Zankl, A.; Scheffer, H.; Schinzel, A.
The ectodermal dysplasias (ED) are a large and complex group of diseases characterized by anomalies of the ectoderm and its derivates, often associated with malformations in other organs. We report a patient with an ectodermal dysplasia affecting hair, teeth, and nails and malformations of all four
Sofna DS Banjarnahor
Full Text Available Exploration of Mekongga national park resulted in novel finding of anticancer property from Tetrameles nudiflora. The investigation of toxic features of T. nudiflora is vital for further studies of its pharmacological activities. Acute toxicity test was done on methanolic extracts of T. nudiflora in DDY mice. Animal models were ordered into five groups. Group 1 was given 1 ml solution of 2.5% Tween 80 in a sole oral dose. The remaining groups were appointed a sole dose of 1, 2, 4 and 8 g/kg body weight T. nudiflora, respectively. Toxic effects of the extract were evaluated on the basis of behavioral observations in the form of locomotor activity; curiosity; defecation; urination and also animal mortality. Observations were carried out for 14 days. No significant changes in body weight and behavioral activities were recorded. Mortality was recorded up to 22% of the male group, and 11% of the female group. The T. nudiflora extracts tested for toxicity against brine shrimp had 50% lethal concentration (LC50 values of 46.67 μg/ml. It can be concluded that methanol extracts of T. nudiflora are potential to be explored as anticancer (LC50= 46.67 μg/ml. The extract is slightly toxic in male mice with Lethal Dose 50 (LD50 12.6 g/kg body weight, and practically nontoxic for female (LD50>15 g/kg body weight
Anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia; Christ-Siemens-Touraine syndrome; Anondontia; Incontinentia pigmenti ... These resources can provide more information on ectodermal dysplasias: Ectodermal Dysplasia Society -- www.ectodermaldysplasia.org National Foundation for ...
Full Text Available Hereditary hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia, also called the Christ-Siemens-Touraine Syndrome is characterized by congenital dysplasia of one or more ectodermal structures and is manifested by hypohidrosis, hypotrichosis and hypodontia. It is usually an X-linked recessive mendelian character which is rarely seen in males. It results from abnormal morphogenesis of cutaneous and oral embryonic ectoderm. Patients with this disorder exhibit smooth , thin and dry skin, fine and blond scanty hair. Intra-orally anodontia or hypodontia, with impaired development of alveolar process is seen. A case report of a rare case of this disorder in a female patient aged 18 years is hereby presented.
Full Text Available In humans, congenital and hereditary skin diseases associated with epidermal cell-cell separation (acantholysis are very rare, and spontaneous animal models of these diseases are exceptional. Our objectives are to report a novel congenital acantholytic dermatosis that developed in Chesapeake Bay retriever dogs. Nine affected puppies in four different litters were born to eight closely related clinically normal dogs. The disease transmission was consistent with an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. Clinical signs occurred immediately after birth with superficial epidermal layers sloughing upon pressure. At three month of age, dogs exhibited recurrent superficial skin sloughing and erosions at areas of friction and mucocutaneous junctions; their coat was also finer than normal and there were patches of partial hair loss. At birth, histopathology revealed severe suprabasal acantholysis, which became less severe with ageing. Electron microscopy demonstrated a reduced number of partially formed desmosomes with detached and aggregated keratin intermediate filaments. Immunostaining for desmosomal adhesion molecules revealed a complete lack of staining for plakophilin-1 and anomalies in the distribution of desmoplakin and keratins 10 and 14. Sequencing revealed a homozygous splice donor site mutation within the first intron of PKP1 resulting in a premature stop codon, thereby explaining the inability to detect plakophilin-1 in the skin. Altogether, the clinical and pathological findings, along with the PKP1 mutation, were consistent with the diagnosis of ectodermal dysplasia-skin fragility syndrome with plakophilin-1 deficiency. This is the first occurrence of ectodermal dysplasia-skin fragility syndrome in an animal species. Controlled mating of carrier dogs would yield puppies that could, in theory, be tested for gene therapy of this rare but severe skin disease of children.
Chee, Siew-Yin; Wanga, Chung-Hsing; Lina, Wei-De; Tsaia, Fuu-Jen
Ectodermal dysplasia (ED) syndrome comprises a large, heterogeneous group of inherited disorders that are defined by primary defects in the development of 2 or more tissues derived from the embryonic ectoderm. The tissues primarily involved are the skin and its appendages (including hair follicles, eccrine glands, sebaceous glands, nails) and teeth. The clinical features include sparse hair, abnormal or missing teeth, and an inability to sweat due to lack of sweat glands. One such case report of ectodermal dysplasia is presented here.
Hegde, Karthik; Kashyap, Roopashri Rajesh; Nair, Gopakumar; Nair, Preeti P
Ectodermal dysplasias include a various group of inherited disorders which share primary defect in the development of two or more tissues of embryonic ectodermal origin. Though there are many subtypes, ectodermal dysplasias are mainly hidrotic ectodermal dysplasia and hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia, among which the most common variety is X linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia. We report a rare case of X linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia occurring in a family with various skin, hair and oral abnormalities.
Callea, Michele; Vinciguerra, Agatino; Willoughby, Colin E; Deroma, Laura; Clarich, Gabriella
Ectodermal dysplasia is a rare disease which affects at least two ectodermal-derived structures such as hair, nails, skin, sweat glands and teeth. Approximately 200 different conditions have been classified as an ectodermal dysplasia and X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (XHED) represents the commonest form. Clinically, XHED is characterized by hypotrichosis, hypohidrosis and hypodontia. A variety of ocular manifestations have been reported in XHED, the most common being dryness of eyes due to tear deficiency and instability of the film secondary to the absence of meibomian gland function. Here we report a child with the distinctive clinical features of XHED confirmed with molecular diagnosis who presented with infantile bilateral glaucoma, in addition to the classical ocular involvement in XHED.
Ectodermal dysplasia is a hereditary disease characterized by dysplasia of tissues of ectodermal origin. The incidence of ectodermal dysplasia is rare (1 in 100,000 birth). This case report discusses the features, classification and prosthetic treatment plan (upper partial denture and lower complete denture for upper partial and lower complete edentulous arches respectively). This treatment plan would be able to provide psychological and functional boost to the sufferer. PMID:27678241
Wozniak, Rachel A F; Gonzalez, Mithra; Aquavella, James V
To describe the complex surgical management and novel medical approach for a keratoprosthesis (KPro Boston type I) in a monocular, 73-year-old patient with ectodermal dysplasia and chronic, noninfectious corneal necrosis. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was measured with Snellen letters. Surgical intervention included an amniotic membrane graft, complete replacement of the KPro, conjunctival flap graft, corneal donor tissue grafts combined with inferior rectus muscle advancement, periosteal tissue graft, tarso-conjunctival flap construction, and symblepharolysis. Infliximab was used as a medical adjunctive therapy. Initial KPro placement provided a BCVA of 20/25 and long-term stability. Subsequent chronic melting at the optic border necessitated numerous surgeries to prevent extrusion and failure. Ultimate fistulization was addressed with the formation of a surgical pocket. The addition of infliximab promoted ocular surface stability, and the patient has maintained a BCVA of 20/80. Ectodermal dysplasia can result in eyelid and corneal abnormalities, requiring a KPro for visual restoration. In the setting of chronic, sterile corneal melt, novel surgical approaches and the off-label use of infliximab allowed for visual rehabilitation.
Full Text Available This case series report outlines possible cranio-maxillofacial deformation consequences associated with ectodermal dysplasia (ED and embryonic malformations, including dental agenesis. Also described are the oral aspects and rehabilitation. A total of 14 ED patients (7 males and 7 females, aged 5-45 years underwent clinical examination before assessment and treatment. Lateral cephalometric radiography, Steiner's analysis, and respiratory capacity tests were performed. Most of the patients had sparse or absent hair, a short face with an unusual facial concavity, a maxillary retrusion, and a relative mandible protrusion. Depending on age and orthopedic abnormalities, patients were treated with prosthodontic and orthodontic approaches or implant treatment. Therapists should take a comprehensive and multidisciplinary approach with these patients to improve their dental, masticatory, growth, and orthognathic conditions, as well as esthetic appearance.
Puttaraju, Gurkar Haraswarupa; Visveswariah, Paranjyothi Magadi
Hereditary hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) is typically inherited as an X-linked recessive trait, characterized by deformity of at least two or more of the ectodermal structures - hair, teeth, nails and sweat glands. Two cases of hereditary HED involving identical male twins, is being documented for the rarity of its occurrence with special attention given to genetics, pathophysiology, clinical, intraoral manifestations and to the methods to improve the masticatory function, the facia...
Barman, Debasis; Mandal, Satadal; Nandi, Santanu; Banerjee, Pranabashish; Rashid, M A
Ectodermal dysplasia is a complex group of familial disorders with numerous clinical characteristics, with an incidence of 7 in 10000 born alive children. Ectodermal dysplasia affects structures of ectodermal origin like the skin and its appendages as well as other non-ectodermal structures. The most common sites of involvement are the defects in the skin, hair, teeth, nails and sweat glands,which are of ectodermal origin. Though the dermatologists and paediatricians often manage such cases, we report one case of ectodermal dysplasia presenting with atrophic rhinitis.
Deshmukh, Seema; Prashanth, S
Ectodermal dysplasia is a rare hereditary disorder with a characteristic physiognomy. It is a genetic disorder affecting the development or function of the teeth, hair, nails and sweat glands. Depending on the particular syndrome ectodermal dysplasia can also affect the skin, the lens or retina of the eye, parts of the inner ear, the development of fingers and toes, the nerves and other parts of the body. Each syndrome usually involves a different combination of symptoms, which can range from mild to severe. The history and lessons learned from hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) may serve as an example for unraveling of the cause and pathogenesis of other ectodermal dysplasia syndromes by demonstrating that phenotypically identical syndromes can be caused by mutations in different genes (EDA, EDAR, EDARADD), that mutations in the same gene can lead to different phenotypes and that mutations in the genes further downstream in the same signaling pathway (NEMO) may modify the phenotype quite profoundly. The aim of this paper is to describe and discuss the etiology, genetic review, clinical manifestations and treatment options of this hereditary disorder. How to cite this article: Deshmukh S, Prashanth S. Ectodermal Dysplasia: A Genetic Review. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2012; 5(3):197-202.
The ectodermal dysplasias (EDs) are a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by a deficiency of ectoderm- and mesoderm-derived tissues and appendages, particularly hair, skin, teeth, and nails. Many of these disorders are associated with a greater risk of respiratory disease than found in the general population. There are no published papers that comprehensively describe these findings and the possible etiologies. Patients have been reported with dramatic decrease in mucous glands in the respiratory tract. Anatomic defects, including cleft palate, that predispose to respiratory infection, are associated with several of the ED syndromes. Atopy and immune deficiencies have been shown to have a higher prevalence in ED syndromes. Clinicians who care for patients affected by ED syndromes should be aware of the potential respiratory complications, and consider evaluation for structural anomalies, atopy and immunodeficiency in individuals with recurrent or chronic respiratory symptoms. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Gurkar Haraswarupa Puttaraju
Full Text Available Hereditary hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED is typically inherited as an X-linked recessive trait, characterized by deformity of at least two or more of the ectodermal structures - hair, teeth, nails and sweat glands. Two cases of hereditary HED involving identical male twins, is being documented for the rarity of its occurrence with special attention given to genetics, pathophysiology, clinical, intraoral manifestations and to the methods to improve the masticatory function, the facial esthetics and psychology of patients affected by this disease.
Koul, Monika; Dwivedi, Rahul; Upadhyay, Vinod
Ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia- clefting syndrome (also k/a. split hand- split foot malformation /split hand-split foot ectodermal dysplasia- cleft syndrome/ectodermal dysplasia cleft lip/cleft palate syndrome) a rare form of ectodermal dysplasia, is an autosomal dominant disorder inherited as a genetic trait and characterized by a triad of (i) ectrodactyly, (ii) ectodermal dysplasia and, (iii) & facial clefts.
Koul, Monika; Dwivedi, Rahul; Upadhyay, Vinod
Ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia- clefting syndrome (also k/a. split hand- split foot malformation /split hand-split foot ectodermal dysplasia- cleft syndrome/ectodermal dysplasia cleft lip/cleft palate syndrome) a rare form of ectodermal dysplasia, is an autosomal dominant disorder inherited as a genetic trait and characterized by a triad of (i) ectrodactyly, (ii) ectodermal dysplasia and, (iii) & facial clefts.
Nakayama, Yumiko; Baba, Yoshiyuki; Tsuji, Michiko; Fukuoka, Hiroki; Ogawa, Takuya; Ohkuma, Mizue; Moriyama, Keiji
The aim of this retrospective hospital-based study was to elucidate the dentomaxillofacial characteristics of ectodermal dysplasia. Six Japanese individuals (one male and five female; age range, 12.7-27.2 years) underwent comprehensive examinations, including history recording, cephalometric analysis, panoramic radiography, and analysis of dental models. All the subjects had two or more major manifestations for clinical diagnosis of ectodermal dysplasia (e.g., defects of hair, teeth, nails, and sweat glands). They presented hypodontia (mean number of missing teeth, 9.5; range, 5-14), especially in the premolar region, and enamel dysplasia. Five subjects had bilateral molar occlusion, whereas one subject had unilateral molar occlusion. The common skeletal features were small facial height, maxillary hypoplasia, counterclockwise rotation of the mandible, and mandibular protrusion. Interestingly, the maxillary first molars were located in higher positions and the upper anterior facial height was smaller than the Japanese norm. The results suggest that vertical and anteroposterior maxillary growth retardation, rather than lack of occlusal support due to hypodontia, leads to reduced anterior facial height in individuals with ectodermal dysplasia. © 2014 Japanese Teratology Society.
Full Text Available We report a case of a lower lid ectropion with ectodermal dysplasia and ectropion blepharoplasty surgery experience. A 14-year-old Han nationality male patient with typical characteristics of hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia presented to our clinic for his right lower lid eversion. The patient was diagnosed as having hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia and underwent an uneventful blepharoplasty surgery. The lower lid maintained normal position during the 10-month follow-up period. Patients with ectodermal dysplasia could firstly visit ophthalmologist for their ectropion and blepharoplasty surgery could be useful for the disease.
Full Text Available Ectodermal dysplasias are a large hereditary group of disorders which are usually manifested as X-linked recessive disorders and have a full expression in males, whereas females show little to no signs of the disorder. The two most common types of ectodermal dysplasias are hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (Christ-Siemens-Touraine syndrome and hidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (Clouston syndrome. Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia is characterized by hypodontia, hypotrichosis, and hypohidrosis. Here, we present two female sibling cases of hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia.
Yildirim, Muzeyyen; Yorgancilar, Ediz; Gun, Ramazan; Topcu, Ismail
The aim of this prospective study was to improve the quality of life of and reduce morbidity for patients with ectodermal dysplasia by assessing their actual and potential ENT pathologies, and offering methods of prevention and treatment. The study was conducted between 2006 and 2008 and included 23 patients diagnosed with ectodermal dysplasia. The major symptoms of ectodermal dysplasia were evaluated. Patient histories were obtained in all cases, and a complete head and neck examination was carried out. Of the 23 patients (11 males and 12 females, aged 5 to 45 years) diagnosed with ectodermal dysplasia, 22 had hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia and 1 had ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-clefting syndrome. In all patients diagnosed with hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia, the salivary glands were examined by ultrasonography and, when necessary, by scintigraphy. Hearing defects in patients with otologic problems were determined by audiometric examination: 39.1% of the patients had hearing loss, 43.5% had otitis media, and 39.1% had impacted cerumen. The most common rhinologic findings were saddle nose deformity in 56.5%, nasal obstruction and nasal dryness (52.2% each), and chronic rhinitis/rhinosinusitis (34.8%). The most common oral and oropharyngeal findings were difficulty chewing in 82.6% and dry mouth in 78.3%. All 23 patients had required dental work. Because this disorder affects several aspects of the body, its treatment requires a multidisciplinary approach, with the otolaryngologist being a vital part of the management team.
Full Text Available Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia is a rare congenital disease that affects several ectodermal structures. The condition is usually transmitted as an x-linked recessive trait, in which gene is carried by the females and manifested in males. Manifestations of the disease differ in severity and involve teeth, skin, hair, nails and sweat and sebaceous gland. Ectodermal dysplasia is usually a difficult condition to manage. Prosthodontically, because of the typical oral deficiencies, and afflicted individuals are quite young to receive extensive prosthodontic treatment, which restores their appearance and helps them, for the development of positive self-image. This case report describes the management of upper jaw with over denture with copings on existing teeth i.e. two permanent peg shaped centrals as well as lateral incisors. However with adequate of retainer lower denture was provided with a new treatment modality.
Ayça Alan Atalay
Full Text Available Ectodermal dysplasia-skin fragility syndrome (EDSFS is a rare autosomal recessive genodermatosis first described in 1997 by Mc Grath. EDSFS results from loss of function mutations in plakophilin-1 (PKP1. PKP1 is a structural component of desmosomes, cellcell adhesion complexes. It is also found as a nuclear protein in several cell types that are lack of desmosomes. In skin, however, PKP1 expression is confined mainly to suprabasal keratinocytes and the outer root sheath of hair follicules. Loss of function mutation in PKP1 leads to extensive skin fragility, bullae and erosions following minor trauma, focal keratoderma with painful fissures, alopecia, and nail dystrophy. In some patients hypohidrosis may also be seen. EDSFS is now considered as a specific suprabasal form of epidermolysis bullosa simplex. In this report we describe a 20 year old EDSFS case.
Volpato, Luiz Evaristo Ricci; Volpato, Maria Carmen Palma Faria; de Carvalhosa, Artur Aburad; Palma, Vinicius Canavarros; Borges, Alvaro Henrique
Ectodermal dysplasia and sickle cell anaemia are inherited disorders that affect, respectively, the tissues derived from the embryonic ectoderm and the production of erythrocytes by the bone marrow. The simultaneous occurrence of both disorders is extremely rare. This is a case of both ectodermal dysplasia and sickle cell anaemia reported in a 6-year-old. The patient had been diagnosed with sickle cell anaemia for only six months when he sought treatment presenting with the following: hypotrichosis, dry skin, periocular hyperpigmentation, protruding lips, hypodontia, and morphologically altered teeth. The clinical features combined with his medical history led to the diagnosis of ectodermal dysplasia. Dentists should be prepared to recognise patterns that escape normality to aid in the diagnosis of systemic changes, even in patients with other previous diagnoses.
Luiz Evaristo Ricci Volpato
Full Text Available Ectodermal dysplasia and sickle cell anaemia are inherited disorders that affect, respectively, the tissues derived from the embryonic ectoderm and the production of erythrocytes by the bone marrow. The simultaneous occurrence of both disorders is extremely rare. This is a case of both ectodermal dysplasia and sickle cell anaemia reported in a 6-year-old. The patient had been diagnosed with sickle cell anaemia for only six months when he sought treatment presenting with the following: hypotrichosis, dry skin, periocular hyperpigmentation, protruding lips, hypodontia, and morphologically altered teeth. The clinical features combined with his medical history led to the diagnosis of ectodermal dysplasia. Dentists should be prepared to recognise patterns that escape normality to aid in the diagnosis of systemic changes, even in patients with other previous diagnoses.
Full Text Available Anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia with classical features in 2 sisters is reported. The mode of inheritance in these seems to be autosomal recessive; which is a very rare occurrence.
Podzus, J; Kowalczyk-Quintas, C; Schuepbach-Mallepell, S; Willen, L; Staehlin, G; Vigolo, M; Tardivel, A; Headon, D; Kirby, N; Mikkola, M L; Schneider, H; Schneider, P
The tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family ligand ectodysplasin A (EDA) is produced as 2 full-length splice variants, EDA1 and EDA2, that bind to EDA receptor (EDAR) and X-linked EDA receptor (XEDAR/EDA2R), respectively. Inactivating mutations in Eda or Edar cause hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED), a condition characterized by malformations of the teeth, hair and glands, with milder deficiencies affecting only the teeth. EDA acts early during the development of ectodermal appendages-as early as the embryonic placode stage-and plays a role in adult appendage function. In this study, the authors measured EDA in serum, saliva and dried blood spots. The authors detected 3- to 4-fold higher levels of circulating EDA in cord blood than in adult sera. A receptor binding-competent form of EDA1 was the main form of EDA but a minor fraction of EDA2 was also found in fetal bovine serum. Sera of EDA-deficient patients contained either background EDA levels or low levels of EDA that could not bind to recombinant EDAR. The serum of a patient with a V262F missense mutation in Eda, which caused a milder form of X-linked HED (XLHED), contained low levels of EDA capable of binding to EDAR. In 2 mildly affected carriers, intermediate levels of EDA were detected, whereas a severely affected carrier had no active EDA in the serum. Small amounts of EDA were also detectable in normal adult saliva. Finally, EDA could be measured in spots of wild-type adult or cord blood dried onto filter paper at levels significantly higher than that measured in EDA-deficient blood. Measurement of EDA levels combined with receptor-binding assays might be of relevance to aid in the diagnosis of total or partial EDA deficiencies.
Shamseldin, Hanan E.; Khalifa, Ola; Binamer, Yousef M.; Almutawa, Abdulmonem; Arold, Stefan T.; Zaidan, Hamad; Alkuraya, Fowzan S.
Ectodermal dysplasia is a highly heterogeneous group of disorders that variably affect the derivatives of the ectoderm, primarily skin, hair, nails and teeth. TP63, itself mutated in ectodermal dysplasia, links many other ectodermal dysplasia
... Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions APECED Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy Printable PDF Open All Close All ... view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy ( APECED ) is an inherited condition that ...
Kowalczyk-Quintas, Christine; Willen, Laure; Dang, Anh Thu; Sarrasin, Heidi; Tardivel, Aubry; Hermes, Katharina; Schneider, Holm; Gaide, Olivier; Donzé, Olivier; Kirby, Neil; Headon, Denis J; Schneider, Pascal
Development of ectodermal appendages, such as hair, teeth, sweat glands, sebaceous glands, and mammary glands, requires the action of the TNF family ligand ectodysplasin A (EDA). Mutations of the X-linked EDA gene cause reduction or absence of many ectodermal appendages and have been identified as a cause of ectodermal dysplasia in humans, mice, dogs, and cattle. We have generated blocking antibodies, raised in Eda-deficient mice, against the conserved, receptor-binding domain of EDA. These antibodies recognize epitopes overlapping the receptor-binding site and prevent EDA from binding and activating EDAR at close to stoichiometric ratios in in vitro binding and activity assays. The antibodies block EDA1 and EDA2 of both mammalian and avian origin and, in vivo, suppress the ability of recombinant Fc-EDA1 to rescue ectodermal dysplasia in Eda-deficient Tabby mice. Moreover, administration of EDA blocking antibodies to pregnant wild type mice induced in developing wild type fetuses a marked and permanent ectodermal dysplasia. These function-blocking anti-EDA antibodies with wide cross-species reactivity will enable study of the developmental and postdevelopmental roles of EDA in a variety of organisms and open the route to therapeutic intervention in conditions in which EDA may be implicated.
Kowalczyk-Quintas, Christine; Willen, Laure; Dang, Anh Thu; Sarrasin, Heidi; Tardivel, Aubry; Hermes, Katharina; Schneider, Holm; Gaide, Olivier; Donzé, Olivier; Kirby, Neil; Headon, Denis J.; Schneider, Pascal
Development of ectodermal appendages, such as hair, teeth, sweat glands, sebaceous glands, and mammary glands, requires the action of the TNF family ligand ectodysplasin A (EDA). Mutations of the X-linked EDA gene cause reduction or absence of many ectodermal appendages and have been identified as a cause of ectodermal dysplasia in humans, mice, dogs, and cattle. We have generated blocking antibodies, raised in Eda-deficient mice, against the conserved, receptor-binding domain of EDA. These antibodies recognize epitopes overlapping the receptor-binding site and prevent EDA from binding and activating EDAR at close to stoichiometric ratios in in vitro binding and activity assays. The antibodies block EDA1 and EDA2 of both mammalian and avian origin and, in vivo, suppress the ability of recombinant Fc-EDA1 to rescue ectodermal dysplasia in Eda-deficient Tabby mice. Moreover, administration of EDA blocking antibodies to pregnant wild type mice induced in developing wild type fetuses a marked and permanent ectodermal dysplasia. These function-blocking anti-EDA antibodies with wide cross-species reactivity will enable study of the developmental and postdevelopmental roles of EDA in a variety of organisms and open the route to therapeutic intervention in conditions in which EDA may be implicated. PMID:24391090
Mortensen, Amanda H.; Schade, Vanessa; Lamonerie, Thomas; Camper, Sally A.
OTX2 is a homeodomain transcription factor that is necessary for normal head development in mouse and man. Heterozygosity for loss-of-function alleles causes an incompletely penetrant, haploinsufficiency disorder. Affected individuals exhibit a spectrum of features that range from developmental defects in eye and/or pituitary development to acephaly. To investigate the mechanism underlying the pituitary defects, we used different cre lines to inactivate Otx2 in early head development and in the prospective anterior and posterior lobes. Mice homozygous for Otx2 deficiency in early head development and pituitary oral ectoderm exhibit craniofacial defects and pituitary gland dysmorphology, but normal pituitary cell specification. The morphological defects mimic those observed in humans and mice with OTX2 heterozygous mutations. Mice homozygous for Otx2 deficiency in the pituitary neural ectoderm exhibited altered patterning of gene expression and ablation of FGF signaling. The posterior pituitary lobe and stalk, which normally arise from neural ectoderm, were extremely hypoplastic. Otx2 expression was intact in Rathke's pouch, the precursor to the anterior lobe, but the anterior lobe was hypoplastic. The lack of FGF signaling from the neural ectoderm was sufficient to impair anterior lobe growth, but not the differentiation of hormone-producing cells. This study demonstrates that Otx2 expression in the neural ectoderm is important intrinsically for the development of the posterior lobe and pituitary stalk, and it has significant extrinsic effects on anterior pituitary growth. Otx2 expression early in head development is important for establishing normal craniofacial features including development of the brain, eyes and pituitary gland. PMID:25315894
Full Text Available Ectodermal dysplasia is characterized by the absence or defects of two or more ectodermally derived structures. Anodontia or hypodontia is the most striking dental manifestation. In severe hypodontia, there is lack of alveolar development with consequent protrusion and eversion of the lips. Patients with anhidrotic forms suffer from heat intolerance due to lack of sweat glands and mild infections may lead to death in infancy from hyperthermia. A case of a 4-year-old child with anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia with partial anodontia is presented. Dental, oral, and physical features were taken into consideration in diagnosis and treatment planning for this patient. Clinical management consisted of removable partial prosthesis in maxillary arch and complete denture prosthesis in mandibular arch. The main aim of the treatment was to improve psychological development and to promote better functioning of the stomatognathic system.
Schneider, Holm; Faschingbauer, Florian; Schuepbach-Mallepell, Sonia; Körber, Iris; Wohlfart, Sigrun; Dick, Angela; Wahlbuhl, Mandy; Kowalczyk-Quintas, Christine; Vigolo, Michele; Kirby, Neil; Tannert, Corinna; Rompel, Oliver; Rascher, Wolfgang; Beckmann, Matthias W; Schneider, Pascal
Genetic deficiency of ectodysplasin A (EDA) causes X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (XLHED), in which the development of sweat glands is irreversibly impaired, an condition that can lead to life-threatening hyperthermia. We observed normal development of mouse fetuses with Eda mutations after they had been exposed in utero to a recombinant protein that includes the receptor-binding domain of EDA. We administered this protein intraamniotically to two affected human twins at gestational weeks 26 and 31 and to a single affected human fetus at gestational week 26; the infants, born in week 33 (twins) and week 39 (singleton), were able to sweat normally, and XLHED-related illness had not developed by 14 to 22 months of age. (Funded by Edimer Pharmaceuticals and others.).
Mahajan Vikram K
Full Text Available The ectodermal dysplasias are congenital, non-progressive and diffuse disorders affecting primarily the tissues derived from ectoderm. Over a period, their classification has become confusing due to indiscriminate use of them â€ectodermal dysplasiaâ€ for numerous syndromes with a defect in one or more epidermal defect in each element of skin; their precise classification appears difficult as yet. Only X-linked recessive ectodermal dysplasia (Christ-Siemens-Touraine syndrome remains best defined. This paper describes three cases of ectodermal dysplasias highlighting their overlapping features.
Vasconcelos Carvalho, Marianne; Romero Souto de Sousa, José; Paiva Correa de Melo, Filipe; Fonseca Faro, Tatiane; Nunes Santos, Ana Clara; Carvalho, Silvia; Veras Sobral, Ana Paula
Ectodermal dysplasias are a large group of syndromes characterized by anomalies in the structures of ectodermal origin. There are 2 major types of this disorder, based on clinical findings: hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia and hidrotic ectodermal dysplasia. This clinical classification is very important because clinical professionals involved with this disease need first a clear and practical method of diagnosis. The main oral manifestation of ectodermal dysplasia may be expressed as hypodontia. Thus, dental professionals may be the first to diagnose ectodermal dysplasia. The present article reports one case of each of the main types (hypohidrotic and hidrotic) of ectodermal dysplasia and the authors review the literature regarding the pathogenesis, clinical features, and therapeutic management of this condition.
Jungersted, J. M.; Høgh, Julie Kaae; Hellgren, Lars
Background. Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) is a rare genetic disease. The clinical presentation includes lack of sweating ability, and an often widely spread dermatitis resembling atopic dermatitis (AD). In AD, the skin‐barrier defect is partly ascribed to the altered lipid profile...
Callea, Michele; Cammarata-Scalisi, Francisco; Willoughby, Colin E; Giglio, Sabrina R; Sani, Ilaria; Bargiacchi, Sara; Traficante, Giovanna; Bellacchio, Emanuele; Tadini, Gianluca; Yavuz, Izzet; Galeotti, Angela; Clarich, Gabriella
Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) is a rare disease characterized by deficiency in development of structure derived from the ectoderm and is caused by mutations in the genes EDA, EDAR, or EDARADD. Phenotypes caused by mutations in these three may exhibit similar clinical features, explained by a common signaling pathway. Mutations in EDA gene cause X linked HED, which is the most common form. Mutations in EDAR and EDARADD genes cause autosomal dominant and recessive form of HED. The most striking clinical findings in HED are hypodontia, hypotrichosis and hypohidrosis that can lead to episodes of hyperthermia. We report on clinical findings in a child with HED with autosomal dominant inheritance pattern with a heterozygous mutation c.1072C>T (p.Arg358X) in the EDAR gene. A review of the literature with regard to other cases presenting the same mutation has been carried out and discussed. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.
Paramkusam, Geetha; Meduri, Venkateswarlu; Nadendla, Lakshmi Kavitha; Shetty, Namratha
Hereditary Hypohidrotic Ectodermal Dysplasia (HHED), an X-linked, recessive, Mendelian character, is seen usually in males and it is inherited through female carriers. It is characterised by congenital dysplasia of one or more ectodermal structures and it is manifested by hypohidrosis, hypotrichosis and hypodontia. It results from abnormal morphogenesis of cutaneous and oral embryonic ectoderm. Here, we are presenting a rare case of HHED in a 19 year female with classic features of this condition.
Full Text Available The ectodermal dysplasias (EDs are a large and complex group of diseases. More than 170 different clinical conditions have been recognized and defined as ectodermal dysplasias. Commonly involved ectodermal-derived structures are hair, teeth, nails, and sweat glands. In some conditions, it may be associated with mental retardation. We report a case of 10-year-old male child with ectrodactyly, syndactyly, ED, cleft lip/palate, hearing loss, and mental retardation.
Ectodermal dysplasia is a rare congenital disease that affects the ectodermal structures. It is characterized by hypotrichosis, hypohidrosis and hypodontia. A 14-year-old boy with ectodermal dysplasia presenting with oligodontia and marked resorption of the maxillary and mandibular alveolar ridges is reported. Prosthetic rehabilitation in the form of a maxillary and mandibular partial denture was made with metal crowns on existing lower teeth to achieve appropriate vertical dimension. Significant improvement in speech, masticatory function and facial esthetics was achieved. Removable prosthodontics can provide an acceptable solution to esthetic, functional and psychological rehabilitation in patients with ectodermal dysplasia.
Cascallana, Jose Luis; Bravo, Ana; Donet, Eva; Leis, Hugo; Lara, Maria Fernanda; Paramio, Jesús M; Jorcano, José L; Pérez, Paloma
Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia is a human syndrome defined by maldevelopment of one or more ectodermal-derived tissues, including the epidermis and cutaneous appendices, teeth, and exocrine glands. The molecular bases of this pathology converge in a dysfunction of the transcription factor nuclear factor of the kappa-enhancer in B cells (NF-kappaB), which is essential to epithelial homeostasis and development. A number of mouse models bearing disruptions in NF-kappaB signaling have been reported to manifest defects in ectodermal derivatives. In ectoderm-targeted transgenic mice overexpressing the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) [keratin 5 (K5)-GR mice], the NF-kappaB activity is greatly decreased due to functional antagonism between GR and NF-kappaB. Here, we report that K5-GR mice exhibit multiple epithelial defects in hair follicle, tooth, and palate development. Additionally, these mice lack Meibomian glands and display underdeveloped sweat and preputial glands. These phenotypic features appear to be mediated specifically by ligand-activated GR because the synthetic analog dexamethasone induced similar defects in epithelial morphogenesis, including odontogenesis, in wild-type mice. We have focused on tooth development in K5-GR mice and found that an inhibitor of steroid synthesis partially reversed the abnormal phenotype. Immunostaining revealed reduced expression of the inhibitor of kappaB kinase subunits, IKKalpha and IKKgamma, and diminished p65 protein levels in K5-GR embryonic tooth, resulting in a significantly reduced kappaB-binding activity. Remarkably, altered NF-kappaB activity elicited by GR overexpression correlated with a dramatic decrease in the protein levels of DeltaNp63 in tooth epithelia without affecting Akt, BMP4, or Foxo3a. Given that many of the 170 clinically distinct ectodermal dysplasia syndromes still remain without cognate genes, deciphering the molecular mechanisms of this mouse model with epithelial NF-kappaB and p63 dysfunction may
Kennedy, David P; Chandler, John W; McCulley, James P
To present the ocular manifestation of 2 cases of ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-cleft syndrome, a multiple congenital anomaly syndrome caused by a single point mutation of the p63 gene that controls epidermal development and homeostasis and to present treatment options. Patient 1 presented with mild signs and symptoms of dry eye and limbal stem cell deficiency with retention of 20/30 vision. Patient 2 presented with severe signs and symptoms of limbal stem cell deficiency with diffuse corneal scarring and counting fingers vision. This second patient's course was complicated by allergic conjunctivitis and advanced steroid-induced glaucoma. The cause of visual loss in ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-cleft syndrome appears to be multifactorial and likely includes inflammation of the ocular surface, tear film abnormalities, eyelid abnormalities, and limbal stem cell deficiency. Treatment modalities including lubrication, contact lenses, and limbal stem cell transplantation are reviewed. The ophthalmic conditions seen in ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-cleft syndrome frequently lead to vision loss. Early correct diagnosis and appropriate therapy are paramount because p63 gene mutations have a critical role in maintaining the integrity of the ocular surface in the setting of limbal stem cell deficiency, especially if there are other ocular surface insults such as lid disease, meibomian gland dysfunction and toxicity from topical medications. Patients should be monitored at regular, frequent intervals; and particular attention should be taken to avoid adverse secondary effects of these conditions and medications. Copyright © 2015 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
... A characteristic of X-linked inheritance is that fathers cannot pass X-linked traits to their sons. When EDA-ID is caused by mutations in the NFKBIA gene, the condition is inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern , which means one copy of the altered ...
Grogg, Jane Ann; Port, Nicholas; Graham, Trevor
This article aims to report a case of known ectrodactyly ectodermal dysplasia in a young male patient who subsequently was found to have a retinal tear and localized retinal detachment. This is a case report of a 22-year-old white male patient with a history of ectrodactyly ectodermal dysplasia. Our patient initially presented with an acute exacerbation of bilateral, red, irritated eyes. No recent changes in vision were reported. The patient's ocular surface disease was consistent with ectrodermal dysplasia syndrome. However, a dilated fundus examination revealed an asymptomatic retinal tear with a surrounding localized retinal detachment. In this case, the patient presented with longstanding ocular surface disease known to be associated with this patient's inherited ectoderm disorder. In addition, this patient revealed a retinal tear, raising the possibility that patients with inherited congenital ectodermal dysplasia could be at risk for damaged structures originating from the neural ectoderm. In this heterogeneous disease, we are contributing to the existing literature a case of ectodermal dysplasia syndrome with obvious ectodermal complications that also had retinal findings leading us to speculate question if neural ectoderm could also be involved in this inherited disease.
Joseph, Suja; Cherackal, George J; Jacob, Jose; Varghese, Alex K
Key Clinical Message Hypohydrotic ectodermal dysplasia is a hereditary disorder, which affects ectodermal derivatives. It manifests several abnormalities of the teeth, and is commonly inherited through female carriers. This case report presents a patient with compromised esthetics and function. A multidisciplinary approach was planned involving an oral pathologist, endodontist, orthodontist and a prosthodontist. PMID:25984305
Bildik, Tezan; Ozbaran, Burcu; Kose, Sezen; Koturoglu, Guldane; Gokce, Bulent; Gunaydin, Asli; Altintas, Inci
Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED; Christ-Siemens-Touraine syndrome) is a genetic disorder characterized by sparse hair, oligodontia with peg-shaped teeth, reduced sweating, and defects in a number of other ectodermal organs. A partial or complete absence of eccrine glands can lead to recurrent severe overheating that may cause seizures and neurological deficits. This clinical report presents a 14-year-old male patient with hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia, including the clinical and radiographic findings, and multidisciplinary treatment. The Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Aged Children-Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL) was administered to patient along with mother to assess for any psychiatric disorders. The screening and rating scales completed by mother and two teachers to evaluate the severity of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, and other behavioral problems. Patient's academic performance, adaptive functioning, and problem behavior was evaluated using. The Teacher Report Form. Mental capacity was assessed with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-R). Illness Perception Questionnaire Revised was used to systematically assess illness representation attributes and emotional representations of illness. On the psychiatric diagnosis assessment using K-SADS-PL sub-threshold attention deficits and anxiety symptoms were determined. In this case we established a multidisciplinary approach in his treatment with pediatric, dermatological, and dental examinations, beside his psychiatric evaluation. The prosthetic rehabilitation included restoring upper teeth with copings and fabrication of upper and lower complete dentures. Metal framework was not incorporated in the partial denture design allowing modifications as the oral and maxillofacial development continued. Removable complete or partial dentures without metal framework is a treatment of choice until the completion of facial growth at
Whaley, Katie; Winter, Jordan; Eyster, Kathleen M; Hansen, Keith A
To describe the association of müllerian agenesis with hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia. Case report. University medical center. A 17-year-old woman with hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia referred for evaluation of primary amenorrhea. History, physical examination, and ultrasound. Physical findings of these two syndromes. Physical examination and ultrasound demonstrated müllerian agenesis with findings of hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia. This is the first description of the association of müllerian agenesis with ectodermal dysplasia. This rare case might provide further insight into the development of the uterus and the ectoderm as well as its derivatives. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bani, Mehmet; Tezkirecioglu, Ali Melih; Akal, Nese; Tuzuner, Tamer
Ectodermal dysplasia is a hereditary disorder that occurs as a consequence of disturbances in the ectoderm of the developing embryo. The triad of nail dystrophy, alopecia or hypotrichosis and palmoplantar hyperkeratosis is usually accompanied by a lack of sweat glands and a partial or complete absence of primary and/or permanent dentition. Two case reports illustrating the prosthetic rehabilitation of 2 young boys with anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia associated with severe anodontia are presented. Since the oral rehabilitation of these cases is often difficult; particularly in pediatric patients, treatment should be administered by a multidisciplinary team involving pediatric dentistry, orthodontics, prosthodontics and oral-maxillofacial surgery. PMID:20396456
Reema Sharma Dhar
Full Text Available Ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-cleft (EEC syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by the triad of ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia, and facial clefting along with some associated features. Presence of all the three major features in a single individual is extremely rare. We report a case of 4 year 11 months old child with EEC syndrome having ectodermal dysplasia-cleft lip and cleft palate and ectrodactyly with some associated features. Clinical features, diagnosis and role of a dentist in the multidisciplinary treatment approach have been elaborated in this case report.
Dhar, Reema Sharma; Bora, Amitava
Ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-cleft (EEC) syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by the triad of ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia, and facial clefting along with some associated features. Presence of all the three major features in a single individual is extremely rare. We report a case of 4 year 11 months old child with EEC syndrome having ectodermal dysplasia-cleft lip and cleft palate and ectrodactyly with some associated features. Clinical features, diagnosis and role of a dentist in the multidisciplinary treatment approach have been elaborated in this case report.
Halai, Tina; Stevens, Claire
The term ectodermal dysplasia (ED) is used to describe a group of rare congenital disorders characterized by abnormalities of two or more ectodermal structures such as the skin, hair, nails, teeth and sweat glands. This paper will give an overview of the aetiology of ED and describe the manifestations and dental management of this condition. In particular, the important role of the dental practitioner in the identification and management of patients with ED will be highlighted. CPD/Clinical Relevance: Dental practitioners should be aware of the oral features of ectodermal dysplasia and be able to make timely referrals and provide appropriate continuing care for these patients.
Full Text Available Ectodermal dysplasia is a hereditary disorder associated with abnormal development of embryonic ectodermally-derived organs including teeth, nails, hair and sweat glands. Hypodontia of the primary and permanent dentition is the most common oral finding. Therefore, affected patients need dental prosthetic treatments during their developmental years. This report presents two cases of children affected by ectodermal dysplasia with anodontia. Oral rehabilitation was accomplished with removable acrylic prostheses. Treatment had major impacts on self-esteem, masticatory function, speech and facial esthetic.
Vijay S Adhe
Full Text Available Ectodermal dysplasia-skin fragility (EDSF syndrome is a rare and first described inherited disorder of desmosomes. It occurs due to loss-of-function mutations in PKP1 gene resulting in poorly formed desmosomes and loss of desmosomal and epidermal integrity. We report a case of a 2-year-old Indian male child who presented with palmoplantar hyperkeratosis with fissuring, short, sparse, and easily pluckable scalp hair, nail dystrophy, and multiple erosions over the skin. Skin biopsy showed epidermal hyperplasia with widening of intercellular spaces. His developmental milestones were delayed but intelligence was normal. Echocardiography, X-ray chest, and electrocardiogram were normal. Very few cases of this syndrome have been reported in the literature. We consider this as the first case report from India.
Lexner, Michala O; Bardow, Allan; Hertz, Jens Michael
OBJECTIVE: The X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) is the most common type of ectodermal dysplasia. The clinical identification of possible heterozygous females can be difficult because of the varying degrees of clinical signs caused by X-chromosome inactivation. This study is the fi......OBJECTIVE: The X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) is the most common type of ectodermal dysplasia. The clinical identification of possible heterozygous females can be difficult because of the varying degrees of clinical signs caused by X-chromosome inactivation. This study...... affected males had multiple missing permanent teeth and tooth malformations. The heterozygous females had a significantly higher frequency of agenesis of permanent teeth compared to normative data. The heterozygous females had an increased prevalence of tooth malformations and reduced tooth size...
Ogden, Emily; Schandl, Cynthia; Tormos, Lee Marie
Ectodermal dysplasia comprises a group of disorders affecting ectodermal tissues. Severity depends on the genetic aberration; hyperpyrexia secondary to absence of sweat glands is a common complication. Treatment is supportive. This case report describes a 1-month, 27-day-old male infant with a diagnosis of X-linked recessive anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia. On the day of his death, his mother swaddled him in a blanket and placed him on the couch at 5:30 am. When she picked him up at 8:00 am, he was unresponsive. At the emergency department, his rectal temperature was 40°C. Postmortem blood culture was positive for group B streptococcus, a possible etiology for fever. It is vital to teach parents that close monitoring of children with ectodermal dysplasia is necessary, as an increase in body temperature can become life threatening. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
Full Text Available A patient with anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia and palmo-plantar keratoderma is presented. Palmo-planta keratoderma is an unusual association with this disease. Atopic dermatitis was another associated condition in this patient.
Kurban, Mazen; Zeineddine, Savo Bou; Hamie, Lamiaa; Safi, Remi; Abbas, Ossama; Kibbi, Abdul Ghani; Bitar, Fadi; Nemer, Georges
Cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome (CFC), Noonan syndrome (NS), and Costello syndrome are a group of diseases that belong to the RASopathies. The syndromes share clinical features making diagnosis a challenge. To investigate the phenotype and genotype of a 10-year-old Iraqi girl with overlapping features of CFC, NS, and Costello syndromes, with additional features of ectodermal dysplasia. DNA was examined by exome sequencing and protein expression by immunohistochemistry. Exome sequencing identified a mutation in the SOS1 gene and a de novo deletion in the FOXI2 gene which was neither present in the international databases, nor in 400 chromosomes from the same population. Based on immunohistochemical staining, FOXI2 was identified in the basal cell layer of the skin and overlapped with the expression of P63, a major player in ectodermal dysplasia. We therefore suggest screening for FOXI2 mutation in the setting of ectodermal features that are not associated with genes known to contribute to ectodermal dysplasia.
Hou, Yikang; Jin, Yunbo; Lin, Xiaoxi; Chai, Gang; Zhang, Yan; Qi, Zuoliang
Ectodermal dysplasia syndrome is a hereditary disease of ectodermal origin. Appearances of nail dystrophy, alopecia or hypotrichosis, saddle nose deformity, and palmoplantar hyperkeratosis are usually associated with a lack of sweat glands as well as partial or complete absence of teeth. These manifestations are usually corrected only with oral rehabilitation by mounting dentures. In this study, plastic rehabilitation was developed to correct the special features of patients with ectodermal dysplasia. Four men and 1 woman with ectodermal dysplasia syndrome were treated. Four patients showed dysostosis of the midface, and rhinoplasty with costal bone was performed, whereas cosmetic operation aiming to repair soft tissue defects was adopted for the last patient. After plastic corrections, all 5 patients were satisfied with the results and had no social embarrassment.
Koster, Maranke I.
The transcription factor p63 is critically important for skin development and maintenance. Processes that require p63 include epidermal lineage commitment, epidermal differentiation, cell adhesion, and basement membrane formation. Not surprisingly, alterations in the p63 pathway underlie a subset of ectodermal dysplasias, developmental syndromes in which the skin and skin appendages do not develop normally. This review summarizes the current understanding of the role of p63 in normal development and ectodermal dysplasias. PMID:20445549
Full Text Available Ectodermal dysplasia represents a group of rare inherited conditions in which two or more ectodermally derived anatomical structures fail to develop. Early dental intervention can improve patient′s appearance, thereby minimizing associated emotional and psychological problems in these patients. Treatment requires a teamwork by medical personnel along with dental professionals of various specialties. Here, a rare case of a young female patient is presented with prosthetic management with implant supported fixed partial denture.
Torkamandi, Shahram; Gholami, Milad; Mohammadi-Asl, Javad; Rezaie, Somaye; Zaimy, Mohammad Ali; Omrani, Mir Davood
Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) is a rare congenital disorder arising from deficient development of ectoderm-derived structures including skin, nails, glands and teeth. The phenotype of HED is associated with mutation in EDA, EDAR, EDARADD and NEMO genes, all of them disruptingNF-κB signaling cascade necessary for initiation, formation and differentiation in the embryo and adult. Here we describe a novel acceptor splice site mutation c.730-2 A>G(IVS 8-2 A>G) in EDAR gene in homozygous form in all affected members of a family,and in heterozygous form in carriers. Bioinformatics analysis showed that this mutation can create a new broken splicing site and lead to aberrant splicing.
Fraiz, Fabian Calixto; Gugisch, Renato Cordeiro; Cavalcante-Leão, Bianca Lopes; Macedo, Liliane Moreira
This paper describes a clinical case of a male with hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia submitted to rehabilitation and occlusal dental interventions with follow-up from 3 to 14 years of age. Due to the severe effects on function and esthetics, the clinical manifestations of ectodermal dysplasia exert a negative impact on quality of life. However, oral rehabilitation in childhood poses a challenge due to growth and development. A male with hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia began dental intervention at the age of 3 years. The clinical and radiographic exams revealed the absence of several primary and permanent teeth and abnormal shape of the primary maxillary incisors. The facial characteristics were compatible with hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia, such as a prominent brow, everted lips, fattened bridge of the nose and small vertical facial height. The treatment proposed involved rehabilitation through successive temporary partial dentures, functional orthopedics of the jaws, esthetic reconstruction of the anterior teeth, timely occlusal intervention and preventive actions for the control of dental caries and plaque. The present case demonstrates that early care plays a fundamental role in minimizing the biopsychosocial consequences of hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia and preparing the patient for future oral rehabilitation. Although, the literature offers a number of papers describing dental treatment for ectodermal dysplasia, few cases include long-term follow-up and the use of a functional orthopedic appliance in combination with removable dentures in such patients.
Lian, Jayson; Cuk, Mario; Kahlfuss, Sascha; Kozhaya, Lina; Vaeth, Martin; Rieux-Laucat, Frédéric; Picard, Capucine; Benson, Melina J; Jakovcevic, Antonia; Bilic, Karmen; Martinac, Iva; Stathopulos, Peter; Kacskovics, Imre; Vraetz, Thomas; Speckmann, Carsten; Ehl, Stephan; Issekutz, Thomas; Unutmaz, Derya; Feske, Stefan
Store-operated Ca 2+ entry (SOCE) through Ca 2+ release-activated Ca 2+ channels is an essential signaling pathway in many cell types. Ca 2+ release-activated Ca 2+ channels are formed by ORAI1, ORAI2, and ORAI3 proteins and activated by stromal interaction molecule (STIM) 1 and STIM2. Mutations in the ORAI1 and STIM1 genes that abolish SOCE cause a combined immunodeficiency (CID) syndrome that is accompanied by autoimmunity and nonimmunologic symptoms. We performed molecular and immunologic analysis of patients with CID, anhidrosis, and ectodermal dysplasia of unknown etiology. We performed DNA sequencing of the ORAI1 gene, modeling of mutations on ORAI1 crystal structure, analysis of ORAI1 mRNA and protein expression, SOCE measurements, immunologic analysis of peripheral blood lymphocyte populations by using flow cytometry, and histologic and ultrastructural analysis of patient tissues. We identified 3 novel autosomal recessive mutations in ORAI1 in unrelated kindreds with CID, autoimmunity, ectodermal dysplasia with anhidrosis, and muscular dysplasia. The patients were homozygous for p.V181SfsX8, p.L194P, and p.G98R mutations in the ORAI1 gene that suppressed ORAI1 protein expression and SOCE in the patients' lymphocytes and fibroblasts. In addition to impaired T-cell cytokine production, ORAI1 mutations were associated with strongly reduced numbers of invariant natural killer T and regulatory T (Treg) cells and altered composition of γδ T-cell and natural killer cell subsets. ORAI1 null mutations are associated with reduced numbers of invariant natural killer T and Treg cells that likely contribute to the patients' immunodeficiency and autoimmunity. ORAI1-deficient patients have dental enamel defects and anhidrosis, representing a new form of anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia with immunodeficiency that is distinct from previously reported patients with anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia with immunodeficiency caused by mutations in the nuclear factor κB signaling
Chikkannaiah, Panduranga; Nagaraju, Smitha; Kangle, Rajit; Gosavi, Mansi
Ectodermal dysplasia are group of inherited disorders involving the developmental defects of ectodermal structures like hair, teeth, nails, sweat glands, and others. X-linked recessive inheritance is most common. Here we describe perinatal autopsy findings in a case of de novo ectodermal dysplasia in a female fetus. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first fetal autopsy description in a case of ectodermal dysplasia.
More, Chandramani B.; Bhavsar, Khusbhu; Joshi, Jigar; Varma, Saurabh N.; Tailor, Mansi
Background: Ectodermal dysplasia (ED) is a group of rare, inherited disorders characterized by sparse hair, missing teeth and inability to sweat. Objective: To review and analyze cases of ED with an emphasis on clinical manifestations and parent's marriage history. Methodology: The present retrospective study was conducted by assessing the clinical records of nineteen cases of ED, available in the archives of the department; for age, gender, family history of consanguineous marriage and clinical manifestations. Results: It was observed that ED was more prevalent in males, with a ratio of 1.7:1. The hypohydrotic type was more common (78.95%) than hydrotic type (21.05%). The marriage history of parents revealed that 66.67% had consanguineous marriage and had 68.42% offspring's affected with ED; whereas 33.33% had history of non-consanguineous marriage and had 31.58% offspring's affected with ED. The clinical manifestations observed were- dry skin(94.74%); scaly skin(42.11%); sparse hair on scalp, eyebrows and eyelashes(100%); frontal bossing(63.18%); saddle nose (57.89%); hypertelorism (47.37%); nail abnormality(52.63%); normal sweat glands(21.05%); abnormal sweat glands(78.95%); hypoplastic maxilla(52.63%); protuberant lips (57.89%); palmo-plantar keratosis(21.05%); wrinkled & hyper pigmented facial skin(84.21%); partial anodontia(94.74%); conical shaped teeth(84.21%); high arched palate(68.42%); thin alveolar bone(100.00%); taurodontism(21.05%) and cleft lip & cleft palate(05.26%). The number of teeth present in all the cases ranged from 0 to 19. Conclusion: ED patients suffer from social problems and poor psychological and physiological development as a result of unacceptable esthetics and abnormal function of orofacial structures. Oral rehabilitation thus becomes mandatory, although it is often difficult; particularly in pediatric patients. PMID:24082749
More, Chandramani B; Bhavsar, Khusbhu; Joshi, Jigar; Varma, Saurabh N; Tailor, Mansi
Ectodermal dysplasia (ED) is a group of rare, inherited disorders characterized by sparse hair, missing teeth and inability to sweat. To review and analyze cases of ED with an emphasis on clinical manifestations and parent's marriage history. The present retrospective study was conducted by assessing the clinical records of nineteen cases of ED, available in the archives of the department; for age, gender, family history of consanguineous marriage and clinical manifestations. It was observed that ED was more prevalent in males, with a ratio of 1.7:1. The hypohydrotic type was more common (78.95%) than hydrotic type (21.05%). The marriage history of parents revealed that 66.67% had consanguineous marriage and had 68.42% offspring's affected with ED; whereas 33.33% had history of non-consanguineous marriage and had 31.58% offspring's affected with ED. The clinical manifestations observed were- dry skin(94.74%); scaly skin(42.11%); sparse hair on scalp, eyebrows and eyelashes(100%); frontal bossing(63.18%); saddle nose (57.89%); hypertelorism (47.37%); nail abnormality(52.63%); normal sweat glands(21.05%); abnormal sweat glands(78.95%); hypoplastic maxilla(52.63%); protuberant lips (57.89%); palmo-plantar keratosis(21.05%); wrinkled & hyper pigmented facial skin(84.21%); partial anodontia(94.74%); conical shaped teeth(84.21%); high arched palate(68.42%); thin alveolar bone(100.00%); taurodontism(21.05%) and cleft lip & cleft palate(05.26%). The number of teeth present in all the cases ranged from 0 to 19. ED patients suffer from social problems and poor psychological and physiological development as a result of unacceptable esthetics and abnormal function of orofacial structures. Oral rehabilitation thus becomes mandatory, although it is often difficult; particularly in pediatric patients.
Full Text Available Hereditary Ectodermal Dysplasia is an inherited disorder commonly involving skin, teeth, hair, and nails. We have observed ectodermal dysplasia (EDs in 11 individuals over two generations in one family. Smooth, dry, thin skin was seen in most affected individuals. All had fine, slow-growing scalp hair and body hair and some had sparse eyebrows and short eyelashes. Nearly all showed decrease in sweating. Severe teeth abnormalities were seen in all patients and fingernail abnormalities were not so severe but toenail abnormalities were seen in all patients. No other abnormalities were seen in affected individuals in this family. It is very rare to find such a large family having ectodermal dysplasia.
Trzeciak, Wieslaw H; Koczorowski, Ryszard
Recent advances in understanding the molecular events underlying hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) caused by mutations of the genes encoding proteins of the tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα)-related signaling pathway have been presented. These proteins are involved in signal transduction from ectoderm to mesenchyme during development of the fetus and are indispensable for the differentiation of ectoderm-derived structures such as eccrine sweat glands, teeth, hair, skin, and/or nails. Novel data were reviewed and discussed on the structure and functions of the components of TNFα-related signaling pathway, the consequences of mutations of the genes encoding these proteins, and the prospect for further investigations, which might elucidate the origin of HED.
Full Text Available We describe a case of anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (AED with an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance, a very rare entity, in a 2-year-old female child of two asymptomatic, consanguineous parents. Their previous child also had a similar condition. Autosomal recessive AED (AR-AED can have its full expression both in males and females and it is clinically indistinguishable from the x-linked recessive AED (XL-AED, which is the most common type of ectodermal dysplasia. Unlike the partially symptomatic carriers of XL-AED, the heterozygotes of AR-AED are phenotypically asymptomatic.
Shalom-Feuerstein, Ruby; Serror, Laura; Aberdam, Edith; Müller, Franz-Josef; van Bokhoven, Hans; Wiman, Klas G; Zhou, Huiqing; Aberdam, Daniel; Petit, Isabelle
Ectodermal dysplasia is a group of congenital syndromes affecting a variety of ectodermal derivatives. Among them, ectrodactyly, ectodermal dysplasia, and cleft lip/palate (EEC) syndrome is caused by single point mutations in the p63 gene, which controls epidermal development and homeostasis. Phenotypic defects of the EEC syndrome include skin defects and limbal stem-cell deficiency. In this study, we designed a unique cellular model that recapitulated major embryonic defects related to EEC. Fibroblasts from healthy donors and EEC patients carrying two different point mutations in the DNA binding domain of p63 were reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines. EEC-iPSC from both patients showed early ectodermal commitment into K18(+) cells but failed to further differentiate into K14(+) cells (epidermis/limbus) or K3/K12(+) cells (corneal epithelium). APR-246 (PRIMA-1(MET)), a small compound that restores functionality of mutant p53 in human tumor cells, could revert corneal epithelial lineage commitment and reinstate a normal p63-related signaling pathway. This study illustrates the relevance of iPSC for p63 related disorders and paves the way for future therapy of EEC.
Callea, Michele; Teggi, Roberto; Yavuz, Izzet; Tadini, Gianluca; Priolo, Manuela; Crovella, Sergio; Clarich, Gabriella; Grasso, Domenico Leonardo
The ectodermal dysplasias (EDs) are a large and complex group of inherited disorders. In various combinations, they all share anomalies in ectodermal derived structures: hair, teeth, nails and sweat gland function. Clinical overlap is present among EDs. Few causative genes have been identified, to date. Altered gene expression is not limited to the ectoderm but a concomitant effect on developing mesenchymal structures, with modification of ectodermal-mesenchymal signaling, takes place. The two major categories of ED include the hidrotic and hypohidrotic form, the latter more frequent; they differentiate each other for the presence or absence of sweat glands. We report Ear Nose Throat manifestations of ED, linked to the reduction of mucous glands in the nasal fossae with reduced ciliar function, and decrease salivary glands function. Often patients report an increased rate of infections of the upper respiratory tract and of the ear. Nasal obstruction due to the presence of nasal crusting, hearing loss and throat hoarseness are the most represented symptoms. Environmental measures, including a correct air temperature and humidification, is mandatory above all in subjects affected by hypohidrotic form. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keklikci, Ugur; Yavuz, Izzet; Tunik, Selcuk; Ulku, Zelal Baskan; Akdeniz, Sedat
Ectodermal dysplasia (ED) is a disorder that results from abnormal formation of at least two of the four major ectodermal derivatives in the developing embryo. The ectoderm of the embryo forms the skin, teeth, hair and nails, sweat glands and part of the eyes. The aim of this article is to reveal ophthalmologic symptoms and signs as multidisciplinary, reliable criteria for ectodermal dysplasia. In this retrospective study, 24 patients with ED were analyzed from the recorded data. Ophthalmological examination of the patients, who had previously received the diagnosis of ED in the dental department, was done. During the examination, ocular symptoms related to tear film, corneal changes, lacrimal duct, periorbital hyperpigmentation, alteration lashes and eyebrows were evaluated. The age ranged between 3-45, and the mean and standard deviation (Mean ± SD) was 15.8 ± 7.4 years. The number of males was 13 (54.2%) and females, 11 (45.8%). Eighteen patients (75.0%) suffered from ocular complaints related to the ocular surface. In 11 of the patients with ED, there were dry eye symptoms. While the mean age of cases with eye involvement was 17.5, it was 23.1 in cases with dry eye symptoms. In the study, it was observed that, in patients with ED, ocular complaints, particularly dry eye symptoms, may increase as age advances.
Emilija Bajraktarova Valjakova
Full Text Available Introduction: Ectodermal dysplasia (ED is a hereditary disorder associated with developmental disorders of two or more structures of ectodermal embryonic origin. Hypodontia or anodontia of the primary and permanent dentition, poorly developed alveolar ridges and improper maxillo – mandibular relations, are the most common oral manifestations. Management of patients with ectodermal dysplasia requires a multidisciplinary team approach. Case presentation: A 6.5 year-old boy with hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED presented in this article, had typical features of HED: hypohidrosis, hypotrichosis, severe hypodontia, atrophic alveolar ridges, old-looking facial expression. According to the patient’s age and clinical findings, removable complete over-denture prosthesis in both arches was the treatment of choice. Conclusion: In patients with ED, it is important to establish correct maxillo – mandibular relations and normal function of the dento-facial system (chewing, swallowing, and speaking. Prosthodontic treatment has a major impact on aesthetics and functions,facilitates psychological development and improves emotional condition and social life of the patient.
Wahlbuhl-Becker, Mandy; Faschingbauer, Florian; Beckmann, Matthias W; Schneider, Holm
Background X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (XLHED), the most common form of ectodermal dysplasia, is caused by mutations in the gene EDA. While only affected men develop the full-blown clinical picture, females who are heterozygous for an EDA mutation often also show symptoms such as hypodontia, hypotrichosis and hypohidrosis. These women may also suffer from malformations of the mammary gland which represent not just a cosmetic problem but can limit their breastfeeding capability. This paper summarizes the findings of the first systematic study on the impact of hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia on breastfeeding. Patients Thirty-eight adult female members of the German-Swiss-Austrian ectodermal dysplasia patient support group participated in a structured interview; most of them also agreed to a photodocumentation of their mammary region. Thirty-one women carried mutations in EDA (Group A) and seven were affected by other forms of hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (Group B). Results 39 % of the women of Group A reported that their breasts were of different size or entirely absent on one side. In Group B, 86 % of the women reported differently sized or even absent breasts; two of these women lacked both breasts entirely. Most women described their nipples as exceptionally flat. 10 % of the women of Group A had more than two nipples. The high percentage of deviations from the norm was confirmed in the photodocumentation. Both groups had few or no sebaceous glands of Montgomery in the areolar region. Around 80 % of interviewed women had children and had attempted to breastfeed their first child. 67 % of the mothers in Group A had had difficulty in breastfeeding their infants and generally attributed this difficulty to their flat nipples. All of the mothers in Group B reported difficulties in breastfeeding; 60 % had not been able to breastfeed their first child. Conclusion Mothers with hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia very often have difficulty
Tyagi, Pallavi; Tyagi, Vipin; Hashim, Adnan A
Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) is a group of rare multisystemic genetic syndromes that affects ectodermal structures such as skin, hair, nails, teeth and sweat glands. The authors present a case of a child with ocular and dermatological signs of HED along with severe involvement of other multiple organ systems. The family history could be traced to four generations and there was an observed trend of increase in severity of signs and symptoms occurring at younger age. The purpose of this case report is to create awareness in ophthalmic community of its diagnosis and clinical manifestations. This case highlights the role of multidisciplinary approach for management of systemic disease, genetic evaluation of affected individuals and carriers and genetic counselling. PMID:22700604
Tiedemann Svendsen, Mathias; Henningsen, Emil; Hertz, Jens Michael; Vestergaard Grejsen, Dorthe; Bygum, Anette
Ectodermal dysplasias form a complex, nosologic group of diseases with defects in at least 2 ectodermal structures. A retrospective study of patients with ectodermal dysplasia seen at our department over a period of 19 years (1994-2013) was performed. The study population consisted of 67 patients covering 17 different diagnoses. Forty-five families were identified of which 26 were sporadic cases with no affected family members. In 27 tested families a disease-causing mutation was identified in 23 families. Eleven mutations were novel mutations. To our knowledge, we present the first large ectodermal dysplasia cohort focusing on clinical manifestations in combination with mutational analysis. We recommend a nationwide study to estimate the prevalence of the ectodermal dysplasia and to ensure relevant molecular genetic testing which may form the basis of a national ectodermal dysplasia database.
Gupta, Charu; Verma, Mahesh; Gupta, Rekha; Gill, Shubhra
Reduced number of teeth with underdeveloped alveolar ridges poses a greatest prosthetic challenge in rehabilitation of ectodermal dysplasia patients (ED). Furthermore, surgical risks and financial constraints may preclude the implant supported prosthesis, the most desirable treatment option in an adult ED patient. Long edentulous span does not permit fixed dental prosthesis (FDP) as well. Telescopic denture by incorporating the best of both fixed and removable prosthesis can be a viable treat...
Larissa Soares Reis Vilanova
Full Text Available Ectodermal dysplasia is described as heritable conditions that involve anomalies of structures derived from the ectoderm, including hypodontia. In the cases of edentulous young patients, who did not finish their craniofacial growth, treatment with conventional complete denture is a suitable alternative. The aim of this study was to report a case of mandibular edentulism treated with conventional complete denture in a thirteen-year-old patient diagnosed with hidrotic ectodermal dysplasia. Typical features, such as frontal bossing, depressed nasal bridge, protuberant lips, scarce hair, and brittle nails, were visualized during the extraoral examination. The intraoral inspection and radiographic analysis revealed oligodontia, dental malformation, and prolonged retention of deciduous teeth at maxilla and total edentulism at mandible. A conventional complete denture was planned and constructed following the same steps of technique as recommended in adults. Although this option is not a definitive treatment, the patient and his parents were satisfied with his improvement in chewing and speech, as well as with the aesthetic benefits.
Singh, Tapan; Singh, Ronauk; Singh, Gurendra Pal; Singh, Jitender Pal
Ectodermal dysplasia is a hereditary disease characterized by congenital dysplasia of one or more ectodermal structure and other accessory appendages. The oral manifestations are anodontia and poor bony foundation which impairs both esthetic as well as the masticatory function. The prosthodontic management of patients with such dysplastic condition necessitates a multidisciplinary approach. This case report describes the prosthodontic oral rehabilitation of a 16 years old female pediatric patient with ectodermal dysplasia. How to cite this article: Singh T, Singh R, Singh GP, Singh JP. Hypohidrotic Ectodermal Dysplasia: A Felicitous Approach to Esthetic and Prosthetic Management. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2013;6(2):140-145.
Pae, Ahran; Kim, Kyu; Kim, Hyeong-Seob; Kwon, Kung-Rock
Ectodermal dysplasia is a hereditary disorder of ectodermal origin. A 12-year-old boy was referred for management of the oral manifestations of his ectodermal dysplasia. An overdenture retained by natural teeth for the maxilla and a double-crown-retained denture for the mandible were made. Double-crown-retained dentures may be modified into complete dentures if the abutment teeth are lost. The patient was instructed to maintain oral hygiene and return periodically for follow-up visits. This report describes a potential routine approach to restoring the appearance, function, and psyche of a growing boy with ectodermal dysplasia.
Wohlfart, Sigrun; Söder, Stephan; Smahi, Asma; Schneider, Holm
Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) is a rare disorder characterized by deficient development of structures derived from the ectoderm including hair, nails, eccrine glands, and teeth. HED forms that are caused by mutations in the genes EDA, EDAR, or EDARADD may show almost identical phenotypes, explained by a common signaling pathway. Proper interaction of the proteins encoded by these three genes is important for the activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway and subsequent transcription of the target genes. Mutations in the gene EDARADD are most rarely implicated in HED. Here we describe a novel missense mutation, c.367G>A (p.Asp123Asn), in this gene which did not appear to influence the interaction between EDAR and EDARADD proteins, but led to an impaired ability to activate NF-κB signaling. Female members of the affected family showed either unilateral or bilateral amazia. In addition, an affected girl developed bilateral ovarian teratomas, possibly associated with her genetic condition. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Ramírez-Alejo, Noé; Alcántara-Montiel, Julio C; Yamazaki-Nakashimada, Marco; Duran-McKinster, Carola; Valenzuela-León, Paola; Rivas-Larrauri, Francisco; Cedillo-Barrón, Leticia; Hernández-Rivas, Rosaura; Santos-Argumedo, Leopoldo
NF-κB essential modulator (NEMO) is a component of the IKK complex, which participates in the activation of the NF-κB pathway. Hypomorphic mutations in the IKBKG gene result in different forms of anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia with immunodeficiency (EDA-ID) in males without affecting carrier females. Here, we describe a hypomorphic and missense mutation, designated c.916G>A (p.D306N), which affects our patient, his mother, and his sister. This mutation did not affect NEMO expression; however, an immunoprecipitation assay revealed reduced ubiquitylation upon CD40-stimulation in the patient's cells. Functional studies have demonstrated reduced phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα, affecting NF-κB recruitment into the nucleus. The patient presented with clinical features of ectodermal dysplasia, immunodeficiency, and immune thrombocytopenic purpura, the latter of which has not been previously reported in a patient with NEMO deficiency. His mother and sister displayed incontinentia pigmenti indicating that, in addition to amorphic mutations, hypomorphic mutations in NEMO can affect females. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Carpenter, April C.; Smith, April N.; Wagner, Heidi; Cohen-Tayar, Yamit; Rao, Sujata; Wallace, Valerie; Ashery-Padan, Ruth; Lang, Richard A.
The Wnt/β-catenin response pathway is central to many developmental processes. Here, we assessed the role of Wnt signaling in early eye development using the mouse as a model system. We showed that the surface ectoderm region that includes the lens placode expressed 12 out of 19 possible Wnt ligands. When these activities were suppressed by conditional deletion of wntless (Le-cre; Wlsfl/fl) there were dramatic consequences that included a saucer-shaped optic cup, ventral coloboma, and a deficiency of periocular mesenchyme. This phenotype shared features with that produced when the Wnt/β-catenin pathway co-receptor Lrp6 is mutated or when retinoic acid (RA) signaling in the eye is compromised. Consistent with this, microarray and cell fate marker analysis identified a series of expression changes in genes known to be regulated by RA or by the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Using pathway reporters, we showed that Wnt ligands from the surface ectoderm directly or indirectly elicit a Wnt/β-catenin response in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) progenitors near the optic cup rim. In Le-cre; Wlsfl/fl mice, the numbers of RPE cells are reduced and this can explain, using the principle of the bimetallic strip, the curvature of the optic cup. These data thus establish a novel hypothesis to explain how differential cell numbers in a bilayered epithelium can lead to shape change. PMID:25715397
Karlskov-Mortensen, Peter; Cirera Salicio, Susanna; Nielsen, Ole Lerberg
A case of X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (XHED) was identified in a family of Danish Red Holstein cattle. The ectodysplasin-signalling protein (EDA) is known to be central in the normal development of ectodermal structures, and mutations in the ectodysplasin A (EDA) gene have been rep...
Shamseldin, Hanan E; Khalifa, Ola; Binamer, Yousef M; Almutawa, Abdulmonem; Arold, Stefan T; Zaidan, Hamad; Alkuraya, Fowzan S
Ectodermal dysplasia is a highly heterogeneous group of disorders that variably affect the derivatives of the ectoderm, primarily skin, hair, nails and teeth. TP63, itself mutated in ectodermal dysplasia, links many other ectodermal dysplasia disease genes through a regulatory network that maintains the balance between proliferation and differentiation of the epidermis and other ectodermal derivatives. The ectodermal knockout phenotype of five mouse genes that regulate and/or are regulated by TP63 (Irf6, Ikkα, Ripk4, Stratifin, and Kdf1) is strikingly similar and involves abnormal balance towards proliferation at the expense of differentiation, but only the first three have corresponding ectodermal phenotypes in humans. We describe a multigenerational Saudi family with an autosomal dominant form of hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia in which positional mapping and exome sequencing identified a novel variant in KDF1 that fully segregates with the phenotype. The recapitulation of the phenotype we observe in this family by the Kdf1-/- mouse suggests a causal role played by the KDF1 variant.
Shamseldin, Hanan E.
Ectodermal dysplasia is a highly heterogeneous group of disorders that variably affect the derivatives of the ectoderm, primarily skin, hair, nails and teeth. TP63, itself mutated in ectodermal dysplasia, links many other ectodermal dysplasia disease genes through a regulatory network that maintains the balance between proliferation and differentiation of the epidermis and other ectodermal derivatives. The ectodermal knockout phenotype of five mouse genes that regulate and/or are regulated by TP63 (Irf6, Ikkα, Ripk4, Stratifin, and Kdf1) is strikingly similar and involves abnormal balance towards proliferation at the expense of differentiation, but only the first three have corresponding ectodermal phenotypes in humans. We describe a multigenerational Saudi family with an autosomal dominant form of hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia in which positional mapping and exome sequencing identified a novel variant in KDF1 that fully segregates with the phenotype. The recapitulation of the phenotype we observe in this family by the Kdf1−/− mouse suggests a causal role played by the KDF1 variant.
Izabella Vest Hansen
Full Text Available Introduction: Root resorption has various etiologies. Recent studies have demonstrated a periroot sheet covering the root. The outermost layer of this sheet is the Malassez′ epithelial layer. Tooth malformations are seen in ectodermal dysplasia and it is believed that the ectodermal layer in the periroot sheet differs in cases of ectodermal dysplasia. Case reports: Three cases of unexpected severe root resorption are demonstrated. Two cases were diagnosed with ectodermal dysplasia and the third appeared with thin, curly hair and absence of eyebrows but no ectodermal diagnosis. In the ectodermal cases, there were severe orthodontically provoked resorptions on the teeth that appeared to be permanent but were possibly primary. In the third case, there was heavy resorption on permanent teeth due to orthodontic treatment. Discussion: The orthodontist should be aware that aggressive resorption can occur in cases not diagnosed with ectodermal dysplasia but with signs of ectodermal deviations, and that tooth morphology, hair, and skin are important to observe before proceeding with treatment.
Esther R Berko
Full Text Available DNA mutational events are increasingly being identified in autism spectrum disorder (ASD, but the potential additional role of dysregulation of the epigenome in the pathogenesis of the condition remains unclear. The epigenome is of interest as a possible mediator of environmental effects during development, encoding a cellular memory reflected by altered function of progeny cells. Advanced maternal age (AMA is associated with an increased risk of having a child with ASD for reasons that are not understood. To explore whether AMA involves covert aneuploidy or epigenetic dysregulation leading to ASD in the offspring, we tested a homogeneous ectodermal cell type from 47 individuals with ASD compared with 48 typically developing (TD controls born to mothers of ≥35 years, using a quantitative genome-wide DNA methylation assay. We show that DNA methylation patterns are dysregulated in ectodermal cells in these individuals, having accounted for confounding effects due to subject age, sex and ancestral haplotype. We did not find mosaic aneuploidy or copy number variability to occur at differentially-methylated regions in these subjects. Of note, the loci with distinctive DNA methylation were found at genes expressed in the brain and encoding protein products significantly enriched for interactions with those produced by known ASD-causing genes, representing a perturbation by epigenomic dysregulation of the same networks compromised by DNA mutational mechanisms. The results indicate the presence of a mosaic subpopulation of epigenetically-dysregulated, ectodermally-derived cells in subjects with ASD. The epigenetic dysregulation observed in these ASD subjects born to older mothers may be associated with aging parental gametes, environmental influences during embryogenesis or could be the consequence of mutations of the chromatin regulatory genes increasingly implicated in ASD. The results indicate that epigenetic dysregulatory mechanisms may complement
Kere, J. [Washington Univ. School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States)]|[Univ. of Helsinki (Finland); Grzeschik, K.H. [Univ. of Marburg (Germany); Limon, J. [Medical Academy, Gdansk (Poland); Gremaud, M.; Schlessinger, D. [Washington Univ. School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); De La Chapelle, A. [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland)
Anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (EDA), an X-chromosomal recessive disorder, is expressed in a few females with chromosomal translocations involving bands Xq12-q13. Using available DNA markers from the region and somatic cell hybrids the authors mapped the X-chromosomal breakpoints in two such translocations. The breakpoints were further mapped within a yeast artificial chromosome contig constructed by chromosome walking techniques. Genomic DNA markers that map between the two translocation breakpoints were recovered representing putative portions of the EDA gene. 32 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.
Knaudt, Björn; Volz, Thomas; Krug, Markus; Burgdorf, Walter; Röcken, Martin; Berneburg, Mark
The skin, hair and nail changes in four distinct ectodermal dysplasia syndromes are compared and reviewed. These syndromes comprise Christ-Siemens-Touraine syndrome; ectrodactyly, ectodermal dysplasia and cleft lip/palate syndrome; ankyloblepharon-ectodermal defects-cleft lip/palate syndrome and Rapp-Hodgkin syndrome. A comprehensive overview of the dermatological signs and symptoms in these syndromes was generated from the database of the Ectodermal Dysplasia Network Germany, the clinical findings in the patients seen in our department and an extensive review of the literature. The findings included abnormalities of skin, sweating, hair and nails. These clinical findings are discussed in relation to the underlying molecular defects known to play a role in these four ectodermal dysplasia syndromes.
Full Text Available Ectodermal dysplasia is a rare hereditary disorder with a characteristic physiognomy. The ectodermal dysplasia constitutes a group of hereditary disorders whose clinical manifestation can be defects in ectodermal structures. The case of a 11-year-old child with hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia and partial anodontia is presented. Affected children require extensive dental treatment to restore appearance and help the development of a positive self image. Partial denture was provided to encourage a normal psychological development and to improve the function of the stomatognatic system. It is important for the patient and the dentist to understand that continued monitoring for dental problems is necessary. This paper had an objective to relate and discuss a case of hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia, with the approach of the influence of an esthetic rehabilitation and functional alternative in the improvement of the quality of life.
Hirano-Ali, Stefanie A; Reed, Ashley M; Rowan, Brandon J; Sorrells, Timothy; Williams, Judith V; Pariser, David M; Hood, Antoinette F; Salkey, Kimberly
The objective of the current study was to catalog hair shaft abnormalities in individuals with ectodermal dysplasia (ED) syndromes using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and to compare the findings with those in unaffected controls. This is the second of a two-part study, the first of which used light microscopy as the modality and was previously published. Scanning electron microscopy was performed in a blinded manner on hair shafts from 65 subjects with seven types of ED syndromes and 41 unaffected control subjects. Assessment was performed along the length of the shaft and in cross section. Hair donations were collected at the 28th Annual National Family Conference held by the National Foundation for Ectodermal Dysplasia. Control subjects were recruited from a private dermatology practice and an academic children's hospital outpatient dermatology clinic. SEM identified various pathologic hair shaft abnormalities in each type of ED and in control patients. When hairs with all types of ED were grouped together and compared with those of control patients, the difference in the presence of small diameter and shallow and deep grooves was statistically significant (p < 0.05). When the EDs were separated according to subtype, statistically significant findings were also seen. SEM is a possible adjuvant tool in the diagnosis of ED syndromes. There are significant differences, with high specificity, between the hairs of individuals with ED and those of control subjects and between subtypes. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Salinas, Carlos F.; Jorgenson, Ronald J.; Wright, J. Timothy; DiGiovanna, John J.; Fete, Mary D.
There are many ways to classify ectodermal dysplasia syndromes. Clinicians in practice use a list of syndromes from which to choose a potential diagnosis, paging through a volume, such as Freire-Maia and Pinheiro's corpus, matching their patient's findings to listed syndromes. Medical researchers may want a list of syndromes that share one (monothetic system) or several (polythetic system) traits in order to focus research on a narrowly defined group. Special interest groups may want a list from which they can choose constituencies, and insurance companies and government agencies may want a list to determine for whom to provide (or deny) health care coverage. Furthermore, various molecular biologists are now promoting classification systems based on gene mutation (e.g. TP63 associated syndromes) or common molecular pathways. The challenge will be to balance comprehensiveness within the classification with usability and accessibility so that the benefits truly serve the needs of researchers, health care providers and ultimately the individuals and families directly affected by ectodermal dysplasias. It is also recognized that a new classification approach is an ongoing process and will require periodical reviews or updates. Whatever scheme is developed, however, will have far-reaching application for other groups of disorders for which classification is complicated by the number of interested parties and advances in diagnostic acumen. Consensus among interested parties is necessary for optimizing communication among the diverse groups whether it be for equitable distribution of funds, correctness of diagnosis and treatment, or focusing research efforts. PMID:19681152
Full Text Available Hypodontia, hypohidrosis, sparse hair and characteristic faces are the main characters of X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (XLHED which is caused by genetic ectodysplasin A (EDA deficiency. Heterozygous female carriers tend to have mild to moderate XLHED phenotype, even though 30% of them present no obvious symptom.A large Chinese XLHED family was reported and the entire coding region and exon-intron boundaries of EDA gene were sequenced. To elucidate the mechanism for carriers' tempered phenotype, we analyzed the methylation level on four sites of the promoter of EDA by the pyrosequencing system.A known frameshift mutation (c.573-574 insT was found in this pedigree. Combined with the pedigrees we reported before, 120 samples comprised of 23 carrier females from 11 families and 97 healthy females were analyzed for the methylation state of EDA promoter. Within 95% confidence interval (CI, 18 (78.26% carriers were hypermethylated at these 4 sites.Chinese XLHED carriers often have a hypermethylated EDA promoter.
Jiménez-Rojo, Lucía; Granchi, Zoraide; Graf, Daniel; Mitsiadis, Thimios A.
The development of ectoderm-derived appendages results in a large variety of highly specialized organs such as hair follicles, mammary glands, salivary glands, and teeth. Despite varying in number, shape, and function, all these ectodermal organs develop through continuous and reciprocal epithelial–mesenchymal interactions, sharing common morphological and molecular features especially during their embryonic development. Diseases such as ectodermal dysplasias can affect simultaneously these organs, suggesting that they may arise from common multipotent precursors residing in the embryonic ectoderm. During embryogenesis, these putative ectodermal stem cells may adopt different fates and consequently be able to generate a variety of tissue-specific stem cells, which are the sources for the various cell lineages that form the diverse organs. The specification of those common epithelial precursors, as well as their further lineage commitment to tissue-specific stem cells, might be controlled by specific signals. It has been well documented that Notch, Wnt, bone morphogenetic protein, and fibroblast growth factor signaling pathways regulate cell fate decisions during the various stages of ectodermal organ development. However, the in vivo spatial and temporal dynamics of these signaling pathways are not yet well understood. Improving the current knowledge on the mechanisms involved in stem cell fate determination during organogenesis and homeostasis of ectodermal organs is crucial to develop effective stem cell-based therapies in order to regenerate or replace pathological and damaged tissues. PMID:22539926
Full Text Available The ectodermal dysplasias are a heterogeneous group of disorders with primary defect in hair, teeth, nail and sweat gland function. Numerous types have been described and several classifications exist. Here, we present a patient with ectodermal dysplasia with alopecia, dysplastic nails, hypohidrosis, sensorineural deafness, palmoplantar keratoderma, abnormal teeth and dry skin. To our knowledge, combination of all these features in ectodermal dysplasia has not been reported in the past. The etiology is unknown, but consanguinity of parents points to an autosomal recessive inheritance.
Ectodermal dysplasias (EDs) are a group of genodermatoses characterized by malformations of tissues derived from the ectoderm, including the skin, its appendages (hair, nails, sweat glands), teeth, and the breasts. Ectodermal dysplasia syndactyly syndrome (EDSS) is a rare, newly described type of ED involving syndactyly. We report 2 Yemeni siblings with typical EDSS manifestations, including bilateral, partial cutaneous syndactyly of the fingers and toes; sparse, coarse, brittle scalp hair, eyebrows, and eyelashes; and conical, widely spaced teeth with enamel notches. In addition, the siblings presented with other features hitherto not described for this syndrome, such as adermatoglyphia, onychogryphosis, hypoplastic widely spaced nipples, hypoplastic thumbs, and red scalp hair.
M Naveen Kumar
Full Text Available Ectodermal dysplasia is a hereditary disorder characterized by developmental dystrophies of ectodermal derivatives- It is characterized by triad of signs comprising sparse hair, abnormal or missing teeth and inability to sweat. This case of 12-year-old boy with hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia and complete anodontia of both primary and permanent dentition is presented. Owing to the need for treatment at an early age for anodontia and due to the ill-formed maxillary and mandibular residual ridges, the prosthetic management can be difficult. Complete dentures with soft liners and hollow maxillary denture were provided to encourage normal psychological development and to improve the function of the stomatognathic system.
P K Shivaprakash
Full Text Available Ectrodactyly, ectodermal dysplasia, and cleft lip/palate (EEC is a rare syndrome having ectrodactyly, ectodermal dysplasia, and cleft lip/palate. So far, very few cases have been reported in literature. However, we report a case of incomplete EEC syndrome having ectrodactyly and cleft lip and palate with absence of signs of ectodermal dysplasia with no other systemic anomalies. Other feature noted is the syndactyly of toes which is reported rarely in this syndrome. A multidisciplinary approach for treatment is needed which is co-ordinated by pedodontist or pediatrician.
... Deficiency Factor V Deficiency Combined FV & FVIII Deficiencies Factor VII Deficiency Factor X Deficiency Factor XI Deficiency Factor ... Deficiency Factor V Deficiency Combined FV & FVIII Deficiencies Factor VII Deficiency Factor X Deficiency Factor XI Deficiency Factor ...
Full Text Available Ectodermal dysplasia/skin fragility syndrome (ED-SFS is a newly described autosomal recessive disorder characterized by skin fragility and blistering, palmoplantar keratoderma, abnormal hair growth, nail dystrophy, and occasionally defective sweating. It results from mutations in the PKP1 gene encoding plakophilin 1 (PKP1, which is an important component of stratifying epithelial desmosomes and a nuclear component of many cell types. Only 12 cases of this rare genodermatosis have been reported so far. We present an unusual case of ED-SFS in a 12-year boy who was normal at birth but subsequently developed skin fragility, hair and nail deformities, abnormal dentition, palmoplantar keratoderma, and abnormal sweating but no systemic abnormality.
Gupta, Charu; Verma, Mahesh; Gupta, Rekha; Gill, Shubhra
Reduced number of teeth with underdeveloped alveolar ridges poses a greatest prosthetic challenge in rehabilitation of ectodermal dysplasia patients (ED). Furthermore, surgical risks and financial constraints may preclude the implant supported prosthesis, the most desirable treatment option in an adult ED patient. Long edentulous span does not permit fixed dental prosthesis (FDP) as well. Telescopic denture by incorporating the best of both fixed and removable prosthesis can be a viable treatment alternative for ED patients with compromised dentition and limited finances. A 21-year-old young girl presented with chief complaint of esthetics and mastication due to missing upper and lower teeth. A provisional diagnosis of ED was made based on familial history, physical, and oral examination. This clinical report describes management of an adult ED patient by means of telescopic overdenture prosthesis in mandibular arch and FDP in maxillary arch which restored esthetics, function, and social confidence of the patient in a cost effective manner.
Full Text Available Reduced number of teeth with underdeveloped alveolar ridges poses a greatest prosthetic challenge in rehabilitation of ectodermal dysplasia patients (ED. Furthermore, surgical risks and financial constraints may preclude the implant supported prosthesis, the most desirable treatment option in an adult ED patient. Long edentulous span does not permit fixed dental prosthesis (FDP as well. Telescopic denture by incorporating the best of both fixed and removable prosthesis can be a viable treatment alternative for ED patients with compromised dentition and limited finances. A 21-year-old young girl presented with chief complaint of esthetics and mastication due to missing upper and lower teeth. A provisional diagnosis of ED was made based on familial history, physical, and oral examination. This clinical report describes management of an adult ED patient by means of telescopic overdenture prosthesis in mandibular arch and FDP in maxillary arch which restored esthetics, function, and social confidence of the patient in a cost effective manner.
van Straten, Cornelia; Butow, Kurt-W
An analysis was made of three different syndromes associated with p63 gene mutations, known as ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-clefting syndrome (EEC), ankyloblepharon-ectodermal dysplasia clefting syndrome (AEC or Hay-Wells) and Rapp-Hodgkin syndrome (RHS). The postoperative complications associated with their cleft reconstructions were also evaluated. Extensive demographic information, in particular of the clinical appearances, associated malformations, and the types and complications of the reconstructive surgical procedures, were recorded of these syndromic cases occurring in a database of 3621 facial cleft deformity patients. The data was analyzed using the Microsoft Excel program. A total of 10 (0.28%) cases of p63 associated syndromes were recorded: EEC (6), RHS (3), and AEC (1). The following clinical cleft appearances were noted - EEC = 6: CLA 1 -right side unilateral (female); CLAP 4 - right side (1) + left side (1) unilateral (male + female); bilateral (2) (males); hPsP 1 (female) (divided in 3 Black, 2 White, 1 Indian); RHS = 3: CLAP 2 (White males); hPsP 1 (White female); AEC = 1: CLAP bilateral (White male). Other features of the syndromes were: skin, hand, foot, tooth, hair and nail involvement, and light sensitivity. Postoperative complications included: (i) stenosis of nasal opening, especially after reconstruction of the bilateral cleft lip and the columella lengthening (2 cases), (ii) premaxilla-prolabium fusion (2 cases), (iii) repeated occurrence of oro-nasal fistula in the hard palate (4 cases), and (iv) dysgnathial development of midfacial structures (3 cases). Three different p63 associated syndromes (EEC, AEC, and RHS) were diagnosed (0.27% of the total facial cleft deformities database). The majority of the cases presented with a bilateral CLAP in males only. A number of females and males had unilateral CLA. The hPsP-cleft was recorded in females only. The associated ectodermal component most probably had a profoundly negative influence
Adi Rachmiel, DMD, PhD
Conclusions:. We conclude that despite the challenging anatomic and physiological features of ectrodactyly ectodermal dysplasia-cleft patients, by enhancing current surgical techniques, there is promising potential for improved patient outcomes, achieving normognathic facial appearance with implant supported rehabilitation.
B. Dhamo (Brunilda); M.A.R. Kuijpers (Mette); Balk-Leurs, I. (I.); Boxum, C. (C.); E.B. Wolvius (Eppo); E.M. Ongkosuwito (Edwin)
textabstractStructured Abstract: Objective: To investigate phenotypic differences in dental development between isolated oligodontia and oligodontia-ectodermal dysplasia (ED). Setting and sample population: A total of 129 patients diagnosed with isolated oligodontia and 22 patients with oligodontia
Sener, R.N. (Dept. of Radiology, Ege Univ. Hospital, Izmir (Turkey))
This paper presents a unique case of true polycystic brain in which multiple cysts of curvilinear, round, oval, or layered configuration occurred. These apparently represented extremely dilated Virchow-Robin spaces: the perivascular spaces lined by ependymal/leptomeningeal cells. Irregular retinal pigment epithelium was also evident. In addition, the patient showed ectodermal dysplasia manifesting as thin hair, dystrophic nails, and dental abnormalities. A common ectodermal origin for the brain cysts and the ectodermal changes is proposed, as it is known that the central nervous system (including the ependymal/leptomeningeal cells and the retinal cells), the epidermis (including hair and nails), and the enamel of the teeth have the same origin - the embryonic ectoderm. This association appears to be a new, distinct neurocutaneous syndrome. (orig.)
Callea, Michele; Yavuz, Izzet; Clarich, Gabriella; Cammarata-Scalisi, Francisco
Ectodermal dysplasia encompasses more than 200 clinically distinct entities, which affect at least two structures derived from the ectoderm, including the skin, hair, nails, teeth, sweat glands, and sebaceous glands. X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia is the most common type and is caused by mutation of the EDA gene that encodes Ectodysplasin-A. It occurs in less than 1 in 100 000 individuals and is clinically characterized by hypodontia, hypohidrosis, hypotrichosis, and eye dis orders. We present a child evaluated in a multidisciplinary manner with clinical and molecular diagnosis of X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia with type missense mutation c.1133C> T; p.T378M in EDA gene.
Rossi, A; Miraglia, E; Fortuna, M C; Calvieri, S; Giustini, S
Ectodermal dysplasia is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of inherited disorders characterized by abnormal development of two or more of the following ectodermal-derived structures: hair, teeth, nails and sweat glands. The hair is the most frequently affected structure. Hair shaft abnormalities are of great concern to these patients, but no effective treatments are available. We describe three girls with congenital hypotrichosis (9, 5 and 6 years old) caused by ectodermal dysplasia treated with topical cetirizine solution (2 mL. once daily) and oral vitamin D supplementation (1000 IU daily). After 6 months of treatment, the density of hair on the scalp increased in all patients. The vellus hair was replaced by terminal hair. Hair regrowth was evaluated both from the clinical and trichoscopic point of view. We propose a combination of topical cetirizine and oral vitamin D as a rational treatment of choice in congenital hypotrichosis caused by ectodermal dysplasia. © 2016 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.
Robinson, Geoffrey C.; And Others
Conductive hearing loss associated with the ectrodactyly, ectodermal dysplasia, and cleft lip palate syndrome was reported in one sporadic case and in a pedigree with four cases in three generations. (GW)
Kumpanya, P; Matshumba, M; Sekele, I B; Mayunga, M; Lutula, P S; Ntumba, M K
The authors describe the ectodermal Capdepont syndrome as an anomaly characterized by anhidrosis, hypotrichosis and anodontia diagnosed in a 22 year-old adult. In front of this anodontia, oral prosthetic rehabilitation remains the only solution.
Mello, Bianca Zeponi Fernandes; Silva, Thiago Cruvinel; Rios, Daniela; Machado, Maria Aparecida Andrade Moreira; Valarelli, Fabrício Pinelli; Oliveira, Thais Marchini
Ectodermal dysplasia is a rare congenital disease that affects several structures of ectodermal origin. The most commonly related oral characteristics are hypodontia, malformed teeth and underdeveloped alveolar ridges. New alternative treatments are needed due to the failure of the conventional prosthesis retention. This case report outlines the oral rehabilitation treatment of a 9-year-old girl with ectodermal dysplasia. The treatment was performed with conventional prosthesis upon mini-implants. The mini-implants provided prosthetic retention. The patient reported a good adaptation of the dental prosthesis and satisfaction with the treatment. The increased self-esteem improved the socialization skills of the girl. In this case report, use of prosthesis with mini-implants was satisfactory for prosthetic retention. However, clinical studies with long-term follow-up are needed to test the mini-implants as an alternative for oral rehabilitation of children with ectodermal dysplasia.
This paper presents a unique case of true polycystic brain in which multiple cysts of curvilinear, round, oval, or layered configuration occurred. These apparently represented extremely dilated Virchow-Robin spaces: the perivascular spaces lined by ependymal/leptomeningeal cells. Irregular retinal pigment epithelium was also evident. In addition, the patient showed ectodermal dysplasia manifesting as thin hair, dystrophic nails, and dental abnormalities. A common ectodermal origin for the brain cysts and the ectodermal changes is proposed, as it is known that the central nervous system (including the ependymal/leptomeningeal cells and the retinal cells), the epidermis (including hair and nails), and the enamel of the teeth have the same origin - the embryonic ectoderm. This association appears to be a new, distinct neurocutaneous syndrome. (orig.)
Goyal, Manisha; Pradhan, Gaurav; Gupta, Sunita; Kapoor, Seema
The ectodermal dysplasias are a heterogenous group of diseases, which have one or more anomalies of the hair, teeth, nails, and sweat glands. Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) is the most common type and is usually transmitted as an X-linked recessive trait. It is characterized by classical triad of hypotrichosis, anhidrosis/hypohidrosis, and hypodontia/anodontia. Here, we describe an Indian boy affected with HED and rare features including ankylosis of temporomandibular joint and cleft palate. PMID:25684924
Henningsen, Emil; Svendsen, Mathias Tiedemann; Lildballe, D. L.
We report on a 2-year-old girl presenting with a severe form of hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED). The patient presented with hypotrichosis, anodontia, hypohidrosis, frontal bossing, prominent lips and ears, dry, pale skin, and dermatitis. The patient had chronic rhinitis with malodorous......-mediated NF-kB signalling. This complete loss-of-function mutation likely accounts for the severe clinical abnormalities in ectodermal structures in the described patient. (C) 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc....
Full Text Available The ectodermal dysplasias are a heterogenous group of diseases, which have one or more anomalies of the hair, teeth, nails, and sweat glands. Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED is the most common type and is usually transmitted as an X-linked recessive trait. It is characterized by classical triad of hypotrichosis, anhidrosis/hypohidrosis, and hypodontia/anodontia. Here, we describe an Indian boy affected with HED and rare features including ankylosis of temporomandibular joint and cleft palate.
Full Text Available The aim was to present the successful esthetical and functional rehabilitation of partial anodontia in a case of severe ectodermal dysplasia with complete atrophy of the jaws. A 17-year-old male with Class III malocclusion with partial anodontia sought dental implant treatment. His expectation was that of Class I occlusion. The challenge in the case was to match the expectation, reality, and the clinical possibilities. Ridge augmentation was performed with a combination of rib graft and recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2. Simultaneously, 6 implants (Nobel Biocare™ - Tapered Groovy were placed in maxillary arch and 10 in the mandible. Simultaneous placement ensured faster and better osseointegration though a mild compromise of the primary stability was observed initially. After adequate healing, Customized Zirconia Procera™ system was used to build the framework. Zirconia crown was cemented to the framework. Radiological and clinical evidence of osseointegration was observed in all 16 dental implants. Successful conversion of Class III to Class I occlusion was achieved with the combination of preprosthetic alveolar ridge augmentation, Procera™ Implant Bridge system. Abnormal angulations and or placement of dental implants would result in failure of the implant. Hence conversion of Class III to Class I occlusion needs complete and complex treatment planning so that the entire masticatory apparatus is sufficiently remodeled. Planning should consider the resultant vectors that would otherwise result in failure of framework or compromise the secondary stability of the dental implant during function. A successful case of rehabilitation of complex partial anodontia is presented.
Maxim, Rolanda A.; Zinner, Samuel H.; Matsuo, Hisako; Prosser, Theresa M.; Fete, Mary; Leet, Terry L.; Fete, Timothy J.
Objective. Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) is an X-linked hereditary disorder characterized by hypohidrosis, hypotrichosis, and anomalous dentition. Estimates of up to 50% of affected children having intellectual disability are controversial. Method. In a cross-sectional study, 45 youth with HED (77% males, mean age 9.75 years) and 59 matched unaffected controls (70% males, mean age 9.79 years) were administered the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test and the Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement, and their parents completed standardized neurodevelopmental and behavioral measures, educational, and health-related information regarding their child, as well as standardized and nonstandardized data regarding socioeconomic information for their family. Results. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in intelligence quotient composite and educational achievement scores, suggesting absence of learning disability in either group. No gender differences within or between groups were found on any performance measures. Among affected youth, parental education level correlated positively with (1) cognitive vocabulary scores and cognitive composite scores; (2) educational achievement for mathematics, reading, and composite scores. Conclusion. Youth affected with HED and unaffected matched peers have similar profiles on standardized measures of cognition, educational achievement, and adaptive functioning although children with HED may be at increased risk for ADHD. PMID:22536143
Rolanda A. Maxim
Full Text Available Objective. Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED is an X-linked hereditary disorder characterized by hypohidrosis, hypotrichosis, and anomalous dentition. Estimates of up to 50% of affected children having intellectual disability are controversial. Method. In a cross-sectional study, 45 youth with HED (77% males, mean age 9.75 years and 59 matched unaffected controls (70% males, mean age 9.79 years were administered the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test and the Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement, and their parents completed standardized neurodevelopmental and behavioral measures, educational, and health-related information regarding their child, as well as standardized and nonstandardized data regarding socioeconomic information for their family. Results. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in intelligence quotient composite and educational achievement scores, suggesting absence of learning disability in either group. No gender differences within or between groups were found on any performance measures. Among affected youth, parental education level correlated positively with (1 cognitive vocabulary scores and cognitive composite scores; (2 educational achievement for mathematics, reading, and composite scores. Conclusion. Youth affected with HED and unaffected matched peers have similar profiles on standardized measures of cognition, educational achievement, and adaptive functioning although children with HED may be at increased risk for ADHD.
Verheyden, Jamie M; Sun, Xin
More than sixty years ago, while studying feather tracks on the shoulder of the chick embryo, Dr. John Saunders used Nile Blue dye to stain the tissue. There, he noticed a darkly stained line of cells that neatly rims the tip of the growing limb bud. Rather than ignoring this observation, he followed it up by removing this tissue and found that it led to a striking truncation of the limb skeletons. This landmark experiment marks the serendipitous discovery of the apical ectodermal ridge (AER), the quintessential embryonic structure that drives the outgrowth of the limb. Dr. Saunders continued to lead the limb field for the next fifty years, not just through his own work, but also by inspiring the next generation of researchers through his infectious love of science. Together, he and those who followed ushered in the discovery of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) as the AER molecule. The seamless marriage of embryology and molecular biology that led to the decoding of the AER serves as a shining example of how discoveries are made for the rest of the developmental biology field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bibi, Nosheen; Ahmad, Saeed; Ahmad, Wasim; Naeem, Muhammad
Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia is an inherited disorder characterized by defective development of teeth, hairs and sweat glands. X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia is caused by mutations in the EDA gene, and autosomal forms of hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia are caused by mutations in either the EDAR or the EDARADD genes. To study the molecular genetic cause of autosomal recessive hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia in three consanguineous Pakistani families (A, B and C), genotyping of 13 individuals was carried out by using polymorphic microsatellite markers that are closely linked to the EDAR gene on chromosome 2q11-q13 and the EDARADD gene on chromosome 1q42.2-q43. The results revealed linkage in the three families to the EDAR locus. Sequence analysis of the coding exons and splice junctions of the EDAR gene revealed two mutations: a novel non-sense mutation (p.E124X) in the probands of families A and B and a missense mutation (p.G382S) in the proband of family C. In addition, two synonymous single-nucleotide polymorphisms were also identified. The finding of mutations in Pakistani families extends the body of evidence that supports the importance of EDAR for the development of hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia. © 2010 The Authors. Australasian Journal of Dermatology © 2010 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.
Li, Jing; Wang, Shusheng; Anderson, Chastain; Zhao, Fangkun; Qin, Yu; Wu, Di; Wu, Xinwei; Liu, Jia; He, Xuefei; Zhao, Jiangyue; Zhang, Jinsong
Microphthalmia is characterized by abnormally small eyes and usually retinal dysplasia, accounting for up to 11% of the blindness in children. Right now there is no effective treatment for the disease, and the underlying mechanisms, especially how retinal dysplasia develops from microphthalmia and whether it depends on the signals from lens ectoderm are still unclear. Mutations in genes of the TGF-β superfamily have been noted in patients with microphthalmia. Using conditional knockout mice, here we address the question that whether ocular surface ectoderm-derived Smad4 modulates retinal development. We found that loss of Smad4 specifically on surface lens ectoderm leads to microphthalmia and dysplasia of retina. Retinal dysplasia in the knockout mice is caused by the delayed or failed differentiation and apoptosis of retinal cells. Microarray analyses revealed that members of Hedgehog and Wnt signaling pathways are affected in the knockout retinas, suggesting that ocular surface ectoderm-derived Smad4 can regulate Hedgehog and Wnt signaling in the retina. Our studies suggest that defective of ocular surface ectoderm may affect retinal development.
Chrcanovic, Bruno Ramos
This study sought to assess the clinical outcome and survival rate of oral implants placed in individuals with ectodermal dysplasia (ED), based on previously published studies. An electronic search without time restrictions was undertaken in 5 databases (PubMed/Medline, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, J-Stage, Lilacs). Descriptive statistics, Kaplan Meier estimator and implant failure probability were calculated. 90 publications were included, reporting 228 ED patients that received 1472 implants (1392 conventional, 47 zygomatic, 33 mini-implants). Mean age of the patients was 20.2 ± 6.8 years (2-56). Patients had a mean of 3.2 ± 2.5 maxillary and 2.1 ± 2.6 mandibular permanent teeth (min-max, 0-14). Patients received a mean of 8.2 ± 3.8 implants (1-20). Most implants were placed in the third decade of life, 24.6% of the implants were placed in children (0-17 years of age). 1391 implants had information on follow-up (72 failures, 5.2%). The 20-year CSR was 84.6%. The probability of failure was 4.5% (95%CI 3.5%-5.6%, p < 0.001). Additional treatments performed were Le Fort I (99 implants, 20 patients, 3.5% failed), grafting (497 implants, 77 patients, 5.2% failed), distraction osteogenesis (79 implants, 16 patients, 10.1% failed). Mean follow-up was 42.9 ± 41.9 months (min-max, 2-240). Dental implants placed in ED patients, either infants or adults, present a high survival rate (20-year CSR 84.6%). Copyright © 2018 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Eisenkraft, A.; Pode-Shakked, B.; Goldstein, N.; Shpirer, Z.; Bokhoven, H. van; Anikster, Y.
Mutations in the TP63 gene have been associated with a variety of ectodermal dysplasia syndromes, among which the clinically overlapping Ankyloblepharon-Ectodermal defects-Cleft lip/palate (AEC) and the Rapp-Hodgkin syndromes. We report a multiplex nonconsanguineous family of Ashkenazi-Jewish
Buket Uysal Aladag
Full Text Available Ectrodactyly, ectodermal dysplasia, cleft lip, and palate syndrome (EEC is a genetic developmental disorder characterized by ectrodactyly, ectodermal dysplasia and orofacial clefts (cleft lip/ palate. A few cases have been reported in literature. The cardinal components of the syndrome are ectrodactyly and syndactyly of the hands and feet, cleft lip with or without cleft palate, and abnormalities ectodermal structures including skin (i.e. hypopigmented and dry skin, hyperkeratosis, skin atrophy, hair (sparse hair and eye brows, teeth (small, absent or dysplastic teeth, nails (nail dystrophy and exocrine glands (reduction/ absence of sweat, sebaceous and salivary glands. A multidisciplinary approach for treatment is needed which is co-ordinated by orthopedic, plastic, dental surgeons, ophthalmologist, dermatologists and speech therapists, psychologists. We presented EEC syndrome case with hydrocephaly by the literature. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(3.000: 531-535
Ahiskalioglu, Elif Oral; Ahiskalioglu, Ali; Firinci, Binali; Dostbil, Aysenur; Aksoy, Mehmet
Ectodermal dysplasias are rare conditions with a triad of hypotrichosis, anodontia and anhidrosis. In literature review there have been only a few reports of anesthetic management of patients with ectodermal dysplasias. Hyperthermia is a very serious risk which may occur due to the defect of sweat glands. The present case involves a 10-year-old child with ectodermal dysplasia who presented with an acute abdomen and was considered for an emergency surgery. Our aim was to demonstrate the successful management of this case using a combination of general and epidural anesthesia. It is important for anesthesiologist to have information about this syndrome in case of emergency operations, since it can prevent serious complications and even save lives. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Ectodermal dysplasia represents a rare syndrome affecting two or more ectodermally derived structures. The condition is thought to occur in approximately 1 in every 100,000 live births. It affects men more frequently and severely, while women being the carriers and heterozygote usually show minor defects. There are more than 150 different variants of ectodermal dysplasia (ED reported in the literature. Most commonly encountered among them is hypohidrotic ED which frequently exhibits the most severe dental anomalies like hypodontia or anodontia along with hypohidrosis and hypotrichosis. Here we make an attempt to collectively report and discuss eleven South Indian patients who reported to our department during the year 1998 to 2004. An added emphasis is laid on family history of consanguineous marriage among the parents of these patients.
Full Text Available Ectodermal dysplasias are rare hereditary disorders characterized by abnormal development of certain tissues and structures of ectodermal origin. The condition is of importance to dentists as it affects the teeth resulting in hypodontia or anodontia, and a dentist plays an important role in the rehabilitation of the patient. Apart from having difficulties in eating and speaking, young affected individuals can also feel that they look different from their contemporaries resulting in low self-esteem. Well-fitting and functioning prosthesis could be a great help during their schooling years, as it will improve appearance and thus boost their self-confidence. We report a case of hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia in a 12-year-old girl who exhibited partial anodontia, and a multidisciplinary approach comprising restorative, orthodontic, surgical, and prosthetic treatment was planned to rehabilitate the girl.The aim of the treatment was to improve psychological development apart from promoting better functioning of the stomatognathic system.
Elif Oral Ahiskalioglu
Full Text Available Ectodermal dysplasias are rare conditions with a triad of hypotrichosis, anodontia and anhidrosis. In literature review there have been only a few reports of anesthetic management of patients with ectodermal dysplasias. Hyperthermia is a very serious risk which may occur due to the defect of sweat glands. The present case involves a 10-year-old child with ectodermal dysplasia who presented with an acute abdomen and was considered for an emergency surgery. Our aim was to demonstrate the successful management of this case using a combination of general and epidural anesthesia. It is important for anesthesiologist to have information about this syndrome in case of emergency operations, since it can prevent serious complications and even save lives.
Elif Oral Ahiskalioglu
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Ectodermal dysplasias are rare conditions with a triad of hypotrichosis, anodontia and anhidrosis. In literature review there have been only a few reports of anesthetic management of patients with ectodermal dysplasias. Hyperthermia is a very serious risk which may occur due to the defect of sweat glands. The present case involves a 10-year-old child with ectodermal dysplasia who presented with an acute abdomen and was considered for an emergency surgery. Our aim was to demonstrate the successful management of this case using a combination of general and epidural anesthesia. It is important for anesthesiologist to have information about this syndrome in case of emergency operations, since it can prevent serious complications and even save lives.
Shalom-Feuerstein, R.; Serror, L.; Aberdam, E.; Muller, F.J.; Bokhoven, H. van; Wiman, K.G.; Zhou, Huiqing; Aberdam, D.; Petit, I.
Ectodermal dysplasia is a group of congenital syndromes affecting a variety of ectodermal derivatives. Among them, ectrodactyly, ectodermal dysplasia, and cleft lip/palate (EEC) syndrome is caused by single point mutations in the p63 gene, which controls epidermal development and homeostasis.
Guazzarotti, L; Tadini, G; Mancini, G E; Giglio, S; Willoughby, C E; Callea, M; Sani, I; Nannini, P; Mameli, C; Tenconi, A A; Mauri, S; Bottero, A; Caimi, A; Morelli, M; Zuccotti, G V
Ectodermal dysplasias (EDs) are a group of genetic disorders characterized by the abnormal development of the ectodermal-derived structures. X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia, resulting from mutations in ED1 gene, is the most common form. The main purpose of this study was to characterize the phenotype spectrum in 45 males harboring ED1 mutations. The study showed that in addition to the involvement of the major ectodermal tissues, the majority of patients also have alterations of several minor ectodermal-derived structures. Characterizing the clinical spectrum resulting from ED1 gene mutations improves diagnosis and can direct clinical care. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Okamura, Erika; Suda, Naoto; Baba, Yoshiyuki; Fukuoka, Hiroki; Ogawa, Takuya; Ohkuma, Mizue; Ahiko, Nozomi; Yasue, Akihiro; Tengan, Toshimoto; Shiga, Momotoshi; Tsuji, Michiko; Moriyama, Keiji
Objective : Ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-clefting syndrome is a congenital anomaly characterized by ectodermal dysplasia, ectrodactyly, cleft lip and palate, and lacrimal duct anomalies. Because this syndrome is frequently accompanied by a congenital lack of teeth, narrow palate, and malocclusion, comprehensive orthodontic intervention is required. Design : To highlight the specific dental and maxillofacial characteristics of ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-clefting syndrome, six Japanese individuals diagnosed with the syndrome are described here. Patients : The subjects consisted of two boys and four girls (age range, 6.0 to 13.9 years) diagnosed with ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-clefting syndrome by medical and dental specialists. Their conditions included ectodermal dysplasia (hypodontia, microdontia, enamel hypoplasia, and abnormalities in hair and nails), cleft lip and/or palate, and ectrodactyly. Cephalograms, panoramic x-rays, and dental casts were taken; systemic complications were recorded at the first visit to our dental hospital. Results : All individuals had severe oligodontia with 9 to 18 missing teeth. The missing teeth were mainly maxillary and mandibular incisors and second bicuspids, arranged in a symmetrical manner. Cephalometric analysis showed retruded and short maxilla due to cleft lip and/or palate. It is interesting that all individuals showed a characteristically shaped mandibular symphysis with a retruded point B. It is likely that this unusual symphyseal morphology is due to the lack of mandibular incisors. Conclusions : This study demonstrates the presence of severe oligodontia in the incisal and premolar regions and describes a characteristic maxillary and mandibular structure in Japanese individuals with ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-clefting syndrome.
Girish Gulab Meshram
Full Text Available Ectodermal dysplasia (ED is a rare hereditary disorder involving two or more of the ectodermal structures, which include the skin, hair, nails, teeth, and sweat glands. The two most common forms of the disease are hypohidrotic/anhidrotic ED and hidrotic ED. They are caused by the mutations of several genes. We present a case of a 9-year-old child with hypohidrotic ED, who presented with hypodontia, dyshidrosis, hypotrichosis, and raised body temperature. We treated the raised body temperature symptomatically with cooling techniques and antipyretics. A multidisciplinary approach with physicians from several fields is required to provide comprehensive medical care to patients with ED.
Michael D. Keller
Full Text Available Ectodermal dysplasias (ED are uncommon genetic disorders resulting in abnormalities in ectodermally-derived structures. Though many ED-associated genes have been described, the NF-κB Essential Modulator (NEMO encoded by the IKBKG gene is unique in that mutations also result in severe humoral and cellular immunologic defects. We describe three unrelated kindreds with defects in both EDA and IKBKG resulting from an X-chromosome crossover. This demonstrates the importance of thorough immunologic consideration of patients with ED even when an EDA etiology is confirmed, and raises the possibility of a specific phenotype arising from coincident mutations in EDA and IKBKB.
Quintanilha, Luís Eduardo Lavigne Paranhos; Carneiro-Campos, Luís Eduardo; Antunes, Lívia Azeredo Alves; Antunes, Leonardo Santos; Fernandes, Claudio Pinheiro; Abreu, Fernanda Volpe
Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) is a rare ectodermal disease with a systemic expression. Oral abnormalities are common and may include hypodontia and shape irregularities in the primary and permanent dentitions. Rehabilitation of the dental arches in pediatric patients with HED is a challenge because HED is a multifactorial disease that demands a complicated treatment approach and most dentists have limited experience or training in the necessary treatment. In addition, pediatric patients often lack the patience or ability to cooperate with complex prosthetic treatment. This case report describes a simplified technique used to fabricate complete dentures for a 4-year-old HED patient in 4 sessions.
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Metwalley Kalil Kotb
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-cleft lip or palate syndrome (OMIM No. 129900 is characterized by the triad of ectrodactyly, ectodermal dysplasia and facial clefting (of the lip and/or palate. Holoprosencephaly denotes a failure in the division of the embryonic forebrain (prosencephalon into distinct lateral cerebral hemisphere. The association between ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-cleft lip or palate syndrome and holoprosencephaly is very rare. Here we report holoprosencephaly in an Egyptian infant with ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-cleft lip or palate syndrome. Case presentation An 11-month-old Egyptian female baby was referred to our institution for an evaluation of poor growth; the pregnancy and perinatal history were uneventful. On examination, her growth parameters were below the third centile, she had bilateral ectrodactyly of both hands and feet, dry rough skin, sparse hair of the scalp and operated right cleft lip and cleft palate. Computerized tomography of her brain revealed holoprosencephaly. Conclusion The importance of the early diagnosis of this syndrome should be emphasized in order to implement a multidisciplinary approach for proper management of such cases.
Doğan, Mehmet-Sinan; Callea, Michele; Yavuz, Ìzzet; Aksoy, Orhan; Clarich, Gabriella; Günay, Ayse; Günay, Ahmet; Güven, Sedat; Maglione, Michele; Akkuş, Zeki
This study aimed to review the results related to head and jaw disorders in cases of ectodermal dysplasia. The evaluation of ectodermal dysplasia cases was made by clinical examination and examination of the jaw and facial areas radiologically and on cone-beam 3-dimensional dental tomography (CBCT) images. In the 36 cases evaluated in the study, typical clinical findings of pure hypohidrotic ectodermal displasia (HED) were seen, such as missing teeth, dry skin, hair and nail disorders. CBCT images were obtained from 12 of the 36 cases, aged 1.5- 45 years, and orthodontic analyses were made on these images. The clinical and radiological evaluations determined, hypodontia or oligodontia, breathing problems, sweating problems, a history of fever, sparse hair, saddle nose, skin peeling, hypopigmentation, hyperpigmentation, finger and nail deformities, conical teeth anomalies, abnormal tooth root formation, tooth resorption in the root, gingivitis, history of epilepsy, absent lachrymal canals and vision problems in the cases which included to the study. Ectodermal dysplasia cases have a particular place in dentistry and require a professional, multi-disciplinary approach in respect of the chewing function, orthognathic problems, growth, oral and dental health. It has been understood that with data obtained from modern technologies such as three-dimensional dental tomography and the treatments applied, the quality of life of these cases can be improved.
Sfeir, E; Nassif, N; Moukarzel, C
Ectodermal dysplasia is a hereditary genodermatosis characterised by a congenital defect of ectodermal structures, causing tooth malformations and anomalies. Implantology has become accepted in these subjects. However cases are often complicated by a reduction in the size of the alveolar process, making the insertion of conventional implants difficult without bone grafting. The reduced diameter of mini-implants and their ease of insertion provide an interesting solution in supporting removable or fixed prosthesis. The purpose of this paper is to report the follow-up of three cases of children (11-12 year- old) with ectodermal dysplasia in which mini-implants were used to support the prostheses. In the first case, two mini-implants were inserted into the anterior part of the mandible for stabilising a removable denture (2 years follow-up). In the other two cases, mini- implants were inserted in the maxilla and mandible to replace missing front teeth with fixed prostheses. Patients were called for follow- up every 6 months: in the sencod case follow-up lasted 4 years in the mandible and 2 years in the maxilla; in the third case, 2 years in the maxilla and 1 year in the mandible. The use of mini-implants in children with ectodermal dysplasia can enhance aesthetics, and functional and psychosocial development.
Full Text Available Background. Female patients presenting amastia associated with ectodermal dysplasia are not frequently encountered, but they are of great clinical interest and surgically demanding. Traditionally, skin alterations related to Ectodermal Dysplasia have addressed plastic surgeons to perform a two-stage approach in amastia associated with this congenital pathologic condition. This article describes an alternative method for correcting this deformity trough a mammary reconstruction in one surgical stage. Materials and Methods. We report a case of 26-year-old female patient with bilateral amastia associated with ectodermal dysplasia. Amastia in this patient was treated with implantation of subpectoral silicone gel prostheses, without previously breast tissue expansion. Results. At 18 months of follow-up after surgey, there were no complications and excellent cosmetic results were achieved. Patient and surgeon satisfaction was high and the patient underwent a bilateral areola-tattoo. Conclusions. One-stage mammary reconstruction have showed to be a reliable and effective technique also when amastia is associated with Ectodermal Dysplasia, suggesting a still satisfying biomechanical performance of the skin in this pathology.
Rostagno, P.; Wolchinsky, Z.; Vigano, A.M.; Shivtiel, S.; Zhou, Huiqing; Bokhoven, J.H.L.M. van; Ferone, G.; Missero, C.; Mantovani, R.; Aberdam, D.; Virolle, T.
Heterozygous mutations in the TP63 transcription factor underlie the molecular basis of several similar autosomal dominant ectodermal dysplasia (ED) syndromes. Here we provide a novel cellular model derived from embryonic stem (ES) cells that recapitulates in vitro the main steps of embryonic skin
Goodwin, Alice F; Larson, Jacinda R; Jones, Kyle B; Liberton, Denise K; Landan, Maya; Wang, Zhifeng; Boekelheide, Anne; Langham, Margaret; Mushegyan, Vagan; Oberoi, Snehlata; Brao, Rosalie; Wen, Timothy; Johnson, Ramsey; Huttner, Kenneth; Grange, Dorothy K; Spritz, Richard A; Hallgrímsson, Benedikt; Jheon, Andrew H; Klein, Ophir D
Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) is the most prevalent type of ectodermal dysplasia (ED). ED is an umbrella term for a group of syndromes characterized by missing or malformed ectodermal structures, including skin, hair, sweat glands, and teeth. The X-linked recessive (XL), autosomal recessive (AR), and autosomal dominant (AD) types of HED are caused by mutations in the genes encoding ectodysplasin (EDA1), EDA receptor (EDAR), or EDAR-associated death domain (EDARADD). Patients with HED have a distinctive facial appearance, yet a quantitative analysis of the HED craniofacial phenotype using advanced three-dimensional (3D) technologies has not been reported. In this study, we characterized craniofacial morphology in subjects with X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (XLHED) by use of 3D imaging and geometric morphometrics (GM), a technique that uses defined landmarks to quantify size and shape in complex craniofacial morphologies. We found that the XLHED craniofacial phenotype differed significantly from controls. Patients had a smaller and shorter face with a proportionally longer chin and midface, prominent midfacial hypoplasia, a more protrusive chin and mandible, a narrower and more pointed nose, shorter philtrum, a narrower mouth, and a fuller and more rounded lower lip. Our findings refine the phenotype of XLHED and may be useful both for clinical diagnosis of XLHED and to extend understanding of the role of EDA in craniofacial development.
van der Hout, Annemarie H.; Oudesluijs, Gretel G.; Venema, Andrea; Verheij, Joke B. G. M.; Mol, Bart G. J.; Rump, Patrick; Brunner, Han G.; Vos, Yvonne J.; van Essen, Anthonie J.
Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) can be caused by mutations in the X-linked ectodysplasin A (ED1) gene or the autosomal ectodysplasin A-receptor (EDAR) and EDAR-associated death domain (EDARADD) genes. X-linked and autosomal forms are sometimes clinically indistinguishable. For genetic
Full Text Available Ectodermal dysplasia is a hereditary disorder that is rarely seen with approximately 7000 cases in the world. In this disorder, Ectodermal dysplasia occurs as a developmental disorder of organ structures derived from the ectodermal layer such as hair, teeth, nails, and sweat glands. This is a case report of ectodermal dysplasia in a 14-year-old girl with clinical manifestations of oligodontia (tooth loss, more than 6 teeth on the upper and lower jaw, thin and curly hair, abnormal toenail shape, and impaired excretion of sweat. The purpose of the treatment was to make the patient regains her esthetic and masticatory functions, which were disrupted by the absence of permanent tooth buds, as well as to maintain the normal growth of the developing jaws. Treatment for the patient’s with oligodontia included the use of removable denture in lower jaw and application of acrylic crowns on all upper and lower anterior teeth resulting in improved esthetics and masticatory function. It is concluded that the treatment has been able to improve the esthetics and to return the masticatory function of the patient while maintaining the normal growth of the jaws.
Morales Torres, Cristina; Laugesen, Anne; Helin, Kristian
to the establishment of ectoderm and mesoderm in vitro. Interestingly, this contribution is independent of the catalytic activity of Utx. Furthermore, we provide data showing that the Utx homologue, Uty, which is devoid of detectable demethylase activity, and Jmjd3 partly compensate for the loss of Utx. Taken together...
Issa, Yasmin A; Kamal, Lara; Rayyan, Amal Abu; Dweik, Dima; Pierce, Sarah; Lee, Ming K; King, Mary-Claire; Walsh, Tom; Kanaan, Moien
Tooth development is controlled by the same processes that regulate formation of other ectodermal structures. Mutations in the genes underlying these processes may cause ectodermal dysplasia, including severe absence of primary or permanent teeth. Four consanguineous Palestinian families presented with oligodontia and hair and skin features of ectodermal dysplasia. Appearance of ectodermal dysplasia was consistent with autosomal recessive inheritance. Exome sequencing followed by genotyping of 56 informative relatives in the 4 families suggests that the phenotype is due to homozygosity for KREMEN1 p.F209S (c.626 T>C) on chromosome 22 at g.29,521,399 (hg19). The variant occurs in the highly conserved extracellular WSC domain of KREMEN1, which is known to be a high affinity receptor of Dickkopf-1, a component of the Dickkopf-Kremen-LRP6 complex, and a potent regulator of Wnt signaling. The Wnt signaling pathway is critical to development of ectodermal structures. Mutations in WNT10A, LRP6, EDA, and other genes in this pathway lead to tooth agenesis with or without other ectodermal anomalies. Our results implicate KREMEN1 for the first time in a human disorder and provide additional details on the role of the Wnt signaling in ectodermal and dental development.
Irvine, Alan D
The ectodermal dysplasias include a complex and highly diverse group of heritable disorders that share in common developmental abnormalities of ectodermal derivatives. The broader definition of ectodermal dysplasias (as heritable disorders involving at least two of the ectodermal derivatives nails, teeth, hair, and eccrine sweat glands) encompasses 170-200 conditions. Some conditions included by this definition are relatively common; others are rare and, in some cases, family-specific. Classification of the ectodermal dysplasias has largely been approached by categorizing patterns of clinical findings (phenotypic grouping). In the last 2 decades great progress has been made in understanding the molecular pathogenesis and inter-relatedness of some of these conditions and a new consensus approach to classification that incorporates this new information is needed. A comprehensive and definitive classification of these disorders would be highly valuable for the many stakeholders in ED. As disease-specific molecular treatments are developed, accurate classification will assume greater importance in designing registries to enable rapid identification of those with rare disorders who may wish to participate in clinical trials. Ideally a working classification of such a disparate collection of conditions would have a design and architecture that would facilitate easy accessibility by each of the key stakeholder groups and would encourage enhanced interaction between these parties. Attaining this objective is a major challenge but is achievable. This article reviews the historical-clinical perspective and the impact of recent developments in molecular biology in the field. Reflections are offered as to the future direction of classification systems in these disorders.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of all health deficiencies currently listed on Nursing Home Compare, including the nursing home that received the deficiency, the associated inspection date,...
Karthik M. Sadashiva
Full Text Available Anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia is a triad of hypodontia or anodontia, hypotrichosis, and hypohydrosis, associated with other problems that result from the defective development of structures of ectodermal origin (Freire-Maia, Pinheiro (1988. Early and extensive dental treatment is needed keeping in mind the effect on the craniofacial growth. Due to rapid growth of the jaws, the patients are rehabilitated using removable prostheses (Tarjan et al. (2005. Hence for a young patient in this case report, the placement of endosseous osseointegrated implants was delayed till adulthood. Finally a definitive fixed tooth-supported and osseointegrated implant supported fixed partial denture therapy was used to rehabilitate the patient satisfactorily after she had completed her growth (Sweeney et al. (2005. A review of the current literature relevant to several aspects of syndromic hypodontia, patient selection, and implant planning is discussed.
Ahmad, Farooq; Nasir, Abdul; Thiele, Holger; Umair, Muhammad; Borck, Guntram; Ahmad, Wasim
Ectodermal dysplasia syndactyly syndrome 1 (EDSS1) is a rare form of ectodermal dysplasia including anomalies of hair, nails, and teeth along with bilateral cutaneous syndactyly of hands and feet. In the present report, we performed a clinical and genetic characterization of a consanguineous Pakistani family with four individuals affected by EDSS1. We performed exome sequencing using DNA of one affected individual. Exome data analysis identified a novel homozygous missense variant (c.242T>C; p.(Leu81Pro)) in NECTIN4 (PVRL4). Sanger sequencing validated this variant and confirmed its cosegregation with the disease phenotype in the family members. Thus, our report adds a novel variant to the NECTIN4 mutation spectrum and contributes to the NECTIN4-related clinical characterization. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/University College London.
Henningsen, Emil; Svendsen, Mathias Tiedemann; Lildballe, Dorte Launholt; Jensen, Peter Kjestrup Axel
We report on a 2-year-old girl presenting with a severe form of hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED). The patient presented with hypotrichosis, anodontia, hypohidrosis, frontal bossing, prominent lips and ears, dry, pale skin, and dermatitis. The patient had chronic rhinitis with malodorous nasal discharge. The girl was the second born child of first-cousin immigrants from Northern Iraq. A novel homozygous mutation (c.84delC) in the EDAR gene was identified. This mutation most likely causes a frameshift in the protein product (p.S29fs*74). This results in abolition of all ectodysplasin-mediated NF-kB signalling. This complete loss-of-function mutation likely accounts for the severe clinical abnormalities in ectodermal structures in the described patient. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Gupta, Mudit; Sundaresh, Kumbar Jayadevappa; Batra, Manu; Rathva, Vandana J
Ectodermal dysplasia (ED) refers to a group of inherited diseases that have developmental defects in at least two major structures derived from the ectoderm, that is, hair, teeth, nails and sweat glands. Although more than 192 distinct disorders have been described, the most common is X-linked recessive hypohidrotic ED (Christ-Siemens-Touraine syndrome). Since such patients usually presents with missing teeth, dentists are usually the first person to diagnose such cases. Diagnosis of such cases is important because absence of sweat glands can lead to hyperthermia which can be life-threatening if proper care is not taken. Through this manuscript, we report a case of anhidrotic ED affecting deciduous and permanent dentition, which is rare. PMID:24493109
Toomarian, Lida; Ardakani, Mohammad Reza Talebi; Ramezani, Jamileh; Adli, Amin Rezaei; Tabari, Zahra Alizadeh
Ectodermal dysplasia (ED) is an inherited disorder that affects ectodermally derived organs, such as teeth. Pathogenesis is thought to involve an altered epithelium-mesenchymal interaction. ED patients have oligodontia (or sometimes anodontia) in addition to other abnormalities involving the skin, sweat glands, or hair. Many different subtypes have been introduced in the literature. This article describes the case of a 4-year-old patient who, after being diagnosed with ED, was put on a treatment plan that involved mandibular implants, reshaping of the maxillary primary central incisors, and prosthetic dental rehabilitation. Due to the child's rapid growth, both dentures were changed 9 months post-treatment. Two years post-treatment, the maxillary denture was changed again and the child was placed under close supervision.
Dhamo, B; Kuijpers, M A R; Balk-Leurs, I; Boxum, C; Wolvius, E B; Ongkosuwito, E M
To investigate phenotypic differences in dental development between isolated oligodontia and oligodontia-ectodermal dysplasia (ED). A total of 129 patients diagnosed with isolated oligodontia and 22 patients with oligodontia as part of ED were eligible. The phenotype of dental development was assessed for the frequency of missing a certain tooth, dental age, development of each tooth present, abnormal size and abnormal shape of teeth. The data were analysed building linear, ordinal and logistic regression models. Compared to patients with isolated oligodontia, patients with oligodontia-ED missed more frequently central incisors and second molars in both jaws, and lateral incisors in the mandible (P ectodermal abnormalities. © 2017 The Authors. Orthodontics & Craniofacial Research Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Jadalannagari, Sushma; Aljitawi, Omar S
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from Wharton's jelly (WJ) of the human umbilical cord are perinatal stem cells that have self-renewal ability, extended proliferation potential, immunosuppressive properties, and are accordingly excellent candidates for tissue engineering. These MSCs are unique, easily accessible, and a noncontroversial cell source of regeneration in medicine. Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cells (WJMSCs) are multipotent and capable of multilineage differentiation into cells like adipocytes, bone, cartilage, and skeletal muscle upon exposure to appropriate conditions. The ectoderm is one of the three primary germ layers found in the very early embryo that differentiates into the epidermis, nervous system (spine, peripheral nerves, brain), and exocrine glands (mammary, sweat, salivary, and lacrimal glands). Accumulating evidence shows that MSCs obtained from WJ have an ectodermal differentiation potential. The current review examines this differentiation potential of WJMSC into the hair follicle, skin, neurons, and sweat glands along with discussing the potential utilization of such differentiation in regenerative medicine.
Rachmiel, Adi; Emodi, Omri; Aizenbud, Dror; Shilo, Dekel
Background: Ectrodactyly ectodermal dysplasia-cleft syndrome is a rare genetic syndrome with an incidence of 1/90,000 live births, characterized by cleft lip and palate, severely hypoplastic maxilla, and hypodontia. Patients diagnosed with ectrodactyly ectodermal dysplasia-cleft syndrome suffer from a severely hypoplastic maxilla that is highly difficult to treat using traditional orthognathic methods. In this study, we propose using distraction osteogenesis to achieve a major advancement while maintaining good stability and minimal relapse. To our knowledge, this is the first description of patients with this syndrome treated using distraction osteogenesis. Methods: Five patients diagnosed with ectrodactyly ectodermal dysplasia-cleft syndrome were included in the study. All patients had been operated on according to the well-established protocol of cleft lip and palate reconstruction before maxillary distraction osteogenesis. Hard and soft-tissue changes were evaluated by cone beam computed tomography and lateral cephalograms before distraction osteogenesis (T1), at the postdistraction point (T2) and after 1 year of follow-up (T3). Results: Examination revealed marked maxillary advancement in all our patients with a significant mean difference in hard tissue parameters (condylion to A point = 18 mm; nasion-sella line to A point = 15.2 degrees) and a notable improvement in facial convexity (20.9 degrees). One year follow-up measurements demonstrated mild relapse rates of 6% in the horizontal plane. Conclusions: We conclude that despite the challenging anatomic and physiological features of ectrodactyly ectodermal dysplasia-cleft patients, by enhancing current surgical techniques, there is promising potential for improved patient outcomes, achieving normognathic facial appearance with implant supported rehabilitation. PMID:29616174
Burger, Kristin; Schneider, Anne-Theres; Wohlfart, Sigrun; Kiesewetter, Franklin; Huttner, Kenneth; Johnson, Ramsey; Schneider, Holm
X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (XLHED), the most frequent form of ectodermal dysplasia, is a genetic disorder of ectoderm development characterized by malformation of multiple ectodermal structures such as skin, hair, sweat and sebaceous glands, and teeth. The disease is caused by a broad spectrum of mutations in the gene EDA. Although XLHED symptoms show inter-familial and intra-familial variability, genotype-phenotype correlation has been demonstrated with respect to sweat gland function. In this study, we investigated to which extent the EDA genotype correlates with the severity of XLHED-related skin and hair signs. Nineteen male children with XLHED (age range 3-14 years) and seven controls (aged 6-14 years) were examined by confocal microscopy of the skin, quantification of pilocarpine-induced sweating, semi-quantitative evaluation of full facial photographs with respect to XLHED-related skin issues, and phototrichogram analysis. All eight boys with known hypomorphic EDA mutations were able to produce at least some sweat and showed less severe cutaneous signs of XLHED than the anhidrotic XLHED patients (e.g., perioral and periorbital eczema or hyperpigmentation, regional hyperkeratosis, characteristic wrinkles under the eyes). As expected, individuals with XLHED had significantly less and thinner hair than healthy controls. However, there were also significant differences in hair number, diameter, and other hair characteristics between the group with hypomorphic EDA mutations and the anhidrotic patients. In summary, this study indicated a remarkable genotype-phenotype correlation of skin and hair findings in prepubescent males with XLHED. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Rachmiel, Adi; Turgeman, Shahar; Emodi, Omri; Aizenbud, Dror; Shilo, Dekel
Ectrodactyly ectodermal dysplasia-cleft syndrome is a rare genetic syndrome with an incidence of 1/90,000 live births, characterized by cleft lip and palate, severely hypoplastic maxilla, and hypodontia. Patients diagnosed with ectrodactyly ectodermal dysplasia-cleft syndrome suffer from a severely hypoplastic maxilla that is highly difficult to treat using traditional orthognathic methods. In this study, we propose using distraction osteogenesis to achieve a major advancement while maintaining good stability and minimal relapse. To our knowledge, this is the first description of patients with this syndrome treated using distraction osteogenesis. Five patients diagnosed with ectrodactyly ectodermal dysplasia-cleft syndrome were included in the study. All patients had been operated on according to the well-established protocol of cleft lip and palate reconstruction before maxillary distraction osteogenesis. Hard and soft-tissue changes were evaluated by cone beam computed tomography and lateral cephalograms before distraction osteogenesis (T1), at the postdistraction point (T2) and after 1 year of follow-up (T3). Examination revealed marked maxillary advancement in all our patients with a significant mean difference in hard tissue parameters (condylion to A point = 18 mm; nasion-sella line to A point = 15.2 degrees) and a notable improvement in facial convexity (20.9 degrees). One year follow-up measurements demonstrated mild relapse rates of 6% in the horizontal plane. We conclude that despite the challenging anatomic and physiological features of ectrodactyly ectodermal dysplasia-cleft patients, by enhancing current surgical techniques, there is promising potential for improved patient outcomes, achieving normognathic facial appearance with implant supported rehabilitation.
Full Text Available Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED is a rare group of disorders affecting the hair, teeth, nails and sweat glands to a variable degree. There is a wide range of clinical presentation of HED. Missing teeth or abnormal tooth form may be the first indicator of the disorder. We present a case report of 5 cases of HED with their intraoral findings and their treatment plan. We also consider the various etiological factors and their clinical diagnostic aids.
Full Text Available Ectodermal dysplasia (ED represents a group of patients with mild to severe congenital and developmental anomalies. Dentists are the first person to identify ED in young patients. The impairment is not just the form and function but extends to the social outlook as well as the psychology of the affected individual. This case report describes management of ED with a long-span fixed partial denture fabricated using a Broadrick flag.
Schlosser, Gerhard; Patthey, Cedric; Shimeld, Sebastian M
Cranial placodes are evolutionary innovations of vertebrates. However, they most likely evolved by redeployment, rewiring and diversification of preexisting cell types and patterning mechanisms. In the second part of this review we compare vertebrates with other animal groups to elucidate the evolutionary history of ectodermal patterning. We show that several transcription factors have ancient bilaterian roles in dorsoventral and anteroposterior regionalisation of the ectoderm. Evidence from amphioxus suggests that ancestral chordates then concentrated neurosecretory cells in the anteriormost non-neural ectoderm. This anterior proto-placodal domain subsequently gave rise to the oral siphon primordia in tunicates (with neurosecretory cells being lost) and anterior (adenohypophyseal, olfactory, and lens) placodes of vertebrates. Likewise, tunicate atrial siphon primordia and posterior (otic, lateral line, and epibranchial) placodes of vertebrates probably evolved from a posterior proto-placodal region in the tunicate-vertebrate ancestor. Since both siphon primordia in tunicates give rise to sparse populations of sensory cells, both proto-placodal domains probably also gave rise to some sensory receptors in the tunicate-vertebrate ancestor. However, proper cranial placodes, which give rise to high density arrays of specialised sensory receptors and neurons, evolved from these domains only in the vertebrate lineage. We propose that this may have involved rewiring of the regulatory network upstream and downstream of Six1/2 and Six4/5 transcription factors and their Eya family cofactors. These proteins, which play ancient roles in neuronal differentiation were first recruited to the dorsal non-neural ectoderm in the tunicate-vertebrate ancestor but subsequently probably acquired new target genes in the vertebrate lineage, allowing them to adopt new functions in regulating proliferation and patterning of neuronal progenitors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights
Afzal, F.; Raza, S.; Shafique, M.
Objective: To observe the effect of sodium phenytoin on the development of the apical ectodermal ridges (AER) in chick wing buds. Study Design: Laboratory based case-control study. Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out at the Department of Anatomy located at the Regional Center of College of Physicians and Surgeons Islamabad Pakistan, from Jan 2014 to Jan 2015. Material and Methods: Sixty fertilized chicken eggs of 'Egyptian fayoumi' breed were selected and divided into two subgroups, experimental and control, each having 30 eggs. A single dose of 3.5 mg sodium phenytoin was injected in each egg of the experimental subgroup while controls were administered same volume of normal saline. The embryos were extracted 96 hours (day 4) after incubation. Histological sections were cut at 5 micro m thickness and stained with Feulgen Nuclear and Light Green to measure the maximum thickness of the apical ectodermal ridges. The number of cells and mitoses in each ridges were also counted. SPSS 16 was used for statistical analysis. Results: There was no significant difference between experimental and control subgroups regarding the maximum thickness and number of cells in the apical ectodermal ridge but there was a statistically significant reduction in the number of mitoses in the experimental ridges. Conclusion: The study shows that sodium phenytoin exerts an inhibitory effect on the apical ectodermal ridges of developing limbs evident by the decreased number of mitoses in the AER of wing buds of experimental chick embryos making it a potential target site for limb teratogenicity associated with its maternal intake during pregnancy. (author)
Moran, Yehu; Genikhovich, Grigory; Gordon, Dalia; Wienkoop, Stefanie; Zenkert, Claudia; Özbek, Suat; Technau, Ulrich; Gurevitz, Michael
Jellyfish, hydras, corals and sea anemones (phylum Cnidaria) are known for their venomous stinging cells, nematocytes, used for prey and defence. Here we show, however, that the potent Type I neurotoxin of the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis, Nv1, is confined to ectodermal gland cells rather than nematocytes. We demonstrate massive Nv1 secretion upon encounter with a crustacean prey. Concomitant discharge of nematocysts probably pierces the prey, expediting toxin penetration. Toxin efficie...
Knobloch, Lisa A; Larsen, Peter E; Saponaro, Paola C; L'Homme-Langlois, Emilie
Patients with ectodermal dysplasia have abnormalities of 2 or more structures that originate from the ectoderm. The oral manifestations often include the congenital absence of teeth and malformed teeth. This clinical report describes the interdisciplinary care from childhood through the definitive dental rehabilitation completed at skeletal maturation to replace the missing teeth in a patient with ectodermal dysplasia. Treatment began at 9 years of age with an implant-assisted mandibular overdenture to improve function and replace the missing mandibular teeth. Orthodontic treatment for the consolidation of space, composite resin restorations, and interim removable dental prostheses were provided to improve esthetics and replace the missing maxillary teeth. Skeletal growth was monitored, and orthognathic surgery was performed at the cessation of growth. The definitive rehabilitation consisted of a mandibular fixed dental prosthesis supported by dental implants and a maxillary removable dental prosthesis to restore the patient to esthetics and function. Copyright © 2017 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Carlberg, Valerie M; Lofgren, Sabra M; Mann, Julianne A; Austin, Jared P; Nolt, Dawn; Shereck, Evan B; Davila-Saldana, Blachy; Zonana, Jonathan; Krol, Alfons L
Osteopetrosis, lymphedema, hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia, and immunodeficiency (OL-HED-ID) is a rare X-linked disorder with only three reported prior cases in the English-language literature. We describe a case of OL-HED-ID in a male infant who initially presented with congenital lymphedema, leukocytosis, and thrombocytopenia of unknown etiology at 7 days of age. He subsequently developed gram-negative sepsis and multiple opportunistic infections including high-level cytomegalovirus viremia and Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia. The infant was noted to have mildly xerotic skin, fine sparse hair, and periorbital wrinkling, all features suggestive of ectodermal dysplasia. Skeletal imaging showed findings consistent with osteopetrosis, and immunologic investigation revealed hypogammaglobulinemia and mixed T- and B-cell dysfunction. Genetic testing revealed a novel mutation in the nuclear factor kappa beta (NF-KB) essential modulator (NEMO) gene, confirming the diagnosis of OL-HED-ID. Mutations in the NEMO gene have been reported in association with hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia with immunodeficiency (HED-ID), OL-HED-ID, and incontinentia pigmenti. In this case, we report a novel mutation in the NEMO gene associated with OL-HED-ID. This article highlights the dermatologic manifestations of a rare disorder, OL-HED-ID, and underscores the importance of early recognition and prompt intervention to prevent life-threatening infections. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Kaercher, Thomas; Dietz, Jasna; Jacobi, Christina; Berz, Reinhold; Schneider, Holm
X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (XLHED) is the most common form of ectodermal dysplasia. Clinical characteristics include meibomian gland disorder and the resulting hyperevaporative dry eye. In this study, we evaluated meibography and ocular infrared thermography as novel methods to diagnose XLHED. Eight infants, 12 boys and 14 male adults with XLHED and 12 healthy control subjects were subjected to a panel of tests including the ocular surface disease index (OSDI), meibography and infrared thermography, non-invasive measurement of tear film break-up time (NIBUT) and osmolarity, Schirmer's test, lissamine green staining and fluorescein staining. Sensitivity and specificity were determined for single tests and selected test combinations. Meibography had 100% sensitivity and specificity for identifying XLHED. Infrared thermography, a completely non-invasive procedure, revealed a typical pattern for male subjects with XLHED. It was, however, less sensitive (86% for adults and 67% for children) than meibography or a combination of established routine tests. In adults, OSDI and NIBUT were the best single routine tests (sensitivity of 86% and 71%, respectively), whereas increased tear osmolarity appeared as a rather unspecific ophthalmic symptom. In children, NIBUT was the most convincing routine test (sensitivity of 91%). Meibography is the most reliable ophthalmic examination to establish a clinical diagnosis in individuals with suspected hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia, even before genetic test results are available. Tear film tests and ocular surface staining are less sensitive in children, but very helpful for estimating the severity of ocular surface disease in individuals with known XLHED.
Wünsche, S; Jüngert, J; Faschingbauer, F; Mommsen, H; Goecke, T; Schwanitz, K; Stepan, H; Schneider, H
Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia, a potentially life-threatening heritable disorder, may be recognized already in utero by characteristic features such as oligodontia and mandibular hypoplasia. As therapeutic options and prognosis depend on the time point of diagnosis, early recognition was attempted during routine prenatal ultrasound examinations. Fetuses of nine pregnant women (one triplet and eight singleton pregnancies) with family histories of hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia were investigated by sonography between the 20th and 24th week of gestation. In 4 male and 2 female fetuses reduced amounts of tooth germs were detected, whereas 5 fetal subjects showed the normal amount. Three-dimensional ultrasound evaluation revealed mandibular hypoplasia in 5 of the 6 fetuses with oligodontia. Molecular genetic analysis and/or clinical findings after birth confirmed the prenatal sonographic diagnosis in each subject. In subjects with a family history of hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia, the diagnosis of this rare condition can be established noninvasively by sonography in the second trimester of pregnancy. Early recognition of the disorder may help to prevent dangerous hyperthermic episodes in infancy and may allow timely therapeutic interventions. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Pombo Castro, María; Luaces Rey, Ramón; Arenaz Búa, Jorge; Santana-Mora, Urbano; López-Cedrún Cembranos, José Luís
Oral manifestations in ectodermal dysplasia include oligodontia, alveolar ridges hypoplasia, and others. Due to the special conditions in terms of unhealthy teeth and lack of bone, implant-supported rehabilitation seems to offer the most satisfactory outcome. A 27-year-old male diagnosed with ectodermal dysplasia was referred to our department for oral rehabilitation. Oral manifestations included oligodontia, maxillary and mandibular atrophy, mandibular alveolar ridge with knife-edge morphology, and conical teeth. Treatment planning consisted of a Le Fort I osteotomy with interpositional grafts, bilateral sinus lift, and placement of maxillary and mandibular inlay and onlay corticocancellous grafts, using autologous iliac crest bone. In the second surgery, all remaining teeth were removed and 11 endosteal implants were placed. Six months after implant placement, a bimaxillary fixed implant-supported prosthesis was delivered, maintaining a satisfactory esthetic and functional result after a 2-year follow-up. The use of combined preprosthetic techniques allows the placement of endosteal implants and a fixed implant-supported prosthesis in patients with oligodontia and ectodermal dysplasia, providing an esthetic and functional oral rehabilitation.
Cavalieri, Vincenzo; Bernardo, Maria Di; Spinelli, Giovanni
PlOtp (Orthopedia), a homeodomain-containing transcription factor, has been recently characterized as a key regulator of the morphogenesis of the skeletal system in the embryo of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. Otp acts as a positive regulator in a subset of oral ectodermal cells which transmit short-range signals to the underlying primary mesenchyme cells where skeletal synthesis is initiated. To shed some light on the molecular mechanisms involved in such a process, we begun a functional analysis of the cis-regulatory sequences of the Otp gene. Congruent with the spatial expression profile of the endogenous Otp gene, we found that while a DNA region from -494 to +358 is shown to drive in vivo GFP reporter expression in the oral ectoderm, but also in the foregut, a larger region spanning from -2044 to +358 is needed to give firmly established tissue specificity. Microinjection of PCR-amplified DNA constructs, truncated in the 5' regulatory region, and determination of GFP mRNA level in injected embryos allowed the identification of a 5'-flanking fragment of 184bp in length, essential for expression of the transgene in the oral ectoderm of pluteus stage embryos. Finally, we conducted DNAse I-footprinting assays in nuclear extracts for the 184bp region and detected two protected sequences. Data bank search indicates that these sites contain consensus binding sites for transcription factors.
Iodine deficiency has multiple adverse effects in humans, termed iodine deficiency disorders, due to inadequate thyroid hormone production. Globally, it is estimated that 2 billion individuals have an insufficient iodine intake, and South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa are particularly affected.
Background Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) is a congenital disorder characterized by sparse hair, oligodontia, and inability to sweat. It is caused by mutations in any of three Eda pathway genes: ectodysplasin (Eda), Eda receptor (Edar), and Edar-associated death domain (Edaradd), which encode ligand, receptor, and intracellular adaptor molecule, respectively. The Eda signaling pathway activates NF-κB, which is central to ectodermal differentiation. Although the causative genes and the molecular pathway affecting HED have been identified, no curative treatment for HED has been established. Previously, we found a rat spontaneous mutation that caused defects in hair follicles and named it sparse-and-wavy (swh). Here, we have established the swh rat as the first rat model of HED and successfully identified the swh mutation. Results The swh/swh rat showed sparse hair, abnormal morphology of teeth, and absence of sweat glands. The ectoderm-derived glands, meibomian, preputial, and tongue glands, were absent. We mapped the swh mutation to the most telomeric part of rat Chr 7 and found a Pro153Ser missense mutation in the Edaradd gene. This mutation was located in the death domain of EDARADD, which is crucial for signal transduction and resulted in failure to activate NF-κB. Conclusions These findings suggest that swh is a loss-of-function mutation in the rat Edaradd and indicate that the swh/swh rat would be an excellent animal model of HED that could be used to investigate the pathological basis of the disease and the development of new therapies. PMID:22013926
Mark, Barry J.; Becker, Bradley A.; Halloran, Donna R.; Bree, Alanna F.; Sindwani, Raj; Fete, Mary D.; Motil, Kathleen J.; Srun, Sopheak W.; Fete, Timothy J.
Background Ectodermal dysplasia (ED) syndromes are a diverse group of disorders that affect multiple ectodermally derived tissues. Small studies and case reports suggest an increase in atopy and primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) among patients with ED syndromes. Objective To determine the prevalence of clinical symptoms suggestive of atopy or immunodeficiency among a large cohort of children with ED syndromes. Methods A 9-page questionnaire was mailed to families who were members of the National Foundation for Ectodermal Dysplasias. The surveys were completed by parents of children younger than 18 years with a diagnosis of an ED syndrome or carrier state. Portions of the questionnaire were adapted from previously validated questionnaires developed by the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC). Results We received 347 completed questionnaires (41%). When compared with the 13- to 14-year-old children surveyed by ISAAC, we found both all-aged and age-matched children with ED syndromes, respectively, had significantly higher rates of asthma (32.2% and 37.2% vs 16.4%), rhinitis symptoms (76.1% and 78.3% vs 38.9%), and eczema (58.9% and 48.9% vs 8.2%). The prevalence of physician-diagnosed food allergies (20.7%) and PIDs (6.1%) in these ED patients also exceeded known rates in the general pediatric population. Conclusion This large-scale, retrospective study demonstrates a greater reported prevalence of symptoms suggestive of atopic disorders and PIDs among children with ED syndromes than the general pediatric population. A combination of genetic and environmental factors in ED syndromes may contribute to breaches of skin and mucosal barriers, permitting enhanced transmission and sensitization to irritants, allergens, and pathogens. PMID:22626597
Barua, Debanjan; Parent, Serge E; Winklbauer, Rudolf
The ectoderm of the Xenopus embryo is permeated by a network of channels that appear in histological sections as interstitial gaps. We characterized this interstitial space by measuring gap sizes, angles formed between adjacent cells, and curvatures of cell surfaces at gaps. From these parameters, and from surface-tension values measured previously, we estimated the values of critical mechanical variables that determine gap sizes and shapes in the ectoderm, using a general model of interstitial gap mechanics. We concluded that gaps of 1-4 μm side length can be formed by the insertion of extracellular matrix fluid at three-cell junctions such that cell adhesion is locally disrupted and a tension difference between cell-cell contacts and the free cell surface at gaps of 0.003 mJ/m 2 is generated. Furthermore, a cell hydrostatic pressure of 16.8 ± 1.7 Pa and an interstitial pressure of 3.9 ± 3.6 Pa, relative to the central blastocoel cavity of the embryo, was found to be consistent with the observed gap size and shape distribution. Reduction of cell adhesion by the knockdown of C-cadherin increased gap volume while leaving intracellular and interstitial pressures essentially unchanged. In both normal and adhesion-reduced ectoderm, cortical tension of the free cell surfaces at gaps does not return to the high values characteristic of the free surface of the whole tissue. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sidhu, Manpreet; Kale, Alka D; Kotrashetti, Vijayalakshmi S
Hereditary ectodermal dysplasia is a genetic recessive trait characterized by hypohydrosis, hypotrichosis, and hypodontia. The affected individual show characteristic physiognomy like protruded forehead, depressed nasal bridge, periorbital wrinkling, protruded lips, etc. There is marked decrease in sweat and salivary secretion. Due to skin involvement palm and sole ridge patterns are disrupted. In this study an attempt has been made to classify the affected members according to the degree of penetrance by pedigree analysis and also study karyotyping for cytogenetics, dermatoglyphic analysis for the various ridge patterns and variations in the number of sweat glands by sweat pore analysis in affected individuals. A total of five families who were affected with ectodermal dysplasia were considered. Pedigree analysis was drawn up to three generation by obtaining history. Dermatoglyphics and sweat pore analysis was done by obtaining palm and finger print impression using stamp pad ink. Karyotyping was done by collecting 3-5 ml peripheral blood. Karyotyping was prepared using lymphocyte culture. Chromosomes were examined at 20 spreads selected randomly under ×100 magnification. Results were analyzed by calculating mean values and percentage was obtained. Karyotyping did not show any abnormalities, dermatoglyphic analysis and sweat pore counts showed marked variations when compared with normal. Moreover, pedigree analysis confirmed the status of the disease as that of the recessive trait. Large number of affected patients needs to be evaluated for dermatoglypic analysis. Genetic aspect of the disease needs to be looked into the molecular level in an attempt to locate the gene locus responsible for ectodermal dysplasia and its manifestation.
Full Text Available Hereditary ectodermal dysplasia is a rare group of inherited disorders characterized by aplasia or dysplasia of two or more tissues of ectodermal origin such as hair, nails, teeth, and skin. The dental characteristics of this syndrome include anodontia or hypodontia of the primary and/or permanent teeth, hypoplastic conical teeth, and underdevelopment of the alveolar ridges. The options for a definitive treatment plan include fixed, removable or implant-supported prostheses, singly or in combination. This clinical report describes the prosthetic rehabilitation of an 11-year-old boy with hereditary ectodermal dysplasia. Maxillary flexible removable partial denture and mandibular conventional complete denture were fabricated to establish an acceptable masticatory function, speech, and esthetics for the patient.
Full Text Available Three siblings having hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia are described. In addition to trichodysplasia, odonto- dysplasia and they had acanthosis nigrilcans of the, ano-genitat area and lesions suggestive of candida infection as evidenced by chronic paronychia in the finger and toe-nail folds, and maceration in the groins.The youngest brother also had a cutaneous horn in the sacral region. Eyes showed a small interpalpebral fissure, myopia, dull foveal reflex and a convergent squint. Parents were non consanguinous. There was no demonstrable cell mediated immune defect.
Sharma, Gaurav; Nagpal, Archna
Ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-cleft (EEC) syndrome-a complex, pleiotropic disorder resulting in multiple congenital anomalies-has an unpredictable clinical expression and is typically manifested as an autosomal-dominant trait. This article presents a rare case of oligosymptomatic EEC syndrome in a 19-year-old man who exhibited atypical dental findings but no cleft lip or palate. This article is intended to create awareness about this rare syndrome and highlight the role of oral healthcare specialists in improving the quality of life for patients with EEC.
Ghosh, Debangshu; Saha, Somnath; Basu, Sumit Kumar
Ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia and clefting syndrome or "Lobster claw" deformity is a rare congenital anomaly that affects tissues of ectodermal and mesodermal origin. Nasolacrimal duct (NLD) obstruction with or without atresia of lacrimal passage is a common finding of such a syndrome. The authors report here even a rarer presentation of the syndrome which manifested as bilateral NLD obstruction and lacrimal fistula along with cleft lip and palate, syndactyly affecting all four limbs, mild mental retardation, otitis media, and sinusitis. Lacrimal duct obstruction and fistula were managed successfully with endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) which is a good alternative to lacrimal probing or open DCR in such a case.
de Alencar, Nashalie Andrade; Reis, Kátia Rodrigues; Antonio, Andréa Gonçalves; Maia, Lucianne Cople
Ectodermal dysplasia (ED) is a rare congenital hereditary disorder among a group of syndromes characterized by abnormalities of ectodermic structures. The purpose of this report is to compare the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) before and after complete oral rehabilitation of a five-year-old boy with ED. Delivery of upper and lower dentures resulted in immediate improvement of the child's OHRQoL. Although ED affects patients physically and emotionally, the early oral rehabilitation of young patients is crucial to improve their social interaction and restore their speech and masticatory function.
Full Text Available Ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia and clefting syndrome or "Lobster claw" deformity is a rare congenital anomaly that affects tissues of ectodermal and mesodermal origin. Nasolacrimal duct (NLD obstruction with or without atresia of lacrimal passage is a common finding of such a syndrome. The authors report here even a rarer presentation of the syndrome which manifested as bilateral NLD obstruction and lacrimal fistula along with cleft lip and palate, syndactyly affecting all four limbs, mild mental retardation, otitis media, and sinusitis. Lacrimal duct obstruction and fistula were managed successfully with endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR which is a good alternative to lacrimal probing or open DCR in such a case.
Full Text Available Ectrodactyly, ectodermal dysplasia, and cleft lip/palate syndrome (EEC syndrome is a rare genetic disorder with an incidence of around 1:90,000 live births. It is known with various names which includes split hand–split foot–ectodermal dysplasia–cleft syndrome or split hand, cleft hand or lobster claw hand/foot. We report first case of EEC with associated heart disease (Tetralogy of Fallot who was diagnosed as EEC on the basis of clinical features and EEC was confirmed with genetic analysis.
Full Text Available Introduction . Genodermatoses – congenital diseases with diverse clinical presentation – are caused by ectodermal defects. pili torti and milia may be features of these defects. Concomitantly these symptoms are present in rare genodermatoses: Bazex-Dupre-Christol syndrome and Jackson-Lawler syndrome. Objective. Presentation of monozygotic twins with identical hair structure disturbances typical for pili torti and multiple facial milia and review of syndromes and diseases with pili torti and/or milia, with particular reference to Bazex-Dupre-Christol syndrome. Case report . Three-year-old monozygotic twins with identical disturbances of the hair, which was dry, brittle, torn and showed in microscopic examination features typical for pili torti – twisting of the hair shaft by 180 ° . The scalp was overdried and scaly. Numerous milia on the face of both girls appeared at the age of 2 years and were noticed during the examination. The remaining structures derived from the ectoderm were normal. The patients were treated with adapalene cream applied once a day with partial improvement of follicular lesions on the face in both sisters. Conclusions . Coexistence of pili torti and multiple milia in twins indicates the genetic background of these disturbances. Due to potential risk of development of skin carcinoma in future, the patients require close follow-up.
Sfeir, Elia; Nahass, Mona G; Mourad, Ayman
Severe oligodontia is one of the most important symptoms in children with hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED). The growth of the maxilla is a key consideration in restoring their mouth. The aim of this study was to evaluate the transversal maxillary sutural growth, after passive masticatory stimulation, in HED children. We also thought to assess the efficiency and functional outcome of the proposed propriocep-tive passive expansion (PPE) prosthetic device. We studied 13 children (age 6-11 years) suffering from HED with severe oligodontia. Their maxilla was restored by a PPE device formed from two parts and joined by a passive slide system. Distance between the two parts was noted at the anterior and posterior regions at each control visit over an average of 23 months. We also conducted and filled a satisfaction questionnaire over the same period. We tested the hypothesis that the posterior expansion is greater than the anterior expansion (one-tailed Student's t-test with p-value Ectodermal Dysplasia Children. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2017;10(1):55-61.
Darbinyan, Armine; Major, Eugene O; Morgello, Susan; Holland, Steven; Ryschkewitsch, Caroline; Monaco, Maria Chiara; Naidich, Thomas P; Bederson, Joshua; Malaczynska, Joanna; Ye, Fei; Gordon, Ronald; Cunningham-Rundles, Charlotte; Fowkes, Mary; Tsankova, Nadejda M
Human BK polyomavirus (BKV) is reactivated under conditions of immunosuppression leading most commonly to nephropathy or cystitis; its tropism for the brain is rare and poorly understood. We present a unique case of BKV-associated encephalopathy in a man with hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia and immunodeficiency (HED-ID) due to IKK-gamma (NEMO) mutation, who developed progressive neurological symptoms. Brain biopsy demonstrated polyomavirus infection of gray and white matter, with predominant involvement of cortex and distinct neuronal tropism, in addition to limited demyelination and oligodendroglial inclusions. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated polyoma T-antigen in neurons and glia, but expression of VP1 capsid protein only in glia. PCR analysis on both brain biopsy tissue and cerebrospinal fluid detected high levels of BKV DNA. Sequencing studies further identified novel BKV variant and disclosed unique rearrangements in the noncoding control region of the viral DNA (BKVN NCCR). Neuropathological analysis also demonstrated an unusual form of obliterative fibrosing vasculopathy in the subcortical white matter with abnormal lysosomal accumulations, possibly related to the patient's underlying ectodermal dysplasia. Our report provides the first neuropathological description of HED-ID due to NEMO mutation, and expands the diversity of neurological presentations of BKV infection in brain, underscoring the importance of its consideration in immunodeficient patients with unexplained encephalopathy. We also document novel BKVN NCCR rearrangements that may be associated with the unique neuronal tropism in this patient.
Zeng, B; Lu, H; Xiao, X; Zhou, L; Lu, J; Zhu, L; Yu, D; Zhao, W
X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (XLHED) is characterized by abnormalities of hair, teeth, and sweat glands, while non-syndromic hypodontia (NSH) affects only teeth. Mutations in Ectodysplasin A (EDA) underlie both XLHED and NSH. This study investigated the genetic causes of six hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) patients and genotype-phenotype correlation. The EDA gene of six patients with HED was sequenced. Bioinformatics analysis and structural modeling for the mutations were performed. The records of 134 patients with XLHED and EDA-related NSH regarding numbers of missing permanent teeth from this study and 20 articles were reviewed. Nonparametric tests were used to analyze genotype-phenotype correlations. In four of the six patients, we identified a novel mutation c.852T>G (p.Phe284Leu) and three reported mutations: c.467G>A (p.Arg156His), c.776C>A (p.Ala259Glu), and c.871G>A (p.Gly291Arg). They were predicted to be pathogenic by bioinformatics analysis and structural modeling. Genotype-phenotype correlation analysis revealed that truncating mutations were associated with more missing teeth. Missense mutations and the mutations affecting the TNF homology domain were correlated with fewer missing teeth. This study extended the mutation spectrum of XLHED and revealed the relationship between genotype and the number of missing permanent teeth. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Schnabl, D; Grunert, I; Schmuth, M; Kapferer-Seebacher, I
Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) comprises a large group of inherited disorders of ectodermal structures, characterised by hypo- or anhidrosis, hypotrichosis and hypo- or oligo- or anodontia. We aimed to systematically assess the spectrum of prosthodontic approaches with regard to the patients' age and to provide clinical implications for practicing dentists. An electronic and manual search was conducted in four databases (Medline, LIVIVO, Cochrane Library, Web of Science Core Collection). Publications of multiple study designs written in English or German without data restrictions, reporting on prosthodontic treatment of patients diagnosed with HED and afflicted with oligo- or anodontia, were included. In total, 75 articles on 146 patients were analysed according to the patients' age. In children aged 2-17 years, removable full or partial (over)dentures represented standard treatment. In the mandible, implant-supported removable dentures on two interforaminal implants presented an alternative, already in young childhood. In cases with more than six teeth per jaw, also fixed (resin) bridges were used, frequently after orthodontic treatment. In adults, fixed or removable reconstructions with the help of up to eight implants per jaw, usually placed after bone augmentation procedures, were standard. Ten case reports/series with long-term follow-up illustrated the need for consistent maintenance including denture renewals. Prosthodontic rehabilitation should start in early childhood and needs to be revised in accordance with the patients' growth. Treatment should be carried out by a multidisciplinary team addressing variable demands in different age groups. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Wang, Y; He, J; Decker, A M; Hu, J C; Zou, D
The purpose of this review was to determine the outcome of oral function reconstruction in ectodermal dysplasia (ED) patients who have received dental implant therapy. A search was made of the PubMed and Web of Science databases; key words used were "(ectodermal dysplasia) AND (implant OR implants)", with supplementary retrieval key words "dental implant", "zygomatic implant", "anodontia", and "edentulous". Patient age, use of bone graft, implant site, type of implant, and survival rate of the implants were included in the subsequent data analysis. Forty-five articles published between 1988 and October 2015 were included in this analysis. The cases of a total of 96 patients were retrieved (22 children and 74 adults); these patients received a total of 701 implants. Fourteen implants were removed during a median follow-up time of 24 months. The 24-month implant survival rate was 97.9% in adult subjects and 98.6% in children. Sixty-eight percent of adult patients underwent bone augmentation prior to implant placement. Based on this review, dental implants are commonly used in the oral reconstruction of ED patients. However, long-term data on bone augmentation and implant success are needed, as well as additional clinical evidence on bone resorption, the esthetic outcomes of implant therapy, and physiological considerations in ED patients. Copyright © 2016 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cezária Triches, Thaisa; Ximenes, Marcos; Oliveira de Souza, João Gustavo; Rodrigues Lopes Pereira Neto, Armando; Cardoso, Antônio Carlos; Bolan, Michele
Ectodermal dysplasia (ED) is an anomaly determined by genetic factors that alter ectodermal structures such as skin, hair, nails, glands, and teeth. Children affected by this condition require extensive, comprehensive, and multidisciplinary treatment. An 8-year-old female patient visited the Dentistry Clinic of the Federal University of Santa Catarina with the chief complaint of multiple missing teeth. The mother reported that the patient had ED. Clinical and radiographic examination revealed the congenital absence of several primary and permanent teeth and tooth germs. Subsequent oral rehabilitation comprised the application of a maxillary denture and mandibular implant-supported fixed prosthesis. The child was also supplied with a wig for further enhancement of esthetics aimed at improving her emotional wellbeing. Psychological follow-up and speech therapy were also provided. After 4 years of follow-up, implant-supported oral rehabilitation has proved to be a satisfactory treatment option, allowing restoration of masticatory, phonetic, and esthetic function, as well as an improvement in the patient's self-esteem and social wellbeing.
Guerrini, Luisa; Costanzo, Antonio; Merlo, Giorgio R
The p53-related transcription factor p63 is critically important for basic cellular functions during development of the ectoderm and derived structure and tissues, including skin, limb, palate, and hair. On the one side, p63 is required to sustain the proliferation of keratinocyte progenitors, while on the other side it is required for cell stratification, commitment to differentiate, cell adhesion, and epithelial-mesenchymal signaling. Molecules that are components or regulators of the p63 pathway(s) are rapidly being identified, and it comes with no surprise that alterations in the p63 pathway lead to congenital conditions in which the skin and other ectoderm-derived structures are affected. In this paper, we summarize the current knowledge of the molecular and cellular regulations centered on p63, derived from the comprehension of p63-linked human diseases and the corresponding animal models, as well as from cellular models and high-throughput molecular approaches. We point out common themes and features, that allow to speculate on the possible role of p63 downstream events and their potential exploitation in future attempts to correct the congenital defect in preclinical studies.
Moran, Yehu; Genikhovich, Grigory; Gordon, Dalia; Wienkoop, Stefanie; Zenkert, Claudia; Ozbek, Suat; Technau, Ulrich; Gurevitz, Michael
Jellyfish, hydras, corals and sea anemones (phylum Cnidaria) are known for their venomous stinging cells, nematocytes, used for prey and defence. Here we show, however, that the potent Type I neurotoxin of the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis, Nv1, is confined to ectodermal gland cells rather than nematocytes. We demonstrate massive Nv1 secretion upon encounter with a crustacean prey. Concomitant discharge of nematocysts probably pierces the prey, expediting toxin penetration. Toxin efficiency in sea water is further demonstrated by the rapid paralysis of fish or crustacean larvae upon application of recombinant Nv1 into their medium. Analysis of other anemone species reveals that in Anthopleura elegantissima, Type I neurotoxins also appear in gland cells, whereas in the common species Anemonia viridis, Type I toxins are localized to both nematocytes and ectodermal gland cells. The nematocyte-based and gland cell-based envenomation mechanisms may reflect substantial differences in the ecology and feeding habits of sea anemone species. Overall, the immunolocalization of neurotoxins to gland cells changes the common view in the literature that sea anemone neurotoxins are produced and delivered only by stinging nematocytes, and raises the possibility that this toxin-secretion mechanism is an ancestral evolutionary state of the venom delivery machinery in sea anemones.
Maroulakos, G; Artopoulou, I I; Angelopoulou, M V; Emmanouil, D
Ectodermal dysplasia (ED) represents a disorder group characterised by abnormal development of the ectodermal derivatives. Removable partial dentures (RPD), complete dentures (CD) or overdentures (OD) are most often the treatment of choice for young affected patients. Prosthetic intervention is of utmost importance in the management of ED patients, as it resolves problems associated with functional, aesthetic, and psychological issues, and improves a patient's quality of life. However, few studies present the principles and guidelines that can assist in the decision-making process of the most appropriate removable prosthesis. The purpose of this study was to suggest a simple treatment decision-making algorithm for selecting an effective and individualised rehabilitative treatment plan, considering different parameters. The cases and treatment of two young ED patients are described and each one was treated with either RPDs or ODs. Periodic recalls were employed to manage problems, and monitor the changes associated with occlusion and fit of the prostheses in relation to each patient's growth. Both patients were followed up for more than 2 years and reported significant improvement in their appearance, masticatory function, and social behaviour as a result of the prosthetic rehabilitation. The main factors guiding the decision process towards the choice of an RPD or an OD are the presence of posterior natural teeth, facial aesthetics, lip support, number and size of existing natural teeth, and the occlusal vertical dimension.
... Deficiency Factor V Deficiency Combined FV & FVIII Deficiencies Factor VII Deficiency Factor X Deficiency Factor XI Deficiency Factor ... Deficiency Factor V Deficiency Combined FV & FVIII Deficiencies Factor VII Deficiency Factor X Deficiency Factor XI Deficiency Factor ...
Waluk, Dominik P; Zur, Gila; Kaufmann, Ronnie; Welle, Monika M; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Drögemüller, Cord; Müller, Eliane J; Leeb, Tosso; Galichet, Arnaud
X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (XLHED) caused by variants in the EDA gene represents the most common ectodermal dysplasia in humans. We investigated three male mixed-breed dogs with an ectodermal dysplasia phenotype characterized by marked hypotrichosis and multifocal complete alopecia, almost complete absence of sweat and sebaceous glands, and altered dentition with missing and abnormally shaped teeth. Analysis of SNP chip genotypes and whole genome sequence data from the three affected dogs revealed that the affected dogs shared the same haplotype on a large segment of the X-chromosome, including the EDA gene. Unexpectedly, the whole genome sequence data did not reveal any nonsynonymous EDA variant in the affected dogs. We therefore performed an RNA-seq experiment on skin biopsies to search for changes in the transcriptome. This analysis revealed that the EDA transcript in the affected dogs lacked 103 nucleotides encoded by exon 2. We speculate that this exon skipping is caused by a genetic variant located in one of the large introns flanking this exon, which was missed by whole genome sequencing with the illumina short read technology. The altered EDA transcript splicing most likely causes the observed ectodermal dysplasia in the affected dogs. These dogs thus offer an excellent opportunity to gain insights into the complex splicing processes required for expression of the EDA gene, and other genes with large introns. Copyright © 2016 Waluk et al.
Savasta, Salvatore; Carlone, Giorgia; Castagnoli, Riccardo; Chiappe, Francesca; Bassanese, Francesco; Piras, Roberta; Salpietro, Vincenzo; Brazzelli, Valeria; Verrotti, Alberto; Marseglia, Gian L
We described a 5-year-old male with hypodontia, hypohidrosis, and facial dysmorphisms characterized by a depressed nasal bridge, maxillary hypoplasia, and protuberant lips. Chromosomal analysis revealed a normal 46,XY male karyotype. Due to the presence of clinical features of hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED), the EDA gene, located at Xq12q13.1, of the patient and his family was sequenced. Analysis of the proband's sequence revealed a missense mutation (T to A transversion) in hemizygosity state at nucleotide position 158 in exon 1 of the EDA gene, which changes codon 53 from leucine to histidine, while heterozygosity at this position was detected in the slightly affected mother; moreover, this mutation was not found in the publically available Human Gene Mutation Database. To date, our findings indicate that a novel mutation in EDA is associated with X-linked HED, adding it to the repertoire of EDA mutations. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Full Text Available Ectodermal dysplasia (ED is a rare, congenital disease that involves the sweat glands, scalp hair, nails, skin pigmentation, and craniofacial structure. Oral symptoms of ED include multiple tooth abnormalities (such as hypodontia, anadontia, impacted teeth, and peg-shaped or conical anterior teeth and lack of normal alveolar ridge development. A 12-year-old male patient, in the absence of any other systemic abnormalities, exhibited typical characteristics of ED, visited our department of pedodontics and preventive dentistry at Panineeya Mahavidyalaya Institute of Dental Sciences and Research Centre. In the clinical and radiographic evaluation, it was occurred that he had only maxillary and mandibular first molars in his mouth. A maxillary and mandibular denture with clasps for retention was fabricated for prosthodontic rehabilitation after considering his growth and the number and condition of his present teeth. At the 18-month follow-up no major complications occurred and further future treatment included implants retained fixed partial dentures.
Gjørup, Hans; Nyhuus, Lone; Buhl, Jytte
region. 3. At the age of 10 years a new set of dentures were made. This time the upper denture was made as an overdenture supported and retained by 4 implants and a Dolder bar. The surgical procedure included bone grafting from the anterior ramus mandibulae. The boy's subjective judgement of his oral......Implant supported prosthesis in an edentulous boy with Hypohidrotic Ectodermal Dysplasia - "A happy boy". Authors; Gjoerup,H1; Nyhuus,L2; Buhl,J3. 1) Center for Oral Health in Rare Conditions, Aarhus University Hospital 2) Prosthodontic Department, the Dental School, Aarhus University 3) Department...... by the patient and his family. Case presentation The boy was untreated until the age of 5 years. His oral functions were compromised in relation to speech and psychosocial aspects. In the following 6 years, he underwent prosthodontic treatment in three phases. 1. At the age of 5 years a set of complete dentures...
Full Text Available ... Research Home / < Back To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español Iron-deficiency ... iron-deficiency anemia. Blood tests to screen for iron-deficiency anemia To screen for iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor ...
Fete, Mary; Hermann, Julie; Behrens, Jeffrey; Huttner, Kenneth M
The web-based Ectodermal Dysplasia International Registry (EDIR) is a comprehensive patient-reported survey contributing to an understanding of ectodermal dysplasia (ED). XLHED is the most common of the genetic ED syndromes and was the primary diagnosis reported by 223/835 respondents (141 males and 82 females). Overall, 96% of XLHED registrants reported as least one other affected family member and 21% reported a family history of infant or childhood deaths, consistent with the published mortality data in this disorder. In general, XLHED is diagnosed by the triad of decreased sweating, reduced hair, and hypodontia (present in 89%, 74%, and 74% of XLHED respondents). Additionally, the registry dataset confirmed a spectrum of life-long XLHED clinical complications including recurrent sinus infections (49% males, 52% females), nasal congestion often foul smelling and interfering with feeding (73% males, 27% females), eczema (66% males, 40% females), wheezing (66% males, 45% females), and a hoarse, raspy voice (67% males, 23% females). The Registry results also highlighted features consistently differentiating XLHED from the non-hypohidrotic ED syndromes including the frequency of infant/childhood deaths, the presence of limb/digit abnormalities, feeding issues related to nasal discharge, dentures, and a diagnosis of asthma. These results represent the largest collection of data on a broad-spectrum of health-related issues affecting ED patients. This project provides information for expanding knowledge of the natural history of XLHED, and as such may facilitate the diagnosis and treatment of its varied and lifelong medical challenges. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Nguyen-Nielsen, Mary; Skovbo, Stine; Svaneby, Dea; Pedersen, Lars; Fryzek, Jon
X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (XLHED) is characterised by hypohidrosis, sparse hair, and teeth abnormalities. Infants with XLHED have an increased risk of death by hyperpyrexia. XLHED is the most common form of hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED); however, no population-based prevalence estimates are available. We aimed to: 1) estimate the prevalence of XLHED in the Danish population per January 1, 2011; 2) identify the most frequent age at time of diagnosis; and 3) quantify the most frequent clinical feature associated with XLHED. We conducted a nationwide cross-sectional study (1995-2010). We leveraged national medical registries and data from clinical departments to categorise XLHED cases into three groups: 1) Molecularly-confirmed XLHED; 2) Clinically-diagnosed HED (registered with ICD-10 Q 82.4); and 3) Possible HED (registered with sufficient clinical features based on a clinical algorithm that we designed). We identified 90 molecularly-confirmed XLHED, 146 clinically-diagnosed HED, and 988 possible HED cases between 1995 and 2010 (total n = 1224). The prevalence was 21.9 per 100,000 overall and 1.6 per 100,000 when restricting to molecularly-confirmed XLHED cases. The most frequent age at time of XLHED diagnosis occurred between the ages of 11 and 18 years. Teeth abnormalities occurred in 79% of all cases and 52% of molecularly-confirmed cases as a primary clinical marker. We present the first ever population-based prevalence estimates of XLHED and suggest that the prevalence of XLHED may be higher than previously estimated. Diagnosis occurs most frequently during adolescence and teeth abnormalities were the most frequent clinical marker of XLHED. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Schou, Morten; Bosselmann, Helle; Gaborit, Freja
BACKGROUND: Both iron deficiency (ID) and cardiovascular biomarkers are associated with a poor outcome in heart failure (HF). The relationship between different cardiovascular biomarkers and ID is unknown, and the true prevalence of ID in an outpatient HF clinic is probably overlooked. OBJECTIVES.......043). CONCLUSION: ID is frequent in an outpatient HF clinic. ID is not associated with cardiovascular biomarkers after adjustment for traditional confounders. Inflammation, but not neurohormonal activation is associated with ID in systolic HF. Further studies are needed to understand iron metabolism in elderly HF...
Huang, S X; Liang, J L; Sui, W G; Lin, H; Xue, W; Chen, J J; Zhang, Y; Gong, W W; Dai, Y; Ou, M L
Ectodermal dysplasia (ED) represents a collection of rare disorders that result from a failure of development of the tissues derived from the embryonic ectoderm. ED is often associated with hair, teeth, and skin abnormalities, which are serious conditions affecting the quality of life of the patient. To date, a large number of genes have been found to be associated with this syndrome. Here, we report a patient with hypohidrotic ED (HED) without family history. We identified that this patient's disorder arises from an X-linked HED with a mutation in the EDA gene (G299D) found by whole-exome sequencing. In addition, in this paper we summarize the disease-causing mutations based on current literature. Overall, recent clinical and genetic research involving patients with HED have uncovered a large number of pathogenic mutations in EDA, which might contribute to a full understanding of the function of EDA and the underlying mechanisms of HED caused by EDA mutations.
Gonzalez, Francisco; Loidi, Lourdes; Abalo-Lojo, Jose M
Ankyloblepharon-ectodermal dysplasia-cleft lip/palate (AEC) syndrome is a disorder resulting from anomalous embryonic development of ectodermal tissues. There is evidence that AEC syndrome is caused by mutations in the TP63 gene, which encodes the p63 protein. This is an important regulatory protein involved in epidermal proliferation and differentiation. Genome sequencing was performed in DNA from peripheral blood leukocytes of a newborn with AEC syndrome and her parents. Variants were searched in all coding exons and intron-exon boundaries of the TP63 gene. A heterozygous missense variant (NM_003722.4:c.1063G>C (p.Asp355His) was found in the newborn patient. No variants were found in either of the parents. We identified a previously unreported variant in TP63 gene which seems to be involved in the somatic malformations found in the AEC syndrome. The absence of this variant in both parents suggests that the variant appeared de novo.
Hyder, Zerin; Beale, Victoria; O'Connor, Ruth; Clayton-Smith, Jill
The ectodermal dysplasia and cleft lip/palate (EEC) syndrome describes the association of ectrodactyly, ectodermal dysplasia and orofacial clefting. As with many autosomal dominant disorders, there is variability in expression and not all of these three core features are present in every individual with the condition. Moreover, there may be additional associated features, which are under-recognized. One of these is the presence of genitourinary anomalies, some of which cause significant morbidity. This report details a further two patients with EEC syndrome and genitourinary involvement, including flaccid megacystis with detrusor muscle failure, bilateral hydronephrosis and megaureter, requiring significant renal and urological involvement during their childhood. We go on to review the literature on the diagnosis and management of genitourinary malformations in EEC syndrome.
Li, Xiaoxiao; Orseth, Meredith Lee; Smith, J Michael; Brehm, Mary Abigail; Agim, Nnenna Gebechi; Glass, Donald Alexander
Pure hair and nail ectodermal dysplasia (PHNED) is a rare disorder that presents with hypotrichosis and nail dystrophy while sparing other ectodermal structures such as teeth and sweat glands. We describe a homozygous novel missense mutation in the HOXC13 gene that resulted in autosomal recessive PHNED in a Hispanic child. The mutation c.812A>G (p.Gln271Arg) is located within the DNA-binding domain of the HOXC13 gene, cosegregates within the family, and is predicted to be maximally damaging. This is the first reported case of a missense HOXC13 mutation resulting in PHNED and the first reported case of PHNED identified in a North American family. Our findings illustrate the critical role of HOXC13 in human hair and nail development. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Embryonic stem (ES cells hold considerable promise as a source of cells with therapeutic potential, including cells that can be used for drug screening and in cell replacement therapies. Differentiation of ES cells into the somatic lineages is a regulated process; before the promise of these cells can be realised robust and rational methods for directing differentiation into normal, functional and safe cells need to be developed. Previous in vivo studies have implicated fibroblast growth factor (FGF signalling in lineage specification from pluripotent cells. Although FGF signalling has been suggested as essential for specification of mesoderm and endoderm in vivo and in culture, the exact role of this pathway remains unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a culture model based on early primitive ectoderm-like (EPL cells we have investigated the role of FGF signalling in the specification of mesoderm. We were unable to demonstrate any mesoderm inductive capability associated with FGF1, 4 or 8 signalling, even when the factors were present at high concentrations, nor any enhancement in mesoderm formation induced by exogenous BMP4. Furthermore, there was no evidence of alteration of mesoderm sub-type formed with addition of FGF1, 4 or 8. Inhibition of endogenous FGF signalling, however, prevented mesoderm and favoured neural differentiation, suggesting FGF signalling was required but not sufficient for the differentiation of primitive ectoderm into primitive streak-like intermediates. The maintenance of ES cell/early epiblast pluripotent marker expression was also observed in cultures when FGF signalling was inhibited. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: FGF signalling has been shown to be required for the differentiation of primitive ectoderm to neurectoderm. This, coupled with our observations, suggest FGF signalling is required for differentiation of the primitive ectoderm into the germ lineages at gastrulation.
Full Text Available ... To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español Iron-deficiency ... anemia. Blood tests to screen for iron-deficiency anemia To screen for iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor ...
... To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español Iron-deficiency ... anemia. Blood tests to screen for iron-deficiency anemia To screen for iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor ...
Yaguchi, Shunsuke; Yaguchi, Junko; Inaba, Kazuo
bicaudal-C (bicC) mRNA encodes a protein containing RNA-binding domains that is reported to be maternally present with deflection in the oocytes/eggs of some species. The translated protein plays a critical role in the regulation of cell fate specification along the body axis during early embryogenesis in flies and frogs. However, it is unclear how it functions in eggs in which bicC mRNA is uniformly distributed, for instance, sea urchin eggs. Here, we show the function of BicC in the formation of neurogenic ectoderm of the sea urchin embryo. Loss-of-function experiments reveal that BicC is required for serotonergic neurogenesis and for expression of ankAT-1 gene, which is essential for the formation of apical tuft cilia in the neurogenic ectoderm of the sea urchin embryo. In contrast, the expression of FoxQ2, the neurogenic ectoderm specification transcription factor, is invariant in BicC morphants. Because FoxQ2 is an upstream factor of serotonergic neurogenesis and ankAT-1 expression, these data indicate that BicC functions in regulating the events that are coordinated by FoxQ2 during sea urchin embryogenesis.
Eisenkraft, Arik; Pode-Shakked, Ben; Goldstein, Nurit; Shpirer, Zvi; van Bokhoven, Hans; Anikster, Yair
Mutations in the TP63 gene have been associated with a variety of ectodermal dysplasia syndromes, among which the clinically overlapping Ankyloblepharon-Ectodermal defects-Cleft lip/palate (AEC) and the Rapp-Hodgkin syndromes. We report a multiplex nonconsanguineous family of Ashkenazi-Jewish descent, in which the index patient presented with a persistent scalp skin lesion, dystrophic nails and light thin hair. Further evaluation revealed over 10 affected individuals in the kindred, over four generations, exhibiting varying degrees of ectodermal involvement. Analysis of the TP63 gene from four of the patients and from two healthy individuals of the same family was performed. Gene sequencing of the patients revealed a nonsense mutation leading to a premature termination codon (PTC) (p.Gln16X). The same mutation was found in all tested affected individuals in the family, but gave rise to marked phenotypic variability with minor clinical manifestations in some individuals, underscoring the clinical heterogeneity associated with the recently described PTC-causing mutations.
Full Text Available ... you are diagnosed with iron-deficiency anemia. Risk Factors You may have an increased risk for iron- ... iron-deficiency anemia if you have certain risk factors , including pregnancy. To prevent iron-deficiency anemia, your ...
Full Text Available ... to moderate iron-deficiency anemia, or red blood cell transfusion for severe iron-deficiency anemia. You may ... body needs iron to make healthy red blood cells. Iron-deficiency anemia usually develops over time because ...
... are unique to specific vitamin deficiencies. Folate-deficiency anemia risk factors include: Undergoing hemodialysis for kidney failure. ... the metabolism of folate. Vitamin B-12 deficiency anemia risk factors include: Lack of intrinsic factor. Most ...
Full Text Available Echinoderms, which are phylogenetically related to vertebrates and produce large numbers of transparent embryos that can be experimentally manipulated, offer many advantages for the analysis of the gene regulatory networks (GRN regulating germ layer formation. During development of the sea urchin embryo, the ectoderm is the source of signals that pattern all three germ layers along the dorsal-ventral axis. How this signaling center controls patterning and morphogenesis of the embryo is not understood. Here, we report a large-scale analysis of the GRN deployed in response to the activity of this signaling center in the embryos of the Mediterranean sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus, in which studies with high spatial resolution are possible. By using a combination of in situ hybridization screening, overexpression of mRNA, recombinant ligand treatments, and morpholino-based loss-of-function studies, we identified a cohort of transcription factors and signaling molecules expressed in the ventral ectoderm, dorsal ectoderm, and interposed neurogenic ("ciliary band" region in response to the known key signaling molecules Nodal and BMP2/4 and defined the epistatic relationships between the most important genes. The resultant GRN showed a number of striking features. First, Nodal was found to be essential for the expression of all ventral and dorsal marker genes, and BMP2/4 for all dorsal genes. Second, goosecoid was identified as a central player in a regulatory sub-circuit controlling mouth formation, while tbx2/3 emerged as a critical factor for differentiation of the dorsal ectoderm. Finally, and unexpectedly, a neurogenic ectoderm regulatory circuit characterized by expression of "ciliary band" genes was triggered in the absence of TGF beta signaling. We propose a novel model for ectoderm regionalization, in which neural ectoderm is the default fate in the absence of TGF beta signaling, and suggest that the stomodeal and neural subcircuits that we
Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED is a genetic disorder characterized by defective development of teeth, hair, nails and eccrine sweat glands. Both autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive forms of HED have previously been linked to mutations in the ectodysplasin 1 anhidrotic receptor (EDAR protein that plays an important role during embryogenesis. Methods The coding DNA sequence of the EDAR gene was analyzed in two large Swedish three-generational families with autosomal dominant HED. Results A non-sense C to T mutation in exon 12 was identified in both families. This disease-specific mutation changes an arginine amino acid in position 358 of the EDAR protein into a stop codon (p.Arg358X, thereby truncating the protein. In addition to the causative mutation two polymorphisms, not associated with the HED disorder, were also found in the EDAR gene. Conclusion The finding of the p.Arg358X mutation in the Swedish families is the first corroboration of a previously described observation in an American family. Thus, our study strengthens the role of this particular mutation in the aetiology of autosomal dominant HED and confirms the importance of EDAR for the development of HED.
Yamasaki, Fumiyuki; Takayasu, Takeshi; Nosaka, Ryo; Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Sugiyama, Kazuhiko; Kobayashi, Masao; Kurisu, Kaoru
While cavernous angioma (CVA) after cranial irradiation has been documented, its development after high-dose chemotherapy with autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) has not. We present a patient with desmoplastic/nodular medulloblastoma (DNMB) associated with anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (AED) who developed CVA 2 years after high-dose chemotherapy and PBSCT. A 1-year-old boy with ingravescent vomiting was admitted to our institute. He presented with a large head, a depressed nasal bridge, low-set ears, thick lips with peg-shaped teeth, hypohidrosis, sparse hair, thin atrophic skin, scaly dermatitis with frontal bossing, and a bulging anterior fontanel. Neuroradiological examination revealed multiple cerebellar masses with heterogeneous enhancement and speckled calcifications and severe obstructive hydrocephalus. The histological diagnosis of surgical specimens was DNMB, and he underwent postoperative multiple-drug chemotherapy with autologous PBSCT. The outcome was favorable and he did not undergo radiotherapy. After 2 years, intracranial hemorrhage was detected at his regular radiological check-up and he again underwent surgery. The histological diagnosis was CVA. To our knowledge, this is the first report of AED-associated DNMB and CVA.
Krøigård, Anne Bruun; Clemmensen, Ole; Gjørup, Hans; Hertz, Jens Michael; Bygum, Anette
Odonto-onycho-dermal dysplasia (OODD) is a rare form of ectodermal dysplasia characterized by severe oligodontia, onychodysplasia, palmoplantar hyperkeratosis, dry skin, hypotrichosis, and hyperhidrosis of the palms and soles. The ectodermal dysplasias resulting from biallelic mutations in the WNT10A gene result in highly variable phenotypes, ranging from isolated tooth agenesis to OODD and Schöpf-Schulz-Passarge syndrome (SSPS). We identified a female patient, with consanguineous parents, who was clinically diagnosed with OODD. Genetic testing showed that she was homozygous for a previously reported pathogenic mutation in the WNT10A gene, c.321C > A, p.Cys107*. The skin and nail abnormalities were for many years interpreted as psoriasis and treated accordingly. A thorough clinical examination revealed hypotrichosis and hyperhidrosis of the soles and dental examination revealed agenesis of permanent teeth except the two maxillary central incisors. Skin biopsies from the hyperkeratotic palms and soles showed the characteristic changes of eccrine syringofibroadenomatosis, which has been described in patients with ectodermal dysplasias. Together with a family history of tooth anomalies, this lead to the clinical suspicion of a hereditary ectodermal dysplasia. This case illustrates the challenges of diagnosing ectodermal dysplasia like OODD and highlights the relevance of interdisciplinary cooperation in the diagnosis of rare conditions.
Full Text Available Abstract Background X-linked anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia is a disorder characterized by abnormal development of tissues and organs of ectodermal origin caused by mutations in the EDA gene. The bovine EDA gene encodes the ectodysplasin A, a membrane protein expressed in keratinocytes, hair follicles and sweat glands, which is involved in the interactions between cell and cell and/or cell and matrix. Four mutations causing ectodermal dysplasia in cattle have been described so far. Results We identified a new single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP at the 9th base of exon 8 in the EDA gene in two calves of Holstein Friesian cattle breed affected by ectodermal dysplasia. This SNP is located in the exonic splicing enhancer (ESEs recognized by SRp40 protein. As a consequence, the spliceosome machinery is no longer able to recognize the sequence as exonic and causes exon skipping. The mutation determines the deletion of the entire exon (131 bp in the RNA processing, causing a severe alteration of the protein structure and thus the disease. Conclusion We identified a mutation, never described before, that changes the regulation of alternative splicing in the EDA gene and causes ectodermal dysplasia in cattle. The analysis of the SNP allows the identification of carriers that can transmit the disease to the offspring. This mutation can thus be exploited for a rational and efficient selection of unequivocally healthy cows for breeding.
Full Text Available ... Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español Iron-deficiency anemia is a ... address the cause of your iron deficiency, such as any underlying bleeding. If undiagnosed or untreated, iron- ...
Zonana, J.; Jones, M.; Litt, M.; Kramer, P.; Browne, D.; Becker, H.W. (Oregon Health Sciences Univ., Portland, OR (United States)); Brockdorff, N.; Rastan, S. (Medical Council Clinical Research Centre, Harrow (United Kingdom)); Davies, K.P.; Clarke, A. (Univ. of Wales College of Medicine, Cardiff (United Kingdom)) (and others)
The X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (EDA) locus has been previously localized to the subchromosomal region Xq11-q21.1. The authors have extended previous linkage studies and analyzed linkage between the EDA locus and 10 marker loci, including five new loci, in 41 families. Four of the marker loci showed no recombination with the EDA locus, and six other loci were also linked to the EDA locus with recombination fractions of .009-.075. Multipoint analysis gave support to the placement of the PGK1P1 locus proximal to the EDA locus and the DXS453 and PGK1 loci distal to EDA. Further ordering of the loci could be inferred from a human-rodent somatic cell hybrid derived from an affected female with EDA and an X;9 translocation and from studies of an affected male with EDA and a submicroscopic deletion. Three of the proximal marker loci, which showed no recombination with the EDA locus, when used in combination, were informative in 92% of females. The closely linked flanking polymorphic loci DXS339 and DXS453 had heterozygosites of 72% and 76%, respectively, and when used jointly, they were doubly informative in 52% of females. The human DXS732 locus was defined by a conserved mouse probe pcos169E/4 (DXCrc169 locus) that consegregates with the mouse tabby (Ta) locus, a potential homologue to the EDA locus. The absence of recombination between EDA and the DXSA732 locus lends support to the hypothesis that the DXCrc169 locus in the mouse and the DXS732 locus in humans may contain candidate sequences for the Ta and EDA genes, respectively. 36 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.
Feiner, Nathalie; Murakami, Yasunori; Breithut, Lisa; Mazan, Sylvie; Meyer, Axel; Kuraku, Shigehiro
The ectodermal neural cortex (ENC) gene family, whose members are implicated in neurogenesis, is part of the kelch repeat superfamily. To date, ENC genes have been identified only in osteichthyans, although other kelch repeat-containing genes are prevalent throughout bilaterians. The lack of elaborate molecular phylogenetic analysis with exhaustive taxon sampling has obscured the possible link of the establishment of this gene family with vertebrate novelties. In this study, we identified ENC homologs in diverse vertebrates by means of database mining and polymerase chain reaction screens. Our analysis revealed that the ENC3 ortholog was lost in the basal eutherian lineage through single-gene deletion and that the triplication between ENC1, -2, and -3 occurred early in vertebrate evolution. Including our original data on the catshark and the zebrafish, our comparison revealed high conservation of the pleiotropic expression pattern of ENC1 and shuffling of expression domains between ENC1, -2, and -3. Compared with many other gene families including developmental key regulators, the ENC gene family is unique in that conventional molecular phylogenetic inference could identify no obvious invertebrate ortholog. This suggests a composite nature of the vertebrate-specific gene repertoire, consisting not only of de novo genes introduced at the vertebrate origin but also of long-standing genes with no apparent invertebrate orthologs. Some of the latter, including the ENC gene family, may be too rapidly evolving to provide sufficient phylogenetic signals marking orthology to their invertebrate counterparts. Such gene families that experienced saltatory evolution likely remain to be explored and might also have contributed to phenotypic evolution of vertebrates. PMID:23843192
Full Text Available The transcription factor Nrf2 is the master regulator of a cellular defense mechanism against environmental insults. The Nrf2-mediated antioxidant response is accomplished by the transcription of a battery of genes that encode phase II detoxifying enzymes, xenobiotic transporters, and antioxidants. Coordinated expression of these genes is critical in protecting cells from toxic and carcinogenic insults and in maintaining cellular redox homeostasis. Activation of the Nrf2 pathway is primarily controlled by Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1, which is a molecular switch that turns on or off the Nrf2 signaling pathway according to intracellular redox conditions. Here we report our finding of a novel Nrf2 suppressor ectodermal-neural cortex 1 (ENC1, which is a BTB-Kelch protein and belongs to the same family as Keap1. Transient expression of ENC1 reduced steady-state levels of Nrf2 and its downstream gene expression. Although ENC1 interacted with Keap1 indirectly, the ENC1-mediated down-regulation of Nrf2 was independent of Keap1. The negative effect of ENC1 on Nrf2 was not due to a change in the stability of Nrf2 because neither proteasomal nor lysosomal inhibitors had any effects. Overexpression of ENC1 did not result in a change in the level of Nrf2 mRNA, rather, it caused a decrease in the rate of Nrf2 protein synthesis. These results demonstrate that ENC1 functions as a negative regulator of Nrf2 through suppressing Nrf2 protein translation, which adds another level of complexity in controlling the Nrf2 signaling pathway.
Bruun Krøigård, Anne; Clemmensen, Ole; Gjørup, Hans
was homozygous for a previously reported pathogenic mutation in the WNT10A gene, c.321C > A, p.Cys107*. The skin and nail abnormalities were for many years interpreted as psoriasis and treated accordingly. A thorough clinical examination revealed hypotrichosis and hyperhidrosis of the soles and dental...... history of tooth anomalies, this lead to the clinical suspicion of a hereditary ectodermal dysplasia. CONCLUSION: This case illustrates the challenges of diagnosing ectodermal dysplasia like OODD and highlights the relevance of interdisciplinary cooperation in the diagnosis of rare conditions....
Abou-Al-Shaar, Hussam; Abd-El-Barr, Muhammad M; Zaidi, Hasan A; Russell-Goldman, Eleanor; Folkerth, Rebecca D; Laws, Edward R; Chiocca, E Antonio
There is a wide group of lesions that may exist in the sellar and suprasellar regions. Embryologically, there is varying evidence that many of these entities may in fact represent a continuum of pathology deriving from a common ectodermal origin. The authors report a case of a concomitant suprasellar craniopharyngioma invading the third ventricle with a concurrent frontal lobe cystic dermoid tumor. A 21-year-old man presented to the authors' service with a 3-day history of worsening headache, nausea, vomiting, and blurry vision. Magnetic resonance imaging depicted a right frontal lobe lesion associated with a separate suprasellar cystic lesion invading the third ventricle. The patient underwent a right pterional craniotomy for resection of both lesions. Gross-total resection of the right frontal lesion was achieved, and subtotal resection of the suprasellar lesion was accomplished with some residual tumor adherent to the walls of the third ventricle. Histopathological examination of the resected right frontal lesion documented a diagnosis of dermoid cyst and, for the suprasellar lesion, a diagnosis of adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma. The occurrence of craniopharyngioma with dermoid cyst has not been reported in the literature before. Such an association might indeed suggest the previously reported hypothesis that these lesions represent a spectrum of ectodermally derived epithelial-lined cystic lesions.
Zeng, Binghui; Xiao, Xue; Li, Sijie; Lu, Hui; Lu, Jiaxuan; Zhu, Ling; Yu, Dongsheng; Zhao, Wei
Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) is characterized by abnormal development of the teeth, hair, and sweat glands. Ectodysplasin A (EDA), Ectodysplasin A receptor (EDAR), and EDAR-associated death domain (EDARADD) are candidate genes for HED, but the relationship between WNT10A and HED has not yet been validated. In this study, we included patients who presented at least two of the three ectodermal dysplasia features. The four genes were analyzed in seven HED patients by PCR and Sanger sequencing. Five EDA and one EDAR heterozygous mutations were identified in families 1-6. Two WNT10A heterozygous mutations were identified in family 7 as a compound heterozygote. c.662G>A (p.Gly221Asp) in EDA and c.354T>G (p.Tyr118*) in WNT10A are novel mutations. Bioinformatics analyses results confirmed the pathogenicity of the two novel mutations. In family 7, we also identified two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that were predicted to affect the splicing of EDAR. Analysis of the patient's total RNA revealed normal splicing of EDAR. This ascertained that the compound heterozygous WNT10A mutations are the genetic defects that led to the onset of HED. Our data revealed the genetic basis of seven HED patients and expended the mutational spectrum. Interestingly, we confirmed WNT10A as a candidate gene of HED and we propose WNT10A to be tested in EDA-negative HED patients.
BACKGROUND: Anomalies of dental anatomy are common in the ectodermal dysplasia syndromes. These anomalies, when found in combination with dental caries, can pose a restorative challenge for the paediatric dentist. Modification of traditional techniques and approaches may help the practitioner provide a successful treatment outcome. CASE REPORT: A 3 years and 11 months old girl with a diagnosis of ankyloblepharon-ectodermal dysplasiacleft lip\\/palate (AEC) syndrome was referred for treatment to a specialist paediatric dental service. Her abnormal dental anatomy, hypodontia and dental caries formed a triad of challenges for the team. Under general anaesthesia, her dentition was restored using a combination of restorative approaches and techniques, including the placement of both composite resin and preformed metal crown restorations. FOLLOW-UP: At 18-month followup, the family had successfully implemented good home care and dietary practices, and the local dental service had instituted a preventive programme consisting of regular examination, advice and fluoride varnish placement. The restorations remained intact and no further caries was detected. At 24-month follow-up, the first permanent molars were partially erupted, and displayed unusually deep fissures. There was also a degree of ectopic eruption of the first permanent molars, and possibly of one of the maxillary permanent incisors. CONCLUSION: Dental care for children with AEC syndrome is optimised by early intervention, good home care and regular professional review. Dental care providers should be aware of the possibility of complex dental anatomy, and bear this in mind should it become necessary to formulate a restorative treatment plan.
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Wu, Yiqun; Wang, Xu Dong; Wang, Feng; Huang, Wei; Zhang, Zhiyong; Zhang, Zhiyuan; Kaigler, Darnell; Zou, Duohong
Therapy with zygomatic implants (ZIs) or conventional implants (CIs) has proven to be an effective method to restore oral function for systemically healthy patients. However, it is still a major challenge to fully restore oral function to edentulous adult patients with ectodermal dysplasia (ED). The aim of this study was to determine an effective treatment protocol for restoring oral function using ZIs and CIs to edentulous adult ED patients. Ten edentulous adult ED patients were treated in this study. The treatment protocol involved the following: (1) bone augmentation in the region of the anterior teeth; (2) placement of two ZIs and four CIs in the maxilla, and four CIs in the mandible; (3) fabrication of dental prosthesis; and (4) psychological and oral education. Following treatment of these patients, implant success rates, biological complications, patient satisfaction, and psychological changes were recorded. Although there was evidence of bone graft resorption in the maxilla, bone augmentation of the mandible was successful in all patients. Nine CIs in the maxilla failed and were removed. All ZIs were successful, and the CIs success rates were 77.50% in the maxilla and 100% in the mandible, with a mean of 88.75%. The mean peri-implant bone resorption for the CIs ranged from 1.3 ± 0.4 mm to 1.8 ± 0.6 mm, and four cases exhibited gingival hyperplasia in the maxilla and mandible. One hundred percent of the patients were satisfied with the restoration of their oral function, and >50% of the patients exhibited enhanced self-confidence and self-esteem. This study demonstrates that oral function can be restored in edentulous adult ED patients using a comprehensive and systematic treatment protocol involving psychological and oral education, bone augmentation, implant placement, and denture fabrication. Despite these positive outcomes, bone augmentation remains challenging in the anterior region of the maxilla for edentulous adult ED patients. © 2015
Full Text Available ... if you are diagnosed with iron-deficiency anemia. Risk Factors You may have an increased risk for iron-deficiency anemia because of your age, ... or sex. Age You may be at increased risk for iron deficiency at certain ages: Infants between ...
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Peserico, A.; Bertoli, P.; Battistella, P.A.
PIBI(D)S is a acronym for a very rare autosomal recessive syndrome consisting of photosensitivity, mild non-congenital ichthyosis, brittle cystine-deficient hair, impaired intelligence, occasionally decreased fertility and short stature. We report a 12-year-old female patient affected by PIBI(D)S with previously unreported MRI findings of central nervous system dysmyelination. (orig.)
Peserico, A.; Bertoli, P. (Ist. di Clinica Dermosifilopatica, Padua Univ. (Italy)); Battistella, P.A. (Dipt. di Pediatria, Padua Univ. (Italy))
PIBI(D)S is a acronym for a very rare autosomal recessive syndrome consisting of photosensitivity, mild non-congenital ichthyosis, brittle cystine-deficient hair, impaired intelligence, occasionally decreased fertility and short stature. We report a 12-year-old female patient affected by PIBI(D)S with previously unreported MRI findings of central nervous system dysmyelination. (orig.).
Jones, Kyle B.; Goodwin, Alice F.; Landan, Maya; Seidel, Kerstin; Tran, Dong-Kha; Hogue, Jacob; Chavez, Miquella; Fete, Mary; Yu, Wenli; Hussein, Tarek; Johnson, Ramsey; Huttner, Kenneth; Jheon, Andrew H.; Klein, Ophir D.
Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) is the most common type of ectodermal dysplasia (ED), which encompasses a large group of syndromes that share several phenotypic features such as missing or malformed ectodermal structures, including skin, hair, sweat glands, and teeth. X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (XL-HED) is associated with mutations in ectodysplasin (EDA1). Hypohidrosis due to hypoplastic sweat glands and thin, sparse hair are phenotypic features that significantly affect the daily lives of XL-HED individuals and therefore require systematic analysis. We sought to determine the quality of life of individuals with XL-HED and to quantify sweat duct and hair phenotypes using confocal imaging, pilocarpine iontophoresis, and phototrichogram analysis. Using these highly sensitive and non-invasive techniques, we demonstrated that 11/12 XL-HED individuals presented with a complete absence of sweat ducts and that none produced sweat. We determined that the thin hair phenotype observed in XL-HED was due to multiple factors, such as fewer terminal hairs with decreased thickness and slower growth rate, as well as fewer follicular units and fewer hairs per unit. The precise characterization of XL-HED phenotypes using sensitive and non-invasive techniques presented in our study will improve upon larger genotype-phenotype studies and in the assessment of future therapies in XL-HED. PMID:23687000
Terheggen, F.; Troost, D.; Majoie, C. B.; Leenstra, S.; Richel, D. J.
Supratentorial primitive neuro-ectodermal tumors (PNET) in adults are very rare. Extraneural metastasis are unusual and the optimal palliative chemotherapy regimen is not established. We present a 26-year-old patient with local recurrence and distant metastasis of supratentorial PNET successfully
Anouk de Bruyn
Full Text Available We present two cases of carnitine deficiency in pregnancy. In our first case, systematic screening revealed L-carnitine deficiency in the first born of an asymptomatic mother. In the course of her second pregnancy, maternal carnitine levels showed a deficiency as well. In a second case, a mother known with carnitine deficiency under supplementation was followed throughout her pregnancy. Both pregnancies had an uneventful outcome. Because carnitine deficiency can have serious complications, supplementation with carnitine is advised. This supplementation should be continued throughout pregnancy according to plasma concentrations.
Jin, Yong-Ri; Turcotte, Taryn J.; Crocker, Alison L.; Han, Xiang Hua; Yoon, Jeong Kyo
R-spondins are a recently characterized family of secreted proteins that activate Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Herein, we determine R-spondin2 (Rspo2) function in craniofacial development in mice. Mice lacking a functional Rspo2 gene exhibit craniofacial abnormalities such as mandibular hypoplasia, maxillary and mandibular skeletal deformation, and cleft palate. We found that loss of the mouse Rspo2 gene significantly disrupted Wnt/β-catenin signaling and gene expression within the first branchial arch (BA1). Rspo2, which is normally expressed in BA1 mesenchymal cells, regulates gene expression through a unique ectoderm-mesenchyme interaction loop. The Rspo2 protein, potentially in combination with ectoderm-derived Wnt ligands, up-regulates Msx1 and Msx2 expression within mesenchymal cells. In contrast, Rspo2 regulates expression of the Dlx5, Dlx6, and Hand2 genes in mesenchymal cells via inducing expression of their upstream activator, Endothelin1 (Edn1), within ectodermal cells. Loss of Rspo2 also causes increased cell apoptosis, especially within the aboral (or caudal) domain of the BA1, resulting in hypoplasia of the BA1. Severely reduced expression of Fgf8, a survival factor for mesenchymal cells, in the ectoderm of Rspo2−/− embryos is likely responsible for increased cell apoptosis. Additionally, we found that cleft palate in Rspo2−/− mice is not associated with defects intrinsic to the palatal shelves. A possible cause of cleft palate is a delay of proper palatal shelf elevation that may result from the small mandible and a failure of lowering the tongue. Thus, our study identifies Rspo2 as a mesenchyme-derived factor that plays critical roles in regulating BA1 patterning and morphogenesis through ectodermal-mesenchymal interaction and a novel genetic factor for cleft palate. PMID:21237142
Autosomal dominant anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia with immunodeficiency caused by a novel NFKBIA mutation, p.Ser36Tyr, presents with mild ectodermal dysplasia and non-infectious systemic inflammation.
Yoshioka, Takakazu; Nishikomori, Ryuta; Hara, Junichi; Okada, Keiko; Hashii, Yoshiko; Okafuji, Ikuo; Nodomi, Seishiro; Kawai, Tomoki; Izawa, Kazushi; Ohnishi, Hidenori; Yasumi, Takahiro; Nakahata, Tatsutoshi; Heike, Toshio
Anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia with immunodeficiency (EDA-ID) is characterized by hypohidrosis, dental abnormalities, sparse hair, and immunodeficiency. Autosomal dominant (AD)-EDA-ID, caused by a heterozygous mutation within NFKBIA, is very rare and its clinical features remain largely unknown. This study describes a patient with AD-EDA-ID harboring a novel NFKBIA mutation who presented with mild EDA and non-infectious systemic inflammation. The clinical presentation of an AD-EDA-ID patient was described and immunological, genetic, and biochemical analyses were performed, with a focus on nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activation. The patient presented with symptoms of mild EDA-ID, namely sparse hair and hypohidrosis, although a skin biopsy confirmed the presence of sweat glands. There were no dental abnormalities. The patient also suffered from non-infectious inflammation, which responded to systemic corticosteroid therapy; however, the patient remained ill. Immunological analyses revealed reduced Toll-like receptor/IL-1 (TLR/IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family responses to various stimuli. Genetic analysis identified a de novo heterozygous missense mutation, p.Ser36Tyr, in NFKBIA, resulting in defective NFKBIA degradation and impaired NF-κB activation. The patient was diagnosed with AD-EDA-ID and underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Engraftment was successful, with few signs of acute graft versus host disease. However, the patient suffered hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia, and died from a brain hemorrhage due to intractable thrombocytopenia. AD-EDA-ID patients can present with mild ectodermal dysplasia and non-infectious inflammation, rather than with recurrent infections. Also, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for AD-EDA-ID is still a clinical challenge.
Lena, Anna Maria; Duca, Sara; Novelli, Flavia; Melino, Sonia; Annicchiarico-Petruzzelli, Margherita; Melino, Gerry; Candi, Eleonora
p63, a member of the p53 family, is a crucial transcription factor for epithelial development and skin homeostasis. Heterozygous mutations in TP63 gene have been associated with human ectodermal dysplasia disorders. Most of these TP63 mutations are missense mutations causing amino acidic substitutions at p63 DNA binding or SAM domains that reduce or abolish the transcriptional activity of mutants p63. A significant number of mutants, however, resides in part of the p63 protein that apparently do not affect DNA binding and/or transcriptional activity, such as the N-terminal domain. Here, we characterize five p63 mutations at the 5' end of TP63 gene aiming to understand the pathogenesis of the diseases and to uncover the role of ΔNp63α N-terminus residues in determining its transactivation potential. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lexner, Michala Oron; Bardow, A.; Juncker, I.
-chromosome inactivation pattern in female carriers. The study group comprised 67 patients from 19 families (24 affected males and 43 female carriers). All participants had clinical signs of ectodermal dysplasia and a disease-causing EDA mutation. The EDA gene was screened for mutations by single-stranded conformational...... polymorphism and direct sequencing. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) analysis was used to detect deletions/duplications in female probands. Sixteen different EDA mutations were detected in the 19 families, nine not described previously. The MLPA analysis detected a deletion of exon 1...... in one female proband. No genotype-phenotype correlations were observed, and female carriers did not exhibit a skewed X-chromosome inactivation pattern. However, in two female carriers with pronounced clinical symptoms, in whom the parental origin of each allele was known, we observed that mainly...
Fete, Mary; vanBokhoven, Hans; Clements, Suzanne; McKeon, Frank; Roop, Dennis R.; Koster, Maranke I.; Missero, Caterina; Attardi, Laura D.; Lombillo, Vivian A.; Ratovitski, Edward; Julapalli, Meena; Ruths, Derek; Sybert, Virginia P.; Siegfried, Elaine C.; Bree, Alanna F.
Ankyloblepharon-Ectodermal Defects-Cleft Lip/Palate (AEC) Syndrome (Hay-Wells syndrome, MIM #106220) is a rare autosomal dominant ectodermal dysplasia syndrome. It is due to mutations in the p63 gene, known to be a regulatory gene with many downstream gene targets. TP63 is important in the differentiation and proliferation of the epidermis, as well as many other processes including limb and facial development. It is also known that mutations in p63 lead to skin erosions. These erosions, especially on the scalp, are defining features of AEC syndrome and cause significant morbidity and mortality in these patients. It was this fact that led to the 2003 AEC Skin Erosion Workshop. That conference laid the groundwork for the International Research Symposium for AEC Syndrome held at Texas Children's Hospital in 2006. The conference brought together the largest cohort of individuals with AEC syndrome, along with a multitude of physicians and scientists. The overarching goals were to define the clinical and pathologic findings for improved diagnostic criteria, to obtain tissue samples for further study and to define future research directions. The symposium was successful in accomplishing these aims as detailed in this conference report. Following our report, we also present eleven manuscripts within this special section that outline the collective clinical, pathologic and mutational data from eighteen individuals enrolled in the concurrent Baylor College of Medicine IRB-approved protocol: Characterization of AEC syndrome. These collaborative findings will hopefully provide a stepping stone to future translational projects of p63 and p63-related syndromes. PMID:19353643
Jaime Diez Betancourt
Full Text Available La displasia ectodérmica es una enfermedad genética muy rara, la cual se encuentra caracterizada por manifestaciones odontoestomatológicas imponentes; presenta aspectos interesantes desde el punto de vista del diagnóstico, así como la rehabilitación conjunta ortodóntica, protésica y estética. En el Servicio de Ortodoncia de la Clínica Estomatológica INPE concurrió una paciente de 9 años de edad con manifestaciones clínicas de displasia ectodérmica, principalmente anodoncia, hipoplasia de dientes anteriores y malposición dentaria, con dientes de aspecto de conos y anomalías de las cúspides, y con afectación sicológica de la paciente. Con un tratamiento conjunto de ortodoncia y del estomatólogo general integra,l se logró restituir la maloclusión, y al mismo tiempo, con el tratamiento estético, se devolvió a la paciente a la vida socialmente útil y afectiva en vísperas de cumplir los 15 años.The ectodermic dysplasia is a very rare genetic disease that is characterized by impressive odontostomatological manifestations. It presents interesting aspects regarding the diagnosis and the joined orthodontic, prosthetic and aesthetic rehabilitation. A 9-year-old patient with clinical manifestations of ectodermic dysplasia, mainly anodontia, hypoplasia of the anterior tooth and tooth malposition, with cone-like tooth, abnormalities of the cusps and psychological affectation, presented for care at the Orthodontics Service of the INPE Dental Clinic. By a joint treatment of orthdontics and the general stomatologist, it was possible to restore malocclusion and, at the same time, with the aesthetic treatment the patient was returned to the socially useful and affective life before being 15.
Full Text Available ... increased need for iron during growth spurts. Older adults, especially those over age ... athletes. Athletes, especially young females, are at risk for iron deficiency. Endurance ...
Ali, S M [Pakistan Council for Science and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan)
Iodine deficiency (IDD) is one of the common problem in the diet. Iodine deficiency as prevalence of goiter in population occurs in the mountainous areas. There is consensus that 800 million people are at risk of IDD from living in iodine deficient area and 190 million from goiter. Very high prevalence of IDD in different parts of the world are striking. It has generally observed that in iodine-deficient areas about 50% are affected with goiter, 1-5% from cretinsim and 20% from impaired mental and/or mortor function. (A.B.).
Full Text Available ... Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) programs. Our ... more information about Donor Iron Deficiency Study - Red Blood Cells ...
Full Text Available ... exploring about iron-deficiency anemia. Read more New treatments for disorders that lead to iron-deficiency anemia. We are ... and other pathways. This could help develop new therapies for conditions that ... behavior, thinking, and mood during adolescence. Treating anemia in ...
Preisler, N; Orngreen, M C; Echaniz-Laguna, A
To examine metabolism during exercise in 2 patients with muscle phosphorylase kinase (PHK) deficiency and to further define the phenotype of this rare glycogen storage disease (GSD).......To examine metabolism during exercise in 2 patients with muscle phosphorylase kinase (PHK) deficiency and to further define the phenotype of this rare glycogen storage disease (GSD)....
Full Text Available ... loss and lead to iron-deficiency anemia. Common causes of blood loss that lead to iron-deficiency anemia include: Bleeding in your GI tract, from an ulcer, colon cancer, or regular use of medicines such as aspirin ...
Full Text Available ... iron-deficiency anemia. Search the NIH Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tools (RePORT) to learn about research that ... iron-deficiency anemia in blood donors affects the quality of donated red blood cells, such as how ...
Full Text Available ... blocks the intestine from taking up iron. Other medical conditions Other medical conditions that may lead to iron-deficiency anemia ... daily amount of iron. If you have other medical conditions that cause iron-deficiency anemia , such as ...
Full Text Available ... anemia if you have certain risk factors , including pregnancy. To prevent iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor may recommend you eat heart-healthy foods or control other conditions that can cause iron-deficiency anemia. Blood tests to screen for ...
Full Text Available ... Are you curious about how inflammation from chronic diseases can cause iron-deficiency anemia? Read more When there is ... DBDR) is a leader in research on the causes, prevention, and treatment of blood diseases, including iron-deficiency anemia. Search the NIH Research ...
Zimmermann, M.B.; Hurrell, R.F.
Iron deficiency is one of the leading risk factors for disability and death worldwide, affecting an estimated 2 billion people. Nutritional iron deficiency arises when physiological requirements cannot be met by iron absorption from diet. Dietary iron bioavailability is low in populations consuming
Full Text Available ... Topics section only, or the News and Resources section. NHLBI Entire Site NHLBI Entire Site Health ... español Iron-deficiency anemia is a common type of anemia that occurs if you do not have enough iron in your body. People with mild or moderate iron-deficiency anemia ...
Full Text Available ... for iron-deficiency anemia. Lifestyle habits Certain lifestyle habits may increase your risk for iron-deficiency anemia, including: Vegetarian or vegan eating patterns. Not eating enough iron-rich foods, such as meat and fish, may result in ...
Full Text Available ... blood cells. Iron-deficiency anemia usually develops over time because your body’s intake of iron is too ... clamping of your newborn’s umbilical cord at the time of delivery. This may help prevent iron-deficiency ...
Full Text Available ... other conditions that can cause iron-deficiency anemia. Blood tests to screen for iron-deficiency anemia To screen ... check the size of your liver and spleen. Blood tests Based on results from blood tests to screen ...
Full Text Available ... also are hoping to determine which iron supplements work best to treat iron-deficiency anemia in children who do not consume the daily recommended amount of iron. Read less Participate in NHLBI Clinical Trials We lead or sponsor many studies related to iron-deficiency anemia. See if you ...
Full Text Available ... en español Iron-deficiency anemia is a common type of anemia that occurs if you do not ... iron-deficiency anemia and help rule out other types of anemia. Treatment will explain treatment-related complications ...
Iron deficiency (ID) is the most common micronutrient deficiency in the world. Iron is involved in oxygen transport, energy metabolism, immune response, and plays an important role in brain development. In infancy, ID is associated with adverse effects on cognitive, motor, and behavioral development
Full Text Available ... anemia. Return to Signs, Symptoms, and Complications to review signs and symptoms as well as complications from iron-deficiency ... NIH]) Heavy Menstrual Bleeding (Centers for Disease Control and ... Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet (NIH) Iron-Deficiency Anemia (National Library ...
Anemia - iron deficiency ... iron from old red blood cells. Iron deficiency anemia develops when your body's iron stores run low. ... You may have no symptoms if the anemia is mild. Most of the time, ... slowly. Symptoms may include: Feeling weak or tired more often ...
Full Text Available ... be at risk for iron-deficiency anemia. Lifestyle habits Certain lifestyle habits may increase your risk for iron-deficiency anemia, ... you are experiencing side effects such as a bad metallic taste, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, or upset stomach. ...
Full Text Available ... how we are using current research and advancing research to prevent iron-deficiency anemia. Participate in NHLBI Clinical Trials will explain our ongoing clinical studies that are investigating prevention strategies for iron-deficiency anemia. Signs, Symptoms, and Complications ...
Background Mutations in the EDAR-gene cause hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia, however, the oral phenotype has been described in a limited number of cases. The aim of the present study was to clinically describe individuals with the c.1072C > T mutation (p. Arg358X) in the EDAR gene with respect to dental signs and saliva secretion, symptoms from other ectodermal structures and to assess orofacial function. Methods Individuals in three families living in Sweden, where some members had a known c.1072C > T mutation in the EDAR gene with an autosomal dominant inheritance (AD), were included in a clinical investigation on oral signs and symptoms and self-reported symptoms from other ectodermal structures (n = 37). Confirmation of the c.1072C > T mutation in the EDAR gene were performed by genomic sequencing. Orofacial function was evaluated with NOT-S. Results The mutation was identified in 17 of 37 family members. The mean number of missing teeth due to agenesis was 10.3 ± 4.1, (range 4–17) in the mutation group and 0.1 ± 0.3, (range 0–1) in the non-mutation group (p T mutation in the EDAR-gene displayed a typical pattern of congenitally missing teeth in the frontal area with functional consequences. They therefore have a need for special attention in dental care, both with reference to tooth agenesis and low salivary secretion with an increased risk for caries. Sweating problems were the most frequently reported symptom from other ectodermal structures. PMID:24884697
Hertz, Jens Michael; Nørgaard Hansen, K; Juncker, I
Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (EDA), or Christ-Siemens-Touraine syndrome, is clinically characterized by hypohidrosis, hypoodontia and hypotrichosis. The X-linked form of the disease has been mapped to Xq12-q13.1, and a gene from this region has recently been cloned. This gene encodes a predi...... in the protein. This mutation cosegregates with the disease in the family and is the first mutation described which affects the predicted transmembrane, hydrophobic domain of the protein.......Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (EDA), or Christ-Siemens-Touraine syndrome, is clinically characterized by hypohidrosis, hypoodontia and hypotrichosis. The X-linked form of the disease has been mapped to Xq12-q13.1, and a gene from this region has recently been cloned. This gene encodes...... a predicted transmembrane protein of 135 amino acids, which was found to be expressed in keratinocytes, hair follicles, and sweat glands. A variety of rearrangements in this gene have been found in patients with hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia. We have screened the probands from nine unrelated Danish...
Green, Ralph; Allen, Lindsay H; Bjørke-Monsen, Anne-Lise
, subclinical deficiency affects between 2.5% and 26% of the general population depending on the definition used, although the clinical relevance is unclear. B12 deficiency can affect individuals at all ages, but most particularly elderly individuals. Infants, children, adolescents and women of reproductive age...... remain debated. Management depends on B12 supplementation, either via high-dose oral routes or via parenteral administration. This Primer describes the current knowledge surrounding B12 deficiency, and highlights improvements in diagnostic methods as well as shifting concepts about the prevalence, causes...
Nicosia, Aldo; Maggio, Teresa; Mazzola, Salvatore; Cuttitta, Angela
Anemonia viridis is a widespread and extensively studied Mediterranean species of sea anemone from which a large number of polypeptide toxins, such as blood depressing substances (BDS) peptides, have been isolated. The first members of this class, BDS-1 and BDS-2, are polypeptides belonging to the β-defensin fold family and were initially described for their antihypertensive and antiviral activities. BDS-1 and BDS-2 are 43 amino acid peptides characterised by three disulfide bonds that act as neurotoxins affecting Kv3.1, Kv3.2 and Kv3.4 channel gating kinetics. In addition, BDS-1 inactivates the Nav1.7 and Nav1.3 channels. The development of a large dataset of A. viridis expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and the identification of 13 putative BDS-like cDNA sequences has attracted interest, especially as scientific and diagnostic tools. A comparison of BDS cDNA sequences showed that the untranslated regions are more conserved than the protein-coding regions. Moreover, the KA/KS ratios calculated for all pairwise comparisons showed values greater than 1, suggesting mechanisms of accelerated evolution. The structures of the BDS homologs were predicted by molecular modelling. All toxins possess similar 3D structures that consist of a triple-stranded antiparallel β-sheet and an additional small antiparallel β-sheet located downstream of the cleavage/maturation site; however, the orientation of the triple-stranded β-sheet appears to differ among the toxins. To characterise the spatial expression profile of the putative BDS cDNA sequences, tissue-specific cDNA libraries, enriched for BDS transcripts, were constructed. In addition, the proper amplification of ectodermal or endodermal markers ensured the tissue specificity of each library. Sequencing randomly selected clones from each library revealed ectodermal-specific expression of ten BDS transcripts, while transcripts of BDS-8, BDS-13, BDS-14 and BDS-15 failed to be retrieved, likely due to under-representation in our
Full Text Available Anemonia viridis is a widespread and extensively studied Mediterranean species of sea anemone from which a large number of polypeptide toxins, such as blood depressing substances (BDS peptides, have been isolated. The first members of this class, BDS-1 and BDS-2, are polypeptides belonging to the β-defensin fold family and were initially described for their antihypertensive and antiviral activities. BDS-1 and BDS-2 are 43 amino acid peptides characterised by three disulfide bonds that act as neurotoxins affecting Kv3.1, Kv3.2 and Kv3.4 channel gating kinetics. In addition, BDS-1 inactivates the Nav1.7 and Nav1.3 channels. The development of a large dataset of A. viridis expressed sequence tags (ESTs and the identification of 13 putative BDS-like cDNA sequences has attracted interest, especially as scientific and diagnostic tools. A comparison of BDS cDNA sequences showed that the untranslated regions are more conserved than the protein-coding regions. Moreover, the KA/KS ratios calculated for all pairwise comparisons showed values greater than 1, suggesting mechanisms of accelerated evolution. The structures of the BDS homologs were predicted by molecular modelling. All toxins possess similar 3D structures that consist of a triple-stranded antiparallel β-sheet and an additional small antiparallel β-sheet located downstream of the cleavage/maturation site; however, the orientation of the triple-stranded β-sheet appears to differ among the toxins. To characterise the spatial expression profile of the putative BDS cDNA sequences, tissue-specific cDNA libraries, enriched for BDS transcripts, were constructed. In addition, the proper amplification of ectodermal or endodermal markers ensured the tissue specificity of each library. Sequencing randomly selected clones from each library revealed ectodermal-specific expression of ten BDS transcripts, while transcripts of BDS-8, BDS-13, BDS-14 and BDS-15 failed to be retrieved, likely due to under
Full Text Available ... body to absorb iron from the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract). Blood loss When you lose blood, you ... to iron-deficiency anemia include: Bleeding in your GI tract, from an ulcer, colon cancer, or regular ...
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... to other diseases. In children, it can cause rickets. Rickets is a rare disease that causes the bones ... and children are at higher risk of getting rickets. In adults, severe vitamin D deficiency leads to ...
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Full Text Available ... for your body to absorb iron from the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract). Blood loss When you lose blood, ... iron deficiency. Endurance athletes lose iron through their gastrointestinal tracts. They also lose iron through the breakdown of ...
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Full Text Available ... tests, especially in infants and small children Heavy menstrual periods Injury or surgery Urinary tract bleeding Consuming ... iron-deficiency anemia from trauma, surgery, or heavy menstrual periods. Individuals with a gene for hemophilia, including ...
Full Text Available ... and naproxen Certain rare genetic conditions such as hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, which causes bleeding in the bowels ... iron-deficiency anemia may cause the following complications: Depression Heart problems. If you do not have enough ...
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Full Text Available ... also often take other medicines—such as proton pump inhibitors, anticoagulants, or blood thinners—that may cause iron-deficiency anemia. Proton pump inhibitors interfere with iron absorption, and blood thinners ...
Full Text Available ... Cells From Iron-deficient Donors: Recovery and Storage Quality. Learn more about participating in a clinical trial . View all trials from ClinicalTrials.gov . Visit Children and Clinical Studies to hear experts, parents, and ...
Full Text Available ... Look for Treatment will discuss medicines and eating pattern changes that your doctors may recommend if you ... iron-deficiency anemia, including: Vegetarian or vegan eating patterns. Not eating enough iron-rich foods, such as ...
Full Text Available ... girls. From birth to 6 months, babies need 0.27 mg of iron. This number goes up ... screen blood donors for low iron stores. Reliable point-of-care testing may help identify iron deficiency ...
Full Text Available ... striking the ground, such as with marathon runners. Sex Girls and women between the ages of 14 ... developing iron-deficiency anemia. Foods that are good sources of iron include dried beans, dried fruits, eggs, ...
Full Text Available ... increase your risk for iron-deficiency anemia, including: Vegetarian or vegan eating patterns. Not eating enough iron- ... factors , such as if you are following a vegetarian eating pattern, your doctor may recommend changes to ...
Full Text Available ... deficiency anemia. Proton pump inhibitors interfere with iron absorption, and blood thinners increase the likelihood of bleeding ... oranges, strawberries, and tomatoes, may help increase your absorption of iron. If you are pregnant, talk to ...
Full Text Available ... screen for iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor may order a blood test called a complete blood count ( ... your risk factors , do a physical exam, or order blood tests or other diagnostic tests. Physical exam ...
Full Text Available ... duodenum, the first part of the small intestine just beyond the stomach. Even if you have enough ... clamping of your newborn’s umbilical cord at the time of delivery. This may help prevent iron-deficiency ...
Full Text Available ... less than 12 g/dl for women is diagnostic of anemia. In iron-deficiency anemia, red blood ... both full-term and preterm infants. Look for Diagnosis will explain tests and procedures that your doctor ...
Full Text Available ... less than 12 g/dl for women is diagnostic of anemia. In iron-deficiency anemia, red blood ... physical exam, or order blood tests or other diagnostic tests. Physical exam Your doctor may ask about ...
Full Text Available ... risk for iron-deficiency anemia, including: Vegetarian or vegan eating patterns. Not eating enough iron-rich foods, ... iron-fortified foods that have iron added. Vegetarian diets can provide enough iron if you choose nonmeat ...
Full Text Available ... bleeding. If undiagnosed or untreated, iron-deficiency anemia can cause serious complications, including heart failure and development ... iron is too low. Low intake of iron can happen because of blood loss, consuming less than ...
Full Text Available ... improved health for people with iron-deficiency anemia. Recipient Epidemiology Donor Studies program findings help to protect blood donors . NHLBI’s Recipient Epidemiology Donor Studies (REDS) program , which began in ...
Full Text Available ... a frequent blood donor living in New York City? This study is looking at how iron-deficiency ... frequently. This study is located in New York City, and is recruiting by invitation only. View more ...
Full Text Available ... to 11 mg for children ages 7 to 12 months, and down to 7 mg for children ... deficiency at certain ages: Infants between 6 and 12 months, especially if they are fed only breast ...
Full Text Available ... in our clinical trials . Are you a frequent blood donor living in New York City? This study is looking at how iron-deficiency anemia in blood donors affects the quality of donated red blood cells, ...
Full Text Available ... iron-deficiency anemia may cause the following complications: Depression Heart problems. If you do not have enough ... prevent complications such as abnormal heart rhythms and depression. Learn the warning signs of serious complications and ...
Full Text Available ... prevent complications such as abnormal heart rhythms and depression. Learn the warning signs of serious complications and ... donors for low iron stores. Reliable point-of-care testing may help identify iron deficiency before potentially ...
Full Text Available ... be at risk for iron-deficiency anemia. Lifestyle habits Certain lifestyle habits may increase your risk for ... Surgery, upper endoscopy or colonoscopy, to stop bleeding. Healthy lifestyle changes To help you meet your daily ...
Full Text Available ... breastfeeding women older than 18 need 9 mg. Problems absorbing iron Even if you consume the recommended ... interested in learning how having iron-deficiency anemia early in life affects later behavior, thinking, and mood ...
Full Text Available ... starch. Restless legs syndrome Shortness of breath Weakness Complications Undiagnosed or untreated iron-deficiency anemia may cause ... as complete blood count and iron studies. Prevent complications over your lifetime To prevent complications from iron- ...
Full Text Available ... you do not have enough iron in your body. People with mild or moderate iron-deficiency anemia ... and where to find more information. Causes Your body needs iron to make healthy red blood cells. ...
Full Text Available ... iron-deficiency anemia. Learn about the current and future NHLBI efforts to improve health through research and ... blood donors. Cardiovascular Health Study identifies predictors of future health problems in older adults. The NHLBI-sponsored ...
Full Text Available ... as most of a newborn’s iron stores are developed during the third trimester of pregnancy. Children between ... This makes it harder to stop bleeding and can increase the risk of iron-deficiency anemia from ...
Full Text Available ... an MCV of less than 80 femtoliters (fL). Prevention strategies If you have certain risk factors , such ... explain our ongoing clinical studies that are investigating prevention strategies for iron-deficiency anemia. Signs, Symptoms, and ...
Full Text Available ... Safety Sleep Science and Sleep Disorders Lung Diseases Heart and Vascular Diseases Precision Medicine Activities Obesity, Nutrition, ... iron-deficiency anemia can cause serious complications, including heart failure and development delays in children. Explore this ...
Full Text Available ... symptoms. More severe iron-deficiency anemia may cause fatigue or tiredness, shortness of breath, or chest pain. ... in the hands and feet Difficulty concentrating Dizziness Fatigue, or feeling tired, is the most common symptom. ...
Schmidt, Sidsel Birkelund; Jensen, Poul Erik; Husted, Søren
Manganese (Mn) is an essential plant micronutrient with an indispensable function as a catalyst in the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) of photosystem II (PSII). Even so, Mn deficiency frequently occurs without visual leaf symptoms, thereby masking the distribution and dimension of the problem...... restricting crop productivity in many places of the world. Hence, timely alleviation of latent Mn deficiency is a challenge in promoting plant growth and quality. We describe here the key mechanisms of Mn deficiency in plants by focusing on the impact of Mn on PSII stability and functionality. We also address...... the mechanisms underlying the differential tolerance towards Mn deficiency observed among plant genotypes, which enable Mn-efficient plants to grow on marginal land with poor Mn availability....
Full Text Available ... to learn more about iron-deficiency anemia, our role in research and clinical trials to improve health, ... of Blood Diseases and Resources (DBDR) is a leader in research on the causes, prevention, and treatment ...
Full Text Available ... Treatment will explain treatment-related complications or side effects. Diagnosis Iron-deficiency anemia may be detected during ... to your doctor if you are experiencing side effects such as a bad metallic taste, vomiting, diarrhea, ...
Full Text Available ... an increased risk for iron-deficiency anemia because of your age, unhealthy environments, family ... 12 months, especially if they are fed only breast milk or are fed formula that is not fortified ...
Full Text Available ... blood tests, especially in infants and small children Heavy menstrual periods Injury or surgery Urinary tract bleeding ... of iron-deficiency anemia from trauma, surgery, or heavy menstrual periods. Individuals with a gene for hemophilia, ...
Full Text Available ... developing iron-deficiency anemia. Foods that are good sources of iron include dried beans, dried fruits, eggs, ... is needed, such as childhood and pregnancy. Good sources of iron are meat, poultry, fish, and iron- ...
Full Text Available ... Individuals with a gene for hemophilia, including symptomatic female carriers who have heavy menstrual periods, may be ... anemia. Endurance activities and athletes. Athletes, especially young females, are at risk for iron deficiency. Endurance athletes ...
Full Text Available ... and Strategic Vision Leadership Scientific Divisions Operations and Administration Advisory Committees Budget and Legislative Information Jobs and ... blood cells. Iron-deficiency anemia usually develops over time because your body’s intake of iron is too ...
Full Text Available ... MCV of less than 80 femtoliters (fL). Prevention strategies If you have certain risk factors , such as ... our ongoing clinical studies that are investigating prevention strategies for iron-deficiency anemia. Signs, Symptoms, and Complications ...
Full Text Available ... may recommend you eat heart-healthy foods or control other conditions that can cause iron-deficiency anemia. ... heavy menstrual bleeding, your doctor will want to control these other conditions to prevent you from developing ...
Full Text Available ... lead to iron-deficiency anemia include: End-stage kidney failure, where there is blood loss during dialysis. People who have chronic kidney disease also often take other medicines—such as ...
Full Text Available ... may be at risk for iron-deficiency anemia. Lifestyle habits Certain lifestyle habits may increase your risk ... upper endoscopy or colonoscopy, to stop bleeding. Healthy lifestyle changes To help you meet your daily recommended ...
Full Text Available ... endoscopy or colonoscopy, to stop bleeding. Healthy lifestyle changes To help you meet your daily recommended iron ... iron-deficiency anemia early in life affects later behavior, thinking, and mood during adolescence. Treating anemia in ...
Full Text Available ... Chest pain Coldness in the hands and feet Difficulty concentrating Dizziness Fatigue, or feeling tired, is the ... Our support of SBIR/STTR programs is helping advance research in iron-deficiency anemia, in part by ...
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Full Text Available ... family history and genetics , lifestyle habits, or sex. Age You may be at increased risk for iron ... Signs, Symptoms, and Complications Iron-deficiency anemia can range from mild to severe. People with mild or ...
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Muñoz, J A; Marcos, J; Risueño, C E; de Cos, C; López, R; Capote, F J; Martín, M V; Gil, J L
To study the relationship between pica and iron-lack anaemia in a series of iron-deficiency patients in order to establish the pathogenesis of such relationship. Four-hundred and thirty-three patients were analysed. Pica was studied by introducing certain diet queries into the clinical history. All patients received oral iron and were periodically controlled with the usual clinico-haematological procedures. Pica was present in 23 patients (5.3%). Eight nourishing (namely, coffee grains, almonds, chocolate, ice, lettuce, carrots, sunflower seeds and bread) and 2 non-nourishing (clay and paper) substances were involved. A second episode of pica appeared in 9 cases upon relapsing of iron deficiency. Both anaemia and pica were cured by etiologic and substitutive therapy in all instances. No clear correlation was found with either socio-economic status or pathogenetic causes of iron deficiency and pica, and no haematological differences were seen between patients with pica and those without this alteration. (1) The pathogenesis of pica is unclear, although it appears unrelated to the degree of iron deficiency. (2) According to the findings in this series, pica seems a consequence of iron deficiency rather than its cause. (3) Adequate therapy can cure both conditions, although pica may reappear upon relapse of iron deficiency.
Practical experience of a genetic disorder may influence how parents approach reproduction, if they know their child may be affected by an inherited condition. One important aspect of this practical experience is the stigmatisation which family members may experience or witness. We outline the concept of stigma and how it affects those in families with a condition that impacts upon physical appearance. We then consider the accounts given by females in families affected by the rare sex-linked disorder, X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (XHED), which principally affects males but can be passed through female carriers to affect their sons. The stigmatisation of affected males is as important in the accounts given by their womenfolk as the physical effects of the condition; this impacts on their talk about transmission of the disorder to the next generation. Perspectives may also change over time. The mothers of affected sons differ from their daughters, who do not yet have children, and from their mothers, who may express more strongly their sense of guilt at having transmitted the condition, despite there being no question of moral culpability. We conclude with suggestions about other contexts where the possibility of stigma may influence reproductive decisions. Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Adaimy, Lynn; Chouery, Eliane; Megarbane, Hala; Mroueh, Salman; Delague, Valerie; Nicolas, Elsa; Belguith, Hanen; de Mazancourt, Philippe; Megarbane, Andre
Odonto-onycho-dermal dysplasia is a rare autosomal recessive syndrome in which the presenting phenotype is dry hair, severe hypodontia, smooth tongue with marked reduction of fungiform and filiform papillae, onychodysplasia, keratoderma and hyperhidrosis of palms and soles, and hyperkeratosis of the skin. We studied three consanguineous Lebanese Muslim Shiite families that included six individuals affected with odonto-onycho-dermal dysplasia. Using a homozygosity-mapping strategy, we assigned the disease locus to an ~9-cM region at chromosome 2q35-q36.2, located between markers rs16853834 and D2S353, with a maximum multipoint LOD score of 5.7. Screening of candidate genes in this region led us to identify the same c.697G-->T (p.Glu233X) homozygous nonsense mutation in exon 3 of the WNT10A gene in all patients. At the protein level, the mutation is predicted to result in a premature truncated protein of 232 aa instead of 417 aa. This is the first report to our knowledge of a human phenotype resulting from a mutation in WNT10A, and it is the first demonstration of an ectodermal dysplasia caused by an altered WNT signaling pathway, expanding the list of WNT-related diseases.
Mizukami, Tomoyuki; Obara, Megumi; Nishikomori, Ryuta; Kawai, Tomoki; Tahara, Yoshihiro; Sameshima, Naoki; Marutsuka, Kousuke; Nakase, Hiroshi; Kimura, Nobuhiro; Heike, Toshio; Nunoi, Hiroyuki
X-linked anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia with immunodeficiency (X-EDA-ID) is caused by hypomorphic mutations in the gene encoding nuclear factor-κB essential modulator protein (NEMO). Patients are susceptibile to diverse pathogens due to insufficient cytokine and frequently show severe chronic colitis. An 11-year-old boy with X-EDA-ID was hospitalized with autoimmune symptoms and severe chronic colitis which had been refractory to immunosuppressive drugs. Since tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α is responsible for the pathogenesis of NEMO colitis according to intestinal NEMO and additional TNFR1 knockout mice studies, and high levels of TNFα-producing mononuclear cells were detected in the patient due to the unexpected gene reversion mosaicism of NEMO, an anti-TNFα monoclonal antibody was administered to ameliorate his abdominal symptoms. Repeated administrations improved his colonoscopic findings as well as his dry skin along with a reduction of TNFα-expressing T cells. These findings suggest TNF blockade therapy is of value for refractory NEMO colitis with gene reversion.
Mellott, Dan O; Thisdelle, Jordan; Burke, Robert D
We have examined regulation of neurogenesis by Delta/Notch signaling in sea urchin embryos. At gastrulation, neural progenitors enter S phase coincident with expression of Sp-SoxC. We used a BAC containing GFP knocked into the Sp-SoxC locus to label neural progenitors. Live imaging and immunolocalizations indicate that Sp-SoxC-expressing cells divide to produce pairs of adjacent cells expressing GFP. Over an interval of about 6 h, one cell fragments, undergoes apoptosis and expresses high levels of activated Caspase3. A Notch reporter indicates that Notch signaling is activated in cells adjacent to cells expressing Sp-SoxC. Inhibition of γ-secretase, injection of Sp-Delta morpholinos or CRISPR/Cas9-induced mutation of Sp-Delta results in supernumerary neural progenitors and neurons. Interfering with Notch signaling increases neural progenitor recruitment and pairs of neural progenitors. Thus, Notch signaling restricts the number of neural progenitors recruited and regulates the fate of progeny of the asymmetric division. We propose a model in which localized signaling converts ectodermal and ciliary band cells to neural progenitors that divide asymmetrically to produce a neural precursor and an apoptotic cell. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
Full Text Available Ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTCD is the most common type urea cycle enzyme deficiencies. This syndrome results from a deficiency of the mitochondrial enzyme ornithine transcarbamylase, which catalyzes the conversion of ornithine and carbamoyl phosphate to citrullin. Our case was a 28-year-old female diagnosed with OTCD following neurocognitive deficit during her first pregnancy. Although hyperammonemia was suspected as the cause of the patient's mental changes, there was no evidence of chronic liver disease. Plasma amino acid and urine organic acid analysis revealed OTCD. After combined modality treatment with arginine, sodium benzoate and hemodialysis, the patient's plasma ammonia level stabilized and her mental status returned to normal. At last she recovered without any damage left.
Diab, Liliane; Krebs, Nancy F
The published literature supports the high prevalence of supplement use in children and adolescents in the United States. Pediatricians today are faced with questions from parents and patients about the benefits, safety, efficacy, and correct dose of vitamins and minerals. In this article, we review 7 vitamins with the most clinical relevance as judged by abundance in food, risks and symptoms of deficiency, and potential for toxicity. Specifically, we focus on possible clinical scenarios that can be indicative of nutritional deficiency. We synthesize and summarize guidelines from nutrition experts, various medical societies, the World Health Organization, and the American Academy of Pediatrics. © American Academy of Pediatrics, 2018. All rights reserved.
... Deficiency Factor V Deficiency Combined FV & FVIII Deficiencies Factor VII Deficiency Factor X Deficiency Factor XI Deficiency Factor ... Deficiency Factor V Deficiency Combined FV & FVIII Deficiencies Factor VII Deficiency Factor X Deficiency Factor XI Deficiency Factor ...
Saltnes, Solfrid Sørgjerd; Jensen, Janicke Liaaen; Sæves, Rønnaug; Nordgarden, Hilde; Geirdal, Amy Østertun
The aim of this study was to assess demographics, self-reported signs of ectodermal dysplasia (problems with hair, nails, skin and sweat glands), present teeth, previous dental treatment, psychological distress and QoL in individuals with oligodontia, and to explore the associations between these factors. We also aimed to compare the level of psychological distress and QoL between the study group and normative samples. Forty-seven individuals with oligodontia registered at a resource centre in Norway were included in the study. The participants completed self-administered questionnaires on demographics, ED signs, dental treatments, psychological distress and QoL (overall, health-related- and oral health-related QoL). Relevant statistics (independent t-test, correlation analysis and hierarchical multiple regressions) were used. Thirty-five participants reported ED signs. Forty-one participants had tooth replacements (nine had removable dentures). Sixteen had ≤10 present teeth, 13 perceived dry mouth and seven were unemployed. Persons with ≤10 present teeth had higher anxiety- and depression-scores than those having >10 present teeth. Unemployment, dry mouth and removable dentures indicated poor health-related- and oral health related QoL. Compared to a normative sample; the study group had significantly poorer mental health (MH)-related QoL, mean (SD); (51.1(8.2) versus 46.8(9.3), p < .001) and more anxiety, mean (SD); (4.5(3.1) versus 6.7(3.6), p < .001). ED signs and treatments were most important for psychological distress and MH related QoL (MCS), whereas demographic parameters were most important for the other QoL measures. The psychological burden of oligodontia is significant, emphasizing the importance of a holistic approach by caregivers.
Full Text Available ... grams per deciliter (g/dl) for men and less than 12 g/dl for women is diagnostic of anemia. In iron-deficiency anemia, ... blood levels of iron will be low, or less than 10 micromoles per liter (mmol/L) for both men and women. Normal levels are 10 to 30 mmol/L. ...
Stolk, Jan; Seersholm, Niels; Kalsheker, Noor
The Alpha One International Registry (AIR), a multinational research program focused on alpha1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency, was formed in response to a World Health Organization recommendation. Each of the nearly 20 participating countries maintains a national registry of patients with AAT defic...
Full Text Available ... is blood loss during dialysis. People who have chronic kidney disease also often take other medicines—such as proton ... reduces iron absorption. Other treatments If you have chronic kidney disease and iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor may recommend ...
Full Text Available ... A-Z Clinical Trials Publications and Resources Health Education and Awareness The Science Science Home Blood Disorders ... Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) ... We are interested in learning how having iron-deficiency anemia early in life ...
Sin, Yuan Yan; Baron, Garrett; Schulze, Andreas; Funk, Colin D
Arginase-1 (ARG1) deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive disorder that affects the liver-based urea cycle, leading to impaired ureagenesis. This genetic disorder is caused by 40+ mutations found fairly uniformly spread throughout the ARG1 gene, resulting in partial or complete loss of enzyme function, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of arginine to ornithine and urea. ARG1-deficient patients exhibit hyperargininemia with spastic paraparesis, progressive neurological and intellectual impairment, persistent growth retardation, and infrequent episodes of hyperammonemia, a clinical pattern that differs strikingly from other urea cycle disorders. This review briefly highlights the current understanding of the etiology and pathophysiology of ARG1 deficiency derived from clinical case reports and therapeutic strategies stretching over several decades and reports on several exciting new developments regarding the pathophysiology of the disorder using ARG1 global and inducible knockout mouse models. Gene transfer studies in these mice are revealing potential therapeutic options that can be exploited in the future. However, caution is advised in extrapolating results since the lethal disease phenotype in mice is much more severe than in humans indicating that the mouse models may not precisely recapitulate human disease etiology. Finally, some of the functions and implications of ARG1 in non-urea cycle activities are considered. Lingering questions and future areas to be addressed relating to the clinical manifestations of ARG1 deficiency in liver and brain are also presented. Hopefully, this review will spark invigorated research efforts that lead to treatments with better clinical outcomes.
Full Text Available ... Science Science Home Blood Disorders and Blood Safety Sleep Science and Sleep Disorders Lung Diseases Heart and Vascular Diseases Precision ... prevention and treatment of heart, lung, blood, and sleep disorders, including iron-deficiency anemia. Learn about the ...
Full Text Available ... infection. A history of gastrointestinal surgery, such as weight-loss surgery—especially gastric bypass—or gastrectomy. Certain rare ... prevention and treatment of heart, lung, blood, and sleep disorders, including iron-deficiency anemia. Learn about the ...
Vitamin B12 (B12; also known as cobalamin) is a B vitamin that has an important role in cellular metabolism, especially in DNA synthesis, methylation and mitochondrial metabolism. Clinical B12 deficiency with classic haematological and neurological manifestations is relatively uncommon. However, sub...
van de Vijver, Edith; van den Berg, Timo K.; Kuijpers, Taco W.
During inflammation, leukocytes play a key role in maintaining tissue homeostasis through elimination of pathogens and removal of damaged tissue. Leukocytes migrate to the site of inflammation by crawling over and through the blood vessel wall, into the tissue. Leukocyte adhesion deficiencies (ie,
Full Text Available ... iron supplements work best to treat iron-deficiency anemia in children who do not consume the daily recommended amount ... and Clinical Studies to hear experts, parents, and children talk about their experiences with clinical ... Anemia Arrhythmia Blood Donation Blood Tests Blood ...
Full Text Available ... Working at the NHLBI Contact and FAQs Accessible Search Form Search the NHLBI, use the drop down list to ... treatment of blood diseases, including iron-deficiency anemia. Search the NIH Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tools (RePORT) ...
Full Text Available ... or even heart failure . Increased risk of infections Motor or cognitive development delays in children Pregnancy complications, ... Upper endoscopy to look for bleeding in the esophagus, stomach, and the first part of the ... blood, and sleep disorders, including iron-deficiency anemia. Learn about the current ...
Full Text Available ... how having iron-deficiency anemia early in life affects later behavior, thinking, and mood during adolescence. Treating anemia in premature or very small newborns . In collaboration with the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, we are investigating how ...
cell and excess iron is stored as ferritin to protect the cell from oxidative ... iron deficiency has negative effects during pregnancy and in the postpartum period, which affects maternal health ... use of undiluted cow's milk and a predominant cow's milk intake in .... on bone marrow smear or biopsy for the definitive diagnosis of.
Full Text Available ... Certain conditions or medicines can decrease your body’s ability to absorb iron and lead to iron-deficiency ... environment or water. Lead interferes with the body’s ability to make hemoglobin. Family history and genetics Von ...
Full Text Available ... supplements. Iron supplements can change how certain medicines work. Your doctor may suggest check-ups to make sure your ... To prevent complications from iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor may ... during certain stages of life when more iron is needed, such as childhood ...
Full Text Available ... an MCV of less than 80 femtoliters (fL). Prevention strategies If you have certain risk factors , such as if you are following a ... unhealthy environments, or other factors that increase your risk of developing iron-deficiency ... to Screening and Prevention to review tests to screen for and strategies ...
Full Text Available ... Services’ National Institutes of Health (NIH)—the Nation’s biomedical research agency that makes important scientific discoveries to improve ... efforts for iron-deficiency anemia. Learn about exciting research areas that ... This could help develop new therapies for conditions that affect the balance of iron ...
Full Text Available ... Complications Undiagnosed or untreated iron-deficiency anemia may cause the following complications: Depression Heart problems. If you do not have enough hemoglobin-carrying red blood cells, your heart has to work harder to move oxygen-rich blood through your ...
Full Text Available ... the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, we are investigating how best to treat premature newborns with low hemoglobin levels. We also are hoping to determine which iron supplements work best to treat iron-deficiency anemia in children ...
Andresen, Brage Storstein; Lund, Allan Meldgaard; Hougaard, David Michael
Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCADD) is the most common defect of fatty acid oxidation. Many countries have introduced newborn screening for MCADD, because characteristic acylcarnitines can easily be identified in filter paper blood spot samples by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/M...
Full Text Available ... NHLBI News NHLBI in the Press Research Features All Events Past Events Upcoming Events About NHLBI About NHLBI Home Mission and Strategic Vision ... deficient Donors: Recovery and Storage Quality. Learn more about ... trial . View all trials from ClinicalTrials.gov . Visit Children and Clinical ...
Full Text Available ... A-Z Clinical Trials Publications and Resources Health Education and Awareness The Science Science Home Blood Disorders ... Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) programs. Our ... more information about Donor Iron Deficiency Study - Red Blood Cells ...
Rupar, C A; Gillett, J; Gordon, B A; Ramsay, D A; Johnson, J L; Garrett, R M; Rajagopalan, K V; Jung, J H; Bacheyie, G S; Sellers, A R
Isolated sulfite oxidase (SO) deficiency is an autosomal recessively inherited inborn error of sulfur metabolism. In this report of a ninth patient the clinical history, laboratory results, neuropathological findings and a mutation in the sulfite oxidase gene are described. The data from this patient and previously published patients with isolated sulfite oxidase deficiency and molybdenum cofactor deficiency are summarized to characterize this rare disorder. The patient presented neonatally with intractable seizures and did not progress developmentally beyond the neonatal stage. Dislocated lenses were apparent at 2 months. There was increased urine excretion of sulfite and S-sulfocysteine and a decreased concentration of plasma cystine. A lactic acidemia was present for 6 months. Liver sulfite oxidase activity was not detectable but xanthine dehydrogenase activity was normal. The boy died of respiratory failure at 32 months. Neuropathological findings of cortical necrosis and extensive cavitating leukoencephalopathy were reminiscent of those seen in severe perinatal asphyxia suggesting an etiology of energy deficiency. A point mutation that resulted in a truncated protein missing the molybdenum-binding site has been identified.
Full Text Available ... do not have enough iron in your body. People with mild or moderate iron-deficiency anemia may ... as a TMRPSS6 gene mutation that causes a person’s body to make too much of a hormone ...
Full Text Available ... anemia, including: Vegetarian or vegan eating patterns. Not eating enough iron-rich foods, such as meat and fish, may result in ... deficiency anemia, your doctor may recommend heart-healthy eating and choosing iron-rich foods, especially during certain stages of life when more ...
Full Text Available ... iron-deficiency anemia early in life affects later behavior, thinking, and mood during adolescence. Treating anemia in premature or very small newborns . In collaboration with the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, we are investigating how best to treat ...
Full Text Available ... iron-deficiency anemia, including: Vegetarian or vegan eating patterns. Not eating enough iron-rich foods, such as meat and fish, may result in you getting less than the recommended daily amount of iron. Frequent blood donation. Individuals who donate blood often may be ...
... lack an enzyme called lipoprotein lipase. Without this enzyme, the body cannot break down fat from digested food. Fat particles called chylomicrons build up in the blood. Risk factors include a family history of lipoprotein lipase deficiency. The condition is usually ...
Full Text Available ... Activities Obesity, Nutrition, and Physical Activity Population and Epidemiology Studies Women’s Health All Science A-Z Grants ... health for people with iron-deficiency anemia. Recipient Epidemiology Donor Studies program findings help to protect blood ...
Full Text Available ... and save lives. We are committed to advancing science and translating discoveries into clinical practice to promote the prevention and treatment of heart, lung, blood, and sleep disorders, including iron-deficiency anemia. Learn about the current and future NHLBI efforts to improve health through ...
Full Text Available ... iron-deficiency anemia early in life affects later behavior, thinking, and mood during adolescence. Treating anemia in premature or very small newborns . In collaboration with the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, we are investigating how ...
Full Text Available ... with the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, we are investigating how best to treat premature newborns with low hemoglobin levels. We also are hoping to determine which iron supplements work best to treat iron-deficiency anemia in children ...
Full Text Available ... of the body. When your heart has to work harder, this can lead to several conditions: irregular heartbeats called arrhythmias , a heart murmur , an ... chronic conditions, iron-deficiency anemia can make their condition worse or result in treatments not working as well. Look for Diagnosis will discuss any ...
Full Text Available ... normally stores but has used up. Increase your intake of vitamin C to help your body absorb iron. Avoid drinking black tea, which reduces iron absorption. Other treatments If you have chronic kidney disease and iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor may recommend ...
Full Text Available ... deficiency anemia. We stimulate high-impact research. Our Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) Program now includes ... Studies (REDS) program Blood Disorders and Blood Safety Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) Program Non-NHLBI ...
Full Text Available ... Medicine (TOPMed) Program Non-NHLBI resources Anemia (National Library of Medicine, MedlinePlus) Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease ( ... Supplement Fact Sheet (NIH) Iron-Deficiency Anemia (National Library of Medicine, MedlinePlus) Building 31 31 Center Drive ...
Zimmermann, M.B.; Jooste, P.L.; Pandav, C.S.
billion individuals worldwide have insufficient iodine intake, with those in south Asia and sub-Saharan Africa particularly affected. Iodine deficiency has many adverse effects on growth and development. These effects are due to inadequate production of thyroid hormone and are termed
Full Text Available Ignacio Jáuregui-Lobera Department of Nutrition and Bromatology, Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, Spain Abstract: Micronutrient deficiencies, especially those related to iodine and iron, are linked to different cognitive impairments, as well as to potential long-term behavioral changes. Among the cognitive impairments caused by iron deficiency, those referring to attention span, intelligence, and sensory perception functions are mainly cited, as well as those associated with emotions and behavior, often directly related to the presence of iron deficiency anemia. In addition, iron deficiency without anemia may cause cognitive disturbances. At present, the prevalence of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia is 2%–6% among European children. Given the importance of iron deficiency relative to proper cognitive development and the alterations that can persist through adulthood as a result of this deficiency, the objective of this study was to review the current state of knowledge about this health problem. The relevance of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia, the distinction between the cognitive consequences of iron deficiency and those affecting specifically cognitive development, and the debate about the utility of iron supplements are the most relevant and controversial topics. Despite there being methodological differences among studies, there is some evidence that iron supplementation improves cognitive functions. Nevertheless, this must be confirmed by means of adequate follow-up studies among different groups. Keywords: iron deficiency, anemia, cognitive functions, supplementation
Full Text Available Adult growth hormone deficiency (AGHD is being recognized increasingly and has been thought to be associated with premature mortality. Pituitary tumors are the commonest cause for AGHD. Growth hormone deficiency (GHD has been associated with neuropsychiatric-cognitive, cardiovascular, neuromuscular, metabolic, and skeletal abnormalities. Most of these can be reversed with growth hormone therapy. The insulin tolerance test still remains the gold standard dynamic test to diagnose AGHD. Growth hormone is administered subcutaneously once a day, titrated to clinical symptoms, signs and IGF-1 (insulin like growth factor-1. It is generally well tolerated at the low-doses used in adults. Pegylated human growth hormone therapy is on the horizon, with a convenient once a week dosing.
Nicolosi, A; Caruso-Nicoletti, M
Deletion of short stature homeobox-containing (SHOX) gene, in the pseudoautosomal region (PAR1) of X and Y chromosomes, is an important cause of short stature. Homozygous loss of SHOX results in the more severe Langer mesomelic dysplasia, while SHOX haploinsufficiency cause a wide spectrum of short stature phenotypes, including patients with Turner syndrome, Leri Weill dyschondrosteosis (LWD), and idiopathic short stature (ISS). In Turner syndrome, haploinsufficiency of SHOX gene, as well as short stature, are present in 100%; nevertheless, SHOX deficiency accounts for only two-thirds of Turner patients' short stature. In LWD the prevalence of SHOX gene anomalies varies from 56% to 100%. This wide range might be due to different factors such as selection criteria of patients, sample size, and method used for screening SHOX mutations. The real challenge is to establish the prevalence of SHOX deficiency in ISS children given that published studies have reported this association with a very broad frequency range varying from 1.5% to 15%. An important variable in these studies is represented by the method used for screening SHOX mutations and sometimes by differences in patient selection. Short stature is present by definition in 3 out of 100 subjects; if we consider a frequency of SHOX defects of 3% among ISS, we should expect a population prevalence of 1 in 1000. This prevalence would be higher than that of GH deficiency (1:3,500) and of Turner syndrome (1:2,500 females), suggesting that SHOX deficiency could be one of the most frequent monogenetic causes of short stature.
Zempleni, Janos; Hassan, Yousef I; Wijeratne, Subhashinee SK
Biotin is a water-soluble vitamin that serves as an essential coenzyme for five carboxylases in mammals. Biotin-dependent carboxylases catalyze the fixation of bicarbonate in organic acids and play crucial roles in the metabolism of fatty acids, amino acids and glucose. Carboxylase activities decrease substantially in response to biotin deficiency. Biotin is also covalently attached to histones; biotinylated histones are enriched in repeat regions in the human genome and appear to play a role...
Khan, Anwar Kamal; Muhammad, Noor; Aziz, Abdul; Khan, Sher Alam; Shah, Khadim; Nasir, Abdul; Khan, Muzammil Ahmad; Khan, Saadullah
Pure hair and nail ectodermal dysplasia (PHNED) is a congenital disorder of hair abnormalities and nail dysplasia. Both autosomal recessive and dominant inheritance fashion of PHNED occurs. In literature, to date, five different forms of PHNED have been reported at molecular level, having three genes known and two loci with no gene yet. In this study, a four generations consanguineous family of Pakistani origin with autosomal recessive PHNED was investigated. Affected members exhibited PHNED phenotypes with involvement of complete hair loss and nail dysplasia. To screen for mutation in the genes (HOXC13, KRT74, KRT85), its coding exons and exons-intron boundaries were sequenced. The 3D models of normal and mutated HOXC13 were predicted by using homology modeling. Through investigating the family to known loci, the family was mapped to ectodermal dysplasia 9 (ECTD9) loci with genetic address of 12q13.13. Mutation screening revealed a novel missense mutation (c.929A > C; p.Asn310Thr) in homeobox DNA binding domain of HOXC13 gene in affected members of the family. Due to mutation, loss of hydrogen bonding and difference in potential energy occurs, which may resulting in alteration of protein function. This is the first mutation reported in homeodomain, while 5 th mutation reported in HOXC13 gene causing PHNED.
Molineaux, Anna C; Maier, Jennifer A; Schecker, Teresa; Sears, Karen E
Retinoic acid (RA) is a vitamin A derivative. Exposure to exogenous RA generates congenital limb malformations (CLMs) in species from frogs to humans. These CLMs include but are not limited to oligodactyly and long-bone hypoplasia. The processes by which exogenous RA induces CLMs in mammals have been best studied in mouse, but as of yet remain unresolved. We investigated the impact of exogenous RA on the cellular and molecular development of the limbs of a nonrodent model mammal, the opossum Monodelphis domestica. Opossums exposed to exogenous retinoic acid display CLMs including oligodactly, and results are consistent with opossum development being more susceptible to RA-induced disruptions than mouse development. Exposure of developing opossums to exogenous RA leads to an increase in cell death in the limb mesenchyme that is most pronounced in the zone of polarizing activity, and a reduction in cell proliferation throughout the limb mesenchyme. Exogenous RA also disrupts the expression of Shh in the zone of polarizing activity, and Fgf8 in the apical ectodermal ridge, and other genes with roles in the regulation of limb development and cell death. Results are consistent with RA inducing CLMs in opossum limbs by disrupting the functions of the apical ectodermal ridge and zone of polarizing activity, and driving an increase in cell death and reduction of cell proliferation in the mesenchyme of the developing limb. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available The origin of the signals that induce the differentiation of the central nervous system (CNS is a long-standing question in vertebrate embryology. Here we show that Xenopus neural induction starts earlier than previously thought, at the blastula stage, and requires the combined activity of two distinct signaling centers. One is the well-known Nieuwkoop center, located in dorsal-vegetal cells, which expresses Nodal-related endomesodermal inducers. The other is a blastula Chordin- and Noggin-expressing (BCNE center located in dorsal animal cells that contains both prospective neuroectoderm and Spemann organizer precursor cells. Both centers are downstream of the early beta-Catenin signal. Molecular analyses demonstrated that the BCNE center was distinct from the Nieuwkoop center, and that the Nieuwkoop center expressed the secreted protein Cerberus (Cer. We found that explanted blastula dorsal animal cap cells that have not yet contacted a mesodermal substratum can, when cultured in saline solution, express definitive neural markers and differentiate histologically into CNS tissue. Transplantation experiments showed that the BCNE region was required for brain formation, even though it lacked CNS-inducing activity when transplanted ventrally. Cell-lineage studies demonstrated that BCNE cells give rise to a large part of the brain and retina and, in more posterior regions of the embryo, to floor plate and notochord. Loss-of-function experiments with antisense morpholino oligos (MO showed that the CNS that forms in mesoderm-less Xenopus embryos (generated by injection with Cerberus-Short [CerS] mRNA required Chordin (Chd, Noggin (Nog, and their upstream regulator beta-Catenin. When mesoderm involution was prevented in dorsal marginal-zone explants, the anterior neural tissue formed in ectoderm was derived from BCNE cells and had a complete requirement for Chd. By injecting Chd morpholino oligos (Chd-MO into prospective neuroectoderm and Cerberus
Kultursay, N.; Taneli, B.; Cavusoglu, A.
A 5-year old boy was admitted to the hospital with failure to thrive since he was 2 years old, with weakness in his legs and a waddling gait. He has normal mental development. His parents are normal phenotypically and are unrelated. In analysing his pedigree only a grandfather is described to have waddling gait. He has a normal craniofacial appearance but a disproportionate body with normal trunk and short extremities with height below the 3rd percentile. The diagnosis of pseudoachondroplasia was made on clinical, radiological and laboratory findings. He also had immune deficiency characterised by low T-lymphocyte populations and a low level of serum immunoglobulin A. (orig.)
Rasmussen, Jan; Hougaard, David M; Sandhu, Noreen
Primary carnitine deficiency (PCD) causes low levels of carnitine in patients potentially leading to metabolic and cardiac symptoms. Newborn screening for PCD is now routine in many countries by measuring carnitine levels in infants. In this study we report Apgar scores, length and weight...... scores, length and weight compared to controls. Newborns with PCD and newborns born to mothers with PCD had significantly lower levels of free carnitine (fC0) than controls. Screening algorithms focusing only on fC0 had a high rate of detection of newborns with PCD. Sample collection 4-9 days after birth...
Yoshida, Kazue; Hayashi, Ryota; Fujita, Hideki; Kubota, Masaya; Kondo, Mai; Shimomura, Yutaka; Niizeki, Hironori
Cleft lip/palate-ectodermal dysplasia syndrome is a rare, autosomal recessive disorder caused by homozygous loss-of-function mutations of the poliovirus receptor-like 1 (PVRL1) gene encoding nectin-1. Nectin-1 is a cell-cell adhesion molecule that is important for the initial step in the formation of adherens junctions and tight junctions; it is expressed in keratinocytes, neurons, and the developing face and palate. Clinical manifestations comprise a unique facial appearance with cleft lip/palate, ectodermal dysplasia, cutaneous syndactyly of the fingers and/or toes, and in some cases, mental retardation. We present the first report, to our knowledge, of an Asian individual with cleft lip/palate-ectodermal dysplasia syndrome with a novel PVRL1 mutation. A 7-year-old Japanese boy, the first child of a consanguineous marriage, showed hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia with sparse, brittle, fine, dry hair and hypodontia, the unique facial appearance with cleft lip/palate, cutaneous syndactyly of the fingers and mild mental retardation. Scanning electron microscopic examination of the hair demonstrated pili torti and pili trianguli et canaliculi. Mutation analysis of exon 2 of PVRL1 revealed a novel homozygous nonsense mutation, c.400C>T (p.Arg134*). His parents were heterozygous for the mutant alleles. All four PVRL1 mutations identified in cleft lip/palate-ectodermal dysplasia syndrome to date, including this study, resulted in truncated proteins that lack the transmembrane domain and intracellular domain of nectin-1, which is necessary to initiate the cell-cell adhesion process. © 2015 Japanese Dermatological Association.
Sumoy, L; Wang, C K; Lichtler, A C; Pierro, L J; Kosher, R A; Upholt, W B
Msx-2 is a member of the Msx family of homeobox-containing genes expressed in a variety of embryonic tissues involved in epithelial-mesenchymal interactions and pattern formation. In the developing chick limb bud, Msx-2 is expressed in the apical ectodermal ridge, which plays a crucial role in directing the growth and patterning of limb mesoderm. In addition, Msx-2 is expressed in the anterior nonskeletal-forming mesoderm of the limb bud, in the posterior necrotic zone, and in the interdigital mesenchyme. Studies of the altered expression patterns of Msx-2 in amelic and polydactylous mutant chick limbs have suggested that the apical ectodermal ridge and mesodermal domains of Msx-2 expression are independently regulated and that there might be separate cis-regulatory elements in the Msx-2 gene controlling its spatially distinct domains of expression. To test this hypothesis, we have isolated the chicken Msx-2 gene and have tested the ability of various regions of the gene to target expression of LacZ reporter gene to specific regions of the limbs of transgenic mice. A variety of these constructs are consistently expressed only in the apical ectodermal ridge and the ectoderm of the genital tubercle and are not expressed in the mesoderm of the limb bud or in other regions of the embryo where the endogenous Msx-2 gene is expressed. These results suggest the presence of spatially specific cis-regulatory elements in the Msx-2 gene. We identified a 348-bp region in the 5' flanking region of the Msx-2 gene which can act as an apical ectodermal ridge enhancer element when placed in reverse orientation in front of the reporter gene with transcription initiation directed by the minimal hsp68 promoter.
Full Text Available Abstract Glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency (G6P deficiency, or glycogen storage disease type I (GSDI, is a group of inherited metabolic diseases, including types Ia and Ib, characterized by poor tolerance to fasting, growth retardation and hepatomegaly resulting from accumulation of glycogen and fat in the liver. Prevalence is unknown and annual incidence is around 1/100,000 births. GSDIa is the more frequent type, representing about 80% of GSDI patients. The disease commonly manifests, between the ages of 3 to 4 months by symptoms of hypoglycemia (tremors, seizures, cyanosis, apnea. Patients have poor tolerance to fasting, marked hepatomegaly, growth retardation (small stature and delayed puberty, generally improved by an appropriate diet, osteopenia and sometimes osteoporosis, full-cheeked round face, enlarged kydneys and platelet dysfunctions leading to frequent epistaxis. In addition, in GSDIb, neutropenia and neutrophil dysfunction are responsible for tendency towards infections, relapsing aphtous gingivostomatitis, and inflammatory bowel disease. Late complications are hepatic (adenomas with rare but possible transformation into hepatocarcinoma and renal (glomerular hyperfiltration leading to proteinuria and sometimes to renal insufficiency. GSDI is caused by a dysfunction in the G6P system, a key step in the regulation of glycemia. The deficit concerns the catalytic subunit G6P-alpha (type Ia which is restricted to expression in the liver, kidney and intestine, or the ubiquitously expressed G6P transporter (type Ib. Mutations in the genes G6PC (17q21 and SLC37A4 (11q23 respectively cause GSDIa and Ib. Many mutations have been identified in both genes,. Transmission is autosomal recessive. Diagnosis is based on clinical presentation, on abnormal basal values and absence of hyperglycemic response to glucagon. It can be confirmed by demonstrating a deficient activity of a G6P system component in a liver biopsy. To date, the diagnosis is most
Mario A. Salazar Fernández
Full Text Available El presente trabajo se propone reportar a un paciente masculino de 12 años de edad con presencia de la tríada completa del síndrome ectrodactilia, displasia ectodérmica y labio-paladar hendidos (EEC; señalar los hallazgos clínicos encontrados en las valoraciones, así como los tratamientos realizados. Es un síndrome autonómico dominante, con penetración incompleta y expresividad variable. Esta conjunción de signos y síntomas puede llevar a la confusión con otro tipo de entidades clínicas, y ocasionar un diagnóstico erróneo del paciente. La hendidura de labio y ausencia del conducto lagrimal no es una combinación usual en otras condiciones. Se hace mención de las manifestaciones clínicas reportadas en la literatura, y se enfatiza en las manifestaciones maxilofaciales y dentales. Los dos hermanos del paciente se consideraron normales o exentos de este síndrome.In present paper is reported the case of a patient presenting with the complete triad of Ectrodactylism syndrome, ectodermic dysplasia and lip-cleft palate, to mention the clinical findings present in assessments as well as the treatments applied. The syndrome is characterized by the triad Ectrodactylism, ectodermic dysplasia and cleft (EEC and it is autosomal dominant with incomplete penetration and a variable expressiveness. This group of signs and symptoms may be cofounded with other clinical entities, leading to a mistake diagnosis of patient. Lip cleft and lack of lacrimal duct is not a usual combination in other conditions. This is the clinical case of a male patient aged 12 with the syndrome of: Ectrodactylism, ectodermic dysplasia and lip-cleft palate. Clinical manifestations reported in literature are mentioned emphasizing the maxillofacial and dental manifestations. The two brothers of patient were normal or free of this syndrome. It is very important that the professionals charged of oral and maxillofacial health, as well the Stomatology students of Bachelor
Dietary deficiencies of vitamin B12 and vitamin D during pregnancy and lactation may result in health problems in exclusively breastfed infants. Vitamin-B12 deficiency in these infants results in irritability, anorexia and failure to thrive during the first 4-8 months of life. Severe and permanent
Suri, Sunjay; Carmichael, Robert P; Tompson, Bryan D
This clinical report describes the simultaneous use of functional and fixed appliances to modify the pattern of dentofacial development and align teeth in preparation for prosthodontic habilitation of a growing child with hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia. The treatment objective was to create a more favorable starting point for the prosthodontic phase of habilitation by improving the sagittal and vertical skeletal relationships and facial esthetics. This was accomplished through growth modification with functional appliances conducted simultaneously with eruption of maxillary and mandibular molars, dental arch expansion, alignment, and space management using fixed orthodontic appliances. Orthodontic retention was accomplished by means of removable partial dentures. A second phase of orthodontics conducted closer to the age of skeletal maturation will aim at definitive tooth alignment in preparation for dental implant-supported restorations.
Maiorana, Carlo; Poli, Pier Paolo; Poggio, Carlo; Barbieri, Paola; Beretta, Mario
Ectodermal dysplasia (ED) is an inherited disorder characterized by abnormality of ectodermally derived structures. A recurrent oral finding is oligodontia, which in turn leads to a severely hypotrophic alveolar process with typical knife-edge morphology and adverse ridge contours. This unfavorable anatomy can seriously hamper proper implant placement. Fresh-frozen bone (FFB) allografts recently have been proposed to augment the residual bone volume for implant placement purposes; however, scientific evidence concerning the use of FFB to treat ED patients is absent. Similarly, data reporting computer-aided template-guided implant placement in medically compromised patients are limited. Thus the purpose of this report is to illustrate the oral rehabilitation of a female patient affected by ED and treated with appositional FFB block grafts and consecutive computer-guided flapless implant placement in a 2-stage procedure. Fixed implant-supported dental prostheses were finally delivered to the patient, which improved her self-esteem and quality of life. During the follow-up recall 1 year after the prosthetic loading, the clinical examination showed healthy peri-implant soft tissues with no signs of bleeding on probing or pathologic probing depths. The panoramic radiograph confirmed the clinical stability of the result. Peri-implant marginal bone levels were radiographically stable with neither pathologic bone loss at the mesial and distal aspects of each implant nor peri-implant radiolucency. Within the limitations of this report, the use of FFB allografts in association with computer-aided flapless implant surgery might be considered a useful technique in patients affected by ED. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Factor XI (FXI) deficiency is a rare autosomal bleeding disease associated with genetic defects in the FXI gene. It is a heterogeneous disorder with variable tendency in bleeding and variable causative FXI gene mutations. It is characterized as a cross-reacting material-negative (CRM-) FXI deficiency due to decreased FXI levels or cross-reacting material-positive (CRM+) FXI deficiency due to impaired FXI function. Increasing number of mutations has been reported in FXI mutation database, and most of the mutations are affecting serine protease (SP) domain of the protein. Functional characterization for the mutations helps to better understand the molecular basis of FXI deficiency. Prevalence of the disease is higher in certain populations such as Ashkenazi Jews. The purpose of this review is to give an overview of the molecular basis of congenital FXI deficiency.
... Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Monocular Elevation Deficiency/ Double Elevator Palsy En Español Read in Chinese What is monocular elevation deficiency (Double Elevator Palsy)? Monocular Elevation Deficiency, also known by the ...
Stochholm, Kirstine; Gravholt, Claus Højbjerg; Laursen, Torben
into childhood onset (CO) and adult onset (AO), discriminated by an age cutoff below or above 18 years at onset of GHD. METHOD: Data on death were identified in national registries. Sex- and cause-specific mortalities were identified in CO and AO GHD when compared with controls. RESULTS: Mortality was increased......OBJECTIVE: To estimate the mortality in Denmark in patients suffering from GH deficiency (GHD). DESIGN: Mortality was analyzed in 1794 GHD patients and 8014 controls matched on age and gender. All records in GHD patients were studied and additional morbidity noted. Patients were divided...... in CO and AO GHD in both genders, when compared with controls. The hazard ratio (HR) for CO males was 8.3 (95% confidence interval (CI) 4.5-15.1) and for females 9.4 (CI 4.6-19.4). For AO males, HR was 1.9 (CI 1.7-2.2) and for females 3.4 (CI 2.9-4.0). We found a significantly higher HR in AO females...
Iron deficiency is an important nutritional global problem. This paper contains summery of information gathered from a dietary survey as iron deficiency anaemia is major public health problem in many developing countries including Pakistan. Comparison of anaemia in different age group and sex versus various regions in the world are given. In Pakistan also anaemia is widespread. According to the report of Micro-Nutrient survey of Pakistan 40% of the population are found to have low level of haemoglobin, more than half of pregnant women suffered from marginal or deficient haemoglobin. (A.B.)
Ali, S M [Pakistan Council for Science and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan)
Iron deficiency is an important nutritional global problem. This paper contains summery of information gathered from a dietary survey as iron deficiency anaemia is major public health problem in many developing countries including Pakistan. Comparison of anaemia in different age group and sex versus various regions in the world are given. In Pakistan also anaemia is widespread. According to the report of Micro-Nutrient survey of Pakistan 40% of the population are found to have low level of haemoglobin, more than half of pregnant women suffered from marginal or deficient haemoglobin. (A.B.).
... hyperreninemic hypoaldosteronism steroid 18-hydroxylase deficiency steroid 18-oxidase deficiency Visser-Cost syndrome ... Potassium Test Health Topic: Adrenal Gland Disorders Health Topic: Fluid ...
INTRODUCTION: This three-part article summarizes ideas already described elsewhere by the author. Part 1. New way of diagnosing the dentition. For diagnostic purposes origin and appearance of the three tissue types - ectoderm, mesoderm (ectomesenchyme) and peripheral nerves - are depicted...... on orthopantomograms. Same tissue types are marked on the root surface (peri-root sheet). Part 2. Factors provoking root resorption. Resorption can be explained from the composition of the peri-root sheet. Deviations (inborn or acquired) in each of the three tissue layers can provoke inflammation, resulting...... for root resorption (ectoderm and mesoderm), so are local or general virus attacks (neuroectoderm). Resorption often occurs in dentitions never treated orthodontically. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The author performed a review of the literature in order to present a new diagnostic approach incorporating...
... to impaired female sexual development, unusual bone growth, insulin resistance, and other signs and symptoms of aromatase deficiency . In women who are pregnant with an affected fetus, excess androgens in the ...
... V, Tomlinson IP. The FH mutation database: an online database of fumarate hydratase mutations involved in the MCUL (HLRCC) tumor syndrome and congenital fumarase deficiency. BMC Med Genet. 2008 Mar 25;9:20. doi: 10.1186/1471-2350- ...
... are constantly hungry, which leads to excessive feeding (hyperphagia). The babies continuously gain weight and are severely ... brain dysregulates the body's energy balance, leading to overeating and severe obesity. POMC deficiency is a rare ...
... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000545.htm Factor XII (Hageman factor) deficiency To use the sharing features on this ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...
Feb 6, 1971 ... bited proteolytic enzymatic proce.s which is able to pro- duce type A ... homozygous a!pha,-antitrypsin deficiency associated with severe obstructive .... in digestion of alveolar septa producing panacinar em- physema or type A ...
Rigas, A S; Pedersen, O B; Magnussen, K
Blood components collected from blood donors are an invaluable part of modern-day medicine. A healthy blood donor population is therefore of paramount importance. The results from the Danish Blood Donor Study (DBDS) indicate that gender, number of previous donations, time since last donation...... and menopausal status are the strongest predictors of iron deficiency. Only little information on the health effects of iron deficiency in blood donors exits. Possibly, after a standard full blood donation, a temporarily reduced physical performance for women is observed. However, iron deficiency among blood...... donors is not reflected in a reduced self-perceived mental and physical health. In general, the high proportion of iron-deficient donors can be alleviated either by extending the inter-donation intervals or by guided iron supplementation. The experience from Copenhagen, the Capital Region of Denmark...
A Newborn with Icthyosis, Corpus Callosum Hypoplasia, Microcephaly, Atrichia and Intra Uterine Growth Retardation (IUGR: AVariant of Icthyosis Follicularis Atrichia Photophobia (IFAP or Brain Anomalies, Retardation, Ectodermal Dysplasia, Skeletal Deformities, Hirschsprung Disease, Ear/Eye Anomalies, Cleft Palate, Cryptorchidism (BRESHECK?
Gurudutt S. Joshi
Full Text Available A full term newborn small for gestational age Intra Uterine Growth Retardation (IUGR admitted with congenital dysmorphic features with icthyosis, atrichia, microcephaly and eye abnormalities, when explored further for other congenital malformations, revealed Corpus callosum hypoplasia and closely related features with two rare syndromes Icthyosis Follicularis Atrichia Photophobia (IFAP or Brain Anomalies Retardation, Ectodermal Dysplasia, Skeletal Deformities, Hirschsprung Disease, Hemivertebrae, Ear/Eye Anomalies, and Kidney Dysplasia (BRESHECK.
Barbaro, Vanessa; Nasti, Annamaria Assunta; Raffa, Paolo; Migliorati, Angelo; Nespeca, Patrizia; Ferrari, Stefano; Palumbo, Elisa; Bertolin, Marina; Breda, Claudia; Miceli, Francesco; Russo, Antonella; Caenazzo, Luciana; Ponzin, Diego; Palù, Giorgio; Parolin, Cristina; Di Iorio, Enzo
: Ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-clefting (EEC) syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant disease caused by mutations in the p63 gene. To date, approximately 40 different p63 mutations have been identified, all heterozygous. No definitive treatments are available to counteract and resolve the progressive corneal degeneration due to a premature aging of limbal epithelial stem cells. Here, we describe a unique case of a young female patient, aged 18 years, with EEC and corneal dysfunction, who was, surprisingly, homozygous for a novel and de novo R311K missense mutation in the p63 gene. A detailed analysis of the degree of somatic mosaicism in leukocytes from peripheral blood and oral mucosal epithelial stem cells (OMESCs) from biopsies of buccal mucosa showed that approximately 80% were homozygous mutant cells and 20% were heterozygous. Cytogenetic and molecular analyses excluded genomic alterations, thus suggesting a de novo mutation followed by an allelic gene conversion of the wild-type allele by de novo mutant allele as a possible mechanism to explain the homozygous condition. R311K-p63 OMESCs were expanded in vitro and heterozygous holoclones selected following clonal analysis. These R311K-p63 OMESCs were able to generate well-organized and stratified epithelia in vitro, resembling the features of healthy tissues. This study supports the rationale for the development of cultured autologous oral mucosal epithelial stem cell sheets obtained by selected heterozygous R311K-p63 stem cells, as an effective and personalized therapy for reconstructing the ocular surface of this unique case of EEC syndrome, thus bypassing gene therapy approaches. This case demonstrates that in a somatic mosaicism context, a novel homozygous mutation in the p63 gene can arise as a consequence of an allelic gene conversion event, subsequent to a de novo mutation. The heterozygous mutant R311K-p63 stem cells can be isolated by means of clonal analysis and given their good regenerative
Sfeir, Elia; Aboujaoude, Samia
Hidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (ED) with the WNT10A mutation produces variable dentofacial symptoms. The aim of this study was to describe a new clinical symptom, i.e., specific to the WNT10A mutation in hidrotic ED. The study investigated the migratory trend of the lower second permanent molars to the ramus or coronoid process. To the best of authors' knowledge, no data in the literature describe this trend in cases of hidrotic ED. A three-generation family pedigree was established for seven families after the diagnosis of hidrotic ED in a 10-year-old boy. Thereafter, a genetic and clinical study was conducted on three families with at least one individual affected by hidrotic ED (20 individuals). We selected the children with molar germs 37 and 47. The eruption axes of these germs were then traced on the panoramic images at the initial time (T 0 ) and 1 year later (T 0 + 1 year), and the deviations between these axes were measured. A significant familial consanguinity was shown. Eight subjects presented with the hidrotic ED phenotype. Among them, three individuals carried germs 37 and 47. Over time, the measured deviations between the eruption axes of the latter displayed, in the majority of the cases, a distal inclination toward the ramus. A larger sample size is mandatory to assess the frequencies and treatment modalities. The presence of germs in the lower second permanent molars in patients with hidrotic ED is an important clinical symptom that should be monitored to detect and prevent ectopic migration of these teeth. In hidrotic ED cases, the study of the presence of the second lower permanent germs must include clinical and radiological examinations. Establishing an inter-ceptive treatment is necessary to prevent the migration of the molars in question. How to cite this article: Sfeir E, Aboujaoude S. Impacted Lower Second Permanent Molars at the Ramus and Coronoid Process: A New Clinical Symptom of the WNT10A Mutation in Ectodermal Dysplasia. Int J Clin
Khatiwada, Saroj; Lamsal, Madhab; Gelal, Basanta; Gautam, Sharad; Nepal, Ashwini Kumar; Brodie, David; Baral, Nirmal
To assess iodine and iron nutritional status among Nepalese school children. A cross-sectional, community based study was conducted in the two districts, Ilam (hilly region) and Udayapur (plain region) of eastern Nepal. A total of 759 school children aged 6-13 y from different schools within the study areas were randomly enrolled. A total of 759 urine samples and 316 blood samples were collected. Blood hemoglobin level, serum iron, total iron binding capacity and urinary iodine concentration was measured. Percentage of transferrin saturation was calculated using serum iron and total iron binding capacity values. The mean level of hemoglobin, serum iron, total iron binding capacity, transferrin saturation and median urinary iodine excretion were 12.29 ± 1.85 g/dl, 70.45 ± 34.46 μg/dl, 386.48 ± 62.48 μg/dl, 19.94 ± 12.07 % and 274.67 μg/L respectively. Anemia, iron deficiency and iodine deficiency (urinary iodine excretion iron deficient children. Iron deficiency and anemia are common in Nepalese children, whereas, iodine nutrition is more than adequate. Low urinary iodine excretion was common in iron deficiency and anemia.
... Videos for Educators Search English Español Iron-Deficiency Anemia KidsHealth / For Parents / Iron-Deficiency Anemia What's in ... common nutritional deficiency in children. About Iron-Deficiency Anemia Every red blood cell in the body contains ...
Zimmermann, Michael B; Boelaert, Kristien
Iodine deficiency early in life impairs cognition and growth, but iodine status is also a key determinant of thyroid disorders in adults. Severe iodine deficiency causes goitre and hypothyroidism because, despite an increase in thyroid activity to maximise iodine uptake and recycling in this setting, iodine concentrations are still too low to enable production of thyroid hormone. In mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency, increased thyroid activity can compensate for low iodine intake and maintain euthyroidism in most individuals, but at a price: chronic thyroid stimulation results in an increase in the prevalence of toxic nodular goitre and hyperthyroidism in populations. This high prevalence of nodular autonomy usually results in a further increase in the prevalence of hyperthyroidism if iodine intake is subsequently increased by salt iodisation. However, this increase is transient because iodine sufficiency normalises thyroid activity which, in the long term, reduces nodular autonomy. Increased iodine intake in an iodine-deficient population is associated with a small increase in the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism and thyroid autoimmunity; whether these increases are also transient is unclear. Variations in population iodine intake do not affect risk for Graves' disease or thyroid cancer, but correction of iodine deficiency might shift thyroid cancer subtypes toward less malignant forms. Thus, optimisation of population iodine intake is an important component of preventive health care to reduce the prevalence of thyroid disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bessodes, Nathalie; Haillot, Emmanuel; Duboc, Véronique; Röttinger, Eric; Lahaye, François; Lepage, Thierry
During echinoderm development, expression of nodal on the right side plays a crucial role in positioning of the rudiment on the left side, but the mechanisms that restrict nodal expression to the right side are not known. Here we show that establishment of left-right asymmetry in the sea urchin embryo relies on reciprocal signaling between the ectoderm and a left-right organizer located in the endomesoderm. FGF/ERK and BMP2/4 signaling are required to initiate nodal expression in this organizer, while Delta/Notch signaling is required to suppress formation of this organizer on the left side of the archenteron. Furthermore, we report that the H+/K+-ATPase is critically required in the Notch signaling pathway upstream of the S3 cleavage of Notch. Our results identify several novel players and key early steps responsible for initiation, restriction, and propagation of left-right asymmetry during embryogenesis of a non-chordate deuterostome and uncover a functional link between the H+/K+-ATPase and the Notch signaling pathway. PMID:23271979
Srivastava, A.K.; Schlessinger, D. [Washington Univ. School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Kere, J. [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland)] [and others
The gene for the X chromosomal developmental disorder anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (EDA) has been mapped to Xq12-q13 by linkage analysis and is expressed in a few females with chromosomal translocations involving band Xq12-q13. A yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) contig (2.0 Mb) spanning two translocation breakpoints has been assembled by sequence-tagged site (STS)-based chromosomal walking. The two translocation breakpoints (X:autosome translocations from the affected female patients) have been mapped less than 60 kb apart within a YAC contig. Unique probes and intragenic STSs (mapped between the two translocations) have been developed and a somatic cell hybrid carrying the translocated X chromosome from the AK patient has been analyzed by isolating unique probes that span the breakpoint. Several STSs made from intragenic sequences have been found to be conserved in mouse, hamster and monkey, but we have detected no mRNAs in a number of tissues tested. However, a probe and STS developed from the DNA spanning the AK breakpoint is conserved in mouse, hamster and monkey, and we have detected expressed sequences in skin cells and cDNA libraries. In addition, unique sequences have been obtained from two CpG islands in the region that maps proximal to the breakpoints. cDNAs containing these sequences are being studied as candidates for the gene affected in the etiology of EDA.
Wu, Yiqun; Zhang, Chenping; Squarize, Cristiane H; Zou, Duohong
The oral conditions of adult edentulous patients with ectodermal dysplasia (ED) often lead to decreased physical and psychological health, and the negative effects can become as extreme as social and psychological isolation. However, restoring oral function of adult edentulous patients with ED using zygomatic implants (ZIs) or conventional implants (CIs) remains challenging for dentists because of the severe atrophy of these patients' alveolar ridges. This report describes 2 cases of adult edentulous siblings with ED; they exhibited severe alveolar bone atrophy and were treated with ZIs and CIs as bases to augment the bone in their anterior jaws. For these patients, bone augmentation was completed with an autogenous fibular graft. Although there was mild evidence of bone graft resorption in the maxilla, the bone augmentation procedures were successful in the 2 patients. Effective osseointegration of the implants was obtained. After placement, the functional and esthetic results of the oral rehabilitation were acceptable. More importantly, restoration of the patients' oral function enhanced their self-confidence and self-esteem. Therefore, restoring oral function in adult patients with ED and edentulous jaws using ZIs and CIs as the bases for bone augmentation is an effective approach. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rodolfo Delfini Cançado
Full Text Available CONTEXT: Blood donation results in a substantial loss of iron (200 to 250 mg at each bleeding procedure (425 to 475 ml and subsequent mobilization of iron from body stores. Recent reports have shown that body iron reserves generally are small and iron depletion is more frequent in blood donors than in non-donors. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of iron deficiency in blood donors and to establish the frequency of iron deficiency in blood donors according to sex, whether they were first-time or multi-time donors, and the frequency of donations per year. DESIGN: From September 20 to October 5, 1999, three hundred blood donors from Santa Casa Hemocenter of São Paulo were studied. DIAGNOSTIC TESTS: Using a combination of biochemical measurements of iron status: serum iron, total iron-binding capacity, transferrin saturation index, serum ferritin and the erythrocyte indices. RESULTS: The frequency of iron deficiency in blood donors was 11.0%, of whom 5.5% (13/237 were male and 31.7% (20/63 female donors. The frequency of iron deficiency was higher in multi-time blood donors than in first-time blood donors, for male blood donors (7.6% versus 0.0%, P < 0.05 and female ones (41.5% versus 18.5%, P < 0.05. The frequency of iron deficiency found was higher among the male blood donors with three or more donations per year (P < 0.05 and among the female blood donors with two or more donations per year (P < 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that blood donation is a very important factor for iron deficiency in blood donors, particularly in multi-time donors and especially in female donors. The high frequency of blood donors with iron deficiency found in this study suggests a need for a more accurate laboratory trial, as hemoglobin or hematocrit measurement alone is not sufficient for detecting and excluding blood donors with iron deficiency without anemia.
Boer, L. de; Kluijtmans, L.A.J.; Morava, E.
Although the diagnosis of a primary carnitine deficiency is usually based on a very low level of free and total carnitine (free carnitine: 1-5 muM, normal 20-55 muM) (Longo et al. 2006), we detected a patient via newborn screening with a total carnitine level 67 % of the normal value. At the age of
... belongs to a class of genetic diseases called urea cycle disorders. The urea cycle is a sequence of reactions ... links) Baby's First Test GeneReview: Arginase Deficiency GeneReview: Urea Cycle Disorders Overview MedlinePlus Encyclopedia: Hereditary urea cycle abnormality National ...
Jongmans, M.C.J.; Gidding, C.E.M.; Loeffen, J.; Wesseling, P.; Mensenkamp, A.; Hoogerbrugge, N.
BACKGROUND: Constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMR-D) syndrome is characterised by a significantly increased risk for developing cancer in childhood. It arises when both parents have a mutation in the same mismatch repair gene and pass it on to their child. CASE DESCRIPTION: An 8-year-old
Al-Aqeel, A. I.; Rashed, M. S.; Ruiter, J. P.; Al-Husseini, H. F.; Al-Amoudi, M. S.; Wanders, R. J.
Carnitine palmityl transferase I is the key enzyme in the carnitine dependent transport of long chain fatty acids across the mitochondrial inner membrane and its deficiency results in a decrease rate of fatty acids beta-oxidation with decreased energy production. We reported a family of 3 affected
Shoaib, Muhammad; Sørensen, Claus Storgaard
Cancer cell-specific synthetic lethal interactions entail promising therapeutic possibilities. In this issue of Cancer Cell, Pfister et al. describe a synthetic lethal interaction where cancer cells deficient in H3K36me3 owing to SETD2 loss-of-function mutation are strongly sensitized to inhibiti...
Jimenez, Kristine; Kulnigg-Dabsch, Stefanie
Anemia affects one-fourth of the world’s population, and iron deficiency is the predominant cause. Anemia is associated with chronic fatigue, impaired cognitive function, and diminished well-being. Patients with iron deficiency anemia of unknown etiology are frequently referred to a gastroenterologist because in the majority of cases the condition has a gastrointestinal origin. Proper management improves quality of life, alleviates the symptoms of iron deficiency, and reduces the need for blood transfusions. Treatment options include oral and intravenous iron therapy; however, the efficacy of oral iron is limited in certain gastrointestinal conditions, such as inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, and autoimmune gastritis. This article provides a critical summary of the diagnosis and treatment of iron deficiency anemia. In addition, it includes a management algorithm that can help the clinician determine which patients are in need of further gastrointestinal evaluation. This facilitates the identification and treatment of the underlying condition and avoids the unnecessary use of invasive methods and their associated risks. PMID:27099596
Full Text Available Abstract Dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DβH deficiency is a very rare form of primary autonomic failure characterized by a complete absence of noradrenaline and adrenaline in plasma together with increased dopamine plasma levels. The prevalence of DβH deficiency is unknown. Only a limited number of cases with this disease have been reported. DβH deficiency is mainly characterized by cardiovascular disorders and severe orthostatic hypotension. First symptoms often start during a complicated perinatal period with hypotension, muscle hypotonia, hypothermia and hypoglycemia. Children with DβH deficiency exhibit reduced ability to exercise because of blood pressure inadaptation with exertion and syncope. Symptoms usually worsen progressively during late adolescence and early adulthood with severe orthostatic hypotension, eyelid ptosis, nasal stuffiness and sexual disorders. Limitation in standing tolerance, limited ability to exercise and traumatic morbidity related to falls and syncope may represent later evolution. The syndrome is caused by heterogeneous molecular alterations of the DBH gene and is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. Restoration of plasma noradrenaline to the normal range can be achieved by therapy with the synthetic precursor of noradrenaline, L-threo-dihydroxyphenylserine (DOPS. Oral administration of 100 to 500 mg DOPS, twice or three times daily, increases blood pressure and reverses the orthostatic intolerance.
Rader, C P; Corsten, N; Rolf, O
Vitamin D and calcium deficiency has a higher incidence in the orthopedic-trauma surgery patient population than generally supposed. In the long term this can result in osteomalacia, a form of altered bone mineralization in adults, in which the cartilaginous, non-calcified osteoid does not mature to hard bone. The current value of vitamin D and its importance for bones and other body cells are demonstrated. The causes of vitamin D deficiency are insufficient sunlight exposure, a lack of vitamin D3 and calcium, malabsorption, and rare alterations of VDR signaling and phosphate metabolism. The main symptoms are bone pain, fatigue fractures, muscular cramps, muscle pain, and gait disorders, with an increased incidence of falls in the elderly. Osteopathies induced by pharmaceuticals, tumors, rheumatism or osteoporosis have to be considered as the main differential diagnoses. In addition to the recording of symptoms and medical imaging, the diagnosis of osteomalacia should be ensured by laboratory parameters. Adequate treatment consists of the high-dose intake of vitamin D3 and the replacement of phosphate if deficient. Vitamin D is one of the important hormone-like vitamins and is required in all human cells. Deficiency of vitamin D has far-reaching consequences not only for bone, but also for other organ systems.
... 5-fluorouracil and capecitabine. These drugs are not broken down efficiently by people with dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase deficiency ... of this enzyme. Because fluoropyrimidine drugs are also broken down by the dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase enzyme, deficiency of ...
... adrenal hyperplasias that impair hormone production and disrupt sexual development. 21-hydroxylase deficiency is responsible for about 95 ... excess production of androgens leads to abnormalities of sexual development in people with 21-hydroxylase deficiency . A lack ...
... Topic: Immune System and Disorders Health Topic: Lupus Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (1 link) Complement component 2 deficiency Additional NIH Resources (1 link) National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: Primary Immune Deficiency Diseases Educational Resources (6 ...
Steven F Werder
Full Text Available Steven F Werder1,21Kansas University School of Medicine – Wichita, Wichita, KS, USA; 2Community Health Center of Southeast Kansas, Pittsburg, KS, USAIntroduction: Although consensus guidelines recommend checking serum B12 in patients with dementia, clinicians are often faced with various questions: (1 Which patients should be tested? (2 What test should be ordered? (3 How are inferences made from such testing? (4 In addition to serum B12, should other tests be ordered? (5 Is B12 deficiency compatible with dementia of the Alzheimer’s type? (6 What is to be expected from treatment? (7 How is B12 deficiency treated?Methods: On January 31st, 2009, a Medline search was performed revealing 1,627 citations related to cobalamin deficiency, hyperhomocysteinemia, and dementia. After limiting the search terms, all abstracts and/or articles and other references were categorized into six major groups (general, biochemistry, manifestations, associations and risks, evaluation, and treatment and then reviewed in answering the above questions.Results: The six major groups above are described in detail. Seventy-five key studies, series, and clinical trials were identified. Evidence-based suggestions for patient management were developed.Discussion: Evidence is convincing that hyperhomocysteinemia, with or without hypovitaminosis B12, is a risk factor for dementia. In the absence of hyperhomocysteinemia, evidence is less convincing that hypovitaminosis B12 is a risk factor for dementia. B12 deficiency manifestations are variable and include abnormal psychiatric, neurological, gastrointestinal, and hematological findings. Radiological images of individuals with hyperhomocysteinemia frequently demonstrate leukoaraiosis. Assessing serum B12 and treatment of B12 deficiency is crucial for those cases in which pernicious anemia is suspected and may be useful for mild cognitive impairment and mild to moderate dementia. The serum B12 level is the standard initial test
Non-invasive diagnosis of sweat gland dysplasia using optical coherence tomography and reflectance confocal microscopy in a family with anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (Christ-Siemens-Touraine syndrome).
Reinholz, M; Gauglitz, G G; Giehl, K; Braun-Falco, M; Schwaiger, H; Schauber, J; Ruzicka, T; Berneburg, M; von Braunmühl, T
Anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (AED) is an inherited syndrome, which originates mainly from genetic alteration of the ectodysplasin A (EDA) gene. It regularly affects the adnexa of the skin which results in a characteristic phenotype of the patients including hypo- or anhidrosis leading to severe disturbances in the regulation of body temperature. To prevent the development of the symptoms in early childhood promising therapeutic approaches are currently under clinical investigation. In this context, timely diagnosis of this genetic syndrome is crucial. The purpose of our study was the investigation of modern non-invasive imaging methods such as optical coherence tomography (OCT) and reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) in the immediate diagnosis of AED. We examined a 3-year-old boy with the suspicion for an AED syndrome and his family members with RCM and OCT to document presence and characteristic features of sweat glands in comparison to non-affected individuals. The patient and the affected brother showed significantly reduced sweat glands in the imaging compared to the controls. The genetic analysis revealed a mutation of the EDA gene for hemizygosity previously associated with AED and the mother was revealed as the conductor of the genetic alteration. With the help of non-invasive imaging, we were able to detect sweat gland dysplasia in the affected family members without performing a biopsy which led us to the diagnosis of an AED. The application of modern dermatological imaging techniques might serve as valuable supplementary tools in the immediate, non-invasive diagnosis of genetic syndromes especially in newborns when early therapeutic approaches are planned. © 2015 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.
Zou, Duohong; Wu, Yiqun; Wang, Xu Dong; Huang, Wei; Zhang, Zhiyong; Zhang, Zhiyuan
The aim of this study was to evaluate oral function rehabilitation in patients with hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) using implant-supported prostheses based on bone augmentation. From September 2005 and March 2009, 25 HED patients were chosen for clinical data analysis in this study. The criteria for patient selection included the following: the display of clinical features of HED, the number of congenitally missing teeth (>5), the patient age (>16 years), the patient's willingness, and the patient's tolerance for bone graft surgery and implant placement. Follow-up evaluations were initiated from the time of implant prosthetic placement and scheduled annually for 3-5 years. The effects of oral function reconstruction were assessed based on the cumulative survival and success rates of implants, the health of the peri-implant area, and the degree of patient satisfaction. Twenty-five HED patients received 169 conventional implants and 10 zygomatic implants (179 total implants). During 3-5 years of post-loading evaluations, 5 of the 179 implants failed and 3 implants were removed. The 3-year success and cumulative survival rates were 97.2% and 98.3%, respectively. Furthermore, periodontal probing and radiographic assessments showed that the 3-year incidence of peri-implantitis was 4.5%. Finally, HED patients expressed high degrees of satisfaction with their facial contours, masticatory function, pronunciation ability, and comfort with the implant-supported prostheses. The results of this 3- to 5-year retrospective study indicate that the oral function of HED patients can be effectively reconstructed using bone augmentation and implant-supported prostheses; however, longer term results are warranted in the future.
Full Text Available Abstract: Both X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (XLHED and non-syndromic tooth agenesis (NSTA result in symptoms of congenital tooth loss. This study investigated genetic causes in two families with XLHED and four families with NSTA. We screened for mutations of WNT10A, EDA, EDAR, EDARADD, PAX9, MSX1, AXIN2, LRP6, and WNT10B through Sanger sequencing. Whole exome sequencing was performed for the proband of NSTA Family 4. Novel mutation c.1051G>T (p.Val351Phe and the known mutation c.467G>A (p.Arg156His of Ectodysplasin A (EDA were identified in families with XLHED. Novel EDA receptor (EDAR mutation c.73C>T (p.Arg25*, known EDA mutation c.491A>C (p.Glu164Ala, and known Wnt family member 10A (WNT10A mutations c.511C>T (p.Arg171Cys and c.742C>T (p.Arg248* were identified in families with NSTA. The novel EDA and EDAR mutations were predicted as being pathogenic through bioinformatics analyses and structural modeling. Two variants of WNT10A, c.374G>A (p.Arg125Lys and c.125A>G (p.Asn42Ser, were found in patients with NSTA. The two WNT10A variants were predicted to affect the splicing of message RNA, but minigene experiments showed normal splicing of mutated minigenes. This study uncovered the genetic foundations with respect to six families with XLHED or NSTA. We identified six mutations, of which two were novel mutations of EDA and EDAR. This is the first report of a nonsense EDAR mutation leading to NSTA.
Dias Costa, Filipa; Ferdinandusse, Sacha; Pinto, Carla; Dias, Andrea; Keldermans, Liesbeth; Quelhas, Dulce; Matthijs, Gert; Mooijer, Petra A.; Diogo, Luísa; Jaeken, Jaak; Garcia, Paula
Galactose epimerase deficiency is an inborn error of metabolism due to uridine diphosphate-galactose-4'-epimerase (GALE) deficiency. We report the clinical presentation, genetic and biochemical studies in two siblings with generalized GALE deficiency.Patient 1: The first child was born with a
Results: Vitamin A and iron deficiencies were the most prevalent micronutrient deficiencies among food aid beneficiaries. Other probable deficiencies prevailing were zinc, vitamins thiamine, riboflavin, niacin folate, cyano-cobalamine, ascorbic acid vitamin D and calcium because of the low intake of dairy products and meat.
Jeppesen, Dennis Kjølhede; Bohr, Vilhelm A; Stevnsner, Tinna V.
Deficiency in repair of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA damage has been linked to several neurodegenerative disorders. Many recent experimental results indicate that the post-mitotic neurons are particularly prone to accumulation of unrepaired DNA lesions potentially leading to progressive...... neurodegeneration. Nucleotide excision repair is the cellular pathway responsible for removing helix-distorting DNA damage and deficiency in such repair is found in a number of diseases with neurodegenerative phenotypes, including Xeroderma Pigmentosum and Cockayne syndrome. The main pathway for repairing oxidative...... base lesions is base excision repair, and such repair is crucial for neurons given their high rates of oxygen metabolism. Mismatch repair corrects base mispairs generated during replication and evidence indicates that oxidative DNA damage can cause this pathway to expand trinucleotide repeats, thereby...
Bhatty, S.A.; Shaikh, N.A.; Irfan, M.; Kashif, S.M.; Vaswani, A.S.; Sumbhai, A.; Gunpat
Objective: To check the Vitamin D levels in patients diagnosed as fibromyagia in our population. Methods: Study was done at Medical OPD of Civil Hospital Karachi, from January to March 2009. Female patients diagnosed as Fibromyalgia according to American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria and exclusion of systemic illness on examination, and normal reports of blood CP, ESR, serum calcium, phosphate and Alkaline Phosphatase, were asked to get Vitamin D levels in their serum. Vitamin D deficiency is defined as 30 ng/ml. Result: Forty female patients were included in the study. The mean age was 37.65 +- 11.5 years. Mean Vitamin D level was 17.41 +- 5.497 ng/ml. Thirty two (80%) of patients had Vitamin D deficiency, mean levels of 15.855 +- 4.918 ng/ml and 8(20%) had Vitamin D insufficiency, mean levels of 23.64 +- 2.39 ng/ml. Patients with vitamin D deficiency and age less than 45 years were 22 (68.75%), had mean vitamin D level 16.87 +- 4.48 ng/ml whereas in age ranging from 46-75 years were 10 (31.25%) had mean vitamin D level 16.09 +- 6.45 ng/ml. Conclusion: Vitamin D deficiency is frequently seen in patients diagnosed as fibromyalgia and nonspecific musculoskeletal pain in our population. Although the sample size of the study is small, but the figures are so alarming that it is an eye opener towards the need of a population based study, including normal population as well as those presenting with musculoskeletal pain. (author)
Yashbir Singh Shivay
Zinc (Zn) deficiency in humans has recently received considerable attention. Global mortality in children under 5 years of age in 2004 due to Zn deficiency was estimated at 4,53,207 as against 6,66,771 for vitamin A deficiency; 20,854 for iron deficiency and 3,619 for iodine deficiency. In humans 2800-3000 proteins contain Zn prosthetic group and Zn is an integral component of zinc finger prints that regulate DNA transcription. Zinc is a Type-2 nutrient, which means that its concentration in ...
de Boer, L.; Kluijtmans, L. A. J.; Morava, E.
Although the diagnosis of a primary carnitine deficiency is usually based on a very low level of free and total carnitine (free carnitine: 1–5 μM, normal 20–55 μM) (Longo et al. 2006), we detected a patient via newborn screening with a total carnitine level 67 % of the normal value. At the age of 1 year, after interruption of carnitine supplementation for a 4-week period the carnitine profile was assessed and the free carnitine level had dropped to 10.4 μmol/l (normal: 20–55 μM) and total car...
Browne, Marilyn L.; Carter, Tonia C.; Kay, Denise M.; Kuehn, Devon; Brody, Lawrence C.; Romitti, Paul A.; Liu, Aiyi; Caggana, Michele; Druschel, Charlotte M.; Mills, James L.
We conducted a population-based case-control study of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in selected genes to find common variants that play a role in the etiology of limb deficiencies (LD)s. Included in the study were 389 infants with LDs of unknown cause and 980 unaffected controls selected from all births in New York State (NYS) for the years 1998 to 2005. We used cases identified from the NYS Department of Health (DOH) Congenital Malformations Registry. Genotypes were obtained for 132 SNPs in genes involved in limb development (SHH, WNT7A, FGF4, FGF8, FGF10, TBX3, TBX5, SALL4, GREM1, GDF5, CTNNB1, EN1, CYP26A1, CYP26B1), angiogenesis (VEGFA, HIF1A, NOS3), and coagulation (F2, F5, MTHFR). Genotype call rates were >97% and SNPs were tested for departure from Hardy-Weinberg expectations by race/ethnic subgroups. For each SNP, odds ratios (OR)s and confidence intervals (CI)s were estimated and corrected for multiple comparisons for all LDs combined and for LD subtypes. Among non-Hispanic white infants, associations between FGF10 SNPs rs10805683 and rs13170645 and all LDs combined were statistically significant following correction for multiple testing (OR=1.99; 95% CI=1.43-2.77; uncorrected p=0.000043 for rs10805683 heterozygous genotype, and OR=2.37; 95% CI=1.48-3.78; uncorrected p=0.00032 for rs13170645 homozygous minor genotype). We also observed suggestive evidence for associations with SNPs in other genes including CYP26B1 and WNT7A. Animal studies have shown that FGF10 induces formation of the apical ectodermal ridge and is necessary for limb development. Our data suggest that common variants in FGF10 increase the risk for a wide range of non-syndromic limb deficiencies. PMID:22965740
Frøssing, Signe; Rønø, Birgitte; Hald, Andreas
-sensitive MMPs during wound healing. To address whether MMP2 is accountable for the galardin-induced healing deficiency in wildtype and Plg-deficient mice, incisional skin wounds were generated in MMP2 single-deficient mice and in MMP2/Plg double-deficient mice and followed until healed. Alternatively, tissue...... was isolated 7 days post wounding for histological and biochemical analyses. No difference was found in the time from wounding to overt gross restoration of the epidermal surface between MMP2-deficient and wildtype control littermate mice. MMP2/Plg double-deficient mice were viable and fertile, and displayed...... an unchallenged general phenotype resembling that of Plg-deficient mice, including development of rectal prolapses. MMP2/Plg double-deficient mice displayed a slight increase in the wound length throughout the healing period compared with Plg-deficient mice. However, the overall time to complete healing...
Bland, Lucie M; Bielby, Jon; Kearney, Stephen; Orme, C David L; Watson, James E M; Collen, Ben
One in 6 species (13,465 species) on the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List is classified as data deficient due to lack of information on their taxonomy, population status, or impact of threats. Despite the chance that many are at high risk of extinction, data-deficient species are typically excluded from global and local conservation priorities, as well as funding schemes. The number of data-deficient species will greatly increase as the IUCN Red List becomes more inclusive of poorly known and speciose groups. A strategic approach is urgently needed to enhance the conservation value of data-deficient assessments. To develop this, we reviewed 2879 data-deficient assessments in 6 animal groups and identified 8 main justifications for assigning data-deficient status (type series, few records, old records, uncertain provenance, uncertain population status or distribution, uncertain threats, taxonomic uncertainty, and new species). Assigning a consistent set of justification tags (i.e., consistent assignment to assessment justifications) to species classified as data deficient is a simple way to achieve more strategic assessments. Such tags would clarify the causes of data deficiency; facilitate the prediction of extinction risk; facilitate comparisons of data deficiency among taxonomic groups; and help prioritize species for reassessment. With renewed efforts, it could be straightforward to prevent thousands of data-deficient species slipping unnoticed toward extinction. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.
Cashman, Kevin D.; Dowling, Kirsten G; Škrabáková, Zuzana
25(OH)D values from national health/nutrition surveys. OBJECTIVE: This study applied VDSP protocols to serum 25(OH)D data from representative childhood/teenage and adult/older adult European populations, representing a sizable geographical footprint, to better quantify the prevalence of vitamin D...... is evident throughout the European population at prevalence rates that are concerning and that require action from a public health perspective. What direction these strategies take will depend on European policy but should aim to ensure vitamin D intakes that are protective against vitamin D deficiency...
Naini, Ali; Toscano, Antonio; Musumeci, Olimpia
storage disease type X and novel mutations in the gene encoding the muscle subunit of PGAM (PGAM2). DESIGN: Clinical, pathological, biochemical, and molecular analyses. SETTING: Tertiary care university hospitals and academic institutions. Patients A 37-year-old Danish man of Pakistani origin who had...... PGAM deficiency, and molecular studies revealed 2 novel homozygous mutations, a nonsense mutation and a single nucleotide deletion. Pathological studies of muscle showed mild glycogen accumulation but prominent tubular aggregates in both patients. CONCLUSIONS: We found that glycogen storage disease...
Gross, R; Schultink, W
The economic situation of Indonesia is characterized by a large increase in the gross national product which has been on average 7% annually during the last ten years. This was accompanied by rapid urbanization. With the economic improvement, "First World" and "Third World" health and nutrition problems are coexisting in Indonesia. In 1992, the most common of death cause was cardiovascular disease whereas tuberculosis was the second ranking. About 40% of the preschool children are stunted. The main stable food and energy source is rice, although the urban population has a more diverse food pattern than the rural population. In Jakarta, many children receive too late colostrum feeding and mothers are not aware about the importance of correct breastfeeding practices after delivery. Three studies had shown that about one fifth of preschool children and one fourth of elderly take micronutrient supplements. Nevertheless, micronutrient deficiencies are prevalent in Jakarta. About one third of women suffer from moderate vitamin A deficiency (plasma retinol middle class to spend more time and money to solve their own problems.
Full Text Available Vitamin D comprises a group of fat-soluble pro-hormones, obtained from sun exposure, food, and supplements, and it must undergo two hydroxylation reactions to be activated in the body. Several studies have shown the role of vitamin D in mineral metabolism regulation, especially calcium, phosphorus, and bone metabolism. Some factors such as inadequate vitamin intake and liver or kidney disorders can lead to vitamin D deficiency. Furthermore, vitamin D malnutrition may also be linked to susceptibility to chronic diseases such as heart failure, peripheral artery disease, high blood pressure, cognitive impairment including foggy brain and memory loss, and autoimmune diseases including diabetes type I. Recent research has revealed that low levels of vitamin D increase the risk of cardiovascular-related morbidity (Sato et al., 2004 and mortality (Pilz et al., 2008. Also, hypertension contributes to a reduction in bone mineral density and increase in the incidence of stroke and death. This article reviews the function and physiology of vitamin D and examines the effects of vitamin D deficiency on susceptibility to stroke, as a cardiovascular event, and its morbidity and subsequent mortality.
Recent advances in iron metabolism have stimulated new interest in iron deficiency (ID) and its anemia (IDA), common conditions worldwide. Absolute ID/IDA, i.e. the decrease of total body iron, is easily diagnosed based on decreased levels of serum ferritin and transferrin saturation. Relative lack of iron in specific organs/tissues, and IDA in the context of inflammatory disorders, are diagnosed based on arbitrary cut offs of ferritin and transferrin saturation and/or marker combination (as the soluble transferrin receptor/ferritin index) in an appropriate clinical context. Most ID patients are candidate to traditional treatment with oral iron salts, while high hepcidin levels block their absorption in inflammatory disorders. New iron preparations and new treatment modalities are available: high-dose intravenous iron compounds are becoming popular and indications to their use are increasing, although long-term side effects remain to be evaluated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Vitamin B12 deficiency can present with various hematological, gastrointestinal and neurological manifestations. We report a case of elderly female who presented with neuropathy and vitamin B12 deficiency where the final work-up revealed polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal gammopathy, and skin changes (POEMS. This case suggests that, although POEMS syndrome is a rare entity, it can present with vitamin-B12 deficiency and thus specific work up for early diagnosis of POEMS should be considered in patients with B12 deficiency unresponsive to therapy.
... can be inherited? More about Inheriting Genetic Conditions Diagnosis & Management Resources Genetic Testing (4 links) Genetic Testing Registry: Ateleiotic dwarfism Genetic Testing Registry: Autosomal dominant isolated somatotropin deficiency ...
Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Trueba, Gilberto Perez; Poulsen, Henrik E.
Neonates are particularly susceptible to malnutrition due to their limited reserves of micronutrients and their rapid growth. In the present study, we examined the effect of vitamin C deficiency on markers of oxidative stress in plasma, liver and brain of weanling guinea pigs. Vitamin C deficiency...... increased, while protein oxidation decreased (P¼0003). The results show that the selective preservation of brain ascorbate and induction of DNA repair in vitamin C-deficient weanling guinea pigs is not sufficient to prevent oxidative damage. Vitamin C deficiency may therefore be particularly adverse during...
W.F. Blum (Werner); C.L. Deal (Cheri Lynn); A.G. Zimmermann (Alan); E.P. Shavrikova (Elena); C.J. Child (Christopher); C.A. Quigley (Charmian); S.L.S. Drop (Stenvert); G. Cutler (Gordon); R.G. Rosenfeld (Ron)
textabstractObjective: We assessed the characteristics of children initially diagnosed with idiopathic isolated GH deficiency (IGHD) who later developed additional (multiple) pituitary hormone deficiencies (MPHD). Design: Data were analyzed for 5805 pediatric patients with idiopathic IGHD, who were
An automated data base relevant to the various licensee deficiencies that accrue during the materials licensing application review process of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is described. A data base management system (DBMs) is used for data retrieval, file-tending, and examination of the interrelationships among the data types in the data base. Use of word processors to emulate computer terminals for the purpose of data base population (loading) and report generation is discussed. Also described is the technique used to link, for update purposes, the data base (accessed by means of SYSTEM 2000 on a CDC 6600 computer) to the NRC Material License Master File resident on the National Institutes of Health (NIH) IBM System 370 computer. A user's manual that provides easy-to-understand instructions for the nonprogramming user on how to generate ad hoc analytical reports to facilitate management decisions is also included
Jongmans, Marjolijn C; Gidding, Corrie E; Loeffen, Jan; Wesseling, Pieter; Mensenkamp, Arjen; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline
Constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMR-D) syndrome is characterised by a significantly increased risk for developing cancer in childhood. It arises when both parents have a mutation in the same mismatch repair gene and pass it on to their child. An 8-year-old girl was diagnosed with CMMR-D syndrome after she developed a brain tumour at the age of 4 and a T-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma at the age of 6. She had multiple hyperpigmented skin lesions and died of myelodysplastic syndrome at the age of 11. In children with cancer CMMR-D syndrome can be recognized particularly if there are multiple primary malignancies and skin hyperpigmentations and hypopigmentations. The parents of these children are at high risk for colorectal and endometrial cancer (Lynch syndrome), amongst others.
Hopkinson, Joseph A; Hopkinson, Nicholas S
Vitamin D has been proposed to have beneficial effects in a wide range of contexts. We investigate the hypothesis that vitamin D deficiency, caused by both aversion to sunlight and unwholesome diet, could also be a significant contributor to the triumph of good over evil in fantasy literature. Data on the dietary habits, moral attributes and martial prowess of various inhabitants of Middle Earth were systematically extracted from J R R Tolkien's novel The hobbit. Goodness and victoriousness of characters were scored with binary scales, and dietary intake and habitual sun exposure were used to calculate a vitamin D score (range, 0-4). The vitamin D score was significantly higher among the good and victorious characters (mean, 3.4; SD, 0.5) than the evil and defeated ones (mean, 0.2; SD, 0.4; P fantastic situations and whether randomised intervention trials need to be imagined.
We describe the case of a 17-month-old boy with a hypochromic microcytic anaemia, refractory to oral iron treatment. After exclusion of dietary and gastrointestinal causes of iron deficiency, a genetic cause for iron deficiency was confirmed by finding two mutations in the TMPRSS6 gene, consistent with a diagnosis of iron-refractory iron deficiency anaemia (IRIDA).
Jequier, S.; Bellini, F.; Mackenzie, D.A.
The first case of metaphyseal chondrodysplasia with marked cupping of the metaphyses and cone epiphyses combined with complete alopecia was described in 1966 by Bellini. A second identical case was found in another Italian patient. Both show extremely early epiphyseal fusion. This is probably a new form of metaphyseal chondrodysplasia.
Jequier, S.; Bellini, F.
The first case of metaphyseal chondrodysplasia with marked cupping of the metaphyses and cone epiphyses combined with complete alopecia was described in 1966 by Bellini. A second identical case was found in another Italian patient. Both show extremely early epiphyseal fusion. This is probably a new form of metaphyseal chondrodysplasia. (orig.)
Berezhniy V.V.; Korneva V.V.
Present article devoted to the steps for implementation unified clinical protocol of the primary, secondary (specialized) medical care «Iron deficiency» to the practical activities of pediatricians, family physicians. The features of ferrotherapy in children of different age groups and the issues of prevention of iron deficiency states are highlighted.
Hundahl, Christian A; Fahrenkrug, Jan; Hay-Schmidt, Anders
on circadian behavior. Ngb-deficient and wild-type (wt) mice were placed in running wheels and their activity rhythms, endogenous period and response to light stimuli were investigated. The effect of Ngb deficiency on the expression of Period1 (Per1) and the immediate early gene Fos was determined after light...