Sample records for tetramethyltetrathiafulvalene tmttf2x compounds

  1. Optical and infrared properties of tetramethyltetraselenafulvalene [(TMTSF)2X] and tetramethyltetrathiafulvalene [(TMTTF)2X] compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Claus Schelde; Tanner, D. B.; Bechgaard, K.


    The electronic structure of the organic conductors bis-tetramethyltetraselenafulvalene-X [(TMTSF)2X] and bis-tetramethyltetrathiafulvalene-X [(TMTTF)2X] has been investigated by means of polarized optical and infrared reflectance measurements. Analysis of plasma edges in reflectance is used...

  2. Thermopower studies of a series of salts of tetramethyltetrathiafulvalene [(TMTTF)2X, X=Br, ClO4, NO3, SCN, BF4, AsF6, and PF6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Kell; Conwell, E. M.; Fabre, J. M.


    Thermoelectric power measurements on a group of tetramethyltetrathiafulvalene (TMTTF)2X salts show a wide variety of behavior. In the range of temperatures 300≥T≳100 K several of the salts (X=BF4, ClO4, NO3, SCN) have a constant thermopower S≃35 μV/K, while the PF6 and AsF6 salts have S∝1 / T...

  3. Coulomb repulsion in (TMTSF)2X and (TMTTF)2X

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Kell; Engler, E. M.


    On the basis of studies of transport properties of (TMTSF)2 X, (TMTTF)2X and their binary alloys the authors discuss the role of on-site Coulomb repulsion relative to the transfer integrals. In TMTTF-salts U/ta are believed to be large, resulting in a Hubbard gap, whereas U/ta in TMTSF-salts are ......On the basis of studies of transport properties of (TMTSF)2 X, (TMTTF)2X and their binary alloys the authors discuss the role of on-site Coulomb repulsion relative to the transfer integrals. In TMTTF-salts U/ta are believed to be large, resulting in a Hubbard gap, whereas U/ta in TMTSF...

  4. Low-temperature thermodynamic investigation of the sulphur organic salts (TMTTF)2PF6 and (TMTTF)2Br (TMTTF = tetramethyltetrathiafulvalene): II. Dynamical aspects (United States)

    Lasjaunias, J. C.; Monceau, P.; Staresinic, D.; Biljakovic, K.; Carcel, C.; Fabre, J. M.


    This contribution is in continuation of our preceding publication (Lasjaunias J C, Brison J P, Monceau P, Staresinic D, Biljakovic K, Carcel C and Fabre J M 2002 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 14 837) in which we have considered general aspects of the low-temperature thermodynamical properties of the quasi-one-dimensional organic salts based on sulphur donors with different ground states: (TMTTF)2PF6 in the spin-Peierls state and (TMTTF)2Br (TMTTF = tetramethyltetrathiafulvalene) with commensurate spin modulation. In this part, part II, we present our results on the dynamical aspects related to the non-equilibrium phenomena measured below 1 K. The metastable states excited to slightly higher temperature (by only a few per cent of the starting T0) relax very slowly to the heat bath environment, depending on the duration of the heat pumping. We compare the features observed in the relaxation rates in these two sulphur compounds with those measured for the incommensurate spin-density-wave compound (TMTSF)2PF6. We discuss the possible nature of the long-living low-energy excitations lying at the origin of this complex dynamical behaviour, in relation to their ground states.

  5. Compound

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    UV-vis spectra showing solvent effects on compounds (6). Figure S4. UV-vis spectra showing solvent effects on compounds (9). Figure S5. UV-vis spectra showing solvent ___, acidic--- and basic -□- effects on compound (8) in CH2Cl2 solution. Table S1. 1H and 13C NMR spectral data of salicylaldimine Schiff bases (5-8).

  6. Electronic interactions in the organic conductors (TMTSF)2X (X=ClO4 and PF6) and (TMTTF)2X (X=Br and PF6) from their infrared spectra (United States)

    Pedron, Danilo; Bozio, Renato; Meneghetti, Moreno; Pecile, Cesare


    Accurate measurements of the polarized reflectance spectra of the series of isostructural organic conductors (TMTSF)2ClO4, (TMTSF)2PF6, (TMTTF)2Br, and (TMTSF)2PF6 (where TMTSF denotes tetra-methy tetraselenafulvalene and TMTIF denotes tetra methyletrathiafulvalene) at room temperature are reported. A dimerized molecular chain model is used to analyze these spectra as well as those previously reported [C. C. Homes and J. E. Eldridge, Phys. Rev. B 42, 9522 (1990); J. E. Eldridge and C. C. Homes, ibid. 43, 13 971 (1991)] for (TMTSF)2BF4 and (TMTSF)2ReO4 and the corresponding conductivity spectra obtained by Kramers-Kronig transformation. The complex structures observed in the spectra are successfully accounted for by assuming that the double occupancy of the band states is effectively excluded so that the Fermi level lies inside a narrow gap induced in these materials by a small dimerization of the molecular stacks. The spectral changes observed among different members of the series are reproduced by varying a limited number of model parameters in a way that follows closely the known changes of the crystal structural properties. Fitting of the experimental data enables us to estimate the parameters of the band structure, namely the transfer integral and the dimerization gap amplitude. Use of self-consistent relations inherent in the adopted model allows us to conclude that a static potential rather than a Peierls-type phonon induced mechanism plays the dominant role in driving the formation of charge-density waves and the opening of the gap. The same model analysis accounts for the presence of vibronic structures induced by the coupling of the conduction electrons with intramolecular vibrational modes of TMTSF or TMTTF. It has been thereby possible to evaluate the coupling constants for the individual vibrational modes with a greater degree of reliability than in previous attempts. The general physical picture of the studied materials at room temperature as narrow gap correlated semiconductors is briefly discussed.

  7. Low-temperature thermodynamic investigation of the sulphur organic salts (TMTTF){sub 2}PF{sub 6} and (TMTTF){sub 2}Br (TMTTF {identical_to} tetramethyltetrathiafulvalene): I. General aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasjaunias, J.C.; Brison, J.P.; Monceau, P. [Centre de Recherches sur les Tres Basses Temperature, CNRS, BP 166, Grenoble (France); Staresinic, D. [Institute of Physics, Zagreb (Croatia); Biljakovic, K. [Centre de Recherches sur les Tres Basses Temperature, CNRS, BP 166, Grenoble (France); Institute of Physics, Zagreb (Croatia); Carcel, C.; Fabre, J.M. [Laboratoire de Chimie Structurale Organique, Universite de Montpellier, Montpellier (France)


    A detailed thermodynamical investigation of the quasi-one-dimensional sulphur-based organic salts (TMTTF){sub 2}PF{sub 6} and (TMTTF){sub 2}Br is presented in the temperature range from 30 mK to 7 K. In this part (part I), we consider the general aspects of the low-temperature specific heat of these materials in relationship with their ground states and we compare them with those previously measured for selenium members of the same family. All these compounds exhibit very similar thermodynamical behaviour, despite a variety of electronic ground states: spin-Peierls for (TMTTF){sub 2}PF{sub 6}, commensurate antiferromagnetic spin modulation for (TMTTF){sub 2}Br, incommensurate spin-density wave for (TMTSF){sub 2}PF{sub 6} (TMTSF{identical_to}tetramethyltetraselenafulvalene). We show that the low-energy excitations which are predominant below 1 K have a similar character to that observed in glassy systems, at least on short timescales of measurements. The dynamical aspects of the non-equilibrium thermodynamics will be presented separately in the following part (part II). (author)

  8. Multipurpose Compound (United States)


    Specially formulated derivatives of an unusual basic compound known as Alcide may be the answer to effective treatment and prevention of the disease bovine mastitis, a bacterial inflammation of a cow's mammary gland that results in loss of milk production and in extreme cases, death. Manufactured by Alcide Corporation the Alcide compound has killed all tested bacteria, virus and fungi, shortly after contact, with minimal toxic effects on humans or animals. Alcide Corporation credits the existence of the mastitis treatment/prevention products to assistance provided the company by NERAC, Inc.

  9. Mesoionic Compounds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 10. Mesoionic Compounds - An Unconventional Class of Aromatic Heterocycles. Bharati V Badami. General Article Volume 11 Issue 10 October 2006 pp 40-48. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  10. Mesoionic Compounds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sydnone, the representative mesoionic compound has been extensively studied because of its unusual structure, chemi- cal properties and synthetic utility. Sydnone is used as a versatile synthon in heterocyclic synthesis. This article gives a brief account of the comparative studies of the structural features of mesoionic ...

  11. Compound odontoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Yadav


    Full Text Available Odontomas have been extensively reported in the dental literature, and the term refers to tumors of odontogenic origin. Though the exact etiology is still unknown, the postulated causes include: local trauma, infection, inheritance and genetic mutation. The majority of the lesions are asymptomatic; however, may be accompanied with pain and swelling as secondary complaints in some cases. Here, we report a case of a compound odontome in a 14 year old patient.

  12. Magnesium compounds (United States)

    Kramer, D.A.


    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 52 percent of U.S. magnesium compounds production in 2006. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from sea-water by Premier Chemicals in Florida; from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and Rohm and Haas; and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Chemicals. Intrepid Potash-Wendover and Great Salt Lake Minerals recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from brucite by Applied Chemical Magnesias in Texas, from seawater by SPI Pharma in Delaware and Premier Chemicals in Florida, and by Martin Marietta and Rohm and Haas from their operations mentioned above. About 59 percent of the magnesium compounds consumed in the United States was used for refractories that are used mainly to line steelmaking furnaces. The remaining 41 percent was consumed in agricultural, chemical, construction, environmental and industrial applications.

  13. Magnesium compounds (United States)

    Kramer, D.A.


    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 57 percent of magnesium compounds produced in the United States in 2011. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties LLC from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from seawater by Premier Magnesia LLC in Florida, from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Magnesia. Intrepid Potash Wendover LLC and Great Salt Lake Minerals Corp. recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from seawater by SPI Pharma Inc. in Delaware and Premier Magnesia in Florida, and by Martin Marietta from its brine operation in Michigan.

  14. Bismaleimide compounds (United States)

    Adams, Johnnie E.; Jamieson, Donald R.


    Bismaleimides of the formula ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 each independently is H, C.sub.1-4 -alkyl, C.sub.1-4 -alkoxy, C1 or Br, or R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 together form a fused 6-membered hydrocarbon aromatic ring, with the proviso that R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 are not t-butyl or t-butoxy; X is O, S or Se; n is 1-3; and the alkylene bridging group, optionally, is substituted by 1-3 methyl groups or by fluorine, form polybismaleimide resins which have valuable physical properties. Uniquely, these compounds permit extended cure times, i.e., they remain fluid for a time sufficient to permit the formation of a homogeneous melt prior to curing.

  15. Hausa verbal compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McIntyre, Joseph Anthony


    Verbal compounds abound in Hausa (a Chadic language). A very broad definition of Hausa verbal compounds (henceforth: VC) is “a compound with a verb”. Four types of verbal compound are analysed: V[erb]+X compounds, PAC+V compounds (a PAC is a pronoun complex indicating TAM), VCs with a ma prefix

  16. Rubber compounding and processing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    John, MJ


    Full Text Available This chapter presents an overview on the compounding and processing techniques of natural rubber compounds. The introductory portion deals with different types of rubbers and principles of rubber compounding. The primary and secondary fillers used...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Luh Ketut Mas Indrawati


    Full Text Available This paper aims at analyzing and describing the English compound specifically the English noun compound. Compound is a combination of two or more words of which meaning cannot always be predicted from the meaning of each part. In English, words, especially adjectives and nouns, are combined into compound structures in a variety of ways. This article attempts to discuss the formal characteristics and types of the English noun compound. The theory of compound was adopted for further analysis. The finding shows that the formal characteristics of the English noun compound are: the noun compounds have primary stress on the first constituent, the semantic unity of a noun compound is reflected in an orthographic, the meaning of the noun compound cannot be predicted from the meaning of the parts. The orthographic characteristics can be solid, hyphenated, and open. The types involved are Subject and Verb, Verb and Object, verb and adverbial, verb-less, subject and complement, combining-form and Bahuvrihi

  18. Preparation of uranium compounds (United States)

    Kiplinger, Jaqueline L; Montreal, Marisa J; Thomson, Robert K; Cantat, Thibault; Travia, Nicholas E


    UI.sub.3(1,4-dioxane).sub.1.5 and UI.sub.4(1,4-dioxane).sub.2, were synthesized in high yield by reacting turnings of elemental uranium with iodine dissolved in 1,4-dioxane under mild conditions. These molecular compounds of uranium are thermally stable and excellent precursor materials for synthesizing other molecular compounds of uranium including alkoxide, amide, organometallic, and halide compounds.

  19. Coordination Compounds in Biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 6. Coordination Compounds in Biology - The Chemistry of Vitamin B12 and Model Compounds. K Hussian Reddy. General Article Volume 4 Issue 6 June 1999 pp 67-77 ...

  20. Compound Semiconductor Radiation Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Owens, Alan


    Although elemental semiconductors such as silicon and germanium are standard for energy dispersive spectroscopy in the laboratory, their use for an increasing range of applications is becoming marginalized by their physical limitations, namely the need for ancillary cooling, their modest stopping powers, and radiation intolerance. Compound semiconductors, on the other hand, encompass such a wide range of physical and electronic properties that they have become viable competitors in a number of applications. Compound Semiconductor Radiation Detectors is a consolidated source of information on all aspects of the use of compound semiconductors for radiation detection and measurement. Serious Competitors to Germanium and Silicon Radiation Detectors Wide-gap compound semiconductors offer the ability to operate in a range of hostile thermal and radiation environments while still maintaining sub-keV spectral resolution at X-ray wavelengths. Narrow-gap materials offer the potential of exceeding the spectral resolutio...

  1. MEA 86 Compound data (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data file contains the full raw parameter data for the 86 compounds tested in the developmental MEA assay, as well as Area Under the Curve (AUC) calculations...

  2. Chemistry of peroxide compounds (United States)

    Volnov, I. I.


    The history of Soviet research from 1866 to 1967 on peroxide compounds is reviewed. This research dealt mainly with peroxide kinetics, reactivity and characteristics, peroxide production processes, and more recently with superoxides and ozonides and emphasis on the higher oxides of group 1 and 2 elements. Solid state fluidized bed synthesis and production of high purity products based on the relative solubilities of the initial, intermediate, and final compounds and elements in liquid ammonia are discussed.

  3. Phenolic compounds in flaxseed


    Johnsson, Pernilla


    The dietary lignan secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG), present in high concentrations in flaxseed, and its metabolites enterolactone and enterodiol are thought to decrease the risk of hormone dependent cancers, cardiovascular disease and other “welfare” diseases. Flaxseed also contains other biologically active phenolic compounds, such as phenolic acids. The understanding of the nature of these compounds is crucial for their possible exploitation in drugs and functional foods. Until the m...

  4. Biodegradation of Organofluorine Compounds (United States)


    3.1 Enrichment Cultures One approach to the identification of degradative enzymes is to “feed” the compound of interest (COI) to a...Defluorination of Organofluorine Sulfur Compounds by Pseudomonas Sp. Strain D2. Environ. Sci. Technol. 1998, 32, 2283–2287. 2. Chan, P.W.Y.; Yakunin...document format ( pdf ) electronic version of this report: U.S. Army Edgewood Chemical Biological Center RDCB-DRB-C ATTN: Dixon, M

  5. Nomenclature of chemical compounds


    Karolina Kaczmarek


    This article presents the mechanisms of the inorganic chemistry nomenclature formation in French language. It shows the structure and the way of presenting the names of chemical compounds either descriptively or by giving the structural formulas’ characteristics, their transcription and order of reading the letters. The text specifies the rules of naming a chemical compound, according to the criteria of IUPAC (Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry), the organisation responsible for digesting th...

  6. Phenolic Molding Compounds (United States)

    Koizumi, Koji; Charles, Ted; de Keyser, Hendrik

    Phenolic Molding Compounds continue to exhibit well balanced properties such as heat resistance, chemical resistance, dimensional stability, and creep resistance. They are widely applied in electrical, appliance, small engine, commutator, and automotive applications. As the focus of the automotive industry is weight reduction for greater fuel efficiency, phenolic molding compounds become appealing alternatives to metals. Current market volumes and trends, formulation components and its impact on properties, and a review of common manufacturing methods are presented. Molding processes as well as unique advanced techniques such as high temperature molding, live sprue, and injection/compression technique provide additional benefits in improving the performance characterisitics of phenolic molding compounds. Of special interest are descriptions of some of the latest innovations in automotive components, such as the phenolic intake manifold and valve block for dual clutch transmissions. The chapter also characterizes the most recent developments in new materials, including long glass phenolic molding compounds and carbon fiber reinforced phenolic molding compounds exhibiting a 10-20-fold increase in Charpy impact strength when compared to short fiber filled materials. The role of fatigue testing and fatigue fracture behavior presents some insight into long-term reliability and durability of glass-filled phenolic molding compounds. A section on new technology outlines the important factors to consider in modeling phenolic parts by finite element analysis and flow simulation.

  7. Highly trifluoromethylated platinum compounds. (United States)

    Martínez-Salvador, Sonia; Forniés, Juan; Martín, Antonio; Menjón, Babil


    The homoleptic, square-planar organoplatinum(II) compound [NBu(4)](2) [Pt(CF(3))(4)] (1) undergoes oxidative addition of CF(3) I under mild conditions to give rise to the octahedral organoplatinum(IV) complex [NBu(4)](2) [Pt(CF(3))(5)I] (2). This highly trifluoromethylated species reacts with Ag(+) salts of weakly coordinating anions in Me(2)CO under a wet-air stream to afford the aquo derivative [NBu(4)][Pt(CF(3))(5) (OH(2))] (4) in around 75% yield. When the reaction of 2 with the same Ag(+) salts is carried out in MeCN, the solvento compound [NBu(4) ][Pt(CF(3))(5)(NCMe)] (5) is obtained in around 80% yield. The aquo ligand in 4 as well as the MeCN ligand in 5 are labile and can be cleanly replaced by neutral and anionic ligands to furnish a series of pentakis(trifluoromethyl)platinate(IV) compounds with formulae [NBu(4)][Pt(CF(3))(5) (L)] (L=CO (6), pyridine (py; 7), tetrahydrothiophene (tht; 8)) and [NBu(4)](2) [Pt(CF(3))(5)X] (X=Cl (9), Br (10)). The unusual carbonyl-platinum(IV) derivative [NBu(4)][Pt(CF(3))(5) (CO)] (6) is thermally stable and has a ν(CO) of 2194 cm(-1). The crystal structures of 2⋅CH(2)Cl(2), 5, [PPh(4) ][Pt(CF(3))(5)(CO)] (6'), and 7 have been established by X-ray diffraction methods. Compound 2 has shown itself to be a convenient entry to the chemistry of highly trifluoromethylated platinum compounds. To the best of our knowledge, compounds 2 and 4-10 are the organoelement compounds with the highest CF(3) content to have been isolated and adequately characterized to date. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Nomenclature of chemical compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Kaczmarek


    Full Text Available This article presents the mechanisms of the inorganic chemistry nomenclature formation in French language. It shows the structure and the way of presenting the names of chemical compounds either descriptively or by giving the structural formulas’ characteristics, their transcription and order of reading the letters. The text specifies the rules of naming a chemical compound, according to the criteria of IUPAC (Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, the organisation responsible for digesting the chemical nomenclature. The article contains the transcription chart and the manner of reading the structural formula, also called latero-numerical. Additionally, there is information conceming the usage of the common names given, still remaining in use next to the names compatible with those of IUPAC. Particular types of chemical compounds have served as models for description of other nomenclature formation rules from the simplest structures to the complicated compound ones. A short summary presents the relations and similarities between the names of particular types of chemical compounds.

  9. Compound Droplets on Fibers. (United States)

    Weyer, Floriane; Ben Said, Marouen; Hötzer, Johannes; Berghoff, Marco; Dreesen, Laurent; Nestler, Britta; Vandewalle, Nicolas


    Droplets on fibers have been extensively studied in the recent years. Although the equilibrium shapes of simple droplets on fibers are well established, the situation becomes more complex for compound fluidic systems. Through experimental and numerical investigations, we show herein that compound droplets can be formed on fibers and that they adopt specific geometries. We focus on the various contact lines formed at the meeting of the different phases and we study their equilibrium state. It appears that, depending on the surface tensions, the triple contact lines can remain separate or merge together and form quadruple lines. The nature of the contact lines influences the behavior of the compound droplets on fibers. Indeed, both experimental and numerical results show that, during the detachment process, depending on whether the contact lines are triple or quadruple, the characteristic length is the inner droplet radius or the fiber radius.

  10. Compound semiconductor device physics

    CERN Document Server

    Tiwari, Sandip


    This book provides one of the most rigorous treatments of compound semiconductor device physics yet published. A complete understanding of modern devices requires a working knowledge of low-dimensional physics, the use of statistical methods, and the use of one-, two-, and three-dimensional analytical and numerical analysis techniques. With its systematic and detailed**discussion of these topics, this book is ideal for both the researcher and the student. Although the emphasis of this text is on compound semiconductor devices, many of the principles discussed will also be useful to those inter

  11. Synthetic Aperture Compound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jens Munk

    Medical ultrasound imaging is used for many purposes, e.g. for localizing and classifying cysts, lesions, and other processes. Almost any mass is first observed using B-mode imaging and later classified using e.g. color flow, strain, or attenuation imaging. It is therefore important that the B...... region of parenchyma. A successful approach to reduce the speckle artifacts is spatial compounding, where images are acquired from a number of directions and combined after envelope-detection. Today, spatial compounding is implemented in all highend ultrasound systems and available when using a low pitch...

  12. Prediction of intermetallic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkhanov, Gennady S; Kiselyova, N N [A A Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    The problems of predicting not yet synthesized intermetallic compounds are discussed. It is noted that the use of classical physicochemical analysis in the study of multicomponent metallic systems is faced with the complexity of presenting multidimensional phase diagrams. One way of predicting new intermetallics with specified properties is the use of modern processing technology with application of teaching of image recognition by the computer. The algorithms used most often in these methods are briefly considered and the efficiency of their use for predicting new compounds is demonstrated.

  13. Polymeric coordination compounds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Metal coordination polymers with one- and two-dimensional structures are of current interest due to their possible relevance to material science 1. In continuation of our previous studies 2,3, several new polymeric compounds are reported here. Among the complexes of silver with aminomethyl pyridine (amp) ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Nasukhova


    Full Text Available In article the review of the initial stage of researches of natural polyacetylene compounds is resulted. The high reactionary ability leading to fast oxidation and degradation of these compounds, especially at influence of Uf-light, oxygen of air, pH and other factors, has caused the serious difficulties connected with an establishment of structure and studying of their physical and chemical properties. Therefore the greatest quantity of works of this stage is connected with studying of essential oils of plants from families Apiaceae, Araliaceae, Asteraceae, Campanulaceae, Olacaceae, Pittosporaceae and Santalaceae where have been found out, basically, diacetylene compounds. About development of physical and chemical methods of the analysis of possibility of similar researches have considerably extended. More than 2000 polyacetylenes are known today, from them more than 1100 are found out in plants fam. Asteraceae. Revolution in the field of molecular biology has allowed to study processes of biosynthesis of these compounds intensively.

  15. Toxicology of perfluorinated compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stahl, Thorsten [Hessian State Laboratory, Wiesbaden (Germany); Mattern, Daniela; Brunn, Hubertus [Hessian State Laboratory, Giessen (Germany)


    Perfluorinated compounds [PFCs] have found a wide use in industrial products and processes and in a vast array of consumer products. PFCs are molecules made up of carbon chains to which fluorine atoms are bound. Due to the strength of the carbon/fluorine bond, the molecules are chemically very stable and are highly resistant to biological degradation; therefore, they belong to a class of compounds that tend to persist in the environment. These compounds can bioaccumulate and also undergo biomagnification. Within the class of PFC chemicals, perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorosulphonic acid are generally considered reference substances. Meanwhile, PFCs can be detected almost ubiquitously, e.g., in water, plants, different kinds of foodstuffs, in animals such as fish, birds, in mammals, as well as in human breast milk and blood. PFCs are proposed as a new class of 'persistent organic pollutants'. Numerous publications allude to the negative effects of PFCs on human health. The following review describes both external and internal exposures to PFCs, the toxicokinetics (uptake, distribution, metabolism, excretion), and the toxicodynamics (acute toxicity, subacute and subchronic toxicities, chronic toxicity including carcinogenesis, genotoxicity and epigenetic effects, reproductive and developmental toxicities, neurotoxicity, effects on the endocrine system, immunotoxicity and potential modes of action, combinational effects, and epidemiological studies on perfluorinated compounds). (orig.)

  16. Computing compound distributions faster


    Iseger, P.; Smith, M.A.J.; Dekker, Rommert


    textabstractThe use of Panjer's algorithm has meanwhile become a widespread standard technique for actuaries (Kuon et al., 1955). Panjer's recursion formula is used for the evaluation of compound distributions and can be applied to life and general insurance problems. The discrete version of Panjer's recursion formula is often applied to continuous distributions by discretizing the

  17. Computing compound distributions faster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. den Iseger; M.A.J. Smith; R. Dekker (Rommert)


    textabstractThe use of Panjer's algorithm has meanwhile become a widespread standard technique for actuaries (Kuon et al., 1955). Panjer's recursion formula is used for the evaluation of compound distributions and can be applied to life and general insurance problems. The discrete version of

  18. Coordination Compounds in Biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    inorganic chemistry has been uncovered while studying sys- tems pertinent to B. 12 ... inorganic chemistry. His research interests are in the chemistry of model compounds of biochemical relevance. He did post- doctoral research in the. University of ..... G N Schrauzer, in Advances in Chemistry series, No. 100, Ed. R F.

  19. Xenobiotic organic compounds in wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Eva; Baun, Anders; Henze, Mogens


    Information regarding the contents of xenobiotic organic compounds (XOCs) in wastewater is limited, but it has been shown that at least 900 different compounds / compound groups could potentially be present in grey wastewater. Analyses of Danish grey wastewater revealed the presence of several hu...... aquatic toxicity were present and that data for environmental fate could only be retrieved for about half of the compounds....

  20. Compound semiconductor device modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Miles, Robert


    Compound semiconductor devices form the foundation of solid-state microwave and optoelectronic technologies used in many modern communication systems. In common with their low frequency counterparts, these devices are often represented using equivalent circuit models, but it is often necessary to resort to physical models in order to gain insight into the detailed operation of compound semiconductor devices. Many of the earliest physical models were indeed developed to understand the 'unusual' phenomena which occur at high frequencies. Such was the case with the Gunn and IMPATI diodes, which led to an increased interest in using numerical simulation methods. Contemporary devices often have feature sizes so small that they no longer operate within the familiar traditional framework, and hot electron or even quantum­ mechanical models are required. The need for accurate and efficient models suitable for computer aided design has increased with the demand for a wider range of integrated devices for operation at...

  1. Magnetochemistry: Compounds and Concepts (United States)

    Lueken, Heiko; Schilder, Helmut; Eifert, Thomas; Handrick, Klaus; Huening, Felix

    New materials in today's magnetochemistry are reviewed, among them spin-crossover compounds, single-molecule magnets, supramolecular magnetic materials, ferrofluids, and ferromagnetic nanocrystal superlattices, each with its specific application potential. Advanced computer programs are available which consider all relevant perturbations on the 'magnetic electrons' and allow, on the basis of precise measurement results, the evaluation of magnetic parameters, above all the exchange parameter J. By means of molecular, ionic, and metallic compounds the J values are discussed with respect to sign and magnitude on the basis of concepts which take into consideration overlap of magnetic orbitals (direct exchange, superexchange) and the conduction electron concentration. Finally, further developments in the field of magnetochemistry are prospected.

  2. Process for compound transformation

    KAUST Repository

    Basset, Jean-Marie


    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for methods of using a catalytic system to chemically transform a compound (e.g., a hydrocarbon). In an embodiment, the method does not employ grafting the catalyst prior to catalysis. In particular, embodiments of the present disclosure provide for a process of hydrocarbon (e.g., C1 to C20 hydrocarbon) metathesis (e.g., alkane, olefin, or alkyne metathesis) transformation, where the process can be conducted without employing grafting prior to catalysis.

  3. Phenolic compounds in oats


    Skoglund, Maria


    This research project examined how to treat raw oat material for oat-based food products in order to sustain or increase the levels of phenolic compounds. The focus was mainly on the avenanthramides, which are potentially health beneficial bioactive components found exclusively in oats. A proposed enzymatic decrease in avenanthramide levels when non heat-treated milled oats are steeped in water was investigated. The decrease was strongly suggested to be caused by a polyphenol oxidase. Althoug...

  4. A lubricating compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barchan, G.P.; Alekseyenko, V.A.; Bolotnikov, V.S.; Burlov, A.S.; Chigarenko, G.G.; Kogan, V.A.


    In a lubricating compound (SK), which contains petroleum or synthetic oil, a complex ether (SE) and an additive (Pr), in order to improve the loading, antifriction and antiwear properties, a complex ether of glycerin of the formula C/sub 3/H/sub 5/R/sub 3/, where R is C/sub 3/H/sub 7/C00, C/sub 17/H/sub 33/C00, is used and 2-(n-tololsulfamino)benzalaniline is used as the additive. The ratio of components in percent is: 2-(n-tololsulfamino)benzalanaline, 0.1 to 0.4; complex ether, 20 to 30 and petroleum or synthetic oil to 100. Oils of different chemical structure and physical and chemical properties are used for making the lubricating compound: vaseline, medicinal, industrial, instrumental MVP, vacuum VM-4 and polyethylsiloxane liquid 132-25. The oil is mixed with the complex ether and additive in the cited proportions with heating to 100 degrees C and intensive mixing. After cooling it is ready for use. The results of tests of the proposed lubricating compound in a facial friction machine for lubricating friction subasemblies of steel and a copper alloy showed significant improvements in properties.

  5. A lubricating compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barchan, G.P.; Boltnikov, V.S.; Bulgarevich, A.F.; Chigarenko, G.G.; Ponomarenko, A.G.


    In a known lubricating compound (SK) in order to improve the loading, antifriction and antiwear properties, a dicarbonic acid of a complex ether of azelaic acid of the formula (CH/sub 2/)/sub 7/(COOC/sub 2/H/sub 2//sub n+1/)/sub 2/, where n = 4 to 8, is additionally introduced as a complex ether (SE). 1-(2-oxy-1-naphthylazo)-2-naphthol-4-sulfo acid is introduced as an additive. The ratio of components in percent is: 1-(2-oxy-1-naphthylazo)-2-naphthol-4-sulfo acid 0.1 to 0.5 and complex ether, 20 to 30 and petroleum or synthetic oil (Ms) to 100 percent. Synthetic or petroleum oil of varying chemical structure and physical and chemical properties is used to prepare the lubricating compound: industrialnoye-20, vaseline, industrialnoye-50, instrumental MPV, vacuum MV-4 and polytehylsiloxanic liquid 32 to 25. The oil is mixed with the complex ether and the additive in the cited ratios with heating to 100 degrees and intensive mixing. After cooling, an oil ready for use is produced. The lubricating properties of the lubricating compound are studied in a facial friction (Tr) machine with a movable sample of St45.

  6. atmospheric volatile organic compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Koss


    organic compounds (VOCs that cannot be ionized with H3O+ ions (e.g., in a PTR-MS or H3O+ CIMS instrument. Here we describe the adaptation of a high-resolution time-of-flight H3O+ CIMS instrument to use NO+ primary ion chemistry. We evaluate the NO+ technique with respect to compound specificity, sensitivity, and VOC species measured compared to H3O+. The evaluation is established by a series of experiments including laboratory investigation using a gas-chromatography (GC interface, in situ measurement of urban air using a GC interface, and direct in situ measurement of urban air. The main findings are that (1 NO+ is useful for isomerically resolved measurements of carbonyl species; (2 NO+ can achieve sensitive detection of small (C4–C8 branched alkanes but is not unambiguous for most; and (3 compound-specific measurement of some alkanes, especially isopentane, methylpentane, and high-mass (C12–C15 n-alkanes, is possible with NO+. We also demonstrate fast in situ chemically specific measurements of C12 to C15 alkanes in ambient air.

  7. Antifungal compounds from cyanobacteria. (United States)

    Shishido, Tânia K; Humisto, Anu; Jokela, Jouni; Liu, Liwei; Wahlsten, Matti; Tamrakar, Anisha; Fewer, David P; Permi, Perttu; Andreote, Ana P D; Fiore, Marli F; Sivonen, Kaarina


    Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic prokaryotes found in a range of environments. They are infamous for the production of toxins, as well as bioactive compounds, which exhibit anticancer, antimicrobial and protease inhibition activities. Cyanobacteria produce a broad range of antifungals belonging to structural classes, such as peptides, polyketides and alkaloids. Here, we tested cyanobacteria from a wide variety of environments for antifungal activity. The potent antifungal macrolide scytophycin was detected in Anabaena sp. HAN21/1, Anabaena cf. cylindrica PH133, Nostoc sp. HAN11/1 and Scytonema sp. HAN3/2. To our knowledge, this is the first description of Anabaena strains that produce scytophycins. We detected antifungal glycolipopeptide hassallidin production in Anabaena spp. BIR JV1 and HAN7/1 and in Nostoc spp. 6sf Calc and CENA 219. These strains were isolated from brackish and freshwater samples collected in Brazil, the Czech Republic and Finland. In addition, three cyanobacterial strains, Fischerella sp. CENA 298, Scytonema hofmanni PCC 7110 and Nostoc sp. N107.3, produced unidentified antifungal compounds that warrant further characterization. Interestingly, all of the strains shown to produce antifungal compounds in this study belong to Nostocales or Stigonematales cyanobacterial orders.

  8. Antifungal Compounds from Cyanobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia K. Shishido


    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic prokaryotes found in a range of environments. They are infamous for the production of toxins, as well as bioactive compounds, which exhibit anticancer, antimicrobial and protease inhibition activities. Cyanobacteria produce a broad range of antifungals belonging to structural classes, such as peptides, polyketides and alkaloids. Here, we tested cyanobacteria from a wide variety of environments for antifungal activity. The potent antifungal macrolide scytophycin was detected in Anabaena sp. HAN21/1, Anabaena cf. cylindrica PH133, Nostoc sp. HAN11/1 and Scytonema sp. HAN3/2. To our knowledge, this is the first description of Anabaena strains that produce scytophycins. We detected antifungal glycolipopeptide hassallidin production in Anabaena spp. BIR JV1 and HAN7/1 and in Nostoc spp. 6sf Calc and CENA 219. These strains were isolated from brackish and freshwater samples collected in Brazil, the Czech Republic and Finland. In addition, three cyanobacterial strains, Fischerella sp. CENA 298, Scytonema hofmanni PCC 7110 and Nostoc sp. N107.3, produced unidentified antifungal compounds that warrant further characterization. Interestingly, all of the strains shown to produce antifungal compounds in this study belong to Nostocales or Stigonematales cyanobacterial orders.

  9. Compound Wiretap Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kramer Gerhard


    Full Text Available Abstract This paper considers the compound wiretap channel, which generalizes Wyner's wiretap model to allow the channels to the (legitimate receiver and to the eavesdropper to take a number of possible states. No matter which states occur, the transmitter guarantees that the receiver decodes its message and that the eavesdropper is kept in full ignorance about the message. The compound wiretap channel can also be viewed as a multicast channel with multiple eavesdroppers, in which the transmitter sends information to all receivers and keeps the information secret from all eavesdroppers. For the discrete memoryless channel, lower and upper bounds on the secrecy capacity are derived. The secrecy capacity is established for the degraded channel and the semideterministic channel with one receiver. The parallel Gaussian channel is further studied. The secrecy capacity and the secrecy degree of freedom ( are derived for the degraded case with one receiver. Schemes to achieve the for the case with two receivers and two eavesdroppers are constructed to demonstrate the necessity of a prefix channel in encoder design. Finally, the multi-antenna (i.e., MIMO compound wiretap channel is studied. The secrecy capacity is established for the degraded case and an achievable is given for the general case.

  10. Offset Compound Gear Drive (United States)

    Stevens, Mark A.; Handschuh, Robert F.; Lewicki, David G.


    The Offset Compound Gear Drive is an in-line, discrete, two-speed device utilizing a special offset compound gear that has both an internal tooth configuration on the input end and external tooth configuration on the output end, thus allowing it to mesh in series, simultaneously, with both a smaller external tooth input gear and a larger internal tooth output gear. This unique geometry and offset axis permits the compound gear to mesh with the smaller diameter input gear and the larger diameter output gear, both of which are on the same central, or primary, centerline. This configuration results in a compact in-line reduction gear set consisting of fewer gears and bearings than a conventional planetary gear train. Switching between the two output ratios is accomplished through a main control clutch and sprag. Power flow to the above is transmitted through concentric power paths. Low-speed operation is accomplished in two meshes. For the purpose of illustrating the low-speed output operation, the following example pitch diameters are given. A 5.0 pitch diameter (PD) input gear to 7.50 PD (internal tooth) intermediate gear (0.667 reduction mesh), and a 7.50 PD (external tooth) intermediate gear to a 10.00 PD output gear (0.750 reduction mesh). Note that it is not required that the intermediate gears on the offset axis be of the same diameter. For this example, the resultant low-speed ratio is 2:1 (output speed = 0.500; product of stage one 0.667 reduction and stage two 0.750 stage reduction). The design is not restricted to the example pitch diameters, or output ratio. From the output gear, power is transmitted through a hollow drive shaft, which, in turn, drives a sprag during which time the main clutch is disengaged.

  11. Boronated porphyrin compounds (United States)

    Kahl, Stephen B.; Koo, Myoung-Seo


    A compound is described having the structure ##STR1## where R preferably is ##STR2## and most preferably R.sup.3 is a closo-carborane and R.sup.2 is --H, an alkyl or aryl having 1 to about 7 carbon atoms, This invention was made with Government support under NIH Grant No. CA-37961 awarded by the Department of Health and Human Services and under the Associated Universities Inc. Contract No. De-AC02-76CH00016 with the U.S. Department of Energy. The Government has rights in this invention.

  12. Frequency effects in compound production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bien, H.; Levelt, W.J.M.; Baayen, R.H.


    Four experiments investigated the role of frequency information in compound production by independently varying the frequencies of the first and second constituent as well as the frequency of the compound itself. Pairs of Dutch noun-noun compounds were selected such that there was a maximal contrast

  13. Organometallic compounds in the environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Craig, P. J


    ... of Organometallic Species in the Environment 20 1.10 Stability of Organometallic Compounds in Biological Systems 1.11 G eneral Comments on the Toxicities of Organometallic Compounds 22 1.12 General Considerations on Environmental R eactivity of Organometallic Compounds 24 1.13 Microbial Biotransformation of Metals and M etalloids 25 1.13.1 Introduction 25 1...

  14. Molecular modeling of inorganic compounds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Comba, Peter; Hambley, Trevor W; Martin, Bodo


    ... mechanics to inorganic and coordination compounds. Initially, simple metal complexes were modeled, but recently the field has been extended to include organometallic compounds, catalysis and the interaction of metal ions with biological macromolecules. The application of molecular mechanics to coordination compounds is complicated by the numbe...

  15. Semiconducting III-V compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Hilsum, C; Henisch, Heinz R


    Semiconducting III-V Compounds deals with the properties of III-V compounds as a family of semiconducting crystals and relates these compounds to the monatomic semiconductors silicon and germanium. Emphasis is placed on physical processes that are peculiar to III-V compounds, particularly those that combine boron, aluminum, gallium, and indium with phosphorus, arsenic, and antimony (for example, indium antimonide, indium arsenide, gallium antimonide, and gallium arsenide).Comprised of eight chapters, this book begins with an assessment of the crystal structure and binding of III-V compounds, f

  16. Flavour Compounds in Fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravasio, Davide Antonio

    from the catabolism of amino acids. These compounds are produced by the Ehrlich pathway. The conversion of amino acids into aroma alcohols is accomplished by three enzymatic steps: i) a transamination, ii) a decarboxylation and iii) a dehydration reaction. The transaminase and decarboxylase enzymes...... and 2-phenylacetate. The last part of this thesis presents the initial characterization of twenty non-conventional yeasts (NCY) and their potential application in fermentative processes. These strains have been selected as they have been previously isolated from various fermented food sources....... This selection of strains was used in fermentations with the aim of identifying new interesting flavour producers. Fermentation profiles, volatile analyses, off-flavour identification and resistance to osmotic/oxidative stress have been addressed to highlight new candidates to use for industrial applications...

  17. Flavour Compounds in Fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravasio, Davide Antonio

    provides a tool for the prediction of volatile production in other Saccharomyces sensu stricto species. It can be used to screen a large number of strains for their flavour production within a short time and with low costs and effort. In Ashbya single mutations in the ARO genes led to a strong reduction...... region is directly regulated by the ScAro80 transcription factor. This interaction has been used to create a lacZ-reporter system to correlate the formation of two volatile compounds, 2- phenylethanol and 2-phenylethyl acetate in yeast with ARO9 expression levels. This indirect genetic assay also...... in volatile production, especially in the amount of isoamyl alcohol and 2-phenylethanol. In contrast, the overexpression of the transcriptional regulator AgARO80 did only increase the level of isoamyl alcohol but did not enhance the 2-phenylethanol yield. Promoter analyses of the ARO genes in A. gossypii...

  18. Compounding in synthetic aperture imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J. M.; Jensen, J. A.


    A method for obtaining compound images using synthetic aperture data is investigated using a convex array transducer. The new approach allows spatial compounding to be performed for any number of angles without reducing the frame rate or temporal resolution. This important feature is an intrinsic...... property of how the compound images are constructed using synthetic aperture data and an improvement compared with how spatial compounding is obtained using conventional methods. The synthetic aperture compound images are created by exploiting the linearity of delay-and-sum beamformation for data collected...... from multiple spherical emissions to synthesize multiple transmit and receive apertures, corresponding to imaging the tissue from multiple directions. The many images are added incoherently, to produce a single compound image. Using a 192-element, 3.5-MHz, λ-pitch transducer, it is demonstrated from...

  19. Optimizing Synthetic Aperture Compound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jens Munk; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt


    Spatial compound images are constructed from synthetic aperture data acquired using a linear phased-array transducer. Compound images of wires, tissue, and cysts are created using a method, which allows both transmit and receive compounding without any loss in temporal resolution. Similarly...... to conventional imaging, the speckle reduction achieved by spatial compounding comes at the cost of a reduced detail resolution and a compromise must be made. Using a performance indicator, which can be measured from an image of a phantom without cysts, it is demonstrated how a compromise can be made, which...... is optimal for lesion detection. Synthetic aperture data are acquired from unfocused emissions and 154 compound images are constructed by synthesizing different aperture configurations with more or less compounding, all maintaining a constant resolution across depth corresponding to an f-number of 2...

  20. Pluto's Nonvolatile Chemical Compounds (United States)

    Grundy, William M.; Binzel, Richard; Cook, Jason C.; Cruikshank, Dale P.; Dalle Ore, Cristina M.; Earle, Alissa M.; Ennico, Kimberly; Jennings, Donald; Howett, Carly; Kaiser, Ralf-Ingo; Linscott, Ivan; Lunsford, A. W.; Olkin, Catherine B.; Parker, Alex Harrison; Parker, Joel Wm.; Philippe, Sylvain; Protopapa, Silvia; Quirico, Eric; Reuter, D. C.; Schmitt, Bernard; Singer, Kelsi N.; Spencer, John R.; Stansberry, John A.; Stern, S. Alan; Tsang, Constantine; Verbiscer, Anne J.; Weaver, Harold A.; Weigle, G. E.; Young, Leslie


    Despite the migration of Pluto's volatile ices (N2, CO, and CH4) around the surface on seasonal timescales, the planet's non-volatile materials are not completely hidden from view. They occur in a variety of provinces formed over a wide range of timescales, including rugged mountains and chasms, the floors of mid-latitude craters, and an equatorial belt of especially dark and reddish material typified by the informally named Cthulhu Regio. NASA's New Horizons probe observed several of these regions at spatial resolutions as fine as 3 km/pixel with its LEISA imaging spectrometer, covering wavelengths from 1.25 to 2.5 microns. Various compounds that are much lighter than the tholin-like macromolecules responsible for the reddish coloration, but that are not volatile at Pluto surface temperatures such as methanol (CH3OH) and ethane (C2H6) have characteristic absorption bands within LEISA's wavelength range. This presentation will describe their geographic distributions and attempt to constrain their origins. Possibilities include an inheritance from Pluto's primordial composition (the likely source of H2O ice seen on Pluto's surface) or ongoing production from volatile precursors through photochemistry in Pluto's atmosphere or through radiolysis on Pluto's surface. New laboratory data inform the analysis.This work was supported by NASA's New Horizons project.

  1. Identifiability of Compound Poisson Distributions


    Xekalaki, Evdokia; Panaretos, John


    Compound Poisson distributions (CPD's) are frequently used as alternatives in studying situations where a simple Poisson model is found inadequate to describe. In this paper an attempt is made to identify compound Poisson distributions when it is known that the conditional distribution of two random variables (r.v.'s) is compound binomial. Some interesting special cases and their application to accident theory are discussed.

  2. Phenolic compounds in Ecuadorian fruits


    Vasco, Catalina


    A group of eighteen fruits cultivated in Ecuador were evaluated for their total soluble phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity and attempts were made to identify the group and content of phenolic compounds responsible for the antioxidant activity. In terms of total phenolic content, three groups (with 1000 mg gallic acid equivalents/100 g FW) were clearly distinguishable. RP-HPLC-DAD and/or LC-MS/MS were used to study the phenolic compounds in four Rosaceae fruits (Andean blackberry, str...

  3. Natural compounds with herbicidal activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Montemurro


    Full Text Available Research about phytotoxic activity of natural compounds could lead both to find new herbicidal active ingredients and to plan environmental friendly weed control strategies. Particularly, living organisms could be a source of compounds that are impossible, for their complexity, to synthesize artificially. More over, they could have alternative sites of action respect to the known chemical herbicides and, due to their origin, they should be more environmental safe. Many living organism, such as bacteria, fungi, insects, lichens and plants, are able to produce bioactive compounds. They generally are secondary metabolites or simply waste molecules. In this paper we make a review about these compounds, highlighting potential and constraints.

  4. Antimicrobial compounds in tears. (United States)

    McDermott, Alison M


    The tear film coats the cornea and conjunctiva and serves several important functions. It provides lubrication, prevents drying of the ocular surface epithelia, helps provide a smooth surface for refracting light, supplies oxygen and is an important component of the innate defense system of the eye providing protection against a range of potential pathogens. This review describes both classic antimicrobial compounds found in tears such as lysozyme and some more recently identified such as members of the cationic antimicrobial peptide family and surfactant protein-D as well as potential new candidate molecules that may contribute to antimicrobial protection. As is readily evident from the literature review herein, tears, like all mucosal fluids, contain a plethora of molecules with known antimicrobial effects. That all of these are active in vivo is debatable as many are present in low concentrations, may be influenced by other tear components such as the ionic environment, and antimicrobial action may be only one of several activities ascribed to the molecule. However, there are many studies showing synergistic/additive interactions between several of the tear antimicrobials and it is highly likely that cooperativity between molecules is the primary way tears are able to afford significant antimicrobial protection to the ocular surface in vivo. In addition to effects on pathogen growth and survival some tear components prevent epithelial cell invasion and promote the epithelial expression of innate defense molecules. Given the protective role of tears a number of scenarios can be envisaged that may affect the amount and/or activity of tear antimicrobials and hence compromise tear immunity. Two such situations, dry eye disease and contact lens wear, are discussed here. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. II-VI semiconductor compounds

    CERN Document Server


    For condensed matter physicists and electronic engineers, this volume deals with aspects of II-VI semiconductor compounds. Areas covered include devices and applications of II-VI compounds; Co-based II-IV semi-magnetic semiconductors; and electronic structure of strained II-VI superlattices.

  6. The Electrochemistry of Organophosphorus Compounds. (United States)


    the exclusive vlide product. Furthermore, carbonvl compounds were added to the electrolyses to react with the electrochemically-generated ylides via...Howard Hargis Electrolyses of the trivalent organophosphorus compounds of the type Ph 3 x P(PhO) x (x=0,2,3) in dry acetonitrile saturated with oxygen

  7. Process for demethylating dimethylsulfonium compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hansen, Theo; van der Maarel, Marc


    PCT No. PCT/EP94/01640 Sec. 371 Date Nov. 14, 1995 Sec. 102(e) Date Nov. 14, 1995 PCT Filed May 16, 1994 PCT Pub. No. WO94/26918 PCT Pub. Date Nov. 24, 1994Process for preparing S-methylmercapto and mercapto compounds comprising the step of demethylating a dimethylsulfonium compound of formula I to

  8. Bilayer Effects of Antimalarial Compounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole B Ramsey

    Full Text Available Because of the perpetual development of resistance to current therapies for malaria, the Medicines for Malaria Venture developed the Malaria Box to facilitate the drug development process. We tested the 80 most potent compounds from the box for bilayer-mediated effects on membrane protein conformational changes (a measure of likely toxicity in a gramicidin-based stopped flow fluorescence assay. Among the Malaria Box compounds tested, four compounds altered membrane properties (p< 0.05; MMV007384 stood out as a potent bilayer-perturbing compound that is toxic in many cell-based assays, suggesting that testing for membrane perturbation could help identify toxic compounds. In any case, MMV007384 should be approached with caution, if at all.

  9. Complex chemistry with complex compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eichler Robert


    Full Text Available In recent years gas-phase chemical studies assisted by physical pre-separation allowed for the investigation of fragile single molecular species by gas-phase chromatography. The latest success with the heaviest group 6 transactinide seaborgium is highlighted. The formation of a very volatile hexacarbonyl compound Sg(CO6 was observed similarly to its lighter homologues molybdenum and tungsten. The interactions of these gaseous carbonyl complex compounds with quartz surfaces were investigated by thermochromatography. Second-generation experiments are under way to investigate the intramolecular bond between the central metal atom of the complexes and the ligands addressing the influence of relativistic effects in the heaviest compounds. Our contribution comprises some aspects of the ongoing challenging experiments as well as an outlook towards other interesting compounds related to volatile complex compounds in the gas phase.

  10. Assimilation of Unusual Carbon Compounds (United States)

    Middelhoven, Wouter J.

    Yeast taxa traditionally are distinguished by growth tests on several sugars and organic acids. During the last decades it became apparent that many yeast species assimilate a much greater variety of naturally occurring carbon compounds as sole source of carbon and energy. These abilities are indicative of a greater role of yeasts in the carbon cycle than previously assumed. Especially in acidic soils and other habitats, yeasts may play a role in the degradation of carbon compounds. Such compounds include purines like uric acid and adenine, aliphatic amines, diamines and hydroxyamines, phenolics and other benzene compounds and polysaccharides. Assimilation of purines and amines is a feature of many ascomycetes and basidiomycetes. However, benzene compounds are degraded by only a few ascomycetous yeasts (e.g. the Stephanoascus/ Blastobotrys clade and black yeastlike fungi) but by many basidiomycetes, e.g. Filobasidiales, Trichosporonales, red yeasts producing ballistoconidia and related species, but not by Tremellales. Assimilation of polysaccharides is wide-spread among basidiomycetes

  11. Biomedical Compounds from Marine organisms


    Jha, Rajeev Kumar; Zi-rong, Xu


    The Ocean, which is called the ‘mother of origin of life’, is also the source of structurally unique natural products that are mainly accumulated in living organisms. Several of these compounds show pharmacological activities and are helpful for the invention and discovery of bioactive compounds, primarily for deadly diseases like cancer, acquired immuno-deficiency syndrome (AIDS), arthritis, etc., while other compounds have been developed as analgesics or to treat inflammation, etc...

  12. Crystallographic properties of fertilizer compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazier, A.W.; Dillard, E.F.; Thrasher, R.D.; Waerstad, K.R.; Hunter, S.R.; Kohler, J.J.; Scheib, R.M.


    This bulletin is a compilation of crystallographic data collected at NFERC on 450 fertilizer-related compounds. In TVA's fertilizer R and D program, petrographic examination, XRD, and infrared spectroscopy are combined with conventional chemical analysis methods in identifying the individual compounds that occur in fertilizer materials. This handbook brings together the results of these characterization studies and supplemental crystallographic data from the literature. It is in one-compound-per-page, loose-leaf format, ordered alphabetically by IUPAC name. Indexes provided include IUPAC name, formula, group, alternate formula, synonyms, x-ray data, optical data. Tables are given for solids, compounds in commercial MAP and DAP, and matrix materials in phosphate rock.

  13. Phenolic Compounds in Brassica Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Velasco


    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds are a large group of phytochemicals widespread in the plant kingdom. Depending on their structure they can be classified into simple phenols, phenolic acids, hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids. Phenolic compounds have received considerable attention for being potentially protective factors against cancer and heart diseases, in part because of their potent antioxidative properties and their ubiquity in a wide range of commonly consumed foods of plant origin. The Brassicaceae family includes a wide range of horticultural crops, some of them with economic significance and extensively used in the diet throughout the world. The phenolic composition of Brassica vegetables has been recently investigated and, nowadays, the profile of different Brassica species is well established. Here, we review the significance of phenolic compounds as a source of beneficial compounds for human health and the influence of environmental conditions and processing mechanisms on the phenolic composition of Brassica vegetables.

  14. Fourth symposium on macrocyclic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, J. J.; Izatt, R. M.


    Both theoretical and experimental aspects of the properties and behavior of synthetic and naturally occurring macrocyclic compounds are covered in this symposium. This document contains abstracts of the papers. (DLC)

  15. Antitumor compounds from marine actinomycetes.


    Salas, José A.; Carmen Méndez; Carlos Olano


    Chemotherapy is one of the main treatments used to combat cancer. A great number of antitumor compounds are natural products or their derivatives, mainly produced by microorganisms. In particular, actinomycetes are the producers of a large number of natural products with different biological activities, including antitumor properties. These antitumor compounds belong to several structural classes such as anthracyclines, enediynes, indolocarbazoles, isoprenoides, macrolides, non-ribosomal pept...

  16. Cancer chemoprevention by natural compounds


    スズキ, マスミ; Masumi, SUZUI


    There is growing interest in the use of natural compounds for the treatment and prevention of a wide variety of diseases, including cancer. Several herb-derived components are currently evaluated in preclinical studies as potential cancer chemopreventive agents. We have recently found that several herbal plants in the Ryukyu Islands, or any other natural compound, have a potential chemopreventive effect on biomarkers of colon carcinogenesis and a growth inhibitory effect on human cancer cells...

  17. Phenolic Compounds in Brassica Vegetables


    Cartea González, María Elena; Francisco Candeira, Marta; Soengas Fernández, María del Pilar; Velasco Pazos, Pablo


    Phenolic compounds are a large group of phytochemicals widespread in the plant kingdom. Depending on their structure they can be classified into simple phenols, phenolic acids, hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids. Phenolic compounds have received considerable attention for being potentially protective factors against cancer and heart diseases, in part because of their potent antioxidative properties and their ubiquity in a wide range of commonly consumed foods of plant origin. The...

  18. Anaerobic Degradation of Phenolic Compounds


    Schink, Bernhard; Philipp, Bodo; Jochen A Müller


    Mononuclear aromatic compounds are degraded anaerobically through three main pathways, the benzoyl-CoA pathway, the resorcinol pathway, and the phloroglucinol pathway. Various modification reactions channel a broad variety of mononuclear aromatics including aromatic hydrocarbons into either one of these three pathways. Recently, a further pathway was discovered with hydroxyhydroquinone as central intermediate through which especially nitrate-reducing bacteria degrade phenolic compounds and so...

  19. Compound Odontoma in young girl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurwahida Nurwahida


    Full Text Available Introduction. Odontomas are the most common type of odontogenic tumors and generally they are asymptomatic. These tumors are formed from enamel and dentin, and can have variable amounts of cement and pulp tissues. According to radiographic, microscopic, and clinical features, two types of odontomas are recognized: Complex and compound odontomas. Complex odontomas occur mostly in the posterior part of the mandible and compound odontomas in the anterior maxilla. Case Report. A young girl patient, 9 years old came to Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery with a slow growing and asymptomatic swelling in her left posterior mandible for 5 years in his history taking. The panoramic radiograph show  a radioopacity and radiolucent lesion at the lower second molar region, with well-corticated limits. An insisional biopsi   confirmed  as compound odontoma. The surgery  performed with simple enucleation and curettage under general anaesthesia. Discussion. Compound odontomas are usually located in the anterior maxilla, over the crowns of unerupted teeth, or between the roots of erupted teeth. In this case report, Compound odontomas are found in the posterior mandible. Conclusion. Compound odontomas in the posterior mandible is a rare. The treatment of odontomas depends on the size of the lesion. The early diagnosis, the treatment of choice is conservative surgical enucleation and curettage and prognosis is excellent.

  20. Compounded bioidentical menopausal hormone therapy. (United States)


    Although improvement in long-term health is no longer an indication for menopausal hormone therapy, evidence supporting fewer adverse events in younger women, combined with its high overall effectiveness, has reinforced its usefulness for short-term treatment of menopausal symptoms. Menopausal therapy has been provided not only by commercially available products but also by compounding, or creation of an individualized preparation in response to a health care provider's prescription to create a medication tailored to the specialized needs of an individual patient. The Women's Health Initiative findings, coupled with an increase in the direct-to-consumer marketing and media promotion of compounded bioidentical hormonal preparations as safe and effective alternatives to conventional menopausal hormone therapy, have led to a recent increase in the popularity of compounded bioidentical hormones as well as an increase in questions about the use of these preparations. Not only is evidence lacking to support superiority claims of compounded bioidentical hormones over conventional menopausal hormone therapy, but these claims also pose the additional risks of variable purity and potency and lack efficacy and safety data. The Committee on Gynecologic Practice of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the Practice Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine provide an overview of the major issues of concern surrounding compounded bioidentical menopausal hormone therapy and provide recommendations for patient counseling. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Vanadium Compounds as PTP Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Irving


    Full Text Available Phosphotyrosine signaling is regulated by the opposing actions of protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs and protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs. Here we discuss the potential of vanadium derivatives as PTP enzyme inhibitors and metallotherapeutics. We describe how vanadate in the V oxidized state is thought to inhibit PTPs, thus acting as a pan-inhibitor of this enzyme superfamily. We discuss recent developments in the biological and biochemical actions of more complex vanadium derivatives, including decavanadate and in particular the growing number of oxidovanadium compounds with organic ligands. Pre-clinical studies involving these compounds are discussed in the anti-diabetic and anti-cancer contexts. Although in many cases PTP inhibition has been implicated, it is also clear that many such compounds have further biochemical effects in cells. There also remain concerns surrounding off-target toxicities and long-term use of vanadium compounds in vivo in humans, hindering their progress through clinical trials. Despite these current misgivings, interest in these chemicals continues and many believe they could still have therapeutic potential. If so, we argue that this field would benefit from greater focus on improving the delivery and tissue targeting of vanadium compounds in order to minimize off-target toxicities. This may then harness their full therapeutic potential.

  2. The demise of compound houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jørgen; Eskemose Andersen, Jørgen


    The compound house has long provided the accomodation required by low income households in West African cities. In Kumasi, Ghana, evidence suggests that no new compounds are being built. Instead, the city is being ringed by relatively affluent villa-style development while neighbourhoods dominate...... perceptions of what is acceptable urban life to the growing cohort of young African households. In addition, there is a need to explore innovative forms of tenure in order to secure the majority of Kumasi's population access to land for housing.......The compound house has long provided the accomodation required by low income households in West African cities. In Kumasi, Ghana, evidence suggests that no new compounds are being built. Instead, the city is being ringed by relatively affluent villa-style development while neighbourhoods dominated...... by compounds are increasing in density and experiencing considerable extension activity. Within the system of customary tenure through the chieftaincy, the availability and access to land for the lower income segment of the urban population is now extremely limited. The research examines the characteristics...

  3. Extraterrestrial Organic Compounds in Meteorites (United States)

    Botta, Oliver; Bada, Jeffrey L.; Meyer, Michael (Technical Monitor)


    Many organic compounds or their precursors found in meteorites originated in the interstellar or circumstellar medium and were later incorporated into planetesimals during the formation of the solar system. There they either survived intact or underwent further processing to synthesize secondary products on the meteorite parent body. The most distinct feature of CI and CM carbonaceous chondrites, two types of stony meteorites, is their high carbon content (up to 3% of weight), either in the form of carbonates or of organic compounds. The bulk of the organic carbon consists of an insoluble macromolecular material with a complex structure. Also present is a soluble organic fraction, which has been analyzed by several separation and analytical procedures. Low detection limits can be achieved by derivatization of the organic molecules with reagents that allow for analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography. The CM meteorite Murchison has been found to contain more than 70 extraterrestrial amino acids and several other classes of compounds including carboxylic acids, hydroxy carboxylic acids, sulphonic and phosphonic acids, aliphatic, aromatic and polar hydrocarbons, fullerenes, heterocycles as well as carbonyl compounds, alcohols, amines and amides. The organic matter was found to be enriched in deuterium, and distinct organic compounds show isotopic enrichments of carbon and nitrogen relative to terrestrial matter.

  4. Promiscuity progression of bioactive compounds over time


    Hu, Ye; Jasial, Swarit; Bajorath, J?rgen


    In the context of polypharmacology, compound promiscuity is rationalized as the ability of small molecules to specifically interact with multiple targets. To study promiscuity progression of bioactive compounds in detail, nearly 1 million compounds and more than 5.2 million activity records were analyzed. Compound sets were assembled by applying different data confidence criteria and selecting compounds with activity histories over many years. On the basis of release dates, compounds and acti...

  5. Antitumor compounds from marine actinomycetes. (United States)

    Olano, Carlos; Méndez, Carmen; Salas, José A


    Chemotherapy is one of the main treatments used to combat cancer. A great number of antitumor compounds are natural products or their derivatives, mainly produced by microorganisms. In particular, actinomycetes are the producers of a large number of natural products with different biological activities, including antitumor properties. These antitumor compounds belong to several structural classes such as anthracyclines, enediynes, indolocarbazoles, isoprenoides, macrolides, non-ribosomal peptides and others, and they exert antitumor activity by inducing apoptosis through DNA cleavage mediated by topoisomerase I or II inhibition, mitochondria permeabilization, inhibition of key enzymes involved in signal transduction like proteases, or cellular metabolism and in some cases by inhibiting tumor-induced angiogenesis. Marine organisms have attracted special attention in the last years for their ability to produce interesting pharmacological lead compounds.

  6. Antitumor Compounds from Marine Actinomycetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Salas


    Full Text Available Chemotherapy is one of the main treatments used to combat cancer. A great number of antitumor compounds are natural products or their derivatives, mainly produced by microorganisms. In particular, actinomycetes are the producers of a large number of natural products with different biological activities, including antitumor properties. These antitumor compounds belong to several structural classes such as anthracyclines, enediynes, indolocarbazoles, isoprenoides, macrolides, non-ribosomal peptides and others, and they exert antitumor activity by inducing apoptosis through DNA cleavage mediated by topoisomerase I or II inhibition, mitochondria permeabilization, inhibition of key enzymes involved in signal transduction like proteases, or cellular metabolism and in some cases by inhibiting tumor-induced angiogenesis. Marine organisms have attracted special attention in the last years for their ability to produce interesting pharmacological lead compounds.

  7. Gallium-containing anticancer compounds. (United States)

    Chitambar, Christopher R


    There is an ever pressing need to develop new drugs for the treatment of cancer. Gallium nitrate, a group IIIa metal salt, inhibits the proliferation of tumor cells in vitro and in vivo and has shown activity against non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and bladder cancer in clinical trials. Gallium can function as an iron mimetic and perturb iron-dependent proliferation and other iron-related processes in tumor cells. Gallium nitrate lacks crossresistance with conventional chemotherapeutic drugs and is not myelosuppressive; it can be used when other drugs have failed or when the blood count is low. Given the therapeutic potential of gallium, newer generations of gallium compounds are now in various phases of preclinical and clinical development. These compounds hold the promise of greater anti-tumor activity against a broader spectrum of cancers. The development of gallium compounds for cancer treatment and their mechanisms of action will be discussed.

  8. The structures of binary compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Hafner, J; Jensen, WB; Majewski, JA; Mathis, K; Villars, P; Vogl, P; de Boer, FR


    - Up-to-date compilation of the experimental data on the structures of binary compounds by Villars and colleagues. - Coloured structure maps which order the compounds into their respective structural domains and present for the first time the local co-ordination polyhedra for the 150 most frequently occurring structure types, pedagogically very helpful and useful in the search for new materials with a required crystal structure. - Crystal co-ordination formulas: a flexible notation for the interpretation of solid-state structures by chemist Bill Jensen. - Recent important advances in unders

  9. Cytotoxic Compounds from Aloe megalacantha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negera Abdissa


    Full Text Available Phytochemical investigation of the ethyl acetate extract of the roots of Aloe megalacantha led to the isolation of four new natural products—1,8-dimethoxynepodinol (1, aloesaponarin III (2, 10-O-methylchrysalodin (3 and methyl-26-O-feruloyl-oxyhexacosanate (4—along with ten known compounds. All purified metabolites were characterized by NMR, mass spectrometric analyses and comparison with literature data. The isolates were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity against a human cervix carcinoma cell line KB-3-1 and some of them exhibited good activity, with aloesaponarin II (IC50 = 0.98 µM being the most active compound.

  10. Antimicrobial compounds of porcine mucosa (United States)

    Kotenkova, E. A.; Lukinova, E. A.; Fedulova, L. V.


    The aim of the study was to investigate porcine oral cavity mucosa (OCM), nasal cavity mucosa (NCM), rectal mucosa (RM) and tongue mucosa (TM) as sources of antimicrobial compounds. Ultrafiltrates with MW >30 kDa, MW 5-30 kDa and MW antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and Proteus vulgaris. NCM ultrafiltrates revealed the highest antibacterial activity in respect to negative control: for the fraction with MW >30 kDa, the zone of microbial growth inhibition was 7.5 mm, for the MWantimicrobial compounds, which could be an actual alternative for reduction of microbial spoilage of foods.

  11. Cancer prevention with natural compounds. (United States)

    Gullett, Norleena P; Ruhul Amin, A R M; Bayraktar, Soley; Pezzuto, John M; Shin, Dong M; Khuri, Fadlo R; Aggarwal, Bharat B; Surh, Young-Joon; Kucuk, Omer


    Botanical and nutritional compounds have been used for the treatment of cancer throughout history. These compounds also may be useful in the prevention of cancer. Population studies suggest that a reduced risk of cancer is associated with high consumption of vegetables and fruits. Thus, the cancer chemopreventive potential of naturally occurring phytochemicals is of great interest. There are numerous reports of cancer chemopreventive activity of dietary botanicals, including cruciferous vegetables such as cabbage and broccoli, Allium vegetables such as garlic and onion, green tea, Citrus fruits, soybeans, tomatoes, berries, and ginger, as well as medicinal plants. Several lead compounds, such as genistein (from soybeans), lycopene (from tomatoes), brassinin (from cruciferous vegetables), sulforaphane (from asparagus), indole-3-carbinol (from broccoli), and resveratrol (from grapes and peanuts) are in preclinical or clinical trials for cancer chemoprevention. Phytochemicals have great potential in cancer prevention because of their safety, low cost, and oral bioavailability. In this review, we discuss potential natural cancer preventive compounds and their mechanisms of action. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The Compound Atwood Machine Problem (United States)

    Coelho, R. Lopes


    The present paper accounts for progress in physics teaching in the sense that a problem, which has been closed to students for being too difficult, is gained for the high school curriculum. This problem is the compound Atwood machine with three bodies. Its introduction into high school classes is based on a recent study on the weighing of an…

  13. Assimilation of Unusual Carbon Compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelhoven, W.J.


    Yeast taxa traditionally are distinguished by growth tests on several sugars and organic acids. During the last decades it became apparent that many yeast species assimilate a much greater variety of naturally occurring carbon compounds as sole source of carbon and energy. These abilities are


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Kukuj


    Full Text Available It is shown that using of compound KBM allowed to reduce the expense of binder, to increase the solidity of mixture and its plastic properties. Besides, the complex of additives included into KBM increased the antiburning-on properties and resistance to scab-forming of agglutinant sand.

  15. Compound Cuing in Free Recall (United States)

    Lohnas, Lynn J.; Kahana, Michael J.


    According to the retrieved context theory of episodic memory, the cue for recall of an item is a weighted sum of recently activated cognitive states, including previously recalled and studied items as well as their associations. We show that this theory predicts there should be compound cuing in free recall. Specifically, the temporal contiguity…

  16. Moessbauer spectroscopy in neptunium compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamoto, Tadahiro; Nakada, Masami; Masaki, Nobuyuki; Saeki, Masakatsu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan)


    Moessbauer effects are observable in seven elements of actinides from {sup 232}Th to {sup 247}Cm and Moesbauer spectra have been investigated mainly with {sup 237}Np and {sup 238}U for the reasons of availability and cost of materials. This report describes the fundamental characteristics of Moessbauer spectra of {sup 237}Np and the correlation between the isomer shift and the coordination number of Np(V) compounds. The isomer shifts of Np(V) compounds had a tendency to increase as an increase of coordination number and the isomer shifts of Np(V) compounds showed broad distribution as well as those of Np(VI) but {delta} values of the compounds with the same coordination number were distributed in a narrow range. The {delta} values of Np(VI) complexes with O{sub x} donor set suggest that the Np atom in its hydroxide (NpO{sub 2}(OH){center_dot}4H{sub 2}O)might have pentagonal bipyramidal structure and at least, pentagonal and hexagonal bipyramidal structures might coexist in its acetate and benzoate. Really, such coexistence has been demonstrated in its nitrate, (NpO{sub 2}){sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}{center_dot}5H{sub 2}O. (M.N.)


    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Graaf, W.; de Leeuw, J.W.


    Abstract of WO 9412450 (A1) The invention relates to a method of preparing sulfur-containing compounds, comprising reacting a sulfur compound with a compound containing unsaturated carbon-carbon bonds, wherein in a solvent one or more compounds containing non-activated unsaturated carbon-carbon

  18. Olive oil phenolic compounds affect the release of aroma compounds. (United States)

    Genovese, Alessandro; Caporaso, Nicola; Villani, Veronica; Paduano, Antonello; Sacchi, Raffaele


    Twelve aroma compounds were monitored and quantified by dynamic headspace analysis after their addition in refined olive oil model systems with extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) biophenols to simulate EVOO aroma. The influence of polyphenols on aroma release was studied under simulated mouth conditions by using human saliva, and SPME-GC/MS analysis. While few differences were observed in orthonasal assay (without saliva), interesting results were obtained for retronasal aroma. Biophenols caused generally the lowest headspace release of almost all volatile compounds. However, only ethyl esters and linalool concentrations were significantly lower in retronasal than orthonasal assay. Saliva also caused higher concentration of hexanal, probably due to hydroperoxide lyase (HPL) action on linoleyl hydroperoxides. Epicatechin was compared to EVOO phenolics and the behaviour was dramatically different, likely to be due to salivary protein-tannin binding interactions, which influenced aroma headspace release. These results were also confirmed using two extra virgin olive oils. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The nature of compounds: a psychocentric perspective. (United States)

    Libben, Gary


    Although compound words often seem to be words that themselves contain words, this paper argues that this is not the case for the vast majority of lexicalized compounds. Rather, it is claimed that as a result of acts of lexical processing, the constituents of compound words develop into new lexical representations. These representations are bound to specific morphological roles and positions (e.g., head, modifier) within a compound word. The development of these positionally bound compound constituents creates a rich network of lexical knowledge that facilitates compound processing and also creates some of the well-documented patterns in the psycholinguistic and neurolinguistic study of compounding.

  20. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds (United States)

    Smith, L.A. Jr.


    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C[sub 2] to C[sub 10] olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80 C to 500 C, using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms. 1 fig.

  1. Bacterial Degradation of Aromatic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing X. Li


    Full Text Available Aromatic compounds are among the most prevalent and persistent pollutants in the environment. Petroleum-contaminated soil and sediment commonly contain a mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and heterocyclic aromatics. Aromatics derived from industrial activities often have functional groups such as alkyls, halogens and nitro groups. Biodegradation is a major mechanism of removal of organic pollutants from a contaminated site. This review focuses on bacterial degradation pathways of selected aromatic compounds. Catabolic pathways of naphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, and benzo[a]pyrene are described in detail. Bacterial catabolism of the heterocycles dibenzofuran, carbazole, dibenzothiophene, and dibenzodioxin is discussed. Bacterial catabolism of alkylated PAHs is summarized, followed by a brief discussion of proteomics and metabolomics as powerful tools for elucidation of biodegradation mechanisms.

  2. arsenomolybdate compound with cytosinium cations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Calcd: Mo, 29.7; As, 7.62; C, 14.58; N, 13.10; O,. 32.68 (%). 3. Results and discussion. 3.1 X-ray crystallographic study. Single crystal of the title compound with dimension 0.1 ×. 0.2 × 0.15 mm3 was chosen for X-ray diffraction studies. Data were collected on an Enraf-Nonius CAD-4 diffractome- ter with MoKα monochromatic ...

  3. Organophosphorus Compounds in Organic Electronics. (United States)

    Shameem, Muhammad Anwar; Orthaber, Andreas


    This Minireview describes recent advances of organophosphorus compounds as opto-electronic materials in the field of organic electronics. The progress of (hetero-) phospholes, unsaturated phosphanes, and trivalent and pentavalent phosphanes since 2010 is covered. The described applications of organophosphorus materials range from single molecule sensors, field effect transistors, organic light emitting diodes, to polymeric materials for organic photovoltaic applications. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Testing of Experimental Antileishmanial Compounds. (United States)


    Maximum 200 words) Six plant derivatives which were selected for in vivo study because of their in vitro anti leishmanjat activity and low toxicity...of treatment and evaluation of results was extended up to 4-6 weeks to evaluate any possible delayed anti leishmaniat activity by the compounds. None...trypomastigotes in the blood during acute infections of Trypanosoma cruzi in mice. J. Protozool. 21: 512-517. 11. Wilson, H. R., B. W. Dieckmann, and G. E. Childs

  5. Triterpenes as Potentially Cytotoxic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malwina Chudzik


    Full Text Available Triterpenes are compounds of natural origin, which have numerously biological activities: anti-cancer properties, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, anti-viral, anti-bacterial and anti-fungal. These substances can be isolated from plants, animals or fungi. Nowadays, when neoplasms are main cause of death, triterpenes can become an alternative method for treating cancer because of their cytotoxic properties and chemopreventive activities.

  6. Phenolic compounds from Bletilla striata. (United States)

    Wang, Li-Ning; He, Yong-Zhi; Zhao, Qi-Duo; Deng, Yan-Ru; Wu, Pei-Qian; Zhang, Yan-Jun


    Two new malic acid derivatives, namely eucomic acid 1-methyl ester (2) and 6'''-acetylmilitaline (7), together with ten known compounds (1, 3-6, 8-12), were isolated from the dry tubers of Bletilla striata (Thunb.) Reichb. F., a perennial traditional Chinese medicinal herb, which was used for the treatment of pneumonophthisis, pneumonorrhagia, tuberculosis, and hemorrhage of the stomach or lung. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses, including 1D-, 2D-NMR, and HR-ESI-MS.

  7. Butyltin compounds in Portuguese wines. (United States)

    Azenha, Manuel; Vasconcelos, Maria Teresa


    Butyltin compounds are widespread contaminants that have also been found in some wines. The purpose of the present work was to make a survey of butyltin compounds in Portuguese wines. Forty-three table wines and 14 Port wines were analyzed for butyltin contents by using solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS). In 14% of the analyzed wine samples, measurable dibutyltin (DBT) was found at concentrations ranging between 0.05 and 0.15 microg/L as Sn. Monobutyltin (MBT) was also observed (0.05 microg/L as Sn) in just a single wine. A search for the possible sources of DBT residues found in the wines was carried out. Therefore, some plastics and oak wood used in the process of wine-making, which have been directly in contact with the musts or the wines, were studied to check their possible release of butyltins. The eventual presence of DBT was also tested directly along the vinification process, from the must to the finished product. The results suggest that high-density polyethylene containers used in the transfer of wine in an early stage of the vinification process may be the main sources of these contaminants. Therefore, it is recommendable that plastic materials to be used in wineries be previously tested for the release of butyltin compounds.

  8. Investigations on organogermanium compounds XII. Reactions of trialkylgermylalkalimetal compounds in hexamethylphosphoric triamide (HMPT) with some inorganic and organic compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulten, E.J.; Noltes, J.G.


    Trialkylgermyl alkali metal compounds in HMPT have been found to be highly reactive nucleophiles. Reactions with some inorganic and organic compounds, such as oxygen, carbon dioxide, inorganic and orgaanic halides, aldehydes, ketones, epoxides and lactones are described. Several new

  9. Benzimidazoles: A biologically active compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Synthesis of commercially available benzimidazole involves condensation of o-phenylenediamine with formic acid. The most prominent benzimidazole compound in nature is N-riosyldimethylbenzimidazole, which serves as a axial ligand for cobalt in vitamin B12. The benzimidazole and its derivatives play a very important role as a therapeutic agent e.g. antiulcer and anthelmintic drugs. Apart from this the benzimidazole derivatives exhibit pharmacological activities such as antimicrobial, antiviral, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, etc. The substituted benzimidazoles are summarized in this review to know about the chemistry as well as pharmacological activities.

  10. Volatile organic compound sensor system (United States)

    Schabron, John F.; Rovani, Jr., Joseph F.; Bomstad, Theresa M.; Sorini-Wong, Susan S.; Wong, Gregory K.


    Generally, this invention relates to the development of field monitoring methodology for new substances and sensing chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and terrorist substances. It also relates to a portable test kit which may be utilized to measure concentrations of halogenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the field. Specifically it relates to systems for reliably field sensing the potential presence of such items while also distinguishing them from other elements potentially present. It also relates to overall systems and processes for sensing, reacting, and responding to an indicated presence of such substance, including modifications of existing halogenated sensors and arrayed sensing systems and methods.

  11. Volatile organic compound sensor system (United States)

    Schabron, John F [Laramie, WY; Rovani, Jr., Joseph F.; Bomstad, Theresa M [Laramie, WY; Sorini-Wong, Susan S [Laramie, WY


    Generally, this invention relates to the development of field monitoring methodology for new substances and sensing chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and terrorist substances. It also relates to a portable test kit which may be utilized to measure concentrations of halogenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the field. Specifically it relates to systems for reliably field sensing the potential presence of such items while also distinguishing them from other elements potentially present. It also relates to overall systems and processes for sensing, reacting, and responding to an indicated presence of such substance, including modifications of existing halogenated sensors and arrayed sensing systems and methods.

  12. First flush of dissolved compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, P.; Holzer, P.; Huisman, J.L.


    . It is known that since the wave celerity is higher than the flow velocity of the water, the increase of flow rate induced through rain runoff is recognised earlier at a certain downstream section of the combined sewer than the concentration increase of typical rain-water compounds originating from surface...... on the receiving water, when a combined sewer overflow occurs, and also on the wastewater treatment plant when the sewer network is flat and catchment area is big. (C) 1999 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd on behalf of the IAWQ. All rights reserved....

  13. Unpacking Noun-Noun Compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Viktor; Barratt, Daniel; Zlatev, Jordan


    In two complementary experiments we took an integrated approach to a set of tightly interwoven, yet rarely combined questions concerning the spontaneous interpretation of novel (unfamiliar) noun-noun compounds (NNCs) when encountered in isolation, and possible (re)interpretations of novel as well...... concerning the relations between semantics and pragmatics, as well as system and usage, and psycholinguistic issues concerning the processing of NNCs. New insights and methodological tools are also provided for supporting future best practices in the field of food naming and labelling...

  14. Some statistics on intermetallic compounds. (United States)

    Dshemuchadse, Julia; Steurer, Walter


    It is still largely unknown why intermetallic phases show such a large variety of crystal structures, with unit cell sizes varying between 1 and more than 20 000 atoms. The goal of our study was, therefore, to get a general overview of the symmetries, unit cell sizes, stoichiometries, most frequent structure types, and their stability fields based on the Mendeleev numbers as ordering parameters. A total of 20829 structures crystallizing in 2166 structure types have been studied for this purpose. Thereby, the focus was on a subset of 6441 binary intermetallic compounds, which crystallize in 943 structure types.

  15. Raman spectra of lithium compounds (United States)

    Gorelik, V. S.; Bi, Dongxue; Voinov, Y. P.; Vodchits, A. I.; Gorshunov, B. P.; Yurasov, N. I.; Yurasova, I. I.


    The paper is devoted to the results of investigating the spontaneous Raman scattering spectra in the lithium compounds crystals in a wide spectral range by the fibre-optic spectroscopy method. We also present the stimulated Raman scattering spectra in the lithium hydroxide and lithium deuteride crystals obtained with the use of powerful laser source. The symmetry properties of the lithium hydroxide, lithium hydroxide monohydrate and lithium deuteride crystals optical modes were analyzed by means of the irreducible representations of the point symmetry groups. We have established the selection rules in the Raman and infrared absorption spectra of LiOH, LiOH·H2O and LiD crystals.

  16. Characterisation of selected volatile organic compounds in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GCMS), was used to identify volatile compounds at three different temperatures. Fifty volatile compounds, inclusive of 14 acids, 14 alcohols, and 22 esters were identified and quantified in the two brands of indigenous banana beer samples. Only 12 ...

  17. Therapeutic Phytogenic Compounds for Obesity and Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Soong Jung


    Full Text Available Natural compounds have been used to develop drugs for many decades. Vast diversities and minimum side effects make natural compounds a good source for drug development. However, the composition and concentrations of natural compounds can vary. Despite this inconsistency, half of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA-approved pharmaceuticals are natural compounds or their derivatives. Therefore, it is essential to continuously investigate natural compounds as sources of new pharmaceuticals. This review provides comprehensive information and analysis on natural compounds from plants (phytogenic compounds that may serve as anti-obesity and/or anti-diabetes therapeutics. Our growing understanding and further exploration of the mechanisms of action of the phytogenic compounds may afford opportunities for development of therapeutic interventions in metabolic diseases.

  18. Compound prism design principles, I (United States)

    Hagen, Nathan; Tkaczyk, Tomasz S.


    Prisms have been needlessly neglected as components used in modern optical design. In optical throughput, stray light, flexibility, and in their ability to be used in direct-view geometry, they excel over gratings. Here we show that even their well-known weak dispersion relative to gratings has been overrated by designing doublet and double Amici direct-vision compound prisms that have 14° and 23° of dispersion across the visible spectrum, equivalent to 800 and 1300 lines/mm gratings. By taking advantage of the multiple degrees of freedom available in a compound prism design, we also show prisms whose angular dispersion shows improved linearity in wavelength. In order to achieve these designs, we exploit the well-behaved nature of prism design space to write customized algorithms that optimize directly in the nonlinear design space. Using these algorithms, we showcase a number of prism designs that illustrate a performance and flexibility that goes beyond what has often been considered possible with prisms. PMID:22423145

  19. Trinuclear nickel-lanthanide compounds. (United States)

    Bhunia, Asamanjoy; Yadav, Munendra; Lan, Yanhua; Powell, Annie K; Menges, Fabian; Riehn, Christoph; Niedner-Schatteburg, Gereon; Jana, Partha P; Riedel, Radostan; Harms, Klaus; Dehnen, Stefanie; Roesky, Peter W


    The Schiff base compound 2,2'-{[(2-aminoethyl)imino]bis[2,1-ethanediyl-nitriloethylidyne]}bis-2-hydroxy-benzoic acid (H(4)L) as a proligand was prepared in situ from 3-formylsalicylic acid with tris(2-aminoethyl)amine (tren). The trinuclear 3d-4f metal complexes of this ligand {[Ln{Ni(H(2)L)(tren)}(2)](NO(3))(3)} (Ln = Gd, Dy, Er, Lu) could be obtained as single crystalline material by synthesizing the proligand in the presence of the metal salts [Ni(NO(3))(2)·(H(2)O)(6)] and [Ln(NO(3))(3)·(H(2)O)(m)] (Ln = Gd, Dy, Er, Lu). In the solid state, the complexes adapt a new V shaped structure. Mass spectrometric ion signals related to the trinuclear complexes were detected both in positive and negative ion mode via electrospray ionization mass spectrometry supporting the single crystal X-ray analysis. Hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX) experiments in solution support the fragmentation scheme. The magnetic studies on all these compounds suggest the presence of weak antiferromagnetic interactions between neighboring metal centers.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    pharmaceuticals as they contain multitudes of naturally occurring chemical compounds (Amrit,. 2006). These chemical compounds which may be primary, but often are secondary metabolites, are as varied as the plants from which they are obtained. Plants also contain secondary metabolites, which are organic compounds ...

  1. CEC and EKC of natural compounds. (United States)

    Scherz, Heimo; Huck, Christian W; Bonn, Günther K


    In this review, an overview of CEC and EKC methods with their developments are summarized for different natural compounds. It is divided into three main parts. The first part elaborates the separation of lipophilic compounds without any charged groups. The second part constitutes CEC and EKC of lipophilic compounds containing ionizable functional groups whereas the third part contains hydrophilic compounds. Packed, monolithic, coated, or raw fused-silica (FS) capillaries are among the choice for stationary phases. Applications of these phases on the above-mentioned three classes of compounds, coupled with different detection methods, e.g. MS or LIF, are explored and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed.

  2. Natural compounds for cancer treatment and prevention. (United States)

    Nobili, Stefania; Lippi, Donatella; Witort, Ewa; Donnini, Martino; Bausi, Letizia; Mini, Enrico; Capaccioli, Sergio


    We describe here the main natural compounds used in cancer therapy and prevention, the historical aspects of their application and pharmacognosy. Two major applications of these compounds are described: as cancer therapeutics and as chemopreventive compounds. Both natural compounds, extracted from plants or animals or produced by microbes (antibiotics), and synthetic compounds, derived from natural prototype structures, are being used. We also focus on the molecular aspects of interactions with their recognized cellular targets, from DNA to microtubules. Some critical aspects of current cancer chemotherapy are also discussed, focusing on genetics and genomics, and the recent revolutionary theory of cancer: aneuploidy as the primum movens of cancer.

  3. Bioavailability of dietary phenolic compounds: Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick Gutiérrez-Grijalva Paul Gutiérrez-Grijalva


    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds are ubiquitous in plant-based foods. High dietary intake of fruits, vegetables and cereals is related to a decreased rate in chronic diseases. Phenolic compounds are thought to be responsible, at least in part, for those health effects. Nonetheless, phenolic compounds bioaccessibility and biotransformation is often not considered in these studies; thus, a precise mechanism of action of phenolic compounds is not known. In this review we aim to present a comprehensive knowledge of the metabolic processes through which phenolic compounds go after intake.

  4. Characterization of Sulfur Compounds in MTBE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingqing Wu


    Full Text Available A study is carried out on chemical constitution of sulfur compounds in MTBE and their formation mechanisms. These sulfur compounds are classified into three types: common sulfur compounds, newly formed sulfur compounds, and high boiling sulfur compounds. Common sulfur compounds which include mercaptans, low molecule sulfides and disulfides, are directly from C4, one of the stocks for production of MTBE. The newly formed sulfur compounds, with one sulfur atom and five or more total carbon atoms in one molecule, are mainly tert-butyl methyl sulfide and tert-butyl ethyl sulfide, thioetherification products of thiols with butenes. Many high boiling sulfur compounds, including polysulfides such as dimethyl trisulfide, multisulfur heterocyclic compounds such as 3,5-dimethyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, and oxygen-containing sulfur compounds such as 2-methoxy-3-methylthio-butane, are also found newly formed in the processes of LPG refining and succedent etherification reaction for producing MTBE. Polysulfides are additional products of elemental sulfur to disulfides, and other high boiling sulfur compounds may be formed by thiols reacting with dienes.

  5. Promiscuity progression of bioactive compounds over time. (United States)

    Hu, Ye; Jasial, Swarit; Bajorath, Jürgen


    In the context of polypharmacology, compound promiscuity is rationalized as the ability of small molecules to specifically interact with multiple targets. To study promiscuity progression of bioactive compounds in detail, nearly 1 million compounds and more than 5.2 million activity records were analyzed. Compound sets were assembled by applying different data confidence criteria and selecting compounds with activity histories over many years. On the basis of release dates, compounds and activity records were organized on a time course, which ultimately enabled monitoring data growth and promiscuity progression over nearly 40 years, beginning in 1976. Surprisingly low degrees of promiscuity were consistently detected for all compound sets and there were only small increases in promiscuity over time. In fact, most compounds had a constant degree of promiscuity, including compounds with an activity history of 10 or 20 years. Moreover, during periods of massive data growth, beginning in 2007, promiscuity degrees also remained constant or displayed only minor increases, depending on the activity data confidence levels. Considering high-confidence data, bioactive compounds currently interact with 1.5 targets on average, regardless of their origins, and display essentially constant degrees of promiscuity over time. Taken together, our findings provide expectation values for promiscuity progression and magnitudes among bioactive compounds as activity data further grow.

  6. Reaction of uranocenes with nitro compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, C.B.; Streitwieser, A. Jr.


    Uranocenes (di-eta/sup 8/-cyclooctatetraeneuranium) are relatively stable to many neutral oxygen-containing organic compounds but react rapidly with aromatic and aliphatic nitro compounds to liberate the cyclooctatetraene ligand in quantitative yield and form azo compounds, often in good yield but in some cases with formation also of the corresponding amines. p-Nitrotoluene reacts more slowly than nitrobenzene. Additional studies of reaction mechanism show that free nitro radical anions or nitrenes do not appear to be involved, but free nitroso compounds are probable intermediates. Azoxy compounds react more slowly with uranocenes and cannot be intermediates in the reactions of nitro compounds. The reaction has few analogies. 67 references, 3 tables.

  7. Microwave extraction of bioactive compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Blekić


    Full Text Available Microwave extraction presents novel extraction and treatment method for food processing. In paper, several examples of microwave extraction of bioactive compounds are presented. Also, novel innovative equipment for microwave extraction and hydrodiffusion with gravitation is presented. Advantage of using novel equipment for microwave extraction is shown, and it include, shorter treatment time, less usage or without any solvent use. Novel method is compared to standard extraction methods. Some positive and negative aspects of microwave heating can be observed, and also its influence on development of oxidation in sunflower oil subjected to microwave heating. Also, use of microwaves for the extraction of essential oils is shown. One can also see the advantages of solvent-free microwave extraction of essential oil from aromatic herbs in comparison with the standard extraction, and determination of antioxidant components in rice bran oil extracted by microwave-assisted method. Comparison of microwave and ultrasound extraction, as well as positive and negative aspects of the combination of microwaves and ultrasound is described.

  8. Antibacterial and Antifungal Compounds from Marine Fungi


    Xu, Lijian; Meng, Wei; Cao, Cong; Wang, Jian; Shan, Wenjun; Wang, Qinggui


    This paper reviews 116 new compounds with antifungal or antibacterial activities as well as 169 other known antimicrobial compounds, with a specific focus on January 2010 through March 2015. Furthermore, the phylogeny of the fungi producing these antibacterial or antifungal compounds was analyzed. The new methods used to isolate marine fungi that possess antibacterial or antifungal activities as well as the relationship between structure and activity are shown in this review.

  9. Volatile compounds profile of Bromeliaceae flowers


    SOUZA, Everton Hilo de; Massarioli, Adna P; Moreno, Ivani A. M.; Souza, Fernanda V. D.; Ledo, Carlos A.S.; Severino M de Alencar; Martinelli,Adriana P.


    Volatile compounds play a vital role in the life cycle of plants, possessing antimicrobial and anti-herbivore activities, and with a significant importance in the food, cosmetic, chemical, and pharmaceutical industry. This study aimed to identify the volatile compounds emitted by flowers of thirteen species belonging to four genera of Bromeliaceae, using headspace solid-phase micro-extraction and detection by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 71 volatile compounds belonging to ...

  10. Superconductivity of Thin Film Intermetallic Compounds. (United States)


    D-RISE 2?I SUPERCONDUCTIVITY OF THIN FILM INTERMETLLIC COMPOUNDS I/i. (U) MINNESOTR UNIV MINNERPOLIS SCHOOL OF PHYSICS AND RSTRONOMY R M GOLDMRN 15...parameters to either higher temperatures of higher critical fields. Materials under study are the superconducting Chevrel phase compounds, selected Heavy...superconducting field effect. Processing of the Chevrel Phase I compounds is carried out in a multi-source deposition system. The latter has been upgraded and

  11. Antibacterial and Antifungal Compounds from Marine Fungi (United States)

    Xu, Lijian; Meng, Wei; Cao, Cong; Wang, Jian; Shan, Wenjun; Wang, Qinggui


    This paper reviews 116 new compounds with antifungal or antibacterial activities as well as 169 other known antimicrobial compounds, with a specific focus on January 2010 through March 2015. Furthermore, the phylogeny of the fungi producing these antibacterial or antifungal compounds was analyzed. The new methods used to isolate marine fungi that possess antibacterial or antifungal activities as well as the relationship between structure and activity are shown in this review. PMID:26042616


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Two new compounds, 7-methoxycoumarin (I and 7-hydroxyartemidin (II were isolated from the ethanol/water (50:50, V/V extract of Artemisia drucunculus L. leaves. Structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectral data ('H NMR and MS. It is shown that compound I is devoid of anticoagulation activity in male Albino rabbits in contrast to the same activity observed in rabbits using the crude extract of the leaves.

  13. Potent antifouling compounds produced by marine Streptomyces

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Ying


    Biofouling causes huge economic loss and a recent global ban on organotin compounds as antifouling agents has increased the need for safe and effective antifouling compounds. Five structurally similar compounds were isolated from the crude extract of a marine Streptomyces strain obtained from deep-sea sediments. Antifouling activities of these five compounds and four other structurally-related compounds isolated from a North Sea Streptomyces strain against major fouling organisms were compared to probe structure-activity relationships of compounds. The functional moiety responsible for antifouling activity lies in the 2-furanone ring and that the lipophilicity of compounds substantially affects their antifouling activities. Based on these findings, a compound with a straight alkyl side-chain was synthesized and proved itself as a very effective non-toxic, anti-larval settlement agent against three major fouling organisms. The strong antifouling activity, relatively low toxicity, and simple structures of these compounds make them promising candidates for new antifouling additives. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Corciovă


    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to examine the potential of beta-cyclodextrin to improve the solubility of rutin and obtain inclusion compounds that were analyzed by different techniques: UV-Vis, IR spectroscopy, thermal analysis. The presence of β-cyclodextrin raises the content of rutin in water. The inclusion compounds were prepared by dry mixing, complexation in semisolid and liquid medium in 1:2 molar ratio rutin - β-cyclodextrin. The UV-Vis and IR analysis demonstrated the obtaining of inclusion compounds and the thermal analysis show that these compounds are more stable than the parent substance.

  15. Antimicrobial Action of Compounds from Marine Seaweed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Pérez


    Full Text Available Seaweed produces metabolites aiding in the protection against different environmental stresses. These compounds show antiviral, antiprotozoal, antifungal, and antibacterial properties. Macroalgae can be cultured in high volumes and would represent an attractive source of potential compounds useful for unconventional drugs able to control new diseases or multiresistant strains of pathogenic microorganisms. The substances isolated from green, brown and red algae showing potent antimicrobial activity belong to polysaccharides, fatty acids, phlorotannins, pigments, lectins, alkaloids, terpenoids and halogenated compounds. This review presents the major compounds found in macroalga showing antimicrobial activities and their most promising applications.

  16. Prioritizing pesticide compounds for analytical methods development (United States)

    Norman, Julia E.; Kuivila, Kathryn; Nowell, Lisa H.


    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has a periodic need to re-evaluate pesticide compounds in terms of priorities for inclusion in monitoring and studies and, thus, must also assess the current analytical capabilities for pesticide detection. To meet this need, a strategy has been developed to prioritize pesticides and degradates for analytical methods development. Screening procedures were developed to separately prioritize pesticide compounds in water and sediment. The procedures evaluate pesticide compounds in existing USGS analytical methods for water and sediment and compounds for which recent agricultural-use information was available. Measured occurrence (detection frequency and concentrations) in water and sediment, predicted concentrations in water and predicted likelihood of occurrence in sediment, potential toxicity to aquatic life or humans, and priorities of other agencies or organizations, regulatory or otherwise, were considered. Several existing strategies for prioritizing chemicals for various purposes were reviewed, including those that identify and prioritize persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic compounds, and those that determine candidates for future regulation of drinking-water contaminants. The systematic procedures developed and used in this study rely on concepts common to many previously established strategies. The evaluation of pesticide compounds resulted in the classification of compounds into three groups: Tier 1 for high priority compounds, Tier 2 for moderate priority compounds, and Tier 3 for low priority compounds. For water, a total of 247 pesticide compounds were classified as Tier 1 and, thus, are high priority for inclusion in analytical methods for monitoring and studies. Of these, about three-quarters are included in some USGS analytical method; however, many of these compounds are included on research methods that are expensive and for which there are few data on environmental samples. The remaining quarter of Tier 1


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the grauunar assigns grammatical functions to the nanheads of compounds. According to Selkirk (1981:255), such .... ever, Selkirk presents neither an explicit intensional definition of this notion nor an exhaustive list of ..... analysis of Afrikaans verbal compounds, this hypothesis is apparently contradicted by forms such as ...

  18. Platinum compounds with anti-tumour activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plooy, A.C.M.; Lohman, P.H.M.


    Ten platinum (Pt) coordination complexes with different ligands, comprising both Pt(II) and Pt(IV) complexes of which the cis-compounds all possessed at least some anti-tumour activity and the trans-compounds were inactive, were tested as to their effect on cell survival and the induction and repair

  19. Determination of Phytochemical Compounds, and Tyrosinase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    benzaldehyde (1) [14], p-hydroxy benzoic acid methyl ester (2) [15], umbelliferone (3) [16], moracin M (4) [17] and trans-resveratrol (5) [18]. Their spectral data are given as follow: (E)-2,4-Dihydroxy-3-(3,7-dimethyl-2,6- octadienyl) benzaldehyde (Compound 1);. C17H22O3. Compound 1 was obtained as colorless needles,.

  20. Negative thermal expansion in framework compounds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    electron microscopy, EXAFS and differential scanning calorimetry have been used to study structural properties as a function of temperature for these compounds. In this paper we report the results obtained from our study [14–20] of negative thermal expansion (NTE) compounds with chemical compositions of NX2O8 and.

  1. Production of aroma compounds in lactic fermentations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smid, E.J.; Kleerebezem, M.


    This review describes recent scientific research on the production of aroma compounds by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in fermented food products. We discuss the various precursor molecules for the formation of aroma compounds in connection with the metabolic pathways involved. The roles of

  2. Amino acid modifiers in guayule rubber compounds (United States)

    Tire producers are increasingly interested in biobased materials, including rubber but also as compounding chemicals. An alternative natural rubber for tire use is produced by guayule, a woody desert shrub native to North America. Alternative compounding chemicals include naturally-occurring amino a...

  3. Bioautography indicates the multiplicity of antifungal compounds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Sep 18, 2006 ... 199 active compounds, followed by methanol (189) and hexane (73). This difference is apparently not related to the sectional division of the species (Carr, 1988). Comparison of eluent systems. Lastly we determined which TLC solvent system separa- ted the highest number of active compounds (Table 27).

  4. Antimicrobial susceptibility assessment of compound from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethyl acetate extract of the culture filtrate of Aspergillus fumigatus on chromatographic analysis has led to the isolation of the compound, AF-1 which exhibited a significant in vitro antimicrobial activity against the tested pathogenic microorganism. The structure of the isolated compound, AF-1 was identified as ...

  5. Volatile organic compound emissions from silage systems (United States)

    As a precursor to smog, emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to the atmosphere is an environmental concern in some regions. The major source from farms is silage, with emissions coming from the silo face, mixing wagon, and feed bunk. The major compounds emitted are alcohols with other impor...

  6. Extraction of phenolic compounds from Temnocalyx obovatus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phenolic compounds yield in plant extracts depend on the method employed in the extraction process. In this study, we investigated systematically, a method of determination of extraction yield of antioxidant compounds from Temnocalyx obovatus. A sample treatment and preparation protocol that employs strict statistical ...

  7. Antiplasmodial activity of some phenolic compounds from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antiplasmodial activity of some phenolic compounds from Cameroonians Allanblackia. ... This study presents an in vitro assessment of the antiplasmodial activity of some phenolic compounds isolated from plants of the genus Allanblackia. Methods: Tests were ... Six of them were evaluated for their antimalarial properties.

  8. Dissociation Dynamics of Nitrogen Rich Cyclic Compounds (United States)


    Arlington, VA 2220 Abstract The photophysics and photochemistry of the nitrogen-rich compounds diazomethane and diazirine were studied both...experimentally and theoretically following excitation in the ultraviolet . These molecules are locally stable on their ground potential energy surfaces, but they...ABSTRACT The photophysics and photochemistry of the nitrogen-rich compounds diazomethane and diazirine were studied both experimentally and

  9. Two new supramolecular compounds induced by novel ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Compound 1 has a 2D polypseudorotaxane structure and compound 2 presents a 1D chain structure. Furthermore, the thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA),UV–Vis diffusereflectance spectra, the morphology and the photocatalytic performances were studied carefully. Remarkably, both 1 and 2 exhibited good photocatalytic ...

  10. Semantics vs Pragmatics of a Compound Word (United States)

    Smirnova, Elena A.; Biktemirova, Ella I.; Davletbaeva, Diana N.


    This paper is devoted to the study of correlation between semantic and pragmatic potential of a compound word, which functions in informal speech, and the mechanisms of secondary nomination, which realizes the potential of semantic-pragmatic features of colloquial compounds. The relevance and the choice of the research question is based on the…

  11. Compound sums and their applications in finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Helmers (Roelof); B. Tarigan


    textabstractCompound sums arise frequently in insurance (total claim size in a portfolio) and in accountancy (total error amount in audit populations). As the normal approximation for compound sums usually performs very badly, one may look for better methods for approximating the distribution of a

  12. Lattice anisotropy in uranium ternary compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maskova, S.; Adamska, A.M.; Havela, L.


    Several U-based intermetallic compounds (UCoGe, UNiGe with the TiNiSi structure type and UNiAl with the ZrNiAl structure type) and their hydrides were studied from the point of view of compressibility and thermal expansion. Confronted with existing data for the compounds with the ZrNiAl structure...

  13. Bis(1,3-dithiole) Compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jan Rud; Engler, E. M.; Green, D. C.


    There is described the preparation of bis-1,3-dithiole compounds (I) which are key synthetic precursors for the preparation of new polymeric metal bis(dithiolene) (i.e., II) and tetrathiafulvalene compounds (i.e., III): (Image Omitted)...

  14. Bioactive Compounds And Encapsulation Of Yanang ( Tiliacora ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The stability of bioactive compounds was evaluated using phenolic compounds, total antioxidant, carotenoids and chlorophyll. Results: The study of the bioactivity of Yanang extracts found that extraction with water was the appropriate application. The study of Yanang encapsulation demonstrated that gum Arabic, ...

  15. Phenolic compounds of three unconventional Sudanese oils. (United States)

    Mariod, Abdalbasit; Matthäus, Bertrand; Eichner, Karl; Hussein, Ismail H


    The total amount and content of phenolic and flavonoid compounds using the Folin-Ciocalteu and Aluminum chloride methods of the methanolic extracts of Sclerocarya birrea oil (SCO), Melon bug oil (MBO), and Sorghum bug oil (SBO) were studied. Dry samples of Sclerocarya birrea, Aspongopus vidiuatus and Agonoscelis pubescens were used in this study. The oil was extracted using n-hexane following AOCS method. The phenolic compounds were extracted following a well known method and the total amounts of phenolic and flavonoids were determined using Folin-Ciocalteau and aluminum chloride methods, respectively and were identified by HPLC. The concentration of total phenolic compounds was determined as 3.3, 20.7 and 0.9 mg/100 g oil, in SCO, MBO and SBO, respectively, calculated as gallic acid equivalents. The polar fraction of the three oils was separated using solid phase extraction method. The variation of simple and complex oils phenols studied by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection (DAD) using sephadex eluted by acetone revealed six phenolic compounds which were identified as vanillic acid, callistephin, sinapic acid, t-cinnamic acid, epicatechin, and luteolin in SCO, and four phenolic compounds were identified as vanillin, sinapic acid, o-coumaric acid, and quercetin, in SBO, while in MBO four phenolic compounds were identified as t-cinnamic, syringic acid, quercetin and pelargonin. The phenolic compounds found in SCO, SBO, and MBO can be divided into phenolic compounds and flavonoids.

  16. Pickpocket compounds from Latin to Romance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielsen Whitehead, Benedicte


    This thesis discusses the development in Proto–Indo–European, Latin and Romance of a word–formation pattern which the most adequate terminology in use dubs ‘verbal government compounds with a governing first member’; I use the shorthand ‘pickpocket compounds’. The first member of such compounds

  17. Bioactive compounds in whole grain wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mateo Anson, N.


    Bread can be healthier! Consuming whole-grain foods can prevent cardiovascular diseases, type-2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. This is due to bioactive compounds in whole grain, such as antioxidants and anti-inflammatory compounds. We found that the different fractions of a wheat grain vary much

  18. Phosphorus–nitrogen compounds: Part 15. Synthesis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Δ(P–N) are presented respectively. In addition, the relationship between the endocyclic NPN bond angles of these compounds and the. 31. P-NMR chemical shifts of the spiro-phosphorus atoms were investigated. The spectroscopic and structural investigations of the compounds were made by elemental analyses, MS,.

  19. Comparative analysis of technical efficiencies between compound ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to compare the level of technical efficiency in the compound and non compound farms in Imo state. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used to select 120 food crop farmers from two out of the three agricultural zones in Imo state. Using the Chow (1960) analysis of covariance technique ...

  20. Photosensitizing compounds in extracts of drinking water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epstein, S.S.; Taylor, F.B.


    By means of a photodynamic bioassay, with Paramecium caudatum, photosensitizing compounds have been demonstrated in extracts of finished drinking water in the US. These findings are of interest in view of a demonstrated association between photodynamic toxicity and carcinogenicity. Neither the origin nor the identity of these compounds has been determined. 10 references, 1 figure, 3 tables.

  1. Heterogeneous photocatalytic reactions of sulfur aromatic compounds. (United States)

    Samokhvalov, Alexander


    Sulfur aromatic compounds, such as mono-, di-, tri-, and tetraalkyl-substituted thiophene, benzothiophenes, dibenzothiophenes, are the molecular components of many fossils (petroleum, oil shale, tar sands, bitumen). Structural units of natural, cross-linked heteroaromatic polymers present in brown coals, turf, and soil are similar to those of sulfur aromatic compounds. Many sulfur aromatic compounds are found in the streams of petroleum refining and upgrading (naphthas, gas oils) and in the consumer products (gasoline, diesel, jet fuels, heating fuels). Besides fossils, the structural fragments of sulfur aromatic compounds are present in molecules of certain organic semiconductors, pesticides, small molecule drugs, and in certain biomolecules present in human body (pheomelanin pigments). Photocatalysis is the frontier area of physical chemistry that studies chemical reactions initiated by absorption of photons by photocatalysts, that is, upon electronic rather than thermal activation, under "green" ambient conditions. This review provides systematization and critical review of the fundamental chemical and physicochemical information on heterogeneous photocatalysis of sulfur aromatic compounds accumulated in the last 20-30 years. Specifically, the following topics are covered: physicochemical properties of sulfur aromatic compounds, major classes of heterogeneous photocatalysts, mechanisms and reactive intermediates of photocatalytic reactions of sulfur aromatic compounds, and the selectivity of these reactions. Quantum chemical calculations of properties and structures of sulfur aromatic compounds, their reactive intermediates, and the structure of adsorption complexes formed on the surface of the photocatalysts are also discussed. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Hybrid Compounding in New Zealand English (United States)

    Degani, Marta; Onysko, Alexander


    This study investigates hybrid compound formation of Maori and English terms in present day New Zealand English (NZE). On the background of Maori and English language contact, the phenomenon of hybrid compounding emerges as a process that, on the one hand, symbolizes the vitality of the Maori element in NZE and, on the other hand, marks the…

  3. Compounded laxative formulations for substituting phenolphthalein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Patrick O Erah

    Purpose: Following the discovery of the carcinogenicity of phenolphthalein and the subsequent ban of this compound in several countries this study was undertaken to develop compounded formulations of laxative products containing the stimulant laxatives sennosides. A and B. Methods: DSC and HPLC analysis was used ...

  4. Bacterial formation of hydroxylated aromatic compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tweel, van den W.J.J.


    As stated in the introduction of this thesis, hydroxylated aromatic compounds in general are of great importance for various industries as for instance pharmaceutical, agrochemical and petrochemical industries. Since these compounds can not be isolated in sufficient amounts from natural

  5. Cytotoxic compounds from a marine actinomycete, Streptomyces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The search for cytotoxic compounds is continuing due to the demand for new anticancer drugs. In this work, compound I was isolated from the marine derived actinomycete strain AUBN10/2, obtained from marine sediment samples of Bay of Bengal, India. This was obtained by solvent extraction followed by chromatographic ...

  6. Methods of making organic compounds by metathesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, Timothy W.; Kaido, Hiroki; Lee, Choon Woo; Pederson, Richard L.; Schrodi, Yann; Tupy, Michael John


    Described are methods of making organic compounds by metathesis chemistry. The methods of the invention are particularly useful for making industrially-important organic compounds beginning with starting compositions derived from renewable feedstocks, such as natural oils. The methods make use of a cross-metathesis step with an olefin compound to produce functionalized alkene intermediates having a pre-determined double bond position. Once isolated, the functionalized alkene intermediate can be self-metathesized or cross-metathesized (e.g., with a second functionalized alkene) to produce the desired organic compound or a precursor thereto. The method may be used to make bifunctional organic compounds, such as diacids, diesters, dicarboxylate salts, acid/esters, acid/amines, acid/alcohols, acid/aldehydes, acid/ketones, acid/halides, acid/nitriles, ester/amines, ester/alcohols, ester/aldehydes, ester/ketones, ester/halides, ester/nitriles, and the like.

  7. Characteristic Aroma Compounds from Different Pineapple Parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Ming Sun


    Full Text Available Characteristic aroma volatile compounds from different parts of cayenne pineapple were analyzed by headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS. The main volatile compounds were esters, terpenes, ketones and aldehydes. The number and content of aroma compounds detected in pulp were higher than those found in core. In pulp, the characteristic aroma compounds were ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, ethyl hexanoate, 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H-furanone (DMHF, decanal, ethyl 3-(methylthiopropionate, ethyl butanoate, and ethyl (E-3-hexenoate; while in core the main compounds were ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, ethyl hexanoate and DMHF. The highest odor units were found to correspond to ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, followed by ethyl hexanoate and DMHF. The odor units found for pulp were higher than those for core.

  8. Thiophenic Sulfur Compounds Released During Coal Pyrolysis (United States)

    Xing, Mengwen; Kong, Jiao; Dong, Jie; Jiao, Haili; Li, Fan


    Abstract Thiophenic sulfur compounds are released during coal gasification, carbonization, and combustion. Previous studies indicate that thiophenic sulfur compounds degrade very slowly in the environment, and are more carcinogenic than polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nitrogenous compounds. Therefore, it is very important to study the principle of thiophenic sulfur compounds during coal conversion, in order to control their emission and promote clean coal utilization. To realize this goal and understand the formation mechanism of thiophenic sulfur compounds, this study focused on the release behavior of thiophenic sulfur compounds during coal pyrolysis, which is an important phase for all coal thermal conversion processes. The pyrolyzer (CDS-5250) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (Focus GC-DSQII) were used to analyze thiophenic sulfur compounds in situ. Several coals with different coal ranks and sulfur contents were chosen as experimental samples, and thiophenic sulfur compounds of the gas produced during pyrolysis under different temperatures and heating rates were investigated. Levels of benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene were obtained during pyrolysis at temperatures ranging from 200°C to 1300°C, and heating rates ranging from 6°C/ms to 14°C/ms and 6°C/s to 14°C/s. Moreover, the relationship between the total amount of benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene released during coal pyrolysis and the organic sulfur content in coal was also discussed. This study is beneficial for understanding the formation and control of thiophenic sulfur compounds, since it provides a series of significant results that show the impact that operation conditions and organic sulfur content in coal have on the amount and species of thiophenic sulfur compounds produced during coal pyrolysis. PMID:23781126

  9. Thiophenic Sulfur Compounds Released During Coal Pyrolysis. (United States)

    Xing, Mengwen; Kong, Jiao; Dong, Jie; Jiao, Haili; Li, Fan


    Thiophenic sulfur compounds are released during coal gasification, carbonization, and combustion. Previous studies indicate that thiophenic sulfur compounds degrade very slowly in the environment, and are more carcinogenic than polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nitrogenous compounds. Therefore, it is very important to study the principle of thiophenic sulfur compounds during coal conversion, in order to control their emission and promote clean coal utilization. To realize this goal and understand the formation mechanism of thiophenic sulfur compounds, this study focused on the release behavior of thiophenic sulfur compounds during coal pyrolysis, which is an important phase for all coal thermal conversion processes. The pyrolyzer (CDS-5250) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Focus GC-DSQII) were used to analyze thiophenic sulfur compounds in situ . Several coals with different coal ranks and sulfur contents were chosen as experimental samples, and thiophenic sulfur compounds of the gas produced during pyrolysis under different temperatures and heating rates were investigated. Levels of benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene were obtained during pyrolysis at temperatures ranging from 200°C to 1300°C, and heating rates ranging from 6°C/ms to 14°C/ms and 6°C/s to 14°C/s. Moreover, the relationship between the total amount of benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene released during coal pyrolysis and the organic sulfur content in coal was also discussed. This study is beneficial for understanding the formation and control of thiophenic sulfur compounds, since it provides a series of significant results that show the impact that operation conditions and organic sulfur content in coal have on the amount and species of thiophenic sulfur compounds produced during coal pyrolysis.

  10. The reaction of diarylzinc compounds with silver salts : Synthesis and characterization of arylsilver(I) compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstee, H.K.; Boersma, J.; Kerk, G.J.M. van der


    The reaction of diarylzinc compounds with silver(I) salts is an excellent method of preparing stable arylsilver compounds in quantitative yields. These compounds have been characterized by IR and 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy Cryoscopy in benzene shows phenylsilver to be polymeric, and the

  11. IRIS Toxicological Review of Thallium and Compounds ... (United States)

    Thallium compounds are used in the semiconductor industry, the manufacture of optic lenses and low-melting glass, low-temperature thermometers, alloys, electronic devices, mercury lamps, fireworks, and imitation germs, and clinically as an imaging agent in the diagnosis of certain tumors. EPA's assessment of noncancer health effects and carcinogenic potential of thallium compounds was last prepared and added to the IRIS database between 1988 and 1990. The IRIS program is preparing an assessment that will incorporate current health effects information available for thallium and compounds, and current risk assessment methods. The IRIS assessment for thallium compounds will consist of a Toxicological Review and IRIS Summary. The Toxicological Review is a critical review of the physiochemical and toxicokinetic properties of a chemical, and its toxicity in humans and experimental systems. The assessment will present reference values for the noncancer effects of thallium compounds (RfD and Rfc), and a cancer assessment. The Toxicological Review and IRIS Summary have been subject to Agency review, Interagency review, and external scientific peer review. The final product will reflect the Agency opinion on the overall toxicity of thallium and compounds. EPA is undertaking an Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) health assessment for thallium and compounds. IRIS is an EPA database containing Agency scientific positions on potential adverse human health effec

  12. Biodegradable compounds: Rheological, mechanical and thermal properties (United States)

    Nobile, Maria Rossella; Lucia, G.; Santella, M.; Malinconico, M.; Cerruti, P.; Pantani, R.


    Recently great attention from industry has been focused on biodegradable polyesters derived from renewable resources. In particular, PLA has attracted great interest due to its high strength and high modulus and a good biocompatibility, however its brittleness and low heat distortion temperature (HDT) restrict its wide application. On the other hand, Poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) is a biodegradable polymer with a low tensile modulus but characterized by a high flexibility, excellent impact strength, good thermal and chemical resistance. In this work the two aliphatic biodegradable polyesters PBS and PLA were selected with the aim to obtain a biodegradable material for the industry of plastic cups and plates. PBS was also blended with a thermoplastic starch. Talc was also added to the compounds because of its low cost and its effectiveness in increasing the modulus and the HDT of polymers. The compounds were obtained by melt compounding in a single screw extruder and the rheological, mechanical and thermal properties were investigated. The properties of the two compounds were compared and it was found that the values of the tensile modulus and elongation at break measured for the PBS/PLA/Talc compound make it interesting for the production of disposable plates and cups. In terms of thermal resistance the compounds have HDTs high enough to contain hot food or beverages. The PLA/PBS/Talc compound can be, then, considered as biodegradable substitute for polystyrene for the production of disposable plates and cups for hot food and beverages.

  13. A literature study on Arsenic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cho, Tae-Sung


    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study is to develop and activate the methods of using the arsenic compounds as the anti-cancer medicine. Methods: We investigated some literatures on the using methods, the effects for anti-cancer, and the toxicity of the arsenic compounds. Results: The results are summarized as follows. 1. As is the one of the nitrogen familIy(5A familly. 2. The Arsenic compounds which have been used as the one of the oriental medicine are the Arsenicum Sulbimatum(A52O3 and the Realgar(AsS. 3. As+ 3 is more toxic than the other arsenic compounds. The fatal amount is 100-300 mg. So, it is used 1-5 mg/day as a medicine. 4. The Arsenicwn Sulbimatum(A52O3 and the Realgar(AsS are used after the heat treatment or the boiling with the acetic acid. 5. The gastrointestinal tract, vessel, and respiration are affected by the acute toxicity of the arsenic compounds. 6. The arsenic compounds are good for the dermatosis and the malignant cancer, especially the acute promyelocytic leukcrnia(APL. we should study the reason of these and the different effect in concentration, also develop new methods of using the the arsenic compounds as getting rid of their toxicity.

  14. Phenolic compounds in Ross Sea water (United States)

    Zangrando, Roberta; Barbaro, Elena; Gambaro, Andrea; Barbante, Carlo; Corami, Fabiana; Kehrwald, Natalie; Capodaglio, Gabriele


    Phenolic compounds are semi-volatile organic compounds produced during biomass burning and lignin degradation in water. In atmospheric and paleoclimatic ice cores studies, these compounds are used as biomarkers of wood combustion and supply information on the type of combusted biomass. Phenolic compounds are therefore indicators of paleoclimatic interest. Recent studies of Antarctic aerosols highlighted that phenolic compounds in Antarctica are not exclusively attributable to biomass burning but also derive from marine sources. In order to study the marine contribution to aerosols we developed an analytical method to determine the concentration of vanillic acid, vanillin, p-coumaric acid, syringic acid, isovanillic acid, homovanillic acid, syringaldehyde, acetosyringone and acetovanillone present in dissolved and particle phases in Sea Ross waters using HPLC-MS/MS. The analytical method was validated and used to quantify phenolic compounds in 28 sea water samples collected during a 2012 Ross Sea R/V cruise. The observed compounds were vanillic acid, vanillin, acetovanillone and p-coumaric acid with concentrations in the ng/L range. Higher concentrations of analytes were present in the dissolved phase than in the particle phase. Sample concentrations were greatest in the coastal, surficial and less saline Ross Sea waters near Victoria Land.

  15. Health promoting compounds in vegetables and fruits:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, K.; Christensen, L.P.; Hansen-Møller, J.


    Vegetables contain unknown compounds with important health promoting effect. The described project defined and tested a two-step screening procedure for identification of such compounds. Step 1 is initial screening according to three criteria: 1.1, chemically reactive functional groups; 1.......2, toxicity at high concentrations or other bioactivity; and 1.3, presence in healthy foods. Step 2 is testing for minimum criteria defining health-promoting compounds: 2.1, positive or biphasic ("hormesis") responses in bioassay; 2.2, human tissue concentrations corresponding to beneficial effects...

  16. Method for the detection of aquaretic compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    Disclosed is a method for detecting an aquaretic compound. In one embodiment, the method includes administering to a mammal a candidate compound that modulates a nociceptin receptor. Biological material is isolated from the mammal and expression of aquaporin-2 is measured. Modulation of the aquap...... of the aquaporin-2 is taken to be indicative of a candidate compound having aquaretic activity. The invention has a wide spectrum of uses including helping to identify new diuretics that spare unwanted loss of sodium and potassium ions....

  17. Endocannabinoids, Related Compounds and Their Metabolic Routes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filomena Fezza


    Full Text Available Endocannabinoids are lipid mediators able to bind to and activate cannabinoid receptors, the primary molecular targets responsible for the pharmacological effects of the Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol. These bioactive lipids belong mainly to two classes of compounds: N-acylethanolamines and acylesters, being N-arachidonoylethanolamine (AEA and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG, respectively, their main representatives. During the last twenty years, an ever growing number of fatty acid derivatives (endocannabinoids and endocannabinoid-like compounds have been discovered and their activities biological is the subject of intense investigations. Here, the most recent advances, from a therapeutic point of view, on endocannabinoids, related compounds, and their metabolic routes will be reviewed.

  18. Antibacterial Compounds from Red Seaweeds (Rhodophyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noer Kasanah


    Full Text Available Seaweeds produce great variety of metabolites benefit for human. Red seaweeds (Rhodophyta are well known as producer of phycocolloids such agar, agarose, carragenan and great variety of secondary metabolites. This review discusses the red algal secondary metabolites with antibacterial activity. The chemical constituents of red algae are steroid, terpenoid, acetogenin and dominated by halogenated compounds mainly brominated compounds. Novel compounds with intriguing skeleton are also reported such as bromophycolides and neurymenolides. In summary, red seaweeds are potential sources for antibacterial agents and can serve as lead in synthesis of new natural medicines.

  19. Three new compounds from Cinnamomum cassia. (United States)

    He, Shan; Jiang, Yong; Tu, Peng-Fei


    Three new compounds, including two new diterpenoids, named epianhydrocinnzeylanol (1) and cinnacasiol H (2), and one hydroxylasiodiplodin, (3R,4S,6R)-4,6-dihydroxy-de-O-methyllasiodiplodin (3), together with five known diterpenoids (4-8) and two known phenolic glycosides (9-10) were isolated from the barks of Cinnamomum cassia. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis and comparison of the chemical shift values with those of related known compounds. The anti-inflammatory activities of the isolates were evaluated on nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-induced BV-2 microglial cells and the compounds showed weak inhibition activities.

  20. High-resolution view of compound promiscuity. (United States)

    Hu, Ye; Bajorath, Jürgen


    Compound promiscuity is defined as the ability of a small molecule to specifically interact with multiple biological targets. So-defined promiscuity is relevant for drug discovery because it provides the molecular basis of polypharmacology, which is increasingly implicated in the therapeutic efficacy of drugs. Recent studies have analyzed different aspects of compound promiscuity on the basis of currently available activity data. In this commentary, we present take-home messages from these studies augmented with new results to generate a detailed picture of compound promiscuity that might serve as a reference for further discussions and research activities.

  1. Methylene Diphenyl Diisocyanate (MDI) And Related Compounds (United States)

    This document addresses the use of methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) and related compounds (See Appendix 1) in products that may result in consumer and general population exposures, particularly in or around buildings, including homes and schools.

  2. Phosphorus-nitrogen compounds: Part 15. Synthesis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    electron density transfer parameters) of 4, 5, 6, 7 and the analogous compounds as well as the relationship between the ( ) values and the above mentioned (-) are presented respectively. In addition, the relationship between the ...

  3. Cantilever torque magnetometry on coordination compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perfetti, Mauro


    Cantilever Torque Magnetometry (CTM) is one of the leading techniques to deeply understand magnetic anisotropy of coordination compounds. The knowledge of magnetic anisotropy is a mandatory requirement before proceeding with any future application related to the magnetic properties of coordination...

  4. Stabilized lanthanum sulphur compounds. [thermoelectric materials (United States)

    Reynolds, G. H.; Elsner, N. B.; Shearer, C. H. (Inventor)


    Lanthanum sulfide is maintained in the stable cubic phase form over a temperature range of from 500 C to 1500 C by adding to it small amounts of calcium, barium, or strontium. This compound is an excellent thermoelectric material.

  5. Atmospheric Chemistry of Micrometeoritic Organic Compounds (United States)

    Kress, M. E.; Belle, C. L.; Pevyhouse, A. R.; Iraci, L. T.


    Micrometeorites approx.100 m in diameter deliver most of the Earth s annual accumulation of extraterrestrial material. These small particles are so strongly heated upon atmospheric entry that most of their volatile content is vaporized. Here we present preliminary results from two sets of experiments to investigate the fate of the organic fraction of micrometeorites. In the first set of experiments, 300 m particles of a CM carbonaceous chondrite were subject to flash pyrolysis, simulating atmospheric entry. In addition to CO and CO2, many organic compounds were released, including functionalized benzenes, hydrocarbons, and small polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In the second set of experiments, we subjected two of these compounds to conditions that simulate the heterogeneous chemistry of Earth s upper atmosphere. We find evidence that meteor-derived compounds can follow reaction pathways leading to the formation of more complex organic compounds.

  6. Atmospheric nitrogen compounds: Occurrence, composition and deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, T.; Pilegaard, K.; Egeløv, A.H.


    Traffic in cities and on highways is an important contributor to NOy atmospheric pollution in open areas. In this situation both the concentration and composition of NOy compounds show a wide variation and are dependent on meteorological and atmospheric chemical conditions. The proportion of NOz...... compounds (HNO3+nitrate+PAN+ PPN+N2O5+organic nitrates) increases while that of NOx decreases with increasing ozone concentrations. The dry deposition velocity of NO2 was determined to be 0.2 cm s(-1) above vegetation. The dry deposition contribution of the different NOy compounds was evaluated....... The possibility that a significant contribution is caused by a group of unidentified NOy compounds cannot be excluded. Therefore, future investigations of atmospheric pollution of sensitive ecosystems, at conditions with a relatively high atmospheric content of NOy compared to that of NH3, ought to take...

  7. Heme Compounds in Dinosaur Trabecular Bone

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mary H. Schweitzer; Mark Marshall; Keith Carron; D. Scott Bohle; Scott C. Busse; Ernst V. Arnold; Darlene Barnard; J. R. Horner; Jean R. Starkey


    Six independent lines of evidence point to the existence of heme-containing compounds and/or hemoglobin breakdown products in extracts of trabecular tissues of the large theropod dinosaur Tyrannosaurus rex...

  8. Agricultural Compounds in Water and Birth Defects. (United States)

    Brender, Jean D; Weyer, Peter J


    Agricultural compounds have been detected in drinking water, some of which are teratogens in animal models. The most commonly detected agricultural compounds in drinking water include nitrate, atrazine, and desethylatrazine. Arsenic can also be an agricultural contaminant, although arsenic often originates from geologic sources. Nitrate has been the most studied agricultural compound in relation to prenatal exposure and birth defects. In several case-control studies published since 2000, women giving birth to babies with neural tube defects, oral clefts, and limb deficiencies were more likely than control mothers to be exposed to higher concentrations of drinking water nitrate during pregnancy. Higher concentrations of atrazine in drinking water have been associated with abdominal defects, gastroschisis, and other defects. Elevated arsenic in drinking water has also been associated with birth defects. Since these compounds often occur as mixtures, it is suggested that future research focus on the impact of mixtures, such as nitrate and atrazine, on birth defects.

  9. A Method for Synthetic Aperture Compounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jens Munk; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt


    An approach to perform ultrasound spatial compounding using synthetic aperture data is proposed. The approach allows compounding to be performed for any number of directions without reducing the frame rate or temporal resolution. It is demonstrated how the contrast is improved by compounding...... of 5 mm and scattering levels ranging from -3 to -12 dB relative to the background are imaged at 2 depths. Compound images composed of 1-5 images with an angular separation of 2 degrees are constructed and for the cysts at -3, -6, -9, and -12 dB, a CNR of -0.43, -1.11, -1.44, and -1.91 dB are obtained...

  10. Oxygen compounds in the Irati Shale oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfonso, J.C.; Schmal, M. (Federal Univ. of Rio de Janeiro, COPPE/EQ/UFRJ, C.P. 68502, 21945 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)); Cardoso, J.N. (Inst. of Chemistry/UFRJ, Centro de Technologia, Bloco A, Sala A-603, 21901 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil))


    This paper reports the principal alkylphenols (4 wt %) and carboxylic acids (1.2 wt %) present in the Irati Shale oil S[tilde a]o Mateus do Sul, Paran acute (a) by means of a combination of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and retention time-data of standard compounds. it appears that the phenols are essentially monocyclic in nature with methyl groups as the main substituents. Carboxylic acids are principally linear and predominantly of the range C[sub 14]--C[sub 20]. After catalytic hydrotreatment (400 [degrees]C, 125 atm) high hydrodeoxygenation levels were obtained (87 wt %) for phenols and carboxylic acids, although the relative distribution of the various compounds was not significantly changed. Oxygen is present in the carbonaceous residue as several functionalities xanthenes, phenols, aryl ethers, carbonyl compounds, and furanic structures. The remaining acidic compounds may cause instability of the treated shale oil.

  11. Medical Applications and Toxicities of Gallium Compounds (United States)

    Chitambar, Christopher R.


    Over the past two to three decades, gallium compounds have gained importance in the fields of medicine and electronics. In clinical medicine, radioactive gallium and stable gallium nitrate are used as diagnostic and therapeutic agents in cancer and disorders of calcium and bone metabolism. In addition, gallium compounds have displayed anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive activity in animal models of human disease while more recent studies have shown that gallium compounds may function as antimicrobial agents against certain pathogens. In a totally different realm, the chemical properties of gallium arsenide have led to its use in the semiconductor industry. Gallium compounds, whether used medically or in the electronics field, have toxicities. Patients receiving gallium nitrate for the treatment of various diseases may benefit from such therapy, but knowledge of the therapeutic index of this drug is necessary to avoid clinical toxicities. Animals exposed to gallium arsenide display toxicities in certain organ systems suggesting that environmental risks may exist for individuals exposed to this compound in the workplace. Although the arsenic moiety of gallium arsenide appears to be mainly responsible for its pulmonary toxicity, gallium may contribute to some of the detrimental effects in other organs. The use of older and newer gallium compounds in clinical medicine may be advanced by a better understanding of their mechanisms of action, drug resistance, pharmacology, and side-effects. This review will discuss the medical applications of gallium and its mechanisms of action, the newer gallium compounds and future directions for development, and the toxicities of gallium compounds in current use. PMID:20623028

  12. A new antibacterial compound from Ibicella lutea. (United States)

    Cerdeiras, M P; Fernández, J; Soubes, M; Vero, S; Ferreira, F; Moyna, P; Olano, I; Vázquez, A


    Ibicella lutea is a 'quasi-carnivorous' plant that grows wild in Uruguay where it is used in popular medicine as an antiseptic for eye and skin infections. In an earlier screening, it showed a broad antibacterial spectrum. From the chloroform extract of the plant the main antibacterial compound has now been isolated and identified by several MS and NMR methods as a new compound, 11-O-(6'-O-acetyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-stearic acid.

  13. Compound transstyloid, transscaphoid, perilunate fracture dislocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeem Ali


    Full Text Available Compound fracture dislocations of proximal carpal bones are very rare. We report a 26-year-old male, Defense personnel by profession, who sustained a compound Gustilo Anderson type IIIA transstyloid, transscaphoid, perilunate dislocation. The patient underwent primary proximal row carpectomy and stabilization with uni-planar, uni-lateral external fixator, and K-Wires. On follow-up after a year, the patient had almost negligible range of motion around wrist without any significant discomfort.

  14. [Antimicrobial action of new imidazolinium compounds]. (United States)

    Kuncewicz, Z; Krysiński, J; Pernak, J


    Syntheses and antibacterial activity of 1-ethyl-2-alkyl-3-(alkoxymethyl)- and 1-ethyl-2-alkyl-3-(alkylthiomethyl)imidazolinium chlorides are described. Syntheses of the imidazolinium compounds were performed by reaction of 1-ethyl-2-alkylimidazoline with chloromethylalkyl ether or with chloromethylalkyl sulfide. Antimicrobial properties of obtained compounds was tested on 13 strains of bacteria and fungi. Chlorides with alkylthiomethyl residue showed the highest antimicrobial activity.

  15. Chalcones: compounds possessing a diversity in applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urmila Berar


    Full Text Available Chalcones are a class of α, β- unsaturated carbonyl compounds that form the central core for a variety of naturally occurring biologically active compounds. They exhibit tremendous potential to act as a pharmacological agent. Besides their various pharmacological activities, chalcones have been explored for different optical applications including second harmonic generation materials in non- linear optics, fluorescent probe for sensing different molecules.

  16. Medical Applications and Toxicities of Gallium Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R. Chitambar


    Full Text Available Over the past two to three decades, gallium compounds have gained importance in the fields of medicine and electronics. In clinical medicine, radioactive gallium and stable gallium nitrate are used as diagnostic and therapeutic agents in cancer and disorders of calcium and bone metabolism. In addition, gallium compounds have displayed anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive activity in animal models of human disease while more recent studies have shown that gallium compounds may function as antimicrobial agents against certain pathogens. In a totally different realm, the chemical properties of gallium arsenide have led to its use in the semiconductor industry. Gallium compounds, whether used medically or in the electronics field, have toxicities. Patients receiving gallium nitrate for the treatment of various diseases may benefit from such therapy, but knowledge of the therapeutic index of this drug is necessary to avoid clinical toxicities. Animals exposed to gallium arsenide display toxicities in certain organ systems suggesting that environmental risks may exist for individuals exposed to this compound in the workplace. Although the arsenic moiety of gallium arsenide appears to be mainly responsible for its pulmonary toxicity, gallium may contribute to some of the detrimental effects in other organs. The use of older and newer gallium compounds in clinical medicine may be advanced by a better understanding of their mechanisms of action, drug resistance, pharmacology, and side-effects. This review will discuss the medical applications of gallium and its mechanisms of action, the newer gallium compounds and future directions for development, and the toxicities of gallium compounds in current use.

  17. Crystal Structure of New Heusler Compounds


    Graf, Tanja; Casper, Frederick; Winterlik, Jürgen; Balke, Benjamin; Fecher, Gerhard H.; Felser, Claudia


    Abstract Heusler compounds are promising materials in many fields of contemporary research. The spectrum of their possible applications ranges from magnetic and magneto-mechanical materials over semiconductors and thermoelectrics to superconductors. An important feature of the Heusler compounds is the possibility of controlling the valence electron concentration by partial substitution of elements. On the other hand, the properties also depend on the degree of ordering of the the c...

  18. Ultrasound assisted extraction of bioactive compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Drmić


    Full Text Available Many novel and innovative techniques are nowadays researched and explored in order to replace or improve classical, thermal processing technologies. One of newer technique is technique of minimal food processing, under what we assume ultrasound processing. Ultrasound technology can be very useful for minimal food processing because transmission of acoustic energy through product is fast and complete, which allows reduction in total processing time, and therefore lower energy consumption. Industrial processing is growing more and more waste products, and in desire of preservation of global recourses and energy efficiency, several ways of active compounds extraction techniques are now explored. The goal is to implement novel extraction techniques in food and pharmaceutical industry as well in medicine. Ultrasound assisted extraction of bioactive compounds offers increase in yield, and reduction or total avoiding of solvent usage. Increase in temperature of treatment is controlled and restricted, thereby preserving extracted bioactive compounds. In this paper, several methods of ultrasound assisted extraction of bioactive compounds from plant materials are shown. Ultrasound can improve classic mechanisms of extraction, and thereby offer novel possibilities of commercial extraction of desired compounds. Application of sonochemistry (ultrasound chemistry is providing better yield in desired compounds and reduction in treatment time.

  19. Carbonyl Compounds Generated from Electronic Cigarettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanae Bekki


    Full Text Available Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes are advertised as being safer than tobacco cigarettes products as the chemical compounds inhaled from e-cigarettes are believed to be fewer and less toxic than those from tobacco cigarettes. Therefore, continuous careful monitoring and risk management of e-cigarettes should be implemented, with the aim of protecting and promoting public health worldwide. Moreover, basic scientific data are required for the regulation of e-cigarette. To date, there have been reports of many hazardous chemical compounds generated from e-cigarettes, particularly carbonyl compounds such as formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, and glyoxal, which are often found in e-cigarette aerosols. These carbonyl compounds are incidentally generated by the oxidation of e-liquid (liquid in e-cigarette; glycerol and glycols when the liquid comes in contact with the heated nichrome wire. The compositions and concentrations of these compounds vary depending on the type of e-liquid and the battery voltage. In some cases, extremely high concentrations of these carbonyl compounds are generated, and may contribute to various health effects. Suppliers, risk management organizations, and users of e-cigarettes should be aware of this phenomenon.

  20. Natural compounds for pediatric cancer treatment. (United States)

    Ferrucci, Veronica; Boffa, Iolanda; De Masi, Gina; Zollo, Massimo


    There is a tremendous need in clinics to impair cancer progression through noninvasive therapeutic approaches. The use of natural compounds to achieve this is of importance to improve the quality of life of young patients during their treatments. This review will address the "status of the art" related to the potential of natural compounds that are undergoing investigation in combination with standard therapeutic protocols in preclinical and clinical studies and their importance for pediatric cancer treatment. The early studies of drug discovery of these natural compounds discussed here include the main targets, the cellular signaling pathways involved, and the potential modes of action. We also focus on some promising natural compounds that have shown excellent results in vitro and in vivo: Chebulagic acid, Apigenin, Norcantharidin, Saffron/Crocin, Parthenolide, Longikaurin E, Lupeol, Spongistatin 1, and Deoxy-variolin B. Additionally, we introduce the effects of several compounds from nutraceutical and functional foods, to underline their potential use as adjuvant therapies to improve therapeutic benefits. For this purpose, we have selected several compounds: Agaritine, Ganoderma and GL6 peptide, Diallyl trisulfide and Ajoene from garlic, Epigallocatechin gallate from green tea, Curcumin, Resveratrol, and Quercetin.

  1. Carbonyl compounds generated from electronic cigarettes. (United States)

    Bekki, Kanae; Uchiyama, Shigehisa; Ohta, Kazushi; Inaba, Yohei; Nakagome, Hideki; Kunugita, Naoki


    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are advertised as being safer than tobacco cigarettes products as the chemical compounds inhaled from e-cigarettes are believed to be fewer and less toxic than those from tobacco cigarettes. Therefore, continuous careful monitoring and risk management of e-cigarettes should be implemented, with the aim of protecting and promoting public health worldwide. Moreover, basic scientific data are required for the regulation of e-cigarette. To date, there have been reports of many hazardous chemical compounds generated from e-cigarettes, particularly carbonyl compounds such as formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, and glyoxal, which are often found in e-cigarette aerosols. These carbonyl compounds are incidentally generated by the oxidation of e-liquid (liquid in e-cigarette; glycerol and glycols) when the liquid comes in contact with the heated nichrome wire. The compositions and concentrations of these compounds vary depending on the type of e-liquid and the battery voltage. In some cases, extremely high concentrations of these carbonyl compounds are generated, and may contribute to various health effects. Suppliers, risk management organizations, and users of e-cigarettes should be aware of this phenomenon.

  2. Phantom PAINS: Problems with the Utility of Alerts for Pan-Assay INterference CompoundS


    Capuzzi, Stephen J.; Muratov, Eugene N.; Tropsha, Alexander


    The use of substructural alerts to identify Pan-Assay INterference compoundS (PAINS) has become a common component of the triage process in biological screening campaigns. These alerts, however, were originally derived from a proprietary library tested in just six assays measuring protein?protein interaction (PPI) inhibition using the AlphaScreen detection technology only; moreover, 68% (328 out of the 480 alerts) were derived from four or fewer compounds. In an effort to assess the reliabili...

  3. Determination of Volatile Compounds of Illicium verum Hook. f ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Illicium verum Hook. f.) and identify its main aroma compounds for sensory evaluation. Methods: The volatile compounds of star anise were prepared by simultaneous distillation-extraction (SDE) and the compounds were identified by gas ...

  4. Compounds interaction on biodegradation of toluene and methyl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MEK) mixtures in a composite bead biofilter was investigated. The biodegradation rate of two compounds in the exponential growth phase and stationary phase for the single compound and two compounds mixing systems was determined.

  5. Physiologically active substances from marine sponges IV: Heterocyclic compounds. (United States)

    Chib, J S; Stempien, M F; Cecil, J T; Ruggieri, G D; Nigrelli, R F


    Several guanidine compounds were synthesized by the reaction of acid chlorides of thiophene and furan with guanidines. Some of these compounds showed antibiotic and cytotoxic activities. Series of pyrrole compounds were synthesized and found to have significant antibiotic activity.

  6. Chemical effect on diffusion in intermetallic compounds (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Ting

    With the trend of big data and the Internet of things, we live in a world full of personal electronic devices and small electronic devices. In order to make the devices more powerful, advanced electronic packaging such as wafer level packaging or 3D IC packaging play an important role. Furthermore, ?-bumps, which connect silicon dies together with dimension less than 10 ?m, are crucial parts in advanced packaging. Owing to the dimension of ?-bumps, they transform into intermetallic compound from tin based solder after the liquid state bonding process. Moreover, many new reliability issues will occur in electronic packaging when the bonding materials change; in this case, we no longer have tin based solder joint, instead, we have intermetallic compound ?-bumps. Most of the potential reliability issues in intermetallic compounds are caused by the chemical reactions driven by atomic diffusion in the material; thus, to know the diffusivities of atoms inside a material is significant and can help us to further analyze the reliability issues. However, we are lacking these kinds of data in intermetallic compound because there are some problems if used traditional Darken's analysis. Therefore, we considered Wagner diffusivity in our system to solve the problems and applied the concept of chemical effect on diffusion by taking the advantage that large amount of energy will release when compounds formed. Moreover, by inventing the holes markers made by Focus ion beam (FIB), we can conduct the diffusion experiment and obtain the tracer diffusivities of atoms inside the intermetallic compound. We applied the technique on Ni3Sn4 and Cu3Sn, which are two of the most common materials in electronic packaging, and the tracer diffusivities are measured under several different temperatures; moreover, microstructure of the intermetallic compounds are investigated to ensure the diffusion environment. Additionally, the detail diffusion mechanism was also discussed in aspect of diffusion

  7. Cerium-iron-based magnetic compounds (United States)

    Zhou, Chen; Pinkerton, Frederick E.; Herbst, Jan F.


    New magnetic materials containing cerium, iron, and small additions of a third element are disclosed. These materials comprise compounds Ce(Fe.sub.12-xM.sub.x) where x=1-4, having the ThMn.sub.12 tetragonal crystal structure (space group I4/mmm, #139). Compounds with M=B, Al, Si, P, S, Sc, Co, Ni, Zn, Ga, Ge, Zr, Nb, Hf, Ta, and W are identified theoretically, and one class of compounds based on M=Si has been synthesized. The Si cognates are characterized by large magnetic moments (4.pi.M.sub.s greater than 1.27 Tesla) and high Curie temperatures ( C.). The Ce(Fe.sub.12-xM.sub.x) compound may contain one or more of Ti, V, Cr, and Mo in combination with an M element. Further enhancement in T.sub.c is obtained by nitriding the Ce compounds through heat treatment in N.sub.2 gas while retaining the ThMn.sub.12 tetragonal crystal structure; for example CeFe.sub.10Si.sub.2N.sub.1.29 has C.

  8. Basics and prospective of magnetic Heusler compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Felser


    Full Text Available Heusler compounds are a remarkable class of materials with more than 1000 members and a wide range of extraordinary multi-functionalities including halfmetallic high-temperature ferri- and ferromagnets, multi-ferroics, shape memory alloys, and tunable topological insulators with a high potential for spintronics, energy technologies, and magneto-caloric applications. The tunability of this class of materials is exceptional and nearly every functionality can be designed. Co2-Heusler compounds show high spin polarization in tunnel junction devices and spin-resolved photoemission. Manganese-rich Heusler compounds attract much interest in the context of spin transfer torque, spin Hall effect, and rare earth free hard magnets. Most Mn2-Heusler compounds crystallize in the inverse structure and are characterized by antiparallel coupling of magnetic moments on Mn atoms; the ferrimagnetic order and the lack of inversion symmetry lead to the emergence of new properties that are absent in ferromagnetic centrosymmetric Heusler structures, such as non-collinear magnetism, topological Hall effect, and skyrmions. Tetragonal Heusler compounds with large magneto crystalline anisotropy can be easily designed by positioning the Fermi energy at the van Hove singularity in one of the spin channels. Here, we give a comprehensive overview and a prospective on the magnetic properties of Heusler materials.

  9. Organometallic compounds: an opportunity for chemical biology? (United States)

    Patra, Malay; Gasser, Gilles


    Organometallic compounds are renowned for their remarkable applications in the field of catalysis, but much less is known about their potential in chemical biology. Indeed, such compounds have long been considered to be either unstable under physiological conditions or cytotoxic. As a consequence, little attention has been paid to their possible utilisation for biological purposes. Because of their outstanding physicochemical properties, which include chemical stability, structural diversity and unique photo- and electrochemical properties, however, organometallic compounds have the ability to play a leading role in the field of chemical biology. Indeed, remarkable examples of the use of such compounds-notably as enzyme inhibitors and as luminescent agents-have recently been reported. Here we summarise recent advances in the use of organometallic compounds for chemical biology purposes, an area that we define as "organometallic chemical biology". We also demonstrate that these recent discoveries are only a beginning and that many other organometallic complexes are likely to be found useful in this field of research in the near future. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Reflectance spectroscopy of organic compounds: 1. Alkanes (United States)

    Clark, R.N.; Curchin, J.M.; Hoefen, T.M.; Swayze, G.A.


    Reflectance spectra of the organic compounds comprising the alkane series are presented from the ultraviolet to midinfrared, 0.35 to 15.5 /??m. Alkanes are hydrocarbon molecules containing only single carbon-carbon bonds, and are found naturally on the Earth and in the atmospheres of the giant planets and Saturn's moon, Titan. This paper presents the spectral properties of the alkanes as the first in a series of papers to build a spectral database of organic compounds for use in remote sensing studies. Applications range from mapping the environment on the Earth, to the search for organic molecules and life in the solar system and throughout the. universe. We show that the spectral reflectance properties of organic compounds are rich, with major diagnostic spectral features throughout the spectral range studied. Little to no spectral change was observed as a function of temperature and only small shifts and changes in the width of absorption bands were observed between liquids and solids, making remote detection of spectral properties throughout the solar system simpler. Some high molecular weight organic compounds contain single-bonded carbon chains and have spectra similar to alkanes even ' when they fall into other families. Small spectral differences are often present allowing discrimination among some compounds, further illustrating the need to catalog spectral properties for accurate remote sensing identification with spectroscopy.

  11. Nature of phenolic compounds in coffee melanoidins. (United States)

    Coelho, Carina; Ribeiro, Miguel; Cruz, Ana C S; Domingues, M Rosário M; Coimbra, Manuel A; Bunzel, Mirko; Nunes, Fernando M


    Phenolic compounds are incorporated into coffee melanoidins during roasting mainly in condensed form (42-62 mmol/100 g) and also in ester-linked form (1.1-1.6 mmol/100 g), with incorporation levels depending on the green coffee chlorogenic acid content. The phenolic compounds are incorporated in different coffee melanoidin populations, but mainly in those soluble in 75% ethanol (82%), a significant correlation between the amount of phenolic compounds and the amount of protein and color characteristics of the different melanoidin populations being observed. The incorporation of phenolic compounds into coffee melanoidins is a significant pathway of chlorogenic acid degradation during roasting, representing 23% of the chlorogenic acids lost. These account for the nearly 26% of the material not accounted for by polysaccharides and proteins present in coffee melanodins. The cleavage mechanism and the efficiency of alkaline fusion used to release condensed phenolics from coffee melanoidins suggest that the phenolic compounds can be linked to the polymeric material by aryl-ether, stilbene type, and/or biphenyl linkages.

  12. Polymers containing borane or carborane cage compounds and related applications (United States)

    Bowen, III, Daniel E; Eastwood, Eric A


    Polymers comprising residues of cage compound monomers having at least one polyalkoxy silyl substituent are provided. The cage compound monomers are selected from borane cage compound monomers comprising at least 7 cage atoms and/or carborane cage compound monomers comprising 7 to 11 cage compound monomers. Such polymers can further comprise one or more reactive matrices and/or co-monomers covalently bound with the cage compound monomer residues. Articles of manufacture comprising such polymers are also disclosed.

  13. Isocyano compounds as non-toxic antifoulants. (United States)

    Nogata, Y; Kitano, Y


    The marine sponge Acanthella cavernosa and nudibranchs of the family Phyllidiidae contain isocyanoterpenoids and their related compounds that show potent antifouling activity against cypris larvae of the barnacle Balanus amphitrite, while their toxicity to cyprids is weak. To develop non-toxic antifoulants based on isocyanoterpenoids, especially 3-isocyanotheonellin, a total of 36 isocyano compounds have been synthesized. They were evaluated by both antifouling activity and toxicity toward B. amphitrite cyprids, which led some insight into the structure-activity relationships. Since linear alkyl isocyanides showed antifouling activity at nontoxic concentrations, a large amount of 1,1-dimethyl-10-undecyl isocyanide was synthesized, incorporated into paints, and tested for antifouling activity in the field with promising results. Therefore, isocyano compounds were considered as candidate non-toxic antifouling agents.

  14. Bioactive Compounds Found in Brazilian Cerrado Fruits. (United States)

    Bailão, Elisa Flávia Luiz Cardoso; Devilla, Ivano Alessandro; da Conceição, Edemilson Cardoso; Borges, Leonardo Luiz


    Functional foods include any natural product that presents health-promoting effects, thereby reducing the risk of chronic diseases. Cerrado fruits are considered a source of bioactive substances, mainly phenolic compounds, making them important functional foods. Despite this, the losses of natural vegetation in the Cerrado are progressive. Hence, the knowledge propagation about the importance of the species found in Cerrado could contribute to the preservation of this biome. This review provides information about Cerrado fruits and highlights the structures and pharmacologic potential of functional compounds found in these fruits. Compounds detected in Caryocar brasiliense Camb. (pequi), Dipteryx alata Vog. (baru), Eugenia dysenterica DC. (cagaita), Eugenia uniflora L. (pitanga), Genipa americana L. (jenipapo), Hancornia speciosa Gomes (mangaba), Mauritia flexuosa L.f. (buriti), Myrciaria cauliflora (DC) Berg (jabuticaba), Psidium guajava L. (goiaba), Psidium spp. (araçá), Solanum lycocarpum St. Hill (lobeira), Spondias mombin L. (cajá), Annona crassiflora Mart. (araticum), among others are reported here.

  15. Radiation synthesis of materials and compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Kharisov, Boris Ildusovich; Ortiz Méndez, Ubaldo


    Researchers and engineers working in nuclear laboratories, nuclear electric plants, and elsewhere in the radiochemical industries need a comprehensive handbook describing all possible radiation-chemistry interactions between irradiation and materials, the preparation of materials under distinct radiation types, the possibility of damage of materials under irradiation, and more. Radiation nanotechnology is still practically an undeveloped field, except for some achievements in the fabrication of metallic nanoparticles under ionizing flows. Radiation Synthesis of Materials and Compounds presents the state of the art of the synthesis of materials, composites, and chemical compounds, and describes methods based on the use of ionizing radiation. It is devoted to the preparation of various types of materials (including nanomaterials) and chemical compounds using ionizing radiation (alpha particles, beta particles, gamma rays, x-rays, and neutron, proton, and ion beams). The book presents contributions from leaders ...

  16. Volatile Sulfur Compounds from Livestock Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasper, Pernille

    and, thus, odor removal in these systems. In this context, two processes based on the absorptive oxidation of sulfur compounds in trickling filters containing metal catalysts were examined. One process with iron chelated by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) was shown to remove hydrogen sulfide...... that the original sample composition was significantly impaired due to adsorption and diffusion at the walls of the measuring equipment. Generally, sulfur compounds were best preserved in both olfactometers and sample bags, while carboxylic acids, 4-methylphenol and trimethylamine were found to undergo substantial......Volatile sulfur compounds, i.e. hydrogen sulfide, methanethiol and dimethyl sulfide have been identified as key odorants in livestock production due to their high concentration levels and low odor threshold values. At the same time their removal with abatement technologies based on mass transfer...

  17. Reliability and radiation effects in compound semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Johnston, Allan


    This book discusses reliability and radiation effects in compound semiconductors, which have evolved rapidly during the last 15 years. Johnston's perspective in the book focuses on high-reliability applications in space, but his discussion of reliability is applicable to high reliability terrestrial applications as well. The book is important because there are new reliability mechanisms present in compound semiconductors that have produced a great deal of confusion. They are complex, and appear to be major stumbling blocks in the application of these types of devices. Many of the reliability problems that were prominent research topics five to ten years ago have been solved, and the reliability of many of these devices has been improved to the level where they can be used for ten years or more with low failure rates. There is also considerable confusion about the way that space radiation affects compound semiconductors. Some optoelectronic devices are so sensitive to damage in space that they are very difficu...

  18. [The vanadium compounds: chemistry, synthesis, insulinomimetic properties]. (United States)

    Fedorova, E V; Buriakina, A V; Vorob'eva, N M; Baranova, N I


    The review considers the biological role of vanadium, its participation in various processes in humans and other mammals, and the anti-diabetic effect of its compounds. Vanadium salts have persistent hypoglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects and reduce the probability of secondary complications in animals with experimental diabetes. The review contains a detailed description of all major synthesized vanadium complexes having antidiabetic activity. Currently, vanadium complexes with organic ligands are more effective and safer than the inorganic salts. Despite the proven efficacy of these compounds as the anti-diabetic agents in animal models, only one organic complex of vanadium is currently under the second phase of clinical trials. All of the considered data suggest that vanadium compound are a new promising class of drugs in modern pharmacotherapy of diabetes.

  19. Compound control methodology for flight vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Xia, Yuanqing


    Compound Control Methodology for Flight Vehicles” focuses on new control methods for flight vehicles. In this monograph the concept of compound control is introduced. It is demonstrated that both Sliding Mode Control (SMC) and Active Disturbance Rejection Control (ADRC) have their own advantages and limitations, i.e., chattering of SMC and the observability of extended state observer (ESO), respectively. It is shown that compound control combines their advantages and improves the performance of the closed-loop systems. The book is self-contained, providing sufficient mathematical foundations for understanding the contents of each chapter. It will be of significant interest to scientists and engineers engaged in the field of flight vehicle control.

  20. Compound imaging using Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beamformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Casper Bo; Jensen, Jonas; Hemmsen, Martin Christian


    Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beamforming (SASB) is a technique with low complexity and the ability to yield a more uniform lateral resolution with range. However, the presence of speckle artifacts in ultrasound images degrades the contrast. In conventional imaging speckle is reduced by using...... spatial compounding at the cost of a reduced frame rate. The objective is to apply spatial compounding to SASB and evaluate if the images have a reduced speckle appearance and thereby an improved image quality in terms of contrast compared to ordinary SASB. Using the simulation software Field II, RF data...... detection the five second stage images are added to form the compounded image. Using a ProFocus scanner and the 8804 linear array transducer (BK Medical, Herlev, Denmark) measurements of a phantom containing water filled cysts are obtained to validate the simulation results. The setup is the same...

  1. Bioactive Compounds Found in Brazilian Cerrado Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Flávia Luiz Cardoso Bailão


    Full Text Available Functional foods include any natural product that presents health-promoting effects, thereby reducing the risk of chronic diseases. Cerrado fruits are considered a source of bioactive substances, mainly phenolic compounds, making them important functional foods. Despite this, the losses of natural vegetation in the Cerrado are progressive. Hence, the knowledge propagation about the importance of the species found in Cerrado could contribute to the preservation of this biome. This review provides information about Cerrado fruits and highlights the structures and pharmacologic potential of functional compounds found in these fruits. Compounds detected in Caryocar brasiliense Camb. (pequi, Dipteryx alata Vog. (baru, Eugenia dysenterica DC. (cagaita, Eugenia uniflora L. (pitanga, Genipa americana L. (jenipapo, Hancornia speciosa Gomes (mangaba, Mauritia flexuosa L.f. (buriti, Myrciaria cauliflora (DC Berg (jabuticaba, Psidium guajava L. (goiaba, Psidium spp. (araçá, Solanum lycocarpum St. Hill (lobeira, Spondias mombin L. (cajá, Annona crassiflora Mart. (araticum, among others are reported here.

  2. Chemical compounds from Chenopodium album Linn. (United States)

    Zheng, Wei


    Bioactive components from Chenopodium album Linn. were isolated and identified in this research. Light petroleum, dichloromethane and n-BuOH were firstly applied to partition the 75% EtOH extract of Chenopodium album Linn. which were then subjected to normal-phase silica, ODS silica gel column chromatography and semi-preparative HPLC chromatography. By the employment of NMR method in this study, chemical structures of the compounds were elucidated. Three known compounds were isolated from Chenopodium album Linn., and identified as Isolariciresinol 4-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), (7’S, 8R, 8’R)-Isolariciresinol (2) and (7’S, 8R, 8’S)-Isolariciresinol (3) by comparison of their spectral data with references. This is the first time that isolation of the compounds mentioned above from Chenopodium album Linn. was achieved.

  3. Bioactive Compounds Found in Brazilian Cerrado Fruits (United States)

    Bailão, Elisa Flávia Luiz Cardoso; Devilla, Ivano Alessandro; da Conceição, Edemilson Cardoso; Borges, Leonardo Luiz


    Functional foods include any natural product that presents health-promoting effects, thereby reducing the risk of chronic diseases. Cerrado fruits are considered a source of bioactive substances, mainly phenolic compounds, making them important functional foods. Despite this, the losses of natural vegetation in the Cerrado are progressive. Hence, the knowledge propagation about the importance of the species found in Cerrado could contribute to the preservation of this biome. This review provides information about Cerrado fruits and highlights the structures and pharmacologic potential of functional compounds found in these fruits. Compounds detected in Caryocar brasiliense Camb. (pequi), Dipteryx alata Vog. (baru), Eugenia dysenterica DC. (cagaita), Eugenia uniflora L. (pitanga), Genipa americana L. (jenipapo), Hancornia speciosa Gomes (mangaba), Mauritia flexuosa L.f. (buriti), Myrciaria cauliflora (DC) Berg (jabuticaba), Psidium guajava L. (goiaba), Psidium spp. (araçá), Solanum lycocarpum St. Hill (lobeira), Spondias mombin L. (cajá), Annona crassiflora Mart. (araticum), among others are reported here. PMID:26473827

  4. Decomposition of the compound Atwood machine (United States)

    Lopes Coelho, R.


    Non-standard solving strategies for the compound Atwood machine problem have been proposed. The present strategy is based on a very simple idea. Taking an Atwood machine and replacing one of its bodies by another Atwood machine, we have a compound machine. As this operation can be repeated, we can construct any compound Atwood machine. This rule of construction is transferred to a mathematical model, whereby the equations of motion are obtained. The only difference between the machine and its model is that instead of pulleys and bodies, we have reference frames that move solidarily with these objects. This model provides us with the accelerations in the non-inertial frames of the bodies, which we will use to obtain the equations of motion. This approach to the problem will be justified by the Lagrange method and exemplified by machines with six and eight bodies.

  5. Volatile compounds in meat and meat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika KOSOWSKA

    Full Text Available Abstract Meaty flavor is composed of a few hundreds of volatile compounds, only minor part of which are responsible for the characteristic odor. It is developed as a result of multi-directional reactions proceeding between non-volatile precursors contained in raw meat under the influence of temperature. The volatile compounds are generated upon: Maillard reactions, lipid oxidation, interactions between Maillard reaction products and lipid oxidation products as well as upon thiamine degradation. The developed flavor is determined by many factors associated with: raw material (breed, sex, diet and age of animal, conditions and process of slaughter, duration and conditions of meat storage, type of muscle, additives applied and the course of the technological process. The objective of this review article is to draw attention to the issue of volatile compounds characteristic for meat products and factors that affect their synthesis.

  6. Antiviral effect of cationic compounds on bacteriophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai Huong eChatain-Ly


    Full Text Available The antiviral activity of several cationic compounds - cetytrimethylammonium (CTAB, chitosan, nisin and lysozyme - was investigated on the bacteriophage c2 (DNA head and non-contractile tail infecting Lactococcus strains and the bacteriophage MS2 (F-specific RNA infecting E.coli. Firstly, these activities were evaluated in a phosphate buffer pH 7- 10 mM. The CTAB had a virucidal effect on the Lactococcus bacteriophages, but not on the MS2. After 1 min of contact with 0.125 mM CTAB, the c2 population was reduced from 6 log(pfu/mL to 1,5 log(pfu/mL and completely deactivated at 1 mM. On the contrary, chitosan inhibited the MS2 more than it did the bacteriophages c2. No antiviral effect was observed for the nisin or the lysozyme on bacteriophages after 1 min of treatment. A 1 and 2.5 log reduction was respectively observed for nisin and lysozyme when the treatment time increased (5 or 10 min. These results showed that the antiviral effect depended both on the virus and structure of the antimicrobial compounds. The antiviral activity of these compounds was also evaluated in different physico-chemical conditions and in complex matrices. The antiviral activity of CTAB was impaired in acid pH and with an increase of the ionic strength. These results might be explained by the electrostatic interactions between cationic compounds and negatively charged particles such as bacteriophages or other compounds in a matrix. Milk proved to be protective suggesting the components of food could interfere with antimicrobial compounds.

  7. Antiviral lead compounds from marine sponges. (United States)

    Sagar, Sunil; Kaur, Mandeep; Minneman, Kenneth P


    Marine sponges are currently one of the richest sources of pharmacologically active compounds found in the marine environment. These bioactive molecules are often secondary metabolites, whose main function is to enable and/or modulate cellular communication and defense. They are usually produced by functional enzyme clusters in sponges and/or their associated symbiotic microorganisms. Natural product lead compounds from sponges have often been found to be promising pharmaceutical agents. Several of them have successfully been approved as antiviral agents for clinical use or have been advanced to the late stages of clinical trials. Most of these drugs are used for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV). The most important antiviral lead of marine origin reported thus far is nucleoside Ara-A (vidarabine) isolated from sponge Tethya crypta. It inhibits viral DNA polymerase and DNA synthesis of herpes, vaccinica and varicella zoster viruses. However due to the discovery of new types of viruses and emergence of drug resistant strains, it is necessary to develop new antiviral lead compounds continuously. Several sponge derived antiviral lead compounds which are hoped to be developed as future drugs are discussed in this review. Supply problems are usually the major bottleneck to the development of these compounds as drugs during clinical trials. However advances in the field of metagenomics and high throughput microbial cultivation has raised the possibility that these techniques could lead to the cost-effective large scale production of such compounds. Perspectives on biotechnological methods with respect to marine drug development are also discussed.

  8. Global Exposure Modelling of Semivolatile Organic Compounds (United States)

    Guglielmo, F.; Lammel, G.; Maier-Reimer, E.


    Organic compounds which are persistent and toxic as the agrochemicals γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (γ-HCH, lindane) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) pose a hazard for the ecosystems. These compounds are semivolatile, hence multicompartmental substances and subject to long-range transport (LRT) in atmosphere and ocean. Being lipophilic, they accumulate in exposed organism tissues and biomagnify along food chains. The multicompartmental global fate and LRT of DDT and lindane in the atmosphere and ocean have been studied using application data for 1980, on a decadal scale using a model based on the coupling of atmosphere and (for the first time for these compounds) ocean General Circulation Models (ECHAM5 and MPI-OM). The model system encompasses furthermore 2D terrestrial compartments (soil and vegetation) and sea ice, a fully dynamic atmospheric aerosol (HAM) module and an ocean biogeochemistry module (HAMOCC5). Large mass fractions of the compounds are found in soil. Lindane is also found in comparable amount in ocean. DDT has the longest residence time in almost all compartments. The sea ice compartment locally almost inhibits volatilization from the sea. The air/sea exchange is also affected , up to a reduction of 35 % for DDT by partitioning to the organic phases (suspended and dissolved particulate matter) in the global oceans. Partitioning enhances vertical transport in the sea. Ocean dynamics are found to be more significant for vertical transport than sinking associated with particulate matter. LRT in the global environment is determined by the fast atmospheric circulation. Net meridional transport taking place in the ocean is locally effective mostly via western boundary currents, upon applications at mid- latitudes. The pathways of the long-lived semivolatile organic compounds studied include a sequence of several cycles of volatilisation, transport in the atmosphere, deposition and transport in the ocean (multihopping substances). Multihopping is

  9. Antiviral Lead Compounds from Marine Sponges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth P. Minneman


    Full Text Available Marine sponges are currently one of the richest sources of pharmacologically active compounds found in the marine environment. These bioactive molecules are often secondary metabolites, whose main function is to enable and/or modulate cellular communication and defense. They are usually produced by functional enzyme clusters in sponges and/or their associated symbiotic microorganisms. Natural product lead compounds from sponges have often been found to be promising pharmaceutical agents. Several of them have successfully been approved as antiviral agents for clinical use or have been advanced to the late stages of clinical trials. Most of these drugs are used for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and herpes simplex virus (HSV. The most important antiviral lead of marine origin reported thus far is nucleoside Ara-A (vidarabine isolated from sponge Tethya crypta. It inhibits viral DNA polymerase and DNA synthesis of herpes, vaccinica and varicella zoster viruses. However due to the discovery of new types of viruses and emergence of drug resistant strains, it is necessary to develop new antiviral lead compounds continuously. Several sponge derived antiviral lead compounds which are hopedto be developed as future drugs are discussed in this review. Supply problems are usually the major bottleneck to the development of these compounds as drugs during clinical trials. However advances in the field of metagenomics and high throughput microbial cultivation has raised the possibility that these techniques could lead to the cost-effective large scale production of such compounds. Perspectives on biotechnological methods with respect to marine drug development are also discussed.

  10. Antiviral lead compounds from marine sponges

    KAUST Repository

    Sagar, Sunil


    Marine sponges are currently one of the richest sources of pharmacologically active compounds found in the marine environment. These bioactive molecules are often secondary metabolites, whose main function is to enable and/or modulate cellular communication and defense. They are usually produced by functional enzyme clusters in sponges and/or their associated symbiotic microorganisms. Natural product lead compounds from sponges have often been found to be promising pharmaceutical agents. Several of them have successfully been approved as antiviral agents for clinical use or have been advanced to the late stages of clinical trials. Most of these drugs are used for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV). The most important antiviral lead of marine origin reported thus far is nucleoside Ara-A (vidarabine) isolated from sponge Tethya crypta. It inhibits viral DNA polymerase and DNA synthesis of herpes, vaccinica and varicella zoster viruses. However due to the discovery of new types of viruses and emergence of drug resistant strains, it is necessary to develop new antiviral lead compounds continuously. Several sponge derived antiviral lead compounds which are hopedto be developed as future drugs are discussed in this review. Supply problems are usually the major bottleneck to the development of these compounds as drugs during clinical trials. However advances in the field of metagenomics and high throughput microbial cultivation has raised the possibility that these techniques could lead to the cost-effective large scale production of such compounds. Perspectives on biotechnological methods with respect to marine drug development are also discussed. 2010 by the authors; licensee MDPI.

  11. Identification of isomers of organometallic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mbue, Sona Peter; Cho, Kwang Hwi [Dept. of Bioinformatics and Life Science, School of Systems Biomedical Science, Soongsil University,Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    The yaChI is a newly suggested chemical naming system. However, yaChI is a derivative of the IUPAC InChI with a modified algorithm that includes additional layers of chemical structure information. Consequently, yaChI string contains more structure details while preserving the original structure file information and can distinctively identify very closely related compounds reducing the chances of ambiguity in chemical compound databases as opposed to the general SMILES, InChI, and InChIKey. This study examines the relative performances of yaChI, SMILES, InChI, and InChIKey in duplication check for isomers. For simplicity, a small data set of 28 organometallic compounds (structural isomers of Rh-containing compounds) subdivided into three major groups (A, B, and C) based on the number and the type of ligands attached to the center atom was used to study the performances of each encoding scheme in describing chemical structures. SMILES, InChI, and InChIKey were generated using Openbabel and RDkit, whereas yaChI strings were generated with in-house program. Strings generated from SMILES, InChI, and InChIKey though different, resulted to only three unique chemical identifiers, with each belonging to one group indicating the presence of only three unique compounds in the study data. However, yaChI results depicted that all structures in each group are indeed unique and differ among themselves as well as those from other groups, mapping each structure with a unique identifier given a total number of 28 unique structures in the study data. This high perception of yaChI probe justifies its accuracy and reliability in duplication check among closely related compounds especially structures exhibiting stereo properties.

  12. Compound Synchronization of Four Chaotic Complex Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junwei Sun


    Full Text Available The chaotic complex system is designed from the start of the chaotic real system. Dynamical properties of a chaotic complex system in complex space are investigated. In this paper, a compound synchronization scheme is achieved for four chaotic complex systems. According to Lyapunov stability theory and the adaptive control method, four chaotic complex systems are considered and the corresponding controllers are designed to realize the compound synchronization scheme. Four novel design chaotic complex systems are given as an example to verify the validity and feasibility of the proposed control scheme.

  13. Silicon compounds in the Jupiter atmosphere (United States)

    Howland, G.; Harteck, P.; Reeves, R. R., Jr.


    The formation of colored silicon compounds under nonequilibrium conditions is discussed with reference to the composition of the Jupiter atmosphere. It is shown that many of these reactions produce strongly colored intermediates that are relatively stable and similar in appearance to those observed on Jupiter. It is suggested that the silicon compounds could substantially contribute to the colors observed on Jupiter. The colored intermediates may be the result of relatively rapid amorphous silicon monoxide formation in vertical atmospheric currents in the region near the red spot and in the red spot itself.

  14. Broad spectrum antibiotic compounds and use thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koglin, Alexander; Strieker, Matthias


    The discovery of a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) gene cluster in the genome of Clostridium thermocellum that produces a secondary metabolite that is assembled outside of the host membrane is described. Also described is the identification of homologous NRPS gene clusters from several additional microorganisms. The secondary metabolites produced by the NRPS gene clusters exhibit broad spectrum antibiotic activity. Thus, antibiotic compounds produced by the NRPS gene clusters, and analogs thereof, their use for inhibiting bacterial growth, and methods of making the antibiotic compounds are described.

  15. Process for producing phenolic compounds from lignins (United States)

    Agblevor, Foster A.


    A process for the production of low molecular weight phenolic compounds from lignins through the pyrolysis of the lignins in the presence of a strong base. In a preferred embodiment, potassium hydroxide is present in an amount of from about 0.1% to about 5% by weight, the pyrolysis temperature is from about C. to about C. at atmospheric pressure, and the time period for substantial completion of the reaction is from about 1-3 minutes. Examples of low molecular weight phenolic compounds produced include methoxyphenols, non-methoxylated phenols, and mixtures thereof.

  16. Dissolution behavior of lithium compounds in ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro Furukawa


    Full Text Available In order to exchange the components which received irradiation damage during the operation at the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility, the adhered lithium, which is partially converted to lithium compounds such as lithium oxide and lithium hydroxide, should be removed from the components. In this study, the dissolution experiments of lithium compounds (lithium nitride, lithium hydroxide, and lithium oxide were performed in a candidate solvent, allowing the clarification of time and temperature dependence. Based on the results, a cleaning procedure for adhered lithium on the inner surface of the components was proposed.

  17. Reduction of Compound Lotteries with Objective Probabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Martínez-Correa, Jimmy; Swarthout, J. Todd


    -stages compound lotteries, and their actuarially equivalent one-stage lotteries. We find violations of ROCL and that behavior is better characterized by a source-dependent version of the Rank-Dependent Utility model rather than Expected Utility Theory. Since we use the popular “1-in-K” random lottery incentive....... Therefore, we provide a word of caution for experimenters interested in studying ROCL for other purposes, such as the relationship between ambiguity attitudes and attitudes toward compound lotteries, to carefully think about the design to study ROCL, payment protocols and their interaction...

  18. Process for producing phenolic compounds from lignins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agblevor, F.A.


    A process is described for the production of low molecular weight phenolic compounds from lignins through the pyrolysis of the lignins in the presence of a strong base. In a preferred embodiment, potassium hydroxide is present in an amount of from about 0.1% to about 5% by weight, the pyrolysis temperature is from about 400 C to about 600 C at atmospheric pressure, and the time period for substantial completion of the reaction is from about 1--3 minutes. Examples of low molecular weight phenolic compounds produced include methoxyphenols, non-methoxylated phenols, and mixtures thereof. 16 figs.

  19. Phonological Processes in Complex and Compound Words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alieh Kord Zaferanlu Kambuziya


    Full Text Available Abstract This research at making a comparison between phonological processes in complex and compound Persian words. Data are gathered from a 40,000-word Persian dictionary. To catch some results, 4,034 complex words and 1,464 compound ones are chosen. To count the data, "excel" software is used. Some results of the research are: 1- "Insertion" is the usual phonological process in complex words. More than half of different insertions belongs to the consonant /g/. Then /y/ and // are in the second and the third order. The consonant /v/ has the least percentage of all. The most percentage of vowel insertion belongs to /e/. The vowels /a/ and /o/ are in the second and third order. Deletion in complex words can only be seen in consonant /t/ and vowel /e/. 2- The most frequent phonological processes in compounds is consonant deletion. In this process, seven different consonants including /t/, //, /m/, /r/, / ǰ/, /d, and /c/. The only deleted vowel is /e/. In both groups of complex and compound, /t/ deletion can be observed. A sequence of three consonants paves the way for the deletion of one of the consonants, if one of the sequences is a sonorant one like /n/, the deletion process rarely happens. 3- In complex words, consonant deletion causes a lighter syllable weight, whereas vowel deletion causes a heavier syllable weight. So, both of the processes lead to bi-moraic weight. 4- The production of bi-moraic syllable in Persian is preferable to Syllable Contact Law. So, Specific Rules have precedence to Universals. 5- Vowel insertion can be seen in both groups of complex and compound words. In complex words, /e/ insertion has the most fundamental part. The vowels /a/ and /o/ are in the second and third place. Whenever there are two sequences of ultra-heavy syllables. By vowel insertion, the first syllable is broken into two light syllables. The compounds that are influenced by vowel insertion, can be and are pronounced without any

  20. Microbiological disproportionation of inorganic sulfur compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finster, Kai


    The disproportionation of inorganic sulfur intermediates at moderate temperatures (0-80 °C) is a microbiologically catalyzed chemolithotrophic process in which compounds like elemental sulfur, thiosulfate, and sulfite serve as both electron donor and acceptor, and generate hydrogen sulfide...... and sulfate. Thus the overall process is comparable to the fermentation of organic compounds such as glucose and is consequently often described as 'inorganic fermentation'. The process is primarily carried out by microorganisms with phylogenetic affiliation to the so called sulfate-reducing bacteria within...

  1. Volatile sulphur compounds in UHT milk. (United States)

    Al-Attabi, Z; D'Arcy, B R; Deeth, H C


    Several volatile sulphur compounds have been detected in raw and processed milk. These are hydrogen sulphide, methanethiol, carbonyl sulphide, dimethyl sulphide, carbon disulphide, dimethyl disulphide, dimethyl trisulphide, dimethyl sulphoxide, and dimethyl sulphone. Many of these increase in milk during heat processing and are associated with the cooked flavor of heat-treated milks, particularly UHT and sterilized milk. Several researchers have attempted to explain the origin of these volatiles in both raw and processed milk, and how to reduce the associated cooked flavor that has a negative impact on consumer acceptability of processed milk. These compounds are difficult to detect and analyze due to their high volatility, sensitivity to oxidation and heat, and in some cases, their very low concentrations. However, methods of detection and quantification have improved in recent years. Pre-concentration methods such as solid phase microextraction (SPME) together with gas chromatography equipped with sulphur-selective detectors now enable low concentrations of these compounds to be analyzed. In this review, methods of extraction and analyzes of these volatile sulphur compounds are compared, and their occurrence in milk is reviewed.

  2. The Compoundness and Sequentiality of Digital Inequality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Deursen, Alexander Johannes Aloysius Maria; Helsper, Ellen; Eynon, Rebecca; van Dijk, Johannes A.G.M.


    Through a survey with a representative sample of Dutch Internet users, this article examines compound digital exclusion: whether a person who lacks a particular digital skill also lacks another kind of skill, whether a person who does not engage in a particular way online is also less likely to

  3. Extraction, Isolation And Characterization Of Bioactive Compounds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Natural products from medicinal plants, either as pure compounds or as standardized extracts, provide unlimited opportunities for new drug leads because of the unmatched availability of chemical diversity. Due to an increasing demand for chemical diversity in screening programs, seeking therapeutic drugs from natural ...

  4. Surgical management of intraosseous compound odontome ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Odontomas are considered to be hamartomatous malformations rather than tumours. Compound odontomas are mostly found in anterior maxilla and complex odontomas are more prevalent in posterior mandible. Although the pathology is benign, early intervention is required to avoid the subsequent complications and ...

  5. Convenient Reduction of Carbonyl Compounds to their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Convenient Reduction of Carbonyl Compounds to their. Corresponding Alcohols with NaBH. 4. /(NH. 4. ) 2. C. 2. O. 4. System. Davood Setamdideh* and Sahar Ghahremani. Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Mahabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, 59135-443, Iran. Received 6 January 2012, revised 14 ...

  6. Synthesis of hetero compounds using dialkylcarbonate quaternation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friesen, Cody A.; Wolfe, Derek; Johnson, Paul Bryan


    Methods of preparing hetero ionic complexes, and ionic liquids from bisulfate salts of heteroatomic compounds using dialkylcarbonates as a primary quaternizing reactant are disclosed. Also disclosed are methods of making electrochemical cells comprising the ionic liquids, and an electrochemical cell comprising an alkaline electrolyte and a hetero ionic complex additive.

  7. Iron(III) spin crossover compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Koningsbruggen, PJ; Maeda, Y; Oshio, H


    In this chapter, selected results obtained so far on Fe(III) spin crossover compounds are summarized and discussed. Fe(III) spin transition materials of ligands containing chalcogen donor atoms are considered with emphasis on those of N,N-disubstituted-dithiocarbamates,

  8. Integrated modelling of two xenobiotic organic compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindblom, Erik Ulfson; Gernaey, K.V.; Henze, Mogens


    This paper presents a dynamic mathematical model that describes the fate and transport of two selected xenobiotic organic compounds (XOCs) in a simplified representation. of an integrated urban wastewater system. A simulation study, where the xenobiotics bisphenol A and pyrene are used as reference...

  9. Pharmacology of organoselenium compounds: Emphasis on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Organoselenium compounds are a new class of emerging potent antioxidants. Basically, their rational design and synthesis was aimed at mimicking the native glutathione peroxidase enzyme in their reduction of hydroperoxides at the expense of the ubiquitous antioxidant, glutathione. In this review, emphasis was focused ...

  10. Teachers’ knowledge for teaching compound interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Pournara


    Full Text Available There is increasing acknowledgement that teachers’ knowledge for teaching mathematics is multifaceted and topic specific. Given the paucity of research on the teaching and learning of financial mathematics in general, little can be known about teachers’ knowledge for teaching compound interest. However, since financial mathematics is a component of the school curriculum in South Africa, and an important element of financial literacy more broadly, attention needs to be given to knowledge for teaching financial mathematics, and compound interest in particular. Drawing from a larger study in which the author taught a financial mathematics course to pre-service secondary mathematics teachers, a theoretical elaboration is provided of the underlying mathematics of compound interest, and connections with the world of banking. Based on findings from the study, two key student errors are identified: the over-generalisation of linear thinking in multiplicative scenarios, and the over-generalisation of reversible operations in percentage-change scenarios. Taken together, teachers’ knowledge of relevant mathematics, of the banking context and of learners’ conceptions will contribute to building a knowledge-base for teachers’ knowledge for teaching compound interest.

  11. Two new compounds from Trollius chinensis Bunge. (United States)

    Jie-Shi, Ya; Wei-Sang, Lin; Yan, Rui; Zhao, Qiang; Zhang, Yang; Yun-Zhao, Gui; Cong-Li, Yun; Chen, Xue; Yu-Zhang, Chong; Qiao, Hua; Gang-Zhang, Guo


    Two new compounds, 2″-O-feruloylisoswertiajaponin (1) and (2E)-2-methyl-1-O-vaniloyl-4-β-D-glucopyranoside-2-butene (2), along with one indole alkaloid and five known flavonoids, were isolated from the flowers of Trollius chinensis Bunge. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidence (UV, IR, HR-ESI-MS, NMR).

  12. Atmospheric degradation mechanism of organic sulfur compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benter, T.; Arsene, C.


    In the present work a detailed product study has been performed on the OH radical initiated oxidation of dimethyl sulphide and dimethyl sulphoxide, under different conditions of temperature, partial pressure of oxygen and NO{sub x} concentration, in order to better define the degradation mechanism of the above compounds under conditions which prevail in the atmosphere. (orig.)

  13. Magnetism in intercalated compounds of layered manganese ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    dilation of the lattice. The host MnPS3 is a two-dimensional antiferromagnet. The intercalated compounds, however, show weak ferromagnetism at low temperatures. When the guest cations are hydrated ions, the intercalates are unstable, losing water to give Mn1–xG2xPS3. In order to keep the guest cations within the ...

  14. Natural Compounds for Pest and Weed Control (United States)

    The control of insect pests and invasive weeds has become more species-selective because of activity-guided isolation, structure elucidation, and total synthesis of naturally produced substances with important biological activities. Examples of isolated compounds include insect pheromones, antifeed...

  15. Bioactive compounds for pest and weed control (United States)

    The control of insect pests and invasive weeds has become more species-selective because of activity-guided isolation, structure elucidation, and total synthesis of naturally produced substances with important biological activities. Examples of isolated compounds include insect pheromones, antifeed...

  16. Bioautography indicates the multiplicity of antifungal compounds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of the non-polar components of extracts using extractants of varying polarity. Acetone extracted the most antifungal compounds from Combretum spp. Combretum spp. in the section Hypocrateropsis, C. celastroides ssp. celastroides and C. clelastroides ssp. orientale had 62 different antifungal zones of inhibition compared ...

  17. Quantum chemical studies of estrogenic compounds (United States)

    Quantum chemical methods are potent tools to provide information on the chemical structure and electronic properties of organic molecules. Modern computational chemistry methods have provided a great deal of insight into the binding of estrogenic compounds to estrogenic receptors (ER), an important ...

  18. Phosphorus Compounds of Muscle and Liver

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    of several other biological phosphorus compounds. They discovered phosphocreatine followed quickly by. ATP, glycerophosphate and others. Here we have reproduced the paper wherein they have described their work on muscle ATP, a significant contribution to DNA structure, and liver glycerophosphate. G Nagendrappa.

  19. Three coordination compounds based on benzene tetracarboxylate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 129; Issue 8. Three coordination compounds based on benzene tetracarboxylate ligand: syntheses, structures, thermal behaviors and luminescence properties. YUNLONG WU CHANGKUN XIA JUN QIAN JIMIN XIE. REGULAR ARTICLE Volume 129 Issue 8 August ...

  20. Sea cucumbers, the ocean of bioactive compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Ebrahimi


    Full Text Available Sea cucumbers are one of the most echinoderms and from the class Holothuroidea. Some of their specific biological activities are including anti-cancer, anticoagulant, antihypertensive, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-atherosclerosis and anti-tumor properties, as well as accelerate wound healing. The presence of different compounds such as saponins, chondroitin sulfates, glycosaminoglycans, sulfated Polysaccharides, glycoprotein, glycosphingolipids and essential and non essential fatty acids, are the causes of their biological properties. Saponins, which are produced for compatibility with the environment, are as theire secondary metabolites. These active compounds have biological properties like hemolytic, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antiviral, ichthyotoxic, cytostatic, anti neogenic, antineoplastic, and uric acid lowering effects. Sea cucumber, have high economic value. In East Asia, Since ancient times, it have been traditionally used for the treatment of fatigue, sexual impotence, impotence caused by aging, constipation due to intestinal dryness, urinary incontinence, asthma, hypertension, arthritis and anemia. Also, toxins obtained from sea cucumber, have anti-viral, anti-tumor, anti-cancer and anti-pregnancy properties. According to literatures, the aqueous extract and high molecular weight compounds from sea cucumbers can inhibit tumor activity, via the apoptosis induction. Sea cucumbers because of the high percentage of protein and the absence of cholesterol, classified as an invigorating food. Because of different species of sea cucumbers in the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea the identification of compounds and biological properties of sea cucumber species in these regions is recommended to the researchers.

  1. Antiplasmodial activity of some phenolic compounds from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1,7-dihydroxyxanthone 1. Six of them were evaluated for their antimalarial properties. The most active compound, maclu- raxanthone, presented a very interesting activity, with an IC50 of 0.36 and 0.27 µg/mL with the F32 and FcM29 strains respectively. Conclusion: This work confirms that species of Allanblackia genus are ...

  2. Optimisation of phenolic compound biosynthesis in grape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    steve African Journal of Biotechnology. Full Length Research Paper. Optimisation of phenolic compound biosynthesis in grape (Bogazkere Cv.) callus culture. Mehmet KARAASLAN1*, Mustafa OZDEN2, Hasan VARDİN1 and Fatih Mehmet YILMAZ1. 1Harran University, Faculty of Agriculture, ...

  3. Separation and characterization of phenolic compounds from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Terminalia ivoriensis A. Chev. (Combretaceae) is an Ivorian medicinal plant. There is little ethnobotanical and almost no chemical information available for this species. The aim of this study was to isolate phenolic compounds from T. ivoriensis. In this way, its ethyl acetate extract (Ea) was fractionated by silica gel column ...

  4. (I) supramolecular compounds constructed from pyridinium or ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    extensive attention, owing to the amazing accuracy and high efficiency in control and arrangement of specific building blocks.1–4 Supramolecular polymers are con- structed generally via .... Silver (I) complexes constructed from multications. 1519. Figure 6. K-M function versus energy (eV) curve compounds 1, 2 and 3.

  5. Flavor compounds of popped amaranth seeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gamel, T.H.; Linssen, J.P.H.


    Amaranth caudatus seeds were popped and studied for optimal popping conditions and flavor compounds. The optimum popping temperature for the seeds was 180C. At this temperature, the expansion volume, flake size and unpopped kernel proportion were 9.4¿11.3 cm3/g, 0.010¿0.012 cm/g and 10¿2%,

  6. Towards a natural morphology of compounding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang U. Dressler


    Full Text Available Although compounding is the part of morphology which is closest to syntax, stu­dies in Natural Morphology and Natural Syntax ,as pioneered by Mayerthaler(1981 and Orešnik(2004 have rather avoided the field of composition.This contribution represents a modest tentative towards remedying this lacuna.

  7. New compounds of natural resources in 2008

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Sep 15, 2009 ... Review. New compounds of natural resources in 2008. Jinhui Wang1, 2*, Qing Peng1 and Guoyu Li2. 1School of Traditional Chinese Materia Medica, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang 110016, P.R. China. 2School of Pharmacy ... peptides from marine sponge. In the microbial area, the.

  8. Unchained multi-step compound reactions (United States)

    Sevgen, Alpar


    The chaining constraint employed by Feshbach, Kerman and Koonin (FKK) in multi-step compound reactions is removed and S-matrix elements are computed exactly. The cross sections have the same form as in the work of FKK - except that the probability flow is modified to take into account all possible paths for the depletion of the flux.

  9. Compositional differences in the phenolics compounds of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These data suggested that both the red and white wines contained a complex mixture of phenolic compounds whose content and composition varied by brand suggesting that the wine processing technique greatly influences phenolics composition of wines than color of the wine. Muscadine red wines were quite distinct ...

  10. Legume bioactive compounds: influence of rhizobial inoculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis R. Silva


    Full Text Available Legumes consumption has been recognized as beneficial for human health, due to their content in proteins, fiber, minerals and vitamins, and their cultivation as beneficial for sustainable agriculture due to their ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen in symbiosis with soil bacteria known as rhizobia. The inoculation with these baceria induces metabolic changes in the plant, from which the more studied to date are the increases in the nitrogen and protein contents, and has been exploited in agriculture to improve the crop yield of several legumes. Nevertheless, legumes also contain several bioactive compounds such as polysaccharides, bioactive peptides, isoflavones and other phenolic compounds, carotenoids, tocopherols and fatty acids, which makes them functional foods included into the nutraceutical products. Therefore, the study of the effect of the rhizobial inoculation in the legume bioactive compounds content is gaining interest in the last decade. Several works reported that the inoculation of different genera and species of rhizobia in several grain legumes, such as soybean, cowpea, chickpea, faba bean or peanut, produced increases in the antioxidant potential and in the content of some bioactive compounds, such as phenolics, flavonoids, organic acids, proteins and fatty acids. Therefore, the rhizobial inoculation is a good tool to enhance the yield and quality of legumes and further studies on this field will allow us to have plant probiotic bacteria that promote the plant growth of legumes improving their functionality.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    Resistivity measurements on liquid Rb-In and Cs-In alloys provide evidence for compound formation at a composition of 50% In. The discussion is based on existing electronic structure calculations for solid alloys of Li and Na with Ga, In and Tl. Several possible models for describing liquid

  12. Spatial Information Capacity of Compound Eyes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snyder, Allan W.; Stavenga, Doekele G.; Laughlin, Simon B.


    The capacity of the compound eye to perceive its spatial environment is quantified by determining the number of different pictures that can be reconstructed by its array of retinula cells. We can then decide on the best compromise between an animal's capacity for fine detail and contrast

  13. Process for the preparation of aromatic compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schenk, N.J.; Biesbroek, Arnold; Heeres, André; Heeres, Hero


    Aromatic compounds are prepared from a feed stream comprising biomass or a mixture of biomass and synthetic polymer in a process, comprising: a) subjecting the feed stream to a pyrolysis treatment in the presence of a cracking catalyst to yield a vaporous fraction comprising hydrocarbons with

  14. Model compound vulcanization studied by XANES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taweepreda, W; Nu-Mard, R [Membrane Science and Technology Research Center, Polymer Science Program, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University, Hat-Yai, Songkhla, 90112 (Thailand); Pattanasiriwisawa, W; Songsiriritthigul, P, E-mail: [Synchrotron Light Research Institute, 111 University Avenue, Muang, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000 (Thailand)


    Squalene has been used as a model compound for the investigation of sulphur crosslink in the vulcanization process. The effects of the accelerator on the crosslink were deduced from the sulfur K-edge absorption spectra. The majority of the crosslinks for the squalene vulcanized with ZDEC or TMTD is likely disulfidic, while that vulcanized with CBS or MBTS is monosulfidic.

  15. Expatriate Compound Living: An Ethnographic Field Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Jakob; Selmer, Jan


    ethnographic field-work methodology, including interviews and participant observation during a period of three months, this exploratory study investigated 16 Danish business expatriates of a large Danish corporation and their families living in the same compound in Saudi Arabia. They shared their spare time...

  16. Two new compounds from Scolopendra multidens Newport. (United States)

    Fu, Yin-Dan; Li, Zhen-Lin; Pu, She-Ban; Qian, Shi-Hui


    Two new compounds, 5β-pregnane-2α,6α,20(S)-triol (1) and 8-hydroxyl-3-methoxyl-2(1H)-quinolone (2), were isolated from Scolopendra multidens Newport. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR and HR-TOF-MS.

  17. Compounded laxative formulations for substituting phenolphthalein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: DSC and HPLC analysis was used to determine the compatibility of sennosides with commonly used excipients before compounding capsules, tablets and effervescent tablets containing sennosides A & B. The physical and chemical stability and release properties of these dosage forms were determined for 12 ...

  18. Effects of active, inactive and compounded Saccharomyces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this research was to determine the effects of active, inactive and compounded Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC) as natural feed additives on growth performance, visceral organs weight, insulin, thyroxin and growth hormone of Japanese quails. One day old Japanese quails allocated in 4 treatments by 4 ...

  19. Characterisation of selected volatile organic compounds in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    May 15, 2013 ... Isidorov VA, Vinogorova VT, Rafalowski K (2003). HS-SPME analysis of volatile organic compounds of coniferous needle litter. Atm. Environ. 37:4645-4650. Jespersen L (2003). Occurrence and taxonomic characteristics of strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae predominant in African indigenous fermented ...

  20. Preliminary Toxicological Screening of Ichthyotoxic Compound of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moringa oleifera is an indigenous tree growing in Southwestern Nigeria for food and medicinal property. Therefore this study evaluates the preliminary toxicological screening of ichthyotoxic compounds in Moringa oleifera to freshwater fish, Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings. The morphological parts such as leaf, seed, ...

  1. The sulfurous compounds consisting of hydrocarbon fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т.В. Медвєдєва


    Full Text Available  The sulfurous compounds have been studied and their negative influence on operation properties of the oil and products of its processing have been described. Basic methods of definition of the hydrogen sulphide, mercaptans in the hydrocarbon fuels have been shown.

  2. Saltiness enhancement by savory aroma compounds. (United States)

    Batenburg, Max; Velden, Rob van der


    The impact of elevated levels of complex savory flavorings and single aroma compounds on perceived saltiness was investigated. This study demonstrates that multisensory interaction between aroma and taste can be employed to compensate for the lower salt levels of healthier food products without disturbing the overall flavor pattern. The demonstrated saltiness enhancement by the savory flavorings was unraveled by experiments with "salt-congruent" single aroma compounds, using trained and naïve panels. Several savory compounds, of different chemical classes and different sensory impact, could be identified as key salt-enhancing compounds, providing a significant increase of perceived saltiness. As expected, an untrained, naïve panel appeared more suitable to demonstrate multisensory saltiness enhancement due to its synthetic attention than a trained descriptive panel. The salt enhancement results were confirmed by consumer tests. The extra aroma was also found to ameliorate the off-flavor of potassium-based salt replacers, and combinations of extra aroma and salt replacers could replace significant amounts of sodium chloride while keeping the original flavor profile intact. The food industry is under high pressure to significantly reduce the salt levels in their products. This study shows that it is possible to compensate salt reduction in instant bouillons by higher levels of savory aroma. A combination of potassium chloride based salt replacer and extra aroma was found to compensate approximately 30% sodium reduction without significant change of the flavor profile. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  3. Visualizing Compound Rotations with Virtual Reality (United States)

    Flanders, Megan; Kavanagh, Richard C.


    Mental rotations are among the most difficult of all spatial tasks to perform, and even those with high levels of spatial ability can struggle to visualize the result of compound rotations. This pilot study investigates the use of the virtual reality-based Rotation Tool, created using the Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) together with…

  4. Separation of Acids, Bases, and Neutral Compounds (United States)

    Fujita, Megumi; Mah, Helen M.; Sgarbi, Paulo W. M.; Lall, Manjinder S.; Ly, Tai Wei; Browne, Lois M.


    Separation of Acids, Bases, and Neutral Compounds requires the following software, which is available for free download from the Internet: Netscape Navigator, version 4.75 or higher, or Microsoft Internet Explorer, version 5.0 or higher; Chime plug-in, version compatible with your OS and browser (available from MDL); and Flash player, version 5 or higher (available from Macromedia).

  5. Comparative evaluation of bioactive compounds in Hibiscus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is growing interest in the chemical composition of plants towards discovery of more effective biotherapeutic agents. Six bioactive compounds were evaluated from Hibiscus sabdariffa and Syzygium samarangense juice extracts. Both juices had high amounts of saponins, with Syzygium samarangense having higher ...

  6. Fluorescent compounds for plastic scintillation applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pla-Dalmau, A.; Bross, A.D.


    Several 2-(2{prime}-hydroxyphenyl)benzothiazole, -benzoxazole, and -benzimidazole derivatives have been prepared. Transmittance, fluorescence, light yield, and decay time characteristics of these compounds have been studied in a polystyrene matrix and evaluated for use in plastic scintillation detectors. Radiation damage studies utilizing a {sup 60}C source have also been performed.

  7. Medicinal Uses of Inorganic Compounds - 1

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anticancer. Antidiabetic. Anti-HIV activity. Skin ointment. Antiviral. Supplement. Antiperspirant. Synthetic antioxidant. Anti-inflammatory neuroprotective agent. Antihypertensive ... a specific inhibitor of the GSK-3 family of protein kinases in vitro and in intact cells. .... ing, ruthenium compounds interact with proteins including.

  8. Harmonic force field for nitro compounds. (United States)

    Bellido, Edson P; Seminario, Jorge M


    Molecular simulations leading to sensors for the detection of explosive compounds require force field parameters that can reproduce the mechanical and vibrational properties of energetic materials. We developed precise harmonic force fields for alanine polypeptides and glycine oligopeptides using the FUERZA procedure that uses the Hessian tensor (obtained from ab initio calculations) to calculate precise parameters. In this work, we used the same procedure to calculate generalized force field parameters of several nitro compounds. We found a linear relationship between force constant and bond distance. The average angle in the nitro compounds was 116°, excluding the 90° angle of the carbon atoms in the octanitrocubane. The calculated parameters permitted the accurate molecular modeling of nitro compounds containing many functional groups. Results were acceptable when compared with others obtained using methods that are specific for one type of molecule, and much better than others obtained using methods that are too general (these ignore the chemical effects of surrounding atoms on the bonding and therefore the bond strength, which affects the mechanical and vibrational properties of the whole molecule).

  9. Compound Words and Structure in the Lexicon (United States)

    Fiorentino, Robert; Poeppel, David


    The structure of lexical entries and the status of lexical decomposition remain controversial. In the psycholinguistic literature, one aspect of this debate concerns the psychological reality of the morphological complexity difference between compound words ("teacup") and single words ("crescent"). The present study investigates morphological…

  10. Compound nucleus studies withy reverse kinematics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moretto, L.G.


    Reverse kinematics reactions are used to demonstrate the compound nucleus origin of intermediate mass particles at low energies and the extension of the same mechanism at higher energies. No evidence has appeared in our energy range for liquid-vapor equilibrium or cold fragmentation mechanisms. 11 refs., 12 figs.

  11. Pyrolysis mechanisms of lignin model compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britt, P.F.; Buchanan, A.C. III; Cooney, M.J.


    The flash vacuum pyrolysis of lignin model compounds was studied under conditions optimized for the production of liquid products to provide mechanistic insight into the reaction pathways that lead to product formation. The major reaction products can be explained by cleavage of the C-O either linkage by a free radial or concerted 1,2-elimination.

  12. Reducing ammonia volatilization from compound fertilizers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Sep 13, 2012 ... flow system method. Soil pH, exchangeable ammonium and available nitrate at ... rock phosphate (ERP), muriate of potash (MOP), and zeolite. This kind of compound fertilizer with clinoptilotilite ... to NPK fertilizer from AN, ERP and MOP on ammonia loss. MATERIALS AND METHODS. The soil used in this ...

  13. Biogenic volatile organic compounds - small is beautiful (United States)

    Owen, S. M.; Asensio, D.; Li, Q.; Penuelas, J.


    While canopy and regional scale flux measurements of biogenic volatile organic compounds (bVOCs) are essential to obtain an integrated picture of total compound reaching the atmosphere, many fascinating and important emission details are waiting to be discovered at smaller scales, in different ecological and functional compartments. We concentrate on bVOCs below ground to allelopathy. A gradient of monoterpene concentration was found in soil around Pinus sylvestris and Pinus halepensis, decreasing with distance from the tree. Some compounds (α-pinene, sabinene, humulene and caryophyllene) in mineral soil were linearly correlated with the total amount of each compound in the overlying litter, indicating that litter might be the dominant source of these compounds. However, α-pinene did not fall within the correlation, indicating a source other than litter, probably root exudates. We also show that rhizosphere bVOCs can be a carbon source for soil microbes. In a horizontal gradient from Populus tremula trees, microbes closest to the tree trunk were better enzymatically equipped to metabolise labeled monoterpene substrate. Monoterpenes can also increase the degradation rate in soil of the persistant organic pollutants, likely acting as analogues for the cometabo-lism of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) Flowers of a ginger species (Alpinia kwangsiensis) and a fig species (Ficus hispida) showed different bVOC signals pre- and post pollination. For Ficus hispida, there are three floral stages of a fig-wasp dependency mechanism: receptive, post pollinator and interfloral. Of 28 compounds detected, transcaryophyllene with trans-β-farnesene were the most important at the receptor stage, trans-caryophyllene was the most abundant at the post-pollinator stage, and isoprene was the most abundant in the interfloral stage. Alpinia kwangsiensis presents two morphologies for the reproductive parts of the flower. The "anaflexistyle" morphology has the flower style lowered in the

  14. Special Heusler compounds for spintronic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balke, B.


    This work emphasizes the potential of Heusler compounds in a wide range of spintronic applications. Using electronic structure calculations it is possible to design compounds for specific applications. Examples for GMR and TMR applications, for spin injection into semiconductors, and for spin torque transfer applications will be shown. After a detailed introduction about spintronics and related materials chapter 5 reports about the investigation of new half-metallic compounds where the Fermi energy is tuned in the middle of the gap to result in more stable compounds for GMR and TMR applications. The bulk properties of the quaternary Heusler alloy Co{sub 2}Mn{sub 1-x}Fe{sub x}Si with the Fe concentration ranging from x=0 to 1 are reported and the results suggest that the best candidate for applications may be found at an iron concentration of about 50%. Due to the effect that in the Co{sub 2}Mn{sub 1-x}Fe{sub x}Si series the transition metal carrying the localized moment is exchanged and this might lead to unexpected effects on the magnetic properties if the samples are not completely homogeneous chapter 6 reports about the optimization of the Heusler compounds for GMR and TMR applications. The structural and magnetic properties of the quaternary Heusler alloy Co{sub 2}FeAl{sub 1-x}Si{sub x} with varying Si concentration are reported. From the combination of experimental (better order for high Si content) and theoretical findings (robust gap at x=0.5) it is concluded that a compound with an intermediate Si concentration close to x=0.5-0.7 would be best suited for spintronic applications, especially for GMR and TMR applications. In chapter 7 the detailed investigation of compounds for spin injection into semiconductors is reported. It is shown that the diluted magnetic semiconductors based on CoTiSb with a very low lattice mismatch among each other are interesting materials for spintronics applications like Spin-LEDs or other spin injection devices. Chapter 8 refers

  15. A composition for a carbon black compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mednikov, M.M.; Babyuk, V.N.; Kasatkin, G.P.; Khaykin, M.S.; Kozlov, L.A.; Stroyev, V.N.


    Paraffinylendiamine is additionally introduced into a known compound of a carbon black paste in order to increase the degree of blackness and the total stability. The ratio of components in parts is: carbon black 100; petroleum oil, 150 to 300; butadiene and 2-methyl-5-vinylpyridine copolymer, 0.1 to 10.0 and paraffinylendiamine, 0.5 to 5.0. Furnace, thermal, channel and acetylene carbon black with a specific Brunauer Emmett Teller surface of 10 to 1,000 square meters per grain, of high, medium and low structural states, modified by different compounds, for instance, 02, are used as the carbon black. Petroleum oil with a kinematic viscosity at 50 degrees of 15 to 40 centistokes (for instance, vaseline, transformer oil and so on) is used as the petroleum oil. The compound is prepared in the following manner. The petroleum oil, carbon black, copolymer and paraffinylendiamine are loaded into an apparatus with a mixer. The compound is mixed for two hours at 80 degrees, cooled to 25 degrees, unloaded and are ground in a color mill. The coloring force is determined in the following manner. The components are mixed for 30 minutes in a glue mixer, unloaded and is ground in the color mill ten times. One gram is taken off from each sample (Ob). The sample which contains no paraffinylendiamine is used as the control sample. One gram of each sample is mixed with ZnO until the color of the compound is transformed from shiny black to a gray matte (brightening). The ratio of the ZnO volume which went to brightening of the sample to the volume which went to brightening of the control sample (1.2 grams), multiplied by 100 percent is used as the coloring force. It is shown that the composition of the proposed carbon black paste has a high degree of blackness and a high aggregate stability.

  16. Overview of Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds (PAC) (United States)

    Achten, Christine; Andersson, Jan T.


    The chemical group of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC), including the better-known subgroup of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and the heterocyclic aromatic compounds (NSO-PAC, heterocycles), comprise several thousand individual compounds. It is hard to find a comprehensive overview in the literature of these PACs that includes a substantial amount of relevant properties. Here an attempt is made to summarize the most studied but also some less well-known PACs. In addition to basic data such as recommended names, abbreviations, CAS numbers, molecular formulas, chemical structures, and exact mono-isotopic molecular weights, physico-chemical properties taken from the literature like boiling points, vapor pressures, water solubilities, Henry's Law constants, n-octanol-water partition coefficients (log KOW), and pKa are summarized. Selected toxicological data are listed indicating carcinogenic and mutagenic activity or effects on different organisms. PAC nomenclature is a complex topic, so suggestions for practical use are made. Regarding available data, estimated (instead of measured) values should be used with caution because considerable deviations from experimentally determined values can occur. For an enhanced understanding of the behavior of single PACs in comparison with each other, some of the properties mentioned above are plotted vs. the number of rings or the degree of alkylation. Also, some physico-chemical data are correlated with different functional groups as substituents of the PAHs. This article reveals that rather little is known about the less common PACs, e.g., higher molecular weight compounds, alkylated or otherwise substituted aromatics, for instance, keto-, oxo-, amino-, nitro-, cyano-PAHs, or some heterocyclic aromatic compounds, including their derivatives. It mirrors the limited state of knowledge about the variety of PACs that do not belong to the 16 EPA PAHs. PMID:26823644

  17. Student Evaluation of Online Pharmaceutical Compounding Videos (United States)

    Park, Hanna L.


    Objective. To describe pharmacy students’ views on the effectiveness of an expansion of the compounding laboratory website at the UNC Eshelman School of Pharmacy. Methods. Originally, there were 39 videos and three animations available. In 2011, an additional 59 videos and two animations were added. Concurrently, all of the interactive questions were updated to fully integrate with the expanded video library. Students were surveyed about the expanded video library regarding accessibility, functionality, and usefulness, and how using the library impacted their learning of compounding. Surveys were analyzed with descriptive statistics. Means and SDs were calculated for the rating scale questions; independent t tests and Wilcoxon nonparametric tests were used to find differences between professional classes and campuses. Analytical results were evaluated with a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), z test, and a homogeneity of variance (Levene’s) test. Results. The response rate to the survey was 85%. Compounding videos were used by 386/391 students. Thirty-four percent of students used the videos an average of 30 minutes or less per week; 56% used the videos 1–2 hours per week. Approximately 80% of students were satisfied with the functionality and accessibility of the videos. All students, regardless of professional year or campus affiliation, put their confidence/competence at about 70% of the rating scale. Conclusions. As no standardized compounding curriculum was found in US schools of pharmacy and students reported being satisfied with the website, it could be an accessible, functional, and useful resource for pharmaceutical compounding in schools of pharmacy. PMID:27073283

  18. Spin state switching in iron coordination compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Gütlich


    Full Text Available The article deals with coordination compounds of iron(II that may exhibit thermally induced spin transition, known as spin crossover, depending on the nature of the coordinating ligand sphere. Spin transition in such compounds also occurs under pressure and irradiation with light. The spin states involved have different magnetic and optical properties suitable for their detection and characterization. Spin crossover compounds, though known for more than eight decades, have become most attractive in recent years and are extensively studied by chemists and physicists. The switching properties make such materials potential candidates for practical applications in thermal and pressure sensors as well as optical devices.The article begins with a brief description of the principle of molecular spin state switching using simple concepts of ligand field theory. Conditions to be fulfilled in order to observe spin crossover will be explained and general remarks regarding the chemical nature that is important for the occurrence of spin crossover will be made. A subsequent section describes the molecular consequences of spin crossover and the variety of physical techniques usually applied for their characterization. The effects of light irradiation (LIESST and application of pressure are subjects of two separate sections. The major part of this account concentrates on selected spin crossover compounds of iron(II, with particular emphasis on the chemical and physical influences on the spin crossover behavior. The vast variety of compounds exhibiting this fascinating switching phenomenon encompasses mono-, oligo- and polynuclear iron(II complexes and cages, polymeric 1D, 2D and 3D systems, nanomaterials, and polyfunctional materials that combine spin crossover with another physical or chemical property.

  19. Flow-injection biamperometry of pyrogallol compounds. (United States)

    Zhao, Chuan; Song, Junfeng; Zhang, Juncai


    A biamperometric method for the direct determination of pyrogallol compounds has been designed for flow-injection analysis. The method is based on the electrocatalytic oxidation of pyrogallol compounds at one pretreated platinum electrode and the reduction of platinum oxide at the other pretreated platinum electrode to form a biamperometric detection system with the applied potential difference of 10 mV. Three important compounds, pyrogallol, gallic acid and tannic acid, have been detected by the method. The linear relationships between currents and the concentrations of pyrogallol, gallic acid and tannic acid are obtained over the range 1.0x10(-6)-1.0x10(-4), 1.0x10(-6)-1.0x10(-4) and 1.0x10(-6)-2.0x10(-4) mol l(-1) with the detection limit of 6.0x10(-7), 6.0x10(-7) and 8.0x10(-7) mol l(-1) (S/N=2), respectively. The R.S.D. observed for 30 successive determinations of 5.0x10(-5) mol l(-1) pyrogallol, gallic acid and tannic acid are 1.9, 2.5 and 2.0%, respectively. Most ions and organic compounds tested are found not to cause significant interference in the determinations. The method is simple, selective and efficient (180 h(-1)), performing well as a routine assay, and has been validated by the determination of pyrogallol compounds in tea and Chinese gall.

  20. Comparative angioprotective effects of magnesium compounds. (United States)

    Kharitonova, Maria; Iezhitsa, Igor; Zheltova, Anastasia; Ozerov, Alexander; Spasov, Alexander; Skalny, Anatoly


    Magnesium (Mg) deficiency is implicated in the development of numerous disorders of the cardiovascular system. Moreover, the data regarding the efficacy of different magnesium compounds in the correction of impaired functions due to low magnesium intake are often fragmentary and inconsistent. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of the most bioavailable Mg compounds (Mg l-aspartate, Mg N-acetyltaurate, Mg chloride, Mg sulphate and Mg oxybutyrate) on systemic inflammation and endothelial dysfunction in rats fed a low Mg diet for 74 days. A low Mg diet decreased the Mg concentration in the plasma and erythrocytes, which was accompanied by a reduced concentration of eNOs and increased levels of endothelin-1 level in the serum and impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilatation. These effects increased the concentration of proinflammatory molecules, such as VCAM-1, TNF-α, IL-6 and CRP, indicating the development of systemic inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. The increased total NO level, which estimated from the sum of the nitrate and nitrite concentrations in the serum, may also be considered to be a proinflammatory marker. Two weeks of Mg supplementation partially or fully normalised the ability of the vascular wall to effect adequate endothelium-dependent vasodilatation and reversed the levels of most endothelial dysfunction and inflammatory markers (except CRP) to the mean values of the control group. Mg sulphate had the smallest effect on the endothelin-1, TNF-α and VCAM-1 levels. Mg N-acetyltaurate was significantly more effective in restoring the level of eNOS compared to all other studied compounds, except for Mg oxybutyrate. Taken together, the present findings demonstrate that all Mg compounds equally alleviate endothelial dysfunction and inflammation caused by Mg deficiency. Mg sulphate tended to be the least effective compound. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds from Colchicum luteum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Aug 30, 2010 ... compound 1 (21 mg) and compound 2 (14 g). The fraction that was obtained from CHCl3 / MeOH (50: 50) was then subjected to repeated column chromatography over silica gel eluting with CHCl3. / MeOH; (40: 60) to offered compound 3 (13 mg) and compound 4. (17 mg). Characterization of colchicine (1).

  2. Synthesis of a naphthalene-hydroxynaphthalene polymer model compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The objective of this project was the synthesis of one pound of a new naphthalene-hydroxynaphthalene polymer model compound for use in coal combustion studies. Since this compound was an unreported compound, this effort also required the development of a synthetic route to this compound (including routes to the unique and unreported intermediates leading to its synthesis).

  3. Catalytic oxidation of odorous compounds from waste treatment processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lens, P.N.L.; Boncz, M.A.; Sipma, J.; Bruning, H.; Rulkens, W.H.


    Oxidation of malodorous compounds such as volatile organic compounds (VOC), hydrogen sulphide (H2S) and volatile organic sulphur compounds (VOSC) generally leads to a significant decrease or even a complete elimination of their odour nuisance. Unfortunately, the oxidation rates of these compounds

  4. Pharmacological promiscuity: dependence on compound properties and target specificity in a set of recent Roche compounds. (United States)

    Peters, Jens-Uwe; Schnider, Patrick; Mattei, Patrizio; Kansy, Manfred


    The term "pharmacological promiscuity" describes a compound's pharmacological activity at multiple targets. Pharmacological promiscuity is undesired in typical drug discovery projects, which focus on the "one drug-one target" paradigm. Off-target activity can lead to adverse drug reactions, or can obscure pharmacodynamic effects in animal models. Therefore, advanced lead compounds, pharmacological tool compounds, and drug candidates are usually screened against panels of safety-relevant targets to detect unwanted pharmacological activities. To identify determinants of pharmacological promiscuity, we compared the panel screening outcomes of 213 recent Roche compounds with their molecular properties. Pronounced promiscuity was not observed below a threshold Clog P value of 2. For basic compounds, the propensity for weak off-target activity was found to increase with calculated basicities, whereas the potential for strong off-target activity depends more qualitatively on the presence of a positive charge at physiological pH. Compounds originating from projects with an aminergic receptor or transporter as a therapeutic target are particularly prone to promiscuity; the promiscuity of such compounds is mainly caused by their activity at other aminergic targets in the screening panel.



    Shkelqim Millaku; Xhevahire Topanica


    The compound words are all the words that are compound from two or more words and both of them creative the new words with the new meaning. In linguistics, a compound is a lexeme (less precisely, a word) that consists of more than one stem. Compounding or composition is the word-formation that creates compound lexemes (the other word-formation process being derivation). Compounding or Word-compounding refers to the faculty and device of language to form new words by combining or putting toget...

  6. Sonochemical degradation of chlorinated organic compounds, phenolic compounds and organic dyes - A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chowdhury, Pankaj [Faculty of Engineering, University of Regina, 3737 Wascana Parkway, Regina, Saskatchewan, S4S 0A2 (Canada); Viraraghavan, T. [Faculty of Engineering, University of Regina, 3737 Wascana Parkway, Regina, Saskatchewan, S4S 0A2 (Canada)], E-mail:


    Sonochemical processes have been widely used in chemistry and chemical engineering field. Recently, these processes have found new applications in the environmental field, because of advantages in terms of operational simplicity, secondary pollutant formation and safety. Several studies have reported on sonochemical degradation of organic compounds that are toxic in nature. The objective of this review was to identify and examine some of the studies on sonochmical degradation of chlorinated organic compounds, phenolic compounds and organic dyes. This review also examines the basic theory of sonochemical reactions and the use of sonochemical reactors for environmental applications.

  7. Raman scattering in transition metal compounds: Titanium and compounds of titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, J.; Ederer, D.L.; Shu, T. [Tulane Univ., New Orleans, LA (United States)] [and others


    The transition metal compounds form a very interesting and important set of materials. The diversity arises from the many states of ionization the transition elements may take when forming compounds. This variety provides ample opportunity for a large class of materials to have a vast range of electronic and magnetic properties. The x-ray spectroscopy of the transition elements is especially interesting because they have unfilled d bands that are at the bottom of the conduction band with atomic like structure. This group embarked on the systematic study of transition metal sulfides and oxides. As an example of the type of spectra observed in some of these compounds they have chosen to showcase the L{sub II, III} emission and Raman scattering in some titanium compounds obtained by photon excitation.

  8. Basics of Compounding: 3D Printing: Pharmacy Applications, Part 3: Compounding, Formulation Considerations, and the Future. (United States)

    Allen, Loyd V


    3D printing is a standard tool in the automotive, aerospace, and consumer goods in industry and is gaining traction in pharmaceutical manufacturing, which has introduced a new element into dosage form development. This article, which represents part 3 of a 3-part article on the topic of 3D printing, discusses the compounding, formulation considerations, and the future of 3D printing. Copyright© by International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding, Inc.

  9. Phantom PAINS: Problems with the Utility of Alerts for Pan-Assay INterference CompoundS. (United States)

    Capuzzi, Stephen J; Muratov, Eugene N; Tropsha, Alexander


    The use of substructural alerts to identify Pan-Assay INterference compoundS (PAINS) has become a common component of the triage process in biological screening campaigns. These alerts, however, were originally derived from a proprietary library tested in just six assays measuring protein-protein interaction (PPI) inhibition using the AlphaScreen detection technology only; moreover, 68% (328 out of the 480 alerts) were derived from four or fewer compounds. In an effort to assess the reliability of these alerts as indicators of pan-assay interference, we performed a large-scale analysis of the impact of PAINS alerts on compound promiscuity in bioassays using publicly available data in PubChem. We found that the majority (97%) of all compounds containing PAINS alerts were actually infrequent hitters in AlphaScreen assays measuring PPI inhibition. We also found that the presence of PAINS alerts, contrary to expectations, did not reflect any heightened assay activity trends across all assays in PubChem including AlphaScreen, luciferase, beta-lactamase, or fluorescence-based assays. In addition, 109 PAINS alerts were present in 3570 extensively assayed, but consistently inactive compounds called Dark Chemical Matter. Finally, we observed that 87 small molecule FDA-approved drugs contained PAINS alerts and profiled their bioassay activity. Based on this detailed analysis of PAINS alerts in nonproprietary compound libraries, we caution against the blind use of PAINS filters to detect and triage compounds with possible PAINS liabilities and recommend that such conclusions should be drawn only by conducting orthogonal experiments.

  10. New compounds from Commiphora myrrha (Nees) Engl. (United States)

    Ahmed, F; Ali, M; Singh, O


    Phytochemical investigation of Commiphora myrrha (Nees) Engl. has afforded six new compounds identified as cadina-3-en-15-ol (myrracadinol A) (1), 7, 8-seco-2, 5-dihydroxy-12-acetoxycalam-8-ene (myrracalamene A) (2), 7, 8-seco-2, 3, 5-hydroxy-12-acetoxycalame-8-ene (myrracalamene B) (3), 7, 8-seco-cadin-3, 8-dien-2beta, 12-diol (myrracadinol B) (4), 7, 8-seco-12-hydroxycalam-8-ene (myrracalamene C) (6), 7, 8-seco-cadin-3,7(12)-dien-5alpha,10alpha-diol (myrracadinol C) (7) along with a known compound tria-cont-1-ene (5). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectral and chemical analyses.

  11. Nitrate, Nitrite, and nitroso compounds in foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hotchkiss, J.H.; Cassens, R.G.


    The concern that human foods might contain nitroso compounds stems from the discovery in the early 1960s that domestic animals fed fish meal preserved with high levels of sodium nitrite were dying of liver failure. It has been known for many years that nitrite can combine with amines to form N-nitrosamines. N-nitrosodimethylamine was determined to be the cause of the liver failure. The nitrosamine resulted from the reaction between dimethylamine contained in the fish and the added nitrite. Because nitrite is an important and widely used human food additive, particularly in the curing of meats, poultry, and fish, research was undertaken by several groups around the world to investigate the occurrence of these compounds in human foods.

  12. Development of labelled compound for neuroreceptor imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, J. H.; Oh, C. H.; Lee, K. S.; Lee, S. C. [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea)


    The purpose of this research and development is to develop the radioisotope labeled compound for serotonin neuroreceptor imaging. This serotonir receptor plays a key role in many neurological disease, such as anxiety and depression. Radio-Labeled compounds (Radio pharmaceuticals) has the advantage of early diagnosis and non-invasiveness. New arylpiplrazine ligand for imaging serotonin receptor 5HT{sub 1A} were synthesized. These ligand has a novel N{sub 2}S{sub 2} moiety of which deprotection process is expected to be much simple and to give high yield. New radiopharmaceuticals which was obtained as a results of this research will be developed as a diagnostic reagent. 5 refs. (Author)

  13. Oxavanadium coordination compounds with acetone aroylhydrazones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musaev, Z.M.; Khodzhaev, O.F.; Larin, G.M.; Parpiev, N.A. (AN Uzbekskoj SSR, Tashkent. Inst. Khimii; AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Obshchej i Neorganicheskoj Khimii)


    Complex compounds of vanadyl with the products of aroylhydrazone condensation with acetone of VO(p-XBHA)/sub 2/ composition, where XBHA deprotonated form of p-X-, p-Cl-, p-Br-, p-OCH/sub 3/-, p-NO/sub 2/-acetone benzoylhydrazone are synthesized in the aqueous-alcoholic medium. By comparison of infrared spectra of ligands and synthesized compounds is established that the acetone aroylhydrazones are coordinated by vanadyl ion in the deprotonated form by means of oxygen and nitrogen atoms. FPR spectra in the chloroform and toluene solutions are studied; the parameters of isotropic and anisotropic spin hamiltonian, which successfully agree with the literature data for the vanadyl complexes having Csub(4v) symmetry, in which the vanadyl ion is surrounded by two atoms of oxygen and nitrogen, are determined.

  14. Compound Composite Odontoma and Its Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morawala Abdul


    Full Text Available Odontomas are odontogenic benign tumors composed of dental tissue. Majority of these lesions are asymptomatic and are often detected on routine radiographs. They can be thought of as “tooth hamartomas" with the lesion consisting of various tooth components. They are divided histologically into complex odontomas and compound odontomas. This paper describes the case of a compound odontoma in a 13-year-old girl diagnosed due to the retention of the primary right mandibular second molar. A surgical excision was performed without disturbing the unerupted premolar. The results achieved indicate that early diagnosis of odontomas enables adoption of less complex treatment, a better prognosis, and displacement or devitalisation of adjacent tooth.

  15. Intercalation compounds involving inorganic layered structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Two-dimensional inorganic networks can shown intracrystalline reactivity, i.e., simple ions, large species as Keggin ions, organic species, coordination compounds or organometallics can be incorporated in the interlayer region. The host-guest interaction usually causes changes in their chemical, catalytic, electronic and optical properties. The isolation of materials with interesting properties and making use of soft chemistry routes have given rise the possibility of industrial and technological applications of these compounds. We have been using several synthetic approaches to intercalate porphyrins and phthalocyanines into inorganic materials: smectite clays, layered double hydroxides and layered niobates. The isolated materials have been characterized by elemental and thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, surface area measurements, scanning electronic microscopy, electronic and resonance Raman spectroscopies and EPR. The degree of layer stacking and the charge density of the matrices as well their acid-base nature were considered in our studies on the interaction between the macrocycles and inorganic hosts.

  16. Determination of Phenolic Compounds in Wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charalampos Proestos


    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Wine contains natural antioxidants such as phenolic compounds also known as bioactive compounds. Samples of commercially available Greek wines were analyzed in order to determine this phenolic content. For the analysis, Reversed Phase-High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC coupled with a multiwavelength Ultraviolet/visible (UV/vis detector was used. The most abundant phenolic substances detected were (+-catechin (13.5-72.4 mg L-1 , gallic acid (0.40-99.47 mg L-1 and caffeic acid (0.87-33.48 mg L-1. The principal component analysis (PCA technique was used to study differentiation among wines according to their production area. Red wines contained more phenolic substances than white ones. Differences of the phenolic composition in wines of the same cultivar were investigated too.

  17. Adsorption of lignosulfonate compounds using powdered eggshell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ali Zulfikar


    Full Text Available Batch adsorption of lignosulfonates using untreated powdered eggshell under the influences of mixing time, pH,particle size and dose of powdered eggshell was investigated. Adsorption isotherms of lignosulfonates onto powder eggshellwere also studied. Eggshells were collected from the Balubur traditional market in Bandung, Indonesia, washed with distilledwater, air dried, and then ground into powder of different particle sizes. Kinetic studies found that equilibrium time was ashigh as 90 minutes. From experiments carried out at different pH, it was observed that pH plays an important role in theadsorption of lignosulfonate compounds. It was also observed that particles size has no significant effect on the adsorptionof lignosulfonate compounds. The optimum dosage of powdered eggshell was 30 g/100 mL of 500 mg/L lignosulfonatesolution. Adsorption isotherms studied through the use of graphical methods revealed that the adsorption of lignosulfonatesonto powdered eggshell follows the Langmuir model.

  18. Quaternary ammonium compounds – New occupational hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Lipińska-Ojrzanowska


    Full Text Available Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs, quats belong to organic ionic chemical agents which display unique properties of both surfactants and disinfectants. Their wide distribution in the work environment and also in private households brings about new occupational hazards. This paper reviews reports about the health effects of QACs. QACs could play a role of sensitizers and irritants to the skin and mucous membranes. It is suspected that particular QACs can display an immunologic crossreactivity between each other and with other chemical compounds containing ammonium ion, such as muscle relaxants widely used in anesthesia. They may promote the development of airway allergy, however, the background mechanisms are still unclear and need to be further investigated. Until now, a few cases of occupational asthma induced by QACs have been described and their involvement in contact dermatitis has been documented. The possibility of anaphylaxis due to QACs cannot be excluded as well. Med Pr 2014;65(5:675–682

  19. [Quaternary ammonium compounds--new occupational hazards]. (United States)

    Lipińska-Ojrzanowska, Agnieszka; Walusiak-Skorupa, Jolanta


    Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs, quats) belong to organic ionic chemical agents which display unique properties of both surfactants and disinfectants. Their wide distribution in the work environment and also in private households brings about new occupational hazards. This paper reviews reports about the health effects of QACs. QACs could play a role of sensitizers and irritants to the skin and mucous membranes. It is suspected that particular QACs can display an immunologic cross-reactivity between each other and with other chemical compounds containing ammonium ion, such as muscle relaxants widely used in anesthesia. They may promote the development of airway allergy, however, the background mechanisms are still unclear and need to be further investigated. Until now, a few cases of occupational asthma induced by QACs have been described and their involvement in contact dermatitis has been documented. The possibility of anaphylaxis due to QACs cannot be excluded as well.

  20. The network of plants volatile organic compounds. (United States)

    Vivaldo, Gianna; Masi, Elisa; Taiti, Cosimo; Caldarelli, Guido; Mancuso, Stefano


    Plants emission of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) is involved in a wide class of ecological functions, as VOCs play a crucial role in plants interactions with biotic and abiotic factors. Accordingly, they vary widely across species and underpin differences in ecological strategy. In this paper, VOCs spontaneously emitted by 109 plant species (belonging to 56 different families) have been qualitatively and quantitatively analysed in order to provide an alternative classification of plants species. In particular, by using bipartite networks methodology from Complex Network Theory, and through the application of community detection algorithms, we show that is possible to classify species according to chemical classes such as terpenes and sulfur compounds. Such complex network analysis allows to uncover hidden plants relationships related to their evolutionary and adaptation to the environment story.

  1. Multiferroic Compounds with Double-Perovskite Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriya Ichikawa


    Full Text Available New multiferroic compounds with double-perovskite structures were synthesized. Bi2NiMnO6 was synthesized in bulk form by high-pressure synthesis and also in a thin-film form by epitaxial growth. The material showed both ferromagnetic and ferroelectric properties, i.e., the multiferroic property at low temperature. Bi2FeCrO6 was also fabricated in a (1 1 1 oriented BiFeO3/BiCrO3 artificial superlattice, with a 1/1 stacking period. The superlattice film showed ferromagnetic behavior and polarization switching at room temperature. In the compounds, Bi3+ ion, located at the A site in the perovskite structure, caused ferroelectric structural distortion, and the B-site ordering of the Ni2+ and Mn4+ ions (Fe3+ and Cr3+ ions in a rock-salt configuration led to ferromagnetism according to the Kanamori-Goodenough rule.

  2. Thermodynamic Properties of Actinides and Actinide Compounds (United States)

    Konings, Rudy J. M.; Morss, Lester R.; Fuger, Jean

    The necessity of obtaining accurate thermodynamic quantities for the actinide elements and their compounds was recognized at the outset of the Manhattan Project, when a dedicated team of scientists and engineers initiated the program to exploit nuclear energy for military purposes. Since the end of World War II, both fundamental and applied objectives have motivated a great deal of further study of actinide thermodynamics. This chapter brings together many research papers and critical reviews on this subject. It also seeks to assess, to systematize, and to predict important properties of the actinide elements, ions, and compounds, especially for species in which there is significant interest and for which there is an experimental basis for the prediction.

  3. Nitrogenase reduction of carbon-containing compounds. (United States)

    Seefeldt, Lance C; Yang, Zhi-Yong; Duval, Simon; Dean, Dennis R


    Nitrogenase is an enzyme found in many bacteria and archaea that catalyzes biological dinitrogen fixation, the reduction of N2 to NH3, accounting for the major input of fixed nitrogen into the biogeochemical N cycle. In addition to reducing N2 and protons, nitrogenase can reduce a number of small, non-physiological substrates. Among these alternative substrates are included a wide array of carbon-containing compounds. These compounds have provided unique insights into aspects of the nitrogenase mechanism. Recently, it was shown that carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2) can also be reduced by nitrogenase to yield hydrocarbons, opening new insights into the mechanism of small molecule activation and reduction by this complex enzyme as well as providing clues for the design of novel molecular catalysts. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Metals in Bioenergetics and Biomimetics Systems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Screening Some Plants for their Antiproliferative Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ufuk Kolak


    Full Text Available This paper covers the screening of the secondary plant products to find a cure against cancer which were piled up during the years. In early stages of these studies highly active antitumor glycoproteins were obtained from native Arizona (USA plants. Later smaller molecules were isolated showing antitumor activity in different test systems. Among these compounds sesquiterpene lactones with an exo-methylene group in the lactone ring, unsaturated diterpenoids and some triterpenoids exhibited activity in vivo and in vitro test systems. A few Colchicum alkaloids showed high activity against murine lymphocytic leukemia (P388. Activity also established in some flavonoidal compounds. Today all around the world research on Natural Products is still going on.

  5. Reactivity Patterns of (Protonated) Compound II and Compound I of Cytochrome P450: Which is the better oxidant?


    Li, Xiao-Xi; Postils, Verònica; Sun, Wei; Faponle, Abayomi S.; Solà i Puig, Miquel; Wang, Yong; Nom, Wonwoo; de Visser, Sam P


    The cytochromes P450 are versatile enzymes in human physiology that perform substrate hydroxylation reactions extremely efficient. In this work, we present results of a computational study on the reactivity patterns of Compound I, Compound II and protonated Compound II with model substrates and addresses the question, which of those is the most effective oxidant. All calculations, regardless of the substrate, implicate that Compound I is the superior oxidant of the three. However, Compound II...

  6. The Surface Tension of Pure Liquid Compounds, (United States)

    The surface tension tables presented herein are the result of a literature survey, evaluation, and compilation of data of some 2200 pure liquid... surface tension values to establish the regression curves and their equations. The constants of the equations (slope and intercept), together with the...standard deviations are given for each compound. The selection factors establishing criteria of quality of surface tension data are discussed. These

  7. Three coordination compounds based on benzene tetracarboxylate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    ation (generator power settings: 35 kV and 20 mA) and a DTex. Ultra detector .... ion and two free water molecules (Figure S4 in SI).: In compound 1, each Co(II) cation shows a distorted octahedral geom- etry [CoN2O4], which is surrounded by two nitrogen atoms from .... in the energy range of 380–600nm (λmax = 394 nm).

  8. Coaxial Compound Helicopter for Confined Urban Operations (United States)


    for the six passengers, but the design mission is flown with only four passengers. Disk Loading and Rotor Diameter Table 17 shows the impact of...weight with rotor diameter for the baseline configuration, and for the aircraft with ITEP engine, two pilots, and six passengers. Lines of constant...Analysis showed that this combination of requirements is best satisfied by a coaxial main- rotor configuration, with lift compounding to off-load

  9. Novel ocular antihypertensive compounds in clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen J


    Full Text Available June Chen1, Stephen A Runyan1, Michael R Robinson21Department of Biological Sciences, 2Ophthalmology Clinical Research, Allergan, Inc, Irvine, CA, USAIntroduction: Glaucoma is a multifactorial disease characterized by progressive optic nerve injury and visual field defects. Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP is the most widely recognized risk factor for the onset and progression of open-angle glaucoma, and IOP-lowering medications comprise the primary treatment strategy. IOP elevation in glaucoma is associated with diminished or obstructed aqueous humor outflow. Pharmacotherapy reduces IOP by suppressing aqueous inflow and/or increasing aqueous outflow.Purpose: This review focuses on novel non-FDA approved ocular antihypertensive compounds being investigated for IOP reduction in ocular hypertensive and glaucoma patients in active clinical trials within approximately the past 2 years.Methods: The mode of IOP reduction, pharmacology, efficacy, and safety of these new agents were assessed. Relevant drug efficacy and safety trials were identified from searches of various scientific literature databases and clinical trial registries. Compounds with no specified drug class, insufficient background information, reformulations, and fixed-combinations of marketed drugs were not considered.Results: The investigational agents identified comprise those that act on the same targets of established drug classes approved by the FDA (ie, prostaglandin analogs and β-adrenergic blockers as well as agents belonging to novel drug classes with unique mechanisms of action. Novel targets and compounds evaluated in clinical trials include an actin polymerization inhibitor (ie, latrunculin, Rho-associated protein kinase inhibitors, adenosine receptor analogs, an angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist, cannabinoid receptor agonists, and a serotonin receptor antagonist.Conclusion: The clinical value of novel compounds for the treatment of glaucoma will depend

  10. Fungal Endophthalmitis Associated with Compounded Products


    Mikosz, Christina A.; Smith, Rachel M.; Kim, Moon; Tyson, Clara; Lee, Ellen H.; Adams, Eleanor; Straif-Bourgeois, Susanne; Sowadsky, Rick; Arroyo, Shannon; Grant-Greene, Yoran; Duran, Julie; Vasquez, Yvonne; Robinson, Byron F.; Harris, Julie R.; Lockhart, Shawn R.


    Fungal endophthalmitis is a rare but serious infection. In March 2012, several cases of probable and laboratory-confirmed fungal endophthalmitis occurring after invasive ocular procedures were reported nationwide. We identified 47 cases in 9 states: 21 patients had been exposed to the intraocular dye Brilliant Blue G (BBG) during retinal surgery, and the other 26 had received an intravitreal injection containing triamcinolone acetonide. Both drugs were produced by Franck’s Compounding Lab (Oc...

  11. Biodegradation and Transformation of Nitroaromatic Compounds (POSTPRINT) (United States)


    with a source of carbon, nitrogen, or energy; therefore, enrichment and selection for microorgan · isms can, be based on the ability of the nirro...provide no selective advantage chat can be exploited for the isolation of organisms able co degrade the compounds. Nevertheless, microorganisms can... bioprocess engineering offer the potential for use of bio· transformation systems for the complete degradation or de- toxification of nicroaromacic

  12. Negative thermal expansion in framework compounds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Nov 27, 2015 ... We have studied negative thermal expansion (NTE) compounds with chemi- cal compositions of NX2O8 and NX2O7 (N=Zr, Hf and X=W, Mo, V) and M2O (M=Cu, Ag) using the techniques of inelastic neutron scattering and lattice dynamics. There is a large variation in the negative thermal expansion ...

  13. Thermal steam plasma decomposition of organochlorine compounds (United States)

    Surov, A. V.; Subbotin, D. I.; Popov, V. E.; Popov, S. D.; Litvyikova, A. I.; Nakonechniy, Gh V.; Serba, E. O.; Obraztsov, N. V.


    For the almost complete processing of organochlorine compounds are required a high temperature, hydrogen to produce hydrogen chloride and a high degree of mixing. Reforming chlorobenzene by steam and carbon dioxide in the presence of methane using a three-phase AC plasma torch was carried out. Soot composition was analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The yield of soot was 0.84% wt. of raw materials, the content of chlorine in the soot was 2.08% by wt.

  14. Aromatic compounds from three Brazilian Lauraceae species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista, Andrea Nastri de Luca; Batista Junior, Joao Marcos; Lopez, Silvia Noeli; Furlan, Maysa; Cavalheiro, Alberto Jose; Silva, Dulce Helena Siqueira; Bolzani, Vanderlan da Silva [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Quimica Organica; Nunomura, Sergio Massayoshi [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisa da Amazonia (INPA), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Dept. de Produtos Naturais; Yoshida, Massayoshi [Centro de Biotecnologia da Amazonia, Manaus, AM (Brazil)


    Phytochemical investigations on three Brazilian Lauraceae species from the Cerrado region of Sao Paulo State, Ocotea corymbosa (Meins) Mez., O. elegans Mez. and Persea pyrifolia Nees and Mart. ex Nees resulted in the isolation of flavonoids, an ester of the 4-O-E-caffeoylquinic acid, an aromatic sesquiterpene besides furofuran lignans. This is the first chemical study on the leaves of Ocotea elegans and O. corymbosa as well as the first report of non-volatile compounds from Persea pyrifolia. (author)

  15. Tetrazolium Compounds: Synthesis and Applications in Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Xi Wei


    Full Text Available Tetrazoles represent a class of five-membered heterocyclic compounds with polynitrogen electron-rich planar structural features. This special structure makes tetrazole derivatives useful drugs, explosives, and other functional materials with a wide range of applications in many fields of medicine, agriculture, material science, etc. Based on our research works on azoles and other references in recent years, this review covers reported work on the synthesis and biological activities of tetrazole derivatives.

  16. Effect of intermediate compounds and products on wet oxidation and biodegradation rates of pharmaceutical compounds. (United States)

    Collado, Sergio; Laca, Adriana; Diaz, Mario


    Kinetics of pure compounds in batch agitated reactors are useful data to clarify the characteristics of a given reaction, but they frequently do not provide the required information to design industrial mixed continuous processes because in this case the final and intermediate products interact with the reaction of interest, due to backmixing effects. Simultaneously, the presence and transformations of other compounds, frequent in industrial wastewater treatments, adds more complexity to these types of interactions, whose effect can be different, favorable or unfavorable, for chemical or biological reactions. In this work, batch laboratory reactor data were obtained for the wet oxidation and biodegradation of four phenolic compounds present in a pharmaceutical wastewater and then compared with those collected from industrial continuous stirred tank reactors. For wet oxidation, batch laboratory degradation rates were significantly lower than those found in industrial continuous stirred operation. This behavior was explained by a different distribution of intermediate compounds in lab and industrial treatments, caused by the degree of backmixing and the synergistic effects between phenolic compounds (matrix effects). On the other hand, the specific utilization rates during aerobic biodegradation in the continuous industrial operation were lower than those measured in the laboratory, due to the simultaneous presence of the four pollutants in the industrial process (matrix effects) increasing the inhibitory effects of these compounds and its intermediates. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Raman Spectroscopy for Analysis of Thorium Compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Yin-Fong; Johnson, Timothy J.; Olsen, Khris B.


    The thorium fuel cycle is an alternative to the uranium fuel cycle in that when 232Th is irradiated with neutrons it is converted to 233U, another fissile isotope. There are several chemical forms of thorium which are used in the Th fuel cycle. Recently, Raman spectroscopy has become a very portable and facile analytical technique useful for many applications, including e.g. determining the chemical composition of different materials such as for thorium compounds. The technique continues to improve with the development of ever-more sensitive instrumentation and better software. Using a laboratory Fourier-transform (FT)-Raman spectrometer with a 785 nm wavelength laser, we were able to obtain Raman spectra from a series of thorium-bearing compounds of unknown origin. These spectra were compared to the spectra of in-stock-laboratory thorium compounds including ThO2, ThF4, Th(CO3)2 and Th(C2O4)2. The unknown spectra showed very good agreement to the known standards, demonstrating the applicability of Raman spectroscopy for detection and identification of these nuclear materials.

  18. Volatile and semivolatile organic compounds in laboratory ... (United States)

    Speciated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and organic fine particulate matter (PM2.5) mass emission factors were determined from laboratory peat fire experiments. Peat samples originated from two wildlife reserves located near the coast of North Carolina, U.S. Gas and particulate organics were quantified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and by high pressure liquid chromatography. Hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) accounted for a large fraction (~60 %) of the speciated VOC emissions from peat burning, including large contributions of acetaldehyde, formaldehyde, benzene, toluene, and chloromethane. Speciated organic PM2.5 mass was dominated by the following compound classes: organic acids, levoglucosan, n-alkanes, and n-alkenes. Emission factors for PM2.5 organic acids including n-alkanoic acids, n-alkenoic acids, n-alkanedioic acids, and aromatic acids were reported for the first time for peat burning, representing the largest fraction of organic carbon (OC) mass (11-12 %) of all speciated compound classes measured in this work. Levoglucosan contributed 2-3 % of the OC mass, while methoxyphenols represented 0.2-0.3 % of the OC mass on a carbon mass basis. Retene was the most abundant particulate phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon. Total HAP VOC and particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions from a 2008 peat wildfire in North Carolina were estimated, suggesting that peat fires can contribute a large fraction of state-wide HAP emissions. This p

  19. Activity of Polyphenolic Compounds against Candida glabrata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Salazar-Aranda


    Full Text Available Opportunistic mycoses increase the morbidity and mortality of immuno-compromised patients. Five Candida species have been shown to be responsible for 97% of worldwide cases of invasive candidiasis. Resistance of C. glabrata and C. krusei to azoles has been reported, and new, improved antifungal agents are needed. The current study was designed to evaluatethe activity of various polyphenolic compounds against Candida species. Antifungal activity was evaluated following the M27-A3 protocol of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, and antioxidant activity was determined using the DPPH assay. Myricetin and baicalein inhibited the growth of all species tested. This effect was strongest against C. glabrata, for which the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC value was lower than that of fluconazole. The MIC values against C. glabrata for myricitrin, luteolin, quercetin, 3-hydroxyflavone, and fisetin were similar to that of fluconazole. The antioxidant activity of all compounds was confirmed, and polyphenolic compounds with antioxidant activity had the greatest activity against C. glabrata. The structure and position of their hydroxyl groups appear to influence their activity against C. glabrata.

  20. Neuroinhibitory meroterpenoid compounds from Cordia oncocalyx. (United States)

    Matos, Taynara S; Silva, Ana Karine O; Quintela, Amanda L; Francisco das Chagas Pinto, L; Canuto, Kirley M; Braz-Filho, Raimundo; Fonseca, Maria Júlia S; Luna-Costa, Angélica Maria; Paz, Iury A; Nascimento, Nilberto Robson F; Silveira, Edilberto R; Pessoa, Otilia Deusdênia L


    Five new meroterpenoid compounds designed as rel-10β,11β-epoxy-2,11-dimethoxy-8α-hydroxy-8aβ-methyl-5α,6,7,8,8a,9,10,10aβ-octahydro-1,4-anthracendione (1), rel-10β,11β-epoxy-8α,5-dihydroxy-2-methoxy-8aβ-methyl-5,6,7,8,8a,9,10,10aβ-octahydro -1.4-anthracendione (2), rel-1,4,8α-trihydroxy-5-furanyl-2-methoxy-8aβ-methyl-6,7,8, 8a,9,10-hexahydro-10-anthracenone (3), rel-10α,11α-epoxy-8α,11β-dihydroxy-8aβ-methyl-5β,6,7,8,8a,9,10,10aβ-octahydro-1,4-anthracenediol (4) and rel-1,4,8α-trihydroxy-5-carboxyethyl-2-methoxy-8aβ-methyl-6,7,8,8a,9,10-hexahydro-10-anthra-cenone (5), besides seven (6-12) known compounds were isolated from the heartwood and sapwood ethanol extracts of Cordia oncocalyx. Moreover, the main isolated compounds were screened using the electrically driven mice vas deferens bioassay, which has a rich pharmacological receptors diversity. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Antimicrobial compounds from Coleonema album (Rutaceae). (United States)

    Esterhuizen, Lindy L; Meyer, Riaan; Dubery, Ian A


    Coleonema album, a member of the South African fynbos biome, was evaluated for its antimicrobial activity associated with its secondary metabolites. Ethanol- and acetone-based extracts obtained from plants from two different geographical areas were analyzed. A bioassay-guided fractionation methodology was followed for rapid and effective screening for the presence of bioactive compounds. The TLC-bioautographic method, used to screen the plant extracts for antimicrobial activity and localization of the active compounds, indicated the presence of a number of inhibitory compounds with activity against the microorganisms (E. coli, B. subtilis, E. faecalis, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, M. smegmatis, M. tuberculosis, C. albicans, C. cucumerinum) tested. Evaluation of the inhibitory strength of each extract by the serial microdilution assay indicated that the C. album extracts inhibited effectively all the microorganisms, with the minimum inhibitory concentrations in the low mg ml(-1) range. Identification and structural information of the bioactive components were obtained by a combination of preparative TLC and LC-MS. It revealed the presence of coumarin aglycones which were responsible for the observed antimicrobial activities. The results of this study indicate that C. album possesses strong antimicrobial activity against a wide range of microorganisms that warrants further investigation into the use of the extracts or their active constituents as a potential source for novel drugs.

  2. Bioactive compounds in different acerola fruit cultivares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Aparecida de Carvalho Mariano-Nasser


    Full Text Available The increased consumption of acerola in Brazil was triggered because it is considered as a functional food mainly for its high ascorbic acid content, but the fruit also has high nutritional value, high levels of phenolic compounds, total antioxidant activity, anthocyanins and carotenoids in its composition. The objective was to evaluate the chemical, physical-chemical and antioxidant activity of eight varieties of acerola tree. The acerolas used in the research were the harvest 2015, 8 varieties: BRS 235 - Apodi, Mirandópolis, Waldy - CATI 30, BRS 238 - Frutacor, Okinawa, BRS 236 - Cereja, Olivier and BRS 237 - Roxinha, from the Active Bank Germplasm APTA Regional Alta Paulista in Adamantina - SP. Avaluated the following attributes: pH, titratable acidity, soluble solids, reducing sugar, instrumental color, ascorbic acid, total phenolics, flavonoids and antioxidant activity. The design was completely randomized, 8 varieties and 3 replications of 20 fruits each. Acerola fruit of the analyzed varieties prove to be good sources of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity, ensuring its excellent nutritional quality relative to combat free radicals. The variety BRS 236 - Cereja presents higher ascorbic acid content, antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds, and the lowest value for flavonoid, which was higher than the other cultivars, especially Olivier and Waldy CATI-30.

  3. Chlorinated organic compounds in urban river sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soma, Y.; Shiraishi, H.; Inaba, K. [National Inst. of Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)


    Among anthropogenic chemicals, many chlorinated organic compounds have been used as insecticides and detected frequently as contaminants in urban river sediments so far. However, the number and total amount of chemicals produced commercially and used are increasing year by year, though each amount of chemicals is not so high. New types of contaminants in the environment may be detected by the use of newly developed chemicals. Chlorinated organic compounds in the urban river sediments around Tokyo and Kyoto, large cities in Japan, were surveyed and recent trends of contaminants were studied. Contaminants of the river sediments in industrial areas had a variety, but PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls) was detected in common in industrial areas. Concentration of PCB related well to the number of factories on both sides of rivers, although the use of PCB was stopped 20 years ago. In domestic areas, Triclosan (5-chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)-phenol) and Triclocarban (3,4,4{prime}-trichlorocarbanilide)(both are contained in soap or shampoo for fungicides), p-dichlorobenzene (insecticides for wears) and TCEP(tris-chloroethyl phosphate) were detected. EOX(extracted organic halogen) in the sediments was 5 to 10 times of chlorinated organic compounds detected by GC/MS. Major part of organic halogen was suggested to be included in chlorinated organics formed by bleaching or sterilization.

  4. of polyphenolic compounds in Ilex Sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zwyrzykowska Anna


    Full Text Available Natural compounds are an important source of desired biological activity which help to improve nutritional status, enhance productivity and bring many health benefits. The leaves of the Ilex paraguariensis (Aquifoliaceae are used for preparing a beverage known as yerba mate and represent a proven source of natural polyphenols which are known to foster biological activity with the emphasis on antioxidant properties. In present work we focused on the polyphenolic content of air-dried leaves of Ilex aquifolium L., Ilex aquifolium ‘Argentea Mariginata’, Ilex meserveae ‘Blue Angel’, and a commercially available mate as the reference product. Liquid chromatography combined with mass spectrometry (HPLC and LC-MS and thin layer chromatography (TLC, were used to establish polyphenolic substances content in aqueous methanolic extracts obtained from the biological matter. Up to 20 polyphenolic compounds were identified in the extracts, including rutin, quinic acid and its caffeoyl esters, i.e. chlorogenic acid and its isomers as well as dicaffeoyl derivatives. We took chlorogenic acid and rutin as reference compounds to quantify their levels in the extracts. It was determined that in all tested plants, high levels of these antioxidants were present. This led us to the conclusion that their leaves might serve as valuable food additives.

  5. A Novel Antibacterial Compound from Siegesbeckia glabrescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deokhoon Park


    Full Text Available The crude methanol extract of the dried aerial parts of Siegesbeckia glabrescens (Compositae showed antibacterial activity against the foodborne pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. Bioactivity-guided separation led to the isolation of 3-(dodecanoyloxy-2-(isobutyryloxy-4-methylpentanoic acid from nature for the first time. The structure was determined by spectroscopic data analysis (UV, MS, and NMR. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC of 3-(dodecanoyloxy-2-(isobutyryloxy-4-methylpentanoic acid against S. aureus was found to be 3.12 μg/mL. In addition, in a further antimicrobial activity assay against Gram-positive (B. subtilis, E. faecalis, P. acnes, S. epidermidis, S. schleiferi subsp. coagulans, S. agalactiae and S. pyrogens, and Gram-negative bacteria (E. coli and P. aeruginosa, and yeast strains (C. alibicans and F. neoformans, the antimicrobial activity of the compound was found to be specific for Gram-positive bacteria. The MIC values of the compound for Gram-positive bacteria ranged from 3.12 to 25 mg/mL. Furthermore, it was found that the 2-(isobutyryloxy-4-methylpentanoic acid substituent may operate as a key factor in the antibacterial activity of the compound, together with the laurate group.

  6. More statistics on intermetallic compounds - ternary phases. (United States)

    Dshemuchadse, Julia; Steurer, Walter


    How many different intermetallic compounds are known so far, and in how many different structure types do they crystallize? What are their chemical compositions, the most abundant ones and the rarest ones? These are some of the questions we are trying to find answers for in our statistical analysis of the structures of the 20,829 intermetallic phases included in the database Pearson's Crystal Data, with the goal of gaining insight into some of their ordering principles. In the present paper, we focus on the subset of 13,026 ternary intermetallics, which crystallize in 1391 different structure types; remarkably, 667 of them have just one representative. What makes these 667 structures so unique that they are not adopted by any other of the known intermetallic compounds? Notably, ternary compounds are known in only 5109 of the 85,320 theoretically possible ternary intermetallic systems so far. In order to get an overview of their chemical compositions we use structure maps with Mendeleev numbers as ordering parameters.

  7. Micro-explosion of compound drops (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Kuei; Lin, Ta-Hui


    Introducing water into spray combustion systems, by either water-in-oil emulsification or supplementary water injection, is one of the major techniques for combustion improvement and NOx reduction. Plentiful researches are available on combustion of water-in-oil emulsion fuel drops. The emulsified liquid is a heterogeneous mixture of immiscible liquids. One component forms the continuous phase and the other component forms the discrete phase. The discrete phase consists of globules of the one fluid that are suspended in the continuous phase fluid. Water-in-oil emulsions are commonly considered for combustion applications because emulsions can result in micro-explosion, thereby reducing the average drop diameter to enhance liquid vaporization, and suppressing the formation of soot and NOx. However, the water addition generally does not exceed about 20% for smooth engine operations[!, 21. The combustion characteristics and micro-explosion of emulsion drop were studied by many researchers. The micro-explosion of water in fuel emulsion drops was caused by very fast growth of superheated water vapor bubbles, its superheat limits must be lower than the boiling point temperature of the fuel. These bubbles were primarily governed by the pressure difference between the superheated vapor and the liquid, and by the inertia imparted to the liquid by the motion of the bubble surface[3 6 In this study, we used a coaxial nozzle to generation the multi-component drop. The different type of water-in-oil fuel drops called the compound drops. Unlike an emulsion drop, a compound drop consists of a water core and a fuel shell, which can originate from the phase separation of emulsion[7, 81 or a water drop colliding with a fuel drop[9, 101 Burning and micro-explosion of compound drops have been found to be distinct from those of emulsion drops[9-111 Wang et al.[9 , 101 studied the combustion characteristics of collision merged alkane-water drops. The merged drops appeared in adhesive

  8. Volatile Organic Compound Analysis in Istanbul (United States)

    Ćapraz, Ö.; Deniz, A.; Öztürk, A.; Incecik, S.; Toros, H.; Coşkun, M.


    Volatile Organic Compound Analysis in Istanbul Ö. Çapraz1, A. Deniz1,3, A. Ozturk2, S. Incecik1, H. Toros1 and, M. Coskun1 (1) Istanbul Technical University, Faculty of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Department of Meteorology, 34469, Maslak, Istanbul, Turkey. (2) Istanbul Technical University, Faculty of Chemical and Metallurgical, Chemical Engineering, 34469, Maslak, Istanbul, Turkey. (3) Marmara Clean Air Center, Ministry of Environment and Urbanization, Nişantaşı, 34365, İstanbul, Turkey. One of the major problems of megacities is air pollution. Therefore, investigations of air quality are increasing and supported by many institutions in recent years. Air pollution in Istanbul contains many components that originate from a wide range of industrial, heating, motor vehicle, and natural emissions sources. VOC, originating mainly from automobile exhaust, secondhand smoke and building materials, are one of these compounds containing some thousands of chemicals. In spite of the risks to human health, relatively little is known about the levels of VOC in Istanbul. In this study, ambient air quality measurements of 32 VOCs including hydrocarbons, halogenated hydrocarbons and carbonyls were conducted in Kağıthane (Golden Horn) region in Istanbul during the winter season of 2011 in order to develop the necessary scientific framework for the subsequent developments. Kağıthane creek valley is the source part of the Golden Horn and one of the most polluted locations in Istanbul due to its topographical form and pollutant sources in the region. In this valley, horizontal and vertical atmospheric motions are very weak. The target compounds most commonly found were benzene, toluene, xylene and ethyl benzene. Concentrations of total hydrocarbons ranged between 1.0 and 10.0 parts per billion, by volume (ppbv). Ambient air levels of halogenated hydrocarbons appeared to exhibit unique spatial variations and no single factor seemed to explain trends for this group of

  9. Synthesis of novel ionic liquids from lignin-derived compounds (United States)

    Socha, Aaron; Singh, Seema; Simmons, Blake A.; Bergeron, Maxime


    Methods and compositions are provided for synthesizing ionic liquids from lignin derived compounds comprising: contacting a starting material comprising lignin with a depolymerization agent to depolymerize the lignin and form a mixture of aldehyde containing compounds; contacting the mixture of aldehyde containing compounds with an amine under conditions suitable to convert the mixture of aldehyde containing compounds to a mixture of amine containing compounds; and contacting the mixture of amine containing compounds with an acid under conditions suitable to form an ammonium salt, thereby preparing the ionic liquid.

  10. An introduction to the chemistry of complex compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Grinberg, Aleksander Abramovich; Trimble, R F


    An Introduction to the Chemistry of Complex Compounds discusses the fundamental concepts that are essential in understanding the underlying principles of complex compounds. The coverage of the book includes the compounds of the hexa, penta, and tetrammine type; compounds of the tri, dl, monoamine and hexacido types for the coordination number of 6; and complex compounds with a coordination number of 4. The text also covers the effects and chemical properties of complex compounds, such as the nature of the force of complex formation; the mutual effects of coordinated groups; and acid-base prope

  11. One lignanoid compound and four triterpenoid compounds with anti-inflammatory activity from the leaves of Elaeagnus oldhamii maxim. (United States)

    Liao, Chi-Ren; Ho, Yu-Ling; Huang, Guan-Jhong; Yang, Chang Syun; Chao, Che-Yi; Chang, Yuan-Shiun; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung


    One lignanoid compound, isoamericanol B (1), along with four triterpenoid compounds-cis-3-O-p-hydroxycinnamoyloleanolic acid (2), trans-3-O-p-hydroxy cinnamoyloleanolic acid (3), cis-3-O-p-hydroxycinnamoylursolic acid (4), trans-3-O-p-hydroxycinnamoylursolic acid (5) have been isolated for the first time from the leaves of Elaeagnus oldhamii Maxim. Compounds 1-4 significantly inhibited the expression of NO (nitric oxide) produced in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. The IC50 value for inhibition of nitrite production of compound 1 was about 10.3 ± 0.4 μg/mL. In the cell viability test, however, among compounds 1-4 compound 1 did not significantly change cell viability. Therefore, in this study compound 1 possessed anti-inflammatory effects. The result suggests compound 1 as a potential lead compound for the treatment of inflammatory diseases.

  12. Compounding and variational morphology: the analysis of inflection in Spanish compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Buenafuentes


    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the morphological variation related to gender and number in Spanish compounding such as plural noun in [V+N]ncompounds (ellavaplatos, not el lavaplato; el cazamariposas, not *el cazamariposa, the gender and number asymmetries between the actual compound and its parts (cabezafem. + cuadradafem. à el cabeza cuadradamasc., relacionesfem. pl. + públicasfem. pl. à el relaciones públicasmasc. sing., the presence of inflectional markers inside compounds (sord-o-mudafem, not *sord-a-mudafem., and the variation that takes place in many plural compounds (casas cuartel or casas cuarteles ‘house quarter’, coches cama or coches camas ‘car and bed’. Basing ourselves on the classic model of level ordering with an admixture of Booij's distinction between inherent and contextual inflection, this piece of research proves that these cases of morphological variation can be approached as a morphological component, accessible to syntax. This model also relativizes the importance of the head in compounding and highlights the value of morphology, lexis and syntax interfaces.

  13. Phenolic Compounds and Its Bioavailability: In Vitro Bioactive Compounds or Health Promoters? (United States)

    Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Martins, Natália; Barros, Lillian

    Botanical preparations present a widespread and secular history of use. In fact, natural matrices possess a rich pool of phytochemicals, with promising biological effects. Among them, phenolic compounds have revealed to confer very important attributes to improve the well-being and longevity of worldwide population. Numerous in vitro studies have been carried out evaluating the wide spectrum of bioactivities of phenolic compounds, including its health effects, but through in vivo experiments some of these previous results cannot be properly confirmed, and considerable variations are observed. Pharmacokinetic parameters, including the assessment of bioavailability and bioefficacy of phenolic compounds, still continue to be largely investigated and considered a great hot topic among the food science and technology researchers. Thus, based on these crucial aspects, this chapter aims to provide an extensive approach about the question of the bioavailability of phenolic compounds, describing its biosynthetic routes and related mechanisms of action; to focus on the current facts and existing controversies, highlighting the importance of in vivo studies and the impact of phenolic compounds on the quality of life and longevity. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Antifungal and Antiaflatoxigenic Methylenedioxy-Containing Compounds and Piperine-Like Synthetic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Sun Moon


    Full Text Available Twelve methylenedioxy-containing compounds including piperine and 10 piperine-like synthetic compounds were assessed to determine their antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic activities against Aspergillus flavus ATCC 22546 in terms of their structure–activity relationships. Piperonal and 1,3-benzodioxole had inhibitory effects against A. flavus mycelial growth and aflatoxin B1 production up to a concentration of 1000 μg/mL. Ten piperine-like synthetic compounds were synthesized that differed in terms of the carbon length in the hydrocarbon backbone and the presence of the methylenedioxy moiety. In particular, 1-(2-methylpiperidin-1-yl-3-phenylprop-2-en-1-one had potent antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic effects against A. flavus up to a concentration of 1 μg/mL. This synthetic compound was remarkable because the positive control thiabendazole had no inhibitory effect at this concentration. Reverse transcription-PCR analysis showed that five genes involved in aflatoxin biosynthesis pathways were down-regulated in A. flavus, i.e., aflD, aflK, aflQ, aflR, and aflS; therefore, the synthetic compound inhibited aflatoxin production by down-regulating these genes.

  15. Fragrance compounds: The wolves in sheep's clothings. (United States)

    Patel, Seema


    In the past few decades, synthetic fragrance compounds have become ubiquitous components of personal care and household cleaning products. Overwhelming consumerism trends have led to the excess usage of these chemicals. It has been observed that this fragrance-laden unhealthy lifestyle runs parallel with the unprecedented rates of diabetes, cancer, neural ailments, teratogenicity, and transgender instances. The link between fragrances as and the multiplicity of pathogens remained latent for decades. However, now this health hazard and its role in homeostasis breakdown is getting attention. The adverse effects of the fragrance constituents as phthalates, paraben, glutaraldehyde, hydroperoxides, oil of turpentine, metals, nitro musks, and essential oils, among others, are being identified. The endocrine-immune-neural axis perturbation pathways of these chemicals are being proven. Despite the revelations of cause-effect nexus, a majority of the vulnerable populations are unaware and unmotivated to avoid these 'slow poisons'. Hence, the researchers need to further validate the toxicity of fragrance compounds, and raise awareness towards the health risks. In this regard, a number of pathologies triggered by fragrance exposure, yet proven only scantily have been hypothesized. Analysis of the health issues from multiple facets, including the pivotal 'stressors - extracellular acidosis - aromatase upregulation - estrogen hyperproduction - inflammation' link has been proposed. Fragrance compounds share configurational similarity with carcinogenic environmental hydrocarbons and they provoke the expression of cytochrome group monooxygenase enzyme aromatase. This enzyme aromatizes androgens to form estrogen, the powerful signaling hormone, which underlies the majority of morbidities. This holistic review with a repertoire of preliminary evidences and robust hypotheses is expected to usher in deserving extent of research on this pervasive health risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier

  16. Cascaded processing in written compound word production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond eBertram


    Full Text Available In this study we investigated the intricate interplay between central linguistic processing and peripheral motor processes during typewriting. Participants had to typewrite two-constituent (noun-noun Finnish compounds in response to picture presentation while their typing behavior was registered. As dependent measures we used writing onset time to assess what processes were completed before writing and inter-key intervals to assess what processes were going on during writing. It was found that writing onset time was determined by whole word frequency rather than constituent frequencies, indicating that compound words are retrieved as whole orthographic units before writing is initiated. In addition, we found that the length of the first syllable also affects writing onset time, indicating that the first syllable is fully prepared before writing commences. The inter-key interval results showed that linguistic planning is not fully ready before writing, but cascades into the motor execution phase. More specifically, inter-key intervals were largest at syllable and morpheme boundaries, supporting the view that additional linguistic planning takes place at these boundaries. Bigram and trigram frequency also affected inter-key intervals with shorter intervals corresponding to higher frequencies. This can be explained by stronger memory traces for frequently co-occurring letter sequences in the motor memory for typewriting. These frequency effects were even larger in the second than in the first constituent, indicating that low-level motor memory starts to become more important during the course of writing compound words. We discuss our results in the light of current models of morphological processing and written word production.

  17. The Atmospheric Fate of Organic Nitrogen Compounds (United States)

    Borduas, Nadine

    Organic nitrogen compounds are present in our atmosphere from biogenic and anthropogenic sources and have impacts on air quality and climate. Due to recent advances in instrumentation, these compounds are being detected in the gas and particle phases, raising questions as to their source, processing and sinks in the environment. With their recently identified role as contributors to aerosol formation and growth, their novel large scale use as solvents in carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology and their emissions from cigarette smoke, it is now important to address the gaps in our understanding of the fate of organic nitrogen. Experimentally and theoretically, I studied the chemical atmospheric fate of specific organic nitrogen compounds in the amine, amide and isocyanate families, yielding information that can be used in chemical transport models to assess the fate of this emerging class of atmospheric molecules. I performed kinetic laboratory studies in a smog chamber to measure the room temperature rate coefficient for reaction with the hydroxyl radical of monoethanolamine, nicotine, and five different amides. I employed online-mass spectrometry techniques to quantify the oxidation products. I found that amines react quickly with OH radicals with lifetimes of a few hours under sunlit conditions, producing amides as oxidation products. My studies on amides revealed that they have much longer lifetimes in the atmosphere, ranging from a few hours to a week. Photo-oxidation of amides produces isocyanates and I investigated these mechanisms in detail using ab initio calculations. Furthermore, I experimentally measured isocyanic acid's Henry's Law constant as well as its hydrolysis rate constants to better understand its sinks in the atmosphere. Finally, I re-examined the structure-activity relationship (SAR) of organic nitrogen molecules for improved model parameterizations.

  18. Stable isotope compounds - production, detection, and application. (United States)

    Zachleder, Vilém; Vítová, Milada; Hlavová, Monika; Moudříková, Šárka; Mojzeš, Peter; Heumann, Hermann; Becher, Johannes R; Bišová, Kateřina


    Stable isotopes are used in wide fields of application from natural tracers in biology, geology and archeology through studies of metabolic fluxes to their application as tracers in quantitative proteomics and structural biology. We review the use of stable isotopes of biogenic elements (H, C, N, O, S, Mg, Se) with the emphasis on hydrogen and its heavy isotope deuterium. We will discuss the limitations of enriching various compounds in stable isotopes when produced in living organisms. Finally, we overview methods for measuring stable isotopes, focusing on methods for detection in single cells in situ and their exploitation in modern biotechnologies. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Polymeric Quaternary Ammonium Compounds: Versatile Antimicrobial Materials. (United States)

    Zubris, Deanna L; Minbiole, Kevin P C; Wuest, William M


    Polymeric Quaternary Ammonium Compounds (polyQACs) comprise a broad class of materials with applications in medical implants, food processing, and surface sanitizing, amongst many others. These polymeric substances are especially promising due to their potent antibacterial activity and limited hemolytic toxicity. In particular, many polyQACs have superior therapeutic indices and a lower likelihood of developing antibacterial resistance in comparison to their monomers, making them ideal materials for wound dressings, catheters, and other biomedical applications. This review outlines the history and development, previous successes, current state of the research, and future directions of polyQACs in society.

  20. Testing of Compounds for Efficacy against Schistosomiasis. (United States)


    2 UNCLASSIFIED DAMDi7-95-C-5209 F/ G 6/15 UL 11𔃿 j j . 11_. W-I - - % (*J~f ~ HP OlIC FILE COPY *AD "Testing of Compounds for Efficacy Against...Liang, Y.S., 1974. Cultivation of Bulinus (5hy Q pis) g2.kous (Morelet) and BiQmphalaria pfeiffri pfeifferi (Krauss), snail hosts of schistosomiasis...Digenea). flacQ1. g " 11:225:280. 10. Sandt, D.G., Bruce, H.I. and Radke, M.G., 1965. A system for mass producing the snail Ausatra1Qbjiz Lbi.atus and

  1. Compound odontoma associated with impacted maxillary incisors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sreedharan


    Full Text Available Odontomas are considered to be the most common odontogenic tumors of the oral cavity. Some authors consider it as malformations rather than true neoplasms. The exact etiology of odontomes is still not known. Most odontomes are asymptomatic and are discovered during routine radiographic investigations. Odontomes generally cause disturbances in the eruption of the teeth, most commonly delayed eruption or deflection. The present report describes the surgical management of a case of compound odontoma in a 10-year-old boy who presented with a complaint of swelling in the maxillary right anterior region and retained deciduous incisors. The related literature is also being reviewed in this article.

  2. Atmospheric lifetimes of selected fluorinated ether compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heathfield, A.E.; Anastasi, C.; Pagsberg, Palle Bjørn


    Atmospheric lifetimes have been estimated for a selection of ethers, the latter representing a class of compounds being considered as replacements for chlorofluorocarbons. The estimates are based on laboratory measurements of rate constants for the reaction of the OH radical with the ethers......, and a comparison with the behaviour of methyl chloroform in the atmosphere. The lifetimes for the ethers ranged from a few hours to half a year, significantly lower than those of chlorofluorocarbons and other replacements being considered. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  3. Aromatic character of nanographene model compounds. (United States)

    Sakamoto, Kenkichi; Nishina, Naoko; Enoki, Toshiaki; Aihara, Jun-ichi


    Superaromatic stabilization energy (SSE) defined to estimate the degree of macrocyclic aromaticity can be used as a local aromaticity index for individual benzene rings in very large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and finite-length graphene nanoribbons. Aromaticity patterns estimated using SSEs indicate that the locations of both highly aromatic and reactive rings in such carbon materials are determined primarily by the edge structures. Aromatic sextets are first placed on the jutting benzene rings on armchair edges, if any, and then on inner nonadjacent benzene rings. In all types of nanographene model compounds, the degree of local aromaticity varies markedly near the edges.

  4. Pickpocket compounds from Latin to Romance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitehead, Benedicte Nielsen

    derives from a verb, while the second mostly represents its direct object: thus English pickpocket. Most English examples are functionally agent–nouns, referring to the agent of the implied verbal act. Nevertheless, they lack a suffix indicating this. By contrast, the more prolific type of compound agent....... It contains a cursory discussion of Homeric Greek, Indo–Iranian and Germanic representatives. This comparative perspective on the morphology of the type is continued in chapters 3–5 on Latin and Romance. An important conclusion, and an answer to one of the most–discussed questions in the debate...

  5. The valuation error in the compound values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Ciuna


    Full Text Available In appraising the “valore di trasformazione” the valuation error is composed by the error on market value and the error on construction cost.  In appraising the “valore complementare” the valuation error is composed by the error on market value of complex real property and on market value of the residual part. The final error is a function of the partial errors and it can be studied using estimative and market ratios. The application of the compounds values to real estate appraisal misleads unacceptable errors if carried out with the expertise.

  6. Analysis of lunar samples for carbon compounds. (United States)

    Kvenvolden, K. A.


    Description of one approach to the analysis for carbon compounds in lunar materials from the Apollo 11 mission. The sequential scheme followed generally accepted organic geochemical practices, but was unusual in its application to a single sample. The procedures of the scheme were designed to minimize handling of the solids and extracts or hydrolysates. The solid lunar sample was retained in all steps of the sequential analysis in the vessel in which it was originally placed. Centrifugation was used to separate solid and liquid phases after extraction or refluxing. Liquids were recovered from solids by decantation.

  7. Semivolatile organic compounds in indoor environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weschler, Charles J.; Nazaroff, W.W.


    Semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) are ubiquitous in indoor environments, redistributing from their original sources to all indoor surfaces. Exposures resulting from their indoor presence contribute to detectable body burdens of diverse SVOCs, including pesticides, plasticizers, and flame....... Accumulation of SVOCs as a consequence of direct air-to-human transport is shown to be potentially large, with a maximum indoor-air processing rate of 10-20 m(3)/h for SVOC uptake by human skin, hair and clothing. Levels on human skin calculated with a simple model of direct air-to-skin transfer agree...

  8. Neoclassical compounds and final combining forms in English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Díaz-Negrillo


    Full Text Available English neoclassical compounds rely on a distinct vocabulary stock and present morphological features which raise a number of theoretical questions. Generalisations about neoclassical compounds are also problematic because the output is by no means homogeneous, that is, defining features of neoclassical compounds sometimes co-exist with features that are not prototypical of these formations. The paper looks at neoclassical compounds with a view to exploring patterns of morphological behaviour and development in this class of compounds. The approach is both synchronic and diachronic: it researches whether the morphological behaviour of recently formed compounds is different from that of earlier compounds and, if so, in which respects. This is assessed on data from the BNC with respect to some of the features that are cited in the literature as defining properties of neoclassical compounds, specifically, their internal configuration, the occurrence or not of a linking vowel, and their productivity.

  9. Design and selection of triazole-based compounds with high ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    linked energetic polynitropyrazoles, which showed that these compounds have potential applications as energetic compounds. Zhu et al.,15 designed three novel explosives by introducing the N- oxides into the 1,2,4-triazole, which were more pow ...

  10. Microbial degradation of furanic compounds : Biochemistry, genetics, and impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wierckx, N.; Koopman, F.; Ruijssenaars, H.J.; De Winde, J.H.


    Microbial metabolism of furanic compounds, especially furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), is rapidly gaining interest in the scientific community. This interest can largely be attributed to the occurrence of toxic furanic aldehydes in lignocellulosic hydrolysates. However, these compounds

  11. Antimicrobial compounds as side products from the agricultural processing industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sumthong, Pattarawadee


    Antimicrobial compounds have many applications, in medicines, food, agriculture, livestock, textiles, paints, and wood protectants. Microorganisms resistant to most antibiotics are rapidly spreading. Consequently there is an urgent and continuous need for novel antimicrobial compounds. Most

  12. PRN 88-2: Clustering of Quaternary Ammonium Compounds (United States)

    This Notice announces that EPA has clustered the Quaternary Ammonium Compounds into four groups for the purpose of testing chemicals to build a database that will support continued registration of the entire family of quaternary ammonium compounds

  13. Bioactive compounds in berries relevant to human health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Battino, M.; Beekwilder, M.J.; Denoyes-Rothan, B.; Laimer, M.


    Berries contain powerful antioxidants, potential allergens, and other bioactive compounds. Genetic and environmental factors affect production and storage of such compounds. For this reason breeding and biotechnological approaches are currently used to control or to increase the content of specific

  14. Phenolic Compounds in the Potato and Its Byproducts: An Overview

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Akyol, Hazal; Riciputi, Ylenia; Capanoglu, Esra; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza; Verardo, Vito


    The potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is a tuber that is largely used for food and is a source of different bioactive compounds such as starch, dietary fiber, amino acids, minerals, vitamins, and phenolic compounds...

  15. Experimental and theoretical studies of manganite and magnetite compounds Transition oxide compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Srinitiwarawong, C


    In the recent years interest in the transition oxide compounds has renewed among researchers in the field of condensed matter physics. This thesis presents the studies of the two families of the transition oxides, the manganite and magnetite compounds. Manganite has regained the interest since the discovery of the large magnetoresistance around its Curie temperature in 1990s. Magnetite on the other hand is the oldest magnetic material known to man however some of its physical properties are still controversial. The experimental works address some basic properties of these compounds when fabricated in the form of thin films. These include the resistivity measurements and magnetic measurements as well as the Hall effect. The various models of transport mechanism have been compared. The magnetic field and the temperature dependence of magnetoresistance have also been studied. Simple devices such as an artificial grain boundary and bilayers thin film have been investigated. The second part of this thesis concentr...

  16. Removal of perfluorinated compounds by coagulation-flocculation


    Hietala, N. (Noora)


    Perfluorinated compounds are chemical compounds with carbon-fluorine bond, they are used in commercial products. The goal of this thesis was to find out how coagulation-flocculation method remove perfluorinated compounds from water. Occurrence of perfluorinated compounds in waters and soil were researched and methods of observing these concentrations in the nature. Different concentrations on different points of waste water treatment plants and drinking water treatment plants were also resear...

  17. Neighboring Group Participation in Solvolysis of Organosulfur and Related Compounds (United States)


    OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Neighboring Group Participation in Solvolysis 1 Sep 82 - 31 Aug 85 of Organosulfur and Related Compounds Final Report 6...KEY WORDS (Continue on reveree side It neceeary and Identify by block number) Solvolysis Organosulfur Sulfur Compounds Oxygen Compounds 2 0. A9SrWAcr...Participation in Solvolysis of Organosulfur and Related Compounds Duration of project: September 1, 1982 - August 31, 1985 Personnel: 1) David E. Knox

  18. Human biological monitoring of suspected endocrine-disrupting compounds (United States)

    Faniband, Moosa; Lindh, Christian H; Jönsson, Bo AG


    Endocrine-disrupting compounds are exogenous agents that interfere with the natural hormones of the body. Human biological monitoring is a powerful method for monitoring exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds. In this review, we describe human biological monitoring systems for different groups of endocrine disrupting compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, brominated flame retardants, phthalates, alkylphenols, pesticides, metals, perfluronated compounds, parabens, ultraviolet filters, and organic solvents. The aspects discussed are origin to exposure, metabolism, matrices to analyse, analytical determination methods, determinants, and time trends. PMID:24369128

  19. Thermoelectric transport in rare-earth compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koehler, Ulrike


    This work focuses on the thermoelectric transport in rare-earth compounds. The measurements of the thermal conductivity, thermopower, and Nernst coefficient are supplemented by investigations of other quantities as magnetic susceptibility and specific heat. Chapter 2 provides an introduction to the relevant physical concepts. Section 1 of that chapter summarizes the characteristic properties of rare-earth systems; section 2 gives an overview on thermoelectric transport processes in magnetic fields. The applied experimental techniques as well as the new experimental setup are described in detail in Chapter 3. The experimental results are presented in Chapter 4-6, of which each concentrates on a different subject. In Chapter 4, various Eu clathrates and the skutterudite-like Ce{sub 3}Rh{sub 4}Sn{sub 13} are presented, which have been investigated as potential thermoelectric materials for applications. Chapter 5 focusses on the study of the energy scales in the heavy-fermion series Lu{sub 1-x}Yb{sub x}Rh{sub 2}Si{sub 2} and Ce{sub x}La{sub 1-x}Ni{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} by means of thermopower investigations. Chapter 6 is dedicated to the thermoelectric transport properties of the correlated semimetal CeNiSn with special emphasis on the Nernst coefficient of this compound. (orig.)

  20. Aeromechanics Analysis of a Compound Helicopter (United States)

    Yeo, Hyeonsoo; Johnson, Wayne


    A design and aeromechanics investigation was conducted for a 100,000-lb compound helicopter with a single main rotor, which is to cruise at 250 knots at 4000 ft/95 deg F condition. Performance, stability, and control analyses were conducted with the comprehensive rotorcraft analysis CAMRAD II. Wind tunnel test measurements of the performance of the H-34 and UH-1D rotors at high advance ratio were compared with calculations to assess the accuracy of the analysis for the design of a high speed helicopter. In general, good correlation was obtained with the increase of drag coefficients in the reverse flow region. An assessment of various design parameters (disk loading, blade loading, wing loading) on the performance of the compound helicopter was made. Performance optimization was conducted to find the optimum twist, collective, tip speed, and taper using the comprehensive analysis. Blade twist was an important parameter on the aircraft performance and most of the benefit of slowing the rotor occurred at the initial 20 to 30% reduction of rotor tip speed. No stability issues were observed with the current design and the control derivatives did not change much with speed, but did exhibit significant coupling.

  1. Optimum Design of a Compound Helicopter (United States)

    Yeo, Hyeonsoo; Johnson, Wayne


    A design and aeromechanics investigation was conducted for a 100,000-lb compound helicopter with a single main rotor, which is to cruise at 250 knots at 4000 ft/95 deg F condition. Performance, stability, and control analyses were conducted with the comprehensive rotorcraft analysis CAMRAD II. Wind tunnel test measurements of the performance of the H-34 and UH-1D rotors at high advance ratio were compared with calculations to assess the accuracy of the analysis for the design of a high speed helicopter. In general, good correlation was obtained when an increase of drag coefficients in the reverse flow region was implemented. An assessment of various design parameters (disk loading, blade loading, wing loading) on the performance of the compound helicopter was conducted. Lower wing loading (larger wing area) and higher blade loading (smaller blade chord) increased aircraft lift-to-drag ratio. However, disk loading has a small influence on aircraft lift-to-drag ratio. A rotor parametric study showed that most of the benefit of slowing the rotor occurred at the initial 20 to 30% reduction of the advancing blade tip Mach number. No stability issues were observed with the current design. Control derivatives did not change significantly with speed, but the did exhibit significant coupling.

  2. Polyphenol Compound as a Transcription Factor Inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyeon Park


    Full Text Available A target-based approach has been used to develop novel drugs in many therapeutic fields. In the final stage of intracellular signaling, transcription factor–DNA interactions are central to most biological processes and therefore represent a large and important class of targets for human therapeutics. Thus, we focused on the idea that the disruption of protein dimers and cognate DNA complexes could impair the transcriptional activation and cell transformation regulated by these proteins. Historically, natural products have been regarded as providing the primary leading compounds capable of modulating protein–protein or protein-DNA interactions. Although their mechanism of action is not fully defined, polyphenols including flavonoids were found to act mostly as site-directed small molecule inhibitors on signaling. There are many reports in the literature of screening initiatives suggesting improved drugs that can modulate the transcription factor interactions responsible for disease. In this review, we focus on polyphenol compound inhibitors against dimeric forms of transcription factor components of intracellular signaling pathways (for instance, c-jun/c-fos (Activator Protein-1; AP-1, c-myc/max, Nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB and β-catenin/T cell factor (Tcf.

  3. Encapsulation of Natural Polyphenolic Compounds; a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Edwards-Lévy


    Full Text Available Natural polyphenols are valuable compounds possessing scavenging properties towards radical oxygen species, and complexing properties towards proteins. These abilities make polyphenols interesting for the treatment of various diseases like inflammation or cancer, but also for anti-ageing purposes in cosmetic formulations, or for nutraceutical applications. Unfortunately, these properties are also responsible for a lack in long-term stability, making these natural compounds very sensitive to light and heat. Moreover, polyphenols often present a poor biodisponibility mainly due to low water solubility. Lastly, many of these molecules possess a very astringent and bitter taste, which limits their use in food or in oral medications. To circumvent these drawbacks, delivery systems have been developed, and among them, encapsulation would appear to be a promising approach. Many encapsulation methods are described in the literature, among which some have been successfully applied to plant polyphenols. In this review, after a general presentation of the large chemical family of plant polyphenols and of their main chemical and biological properties, encapsulation processes applied to polyphenols are classified into physical, physico-chemical, chemical methods, and other connected stabilization methods. After a brief description of each encapsulation process, their applications to polyphenol encapsulation for pharmaceutical, food or cosmetological purposes are presented.

  4. Biologically important compounds in synfuels processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, B R; Ho, C; Griest, W H; Guerin, M R


    Crude products, by-products and wastes from synfuel processes contain a broad spectrum of chemical compounds - many of which are active in biological systems. Discerning which compound classes are most important is necessary in order to establish effective control over release or exposure. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), multialkylated PAH, primary aromatic amines and N-heterocyclic PAH are significant contributors to the overall mutagenic activities of a large number of materials examined. Ames test data show that the basic, primary aromatic amine fraction is the most active. PAHs, multialkylated PAHs and N-heterocyclic PAHs are all components of the neutral fraction. In nearly all cases, the neutral fractions contribute the largest portion of the mutagenic activity, while the basic primary aromatic amine fractions have the highest specific activity. Neutral fractions are usually the largest (wt %) whereas the total basic fractions are small by comparison; thus, the overall greater contribution of the neutral fraction to the mutagenic activity of most samples. Biologically active constituents are isolated in preparative scale amounts from complex mixtures utilizing combinations of liquid-liquid extraction and various liquid chromatographic column-eluant combinations. Fractions are characterized using a combination of spectroscopic techniques and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

  5. Alternative Forms of Compound Fractional Poisson Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Beghin


    Full Text Available We study here different fractional versions of the compound Poisson process. The fractionality is introduced in the counting process representing the number of jumps as well as in the density of the jumps themselves. The corresponding distributions are obtained explicitly and proved to be solution of fractional equations of order less than one. Only in the final case treated in this paper, where the number of jumps is given by the fractional-difference Poisson process defined in Orsingher and Polito (2012, we have a fractional driving equation, with respect to the time argument, with order greater than one. Moreover, in this case, the compound Poisson process is Markovian and this is also true for the corresponding limiting process. All the processes considered here are proved to be compositions of continuous time random walks with stable processes (or inverse stable subordinators. These subordinating relationships hold, not only in the limit, but also in the finite domain. In some cases the densities satisfy master equations which are the fractional analogues of the well-known Kolmogorov one.

  6. Carcinogenic compounds in alcoholic beverages: an update. (United States)

    Pflaum, Tabea; Hausler, Thomas; Baumung, Claudia; Ackermann, Svenja; Kuballa, Thomas; Rehm, Jürgen; Lachenmeier, Dirk W


    The consumption of alcoholic beverages has been classified as carcinogenic to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) since 1988. More recently, in 2010, ethanol as the major constituent of alcoholic beverages and its metabolite acetaldehyde were also classified as carcinogenic to humans. Alcoholic beverages as multi-component mixtures may additionally contain further known or suspected human carcinogens as constituent or contaminant. This review will discuss the occurrence and toxicology of eighteen carcinogenic compounds (acetaldehyde, acrylamide, aflatoxins, arsenic, benzene, cadmium, ethanol, ethyl carbamate, formaldehyde, furan, glyphosate, lead, 3-MCPD, 4-methylimidazole, N-nitrosodimethylamine, pulegone, ochratoxin A, safrole) occurring in alcoholic beverages as identified based on monograph reviews by the IARC. For most of the compounds of alcoholic beverages, quantitative risk assessment provided evidence for only a very low risk (such as margins of exposure above 10,000). The highest risk was found for ethanol, which may reach exposures in ranges known to increase the cancer risk even at moderate drinking (margin of exposure around 1). Other constituents that could pose a risk to the drinker were inorganic lead, arsenic, acetaldehyde, cadmium and ethyl carbamate, for most of which mitigation by good manufacturing practices is possible. Nevertheless, due to the major effect of ethanol, the cancer burden due to alcohol consumption can only be reduced by reducing alcohol consumption in general or by lowering the alcoholic strength of beverages.

  7. Compound Refractive Lenses for Thermal Neutron Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary, Charles K.


    This project designed and built compound refractive lenses (CRLs) that are able to focus, collimate and image using thermal neutrons. Neutrons are difficult to manipulate compared to visible light or even x rays; however, CRLs can provide a powerful tool for focusing, collimating and imaging neutrons. Previous neutron CRLs were limited to long focal lengths, small fields of view and poor resolution due to the materials available and manufacturing techniques. By demonstrating a fabrication method that can produce accurate, small features, we have already dramatically improved the focal length of thermal neutron CRLs, and the manufacture of Fresnel lens CRLs that greatly increases the collection area, and thus efficiency, of neutron CRLs. Unlike a single lens, a compound lens is a row of N lenslets that combine to produce an N-fold increase in the refraction of neutrons. While CRLs can be made from a variety of materials, we have chosen to mold Teflon lenses. Teflon has excellent neutron refraction, yet can be molded into nearly arbitrary shapes. We designed, fabricated and tested Teflon CRLs for neutrons. We demonstrated imaging at wavelengths as short as 1.26 ? with large fields of view and achieved resolution finer than 250 μm which is better than has been previously shown. We have also determined designs for Fresnel CRLs that will greatly improve performance.

  8. Divalent compounds of thulium, neodymium and dysprosium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bochkarev, M.N.; Fagin, A.A.; Fedushkin, I.L.; Trifonov, A.A.; Kirillov, E.N. [Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation). G.A. Razuvaev Inst. of Organometallic Chemistry; Eremenko, I.L.; Nefedov, S.E. [N.S. Kurnakov Inst. of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    NdI{sub 2} and DyI{sub 2} were obtained by burning of a mixture of Ln and I{sub 2}. Dissolving of the compounds in THF at low temperature allowed preparation of the firs molecular iodides of Nd(II) and Dy(II), NdI{sub 2}(THF){sub 5}, DyI{sub 2}(THF){sub 5}, and DyI{sub 2}(THF){sub 3}. It was found that reduction of ROTmI{sub 2}(THF){sub 3} (R = t-Bu, Ph) by sodium in THF affords TmI{sub 2}(THF){sub 5}. The reaction Cp{sup *}{sub 2}TmI(THF) with Na in DME gives an unusual complex {l_brace}Na({mu}-MeO){sub 2}TmCp{sup *}({mu}-Cp{sup *})Na({mu}-DME){sub 2}Na({mu}-Cp{sup *})Cp{sup *}Tm({mu}-MeO){sub 2}Na({mu}-DME){r_brace}{sub n}. The structure of the compound is discussed. (orig.)

  9. Efficient synthesis of benzothiazine and acrylamide compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Ana Maria Alves; Walfrido, Simone Torres Padua; Leite, Lucia Fernanda Costa; Lima, Maria Carmo Alves; Galdino, Suely Lins; Pitta, Ivan Rocha [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Antibioticos; Barbosa Filho, Jose Maria [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Simone, Carlos Alberto de; Ellena, Javier Alcides, E-mail: [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica


    This article describes the synthesis of the new (2Z)-2-(4-methoxybenzylidene)-6-nitro-4H -benzo[1,4]thiazine-3-one, (2Z)-2-(4-methoxybenzylidene)-4-methyl-6-nitro-4H-benzo[1,4]thiazine-3-one, (2Z)-6-amino-2-(4-methoxybenzylidene)-4H -benzo[1,4]thiazine-3-one, (2Z)-6-butylamino-2-(4-methoxybenzylidene)-4-methyl-4H-benzo[1,4] -thiazine-3-one and (2E)-N-alkyl-N-(2-hydroxy-5-nitrophenyl) -3-phenylacrylamides and the spectroscopic data. The arylidenebenzothiazine compounds were prepared using the Knoevenagel condensation with substituted benzaldehydes in the presence of sodium methoxide in DMF. The presence of a nitro substituent in the 4-position, water and a slightly acid reaction medium in this condensation caused the rupture of the benzothiazine ring and subsequent formation of the phenylacrylamide compounds. A crystallographic data was presented for (2E)-3-(4-bromophenyl)-N-dodecyl-N -(2-hydroxy-5-nitrophenyl) acrylamide. (author)

  10. Chemoprevention of breast cancer by dietary compounds. (United States)

    Vadodkar, Aditi S; Suman, Suman; Lakshmanaswamy, Rajkumar; Damodaran, Chendil


    Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women in the United States and many other countries. There is an immediate need for more effective and less toxic therapeutic and preventive strategies for many cancers, especially for breast cancer. Natural products are being tested with a hope of identifying novel potent molecules as anticancer agents. Phytochemicals and dietary compounds have been used for the treatment of various illnesses throughout history due to their safety, low toxicity, and general availability. Currently, many active phytochemicals are in clinical trials. Preclinical and clinical studies have indicated that daily consumption of dietary phytochemicals reduces the risk of several cancers. Phytochemicals can inhibit, delay, or reverse carcinogenesis by inducing detoxifying and antioxidant enzymes, by regulating inflammatory/proliferative signaling pathways, and by inducing apoptosis. This review article describes some of the potential natural cancer preventive compounds, along with a mechanistic discussion of their interactions with key cellular signal transduction pathways as well as their contribution to the suppression of breast cancer cell growth.

  11. Perspectives for cancer prevention with natural compounds. (United States)

    Amin, A R M Ruhul; Kucuk, Omer; Khuri, Fadlo R; Shin, Dong M


    Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States. Despite the estimated 565,650 deaths in 2008 of Americans as a result of cancer, it is mostly a preventable disease. Simply by modification of diet, maintenance of optimum body weight, and regular physical activity, 30% to 40% of all instances of cancer could be prevented. Modification of diet alone by increasing vegetable and fruit intake could prevent 20% or more of all cases of cancer and may potentially prevent approximately 200,000 cancer-related deaths annually. Because of their safety, low toxicity, antioxidant properties, and general acceptance as dietary supplements, fruits, vegetables, and other dietary elements (phytochemicals and minerals) are being investigated for the prevention of cancer. Extensive research over the past several decades has identified numerous dietary and botanical natural compounds that have chemopreventive potential. In this review, we discuss promising natural chemopreventive compounds, their molecular targets, and their mechanisms, which may help the further design and conduct of preclinical and clinical trials.

  12. New compounds of natural resources in 2008 | Wang | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Natural products have been the most productive source of new compounds. Hundreds of new compounds are in development. Some of them have pharmaceutical activities, particularly as anticancer and anti-infective agents. Until October, there are 1913 new compounds separated from natural sources in 2008.

  13. Acute organophosphorus compound poisoning in cattle: A case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A case of an acute organophosphorus compound, GOLDFLEECE poisoning involving 39 cattle at Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi is reported. The animals were overexposed to the compound following routine tick spray. Within 15 minutes after the spray of the compound, 26 animals were recumbent showing ...

  14. Compounding in Igala: Defining Criteria, Forms and Functions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In spite of the fact that compounding is really pervasive in the world's languages and despite the huge volume of literatures on compounding in languages including African languages, a critical assessment of the extant literature on compounding in African linguistics reveals that providing satisfactory criteria for defining ...

  15. Causes of delay in the definitive treatment of compound depressed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Calvarial fractures may be linear, depressed or ping-pong, and each can be compound (open) or simple (closed). When depressed fractures become compound, they cause contamination, resulting in intracranial sepsis. All depressed fractures with scalp breach are considered compound, whether or not the ...

  16. The diversity of antifungal compounds of six South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hexane and dichloromethane extracts had at least three times more antifungal compounds than the other extracts indicating the nonpolar character of the antifungal compounds. From the Rf values, the non-polar character of the antifungal compounds was confirmed indicating that the antifungal activity is not due to tannins.

  17. Medicinal compounds of Marine origin | Pandey | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Numerous bioactive compounds of therapeutic interest have been isolated from marine invertebrates, and some of them have been reported to be of microbial origin. Several of these compounds ... KeyWords: Chemical compounds, seas, wonder drugs, marine invertebrates, oceanic biodiversity. Journal of Pharmaceutical ...

  18. A new Organopalladium compound containing four Iron (III ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Two iron(III) tetraphenyl porphyrin catalytic units are connected by an azo-link to form the dimeric compound A. The compound A was then reacted with Pd2+ to make a tetrameric iron(III) porphyrin complex B with all four iron(III) catalytic sites open to the substrates and reactants. Both the compounds were character ...

  19. Analysis of volatile compounds of Malaysian Tualang ( Koompassia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of volatile compounds of Malaysian Tualang ( Koompassia excelsa ) honey using gas chromatography mass spectrometry. ... Methanol yielded the highest number of extracted compounds such as acids and 5-(Hydroxymethyl) furfural (HMF). This is the first study to describe the volatile compounds in Tualang honey ...

  20. 46 CFR 151.50-6 - Motor fuel antiknock compounds. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Motor fuel antiknock compounds. 151.50-6 Section 151.50... BARGES CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-6 Motor fuel antiknock compounds. When transporting motor fuel antiknock compounds containing tetraethyl lead and...

  1. 46 CFR 153.1025 - Motor fuel antiknock compounds. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Motor fuel antiknock compounds. 153.1025 Section 153... Cargo Procedures § 153.1025 Motor fuel antiknock compounds. (a) No person may load or carry any other cargo in a containment system approved for motor fuel antiknock compounds containing lead alkyls except...

  2. Utilization of Nutritional Compounds and Sclerotial Development of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study the utilization of twelve different nutritional compounds and sclerotia formation by five strains of Sclerotium rolfsii, SrXLL, SrXA1, SrXA2, SrEL1 and SrEL2 was investigated. In broth media with different carbon compounds - fructose, glucose, maltose, starch and sucrose - and with different nitrogen compounds ...


    This report describes the development of high thermal conductivity electrical embedding compounds utilizing a technique wherein the mold is first...Contained herein, are the pertinent results of a previously reported study which led to the development of three high thermal conductivity compounds...and the further development of several additional compounds with still higher conductivities. (Author)

  4. Isolation of volatile compounds of Aloe excelsa (Berger ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Industrial and pharmacological applications of volatile and non-volatile compounds isolated from plants have been dominating the commercial sector over the recent two decades. Attempts in isolation of volatile compounds of aloes have impact on the medicinal as well as the cosmetic industries. Volatile compound isolation ...

  5. In situ catalytic hydrogenation of model compounds and biomass-derived phenolic compounds for bio-oil upgrading (United States)

    Junfeng Feng; Zhongzhi Yang; Chung-yun Hse; Qiuli Su; Kui Wang; Jianchun Jiang; Junming Xu


    The renewable phenolic compounds produced by directional liquefaction of biomass are a mixture of complete fragments decomposed from native lignin. These compounds are unstable and difficult to use directly as biofuel. Here, we report an efficient in situ catalytic hydrogenation method that can convert phenolic compounds into saturated cyclohexanes. The process has...

  6. Quantum Architecture of Novel Alloys and Compounds (United States)

    Zunger, Alex


    There is a lot of talk about computer-aided discoveries/design of new materials, but the simple fact is that even limiting oneself to materials made of just two elements, (e.g., Cu-Au or Si-Ge), and to a substitutional system there can exist as many as 2^N configurations that include compounds, alloys, superlattices, and impurities. Indeed, even for a modest number of sites N, this is an astronomical number. Thus, the conventional energy minimization approach for selecting the most stable crystal structure for A_qBq is hopeless if one considers the full 2^N space configurations of A, B on a lattice of N points. Molecular-dynamics is of no help, since it does not explore effectively the space of lattice configurations (rather, it explores positional space for a small number of configurations). Thus, contemporary energy minimization approaches use instead the method of "rounding-up the usual suspects": selecting the lowest energy from only a small number of well-known candidate configurations. The potential for missing new and important structures is obviously large. This talk gives an outline of the solution. It addresses the questions of (i) finding the lowest energy configuration of substitutional systems, (ii) calculating their composition-temperature phase diagram, and (iii) their finite-temperature thermodynamic properties, using the first-principles local density approximation (LDA). Mapping of the LDA energies of only 10-20 A_qBq compounds onto an Ising-like "cluster-expansion" enables use of lattice statistical mechanics techniques that elegantly solve the above problems. This extends the utility of the LDA from simple, perfectly-ordered compounds to truly complex structures, at finite temperature. This is beyond the reach of direct LDA calculations. I will illustrate the method for semiconductors insulators and transition-metal systems, showing how previously unsuspected structures and materials are predicted, and how one can calculate free energies, short

  7. [Analysis of sulfur compounds in residue fluid catalytic cracking gasoline]. (United States)

    Liang, Yong-mei; Liu, Wen-hui; Liu, Yao-fang


    Sulfur compounds in residue fluid catalytic cracking (RFCC) gasolines from Refinery of SINOPEC Beijing Yanshan Company and Refinery of Shijiazhuang were analyzed by gas chromatograph connected with flame photometric detector (FPD) and atomic emission detector (AED). Twelve and 26 kinds of sulfur compounds were detected by AED in RFCC gasolines from Yanshan and Shijiazhuang respectively. Only 0 and 19 kinds of sulfur compounds were found by FPD in these two gasolines respectively. The experimental results demonstrated that AED is more sensitive and selective to sulfur compounds than FPD. It also indicated that thiophenes were the major sulfur compounds in the RFCC gasoline. In addition, mercaptan, sulfoether and disulfide species were found.

  8. Synthesis, Properties Characterization and Applications of Various Organobismuth Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingfei Luan


    Full Text Available Organobismuth chemistry was emphasized in this review article due to the low price, low toxicity and low radioactivity characteristics of bismuth. As an environmentally-friendly class of organometallic compounds, different types of organobismuth compounds have been used in organic synthesis, catalysis, materials, etc. The synthesis and property characterization of many organobismuth compounds had been summarized. This review article also presented a survey of various applications of organobismuth compounds in organic transformations, as reagents or catalysts. The reactivity, reaction pathways and mechanisms of reactions with organobismuths were discussed. Less common and limiting aspects of organobismuth compounds were also briefly mentioned.



    Shkelqim Millaku


    Word compounding is a very productive way for to forming the new words; in this case of a new compound. Almost any combination of the parts of speech many of them be able to be employed in compounding, with the exception of articles. Once again we will make no attempt to be exhaustive. The nominal compounds are usually consisting by two elements, the second of which is usually a noun, verb, adjective and adverb for example: newspaper, boyfriend, bathroom etc. Compounds consist of two (or more...

  10. Headedness in Arabic Compounds within the Synthetic Genitive Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel Rahman Mitib Altakhaineh


    Full Text Available This study aims to pinpoint the position of head in Arabic compounds within the Synthetic Genitive Construction (SGC. It also examines the headedness of these compounds morphologically, syntactically, and semantically. The analysis confirms that compounding in Arabic is predominantly left-headed. The semantic, syntactic, and morphological heads always coincide in Arabic compounds within the SGC. With regard to Adj + N compounds in Arabic, I argue that a silent noun is responsible for determining the syntactic category of the whole construct, resulting in a noun rather than an adjective. The study concludes with recommendations for further research.

  11. Association between photodynamic and carcinogenic activities in polycyclic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epstein, S.S.; Small, M.; Falk, H.L.; Mantel, N.


    The photodynamic activities of 157 polycyclic compounds of wide structural range were determined, with the use of Paramecium caudatum. High photodynamic activity was largely confined to polycyclic compounds, either homocyclic or heterocyclic, with four or five fused rings. Significant absorption of light was shown to be prerequisite but not sufficient for high photodynamic activity. A significant statistical association between photodynamic activity and carcinogenicity was demonstrated. It was shown that compounds with high photodynamic activity had 4 times greater odds of being carcinogenic than compounds with low activity. However, the photodynamic assay cannot identify a particular polycyclic compound as being carcinogenic or noncarcinogenic.

  12. Materials Chemistry and Performance of Silicone-Based Replicating Compounds.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brumbach, Michael T.; Mirabal, Alex James; Kalan, Michael; Trujillo, Ana B; Hale, Kevin


    Replicating compounds are used to cast reproductions of surface features on a variety of materials. Replicas allow for quantitative measurements and recordkeeping on parts that may otherwise be difficult to measure or maintain. In this study, the chemistry and replicating capability of several replicating compounds was investigated. Additionally, the residue remaining on material surfaces upon removal of replicas was quantified. Cleaning practices were tested for several different replicating compounds. For all replicating compounds investigated, a thin silicone residue was left by the replica. For some compounds, additional inorganic species could be identified in the residue. Simple solvent cleaning could remove some residue.

  13. Chemical stability of extemporaneously compounded omeprazole formulations: a comparison of two methods of compounding. (United States)

    Garg, Sanjay; Svirskis, Darren; Al-Kabban, Majid; Farhan, Samer; Komeshi, Mohammed; Lee, Jacky; Liu, Quincy; Naidoo, Sacha; Kairuz, Therese


    Liquid preparations of omeprazole are compounded extemporaneously for patients who cannot tolerate or have difficulty with tablets or capsules, such as those with a nasogastric tube or jejunal or feeding tube, those with a swallowing disorder, and young children and the elderly. Recommendations for preparation of a liquid from the enteric-coated pellets of omeprazole capsules are available in the literature. The pellets are dissolved in a sodium bicarbonate solution; shaking is recommended to aid dissolution. Apparently some pharmacists crush the pellets to speed up the compounding process. The aim of this study was to investigate the chemical stability of omeprazole in extemporaneously compounded liquids prepared by the grinding and shaking methods. A high-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for evaluation of chemical stability. Samples were stored at 2 deg C (refrigerated conditions) or 25 deg C/60% relative humidity and assayed for drug concentration at 0, 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks. The method of preparation affected the chemical stability of omeprazole when stored at 25 deg C/60% relative humidity; it was stable for 4 weeks if prepared by the shaking method, but for only 1 week if prepared by the grinding method. For both methods, the suspension was stable for 8 weks if stored under refrigerated conditions. It is recommended that the shaking method be employed for extemporaneously compounded omeprazole suspensions, and that the prepared suspension be stored in the refrigerator.

  14. Compounds and Identity : A Cross-Linguistic Study of SELF-compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasil'ová, Mária


    The study concentrates on the positions of self, in which it fulfils the function of a reflexive marker, and primarily on compounds that have a ‘reflexive’ interpretation (self-control in English, Eigenlob/Selbstlob ‘self-praise’ in German, autodérision ‘self-derision’ in French, or önbecsülés

  15. Nematicidal Activity of Cassia and Cinnamon Oil Compounds and Related Compounds toward Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Nematoda: Parasitaphelenchidae) (United States)

    Kong, Jeong-Ok; Lee, Sang-Myung; Moon, Yil-Seong; Lee, Sang-Gil; Ahn, Young-Joon


    The nematicidal activity of two cassia, Cinnamomum cassia, oils (Especial and true), four cinnamon, Cinnamomum zey-lanicum, oils (technical, #500, bark and green leaf), and their compounds (e.g., trans-cinnamaldehyde and trans-cinnamic acid) toward adult Bursaphelenchus xylophilus was examined by a direct contact bioassay. Results were compared with those of 34 related compounds. As judged by 24-hour LC50 values, two cassia oils (0.084–0.085 mg/ml) and four cinnamon oils (0.064–0.113 mg/ml) were toxic toward adult B. xylophilus. Of 45 test compounds, trans-cinnamaldehyde (0.061 mg/ml) was the most active nematicide, followed by ethyl cinnamate, α-methyl-trans-cinnamaldehyde, methyl cinnamate and allyl cinnamate (0.114–0.195 mg/ml). Potent nematicidal activity was also observed with 4-methoxycinnamonitrile, trans-4-methoxycinnamaldehyde, trans-2-methoxy-cinnamaldehyde, ethyl α-cyanocinnamate, cinnamonitrile and cinnamyl bromide (0.224–0.502 mg/ml). Structure-activity relationships indicate that structural characteristics, such as types of functional groups, saturation and carbon skeleton, appear to play a role in determining the toxicities to adult B. xylophilus. Cassia and cinnamon oils and test compounds described merit further study as potential nematicides or leads for the control of pine wilt disease caused by B. xylophilus. PMID:19259472

  16. Investigations on organolead compounds III. The reaction of organolead compounds with ketene. (Triphenylplumbyl)acetic anhydride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemsens, L.C.; Kerk, G.J.M. van der

    The reaction of ketene with triphenyllead hydroxide in diethyl ether gave (triphenylplumbyl)acetic anhydride, (Ph3PbCH2CO)2O, the first anhydride-substituted organolead compound known. The reaction of ketene with triphenyllead acetate in absolute ethanol gave ethyl (triphenylplumbyl)acetate,

  17. Quaternary ammonium salts intercalated α-ZrP compounds for adsorption of phenolic compounds (United States)

    Wang, Hongning; Liu, Wenjin; Yao, Wei; Zhang, Ke; Zhong, Jing; Chen, Ruoyu


    By using methylamine as the colloidization agent to weaken the interactions of α-ZrP laminate, the quaternary ammonium salts of DTAB, TTAB, CTAB and STAB were successfully intercalated into the methylamine pre-pillared α-ZrP, denoted as DTAB-ZrP, TTAB-ZrP, CTAB-ZrP and STAB-ZrP, respectively. XRD, FTIR, TEM and N2 sorption were used to characterize the intercalated compounds, and the arrangements of intercalated quaternary ammonium salts within ZrP were supposed according to the results. It was shown that the interlayer distances were increased from 0.76 nm to 2.10-3.50 nm and the intercalated quaternary amine salt cationic bonded with Psbnd O- anion through electrostatic interaction. The phenolic compounds adsorption results have demonstrated that all the four intercalated compounds have good adsorption performance, and CTAB-ZrP show the highest maximum adsorption amounts of 0.90, 1.25 and 1.34 mmol g-1, for phenol, 2-chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenolare, respectively. The adsorption isotherms of phenolic compounds are linear with the C0 of 2.0-6.0 mmol L-1 and fit well to both the Linear and the Freundlich models, which indicated that the adsorption mechanism is mainly partition effects of organic phase within ZrP interlayer.

  18. Structure Modification of an Active Azo-Compound as a Route to New Antimicrobial Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Concilio


    Full Text Available Some novel (phenyl-diazenylphenols 3a–g were designed and synthesized to be evaluated for their antimicrobial activity. A previously synthesized molecule, active against bacteria and fungi, was used as lead for modifications and optimization of the structure, by introduction/removal or displacement of hydroxyl groups on the azobenzene rings. The aim of this work was to evaluate the consequent changes of the antimicrobial activity and to validate the hypothesis that, for these compounds, a plausible mechanism could involve an interaction with protein receptors, rather than an interaction with membrane. All newly synthesized compounds were analyzed by 1H-NMR, DSC thermal analysis and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The in vitro minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC of each compound was determined against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and Candida albicans. Compounds 3b and 3g showed the highest activity against S. aureus and C. albicans, with remarkable MIC values of 10 µg/mL and 3 µg/mL, respectively. Structure-activity relationship studies were capable to rationalize the effect of different substitutions on the phenyl ring of the azobenzene on antimicrobial activity.

  19. Compound semiconductor materials, devices and circuits (United States)

    Shealy, J. R.; Eastman, L. F.; Wolf, E. D.; Tasker, P. J.; Krusius, J. P.


    This one year research program on compound semiconductor materials growth, devices and circuits has focused on: (1) organometallic vapor phase epitaxy (OMVPE) of GaInP/GaAs and AlInP/GaInP superlattices; (2) enhancement of heterostructure device speed performance via strain layer superlattices and mushroom gates in modulation doped FET's (MODFET's), and inserted tunnel barriers heterojunction bipolar devices (HBT); (3) fabrication and characterization of MODFET devices with gate lengths to 50 nm; (4) self-consistent Monte Carlo transport formulation and its application to small graded heterostructure devices; (5) optical modulation based on the quantum confined Stark effect; and (6) femtosecond spectroscopy of hot carrier processes using the visible Rh6G laser and a new UV BaB2O4 laser.

  20. Structural studies of naturally occurring toxicogenic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, J. P.


    The paralytic shellfish poison (PSP), saxitoxin, is a neurotoxin isolated from Alaska butter clams (Saxidomus giganteus), mussels (Mytilus californianus) and axenic cultures of the dinoflagellate Gonyaulax catenella. The structure of saxitoxin has been determined through the use of single crystal X-ray diffraction. It possesses a unique tricyclic arrangement of atoms containing two guanidinium moieties and also a hydrated ketone. The relative stereochemistry is presented as well as the absolute configuration. The chemical constitution of a tremorgenic metabolite, paxilline, isolated from extracts of the fungus Penicillium paxilli Bainier has been determined. Paxilline represents a previously unreported class of natural compounds formed by the combination of tryptophan and mevalonate subunits. The complete stereostructure of two other fungal metabolites, paspaline and paspalicine, closely related to paxilline but isolated from Claviceps paspali Stammes have also been determined and are presented. The stereochemistries of paxilline, paspaline and paspalicine are identical at corresponding chiral centers.

  1. Antileishmanial compounds from Moringa oleifera Lam. (United States)

    Kaur, Amandeep; Kaur, Preet Kamal; Singh, Sushma; Singh, Inder Pal


    The antileishmanial activity of extracts and phytoconstituents of Moringa oleifera Lam. was investigated in vitro against promastigotes of Leishmania donavani. The 70% ethanolic extract of roots and the methanolic extract of leaves showed moderate inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 83.0 microg/ml and 47.5 microg/ml, respectively. Antileishmanial activity of the methanolic extract of leaves increased upon fractionation, as its ethyl acetate fraction was found to be more active with an IC50 value of 27.5 microg/ml. The most active antileishmanial compound niazinin, a thiocarbamate glycoside isolated from this fraction, showed an IC50 value of 5.25 microM. Results presented in this study indicate that extracts from M. oleifera may be developed as an adjuvant therapy for the treatment of leishmaniasis.

  2. Biorefining compounds and organocatalytic upgrading methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Eugene Y.; Liu, Dajiang


    The invention provides new methods for the direct umpolung self-condensation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) by organocatalysis, thereby upgrading the readily available substrate into 5,5'-di(hydroxymethyl)furoin (DHMF). While many efficient catalyst systems have been developed for conversion of plant biomass resources into HMF, the invention now provides methods to convert such nonfood biomass directly into DHMF by a simple process as described herein. The invention also provides highly effective new methods for upgrading other biomass furaldehydes and related compound to liquid fuels. The methods include the organocatalytic self-condensation (umpolung) of biomass furaldehydes into (C.sub.8-C.sub.12)furoin intermediates, followed by hydrogenation, etherification or esterification into oxygenated biodiesel, or hydrodeoxygenation by metal-acid tandem catalysis into premium hydrocarbon fuels.

  3. Forging of FeAl intermetallic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, O.; Juarez, J.; Campillo, B.; Martinez, L. [UNAM, Cuernavaca (Mexico). Lab. de Cuernavaca; Schneibel, J.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)


    Much activity has been concentrated on the development of intermetallic compounds with the aim of improving tensile ductility, fracture toughness and high notch sensitivity in order to develop an attractive combination of properties for high and low temperature applications. This paper reports experience in processing and forging of FeAl intermetallic of B2 type. During the experiments two different temperatures were employed, and the specimens were forged after annealing in air, 10{sup {minus}2} torr vacuum and argon. From the results it was learned that annealing FeAl in argon atmosphere prior to forging resulted in better deformation behavior than for the other two environments. For the higher forging temperature used in the experiments (700C), the as-cast microstructure becomes partially recrystallized.

  4. Nylon fabric reinforced natural rubber compound (United States)

    Kamal, Mazlina Mustafa; Ismail, Ismaliza


    Rubber fabric coated is a unique rubber-textile composite, in which technical textile acts as reinforcing material and strength providing material. In rubber textile composite, rubber to fabric adhesion plays the most critical role for determining assembly process and ultimate strength of product. A vulcanisable adhesive for rubber to fabric fabrication of composite material was developed which compatible with rubber as well as fabric. Evaluation of bonding system with respect to peel strength, shear adhesion strength and weave pattern of fabrics were the major determining criteria for selection and optimization of fabric for rubber hose application. Thus adhesive Cohedure with characteristics of high adhesive strength in Natural Rubber Polyester Fabric compound has been developed.

  5. Heteronuclear compounds of arsenic and antimony (United States)

    Mauser, James E.


    Volatilization of secondary metals such as arsenic, antimony, and bismuth, during the smelting of copper ores, is important because of environmental and resource considerations. The Bureau of Mines, United States Department of the Interior, has been studying copper concentrate roasting in conjunction with the volatility of these minor constituents. Some unusual vaporization behavior initiated this supplemental paper which shows that when the mixed sulfides of arsenic and antimony are heated, the volatilization of arsenic is retarded and the volatilization of antimony increased. Mixed oxides of arsenic and antimony also exhibit exceptional volatilization behavior. These anomalous vaporization behaviors are attributed to the formation of heteronuclear compounds of arsenic and antimony, but the colligative properties of solutions may also be a factor.

  6. Compound FDTD method for silicon photonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Olyaee


    Full Text Available Attempt to manufacture photonics devices on silicon requires theoretical and numerical prediction. This essay presents Compound FDTD (C-FDTD method for comprehensive simulation of silicon photonics devices. Although this method is comprehensive, it maintains conventional Yee algorithm. The method involves variation of refractive index due to nonlinear effects. With the help of this simulator, refractive index change due to free-carriers created through two photon absorption and Kerr effect in silicon waveguide is considered. Results indicate how to choose pump pulse shape to optimum operation of active photonics devices. Also conductivity variation of Si waveguide due to change in free-carrier density is studied. By considering variations in conductivity profile, we are able to design better schemes for sweep free carriers away with reverse bias or nonlinear photovoltaic effect for fast devices and Raman amplifiers.

  7. Metals and metal compounds in carcinogenesis. (United States)

    Desoize, Bernard


    Several metals and metal containing compounds are potent mutagens and carcinogens. The most often blamed are chromium, arsenic, nickel, vanadium, iron, copper and manganese. Although each of them has its own mechanism of action, it is believed that most of their mechanisms of action involve reactive oxygen species (ROS). Furthermore, nickel modulates gene expression by induction of DNA methylation and/or suppression of histone acetylation. Arsenic activity on cell metabolism is multiple; it seems that cell transformation is induced by long-term exposure to a low level of arsenic. The paradox of arsenic is that it has also a valuable therapeutic efficacy in cancer treatment. Manganese is known to cause DNA damage, although it does not represent a significant carcinogenic risk. Magnesium deficiency and iron excess are not exactly carcinogenetic, but certain concentrations of these metal ions are needed to prevent cancer.

  8. Multiple compound odontomas in mandible: A rarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Vaid


    Full Text Available Odontomas are benign odontogenic tumors composed of enamel, dentine, and cementum and pulp tissue. They are usually clinically asymptomatic, but often associated with tooth eruption disturbances. The present study reports an unusual case of eleven odontomas in the left lateral incisor-canine region of lower jaw. A 26 years old female presented to the department of orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics in H.P. Govt. Dental College and Hospital Shimla for the treatment of misaligned teeth. Clinical examination revealed that the lower left lateral incisor was missing. Patient was advised for radiographs, which revealed a mixed radiopaque lesion associated to impacted lower left canine. The histological report in this case indicated a compound odontoma.

  9. Electric field gradients in Hg compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arcisauskaité, Vaida; Knecht, Stefan; Sauer, Stephan P. A.


    by comparing with benchmark DFT and CCSD-T data (Arcisauskaite et al., PCCP, 14, 2651-2657 (2012)) obtained from 4-component Dirac-Coulomb Hamiltonian calculations. The investigated set of molecules comprises linear HgL2 (L = Cl, Br, I, CH3) and bent HgCl2 mercury compounds as well as the trigonal planar [Hg.......26 a.u. for a bent HgCl2 (¿ Cl-Hg-Cl = 120¿) is close to -9.60 a.u. obtained for the linear HgCl2 structure. Thus a point charge model for EFG calculations completely fails in this case. By means of a projection analysis of molecular orbital (MO) contributions to Vzz in terms of the atomic constituents...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çetin KADAKAL


    Full Text Available The capcaicinoid amount of red peppers from Solanacea family is used for the evaluation of quality and classification in many countries. Capsaicin is the major pungent principle (69 % of capsaicinoids. The others are dihidrocapsaicin (22 %, nordihidrocapsaicin (7 %, homocapsaicin (1 % and homodihidrocapsaicin (1 %. As in most foods, the carotenoids of red peppers are also important compounds. Carotenoids are typical colour pigments and some of them have vitamin A activity. Major carotenoids of ripe fruit of red peppers are capsanthin, capsorubin, ß-carotene and zeaxanthin. Capcaicinoid and carotenoid contents of red peppers grown in many different regions of the world, their properties and roles on the human health were given in this review.

  11. Organic compounds as indicators of air pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølhave, Lars


    The most important indoor air pollutants have already been addressedwith individual national guidelines or recommendations. However, an interna-tional set of guidelines or recommendations for indoor air quality (IAQ) isneeded for these pollutants based on general and uniform rules for setting...... suchstandards. A major research need exist on the less adverse pollutants beforerecommendations or guidelines can be established. In the interim period a pre-caution principle should lead to an ALARA principle for these secondary cau-salities. It should be noted that volatile organic compound (VOC......) is an indicatorfor the presence of VOC indoors. The TVOC indicator can be used in relation toexposure characterization and source identification but for VOCs only, not as anindictor of other pollutants and their health effects. In risk assessment the TVOCindicator can only be used as a screening tool and only...

  12. Clathrate compounds and method of manufacturing (United States)

    Nolas, George S [Tampa, FL; Witanachchi, Sarath [Tampa, FL; Mukherjee, Pritish [Tampa, FL


    The present invention comprises new materials, material structures, and processes of fabrication of such that may be used in technologies involving the conversion of light to electricity and/or heat to electricity, and in optoelectronics technologies. The present invention provide for the fabrication of a clathrate compound comprising a type II clathrate lattice with atoms of silicon and germanium as a main framework forming lattice spacings within the framework, wherein the clathrate lattice follows the general formula Si.sub.136-yGe.sub.y, where y indicates the number of Ge atoms present in the main framework and 136-y indicates the number of Si atoms present in the main framework, and wherein y>0.

  13. Laser ablation of molecular carbon nitride compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, D., E-mail: [Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Heisenbergstr. 1, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Schwinghammer, K. [Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Heisenbergstr. 1, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Department of Chemistry, University of Munich, LMU, Butenandtstr. 5-13, 81377 Munich (Germany); Nanosystems Initiative Munich (NIM) and Center for Nanoscience (CeNS), 80799 Munich (Germany); Sondermann, C. [Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Heisenbergstr. 1, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Department of Chemistry, University of Munich, LMU, Butenandtstr. 5-13, 81377 Munich (Germany); Lau, V.W.; Mannhart, J. [Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Heisenbergstr. 1, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Lotsch, B.V. [Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Heisenbergstr. 1, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Department of Chemistry, University of Munich, LMU, Butenandtstr. 5-13, 81377 Munich (Germany); Nanosystems Initiative Munich (NIM) and Center for Nanoscience (CeNS), 80799 Munich (Germany)


    We present a method for the preparation of thin films on sapphire substrates of the carbon nitride precursors dicyandiamide (C{sub 2}N{sub 4}H{sub 4}), melamine (C{sub 3}N{sub 6}H{sub 6}), and melem (C{sub 6}N{sub 10}H{sub 6}), using the femtosecond-pulsed laser deposition technique (femto-PLD) at different temperatures. The depositions were carried out under high vacuum with a femtosecond-pulsed laser. The focused laser beam is scanned on the surface of a rotating target consisting of the pelletized compounds. The resulting polycrystalline, opaque films were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, infrared, Raman, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, photoluminescence, SEM, and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry measurements. The crystal structures and optical/spectroscopic results of the obtained rough films largely match those of the bulk materials.

  14. Biorefining compounds and organocatalytic upgrading methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Eugene Y.; Liu, Dajiang


    The invention provides new methods for the direct umpolung self-condensation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) by organocatalysis, thereby upgrading the readily available substrate into 5,5'-di(hydroxymethyl) furoin (DHMF). While many efficient catalyst systems have been developed for conversion of plant biomass resources into HMF, the invention now provides methods to convert such nonfood biomass directly into DHMF by a simple process as described herein. The invention also provides highly effective new methods for upgrading other biomass furaldehydes and related compound to liquid fuels. The methods include the organocatalytic self-condensation (umpolung) of biomass furaldehydes into (C.sub.8-C.sub.12)furoin intermediates, followed by hydrogenation, etherification or esterification into oxygenated biodiesel, or hydrodeoxygenation by metal-acid tandem catalysis into premium hydrocarbon fuels.

  15. Biogenic volatile organic compounds and plant competition. (United States)

    Kegge, Wouter; Pierik, Ronald


    One of the most important factors to shape plant communities is competition between plants, which impacts on the availability of environmental factors such as light, nutrients and water. In response to these environmental parameters, plants adjust the emission of many different biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs). BVOCs can also elicit responses in neighbouring plants, thus constituting a platform for plant-plant interactions. Here, we review the relationship between BVOC emissions and competition among neighbouring plants. Recent progress indicates that BVOCs can act both as allelochemicals and as neighbour detection signals. It is suggested that BVOCs provide information about neighbouring competitors, such as their identity or growth rate, that classic neighbour detection signals cannot provide. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Syntheses and studies of organosilicon compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Ren [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    The syntheses of polycarbosilanes and polysilanes as silicon carbide ceramic precursors have been active research areas in the Barton Research Group. In this thesis, the work is focused on the preparation of polycarbosilanes and polysilanes as stoichiometric silicon carbide precursor polymers. The syntheses of the precursor polymers are discussed and the conversions of these precursors to silicon carbide via pyrolysis are reported. The XRD pattern and elemental analyses of the resulting silicon carbide ceramics are presented. Silicon monoxide is an important intermediate in the production of silicon metal. The existence of silicon monoxide in gap phase has been widely accepted. In the second part of this thesis, the generation of gaseous silicon monoxide in four different reactors and the reactions of gaseous silicon monoxide towards organic compounds are discussed.


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention relates to an apparatus for electrodialytic extraction of phosphorus from a particulate material in suspension and to a method for electrodialytic phosphorus recovery, which uses the apparatus. The method may be applied for wastewater treatment, and/or treatment of particulate...... material rich in phosphorus. The present invention provides an apparatus for electrodialytic extraction of phosphorus from a particulate material comprising acidic and/or alkaline soluble phosphorus compounds, in suspension, comprising: • a first electrodialytic cell comprising a first anolyte compartment...... comprising a first anolyte, and a first catholyte compartment comprising a first catholyte, wherein the compartments of the first cell are separated by a cation exchange membrane, wherein the first anolyte is the particulate material in suspension, the first electrodialytic cell configured for exposing...

  18. Fast Screening of Antibacterial Compounds from Fusaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teis Esben Sondergaard


    Full Text Available Bio-guided screening is an important method to identify bioactive compounds from fungi. In this study we applied a fast digital time-lapse microscopic method for assessment of the antibacterial properties of secondary metabolites from the fungal genus Fusarium. Here antibacterial effects could be detected for antibiotic Y, aurofusarin, beauvericin, enniatins and fusaric acid after six hours of cultivation. The system was then used in a bio-guided screen of extracts from 14 different Fusarium species, which had been fractionated by HPLC. In this screen, fractions containing the red pigments aurofusarin and bikaverin showed effects against strains of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium. The IC50 for aurofusarin against Lactobacillus acidophilus was 8 µM, and against Bifidobacterium breve it was 64 µM. Aurofusarin only showed an effect on probiotic bacteria, leading to the speculation that only health-promoting bacteria with a positive effect in the gut system are affected.

  19. Hydrophobicity of carbohydrates and related hydroxy compounds. (United States)

    Buttersack, Christoph


    The hydrophobic interaction of carbohydrates and other hydroxy compounds with a C18-modified silica gel column was measured with pure water as eluent, thereby expanding the range of measurements already published. The interaction is augmented by structure strengthening salts and decreasing temperature. Although the interaction of the solute with the hydrophobic interface is expected to only imperfectly reflect its state in aqueous bulk solution, the retention can be correlated to hydration numbers calculated from molecular mechanics studies given in the literature. No correlation can be established towards published hydration numbers obtained by physical methods (isentropic compressibility, O-17 NMR relaxation, terahertz spectroscopy, and viscosity). The hydrophobicity is discussed with respect to the chemical structure. It increases with the fraction and size of hydrophobic molecular surface regions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Adsorption of phenolic compounds on fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akgerman, A.; Zardkoohi, M. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Chemical Engineering Dept.


    Adsorption isotherms for adsorption of phenol, 3-chlorophenol, and 2,4-dichlorophenol from water onto fly ash were determined. These isotherms were modeled by the Freundlich isotherm. The fly ash adsorbed 67, 20, and 22 mg/g for phenol, chlorophenol, and 2,4-dichlorophenol, respectively, for the highest water phase concentrations used. The affinity of phenolic compounds for fly ash is above the expected amount corresponding to a monolayer coverage considering that the surface area of fly ash is only 1.87 m{sup 2}/g. The isotherms for contaminants studied were unfavorable, indicating that adsorption becomes progressively easier as more solutes are taken up. Phenol displayed a much higher affinity for fly ash than 3-chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol.

  1. Spin and orbital moments in actinide compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebech, B.; Wulff, M.; Lander, G.H.


    The extended spatial distribution of both the transition-metal 3d electrons and the actinide 5f electrons results in a strong interaction between these electron states when the relevant elements are alloyed. A particular interesting feature of this hybridization, which is predicted by single-electron...... band-structure calculations, is that the orbital moments of the actinide 5f electrons are considerably reduced from the values anticipated by a simple application of Hund's rules. To test these ideas, and thus to obtain a measure of the hybridization, we have performed a series of neutron scattering...... experiments designed to determine the magnetic moments at the actinide and transition-metal sublattice sites in compounds such as UFe2, NpCo2, and PuFe2 and to separate the spin and orbital components at the actinide sites. The results show, indeed, that the ratio of the orbital to spin moment is reduced...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Ž. Jovanović


    Full Text Available The paper considers the main formal characteristics of English compound words in adjectival sentence positions, systematized and based on language corpus analysis. The analysis of the compounds along the lines of their composite form, the constituent elements of these words, their interrelationships and other features is accompanied by numerous contextualized examples. The paper provides a statistical confirmation of the fact that compound adjectives make the most prominent group of adjectival compounds (65%, as well as it makes a statement about certain important orthographic implications. Further on, the typical English adjectival compound wouldbe the one with a noun as the first and past participle as the second element of the compound. On the basis of the research conducted here, it can be also concluded that the presence of inflectional morphemes in adjectival compounds is semantically conditioned, and that derivatives only infrequently serve as elements of compoundadjectivals.

  3. Health promoting and sensory properties of phenolic compounds in food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia de Lacerda de Oliveira


    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds have been extensively studied in recent years. The presence of these compounds in various foods has been associated with sensory and health promoting properties. These products from the secondary metabolism of plants act as defense mechanisms against environmental stress and attack by other organisms. They are divided into different classes according to their chemical structures. The objective of this study was to describe the different classes of phenolic compounds, the main food sources and factors of variation, besides methods for the identification and quantification commonly used to analyze these compounds. Moreover, the role of phenolic compounds in scavenging oxidative stress and the techniques of in vitro antioxidant evaluation are discussed. In vivo studies to evaluate the biological effects of these compounds and their impact on chronic disease prevention are presented as well. Finally, it was discussed the role of these compounds on the sensory quality of foods.

  4. The types and categories of Old English recursive compounding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Novo Urraca


    Full Text Available This article deals with the recursive compounding of Old English nouns, adjectives, verbs and adverbs. It addresses the question of the textual occurrences of the compounds of Old English by means of a corpus analysis based on the Dictionary of Old English Corpus. The data of qualitative analysis have been retrieved from the lexical database of Old English Nerthus. The analysis shows that the nominal, adjectival and adverbial compounds of Old English can be recursive. Nominal compounding allows double recursivity, whereas adjectival and adverbial compounding do not. The conclusion is reached that both the type and token frequencies of recursive compounds are very low; and recursive compounds from the adjectival class are more exocentric as regards categorisation.

  5. Minor lipophilic compounds in edible insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Sabolová


    Full Text Available Contemporary society is faced with the question how to ensure suffiecient nutrition (quantity and quality for rapidly growing population. One solution can be consumption of edible insect, which can have very good nutritional value (dietary energy, protein, fatty acids, fibers, dietary minerals and vitamins composition. Some edible insects species, which contains a relatively large amount of fat, can have a potential to be a „good" (interesting, new source of minor lipophilic compounds such as sterols (cholesterol and phytosterols and tocopherols in our diet. For this reason, the objective of this work was to characterize the sterols and tocopherols composition of fat from larvae of edible insect Zophobas morio L. and Tenebrio mollitor L. Cholesterol and three phytosterols (campesterol, stigmasterol and β-sitosterol were reliably identified and quantified after hot saponification and derivatization by GC-MS. Other steroid compounds, including 5,6-trans-cholecalciferol were identified only according to the NIST library. Cholesterol was the predominant sterol in all analysed samples. Both types of larvae also contained high amount of phytosterols. Different region of origin had a no significant impact on sterols composition, while the effect of beetle genus was crucial. Tocopherols were analysed by reverse phase HPLC coupled with amperometric detection. Tocopherols content in mealworm larvae was lower than content in edible oils, but important from the nutritional point of view. Change of tocopherols composition was not observed during the storage under different conditions. Larvae of edible insect can be a potential good dietary source of cholesterol, but also vitamin D3 isomers, phytosterols and tocopherols.  

  6. Compounding training in pharmacy education in Singapore: Perceptions of final year undergraduate pharmacy students and compounding pharmacists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuen Teng Choo


    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the importance of compounding training in today’s pharmacy education in Singapore, this study examined the perception of final year National University of Singapore (NUS pharmacy undergraduates on compounding training in pharmacy education and their awareness of compounding services in Singapore in relation to compounding pharmacists’ perception, practice and role of pharmacy compounding in Singapore. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out between November 2013 and January 2014. It comprised of a questionnaire survey conducted on 134 final year pharmacy undergraduates, and face-to-face interviews conducted on 7 retail compounding pharmacists. Questionnaire responses were analysed using descriptive statistics, while the interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed by thematic coding. Results: Less than 40% of final year pharmacy undergraduates were aware of compounding activities and compounding pharmacies in Singapore. Nonetheless, majority agreed that compounding should be included in the pharmacy curriculum (83.6% as it is an important part of pharmacy education (78.3% and pharmacy profession (61.2%. All the interviewed compounding pharmacists felt that compounding in pharmacy education has provided them with the basics to build on knowledge and skills at work. Compounded medications were also viewed as necessary by 71.4% of the pharmacists in fulfilling the needs of certain patient populations. Conclusion: Compounding training is necessary in pharmacy education. Pharmacy compounding has evolved from its traditional role into a professional speciality of customizing medications to meet different patient needs today. Hence, knowledge and skills in pharmacy compounding remain a relevant foundation for practising pharmacists to enhance pharmaceutical care at work.

  7. Investigations on organozinc compounds XII. Coordination chemistry of organozinc compounds RZnX: Organozinc compounds of the type EtZnNPhCSZ

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, J.; Noltes, J.G.

    The coordination chemistry of the organozinc-nitrogen compounds EtZnNPhCSZ (Z = H, Me, OMe, SMe and NPh2) has been studied. Whereas the benzeneinsoluble EtZnNPhCSH appears to be a coordination polymer, all the other compounds occur as dimers in benzene solution. A structure with four-coordinate zinc

  8. Antiviral Screening of Multiple Compounds against Ebola Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart D. Dowall


    Full Text Available In light of the recent outbreak of Ebola virus (EBOV disease in West Africa, there have been renewed efforts to search for effective antiviral countermeasures. A range of compounds currently available with broad antimicrobial activity have been tested for activity against EBOV. Using live EBOV, eighteen candidate compounds were screened for antiviral activity in vitro. The compounds were selected on a rational basis because their mechanisms of action suggested that they had the potential to disrupt EBOV entry, replication or exit from cells or because they had displayed some antiviral activity against EBOV in previous tests. Nine compounds caused no reduction in viral replication despite cells remaining healthy, so they were excluded from further analysis (zidovudine; didanosine; stavudine; abacavir sulphate; entecavir; JB1a; Aimspro; celgosivir; and castanospermine. A second screen of the remaining compounds and the feasibility of appropriateness for in vivo testing removed six further compounds (ouabain; omeprazole; esomeprazole; Gleevec; D-LANA-14; and Tasigna. The three most promising compounds (17-DMAG; BGB324; and NCK-8 were further screened for in vivo activity in the guinea pig model of EBOV disease. Two of the compounds, BGB324 and NCK-8, showed some effect against lethal infection in vivo at the concentrations tested, which warrants further investigation. Further, these data add to the body of knowledge on the antiviral activities of multiple compounds against EBOV and indicate that the scientific community should invest more effort into the development of novel and specific antiviral compounds to treat Ebola virus disease.

  9. Stability of propranolol in extemporaneously compounded suspensions. (United States)

    Ensom, Mary H H; Kendrick, Jennifer; Rudolph, Susan; Decarie, Diane


    Propranolol is a drug of choice for many diseases occurring in neonates and infants, an age group for which oral suspensions are required almost exclusively. Many adult and elderly patients for whom propranolol is prescribed are also unable to swallow solid dosage forms. In Canada, propranolol is not commercially available in a liquid dosage form, and existing recipes for extemporaneously compounded suspensions of propranolol (1 mg/mL) are limited by concerns regarding diabetes mellitus in certain subpopulations, the need for a more concentrated suspension for patients taking larger doses, and the tediousness of compounding. To evaluate the stability of propranolol suspensions in a sugar-free, commercially available vehicle after storage at room temperature and under refrigeration for up to 120 days. Suspensions of propranolol (2 and 5 mg/mL) were prepared in the sugar-free vehicle (Ora-Blend SF), placed in 100-mL amber plastic prescription bottles, and stored at 25°C and 4°C. Samples were collected from each bottle once weekly for 120 days, stored frozen, and analyzed by a validated, stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography - ultraviolet detection method. A suspension was considered stable if it maintained at least 90% of its initial concentration of propranolol. Physical compatibility was evaluated in terms of colour, taste, precipitation, and pH. Propranolol suspensions 2 mg/mL and 5 mg/mL stored at 25°C maintained at least 94.7% of their initial concentration for 120 days, and suspensions stored at 4°C maintained at least 93.9% of their initial concentration for 120 days. There were no notable changes in pH, and all samples remained physically unchanged except for a slight change in colour, around day 70, of suspensions stored at room temperature. Propranolol suspensions (2 mg/mL and 5 mg/mL) prepared in Ora-Blend SF and stored in plastic prescription bottles at either 25°C or 4°C are expected to remain stable for 120 days.

  10. Simulations of charge transport in organic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vehoff, Thorsten


    We study the charge transport properties of organic liquid crystals, i.e. hexabenzocoronene and carbazole macrocycle, and single crystals, i.e. rubrene, indolocarbazole and benzothiophene derivatives (BTBT, BBBT). The aim is to find structure-property relationships linking the chemical structure as well as the morphology with the bulk charge carrier mobility of the compounds. To this end, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are performed yielding realistic equilibrated morphologies. Partial charges and molecular orbitals are calculated based on single molecules in vacuum using quantum chemical methods. The molecular orbitals are then mapped onto the molecular positions and orientations, which allows calculation of the transfer integrals between nearest neighbors using the molecular orbital overlap method. Thus we obtain realistic transfer integral distributions and their autocorrelations. In case of organic crystals the differences between two descriptions of charge transport, namely semi-classical dynamics (SCD) in the small polaron limit and kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) based on Marcus rates, are studied. The liquid crystals are investigated solely in the hopping limit. To simulate the charge dynamics using KMC, the centers of mass of the molecules are mapped onto lattice sites and the transfer integrals are used to compute the hopping rates. In the small polaron limit, where the electronic wave function is spread over a limited number of neighboring molecules, the Schroedinger equation is solved numerically using a semi-classical approach. The carbazole macrocycles form columnar structures arranged on a hexagonal lattice with side chains facing inwards, so columns can closely approach each other allowing inter-columnar and thus three-dimensional transport. We are able to show that, on the time-scales of charge transport, static disorder due to slow side chain motions is the main factor determining the mobility. The high mobility of rubrene is explained by two main


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Kudlek


    Full Text Available Constant increase in concentration of organic micropollutants in the water environment influences the development of methods for their effective elimination from various matrices released into aquatic ecosystems. One of widely described in literature processes for the decomposition of hardly-biodegradable pollutants is the process of heterogeneous photocatalysis. The paper presents the influence of inorganic substances on the decomposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (anthracene and benzo[a]pyrene, industrial admixtures - octylphenol and pharmaceutical compounds - diclofenac in the photocatalysis process conducted in the presence of TiO2. It has been shown that the presence of Cl- ions did not affect the photochemical reaction of the micropollutant decomposition. Whereas, the presence of CO3(2-, SO4(2- and HPO4(2- ions inhibited the decolonization of octylphenol and diclofenac, while the degradation efficiency of anthracene and benzo[a]pyrene was reduced only by the presence of CO3(2- and HCO3- anions. The photooxidation of micropollutants in solutions containing Al(3+ oraz Fe(3+ cations proceeded with a much lower efficiency than that for solution without inorganic compounds. The analysis of the kinetics of the photocatalytic decomposition of selected micropollutants show a decrease in the reaction rate constant and an increase in their half-life due to the blocking of theactive semiconductor centers by inorganic compounds. In addition,the toxicological analysis inducated the generation of micropollutant oxidation by-products, which aggravate the quality of treated aqueous solutions.

  12. Electrodeposition of alloys or compounds in molten salts and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taxil P.


    Full Text Available This article deals with the different modes of preparation of alloys or intermetallic compounds using the electrodeposition in molten salts, more particularly molten alkali fluorides. The interest in this process is to obtain new materials for high technology, particularly the compounds of reactive components such as actinides, rare earth and refractory metals. Two ways of preparation are considered: (i electrocoating of the more reactive metal on a cathode made of the noble one and reaction between the two metals in contact, and (ii electrocoating on an inert cathode of the intermetallic compound by coreduction of the ions of each elements. The kinetic is controlled by the reaction at the electrolyte interface. A wide bibliographic survey on the preparation of various compounds (intermetallic compounds, borides, carbides… is given and a special attention is paid to the own experience of the authors in the preparation of these compounds and interpretation of their results.

  13. Reactive codoping of GaAlInP compound semiconductors (United States)

    Hanna, Mark Cooper [Boulder, CO; Reedy, Robert [Golden, CO


    A GaAlInP compound semiconductor and a method of producing a GaAlInP compound semiconductor are provided. The apparatus and method comprises a GaAs crystal substrate in a metal organic vapor deposition reactor. Al, Ga, In vapors are prepared by thermally decomposing organometallic compounds. P vapors are prepared by thermally decomposing phospine gas, group II vapors are prepared by thermally decomposing an organometallic group IIA or IIB compound. Group VIB vapors are prepared by thermally decomposing a gaseous compound of group VIB. The Al, Ga, In, P, group II, and group VIB vapors grow a GaAlInP crystal doped with group IIA or IIB and group VIB elements on the substrate wherein the group IIA or IIB and a group VIB vapors produced a codoped GaAlInP compound semiconductor with a group IIA or IIB element serving as a p-type dopant having low group II atomic diffusion.

  14. Machine Learning of ABO3 Crystalline Compounds (United States)

    Gubernatis, J. E.; Balachandran, P. V.; Lookman, T.

    We apply two advanced machine learning methods to a database of experimentally known ABO3 materials to predict the existence of possible new perovskite materials and possible new cubic perovskites. Constructing a list of 625 possible new materials from charge conserving combinations of A and B atoms in known stable ABO3 materials, we predict about 440 new perovskites. These new perovskites are predicted most likely to occur when the A and B atoms are a lanthanide or actinide, when the A atom is a alkali, alkali earth, or late transition metal, and a when the B atom is a p-block atom. These results are in basic agreement with the recent materials discovery by substitution analysis of Hautier et al. who data-mined the entire ICSD data base to develop the probability that in any crystal structure atom X could be substituted for by atom Y. The results of our analysis has several points of disagreement with a recent high throughput DFT study of ABO3 crystalline compounds by Emery et al. who predict few, if any, new perovskites whose A and B atoms are both a lanthanide. They also predict far more new cubic perovskites than we do: We predict few, if any, with a high degree of probability. This work was supported by the LDRD DR program of the Los Alamos National Laboratory.

  15. Epoxyalkenal-trapping ability of phenolic compounds. (United States)

    Zamora, Rosario; Aguilar, Isabel; Hidalgo, Francisco J


    Lipid oxidation products have been shown to produce changes in food quality and safety as a consequence of carbonyl-amine reactions. Some of these reactions can be prevented by the use of phenolics, although the lipid-derived carbonyl trapping ability of phenolics is still poorly understood. In an attempt to fill this gap, the reactions of 4,5-epoxy-2-hexenal, 4,5-epoxy-2-heptenal, and 4,5-epoxy-2-decenal, with 2-methylresorcinol and 2,5-dimethylresorcinol were studied. These reactions produced diverse 1,3a,4,9b-tetrahydro-2H-furo[2,3-c]chromene-2,7-diols and 3,4,4a,9a-tetrahydro-1H-pyrano[3,4-b]benzofuran-3,7-diols, which were isolated and characterized by 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS). The produced epoxyalkenal-phenol reaction was characterized and carbonyl-phenol adducts were produced firstly by epoxide-ring opening initiated by the attack of one phenolic hydroxyl group and, then, by addition of one aromatic phenol carbon to the carbon-carbon double bond of the epoxyalkenal. This reaction rapidly deactivated the most important reactive groups of epoxyalkenals, decreasing in this way their ability to modify amino compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A new antioxidant compound from Capparis spinosa. (United States)

    Yang, Tao; Wang, Changhong; Liu, Hongjuan; Chou, Guixin; Cheng, Xuemei; Wang, Zhengtao


    An activity-directed fractionation and purification process was used to isolate 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH*) scavenging components from fruits of Capparis spinosa L. (Capparaeae). Ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions showed greater DPPH* scavenging activities compared to the petroleum ether fractions. The ethyl acetate fraction was subjected to purification using column chromatography. A new antioxidant cappariside (4-hydroxy-5-methylfuran-3-carboxylic acid, 1), together with seven known organic acids (2-8) for the first time from plants of genus Capparis and four known organic acids (9-12) were isolated from C. spinosa. The structures were elucidated by extensive analysis of 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopic. In addition, compounds 1, 2, 4, 5, 9, 10 and 12 indicated strong scavenging capacity for 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals with a SC(50) value of 0.204 +/- 0.002, 0.007 +/- 0.0, 0.011 +/- 0.0, 0.044 +/- 0.0016, 0.032 +/- 0.0, 0.090 +/- 0.001, and 0.350 +/- 0.017 mM, respectively.

  17. Nitrate radicals and biogenic volatile organic compounds ... (United States)

    Oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) by the nitrate radical (NO3) represents one of the important interactions between anthropogenic emissions related to combustion and natural emissions from the biosphere. This interaction has been recognized for more than 3 decades, during which time a large body of research has emerged from laboratory, field, and modeling studies. NO3-BVOC reactions influence air quality, climate and visibility through regional and global budgets for reactive nitrogen (particularly organic nitrates), ozone, and organic aerosol. Despite its long history of research and the significance of this topic in atmospheric chemistry, a number of important uncertainties remain. These include an incomplete understanding of the rates, mechanisms, and organic aerosol yields for NO3-BVOC reactions, lack of constraints on the role of heterogeneous oxidative processes associated with the NO3 radical, the difficulty of characterizing the spatial distributions of BVOC and NO3 within the poorly mixed nocturnal atmosphere, and the challenge of constructing appropriate boundary layer schemes and non-photochemical mechanisms for use in state-of-the-art chemical transport and chemistry–climate models. This review is the result of a workshop of the same title held at the Georgia Institute of Technology in June 2015. The first half of the review summarizes the current literature on NO3-BVOC chemistry, with a particular focus on recent advances in

  18. [Anti-hypertensive action of melatoninergic compounds]. (United States)

    Inoue, Yuichi


    Melatonin synchronizes circadian rhythms with light/dark period and it was demonstrated to correct chronodisruption. The night time rise in endogenous circulating melatonin levels is also inversely related to the reduction in night time blood pressure. The chronic administration of melatonin to individuals with hypertension induces a measurable drop in night time systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Moreover, the higher the night time level of endogenous melatonin (estimated from urinary metabolite of melatonin, 6-hydroxymelatonin sulphate), the greater the reduction in arterial blood pressure at night. The implication of these findings is that melatonin may have utility as an anti-hypertensive agent. Previous data have suggested that cardiovascular effects of melatonin are at least partly mediated via MT(1)/MT(2) receptors and associated with its chronobiotic action. Therefore, although anti-hypertensive action of melatonin is not so dramatic, it is believed that these effects will be shared by melatonin receptor agonists as well. Considering this, the investigation of cardiovascular effects of melatoninergic compounds should no longer be neglected.

  19. Environmental risk management for pharmaceutical compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voulvoulis, N. [Imperial College London (United Kingdom)


    Pharmaceuticals are a highly variable group of organic compounds with the potential to cause harm to aquatic ecosystems and human health. Thousands of tones of pharmacologically active substances are used annually but surprisingly little is known about their ultimate fate in the environment. The data collected to date, rarely provide information on the processes that determine their environmental fate and although they receive considerable pharmacological and clinical testing during development, knowledge of their ecotoxicity is poor. One major concern is that antibiotics found in sewage effluent may cause increased resistance amongst natural bacterial populations. The debate over risks associated with chemicals in the environment represents more than just another disagreement in the scientific community. It has opened the door to a new way of thinking about the onset of uninherited diseases, the nature of scientific investigation, and the role of scientific knowledge in the policymaking process. For example, research evidence on endocrine disruption collected over the last few years has changed dramatically the way we think about chemical risks. In part, this change has also been attributed to the precautionary principle, as a new approach to environmental policy forged in Europe. The term ''precautionary approach'' declares an obligation to control the dangerous substances even before a definitive causal link had been established between the chemicals and health or environmental effects, and represents a radical departure from traditional approaches to risk assessment and particularly risk management, which includes an integration of the assessment, communication and mitigation of risks.

  20. New two dimensional compounds: beyond graphene (United States)

    Lebegue, Sebastien


    In the field of nanosciences, the quest for materials with reduced dimensionality is only at its beginning. While a lot of effort has been put initially on graphene, the focus has been extended in the last past years to functionalized graphene, boron nitride, silicene, and transition metal dichalcogenides in the form of single layers. Although these two-dimensional compounds offer a larger range of properties than graphene, there is a constant need for new materials presenting equivalent or superior performances to the ones already known. Here I will present an approach that we have used to discover potential new two-dimensional materials. This approach corresponds to perform datamining in the Inorganic Crystal Structure Database using simple geometrical criterias, and allowed us to identify nearly 40 new materials that could be exfoliated into two-dimensional sheets. Then, their electronic structure (density of states and bandstructure) was obtained with density functional theory to predict whether the two-dimensional material is metallic or insulating, as well as if it undergoes magnetic ordering at low temperatures. If time allows, I will also present some of our recent results concerning the electronic structure of transition metal dichalcogenides bilayers.

  1. Screening of Compounds against Gardnerella vaginalis Biofilms. (United States)

    Gottschick, Cornelia; Szafranski, Szymon P; Kunze, Brigitte; Sztajer, Helena; Masur, Clarissa; Abels, Christoph; Wagner-Döbler, Irene


    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common infection in reproductive age woman and is characterized by dysbiosis of the healthy vaginal flora which is dominated by Lactobacilli, followed by growth of bacteria like Gardnerella vaginalis. The ability of G. vaginalis to form biofilms contributes to the high rates of recurrence that are typical for BV and which unfortunately make repeated antibiotic therapy inevitable. Here we developed a biofilm model for G. vaginalis and screened a large spectrum of compounds for their ability to prevent biofilm formation and to resolve an existing G. vaginalis biofilm. The antibiotics metronidazole and tobramycin were highly effective in preventing biofilm formation, but had no effect on an established biofilm. The application of the amphoteric tenside sodium cocoamphoacetate (SCAA) led to disintegration of existing biofilms, reducing biomass by 51% and viability by 61% and it was able to increase the effect of metronidazole by 40% (biomass) and 61% (viability). Our data show that attacking the biofilm and the bacterial cells by the combination of an amphoteric tenside with the antibiotic metronidazole might be a useful strategy against BV.

  2. Hydrogen and its compounds under extreme pressure (United States)

    Utyuzh, A. N.; Mikheyenkov, A. V.


    In the last two or three years, significant advances in the study of hydrogen and its compounds under extreme conditions (ultrahigh pressures over a wide temperature range) have notably changed the hydrogen phase diagram, provided a break-through in understanding hydrides’ behavior under pressure (as exemplified by the discovery of high-temperature superconductivity in hydrogen sulfide), and, finally, enabled achieving cold metallization of hydrogen. The situation prior to the 2010s is reviewed in brief and more recent work is examined in detail. While the primary focus is on experimental research, mention is also made of the theoretical and numerical work it stimulates. This review presents an extension of the talk by the authors for the scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, “Old and new ideas in phase transition physics,” which was held on December 21, 2016 (see Phys. Usp. 60 948–957 (2017); Usp. Fiz. Nauk 187 1021 (2017)). (Editor’s note.)

  3. Cometary micrometeorites and input of prebiotic compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engrand C.


    Full Text Available The apparition of life on the early Earth was probably favored by inputs of extraterrestrial matter brought by carbonaceous chondrite-like objects or cometary material. Interplanetary dust collected nowadays on Earth is related to carbonaceous chondrites and to cometary material. They contain in particular at least a few percent of organic matter, organic compounds (amino-acids, PAHs,…, hydrous silicates, and could have largely contributed to the budget of prebiotic matter on Earth, about 4 Ga ago. A new population of cometary dust was recently discovered in the Concordia Antarctic micrometeorite collection. These “Ultracarbonaceous Antarctic Micrometeorites” (UCAMMs are dominated by deuterium-rich and nitrogen-rich organic matter. They seem related to the “CHON” grains identified in the comet Halley in 1986. Although rare in the micrometeorites flux (<5% of the micrometeorites, UCAMMs could have significantly contributed to the input of prebiotic matter. Their content in soluble organic matter is currently under study.

  4. Engineering blood: synthetic substitutes from fluorinated compounds. (United States)

    Lowe, Kenneth C


    Concerns about blood safety and the logistical problems associated with conventional transfusion have fuelled the search for effective alternatives (so-called blood substitutes). Such materials include hemoglobin derivatives and those based on synthetic, highly fluorinated, inert organic compounds called perfluorochemicals (PFCs). PFCs dissolve large volumes of oxygen and other gases, are unreactive in the body, and are excreted primarily as a vapor by exhalation. Liquid PFCs are immiscible with blood and other body fluids, but can be injected safely into the bloodstream as submicron emulsions. Emulsified PFCs have been evaluated in clinical trials as temporary, intravascular tissue-oxygenating fluids. One such emulsion, a commercial perflubron-based, phospholipid-stabilized formulation, is in advanced clinical trials as an alternative to transfusing donated (allogeneic) blood during surgery. Basic and clinical studies have shown that this emulsion can adequately maintain tissue oxygenation during acute blood loss with no abnormal hemodynamic changes. The use of PFC emulsions as an efficacious, short-term transfusion alternative underpins the longer term objective of producing a totally synthetic, bioengineered blood substitute.

  5. Flash vacuum pyrolysis of lignin model compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooney, M.J.; Britt, P.F.; Buchanan, A.C. III


    Despite the extensive research into the pyrolysis of lignin, the underlying chemical reactions that lead to product formation are poorly understood. Detailed mechanistic studies on the pyrolysis of biomass and lignin under conditions relevant to current process conditions could provide insight into utilizing this renewable resource for the production of chemicals and fuel. Currently, flash or fast pyrolysis is the most promising process to maximize the yields of liquid products (up to 80 wt %) from biomass by rapidly heating the substrate to moderate temperatures, typically 500{degrees}C, for short residence times, typically less than two seconds. To provide mechanistic insight into the primary reaction pathways under process relevant conditions, we are investigating the flash vacuum pyrolysis (FVP) of lignin model compounds that contain a {beta}-ether. linkage and {alpha}- or {gamma}-alcohol, which are key structural elements in lignin. The dominant products from the FVP of PhCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}OPh (PPE), PhC(OH)HCH{sub 2}OPh, and PhCH{sub 2}CH(CH{sub 2}OH)OPh at 500{degrees}C can be attributed to homolysis of the weakest bond in the molecule (C-O bond) or 1,2-elimination. Surprisingly, the hydroxy-substituent dramatically increases the decomposition of PPE. It is proposed that internal hydrogen bonding is accelerating the reaction.

  6. Organic compounds in concrete from demolition works. (United States)

    Van Praagh, M; Modin, H; Trygg, J


    This study aims to verify the effect of physically removing the outer surface of contaminated concrete on total contents and on potential mobility of pollutants by means of leaching tests. Reclaimed concrete from 3 industrial sites in Sweden were included: A tar impregnated military storage, a military tar track-depot, as well as concrete constructions used for disposing of pesticide production surplus and residues. Solid materials and leachates from batch and column leaching tests were analysed for metals, Cl, F, SO4, DOC and contents of suspected organic compounds (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PAH, and pesticides/substances for pesticide production such as phenoxy acids, chlorophenols and chlorocresols, respectively). In case of PAH contaminated concrete, results indicate that removing 1 or 5 mm of the surface lead to total concentrations below the Swedish guidelines for recycling of aggregates and soil in groundwork constructions. 3 out of 4 concrete samples contaminated with pesticides fulfilled Swedish guidelines for contaminated soil. Results from batch and column leaching tests indicated, however, that concentrations above environmental quality standards for certain PAH and phenoxy acids, respectively, might occur at site when the crushed concrete is recycled in groundwork constructions. As leaching tests engaged in the study deviated from leaching test standards with a limited number of samples, the potential impact of the leaching tests' equipment on measured PAH and pesticide leachate concentrations has to be evaluated in future work. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Dual-pulse frequency compounded superharmonic imaging. (United States)

    van Neer, Paul L M J; Danilouchkine, Mikhail G; Matte, Guillaume M; van der Steen, Anton F W; de Jong, Nico


    Tissue second-harmonic imaging is currently the default mode in commercial diagnostic ultrasound systems. A new modality, superharmonic imaging (SHI), combines the third through fifth harmonics originating from nonlinear wave propagation through tissue. SHI could further improve the resolution and quality of echographic images. The superharmonics have gaps between the harmonics because the transducer has a limited bandwidth of about 70% to 80%. This causes ghost reflection artifacts in the superharmonic echo image. In this work, a new dual-pulse frequency compounding (DPFC) method to eliminate these artifacts is introduced. In the DPFC SHI method, each trace is constructed by summing two firings with slightly different center frequencies. The feasibility of the method was established using a single-element transducer. Its acoustic field was modeled in KZK simulations and compared with the corresponding measurements obtained with a hydrophone apparatus. Subsequently, the method was implemented on and optimized for a setup consisting of an interleaved phased-array transducer (44 elements at 1 MHz and 44 elements at 3.7 MHz, optimized for echocardiography) and a programmable ultrasound system. DPFC SHI effectively suppresses the ghost reflection artifacts associated with imaging using multiple harmonics. Moreover, compared with the single-pulse third harmonic, DPFC SHI improved the axial resolution by 3.1 and 1.6 times at the -6-dB and -20-dB levels, respectively. Hence, DPFC offers the possibility of generating harmonic images of a higher quality at a cost of a moderate frame rate reduction.

  8. Thermoelectric properties of SnSe compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guan, Xinhong [State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications, Ministry of Education, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, P.O. Box 72, Beijing 100876 (China); Lu, Pengfei, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications, Ministry of Education, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, P.O. Box 72, Beijing 100876 (China); Wu, Liyuan; Han, Lihong [State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications, Ministry of Education, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, P.O. Box 72, Beijing 100876 (China); Liu, Gang [School of Electronic Engineering, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); Song, Yuxin [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Wang, Shumin [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Photonics Laboratory, Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology, 41296 Gothenburg (Sweden)


    Highlights: • The electronic and thermoelectric properties of SnSe bulk material are studied. • The ZT can reach as high as 1.87 along yy and 1.6 along zz direction at 800k. • SnSe is an indirect-band material, and SOC has little effect on the band structure. • The high ZT can be attributed to the intrinsically ultralow thermal conductivity. - Abstract: A first-principles study and Boltzmann transport theory have been performed to evaluate the electronic structure and thermoelectric properties of SnSe compound. The energy band structure and density of states are studied in detail. The electronic transport coefficients are then calculated as a function of chemical potential or temperature within the assumption of the constant relaxation time. The figure of merit ZT is obtained with the use of calculated thermoelectric properties and can reach as high as 1.87 along yy and 1.6 along zz direction at 800 K. Our theoretical result agrees well with previous experimental data.

  9. Physicochemical interactions of cycloamylose with phenolic compounds. (United States)

    Rho, Shin-Joung; Mun, Saehun; Hong, Jung Sun; Kim, Young-Lim; Do, Ha V; Kim, Young-Wan; Han, Sang-Ik; Kim, Yong-Ro


    The complex formation capability of cycloamylose (CA), having a degree of polymerization of 23-45, with phenolic compounds (PCs) was investigated using various physicochemical techniques. The fluorescence intensity of PCs increased and then reached a plateau at 10-20mM cyclodextrin, while it continued to increase at up to 60mM CA. Thermodynamic data of CA complexes with PCs revealed that the binding process was primarily enthalpy-driven and spontaneous. CA favored to form the most stable complex with chlorogenic acid (CHA) among all PCs. Chemical shift changes for the protons in interior and exterior of CA, as well as in PCs suggested a possible formation of both inclusion and extramolecular interactions between CA and PCs. The ROESY spectrum confirmed that the aromatic moieties of CHA were partially interacted with CA molecules through relatively weak binding. XRD, DSC, and SEM results also supported the complex formation by intermolecular interaction between CA and CHA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Determination of benzotrifluoride derivative compounds in groundwater. (United States)

    Lava, Roberto; Aimo, Emilia; Menegus, Luciana; Pojana, Giulio; Marcomini, Antonio


    Two simple analytical methods for the simultaneous determination and quantification of benzotrifluoride and eight chlorinated, amino and nitro benzotrifluoride derivatives in groundwater are proposed. Benzotrifluoride, 4-chlorobenzotrifluoride, 2,4-dichlorobenzotrifluoride and 3,4-dichlorobenzotrifluoride, were extracted by Purge-and-Trap on the basis of their volatile properties, while 3-aminobenzotrifluoride, 4-nitrobenzotrifluoride, 3-amino-4-chlorobenzotrifluoride, 3-nitro-4-chlorobenzotrifluoride and 4-chloro-3,5-dinitrobenzotrifluoride extractions were done with an automated SPE system. The analytical separations and detections were performed with two different GC systems, both equipped with single quadrupole mass spectrometer as detector. The LOD ranges for the two methods were 0.002-0.005 μg L(-1) and 0.01-0.07 μg L(-1), respectively. Both extraction methods were developed using spiked Milli-Q water and were then demonstrated with groundwater samples collected during autumn 2008. The areas of groundwater collection were polluted due to an episode of improper industrial soil disposal and consequent leakage of aliphatic and aromatic, fluorinated chemicals into the groundwater. This work eventually revealed the presence of several benzotrifluoride compounds most of them, like dichloro- and amino-derivatives, never been reported as environmental contaminants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Serum concentrations of perfluorinated compounds (PFC) ... (United States)

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have been widely used in industrial applications and consumer products. Their persistent nature and potential health impacts are of concern. Given the high cost of collecting serum samples, this study is to understand whether we can quantify PFC serum concentrations using factors extracted from questionnaire responses and indirect measurements, and whether a single serum measurement can be used to classify an individual′s exposure over a one-year period. The study population included three demographic groups: young children (2–8 years old) (N=67), parents of young children (55 years old) (N=59). PFC serum concentrations, house dust concentrations, and questionnaires were collected. The geometric mean of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) was highest for the older adults. In contrast, the geometric mean of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was highest for children. Serum concentrations of the parent and the child from the same family were moderately correlated (Spearman correlation (r)=0.26–0.79, pfamily. For adults, age, having occupational exposure or having used fire extinguisher, frequencies of consuming butter/margarine, pork, canned meat entrées, tuna and white fish, freshwater fish, and whether they ate microwave popcorn were significantly positively associated with serum concentrations of individual PFCs. For children, residential dust

  12. Sophisticated compound droplets on fiber networks (United States)

    Weyer, Floriane; Lismont, Marjorie; Dreesen, Laurent; Vandewalle, Nicolas


    Droplets on fibers are part of our everyday lives. Indeed, many phenomena involve drops and fibers such as the formation of dew droplets on a spiderweb, the trapping of water droplets on cactus spines or the dyeing of cotton or wool fibers. Therefore, this topic has been widely studied in the recent years and it appears that droplets on fibers can be the starting point for an open digital microfluidics. We study the behavior of soapy water droplets on a fiber array. When a droplet slides along a vertical fiber and encounters a horizontal fiber, it can either stick there or continue its way. In the latter case, the droplet releases a tiny residue. We study the volume of these residues depending on the geometry of the node. By using this technique, a large number of small droplets can be trapped at the nodes of a fiber array. These residues can be encapsulated and collected by an oil droplet in order to create a multicompound droplet. Moreover, by using optical fibers, we can provoke and detect the fluorescence of the inner droplets. Fibers provide therefore an original way to study compound droplets and multiple reactions. F. Weyer is financially supported by an FNRS grant. This work is also supported by the FRFC 2.4504.12.

  13. Antibacterial Activity of Phenolic Compounds Against the Phytopathogen Xylella fastidiosa


    Maddox, Christina E.; Laur, Lisa M.; Tian, Li


    Xylella fastidiosa is a pathogenic bacterium that causes diseases in many crop species, which leads to considerable economic loss. Phenolic compounds (a group of secondary metabolites) are widely distributed in plants and have shown to possess antimicrobial properties. The anti-Xylella activity of 12 phenolic compounds, representing phenolic acid, coumarin, stilbene and flavonoid, was evaluated using an in vitro agar dilution assay. Overall, these phenolic compounds were effective in inhibiti...

  14. Intermetallic compounds in heterogeneous catalysis-a quickly developing field. (United States)

    Armbrüster, Marc; Schlögl, Robert; Grin, Yuri


    The application of intermetallic compounds for understanding in heterogeneous catalysis developed in an excellent way during the last decade. This review provides an overview of concepts and developments revealing the potential of intermetallic compounds in fundamental as well as applied catalysis research. Intermetallic compounds may be considered as platform materials to address current and future catalytic challenges, e.g. in respect to the energy transition.

  15. Examining the stability derivatives of a compound helicopter


    Ferguson, Kevin; Thomson, Douglas


    Some helicopter manufacturers are exploring the compound helicopter design as it could potentially satisfy the new emerging requirements placed on the next generation of rotorcraft. It is well understood that the main benefit of the compound helicopter is its ability to reach speeds that significantly surpass the conventional helicopter. However, it is possible that the introduction of compounding may lead to a vehicle with significantly different flight characteristics when compared to a con...

  16. Chlorine-containing natural compounds in higher plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvild, Kjeld Christensen


    More than 130 chlorine-containing compounds have been isolated from higher plants and ferns; about half are polyacetylenes, thiophenes and sesquiterpene lactones from the Asteraceae. A chlorinated chlorophyll may be an important part of photosystem 1. High biological activity is found in 4-chloro......-chloroindoleacetic acid from pea and in the cancerostatic maytansinoids. Many compounds are chlorohydrins isolated along with the related epoxides. Some compounds, like gibberellin A6 hydrochloride from bean, are perhaps artefacts....

  17. Physical and mechanical properties of lamellar compounds of graphite


    Костиков, Александр Анатольевич; Довгаль, Анна Николаевна; Черномаз, Владимир Николаевич; Кузнецов, Андрей Андреевич


    In this paper physical, mechanical and thermophysical properties of lamellar graphite compounds with various intercalants have been studied as a function of temperature and oxidants. The focus of the study was the influence of various factors on lamellar graphite compounds parameters, namely: elongation of samples, thermal expansion coefficient, thermal conductivity. The following factors have been considered: oxidant concentration in the synthesis of lamellar graphite compounds, the particle...

  18. Preparation and properties of organo(acetylacetonato)antimony(V) compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meinema, H.A.; Noltes, J.G.

    Organo(acetylacetonato)antimony(V) compounds of the types R2SbCl2Acac, R4SbAcac, PhSbCl3Acac and Cl4SbAcac have been synthesized. The compounds are monomeric in solution. IR and PMR data of these compounds, which contain a chelated Acac ligand have been discussed. Ph2SbCl2Acac shows abnormal

  19. Structural Features of Antitumor Titanium Agents and Related Compounds (United States)

    Caruso, Francesco; Rossi, Miriam; Opazo, Cristian; Pettinari, Claudio


    Previous studies established some Ti compounds as having marked activity against tumors of the gastrointestinal tract and lack of side effects common to widely used cytostatic agents. We describe pertinent structural features of known antitumor Ti agents and other potentially active compounds. Particularly noteworthy features are that Ti-O bonds are short and Ti-O-Ti bond angles are large, demonstrating that in these compounds the O binding has high s-character approaching sp hybridization. PMID:18365107

  20. Structural Features of Antitumor Titanium Agents and Related Compounds


    Caruso, Francesco; Rossi, Miriam; Opazo, Cristian; Pettinari, Claudio


    Previous studies established some Ti compounds as having marked activity against tumors of the gastrointestinal tract and lack of side effects common to widely used cytostatic agents. We describe pertinent structural features of known antitumor Ti agents and other potentially active compounds. Particularly noteworthy features are that Ti-O bonds are short and Ti-O-Ti bond angles are large, demonstrating that in these compounds the O binding has high s-character approaching sp hybridization.

  1. Antinociceptive effect of a novel tosylpyrazole compound in mice. (United States)

    Oliveira, Sara M; Gewehr, Camila; Dalmolin, Gerusa D; Cechinel, Cleber A; Wentz, Alexandre; Lourega, Rogério V; Sehnem, Ronan C; Zanatta, Nilo; Martins, Marcos A P; Rubin, Maribel A; Bonacorso, Helio G; Ferreira, Juliano


    Pain is the most common complaint in the medical field and the identification of compounds that can effectively treat painful states without induction of side-effects remains a major challenge in biomedical research. The aim of the present study was to investigate the antinociceptive effect of a novel compound, 3-(4-fluorophenyl)-5-trifluoromethyl-1H-1-tosylpyrazole (compound A) in several models of pain in mice and compare with those produced by the known trifluoromethyl-containing pyrazole compound celecoxib. Compound A or celecoxib were administrated by oral (78-780 micromol/kg), intrathecal (9-22.5 nmol/site) or intracerebroventricular (9-22.5 nmol/site) routes. Oral administration of either compound A or celecoxib abolished the mechanical allodynia, but not the oedema caused by intraplantar injection of carrageenan. Similarly, compound A reduced the overt nociception, but not the oedema, produced by bradykinin or capsaicin. However, compound A (500 micromol/kg, orally) did not alter nociception nor oedema caused by intraplantar injection of prostaglandin E(2 )or glutamate, whereas celecoxib reduced only the nociception induced by the former. Moreover, oral and intrathecal administration of compound A or celecoxib also reduced the nociception induced by acetic acid. However, only celecoxib reduced the acetic acid-induced nociception when it was injected by the intracerebroventricular route. Finally, neither compound A nor celecoxib was able to produce antinociceptive effect in the tail-flick test or to alter the motor performance and the body temperature. Besides, compound A or celecoxib did not induce gastric lesion. Thus, compound A seems to be an interesting prototype for the development of novel analgesic drugs.

  2. Laccase-based biosensors for detection of phenolic compounds


    Rodríguez-Delgado, Melissa M.; Gibrán S. Alemán-Nava; Rodríguez-Delgado, José Manuel; Dieck-Assad, Graciano; Martínez-Chapa, Sergio Omar; Barceló, Damià; Parra, Roberto


    Monitoring of phenolic compounds in the food industry and for environmental and medical applications has become more relevant in recent years. Conventional methods for detection and quantification of these compounds, such as spectrophotometry and chromatography, are time consuming and expensive. However, laccase biosensors represent a fast method for on-line and in situ monitoring of these compounds. We discuss the main transduction principles. We divide the electrochemical principle into amp...

  3. Determining the Degree of Promiscuity of Extensively Assayed Compounds


    Jasial, Swarit; Hu, Ye; Bajorath, J?rgen


    In the context of polypharmacology, an emerging concept in drug discovery, promiscuity is rationalized as the ability of compounds to specifically interact with multiple targets. Promiscuity of drugs and bioactive compounds has thus far been analyzed computationally on the basis of activity annotations, without taking assay frequencies or inactivity records into account. Most recent estimates have indicated that bioactive compounds interact on average with only one to two targets, whereas dru...

  4. Engineering and Design: Trace Organic Compounds in Potable Water Supplies (United States)


    suspected carcinogens , even in minutu concentrations. These compounds may be present in finished water as a result of chlorine reacting with naturally...Table 3. Organic compounds being considered for regulation* — Aldicarb Chlordane Dalapon Diquat Endothall Glyphosate Carbofuran 1,1,2-Trichloroethane...compounds known or suspected to be carcinogenic ? Are there several more than one nants. Other types--for example, some volatile and some nonvolatile

  5. A Fast and Efficient Topological Coding Algorithm for Compound Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Li


    Full Text Available We present a fast and efficient coding algorithm for compound images. Unlike popular mixture raster content (MRC based approaches, we propose to attack compound image coding problem from the perspective of modeling location uncertainty of image singularities. We suggest that a computationally simple two-class segmentation strategy is sufficient for the coding of compound images. We argue that jointly exploiting topological properties of image source in classification and coding stages is beneficial to the robustness of compound image coding systems. Experiment results have justified effectiveness and robustness of the proposed topological coding algorithm.

  6. Oceanic protection of prebiotic organic compounds from UV radiation. (United States)

    Cleaves, H J; Miller, S L


    It is frequently stated that UV light would cause massive destruction of prebiotic organic compounds because of the absence of an ozone layer. The elevated UV flux of the early sun compounds this problem. This applies to organic compounds of both terrestrial and extraterrestrial origin. Attempts to deal with this problem generally involve atmospheric absorbers. We show here that prebiotic organic polymers as well as several inorganic compounds are sufficient to protect oceanic organic molecules from UV degradation. This aqueous protection is in addition to any atmospheric UV absorbers and should be a ubiquitous planetary phenomenon serving to increase the size of planetary habitable zones.

  7. Antileishmanial compounds from Cordia fragrantissima collected in Burma (Myanmar). (United States)

    Mori, Kanami; Kawano, Marii; Fuchino, Hiroyuki; Ooi, Takashi; Satake, Motoyoshi; Agatsuma, Yutaka; Kusumi, Takenori; Sekita, Setsuko


    A methanol extract of the wood of Cordia fragrantissima, collected in Burma (Myanmar), was found to exhibit significant activity against Leishmania major. Bioassay-guided fractionation of this extract using several chromatographic techniques afforded three new compounds (1-3) and five known compounds (4-8). The structures of the new compounds were revealed on the basis of spectroscopic data interpretation and by X-ray crystallographic analysis. Interestingly, the new compounds, despite the presence of asymmetric carbons, were found to be racemates. The activities of the isolates from C. fragrantissima and several derivatives were evaluated against the promastigote forms of Leishmania major, L. panamensis, and L. guyanensis.

  8. Treatment System for Removing Halogenated Compounds from Contaminated Sources (United States)

    Quinn, Jacqueline W. (Inventor); Clausen, Christian A. (Inventor); Yestrebsky, Cherie L. (Inventor)


    A treatment system and a method for removal of at least one halogenated compound, such as PCBs, found in contaminated systems are provided. The treatment system includes a polymer blanket for receiving at least one non-polar solvent. The halogenated compound permeates into or through a wall of the polymer blanket where it is solubilized with at least one non-polar solvent received by said polymer blanket forming a halogenated solvent mixture. This treatment system and method provides for the in situ removal of halogenated compounds from the contaminated system. In one embodiment, the halogenated solvent mixture is subjected to subsequent processes which destroy and/or degrade the halogenated compound.

  9. Triorganotin as a compound with potential reproductive toxicity in mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.S. Delgado Filho


    Full Text Available Organotin compounds are typical environmental contaminants and suspected endocrine-disrupting substances, which cause irreversible sexual abnormality in female mollusks, called "imposex". However, little is known about the capability of triorganotin compounds, such as tributyltin and triphenyltin, to cause disorders in the sexual development and reproductive functions of mammals, including humans and rodents. Moreover, these compounds can act as potential competitive inhibitors of aromatase enzyme and other steroidogenic enzymes, affecting the reproductive capacity of male and female mammals. In this review, we discuss the cellular, biochemical, and molecular mechanisms by which triorganotin compounds induce adverse effects in the mammalian reproductive function.

  10. Application of Transforms in a Compound Demands Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ou Tang


    Full Text Available The compound distribution is of interest for the study of inventoryproblem, since it provides a more flexible description ofthe stochastic properties of the system compared to many otherapproaches such as renewal processes. However, due to the difficultiesof obtaining analytical results for the compound distribution,such a type of study is usually limited to searching for agood approximation for replacing the complex model. This paperinvestigates the possibility to extend a previous stochastic inventorymodel to cover a compound demand process. Transformmethods again play an imp01tant role in the analysis forcapturing the stochastic prope1ties of the compound distribution.

  11. Human biological monitoring of suspected endocrine-disrupting compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moosa Faniband


    Full Text Available Endocrine-disrupting compounds are exogenous agents that interfere with the natural hormones of the body. Human biological monitoring is a powerful method for monitoring exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds. In this review, we describe human biological monitoring systems for different groups of endocrine disrupting compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, brominated flame retardants, phthalates, alkylphenols, pesticides, metals, perfluronated compounds, parabens, ultraviolet filters, and organic solvents. The aspects discussed are origin to exposure, metabolism, matrices to analyse, analytical determination methods, determinants, and time trends.

  12. Modulation of volatile sulfur compounds by wine yeast. (United States)

    Swiegers, J H; Pretorius, I S


    Sulfur compounds in wine can be a 'double-edged sword'. On the one hand, certain sulfur-containing volatile compounds such as hydrogen sulfide, imparting a rotten egg-like aroma, can have a negative impact on the perceived quality of the wine, and on the other hand, some sulfur compounds such as 3-mercaptohexanol, imparting fruitiness, can have a positive impact on wine flavor and aroma. Furthermore, these compounds can become less or more attractive or repulsive depending on their absolute and relative concentrations. This presents an interesting challenge to the winemaker to modulate the concentrations of these quality-determining compounds in wine in accordance with consumer preferences. The wine yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae plays a central role in the production of volatile sulfur compounds. Through the sulfate reduction sequence pathway, the HS(-) is formed, which can lead to the formation of hydrogen sulfide and various mercaptan compounds. Therefore, limiting the formation of the HS(-) ion is an important target in metabolic engineering of wine yeast. The wine yeast is also responsible for the transformation of non-volatile sulfur precursors, present in the grape, to volatile, flavor-active thiol compounds. In particular, 4-mercapto-4-methylpentan-2-one, 3-mercaptohexanol, and 3-mercaptohexyl acetate are the most important volatile thiols adding fruitiness to wine. This paper briefly reviews the metabolic processes involved in the production of important volatile sulfur compounds and the latest strategies in the pursuit of developing wine yeast strains as tools to adjust wine aroma to market specifications.

  13. Compound simile in Farokhi Sistani and Manoochehri’s works

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hakimazar


    Full Text Available Abstract Compound simile (antapodosis is a kind of simile in which two things are likened to each other. The vehicle in this type of simile is more than one part and the image resulting from the simile is compound. In compound simile different parts of vehicle are intended by the poet to mix with each other and create a unified whole and link to tenor. It has been said that the image created by compound simile can be made into a painting. This type of simile has surpassed Khorasani style and eventually materializes in a compact form in the poems of Iraqi and Hindi styles. Farokhi Sistani and Manoochehri Damghani are among the significant poets in Khorasani style who have made use of simile and in particular compound simile to create images and imagination. In Farokhi’s works, compound simile has more of an aristocratic and military side to it and involves praise and description of loyal families. But Manoochehri who is a naturalist poet whose poems are complicated, compound simile is used to create natural images. In this respect he has dealt with image-making in a more artistic manner. In the works of the two poets certain structures with compound simile can be found. The first type of such structures is allegorical simile. This study investigates and analyzes the structure of couplets and closed couplets with compound simile in the works of these two poets.

  14. EDITORIAL: Enhance your outlook with Compound Semiconductor (United States)

    Bedrock, Claire


    An overwhelming proportion of the articles published in this journal come under the heading of applied research. In this field research findings impact tomorrow's products, and so it's important to keep tabs on these developments. Grant applications, for example, can carry extra weight when the potential benefits to industry are outlined alongside the gains to fundamental science. What's more, it's just plain interesting to track how key breakthroughs in understanding can drive improvements in commercial devices. Within our publication group we offer free resources that can help you keep pace with trends in part of this sector. Compound Semiconductor magazine and its associated website,, cover III-V, III-N, SiC and SiGe research in academia and industry, alongside all the business news and key manufacturing technology. A high proportion of our authoritative and timely content is exclusive, and you can access it for free by completing a simple registration procedure at Three examples of feature articles published this year in Compound Semiconductor include: • Non-polar GaN reaches tipping point by Steven DenBaars, Shuji Nakamura and Jim Speck from the University of California, Santa Barbara. Although conventional GaN LEDs are a great commercial success, they suffer from an intrinsic weakness—internal electric fields that pull apart the electrons and holes and ultimately limit efficiency. However, this problem can be overcome by growing nitrides on alternate crystal planes. Although early attempts were unsuccessful, due to high defect densities in the epilayers, this is not the case with growth on the latest Mitsubishi substrates that can lead to external quantum efficiencies of 45%. In this article the authors describe the development of their non-polar material, and their promising results for LEDs and laser diodes. • Inverting the triple junction improves efficiency and flexibility by Paul Sharps and

  15. Echinoderms: their culture and bioactive compounds. (United States)

    Kelly, M S


    biologically active compounds with biomedical applications. Sea cucumber has been valued in Chinese medicine for hundreds of years as a cure for a wide variety of ailments. Some more recently isolated compounds, mainly from sea cucumbers and starfish, and including those with antitumour, antiviral, anticoagulant and antimicrobial activity are summarised below. When wild stocks decline, the demand created in the market place raises to the price of the product and, consequently, culturing is more likely to become viable economically. As this review shows, there have been dramatic advances in the culture methods of sea urchins and sea cucumbers in the last 10-15 years, to the extent that one can conclude that currently the major obstacles to successful cultivation are indeed economic rather than biological. Hence the future of the echinoculture industry is closely linked to that of the fisheries, whose fate will ultimately determine the market forces that will shape this growing industry.

  16. Aquatic Toxicity Assessment of Phosphate Compounds (United States)

    Kim, Eunju; Yoo, Sunkyoung; Ro, Hee-Young; Han, Hye-Jin; Baek, Yong-Wook; Eom, Ig-Chun; Kim, Pilje; Choi, Kyunghee


    Objectives Tricalcium phosphate and calcium hydrogenorthophosphate are high production volume chemicals, mainly used as foodstuff additives, pharmaceuticals, lubricants, synthetic resin, and disinfectants. Phosphate has the potential to cause increased algal growth leading to eutrophication in the aquatic environment. However, there is no adequate information available on risk assessment or acute and chronic toxicity. The aim of this research is to evaluate the toxic potential of phosphate compounds in the aquatic environment. Methods An aquatic toxicity test of phosphate was conducted, and its physico-chemical properties were obtained from a database recommended in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) guidance manual. An ecotoxicity test using fish, Daphnia, and algae was conducted by the good laboratory practice facility according to the OECD TG guidelines for testing of chemicals, to secure reliable data. Results The results of the ecotoxicity tests of tricalcium phosphate and calcium hydrogenorthophosphate are as follows: In an acute toxicity test with Oryzias latipes, 96 hr 50% lethal concentration (LC50) was >100 (measured:>2.14) mg/L and >100 (measured: >13.5) mg/L, respectively. In the Daphnia test, 48 hr 50% effective concentration (EC50) was >100 (measured: >5.35) mg/L and >100 (measured: >2.9) mg/L, respectively. In a growth inhibition test with Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, 72 hr EC50 was >100 (measured: >1.56) mg/L and >100 (measured: >4.4) mg/L, respectively. Conclusions Based on the results of the ecotoxicity test of phosphate using fish, Daphnia, and algae, L(E)C50 was above 100 mg/L (nominal), indicating no toxicity. In general, the total phosphorus concentration including phosphate in rivers and lakes reaches levels of several ppm, suggesting that phosphate has no toxic effects. However, excessive inflow of phosphate into aquatic ecosystems has the potential to cause eutrophication due to algal growth. PMID:23440935

  17. Enzymatic reduction of azo and indigoid compounds. (United States)

    Pricelius, S; Held, C; Murkovic, M; Bozic, M; Kokol, V; Cavaco-Paulo, A; Guebitz, G M


    A customer- and environment-friendly method for the decolorization azo dyes was developed. Azoreductases could be used both to bleach hair dyed with azo dyes and to reduce dyes in vat dyeing of textiles. A new reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent azoreductase of Bacillus cereus, which showed high potential for reduction of these dyes, was purified using a combination of ammonium sulfate precipitation and chromatography and had a molecular mass of 21.5 kDa. The optimum pH of the azoreductase depended on the substrate and was within the range of pH 6 to 7, while the maximum temperature was reached at 40 degrees C. Oxygen was shown to be an alternative electron acceptor to azo compounds and must therefore be excluded during enzymatic dye reduction. Biotransformation of the azo dyes Flame Orange and Ruby Red was studied in more detail using UV-visible spectroscopy, high-performance liquid chromatography, and mass spectrometry (MS). Reduction of the azo bonds leads to cleavage of the dyes resulting in the cleavage product 2-amino-1,3 dimethylimidazolium and N approximately 1 approximately ,N approximately 1 approximately -dimethyl-1,4-benzenediamine for Ruby Red, while only the first was detected for Flame Orange because of MS instability of the expected 1,4-benzenediamine. The azoreductase was also found to reduce vat dyes like Indigo Carmine (C.I. Acid Blue 74). Hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) as an oxidizing agent was used to reoxidize the dye into the initial form. The reduction and oxidation mechanism of Indigo Carmine was studied using UV-visible spectroscopy.

  18. Volatile carbonylic compounds in downtown Santiago, Chile. (United States)

    Rubio, María A; Zamorano, Natalia; Lissi, Eduardo; Rojas, Alicia; Gutiérrez, Luis; von Baer, Dietrich


    Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, propanal, butanal, 2-butenal, 3-methylbutanal, hexanal, benzaldehyde, 2-methylbenzaldehyde, and 2,5-dimethylbenzaldehyde were measured during six spring days at downtown Santiago de Chile. Measurements were performed 24h/day and averaged over three hour periods. The averages of the maxima (ppbv) were, formaldehyde: 3.9+/-1.4; butanal: 3.3+/-3.4; acetaldehyde: 3.0+/-0.9; acetone: 2.4+/-1.0; 2-butenal: 0.56+/-0.52; propanal: 0.46+/-0.21; benzaldehyde: 0.34+/-0.3; 3-butanal: 0.11+/-0.05; hexanal: 0.11+/-0.08; 2-methylbenzaldehyde: 0.08+/-0.05; 2,5-dimethylbenzaldehyde: 0.05+/-0.03. Aliphatic aldehydes (C1-C3) are strongly correlated among them and weakly with primary (toluene) and secondary (ozone plus nitrogen dioxide or PAN) pollutants. In particular, the correlation between acetaldehyde and propanal values remains even if diurnal and nocturnal data are considered separately, indicating similar sources. All these aldehydes present maxima values in the morning (9-12h) and minima at night (0-3h). The best correlation is observed when butanal and 2-butenal data are considered (r=0.99, butanal/2-butenal=6.2). These compounds present maxima values during the 3-6h period, with minima values in the 0-3h period. These data imply a strong pre-dawn emission. Other aldehydes show different daily profiles, suggesting unrelated origins. Formaldehyde is the aldehyde whose concentration values best correlate with the levels of oxidants. The contribution of primary emissions and photochemical processes to formaldehyde concentrations were estimated by using a multiple regression. This treatment indicates that (32+/-16)% of measured values arise from direct emissions, while (79+/-23)% is attributable to secondary formation.

  19. Butyltin compounds and imposex levels in Ecuador. (United States)

    Castro, Ítalo Braga; Arroyo, Maria Fernanda; Costa, Patrícia Gomes; Fillmann, Gilberto


    The first appraisal of butyltins (BT) contamination linked with imposex incidence in the Pacific coast of South America was performed in the current study. Imposex occurrence was analyzed in three muricid species (Thais biserialis, T. brevidentata, and T. kiosquiformis) distributed along 14 sites from the coastal areas of Ecuador. All studied muricids species showed imposex, which was observed in 11 out of 14 sites. The highest imposex levels were observed in T. kiosquiformis collected inside the Gulf of Guayaquil [relative penis length index (RPLI) 9.0-40.7], whereas RPLI values for T. biserialis and T. brevidentata ranged from 4.0 to 26.1 and 0.0 to 1.9, respectively. Additionally, BT compounds [tributyltin (TBT), dibutylin (DBT), and monobutylin (MBT)] were determined in surface sediments collected in 6 of the sites (main harbor areas), and values ranged between 12.7 and 99.5 ng Sn g(-1) (dry weight) for TBT, 1.8 and 54.4 ng Sn g(-1) for DBT, and 44 and 340 ng Sn g(-1) for MBT. Although BT degradation indexes suggested an aged input of TBT, the high imposex levels detected in the current study suggest that international restrictions on TBT based antifouling paints were still not effective in Ecuador. Considering that the southern coast, especially nearby harbors inside the Gulf of Guayaquil, have shown to be contaminated by BTs, a combination of T. kiosquiformis and T. biserialis (the most sensitive species) can be used for future biomonitoring of Ecuador coastal areas.

  20. Carbon-Based Compounds and Exobiology (United States)

    Kerridge, John; DesMarais, David; Khanna, R. K.; Mancinelli, Rocco; McDonald, Gene; diBrozollo, Fillipo Radicati; Wdowiak, Tom


    The Committee for Planetary and Lunar Explorations (COMPLEX) posed questions related to exobiological exploration of Mars and the possibility of a population of carbonaceous materials in cometary nuclei to be addressed by future space missions. The scientific objectives for such missions are translated into a series of measurements and/or observations to be performed by Martian landers. These are: (1) A detailed mineralogical, chemical, and textural assessment of rock diversity at a landing site; (2) Chemical characterization of the materials at a local site; (3) Abundance of Hydrogen at any accessible sites; (4) Identification of specific minerals that would be diagnostic of aqueous processes; (5) Textual examination of lithologies thought to be formed by aqueous activity; (6) Search for minerals that might have been produced as a result of biological processes; (7) Mapping the distribution, in three dimensions, of the oxidant(s) identified on the Martian surface by the Viking mission; (8) Definition of the local chemical environment; (9) Determination of stable-isotopic ratios for the biogenic elements in surface mineral deposits; (10) Quantitative analysis of organic (non-carbonate) carbon; (11) Elemental and isotopic composition of bulk organic material; (12) Search for specific organic compounds that would yield information about synthetic mechanisms, in the case of prebiotic evolution, and about possible bio-markers, in the case of extinct or extant life; (13) and Coring, sampling, and detection of entrained gases and cosmic-ray induced reaction products at the polar ice cap. A discussion of measurements and/or observations required for cometary landers is included as well.