microwave Heated (3 + 2) Cycloaddition in Aqueous Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFrancesco, Heather; Dudley, Joshua; Coca, Adiel

    2018-01-01

    An undergraduate experiment for the organic laboratory is described that utilizes microwave heating to prepare 5- substituted 1H-tetrazole derivatives through a (3 + 2) cycloaddition between aryl nitriles and sodium azide. The reaction mixture is analyzed by thin layer chromatography. The products are purified through an acid-base extraction and…

  1. Synthesis and Characterization of 5-Substituted 1H-Tetrazoles in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICOLAAS

    SiO2 is a solid Lewis-acid was synthesized by the reaction of nano-SiO2 and TiCl4. The structure ... chemistry8 as explosives and rocket propellants and they are used as isosteric replacements for carboxylic acids in drug design.9. Tetrazole ...

  2. X-Ray, IR, NMR, UV-visible spectra and DFT analysis of 5-aryloxy-(1H-tetrazoles, structure, conformation and tautomerism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader Noroozi Pesyan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The predominant tautomeric forms of N1–H, N2–H of 5-(2,6-dimethyl- and 5-(2,6-diisopropylphenoxy-(1H-tetrazoles were analyzed at B3LYP method using 6-311G(d,p basis set in the gas phase. The N1–H form of tetrazoles was found to be more stable than N2–H form in both solid and gas phases. Crystal structures of both tetrazoles show an intermolecular H-bond between N1-H and N4 atom of other tetrazole space. The hydrogen bonds between each tautomer of tetrazoles were evaluated at B3LYP/6-311G(d,p level. The geometrical parameters and spectral data of tetrazoles and their variation were studied in both solid and gas phases.

  3. Analgesic Activity of Some 1,2,4-Triazole Heterocycles Clubbed with Pyrazole, Tetrazole, Isoxazole and Pyrimidine

    OpenAIRE

    Gajanan Khanage, Shantaram; Raju, Appala; Baban Mohite, Popat; Bhanudas Pandhare, Ramdas

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In the present study in vivo analgesic activity of some previously synthesized 1,2,4-triazole derivatives containing pyrazole, tetrazole, isoxazole and pyrimidine ring have been evaluated. Methods: Acetic acid induced writhing method and Hot plate method has been described to study analgesic activity of some 1,2,4-triazole derivatives containing pyrazole, tetrazole, isoxazole and pyrimidine as a pharmacological active lead. Results: Thirty six different derivatives con...

  4. Consecutive hydrazino-Ugi-azide reactions: synthesis of acylhydrazines bearing 1,5-disubstituted tetrazoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica de Fátima S. Barreto

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Isocyanide-based multicomponent reactions (IMCRs allow the construction of relatively complex molecules through a one-pot synthesis. The combination of IMCRs in a consecutive or sequential fashion further extends the complexity of the molecules obtained. Herein, we report the efficient application of this approach to the synthesis of acylhydrazines bearing 1,5-disubstituted tetrazoles. Our strategy was accomplished in only three steps: first, a one-pot hydrazino-Ugi-azide four-component reaction; second a hydrazinolysis and finally an additional hydrazino-Ugi-azide reaction. This sequence provides the title compounds in moderate to excellent yields. The products synthesized herein contain functional groups within their structures that can be easily modified to obtain new acylhydrazino 1,5-disubstituted tetrazoles.

  5. One-pot synthesis of multisubstituted 2-aminoquinolines from annulation of 1-aryl tetrazoles with internal alkynes via double C-H activation and denitrogenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Zheng, Liyao; Guo, Biao; Hua, Ruimao

    2014-12-05

    An efficient, one-pot synthesis of multisubstituted 2-aminoquinolines from 1-aryl tetrazoles and internal alkynes has been developed. The reaction involves cyclization of 1-aryl tetrazoles with internal alkynes via rhodium(III)-catalyzed double C-H activation and copper(II)-mediated denitrogenation.

  6. Unusual behavior in the reactivity of 5-substituted-1H-tetrazoles in a resistively heated microreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique M. Roberge

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The decomposition of 5-benzhydryl-1H-tetrazole in an N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone/acetic acid/water mixture was investigated under a variety of high-temperature reaction conditions. Employing a sealed Pyrex glass vial and batch microwave conditions at 240 °C, the tetrazole is comparatively stable and complete decomposition to diphenylmethane requires more than 8 h. Similar kinetic data were obtained in conductively heated flow devices with either stainless steel or Hastelloy coils in the same temperature region. In contrast, in a flow instrument that utilizes direct electric resistance heating of the reactor coil, tetrazole decomposition was dramatically accelerated with rate constants increased by two orders of magnitude. When 5-benzhydryl-1H-tetrazole was exposed to 220 °C in this type of flow reactor, decomposition to diphenylmethane was complete within 10 min. The mechanism and kinetic parameters of tetrazole decomposition under a variety of reaction conditions were investigated. A number of possible explanations for these highly unusual rate accelerations are presented. In addition, general aspects of reactor degradation, corrosion and contamination effects of importance to continuous flow chemistry are discussed.

  7. Unusual behavior in the reactivity of 5-substituted-1H-tetrazoles in a resistively heated microreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutmann, Bernhard; Glasnov, Toma N; Razzaq, Tahseen; Goessler, Walter; Roberge, Dominique M

    2011-01-01

    Summary The decomposition of 5-benzhydryl-1H-tetrazole in an N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone/acetic acid/water mixture was investigated under a variety of high-temperature reaction conditions. Employing a sealed Pyrex glass vial and batch microwave conditions at 240 °C, the tetrazole is comparatively stable and complete decomposition to diphenylmethane requires more than 8 h. Similar kinetic data were obtained in conductively heated flow devices with either stainless steel or Hastelloy coils in the same temperature region. In contrast, in a flow instrument that utilizes direct electric resistance heating of the reactor coil, tetrazole decomposition was dramatically accelerated with rate constants increased by two orders of magnitude. When 5-benzhydryl-1H-tetrazole was exposed to 220 °C in this type of flow reactor, decomposition to diphenylmethane was complete within 10 min. The mechanism and kinetic parameters of tetrazole decomposition under a variety of reaction conditions were investigated. A number of possible explanations for these highly unusual rate accelerations are presented. In addition, general aspects of reactor degradation, corrosion and contamination effects of importance to continuous flow chemistry are discussed. PMID:21647324

  8. Metal–organic coordination architectures of tetrazole heterocycle ligands bearing acetate groups: Synthesis, characterization and magnetic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Bo-Wen; Zheng, Xiang-Yu; Ding, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Two new coordination complexes with tetrazole heterocycle ligands bearing acetate groups, [Co(L) 2 ] n (1) and [Co 3 (L) 4 (N 3 ) 2 ·2MeOH] n (2) (L=tetrazole-1-acetate) have been synthesized and structurally characterized. Single crystal structure analysis shows that the cobalt-complex 1 has the 3D 3,6-connected (4 2 .6) 2 (4 4 .6 2 .8 8 .10)-ant topology. By introducing azide in this system, complex 2 forms the 2D network containing the [Co 3 ] units. And the magnetic properties of 1 and 2 have been studied. - Graphical abstract: The synthesis, crystal structure, and magnetic properties of the new coordination complexes with tetrazole heterocycle ligands bearing acetate groups are reported. - Highlights: • Two novel Cobalt(II) complexes with tetrazole acetate ligands were synthesized. • The magnetic properties of two complexes were studied. • Azide as co-ligand resulted in different structures and magnetic properties. • The new coordination mode of tetrazole acetate ligand was obtained.

  9. Metal-organic coordination architectures of tetrazole heterocycle ligands bearing acetate groups: Synthesis, characterization and magnetic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bo-Wen; Zheng, Xiang-Yu; Ding, Cheng

    2015-12-01

    Two new coordination complexes with tetrazole heterocycle ligands bearing acetate groups, [Co(L)2]n (1) and [Co3(L)4(N3)2·2MeOH]n (2) (L=tetrazole-1-acetate) have been synthesized and structurally characterized. Single crystal structure analysis shows that the cobalt-complex 1 has the 3D 3,6-connected (42.6)2(44.62.88.10)-ant topology. By introducing azide in this system, complex 2 forms the 2D network containing the [Co3] units. And the magnetic properties of 1 and 2 have been studied.

  10. Replacement of the double bond of antitubulin chalcones with triazoles and tetrazoles: Synthesis and biological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesenzani, Ornella; Massarotti, Alberto; Giustiniano, Mariateresa; Pirali, Tracey; Bevilacqua, Valentina; Caldarelli, Antonio; Canonico, Pierluigi; Sorba, Giovanni; Novellino, Ettore; Genazzani, Armando A; Tron, Gian Cesare

    2011-01-15

    In the chalcone scaffold, it is thought that the double bond is an important structural linker but it is likely not essential for the interaction with tubulin. Yet, it may be a potential site of metabolic degradation and interaction with biological nucleophiles. In this letter, we have replaced this olefinic portion of chalcones with two metabolically stable and chemically inert heterocyclic rings, namely triazole or tetrazole. Yet, our biologic data suggest that, unlike in other antitubulinic structures, the olephinic ring might not be merely a structural linker. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Structure and photochemistry of a novel tetrazole-saccharyl conjugate isolated in solid argon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismael, A.; Borba, A.; Duarte, L.; Giuliano, B. M.; Gómez-Zavaglia, A.; Cristiano, M. L. S.

    2012-10-01

    A combined matrix isolation FTIR and theoretical DFT/B3LYP/6-311++G(3df,3pd) study of the novel synthesised tetrazole-saccharyl conjugate 2-[1-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)ethyl]-1,2-benzisothiazol-3(2H)-one 1,1-dioxide [1-TE-BZT] was performed. In the gas phase, at room temperature, the compound exists as a mixture of six isomeric forms (four conformers of 1H tautomer and two conformers of 2H tautomer). According to theoretical calculations, conformers 1H were the most stable and the relative energies among the three most stable forms are lower than 4 kJ mol-1. These conformers benefit from stabilising intramolecular hydrogen bonds-like interactions involving the 1H of the tetrazole ring and the carbonyl oxygen of the saccharyl moiety. The photochemistry of 1-TE-BZT in solid argon was investigated and theoretical DFT/B3LYP/6-311++G(3df,3pd) calculations also helped in assignment of the experimental bands. A quick consumption of the compound occurred after irradiation of the matrix with UV laser light at λ = 275 nm. Three photofragmentation pathways were proposed, one leading to 2-[1-(1H-diaziren-3-yl)ethyl]-1,2-benzisothiazol-3(2H)-one 1,1-dioxide and molecular nitrogen, a second one giving 2-(1,1-dioxide-3-oxo-1,2-benzisothiazol-2(3H)-yl)propanenitrile and azide, and a third one involving loss of azide from the tetrazole ring and decarbonylation of the saccharyl ring of 1-TE-BZT to give acrylonitrile and 7-thia-8-azabicyclo[4.2.0] octa-1,3,5-triene 7,7 dioxide. The comparison of the relative intensities of the bands of the photoproducts obtained from the three channels allowed us to consider the latter pathway, involving an unprecedented photocleavage of the benzisothiazole (saccharyl) ring, as the preferred photodegradation channel of 1-TE-BZT.

  12. X-ray diffraction analysis and MO calculations of 1H-tetrazole; 1H-tetorazoru no Xsen kessho kozo kaiseki to bunshi kido keisan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Yoshio.; Akutsu, Yoshiaki.; Arai, Mitsuru.; Tamura, Masamitsu. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). School of Engineering; Matsunaga, Takehiro. [National Institute of Materials and Chemical Research, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1999-02-28

    The X-ray diffraction analysis and the MO calculations of 1H-tetrazole were carried out, in order to explain its high stability. From the X-ray diffraction analysis, five bonds in the ring have intermediate lengths between single and double bond lengths. Therefore, 1H-tetrazole is quite stable because of its aromaticity. The N1-C5 distance of 1.315A is significantly short. The molecular structure which was calculated by the ab initio MO calculation of one 1H-tetrazole molecule at MP2/6-31G* level, showed a good agreement with our experimental one, except for the abnormal short N1-C5 distance. From the calculations of dimers and trimers, 1H-tetrazole is shown to be stabilized by a strong intermolecular electrostatic interaction between the protons and the delocalized electrons over the ring. (author)

  13. New metal-organic complexes based on bis(tetrazole) ligands: Synthesis, structures and properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Ceng-Ceng; Fan, Jian-Zhong; Wang, Xin-Fang; Zhou, Sheng-Bin; Wang, Duo-Zhi

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, a series of new complexes, [Zn2(HL1)2(H2O)4]·H2O (1), [Co2(HL1)2]·TEA (2), [Co3(HL1)2(H2L1)2(H2O)4]n (3), [Cu(HL1)(H2O)2]n (4), {[Cu5(HL2)2(OH)4(ClO4)2]·4H2O}n (5) and [Cu2(L3)]n (6) were successfully prepared by utilizing three bis(tetrazole) ligands [bis-(1H-tetrazol-5-ylmethyl)-amine (H3L1), bis-(1H-tetrazol-5-ylethyl)-amine (H3L2) and 1,5-bis(5-tetrazolo)-3-thiapentane (H2L3)], all of which have been characterized by elemental analyses, FT-IR spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), thermogravimetric analyses as well as single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses showing different dimensionalities (0D, 1D and 3D). Complexes 1 and 2 are 0D structures, 1 shows a dinuclear structure, 2 displays two crystallographically different mononuclear structures, 1 and 2 are further assembled to form 3D supramolecular framework and 2D supramolecular network by hydrogen-bonding interactions, respectively. Complexes 3, 4 and 5 are 1D structures, 3 features a mononuclear unit and a 1D chain, which are arranged into 3D supramolecular architecture by hydrogen-bonding interactions, 4 presents a zigzag chain, 5 shows an infinite chain structure constructed from pentanuclear Cu(II) subunits and ClO4- anions. Complex 6 exhibits a 3D coordination framework based on cyclic [Cu4(L3)2] dimmer subunits as nodes possessing an 8-connected network topology with the point symbol {424·64}. Further, semiconductor behaviors, the solid-state luminescent properties of the complexes 1-3 and 6 were measured and studied seriously at room temperature.

  14. Tetrazole amphiphile inducing growth of conducting polymers hierarchical nanostructures and their electromagnetic absorption properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Aming; Sun, Mengxiao; Zhang, Kun; Xia, Yilu; Wu, Fan

    2018-05-01

    Conducting polymers (CPs) at nano scales endow materials with special optical, electrical, and magnetic properties. The crucial factor to construct and regulate the micro-structures of CPs is the inducing reagent, particular in its chemical structure, such active sites, self-assembling properties. In this paper, we design and synthesize an amphiphile bearing tetrazole moiety on its skeleton, and use this amphiphile as an inducing reagent to prepare and regulate the micro-structures of a series of CPs including polypyrrole, polyaniline, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) and poly(p-phenylenediamine). Because of the unique electric properties of CPs and size effect, we next explored the electromagnetic absorption performances of these CPs nanostructures. A synergetic combination of electric loss and magnetic loss is used to explain the absorption mechanism of these CPs nano-structures.

  15. Synthesis, characterization and theoretical studies of 5-(benzylthio)-1-cylopentyl-1H-tetrazole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saglam, S.; Disli, A.; Erdogdu, Y.; Marchewka, M. K.; Kanagathara, N.; Bay, B.; Güllüoğlu, M. T.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, 5-(benzylthio)-1-cylopentyl-1H-tetrazole (5B1C1HT) have been synthesized. Boiling points of the obtained compound have been determined and it has been characterized by FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C-APT and LC-MS spectroscopy techniques. The FT-IR, 1H NMR and 13C-APT spectral measurements of the 5B1C1HT compound and complete assignment of the vibrational bands observed in spectra has been discussed. The spectra were interpreted with the aid of normal coordinate analysis following full structure optimization and force field calculations based on Density Functional Theory (DFT) at 6-311++G**, cc-pVDZ and cc-pVTZ basis sets. The optimized geometry with 6-311++G** basis sets were used to determine the total energy distribution, harmonic vibrational frequencies, IR intensities.

  16. 1-Phenyl-5-{[2-(trimethylsilylethyl]sulfonyl}-1H-tetrazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Tymann

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C12H18N4O2SSi, was synthesized to be employed in a Julia–Kocieński olefination. In the molecule, the dihedral angle between the phenyl ring and the tetrazole ring is 41.50 (5°. The significantly longer Si—C(methylene bond [1.8786 (13 Å] and the shortened adjacent C—C bond [1.5172 (18 Å], as well as the significant deviation of the corresponding Si—C—C angle [114.16 (9°] from the ideal tetrahedral angle, can be attributed to the β-effect of silicon. In the crystal, molecules are held together by van der Waals interactions.

  17. Analgesic Activity of Some 1,2,4-Triazole Heterocycles Clubbed with Pyrazole, Tetrazole, Isoxazole and Pyrimidine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramdas Bhanudas Pandhare

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In the present study in vivo analgesic activity of some previously synthesized 1,2,4-triazole derivatives containing pyrazole, tetrazole, isoxazole and pyrimidine ring have been evaluated. Methods: Acetic acid induced writhing method and Hot plate method has been described to study analgesic activity of some 1,2,4-triazole derivatives containing pyrazole, tetrazole, isoxazole and pyrimidine as a pharmacological active lead. Results: Thirty six different derivatives containing 1,2,4-triazole ring were subjected to study their in vivo analgesic activity. Chloro, nitro and methoxy, hydroxy and bromo substituted derivatives showed excellent analgesic activity and dimethylamino, furan and phenyl substituted derivatives showed moderate analgesic activity in both of the methods. Compounds IIIa, IIId, IIIf, IIIi, IIIj, IVa, IVb, IVd, IVf, IVh, IVj IV3a and IIj were found to be superior analgesic agents after screening by Acetic acid induced writhing method. Compounds IIIb, IIId, IIIf, IIIh, IIIj, IVa, IVb, IVd, IVf, IVh, IVi, IV3c, IV3e and IIj were showed analgesic potential after screening of Hot plate method. Conclusion: All tested compounds containing 1,2,4-triazole were found to be promising analgesic agents, for this activity pyrazole, tetrazole, isoxazole and pyrimidine leads might be supported.

  18. Coordination Architectures of energetic Cd (II) coordination polymers constructed by the bifunctional substituted-tetrazole-carboxylate ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Lei; Bai, Yu; Min, Yu-Ting; Jia, Tian-Tian; Wu, Qi; Wang, Jing; Geng, Fei; Cheng, Hong-Jian [Department of Chemistry & Materials Engineering, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials, Changshu Institute of Technology, Changshu 215500 (China); Zhu, Dun-Ru [College of Chemical Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Materials-oriented Chemical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Yang, Jie, E-mail: jieyang@cslg.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry & Materials Engineering, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials, Changshu Institute of Technology, Changshu 215500 (China); Yang, Gao-Wen, E-mail: ygwsx@126.com [Department of Chemistry & Materials Engineering, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials, Changshu Institute of Technology, Changshu 215500 (China)

    2016-12-15

    Three different tetrazole-carboxylate ligands, monotetrazole-carboxylate H{sub 2}tza (H{sub 2}tza=1,5-tetrazole-diacetic acid), Hpztza (Hpztza=5-(2-pyrazinyl)tetrazole-2(1-methyl)acetic acid), ditetrazole-carboxylate H{sub 2}tzpha (H{sub 2}tzpha=1,3-di(tetrazole-5-yl)benzene-N2,N2′-diacetic acid) have been chosen to react with CdCl{sub 2}·6H{sub 2}O, resulting in the formation of three new compounds [Cd{sub 2}(tza){sub 2}] (1), [Cd(pztza){sub 2}] (2) and [Cd(tzpha)(CH{sub 3}OH){sub 2}] (3). The coordinate sites of the three ligands are major influenced by the different substituted group of tetrazole ring. These compounds have been characterized by elemental analysis, IR and single crystal X-ray diffraction. Compound 1 displays a complex 3D structure; compound 2 shows a 3D network and compound 3 features a 2D layer network. Furthermore, the luminescence properties investigated at room temperature in the solid state showed excellent ligand-centered luminescence. The obvious enhancement in luminescence makes these compounds potential materials for optical use. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric-differential thermogravimetric (TG-DTG) analyses were applied to evaluate the thermal decomposition behavior of such compounds, showing that compounds 2 and 3 can be used as potential energetic materials. The relevant thermodynamic parameters ΔH, ΔS and ΔG were calculated as well. - Graphical abstract: H{sub 2}tza, Hpztza and H{sub 2}tzpha have been prepared. Three novel Cd (II)compounds were synthesized by reactions of CdCl{sub 2}·6H{sub 2}O, namely three dimensional [Cd{sub 2}(tza){sub 2}] (1), three dimensional [Cd(pztza){sub 2}] (2), and two dimensional [Cd(tzpha)(CH{sub 3}O){sub 2}] (3). The luminescences were investigated. Furthermore, the DSC show compounds 1 and 3 can be used as potential explosive materials.

  19. Mechanistic studies on the phosphoramidite coupling reaction in oligonucleotide synthesis. I. Evidence for nudeophilic catalysis by tetrazole and rate variations with the phosphorus substituents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Bjarne H.; Nielsen, John; Dahl, Otto

    1987-01-01

    , and that dialkylammonium tetrazolide salts are inhibitors. These and other facts are evidence that the reactions are subjected to nucleophilic catalysis by tetrazole, in addition to acid catalysis. The rate variations with phosphorus substituents of 1a-h are NEt 2 > NRr12 > N(CH 2CH 2)O > NMePh, and OMe > OCH 2CH 2CN......Tetrazole catalyzed reactions of a series of phosphoramidites, 5′ -O- DMTdT-3′-O-P(OR 1)NRNR22 (1a-h), with 3′ O-SiBu tPh 2-6-N-benzoyl-dA (2a) in acetonitrite solution have been studied. It is found that the coupling rate depends very much on whether tetrazole is added before or after 2a...

  20. Synthesis, Structure Optimization and Antifungal Screening of Novel Tetrazole Ring Bearing Acyl-Hydrazones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzoor A. Malik

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Azoles are generally fungistatic, and resistance to fluconazole is emerging in several fungal pathogens. In an attempt to find novel azole antifungal agents with improved activity, a series of tetrazole ring bearing acylhydrazone derivatives were synthesized and screened for their in vitro antifungal activity. The mechanism of their antifungal activity was assessed by studying their effect on the plasma membrane using flow cytometry and determination of the levels of ergosterol, a fungal-specific sterol. Propidium iodide rapidly penetrated a majority of yeast cells when they were treated with the synthesized compounds at concentrations just above MIC, implying that fungicidal activity resulted from extensive lesions of the plasma membrane. Target compounds also caused a considerable reduction in the amount of ergosterol. The results also showed that the presence and position of different substituents on the phenyl ring of the acylhydrazone pendant seem to play a role on the antifungal activity as well as in deciding the fungistatic and fungicidal nature of the compounds.

  1. Synthesis and potential cytotoxic activity of some new benzoxazoles, imidazoles, benzimidazoles and tetrazoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arulmurugan, Subramaniyan; Kavitha, Helen P

    2013-06-01

    2 The present work deals with the synthesis of some novel heterocyclic compounds such as benzoxazoles , 7, 13 and 19, imidazoles 3, 8, 14 and 20, benzimidazoles 4, 9, 15 and 21, and tetrazoles 10, 16, and 22. The synthesized compounds were characterized by IR, 1H NMR, mass spectrometry and elemental analysis. The compounds were evaluated for cytotoxicity against human cancer cell lines such as MCF-7 (breast cancer) and HT-29 (colon cancer) by the MTT assay method. Among the tested compounds, 4,4'-sulfonylbis(N-(2-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol- -2-yl)ethyl)aniline (9), N-bis(2-(benzo[d]oxazol-2-yl)-ethyl)- 6-phenyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine (13), N-bis(2-(1H-benzo[ d]imidazol-2-yl)ethyl)-6-phenyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine (15) and N-tris(2-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)ethyl)- 1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triamine (21) showed potent cytotoxicity.

  2. In situ tetrazole templated chair-like decanuclear azido-cobalt(II) SMM containing both tetra- and octa-hedral Co(II) ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuan-Zhu; Gao, Song; Sato, Osamu

    2015-01-14

    An azido-bridged chair-like decanuclear cluster: [Co(II)10(bzp)8(Metz)2(N3)18]·4MeOH·3H2O (1, bzp = 2-benzoylpyridine and HMetz = 5-methyl-1H-tetrazole) was prepared with in situ tetrazolate anions as templates in a sealed system. 1 containing both octahedral and tetrahedral Co(II) ions exhibited slow relaxation of magnetization with an effective barrier of 26 K under an applied dc field of 1 kOe.

  3. Ketenimines from Isocyanides and Allyl Carbonates: Palladium-Catalyzed Synthesis of β,γ-Unsaturated Amides and Tetrazoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Guanyinsheng; Mamboury, Mathias; Wang, Qian; Zhu, Jieping

    2016-12-05

    The reaction of allyl ethyl carbonates with isocyanides in the presence of a catalytic amount of Pd(OAc) 2 provided ketenimines through β-hydride elimination of the allyl imidoylpalladium intermediates. The insertion of the isocyanide into the π-allyl Pd complex proceeded via an unusual η 1 -allyl Pd species. The resulting ketenimines were hydrolyzed to β,γ-unsaturated carboxamides during purification by flash column chromatography on silica gel or converted in situ into 1,5-disubstituted tetrazoles by [3+2] cycloaddition with hydrazoic acid or trimethylsilyl azide. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Ab initio MO study on the thermal stability of 1-phenyl-1H-tetrazoles; Hikeikenteki bunshi kidoho ni yoru 1-Ph-1H tetorazoru yudotai no netsu anteisei hyoka ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Yoshio.; Akutsu, Yoshiaki.; Arai, Mitsuru.; Tamura, Masamitsu. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). School of Engineering; Matsunaga, Takehiro. [National Institute of Materials and Chemical Research, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1999-06-30

    Ab initio MO calculations of 1-phenyl-1H-tetrazoles were carried out, in order to explain a substituent effects on its high thermal stability and to estimate the thermal stability of the other tetrazoles. Similar to 1H-tetrazole, five bonds in the tetrazole ring have intermediate lengths between single and double bond lengths. Phenyl and tetrazole rings are not both on one plane showing no interaction. Three indexes addopted as a measure of thermal stability indicate that the more equal the bond lengths of the ring are and that the bigger the stabilization energy by ring formation is, the more thermally stable they are. It is found out that there is the relationship between the thermal stability and the ring charge. That is, the more negative the ring charge is, the more thrmally stable the tetrazole is. Also, there is a good relationship between the thermal stability and the energy level of orbital of which orbital is an anti bonding type with respect to the N3-N4 bond. The higher the energy level is, the more thermally stable the tetrazole is. (author)

  5. Crystal structures of (Z-5-[2-(benzo[b]thiophen-2-yl-1-(3,5-dimethoxyphenylethenyl]-1H-tetrazole and (Z-5-[2-(benzo[b]thiophen-3-yl-1-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenylethenyl]-1H-tetrazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narsimha Reddy Penthala

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available (Z-5-[2-(Benzo[b]thiophen-2-yl-1-(3,5-dimethoxyphenylethenyl]-1H-tetrazole methanol monosolvate, C19H16N4O2S·CH3OH, (I, was prepared by the reaction of (Z-3-(benzo[b]thiophen-2-yl-2-(3,5-dimethoxyphenylacrylonitrile with tributyltin azide via a [3 + 2]cycloaddition azide condensation reaction. The structurally related compound (Z-5-[2-(benzo[b]thiophen-3-yl-1-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenylethenyl]-1H-tetrazole, C20H18N4O3S, (II, was prepared by the reaction of (Z-3-(benzo[b]thiophen-3-yl-2-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenylacrylonitrile with tributyltin azide. Crystals of (I have two molecules in the asymmetric unit (Z′ = 2, whereas crystals of (II have Z′ = 1. The benzothiophene rings in (I and (II are almost planar, with r.m.s deviations from the mean plane of 0.0084 and 0.0037 Å in (I and 0.0084 Å in (II. The tetrazole rings of (I and (II make dihedral angles with the mean planes of the benzothiophene rings of 88.81 (13 and 88.92 (13° in (I, and 60.94 (6° in (II. The dimethoxyphenyl and trimethoxyphenyl rings make dihedral angles with the benzothiophene rings of 23.91 (8 and 24.99 (8° in (I and 84.47 (3° in (II. In both structures, molecules are linked into hydrogen-bonded chains. In (I, these chains involve both tetrazole and methanol, and are parallel to the b axis. In (II, molecules are linked into chains parallel to the a axis by N—H...N hydrogen bonds between adjacent tetrazole rings.

  6. Discovery of (pyridin-4-yl)-2H-tetrazole as a novel scaffold to identify highly selective matrix metalloproteinase-13 inhibitors for the treatment of osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnute, Mark E; O'Brien, Patrick M; Nahra, Joe; Morris, Mark; Howard Roark, W; Hanau, Cathleen E; Ruminski, Peter G; Scholten, Jeffrey A; Fletcher, Theresa R; Hamper, Bruce C; Carroll, Jeffery N; Patt, William C; Shieh, Huey S; Collins, Brandon; Pavlovsky, Alexander G; Palmquist, Katherine E; Aston, Karl W; Hitchcock, Jeffrey; Rogers, Michael D; McDonald, Joseph; Johnson, Adam R; Munie, Grace E; Wittwer, Arthur J; Man, Chiu-Fai; Settle, Steven L; Nemirovskiy, Olga; Vickery, Lillian E; Agawal, Arun; Dyer, Richard D; Sunyer, Teresa

    2010-01-15

    Potent, highly selective and orally-bioavailable MMP-13 inhibitors have been identified based upon a (pyridin-4-yl)-2H-tetrazole scaffold. Co-crystal structure analysis revealed that the inhibitors bind at the S(1)(') active site pocket and are not ligands for the catalytic zinc atom. Compound 29b demonstrated reduction of cartilage degradation biomarker (TIINE) levels associated with cartilage protection in a preclinical rat osteoarthritis model. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Synthesis and physical-chemical properties of 6-(5-(1Н-tetrazole-1-ylmethyl-4-R-1,2,4-triazole-3-ylthiopyridin-3-amines and 6-((5-(1Н-tetrazole-1-ylmethil-4-R-1,2,4-triazole-3-ylthiopyridin-3-yl-(alk,ar,heterylmethanimines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. S. Hulina

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade the number of publications, that contain different aspects of chemistry and use of triazoles and tetrazoles have been doubled and continues to grow. Puplications of recent years show that heterocycles with 1,2,3,4-teterazoles and 1,2,4-triazoles are biologically active compounds with a broad spectrum of action. This fact indicates the interest to these compounds as potential objects of modern pharmaceutical market, namely to those compounds which contain both heterocycles. Purpose – synthesis and establishment of physical-chemical properties of 6-(5-(1Н-tetrazole-1-ylmethyl-4-R-1,2,4-triazole-3-ylthiopyridin-3-amines and 6-((5-(1Н-tetrazole-1-ylmethil-4-R-1,2,4-triazole-3-ylthiopyridin-3-yl-(alk,ar,heterylmethanimines. Materials and methods. The melting point has been determined by capillary method. The elemental composition of compounds has been set with the help of elemental analyzer Elementar Vario L cube (CHNS. 1H NMR spectra of obtained compounds has been set with the help of Varian Mercury VX-200, solvent – DMSO-d6, internal standart – Tetramethylsilane. Chromatography-mass spectrometry studies have been conducted on gas-liquid chromatograph Agilent 1260 Infinity HPLC equipped with a mass spectrometer Agilent 6120. 5-(1H-Tetrazole-1-ylmethyl-4-R-1,2,4-triazole-3-thioles were used as starting materials for 6-(5-(1Н-tetrazole-1-ylmethyl-4-R-1,2,4-triazole-3-ylthiopyridin-3-amines. Synthesis of the compounds was carried out in a medium of propyl alcohol in the presence of 5-amino-2-chloropyridine. 6-((5-(1Н-tetrazole-1-ylmethil-4-R-1,2,4-triazole-3-ylthiopyridin-3-yl-(alk,ar,heterylmethanimines were obtained reacting 6-(5-(1Н-tetrazole-1-ylmethyl-4-R-1,2,4-triazole-3-ylthiopyridin-3-amines with the appropriate aldehydes (acetaldehyde, m-anisaldehyde, 2-hydroxybenzaldehyde, 3-fluorobenzaldehyde, 4-fluorobenzaldehyde, 4-diethylaminobenzaldehyd, hydroxynaphthalene in the acetic acid medium. Results. 11 New

  8. Three coordination polymers constructed from 5-(4-(tetrazol-5-yl)phenyl)isophthalic acid: Synthesis, crystal structure and properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Dandan; Sun, Wujuan; Fan, Fei; Liao, Xuzhao; Chen, Sanping; Yang, Xuwu

    2017-04-01

    Three new coordination polymers, namely, {[Co2(TPA)(μ3-O)3]·0.5DMA}n (1), {[Co(H2TPA)(bibp)(H2O)3]·H2O}n (2) and {[Cd3(TPA)2(phen)4]·4H2O}n (3), (H3TPA = 5-(4-(tetrazol-5-yl)phenyl)isophthalic acid, bibp = 4,4'-bis(imidazolyl)biphenyl, phen = 1,10-phenanthroline and DMA = N,N-dimethylacetamide), have been synthesized under solvothermal conditions and structurally characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Polymer 1 exhibits a three-dimensional (3D) structure constructed from 5-connected secondary building units (SBUs) [Co3(μ3-O)] and 3-connected H3TPA ligands. Polymer 2 has a 1D zigzag polymer chain connected by H3TPA and bibp ligands. Polymer 3 features an unusual 3D framework with a (3,4,2)-connected {4; 6;8}{4; 62;83} topology. Moreover, the thermal stabilities of 1-3 and photoluminescence properties of 3 have been investigated. Magnetic susceptibility measurements indicate that polymers 1-2 display antiferromagnetic exchange properties.

  9. Discovery, synthesis and in combo studies of a tetrazole analogue of clofibric acid as a potent hypoglycemic agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete-Vázquez, Gabriel; Alaniz-Palacios, Alfredo; Hidalgo-Figueroa, Sergio; González-Acevedo, Cristina; Ávila-Villarreal, Gabriela; Estrada-Soto, Samuel; Webster, Scott P; Medina-Franco, José L; López-Vallejo, Fabian; Guerrero-Álvarez, Jorge; Tlahuext, Hugo

    2013-06-01

    A tetrazole isosteric analogue of clofibric acid (1) was prepared using a short synthetic route and was characterized by elemental analysis, NMR ((1)H, (13)C) spectroscopy, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The in vitro inhibitory activity of 1 against 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) was evaluated, showing a moderate inhibitory enzyme activity (51.17% of inhibition at 10 μM), being more active than clofibrate and clofibric acid. The antidiabetic activity of compound 1 was determined at 50 mg/Kg single dose using a non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus rat model. The results indicated a significant decrease of plasma glucose levels, during the 7h post-administration. Additionally, we performed a molecular docking of 1 into the ligand binding pocket of one subunit of human 11β-HSD1. In this model, compound 1 binds into the catalytic site of 11β-HSD1 in two different orientations. Both of them, show important short contacts with the catalytic residues Ser 170, Tyr 183, Asp 259 and also with the nicotinamide ring of NADP(+). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Bacterial Peptide Deformylase Inhibition of Tetrazole-Substituted Biaryl Acid Analogs: Synthesis, Biological Evaluations, and Molecular Docking Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Firoz A Kalam; Patil, Rajendra H; Patil, Manjiri; Arote, Rohidas; Shinde, Devanand B; Sangshetti, Jaiprakash N

    2016-12-01

    The synthesis and screening of tetrazole-substituted biaryl acid analogs 7a-l as bacterial peptide deformylase (PDF) enzyme inhibitors is reported. The compounds 7e (IC 50 value = 5.50 μM) and 7g (IC 50 value = 7.25 μM) showed good PDF inhibition activity. The compounds 7e (MIC range = 10.75-11.66 μg/mL) and 7g (MIC range = 8.91-12.83 μg/mL) also showed potent antibacterial activity when compared with the standard ciprofloxacin (MIC range = 25-50 μg/mL). Thus, the active derivatives were not only potent PDF enzyme inhibitors but also efficient antibacterial agents. In order to gain more insight into the binding mode of the compounds with the PDF enzyme, the most active compounds 7e and 7g, the moderately active compound 7k, and the least active compound 7h were docked against the PDF enzyme of Escherichia coli. The docking study of the most active compounds 7e and 7g against the PDF enzyme exhibited good binding properties. Hence, we believe our synthesized compounds 7a-l could serve as reservoir for bacterial PDF inhibitor development. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Characteristics of the Emotional and Behavioral Reactions of Rats under Chronic Stress Immobilization During Treatment with 5-R-thio-tetrazol [1,5-c] quinazoline Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. Y. Tozyuk

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Hypokinesia can reduce physical performance and impair human health, which is evident by significant morphofunctional changes in the body. To correct these abnormalities and prevent their occurrence actoprotectors are used in hospitals. In previous studies [Stepanyuk G.I, 2012] we found that 5-R-thio-tetrazol [1,5-c] quinasoline derivatives quite clearly improved physical performance of rats according to swimming test. In terms of actoprotective activity compound-leader КВ-28 (sodium 2-( tetrazol [1,5-с] quinazolin -5- ylthioacetate for certain predominated over reference compound bemityl. WORK OBJECTIVE. To describe the influence of course administration of sodium 2-( tetrazol [1,5-с] quinazolin -5- ylthio acetate in comparison with bemityl on the behavioral reactions of rats under 18-day hypokinesia. RESEARCH MATERIALS AND METHODS. Chronic stress immobilization was modeled by keeping rats in small wooden cases for 16 hours / day for 18 days. Animals were divided into 4 groups of 6 animals in each: I - intact animals, II - rats stressed with hypokinesia without correction (control, III and IV - hypokinetic rats who one-time within 18 days take daily intraperitoneally КВ -28 (1,7 mg/kg and bemityl (32 mg/kg at doses equal to their ED50 according to swimming test. Orientative-searching and emotional activity were assessed by neuroethological "open field" test [Buresh, 1991] on the 4th, 12th and 18th day of experiment, that accordingly characterize the stage of anxiety, resistance and exhaustion of general adaptation syndrome [Stefanov, 2001]. To analyze the behavior the following neurophysiological indices were used: horizontal motor activity (number of the crossed squares, vertical activity (number of racks, number of examined holes and autonomic balance: number of washings (grooming and defecation acts (number of boluses and urinations. Duration of observation was 3 min. RESULTS AND THEIR DISCUSSION. In the course of the experiment a

  12. OSU-6: A Highly Efficient, Metal-Free, Heterogeneous Catalyst for the Click Synthesis of 5-Benzyl and 5-Aryl-1H-tetrazoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baskar Nammalwar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available OSU-6, an MCM-41 type hexagonal mesoporous silica with mild Brönsted acid properties, has been used as an efficient, metal-free, heterogeneous catalyst for the click synthesis of 5-benzyl and 5-aryl-1H-tetrazoles from nitriles in DMF at 90 °C. This catalyst offers advantages including ease of operation, milder conditions, high yields, and reusability. Studies are presented that demonstrate the robust nature of the catalyst under the optimized reaction conditions. OSU-6 promotes the 1,3-dipolar addition of azides to nitriles without significant degradation or clogging of the nanoporous structure. The catalyst can be reused up to five times without a significant reduction in yield, and it does not require treatment with acid between reactions.

  13. Pharmacological characterization of LY233053: A structurally novel tetrazole-substituted competitive N-methyl-D-aspartic acid antagonist with a short duration of action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoepp, D.D.; Ornstein, P.L.; Leander, J.D.; Lodge, D.; Salhoff, C.R.; Zeman, S.; Zimmerman, D.M.

    1990-01-01

    This study reports the activity of a structurally novel excitatory amino acid receptor antagonist, LY233053 [cis-(+-)-4-[(2H-tetrazol-5-yl)methyl]piperidine-2-carboxylic acid], the first tetrazole-containing competitive N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) antagonist. LY233053 potently inhibited NMDA receptor binding to rat brain membranes as shown by the in vitro displacement of [3H] CGS19755 (IC50 = 107 +/- 7 nM). No appreciable affinity in [3H]alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA) or [3H]kainate binding assays was observed (IC50 values greater than 10,000 nM). In vitro NMDA receptor antagonist activity was further demonstrated by selective inhibition of NMDA-induced depolarization in cortical wedges (IC50 = 4.2 +/- 0.4 microM vs. 40 microM NMDA). LY233053 was effective after in vivo systemic administration in a number of animal models. In neonatal rats, LY233053 selectively blocked NMDA-induced convulsions (ED50 = 14.5 mg/kg i.p.) with a relatively short duration of action (2-4 hr). In pigeons, LY233053 potently antagonized (ED50 = 1.3 mg/kg i.m.) the behavioral suppressant effects of 10 mg/kg of NMDA. However, a dose of 160 mg/kg, i.m., was required to produce phencyclidine-like catalepsy in pigeons. In mice, LY233053 protected against maximal electroshock-induced seizures at lower doses (ED50 = 19.9 mg/kg i.p.) than those that impaired horizontal screen performance (ED50 = 40.9 mg/kg i.p.). Cholinergic and GABAergic neuronal degenerations after striatal infusion of NMDA were prevented by single or multiple i.p. doses of LY233053. In summary, the antagonist activity of LY233053 after systemic administration demonstrates potential therapeutic value in conditions of neuronal cell loss due to NMDA receptor excitotoxicity

  14. Coordination preference and magnetic properties of FeII assemblies with a bis-azole bearing 1,2,4-triazole and tetrazole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Anil D.; Railliet, Antoine P.; Dîrtu, Marinela M.; Garcia, Yann

    2012-03-01

    With a new bis-azole molecular fragment ( Htt) bearing 1,2,4-triazole and tetrazole, a mononuclear complex [Fe(tt)2(H2O)4]·2H2O ( 1), a trinuclear complex [Fe3(tt)6(H2O)6]·2H2O ( 2) and a 1D coordination polymer [Fe(tt)(Htt)2]BF4·2CH3OH ( 3) were obtained by varying reaction conditions. Htt acts either as an anionic or neutral ligand depending upon the reaction medium and pH. Thermal variation of spin states of 1- 3 were investigated in the range 77-300 K by 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. 1 totally remains in high-spin state over the entire temperature range whereas no spin crossover was evidenced in 2. Nearly 1:1 high-spin and low-spin population ratio is found in 3, which remains constant over the entire temperature range investigated.

  15. Adsorption and photocatalytic properties of transition metal Zinc(II) complex based on 5-(4-(tetrazol-5-yl)phenyl)isophthalic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Yu; Ren, Shan-Shan; Liu, Li-Hui; Guan, Wei-Sheng; Li, Zhi-Min; Che, Guang-Bo; Liu, Chun-Bo; Wang, Yan-Yan; Wang, Qing-Wei; Li, Xiu-Ying; Zhu, En-Wei

    2018-06-01

    A new coordination polymeric zinc(II) complex, namely, [Zn2(L)(H2O)3]n·nNO3(1), (H3L = 5-(4-(tetrazol-5-yl)phenyl)isophthalic acid) has been synthesized under solvothermal conditions and structurally characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy, single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis and powder X-ray diffraction. Complex 1 exhibits a three-dimensional structure with a Schläfli symbol of 44•69•82 topologies, constructed from two crystallographically independent five and six coordinated mode with metal center and connected H3L ligands. The complex has good thermal stability and excellent photoluminescent property. Furthermore, by comparing the photoluminescent and photocatalytic mutation results induced by interconversion of metal ions, we confirm that the properties mutation induced by metal ions is much controllable and obvious. In addition, the complex exhibits significantly enhanced photocatalytic activity for methylene blue (MB) under UV light irradiation (λ < 400 nm), and the degradation rate could reach 75% in 80 min. Meanwhile trapping experiments indicated that the •O2- and h+ are the main activated species.

  16. Nd(III) and Dy(III) coordination compounds based on 1H-tetrazolate-5-acetic acid ligands: Synthesis, crystal structures and catalytic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Qiaoyun; Chen Dianyu; He Minghua [Jiangsu Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials, Department of Chemistry and Materials Engineering, Changshu Institute of Technology, Changshu 215500, Jiangsu (China); Yang Gaowen, E-mail: ygwsx@126.com [Jiangsu Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials, Department of Chemistry and Materials Engineering, Changshu Institute of Technology, Changshu 215500, Jiangsu (China); Shen Lei; Zhai Chun; Shen Wei; Gu Kun; Zhao Jingjing [Jiangsu Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials, Department of Chemistry and Materials Engineering, Changshu Institute of Technology, Changshu 215500, Jiangsu (China)

    2012-06-15

    Reactions of 1H-tetrazolate-5-acetic acid(H{sub 2}tza) with Nd(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}{center_dot}6H{sub 2}O or Dy(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}{center_dot}6H{sub 2}O with the presence of KOH under solvothermal conditions, produced two new coordination compounds, [M{sub 2}(tza){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}]{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O [M=Nd(1), Dy(2)]. Both compounds were structurally characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Compounds 1 and 2 reveal 1D structures via bridging tza as linker. Furthermore, the compounds 1 and 2 showed a specific and good catalytic behavior for the polymerization of styrene, and the polymerization showed controlled characteristics. - Graphical Abstract: Two new coordination compounds, [M{sub 2}(tza){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}]{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O [M=Nd(1), Dy(2)] have been synthesis. 1 and 2 reveal 1D structures via bridging tza as linker, and showed a specific and good catalytic behavior for the polymerization of styrene. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer we have reported two novel compounds formed by H{sub 2}tza and Nd(III) or Dy(III). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Compounds 1 and 2 were found to have catalysis property for the photo-polymerization of styrene. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The high molecular weight polymers with narrow molecular weight distributions were obtained.

  17. The non-biphenyl-tetrazole angiotensin AT1 receptor antagonist eprosartan is a unique and robust inverse agonist of the active state of the AT1 receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takezako, Takanobu; Unal, Hamiyet; Karnik, Sadashiva S; Node, Koichi

    2018-03-23

    Conditions such as hypertension and renal allograft rejection are accompanied by chronic, agonist-independent, signalling by angiotensin II AT 1 receptors. The current treatment paradigm for these diseases entails the preferred use of inverse agonist AT 1 receptor blockers (ARBs). However, variability in the inverse agonist activities of common biphenyl-tetrazole ARBs for the active state of AT 1 receptors often leads to treatment failure. Therefore, characterization of robust inverse agonist ARBs for the active state of AT 1 receptors is necessary. To identify the robust inverse agonist for active state of AT 1 receptors and its molecular mechanism, we performed site-directed mutagenesis, competition binding assay, inositol phosphate production assay and molecular modelling for both ground-state wild-type AT 1 receptors and active-state N111G mutant AT 1 receptors. Although candesartan and telmisartan exhibited weaker inverse agonist activity for N111G- compared with WT-AT 1 receptors, only eprosartan exhibited robust inverse agonist activity for both N111G- and WT- AT 1 receptors. Specific ligand-receptor contacts for candesartan and telmisartan are altered in the active-state N111G- AT 1 receptors compared with the ground-state WT-AT 1 receptors, suggesting an explanation of their attenuated inverse agonist activity for the active state of AT 1 receptors. In contrast, interactions between eprosartan and N111G-AT 1 receptors were not significantly altered, and the inverse agonist activity of eprosartan was robust. Eprosartan may be a better therapeutic option than other ARBs. Comparative studies investigating eprosartan and other ARBs for the treatment of diseases caused by chronic, agonist-independent, AT 1 receptor activation are warranted. © 2018 The British Pharmacological Society.

  18. Two new Zn(II) and Cd(II) coordinastion polymers based on amino-tetrazole and phenylcarboxylate: Syntheses, topological structures and photoluminescent properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Dong-Sheng; Sui, Yan; Chen, Weng-Tong; Huang, Jian-Gen; Chen, Jian-Zhong; Huang, Chang-Cang

    2012-01-01

    Two Zn(II) and Cd(II) compounds with the in-situ generated ligand of 5-amino-tetrazolate (atz − ) were prepared from the hydrothermal reactions of the corresponding Cd or Zn(II) salts with phenylcarboxylate, and characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy, and TGA. The results of X-ray crystallographic analysis reveal that compound [Zn 2 (BZA)(atz) 2 (OH)] n (1) (BZA=benzoic acid) presents a two-dimensional (2D) “hcb” topological network constructed from the ZnN 2 O 2 tetrahedra. In compound [Cd 6 (atz) 6 (PTA) 3 ] n (2) (PTA=terephthalic acid), the identical [Cd 3 (atz) 3 )] 3+ n clusters are connected by atz ligands to generate a 2D cationic layer, and the neighboring cationic layers are pillared by PTA giving birth to 3D network. After simplifying, the complicated 3D network of 2 can be presented as an unprecedented (4, 4, 10)-connected trinodal topology. The formations of the structures show a good example that using the combination of the in-situ generated ligand and other coligand synthetic strategy can construct interesting topological structures. The thermal stabilities and fluorescent properties of the complexes have also been studied. - Graphical abstract: Two d 10 metal complexes have been synthesized by employing mixed-ligand synthetic approach. Complex 1 presents a 2D “hcb” topological network. Complex 2 shows an unprecedented (4, 4, 10)-connected trinodal topology. Highlights: ► Coligand synthetic strategy was applied to obtain new MOFs with useful properties. ► Two new Zn(II) and Cd(II) complexes were constructed from the mixed-ligand. ► Topologically, compound 2 presented an unprecedented (4, 4, 10)-connected trinodal topology. ► The two compounds may be excellent candidates for potential photoactive material.

  19. Synthesis and biological evaluation of some N-(3-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl) phenyl)acetamide derivatives as novel non-carboxylic PTP1B inhibitors designed through bioisosteric modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheshwari, Neelesh; Karthikeyan, Chandrabose; Bhadada, Shraddha V; Sahi, Chandan; Verma, Amit K; Hari Narayana Moorthy, N S; Trivedi, Piyush

    2018-06-08

    Described herein is the synthesis and biological evaluation of a series of non-carboxylic inhibitors of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B designed using bioisosteric replacement strategy. Six N-(3-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)phenyl)acetamide derivatives designed employing the aforementioned strategy were synthesized and screened for PTP1B inhibitory activity. Among the synthesized compounds, compound NM-03 exhibited the most potent inhibitory activity with IC 50 value of 4.48 µM. Docking studies with NM-03 revealed the key interactions with desired amino acids in the binding site of PTP1B. Furthermore, compound NM-03 also elicited good in vivo activity. Taken together, the results of this study establish N-(3-(1H-tetrazole-5-yl)phenyl)-2-(benzo[d]oxazol-2-ylthio)acetamide (NM-03) as a valuable lead molecule with great potential for PTP1B inhibitor development targeting diabetes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A series of novel metal–organic coordination polymers constructed from the new 5-(4-imidazol-1-yl-phenyl)-2H-tetrazole spacer and aromatic carboxylates: Synthesis, crystal structures, and luminescence properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Jiayin; Zhang, Daojun; Wang, Li; Zhang, Renchun; Wang, Junjie; Zeng, Ying; Zhan, Jinling; Xu, Jianing; Fan, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Using bifunctional organic ligand 5-(4-imidazol-1-yl-phenyl)-2H-tetrazole (HL) and different aromatic carboxylates as secondary ligands, four novel metal-organic coordination polymers, [Zn(L)(1,4-bdc) 0.5 ] (1), [Zn 1.5 (L)(2,5-pydc)] (2), [Zn(HL)(1,2,4,5-btec) 0.5 ] (3), and [Cd(HL)(1,2,4,5-btec) 0.5 ] (4) (1,4-bdc, 1,4-benzenedicarboxylate; 2,5-pydc, 2,5-pyridinedicarboxylate; 1,2,4,5-btec, 1,2,4,5-benzenetetracarboxylate) have been successfully synthesized and analyzed. Compound 1 features the 2D [Zn(L)] n layers built by μ 3 -L bridging ligands and Zn(II) ions, which are further linked by pillared 1,4-bdc 2− ligands to form a 2-fold interpenetrating dmc framework. The 3D network of compound 2 can be simplified as a rare 2-nodal (3,6)-connected rtl (rutile) topology. Compound 3 possesses a 2D layer structure which is accomplished by connecting ladder-chains to L ligands. Compound 4 exhibits 2D [Cd(1,2,4,5-btec)] layers with infinite Cd–O–Cd rods and the adjacent 2D networks are further pillared by L with terminal bidentate coordination mode to generate the final 3D structure. The solid-state luminescent studies show that compounds 1–4 display intense fluorescent emissions. - Graphical abstract: Using bifunctional organic ligand 5-(4-imidazol-1-yl-phenyl)-2H-tetrazole (HL) and different aromatic carboxylates as secondary ligands, four novel metal-organic coordination polymers have been obtained. All compounds show good luminescence properties at room temperature. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Four Zn(II)/Cd(II)-MOCPs have been successfully prepared with the rigid bifunctional ligand 5-(4-imidazol -1-yl-phenyl) -2H-tetrazole and different aromatic carboxylates mixed ligands. • Compound 2 is a 2-nodal rtl (rutile) net and compound 4 is a binodal (5, 6)-connected net with yav topology. • Compounds 1-4 display intense fluorescent emissions at room temperature

  1. One-pot synthesis of novel 1-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazine derivatives via an Ugi-azide 4CR process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghandi, Mehdi; Salahi, Saleh; Taheri, Abuzar; Abbasi, Alireza

    2018-05-01

    A facile one-pot method has been developed for the synthesis of novel pyrrolo[2,1-a]pyrazine scaffolds. A variety of 1-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazine derivatives were obtained in moderate to high yields in methanol using a one-pot four-component condensation of 1-(2-bromoethyl)-1H-pyrrole-2-carbaldehyde, amine, isocyanide and sodium azide at room temperature. These reactions presumably proceed via a domino imine formation, intramolecular annulation and Ugi-azide reaction. Unambiguous assignment of the molecular structures was carried out by single-crystal X-ray diffraction.

  2. Mechanism of improved maintenance of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate in stored blood by the xanthone compound 2-(2-hydroxyethoxy)-6-(1-H-tetrazole-5-yl)xanthen-9-one (BW A440C).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutler, E; Forman, L; West, C; Gelbart, T

    1988-03-15

    The effect of the xanthone derivative 2-(2-hydroxyethoxy)-6-(1-H-tetrazole-5-yl)xanthen-9-one (BW A440C) on red cells was studied. When added to stored red cells at a concentration of 6 mM, greatly improved preservation of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) was observed. There was no effect on internal pH of the erythrocyte. At a concentration 0.500 mM, many red cell enzyme activities were inhibited completely. At a 0.500 mM concentration, however, inhibition of pyruvate kinase and diphosphoglycerate phosphatase was most striking. Inhibition of either of these enzymes could result in elevation of 2,3-DPG levels. BW A440C in concentrations which elevated 2,3-DPG levels in humans caused a decrease in 2,3-DPG levels in rabbits and markedly impaired the viability of 21-day stored rabbit erythrocytes.

  3. Green synthesis, characterization and catalytic activity of natural bentonite-supported copper nanoparticles for the solvent-free synthesis of 1-substituted 1H-1,2,3,4-tetrazoles and reduction of 4-nitrophenol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Rostami-Vartooni

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Cu nanoparticles were immobilized on the surface of natural bentonite using Thymus vulgaris extract as a reducing and stabilizing agent. The natural bentonite-supported copper nanoparticles (Cu NPs/bentonite were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD, X-ray fluorescence (XRF, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, selected area electron diffraction (SAED and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET analysis. Afterward, the catalytic performance of the prepared catalyst was investigated for the solvent-free synthesis of 1-substituted 1H-1,2,3,4-tetrazoles and reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP in water. It was found that the Cu NPs/bentonite is a highly active and recyclable catalyst for related reactions.

  4. Two Zinc(II) metal-organic frameworks with mixed ligands of 5-amino-tetrazolate and l,2,4,5-benzenetetracarboxylate: Synthesis, structural diversity and photoluminescent properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiao-Bing [Department of Chemistry, Shaoguan University, Shaoguan, Guangdong 512005 (China); Lu, Wen-Guan, E-mail: lwg@sgu.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Shaoguan University, Shaoguan, Guangdong 512005 (China); Zhong, Di-Chang [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Gannan Normal University, Ganzhou 341000 (China)

    2017-06-15

    The reactions of Zn(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}·6H{sub 2}O with mixed ligands of 5-amino-tetrazole (Hatz) and l,2,4,5-benzenetetracarboxylic acid (H{sub 4}btec) under hydro(solvo)thermal conditions, gave two three-dimensional (3D) porous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) of ([Zn{sub 3}(atz){sub 2}(btec)(DMF){sub 2}]·DMF·2H{sub 2}O){sub n} (1) and [Zn{sub 2}(Hprz)(atz)(btec)(H{sub 2}O)]{sub n} (2) in the absence and presence of piperazine (prz), respectively. 1 and 2 were characterized by infrared spectra (IR), elemental analyses (EA) and single-crystal/powder X-ray diffraction. In 1, the adjacent 1D [Zn{sub 3}(btec)]{sub n}{sup 2n+} chains are linked together by atz{sup −} ligands to form a 3D porous MOF with 1D tetragonal channels filled with coordinated and guest DMF, and lattice water molecules. In 2, the adjacent 2D [Zn{sub 2}(btec)]{sub n} wavelike sheets are pillared through atz{sup −} ligands to generate a 3D layered-pillared porous MOF with 1D open channels, which are occupied by coordinated Hprz{sup +} cations and coordinated water molecules. Additionally, thermal stabilities and photoluminescent properties of both compounds in the solid-state at room temperature have been investigated and discussed in detail. - Graphical abstract: Two new MOFs constructed from Zn(II) salts with mixed ligands of 5-amino-tetrazole and l,2,4,5-benzenetetracarboxylic acid were synthesized under different reaction conditions. Structural diversities indicate that the reaction solvent system or the presence of organic base play crucial roles in modulating structures of these compounds. And more, their thermal stability and luminescence are also discussed. - Highlights: • Two new Zn(II) MOFs based on mixed ligands were synthesized. • The two Zn(II) MOFs exhibit different structural motifs. • The two Zn(II) MOFs are photoluminscent in the solid state at room temperature.

  5. Nitrogen-Rich Energetic Metal-Organic Framework: Synthesis, Structure, Properties, and Thermal Behaviors of Pb(II Complex Based on N,N-Bis(1H-tetrazole-5-yl-Amine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiangqiang Liu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The focus of energetic materials is on searching for a high-energy, high-density, insensitive material. Previous investigations have shown that 3D energetic metal–organic frameworks (E-MOFs have great potential and advantages in this field. A nitrogen-rich E-MOF, Pb(bta·2H2O [N% = 31.98%, H2bta = N,N-Bis(1H-tetrazole-5-yl-amine], was prepared through a one-step hydrothermal reaction in this study. Its crystal structure was determined through single-crystal X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and elemental analysis. The complex has high heat denotation (16.142 kJ·cm−3, high density (3.250 g·cm−3, and good thermostability (Tdec = 614.9 K, 5 K·min−1. The detonation pressure and velocity obtained through theoretical calculations were 43.47 GPa and 8.963 km·s−1, respectively. The sensitivity test showed that the complex is an impact-insensitive material (IS > 40 J. The thermal decomposition process and kinetic parameters of the complex were also investigated through thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry. Non-isothermal kinetic parameters were calculated through the methods of Kissinger and Ozawa-Doyle. Results highlighted the nitrogen-rich MOF as a potential energetic material.

  6. Cobalt-promoted regioselective preparation of aryl tetrazole amines

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    KONDRAGANTI LAKSHMI

    2018-04-17

    Apr 17, 2018 ... To the best of .... coupled product with aryl iodide under mild reaction ..... Having the optimal conditions studied, the scope of ... ity, environmental acceptability and cost-effectiveness ... lite as a new and reusable heterogeneous catalyst Chem. ... Aminotetrazoles from Thioureas: A Strategy for Diver-.

  7. Tetrazole substituted polymers for high temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henkensmeier, Dirk; My Hanh Duong, Ngoc; Brela, Mateusz

    2015-01-01

    an equilibrium uptake of 0.5 and 4.7 mol PA per mol heterocycle, respectively, indicating that PBI has higher affinity for PA than TZ-PEEN. The highest achieved PA uptake was ca. 110 wt%, resulting in a proton conductivity of 25 mS cm−1 at 160 °C with a low activation energy of about 35 kJ mol−1. In a first HT...

  8. Bis[(1-methyl-1H-tetrazol-5-ylsulfanyl]methane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wei

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The molecule of the title compound, C5H8N8S2, lies on a twofold rotation axis that relates on 1-methyltetrazolyl group to the other; the five-membered rings are twisted by 53.1 (1°.

  9. 2,4,6-tris[bis(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)amino

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MUDDAMARRI HANUMANTHA RAO

    Nitrogen rich compounds; high energy materials; density functional theory. 1. Introduction ... importance due to their numerous applications in gas generators, propel- ..... and Radhakrishnan S 2015 Quantum-chemical design of tetrazolo[1 ...

  10. Biopharmaceutical Characterization and Bioavailability Study of a Tetrazole Analog of Clofibric Acid in Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vara-Gama, Nancy; Valladares-Méndez, Adriana; Navarrete-Vazquez, Gabriel; Estrada-Soto, Samuel; Orozco-Castellanos, Luis Manuel; Rivera-Leyva, Julio César

    2017-02-14

    In the current investigation, the physicochemical, biopharmaceutical and pharmacokinetic characterization of a new clofibric acid analog (Compound 1 ) was evaluated. Compound 1 showed affinity by lipophilic phase in 1 to 5 pH interval, indicating that this compound would be absorbed favorably in duodenum or jejunum. Also, Compound 1 possess two ionic species, first above of pH 4.43 and, the second one is present over pH 6.08. The apparent permeability in everted sac rat intestine model was 8.73 × 10 -6 cm/s in duodenum and 1.62 × 10 -5 cm/s in jejunum, suggesting that Compound 1 has low permeability. Elimination constant after an oral administration of 50 μg/kg in Wistar rat was 1.81 h -1 , absorption constant was 3.05 h -1 , C max was 3.57 μg/mL at 0.33 h, AUC 0-α was 956.54 μ/mL·h and distribution volume was 419.4 mL. To IV administration at the same dose, ke was 1.21 h -1 , Vd was 399.6 mL and AUC 0-α was 747.81 μ/mL·h. No significant differences were observed between pharmacokinetic parameters at every administration route. Bioavailability evaluated was 10.4%. Compound 1 is metabolized to Compound 2 probably by enzymatic hydrolysis, and it showed a half-life of 9.24 h. With these properties, Compound 1 would be considered as a prodrug of Compound 2 with potential as an antidiabetic and anti dyslipidemic agent.

  11. Biopharmaceutical Characterization and Bioavailability Study of a Tetrazole Analog of Clofibric Acid in Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Vara-Gama

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In the current investigation, the physicochemical, biopharmaceutical and pharmacokinetic characterization of a new clofibric acid analog (Compound 1 was evaluated. Compound 1 showed affinity by lipophilic phase in 1 to 5 pH interval, indicating that this compound would be absorbed favorably in duodenum or jejunum. Also, Compound 1 possess two ionic species, first above of pH 4.43 and, the second one is present over pH 6.08. The apparent permeability in everted sac rat intestine model was 8.73 × 10−6 cm/s in duodenum and 1.62 × 10−5 cm/s in jejunum, suggesting that Compound 1 has low permeability. Elimination constant after an oral administration of 50 μg/kg in Wistar rat was 1.81 h−1, absorption constant was 3.05 h−1, Cmax was 3.57 μg/mL at 0.33 h, AUC0–α was 956.54 μ/mL·h and distribution volume was 419.4 mL. To IV administration at the same dose, ke was 1.21 h−1, Vd was 399.6 mL and AUC0–α was 747.81 μ/mL·h. No significant differences were observed between pharmacokinetic parameters at every administration route. Bioavailability evaluated was 10.4%. Compound 1 is metabolized to Compound 2 probably by enzymatic hydrolysis, and it showed a half-life of 9.24 h. With these properties, Compound 1 would be considered as a prodrug of Compound 2 with potential as an antidiabetic and anti dyslipidemic agent.

  12. Bis[(1-methyl-1H-tetrazol-5-ylsulfanyl]ethane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Rong Li

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C6H10N8S2, was prepared by the nucleophilic substitution reaction of 5-mercapto-1-methyltetrazole and dichloroethane. In the crystal, the molecule possesses an approximate non-crystallographic twofold symmetry axis. The crystal packing is stabilized by weak intermolecular C—H...N and π–π interactions [centroid–centroid distances = 3.448 (6, 3.5085 (5 and 3.4591 (2 Å]. The two five-membered rings form a dihedral angle of 1.9 (2°.

  13. trans-Dichloridotetrakis[1-(2-hydroxyethyl-1H-tetrazole-κN4]cobalt(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander S. Lyakhov

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The title cobalt(II complex, [CoCl2(C3H6N4O4], was obtained from metallic cobalt by direct synthesis. There are two Co atoms in the asymmetric unit, each lying on an inversion centre and adopting a distorted octahedral coordination. Classical and non-classical hydrogen bonds are responsible for formation of a three-dimensional polymeric network in the crystal.

  14. Synthesis of some new 4-oxo-thiazolidines, tetrazole and triazole derived from 2-SH-benzothiazole and antimicrobial screening of some synthesized

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suaad M.H. Al-Majidi

    2014-12-01

    Triazole moieties reported condensation (MBT with ethylbromo acetate and potassium hydroxide by the fusion method and resulted in ester-2-mercaptobenzothiazole (7, which was treated with hydrazine hydrate to give a hydrazine derivative (8, then converting these compounds (8 to phenyl semicarbazide (9 and phenyl thiosemicarbazide (10 derivatives. Cyclization compounds (9,10 in alkaline media (4 N·NaOH gave triazoles compounds (11,12. Furthermore the compound (8 was converted to the dithiocarbazate salt (13 which was then cyclized with hydrazine hydrate to give substituted triazole (14. The prepared compounds were identified by spectral methods (FTIR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and some of its physical properties were measured and furthermore the effects of the preparing compounds on some strains of bacteria were studied.

  15. CCDC 954775: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : Dimethylammonium tri-terbium tris(2-fluoro-4-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)benzoate) tetrahydroxide tetradecahydrate

    KAUST Repository

    Xue, Dongxu

    2013-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  16. CCDC 954776: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : Dimethylammonium tri-yttrium tris(4-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)benzoate) tetrahydroxide nonacosahydrate

    KAUST Repository

    Xue, Dongxu

    2013-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  17. A study on the thermal decomposition behavior of derivatives of 1,5-diamino-1H-tetrazole (DAT): A new family of energetic heterocyclic-based salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Gerd; Holl, Gerhard; Klapoetke, Thomas M.; Weigand, Jan J.

    2005-01-01

    The thermal decomposition of the highly energetic 1,5-diamino-4-methyl-1H-tetrazolium nitrate (2b), 1,5-diamino-4-methyl-1H-tetrazolium dinitramide (2c) and 1,5-diamino-4-methyl-1H-tetrazolium azide (2d) were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Mass spectrometry and IR spectroscopy were used to identify the gaseous products. Decomposition appears in the cases of 2c and 2d to be initiated by a proton transfer to form the corresponding acid HN 3 and HN 3 O 4 whereas in the case of 2b a methyl group transfer to MeONO 2 is observed as initial process. The gaseous products after the exothermic decomposition are comparable and are in agreement of the possible decomposition pathways discussed for the corresponding compounds. For all processes, possible decomposition schemes are presented. The decomposition temperatures of 2b and 2c are significantly higher than that of 2d and were supported by evaluation the values of the activation energy according the method of Ozawa and Kissinger

  18. CCDC 954773: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : Dimethylammonium tri-terbium tris(4-(tetrazol-2-id-5-yl)benzoate) tetrahydroxide trihydrate unknown solvate

    KAUST Repository

    Xue, Dongxu

    2013-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  19. CCDC 954774: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : Dimethylammonium tri-terbium tris(4'-(tetrazol-2-id-5-yl)biphenyl-4-carboxylate) tetrahydroxide trihydrate unknown solvate

    KAUST Repository

    Xue, Dongxu

    2013-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  20. CCDC 954771: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : Dimethylammonium tri-yttrium tris(4'-(tetrazol-2-id-5-yl)biphenyl-4-carboxylate) tetrahydroxide trihydrate unknown solvate

    KAUST Repository

    Xue, Dongxu

    2013-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  1. CCDC 1044083: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : catena-[(mu-5-(5-amino-1H-tetrazol-1-yl)isophthalato)-copper unknown solvate

    KAUST Repository

    Hu, Tong-Liang; Wang, Hailong; Li, Bin; Krishna, Rajamani; Wu, Hui; Zhou, Wei; Zhao, Yunfeng; Han, Yu; Wang, Xue; Zhu, Weidong; Yao, Zizhu; Xiang, Shengchang; Chen, Banglin

    2015-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  2. 2,4,6-tris[bis(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)amino]-1,3,5-triazine as a nitrogen-rich ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MUDDAMARRI HANUMANTHA RAO

    mmol) (in 15 mL of deionized water) was added dropwise to the slurry of cyanuric chloride (0.18 g, 1 mmol) in ace- ... ture was filtered and washed with water to obtain a white solid product of N,N',N”-(1,3,5-triazine-2,4 .... getic materials emerging for military and space appli- cations J. Hazard. Mater. 112 1; (b) Wang R, Xu H,.

  3. Ionic Liquid Fuels for Chemical Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-31

    to prepare 5-(hydrazino-alkly) tetrazoles (Scheme 6). Scheme 6. Synthesis of 5-(hydrazino- propyl ) 1H tetrazole 3 and trimethylene tetrazole 6. 7...discovered a new method for preparing analytically pure borohydride salts in a mixed solvent system, liquid ammonia/methylene chloride , at low temperatures...sodium chloride and the free amine (Scheme 3). The free amine could be easily removed by washing the product with diethylether. Scheme 3

  4. Nitrile imines and nitrile ylides: rearrangements of benzonitrile N-methylimine and benzonitrile dimethylmethylide to azabutadienes, carbodiimides, and ketenimines. Chemical activation in thermolysis of azirenes, tetrazoles, oxazolones, isoxazolones, and oxadiazolones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bégué, Didier; Dargelos, Alain; Berstermann, Hans M; Netsch, Klaus P; Bednarek, Pawel; Wentrup, Curt

    2014-02-07

    Flash vacuum thermolysis (FVT) of 1-methyl-5-phenyltetrazole (5b), 2-methyl-5-phenyltetrazole (1b), and 3-methyl-5-phenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2(3H)-one (3b) affords the nitrile imine (2b), which rearranges in part to N-methyl-N'-phenylcarbodiimide (7b). Another part of 2b undergoes a 1,4-H shift to the diazabutadiene (13). 13 undergoes two chemically activated decompositions, to benzonitrile and CH2═NH and to styrene and N2. FVT of 2,2-dimethyl-4-phenyl-oxazol-5(2H)-one (16) at 400 °C yields 3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-azabutadiene (18) in high yield. In contrast, FVT of 3,3-dimethyl-2-phenyl-1-azirene (21) at 600 °C or 4,4-dimethyl-3-phenyl-isoxazolone (20) at 600 °C affords only a low yield of azabutadiene (18) due to chemically activated decomposition of 18 to styrene and acetonitrile. There are two reaction paths from azirene (21): one (path a) leading to nitrile ylide (17) and the major products styrene and acetonitrile and the other (path b) leading to the vinylnitrene (22) and ketenimine (23). The nitrile ylide PhC(-)═N(+)═C(CH3)2 (17) is implicated as the immediate precursor of azabutadiene (18). FVT of either 3-phenylisoxazol-5(4H)one (25) or 2-phenylazirene (26) at 600 °C affords N-phenylketenimine (28). The nitrile ylide PhC(-)═N(+)═CH2 (30) is postulated as a reversibly formed intermediate. N-Phenylketenimine (28) undergoes chemically activated free radical rearrangement to benzyl cyanide. The mechanistic interpretations are supported by calculations of the energies of key intermediates and transition states.

  5. CCDC 884451: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : catena-(hexakis(mu~6~-5'-(4-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)benzamido)benzene-1,3-dioato)-bis(mu~3~-oxo)-tetracosa-aqua-dodeca-copper)

    KAUST Repository

    Eubank, J.F.

    2013-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  6. CCDC 866710: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : catena-(dodecakis(mu~6~-4'-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)biphenyl-3,5-dicarboxylato)-tetrakis(mu~3~-oxo)-tetracosa-aqua-tetracosa-copper)

    KAUST Repository

    Eubank, J.F.

    2013-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  7. Experimental and Theoretical Study of 1.5-Diamino-4-H-Tetrazolium Perchlorate

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Drake, Greg

    2004-01-01

    ... out. Experimental evidence strongly supports the protonation of a nitrogen atom of the tetrazole ring, including the structure observed in a single crystal x-ray diffraction study of the title compound...

  8. Low Mass Ions in Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry of 1-Methoxy-5-aminotetrazole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Soo Gyeong; Bae, Kwang Tae; Goh, Eun Mee; Bae, Se Won [Agency for Defense Development, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Ik-Soo [Soongsil University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    The development of novel energetic molecules (EMs) with high power, good safety features, great chemical stability, and environmentally less harmful nature is of great interest in the satellite launcher, missile warhead, ammunition, and pyrotechnic researches. Recently, many researchers have focused on aromatic nitrogen heterocycles such as pyrazole, imidazole, triazole, tetrazole, and pentazole as promising candidates to replace the current EMs used in civilian and military applications. We performed MALDI and LDI experiments with energetic tetrazole derivatives which were of great interest for the application of high performance explosives and fast burning propellants. Particularly, LDI experiments provided low mass ion peaks from decomposition of MAT, which were useful to analyze decomposition mechanism of tetrazoles at TOF MS in high vacuum. The LDI experiments showed various decomposed ion products, which implied several decomposition mechanisms including the detachment of side function groups and the fragmentation of tetrazole ring. The high-level DFT calculations also supported the peaks obtained from LDI experiments.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of dinucleoside phosphorodithioates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, John; Brill, Wolfgang K D; Caruthers, Marvin H.

    1988-01-01

    Dinucleoside phosphoramidites, H2S, and tetrazole react to form dinucleoside H-phosphonothioates. Oxidation with sulfur yields phosphorodithioates. Iodine oxidation in the presence of amines, alcohols, or water yields phosphorothioamidates, thiotriesters or thiodiesters....

  10. CCDC 866709: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : catena-(dodecakis(mu~6~-5'-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)-1,1':3',1''-terphenyl-4,4''-dicarboxylato)-tetrakis(mu~3~-oxo)-hexatriaconta-aqua-tetracosa-copper nitrate monohydrate)

    KAUST Repository

    Eubank, J.F.

    2013-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  11. Synthesis and modifications of heterocyclic derivatives of D-arabinose: potential inhibitors of glucose-6-phosphate isomerase and glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viana, Renato Marcio Ribeiro; Prado, Maria Auxiliadora Fontes; Alves, Ricardo Jose

    2008-01-01

    The synthesis of -5-(D-arabino-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroxybutyl)tetrazole and -2-(d-arabino-1,2,3,4-tetra-acetoxybutyl)-5-methyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole from d-arabinose is described. Attempts at removing the protecting groups of the oxadiazole derivative were unsuccessful, leading to products resulting from the opening of the oxadiazole ring. The unprotected tetrazole derivative was selectively phosphorylated at the primary hydroxyl group with diethyl phosphoryl chloride. The resulting 5-[d-arabino-4-(diethylphosphoryloxy)-1,2,3-trihydroxybutyl]tetrazole is a protected form of a potential inhibitor of the enzymes glucose-6-phosphate isomerase and glucosamine synthase. (author)

  12. Poly[bis(μ2-5-n-butyltetrazolato-κ2N1:N4zinc(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Lan Tong

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the title complex, [Zn(C5H9N42]n, the ZnII center is coordinated by four N atoms of different tetrazolate ligands with a slightly distorted tetrahedral geometry [Zn—N distances and N—Zn—N angles are in the ranges 1.991 (2–2.007 (2 Å and 104.22 (8–116.13 (8°, respectively]. Each ligand links two ZnII atoms through its 1- and 4-position tetrazole N atoms, forming a single, fully connected three-dimensional framework with a diamond-like topology. In the crystal structure, the Zn...Zn separations across each tetrazole unit are 6.115 (2 and 6.134 (2 Å and the Zn...Zn...Zn angles are in the range 107.77 (8–116.83 (8°.

  13. Synthesis, Photophysical and Computational Study of Novel Coumarin-based Organic Dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumbar, Mahadev N; Sannaikar, Madivalagouda S; Shaikh, Saba Kauser J; Kamble, Atulkumar A; Wari, Manjunath N; Inamdar, Sanjeev R; Qiao, Qiquan; Revanna, Bhavya N; Madegowda, Mahendra; Dasappa, Jagadeesh P; Kamble, Ravindra R

    2018-03-01

    A series of novel coumarin pyrazoline moieties combined with tetrazoles, 3-(1-phenyl-4-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)-1H-pyrazol-3-yl)-2H-chromen-2-one, 6-chloro-3-(1-phenyl-4-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)-1H-pyrazol-3-yl)-2H-chromen-2-one, 6-bromo-3-(1-phenyl-4-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)-1H-pyrazol-3-yl)-2H-chromen-2-one and 6-bromo-3-(1-(4-bromophenyl)-4-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)-1H pyrazol-3-yl)-2H-chromen-2-one7(a-d), were designed and synthesized. Single crystal X-ray diffraction and their interactions were studied by Hirshfeld surface analysis. Thermal stabilities and electrochemical properties of these compounds were examined from differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric (TGA) and cyclic voltammetric (CV) studies. Their spectroscopic properties were analyzed in various alcohols and general solvents by UV-Vis absorption, fluorescence and time-resolved spectroscopy. In addition, the ground and excited state electronic properties were investigated using density functional theory (DFT). The calculated highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) and energy band gap (E g ) values have revealed the effect of substitution of halogens. The substitution has equally affected the ground and excited states of 7(a-d) compounds. The solvatochromism on absorption, fluorescence spectra and fluorescence lifetimes of these compounds was investigated. All these results showed the chromen-2-one of pyrazoline tetrazole derivatives could play an important role in photonic and electronic devices. © 2017 The American Society of Photobiology.

  14. Application of 2-cyanoethyl n,n,n′,n′-tetraisopropylphosphorodiamidite for in situ preparation of deoxyribonucleoside phosphoramidites and their use in polymer-supported synthesis of oligodeoxyribonucleotides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, John; Taagaard, Michael; Marugg, John E.

    1986-01-01

    Deoxyribonucleoside phosphoramidites are prepared in situ from 5′-O,N-protected deoxyribonucleosides and 2-cyanoethyl N,N,N′,N′-tetraisopropylphosphorodiamidite with tetrazole as catalyst, and the solutions applied directly on an automatic solid-phase DNA synthesizer. Using LCAA-CPG support and a...

  15. Cu-MCM-41 nanoparticles: An efficient catalyst for the synthesis of 5 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    To investigate reusability, the catalyst was recovered by simple filtration and reused for several cycles with consistent activity. Keywords. ... membranes. Another advantage of tetrazolic acids over carboxylic acids is that they are resistant to many bio- logical metabolic degradation pathways.3. Conventionally 5-substituted ...

  16. An efficient synthesis, X-ray and spectral characterization of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    -thiazolidin-2,4-dione derivatives containing biphenyl ring system derivatised with the tetrazole (9), 1,2,4-triazoles (16), and 1,3,4- oxadiazole 17, 18. The single crystal X-ray analysis of one of the compounds 9 is also described as part of the.

  17. Ammonia-Promoted One-Pot Tetrazolopiperidinone Synthesis by Ugi Reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patil, Pravin; Kurpiewska, Katarzyna; Kalinowska-Tłuścik, Justyna; Dömling, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Ammonia in the tetrazole Ugi variation together with α-amino acid methyl ester-derived isocyanides provides tetrazolopiperidinones in good to high yields in one pot. The scope and limitations of this reaction were investigated by performing >70 reactions. The scaffold is useful to fill

  18. Ammonia-Promoted One-Pot Tetrazolopiperidinone Synthesis by Ugi Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Pravin; Kurpiewska, Katarzyna; Kalinowska-Tłuścik, Justyna; Dömling, Alexander

    2017-05-08

    Ammonia in the tetrazole Ugi variation together with α-amino acid methyl ester-derived isocyanides provides tetrazolopiperidinones in good to high yields in one pot. The scope and limitations of this reaction were investigated by performing >70 reactions. The scaffold is useful to fill high-throughput screening decks and in structure-based drug design.

  19. Structural transformations on N-acetylneuraminic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, W.

    1986-01-01

    Structural transformations on N-Acetylneuraminic acid are of special interest because of the biological importance of this compound. Although many stereo- and regioselective variations (especially for pyranoid derivatives) have been reported, no detailed studies of the furanoid derivatives from N-Acetylneuramino-1, 4-lactone diethyl dithioacetal have been described hitherto. Therefore a series of derivatives of the Neu5Ac-lactone diethyl dithioacetal has been investigated by n.m.r. spectroscopic techniques. The complete assignment of the 1 H and 13 C resonances was achieved by relaxation time measurements, decoupling experiments and 2-D - shiftcorrelation spectroscopy. The influence of different substituents on the conformational behavior is also discussed. For the Tetra-O-Acetyl-N-acetylneuraminic acid-γ-lactone diethyl dithioacetal the conformation in solution could be determined. The observed data were explained by a zigzag conformation of the backbone as described for the acetylated mannose diethyl dithioacetal. The synthesis of the tetrazole-analogue of N-Acetylneuraminic acid is also described. This compound is of special biological interest because there is a similarity in acidity between the carboxyl-group and the tetrazole-function and the metabolic stability of the tetrazole function is enhanced in comparison with the carboxyl-group. Many of the biological functions of N-Acetylneuraminic acid are connected with the presence of the carboxyl-group. It was therefore interesting to transform this group to the bioisostere tetrazole-function to investigate the influence of the tetrazole-group of this compound on biological activity in the future. During the application of protective groups in the field of Neuraminic acid chemistry a new compound, an ortholactone-derivative of Neu5Ac, was discovered. It's structure is similar to an adamantanecage and the chemistry of such an orthoester function opens new possibilities for structural transformations on N

  20. Synthesis and characterization of a multifunctional inorganic-organic hybrid mixed-valence copper(I/II) coordination polymer: {[CuCN][Cu(isonic)2]}n

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong-Sheng; Chen, Wen-Tong; Ye, Guang-Ming; Zhang, Jing; Sui, Yan

    2017-12-01

    A new multifunctional mixed-valence copper(I/II) coordination polymer, {[CuCN][Cu(isonic)2]}n(1) (Hisonic = isonicotinic acid), was synthesized by treating isonicotinic acid and 5-amino-tetrazolate (Hatz = 5-amino-tetrazolate) with copper(II) salts under hydrothermal conditions, and characterized by elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy, and single crystal X-ray diffraction, respectively. The X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that compound exhibit noncentrosymmetric polar packing arrangement. It is three-dimensional (3D) framework with (3,5)-connected 'seh-3' topological network constructed from metal organic framework {[Cu(isonic)2]}n and the inorganic linear chain{Cu(CN)}n subunits. A remarkable feature of 1 is the rhombic open channels that are occupied by a linear chain of {Cu(CN)}n. Impressively compound 1 displays not only a second harmonic generation (SHG) response, but also a ferroelectric behavior and magnetic properties.

  1. Aquachloridobis[5-(2-pyridyl-1H-tetrazolato-κN1]iron(III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Wang

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, [Fe(C6H4N52Cl(H2O], was synthesized by hydrothermal reaction of FeCl3 with 2-(1H-tetrazol-5-ylpyridine. The iron(III metal centre exhibits a distorted octahedral coordination geometry provided by four N atoms from two bidentate organic ligands, one water O atom and one chloride anion. The pyridine and tetrazole rings are nearly coplanar [dihedral angles = 4.32 (15 and 5.04 (14°]. In the crystal structure, intermolecular O—H...N hydrogen bonds link the complex molecules into a two-dimensional network parallel to (100.

  2. Synthesis, Crystal Structure and Luminescent Property of A Novel Cd(II) Coordination Polymer with Bis-imidazole Ligand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Yong Hong

    2013-01-01

    The key to the successful design of metal-organic coordination polymers is the judicious selection of organic ligand. Recently, polydentate aromatic nitrogen heterocyclic ligands with five-membered rings have been well-studied in the construction of supramolecular structure for their N-coordinated sites apt to coordinating to transition metals. Similar to six-membered N-heterocyclic ligands, the azole-based five-membered N-heterocyclic ligands, such as imidazoles, triazoles and tetrazoles have been extensively employed in the construction of various coordination polymers with diverse topologies and interesting properties. The bis(azole) ligands in which N-donor azole rings (imidazole, triazole, or tetrazole) are separated by alkyl, (CH 2 ) n , spacers are good choices for flexible bridging ligands. The conformational flexibility of the spacers makes the ligands adaptable to various coordination networks with one-, two-, and three dimensional structures

  3. Extraction-radiochemical study of the ion-association complex of antimony (V) with tetrazolium violet and its thermal behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostova, S.G.; Boyanov, B.S.

    1995-01-01

    The optimum conditions for extraction of ion-associated complexes (IAS) formed from the tetrazolium salt - tetrazolium violet and Sb(V) in hydrochloric acid medium have been studied. An isotope of antimony ( 125 Sb) was used for determination of the recovery factor (R%) and distribution ratio (D S b). The thermal behavior of the antimony complex with tetrazole violet was studied using differential thermal and thermogravimetric analysis. (author) 12 refs.; 3 figs

  4. Journal of Chemical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this study the preparation and characterization of a zinc MOF which gives blue luminescence and photocatalytic activity have been described The reaction of 2cyanopyridine, Zn(NO3)2·4H2O and NaN3 yielded a new 3D Zn(II) coordination polymer {(2PTZ)2Zn}n (1), where 2PTZ=5(2pyridyl)tetrazolate via in situ [2+3] ...

  5. The small molecule NS11021 is a potent and specific activator of Ca2+-activated big-conductance K+ channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Bo Hjorth; Nardi, Antonio; Calloe, Kirstine

    2007-01-01

    , a mitochondrial K(+) channel with KCa1.1-resembling properties has been found in the heart, where it may be involved in regulation of energy consumption. In the present study, the effect of a novel NeuroSearch compound, 1-(3,5-bis-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-3-[4-bromo-2-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)-phenyl]-thiourea (NS11021...

  6. o-Iodoxybenzoic acid mediated oxidative desulfurization initiated domino reactions for synthesis of azoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Pramod S; Pathare, Sagar P; Akamanchi, Krishnacharaya G

    2012-04-20

    A systematic exploration of thiophilic ability of o-iodoxybenzoic acid (IBX) for oxidative desulfurization to trigger domino reactions leading to new methodologies for synthesis of different azoles is described. A variety of highly substituted oxadiazoles, thiadiazoles, triazoles, and tetrazoles have been successfully synthesized in good to excellent yields, starting from readily accessible thiosemicarbazides, bis-diarylthiourea, 1,3-disubtituted thiourea, and thioamides. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  7. Synthesis and docking analysis of new heterocyclic system of tetrazolo[5',1':2,3][1,3,4]thiadiazepino [7,6-b]quinolines as aldose reductase inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Saadatmandzadeh

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: All of the best models formed strong hydrogen bonds with Trp 111 and Tyr 209 via tetrazole moiety. It was found that pi-pi interaction between Tyr 209, Trp 20 and His 110 side chain and quinolin moiety was one of the common factors in enzyme-inhibitor junction. It was found that both hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions are important in the structure and function of biological molecules, especially for inhibition in a complex.

  8. Photo-patterning of non-fouling polymers and biomolecules on paper

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tischer, T.; Rodriguez-Emmenegger, Cesar; Trouillet, V.; Welle, A.; Schueler, V.; Mueller, J. O.; Goldmann, A. S.; Brynda, Eduard; Barner-Kowollik, C.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 24 (2014), s. 4087-4092 ISSN 0935-9648 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/12/1702; GA MŠk(CZ) LH13178; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : bioactive paper * micropatterning * nitrile imine-mediated tetrazole-ene cycloaddition (NITEC) Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 17.493, year: 2014

  9. Diastereoselective synthesis of tetrahydropyrans via Prins-Ritter and Prins-arylthiolation cyclization reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, Nabajyoti; Sarmah, Barnali; Bordoloi, Manobjyoti; Phukan, Prodeep; Baishya, Gakul

    2017-03-01

    An efficient method has been developed for the synthesis of two new classes of tetrahydropyran derivatives comprising amide, tetrazole or benzothiazole moieties via a three-component reaction of 6-methylhept-5-en-2-ol, arylaldehydes and nitriles/thiols in the presence of a tetrafluoroboric acid diethyl ether complex. The reaction proceeds via the formation of an oxocarbenium ion. This protocol is highly diastereoselective and only single diastereomer has been isolated in each case.

  10. Picomolar traces of americium(III) introduce drastic changes in the structural chemistry of terbium(III). A break in the ''gadolinium break''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, Jan M. [TU Wien, Atominstitut, Vienna (Austria); Mueller, Danny; Knoll, Christian; Wilkovitsch, Martin; Weinberger, Peter [TU Wien, Institute of Applied Synthetic Chemistry, Vienna (Austria); Giester, Gerald [University of Vienna, Institute of Mineralogy and Crystallography, Vienna (Austria); Ofner, Johannes; Lendl, Bernhard [TU Wien, Institute of Chemical Technologies and Analytics, Vienna (Austria); Steinhauser, Georg [Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Institute of Radioecology and Radiation Protection (Germany)

    2017-10-16

    The crystallization of terbium 5,5{sup '}-azobis[1H-tetrazol-1-ide] (ZT) in the presence of trace amounts (ca. 50 Bq, ca. 1.6 pmol) of americium results in 1) the accumulation of the americium tracer in the crystalline solid and 2) a material that adopts a different crystal structure to that formed in the absence of americium. Americium-doped [Tb(Am)(H{sub 2}O){sub 7}ZT]{sub 2} ZT.10 H{sub 2}O is isostructural to light lanthanide (Ce-Gd) 5,5{sup '}-azobis[1H-tetrazol-1-ide] compounds, rather than to the heavy lanthanide (Tb-Lu) 5,5{sup '}-azobis[1H-tetrazol-1-ide] (e.g., [Tb(H{sub 2}O){sub 8}]{sub 2}ZT{sub 3}.6 H{sub 2}O) derivatives. Traces of Am seem to force the Tb compound into a structure normally preferred by the lighter lanthanides, despite a 10{sup 8}-fold Tb excess. The americium-doped material was studied by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, vibrational spectroscopy, radiochemical neutron activation analysis, and scanning electron microscopy. In addition, the inclusion properties of terbium 5,5{sup '}-azobis[1H-tetrazol-1-ide] towards americium were quantified, and a model for the crystallization process is proposed. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  11. Controlled cell adhesion on poly(dopamine) interfaces photopatterned with non-fouling brushes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rodriguez-Emmenegger, C.; Preuss, C. M.; Yameen, B.; Pop-Georgievski, Ognen; Bachmann, M.; Mueller, J. O.; Bruns, M.; Goldmann, A. S.; Bastmeyer, M.; Barner-Kowollik, C.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 42 (2013), s. 6123-6127 ISSN 0935-9648 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/12/1702; GA ČR GAP106/12/1451; GA ČR GAP108/11/1857 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : micropatterning * nitrile imine-mediated tetrazole-ene cycloaddition (NITEC) * photoligation Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 15.409, year: 2013

  12. Photoinducible bioorthogonal chemistry: a spatiotemporally controllable tool to visualize and perturb proteins in live cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Reyna K V; Lin, Qing

    2011-09-20

    Visualization in biology has been greatly facilitated by the use of fluorescent proteins as in-cell probes. The genes coding for these wavelength-tunable proteins can be readily fused with the DNA coding for a protein of interest, which enables direct monitoring of natural proteins in real time inside living cells. Despite their success, however, fluorescent proteins have limitations that have only begun to be addressed in the past decade through the development of bioorthogonal chemistry. In this approach, a very small bioorthogonal tag is embedded within the basic building blocks of the cell, and then a variety of external molecules can be selectively conjugated to these pretagged biomolecules. The result is a veritable palette of biophysical probes for the researcher to choose from. In this Account, we review our progress in developing a photoinducible, bioorthogonal tetrazole-alkene cycloaddition reaction ("photoclick chemistry") and applying it to probe protein dynamics and function in live cells. The work described here summarizes the synthesis, structure, and reactivity studies of tetrazoles, including their optimization for applications in biology. Building on key insights from earlier reports, our initial studies of the reaction have revealed full water compatibility, high photoactivation quantum yield, tunable photoactivation wavelength, and broad substrate scope; an added benefit is the formation of fluorescent cycloadducts. Subsequent studies have shown fast reaction kinetics (up to 11.0 M(-1) s(-1)), with the rate depending on the HOMO energy of the nitrile imine dipole as well as the LUMO energy of the alkene dipolarophile. Moreover, through the use of photocrystallography, we have observed that the photogenerated nitrile imine adopts a bent geometry in the solid state. This observation has led to the synthesis of reactive, macrocyclic tetrazoles that contain a short "bridge" between two flanking phenyl rings. This photoclick chemistry has been used

  13. Insights into the Quorum Sensing Regulon of the Acidophilic Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans Revealed by Transcriptomic in the Presence of an Acyl Homoserine Lactone Superagonist Analogue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigde Mamani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available While a functional quorum sensing system has been identified in the acidophilic chemolithoautotroph Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans ATCC 23270T and shown to modulate cell adhesion to solid substrates, nothing is known about the genes it regulates. To address the question of how quorum sensing controls biofilm formation in At. ferrooxidansT, the transcriptome of this organism in conditions in which quorum sensing response is stimulated by a synthetic superagonist AHL analogue has been studied. First, the effect on biofilm formation of a synthetic AHL tetrazolic analogue, tetrazole 9c, known for its agonistic QS activity, was assessed by fluorescence and electron microscopy experiments. A faster adherence of At. ferrooxidansT cells on sulfur coupons was observed. Then, tetrazole 9c was used in DNA microarray experiments that allowed the identification of genes regulated by quorum sensing signalling, and more particularly, those involved in early biofilm formation. Interestingly, afeI gene, encoding the AHL synthase, but not the At. ferrooxidans quorum sensing transcriptional regulator AfeR encoding gene, was shown to be regulated by quorum sensing. Data indicated that QS network represents at least 4.5 % (141 genes of the ATCC 23270T genome of which 42.5 % (60 genes are related to biofilm formation. Finally, AfeR was shown to bind specifically to the regulatory region of the afeI gene at the level of the palindromic sequence predicted to be the AfeR binding site. Our results give new insights on the response of At. ferrooxidans to quorum sensing and on biofilm biogenesis, opening new biological/chemical alternatives for bioleaching development and managing acid Mine/Rock drainage environmental damages.

  14. Construction of three lanthanide metal-organic frameworks: Synthesis, structure, magnetic properties and highly selective sensing of metal ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiu-Mei, E-mail: zhangxiumeilb@126.com; Li, Peng; Gao, Wei; Liu, Feng; Liu, Jie-Ping

    2016-12-15

    Three lanthanide metal-organic frameworks (Ln-MOFs), [Ln(TZI)(H{sub 2}O){sub 4}]·3H{sub 2}O (Ln=Gd (1) and Tb (2) and Dy (3), H{sub 3}TZI=5-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)isophthalic acid), have been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. Single crystal X-ray diffraction reveals that 1–3 are isostructural and display a 1D double chain based on dinuclear motifs with (μ-COO){sub 2} double bridges. Magnetic studies indicate antiferromagnetic interactions in 1, ferromagnetic interactions in 2 and 3. Furthermore, compound 3 displays a slow relaxation behavior. Compound 2 exhibits intense characteristic green emission of Tb(III) ions in the solid state, which can be observed by the naked eye under UV light. Interestingly, 2 can selectively sense Pb{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} ions through luminescence enhancement and quenching, respectively. The luminescence quenching mechanisms have been investigated in detail. The study on luminescence Ln-MOFs as a probe for sensing Pb{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} ions is exceedingly rare example. - Graphical abstract: Three Ln-MOFs were successfully synthesized using a 5-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)isophthalic acid ligand. They displays different magnetic behavior. Especially, the Dy(III) compound slow relaxation behavior. Interestingly, the Tb(III) compound can selectively sense Pb{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} ions through luminescence enhancement and quenching, respectively. - Highlights: • Three Ln-MOFs with tetrazolate dicarboxylate ligand. • Dy(III) compound displays slow relaxation behavior. • The Tb(III) compound shows highly selective luminescence sensing of the Fe{sup 3+} and Pb{sup 2+} ions.

  15. Isolation of a Moderately Stable but Sensitive Zwitterionic Diazonium Tetrazolyl-1,2,3-triazolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapötke, Thomas M; Krumm, Burkhard; Pflüger, Carolin

    2016-07-15

    An unexpected formation of a diazonium compound was observed by nitration of an amino substituted triazolyl tetrazole with mixed acid. The crystal structure determination revealed a zwitterionic diazonium tetrazolyl-1,2,3-triazolate, whose constitution was supported by NMR and vibrational spectroscopic analysis. The thermal stability and sensitivity toward impact and friction were determined. In contrast, diazotriazoles are rather unstable and are mainly handled in solution and/or low temperatures, which is not the case for this diazonium tetrazolyl-1,2,3-triazolate, being stable at ambient temperature.

  16. Hexaaquamagnesium dibromide 5-(pyridinium-3-yltetrazol-1-ide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Yuan Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, [Mg(H2O6]Br2·2C6H5N5, the MgII atom, lying on an inversion center, is coordinated by six water molecules in a distorted octahedral geometry. The pyridine and tetrazole rings in the 5-(pyridinium-3-yltetrazol-1-ide zwitterion are nearly coplanar, twisted from each other by a dihedral angle of 5.70 (1°. The zwitterions, Br anions and complex cations are connected by O—H...Br, O—H...N and N—H...Br hydrogen bonds, leading to the formation of a three-dimensional network.

  17. General Linker Diversification Approach to Bivalent Ligand Assembly: Generation of an Array of Ligands for the Cation-Independent Mannose 6-Phosphate Receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Xiang; Zavorka, Megan E; Malik, Guillaume; Connelly, Christopher M; MacDonald, Richard G; Berkowitz, David B

    2017-08-18

    A generalized strategy is presented for the rapid assembly of a set of bivalent ligands with a variety of linking functionalities from a common monomer. Herein, an array of phosphatase-inert mannose-6-phosphonate-presenting ligands for the cation-independent-mannose 6-phosphate receptor (CI-MPR) is constructed. Receptor binding affinity varies with linking functionality-the simple amide and 1,5-triazole(tetrazole) being preferred over the 1,4-triazole. This approach is expected to find application across chemical biology, particularly in glycoscience, wherein multivalency often governs molecular recognition.

  18. α-Oxo-Ketenimines from Isocyanides and α-Haloketones: Synthesis and Divergent Reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamboury, Mathias; Wang, Qian; Zhu, Jieping

    2017-09-18

    The palladium-catalyzed reaction of α-haloketones with isocyanides afforded α-oxo-ketenimines through β-hydride elimination of the β-oxo-imidoyl palladium intermediates. Reaction of these relatively stable α-oxo-ketenimines with nucleophiles such as hydrazines, hydrazoic acid, amines, and Grignard reagent afforded pyrazoles, tetrazole, β-keto amidines, and enaminone, respectively, with high chemoselectivity. Whereas amines attack exclusively on the ketenimine functions, the formal [3+2] cycloaddition between N-monosubstituted hydrazines and α-oxo-ketenimines was initiated by nucleophilic addition to the carbonyl group. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Synthesis and In Vitro Antiproliferative Activity of Novel Androst-5-ene Triazolyl and Tetrazolyl Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    János Wölfling

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A straightforward and reliable method for the regioselective synthesis of steroidal 1,4-disubstituted triazoles and 1,5-disubstituted tetrazoles via copper(I-catalyzed cycloadditions is reported. Heterocycle moieties were efficiently introduced onto the starting azide compound 3β-acetoxy-16β-azidomethylandrost-5-en-17β-ol through use of the “click” chemistry approach. The antiproliferative activities of the newly-synthesized triazoles were determined in vitro on three human gynecological cell lines (HeLa, MCF7 and A2780 using the microculture tetrazolium assay.

  20. Diaquabis[5-(2-pyridyltetrazolato-κ2N1,N5]iron(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Hu

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The title complex, [Fe(C6H4N52(H2O2], was synthesized by the reaction of ferrous sulfate with 5-(2-pyridyl-2H-tetrazole (HL. The FeII atom, located on a crystallographic center of inversion, is coordinated by four N-atom donors from two planar trans-related deprotonated L ligands and two O atoms from two axial water molecules in a distorted octahedral geometry. The FeII mononuclear units are further connected by intermolecular O—H...N and C—H...O hydrogen-bonding interactions, forming a three-dimensional framework.

  1. Cyanodeoxy-Glycosyl Derivatives as Substrates for Enzymatic Reactions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Carmona, A. T.; Bojarová, Pavla; Křen, Vladimír; Ettrich, Rüdiger; Martínková, Ludmila; Moreno-Vargas, A. J.; González, C.; Robina, I.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 8, - (2006), s. 1876-1885 ISSN 1434-193X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/05/0172; GA ČR GA203/05/2267; GA MŠk OC D25.002; GA MŠk OC D25.001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510; CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : sugar nitrile s * azido-tetrazole tautomerism * glycosidase Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.769, year: 2006

  2. Bioisosteric modifications of 2-arylureidobenzoic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valgeirsson, Jon; Nielsen, Elsebet O; Peters, Dan

    2004-01-01

    2-Arylureidobenzoic acids (AUBAs) have recently been presented as the first series of selective noncompetitive GluR5 antagonists. In this paper we have modified the acidic moiety of the AUBAs by introducing different acidic and neutral groups, and similarly, we have replaced the urea linker...... of the AUBAs with other structurally related linkers. Replacing the acid with neutral substituents led to inactive compounds in all instances, showing that an acidic moiety is necessary for activity. Replacing the carboxylic moiety in 2a with a sulfonic acid (5c) or a tetrazole ring (5d) improved the potency...

  3. Sorption of europium (3) by polymer sorbents with grafted heterocyclic nitrogen-containing groupings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bel'tyukova, S.V.; Kravchenko, T.B.; Balamtsarashvili, G.M.; Roska, A.S.

    1990-01-01

    On polymer sorbents (copolymer of styrene-divinylbenzene) with grafted heterocyclic nitrogen-containing functional groupings of tetrazole, triazole and imidazole (sorbents 1,2,3, respectively). It is stated that europium sorption takes place from neutral solutions in presence of organic solvents. Luminescent properties of europium on sorbent are used to develope methods of its determination in high purity lanthanide and yttrium oxides. Europium determination limits consist 7.5·10 -5 μg/ml on 1 and 3 sorbents and 1.5·10 -4 μg/ml on sorbent 2, S p value is 0.089 and 0.075, respectivaly

  4. In vivo study about specific captation of 125 I-insulin by rat brain structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanvitto, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    The specific captation of 125 I-insulin was evaluated by brain structures, as olfactory bulbous, hypothalamus and cerebellum in rats, from in vivo experiences that including two different aspects: captation measure of 125 I-insulin after the intravenous injection of the labelled hormone, in fed rats and in rats with 48 h of fast or convulsion, procedure by the pentylene tetrazole; captation measure of 125 I-insulin after intra-cerebral-ventricular injection of the labelled hormone in fed rats. (C.G.C.)

  5. Sulforaphane Analogues with Heterocyclic Moieties: Syntheses and Inhibitory Activities against Cancer Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye-Hui Shi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that sulforaphane (SFN selectively inhibits the growth of ALDH+ breast cancer stem-like cells.Herein, a series of SFN analogues were synthesized and evaluated against breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and SUM-159, and the leukemia stem cell-like cell line KG-1a. These SFN analogues were characterized by the replacement of the methyl group with heterocyclic moieties, and the replacement of the sulfoxide group with sulfide or sulfone. A growth inhibitory assay indicated that the tetrazole analogs 3d, 8d and 9d were significantly more potent than SFN against the three cancer cell lines. Compound 14c, the water soluble derivative of tetrazole sulfide 3d, demonstrated higher potency against KG-1a cell line than 3d. SFN, 3d and 14c significantly induced the activation of caspase-3, and reduced the ALDH+ subpopulation in the SUM159 cell line, while the marketed drug doxrubicin(DOX increased the ALDH+ subpopulation.

  6. [11C]copper(I) cyanide: a new radioactive precursor or 11C-cyanation and functionalization of haloarenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponchant, M.; Hinnen, F.; Demphel, S.; Crouzel, C.

    1997-01-01

    Radiosyntheses of [cyano- 11 C]benzonitriles, [carboyxyl- 11 C]benzoic acids, [carbonyl- 11 C]benzamides and [tetrazoyl- 11 C]5-biphenyl-1H-tetrazoles are described. [Cyano- 11 C]benzonitriles were prepared using the Rosenmund-von Braun reaction in one step from [ 11 C]hydrogen cyanide via [ 11 C]copper(1) cyanide in 2 min. [Carboxyl- 11 C]benzoic acids and [carbonyl- 11 C]benzamides were prepared from [cyano- 11 C]benzonitrile-complexes using basic hydrogen peroxide for 3 min in N,N-dimethylformamide at 180 and 80 o C, respectively. [Tetrazoyl- 11 C]5-biphenyl-1H-tetrazoles were obtained from [cyano- 11 C]benzonitrile-complexes in 7 min by cyclization with trimethyltin azide followed by acid hydrolysis at 180 o C. These labelled compounds were obtained in a one-pot procedure with good average specific radioactivities [500 mCi/μmol) at the end of synthesis] and in satisfactory average radiochemical yields (24-69%) at 40 min from the end of radionuclide production. This new radioactive precursor, [ 11 C]copper(I) cyanide, should give access to new 11 C-labelled ligands for positron emission tomography. (author)

  7. Molecular structure, vibrational spectra and photochemistry of 5-mercapto-1-methyltetrazole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Zavaglia, A.; Reva, I. D.; Frija, L.; Cristiano, M. L.; Fausto, R.

    2006-04-01

    In this work, 5-mercapto-1-methyltetrazole was studied by low temperature matrix-isolation and solid-state infrared spectroscopy, DFT(B3LYP)/6-311++G(d,p) calculations and photochemical methods. In the low temperature neat solid phase and isolated in an argon matrix, the compound was found to exist in the 1-methyl-1,4-dihydro-5 H-tetrazole-5-thione tautomeric form. The infrared spectra of the compound were fully assigned and correlated with structural properties. In situ UV-irradiation ( λ>235 nm) of the matrix-isolated monomer is shown to induce different photochemical processes, all of them involving cleavage of the tetrazole ring: e.g. (1) molecular nitrogen expulsion, with production of 1-methyl-1 H-diazirene-3-thiol, which is produced in two different conformers; (2) ring cleavage leading to production of methyl isothiocyanate and azide; (3) simultaneous elimination of nitrogen and sulphur with production of N-methylcarbodiimide. Following these photoprocesses, subsequent reactions occur, leading to production of methyl diazene, carbon monosulphide and nitrogen hydride. Spectroscopic evidence of the production of the above-mentioned chemical species is provided.

  8. A two-dimensional layered Cd(II) coordination polymer with a three-dimensional supramolecular architecture incorporating mixed multidentate N- and O-donor ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qiu-Ying; Su, Ming-Yang; Meng, Xiang-Ru

    2015-06-01

    The combination of N-heterocyclic and multicarboxylate ligands is a good choice for the construction of metal-organic frameworks. In the title coordination polymer, poly[bis{μ2-1-[(1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)methyl]-1H-tetrazole-κ(2)N(3):N(4)}(μ4-butanedioato-κ(4)O(1):O(1'):O(4):O(4'))(μ2-butanedioato-κ(2)O(1):O(4))dicadmium], [Cd(C4H4O4)(C9H8N6)]n, each Cd(II) ion exhibits an irregular octahedral CdO4N2 coordination geometry and is coordinated by four O atoms from three carboxylate groups of three succinate (butanedioate) ligands and two N atoms from two 1-[(1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)methyl]-1H-tetrazole (bimt) ligands. Cd(II) ions are connected by two kinds of crystallographically independent succinate ligands to generate a two-dimensional layered structure with bimt ligands located on each side of the layer. Adjacent layers are further connected by hydrogen bonding, leading to a three-dimensional supramolecular architecture in the solid state. Thermogravimetric analysis of the title polymer shows that it is stable up to 529 K and then loses weight from 529 to 918 K, corresponding to the decomposition of the bimt ligands and succinate groups. The polymer exhibits a strong fluorescence emission in the solid state at room temperature.

  9. Characterization of Two Distinct Amorphous Forms of Valsartan by Solid-State NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skotnicki, Marcin; Apperley, David C; Aguilar, Juan A; Milanowski, Bartłomiej; Pyda, Marek; Hodgkinson, Paul

    2016-01-04

    Valsartan (VAL) is an antihypertensive drug marketed in an amorphous form. Amorphous materials can have different physicochemical properties depending on preparation method, thermal history, etc., but the nature of such materials is difficult to study by diffraction techniques. This study characterizes two different amorphous forms of valsartan (AR and AM) using solid-state NMR (SSNMR) as a primary investigation tool, supported by solution-state NMR, FT-IR, TMDSC, and dissolution tests. The two forms are found to be clearly distinct, with a significantly higher level of structural arrangement in the AR form, as observed in (13)C, (15)N, and (1)H SSNMR. (13)C and (15)N NMR indicates that the fully amorphous material (AM) contains an approximately equal ratio of cis-trans conformers about the amide bond, whereas the AR form exists mainly as one conformer, with minor conformational "defects". (1)H ultrafast MAS NMR shows significant differences in the hydrogen bonding involving the tetrazole and acid hydrogens between the two materials, while (15)N NMR shows that both forms exist as a 1,2,3,4-tetrazole tautomer. NMR relaxation times show subtle differences in local and bulk molecular mobility, which can be connected with the glass transition, the stability of the glassy material, and its response to aging. Counterintuitively the fully amorphous material is found to have a significantly lower dissolution rate than the apparently more ordered AR material.

  10. Surface induces different crystal structures in a room temperature switchable spin crossover compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentili, Denis; Liscio, Fabiola; Demitri, Nicola; Schäfer, Bernhard; Borgatti, Francesco; Torelli, Piero; Gobaut, Benoit; Panaccione, Giancarlo; Rossi, Giorgio; Degli Esposti, Alessandra; Gazzano, Massimo; Milita, Silvia; Bergenti, Ilaria; Ruani, Giampiero; Šalitroš, Ivan; Ruben, Mario; Cavallini, Massimiliano

    2016-01-07

    We investigated the influence of surfaces in the formation of different crystal structures of a spin crossover compound, namely [Fe(L)2] (LH: (2-(pyrazol-1-yl)-6-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)pyridine), which is a neutral compound thermally switchable around room temperature. We observed that the surface induces the formation of two different crystal structures, which exhibit opposite spin transitions, i.e. on heating them up to the transition temperature, one polymorph switches from high spin to low spin and the second polymorph switches irreversibly from low spin to high spin. We attributed this inversion to the presence of water molecules H-bonded to the complex tetrazolyl moieties in the crystals. Thin deposits were investigated by means of polarized optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray absorption spectroscopy and micro Raman spectroscopy; moreover the analysis of the Raman spectra and the interpretation of spin inversion were supported by DFT calculations.

  11. Investigation of the extraction equilibrium of ternary ionassociation complex of thallium(III) with iodo-nitro-tetrazolium chlorid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandrov, A.; Dimitrov, A.

    1976-01-01

    The extraction equilibrium of the ternary ion-association complex of iodo-nitro-tetrazolium [3-(4-iodophenyl)2-(4-nitrophenyl)-5-phenyltetrazolium chloride] with the chlorocomplex of thallium(III) is investigated radiochemically. The molar ratio of the ion-associate is found to be 1:1, the association constant has a value of 3.2x10 3 in aqueous solution and the distribution constant is 8.9. The extraction constant which gives a quantitative characterization of the equilibrium is 2.3x10 4 . From the investigation performed it can be concluded that a quite satisfactory extraction of thallium(III) by means of iodo-nitro-tetrazole in benzene can be carried out. The extraction constant has a relatively high value which allows to use this system conveniently for the extraction-photometric determination of thallium(III). (T.C.)

  12. A nonpeptidyl growth hormone secretagogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R G; Cheng, K; Schoen, W R; Pong, S S; Hickey, G; Jacks, T; Butler, B; Chan, W W; Chaung, L Y; Judith, F

    1993-06-11

    A nonpeptidyl secretagogue for growth hormone of the structure 3-amino-3-methyl-N-(2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-2-oxo-1-([2'-(1H-tetrazol-5 -yl) (1,1'-biphenyl)-4-yl]methyl)-1H-1-benzazepin-3(R)-yl)-butanamid e (L-692,429) has been identified. L-692,429 synergizes with the natural growth hormone secretagogue growth hormone-releasing hormone and acts through an alternative signal transduction pathway. The mechanism of action of L-692,429 and studies with peptidyl and nonpeptidyl antagonists suggest that this molecule is a mimic of the growth hormone-releasing hexapeptide His-D-Trp-Ala-Trp-D-Phe-Lys-NH2 (GHRP-6). L-692,429 is an example of a nonpeptidyl specific secretagogue for growth hormone.

  13. Synthesis and Radiolabeling of Modified Peptides Attached to Heterocyclic Rings and Their Possible Medical Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shams El-Din, H.A.A.

    2012-01-01

    Keeping in mind the pharmacological potential of heterocyclic rings as well as the advantage of biodegradability and biocompatibility of amino acids/peptides, in this thesis we were prompted for the following: 1. Synthesis of novel dipeptide derivatives coupled with different heterocyclic rings (pyridine, 1,2,4-triazol-pyridine, 1,3,4-oxadiazolpyridine and tetrazol-pyridine rings). 2. Characterization of the synthesized compounds on the basis of their spectral data (IR, Mass and 1 H-NMR spectra). 3. Study their antimicrobial activity as one of their expected biological activities. 4. Study the radioiodination of some synthesized dipeptide derivatives. 5. Study the biodistribution of the radiolabeled compounds in normal mice as preliminary studies for the possibility of using them as agents for imaging and treatment.

  14. Fluorescent oligonucleotides containing a novel perylene 2′-amino-α-L-LNA monomer: Synthesis and analytical potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astakhova, Irina; Kumar, Santhosh T.; Wengel, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    efficiency of the resulting perylene-2'-amino-alpha-L-LNA monomer (T*) into synthetic oligonucleotides was significantly improved by replacement of the typically used 1H-tetrazole activator with pyridine hydrochloride. Generally, oligonucleotides containing monomer T* showed high binding affinity towards...... incorporations of monomers T* was quenched (quantum yield Phi(F) = 0.21) relative to duplexes of this probe with complementary DNA and RNA (Phi(F) = 0.42 and 0.35, respectively). On the contrary, a strong fluorescence quenching upon target binding was demonstrated by two short oligonucleotides of analogues...... sequences containing monomers T* at 5'- and 3'-terminal positions. We explain the hybridization-induced light-up effect observed for double-labeled probe by a reduction of fluorescence quenching due to precise positioning of the fluorophores within the double-stranded complexes. Furthermore, we propose...

  15. The Photochemistry of Benzotriazole Derivatives. Part 2: Photolysis of 1-Substituted Benzotriazole Arylhydrazones: New Route to Phenanthridin-6-yl-2-phenyldiazines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nouria A. Al-Awadi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Irradiation of 1-substituted benzotriazole arylhydrazones 3a–c, 4a,b and 5a,b with a 16 W low pressure mercury arc-lamp (254 nm for 24 h gave phenanthridin-6-yl-2-phenyldiazines 9a–c, phenanthridin-6(5H-ones 10a–c, 1-anilinobenzimidazoles 11a–c, 2-aryl-1H-benzimidazoles 12a–c, 1-arylamino-1H-benzimidazol-2-carboxylic acid ethyl esters 14a,b, 1-aryl-1H, 9H-benzo [4,5][1,2,3] triazolo[1,2-a]tetrazole-3-carboxylic acid ethyl esters 16a,b, 1-arylamino-2-benzoylbenzimidazoles 18a,b and 2-benzoylbenzoxazole 21.

  16. Molecular and supramolecular characterization of Ni(II)/losartan hydrophobic nanoprecipitate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Lorrayne O.; Goulart, Pedro P.; Correa, Jéssyca L.; Abrishamkar, Afshin; Da Silva, Jeferson G.; Mangrich, Antonio S.; de França, Amanda A.; Denadai, Ângelo M. L.

    2014-09-01

    In this work, a contribution to understanding of the formation of metal(II)/losartan hydrophobic nanoprecipitate is reported. A Ni(II)/Los system was prepared and characterized in solid state and in solution. Solubility studies confirmed the formation of hydrophobic precipitate. Obtained spectroscopic data suggest a sort of coordination between tetrazolic ring as well as OH, and a D4h geometry around the nickel cation. Thermodynamic studies demonstrated that complexation is a stepwise process, with equal enthalpic and entropic contributions for free energy of complexation. DLS and zeta potential titrations indicate the formation of stable nanoparticles of size and charge dependent on the molar ratio. Finally, rheological studies demonstrate a Bingham plastic behavior for Ni(II)/Los suspension.

  17. Coordination Polymer Gels by Electron Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ji Ha; Cho, Young Je; Jung, Jong Hwa [Gyeongsang National Univ., Jinju (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-01

    Hydrogenation of a pyridine derivative possessing tetrazole moieties as end groups, without long alkyl chain groups, results in the formation of a Mg(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} coordination polymer gel. The polymer exhibits a strong fluorescence enhancement upon gel formation. 1 can also be gloated with a variety of magnesium anions such as SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, Cl{sup -}, Br{sup -} and I{sup -}, indicating that the coordination polymer gel formation of 1 does not strongly depends on anions. The Seam and ABM images of Mg{sup 2+} coordination polymer gel 1 display a flabbier network with several micrometers long, widths in the range 60-70 nm and thicknesses of about 3 nm. In addition, photophysical studies show that the hydrogel exhibits a typical {pi}-{pi} transition and gives rise to high fluorescence behavior. The coordination polymer hydrogel exhibits viscoelastic behavior as evidenced from the rheological studies.

  18. Tunable rare-earth fcu-MOFs: A platform for systematic enhancement of CO2 adsorption energetics and uptake

    KAUST Repository

    Xue, Dongxu

    2013-05-22

    A series of fcu-MOFs based on rare-earth (RE) metals and linear fluorinated/nonfluorinated, homo/heterofunctional ligands were targeted and synthesized. This particular fcu-MOF platform was selected because of its unique structural characteristics combined with the ability/potential to dictate and regulate its chemical properties (e.g., tuning of the electron-rich RE metal ions and high localized charge density, a property arising from the proximal positioning of polarizing tetrazolate moieties and fluoro-groups that decorate the exposed inner surfaces of the confined conical cavities). These features permitted a systematic gas sorption study to evaluate/elucidate the effects of distinctive parameters on CO2-MOF sorption energetics. Our study supports the importance of the synergistic effect of exposed open metal sites and proximal highly localized charge density toward materials with enhanced CO2 sorption energetics. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  19. NMR investigation and theoretical calculations of the solvent effect on the conformation of valsartan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chashmniam, Saeed; Tafazzoli, Mohsen

    2017-11-01

    Structure and conformational properties of valsartan were studied by advanced NMR techniques and quantum calculation methods. Potential energy scanning using B3LYP/6-311++g** and B3LYP-D3/6-311++g** methods were performed and four conformers (V1-V4) at minimum points of PES diagram were observed. According to the NMR spectra in acetone-d6, there are two conformers (M and m) with m/M = 0.52 ratio simultaneously and energy barriers of the two conformers were predicted from chemical shifts and multiplicities. While, intramolecular hydrogen bond at tetrazole ring and carboxylic groups prevent the free rotation on N6sbnd C11 bond in M-conformer, this bond rotates freely in m-conformer. On the other hand, intramolecular hydrogen bond at carbonyl and carboxylic acid can be observed at m-conformer. So, different intramolecular hydrogen bond is the reason for the stability of both M and m structures. Quite interestingly, 1H NMR spectra in CDCl3 show two distinct conformers (N and n) with unequal ratio which are differ from M-m conformers. Also, intramolecular hydrogen bond seven-member ring involving five-membered tetrazole ring and carboxylic acid group observed in both N and n-conformers Solvent effect, by using a set of polar and non-polar solvents including DMSO-d6, methanol-d4, benzene-d6, THF-d8, nitromethane-d3, methylene chloride-d2 and acetonitrile-d3 were investigated. NMR parameters include chemical shifts and spin-spin coupling constants were obtained from a set of 2D NMR spectra (H-H COSY, HMQC and HMBC). For this purpose, several DFT functionals from LDA, GGA and hybrid categories were used which the hybrid method showed better agreement with experiment values.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of novel Cu(II) complex coated Fe3O4@SiO2 nanoparticles for catalytic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrollahzadeh, Mahmoud; Sajjadi, Mohaddeseh; Khonakdar, Hossein Ali

    2018-06-01

    In this study, a convenient method for the synthesis of arylaminotetrazoles has been developed using a copper (II)-aminotetrazole complex immobilized on silica-coated Fe3O4 (Fe3O4@SiO2) nanoparticles (Fe3O4@SiO2-aminotet-Cu(II)) as a novel and efficient magnetically catalyst. The constructed superparamagnetic core-shell nanoparticles were successfully prepared, as proven using different spectroscopic techniques such as fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), thermogravimetry and differential thermogravimetry (TG-DTG) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) analysis. The applicability of Fe3O4@SiO2-aminotet-Cu(II) magnetic catalyst allows the efficient synthesis of a variety of arylaminotetrazoles from the reaction between various arylcyanamides with sodium azide in high yields. The effect of catalyst loading was investigated. In addition, the reaction mechanism for the synthesis of arylaminotetrazoles was reasonably proposed. Results show that the 1-aryl-5-amino-1H-tetrazole (B isomer) and 5-arylamino-1H-tetrazole (A isomer) can be obtained from the arylcyanamides carrying electron-donating and electron-withdrawing substituents, respectively. This procedure offers a simple methodology, relatively short reaction times, easy work-up, high yields of the products and a cleaner reaction with elimination of hydrazoic acid (HN3). Moreover, catalyst can be conveniently recovered through the use of external magnet and reused for at least 6 times without any significant loss of its activity.

  1. Initial mechanisms for the decomposition of electronically excited energetic materials: 1,5′-BT, 5,5′-BT, and AzTT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Bing; Yu, Zijun; Bernstein, Elliot R.

    2015-01-01

    Decomposition of nitrogen-rich energetic materials 1,5′-BT, 5,5′-BT, and AzTT (1,5′-Bistetrazole, 5,5′-Bistetrazole, and 5-(5-azido-(1 or 4)H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)tetrazole, respectively), following electronic state excitation, is investigated both experimentally and theoretically. The N 2 molecule is observed as an initial decomposition product from the three materials, subsequent to UV excitation, with a cold rotational temperature (<30 K). Initial decomposition mechanisms for these three electronically excited materials are explored at the complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) level. Potential energy surface calculations at the CASSCF(12,8)/6-31G(d) level illustrate that conical intersections play an essential role in the decomposition mechanism. Electronically excited S 1 molecules can non-adiabatically relax to their ground electronic states through (S 1 /S 0 ) CI conical intersections. 1,5′-BT and 5,5′-BT materials have several (S 1 /S 0 ) CI conical intersections between S 1 and S 0 states, related to different tetrazole ring opening positions, all of which lead to N 2 product formation. The N 2 product for AzTT is formed primarily by N–N bond rupture of the –N 3 group. The observed rotational energy distributions for the N 2 products are consistent with the final structures of the respective transition states for each molecule on its S 0 potential energy surface. The theoretically derived vibrational temperature of the N 2 product is high, which is similar to that found for energetic salts and molecules studied previously

  2. Gas-phase behaviour of Ru(II) cyclopentadienyl-derived complexes with N-coordinated ligands by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry: fragmentation pathways and energetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeira, Paulo J Amorim; Morais, Tânia S; Silva, Tiago J L; Florindo, Pedro; Garcia, M Helena

    2012-08-15

    The gas-phase behaviour of six Ru(II) cyclopentadienyl-derived complexes with N-coordinated ligands, compounds with antitumor activities against several cancer lines, was studied. This was performed with the intent of establishing fragmentation pathways and to determine the Ru-L(N) and Ru-L(P) ligand bond dissociation energies. Such knowledge can be an important tool for the postulation of the mechanisms of action of these anticancer drugs. Two types of instruments equipped with electrospray ionisation were used (ion trap and a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) mass spectrometer). The dissociation energies were determined using energy-variable collision-induced dissociation measurements in the ion trap. The FTICR instrument was used to perform MS(n) experiments on one of the compounds and to obtain accurate mass measurements. Theoretical calculations were performed at the density functional theory (DFT) level using two different functionals (B3LYP and M06L) to estimate the dissociation energies of the complexes under study. The influence of the L(N) on the bond dissociation energy (D) of RuCp compounds with different nitrogen ligands was studied. The lability order of L(N) was: imidazole<1-butylimidazole<5-phenyl-1H-tetrazole<1-benzylimidazole. Both the functionals used gave the following ligand lability order: imidazole<1-benzylimidazole<5-phenyl-1H-tetrazole<1-butylimidazole. It is clear that there is an inversion between 1-benzylimidazole and 1-butylimidazole for the experimental and theoretical lability orders. The M06L functional afforded values of D closer to the experimental values. The type of phosphane (L(P) ) influenced the dissociation energies, with values of D being higher for Ru-L(N) with 1-butylimidazole when the phosphane was 1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)ethane. The Ru-L(P) bond dissociation energy for triphenylphosphane was independent of the type of complex. The D values of Ru-L(N) and Ru-L(P) were determined for all six compounds and

  3. Flomoxef, a new oxacephem antibiotic, does not cause hemostatic defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazzola, M; Brancaccio, V; De Giglio, C; Paternò, E; Matera, M G; Rossi, F

    1993-03-01

    Antibiotics of the beta-lactam class may cause coagulation defects and bleeding. It has been suggested that N-methyltetrazolethiol (NMTT), a common side chain group at the 3'-position of the cephem or 1-oxacephem frame, could be responsible for the hypoprothrombinemic effect of the antibiotics and that it could inhibit the liver vitamin K-epoxide reductase activity. Flomoxef (6315-S) is a new oxacephem antibiotic which differs from latamoxef because it has [1-(2-hydroxethyl)-1H-tetrazol-5-yl] thiomethyl (HTT) as a side chain at the 3'-position of cephem group instead of NMTT and an extensive modification of 7 beta-acylamino side chain. The present study was carried out to study its effects on vitamin K-dependent blood coagulation parameters in human volunteers. Ten adult patients (6 men and 4 women), suffering from chronic bronchitis, entered into the study. Each patient received ten 1 g i.m. injections of flomoxef at 12-hourly intervals. Apparently, the treatment with this oxacephem antibiotic had no significant effect. PT, PTT and fibrinogen remained in the normal range in all patients and factors II+VII+X, protein C, protein S and AT III were not depleted. The trend was similar both in men and women. Based on the results of the present study, we conclude that flomoxef is an antibiotic that does not exhibit an effect on blood coagulation, even in males.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Click hydrogels, microgels and nanogels: emerging platforms for drug delivery and tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yanjiao; Chen, Jing; Deng, Chao; Suuronen, Erik J; Zhong, Zhiyuan

    2014-06-01

    Hydrogels, microgels and nanogels have emerged as versatile and viable platforms for sustained protein release, targeted drug delivery, and tissue engineering due to excellent biocompatibility, a microporous structure with tunable porosity and pore size, and dimensions spanning from human organs, cells to viruses. In the past decade, remarkable advances in hydrogels, microgels and nanogels have been achieved with click chemistry. It is a most promising strategy to prepare gels with varying dimensions owing to its high reactivity, superb selectivity, and mild reaction conditions. In particular, the recent development of copper-free click chemistry such as strain-promoted azide-alkyne cycloaddition, radical mediated thiol-ene chemistry, Diels-Alder reaction, tetrazole-alkene photo-click chemistry, and oxime reaction renders it possible to form hydrogels, microgels and nanogels without the use of potentially toxic catalysts or immunogenic enzymes that are commonly required. Notably, unlike other chemical approaches, click chemistry owing to its unique bioorthogonal feature does not interfere with encapsulated bioactives such as living cells, proteins and drugs and furthermore allows versatile preparation of micropatterned biomimetic hydrogels, functional microgels and nanogels. In this review, recent exciting developments in click hydrogels, microgels and nanogels, as well as their biomedical applications such as controlled protein and drug release, tissue engineering, and regenerative medicine are presented and discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Quantification of genistein and daidzein in two endemic Genista species and their antioxidant activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIMIR JEVREMOVIĆ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the cytotoxicity of a Co–Cr alloy used for the rapid manufacture of removable partial denture frameworks using murine fibroblasts L929 cell lines and three test methods: the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, a yellow tetrazole assay, the agar diffusion test (ADT and the dye exclusion test (DET. Two groups of disc specimens (5 mm diameter, 1 mm thick were fabricated. The first group was cast using a conventional method (CM in a Nautilus CC casting. The second group was fabricated using selective laser melting (SLM in SLM Realiser The total cell number and viability of cells pre-incubated with CM and SLM alloys were comparable to the control sample. Differences between the growth inhibitory effects of the CM and SLM alloys in the MTT assay were below 30 %. Results of two independent agar diffusion tests with CM and SLM alloys showed neither detectable discoloration around or under the discs nor a detectable difference in staining intensity. As the cell response for both CM and SLM alloys was 0/0, the discs can be rated as non-cytotoxic. The results suggested that the F75 Co–Cr alloy used for the SLM process did not release harmful material that could cause acute effects against L929 cells under the given experimental conditions.

  6. Structure-based drug discovery for combating influenza virus by targeting the PA-PB1 interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Ken; Ishikawa, Takeshi; Otaki, Hiroki; Mizuta, Satoshi; Hamada, Tsuyoshi; Nakagaki, Takehiro; Ishibashi, Daisuke; Urata, Shuzo; Yasuda, Jiro; Tanaka, Yoshimasa; Nishida, Noriyuki

    2017-08-25

    Influenza virus infections are serious public health concerns throughout the world. The development of compounds with novel mechanisms of action is urgently required due to the emergence of viruses with resistance to the currently-approved anti-influenza viral drugs. We performed in silico screening using a structure-based drug discovery algorithm called Nagasaki University Docking Engine (NUDE), which is optimised for a GPU-based supercomputer (DEstination for Gpu Intensive MAchine; DEGIMA), by targeting influenza viral PA protein. The compounds selected by NUDE were tested for anti-influenza virus activity using a cell-based assay. The most potent compound, designated as PA-49, is a medium-sized quinolinone derivative bearing a tetrazole moiety, and it inhibited the replication of influenza virus A/WSN/33 at a half maximal inhibitory concentration of 0.47 μM. PA-49 has the ability to bind PA and its anti-influenza activity was promising against various influenza strains, including a clinical isolate of A(H1N1)pdm09 and type B viruses. The docking simulation suggested that PA-49 interrupts the PA-PB1 interface where important amino acids are mostly conserved in the virus strains tested, suggesting the strain independent utility. Because our NUDE/DEGIMA system is rapid and efficient, it may help effective drug discovery against the influenza virus and other emerging viruses.

  7. Synthesis and anti-tubercular activity of 3-substituted benzo[b]thiophene-1,1-dioxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Susantha Chandrasekera

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrated that the 3-substituted benzothiophene-1,1-dioxide class of compounds are effective inhibitors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis growth under aerobic conditions. We examined substitution at the C-3 position of the benzothiophene-1,1-dioxide series systematically to delineate structure–activity relationships influencing potency and cytotoxicity. Compounds were tested for inhibitory activity against virulent M. tuberculosis and eukaryotic cells. The tetrazole substituent was most potent, with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of 2.6 µM. However, cytotoxicity was noted with even more potency (Vero cell TC50 = 0.1 µM. Oxadiazoles had good anti-tubercular activity (MICs of 3–8 µM, but imidazoles, thiadiazoles and thiazoles had little activity. Cytotoxicity did not track with anti-tubercular activity, suggesting different targets or mode of action between bacterial and eukaryotic cells. However, we were unable to derive analogs without cytotoxicity; all compounds synthesized were cytotoxic (TC50 of 0.1–5 µM. We conclude that cytotoxicity is a liability in this series precluding it from further development. However, the series has potent anti-tubercular activity and future efforts towards identifying the mode of action could result in the identification of novel drug targets.

  8. [Comparative studies on the toxicity of various dieelectrics, kerosene derivatives, used in the electroerosion technic. I. Morphological, cytoenzymatic and biochemical changes in the liver of rats chronically exposed to kerosene hydrocarbons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starek, A; Kamiński, M

    1982-01-01

    Rats exposed to cosmetic kerosene mists (odourless kerosene), concentration of 75 and 300 mg/m3 for 14 days, underwent morphological and cytoenzymatic liver tests and biochemical tests of lipids composition in this organ. In addition, lipids concentration and activity of test--enzymes in blood serum were determined. The findings were: passive congestion, fine--droplet fatty degeneration in I zones of clusters and increased number of Browicz--Kupffer's phagocytes near liver triads. Those changes were accompanied by: decreased activity of succinic dehydrogenese (SDH), tetrazolic NADPH--reductase (NADPH-r.t.) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-P-ase) and increased activity of adenosine triphosphatase (Mg++-ATP-ase) and acid phosphatase (AcP). In blood serum medium increase of base phosphatase (AP), 5-nucleotidase (5-Nt) and leucyloaminepeptidase (LAP) and decreased activity of prothrombin (Pt) were found. In addition, it was demonstrated that liver steatosis was characterized by cumulation of free fatty acids, phospholipids and cholesterol esters with simultaneous decrease in triglycerides content in this organ. The obtained results indicate that changes induced by kerosene hydrocarbons in liver are focal and cumulate in I zones of liver clusters. The degree of lesion varies with the extent of exposure, and results from toxic effects of this preparation on hepatic cells lypoproteid membranes.

  9. Biochemical and mass spectrometric characterization of human N-acylethanolamine-hydrolyzing acid amidase inhibition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay M West

    Full Text Available The mechanism of inactivation of human enzyme N-acylethanolamine-hydrolyzing acid amidase (hNAAA, with selected inhibitors identified in a novel fluorescent based assay developed for characterization of both reversible and irreversible inhibitors, was investigated kinetically and using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS. 1-Isothiocyanatopentadecane (AM9023 was found to be a potent, selective and reversible hNAAA inhibitor, while two others, 5-((biphenyl-4-ylmethyl-N,N-dimethyl-2H-tetrazole-2-carboxamide (AM6701 and N-Benzyloxycarbonyl-L-serine β-lactone (N-Cbz-serine β-lactone, inhibited hNAAA in a covalent and irreversible manner. MS analysis of the hNAAA/covalent inhibitor complexes identified modification only of the N-terminal cysteine (Cys126 of the β-subunit, confirming a suggested mechanism of hNAAA inactivation by the β-lactone containing inhibitors. These experiments provide direct evidence of the key role of Cys126 in hNAAA inactivation by different classes of covalent inhibitors, confirming the essential role of cysteine for catalysis and inhibition in this cysteine N-terminal nucleophile hydrolase enzyme. They also provide a methodology for the rapid screening and characterization of large libraries of compounds as potential inhibitors of NAAA, and subsequent characterization or their mechanism through MALDI-TOF MS based bottom up-proteomics.

  10. Anticonvulsant action of gamma-irradiated diazepam with correlation to certain brain amino acids and electrocorticogram activity in experimental animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saad, S.F.; Roushdy, H.M.; Hassan, S.H.M.; Elkashef, H.S.; Mahdy, A.M.; Elsayeh, B.M.

    1994-01-01

    The effect of sterilization by gamma irradiation (215 KGy) of diazepam on is anticonvulsant action, on norma and depleted cerebral gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA), on glutamic acid, as well as electrocorticogram activity (ECOG) was determined in the experimental animals. For the evaluation of the anticonvulsant action of either diazepam (D) or irradiated diazepam (ID), pentyl ene tetrazole seizure test, was used and the protective dose 50 (PD50) was determined in adult male mice. GABA, the main central inhibitory transmitter which is implicated in the mechanism of the anticonvulsant action of D and its precursor glutamic acid, were electrophoretically separated and spectrophotometrical evaluated. Moreover, brain electrical activity was recorded using an electroencephalograph apparatus. Although the PD50 of ID as well the effect on normal brain cerebral GABA and glutamic acids did not differ significantly from that of D, yet there was certain variabilities. Thus, the effect of D was about 4 times more potent than the ID on elevating depleted cerebral GABA. Also, electrocorticogram records demonstrated that D produced a slight inhibition while ID induced a decrease in B rhythm with remarkable in the amplitude of ECOG waves. The same pattern of effects were obtained when D or ID were used in combination with INH (250 mg kg-1). 1 tab. 1 fig

  11. Displacement of DL-[3H]-2-amino-4-phosphonobutanoic acid ( [3H]APB) binding with methyl-substituted APB analogues and glutamate agonists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, M.B.; Crooks, S.L.; Johnson, R.L.; Koerner, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    The binding of the excitatory amino acid antagonist DL-2-amino-4-phosphonobutanoic acid (DL-APB) to rat brain synaptic plasma membranes was characterized. As determined by Scatchard analysis, the binding was saturable and homogeneous with a Kd = 6.0 microM and Bmax = 380 pmol/mg of protein. The binding was dependent on the presence of Ca 2+ and Cl - ions and was diminished upon freezing. The association rate constant was 6.8 X 10(-3) microM -1 min -1 , and the dissociation rate constant was 2.0 X 10(-2) min -1 . The L isomers of APB, glutamate, and aspartate were more potent as displacers of APB binding than the D isomers. With the exception of kynurenic acid, all compounds examined in both systems were more potent as displacers of APB binding than as inhibitors of synaptic transmission. This difference in potency was most pronounced for agonists at dentate granule cells. L-Glutamate, D-glutamate, and L-glutamate tetrazole were between 140- and 7500-fold more potent as displacers of DL-APB binding than as inhibitors of synaptic transmission. D-2-Amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid and alpha-methyl-APB were between 10- and 20-fold more potent as displacers of binding

  12. Hierarchical ZnO microspheres built by sheet-like network: Large-scale synthesis and structurally enhanced catalytic performances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Guoxing; Liu Yuanjun; Ji Zhenyuan; Bai Song; Shen Xiaoping; Xu Zheng

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Hierarchical ZnO microspheres were prepared through a facile precursor procedure in the absence of self-assembled templates, organic additives, or matrices. ► The building blocks of microspheres, sheet-like ZnO networks, are porous mesocrystal terminated with (0 1 −1 0) crystal planes. ► The hierarchical ZnO microsphere catalyst exhibits structure-induced enhancement of catalytic performance and a strong durability. - Abstract: Large-scale novel hierarchical ZnO microspheres were fabricated by a facile precursor procedure in the absence of self-assembled templates, organic additives, or matrices. A field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) image reveals that the ZnO microspheres with diameter of 5–18 μm are built by sheet-like ZnO networks with average thickness of 40 nm and length of several microns. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) image indicates that the building blocks, sheet-like ZnO networks, are porous mesocrystal terminated with {0 1 −1 0} crystal planes. A potential application of the ZnO microspheres as a catalyst in the synthesis of 5-substituted 1H-tetrazoles was investigated. It was found that the hierarchical ZnO microsphere catalyst exhibits structure-induced enhancement of catalytic performance and a strong durability.

  13. High-energy coordination polymers (CPs) exhibiting good catalytic effect on the thermal decomposition of ammonium dinitramide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Han, Jing; Zhang, Sheng; Zhai, Lianjie; Wang, Bozhou; Yang, Qi; Wei, Qing; Xie, Gang; Chen, Sanping; Gao, Shengli

    2017-09-01

    High-energy coordination polymers (CPs) not only exhibit good energetic performances but also have a good catalytic effect on the thermal decomposition of energetic materials. In this contribution, two high-energy CPs Cu2(DNBT)2(CH3OH)(H2O)3·3H2O (1) and [Cu3(DDT)2(H2O)2]n (2) (H2DNBT = 3,3‧-dinitro-5,5‧-bis(1H-1,2,4-triazole and H3DDT = 4,5-bis(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)-2H-1,2,3-triazole) were synthesized and structurally characterized. Furthermore, 1 was thermos-dehydrated to produce Cu2(DNBT)2(CH3OH)(H2O)3 (1a). The thermal decomposition kinetics of 1, 1a and 2 were studied by Kissinger's method and Ozawa's method. Thermal analyses and sensitivity tests show that all compounds exhibit high thermal stability and low sensitivity for external stimuli. Meanwhile, all compounds have large positive enthalpy of formation, which are calculated as being (1067.67 ± 2.62) kJ mol-1 (1), (1464.12 ± 3.12) kJ mol-1 (1a) and (3877.82 ± 2.75) kJ mol-1 (2), respectively. The catalytic effects of 1a and 2 on the thermal decomposition of ammonium dinitramide (ADN) were also investigated.

  14. Discovery of a Series of Imidazo[4,5-b]pyridines with Dual Activity at Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor and Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-[gamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casimiro-Garcia, Agustin; Filzen, Gary F.; Flynn, Declan; Bigge, Christopher F.; Chen, Jing; Davis, Jo Ann; Dudley, Danette A.; Edmunds, Jeremy J.; Esmaeil, Nadia; Geyer, Andrew; Heemstra, Ronald J.; Jalaie, Mehran; Ohren, Jeffrey F.; Ostroski, Robert; Ellis, Teresa; Schaum, Robert P.; Stoner, Chad (Pfizer)

    2013-03-07

    Mining of an in-house collection of angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonists to identify compounds with activity at the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) revealed a new series of imidazo[4,5-b]pyridines 2 possessing activity at these two receptors. Early availability of the crystal structure of the lead compound 2a bound to the ligand binding domain of human PPAR{gamma} confirmed the mode of interaction of this scaffold to the nuclear receptor and assisted in the optimization of PPAR{gamma} activity. Among the new compounds, (S)-3-(5-(2-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)phenyl)-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-1-yl)-2-ethyl-5-isobutyl-7-methyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (2l) was identified as a potent angiotensin II type I receptor blocker (IC{sub 50} = 1.6 nM) with partial PPAR{gamma} agonism (EC{sub 50} = 212 nM, 31% max) and oral bioavailability in rat. The dual pharmacology of 2l was demonstrated in animal models of hypertension (SHR) and insulin resistance (ZDF rat). In the SHR, 2l was highly efficacious in lowering blood pressure, while robust lowering of glucose and triglycerides was observed in the male ZDF rat.

  15. Neuropharmacological screening of essential oil from oleo gum resin of Gardenia lucida Roxb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shareef, Mohammad Zubair; Yellu, Narsimha Reddy; Achanta, Venkata Narsimha Appa Rao

    2013-10-07

    The oleo gum resin of Gardenia lucida is commonly employed in traditional medicine to treat multiple ailments, including epilepsy and mania. The essential oil isolated from it was screened for CNS activities to check if it is responsible for the claims made regarding the traditional use of the oleo gum resin. The hypnotic and anticonvulsant activity was assessed by pentobarbitone induced hypnosis and convulsant models-Maximum electroshock (MES) and Pentylene tetrazole (PTZ) respectively. Effect on motor activity was evaluated using an actophotometer, rotarod and grip strength methods. The oil significantly potentiated the barbitone induced hypnosis and offered significant protection against the intensity and frequency of convulsions and mortality rate in both the convulsant models. A significant decrease in locomotion, motor impairment and loss of gripping reflex was also observed. The essential oil of the oleo gum resin of Gardenia lucida is a CNS depressant and anticonvulsant with central muscle relaxant properties. This justifies the claims made regarding the use of the oleo gum resin of Gardenia lucida in CNS disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A multidisciplinary study of 3-(β-d-glucopyranosyl)-5-substituted-1,2,4-triazole derivatives as glycogen phosphorylase inhibitors: Computation, synthesis, crystallography and kinetics reveal new potent inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kun, Sándor; Begum, Jaida; Kyriakis, Efthimios; Stamati, Evgenia C V; Barkas, Thomas A; Szennyes, Eszter; Bokor, Éva; Szabó, Katalin E; Stravodimos, George A; Sipos, Ádám; Docsa, Tibor; Gergely, Pál; Moffatt, Colin; Patraskaki, Myrto S; Kokolaki, Maria C; Gkerdi, Alkistis; Skamnaki, Vassiliki T; Leonidas, Demetres D; Somsák, László; Hayes, Joseph M

    2018-03-10

    3-(β-d-Glucopyranosyl)-5-substituted-1,2,4-triazoles have been revealed as an effective scaffold for the development of potent glycogen phosphorylase (GP) inhibitors but with the potency very sensitive to the nature of the alkyl/aryl 5-substituent (Kun et al., Eur. J. Med. Chem. 2014, 76, 567). For a training set of these ligands, quantum mechanics-polarized ligand docking (QM-PLD) demonstrated good potential to identify larger differences in potencies (predictive index PI = 0.82) and potent inhibitors with K i 's synthesis. The compounds were prepared in O-perbenzoylated forms by either ring transformation of 5-β-d-glucopyranosyl tetrazole by N-benzyl-arenecarboximidoyl chlorides, ring closure of C-(β-d-glucopyranosyl)formamidrazone with aroyl chlorides, or that of N-(β-d-glucopyranosylcarbonyl)arenethiocarboxamides by hydrazine, followed by deprotections. Kinetics experiments against rabbit muscle GPb (rmGPb) and human liver GPa (hlGPa) revealed five compounds as potent low μM inhibitors with three of these on the submicromolar range for rmGPa. X-ray crystallographic analysis sourced the potency to a combination of favorable interactions from the 1,2,4-triazole and suitable aryl substituents in the GP catalytic site. The compounds also revealed promising calculated pharmacokinetic profiles. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Cytotoxic effects of new synthesis heterocyclic derivatives of Amoxicillin on some cancer cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rawi, M. S.; Hussei, D. F.; Al-Taie, A. F.; Al-Halbosiy, M. M.; Hameed, B. A.

    2018-05-01

    A new Schiff base [I] was prepared by refluxing Amoxicillin trihydrate and 4-Hydroxy- 3,5-dimethoxybenzaldehyde in aqueous methanol solution using glacial acetic acid as a catalyst. The new 1,3-oxazepine derivative [II] was obtained by Diels- Alder reaction of Schiff base [I] with phthalic anhydride in dry benzene. The reaction of Schiff base [I] with thioglycolic acid in dry benzene led to the formation of thiazolidin-4-one derivative [III]. While the imidazolidin-4-one [IV] derivative was produced by reacting the mentioned Schiff base [I] with glycine and triethylamine in ethanol for 9 hrs. Tetrazole derivative [V] was synthesized by refluxing Schiff base [I] with sodium azide in dimethylformamid DMF. The structure of synthesized compounds[I-V] was characterized by their melting points, elemental analysis CHN-S and by their spectral data; FTIR and 1H NMR spectroscopy. Two cancer cell lines include: (RD) human pelvic rhabdomyosarcoma and (L20B) the mice intestines carcinoma cell line (which expresses the genes for human cellular receptor for Polio viruses) were used in this study. The cytotoxic effect of different concentrations of all the synthesized compounds for 48 hrs was examined. All compounds except [IV] and [V] showed less than 50% inhibition for (L20B), while these compounds exhibit inhibition more than 50% inhibition for (RD).

  18. Photoinduced Bioorthogonal 1,3-Dipolar Poly-cycloaddition Promoted by Oxyanionic Substrates for Spatiotemporal Operation of Molecular Glues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatano, Junichi; Okuro, Kou; Aida, Takuzo

    2016-01-04

    PGlue(PZ), a pyrazoline (PZ)-based fluorescent adhesive which can be generated spatiotemporally in living systems, was developed. Since PGlue(PZ) carries many guanidinium ion (Gu(+)) pendants, it strongly adheres to various oxyanionic substrates through a multivalent salt-bridge interaction. PGlue(PZ) is given by bioorthogonal photopolymerization of a Gu(+)-appended monomer (Glue(TZ)), bearing tetrazole (TZ) and olefinic termini. Upon exposure to UV light, Glue(TZ) transforms into a nitrileimine (NI) intermediate (Glue(NI)), which is eligible for 1,3-dipolar polycycloaddition. However, Glue(NI) in aqueous media can concomitantly be deactivated into Glue(WA) by the addition of water, and the polymerization hardly occurs unless Glue(NI) is concentrated. We found that, even under high dilution, Glue(NI) is concentrated on oxyanionic substrates to a sufficient level for the polymerization, so that their surfaces can be point-specifically functionalized with PGlue(PZ) by the use of a focused beam of UV light. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Am and Eu extraction from acidic media by synergistic mixtures of substituted bis-tetrazolyl pyridines with chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, I.V.; Chirkov, A.V.; Babain, V.A.; Pokrovskaya, E.Yu.; Artamonova, T.A.

    2009-01-01

    Americium (Am) and europium (Eu) extraction from HNO 3 and HClO 4 media by a synergistic mixture of 2.6-bis(1-aryl-1H-tetrazol-5-yl)pyridines (ATP) with chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide (CCD) was studied by using m-nitrobenzotrifluoride, phenyltrifluoromethyl sulfone, and 1,2-dichloroethane as diluents. We examined the effects of diluents, of the aqueous phase composition and the nature of substituents in the ATP aryl ring on Am/Eu extraction efficiency and selectivity. The Am/Eu separation factor was found to be close to 100 at the optimal ratio of ATPs: CCD ∝ 1:1. We also studied the extraction of 85 Sr, 137 Cs and 133 Ba; a PhATP-CCD mixture provided the separation of the Sr/Ba pair with a factor of 35. A high resistance of 2,6-bis-aryltetrazolyl pyridines to 6 M nitric and perchloric acids at 95 C was demonstrated. (orig.)

  20. Physical and behavioral development in rats after late prenatal exposure to diazepam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lall, S B; Sahoo, R N

    1990-01-01

    The effect of late prenatal exposure to diazepam (DZP) on physical and behavioral development of rat pups was investigated. Prenatal exposure to DZP (20 mg/kg, sc, in last week of pregnancy) did not alter litter size and no gross malformations were noted at birth. Body weight at birth and subsequent weight gain was significantly less in these animals. The development of reflexes and neuromuscular maturation was normal. Open field locomotor activity and rearing scores were significantly decreased. Test of social play in juvenile rats revealed normal pattern of sexual dimorphism with increased masculinized behavior. Acquisition and retention of passive avoidance task was not affected by DZP exposure, however, retention of brightness discrimination task was significantly decreased. The hypnotic effect of a challenge dose of DZP and convulsive effect of pentylene tetrazole remained unaltered. Open field activity test in adult animals revealed increased ambulation. Probe dose of amphetamine in these animals caused paradoxical decrease in activity. It is concluded that exposure to high dose of DZP during late prenatal period may not manifest in physical or neuromuscular impairment during early development period, except for weight loss, however, it may have long term effects on behavior becoming manifest in adolescence and at maturity.

  1. Occurrence and fate of the angiotensin II receptor antagonist transformation product valsartan acid in the water cycle--a comparative study with selected β-blockers and the persistent anthropogenic wastewater indicators carbamazepine and acesulfame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nödler, Karsten; Hillebrand, Olav; Idzik, Krzysztof; Strathmann, Martin; Schiperski, Ferry; Zirlewagen, Johannes; Licha, Tobias

    2013-11-01

    The substantial transformation of the angiotensin II receptor antagonist valsartan to the transformation product 2'-(2H-tetrazol-5-yl)-[1,1'-biphenyl]-4-carboxylic acid (referred to as valsartan acid) during the activated sludge process was demonstrated in the literature and confirmed in the here presented study. However, there was a severe lack of knowledge regarding the occurrence and fate of this compound in surface water and its behavior during drinking water treatment. In this work a comparative study on the occurrence and persistency of valsartan acid, three frequently used β-blockers (metoprolol, atenolol, and sotalol), atenolol acid (one significant transformation product of atenolol and metoprolol), and the two widely distributed persistent anthropogenic wastewater indicators carbamazepine and acesulfame in raw sewage, treated wastewater, surface water, groundwater, and tap water is presented. Median concentrations of valsartan acid in the analyzed matrices were 101, 1,310, 69, waters valsartan acid was found just as relevant as the analyzed β-blockers and the anticonvulsant carbamazepine. Regarding its persistency in surface waters it was comparable to carbamazepine and acesulfame. Furthermore, removal of valsartan acid during bank filtration was poor, which demonstrated the relevance of this compound for drinking water suppliers. Regarding drinking water treatment (Muelheim Process) the compound was resistant to ozonation but effectively eliminated (≥90%) by subsequent activated carbon filtration. However, without applying activated carbon filtration the compound may enter the drinking water distribution system as it was demonstrated for Berlin tap water. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Two Water Stable Copper Metal-Organic Frameworks with Performance in the Electrocatalytic Activity for Water Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xiuping

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Two novel water stable metal-organic frameworks, [Cu(L·(4,4′-bipy·(ClO4]n (1, [Cu(L·(phen·(ClO4·(H2O]2 (2, have been constructed by HL=[5-Mercapto-1-methyl] tetrazole acetic acid and Cu (II salt in the presence of assistant N-containing ligands. MOF 1 and MOF 2 with open CuII sites, resulting the framework 1 and 2 show electrocatalytic activity for water oxidation in alkaline solution. The electrochemical properties of complex for oxygen evolution reaction (OER were evaluated by linear sweep voltammetry (LSV and the Tafel slopes. Complex 1 has a higher LSV activity with a lower over potential of 1.54 V and a much higher increase in current density. Meanwhile, the Tafel slope of complex 1 (122.0 mV dec-1 is much lower than complex 2 (243.5 mV dec-1. This phenomenon makes complex 1 a promising porous material for electrocatalytic activity.

  3. New URJC-1 Material with Remarkable Stability and Acid-Base Catalytic Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Leo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Emerging new metal-organic structures with tunable physicochemical properties is an exciting research field for diverse applications. In this work, a novel metal-organic framework Cu(HIT(DMF0.5, named URJC-1, with a three-dimensional non-interpenetrated utp topological network, has been synthesized. This material exhibits a microporous structure with unsaturated copper centers and imidazole–tetrazole linkages that provide accessible Lewis acid/base sites. These features make URJC-1 an exceptional candidate for catalytic application in acid and base reactions of interest in fine chemistry. The URJC-1 material also displays a noteworthy thermal and chemical stability in different organic solvents of different polarity and boiling water. Its catalytic activity was evaluated in acid-catalyzed Friedel–Crafts acylation of anisole with acetyl chloride and base-catalyzed Knoevenagel condensation of benzaldehyde with malononitrile. In both cases, URJC-1 material showed very good performance, better than other metal organic frameworks and conventional catalysts. In addition, a remarkable structural stability was proven after several consecutive reaction cycles.

  4. Research on structures, mechanical properties, and mechanical responses of TKX-50 and TKX-50 based PBX with molecular dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Song; Li, Yajin; Li, Yang; Luo, Yunjun

    2016-02-01

    To improve the practicality and safety of a novel explosive dihydroxylamm onium 5,5'-bis (tetrazole)-1,1'-diolate (TKX-50), polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) and polychlorotrifluoroe-thylene (PCTFE) were respectively added to the TKX-50, forming the polymer-bonded explosives (PBX). Interfacial and mechanical properties of PBX were investigated through molecular dynamics (MD) method, desensitizing mechanisms of fluorine-polymers for TKX-50 were researched by compression and bulk shear simulations. Results show that the binding energies (E bind ) between polymers (PVDF or PCTFE) and TKX-50 surfaces all rank in order of (011) > (100) > (010), shorter interatomic distance and the resulted higher potentials lead to higher E bind on TKX-50/PVDF interfaces than that on PCTFE/TKX-50 interfaces. Compared with TKX-50, the ductility of PBX is improved due to the isotropic mechanical property and flexibility of fluorine-polymers especially the PCTFE. Desensitizing effect of fluorine-polymers for TKX-50 is found under loading condition, which is attributed to the enhanced compressibility and buffer capacity against external pressure in compression, as well as the improved lubricity to reduce the sliding potentials in bulk shear process. Graphical Abstract Comparisons of the internal stress and slide potentials of the novel explosive,TKX-50 and its based PBX. Desensitizing effects can be found by the adding of fluorine-polymers, it owes to their better flexibility and lubricity as well as the amorphous nature.

  5. Ebselen Reversibly Inhibits Human Glutamate Dehydrogenase at the Catalytic Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yanhong; Li, Di; Lu, Shiying; Zhao, Han; Chen, Zhao; Hou, Wei; Ruan, Benfang Helen

    Human glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) plays an important role in neurological diseases, tumor metabolism, and hyperinsulinism-hyperammonemia syndrome (HHS). However, there are very few inhibitors known for human GDH. Recently, Ebselen was reported to crosslink with Escherichia coli GDH at the active site cysteine residue (Cys321), but the sequence alignment showed that the corresponding residue is Ala329 in human GDH. To investigate whether Ebselen could be an inhibitor for human GDH, we cloned and expressed an N-terminal His-tagged human GDH in E. coli. The recombinant human GDH enzyme showed expected properties such as adenosine diphosphate activation and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide/nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate dual recognition. Further, we developed a 2-(3-(2-methoxy-4-nitrophenyl)-2-(4-nitrophenyl)-2H-tetrazol-3-ium-5-yl) benzenesulfonate sodium salt (EZMTT)-based assay for human GDH, which was highly sensitive and is suitable for high-throughput screening for potent GDH inhibitors. In addition, ForteBio binding assays demonstrated that Ebselen is a reversible active site inhibitor for human GDH. Since Ebselen is a multifunctional organoselenium compound in Phase III clinical trials for inflammation, an Ebselen-based GDH inhibitor might be valuable for future drug discovery for HHS patients.

  6. Assembly of three new POM-based Ag(I) coordination polymers with antibacterial and photocatalytic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Xin-Xin; Luo, Yu-Hui [Institute of Polyoxometalate Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Northeast Normal University, Changchun, Jilin 130024, PR China (China); Lu, Chen [School of Pharmaceutical and Life Sciences,Changzhou University, Changzhou, Jiangsu 213164 (China); Chen, Xin, E-mail: xinchen@cczu.edu.cn [School of Pharmaceutical and Life Sciences,Changzhou University, Changzhou, Jiangsu 213164 (China); Zhang, Hong, E-mail: zhangh@nenu.edu.cn [Institute of Polyoxometalate Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Northeast Normal University, Changchun, Jilin 130024, PR China (China)

    2015-12-15

    Three new silver coordination polymers, namely, {Ag_3(bpy)_6[PW_1_2O_4_0]} (1), {Ag_5(H_2biim)_2(Hbiim-NO_2)_2[PW_1_2O_4_0]} (2), {Ag_7(pytz)_4[PW_1_2O_4_0]} (3) (bpy=2,2′-bipyridine, H{sub 2}biim=2,2′-biimidazole, pytz=4-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)pyridine), have been synthesized under hydrothermal condition. Compound 1 shows a 3D supramolecular framework based on 0D moieties. Compound 2 exhibits an attractive 2D biologic screw axis. Compound 3 displays a 3D structure, which consists of Ag(I)···π interactions, π···π stacking and weak Ag···Ag interactions. It is noteworthy that nitration happens to compound 2 during the hydrothermal condition, which is quite rare. Through contrasting the antibacterial activities of gram negative and gram positive bacteria, we find compounds 1–3 have better antibacterial property in gram negative bacteria than gram positive bacteria. In addition, compounds 1–3 also exhibit efficiency of photocatalytic decomposition of organic dyes. Those compounds may be used as potential multifunctional materials in wastewater treatment, because they not only can kill bacteria but also degrade organic pollutants. - Highlights: • Three new silver coordination polymers have been synthesized under hydrothermal condition. • Due to different coordination modes of rigid N-donor ligands, structures of the title compounds vary from 0D to 3D frameworks. • It is noteworthy that nitration happens to compound 2 during the hydrothermal condition, which is quite rare. • In addition, these compounds exhibit efficiency of photocatalytic decomposition of dyes and antibacterial activities.

  7. High pressure study of a highly energetic nitrogen-rich carbon nitride, cyanuric triazide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laniel, Dominique; Desgreniers, Serge [Laboratoire de physique des solides denses, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 (Canada); Downie, Laura E. [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 4R2 (Canada); Smith, Jesse S. [High Pressure Collaborative Access Team, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Savard, Didier; Murugesu, Muralee [Department of Chemistry, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 (Canada)

    2014-12-21

    Cyanuric triazide (CTA), a nitrogen-rich energetic material, was compressed in a diamond anvil cell up to 63.2 GPa. Samples were characterized by x-ray diffraction, Raman, and infrared spectroscopy. A phase transition occurring between 29.8 and 30.7 GPa was found by all three techniques. The bulk modulus and its pressure derivative of the low pressure phase were determined by fitting the 300 K isothermal compression data to the Birch-Murnaghan equation of state. Due to the strong photosensitivity of CTA, synchrotron generated x-rays and visible laser radiation both lead to the progressive conversion of CTA into a two dimensional amorphous C=N network, starting from 9.2 GPa. As a result of the conversion, increasingly weak and broad x-ray diffraction lines were recorded from crystalline CTA as a function of pressure. Hence, a definite structure could not be obtained for the high pressure phase of CTA. Results from infrared spectroscopy carried out to 40.5 GPa suggest the high pressure formation of a lattice built of tri-tetrazole molecular units. The decompression study showed stability of the high pressure phase down to 13.9 GPa. Finally, two CTA samples, one loaded with neon and the other with nitrogen, used as pressure transmitting media, were laser-heated to approximately 1100 K and 1500 K while compressed at 37.7 GPa and 42.0 GPa, respectively. In both cases CTA decomposed resulting in amorphous compounds, as recovered at ambient conditions.

  8. New {alpha}{sub 1}-adrenoceptor antagonists derived from the antipsychotic sertindole - carbon-11 labelling and pet examination of brain uptake in the cynomolgus monkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balle, Thomas E-mail: tb@dfuni.dk; Halldin, Christer; Andersen, Linus; Hjorth Alifrangis, Lene; Badolo, Lassina; Gjervig Jensen, Klaus; Chou, Y.-W.; Andersen, Kim; Perregaard, Jens; Farde, Lars

    2004-04-01

    Central {alpha}{sub 1}-adrenergic receptors are potential targets for recently developed antipsychotic drugs. Two new 11C labeled potent and selective {alpha}{sub 1}-adrenoceptor antagonists, 1- [2- [4-[1-(4-fluorophenyl)-5-(2-[{sup 11}C]methyl-tetrazol-5-yl)-1H-indol-3-yl]-1- pipridinyl]ethyl]-imidazolidin-2-one ([{sup 11}C]2) and 1- [2- [4-[1-(4-fluorophenyl)-5-(1-[{sup 11}C]methyl-(1,2,3-triazol-4-yl) -1H-indol-3-yl]- 1-piperidinyl]ethyl]-imidazolidin-2-one ([{sup 11}C]3) were prepared and evaluated for imaging of central {alpha}{sub 1}-adrenergic receptors in the cynomolgus monkey brain. For both compounds, the total brain radioactivity was only about 0.6% of the radioactivity injected i.v. There was no evident binding in regions known to contain {alpha}{sub 1}-adrenoceptors. This observation suggests that the affinity of the radioligands in primates in vivo is not sufficient to provide a signal for specific binding that can be differentiated from the background. In addition, active efflux by P-glycoprotein may be responsible for the low total brain-uptake of the two radioligands. Both compounds showed a highly polarised and verapamile sensitive transport across monolayers of Caco-2 cells. The total brain-uptake of [{sup 3}H]2 was 6 times higher in mdr1a(-/-) knock-out mice lacking the gene encoding P-glycoprotein compared to wild type mice. Pretreatment of one monkey with Cyclosporin A (15 mg/kg) resulted in 40% higher brain uptake for [{sup 11}C]3 when compared with baseline. These observations support the view that efflux by P-glycoprotein can be of quantitative importance for the total brain-uptake of some PET radioligands.

  9. Pharmacological characterization of BR-A-657, a highly potent nonpeptide angiotensin II receptor antagonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Yong Ha; Lee, Joo Han; Kim, Je Hak; Tan, Hyun Kwang; Kim, Sang Lin; Lee, Jae Yeol; Rim, Hong-Kun; Paik, Soo Heui; Lee, Kyung-Tae

    2013-01-01

    The pharmacological profile of BR-A-657, 2-n-butyl-5-dimethylamino-thiocarbonyl-methyl-6-methyl-3-{[2-(1H-tetrazole-5-yl)biphenyl-4-yl]methyl}-pyrimidin-4(3H)-one, a new nonpeptide AT1-selective angiotensin receptor antagonist, has been investigated in a variety of in vitro and in vivo experimental models. In the present study, BR-A-657 displaced [(125)I][Sar(1)-Ile(8)]angiotensin II (Ang II) from its specific binding sites to AT1 subtype receptors in membrane fractions of HEK-293 cells with an IC50 of 0.16 nM. In a functional assay using isolated rabbit thoracic aorta, BR-A-657 inhibited the contractile response to Ang II (pD'2: 9.15) with a significant reduction in the maximum. In conscious rats, BR-A-657 (0.01, 0.1, 1 mg/kg; intravenously (i.v.)) dose-dependently antagonized Ang II-induced pressor responses. In addition, BR-A-657 dose-dependently decreased mean arterial pressure in furosemide-treated rats and renal hypertensive rats. Moreover, BR-A-657 given orally at 1 and 3 mg/kg reduced blood pressure in conscious renal hypertensive rats. Taken together, these findings indicate that BR-A-657 is a potent and specific antagonist of Ang II at the AT1 receptor subtype, and reveal the molecular basis responsible for the marked lowering of blood pressure in conscious rats.

  10. Anti-invasive and antiangiogenic effects of MMI-166 on malignant glioma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakabayashi, Hiromichi; Yawata, Toshio; Shimizu, Keiji

    2010-01-01

    The constitutive overexpression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) is frequently observed in malignant tumours. In particular, MMP-2 and MMP-9 have been reported to be closely associated with invasion and angiogenesis in malignant gliomas. Our study aimed to evaluate the antitumour effects of MMI-166 (Nalpha-[4-(2-Phenyl-2H- tetrazole-5-yl) phenyl sulfonyl]-D-tryptophan), a third generation MMP inhibitor, on three human glioma cell lines (T98G, U87MG, and ONS12) in vitro and in vivo. The effects of MMI-166 on the gelatinolytic activity was analysed by gelatine zymography. The anti-invasive effect of MMI-166 was analysed by an in vitro invasion assay. An in vitro angiogenesis assay was also performed. In vitro growth inhibition of glioma cells by MMI-166 was determined by the MTT assay. The effect of MMI-166 on an orthotropic implantation model using athymic mice was also evaluated. Gelatine zymography revealed that MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities were suppressed by MMI-166. The invasion of glioma cells was suppressed by MMI-166. The angiogenesis assay showed that MMI-166 had a suppressive effect on glioma cell-induced angiogenesis. However, MMI-166 did not suppress glioma cell proliferation in the MTT assay. In vivo, MMI-166 suppressed tumour growth in athymic mice implanted orthotropically with T98G cells and showed an inhibitory effect on tumour-induced angiogenesis and tumour growth. This is the first report of the effect of a third generation MMP inhibitor on malignant glioma cells. These results suggest that MMI-166 may have potentially suppressive effects on the invasion and angiogenesis of malignant gliomas

  11. Syntheses, crystal structures, and properties of four coordination polymers based on mixed multi-N donor and polycarboxylate ligands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shui-Sheng; Guo, Xing-Zhe; Zhao, Yue; Li, Wei-Dong

    2018-02-01

    Four new coordination polymers [Ni2(HL1)2(L1)3(BTC)2]·6H2O (1), [Ni2(L1)3(HBTC)2]·4H2O (2), [Cd2(L2)(BTC)(H2O)3]·2H2O (3) and [Cd2(HL2)(BTCA)] (4) were synthesized by reactions of nickel(II)/ cadmium(II) salts with rigid ligands of 1,4-di(1H-imidazol-4-yl)benzene (L1), 1,3-di(1-imidazolyl)-5-(4H-tetrazol-5-yl)benzene (HL2) and polycarboxylic acids of 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylic acid (H3BTC), 1,2,4,5-benzenetetracarboxylic acid (H4BTCA), respectively. The structures of the complexes were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The complex 1 is one-dimensional (1D) chain while 2 is a (4, 4)-connected two-dimensional (2D) layered structure with 2D → 2D parallel interpenetration. Complex 3 is a rare tetranodal (3,4)-connected three-dimensional (3D) CrVTiSc architecture with Point (Schläfli) symbol of (4·82)(4·84·10)(42·82·102)(83), and compound 4 has the 2D network with (4,4) topology based on the [Cd2(COO)4] SBUs. The weak interactions such as hydrogen bonds and π···π stacking contribute to stabilize crystal structure and extend the low-dimensional entities into high-dimensional frameworks. The UV-vis absorption spectra of 1 - 4 are discussed. Moreover, the photo luminescent properties of 3 and 4 and gas sorption property of 2 have been investigated.

  12. Green Nanotechnology Serving the Bioeconomy: Natural Beauty Masks to Save the Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierfrancesco Morganti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available According to United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP, ensuring a clean and healthy environment will provide multiple benefits to society and economy. Sustainable production, followed by appropriate management of industrial and agricultural waste, will protect and enhance biodiversity and ecosystem services. To achieve this objective, specific policies must be put in place and specific actions performed for making a low-carbon and resource-efficient economy with reduced production of petrol-derived goods. The aim of the study has been to produce effective and safe anti-age beauty masks made of non-woven tissues based on the use of chitin nanofibril (CN and nanolignin (LG, obtained from crustaceans and plant biomass, respectively. To this purpose, nanoparticles and electrospun fibres have been characterized by Dynamic Light Scattering and SEM, while the safeness and effectiveness of the obtained tissues was verified in vitro on a culture of keratinocytes and fibroblasts, and controlled in vivo by expert dermatologists on 30 volunteer photo-aged women, by subjective and objective bioengineered methods. The in vitro results have shown that the beauty masks have no toxic effects on the viability of keratinocytes and fibroblasts treated by the Dimethyl Tetrazole (MTT method, and exhibit a decreased expression of cytokines, playing a central role in the regulation of immune and inflammatory responses in premature aging and environmental assaults. The reparative and antiaging effectiveness of these innovative beauty masks have been also verified on the release of Metallo Proteinase I (MMP-1 and the increased synthesis of collagen type I, reduced in skin aging. The first preliminary in vivo results, obtained by engineering methods, have confirmed the protective and rejuvenating activity shown by the in vitro study conducted on 30 voluntary women exhibiting signs of photoaging. The raw materials used are of natural origin being also respectful of the

  13. Green synthesis, antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of silver nanoparticles using Eucalyptus chapmaniana leaves extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Ghassan Mohammad; Mohammed, Wasnaa Hatif; Marzoog, Thorria Radam; Al-Amiery, Ahmed Abdul Amir; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H; Mohamad, Abu Bakar

    2013-01-01

    To synthesize silver nanopaticles from leaves extract of Eucalyptus chapmaniana (E. chapmaniana) and test the antimicrobial of the nanoparticles against different pathogenic bacteria, yeast and its toxicity against human acute promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60) cell line. Ten milliliter of leaves extract was mixed with 90 mL of 0.01 mmol/mL or 0.02 mmol/mL aqueous AgNO3 and exposed to sun light for 1 h. A change from yellowish to reddish brown color was observed. Characterization using UV-vis spectrophotometery and X-ray diffraction analysis were performed. Antimicrobial activity against six microorganisms was tested using well diffusion method and cytoxicity test using 3-(4, 5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, a yellow tetrazole was obtained on the human leukemia cell line (HL-60). UV-vis spectral analysis showed silver surface plasmon resonance band at 413 nm. X-ray diffraction showed that the particles were crystalline in nature with face centered cubic structure of the bulk silver with broad beaks at 38.50° and 44.76°. The synthesized silver nanoparticles efficiently inhibited various pathogenic organisms and reduced viability of the HL-60 cells in a dose-dependent manner. It has been demonstrated that the extract of E. chapmaniana leaves are capable of producing silver nanoparticles extracellularly and the Ag nanoparticles are quite stable in solution. Further studies are needed to fully characterize the toxicity and the mechanisms involved with the antimicrobial and anticancer activity of these particles.

  14. Green synthesis,antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of silver nanoparticles using Eucalyptus chapmaniana leaves extract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ghassan; Mohammad; Sulaiman; Wasnaa; Hatif; Mohammed; Thorria; Radam; Marzoog; Ahmed; Abdul; Amir; Al-Amiery; Abdul; Amir; H.Kadhum; Abu; Bakar; Mohamad

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To synthesize silver nanopaticles from leaves extract of Eucalyptus chapmaniana(E.chapmaniana)and test the antimicrobial of the nanoparticles against different pathogenic bacteria,yeast and its toxicity against human acute promyelocytic leukemia(HL-60)cell line.Methods:Ten milliliter of leaves extract was mixed with 90 mL of 0.01 mmol/mL or 0.02 mmol/mL aqueous AgNO3 and exposed to sun light for 1 h.A change from yellowish to reddish brown color was observed.Characterization using UV-vis spectrophotometery and X-ray diffraction analysis were performed.Antimicrobial activity against six microorganisms was tested using well diffusion method and cytoxicity test using 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide,a yellow tetrazole was obtained on the human leukemia cell line(HL-60).Results:UV-vis spectral analysis showed silver surface plasmon resonance band at 413 nm.X-ray diffraction showed that the particles were crystalline in nature with face centered cubic structure of the bulk silver with broad beaks at 38.50°and 44.76°.The synthesized silver nanoparticles efficiently inhibited various pathogenic organisms and reduced viability of the HL-60 cells in a dose-dependent manner.Conclusions:It has been demonstrated that the extract of E.chapmaniana leaves are capable of producing silver nanoparticles extracellularly and the Ag nanoparticles are quite stable in solution.Further studies are needed to fully characterize the toxicity and the mechanisms involved with the antimicrobial and anticancer activity of these particles.

  15. Green synthesis, antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of silver nanoparticles using Eucalyptus chapmaniana leaves extract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ghassan Mohammad Sulaiman; Wasnaa Hatif Mohammed; Thorria Radam Marzoog; Ahmed Abdul Amir Al-Amiery; Abdul Amir H Kadhum; Abu Bakar Mohamad

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To synthesize silver nanopaticles from leaves extract of Eucalyptus chapmaniana (E. chapmaniana) and test the antimicrobial of the nanoparticles against different pathogenic bacteria, yeast and its toxicity against human acute promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60) cell line.Methods:Ten milliliter of leaves extract was mixed with 90 mL of 0.01 mmol/mL or 0.02 mmol/mL aqueous AgNO3 and exposed to sun light for 1 h. A change from yellowish to reddish brown color was observed. Characterization using UV-vis spectrophotometery and X-ray diffraction analysis were performed. Antimicrobial activity against six microorganisms was tested using well diffusion method and cytoxicity test using 3-(4, 5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, a yellow tetrazole was obtained on the human leukemia cell line (HL-60). Results: UV-vis spectral analysis showed silver surface plasmon resonance band at 413 nm. X-ray diffraction showed that the particles were crystalline in nature with face centered cubic structure of the bulk silver with broad beaks at 38.50 ° and 44.76 °. The synthesized silver nanoparticles efficiently inhibited various pathogenic organisms and reduced viability of the HL-60 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusions: It has been demonstrated that the extract of E. chapmaniana leaves are capable of producing silver nanoparticles extracellularly and the Ag nanoparticles are quite stable in solution. Further studies are needed to fully characterize the toxicity and the mechanisms involved with the antimicrobial and anticancer activity of these particles.

  16. Characteristics of Endotoxin-Altering Fractions Derived from Normal Serum III. Isolation and Properties of Horse Serum alpha(2)-Macroglobulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, M; Konno, S

    1970-05-01

    The endotoxin-altering activity of fractions isolated from normal horse serum was examined by incubation of Salmonella typhosa strain 0-901 endotoxin (Boivin) in a solution of the fraction, and subsequent quantitation of any diminution in the capacity of endotoxin to be precipitated by specific anti-endotoxin antiserum. The horse serum fraction isolated by precipitation with ammonium sulfate at a concentration between 1.6 and 2.7 m was incubated with Pronase PA and then with trypsin. When this partly digested fraction was passed twice through a Sephadex G-200 column and eluted with 0.2 m tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane buffer, most of the endotoxinaltering activity was found in the first protein peak designated F-1a. F-1a was found to be homogeneous and corresponded to an alpha(2)-macroglobulin by the techniques of electrophoresis, immunodiffusion, and ultracentrifugation. Approximately 100-fold more F-1a than endotoxin was needed to reduce the antigenicity of the endotoxin by one-half. Alteration was increased when F-1a was incubated with the endotoxin at acid pH or at 45 C rather than at 37 C and was lost after heating F-1a at 56 C for 30 min. N-ethylmaleimide increased the endotoxin-altering activity of horse serum, F-1a, and human plasma fraction III(0), whereas p-chloromercuribenzoate did not. On the other hand, diazonium-1-H-tetrazole, iodoacetic acid, and benzylchloride suppressed the activity of F-1a. When the interaction of endotoxin and F-1a was examined by immunodiffusion techniques, depolymerization of the endotoxin molecule was indicated. The endotoxin-altering factor of horse serum is discussed in relation to the mechanisms of other known reagents, such as deoxycholate and sodium lauryl sulfate.

  17. Characteristics of Endotoxin-Altering Fractions Derived from Normal Serum III. Isolation and Properties of Horse Serum α2-Macroglobulin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, Morimasa; Konno, Seishi

    1970-01-01

    The endotoxin-altering activity of fractions isolated from normal horse serum was examined by incubation of Salmonella typhosa strain 0-901 endotoxin (Boivin) in a solution of the fraction, and subsequent quantitation of any diminution in the capacity of endotoxin to be precipitated by specific anti-endotoxin antiserum. The horse serum fraction isolated by precipitation with ammonium sulfate at a concentration between 1.6 and 2.7 m was incubated with Pronase PA and then with trypsin. When this partly digested fraction was passed twice through a Sephadex G-200 column and eluted with 0.2 m tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane buffer, most of the endotoxinaltering activity was found in the first protein peak designated F-1a. F-1a was found to be homogeneous and corresponded to an α2-macroglobulin by the techniques of electrophoresis, immunodiffusion, and ultracentrifugation. Approximately 100-fold more F-1a than endotoxin was needed to reduce the antigenicity of the endotoxin by one-half. Alteration was increased when F-1a was incubated with the endotoxin at acid pH or at 45 C rather than at 37 C and was lost after heating F-1a at 56 C for 30 min. N-ethylmaleimide increased the endotoxin-altering activity of horse serum, F-1a, and human plasma fraction III0, whereas p-chloromercuribenzoate did not. On the other hand, diazonium-1-H-tetrazole, iodoacetic acid, and benzylchloride suppressed the activity of F-1a. When the interaction of endotoxin and F-1a was examined by immunodiffusion techniques, depolymerization of the endotoxin molecule was indicated. The endotoxin-altering factor of horse serum is discussed in relation to the mechanisms of other known reagents, such as deoxycholate and sodium lauryl sulfate. Images PMID:16557754

  18. DFT Study of Azole Corrosion Inhibitors on Cu2O Model of Oxidized Copper Surfaces: II. Lateral Interactions and Thermodynamic Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunja Gustinčič

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption of imidazole, triazole, and tetrazole—used as simple models of azole corrosion inhibitors—on various Cu 2 O(111- and Cu 2 O(110-type surfaces was characterized using density functional theory (DFT calculations with the focus on lateral intermolecular interactions and the thermodynamic stability of various adsorption structures. To this end, an ab initio thermodynamics approach was used to construct two-dimensional phase diagrams for all three molecules. The impact of van der Waals dispersion interactions on molecular adsorption bonding was also addressed. Lateral intermolecular interactions were found to be the most repulsive for imidazole and the least for tetrazole, for which they are usually even slightly attractive. Both non-dissociative and dissociative adsorption modes were considered and although dissociated molecules bind to surfaces more strongly, none of the considered structures that involve dissociated molecules appear on the phase diagrams. Our results show that the three azole molecules display a strong tendency to preferentially adsorb at reactive coordinatively unsaturated (CUS Cu surface sites and stabilize them. According to the calculated phase diagrams for Cu 2 O(111-type surfaces, the three azole molecules adsorb to specific CUS sites, designated as Cu CUS , under all conditions at which molecular adsorption is stable. This tentatively suggests that their corrosion inhibition capability may stem, at least in part, from their ability to passivate reactive surface sites. We further comment on a specific drawback due to neglect of configurational entropy that is usually utilized within the ab initio thermodynamics approach. We analyze the issue for Langmuir and Frumkin adsorption models and show that when configurational entropy is neglected, the ab initio thermodynamics approach is too hasty to predict phase-transition like behavior.

  19. Forced unbinding of GPR17 ligands from wild type and R255I mutant receptor models through a computational approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fantucci Piercarlo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background GPR17 is a hybrid G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR activated by two unrelated ligand families, extracellular nucleotides and cysteinyl-leukotrienes (cysteinyl-LTs, and involved in brain damage and repair. Its exploitment as a target for novel neuro-reparative strategies depends on the elucidation of the molecular determinants driving binding of purinergic and leukotrienic ligands. Here, we applied docking and molecular dynamics simulations (MD to analyse the binding and the forced unbinding of two GPR17 ligands (the endogenous purinergic agonist UDP and the leukotriene receptor antagonist pranlukast from both the wild-type (WT receptor and a mutant model, where a basic residue hypothesized to be crucial for nucleotide binding had been mutated (R255I to Ile. Results MD suggested that GPR17 nucleotide binding pocket is enclosed between the helical bundle and extracellular loop (EL 2. The driving interaction involves R255 and the UDP phosphate moiety. To support this hypothesis, steered MD experiments showed that the energy required to unbind UDP is higher for the WT receptor than for R255I. Three potential binding sites for pranlukast where instead found and analysed. In one of its preferential docking conformations, pranlukast tetrazole group is close to R255 and phenyl rings are placed into a subpocket highly conserved among GPCRs. Pulling forces developed to break polar and aromatic interactions of pranlukast were comparable. No differences between the WT receptor and the R255I receptor were found for the unbinding of pranlukast. Conclusions These data thus suggest that, in contrast to which has been hypothesized for nucleotides, the lack of the R255 residue doesn't affect the binding of pranlukast a crucial role for R255 in binding of nucleotides to GPR17. Aromatic interactions are instead likely to play a predominant role in the recognition of pranlukast, suggesting that two different binding subsites are present on GPR17.

  20. Synthesis, crystal structures, and luminescent properties of Cd(II) coordination polymers assembled from semi-rigid multi-dentate N-containing ligand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Gang; Shao, Kui-Zhan; Chen, Lei; Liu, Xin-Xin [Institute of Functional Material Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024, Jilin (China); Su, Zhong-Min, E-mail: zmsu@nenu.edu.cn [Institute of Functional Material Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024, Jilin (China); Ma, Jian-Fang [Institute of Functional Material Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024, Jilin (China)

    2012-12-15

    Three new polymers, [Cd(L){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]{sub n} (1), [Cd{sub 3}(L){sub 2}({mu}{sub 3}-OH){sub 2}({mu}{sub 2}-Cl){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]{sub n} (2), {l_brace}[Cd{sub 2}(L){sub 2}(nic){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]{center_dot}H{sub 2}O{r_brace}{sub n} (3) (HL=5-(4-((1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)methyl)phenyl)-1H-tetrazole, Hnic=nicotinic acid) have been prepared and structurally characterized. Compounds 1 and 2 display 2D monomolecular layers built by the inter-linking single helical chains and L{sup -} ligands connecting chain-like [Cd({mu}{sub 3}-OH)({mu}{sub 2}-Cl)]{sub n} secondary building units, respectively. Compound 3 is constructed from the mixed ligands and possesses a (3,4)-connected framework with (4{center_dot}8{sup 2})(4{center_dot}8{sup 2}{center_dot}10{sup 3}) topology. Moreover, the fluorescent properties of HL ligand and compounds 1-3 are also been investigated. - Graphical abstract: Three new coordination polymers based on the semi-rigid multidentate N-donor ligand have been successfully synthesized by hydrothermal reaction. Complexes 1 and 2 exhibit the 2D layers formed by inter-linking single helices and L{sup -} anions bridging 1D chain-like SBUs, respectively. Complex 3 is buit by L{sup -} and assistant nic{sup -} ligands connecting metal centers and possesses a (3,4)-connected framework with (4 Multiplication-Sign 8{sup 2})(4 Multiplication-Sign 8{sup 2} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3}) topology. Moreover, these complexes display fluorescent properties indicating that they may have potential applications as optical materials. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Three Cd-compounds were prepared from semi-rigid HL ligand with different N-containing groups. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer They exhibit diverse structures from 2D monomolecular layer to 3D covalent framework. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The HL ligands displayed various coordination modes under different reaction conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These compounds exhibit

  1. Lymphatic endothelial cells efferent to inflamed joints produce iNOS and inhibit lymphatic vessel contraction and drainage in TNF-induced arthritis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Qianqian; Ju, Yawen; Chen, Yan; Wang, Wensheng; Li, Jinlong; Zhang, Li; Xu, Hao; Wood, Ronald W; Schwarz, Edward M; Boyce, Brendan F; Wang, Yongjun; Xing, Lianping

    2016-03-12

    In this study, we sought to determine the cellular source of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) induced in lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) in response to tumor necrosis factor (TNF), the effects of iNOS on lymphatic smooth muscle cell (LSMC) function and on the development of arthritis in TNF-transgenic (TNF-Tg) mice, and whether iNOS inhibitors improve lymphatic function and reduce joint destruction in inflammatory erosive arthritis. We used quantitative polymerase chain reactions, immunohistochemistry, histology, and near-infrared imaging to examine (1) iNOS expression in podoplanin + LECs and lymphatic vessels from wild-type (WT) and TNF-Tg mice, (2) iNOS induction by TNF in WT LECs, (3) the effects of iNOS inhibitors on expression of functional muscle genes in LSMCs, and (4) the effects of iNOS inhibitors on lymphatic vessel contraction and drainage, as well as the severity of arthritis, in TNF-Tg mice. LECs from TNF-Tg mice had eight fold higher iNOS messenger RNA levels than WT cells, and iNOS expression was confirmed immunohistochemically in podoplanin + LECs in lymphatic vessels from inflamed joints. TNF (0.1 ng/ml) increased iNOS levels 40-fold in LECs. LSMCs cocultured with LECs pretreated with TNF had reduced expression of functional muscle genes. This reduction was prevented by ferulic acid, which blocked nitric oxide production. Local injection of L-N(6)-(1-iminoethyl)lysine 5-tetrazole-amide into inflamed paws of TNF-Tg mice resulted in recovery of lymphatic vessel contractions and drainage. Treatment of TNF-Tg mice with ferulic acid reduced synovial inflammation as well as cartilage and bone erosion, and it also restored lymphatic contraction and drainage. iNOS is produced primarily by LECs in lymphatic vessel efferent from inflamed joints of TNF-Tg mice in response to TNF and inhibits LSMC contraction and lymph drainage. Ferulic acid represents a potential new therapy to restore lymphatic function and thus improve inflammatory

  2. Simulations of hydrogen sorption in rht-MOF-1: identifying the binding sites through explicit polarization and quantum rotation calculations

    KAUST Repository

    Pham, Tony

    2014-01-01

    Grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulations of hydrogen sorption were performed in rht-MOF-1, a metal-organic framework (MOF) that consists of isophthalate groups joined by copper paddlewheel clusters and Cu3O trimers through tetrazolate moeities. This is a charged rht-MOF that contains extra-framework nitrate counterions within the material. For the simulations performed herein, excellent agreement with experiment was achieved for the simulated hydrogen sorption isotherms and calculated isosteric heat of adsorption, Qst, values only when using a polarizable potential. Thermodynamic agreement is demonstrated via comparing to experimental isotherms and binding sites are revealed by combining simulation and inelastic neutron scattering (INS) data. Simulations involving explicit many-body polarization interactions assisted in the determination of the binding sites in rht-MOF-1 through the distribution of the induced dipoles that led to strong adsorbate interactions. Four distinct hydrogen sorption sites were determined from the polarization distribution: the nitrate ions located in the corners of the truncated tetrahedral cages, the Cu2+ ions of the paddlewheels that project into the truncated tetrahedral and truncated octahedral cages (Cu1 ions), the Cu2+ ions of the Cu3O trimers (Cu3 ions), and the sides of the paddlewheels in the cuboctahedral cage. The simulations revealed that the initial sorption sites for hydrogen in rht-MOF-1 are the nitrate ions; this site corresponds to the high initial Qst value for hydrogen (9.5 kJ mol-1) in the MOF. The radial distribution functions, g(r), about the Cu2+ ions at various loadings revealed that the Cu1 ions are the preferred open-metal sorption sites for hydrogen at low loading, while the Cu3 ions become occupied at higher loadings. The validation of the aforementioned sorption sites in rht-MOF-1 was confirmed by calculating the two-dimensional quantum rotational levels about each site and comparing the levels to the

  3. Chemical oxidation of unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine transformation products in water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madi Abilev

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Oxidation of unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH during a water treatment has several disadvantages including formation of stable toxic byproducts. Effectiveness of treatment methods in relation to UDMH transformation products is currently poorly studied. This work considers the effectiveness of chemical oxidants in respect to main metabolites of UDMH – 1-formyl-2,2-dimethylhydrazine, dimethylaminoacetontrile, N-nitrosodimethylamine and 1-methyl-1H-1,2,4-triazole. Experiments on chemical oxidation by Fenton's reagent, potassium permanganate and sodium nitrite were conducted. Quantitative determination was performed by HPLC. Oxidation products were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in combination with solid-phase microextraction. 1-Formyl-2,2-dimethylhydrazine was completely oxidized by Fenton's reagent with formation of formaldehyde N-formyl-N-methyl-hydrazone, 1,4-dihydro-1,4-dimethyl-5H-tetrazol-5-one by the action of potassium permanganate and N-methyl-N-nitro-methanamine in the presence of sodium nitrite. Oxidation of 1-formyl-2,2-dimethylhydrazine also resulted in formation of N-nitrosodimethylamine. Oxidation of dimethylaminoacetontrile proceeded with formation of hydroxyacetonitrile, dimethylformamide and 1,2,5-trimethylpyrrole. After 30 days, dimethylaminoacetontrile was not detected in the presence of Fenton’s reagent and potassium permanganate, but it’s concentration in samples with sodium nitrite was 77.3 mg/L. In the presence of Fenton’s reagent, potassium permanganate and sodium nitrite after 30 days, N-nitrosodimethylamine concentration decreased by 85, 80 and 50%, respectively. In control sample, N-nitrosodimethylamine concentration decreased by 50%, indicating that sodium nitrite has no effect of on N-nitrosodimethylamine concentration. Only Fenton's reagent allowed to reduce the concentration of 1-methyl-1H-1,2,4-triazole to 50% in 30 days. In the presence of other oxidants, 1-methyl-1H-1,2,4-triazole

  4. Crystal Structure of the New Investigational Drug Candidate VT-1598 in Complex with Aspergillus fumigatus Sterol 14α-Demethylase Provides Insights into Its Broad-Spectrum Antifungal Activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hargrove, Tatiana Y.; Garvey, Edward P.; Hoekstra, William J.; Yates, Christopher M.; Wawrzak, Zdzislaw; Rachakonda, Girish; Villalta, Fernando; Lepesheva, Galina I.

    2017-05-01

    ABSTRACT

    Within the past few decades, the incidence and complexity of human fungal infections have increased, and therefore, the need for safer and more efficient, broad-spectrum antifungal agents is high. In the study described here, we characterized the new tetrazole-based drug candidate VT-1598 as an inhibitor of sterol 14α-demethylase (CYP51B) from the filamentous fungusAspergillus fumigatus. VT-1598 displayed a high affinity of binding to the enzyme in solution (dissociation constant, 13 ± 1 nM) and in the reconstituted enzymatic reaction was revealed to have an inhibitory potency stronger than the potencies of all other simultaneously tested antifungal drugs, including fluconazole, voriconazole, ketoconazole, and posaconazole. The X-ray structure of the VT-1598/A. fumigatusCYP51 complex was determined and depicts the distinctive binding mode of the inhibitor in the enzyme active site, suggesting the molecular basis of the improved drug potency and broad-spectrum antifungal activity. These data show the formation of an optimized hydrogen bond between the phenoxymethyl oxygen of VT-1598 and the imidazole ring nitrogen of His374, the CYP51 residue that is highly conserved across fungal pathogens and fungus specific. Comparative structural analysis ofA. fumigatusCYP51/voriconazole andCandida albicansCYP51/VT-1161 complexes supports the role of H bonding in fungal CYP51/inhibitor complexes and emphasizes the importance of an optimal distance between this interaction and the inhibitor-heme iron interaction. Cellular experiments using twoA. fumigatusstrains (strains 32820 and 1022) displayed a direct

  5. Ab initio kinetics and thermal decomposition mechanism of mononitrobiuret and 1,5-dinitrobiuret

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Hongyan, E-mail: hongyan.sun1@gmail.com, E-mail: ghanshyam.vaghjiani@us.af.mil; Vaghjiani, Ghanshyam L., E-mail: hongyan.sun1@gmail.com, E-mail: ghanshyam.vaghjiani@us.af.mil [Propellants Branch, Rocket Propulsion Division, Aerospace Systems Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, AFRL/RQRP, 10 E. Saturn Blvd., Edwards AFB, California 93524 (United States)

    2015-05-28

    Mononitrobiuret (MNB) and 1,5-dinitrobiuret (DNB) are tetrazole-free, nitrogen-rich, energetic compounds. For the first time, a comprehensive ab initio kinetics study on the thermal decomposition mechanisms of MNB and DNB is reported here. In particular, the intramolecular interactions of amine H-atom with electronegative nitro O-atom and carbonyl O-atom have been analyzed for biuret, MNB, and DNB at the M06-2X/aug-cc-pVTZ level of theory. The results show that the MNB and DNB molecules are stabilized through six-member-ring moieties via intramolecular H-bonding with interatomic distances between 1.8 and 2.0 Å, due to electrostatic as well as polarization and dispersion interactions. Furthermore, it was found that the stable molecules in the solid state have the smallest dipole moment amongst all the conformers in the nitrobiuret series of compounds, thus revealing a simple way for evaluating reactivity of fuel conformers. The potential energy surface for thermal decomposition of MNB was characterized by spin restricted coupled cluster theory at the RCCSD(T)/cc-pV∞ Z//M06-2X/aug-cc-pVTZ level. It was found that the thermal decomposition of MNB is initiated by the elimination of HNCO and HNN(O)OH intermediates. Intramolecular transfer of a H-atom, respectively, from the terminal NH{sub 2} group to the adjacent carbonyl O-atom via a six-member-ring transition state eliminates HNCO with an energy barrier of 35 kcal/mol and from the central NH group to the adjacent nitro O-atom eliminates HNN(O)OH with an energy barrier of 34 kcal/mol. Elimination of HNN(O)OH is also the primary process involved in the thermal decomposition of DNB, which processes C{sub 2v} symmetry. The rate coefficients for the primary decomposition channels for MNB and DNB were quantified as functions of temperature and pressure. In addition, the thermal decomposition of HNN(O)OH was analyzed via Rice–Ramsperger–Kassel–Marcus/multi-well master equation simulations, the results of which