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Sample records for tetrahymena thermophila creates

  1. Biochemical and molecular characterisation of Tetrahymena thermophila extracellular cysteine proteases

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    Tiedtke Arno

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the last decades molecular biologic techniques have been developed to alter the genome and proteome of Tetrahymena thermophila thereby providing the basis for recombinant protein expression including functional human enzymes. The biotechnological potential of Tetrahymena has been proved in numerous publications, demonstrating fast growth, high biomass, fermentation in ordinary bacterial/yeast equipment, up-scalability, existence of cheap and chemical defined media. For these reasons Tetrahymena offers promising opportunities for the development of a high expression system. Yet optimised high yield strains with protease deficiency such as commonly used in yeast and bacterial systems are not available. Results This work presents the molecular identification of predominant proteases secreted into the medium by Tetrahymena thermophila. A one-step purification of the proteolytic enzymes is described. Conclusion The information provided will allow silencing of protease activity by either knock out methods or by Tetrahymena specific antisense-ribosome-techniques. This will facilitate the next step in the advancement of this exciting organism for recombinant protein production.

  2. Netrin-1 Peptide Is a Chemorepellent in Tetrahymena thermophila

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    Heather Kuruvilla

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Netrin-1 is a highly conserved, pleiotropic signaling molecule that can serve as a neuronal chemorepellent during vertebrate development. In vertebrates, chemorepellent signaling is mediated through the tyrosine kinase, src-1, and the tyrosine phosphatase, shp-2. Tetrahymena thermophila has been used as a model system for chemorepellent signaling because its avoidance response is easily characterized under a light microscope. Our experiments showed that netrin-1 peptide is a chemorepellent in T. thermophila at micromolar concentrations. T. thermophila adapts to netrin-1 over a time course of about 10 minutes. Netrin-adapted cells still avoid GTP, PACAP-38, and nociceptin, suggesting that netrin does not use the same signaling machinery as any of these other repellents. Avoidance of netrin-1 peptide was effectively eliminated by the addition of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor, genistein, to the assay buffer; however, immunostaining using an anti-phosphotyrosine antibody showed similar fluorescence levels in control and netrin-1 exposed cells, suggesting that tyrosine phosphorylation is not required for signaling to occur. In addition, ELISA indicates that a netrin-like peptide is present in both whole cell extract and secreted protein obtained from Tetrahymena thermophila. Further study will be required in order to fully elucidate the signaling mechanism of netrin-1 peptide in this organism.

  3. Isolation and characterization of the actin gene from Tetrahymena thermophila

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    Cupples, Claire G.; Pearlman, Ronald E.

    1986-01-01

    The macronucleus of Tetrahymena thermophila contains a single actin gene. We have isolated this gene from a partial plasmid library by using the yeast actin gene as a probe. The nucleotide sequence of the gene has been determined and the amino acid sequence of the potential protein deduced. The encoded protein is 375 amino acids long, one amino acid longer than the yeast actin. It is one of the most divergent actins sequenced to date, being only 75% homologous to yeast actin. Unlike the actin genes from most other organisms, it does not contain introns. The coding region contains TAA and TAG codons; the translation termination codon is TGA. Comparison of the amino acid sequence of the Tetrahymena actin with that of actins from other organisms suggests that TAG may code for glutamic acid. The gene is transcribed from multiple initiation sites between 57 and 98 nucleotides upstream of the translation start codon. The 5′ flanking region is very A+T-rich and contains numerous “TATA-like” sequences upstream of the transcription start sites. Images PMID:16593729

  4. Product analysis illuminates the final steps of IES deletion in Tetrahymena thermophila.

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    Saveliev, S V; Cox, M M

    2001-06-15

    DNA sequences (IES elements) eliminated from the developing macronucleus in the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila are released as linear fragments, which have now been detected and isolated. A PCR-mediated examination of fragment end structures reveals three types of strand scission events, reflecting three steps in the deletion process. New evidence is provided for two steps proposed previously: an initiating double-stranded cleavage, and strand transfer to create a branched deletion intermediate. The fragment ends provide evidence for a previously uncharacterized third step: the branched DNA strand is cleaved at one of several defined sites located within 15-16 nucleotides of the IES boundary, liberating the deleted DNA in a linear form.

  5. Experimental identification and analysis of macronuclear non-coding RNAs from the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila

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    Andersen, Kasper Langebjerg; Nielsen, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    The ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila is an important eukaryotic model organism that has been used in pioneering studies of general phenomena, such as ribozymes, telomeres, chromatin structure and genome reorganization. Recent work has shown that Tetrahymena has many classes of small RNA molecules...... class was small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs), many of which are formed by an unusual maturation pathway. The modifications guided by the snoRNAs were analyzed bioinformatically and experimentally and many Tetrahymena-specific modifications were found, including several in an essential, but not conserved...

  6. Effect of Cerophyl growth medium on exocytosis in Tetrahymena thermophila.

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    Pesciotta, D M; Satir, B H

    1985-10-01

    Culturing the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila in Cerophyl has provided an opportunity for studying the assembly and/or synthesis of the intramembrane particle array, the rosette, which marks the site of exocytosis in these cells. Cultures grown in this medium cease cell division after only 12h and enter 'stationary phase' earlier (12h of growth) relative to growth in standard medium (proteose peptone). In addition, the cell changes from the normally observed pear-shaped body to a thinner more ellipsoid form. Despite the initial similarities to starving cells, several differences are observed in the Cerophyl-grown cells. One is that cell size remains constant for at least 72h in contrast to starved cells. Secondly, in spite of this block in cell division, results from freeze-fracture replicas of the cell membrane of these cells show that they continue to assemble rosettes, the number of which increases approximately six times, from 0.34 rosette/microgram2 to 2.1 rosettes/microgram2. Addition of the protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide (6h exposure), during growth in Cerophyl shows that 70% of rosettes can be assembled, despite the blockage of translation, by using pre-existing component(s) from a pool. The remaining 30% must involve de novo synthesis of one or more components; this percentage can be increased with longer exposure to the drug. Thirdly, an apparent increase in the number of mucocysts is observed by thin-section electron microscopy. At first (12-24h) only docked mucocysts seem to accumulate in the cell. However, by 36h a considerable increase seems to have taken place, particularly in the number of mucocysts located in the cytoplasm. In the cycloheximide-treated cells this increase in mucocysts begins to be blocked after 6h of exposure to the drug. These observations are in agreement with the results obtained from the freeze-fracture data on the concomitant increase in number of rosettes. This system therefore offers the first possibility of

  7. Tetrahymena thermophila acidic ribosomal protein L37 contains an archaebacterial type of C-terminus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, T S; Andreasen, P H; Dreisig, H

    1991-01-01

    We have cloned and characterized a Tetrahymena thermophila macronuclear gene (L37) encoding the acidic ribosomal protein (A-protein) L37. The gene contains a single intron located in the 3'-part of the coding region. Two major and three minor transcription start points (tsp) were mapped 39 to 63...... nucleotides upstream from the translational start codon. The uppermost tsp mapped to the first T in a putative T. thermophila RNA polymerase II initiator element, TATAA. The coding region of L37 predicts a protein of 109 amino acid (aa) residues. A substantial part of the deduced aa sequence was verified...

  8. Phosphoproteomic analysis of protein phosphorylation networks in Tetrahymena thermophila, a model single-celled organism.

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    Tian, Miao; Chen, Xiulan; Xiong, Qian; Xiong, Jie; Xiao, Chuanle; Ge, Feng; Yang, Fuquan; Miao, Wei

    2014-02-01

    Tetrahymena thermophila is a widely used unicellular eukaryotic model organism in biological research and contains more than 1000 protein kinases and phosphatases with specificity for Ser/Thr/Tyr residues. However, only a few dozen phosphorylation sites in T. thermophila are known, presenting a major obstacle to further understanding of the regulatory roles of reversible phosphorylation in this organism. In this study, we used high-accuracy mass-spectrometry-based proteomics to conduct global and site-specific phosphoproteome profiling of T. thermophila. In total, 1384 phosphopeptides and 2238 phosphorylation sites from 1008 T. thermophila proteins were identified through the combined use of peptide prefractionation, TiO2 enrichment, and two-dimensional LC-MS/MS analysis. The identified phosphoproteins are implicated in the regulation of various biological processes such as transport, gene expression, and mRNA metabolic process. Moreover, integrated analysis of the T. thermophila phosphoproteome and gene network revealed the potential biological functions of many previously unannotated proteins and predicted some putative kinase-substrate pairs. Our data provide the first global survey of phosphorylation in T. thermophila using a phosphoproteomic approach and suggest a wide-ranging regulatory scope of this modification. The provided dataset is a valuable resource for the future understanding of signaling pathways in this important model organism.

  9. Use of Tetrahymena thermophila To Study the Role of Protozoa in Inactivation of Viruses in Water▿

    OpenAIRE

    Pinheiro, Marcel D. O.; Power, Mary E.; Butler, Barbara J.; Dayeh, Vivian R.; Slawson, Robin; Lee, Lucy E. J.; Lynn, Denis H.; Bols, Niels C.

    2006-01-01

    The ability of a ciliate to inactivate bacteriophage was studied because these viruses are known to influence the size and diversity of bacterial populations, which affect nutrient cycling in natural waters and effluent quality in sewage treatment, and because ciliates are ubiquitous in aquatic environments, including sewage treatment plants. Tetrahymena thermophila was used as a representative ciliate; T4 was used as a model bacteriophage. The T4 titer was monitored on Escherichia coli B in ...

  10. Expression of a cell surface immobilization antigen during serotype transformation in Tetrahymena thermophila.

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    Williams, N. E.; Doerder, F. P.; Ron, A

    1985-01-01

    A temperature shift from 40 to 28 degrees C rapidly induced expression of a specific immobilization antigen at the cell surface in Tetrahymena thermophila. This transformation was inhibited by actinomycin D and cycloheximide but not by colchicine or cytochalasin B. The major surface antigen expressed at 28 degrees C in cells homozygous for the SerH3 allele was partially purified, and an antiserum against this preparation was raised in rabbits. Electrophoresis, immunoblot, and [35S]methionine ...

  11. Transcriptome analysis of the model protozoan, Tetrahymena thermophila, using Deep RNA sequencing.

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    Jie Xiong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The ciliated protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila is a well-studied single-celled eukaryote model organism for cellular and molecular biology. However, the lack of extensive T. thermophila cDNA libraries or a large expressed sequence tag (EST database limited the quality of the original genome annotation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This RNA-seq study describes the first deep sequencing analysis of the T. thermophila transcriptome during the three major stages of the life cycle: growth, starvation and conjugation. Uniquely mapped reads covered more than 96% of the 24,725 predicted gene models in the somatic genome. More than 1,000 new transcribed regions were identified. The great dynamic range of RNA-seq allowed detection of a nearly six order-of-magnitude range of measurable gene expression orchestrated by this cell. RNA-seq also allowed the first prediction of transcript untranslated regions (UTRs and an updated (larger size estimate of the T. thermophila transcriptome: 57 Mb, or about 55% of the somatic genome. Our study identified nearly 1,500 alternative splicing (AS events distributed over 5.2% of T. thermophila genes. This percentage represents a two order-of-magnitude increase over previous EST-based estimates in Tetrahymena. Evidence of stage-specific regulation of alternative splicing was also obtained. Finally, our study allowed us to completely confirm about 26.8% of the genes originally predicted by the gene finder, to correct coding sequence boundaries and intron-exon junctions for about a third, and to reassign microarray probes and correct earlier microarray data. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: RNA-seq data significantly improve the genome annotation and provide a fully comprehensive view of the global transcriptome of T. thermophila. To our knowledge, 5.2% of T. thermophila genes with AS is the highest percentage of genes showing AS reported in a unicellular eukaryote. Tetrahymena thus becomes an excellent unicellular

  12. Spliceosomal small nuclear RNAs of Tetrahymena thermophila and some possible snRNA-snRNA base-pairing interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orum, H; Nielsen, Henrik; Engberg, J

    1991-01-01

    organisms. Furthermore, secondary structures closely similar to phylogenetically proven models can be inferred from the T. thermophila data. Analysis of the snRNA sequences identifies three potential snRNA-snRNA base-pairing interactions, all of which are consistent with available phylogenetic data. Two......We have identified and characterized the full set of spliceosomal small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs; U1, U2, U4, U5 and U6) from the ciliated protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila. With the exception of U4 snRNA, the sizes of the T. thermophila snRNAs are closely similar to their metazoan homologues. The T....... thermophila snRNAs all have unique 5' ends, which start with an adenine residue. In contrast, with the exception of U6, their 3' ends show some size heterogeneity. The primary sequences of the T. thermophila snRNAs contain the sequence motifs shown, or proposed, to be of functional importance in other...

  13. Role of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF in programmed nuclear death during conjugation in Tetrahymena thermophila

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    Endoh Hiroshi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Programmed nuclear death (PND, which is also referred to as nuclear apoptosis, is a remarkable process that occurs in ciliates during sexual reproduction (conjugation. In Tetrahymena thermophila, when the new macronucleus differentiates, the parental macronucleus is selectively eliminated from the cytoplasm of the progeny, concomitant with apoptotic nuclear events. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these events are not well understood. The parental macronucleus is engulfed by a large autophagosome, which contains numerous mitochondria that have lost their membrane potential. In animals, mitochondrial depolarization precedes apoptotic cell death, which involves DNA fragmentation and subsequent nuclear degradation. Results We focused on the role of mitochondrial apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF during PND in Tetrahymena. The disruption of AIF delays the normal progression of PND, specifically, nuclear condensation and kilobase-size DNA fragmentation. AIF is localized in Tetrahymena mitochondria and is released into the macronucleus prior to nuclear condensation. In addition, AIF associates and co-operates with the mitochondrial DNase to facilitate the degradation of kilobase-size DNA, which is followed by oligonucleosome-size DNA laddering. Conclusions Our results suggest that Tetrahymena AIF plays an important role in the degradation of DNA at an early stage of PND, which supports the notion that the mitochondrion-initiated apoptotic DNA degradation pathway is widely conserved among eukaryotes.

  14. Effects of protein kinase C activators and staurosporine on protein kinase activity, cell survival, and proliferation in Tetrahymena thermophila

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    Straarup, EM; Schousboe, P; Hansen, HQ

    1997-01-01

    Autocrine factors prevent cell death in the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila, a unicellular eukaryote, in a chemically defined medium. At certain growth conditions these factors are released at a sufficient concentration by > 500 cells ml-1 to support cell survival and proliferation. The protein k...

  15. Is Evolution of Mating Preferences Inevitable? Random Mating in the Multisex System of Tetrahymena thermophila

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    Sujal S. Phadke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ciliate mating systems are highly diversified, providing unique opportunities to study sexual differentiation and its implications for mating dynamics. Many species of ciliates have multiple (>2 sexes. More sexes may mean more choice and an opportunity for evolution of preferential mating. We asked if the multiple sexes of the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila mate preferentially among each other. We quantified pairing frequencies among four sexes of T. thermophila using experiments that allowed the sexes to compete as mating partners. We found that all sexes mated equally frequently among each other, that is, we found no evidence of preferential mating with respect to sex. This suggests that the “mate choice” in this ciliate is binary, between whether to form a pair or not and, in this regard, sex facilitates only self-/non-self-distinction. Thus, presence of multiple sexes does not necessarily result in the evolution of mating bias, which could decrease the maximum amount of mating that would otherwise be possible in a population. Our result of random mating verifies a key assumption in the theoretical model of sex ratio evolution in T. thermophila. Investigation into molecular differences between the sexes will be necessary to reveal the mechanistic basis of random mating among them.

  16. Use of Tetrahymena thermophila to study the role of protozoa in inactivation of viruses in water.

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    Pinheiro, Marcel D O; Power, Mary E; Butler, Barbara J; Dayeh, Vivian R; Slawson, Robin; Lee, Lucy E J; Lynn, Denis H; Bols, Niels C

    2007-01-01

    The ability of a ciliate to inactivate bacteriophage was studied because these viruses are known to influence the size and diversity of bacterial populations, which affect nutrient cycling in natural waters and effluent quality in sewage treatment, and because ciliates are ubiquitous in aquatic environments, including sewage treatment plants. Tetrahymena thermophila was used as a representative ciliate; T4 was used as a model bacteriophage. The T4 titer was monitored on Escherichia coli B in a double-agar overlay assay. T4 and the ciliate were incubated together under different conditions and for various times, after which the mixture was centrifuged through a step gradient, producing a top layer free of ciliates. The T4 titer in this layer decreased as coincubation time increased, but no decrease was seen if phage were incubated with formalin-fixed Tetrahymena. The T4 titer associated with the pellet of living ciliates was very low, suggesting that removal of the phage by Tetrahymena inactivated T4. When Tetrahymena cells were incubated with SYBR gold-labeled phage, fluorescence was localized in structures that had the shape and position of food vacuoles. Incubation of the phage and ciliate with cytochalasin B or at 4 degrees C impaired T4 inactivation. These results suggest the active removal of T4 bacteriophage from fluid by macropinocytosis, followed by digestion in food vacuoles. Such ciliate virophagy may be a mechanism occurring in natural waters and sewage treatment, and the methods described here could be used to study the factors influencing inactivation and possibly water quality.

  17. Use of Tetrahymena thermophila To Study the Role of Protozoa in Inactivation of Viruses in Water▿

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    Pinheiro, Marcel D. O.; Power, Mary E.; Butler, Barbara J.; Dayeh, Vivian R.; Slawson, Robin; Lee, Lucy E. J.; Lynn, Denis H.; Bols, Niels C.

    2007-01-01

    The ability of a ciliate to inactivate bacteriophage was studied because these viruses are known to influence the size and diversity of bacterial populations, which affect nutrient cycling in natural waters and effluent quality in sewage treatment, and because ciliates are ubiquitous in aquatic environments, including sewage treatment plants. Tetrahymena thermophila was used as a representative ciliate; T4 was used as a model bacteriophage. The T4 titer was monitored on Escherichia coli B in a double-agar overlay assay. T4 and the ciliate were incubated together under different conditions and for various times, after which the mixture was centrifuged through a step gradient, producing a top layer free of ciliates. The T4 titer in this layer decreased as coincubation time increased, but no decrease was seen if phage were incubated with formalin-fixed Tetrahymena. The T4 titer associated with the pellet of living ciliates was very low, suggesting that removal of the phage by Tetrahymena inactivated T4. When Tetrahymena cells were incubated with SYBR gold-labeled phage, fluorescence was localized in structures that had the shape and position of food vacuoles. Incubation of the phage and ciliate with cytochalasin B or at 4°C impaired T4 inactivation. These results suggest the active removal of T4 bacteriophage from fluid by macropinocytosis, followed by digestion in food vacuoles. Such ciliate virophagy may be a mechanism occurring in natural waters and sewage treatment, and the methods described here could be used to study the factors influencing inactivation and possibly water quality. PMID:17114327

  18. Expression of a cell surface immobilization antigen during serotype transformation in Tetrahymena thermophila.

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    Williams, N E; Doerder, F P; Ron, A

    1985-08-01

    A temperature shift from 40 to 28 degrees C rapidly induced expression of a specific immobilization antigen at the cell surface in Tetrahymena thermophila. This transformation was inhibited by actinomycin D and cycloheximide but not by colchicine or cytochalasin B. The major surface antigen expressed at 28 degrees C in cells homozygous for the SerH3 allele was partially purified, and an antiserum against this preparation was raised in rabbits. Electrophoresis, immunoblot, and [35S]methionine incorporation studies are reported which support the conclusion that the H3 antigen is an acidic protein with an Mr of approximately 52,000 daltons. An induced synthesis of the H3 immobilization antigen was detected within 30 min after a shift from 40 to 28 degrees C. This protein appeared to be synthesized in the microsomal fraction and transferred without cleavage to the cell surface, where it was inserted first into nonciliated regions.

  19. Delineating cellular interactions between ciliates and fish by co-culturing Tetrahymena thermophila with fish cells.

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    Pinheiro, Marcel D O; Bols, Niels C

    2014-10-01

    Although several species of Tetrahymena are often described as histophagous and opportunistic pathogens of fish, little is known about ciliate/fish cell interactions, but one approach for studying these is in vitro with cell lines. In this study, T. thermophila, B1975 (wild type) and NP1 (temperature sensitive mutant for phagocytosis) were cultured on monolayers of 3 fish epithelial cell lines, CHSE-214, RTgill-W1, and ZEB2J, and the rabbit kidney epithelial cell line, RK-13. Generally the ciliates flourished, whereas the monolayers died, being completely consumed over several days. The destruction of monolayers required that the ciliates could make contact with the animal cells through swimming, which appeared to dislodge or loosen cells so that they could be phagocytosed. The ciliates internalized into food vacuoles ZEB2J from cell monolayers as well as from cell suspensions. Phagocytosis was essential for monolayer destruction as monolayers remained intact under conditions where phagocytosis was impeded, such as 37°C for NP1 and 4°C for B1975. Monolayers of fish cells supported the proliferation of ciliates. Thus T. thermophila can 'eat' animal cells or be histophagous in vitro, with the potential to be histophagous in vivo. © 2014 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  20. In vivo synthesis of nano-selenium by Tetrahymena thermophila SB210.

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    Cui, Yin-Hua; Li, Ling-Li; Zhou, Nan-Qing; Liu, Jing-Hua; Huang, Qing; Wang, Hui-Juan; Tian, Jie; Yu, Han-Qing

    2016-12-01

    Nano-selenium has a great potential to be used in chemical, biological, medical and environmental fields. Biological methods for nano-selenium synthesis have attracted wide interests, because they can be operated at ambient temperature and pressure without complicated equipments. In this work, a protozoa, Tetrahymena thermophila (T. thermophila) SB210, was used to in vivo synthesize nano-selenium. The biosynthesized nano-selenium was characterized using transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The synthesized amorphous spherical selenium nanoparticles had diameters of 50-500nm with the coexistence of irregular nano-selenium. The expressions of glutathione (GSH) synthesis related gene glutathione synthase, cysteine-rich protein metallothionein related gene metallothionein-1 and [2Fe-2S] cluster-binding protein related gene were up-regulated in the nano-selenium producing group. Also, the subsequent GSH detection and in vitro synthesis experimental results suggest the three proteins were likely to be involved in the nano-selenium synthesis process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Depletion of UBC9 Causes Nuclear Defects during the Vegetative and Sexual Life Cycles in Tetrahymena thermophila

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    Yang, Qianyi; Nasir, Amjad M.; Coyne, Robert S.; Forney, James D.

    2015-01-01

    Ubc9p is the sole E2-conjugating enzyme for SUMOylation, and its proper function is required for regulating key nuclear events such as transcription, DNA repair, and mitosis. In Tetrahymena thermophila, the genome is separated into a diploid germ line micronucleus (MIC) that divides by mitosis and a polyploid somatic macronucleus (MAC) that divides amitotically. This unusual nuclear organization provides novel opportunities for the study of SUMOylation and Ubc9p function. We identified the UB...

  2. Macronuclear genome sequence of the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila, a model eukaryote.

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    Jonathan A Eisen

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila is a model organism for molecular and cellular biology. Like other ciliates, this species has separate germline and soma functions that are embodied by distinct nuclei within a single cell. The germline-like micronucleus (MIC has its genome held in reserve for sexual reproduction. The soma-like macronucleus (MAC, which possesses a genome processed from that of the MIC, is the center of gene expression and does not directly contribute DNA to sexual progeny. We report here the shotgun sequencing, assembly, and analysis of the MAC genome of T. thermophila, which is approximately 104 Mb in length and composed of approximately 225 chromosomes. Overall, the gene set is robust, with more than 27,000 predicted protein-coding genes, 15,000 of which have strong matches to genes in other organisms. The functional diversity encoded by these genes is substantial and reflects the complexity of processes required for a free-living, predatory, single-celled organism. This is highlighted by the abundance of lineage-specific duplications of genes with predicted roles in sensing and responding to environmental conditions (e.g., kinases, using diverse resources (e.g., proteases and transporters, and generating structural complexity (e.g., kinesins and dyneins. In contrast to the other lineages of alveolates (apicomplexans and dinoflagellates, no compelling evidence could be found for plastid-derived genes in the genome. UGA, the only T. thermophila stop codon, is used in some genes to encode selenocysteine, thus making this organism the first known with the potential to translate all 64 codons in nuclear genes into amino acids. We present genomic evidence supporting the hypothesis that the excision of DNA from the MIC to generate the MAC specifically targets foreign DNA as a form of genome self-defense. The combination of the genome sequence, the functional diversity encoded therein, and the presence of some pathways missing from

  3. Efficient expression of codon-adapted affinity tagged super folder green fluorescent protein for synchronous protein localization and affinity purification studies in Tetrahymena thermophila.

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    Yilmaz, Gürkan; Arslanyolu, Muhittin

    2015-03-25

    A superior Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) mutant, known as superfolder GFP (sfGFP), is more soluble, faster folding, and is the brightest of the known GFP mutants. This study aimed to create a codon-adapted sfGFP tag (TtsfGFP) for simultaneous protein localization and affinity purification in Tetrahymena thermophila. In vivo fluorescence spectroscopic analyses of clones carrying a codon-adapted and 6 × His tagged TtsfGFP cassette showed approximately 2-4-fold increased fluorescence emission compared with the control groups at 3 h. Fluorescence microscopy also revealed that TtsfGFP reached its emission maxima at 100 min, which was much earlier than controls expressing EGFP and sfGFP (240 min). A T. thermophila ATP-dependent DNA ligase domain containing hypothetical gene (H) was cloned into the 3' end of 6 × His-TtsfGFP to assess the affinity/localization dual tag feature. Fluorescence microscopy of the 6 × His-TtsfGFP-H clone confirmed its localization in the macro- and micronucleus of vegetative T. thermophila. Simultaneous affinity purification of TtsfGFP and TtsfGFP-H with Ni-NTA beads was feasible, as shown by Ni-NTA purified proteins analysis by SDS-PAGE and western blotting. We successfully codon adapted the N-terminal 6 × His-TtsfGFP tag and showed that it could be used for protein localization and affinity purification simultaneously in T. thermophila. We believe that this dual tag will advance T. thermophila studies by providing strong visual traceability of the target protein in vivo and in vitro during recombinant production of heterologous and homologous proteins.

  4. MtnBD is a multifunctional fusion enzyme in the methionine salvage pathway of Tetrahymena thermophila.

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    Toshihiro Nakano

    Full Text Available To recycle reduced sulfur to methionine in the methionine salvage pathway (MSP, 5-methylthioribulose-1-phosphate is converted to 2-keto-4-methylthiobutyrate, the methionine precursor, by four steps; dehydratase, enolase, phosphatase, and dioxygenase reactions (catalyzed by MtnB, MtnW, MtnX and MtnD, respectively, in Bacillus subtilis. It has been proposed that the MtnBD fusion enzyme in Tetrahymena thermophila catalyzes four sequential reactions from the dehydratase to dioxygenase steps, based on the results of molecular biological analyses of mutant yeast strains with knocked-out MSP genes, suggesting that new catalytic function can be acquired by fusion of enzymes. This result raises the question of how the MtnBD fusion enzyme can catalyze four very different reactions, especially since there are no homologous domains for enolase and phosphatase (MtnW and MtnX, respectively, in B. subtilis in the peptide. Here, we tried to identify the domains responsible for catalyzing the four reactions using recombinant proteins of full-length MtnBD and each domain alone. UV-visible and ¹H-NMR spectral analyses of reaction products revealed that the MtnB domain catalyzes dehydration and enolization and the MtnD domain catalyzes dioxygenation. Contrary to a previous report, conversion of 5-methylthioribulose-1-phosphate to 2-keto-4-methylthiobutyrate was dependent on addition of an exogenous phosphatase from B. subtilis. This was observed for both the MtnB domain and full-length MtnBD, suggesting that MtnBD does not catalyze the phosphatase reaction. Our results suggest that the MtnB domain of T. thermophila MtnBD acquired the new function to catalyze both the dehydratase and enolase reactions through evolutionary gene mutations, rather than fusion of MSP genes.

  5. The key role of CYC2 during meiosis in Tetrahymena thermophila.

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    Xu, Qianlan; Wang, Ruoyu; Ghanam, A R; Yan, Guanxiong; Miao, Wei; Song, Xiaoyuan

    2016-04-01

    Meiotic recombination is carried out through a specialized pathway for the formation and repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) made by the Spo11 protein. The present study shed light on the functional role of cyclin, CYC2, in Tetrahymena thermophila which has transcriptionally high expression level during meiosis process. Knocking out the CYC2 gene results in arrest of meiotic conjugation process at 2.5-3.5 h after conjugation initiation, before the meiosis division starts, and in company with the absence of DSBs. To investigate the underlying mechanism of this phenomenon, a complete transcriptome profile was performed between wild-type strain and CYC2 knock-out strain. Functional analysis of RNA-Seq results identifies related differentially expressed genes (DEGs) including SPO11 and these DEGs are enriched in DNA repair/mismatch repair (MMR) terms in homologous recombination (HR), which indicates that CYC2 could play a crucial role in meiosis by regulating SPO11 and participating in HR.

  6. Distinct localization of a beta-tubulin epitope in the Tetrahymena thermophila and Paramecium caudatum cortex.

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    Libusová, L; Sulimenko, T; Sulimenko, V; Janisch, R; Hozák, P; Dráber, P

    2005-10-01

    Many of the highly organized microtubular arrangements in ciliates are located in the cortical area containing membrane vesicles and vacuoles. In Tetrahymena thermophila and Paramecium caudatum, immunofluorescence microscopy with the monoclonal antibody TU-06, directed against beta-tubulin, revealed distinct staining of this cortical region alone, while the cilia and other microtubular structures were unstained. The specificity of the antibody was confirmed by immunoblotting and by preabsorption of the antibody with purified tubulin. Double-label immunofluorescence with antibodies against gamma-tubulin, detyrosinated alpha-tubulin, and centrin showed that the TU-06 epitope is localized outside the basal body region. This was also confirmed by immunogold electron microscopy of thin sections. Proteolytic digestion of porcine brain beta-tubulin combined with a peptide scan of immobilized, overlapping peptides disclosed that the epitope was in the beta-tubulin region beta81-95, a region which is phylogenetically highly conserved. As known posttranslational modifications of beta-tubulin are located outside this area, the observed staining pattern cannot be interpreted as evidence of subcellular sequestration of modified tubulin. The limited distribution of the epitope could rather reflect the dependence of TU-06 epitope exposition on conformations of tubulin molecules in microtubule arrangements or on differential masking by interacting proteins.

  7. ADF/cofilin is not essential but is critically important for actin activities during phagocytosis in Tetrahymena thermophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiozaki, Nanami; Nakano, Kentaro; Kushida, Yasuharu; Noguchi, Taro Q P; Uyeda, Taro Q P; Wloga, Dorota; Dave, Drashti; Vasudevan, Krishna Kumar; Gaertig, Jacek; Numata, Osamu

    2013-08-01

    ADF/cofilin is a highly conserved actin-modulating protein. Reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton in vivo through severing and depolymerizing of F-actin by this protein is essential for various cellular events, such as endocytosis, phagocytosis, cytokinesis, and cell migration. We show that in the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila, the ADF/cofilin homologue Adf73p associates with actin on nascent food vacuoles. Overexpression of Adf73p disrupted the proper localization of actin and inhibited the formation of food vacuoles. In vitro, recombinant Adf73p promoted the depolymerization of filaments made of T. thermophila actin (Act1p). Knockout cells lacking the ADF73 gene are viable but grow extremely slowly and have a severely decreased rate of food vacuole formation. Knockout cells have abnormal aggregates of actin in the cytoplasm. Surprisingly, unlike the case in animals and yeasts, in Tetrahymena, ADF/cofilin is not required for cytokinesis. Thus, the Tetrahymena model shows promise for future studies of the role of ADF/cofilin in vivo.

  8. Genome-wide prediction of the polymorphic Ser gene family in Tetrahymena thermophila based on motif analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponsuwanna, Patrath; Kümpornsin, Krittikorn; Chookajorn, Thanat

    2014-01-01

    Even though antigenic variation is employed among parasitic protozoa for host immune evasion, Tetrahymena thermophila, a free-living ciliate, can also change its surface protein antigens. These cysteine-rich glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-linked surface proteins are encoded by a family of polymorphic Ser genes. Despite the availability of T. thermophila genome, a comprehensive analysis of the Ser family is limited by its high degree of polymorphism. In order to overcome this problem, a new approach was adopted by searching for Ser candidates with common motif sequences, namely length-specific repetitive cysteine pattern and GPI anchor site. The candidate genes were phylogenetically compared with the previously identified Ser genes and classified into subtypes. Ser candidates were often found to be located as tandem arrays of the same subtypes on several chromosomal scaffolds. Certain Ser candidates located in the same chromosomal arrays were transcriptionally expressed at specific T. thermophila developmental stages. These Ser candidates selected by the motif analysis approach can form the foundation for a systematic identification of the entire Ser gene family, which will contribute to the understanding of their function and the basis of T. thermophila antigenic variation.

  9. Effects of Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) Phosphate (TDCPP) in Tetrahymena Thermophila: Targeting the Ribosome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Giesy, John P.; Yu, Liqin; Li, Guangyu; Liu, Chunsheng

    2015-05-01

    Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) has been frequently detected in the environment, and exposure to TDCPP appears widespread. It has been implicated to cause toxicity in vertebrates, but its potential to affect lower-trophic-level species remains unknown. In the present study, the ciliated protozoan, Tetrahymena thermophila, was used as a model to evaluate toxic effects of TDCPP and explore molecular mechanisms by integrating phenotypic observation, RNA-Seq and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) Imaging technologies. Exposure to 0.01, 0.1 or 1 μM TDCPP for 5 days significantly decreased the relative biomass by reducing number of cells, size of cells and quantity of cilia in a dose-dependent manner. RNA-Seq analysis demonstrated that expression of twenty-one ribosome protein genes was down-regulated and these genes were enriched in “ribosome” term in KEGG pathway analysis. Furthermore, down-regulation of genes expressing ribosome proteins was accompanied by decreased ribosome quantity in rough endoplasmic reticulum and cytoplasm and enlarged ribosome size. Therefore, taken together, the data from the present study suggest that exposure to TDCPP affects growth and reproduction of Tetrahymena thermophila by targeting the ribosome. This information might provide insights into critical mechanisms of toxic action in other species and lead to useful bioindicators of exposure to TDCPP.

  10. The bifunctional dihydrofolate reductase thymidylate synthase of Tetrahymena thermophila provides a tool for molecular and biotechnology applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiedtke Arno

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR and thymidylate synthase (TS are crucial enzymes in DNA synthesis. In alveolata both enzymes are expressed as one bifunctional enzyme. Results Loss of this essential enzyme activities after successful allelic assortment of knock out alleles yields an auxotrophic marker in ciliates. Here the cloning, characterisation and functional analysis of Tetrahymena thermophila's DHFR-TS is presented. A first aspect of the presented work relates to destruction of DHFR-TS enzyme function in an alveolate thereby causing an auxotrophy for thymidine. A second aspect is to knock in an expression cassette encoding for a foreign gene with subsequent expression of the target protein. Conclusion This system avoids the use of antibiotics or other drugs and therefore is of high interest for biotechnological applications.

  11. Cyc17, a meiosis-specific cyclin, is essential for anaphase initiation and chromosome segregation in Tetrahymena thermophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Guan-Xiong; Dang, Huai; Tian, Miao; Zhang, Jing; Shodhan, Anura; Ning, Ying-Zhi; Xiong, Jie; Miao, Wei

    2016-07-17

    Although the role of cyclins in controlling nuclear division is well established, their function in ciliate meiosis remains unknown. In ciliates, the cyclin family has undergone massive expansion which suggests that diverse cell cycle systems exist, and this warrants further investigation. A screen for cyclins in the model ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila showed that there are 34 cyclins in this organism. Only 1 cyclin, Cyc17, contains the complete cyclin core and is specifically expressed during meiosis. Deletion of CYC17 led to meiotic arrest at the diakinesis-like metaphase I stage. Expression of genes involved in DNA metabolism and chromosome organization (chromatin remodeling and basic chromosomal structure) was repressed in cyc17 knockout matings. Further investigation suggested that Cyc17 is involved in regulating spindle pole attachment, and is thus essential for chromosome segregation at meiosis. These findings suggest a simple model in which chromosome segregation is influenced by Cyc17.

  12. Usual and unusual biochemical properties of ADF/cofilin-like protein Adf73p in ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiozaki, Nanami; Nakano, Kentaro; Takaine, Masak; Abe, Hiroshi; Numata, Osamu

    2009-12-04

    Actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilin is a well-conserved actin-modulating protein, which induces reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton by severing and depolymerizing F-actin. ADF/cofilin also binds to G-actin and inhibits nucleotide exchange, and hence, is supposed to regulate the nucleotide-bound state of the cellular G-actin pool cooperating with profilin, another well-conserved G-actin-binding protein that promotes nucleotide exchange. In this report, we investigated the biochemical properties of the ADF/cofilin-like protein Adf73p from ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila. Adf73p also binds to both G- and F-actin and severs and depolymerizes F-actin. Unlike canonical ADF/cofilin, however, Adf73p accelerates nucleotide exchange on actin and allows repolymerization of disassembled actin. These results suggest that the actin cytoskeleton of T. thermophila is regulated by Adf73p in a different way from those of mammals, plants, and yeasts.

  13. Depletion of UBC9 Causes Nuclear Defects during the Vegetative and Sexual Life Cycles in Tetrahymena thermophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qianyi; Nasir, Amjad M; Coyne, Robert S; Forney, James D

    2015-12-01

    Ubc9p is the sole E2-conjugating enzyme for SUMOylation, and its proper function is required for regulating key nuclear events such as transcription, DNA repair, and mitosis. In Tetrahymena thermophila, the genome is separated into a diploid germ line micronucleus (MIC) that divides by mitosis and a polyploid somatic macronucleus (MAC) that divides amitotically. This unusual nuclear organization provides novel opportunities for the study of SUMOylation and Ubc9p function. We identified the UBC9 gene and demonstrated that its complete deletion from both MIC and MAC genomes is lethal. Rescue of the lethal phenotype with a GFP-UBC9 fusion gene driven by a metallothionein promoter generated a cell line with CdCl2-dependent expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-Ubc9p. Depletion of Ubc9p in vegetative cells resulted in the loss of MICs, but MACs continued to divide. In contrast, expression of catalytically inactive Ubc9p resulted in the accumulation of multiple MICs. Critical roles for Ubc9p were also identified during the sexual life cycle of Tetrahymena. Cell lines that were depleted for Ubc9p did not form mating pairs and therefore could not complete any of the subsequent stages of conjugation, including meiosis and macronuclear development. Mating between cells expressing catalytically inactive Ubc9p resulted in arrest during macronuclear development, consistent with our observation that Ubc9p accumulates in the developing macronucleus. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Distinct functional roles of β-tubulin isotypes in microtubule arrays of Tetrahymena thermophila, a model single-celled organism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucciarelli, Sandra; Ballarini, Patrizia; Sparvoli, Daniela; Barchetta, Sabrina; Yu, Ting; Detrich, H William; Miceli, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    The multi-tubulin hypothesis proposes that each tubulin isotype performs a unique role, or subset of roles, in the universe of microtubule function(s). To test this hypothesis, we are investigating the functions of the recently discovered, noncanonical β-like tubulins (BLTs) of the ciliate, Tetrahymena thermophila. Tetrahymena forms 17 distinct microtubular structures whose assembly had been thought to be based on single α- and β-isotypes. However, completion of the macronuclear genome sequence of Tetrahymena demonstrated that this ciliate possessed a β-tubulin multigene family: two synonymous genes (BTU1 and BTU2) encode the canonical β-tubulin, BTU2, and six genes (BLT1-6) yield five divergent β-tubulin isotypes. In this report, we examine the structural features and functions of two of the BLTs (BLT1 and BLT4) and compare them to those of BTU2. With respect to BTU2, BLT1 and BLT4 had multiple sequence substitutions in their GTP-binding sites, in their interaction surfaces, and in their microtubule-targeting motifs, which together suggest that they have specialized functions. To assess the roles of these tubulins in vivo, we transformed Tetrahymena with expression vectors that direct the synthesis of GFP-tagged versions of the isotypes. We show that GFP-BLT1 and GFP-BLT4 were not detectable in somatic cilia and basal bodies, whereas GFP-BTU2 strongly labeled these structures. During cell division, GFP-BLT1 and GFP-BLT4, but not GFP-BTU2, were incorporated into the microtubule arrays of the macronucleus and into the mitotic apparatus of the micronucleus. GFP-BLT1 also participated in formation of the microtubules of the meiotic apparatus of the micronucleus during conjugation. Partitioning of the isotypes between nuclear and ciliary microtubules was confirmed biochemically. We conclude that Tetrahymena uses a family of distinct β-tubulin isotypes to construct subsets of functionally different microtubules, a result that provides strong support for the multi

  15. Hints for Metal-Preference Protein Sequence Determinants: Different Metal Binding Features of the Five Tetrahymena thermophila Metallothioneins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espart, Anna; Marín, Maribel; Gil-Moreno, Selene; Palacios, Òscar; Amaro, Francisco; Martín-González, Ana; Gutiérrez, Juan C.; Capdevila, Mercè; Atrian, Sílvia

    2015-01-01

    The metal binding preference of metallothioneins (MTs) groups them in two extreme subsets, the Zn/Cd- and the Cu-thioneins. Ciliates harbor the largest MT gene/protein family reported so far, including 5 paralogs that exhibit relatively low sequence similarity, excepting MTT2 and MTT4. In Tetrahymena thermophila, three MTs (MTT1, MTT3 and MTT5) were considered Cd-thioneins and two (MTT2 and MTT4) Cu-thioneins, according to gene expression inducibility and phylogenetic analysis. In this study, the metal-binding abilities of the five MTT proteins were characterized, to obtain information about the folding and stability of their cognate- and non-cognate metal complexes, and to characterize the T. thermophila MT system at protein level. Hence, the five MTTs were recombinantly synthesized as Zn2+-, Cd2+- or Cu+-complexes, which were analyzed by electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), circular dichroism (CD), and UV-vis spectrophotometry. Among the Cd-thioneins, MTT1 and MTT5 were optimal for Cd2+ coordination, yielding unique Cd17- and Cd8- complexes, respectively. When binding Zn2+, they rendered a mixture of Zn-species. Only MTT5 was capable to coordinate Cu+, although yielding heteronuclear Zn-, Cu-species or highly unstable Cu-homometallic species. MTT3 exhibited poor binding abilities both for Cd2+ and for Cu+, and although not optimally, it yielded the best result when coordinating Zn2+. The two Cu-thioneins, MTT2 and MTT4 isoforms formed homometallic Cu-complexes (major Cu20-MTT) upon synthesis in Cu-supplemented hosts. Contrarily, they were unable to fold into stable Cd-complexes, while Zn-MTT species were only recovered for MTT4 (major Zn10-MTT4). Thus, the metal binding preferences of the five T. thermophila MTs correlate well with their previous classification as Cd- and Cu-thioneins, and globally, they can be classified from Zn/Cd- to Cu-thioneins according to the gradation: MTT1>MTT5>MTT3>MTT4>MTT2. The main mechanisms underlying the evolution and

  16. The C-terminal domain of Tetrahymena thermophila telomerase holoenzyme protein p65 induces multiple structural changes in telomerase RNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Benjamin M.; Loper, John; Najarro, Kevin; Stone, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    The unique cellular activity of the telomerase reverse transcriptase ribonucleoprotein (RNP) requires proper assembly of protein and RNA components into a functional complex. In the ciliate model organism Tetrahymena thermophila, the La-domain protein p65 is required for in vivo assembly of telomerase. Single-molecule and biochemical studies have shown that p65 promotes efficient RNA assembly with the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) protein, in part by inducing a bend in the conserved stem IV region of telomerase RNA (TER). The domain architecture of p65 consists of an N-terminal domain, a La-RRM motif, and a C-terminal domain (CTD). Using single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer (smFRET), we demonstrate the p65CTD is necessary for the RNA remodeling activity of the protein and is sufficient to induce a substantial conformational change in stem IV of TER. Moreover, nuclease protection assays directly map the site of p65CTD interaction to stem IV and reveal that, in addition to bending stem IV, p65 binding reorganizes nucleotides that comprise the low-affinity TERT binding site within stem–loop IV. PMID:22315458

  17. Structural organization of the genes encoding the small nuclear RNAs U1 to U6 of Tetrahymena thermophila is very similar to that of plant small nuclear RNA genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orum, H; Nielsen, Henrik; Engberg, J

    1992-01-01

    We report the sequences of the genes encoding the small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) U1 to U6 of the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila. The genes of the individual snRNAs exist in two to six slightly different copies per haploid genome. Sequence analyses of the gene-flanking regions indicate that there ar......We report the sequences of the genes encoding the small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) U1 to U6 of the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila. The genes of the individual snRNAs exist in two to six slightly different copies per haploid genome. Sequence analyses of the gene-flanking regions indicate...

  18. Developmental regulation of DNA replication: replication fork barriers and programmed gene amplification in Tetrahymena thermophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z; Macalpine, D M; Kapler, G M

    1997-01-01

    The palindromic Tetrahymena ribosomal DNA (rDNA) minichromosome is amplified 10,000-fold during development. Subsequent vegetative replication is cell cycle regulated. rDNA replication differs fundamentally in cycling vegetative and nondividing amplifying cells. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, we show for the first time that replication origins that direct gene amplification also function in normal dividing cells. Two classes of amplification intermediates were identified. The first class is indistinguishable from vegetative rDNA, initiating in just one of the two 5' nontranscribed spacer (NTS) copies in the rDNA palindrome at either of two closely spaced origins. Thus, these origins are active throughout the life cycle and their regulation changes at different developmental stages. The second, novel class of amplification intermediates is generated by multiple initiation events. Intermediates with mass greater than fully replicated DNA were observed, suggesting that onionskin replication occurs at this stage. Unlike amplified rDNA in Xenopus laevis, the novel Tetrahymena species are not produced by random initiation; replication also initiates in the 5' NTS. Surprisingly, a replication fork barrier which is activated only in these amplifying molecules blocks the progression of forks near the center of the palindrome. Whereas barriers have been previously described, this is the first instance in which programmed regulation of replication fork progression has been demonstrated in a eukaryote. PMID:9315675

  19. Toxicity of Nine (Doped) Rare Earth Metal Oxides and Respective Individual Metals to Aquatic Microorganisms Vibrio fischeri and Tetrahymena thermophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurvet, Imbi; Juganson, Katre; Vija, Heiki; Sihtmäe, Mariliis; Blinova, Irina; Syvertsen-Wiig, Guttorm; Kahru, Anne

    2017-07-05

    Despite the increasing use of rare earth elements (REEs) and oxides (REOs) in various technologies, the information on their ecotoxicological hazard is scarce. Here, the effects of La(3+), Ce(3+), Pr(3+), Nd(3+), Gd(3+), CeO₂, and eight doped REOs to marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri and freshwater protozoa Tetrahymena thermophila were studied in parallel with REO dopant metals (Co(2+), Fe(3+), Mn(2+), Ni(2+), Sr(2+)). The highest concentrations of REOs tested were 100 mg/L with protozoa in deionized water and 500 mg/L with bacteria in 2% NaCl. Although (i) most REOs produced reactive oxygen species; (ii) all studied soluble REEs were toxic to bacteria (half-effective concentration, EC50 3.5-21 mg metal/L; minimal bactericidal concentration, MBC 6.3-63 mg/L) and to protozoa (EC50 28-42 mg/L); and (iii) also some dopant metals (Ni(2+), Fe(3+)) proved toxic (EC50 ≤ 3 mg/L), no toxicity of REOs to protozoa (EC50 > 100 mg/L) and bacteria (EC50 > 500 mg/L; MBC > 500 mg/L) was observed except for La₂NiO₄ (MBC 25 mg/L). According to kinetics of V. fischeri bioluminescence, the toxicity of REEs was triggered by disturbing cellular membrane integrity. Fortunately, as REEs and REOs are currently produced in moderate amounts and form in the environment insoluble salts and/or oxides, they apparently present no harm to aquatic bacteria and protozoa.

  20. The zinc finger protein Zfr1p is localized specifically to conjugation junction and required for sexual development in Tetrahymena thermophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Xu

    Full Text Available Conjugation in Tetrahymena thermophila involves a developmental program consisting of three prezygotic nuclear divisions, pronuclear exchange and fusion, and postzygotic and exconjugant stages. The conjugation junction structure appears during the initiation of conjugation development, and disappears during the exconjugant stage. Many structural and functional proteins are involved in the establishment and maintenance of the junction structure in T. thermophila. In the present study, a zinc finger protein-encoding gene ZFR1 was found to be expressed specifically during conjugation and to localize specifically to the conjugation junction region. Truncated Zfr1p localized at the plasma membrane in ordered arrays and decorated Golgi apparatus located adjacent to basal body. The N-terminal zinc finger and C-terminal hydrophobic domains of Zfr1p were found to be required for its specific conjugation junction localization. Conjugation development of ZFR1 somatic knockout cells was aborted at the pronuclear exchange and fusion conjugation stages. Furthermore, Zfr1p was found to be important for conjugation junction stability during the prezygotic nuclear division stage. Taken together, our data reveal that Zfr1p is required for the stability and integrity of the conjugation junction structure and essential for the sexual life cycle of the Tetrahymena cell.

  1. Cloning and characterization of the major histone H2A genes completes the cloning and sequencing of known histone genes of Tetrahymena thermophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X; Gorovsky, M A

    1996-01-01

    A truncated cDNA clone encoding Tetrahymena thermophila histone H2A2 was isolated using synthetic degenerate oligonucleotide probes derived from H2A protein sequences of Tetrahymena pyriformis. The cDNA clone was used as a homologous probe to isolate a truncated genomic clone encoding H2A1. The remaining regions of the genes for H2A1 (HTA1) and H2A2 (HTA2) were then isolated using inverse PCR on circularized genomic DNA fragments. These partial clones were assembled into intact HTA1 and HTA2 clones. Nucleotide sequences of the two genes were highly homologous within the coding region but not in the noncoding regions. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences with protein sequences of T. pyriformis H2As showed only two and three differences respectively, in a total of 137 amino acids for H2A1, and 132 amino acids for H2A2, indicating the two genes arose before the divergence of these two species. The HTA2 gene contains a TAA triplet within the coding region, encoding a glutamine residue. In contrast with the T. thermophila HHO and HTA3 genes, no introns were identified within the two genes. The 5'- and 3'-ends of the histone H2A mRNAs; were determined by RNase protection and by PCR mapping using RACE and RLM-RACE methods. Both genes encode polyadenylated mRNAs and are highly expressed in vegetatively growing cells but only weakly expressed in starved cultures. With the inclusion of these two genes, T. thermophila is the first organism whose entire complement of known core and linker histones, including replication-dependent and basal variants, has been cloned and sequenced. PMID:8760889

  2. 8-Methoxypsoralen DNA interstrand cross-linking of the ribosomal RNA genes in Tetrahymena thermophila. Distribution, repair and effect on rRNA synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fengquin, X; Nielsen, Henrik; Zhen, W

    1993-01-01

    The distribution and repair of 8-methoxypsoralen-DNA interstrand cross-links in the ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA) in Tetrahymena thermophila have been studied in vivo by Southern blot analysis. It is found that the cross-links at a density of ... between three domains (terminal spacer, transcribed region and central spacer) as defined by restriction enzyme analysis (BamHI and ClaI). It is furthermore shown that a dosage resulting in approximately one cross-link per rDNA molecule (21 kbp, two genes) is sufficient to block RNA synthesis. Finally......, it is shown that the cross-links in the rDNA molecules are repaired at equal rate in all three domains within 24 h and that RNA synthesis is partly restored during this repair period. The majority of the cells also go through one to two cell divisions in this period but do not survive....

  3. Genome-wide identification and evolution of ATP-binding cassette transporters in the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila: A case of functional divergence in a multigene family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Dongxia

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In eukaryotes, ABC transporters that utilize the energy of ATP hydrolysis to expel cellular substrates into the environment are responsible for most of the efflux from cells. Many members of the superfamily of ABC transporters have been linked with resistance to multiple drugs or toxins. Owing to their medical and toxicological importance, members of the ABC superfamily have been studied in several model organisms and warrant examination in newly sequenced genomes. Results A total of 165 ABC transporter genes, constituting a highly expanded superfamily relative to its size in other eukaryotes, were identified in the macronuclear genome of the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila. Based on ortholog comparisons, phylogenetic topologies and intron characterizations, each highly expanded ABC transporter family of T. thermophila was classified into several distinct groups, and hypotheses about their evolutionary relationships are presented. A comprehensive microarray analysis revealed divergent expression patterns among the members of the ABC transporter superfamily during different states of physiology and development. Many of the relatively recently formed duplicate pairs within individual ABC transporter families exhibit significantly different expression patterns. Further analysis showed that multiple mechanisms have led to functional divergence that is responsible for the preservation of duplicated genes. Conclusion Gene duplications have resulted in an extensive expansion of the superfamily of ABC transporters in the Tetrahymena genome, making it the largest example of its kind reported in any organism to date. Multiple independent duplications and subsequent divergence contributed to the formation of different families of ABC transporter genes. Many of the members within a gene family exhibit different expression patterns. The combination of gene duplication followed by both sequence divergence and acquisition of new patterns of

  4. Genome-wide identification and characterization of cytochrome P450 monooxygenase genes in the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong Jie

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases play key roles in the metabolism of a wide variety of substrates and they are closely associated with endocellular physiological processes or detoxification metabolism under environmental exposure. To date, however, none has been systematically characterized in the phylum Ciliophora. T. thermophila possess many advantages as a eukaryotic model organism and it exhibits rapid and sensitive responses to xenobiotics, making it an ideal model system to study the evolutionary and functional diversity of the P450 monooxygenase gene family. Results A total of 44 putative functional cytochrome P450 genes were identified and could be classified into 13 families and 21 sub-families according to standard nomenclature. The characteristics of both the conserved intron-exon organization and scaffold localization of tandem repeats within each P450 family clade suggested that the enlargement of T. thermophila P450 families probably resulted from recent separate small duplication events. Gene expression patterns of all T. thermophila P450s during three important cell physiological stages (vegetative growth, starvation and conjugation were analyzed based on EST and microarray data, and three main categories of expression patterns were postulated. Evolutionary analysis including codon usage preference, site-specific selection and gene-expression evolution patterns were investigated and the results indicated remarkable divergences among the T. thermophila P450 genes. Conclusion The characterization, expression and evolutionary analysis of T. thermophila P450 monooxygenase genes in the current study provides useful information for understanding the characteristics and diversities of the P450 genes in the Ciliophora, and provides the baseline for functional analyses of individual P450 isoforms in this model ciliate species.

  5. Small phosphatidate phosphatase (TtPAH2) of Tetrahymena ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Phosphatidate phosphatases (PAH) play a central role in lipid metabolism and intracellular signaling. Herein, we report thepresence of a low-molecular-weight PAH homolog in the single-celled ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila. In vitro phosphataseassay showed that TtPAH2 belongs to the magnesium-dependent ...

  6. Establishment of a Cre/loxP recombination system for N-terminal epitope tagging of genes in Tetrahymena

    OpenAIRE

    Mochizuki Kazufumi; Vogt Alexander; Busch Clara

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Epitope tagging is a powerful strategy to study the function of proteins. Although tools for C-terminal protein tagging in the ciliated protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila have been developed, N-terminal protein tagging in this organism is still technically demanding. Results In this study, we have established a Cre/loxP recombination system in Tetrahymena and have applied this system for the N-terminal epitope tagging of Tetrahymena genes. Cre can be expressed in Tetrahymen...

  7. Establishment of a Cre/loxP recombination system for N-terminal epitope tagging of genes in Tetrahymena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Clara Jana-Lui; Vogt, Alexander; Mochizuki, Kazufumi

    2010-07-13

    Epitope tagging is a powerful strategy to study the function of proteins. Although tools for C-terminal protein tagging in the ciliated protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila have been developed, N-terminal protein tagging in this organism is still technically demanding. In this study, we have established a Cre/loxP recombination system in Tetrahymena and have applied this system for the N-terminal epitope tagging of Tetrahymena genes. Cre can be expressed in Tetrahymena and localizes to the macronucleus where it induces precise recombination at two loxP sequences in direct orientation in the Tetrahymena macronuclear chromosome. This Cre/loxP recombination can be used to remove a loxP-flanked drug-resistance marker from an N-terminal tagging construct after it is integrated into the macronucleus. The system established in this study allows us to express an N-terminal epitope tagged gene from its own endogenous promoter in Tetrahymena.

  8. Highly Divergent Mitochondrial ATP Synthase Complexes in Tetrahymena thermophila

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nina, Praveen Balabaskaran; Dudkina, Natalya V.; Kane, Lesley A.; van Eyk, Jennifer E.; Boekema, Egbert J.; Mather, Michael W.; Vaidya, Akhil B.; Eisen, Jonathan A.

    The F-type ATP synthase complex is a rotary nano-motor driven by proton motive force to synthesize ATP. Its F(1) sector catalyzes ATP synthesis, whereas the F(o) sector conducts the protons and provides a stator for the rotary action of the complex. Components of both F(1) and F(o) sectors are

  9. Comparison of primary and secondary 26S rRNA structures in two Tetrahymena species: evidence for a strong evolutionary and structural constraint in expansion segments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, J; Nielsen, Henrik; Lenaers, G

    1990-01-01

    We have determined the nucleotide sequence of the 26S large subunit (LSU) rRNA genes for two Tetrahymena species, T. thermophila and T. pyriformis. The inferred rRNA sequences are presented in their most probable secondary structures based on compensatory mutations, energy, and conservation...

  10. Tetrahymena in the classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joshua J; Wiley, Emily A; Cassidy-Hanley, Donna M

    2012-01-01

    Tetrahymena has been a useful model in basic research in part due to the fact it is easy to grow in culture and exhibits a range of complex processes, all within a single cell. For these same reasons Tetrahymena has shown enormous potential as a teaching tool for fundamental principles of biology at multiple science education levels that can be integrated into K-12 classrooms and undergraduate and graduate college laboratory courses. These Tetrahymena-based teaching modules are inquiry-based experiences that are also effective at teaching scientific concepts, retaining students in science, and exciting students about the scientific process. Two learning communities have been developed that utilize Tetrahymena-based teaching modules. Advancing Secondary Science Education with Tetrahymena (ASSET) and the Ciliate Genomics Consortium (CGC) have developed modules for K-12 students and college-level curriculums, respectively. These modules range from addressing topics in ecology, taxonomy, and environmental toxicity to more advanced concepts in biochemistry, proteomics, bioinformatics, cell biology, and molecular biology. An overview of the current modules and their learning outcomes are discussed, as are assessment, dissemination, and sustainability strategies for K-12 and college-level curriculum. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Establishment of a Cre/loxP recombination system for N-terminal epitope tagging of genes in Tetrahymena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochizuki Kazufumi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epitope tagging is a powerful strategy to study the function of proteins. Although tools for C-terminal protein tagging in the ciliated protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila have been developed, N-terminal protein tagging in this organism is still technically demanding. Results In this study, we have established a Cre/loxP recombination system in Tetrahymena and have applied this system for the N-terminal epitope tagging of Tetrahymena genes. Cre can be expressed in Tetrahymena and localizes to the macronucleus where it induces precise recombination at two loxP sequences in direct orientation in the Tetrahymena macronuclear chromosome. This Cre/loxP recombination can be used to remove a loxP-flanked drug-resistance marker from an N-terminal tagging construct after it is integrated into the macronucleus. Conclusions The system established in this study allows us to express an N-terminal epitope tagged gene from its own endogenous promoter in Tetrahymena.

  12. In the polymorphic ciliate Tetrahymena vorax, the non-selective phagocytosis seen in microstomes changes to a highly selective process in macrostomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grønlien, Heidi K; Berg, Trond; Løvlie, Arne M

    2002-07-01

    Ciliates use phagocytosis to acquire edible particles. The polymorphic ciliate Tetrahymena vorax appears in two forms ('microstomes' and 'macrostomes'). Transformation of microstomes into macrostomes takes place in the presence of the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila and enables the macrostome to phagocytose the latter species. The non-specific, constitutive phagocytosis in microstomes thereby changes into a specific inducible process in macrostomes. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the phagocytotic process in macrostomes is specifically aimed at catching T. thermophila. The two forms of phagocytosis represent an interesting model system for studying the mechanism whereby phagosomes are formed. The macrostomal form capture deciliated and ciliated Tetrahymena thermophila, latex beads with diameters of 20.3 and 30.0 microm and small microstomal cells. However, the macrostomes select T. thermophila as a prey when they have the opportunity to choose between deciliated T. thermophila and latex beads and between T. thermophila and microstomes. The non-selective formation of phagosomes seen in microstomes changes to a highly selective process during the transformation to macrostomes. Unlike microstomes, macrostomes do not form a closed vacuole after capturing a latex bead, indicating that mechanical stimulation by the prey does not in itself trigger phagocytosis in the macrostomal form of T. vorax. Although macrostomes captured T. thermophila in preference to microstomes, phagocytosis of microstomes started immediately following capture, indicating that the substance/molecule that triggers the formation of the phagosome is not specific for T. thermophila cells. After capturing a T. thermophila cell, the macrostomal cell, which normally swims in a forward direction, reverses direction and swims backwards for a short time before starting to rotate. Macrostomal cells did not change their swimming pattern after capturing a latex bead. We believe, therefore

  13. Motility and Ultrastructure of Spirochaeta thermophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhard Wirth

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We analyze here for the first time the swimming behavior of a thermophilic, strictly anaerobic Spirochete, namely Spirochaeta thermophila using high temperature light microscopy. Our data show that S. thermophila very rapidly can change its morphology during swimming, resulting in cells appearing nearly linear, in cells possessing three different spiral forms, and in cells being linear at one end and spiral at the other end. In addition cells can rapidly bend by up to 180°, with their ends coming into close contact. We combine electron with light microscopy to explain these various cell morphologies. Swimming speeds for cells with the various morphologies did not differ significantly: the average speed was 33 (+/- 8 µm/s, with minimal and maximal speeds of 19 µm/s and 59 µm/s, respectively. Addition of gelling agents like polyvinylpyrrolidone or methyl cellulose to the growth medium resulted in lower and not higher swimming speeds, arguing against the idea that the highly unusual cell body plan of S. thermophila enables cells to swim more efficiently in gel-like habitats.

  14. LYSOSOMAL PHYSIOLOGY IN TETRAHYMENA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothstein, Thomas L.; Blum, J. J.

    1974-01-01

    The ingestion of 14C-labeled 9,10-dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene particles, the extracellular release of acid phosphatase, ribonuclease, and α-glucosidase, and the egestion of preingested dimethylbenzanthracene particles by Tetrahymena taken from logarithmically growing cultures and resuspended in a dilute salt solution were followed in the presence of several pharmacologic agents. Serotonin, caffeine, and, to a lesser extent, dibutyryl cyclic AMP increased the rate of particle ingestion, but did not alter the rate of release of the three acid hydrolases studied. Added catecholamines did not affect either particle ingestion or acid hydrolase release, but particle ingestion was inhibited by the catecholamine antagonists, dichloroisoproterenol, desmethylimipramine, reserpine, and phenoxybenzamine. These drugs also increased the release of acid phosphatase and ribonuclease in 5-h incubations. Desmethylimipramine acted within 1 h to increase acid hydrolase release, but the effect of dichloroisoproterenol developed more slowly and was secondary to a change in cellular content of the hydrolases. Desmethylimipramine increased the energy of activation for the release of acid phosphatase, while dichloroisoproterenol did not. Both of these drugs enhanced the egestion of preingested dimethylbenzanthracene particles, supporting the view that acid hydrolase release occurs through a cytoproct egestion mechanism. Particle ingestion was also inhibited by colchicine, vinblastine, and cytochalasin B, but these agents had no effect on acid hydrolase release, thus further differentiating the properties of the ingestion mechanism from those of the egestion mechanism. It appears that both microtubules and microfilaments play a role in the ingestion process and that this process may be controlled in part by a cyclic AMP-mediated serotoninergic and adrenergic system. PMID:4152946

  15. Elucidation of clathrin-mediated endocytosis in tetrahymena reveals an evolutionarily convergent recruitment of dynamin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nels C Elde

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Ciliates, although single-celled organisms, contain numerous subcellular structures and pathways usually associated with metazoans. How this cell biological complexity relates to the evolution of molecular elements is unclear, because features in these cells have been defined mainly at the morphological level. Among these ciliate features are structures resembling clathrin-coated, endocytic pits associated with plasma membrane invaginations called parasomal sacs. The combination of genome-wide sequencing in Tetrahymena thermophila with tools for gene expression and replacement has allowed us to examine this pathway in detail. Here we demonstrate that parasomal sacs are sites of clathrin-dependent endocytosis and that AP-2 localizes to these sites. Unexpectedly, endocytosis in Tetrahymena also involves a protein in the dynamin family, Drp1p (Dynamin-related protein 1. While phylogenetic analysis of AP subunits indicates a primitive origin for clathrin-mediated endocytosis, similar analysis of dynamin-related proteins suggests, strikingly, that the recruitment of dynamin-family proteins to the endocytic pathway occurred independently during the course of the ciliate and metazoan radiations. Consistent with this, our functional analysis suggests that the precise roles of dynamins in endocytosis, as well as the mechanisms of targeting, differ in metazoans and ciliates.

  16. Elucidation of Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis in Tetrahymena Reveals an Evolutionarily Convergent Recruitment of Dynamin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Ciliates, although single-celled organisms, contain numerous subcellular structures and pathways usually associated with metazoans. How this cell biological complexity relates to the evolution of molecular elements is unclear, because features in these cells have been defined mainly at the morphological level. Among these ciliate features are structures resembling clathrin-coated, endocytic pits associated with plasma membrane invaginations called parasomal sacs. The combination of genome-wide sequencing in Tetrahymena thermophila with tools for gene expression and replacement has allowed us to examine this pathway in detail. Here we demonstrate that parasomal sacs are sites of clathrin-dependent endocytosis and that AP-2 localizes to these sites. Unexpectedly, endocytosis in Tetrahymena also involves a protein in the dynamin family, Drp1p (Dynamin-related protein 1. While phylogenetic analysis of AP subunits indicates a primitive origin for clathrin-mediated endocytosis, similar analysis of dynamin-related proteins suggests, strikingly, that the recruitment of dynamin-family proteins to the endocytic pathway occurred independently during the course of the ciliate and metazoan radiations. Consistent with this, our functional analysis suggests that the precise roles of dynamins in endocytosis, as well as the mechanisms of targeting, differ in metazoans and ciliates.

  17. The effects of nucleoside analogs on telomerase and telomeres in Tetrahymena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strahl, C; Blackburn, E H

    1994-03-25

    The ribonucleoprotein enzyme telomerase is a specialized type of cellular reverse transcriptase which synthesizes one strand of telomeric DNA, using as the template a sequence in the RNA moiety of telomerase. We analyzed the effects of various nucleoside analogs, known to be chain-terminating inhibitors of retroviral reverse transcriptases, on Tetrahymena thermophila telomerase activity in vitro. We also analyzed the effects of such analogs on telomere length and maintenance in vivo, and on vegetative growth and mating of Tetrahymena cells. Arabinofuranyl-guanosine triphosphate (Ara-GTP) and ddGTP both efficiently inhibited telomerase activity in vitro, while azidothymidine triphosphate (AZT-TP), dideoxyinosine triphosphate (ddITP) or ddTTP were less efficient inhibitors. All of these nucleoside triphosphate analogs, however, produced analog-specific alterations of the normal banding patterns seen upon gel electrophoresis of the synthesis products of telomerase, suggesting that their chain terminating and/or competitive actions differ at different positions along the RNA template. The analogs AZT, 3'-deoxy-2',3'-didehydrothymidine (d4T) and Ara-G in nucleoside form caused consistent and rapid telomere shortening in vegetatively growing Tetrahymena. In contrast, ddG or ddI had no effect on telomere length or cell growth rates. AZT caused growth rates and viability to decrease in a fraction of cells, while Ara-G had no such effects even after several weeks in culture. Neither AZT, Ara-G, acycloguanosine (Acyclo-G), ddG nor ddI had any detectable effect on cell mating, as assayed by quantitation of the efficiency of formation of progeny from mated cells. However, AZT decreased the efficiency of programmed de novo telomere addition during macronuclear development in mating cells.

  18. Metabolism of extracellular phospholipids in Tetrahymena pyriformis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arai, H; Nishikawa, K; Inoue, K; Nozawa, Y; Nojima, S

    1987-01-01

    ...: Cytochalasin B, an inhibitor of endocytosis, suppressed the metabolism almost completely. Phospholipid vesicles were incorporated into a phagosome-like structure in Tetrahymena cells, as observed under an electron microscope...

  19. Metabolism of extracellular phospholipids in Tetrahymena pyriformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, H; Nishikawa, K; Inoue, K; Nozawa, Y; Nojima, S

    1987-05-01

    We studied the metabolism of phospholipids exogenously added to cultures of the protozoan, Tetrahymena pyriformis. Tetrahymena cells were found to metabolize the extracellular phospholipids and the fatty acyl chains of the latter were accumulated predominantly as a form of triacylglycerol in the cells. This metabolism was considered to be initiated via endocytosis of phospholipid vesicles, as judged from the following facts: Cytochalasin B, an inhibitor of endocytosis, suppressed the metabolism almost completely. Phospholipid vesicles were incorporated into a phagosome-like structure in Tetrahymena cells, as observed under an electron microscope. When phospholipids doubly labeled with 14C and 3H at the glycerol moiety and fatty acyl chain, respectively, were incubated with Tetrahymena cells, the glycerol moiety and fatty acyl chain at the sn-2-position of the exogenous phospholipids were incorporated into the cellular triacylglycerol fraction in a 1 to 1 ratio. Monoacylglycerol acyltransferase activity was detected in the microsomal fraction of Tetrahymena cells. From these results, together with those of our previous study on lysosomal phospholipid hydrolysis in Tetrahymena (J. Biochem. 99, 125-133 (1986)), it is suggested that the extracellular phospholipids which were taken up by the cells via endocytosis were hydrolyzed through the action of lysosomal phospholipases A1 and C, and also that one of the products, sn-2-monoacylglycerol, served as an acyl acceptor for the synthesis of triacylglycerol via the microsomal "monoacylglycerol pathway."

  20. Comparison of primary and secondary 26S rRNA structures in two Tetrahymena species: evidence for a strong evolutionary and structural constraint in expansion segments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, J; Nielsen, Henrik; Lenaers, G

    1990-01-01

    . These are regions within the common core of secondary structure where expansions have taken place during the evolution of the rRNA of higher eukaryotes. The dispensable nature of some of the expansion segments has been taken as evidence of their non-functionality. However, our data show that a considerable......We have determined the nucleotide sequence of the 26S large subunit (LSU) rRNA genes for two Tetrahymena species, T. thermophila and T. pyriformis. The inferred rRNA sequences are presented in their most probable secondary structures based on compensatory mutations, energy, and conservation...... selective constraint has operated to preserve the secondary structure of these segments. Especially in the case of the D2 and D8 segments, the presence of a considerable number of compensatory base changes suggests that the secondary structure of these regions is of functional importance. Alternatively...

  1. Repair of 8-methoxypsoralen induced DNA interstrand cross-links in Tetrahymena thermophila. The effect of inhibitors of macromolecular synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, P E; Køber, L

    1985-01-01

    : a protein-DNA complexing phase, a DNA-incision phase and finally a DNA-ligation phase. The incision was found to be completely inhibited by novobiocin (50 micrograms/ml), nalidixic acid (150 micrograms/ml), n-butyrate (15 mM) and cycloheximide (1 microgram/ml), while no effect was observed for cytosine-1......-beta-D-arabinofuranoside (10 mM), puromycin (1 mM), hydroxyurea (5 mM) or 3-aminobenzamide (2.5 mM). None of the compounds showed any effect on the protein-DNA complexing step, and the ligation was partly inhibited only by nalidixic acid (150 micrograms/ml). The involvement of topoisomerases...

  2. Small phosphatidate phosphatase (TtPAH2) of Tetrahymena complements respiratory function and not membrane biogenesis function of yeast PAH1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Anoop Narayana; Shukla, Sushmita; Gautam, Sudhanshu; Rahaman, Abdur

    2017-12-01

    Phosphatidate phosphatases (PAH) play a central role in lipid metabolism and intracellular signaling. Herein, we report the presence of a low-molecular-weight PAH homolog in the single-celled ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila. In vitro phosphatase assay showed that TtPAH2 belongs to the magnesium-dependent phosphatidate phosphatase (PAP1) family. Loss of function of TtPAH2 did not affect the growth of Tetrahymena. Unlike other known PAH homologs, TtPAH2 did not regulate lipid droplet number and ER morphology. TtPAH2 did not rescue growth and ER/nuclear membrane defects of the pah1Δ yeast cells, suggesting that the phosphatidate phosphatase activity of the protein is not sufficient to perform these cellular functions. Surprisingly, TtPAH2 complemented the respiratory defect in the pah1Δ yeast cells indicating a specific role of TtPAH2 in respiration. Overall, our results indicate that TtPAH2 possesses the minimal function of PAH protein family in respiration. We suggest that the amino acid sequences absent from TtPAH2 but present in all other known PAH homologs are critical for lipid homeostasis and membrane biogenesis.

  3. Modules for C-terminal epitope tagging of Tetrahymena genes

    OpenAIRE

    Kataoka, Kensuke; Schoeberl, Ursula E.; Mochizuki, Kazufumi

    2010-01-01

    Although epitope tagging has been widely used for analyzing protein function in many organisms, there are few genetic tools for epitope tagging in Tetrahymena. In this study, we describe several C-terminal epitope tagging modules that can be used to express tagged proteins in Tetrahymena cells by both plasmid- and PCR-based strategies.

  4. Modules for C-terminal epitope tagging of Tetrahymena genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Kensuke; Schoeberl, Ursula E; Mochizuki, Kazufumi

    2010-09-01

    Although epitope tagging has been widely used for analyzing protein function in many organisms, there are few genetic tools for epitope tagging in Tetrahymena. In this study, we describe several C-terminal epitope tagging modules that can be used to express tagged proteins in Tetrahymena cells by both plasmid- and PCR-based strategies. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. ATP-binding cassette transporter enhances tolerance to DDT in Tetrahymena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, YingZhi; Dang, Huai; Liu, GuangLong; Xiong, Jie; Yuan, DongXia; Feng, LiFang; Miao, Wei

    2015-03-01

    The reuse of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) as an indoor residual spray was permitted by the World Health Organization in 2007, and approximately 14 countries still use DDT to control disease vectors. The extensive exposure of insects to DDT has resulted in the emergence of DDT resistance, especially in mosquitoes, and the mechanism for this resistance in mosquitoes has been widely reported. Spraying can also introduce DDT directly into surface water, and DDT can subsequently accumulate in microorganisms, but the mechanism for the resistance to DDT degradation in microorganisms is unclear. Using whole-genome microarray analysis, we detected an abcb15 gene that was up-regulated in a specific manner by DDT treatment in T. thermophile. The deduced ABCB15 peptide sequence had two transmembrane domains (TMDs) and two nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs) to form the structure TMD-NBD-TMD-NBD, and each NBD contained three conserved motifs: Walker-A, C-loop, and Walker-B, which indicated the T. thermophila abcb15 was a typical ABC transporter gene. The expression of ABCB15 fused with a C-terminal green fluorescent protein was found to be on the periphery of the cell, suggesting that ABCB15 was a membrane pump protein. In addition, cells with abcb15 partially knocked down (abcb15-KD) grew slower than wild-type cells in the presence of 256 mg L(-1) DDT, indicating the tolerance of abcb15-KD strain to DDT exposure was decreased. Thus, we suggest that in Tetrahymena, the membrane pump protein encoded by ABCT gene abcb15 can enhance the tolerance to DDT and protect cells from this exogenous toxin by efficiently pumping it to the extracellular space.

  6. Citrate synthase purified from Tetrahymena mitochondria is identical with Tetrahymena 14-nm filament protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, H; Chiba, J; Watanabe, Y; Numata, O

    1995-07-01

    A 14-nm filament protein (designated as 49K protein) was purified from a ciliated protozoan, Tetrahymena, using the polymerization and depolymerization procedure. Previous studies in our laboratory showed that its primary structure shared a high sequence identity with citrate synthases known so far and that the 49K protein possessed citrate synthase activity. To ascertain whether or not Tetrahymena's mitochondrial citrate synthase is identical to the 49K protein, citrate synthase was purified from Tetrahymena mitochondria using ammonium sulfate fractionation, Butyl-Toyopearl and SP-Toyopearl column chromatographies, based on monitoring of the enzymatic activity. The molecular weight of the purified citrate synthase was estimated to be 49 kDa, as was that of the 49K protein and the enzyme cross-reacted with an anti-49K protein antiserum. The purified citrate synthase showed much the same optimum pH, optimum KCl concentration, effects of substrate concentrations (acetyl-CoA and oxaloacetate), and inhibitory effect by ATP as those of purified 49K protein. Furthermore, an anti-49K protein monoclonal antibody strongly suppressed the enzymatic activity of the purified citrate synthase. Thus, we suggest that mitochondrial citrate synthase and the 49K protein are identical and that the 49K protein has dual functions in the cytoskeleton in cytoplasm and as a TCA cycle enzyme, citrate synthase, in mitochondria.

  7. Gravity-dependent changes in bioconvection of Tetrahymena and Chlamydomonas during parabolic flight: increases in wave number induced by pre- and post-parabola hypergravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kage, Azusa; Asato, Eriko; Chiba, Yoko; Wada, Yuuko; Katsu-Kimura, Yumiko; Kubota, Ayami; Sawai, Satoe; Niihori, Maki; Baba, Shoji A; Mogami, Yoshihiro

    2011-03-01

    Bioconvection emerges in a dense suspension of swimming protists as a consequence of their negative-gravitactic upward migration and later settling as a blob of density greater than that of water. Thus, gravity is an important parameter governing bioconvective pattern formation. However, inconsistencies are found in previous studies dealing with the response of bioconvection patterns to increased gravity acceleration (hypergravity); the wave number of the patterns has been reported to decrease during the hypergravity phases of parabolic aircraft flight, while it increases in centrifugal hypergravity. In this paper, we reassess the responses of bioconvection to altered gravity during parabolic flight on the basis of vertical and horizontal observations of the patterns formed by Tetrahymena thermophila and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Spatiotemporal analyses of the horizontal patterns revealed an increase in the pattern wave number in both pre- and post-parabola hypergravity. Vertical pattern analysis was generally in line with the horizontal pattern analysis, and further revealed that hypergravity-induced changes preceded at the top layer of the suspensions while microgravity-induced changes appeared to occur from the bottom part of the settling blobs. The responses to altered gravity were rather different between the two sample species: T. thermophila tended to drastically modify its bioconvection patterns in response to changes in gravity level, while the patterns of C. reinhardtii responded to a much lesser extent. This difference can be attributed to the distinct physical and physiological properties of the individual organisms, suggesting a significant contribution of the gyrotactic property to the swimming behavior of some protists.

  8. Targeting of liposomes containing methotrexate towards Tetrahymena pyriformis cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsifaki, H; Kapoulas, V; Deliconstantinos, G

    1985-01-01

    The uptake of liposomes containing methotrexate by Tetrahymena pyriformis cells was investigated with the aim of producing liposome-cell association enabling methotrexate to be introduced into the cytoplasm of intact cells. Incubation of liposomes containing methotrexate with tetrahymena pyriformis cells resulted in a time and concentration-dependent uptake of entrapped methotrexate by the cells. The uptake by Tetrahymena pyriformis cells (at 1 hr) of liposomes prepared by phospholipids and gangliosides extracted from Tetrahymena pyriformis cells was approximately three fold higher than that of liposomes prepared by commercial phospholipids. Approximately 90% of liposome uptake could be inhibited by cytochalasin B and also by NaN3 and 2-deoxyglucose. This was consistent with the uptake being the result of endocytosis. The remaining uptake was probably the result of adhesion of liposomes to the cell membrane. The rate of efflux vs time of methotrexate entrapped in liposomes was much slower than that of free methotrexate which reinforces the concept that endocytosis is the main mode of liposomes uptake by the cells. Liposomes containing methotrexate at concentrations as low as 4.5 microM effectively inhibited the activity of dihydrofolate reductase which was used as a function parameter in this study. Similar inhibition of the enzyme activity by free methotrexate was achieved only at concentrations as high as 880 microM. The influence of liposomes lipid composition on the targeting of liposomes to Tetrahymena pyriformis cells was discussed.

  9. Induction of anti-actin drug resistance in Tetrahymena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zackroff, Robert V; Hufnagel, Linda A

    2002-01-01

    Both cytochalasin D and latrunculin B reversibly inhibited Tetrahymena phagocytosis at concentrations similar to those effective in mammalian systems, even though ciliate actins are known to be highly divergent from mammalian actins. Overnight exposure to relatively low (0.25 microM) concentrations of latrunculin B induced resistance in Tetrahymena to the inhibitory effects of that drug, as well as cross-resistance to cytochalasin D. However, much higher (> 30 microM) concentrations of cytochalasin D were required for induction of cross-resistance to latrunculin B. Anti-actin drug resistance in Tetrahymena may involve a general multidrug resistance mechanism and/or specific feedback regulation of F-actin assembly and stability.

  10. Tetrahymena dynamin-related protein 6 self-assembles ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Usha P Kar

    2017-12-30

    Dec 30, 2017 ... Self-assembly on target membranes is one of the important properties of all dynamin family proteins. Drp6, a dynamin- related protein in Tetrahymena, controls nuclear remodelling and undergoes cycles of assembly/disassembly on the nuclear envelope. To elucidate the mechanism of Drp6 function, we ...

  11. Gene : CBRC-PABE-17-0002 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available aining protein [Tetrahymena thermophila SB210] 1e-10 32% MYVRPPVAICPILCVLSLWGSNRMYVRPPGAICPILCVFSLWGSNHMYVRP...PGAICPILCVLSLWGANRMYVRPPVAICPILCVLSLWGSNRMYVRPPGAICPILCVFSLWGSNHMYVRPPGAICPILCVLSLWGSN...HRYLRPPGAICPILCVFSLWGSNHMYVRPPGAICPILCVLSLWGSNHRYVRPPGAIPHVIEALLISIFFLFVL ...

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of the Moderately Thermophilic Bacterium Schleiferia thermophila Strain Yellowstone (Bacteroidetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, Vera; Hamilton, Trinity L; Tomsho, Lynn P; Burhans, Richard; Gay, Scott E; Ramaley, Robert F; Schuster, Stephan C; Steinke, Laurey; Bryant, Donald A

    2014-08-28

    The draft genome sequence of the moderately thermophilic bacterium Schleiferia thermophila strain Yellowstone (Bacteroidetes), isolated from Octopus Spring (Yellowstone National Park, WY, USA) was sequenced and comprises 2,617,694 bp in 35 contigs. The draft genome is predicted to encode 2,457 protein coding genes and 37 tRNA encoding genes and two rRNA operons. Copyright © 2014 Thiel et al.

  13. Inhibition of Tetrahymena pyriformis growth by Aliphatic Alcohols ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Une étude Relation Quantitative Structure- Activité (QSAR) a été réalisée pour évaluer la toxicité relative d'un mélange composé de 21 alcools (à chaînes linéaires et ramifiées) et 9 amines aliphatiques normales, en terme de concentration d'inhibition 50% de la croissance (IGC50) de Tetrahymena pyriformis . L'approche ...

  14. Comparative Proteome Bioinformatics: Identification of Phosphotyrosine Signaling Proteins in the Unicellular Protozoan Ciliate Tetrahymena

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammeltoft, Steen; Christensen, Søren Tvorup; Joachimiak, Marcin

    2005-01-01

    Tetrahymena, bioinformatics, cilia, evolution, signaling, TtPTK1, PTK, Grb2, SH-PTP 2, Plcy, Src, PTP, PI3K, SH2, SH3, PH......Tetrahymena, bioinformatics, cilia, evolution, signaling, TtPTK1, PTK, Grb2, SH-PTP 2, Plcy, Src, PTP, PI3K, SH2, SH3, PH...

  15. A community model of ciliate Tetrahymena and bacteria E. coli. Part 1: Individual-based models of Tetrahymena and E. coli populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaworska, J.S.; Hallam, T.G.; Schultz, T.W. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1996-03-01

    The dynamics of a microbial community consisting of a eucaryotic ciliate Tetrahymena pyriformis and procaryotic. Escherichia coli in a batch culture is explored by employing an individual-based approach. In this portion of the article, Part 1, population models are presented. Because both models are individual-based, models of individual organisms are developed prior to construction of the population models. The individual models use an energy budget method in which growth depends on energy gain from feeding and energy sinks such as maintenance and reproduction. These models are not limited by simplifying assumptions about constant yield, constant energy sinks and Monod growth kinetics as are traditional models of microbial organisms. Population models are generated from individual models by creating distinct individual types and assigning to each type the number of real individuals they represent. A population is a compilation of individual types that vary in a phase of cell cycle and physiological parameters such as filtering rate for ciliates and maximum anabolic rate for bacteria. An advantage of the developed models is that they realistically describe the growth of the individual cells feeding on resource which varies in density and composition. Part 2, the core of the project, integrates models into a dynamic microbial community and provides model analysis based upon available data.

  16. Comparative study of infection with Tetrahymena of different ornamental fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharon, G; Pimenta Leibowitz, M; Chettri, J Kumar; Isakov, N; Zilberg, D

    2014-01-01

    Tetrahymena is a ciliated protozoan that can infect a wide range of fish species, although it is most commonly reported in guppies (Poecilia reticulata). The aim of this study was to compare the susceptibility to infection with Tetrahymena of five different ornamental fish species from two different super orders. The species examined were platy (Xiphophorus), molly (Poecilia sphenops) and angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare) of the Acanthopterygii super order (which also includes guppies) and goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus) and koi carp (Cyprinus carpio) of the Ostariophysi super order. These two super orders are phylogenetically distant from each other. Infection with Tetrahymena resulted in parasite invasion of internal organs, skin and muscle in all fish species. A relatively strong inflammatory response was observed in infected goldfish and koi, with negligible response in fish species of the Acanthopterygii super order. Guppies were the most susceptible to Tetrahymena infection, exhibiting a mortality rate of 87% and 100% in two separate experiments. A high mortality rate was also observed in platy (77%), while that of molly and angelfish was significantly lower (23% and 33%, respectively). Goldfish and koi carp were less susceptible to infection compared with guppies (24% and 59% mortality, respectively). Immunization studies revealed that the Tetrahymena are immunogenic, since infection of koi carp increased their Tetrahymena immobilization response by approximately three-fold at 3 weeks post infection, while immunization with Tetrahymena plus adjuvant increased their immobilization response by approximately 30-fold. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Protective immunization against Tetrahymena sp. infection in guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chettri, J Kumar; Leibowitz, M Pimenta; Ofir, R; Zilberg, D

    2009-08-01

    Systemic tetrahymenosis constitutes a serious problem in guppy (Poecilia reticulata) production worldwide and no therapeutic solution is available for this disease. Three immunization trials were conducted, testing the effectiveness of different Tetrahymena preparations applied by intraperitoneal injection (IP) with or without Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) and with or without booster dose. In trial 1, immunization with the pathogenic Tet-NI 6 lysate and live attenuated Tet-NI 1 did not provide significant protection from infection, although infection rates were significantly lower in the Tet-NI 6-immunized group than in controls. In trial 2, mortality in Tet-NI 6 + FCA-immunized fish was 10%, significantly lower than in all other treatment groups, including Tet-NI 6 lysate, live attenuated Tet-NI 1 and controls (77, 67 and 73%, respectively). In trial 3, the lowest mortality rates were obtained in the Tet-NI 6 + FCA + booster-immunized group (15%). These levels were lower but not significantly different from the non-boostered Tet-NI 6-immunized group (28%) and the groups immunized with Tet-NI 1, with and without booster (32 and 34%, respectively). Mortality in these four groups was significantly lower than in controls, including adjuvant- and PBS-injected groups (72 and 81%, respectively). Body homogenates of immunized fish immobilized Tetrahymena in-vitro, as compared to no or very little immobilization in controls. Lysozyme levels in the Tet-NI 6 + FCA + booster group were significantly higher than in all other treatments in trial 2 and controls in trial 3. There was no significant difference in anti-protease activity among the differently immunized fish. We conclude that immunization with Tetrahymena lysates in FCA confers a high degree of protection from infection, suggesting this preparation as a basis for vaccine development.

  18. Radiation-induced inhibition of RNA synthesis in Tetrahymena pyriformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, S G; Rustad, R C; Oleinick, N L

    1975-07-01

    Radiation-induced disturbances in RNA synthesis were investigated in exponentially growing Tetrahymena. Sub-lethal doses of gamma-radiation lead to a transient, dose-dependent decrease in the rate of total RNA synthesis measured by 3H-uridine incorporation, without an alteration of 3H-uridine uptake by the cells. The rate of 3H-uridine incorporation decreases exponentially with dose. In contrast, the duration of inhibition of RNA synthesis is linearly dependent on dose. Target-theory calculations suggest that the sensitive molecule has a molecular weight of about 2 X 10(7) Daltons.

  19. pH-dependent effects of 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) on proliferation, endocytosis, fine structure and DNP resistance in Tetrahymena

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Jytte R.

    1995-01-01

    Biologi, 2,4-dinitrophenol, pH-dependence, fine structure, cell proliferation, phagocytosis, Tetrahymena pyriformis......Biologi, 2,4-dinitrophenol, pH-dependence, fine structure, cell proliferation, phagocytosis, Tetrahymena pyriformis...

  20. Comparative genomic analysis of the thermophilic biomass-degrading fungi Myceliophthora thermophila and Thielavia terrestris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berka, Randy M.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Otillar, Robert; Salamov, Asaf; Grimwood, Jane; Reid, Ian; Ishmael, Nadeeza; John, Tricia; Darmond, Corinne; Moisan, Marie-Claude; Henrissat, Bernard; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Lombard, Vincent; Natvig, Donald O.; Lindquist, Erika; Schmutz, Jeremy; Lucas, Susan; Harris, Paul; Powlowski, Justin; Bellemare, Annie; Taylor, David; Butler, Gregory; de Vries, Ronald P.; Allijn, Iris E.; van den Brink, Joost; Ushinsky, Sophia; Storms, Reginald; Powell, Amy J.; Paulsen, Ian T.; Elbourne, Liam D. H.; Baker, Scott E.; Magnuson, Jon; LaBoissiere, Sylvie; Clutterbuck, A. John; Martinez, Diego; Wogulis, Mark; de Leon, Alfredo Lopez; Rey, Michael W.; Tsang, Adrian

    2011-10-02

    Thermostable enzymes and thermophilic cell factories may afford economic advantages in the production of many chemicals and biomass-based fuels. Here we describe and compare the genomes of two thermophilic fungi, Myceliophthora thermophila and Thielavia terrestris. To our knowledge, these genomes are the first described for thermophilic eukaryotes and the first complete telomere-to-telomere genomes for filamentous fungi. Genome analyses and experimental data suggest that both thermophiles are capable of hydrolyzing all major polysaccharides found in biomass. Examination of transcriptome data and secreted proteins suggests that the two fungi use shared approaches in the hydrolysis of cellulose and xylan but distinct mechanisms in pectin degradation. Characterization of the biomass-hydrolyzing activity of recombinant enzymes suggests that these organisms are highly efficient in biomass decomposition at both moderate and high temperatures. Furthermore, we present evidence suggesting that aside from representing a potential reservoir of thermostable enzymes, thermophilic fungi are amenable to manipulation using classical and molecular genetics.

  1. Comparative genomic analysis of the thermophilic biomass-degrading fungi Myceliophthora thermophila and Thielavia terrestris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berka, Randy M.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Otillar, Robert; Salamov, Asaf; Grimwood, Jane; Reid, Ian; Ishmael, Nadeeza; John, Tricia; Darmond, Corinne; Moisan, Marie-Claude; Henrissat, Bernard; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Lombard, Vincent; Natvig, Donald O.; Lindquist, Erika; Schmutz, Jeremy; Lucas, Susan; Harris, Paul; Powlowski, Justin; Bellemare, Annie; Taylor, David; Butler, Gregory; de Vries, Ronald P.; Allijn, Iris E.; van den Brink, Joost; Ushinsky, Sophia; Storms, Reginald; Powell, Amy J.; Paulsen, Ian T.; Elbourne, Liam D. H.; Baker, Scott. E.; Magnuson, Jon; LaBoissiere, Sylvie; Clutterbuck, A. John; Martinez, Diego; Wogulis, Mark; Lopez de Leon, Alfredo; Rey, Michael W.; Tsang, Adrian

    2011-05-16

    Thermostable enzymes and thermophilic cell factories may afford economic advantages in the production of many chemicals and biomass-based fuels. Here we describe and compare the genomes of two thermophilic fungi, Myceliophthora thermophila and Thielavia terrestris. To our knowledge, these genomes are the first described for thermophilic eukaryotes and the first complete telomere-to-telomere genomes for filamentous fungi. Genome analyses and experimental data suggest that both thermophiles are capable of hydrolyzing all major polysaccharides found in biomass. Examination of transcriptome data and secreted proteins suggests that the two fungi use shared approaches in the hydrolysis of cellulose and xylan but distinct mechanisms in pectin degradation. Characterization of the biomass-hydrolyzing activity of recombinant enzymes suggests that these organisms are highly efficient in biomass decomposition at both moderate and high temperatures. Furthermore, we present evidence suggesting that aside from representing a potential reservoir of thermostable enzymes, thermophilic fungi are amenable to manipulation using classical and molecular genetics.

  2. Polymerization of Various Lignins via Immobilized Myceliophthora thermophila Laccase (MtL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Huber

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Enzymatic polymerization of lignin is an environmentally-friendly and sustainable method that is investigated for its potential in opening-up new applications of one of the most abundant biopolymers on our planet. In this work, the laccase from Myceliophthora thermophila was successfully immobilized onto Accurel MP1000 beads (67% of protein bound to the polymeric carrier and the biocatalyzed oxidation of Kraft lignin (KL and lignosulfonate (LS were carried out. Fluorescence intensity determination, phenol content analysis and size exclusion chromatography were performed in order to elucidate the extent of the polymerization reaction. The collected results show an 8.5-fold decrease of the LS samples’ fluorescence intensity after laccase-mediated oxidation and a 12-fold increase of the weight average molecular weight was obtained.

  3. Updating rDNA restriction enzyme maps of Tetrahymena reveals four new intron-containing species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik; Simon, E M; Engberg, J

    1985-01-01

    an intron in the 26s rRNA coding region. The evolutionary relationship among the species of the T. pyriformis complex was examined on the basis of the rDNA maps with emphasis on similarities between two of the new species and the widely studied T. thermophila and T. pigmentosa. Examination of a large number...

  4. Creating standards: Creating illusions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, Mai Skjøtt

    written standards may open up for the creation of illusions. These are created when written standards' content is not in accordance with the perception standard adopters and standard users have of the specific practice phenomenon's content. This general theoretical argument is exemplified by the specific...

  5. Comparative study of infection with Tetrahymena of different ornamental fish species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharon, G.; Leibowitz, M. Pimenta; Chettri, Jiwan Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Tetrahymena is a ciliated protozoan that can infect a wide range of fish species, although it is most commonly reported in guppies (Poecilia reticulata). The aim of this study was to compare the susceptibility to infection with Tetrahymena of five different ornamental fish species from two...... different super orders. The species examined were platy (Xiphophorus), molly (Poecilia sphenops) and angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare) of the Acanthopterygii super order (which also includes guppies) and goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus) and koi carp (Cyprinus carpio) of the Ostariophysi super order...... of the Acanthopterygii super order. Guppies were the most susceptible to Tetrahymena infection, exhibiting a mortality rate of 87% and 100% in two separate experiments. A high mortality rate was also observed in platy (77%), while that of molly and angelfish was significantly lower (23% and 33%, respectively). Goldfish...

  6. Environmental and physiological conditions affecting Tetrahymena sp. infection in guppies, Poecilia reticulata Peters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenta Leibowitz, M; Ariav, R; Zilberg, D

    2005-09-01

    Parasitic infections caused by Tetrahymena sp. constitute a serious problem in guppies, Poecilia reticulata. Tetrahymena was isolated from skin lesions of naturally infected guppies in a commercial aquaculture farm, cultured in vitro and used in subsequent experimental infections. In addition to guppies, angelfish, Pterophyllum scalare, platyfish, Xiphophorus maculates, and neontetra, Paracheirodon innesi, were susceptible, whereas tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus xO. aureus) was resistant. The ciliate had a high affinity for dead fish. Skin abrasion did not affect the infection, but fish with gas bubble disease exhibited a significantly higher infection than non-affected fish. Infection was significantly higher when fish were exposed to high levels of ammonia, high organic load and low water temperatures. Under shipment conditions, infection was significantly elevated. Full recovery was achieved at a low fish density. Results suggest that poor environmental and physiological conditions enhance infection with Tetrahymena sp.

  7. Bioconversion of Biomass-Derived Phenols Catalyzed by Myceliophthora thermophila Laccase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Zerva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Biomass-derived phenols have recently arisen as an attractive alternative for building blocks to be used in synthetic applications, due to their widespread availability as an abundant renewable resource. In the present paper, commercial laccase from the thermophilic fungus Myceliophthora thermophila was used to bioconvert phenol monomers, namely catechol, pyrogallol and gallic acid in water. The resulting products from catechol and gallic acid were polymers that were partially characterized in respect to their optical and thermal properties, and their average molecular weight was estimated via solution viscosity measurements and GPC. FT-IR and 1H-NMR data suggest that phenol monomers are connected with ether or C–C bonds depending on the starting monomer, while the achieved molecular weight of polycatechol is found higher than the corresponding poly(gallic acid. On the other hand, under the same condition, pyrogallol was dimerized in a pure red crystalline compound and its structure was confirmed by 1H-NMR as purpurogallin. The herein studied green synthesis of enzymatically synthesized phenol polymers or biological active compounds could be exploited as an alternative synthetic route targeting a variety of applications.

  8. Vulcanisaeta thermophila sp. nov., a hyperthermophilic and acidophilic crenarchaeon isolated from solfataric soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Kyung June; Cha, In-Tae; Rhee, Jin-Kyu; Song, Hye Seon; Hyun, Dong-Wook; Lee, Hae-Won; Kim, Daekyung; Kim, Kil-Nam; Nam, Young-Do; Seo, Myung-Ji; Bae, Jin-Woo; Roh, Seong Woon

    2015-01-01

    An anaerobic, rod-shaped, hyperthermophilic and acidophilic crenarchaeon, designated strain CBA1501(T), was isolated from solfataric soil of the Mayon volcano in the Republic of the Philippines. Phylogenetic analysis showed that strain CBA1501(T) is affiliated with the genus Vulcanisaeta in the phylum Crenarchaeota. DNA sequence similarities between the 16S rRNA gene of strain CBA1501(T) and those of Vulcanisaeta distributa IC-017(T) and Vulcanisaeta souniana IC-059(T) were 98.5 and 97.4 %, respectively. Strain CBA1501(T) grew between 75-90 °C, over a pH range of 4.0-6.0 and in the presence of 0-1.0 % (w/v) NaCl, with optimal growth occurring at 85 °C, pH 5.0, and with 0 % (w/v) NaCl. Fumarate, malate, oxidized glutathione, sulfur and thiosulfate were used as final electron acceptors, but FeCl3, nitrate and sulfate were not. The DNA G+C content of strain CBA1501(T) was 43.1 mol%. On the basis of polyphasic taxonomic analysis, strain CBA1501(T) represents a novel species of the genus Vulcanisaeta in the phylum Crenarchaeota, for which we propose the name Vulcanisaeta thermophila sp. nov. The type strain is CBA1501(T) ( = ATCC BAA-2415(T) = JCM 17228(T)). © 2015 IUMS.

  9. Updating rDNA restriction enzyme maps of Tetrahymena reveals four new intron-containing species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik; Simon, E M; Engberg, J

    1985-01-01

    The extrachromosomal rDNA molecules from a number of Tetrahymena strains were characterized by restriction enzyme mapping using three different restriction enzymes combined with gel blotting and hybridization analysis. Strains from four out of six recently described species were found to contain...

  10. Poliovirus and echovirus survival in Tetrahymena pyriformis culture in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danes, L; Cerva, L

    1984-01-01

    Axenic cultures of Tetrahymena pyriformis, strain I MT IV, grown in a defined medium at room temperature, were used to study interactions of these protozoa with vaccination strain L Sc 2ab of poliovirus type 1, vaccination strain P 712 of poliovirus type 2 and with type 30 echovirus, strain 480/78. T. pyriformis cultures in media containing 10(3.0) TCD50/1 ml of type poliovirus, 10(3.0) TCD50/1 ml of type 2 poliovirus or 10(2.5) TCD50/1 ml echovirus 30 and in virus-free medium did not differ one from another in their growth and die-away kinetics during the 21 days of observation. Two-day T. pyriformis cultures were infected with poliovirus 1 (initial concentration 10(3.2) TCD50/1 ml), and poliovirus 2 and echovirus 30 (initial concentrations 10(3.0) TCD50/1 ml). Viruses were titrated in test tube cultures of BGM cells. The supernatant fluid, standardized sediment and samples of control virus suspension free of protozoa were titrated after 0, 2, 6, 10, 13, 18, 28 and 30 days. Most of the virus in culture was found associated with the sediment, both in the period of active growth and during the die-away phase of T. pyriformis protozoa. The virus in sediment was present at higher titres and its survival time was longer than in virus in liquid phase. Thirteen days after the first contact between T. pyriformis and virus the sediment and supernatant fluid of the old protozoan culture and the T. pyriformis-free control viral suspension were taken and used as inocula for new two-day T. pyriformis cultures.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Dicty_cDB: SLK195 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 0.003 4 AF312772 |AF312772.1 Tetrahymena thermophila macronuclear immobilization antigen LC (SerLC) mRNA, pa...rtial cds. 30 0.044 3 AF312771 |AF312771.1 Tetrahymena thermophila macronuclear immobilization antigen LB (S...survey sequence. 44 1.2 1 AF312774 |AF312774.1 Tetrahymena thermophila macronuclear immobilization...hermophila macronuclear immobilization antigen LD (SerLD) mRNA, complete cds. 30 ...erLB) mRNA, complete cds. 30 0.060 3 AF312770 |AF312770.1 Tetrahymena thermophila macronuclear immobilizat

  12. Degradation of estrogens by laccase from Myceliophthora thermophila in fed-batch and enzymatic membrane reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lloret, L. [Dept. of Chemical Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Eibes, G., E-mail: gemma.eibes@usc.es [Dept. of Chemical Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Feijoo, G.; Moreira, M.T.; Lema, J.M. [Dept. of Chemical Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2012-04-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Estrogen removal was optimized in fed-batch bioreactors by evaluating the effect of the main process parameters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An enzyme membrane bioreactor (EMR) was proposed for the continuous degradation of estrogens. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Estrone was degraded up to 95% and estradiol was not detected in the effluent of the EMR under steady state conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The residual estrogenic activity of the effluent was largely reduced up to 97%. - Abstract: Several studies reported that natural and synthetic estrogens are the major contributors to the estrogenic activity associated with the effluents of wastewater treatment plants. The ability of the enzyme laccase to degrade these compounds in batch experiments has been demonstrated in previous studies. Nevertheless, information is scarce regarding in vitro degradation of estrogens in continuous enzymatic bioreactors. The present work constitutes an important step forward for the implementation of an enzymatic reactor for the continuous removal of estrone (E1) and estradiol (E2) by free laccase from Myceliophthora thermophila. In a first step, the effect of the main process parameters (pH, enzyme level, gas composition (air or oxygen) and estrogen feeding rate) were evaluated in fed-batch bioreactors. E1 and E2 were oxidized by 94.1 and 95.5%, respectively, under the best conditions evaluated. Thereafter, an enzymatic membrane reactor (EMR) was developed to perform the continuous degradation of the estrogens. The configuration consisted of a stirred tank reactor coupled with an ultrafiltration membrane, which allowed the recovery of enzyme while both estrogens and degradation products could pass through it. The highest removal rates at steady state conditions were up to 95% for E1 and nearly complete degradation for E2. Furthermore, the residual estrogenic activity of the effluent was largely reduced up to 97%.

  13. Involvement of a putative intercellular signal-recognizing G protein-coupled receptor in the engulfment of Salmonella by the protozoan Tetrahymena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.N. Agbedanu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to investigate the molecular basis of protozoa engulfment-mediated hypervirulence of Salmonella in cattle, we evaluated protozoan G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs as transducers of Salmonella engulfment by the model protozoan Tetrahymena. Our laboratory previously demonstrated that non-pathogenic protozoa (including Tetrahymena engulf Salmonella and then exacerbate its virulence in cattle, but the mechanistic details of the phenomenon are not fully understood. GPCRs were investigated since these receptors facilitate phagocytosis of particulates by Tetrahymena, and a GPCR apparently modulates bacterial engulfment for the pathogenic protozoan Entamoeba histolytica. A database search identified three putative Tetrahymena GPCRs, based on sequence homologies and predicted transmembrane domains, that were the focus of this study. Salmonella engulfment by Tetrahymena was assessed in the presence of suramin, a non-specific GPCR inhibitor. Salmonella engulfment was also assessed in Tetrahymena in which expression of putative GPCRs was knocked-down using RNAi. A candidate GPCR was then expressed in a heterologous yeast expression system for further characterization. Our results revealed that Tetrahymena were less efficient at engulfing Salmonella in the presence of suramin. Engulfment was reduced concordantly with a reduction in the density of protozoa. RNAi-based studies revealed that knock-down of one the Tetrahymena GPCRs caused diminished engulfment of Salmonella. Tetrahymena lysates activated this receptor in the heterologous expression system. These data demonstrate that the Tetrahymena receptor is a putative GPCR that facilitates bacterial engulfment by Tetrahymena. Activation of the putative GPCR seemed to be related to protozoan cell density, suggesting that its cognate ligand is an intercellular signaling molecule.

  14. QSAR studies for the acute toxicity of nitrobenzenes to the Tetrahymena pyriformis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Dan-Dan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR models play a key role in finding the relationship between molecular structures and the toxicity of nitrobenzenes to Tetrahymena pyriformis. In this work, genetic algorithm, along with partial least square (GA-PLS was employed to select optimal subset of descriptors that have significant contribution to the toxicity of nitrobenzenes to Tetrahymena pyriformis. A set of five descriptors, namely G2, HOMT, G(Cl…Cl, Mor03v and MAXDP, was used for the prediction of the toxicity of 45 nitrobenzene derivatives and then were used to build the model by multiple linear regression (MLR method. It turned out that the built model, whose stability was confirmed using the leave-one-out validation and external validation test, showed high statistical significance (R2=0.963, Q2LOO=0.944. Moreover, Y-scrambling test indicated there was no chance correlation in this model.

  15. Modeling the toxicity of chemicals to Tetrahymena pyriformis using molecular fragment descriptors and probabilistic neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niculescu, S P; Kaiser, K L; Schultz, T W

    2000-10-01

    The results of an investigation into the use of a probabilistic neural network (PNN)-based methodology to model the 48-h ICG50 (inhibitory concentration for population growth) sublethal toxicity of 825 chemicals to the ciliate Tetrahymena pyriformis are presented. The information fed into the neural networks is solely based on simple molecular descriptors as can be derived from the chemical structure. In contrast to most other toxicological models, the octanol/water partition coefficient is not used as an input parameter, and no rules of thumb or other substance selection criteria are employed. The cross-validation and external validation experiments confirmed excellent recognitive and predictive capabilities of the resulting models and recommend their future use in evaluating the potential of most organic molecules to be toxic to Tetrahymena.

  16. Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases from Myceliophthora thermophila C1 differ in substrate preference and reducing agent specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frommhagen, Matthias; Koetsier, Martijn J; Westphal, Adrie H; Visser, Jaap; Hinz, Sandra W A; Vincken, Jean-Paul; van Berkel, Willem J H; Kabel, Mirjam A; Gruppen, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Lytic polysaccharide monooxgygenases (LPMOs) are known to boost the hydrolytic breakdown of lignocellulosic biomass, especially cellulose, due to their oxidative mechanism. For their activity, LPMOs require an electron donor for reducing the divalent copper cofactor. LPMO activities are mainly investigated with ascorbic acid as a reducing agent, but little is known about the effect of plant-derived reducing agents on LPMOs activity. Here, we show that three LPMOs from the fungus Myceliophthora thermophila C1, MtLPMO9A, MtLPMO9B and MtLPMO9C, differ in their substrate preference, C1-/C4-regioselectivity and reducing agent specificity. MtLPMO9A generated C1- and C4-oxidized, MtLPMO9B C1-oxidized and MtLPMO9C C4-oxidized gluco-oligosaccharides from cellulose. The recently published MtLPMO9A oxidized, next to cellulose, xylan, β-(1 → 3, 1 → 4)-glucan and xyloglucan. In addition, MtLPMO9C oxidized, to a minor extent, xyloglucan and β-(1 → 3, 1 → 4)-glucan from oat spelt at the C4 position. In total, 34 reducing agents, mainly plant-derived flavonoids and lignin-building blocks, were studied for their ability to promote LPMO activity. Reducing agents with a 1,2-benzenediol or 1,2,3-benzenetriol moiety gave the highest release of oxidized and non-oxidized gluco-oligosaccharides from cellulose for all three MtLPMOs. Low activities toward cellulose were observed in the presence of monophenols and sulfur-containing compounds. Several of the most powerful LPMO reducing agents of this study serve as lignin building blocks or protective flavonoids in plant biomass. Our findings support the hypothesis that LPMOs do not only vary in their C1-/C4-regioselectivity and substrate specificity, but also in their reducing agent specificity. This work strongly supports the idea that the activity of LPMOs toward lignocellulosic biomass does not only depend on the ability to degrade plant polysaccharides like cellulose, but also on their specificity toward plant

  17. Cloning, expression and characterization of an ethanol tolerant GH3 β-glucosidase from Myceliophthora thermophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthi Karnaouri

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The β-glucosidase gene bgl3a from Myceliophthora thermophila, member of the fungal glycosyl hydrolase (GH family 3, was cloned and expressed in Pichia pastoris. The mature β-glucosidase gene, which results after the excision of one intron and the secreting signal peptide, was placed under the control of the strong alcohol oxidase promoter (AOX1 in the plasmid pPICZαC. The recombinant enzyme (90 kDa was purified and characterized in order to evaluate its biotechnological potential. Recombinant P. pastoris efficiently secreted β-glucosidase into the medium and produced high level of enzymatic activity (41 U/ml after 192 h of growth, under methanol induction. MtBgl3a was able to hydrolyze low molecular weight substrates and polysaccharides containing β-glucosidic residues. The Km was found to be 0.39 mM on p-β-NPG and 2.64 mM on cellobiose. Optimal pH and temperature for the p-β-NPG hydrolysis were 5.0 and 70 °C. The β-glucosidase exhibits a half life of 143 min at 60 °C. Kinetic parameters of inhibition were determined for D-glucose, D-xylose and D-gluconic acid, indicating tolerance of the enzyme for these sugars and oxidized products. The recombinant enzyme was stimulated by short chain alcohols and has been shown to efficiently synthesize methyl-D-glucoside in the presence of methanol due to its transglycosylation activity. The stability of MtBgl3a in ethanol was prominent, and it retained most of its original activity after we exposed it to 50% ethanol for 6 h. The high catalytic performance, good thermal stability and tolerance to elevated concentrations of ethanol, D-xylose and D-glucose qualify this enzyme for use in the hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass for biofuel production, as part of an efficient complete multi-enzyme cocktail.

  18. Cysteine proteases and acid phosphatases contribute to Tetrahymena spp. pathogenicity in guppies, Poecilia reticulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibowitz, M Pimenta; Ofir, R; Golan-Goldhirsh, A; Zilberg, D

    2009-12-03

    Systemic tetrahymenosis caused by the protozoan parasite Tetrahymena spp. is a serious problem in guppy (Poecilia reticulata) farms worldwide. There is no therapeutic solution for the systemic form of this disease. Guppies severely infected with Tetrahymena spp. were imported by a commercial ornamental fish farm and brought to our laboratory. Tetrahymena sp. (Tet-NI) was isolated and in vitro cultured. Isolates maintained in culture for different time periods (as reflected by different numbers of passages in culture) were analyzed-Tet-NI 1, 4, 5 and 6, with Tet-NI 1 being cultured for the longest period (about 15 months, 54 passages) and Tet-NI 6 for the shortest (2.5 months, 10 passages). Controlled internal infection was successfully achieved by IP injection with most isolates, except for Tet-NI 1 which produced no infection. The isolate Tet-NI 6 induced the highest infection rates in internal organs (80% vs. 50% and 64% for Tet-NI 4 and 5, respectively) and mortality rates (67% vs. 20% and 27% for Tet-NI 4 and 5, respectively, and 6.7% for Tet-NI 1). The correlation between pathogenicity and Tetrahymena enzymatic activity was studied. Electrophoretic analyses revealed at least two bands of gelanolytic activity in Tet-NI 4 and 5, three bands in Tet-NI 6, and no activity in Tet-NI 1. Total inhibition of gelanolytic activity was observed after pretreatment of Tet-NI 6 with E-64, a highly selective cysteine protease inhibitor. Using hemoglobin as a substrate, Tet-NI 6 had two bands of proteolytic activity and no bands were observed in Tet-NI 1. A correlation was observed between pathogenicity and acid phosphatase activities (analyzed by commercial fluorescence kit) for Tet-NI 1 and Tet-NI 6.

  19. Treatment development for systemic Tetrahymena sp. infection in guppies, Poecilia reticulata Peters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibowitz, M Pimenta; Chettri, J Kumar; Ofir, R; Zilberg, D

    2010-06-01

    Antibacterial and antiparasitic agents and a cysteine protease inhibitor (E-64) were tested against Tetrahymena infection, a serious problem in guppy production worldwide. Chemicals were tested in vitro by a colorimetric assay for Tetrahymena survival. The most effective were niclosamide, albendazole and chloroquine, with 23%, 35% and 60% survival, respectively, following 2-h exposure to 100 ppm. Longer incubation periods resulted in greater reductions in survival. Niclosamide was further studied in vivo at different dosages, administered orally to Tetrahymena-infected guppies. Mortality rates were significantly lower in all treatment groups; in trial I, 30% and 33% mortality in 5 and 40 mg kg(-1) niclosamide-fed fish vs. 59% mortality in controls; in trial II, 35%, 13% and 10% in 50, 100 and 200 mg kg(-1) niclosamide-fed fish vs. 64% in controls. The effect of the cysteine protease inhibitor E64 was tested in tissue culture, by measuring histolytic activity of the parasite (Tet-NI) on a guppy-fin cell line, based on cell depletion. Tet-NI feeding activity was significantly reduced following pretreatment with E-64 relative to non-treated Tet-NI. E-64-pretreated Tet-NI was injected i.p. into guppies: recorded mortality rates were significantly lower (35%) than that in non-treated Tet-NI (60%), suggesting inhibition of the parasite's cysteine protease as a possible therapeutic approach.

  20. The relationship between energy-dependent phagocytosis and the rate of oxygen consumption in Tetrahymena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skriver, L; Nilsson, J R

    1978-12-01

    The induction of high rates of food vacuole formation in Tetrahymena pyriformis increased the rate of respiration in exponentially growing cells by 17% and in starving cells by 47.5%. The increased rate of oxygen uptake was caused by phagocytosis itself, as shown by comparing the rates of respiration of a Tetrahymena mutant exposed to particles at the permissive or restrictive temperatures for food vacuole formation. During cell division, heat-synchronized cells in rich, particle-supplemented medium showed a significant decrease in the rate of respiration. Furthermore, dimethyl sulphoxide, in concentrations sufficient to block food vacuole formation, suppressed the rate of respiration to a level similar to that of starved cells. Cytochalasin B, fowever, did not reduce the rate of oxygen uptake despite the inability of the cells to complete the formation of food vacuoles during treatment; a possible explanation for this finding is discussed. There was a strong correlation between formation of food vacuoles and a high metabolic rate in Tetrahymena.

  1. Inheritance of the group I rDNA intron in Tetrahymena pigmentosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik; Simon, E M; Engberg, J

    1992-01-01

    . In an analysis of vegetatively growing cells containing intron+ and intron- rDNA, initially in the same macronucleus, we similarly find no evidence of intron homing. During the course of this work, we observed to our surprise that progeny clones from some crosses contained three types of rDNA. One possible...... explanation is that T. pigmentosa has two rdn loci in contrast to the single locus found in T. thermophila. Some of the progeny clones from the genetic analysis were expanded for several hundred generations, and allelic assortment of the rDNA was demonstrated by subcloning analysis....

  2. Metabolismo del glutatión y enzimas antioxidantes frente al estrés por metal(oid)es y otros agentes, en el ciliado-modelo "Tetrahymena thermophila"

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega Herrero, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    El estrés oxidativo se define como el estado celular de desequilibrio entre moléculas oxidantes y antioxidantes. Esta definición se basa en la hipótesis Redox que se desarrolla en cuatro postulados: 1)Todo sistema vivo presenta elementos redox que son moléculas ricas en residuos de cisteína y que toman parte en los procesos de señalización celular, tráfico de macromoléculas y regulación fisiológica. 2)Estos elementos se coordinan mediante circuitos redox, que tienen nodos comunes como el gl...

  3. Saccharification of ozonated sugarcane bagasse using enzymes from Myceliophthora thermophila JCP 1-4 for sugars release and ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Cassia Pereira, Josiani; Travaini, Rodolfo; Paganini Marques, Natalia; Bolado-Rodríguez, Silvia; Bocchini Martins, Daniela Alonso

    2016-03-01

    The saccharification of ozonated sugarcane bagasse (SCB) by enzymes from Myceliophthora thermophila JCP 1-4 was studied. Fungal enzymes provided slightly higher sugar release than commercial enzymes, working at 50°C. Sugar release increased with temperature increase. Kinetic studies showed remarkable glucose release (4.99 g/L, 3%w/w dry matter) at 60°C, 8 h of hydrolysis, using an enzyme load of 10 FPU (filter paper unit). FPase and β-glucosidase activities increased during saccharification (284% and 270%, respectively). No further significant improvement on glucose release was observed increasing the enzyme load above 7.5 FPU per g of cellulose. Higher dry matter contents increased sugars release, but not yields. The fermentation of hydrolysates by Saccharomyces cerevisiae provided glucose-to-ethanol conversions around to 63%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-XTRO-01-0714 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-XTRO-01-0714 ref|XP_001008699.1| H1 immobilization antigen, putative [Tetrahym...ena thermophila SB210] gb|EAR88454.1| H1 immobilization antigen, putative [Tetrahymena thermophila SB210] XP_001008699.1 4.2 28% ...

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-XTRO-01-0480 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-XTRO-01-0480 ref|XP_001008699.1| H1 immobilization antigen, putative [Tetrahym...ena thermophila SB210] gb|EAR88454.1| H1 immobilization antigen, putative [Tetrahymena thermophila SB210] XP_001008699.1 4.2 29% ...

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-XTRO-01-0562 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-XTRO-01-0562 ref|XP_001008699.1| H1 immobilization antigen, putative [Tetrahym...ena thermophila SB210] gb|EAR88454.1| H1 immobilization antigen, putative [Tetrahymena thermophila SB210] XP_001008699.1 4.2 29% ...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-XTRO-01-2527 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-XTRO-01-2527 ref|XP_001008699.1| H1 immobilization antigen, putative [Tetrahym...ena thermophila SB210] gb|EAR88454.1| H1 immobilization antigen, putative [Tetrahymena thermophila SB210] XP_001008699.1 4.2 29% ...

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OLAT-12-0010 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OLAT-12-0010 ref|XP_001032622.2| Dentin sialophosphoprotein precursor, putativ...e [Tetrahymena thermophila SB210] gb|EAR84959.2| Dentin sialophosphoprotein precursor, putative [Tetrahymena thermophila SB210] XP_001032622.2 4e-17 58% ...

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-VPAC-01-1521 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-VPAC-01-1521 ref|XP_001023022.1| Giardia variant-specific surface protein [Tet...rahymena thermophila] gb|EAS02777.1| Giardia variant-specific surface protein [Tetrahymena thermophila SB210] XP_001023022.1 0.049 24% ...

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-VPAC-01-0543 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-VPAC-01-0543 ref|XP_001023022.1| Giardia variant-specific surface protein [Tet...rahymena thermophila] gb|EAS02777.1| Giardia variant-specific surface protein [Tetrahymena thermophila SB210] XP_001023022.1 0.031 23% ...

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-VPAC-01-1582 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-VPAC-01-1582 ref|XP_001023022.1| Giardia variant-specific surface protein [Tet...rahymena thermophila] gb|EAS02777.1| Giardia variant-specific surface protein [Tetrahymena thermophila SB210] XP_001023022.1 1.3 26% ...

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DMEL-08-0078 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DMEL-08-0078 ref|XP_001023780.1| Phage tail fiber repeat family protein [Tetra...hymena thermophila SB210] gb|EAS03535.1| Phage tail fiber repeat family protein [Tetrahymena thermophila SB210] XP_001023780.1 1e-21 37% ...

  13. Dicty_cDB: SLJ818 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available its) Value N AF312775 |AF312775.1 Tetrahymena thermophila macronuclear immobilization antigen LD (SerLD) mRN...Y9928, primer: M13 forward, sequence 1. 30 0.014 4 AF312772 |AF312772.1 Tetrahymena thermophila macronuclear immobilization...r RE70748 full insert cDNA. 42 0.096 2 AF312771 |AF312771.1 Tetrahymena thermophila macronuclear immobilization...mena thermophila macronuclear immobilization antigen LA (SerLA) mRNA, complete cds. 30 0.12 3 AC116673 |AC11

  14. Mixotrophic growth of two thermophilic Methanosarcina strains, Methanosarcina thermophila TM-1 and Methanosarcina sp. SO-2P, on methanol and hydrogen/carbon dioxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mladenovska, Zuzana; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    1997-01-01

    Two thermophilic strains, Methanosarcina thermophila TM-1 and Methanosarcina sp. SO-2P, were capable of mixotrophic growth on methanol and H-2/CO2. Activated carbon was, however, found to be necessary to support good growth. Both strains used hydrogen and methanol simultaneously. When methanol...... was depleted, hydrogen utilization continued and methane was further produced with concurrent cell growth. UV epifluorescence microscopy revealed that aggregates of both strains exhibited a bright red fluorescence besides the usual blue-green fluorescence....

  15. Creating Poetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, John

    Encouraging exploration and practice, this book offers hundreds of exercises and numerous tips covering every step involved in creating poetry. Each chapter is a self-contained unit offering an overview of material in the chapter, a definition of terms, and poetry examples from well-known authors designed to supplement the numerous exercises.…

  16. LHC Create

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    LHC Create is an upcoming 2-day workshop held at IdeaSquare in November. Participants from CERN and IPAC school of design will compete to design an exhibit that explains why CERN does what it does. The winner will have their exhibit fully realised and made available to experiments, institutes, and tourism agencies around the world.

  17. Functional intron+ and intron- rDNA in the same macronucleus of the ciliate Tetrahymena pigmentosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik; Engberg, J

    1985-01-01

    alleles was followed in the total culture and in single cells during their vegetative segregation and it was observed that replication was non-preferential with respect to the two alleles. The diallelic clones were also used to demonstrate that intron-containing rDNA was transcribed and the transcript......Diallelic clones of Tetrahymena pigmentosa containing equal amounts of intron+ and intron- rDNA in the macronucleus were constructed. The macronucleus of the resulting strains divides amitotically during vegetative growth and the diallelic genotype is therefore unstable. The coexistence of the two...

  18. Phylogenetic evidence for the acquisition of ribosomal RNA introns subsequent to the divergence of some of the major Tetrahymena groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sogin, M L; Ingold, A; Karlok, M

    1986-01-01

    . In an attempt to evaluate the evolutionary origins of the intervening sequences, we have now determined complete small subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequences from 13 species of Tetrahymena and the absolute number of nucleotide differences between the sequences was used to construct a phylogenetic tree...

  19. Tetrahymena sp. infection in guppies, Poecilia reticulata Peters: parasite characterization and pathology of infected fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibowitz, M P; Zilberg, D

    2009-10-01

    Tetrahymena sp. infection was diagnosed in guppies imported from Singapore. The parasite was isolated (Tet-NI) and optimally cultured in vitro in RM-9 medium. Cytological analyses [silver-staining and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)] revealed a pyriform-shaped, 64 x 41-microm holotrich ciliate without caudal cilium, containing a macro-nucleus (18.25 x 16.83 microm) and micro-nucleus (5.73 x 5.40 microm). Wet-mount examination and histological analyses of fish exposed to the parasite by co-habitation, immersion and infection by i.p. (intra-peritoneal) and i.m. (intra-muscular) injection revealed numerous ciliates on the skin, and in the gill and caudal fin blood vessels. Ciliates surrounded internal organs, the peri-orbital region of the eye, and were observed inside developing guppy embryos. Some muscle necrosis was associated with infection, but little or no inflammatory response. Immersion, co-habitation and i.m. injection caused relatively high infection rates and levels in the skin and tail, and lower infection in the gill blood vessels and internal organs; i.p. injection caused higher infection in the gill blood vessels and internal organs. Co-habited fish had relatively high infection levels in the hind-gut sub-mucosa. This is the first report of controlled systemic infection by Tetrahymena sp.

  20. Sodium-dependent transport of [3H](1D)chiro-inositol by Tetrahymena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersting, Michael C; Ryals, Phillip E

    2004-01-01

    The transport characteristics of (1D)chiro-inositol by the ciliate Tetrahymena were examined in competition studies employing [3H](1D)chiro-inositol. (1D)chiro-Inositol transport was competed by unlabeled (1D)chiro-inositol, myo-inositol, scyllo-inositol, and D-glucose in a concentration-dependent manner. Conversely, (1D)chiro-inositol competed for [3H]myo- and [3H]scyllo-inositol transport. Lineweaver-Burke analysis of the competition data indicated a Km of 10.3 mM and a Bmax of 4.7 nmol/min/mg for (1D)chiro-inositol. Transport of (1D)chiro-inositol was inhibited by cytochalasin B, an inhibitor of facilitated glucose transporters, and phlorizin, an inhibitor of sodium-dependent transporters. Removal of sodium from the radiolabeling buffer also inhibited uptake. The presence of 0.64 mM calcium or magnesium ions exerted negligible effects on transport, although potassium was inhibitory. [3H](1D)chiro-Inositol was shown to be incorporated into Tetrahymena phosphoinositides.

  1. Increasing the lignin yield of the Alkaline Polyol Pulping process by treating black liquor with laccases of Myceliophthora thermophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Norman; Hundt, Martin; Schapals, Tino

    2016-03-01

    The Alkaline Polyol Pulping process separates cellulose from lignocellulosic biomass by dissolving lignin to a great extent. Due to the pulping conditions the dissolved lignin depolymerises and only 75% can be precipitated. To increase this amount, a 24 h reaction of laccases of Myceliophthora thermophila with lignin dissolved in black liquor of the AlkaPolP process was investigated. The influence of pH, temperature, enzyme concentration and partial oxygen pressure was examined in a batch stirred tank reactor using a Box-Behnken factorial design. Due to the enzymatic reaction the lignin polymerises which results in an enhanced lignin precipitation. The addition of a mediator improves the polymerisation but decreases the amount of precipitable lignin. The influence of the parameters on precipitation yield and molecular mass can sufficiently be described with a second-order model and optimum conditions can be assessed. FT-IR spectra of the obtained lignins revealed that its typical phenolic structure is preserved. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Box-Behnken analysis and storage of spray-dried collagenolytic proteases from Myceliophthora thermophila submerged bioprocess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamin Neto, Youssef Ali Abou; Coitinho, Luciana Barbosa; de Freitas, Luis Alexandre Pedro; Cabral, Hamilton

    2017-05-28

    Enzymes do not have long-term storage stability in soluble forms, thus drying methods could minimize the loss of enzymatic activity, the spray dryer removes water under high temperatures and little time. The aims of this study were to improve the stability of enzymatic extract from Myceliophthora thermophila for potential applications in industry and to evaluate the best conditions to remove the water by spray drying technique. The parameters were tested according to Box-Behnken and evaluated by analysis of variance (ANOVA), all the parameters measured were found to influence the final enzyme activity and spray drying process yield ranged from 38.65 to 63.75%. Enzyme powders showed increased storage stability than extract and maintained about 100% of collagenolytic activity after 180 days of storage at 30°C. The results showed that the microbial enzymes maintained activity during the spray drying process and were stable during long-term storage; these are promising characteristics for industrial applications.

  3. Probabilistic neural network modeling of the toxicity of chemicals to Tetrahymena pyriformis with molecular fragment descriptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, K L E; Niculescu, S P; Schultz, T W

    2002-03-01

    We present the results of an investigation into the use of a probabilistic neural network (PNN) based methodology to model the 48-60-h ICG50 (inhibitory concentration for population growth) sublethal toxicity to the ciliate Tetrahymena pyriformis. The information fed into the neural network is solely based on simple molecular descriptors as can be derived from the chemical structure. In contrast to most other toxicological models, the octanol/water partition coefficient is not used as an input parameter and no rules of thumb, or other substance selection-criteria, are involved. The model was trained on a 1,000 substances data set and validated using an 84 substances external test set. The associated analysis of errors confirms the excellent recognitive and predictive capabilities of the model.

  4. Fine structure and RNA synthesis of Tetrahymena during cytochalasin B inhibition of phagocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, J R

    1977-01-01

    Cytochalasin B inhibits the formation of normal-sized food vacuoles in Tetrahymena but the cells do not starve. Treated cells differ from starved cells in that they retain a high rate of incorporation of tritiated uridine. Large numbers of smaller vacuoles, about 1 micrometer in diameter, are formed, presumably by pinocytic activity of the cytopharyngeal membrane. This effect may perhaps be due to interference with the mechanism by which food vacuoles are sealed off at the cytostome, in which microfilaments may participate. Inhibited organisms may form tubes continuous with the cytopharynx instead of separate food vacuoles. It is not clear, however, why the formation of the small vacuoles is resistant to the drug.

  5. Transgenerational function of Tetrahymena Piwi protein Twi8p at distinctive noncoding RNA loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Brian M; Collins, Kathleen

    2017-04-01

    Transgenerational transmission of genome-regulatory epigenetic information can determine phenotypes in the progeny of sexual reproduction. Sequence specificity of transgenerational regulation derives from small RNAs assembled into Piwi-protein complexes. Known targets of transgenerational regulation are primarily transposons and transposon-derived sequences. Here, we extend the scope of Piwi-mediated transgenerational regulation to include unique noncoding RNA loci. Ciliates such as Tetrahymena have a phenotypically silent germline micronucleus and an expressed somatic macronucleus, which is differentiated anew from a germline genome copy in sexual reproduction. We show that the nuclear-localized Tetrahymena Piwi protein Twi8p shuttles from parental to zygotic macronuclei. Genetic elimination of Twi8p has no phenotype for cells in asexual growth. On the other hand, cells lacking Twi8p arrest in sexual reproduction with zygotic nuclei that retain the germline genome structure, without the DNA elimination and fragmentation required to generate a functional macronucleus. Twi8p-bound small RNAs originate from long-noncoding RNAs with a terminal hairpin, which become detectable in the absence of Twi8p. Curiously, the loci that generate Twi8p-bound small RNAs are essential for asexual cell growth, even though Twi8 RNPs are essential only in sexual reproduction. Our findings suggest the model that Twi8 RNPs act on silent germline chromosomes to permit their conversion to expressed macronuclear chromosomes. Overall this work reveals that a Piwi protein carrying small RNAs from long-noncoding RNA loci has transgenerational function in establishing zygotic nucleus competence for gene expression. © 2017 Farley and Collins; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  6. Grazing of a Tetrahymena sp. on Adhered Bacteria in Percolated Columns Monitored by In Situ Hybridization with Fluorescent Oligonucleotide Probes

    OpenAIRE

    Eisenmann, Heinrich; Harms, Hauke; Meckenstock, Rainer; Meyer, Elisabeth I.; Zehnder, Alexander J. B.

    1998-01-01

    Predation of attached Pseudomonas putida mt2 by the small ciliate Tetrahymena sp. was investigated with a percolated column system. Grazing rates were examined under static and dynamic conditions and were compared to grazing rates in batch systems containing suspended prey. The prey densities were 2 × 108 bacteria per ml of pore space and 2 × 108 bacteria per ml of suspension, respectively. Postingestion in situ hybridization of bacteria with fluorescent oligonucleotide probes was used to qua...

  7. Light induced toxicity reduction of silver nanoparticles to Tetrahymena Pyriformis: Effect of particle size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Junpeng; Xu, Bin; Sun, Xia; Ma, Chunyan; Yu, Changping [Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Jimei Road 1799, Xiamen 361021 (China); Zhang, Hongwu, E-mail: hwzhang@iue.ac.cn [Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Jimei Road 1799, Xiamen 361021 (China)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► Small AgNPs had higher toxicity than large to Tetrahymena pyriformis under dark. ► AgNPs toxicity was decreased by light. ► The decrease of small AgNP toxicity induced by light was more notable than that of large AGNPs. ► Light can influence Ag{sup +} release from, particle size of, and aggregation of AgNPs. -- Abstract: As a result of the extensive application of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), their potential hazards, once they are released into the natural environment, are of great concern to people. Since silver is very sensitive to light, the toxicity of AgNPs released into the natural environment will be inevitably affected by light. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between light, toxicity, and particle size of AgNPs and deduce the possible mechanism of any interaction. Our study revealed that there was negative correlation between the particle size and the toxicity: small AgNPs (5–10 nm) had higher toxicity than large AgNPs (15–25 nm) to Tetrahymena pyriformis (T. pyriformis) under dark condition. Comparing the size dependent AgNPs toxicity under dark and light conditions, the effect of light to size dependent AgNPs toxicity was ascertained. The results indicated that AgNPs toxicity was decreased by light and the most important discovery was that the change of size dependent AgNPs toxicity had significant difference under light irradiation. The decrease of small AgNPs toxicity induced by light was more notable than large AgNPs. The decreased level of cell toxicity for small AgNPs was 32 ± 0.7%, whereas it was only 10.6 ± 5.2% for large AgNPs kept 24 h under light irradiation. The further investigation indicated that the above changes induced by light can be attributed to the decrease of released silver ions, particle growth and aggregation of AgNPs under light irradiation. The obtained results showed that the light irradiation can promote the rapid growth of small AgNPs and result in the obvious increase of

  8. Machine learning-based models to predict modes of toxic action of phenols to Tetrahymena pyriformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Garit, J A; Casañola-Martin, G M; Barigye, S J; Pham-The, H; Torrens, F; Torreblanca, A

    2017-09-01

    The phenols are structurally heterogeneous pollutants and they present a variety of modes of toxic action (MOA), including polar narcotics, weak acid respiratory uncouplers, pro-electrophiles, and soft electrophiles. Because it is often difficult to determine correctly the mechanism of action of a compound, quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) methods, which have proved their interest in toxicity prediction, can be used. In this work, several QSAR models for the prediction of MOA of 221 phenols to the ciliated protozoan Tetrahymena pyriformis, using Chemistry Development Kit descriptors, are reported. Four machine learning techniques (ML), k-nearest neighbours, support vector machine, classification trees, and artificial neural networks, have been used to develop several models with higher accuracies and predictive capabilities for distinguishing between four MOAs. They showed global accuracy values between 95.9% and 97.7% and area under Receiver Operator Curve values between 0.978 and 0.998; additionally, false alarm rate values were below 8.2% for training set. In order to validate our models, cross-validation (10-folds-out) and external test-set were performed with good behaviour in all cases. These models, obtained with ML techniques, were compared with others previously reported by other researchers, and the improvement was significant.

  9. Characterization of the Tetrahymena ribozyme folding pathway using the kinetic footprinting reagent peroxynitrous acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaulk, S G; MacMillan, A M

    2000-01-11

    Large RNAs fold into complex structures which determine their biological activities. A full understanding of both RNA structure and dynamics will include the description of the pathways by which these structures are formed. Kinetic footprinting [Sclavi, B., et al. (1997) J. Mol. Biol. 266, 144-159] has been shown to be a powerful method for the study of dynamic processes involving RNA. Here we describe the use of a readily available reagent, peroxynitrous acid, as a kinetic footprinting tool for the study of RNA folding. Hydroxyl radicals generated from this reagent were used to footprint the Tetrahymena ribozyme during its magnesium-dependent folding-in agreement with synchroton X-ray footprinting [Sclavi, B., et al. (1998) Science 279, 1940-1943] and oligonucleotide/hybridization cleavage experiments [Zarrinkar, P. P., and Williamson, J. R. (1994) Science 265, 918-924], this work suggests an ordered, hierarchical folding pathway for the ribozyme. Several slow steps in the folding pathway were observed in the peroxynitrous acid footprinting, but none of these corresponded to the rate-determining step of folding. This suggests that the formation of the global, protected structure is followed by one or more slow local rearrangements to yield the final active structure. These studies illustrate the utility of peroxynitrous acid as a reagent for the elucidation of RNA folding pathways and the study of RNA dynamics.

  10. Negative Regulators of an RNAi-Heterochromatin Positive Feedback Loop Safeguard Somatic Genome Integrity in Tetrahymena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhren, Jan H; Noto, Tomoko; Kataoka, Kensuke; Gao, Shan; Liu, Yifan; Mochizuki, Kazufumi

    2017-03-07

    RNAi-mediated positive feedback loops are pivotal for the maintenance of heterochromatin, but how they are downregulated at heterochromatin-euchromatin borders is not well understood. In the ciliated protozoan Tetrahymena, heterochromatin is formed exclusively on the sequences that are removed from the somatic genome by programmed DNA elimination, and an RNAi-mediated feedback loop is important for assembling heterochromatin on the eliminated sequences. In this study, we show that the heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1)-like protein Coi6p, its interaction partners Coi7p and Lia5p, and the histone demethylase Jmj1p are crucial for confining the production of small RNAs and the formation of heterochromatin to the eliminated sequences. The loss of Coi6p, Coi7p, or Jmj1p causes ectopic DNA elimination. The results provide direct evidence for the existence of a dedicated mechanism that counteracts a positive feedback loop between RNAi and heterochromatin at heterochromatin-euchromatin borders to maintain the integrity of the somatic genome. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A model for endosymbiosis: interaction between Tetrahymena pyriformis and Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegmund, Lisa; Burmester, Anke; Fischer, Martin S; Wöstemeyer, Johannes

    2013-11-01

    Endosymbiosis in ciliates is a common and highly diverse phenomenon in nature, but its development at the mechanistic level and the origins are not easy to understand, since these associations may have arisen at any time during evolution. Therefore a laboratory model is helpful. It could be provided by the interaction of Tetrahymena pyriformis and Escherichia coli. Microscopic analyses with a genetically manipulated fluorescent strain of E. coli show single bacteria leaving food vacuoles and escaping digestion, an important prerequisite for further experiments. Under selective conditions, beneficial for T. pyriformis, the ciliate was shown to internalize E. coli cells. After feeding, bacteria, transformed with the plasmids pBS-neoTet or pNeo4, provide T. pyriformis with the ability to handle toxic conditions, caused by the aminoglykoside antibiotic paromomycin. Axenic cultures or cocultures with untransformed bacteria show lower cell numbers and survival rates compared to cocultures with transformed bacteria after transfer to paromomycin containing media. PCR detects bacterial DNA inside T. pyriformis cells. Additionally, microscopical analysis of selectively grown cocultures reveals fluorescing particles in the cytoplasm of T. pyriformis containing DNA and lipids, corresponding in size to E. coli. This system could be a reasonable model for understanding mechanisms of endosymbiosis establishment in ciliates. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. QSAR analysis of nitroaromatics' toxicity in Tetrahymena pyriformis: structural factors and possible modes of action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemenko, A.G.; Muratov, E. N.; Kuz’min, V.E.; Muratov, N.N.; Varlamova, E.V.; Kuz'mina, A.V.; Gorb, L. G.; Golius, A.; Hill, F.C.; Leszczynski, J.; Tropsha, A.

    2012-01-01

    The Hierarchical Technology for Quantitative Structure - Activity Relationships (HiT QSAR) was applied to 95 diverse nitroaromatic compounds (including some widely known explosives) tested for their toxicity (50% inhibition growth concentration, IGC50) against the ciliate Tetrahymena pyriformis. The dataset was divided into subsets according to putative mechanisms of toxicity. Classification and Regression Trees (CART) approach implemented within HiT QSAR has been used for prediction of mechanism of toxicity for new compounds. The resulting models were shown to have ~80% accuracy for external datasets indicating that the mechanistic dataset division was sensible. Then, Partial Least Squares (PLS) statistical approach was used for the development of 2D QSAR models. Validated PLS models were explored to (i) elucidate the effects of different substituents in nitroaromatic compounds on toxicity; (ii) differentiate compounds by probable mechanisms of toxicity based on their structural descriptors; (iii) analyze the role of various physical-chemical factors responsible for compounds’ toxicity. Models were interpreted in terms of molecular fragments promoting or interfering with toxicity. It was also shown that mutual influence of substituents in benzene ring plays the determining role in toxicity variation. Although chemical mechanism based models were statistically significant and externally predictive (R2ext=0.64 for the external set of 63 nitroaromatics identified after all calculations have been completed), they were also shown to have limited coverage (57% for modeling and 76% for external set). PMID:21714735

  13. Effects of Pluronic F-68 on Tetrahymena cells: protection against chemical and physical stress and prolongation of survival under toxic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellung-Larsen, P; Assaad, F; Pankratova, Stanislava

    2000-01-01

    The effects of the non-ionic surfactant Pluronic F-68 (0.01% w/v) on Tetrahymena cells have been studied. A marked protection against chemical and physical stress was observed. The chemical stress effects were studied in cells suspended in buffer (starvation) or in buffers with added ingredients ...

  14. Encystment/excystment response and serotypic variation in the gastropod parasite Tetrahymena rostrata (Ciliophora, Tetrahymenidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segade, P; García, N; García Estévez, J M; Arias, C; Iglesias, R

    2016-02-01

    Tetrahymena rostrata, which is characterized by a particular encystment-excystment cycle involving autogamy, has been recently found infecting the kidney of edible Helix aspersa snails under farming conditions. In this work, the effects of several factors on its encystment/excystment behaviour and the occurrence of different serotypes were investigated. The encystment/excystment response under starvation conditions was seriously affected by temperature. While a peak of encystment at 48 h followed by a progressive spontaneous excystment was observed at 18 and 25 °C, the encystment response was practically inhibited at 5 °C and clearly slowed down at 10 °C. At 30 °C, most of surviving ciliates remained encysted throughout the experiment, with spontaneous excystment being detected only after switching the temperature to 18 °C. Soil components also affected the encystment/excystment behaviour at 18 °C, with spontaneous excystment occurring in the presence of a sterile-filtered soil extract or mineral water but being strongly minimized with a non-filtered soil extract. Resting cysts formed in the latter extract exhibited a 3–4 times thicker and ultrastructurally more complex wall than that formed in mineral water and retained the excystment ability for about 4 weeks. Incomplete desiccation did not affect significantly the encystment response, while the mucus and kidney extracts from snails as well as a ciliate extract strongly stimulated a rapid excystment. Finally, two different serotypes infecting H. aspersa in heliciculture farms of Galicia (NW Spain) were identified, but no differences were observed between the encystment/excystment responses exhibited by two isolates belonging to each serotype.

  15. Loading and pre-loading processes generate a distinct siRNA population in Tetrahymena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mochizuki, Kazufumi, E-mail: kazufumi.mochizuki@imba.oeaw.ac.at; Kurth, Henriette M.

    2013-07-05

    Highlights: •The Tetrahymena Argonaute protein Twi1p binds to ∼28–30-nt siRNAs called scnRNAs. •The size of scnRNAs is determined during a pre-loading process. •The 5′ uracil bias of scnRNAs is attributed to pre-loading and loading processes. •The thermodynamic asymmetry of scnRNA duplex doesnot affect the guide strand decision. •scnRNAs may be produced non-sequentially from dsRNA substrates by Dicer. -- Abstract: The various properties of small RNAs, such as length, terminal nucleotide, thermodynamic asymmetry and duplex mismatches, can impact their sorting into different Argonaute proteins in diverse eukaryotes. The developmentally regulated 26- to 32-nt siRNAs (scnRNAs) are loaded to the Argonaute protein Twi1p and display a strong bias for uracil at the 5′ end. In this study, we used deep sequencing to analyze loaded and unloaded populations of scnRNAs. We show that the size of the scnRNA is determined during a pre-loading process, whereas their 5′ uracil bias is attributed to both pre-loading and loading processes. We also demonstrate that scnRNAs have a strong bias for adenine at the third base from the 3′ terminus, suggesting that most scnRNAs are direct Dicer products. Furthermore, we show that the thermodynamic asymmetry of the scnRNA duplex does not affect the guide and passenger strand decision. Finally, we show that scnRNAs frequently have templated uracil at the last base without a strong bias for adenine at the second base indicating non-sequential production of scnRNAs from substrates. These findings provide a biochemical basis for the varying attributes of scnRNAs, which should help improve our understanding of the production and turnover of scnRNAs in vivo.

  16. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... A A A Listen En Español Create Your Plate Create Your Plate is a simple and effective ... and that your options are endless. Create Your Plate! Click on the plate sections below to add ...

  17. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... Plate Create Your Plate is a simple and effective way to manage your blood glucose levels and ... Steps to Create Your Plate It's simple and effective for both managing diabetes and losing weight. Creating ...

  18. Germination, growth, and sporulation of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis in excreted food vacuoles of the protozoan Tetrahymena pyriformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manasherob, R; Ben-Dov, E; Zaritsky, A; Barak, Z

    1998-05-01

    Spores of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis and their toxic crystals are bioencapsulated in the protozoan Tetrahymena pyriformis, in which the toxin remains stable. Each T. pyriformis cell concentrates the spores and crystals in its food vacuoles, thus delivering them to mosquito larvae, which rapidly die. Vacuoles containing undigested material are later excreted from the cells. The fate of spores and toxin inside the food vacuoles was determined at various times after excretion by phase-contrast and electron microscopy as well as by viable-cell counting. Excreted food vacuoles gradually aggregated, and vegetative growth of B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis was observed after 7 h as filaments that stemmed from the aggregates. The outgrown cells sporulated between 27 and 42 h. The spore multiplication values in this system are low compared to those obtained in carcasses of B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis-killed larvae and pupae, but this bioencapsulation represents a new possible mode of B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis recycling in nontarget organisms.

  19. The oral apparatus of Tetrahymena pyriformis, strain WH-6. II. Cytochalasin B inhibition of oral apparatus morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavin, R H

    1976-07-01

    The effects of cytochalasin B on oral apparatus morphogenesis and cell division were studied in synchronized Tetrahymena pyriformis, strain WH-6 syngen 1. Cytochalasin B brought about the rapid arrest of oral apparatus primordium development when added prior to the completion of oral apparatus membranelle differentiation. Cells arrested in development did not divide. When cytochalasin B was added after this transition point, oral apparatus morphogenesis and cell division were completed. The effects of cytochalasin B could be reversed by washing it from the medium. Even though cytochalasin B (at 400 mug/ml) reduced protein synthesis by 30%, the data are consistent with the interpretation that cytochalasin B prevents an assembly process during the membranelle differentiation phase of oral apparatus development.

  20. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook ... Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart- ...

  1. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... treatments for those living with diabetes. Other Ways to Give Become a Member Vehicle Donation Planned Giving ... Share Create Your Plate ! Share: Seven Simple Steps to Create Your Plate It's simple and effective for ...

  2. Expression of Tetrahymena snRNA gene variants including a U1 gene with mutations in the 5' splice site recognition sequence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eugen-Olsen, J; Hagemeister, J J; Hellung-Larsen, P

    1997-01-01

    The expression of U1, U2 and U5 snRNA gene variants has been studied under different physiological states of Tetrahymena. Variants of all three snRNA genes are expressed. Among the snRNAs detected is U1-3, a variant with 66 mutations compared to the normal U1 snRNA. Three of these mutations affec...... the 5' splice site recognition sequence. The U1-3 snRNA is present in a few hundred copies per cell. The expression of Tetrahymena snRNA genes is independent of the physiological state of the cell.......The expression of U1, U2 and U5 snRNA gene variants has been studied under different physiological states of Tetrahymena. Variants of all three snRNA genes are expressed. Among the snRNAs detected is U1-3, a variant with 66 mutations compared to the normal U1 snRNA. Three of these mutations affect...

  3. Recombinant exochitinase of the thermophilic mould Myceliopthora thermophila BJA: Characteristics and utility in generating N-acetyl glucosamine and in biocontrol of phytopathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dua, Ashima; Joshi, Swati; Satyanarayana, T

    2017-01-01

    Chitinase from the thermophilic mould Myceliopthora thermophila BJA (MtChit) is an acid tolerant, thermostable and organic solvent stable biocatalyst which does not require any metal ions for its activity. To produce high enzyme titres, reduce fermentation time and overcome the need for induction, this enzyme has been heterologously expressed under GAP promoter in the GRAS yeast, Pichia pastoris. The production medium supplemented with the permeabilizing agent Tween-20 supported two-fold higher rMtChit production (5.5 × 103 U L-1 ). The consensus sequences S(132)xG(133)G(134) and D(168)xxD(171)xD(173)xE(175) in the enzyme have been found to represent the substrate binding and catalytic sites, respectively. The rMtChit, purified to homogeneity by a two-step purification strategy, is a monomeric glycoprotein of ∼48 kDa, which is optimally active at 55°C and pH 5.0. The enzyme is thermostable with t1/2 values of 113 and 48 min at 65 and 75°C, respectively. Kinetic parameters Km , Vmax , kcat , and kcat /Km of the enzyme are 4.655 mg mL-1 , 34.246 nmol mg-1  s-1 , 3.425 × 106 min-1 , and 1.36 × 10-6 mg mL-1  min-1 , respectively. rMtChit is an unique exochitinase, since its action on chitin liberates N-acetylglucosamine NAG. The enzyme inhibits the growth of phytopathogenic fungi like Fusarium oxysporum and Curvularia lunata, therefore, this finds application as biofungicide at high temperatures during summer in tropics. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 33:70-80, 2017. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  4. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... In Memory In Honor Become a Member En Español Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community ... Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Create Your Plate Create Your Plate is a ...

  5. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... Share: Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Create Your Plate Create Your Plate is a simple and effective way to manage your blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with more non-starchy veggies ...

  7. Creating more effective graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Robbins, Naomi B

    2012-01-01

    A succinct and highly readable guide to creating effective graphs The right graph can be a powerful tool for communicating information, improving a presentation, or conveying your point in print. If your professional endeavors call for you to present data graphically, here's a book that can help you do it more effectively. Creating More Effective Graphs gives you the basic knowledge and techniques required to choose and create appropriate graphs for a broad range of applications. Using real-world examples everyone can relate to, the author draws on her years of experience in gr

  8. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... Health Care Professionals Law Enforcement Driver's License For Lawyers Food & Fitness Home Food MyFoodAdvisor Recipes Association Cookbook Recipes Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten ...

  9. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C Insulin Pregnancy 8 Tips for ... Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart- ...

  10. Create Your Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal ... Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook ...

  11. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal ... Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook ...

  12. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... Pacific Islanders American Indian/Alaska Native Programs Older Adults Family Link Diabetes EXPO Upcoming Diabetes EXPOs EXPO ... Plate! Click on the plate sections below to add your food choices. Reset Plate Share Create Your ...

  13. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... of Diabetes Research & Practice Home We Are Research Leaders World's Largest Diabetes Meeting Recent Advances Type 1 ... Your Plate It's simple and effective for both managing diabetes and losing weight. Creating your plate lets ...

  14. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... Now - match-donate-now.html Match – Donate Now Make your year-end donation today and ... Tour Registration Is Open It starts with you. Sign up to ride in Tour de Cure and create ...

  15. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... Your Plate It's simple and effective for both managing diabetes and losing weight. Creating your plate lets you still choose the foods you want, but changes the portion sizes so you are getting larger ...

  16. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... this interactive tool. The healthy meal combinations are endless! Ready to try it at home? Just follow ... non-starchy vegetables and that your options are endless. Create Your Plate! Click on the plate sections ...

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    Full Text Available ... and Pacific Islanders American Indian/Alaska Native Programs Older Adults Family Link Diabetes EXPO Upcoming Diabetes EXPOs ... Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans and a Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets ...

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    Full Text Available ... Plate! Click on the plate sections below to add your food choices. Reset Plate Share Create Your ... your protein. See this list of protein foods . Add a serving of fruit , a serving of dairy ...

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  20. Create Your Plate

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  1. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... that your options are endless. Create Your Plate! Click on the plate sections below to add your ... down the middle of the plate. Then on one side, cut it again so you will have ...

  2. Creating unreal audio

    OpenAIRE

    Rudsengen, Mathias Flaten

    2014-01-01

    Creating unreal audio” refers to the act of designing a sound effect that is intended to sound like a completely fictional object. This thesis is a practical venture into digital audio design. During the process of creating a sound effect anchored in a specific thematic framework, I will describe my work process and the challenges and problems faced, showing my personal work process and how modern digital sound effect creation can be undertaken. To provide context, I will also describe and re...

  3. Heteroagglomeration of zinc oxide nanoparticles with clay mineral modulates the bioavailability and toxicity of nanoparticle in Tetrahymena pyriformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Govind Sharan; Senapati, Violet Aileen; Dhawan, Alok; Shanker, Rishi

    2017-06-01

    The extensive use of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) in cosmetics, sunscreens and healthcare products increases their release in the aquatic environment. The present study explored the possible interaction of ZnO NPs with montmorillonite clay minerals in aqueous conditions. An addition of ZnO NPs on clay suspension significantly (pclay particles from 1652±90nm to 2158±13nm due to heteroagglomeration. The electrokinetic measurements showed a significant (pclay association (-1.37±0.03μmcm/Vs) that results to the electrostatic interaction between ZnO NPs and clay particles. The attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis of ZnO NPs-clay association demonstrated the binding of ZnO NPs with the Si-O-Al region on the edges of clay particles. The increase in size of ZnO NPs-clay heteroagglomerates further leads to their sedimentation at 24h. Although, the stability of ZnO NPs in the clay suspension was decreased due to heteroagglomeration, but the bioavailability and toxicity of ZnO NPs-clay heteroagglomerates in Tetrahymena pyriformis was enhanced. These observations provide an evidence on possible mechanisms available in natural environment that can facilitate nanoparticles entry into the organisms present in lower trophic levels of the food web. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Ecological Traits of the Algae-Bearing Tetrahymena utriculariae (Ciliophora) from Traps of the Aquatic Carnivorous Plant Utricularia reflexa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šimek, Karel; Pitsch, Gianna; Salcher, Michaela M; Sirová, Dagmara; Shabarova, Tanja; Adamec, Lubomír; Posch, Thomas

    2017-05-01

    Trap fluid of aquatic carnivorous plants of the genus Utricularia hosts specific microbiomes consisting of commensal pro- and eukaryotes of largely unknown ecology. We examined the characteristics and dynamics of bacteria and the three dominant eukaryotes, i.e. the algae-bearing ciliate Tetrahymena utriculariae (Ciliophora), a green flagellate Euglena agilis (Euglenophyta), and the alga Scenedesmus alternans (Chlorophyta), associated with the traps of Utricularia reflexa. Our study focused on ecological traits and life strategies of the highly abundant ciliate whose biomass by far exceeds that of other eukaryotes and bacteria independent of the trap age. The ciliate was the only bacterivore in the traps, driving rapid turnover of bacterial standing stock. However, given the large size of the ciliate and the cell-specific uptake rates of bacteria we estimated that bacterivory alone would likely be insufficient to support its apparent rapid growth in traps. We suggest that mixotrophy based on algal symbionts contributes significantly to the diet and survival strategy of the ciliate in the extreme (anaerobic, low pH) trap-fluid environment. We propose a revised concept of major microbial interactions in the trap fluid where ciliate bacterivory plays a central role in regeneration of nutrients bound in rapidly growing bacterial biomass. © 2016 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2016 International Society of Protistologists.

  5. A Comparative Study of Two Quantum Chemical Descriptors in Predicting Toxicity of Aliphatic Compounds towards Tetrahymena pyriformis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altaf Hussain Pandith

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantum chemical parameters such as LUMO energy, HOMO energy, ionization energy (I, electron affinity (A, chemical potential (μ, hardness (η electronegativity (χ, philicity (ωα, and electrophilicity (ω of a series of aliphatic compounds are calculated at the B3LYP/6-31G(d level of theory. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR models are developed for predicting the toxicity (pIGC50 of 13 classes of aliphatic compounds, including 171 electron acceptors and 81 electron donors, towards Tetrahymena pyriformis. The multiple linear regression modeling of toxicity of these compounds is performed by using the molecular descriptor log P (1-octanol/water partition coefficient in conjunction with two other quantum chemical descriptors, electrophilicity (ω and energy of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (ELUMO. A comparison is made towards the toxicity predicting the ability of electrophilicity (ω versus ELUMO as a global chemical reactivity descriptor in addition to log P. The former works marginally better in most cases. There is a slight improvement in the quality of regression by changing the unit of IGC50 from mg/L to molarity and by removing the racemates and the diastereoisomers from the data set.

  6. DNA content alterations in Tetrahymena pyriformis macronucleus after exposure to food preservatives sodium nitrate and sodium benzoate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loutsidou, Ariadni C; Hatzi, Vasiliki I; Chasapis, C T; Terzoudi, Georgia I; Spiliopoulou, Chara A; Stefanidou, Maria E

    2012-12-01

    The toxicity, in terms of changes in the DNA content, of two food preservatives, sodium nitrate and sodium benzoate was studied on the protozoan Tetrahymena pyriformis using DNA image analysis technology. For this purpose, selected doses of both food additives were administered for 2 h to protozoa cultures and DNA image analysis of T. pyriformis nuclei was performed. The analysis was based on the measurement of the Mean Optical Density which represents the cellular DNA content. The results have shown that after exposure of the protozoan cultures to doses equivalent to ADI, a statistically significant increase in the macronuclear DNA content compared to the unexposed control samples was observed. The observed increase in the macronuclear DNA content is indicative of the stimulation of the mitotic process and the observed increase in MOD, accompanied by a stimulation of the protozoan proliferation activity is in consistence with this assumption. Since alterations at the DNA level such as DNA content and uncontrolled mitogenic stimulation have been linked with chemical carcinogenesis, the results of the present study add information on the toxicogenomic profile of the selected chemicals and may potentially lead to reconsideration of the excessive use of nitrates aiming to protect public health.

  7. Creating a learning culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathewson, Karyn

    2014-03-01

    This column describes the efforts of an agency to build a learning culture as part of changing their approach to service delivery, when adopting a focus on psychiatric rehabilitation and recovery. This example of one organization's challenges and successes in workforce development provides an alternative approach to the common single-session staff training that typically fails to change practice. This description draws from published material on communities of practice, technical consultation, and agency experience. Training alone is not enough to create change. An organizational commitment to ongoing quality improvement, along with available and accessible technical assistance for staff, creates an environment where change is anticipated, managed, and celebrated.

  8. Creating Web Pages Simplified

    CERN Document Server

    Wooldridge, Mike

    2011-01-01

    The easiest way to learn how to create a Web page for your family or organization Do you want to share photos and family lore with relatives far away? Have you been put in charge of communication for your neighborhood group or nonprofit organization? A Web page is the way to get the word out, and Creating Web Pages Simplified offers an easy, visual way to learn how to build one. Full-color illustrations and concise instructions take you through all phases of Web publishing, from laying out and formatting text to enlivening pages with graphics and animation. This easy-to-follow visual guide sho

  9. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... Plate It's simple and effective for both managing diabetes and losing weight. Creating your plate lets you still choose the ... Help Enroll in the Living WIth Type 2 Diabetes Program Food & Fitness Food Recipes Planning Meals What Can I Eat Weight Loss Fitness In My Community Calendar of Events ...

  10. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... For Lawyers Food & Fitness Home Food MyFoodAdvisor Recipes Association Cookbook Recipes Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create ... Become a Volunteer American Diabetes Month® American Diabetes Association Alert Day® Become a Member Advocacy Home Take ...

  11. Creating an Interactive PDF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branzburg, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    There are many ways to begin a PDF document using Adobe Acrobat. The easiest and most popular way is to create the document in another application (such as Microsoft Word) and then use the Adobe Acrobat software to convert it to a PDF. In this article, the author describes how he used Acrobat's many tools in his project--an interactive…

  12. Creating resilient SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlberg, Rasmus; Guay, Fanny

    2015-01-01

    According to the EU, during the past five years, small and medium enterprises (SMEs) have created 85% of new jobs and two-thirds of private sector employment in the region. SMEs are considered the backbone of the economy in Europe and represent more than 95% of enterprises in USA and Australia...

  13. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... meal-planning, In this section Food Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans and a Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods ... your year-end donation today and help fight diabetes. Donate Today We Can Help - we-can-help. ...

  14. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community Meal Planning Sign In Search: Search More Sites Search ≡ Are ... Fitness Home Food MyFoodAdvisor Recipes Association Cookbook Recipes Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten ...

  15. Creating snags with explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evelyn L. Bull; Arthur D. Partridge; Wayne G. Williams

    1981-01-01

    The tops of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) trees were blown off with dynamite to create nest sites for cavity-nesting wildlife. The procedure included drilling a hole almost through the trunk, inserting the dynamite, and setting the charge with primacord and fuse. Trees were simultaneously innoculated with a decay organism. The average cost was $...

  16. Creating Special Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    deLisle, Lee

    2009-01-01

    "Creating Special Events" is organized as a systematic approach to festivals and events for students who seek a career in event management. This book looks at the evolution and history of festivals and events and proceeds to the nuts and bolts of event management. The book presents event management as the means of planning, organizing, directing,…

  17. Creating White Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLisky, Claire Louise; Carey, Jane

    Vedtagelsen af White Australien som regeringens politik i 1901 viser, at hvidheden var afgørende for den måde, hvorpå den nye nation i Australien blev konstitueret. Og alligevel har historikere i vid udstrækning overset hvidhed i deres studier af Australiens race fortid. 'Creating White Australia...

  18. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal Planning What Can I Eat? ... Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday ... Foods donate en -- Limited Time MATCH Offer - limited- ...

  19. Creating a Virtual Gymnasium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorentino, Leah H.; Castelli, Darla

    2005-01-01

    Physical educators struggle with the challenges of assessing student performance, providing feedback about motor skills, and creating opportunities for all students to engage in game-play on a daily basis. The integration of technology in the gymnasium can address some of these challenges by improving teacher efficiency and increasing student…

  20. Creating Pupils' Internet Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bognar, Branko; Šimic, Vesna

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an action research, which aimed to improve pupils' literary creativity and enable them to use computers connected to the internet. The study was conducted in a small district village school in Croatia. Creating a pupils' internet magazine appeared to be an excellent way for achieving the educational aims of almost all…

  1. Creating bulk nanocrystalline metal.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredenburg, D. Anthony (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Saldana, Christopher J. (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); Gill, David D.; Hall, Aaron Christopher; Roemer, Timothy John (Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); Vogler, Tracy John; Yang, Pin

    2008-10-01

    Nanocrystalline and nanostructured materials offer unique microstructure-dependent properties that are superior to coarse-grained materials. These materials have been shown to have very high hardness, strength, and wear resistance. However, most current methods of producing nanostructured materials in weapons-relevant materials create powdered metal that must be consolidated into bulk form to be useful. Conventional consolidation methods are not appropriate due to the need to maintain the nanocrystalline structure. This research investigated new ways of creating nanocrystalline material, new methods of consolidating nanocrystalline material, and an analysis of these different methods of creation and consolidation to evaluate their applicability to mesoscale weapons applications where part features are often under 100 {micro}m wide and the material's microstructure must be very small to give homogeneous properties across the feature.

  2. Creating organizational cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouton, Nicolaas T.O.; Just, Sine Nørholm; Gabrielsen, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to re-conceptualize the relations between rhetorical strategies and material practices in the processes whereby leaders create or change organizational cultures. Design/methodology/approach – The authors compare and contrast two broad perspectives on cultural...... insights. The authors propose an integrated perspective in which material practices and rhetorical strategies are seen as two analytical sides of the same ontological coin. This enables a fuller and more detailed explanation of how organizational cultures are created or changed. A brief illustration...... is provided of the merits of this approach by revisiting the case of Enron. Originality/value – The paper constitutes an initial exploration of how social scientific and rhetorical perspectives on organizational change may be brought closer together. It may provide the first step towards the development...

  3. Can Computers Create Art?

    OpenAIRE

    Hertzmann, Aaron

    2018-01-01

    This paper discusses whether computers, using Artifical Intelligence (AI), could create art. The first part concerns AI-based tools for assisting with art making. The history of technologies that automated aspects of art is covered, including photography and animation. In each case, we see initial fears and denial of the technology, followed by a blossoming of new creative and professional opportunities for artists. The hype and reality of Artificial Intelligence (AI) tools for art making is ...

  4. Creating product line architectures

    OpenAIRE

    Bayer, J.; Flege, O.; Gacek, C.

    2000-01-01

    The creation and validation of product line software architectures are inherently more complex than those of software architectures for single systems. This paper compares a process for creating and evaluating a traditional, one-of-a- kind software architecture with one for a reference software architecture. The comparison is done in the context of PuLSE-DSSA, a customizable process that integrates both product line architecture creation and evaluation.

  5. Creating flat design websites

    CERN Document Server

    Pratas, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    This book contains practical, step-by-step tutorials along with plenty of explanation about designing your flat website. Each section is introduced sequentially, building up your web design skills and completing your website.Creating Flat Design Websites is ideal for you if you are starting on your web development journey, but this book will also benefit seasoned developers wanting to start developing in flat.

  6. Creating Geoscience Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buskop, J.; Buskop, W.

    2013-12-01

    The United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization recognizes 21 World Heritage in the United States, ten of which have astounding geological features: Wrangell St. Elias National Park, Olympic National Park, Mesa Verde National Park, Chaco Canyon, Glacier National Park, Carlsbad National Park, Mammoth Cave, Great Smokey Mountains National Park, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, and Everglades National Park. Created by a student frustrated with fellow students addicted to smart phones with an extreme lack of interest in the geosciences, one student visited each World Heritage site in the United States and created one e-book chapter per park. Each chapter was created with original photographs, and a geological discovery hunt to encourage teen involvement in preserving remarkable geological sites. Each chapter describes at least one way young adults can get involved with the geosciences, such a cave geology, glaciology, hydrology, and volcanology. The e-book describes one park per chapter, each chapter providing a geological discovery hunt, information on how to get involved with conservation of the parks, geological maps of the parks, parallels between archaeological and geological sites, and how to talk to a ranger. The young author is approaching UNESCO to publish the work as a free e-book to encourage involvement in UNESCO sites and to prove that the geosciences are fun.

  7. Lysosomal physiology in Tetrahymena. 3. Pharmacological studies on acid hydrolase release and the ingestion and egestion of dimethylbenzanthracene particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothstein, T L; Blum, J J

    1974-09-01

    The ingestion of (14)C-labeled 9,10-dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene particles, the extracellular release of acid phosphatase, ribonuclease, and alpha-glucosidase, and the egestion of preingested dimethylbenzanthracene particles by Tetrahymena taken from logarithmically growing cultures and resuspended in a dilute salt solution were followed in the presence of several pharmacologic agents. Serotonin, caffeine, and, to a lesser extent, dibutyryl cyclic AMP increased the rate of particle ingestion, but did not alter the rate of release of the three acid hydrolases studied. Added catecholamines did not affect either particle ingestion or acid hydrolase release, but particle ingestion was inhibited by the catecholamine antagonists, dichloroisoproterenol, desmethylimipramine, reserpine, and phenoxybenzamine. These drugs also increased the release of acid phosphatase and ribonuclease in 5-h incubations. Desmethylimipramine acted within 1 h to increase acid hydrolase release, but the effect of dichloroisoproterenol developed more slowly and was secondary to a change in cellular content of the hydrolases. Desmethylimipramine increased the energy of activation for the release of acid phosphatase, while dichloroisoproterenol did not. Both of these drugs enhanced the egestion of preingested dimethylbenzanthracene particles, supporting the view that acid hydrolase release occurs through a cytoproct egestion mechanism. Particle ingestion was also inhibited by colchicine, vinblastine, and cytochalasin B, but these agents had no effect on acid hydrolase release, thus further differentiating the properties of the ingestion mechanism from those of the egestion mechanism. It appears that both microtubules and microfilaments play a role in the ingestion process and that this process may be controlled in part by a cyclic AMP-mediated serotoninergic and adrenergic system.

  8. Creating sustainable performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spreitzer, Gretchen; Porath, Christine

    2012-01-01

    What makes for sustainable individual and organizational performance? Employees who are thriving-not just satisfied and productive but also engaged in creating the future. The authors found that people who fit this description demonstrated 16% better overall performance, 125% less burnout, 32% more commitment to the organization, and 46% more job satisfaction than their peers. Thriving has two components: vitality, or the sense of being alive and excited, and learning, or the growth that comes from gaining knowledge and skills. Some people naturally build vitality and learning into their jobs, but most employees are influenced by their environment. Four mechanisms, none of which requires heroic effort or major resources, create the conditions for thriving: providing decision-making discretion, sharing information about the organization and its strategy, minimizing incivility, and offering performance feedback. Organizations such as Alaska Airlines, Zingerman's, Quicken Loans, and Caiman Consulting have found that helping people grow and remain energized at work is valiant on its own merits-but it can also boost performance in a sustainable way.

  9. Tourist-created Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munar, Ana Maria

    2011-01-01

    study of social media sites and destination brands, relying on qualitative research methods, content analysis and field research. Findings – Tourists are largely contributing to destination image formation, while avoiding the use of the formal elements of the brands. The most popular strategies used...... by destination management organizations exhibit some crucial weaknesses. However, a strategy based on analytics brings new opportunities for destination branding. Originality/value – The study provides an innovative analysis of tourist-created content and its impact on destination branding and presents......Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyze the relationship between tourists' user-generated content on the web and destination branding, as well as to discuss the online strategies used by destination management organizations. Design/methodology/approach – The research adopts an exploratory...

  10. Creating nanostars with buckyballs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Young K., E-mail: ykbae@ykbcorp.com

    2013-12-17

    We report creating superradiant quantum nanoplasmas (nanostars) by impacting buckyballs at hypervelocities (v>100 km/s) in an innovative tabletop apparatus. The nanostars are estimated to have ∼10 TPa transient pressures and convert ∼35% of impact energy into soft-X-ray energy. The ultrahigh-efficiency conversion is proposed to result from Dicke Superradiance of Metastable Innershell Molecular State, originally discovered by the author and his colleagues in 1994. The usage of buckyballs and successful orders-of-magnitude scaling down of the apparatus size and complexity establish an innovative tabletop method for generating, studying, and utilizing matter in planetary or stellar interiors and open doors to numerous unprecedented applications.

  11. Creating Griffith Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Griffith Observatory has been the iconic symbol of the sky for southern California since it began its public mission on May 15, 1935. While the Observatory is widely known as being the gift of Col. Griffith J. Griffith (1850-1919), the story of how Griffith’s gift became reality involves many of the people better known for other contributions that made Los Angeles area an important center of astrophysics in the 20th century. Griffith began drawing up his plans for an observatory and science museum for the people of Los Angeles after looking at Saturn through the newly completed 60-inch reflector on Mt. Wilson. He realized the social impact that viewing the heavens could have if made freely available, and discussing the idea of a public observatory with Mt. Wilson Observatory’s founder, George Ellery Hale, and Director, Walter Adams. This resulted, in 1916, in a will specifying many of the features of Griffith Observatory, and establishing a committee managed trust fund to build it. Astronomy popularizer Mars Baumgardt convinced the committee at the Zeiss Planetarium projector would be appropriate for Griffith’s project after the planetarium was introduced in Germany in 1923. In 1930, the trust committee judged funds to be sufficient to start work on creating Griffith Observatory, and letters from the Committee requesting help in realizing the project were sent to Hale, Adams, Robert Millikan, and other area experts then engaged in creating the 200-inch telescope eventually destined for Palomar Mountain. A Scientific Advisory Committee, headed by Millikan, recommended that Caltech Physicist Edward Kurth be put in charge of building and exhibit design. Kurth, in turn, sought help from artist Russell Porter. The architecture firm of John C. Austin and Fredrick Ashley was selected to design the project, and they adopted the designs of Porter and Kurth. Philip Fox of the Adler Planetarium was enlisted to manage the completion of the Observatory and become its

  12. Creating the living brand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendapudi, Neeli; Bendapudi, Venkat

    2005-05-01

    It's easy to conclude from the literature and the lore that top-notch customer service is the province of a few luxury companies and that any retailer outside that rarefied atmosphere is condemned to offer mediocre service at best. But even companies that position themselves for the mass market can provide outstanding customer-employee interactions and profit from them, if they train employees to reflect the brand's core values. The authors studied the convenience store industry in depth and focused on two that have developed a devoted following: QuikTrip (QT) and Wawa. Turnover rates at QT and Wawa are 14% and 22% respectively, much lower than the typical rate in retail. The authors found six principles that both firms embrace to create a strong culture of customer service. Know what you're looking for: A focus on candidates' intrinsic traits allows the companies to hire people who will naturally bring the right qualities to the job. Make the most of talent: In mass-market retail, talent is generally viewed as a commodity, but that outlook becomes a self-fulfilling prophesy. Create pride in the brand: Service quality depends directly on employees' attachment to the brand. Build community: Wawa and QT have made concerted efforts to build customer loyalty through a sense of community. Share the business context: Employees need a clear understanding of how their company operates and how it defines success. Satisfy the soul: To win an employee's passionate engagement, a company must meet his or her needs for security, esteem, and justice.

  13. Creating alternatives in science

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Traditional scientist training at the PhD level does not prepare students to be competitive in biotechnology or other non-academic science careers. Some universities have developed biotechnology-relevant doctoral programmes, but most have not. Forming a life science career club makes a statement to university administrators that it is time to rework the curriculum to include biotechnology-relevant training. A career club can supplement traditional PhD training by introducing students to available career choices, help them develop a personal network and teach the business skills that they will need to be competitive in science outside of academia. This paper is an instructional guide designed to help students create a science career club at their own university. These suggestions are based on the experience gained in establishing such a club for the Graduate School at the University of Colorado Denver. We describe the activities that can be offered, the job descriptions for the offices required and potential challenges. With determination, a creative spirit, and the guidance of this paper, students should be able to greatly increase awareness of science career options, and begin building the skills necessary to become competitive in non-academic science. PMID:20161069

  14. Creating an open mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Duncan

    2011-07-01

    Duncan Monaghan is 33 years old and in his second year of an Arts degree in Creative Writing. He is a published poet and is currently producing a music CD. Duncan has a history of bipolar disorder which was diagnosed when he was nineteen: "It worried me at first a lot. It played on my mind constantly. I felt different from everybody else--I did not understand what was happening to me." Drawing on his life experiences, Duncan has been enhancing his recovery through creativity--in poetry, lyrics, music and story. "Life for me was a constant battle of relying on medication and appointments with my case manager...until I realized I could combine my recovery with my passions as a tool to use as an outlet to many of the "mind traps" I so often found hindering my own recovery." Duncan is Aboriginal and has experience of the mental health systems in most states and territories and now lives in Brisbane. This is a shortened version of his presentation at Creating Futures 2010.

  15. Bee algorithm and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system as tools for QSAR study toxicity of substituted benzenes to Tetrahymena pyriformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, Kobra; Atabati, Morteza; Kor, Kamalodin

    2014-06-01

    A quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) was developed to predict the toxicity of substituted benzenes to Tetrahymena pyriformis. A set of 1,497 zero- to three-dimensional descriptors were used for each molecule in the data set. A major problem of QSAR is the high dimensionality of the descriptor space; therefore, descriptor selection is one of the most important steps. In this paper, bee algorithm was used to select the best descriptors. Three descriptors were selected and used as inputs for adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS). Then the model was corrected for unstable compounds (the compounds that can be ionized in the aqueous solutions or can easily metabolize under some conditions). Finally squared correlation coefficients were obtained as 0.8769, 0.8649 and 0.8301 for training, test and validation sets, respectively. The results showed bee-ANFIS can be used as a powerful model for prediction of toxicity of substituted benzenes to T. pyriformis.

  16. Sodium-dependent uptake of [3H]scyllo-inositol by Tetrahymena: incorporation into phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol-linked glycans, and polyphosphoinositols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryals, P E; Kersting, M C

    1999-06-15

    [3H]Scyllo-inositol was taken up by Tetrahymena cells through a sodium-dependent pathway wherein unlabeled scyllo- and myo-inositol competed for uptake. d-Glucose was a competitor of [3H]myo-inositol uptake, but did not appear to compete for [3H]scyllo-inositol uptake. Transport of [3H]scyllo- and [3H]myo-inositol was inhibited when sodium was removed from the labeling buffer and by phlorizin, an inhibitor of sodium-dependent transporters. Cytochalasin B, an inhibitor of facilitated glucose transporters, had no significant effect on inositol transport. Internalized [3H]scyllo-inositol was readily incorporated intact into phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol-linked glycans, and polyphosphoinositols. Distribution of [3H]scyllo- and [3H]myo-inositol radioactivity into individual polyphosphoinositols was found to differ. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  17. The oral apparatus of Tetrahymena pyriformis, strain WH-6. III. The binding of 3H-cytochalasin B by the isolated oral apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavin, R H

    1976-07-01

    The binding of tritium-labelled cytochalasin B by the isolated oral apparatus of Tetrahymena pyriformis, strain WH-6, syngen 1, was investigated. Equilibrium binding studies revealed approximately 1.4 x 10(5) cytochalasin B binding sites per oral apparatus. A Scatchard plot indicates a single class of binding affinities with an association constant of 10(5) liters/mole. Rapid release of oral apparatus-bound cytochalasin B occurred when oral apparatuses were washed and resuspended in 1 mM TRIS without cytochalasin B. Because cytochalasin B binding to oral apparatus microtubular protein was not detected, microtubules are probably not the cytochalasin B binding site. The probable nature of the cytochalasin B binding site within the oral apparatus is discussed.

  18. Two-dimensional agarose gel electrophoresis as a tool to isolate genus- and species-specific repetitive DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, C; Klarholz, I; Hildebrandt, A

    2000-08-15

    Two-dimensional electrophoresis in agarose gels separates DNA-restriction fragments not only by molecular weight but also according to their AT-cluster content. The method produced genus-specific spot patterns of multicopy DNA fragments of grains as well as spot patterns of highly repetitive DNA fragments of ciliates, demonstrated for barley, spelt, and Tetrahymena. Further investigations in regard to their specificity by hybridization with three other grain species (wheat, oat, and rye) and three ciliate species (Tetrahymena thermophila, Tetrahymena pigmentosa, and Tetrahymena borealis) were performed. The DNA samples from spelt and Tetrahymena were demonstrated to be genus specific for Triticum and species specific for Tetrahymena pyriformis, respectively. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  19. SHAREPOINT SITE CREATING AND SETTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr V. Tebenko

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Tools for sites building that offer users the ability to work together, an actual theme in information society and modern Web technologies. This article considers the SharePoint system, which enables to create sites of any complexity, including large portals with a complex structure of documents. Purpose of this article is to consider the main points of site creating and its setting with tools of SharePoint system, namely: a site template creating and configuring, web application environment to create and configure Web applications, change of existing and creation of new theme site, a web part setting.

  20. Creating a family health history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Family health history; Create a family health history; Family medical history ... include your: Genes Diet and exercise habits Environment Family members tend to share certain behaviors, genetic traits, ...

  1. Creating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kristina Vaarst; Lorenzen, Mark; Laursen, Stine

    2012-01-01

    This unique book reveals the procedural aspects of knowledge-based urban planning, development and assessment. Concentrating on major knowledge city building processes, and providing state-of-the-art experiences and perspectives, this important compendium explores innovative models, approaches an...

  2. Creating Our Own Online Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela TUTUNEA

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Creating our own online community is easy to do, by welcoming those who have an active presence online; first of all, we must have a well developed strategy of our own "empire", starting from the idea of creating the final benefit for our cyber-consumers.

  3. Creating Student-Friendly Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salend, Spencer J.

    2011-01-01

    Creating a fair, reliable, teacher-made test is a challenge. Every year poorly designed tests fail to accurately measure many students' learning--and negatively affect their academic futures. Salend, a well-known writer on assessment for at-risk students who consults with schools on assessment procedures, offers guidelines for creating tests that…

  4. Industrial Engineering: creating a network!

    OpenAIRE

    Prado-Prado, José Carlos

    2016-01-01

    [EN] This paper presents a brief history of the Industrial Engineering Conference (CIO), and specially reinforces the role of the CIOs as a forum for building a network and creating log-term relationships Prado-Prado, JC. (2016). Industrial Engineering: creating a network!. International Journal of Production Management and Engineering. 4(2):41-42. doi:10.4995/ijpme.2016.5964. 41 42 4 2

  5. Creating visual explanations improves learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobek, Eliza; Tversky, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Many topics in science are notoriously difficult for students to learn. Mechanisms and processes outside student experience present particular challenges. While instruction typically involves visualizations, students usually explain in words. Because visual explanations can show parts and processes of complex systems directly, creating them should have benefits beyond creating verbal explanations. We compared learning from creating visual or verbal explanations for two STEM domains, a mechanical system (bicycle pump) and a chemical system (bonding). Both kinds of explanations were analyzed for content and learning assess by a post-test. For the mechanical system, creating a visual explanation increased understanding particularly for participants of low spatial ability. For the chemical system, creating both visual and verbal explanations improved learning without new teaching. Creating a visual explanation was superior and benefitted participants of both high and low spatial ability. Visual explanations often included crucial yet invisible features. The greater effectiveness of visual explanations appears attributable to the checks they provide for completeness and coherence as well as to their roles as platforms for inference. The benefits should generalize to other domains like the social sciences, history, and archeology where important information can be visualized. Together, the findings provide support for the use of learner-generated visual explanations as a powerful learning tool.

  6. Prediction of acute toxicity of phenol derivatives using multiple linear regression approach for Tetrahymena pyriformis contaminant identification in a median-size database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieguez-Santana, Karel; Pham-The, Hai; Villegas-Aguilar, Pedro J; Le-Thi-Thu, Huong; Castillo-Garit, Juan A; Casañola-Martin, Gerardo M

    2016-12-01

    In this article, the modeling of inhibitory grown activity against Tetrahymena pyriformis is described. The 0-2D Dragon descriptors based on structural aspects to gain some knowledge of factors influencing aquatic toxicity are mainly used. Besides, it is done by some enlarged data of phenol derivatives described for the first time and composed of 358 chemicals. It overcomes the previous datasets with about one hundred compounds. Moreover, the results of the model evaluation by the parameters in the training, prediction and validation give adequate results comparable with those of the previous works. The more influential descriptors included in the model are: X3A, MWC02, MWC10 and piPC03 with positive contributions to the dependent variable; and MWC09, piPC02 and TPC with negative contributions. In a next step, a median-size database of nearly 8000 phenolic compounds extracted from ChEMBL was evaluated with the quantitative-structure toxicity relationship (QSTR) model developed providing some clues (SARs) for identification of ecotoxicological compounds. The outcome of this report is very useful to screen chemical databases for finding the compounds responsible of aquatic contamination in the biomarker used in the current work. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Creating an Innovative Learning Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This article describes how to create an innovative learning (iLearning) organization. It begins by discussing the life cycle of knowledge in an organization, followed by a description of the theoretical foundation for iLearning. Next, the article presents an example of iLearning, followed by a description of the distributed nature of work, the…

  8. On Creating and Sustaining Alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyng, Morten

    2015-01-01

    (PD) as well as from innovation theory and software ecosystems. Last, but not least, the ongoing debate on public finances/economy versus tax evasion by major private companies has been an important element in shaping the vision and creating support for the initiative. This vision is about democratic...

  9. SPECIAL REPORT: Creating Conference Video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel F. Peden

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Capturing video at a conference is easy. Doing it so the product is useful is another matter. Many subtle problems come into play so that video and audio obtained can be used to create a final product. This article discusses what the author learned in the two years of shooting and editing video for Code4Lib conference.

  10. Creating Space for Children's Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Frank

    2011-01-01

    As teachers struggle to balance the needs of their students with the requirements of commercial reading materials, educators need to consider how teachers will create space for children's literature in today's classrooms. In this article, 10 practical recommendations for incorporating children's literature in the reading instructional framework…

  11. We create our own reality

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    " Yes, we create our own reality. This is one of the most fundamental tenets of the ancient oriental religions, such as Buddhism. And during the last century, modern particle physics or quantum mechanics has discovered exactly the same thing" (1 page).

  12. Creating legitimacy across international contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul Houman; Rask, Morten

    2014-01-01

    in Denmark, Israel, Canada, and Australia using expert interviews as well as content analysis of newspaper articles and other secondary sources. Storytelling, which is found to be central to the legitimacy-creating efforts of international business ventures, interacts with existing discourses in the diverse...

  13. Creating Presentations on ICT Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchis, Iuliana

    2010-01-01

    The article focuses on the creation of presentations on ICT classes. The first part highlights the most important steps when creating a presentation. The main idea is, that the computer presentation shouldn't consist only from the technological part, i.e. the editing of the presentation in a computer program. There are many steps before and after…

  14. Creating speech-synchronized animation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Scott A; Parent, Richard E

    2005-01-01

    We present a facial model designed primarily to support animated speech. Our facial model takes facial geometry as input and transforms it into a parametric deformable model. The facial model uses a muscle-based parameterization, allowing for easier integration between speech synchrony and facial expressions. Our facial model has a highly deformable lip model that is grafted onto the input facial geometry to provide the necessary geometric complexity needed for creating lip shapes and high-quality renderings. Our facial model also includes a highly deformable tongue model that can represent the shapes the tongue undergoes during speech. We add teeth, gums, and upper palate geometry to complete the inner mouth. To decrease the processing time, we hierarchically deform the facial surface. We also present a method to animate the facial model over time to create animated speech using a model of coarticulation that blends visemes together using dominance functions. We treat visemes as a dynamic shaping of the vocal tract by describing visemes as curves instead of keyframes. We show the utility of the techniques described in this paper by implementing them in a text-to-audiovisual-speech system that creates animation of speech from unrestricted text. The facial and coarticulation models must first be interactively initialized. The system then automatically creates accurate real-time animated speech from the input text. It is capable of cheaply producing tremendous amounts of animated speech with very low resource requirements.

  15. Dicty_cDB: SLJ752 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Tetrahymena thermophila elongation factor 2 gene, complete cds. 60 1e-06 3 BM058578 |BM058578.1 2193-94 hindgut and Malpig...ditions of nitrogen deprivation. 60 1e-05 1 BM058379 |BM058379.1 2191-29 hindgut and Malpighian tubule subtr

  16. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U12991-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ( AF272150 ) Dictyostelium discoideum deliriumA (dlrA) gene, c... 2022 0.0 3 ( BJ...39594 ) TT1EP48TV Tetrahymena thermophila SB210 cDNA libr... 38 10.0 2 >( AF272150 ) Dictyostelium discoideum delirium

  17. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15232-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 66615 ) TTBA328TG Tetrahymena thermophila CU428 log phase... 70 1e-37 5 ( DL168374 ) Methods for Identifying...-Sampling_GS-30-02-01-1... 113 3e-37 5 ( DL171366 ) Methods for Identifying the T

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OLAT-18-0048 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OLAT-18-0048 ref|XP_001471091.1| two-component sensor protein histidine protein kinase (dhkk, dhkj...) [Tetrahymena thermophila SB210] gb|EDK32072.1| two-component sensor protein histidine

  19. Dicty_cDB: SLJ468 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ignificant alignments: (bits) Value N AF312775 |AF312775.1 Tetrahymena thermophila macronuclear immobiliza...tion antigen LD (SerLD) mRNA, complete cds. 30 0.46 4 BG632067 |BG632067.1 GH02610.

  20. Dicty_cDB: AFK467 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 599 e-167 1 CN206669 |CN206669.1 Tor7097 Gametophyte rehydration Library Tortula ruralis cDNA, mRNA sequenc...55.1 TTE00006978 Normalized large Tetrahymena thermophila cDNA, mRNA sequence. 74 3e-09 1 CN206834 |CN206834.1 Tor7258 Game

  1. Dicty_cDB: AFL178 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e-167 1 CN206669 |CN206669.1 Tor7097 Gametophyte rehydration Library Tortula ruralis cDNA, mRNA sequence. 7... TTE00006978 Normalized large Tetrahymena thermophila cDNA, mRNA sequence. 74 3e-09 1 CN206834 |CN206834.1 Tor7258 Game

  2. Dicty_cDB: AFK889 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 599 e-167 1 CN206669 |CN206669.1 Tor7097 Gametophyte rehydration Library Tortula...55.1 TTE00006978 Normalized large Tetrahymena thermophila cDNA, mRNA sequence. 74 4e-09 1 CN206834 |CN206834.1 Tor7258 Game

  3. Dicty_cDB: AFH816 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ingle read. 599 e-167 1 CN206669 |CN206669.1 Tor7097 Gametophyte rehydration Library Tortula ruralis cDNA, m... Normalized large Tetrahymena thermophila cDNA, mRNA sequence. 74 3e-09 1 CN206834 |CN206834.1 Tor7258 Gam

  4. Dicty_cDB: AFH685 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 99 e-167 1 CN206669 |CN206669.1 Tor7097 Gametophyte rehydration Library Tortula ruralis cDNA, mRNA sequence.....1 TTE00006978 Normalized large Tetrahymena thermophila cDNA, mRNA sequence. 74 3e-09 1 CN206834 |CN206834.1 Tor7258 Game

  5. Dicty_cDB: AFH538 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e-165 1 CN206669 |CN206669.1 Tor7097 Gametophyte rehydration Library Tortula ruralis cDNA, mRNA sequence. 7...ge Tetrahymena thermophila cDNA, mRNA sequence. 74 3e-09 1 CN206834 |CN206834.1 Tor7258 Game

  6. GenBank blastx search result: AK288287 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK288287 J090018F21 AY740525.1 AY740525 Tetrahymena thermophila cadmium-inducible m...etallothionein 1 (MTT1) and cadmium-inducible metallothionein 3 (MTT3) genes, complete cds. INV 0.0 0 ...

  7. Creating a climate for excellence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, J

    1985-01-01

    Some people are motivated to achieve in a manner consistent with the goals of their organization while others pursue individual goals. The attitudes people hold determine their behavior. Therefore, the manager is charged with creating an environment that fosters employee commitment to organizational goals. To create a climate for achievement, managers must recognize that all employees want recognition. Employees perform more effectively when they understand the goals of the organization, know what is expected of them, and are part of a system that includes feedback and reinforcement. Generally, people perform more effectively in an environment with minimal threat and punishment; individual responsibility should be encouraged, rewards based on results, and a climate of trust and open communication should prevail.

  8. Creating advanced health informatics certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadd, Cynthia S; Williamson, Jeffrey J; Steen, Elaine B; Fridsma, Douglas B

    2016-07-01

    In 2005, AMIA leaders and members concluded that certification of advanced health informatics professionals would offer value to individual practitioners, organizations that hire them, and society at large. AMIA's work to create advanced informatics certification began by leading a successful effort to create the clinical informatics subspecialty for American Board of Medical Specialties board-certified physicians. Since 2012, AMIA has been working to establish advanced health informatics certification (AHIC) for all health informatics practitioners regardless of their primary discipline. In November 2015, AMIA completed the first of 3 key tasks required to establish AHIC, with the AMIA Board of Directors' endorsement of proposed eligibility requirements. This AMIA Board white paper describes efforts to establish AHIC, reports on the current status of AHIC components, and provides a context for the proposed AHIC eligibility requirements. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Leadership Networking Connect, Collaborate, Create

    CERN Document Server

    (CCL), Center for Creative Leadership; Baldwin, David

    2011-01-01

    Networking is essential to effective leadership in today's organizations. Leaders who are skilled networkers have access to people, information, and resources to help solve problems and create opportunities. Leaders who neglect their networks are missing out on a critical component of their role as leaders. This book will help leaders take a new view of networking and provide insight into how to enhance their networks and become effective at leadership networking.

  10. Creating a Mobile Library Website

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutshall, Tom C.; Blake, Lindsay; Bandy, Sandra L.

    2011-01-01

    The overwhelming results were iPhones and Android devices. Since the library wasn't equipped technologically to develop an in-house application platform and because we wanted the content to work across all mobile platforms, we decided to focus on creating a mobile web-based platform. From the NLM page of mobile sites we chose the basic PubMed/…

  11. Creating and Sustaining Competitive Advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Lage Hansen, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    The paper provides a general framework for examining how governance choice affects competitive advantage. I argue that firms rely on assets for competing, and that these assets can be accessed by different governance structures (i.e., they can be in- or outsourced). The transaction cost economics framework is used to expose strengths and weaknesses of governance structures with respect to creating and sustaining competitive advantage. The result is a tradeoff to consider when choosing how to ...

  12. In silico prediction of toxicity of phenols to Tetrahymena pyriformis by using genetic algorithm and decision tree-based modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasitabar, Fatemeh; Zare-Shahabadi, Vahid

    2017-04-01

    Risk assessment of chemicals is an important issue in environmental protection; however, there is a huge lack of experimental data for a large number of end-points. The experimental determination of toxicity of chemicals involves high costs and time-consuming process. In silico tools such as quantitative structure-toxicity relationship (QSTR) models, which are constructed on the basis of computational molecular descriptors, can predict missing data for toxic end-points for existing or even not yet synthesized chemicals. Phenol derivatives are known to be aquatic pollutants. With this background, we aimed to develop an accurate and reliable QSTR model for the prediction of toxicity of 206 phenols to Tetrahymena pyriformis. A multiple linear regression (MLR)-based QSTR was obtained using a powerful descriptor selection tool named Memorized_ACO algorithm. Statistical parameters of the model were 0.72 and 0.68 for R training 2 and R test 2 , respectively. To develop a high-quality QSTR model, classification and regression tree (CART) was employed. Two approaches were considered: (1) phenols were classified into different modes of action using CART and (2) the phenols in the training set were partitioned to several subsets by a tree in such a manner that in each subset, a high-quality MLR could be developed. For the first approach, the statistical parameters of the resultant QSTR model were improved to 0.83 and 0.75 for R training 2 and R test 2 , respectively. Genetic algorithm was employed in the second approach to obtain an optimal tree, and it was shown that the final QSTR model provided excellent prediction accuracy for the training and test sets (R training 2 and R test 2 were 0.91 and 0.93, respectively). The mean absolute error for the test set was computed as 0.1615. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Preventive Indicators for Creating Brownfields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Burinskienė

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Although the problem of brownfields in urban territories is successfully limited, it is a negative phenomenon of a sustainable city. Moreover, the number of recently created brownfield territories has become higher than that of the regenerated ones. Such territories reduce the quality of the social and economic setting of a city as well as visually and physically affect the life quality of city residents. Unfortunately, methods for the revitalization of brownfield land have been applied to deal with the consequences of the problem rather than to limit the problem itself. The authors of the article have investigated the aspects to be avoided to not create brownfields. The indicators that enable predicting the probability of a territory becoming a brownfield have been analyzed in this paper. Countries develop and exist under different social and economic conditions. Therefore, there is no uniform and universally accepted system of indicators for brownfield prevention that can be applied in any country or city. The authors have attempted to implement a recently developed idea of indicators for prevention under Lithuanian conditions and have selected those facilitating the identification of brownfields with an aim of identifying the most significant ones warning about the potential harm from the creation of brownfields in Lithuania. The selected indicators have been grouped, taking into account social, economic, natural, building and infrastructure settings of the city and ranked by a group of experts in urban planning. The established hierarchy of indicators in the groups of urban setting has allowed the authors to select the most significant preventive indicators for brownfields. The created system of indicators could be applied in practice as a basis for monitoring pertinent data and tracking their change.

  14. Creating a digital medical illustration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culley, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    This paper covers the steps required to complete a medical illustration in a digital format using Adobe Illustrator and Photoshop. The project example is the surgical procedure for the release of the glenohumeral joint for the condition known as 'frozen shoulder'. The purpose is to demonstrate one method which an artist can use within digital media to create a colour illustration such as the release of the glenohumeral joint. Included is a general overview as how to deal with the administration of a medical illustration commission through the experience of a professional freelance artist.

  15. Creating your own leadership brand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerfoot, Karlene

    2002-01-01

    Building equity in a brand happens through many encounters. The initial attraction must be followed by the meeting of expectations. This creates a loyalty that is part of an emotional connection to that brand. This is the same process people go through when they first meet a leader and decide if this is a person they want to buy into. People will examine your style, your competence, and your standards. If you fail on any of these fronts, your ability to lead will be severely compromised. People expect more of leaders now, because they know and recognize good leaders. And, predictably, people are now more cynical of leaders because of the well-publicized excess of a few leaders who advanced their own causes at the expense of their people and their financial future. This will turn out to be a good thing, because it will create a higher standard of leadership that all must aspire to achieve. When the bar is raised for us, our standards of performance are also raised.

  16. OPPOSITIONS CREATING HOMOUR IN JOKES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umral Deveci

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Human beings, who perceive the reality of death however who do not know when it will happen, begin their life with this deficiency. Therefore, throughout their lives, they struggle to consummate and make up for the things that they perceive as deficiency or shortcomings through different ways. Humor is one of these means. The fact that deficiencies are eliminated results in superiority and relaxation. The sense of humor and relaxation simultaneously provide laughter. When theories of humor such as superiority, incongruous and relief are taken into consideration, it seems that these theories are related and support each other. Each text is whole with its form and content, which should be evaluated as a whole as much as possible. Hence this study dwells on shortcomings in jokes and in the lights of these shortcomings and theories of humor, it is intended tomake humor in stories, in terms of structural and semantic context, more concrete. Five stories/jokes randomly selected through samples are analyzed in this article. There are two basic types of opposition. The firstone is opposition that creates situation, the second one is thatcreates laughter. The first opposition depicts the shortcomings of knowledge, skill, patience arrogance and jealousyand prepares the second opposition. The opposition that creates laughter make up for shortcomings through cause and effect relationship and laughter comes out.

  17. Can the Universe create itself?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gott, J. Richard, III; Li, Li-Xin

    1998-07-01

    The question of first-cause has troubled philosophers and cosmologists alike. Now that it is apparent that our universe began in a big bang explosion, the question of what happened before the big bang arises. Inflation seems like a very promising answer, but as Borde and Vilenkin have shown, the inflationary state preceding the big bang could not have been infinite in duration-it must have had a beginning also. Where did it come from? Ultimately, the difficult question seems to be how to make something out of nothing. This paper explores the idea that this is the wrong question-that that is not how the Universe got here. Instead, we explore the idea of whether there is anything in the laws of physics that would prevent the Universe from creating itself. Because spacetimes can be curved and multiply connected, general relativity allows for the possibility of closed timelike curves (CTCs). Thus, tracing backwards in time through the original inflationary state we may eventually encounter a region of CTCs-giving no first-cause. This region of CTCs may well be over by now (being bounded toward the future by a Cauchy horizon). We illustrate that such models-with CTCs-are not necessarily inconsistent by demonstrating self-consistent vacuums for Misner space and a multiply connected de Sitter space in which the renormalized energy-momentum tensor does not diverge as one approaches the Cauchy horizon and solves Einstein's equations. Some specific scenarios (out of many possible ones) for this type of model are described. For example, a metastable vacuum inflates producing an infinite number of (big-bang-type) bubble universes. In many of these, either by natural causes or by action of advanced civilizations, a number of bubbles of metastable vacuum are created at late times by high energy events. These bubbles will usually collapse and form black holes, but occasionally one will tunnel to create an expanding metastable vacuum (a baby universe) on the other side of the

  18. Creating Interdisciplinarity within Monodisciplinary Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindvig, Katrine

    The objectives of the PhD project were to explore the linkages between interdisciplinary research and education, and to follow the concrete development and execution of interdisciplinary educational activities. In order to meet these objectives, an extensive literature study and a two......-year ethnographic fieldwork were conducted. The PhD project was part of the development project ‘Interdisciplinary education at UCPH’, with the aim of improving and supporting interdisciplinary teaching and learning at the University of Copenhagen (UCPH). The findings of the PhD study point towards wide...... discrepancies in the use of the term interdisciplinarity, which have repercussions for the practices and incentives of creating interdisciplinary education, research and collaboration. Overall, the thesis shows that interdisciplinary teaching and learning practices have to engage in a continuous balancing...

  19. Creating Genetic Resistance to HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, John C.; Zaia, John A.; Rossi, John J.

    2012-01-01

    HIV/AIDS remains a chronic and incurable disease, in spite of the notable successes of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Gene therapy offers the prospect of creating genetic resistance to HIV that supplants the need for antiviral drugs. In sight of this goal, a variety of anti-HIV genes have reached clinical testing, including gene-editing enzymes, protein-based inhibitors, and RNA-based therapeutics. Combinations of therapeutic genes against viral and host targets are designed to improve the overall antiviral potency and reduce the likelihood of viral resistance. In cell-based therapies, therapeutic genes are expressed in gene modified T lymphocytes or in hematopoietic stem cells that generate an HIV-resistant immune system. Such strategies must promote the selective proliferation of the transplanted cells and the prolonged expression of therapeutic genes. This review focuses on the current advances and limitations in genetic therapies against HIV, including the status of several recent and ongoing clinical studies. PMID:22985479

  20. Immediate dissemination of student discoveries to a model organism database enhances classroom-based research experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Emily A; Stover, Nicholas A

    2014-01-01

    Use of inquiry-based research modules in the classroom has soared over recent years, largely in response to national calls for teaching that provides experience with scientific processes and methodologies. To increase the visibility of in-class studies among interested researchers and to strengthen their impact on student learning, we have extended the typical model of inquiry-based labs to include a means for targeted dissemination of student-generated discoveries. This initiative required: 1) creating a set of research-based lab activities with the potential to yield results that a particular scientific community would find useful and 2) developing a means for immediate sharing of student-generated results. Working toward these goals, we designed guides for course-based research aimed to fulfill the need for functional annotation of the Tetrahymena thermophila genome, and developed an interactive Web database that links directly to the official Tetrahymena Genome Database for immediate, targeted dissemination of student discoveries. This combination of research via the course modules and the opportunity for students to immediately "publish" their novel results on a Web database actively used by outside scientists culminated in a motivational tool that enhanced students' efforts to engage the scientific process and pursue additional research opportunities beyond the course.

  1. Creating and Recreating. Microcomputing Working Paper Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arms, Valarie

    This document describes a software program, CREATE, which was developed at Drexel University to guide students in creating English compositions. A second program, ReCREATE, guides students in reading their finished papers and making global revisions. CREATE asks 20 questions that a teacher might ask a student in a pre-writing conference. Unlike…

  2. Creating responsible partnerships in tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Spitzer

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available RQ: Organisations do not provide sufficient time and effort to seek out companies for partners that would, with the assistance of responsible cooperation, contribute to better quality offers and consequently to increased income and the good reputation of both companies. Responsibilities and ethics is where organizations on bothsides would take on and accept their own norms, tasks, obligations and be aware that in a relationship there is a need to give explanations and justify one’s actions, such partnerships will be long and prosperous. This requires a great deal of knowledge and maturity together with a very important personal characteristic that is care. This study examines whether the creation of long term partnerships through responsible and more personal (friendlyrelations brings the organization to greater success.Purpose: The purpose of this research is to determine how important it is for organizations in the tourism industry to build long term relationships, what it should be based on and whether companies are willing to change the current methods of operations.Method: The method of research was an interview with individuals that had a certain position within a tourism company and had contacts with partners and were obligated to see out new ones. A paradigm model was built and the responses analysed.Results: The survey results are encouraging. The interviews showed that respondents were aware that it is necessary to have long term and responsible partnerships. They recognized that in today’s world there is a lack of collaboration that is based on understanding andthat there should be more relations on a personal level. It isrequired that this changes in the future. The participants specifically highlight financial irresponsibility in many companies that destroys collaboration.Organization: With the help of this study, the author attempts to contribute ideas to organizations on how to create solid collaboration with partners, as

  3. Adolescents and HIV: creating partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, S

    1998-05-01

    Despite the President's directive on youth and HIV in 1997 to focus the nation's attention on adolescents and the battle against AIDS, prevention programs continue to be ineffective. The number of seropositive youth, ages 13 to 24 years old, is unclear due to inconsistent definitions of age ranges and inadequate access to testing. Youth have not sought testing for many reasons, including failing to perceive their vulnerability to HIV, confidentiality concerns, and not realizing the effectiveness of early treatment. Adolescents are creating independence, establishing relationships, and learning about drugs and alcohol. Young gay and bisexual men, drug-using youth, and youth of color are at high risk of HIV transmission. Identifying the population involved in risk-taking behavior and eliminating the behavior is an ineffective strategy for adolescent HIV prevention programs. Complicating the issue further, the goals and expectations of adolescents differ from the adults who design and deliver prevention programs. HIV education and prevention efforts need to address solutions to hopelessness, isolation, and violence, rather than focusing on the negative effects risky behaviors will have in the future. Effective programs combine a youth/adult partnership to take advantage of the strengths of each individual. Strategies for implementing prevention programs that address the specific needs of adolescents are suggested.

  4. Creating healthy and just bioregions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzoli, Keith; Leiter, Robert Allen

    2016-03-01

    Dramatic changes taking place locally, regionally, globally, demand that we rethink strategies to improve public health, especially in disadvantaged communities where the cumulative impacts of toxicant exposure and other environmental and social stressors are most damaging. The emergent field of Sustainability Science, including a new bioregionalism for the 21st Century, is giving rise to promising place-based (territorially rooted) approaches. Embedded in this bioregional approach is an integrated planning framework (IPF) that enables people to map and develop plans and strategies that cut across various scales (e.g. from regional to citywide to neighborhood scale) and various topical areas (e.g. urban land use planning, water resource planning, food systems planning and "green infrastructure" planning) with the specific intent of reducing the impacts of toxicants to public health and the natural environment. This paper describes a case of bioregionally inspired integrated planning in San Diego, California (USA). The paper highlights food-water-energy linkages and the importance of "rooted" community-university partnerships and knowledge-action collaboratives in creating healthy and just bioregions.

  5. Laser Created Relativistic Positron Jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, H; Wilks, S C; Meyerhofer, D D; Bonlie, J; Chen, C D; Chen, S N; Courtois, C; Elberson, L; Gregori, G; Kruer, W; Landoas, O; Mithen, J; Murphy, C; Nilson, P; Price, D; Scheider, M; Shepherd, R; Stoeckl, C; Tabak, M; Tommasini, R; Beiersdorder, P

    2009-10-08

    Electron-positron jets with MeV temperature are thought to be present in a wide variety of astrophysical phenomena such as active galaxies, quasars, gamma ray bursts and black holes. They have now been created in the laboratory in a controlled fashion by irradiating a gold target with an intense picosecond duration laser pulse. About 10{sup 11} MeV positrons are emitted from the rear surface of the target in a 15 to 22-degree cone for a duration comparable to the laser pulse. These positron jets are quasi-monoenergetic (E/{delta}E {approx} 5) with peak energies controllable from 3-19 MeV. They have temperatures from 1-4 MeV in the beam frame in both the longitudinal and transverse directions. Positron production has been studied extensively in recent decades at low energies (sub-MeV) in areas related to surface science, positron emission tomography, basic antimatter science such as antihydrogen experiments, Bose-Einstein condensed positronium, and basic plasma physics. However, the experimental tools to produce very high temperature positrons and high-flux positron jets needed to simulate astrophysical positron conditions have so far been absent. The MeV temperature jets of positrons and electrons produced in our experiments offer a first step to evaluate the physics models used to explain some of the most energetic phenomena in the universe.

  6. Creating experimental color harmony map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamaret, Christel; Urban, Fabrice; Lepinel, Josselin

    2014-02-01

    Starting in the 17th century with Newton, color harmony is a topic that did not reach a consensus on definition, representation or modeling so far. Previous work highlighted specific characteristics for color harmony on com- bination of color doublets or triplets by means of a human rating on a harmony scale. However, there were no investigation involving complex stimuli or pointing out how harmony is spatially located within a picture. The modeling of such concept as well as a reliable ground-truth would be of high value for the community, since the applications are wide and concern several communities: from psychology to computer graphics. We propose a protocol for creating color harmony maps from a controlled experiment. Through an eye-tracking protocol, we focus on the identification of disharmonious colors in pictures. The experiment was composed of a free viewing pass in order to let the observer be familiar with the content before a second pass where we asked "to search for the most disharmonious areas in the picture". Twenty-seven observers participated to the experiments that was composed of a total of 30 different stimuli. The high inter-observer agreement as well as a cross-validation confirm the validity of the proposed ground-truth.

  7. Listeria monocytogenes virulence factor Listeriolysin O favors bacterial growth in co-culture with the ciliate Tetrahymena pyriformis, causes protozoan encystment and promotes bacterial survival inside cysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermolaeva Svetlana A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The gram-positive pathogenic bacterium Listeria monocytogenes is widely spread in the nature. L. monocytogenes was reported to be isolated from soil, water, sewage and sludge. Listeriolysin O (LLO is a L. monocytogenes major virulence factor. In the course of infection in mammals, LLO is required for intracellular survival and apoptosis induction in lymphocytes. In this study, we explored the potential of LLO to promote interactions between L. monocytogenes and the ubiquitous inhabitant of natural ecosystems bacteriovorous free-living ciliate Tetrahymena pyriformis. Results Wild type L. monocytogenes reduced T. pyriformis trophozoite counts and stimulated encystment. The effects were observed starting from 48 h of co-incubation. On the day 14, trophozoites were eliminated from the co-culture while about 5 × 104 cells/ml remained in the axenic T. pyriformis culture. The deficient in the LLO-encoding hly gene L. monocytogenes strain failed to cause mortality among protozoa and to trigger protozoan encystment. Replenishment of the hly gene in the mutant strain restored toxicity towards protozoa and induction of protozoan encystment. The saprophytic non-haemolytic species L. innocua transformed with the LLO-expressing plasmid caused extensive mortality and encystment in ciliates. During the first week of co-incubation, LLO-producing L. monocytogenes demonstrated higher growth rates in association with T. pyriformis than the LLO-deficient isogenic strain. At latter stages of co-incubation bacterial counts were similar for both strains. T. pyriformis cysts infected with wild type L. monocytogenes caused listerial infection in guinea pigs upon ocular and oral inoculation. The infection was proved by bacterial plating from the internal organs. Conclusions The L. monocytogenes virulence factor LLO promotes bacterial survival and growth in the presence of bacteriovorous ciliate T. pyriformis. LLO is responsible for L. monocytogenes

  8. India creates social marketing organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    India, in a major policy shift toward reversible birth controls methods, will form a new organization to promote private sector contraceptive sales. The government, through a recently signed agreement with the Agency for International Development (AID), plans to establish a private nonprofit Contraceptive Marketing Organization (CMO) in fiscal year 1984. This momentous move marks a full circle return to a 1969 proposal by AID and Ford Foundation consultants. Funded at about $500 million over a 7 year period, the CMO will function as a semi-autonomous entity run by a board of governors representing government and such public and public sectors as health, communications, management, manufacturing, marketing, advertising, and market research. According to the agreement called the India Family Planning Communications and Marketing Plan, the CMO's activities will cover procurement and distribution of condoms, oral contraceptives (OCs), and other yet to be determined contraceptive methods. Of the $500 million in funds, the government of India has pledged 2/3, AID roughly $50 million in grants and loans, with the balance expected from such sources as the UN Fund for Population Activities. The CMO's goal is a marked increase in contraceptive use by married couples of reproductive age from the current 6% rate to 20% by 1990. As of 1982, India has 122 million such couples, with 1% purchasing commercial products, 2% buying Nirodh Marketing Program condoms and 3% relying on free government contraceptives. Besides creating the CMO, the India/AID pact outlines intensified public sector family planning promotions and activities. Some Indian health experts believe the government's decision to expand social marketing's role rests with a significant decade long decline in the popularity of such permanent birth control measures as vasectomy and tubal ligation.

  9. Creating Shared Value by Combatting Corruption

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Philip M Nichols

    2016-01-01

      Creating Shared Value The creating shared value strategy is similar to corporate social responsibility and to social impact in that it focusses on the intersection between business and the rest of society...

  10. Creating the Environment for Continuous Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    The Limits of Competition in Defense Acquisition Defense Acquisition University Research Symposium, September 2012 CREATING THE ENVIRONMENT FOR...3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2012 to 00-00-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Creating the Environment for Continuous Competition 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...Information Technology (IT) Box A Primer. Retrieved from http: www.dau.mil/IT_Box_Primer_RDT_02142012.pptx. Creating the Environment for Continuous

  11. Ecological impacts of umbrella effects of radiation on the individual members

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doi, Masahiro [Regulatory Sciences Research Group, Research Center for Radiation Protection, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi, 263-8555 (Japan); Kawaguchi, Isao [Regulatory Sciences Research Group, Research Center for Radiation Protection, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi, 263-8555 (Japan)]. E-mail: kawag@nirs.go.jp

    2007-07-15

    In order to study the interactions in a model aquatic microcosm, an individual-based computer simulation model was developed. The microcosm consists of Euglena gracilis as an autotroph algae, Tetrahymena thermophila as a heterotroph protozoa and Escherichia coli as a saprotroph bacteria. There exists a strong interaction between Tetrahymena and E. coli as the first is the predator of the second. Ecological toxicity tests were conducted to test the population level impacts of the biological effects of radiation and toxicants on the lethality and mobility factors that influence directly or indirectly growth and reproduction. Radiological effects on lethality of E. coli individuals were translated to the reduction of the equilibrium population of Tetrahymena. A synergistic effect at the community level was also observed by the simulation of a combined exposure of radiation and a toxicant which reduced the feeding efficiency of Tetrahymena.

  12. Process to create simulated lunar agglutinate particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Robert J. (Inventor); Gustafson, Marty A. (Inventor); White, Brant C. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A method of creating simulated agglutinate particles by applying a heat source sufficient to partially melt a raw material is provided. The raw material is preferably any lunar soil simulant, crushed mineral, mixture of crushed minerals, or similar material, and the heat source creates localized heating of the raw material.

  13. ICT and Pragmatism: Creating sustainable Employment for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thus, unless there is effort to create self employment, this can galvanize unexpected revolution whose consequences will be very grave. The reading public will have to apply the advice provided in this article to create self employment. Key Words: e-commerce, online transaction, broadband stimulus, unemployment.

  14. Creating Safe Spaces for Music Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Karin S.; Smith, Tawnya D.; Stanuch, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This article offers a practical model for fostering emotionally safe learning environments that instill in music students a positive sense of self-belief, freedom, and purpose. The authors examine the implications for music educators of creating effective learning environments and present recommendations for creating a safe space for learning,…

  15. Creating mobile apps with Appcelerator Titanium

    CERN Document Server

    Brousseau, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Creating Mobile Apps with Appcelerator Titanium provides a hands-on approach and working examples on creating apps and games as well as embedding them onto a social networking website. Developers can then move on from there to develop their own applications based on the ones they have developed throughout the course of this book.""Creating Mobile Apps with Appcelerator Titanium"" is for developers who have experience with modern languages and development environments. Also, if you are familiar with the concepts of Object-oriented Programming (OOP), reusable components, AJAX closures, and so on

  16. Creating Web Sites The Missing Manual

    CERN Document Server

    MacDonald, Matthew

    2006-01-01

    Think you have to be a technical wizard to build a great web site? Think again. For anyone who wants to create an engaging web site--for either personal or business purposes--Creating Web Sites: The Missing Manual demystifies the process and provides tools, techniques, and expert guidance for developing a professional and reliable web presence. Like every Missing Manual, you can count on Creating Web Sites: The Missing Manual to be entertaining and insightful and complete with all the vital information, clear-headed advice, and detailed instructions you need to master the task at hand. Autho

  17. Mechanism for adaptive modification during cold acclimation of phospholipid acyl chain composition in Tetrahymena. II. Activities of 2-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphorylcholine and 2-acyl-sn-glycerol-3- phosphorylethanolamine acyltransferases involving the reacylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, S; Kameyama, Y; Nozawa, Y

    1984-03-27

    The deacylation-reacylation process is very important for the alteration of phospholipid fatty acyl composition on lowering of growth temperature in Tetrahymena pyriformis (Kameyama, Y., Yoshioka, S. and Nozawa, Y., (1984) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 793, 28-33). Microsomes isolated from Tetrahymena cells have reacylation activities not only for 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphorylcholine (1-acyl-GPC) and 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphorylethanolamine (1-acyl-GPE) but also for 2-acyl-GPC and 2-acyl-GPE. Unsaturated fatty acyl-CoAs were in general much better substrates than saturated fatty acyl-CoAs for acylations of 1-acyl-GPC and 1-acyl-GPE. The acylation rates for 1-acyl-GPE were almost the same in palmitoleoyl-CoA, oleoyl-CoA, linoleoyl-CoA and gamma-linoleoyl-CoA. However, the acylation activity for 1-acyl-GPC was more than 2-fold higher with palmitoleoyl-CoA than with any other unsaturated fatty acyl-CoAs. In contrast, both 2-acyl-GPC and 2-acyl-GPE acyltransferases did not show a distinct preference for various acyl-CoAs, although palmitoyl-CoA was incorporated into both 2-acylphospholipids at higher rates than into 1-acylphospholipids. These specificities for various acyl-CoAs of 1-acyl- and 2-acyl-GPC and 1-acyl- and 2-acyl-GPE acyltransferases were not changed in the microsomes isolated from cells grown isothermally at 39 degrees C and 15 degrees C and cells shifted from 39 degrees C to 15 degrees C. However, the acylating ratio of linoleoyl-CoA to palmitoyl-CoA, which were chosen as typical unsaturated and saturated fatty acyl-CoAs, in the microsomes from cells grown at 15 degrees C was 1.5-3.0-times higher than in the microsomes from 39 degrees C-grown cells in four acyltransferase activities. These results suggest that the changes of acyl-CoA specificities in reacylation enzyme activities during temperature down-shift would make little contribution to the increase in unsaturated fatty acids in phospholipids, although reacylating enzymes from isothermally grown

  18. Creating Healthy Environments For Youth Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has created a presentation and companion checklist to help coaches and athletic administrators better understand the environmental health risks associated with youth sports and the steps they can follow to protect young athletes.

  19. More Sci- than Fi, Physicists Create Antimatter

    CERN Document Server

    Overbye, Dennis

    2002-01-01

    Physicists working in Europe announced yesterday that they had passed through nature's looking glass and had created atoms made of antimatter, or antiatoms, opening up the possibility of experiments in a realm once reserved for science fiction writers (5 pages)

  20. How to Create a Personal Health Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... currently available to help you create your own personal health record ( PHR ). PHR s are an inevitable and critical step in the evolution of health information management ( HIM ). The book, “The ...

  1. A summary of the CMS Create event

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; GASTAL, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The maiden CMS Create event took place in November 2015 and was a huge success. The output from all the participants was fantastic. As organisers we learnt a lot and hope to build on our experience for the 2016 event!

  2. Taking medicine at home - create a routine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000613.htm Taking medicine at home - create a routine To use the ... teeth. Find Ways to Help You Remember Your Medicines You can: Set the alarm on your clock, ...

  3. How to Create a Reference from XML

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This module walks through the process of manually creating a ‘Geospatial Data’ record from an eXtensible Markup Language (XML) metadata file. It assumes that you...

  4. Creating competence: perspectives and practices in organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Martin

    2000-01-01

    Creating competence has become a major issue in organizations. Various authors contend that competency management has the potential of integrating organizational strategy, human-resource instruments, and human-resource development; that competency development can lead to performance improvement; and

  5. Creating Math Videos: Comparing Platforms and Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasian, Reza O.; Sieben, John T.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present a short tutorial on creating mini-videos using two platforms--PCs and tablets such as iPads--and software packages that work with these devices. Specifically, we describe the step-by-step process of creating and editing videos using a Wacom Intuos pen-tablet plus Camtasia software on a PC platform and using the software…

  6. Co-creating meaning through Artful Inquiry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darsø, Lotte

    2017-01-01

    contribution of this chapter is the introduction of a model for Artful Inquiry, which involves constructing powerful questions and finding appropriate artistic methods for reflecting and for co-creating with people or with artistic material. It is argued that Artful Inquiry can access deeper layers of knowing...... of leadership icons as well as co-creating with tangible materials can give rise to new meaning and transformational learning....

  7. ISO 55000: Creating an asset management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Chris; Main, Kevin

    2015-02-01

    In the October 2014 issue of HEJ, Keith Hamer, group vice-president, Asset Management & Engineering at Sodexo, and marketing director at Asset Wisdom, Kevin Main, argued that the new ISO 55000 standards present facilities managers with an opportunity to create 'a joined-up, whole lifecycle approach' to managing and delivering value from assets. In this article, Kevin Main and Chris Bradley, who runs various asset management projects, examine the process of creating an asset management system.

  8. Comparative studies on the photosensitizing potency of 5-methoxypsoralen and 8-methoxypsoralen as measured by cytolysis in Paramecium caudatam and Tetrahymena pyriformis, and growth inhibition and survival in Candida albicans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, A.R. (Institute of Dermatology, London (UK)); Barth, J. (Karl-Marx-Universitaet, Leipzig (German Democratic Republic))

    1982-01-01

    The photosensitizing potencies of 5-methoxypsoralen and 8-methoxypsoralen were investigated using the following biological end-points for lethality: (i) cytolysis in the protozoans Paramecium caudatum and Tetrahymena pyriformis, (ii) inhibition of growth in the yeast Candida albicans and (iii) survival as measured by colony counts in Candida albicans. In all cases, 5-methoxypsoralen proved to be the more potent photosensitizing agent. The preliminary action spectra of the 2 compounds for growth inhibition in C. albicans were similar and showed maximal spectral efficiency in the 320-340 nm waveband. The molecular basis for the described end-points is unknown. Although it is well known that 5-methoxypsoralen and 8-methoxypsoralen readily photoreact with DNA, it is considered that photoreaction with protein should also be given serious consideration as the possible lethal event. The superior effect of 5-methoxypsoralen is in accordance with some of the physical and photochemical properties of this molecule, but this result is at variance with other studies in different test systems that have been used to compare the photobiological efficacy of these 2 compounds.

  9. [Create or copy... Which is the difference?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López P, Ricardo

    2009-01-01

    Creating and copying are two different processes; we must not confuse creativity with plagiarism. However, this distinction is problematic, because there is no possibility of creating from scratch, this implies that any creative act necessarily arises from accumulative experience, inevitably producing a continuity between old and new. Even so it is necessary to establish clearly the difference between creating and copying. It is not desirable that a matter of such importance remains in the nebula or that the relationship between creativity and ethics is kept unaware. There are many cases of plagiarism, but this cannot be a consolation. There is no gain when the existence of a plagiarism is ignored or concealed and less when it is unjustified.

  10. Can Physical Examination Create a Stener Lesion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankachandra, Manesha; Eggers, John P; Bogener, James W; Hutchison, Richard L

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether a Stener lesion can be created while testing stability of the ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) of the thumb. Testing was performed in a manner that reproduced clinical examination. Six fresh frozen hand and forearm specimens underwent sequential sectioning of the accessory UCL, the proper UCL, and the ulnar sagittal band. Measurements of radial deviation of the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint were taken with the thumb in neutral rotation, pronation and supination, both with 0 degrees and with 30 degrees of flexion of the MCP joint. Visual examination was performed to assess the presence of a Stener lesion. No Stener lesion was created in any position as long as the fascial origin of the ulnar sagittal band at the adductor pollicis longus remained intact. After creating a defect in the ulnar sagittal band, a Stener lesion was created in two specimens, but only when the thumb was flexed and supinated. Pronation provided more stability, and supination provided less stability, with one or both components cut, especially when testing at 30° of flexion. Compared to both components cut without flexion or rotation, there was a statistically significant difference in angulation with the 30 degrees of MCP joint flexion in both neutral rotation in supination. Performing a physical examination to assess the amount of instability of an ulnar collateral ligament injury did not create a Stener lesion if the exam was performed in a controlled, gentle manner with the thumb held without rotation. If the thumb is held in neutral rotation during the exam, an iatrogenic Stener lesion should not be created.

  11. How to create a serious game?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Heidmann

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Serious games are video games designed to achieve an educational effect and achieve some degree of training in a certain area. They are nowadays used in industries such as defense, education, scientific exploration, health care, emergency management, city planning, engineering, and many others. As it still a nascent subject who doesn’t follow exactly the same rules and practices than the commercial video games industry, questions remain about how to create and use serious games. This article presents some know-how on the subject of creating serious games.

  12. Creating e-learning games with Unity

    CERN Document Server

    Horachek, David

    2014-01-01

    Unity is a fully integrated development engine providing the required functionality to create games and interactive 3D content, while reducing the time, effort, and cost of developing the content. Nowadays, many people have started to use Unity in an eLearning setting as it allows them to create real-world scenarios, or models, for training purposes. With Unity, one can develop video games that are not only fun, but are also effective teaching and learning tools. When properly designed, an engaging game is an ideal platform for the presentation, testing, and application of learning objectives.

  13. Creating dynamic UI with Android fragments

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Jim

    2013-01-01

    A fast-paced tutorial that guides you through everything you need to know about dynamic UI design for Android devices.This book is for developers with a basic understanding of Android programming who would like to improve the appearance and usability of their applications. Whether you're looking to create a more interactive user experience, create more dynamically adaptive UIs, provide better support for tablets and smartphones in a single app, reduce the complexity of managing your app UIs, or you are just trying to expand your UI design philosophy, then this book is for you.

  14. Creating a Website The Missing Manual

    CERN Document Server

    MacDonald, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Think you need an army of skilled programmers to build a website? Think again. With nothing more than an ordinary PC, some raw ambition, and this book, you'll learn how to create and maintain a professional-looking, visitor-friendly site. This Missing Manual gives you all the tools, techniques, and expert advice you need. Plan your site. Create web pages by learning the basics of HTML and HTML5.Control page design with CSS. Format text, images, links, tables, and other elements.Attract visitors. Ensure that people can find your site through popular search engines.Build a community. Add forums

  15. Creating a web site the missing manual

    CERN Document Server

    MacDonald, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    Think you have to be a technical wizard to build a great web site? Think again. If you want to create an engaging web site, this thoroughly revised, completely updated edition of Creating a Web Site: The Missing Manual demystifies the process and provides tools, techniques, and expert guidance for developing a professional and reliable web presence. Whether you want to build a personal web site, an e-commerce site, a blog, or a web site for a specific occasion or promotion, this book gives you detailed instructions and clear-headed advice for: Everything from planning to launching. From pi

  16. Creating Gaze Annotations in Head Mounted Displays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardanbeigi, Diako; Qvarfordt, Pernilla

    2015-01-01

    , the user simply captures an image using the HMD’s camera, looks at an object of interest in the image, and speaks out the information to be associated with the object. The gaze location is recorded and visualized with a marker. The voice is transcribed using speech recognition. Gaze annotations can......To facilitate distributed communication in mobile settings, we developed GazeNote for creating and sharing gaze annotations in head mounted displays (HMDs). With gaze annotations it possible to point out objects of interest within an image and add a verbal description. To create an annota- tion...

  17. DNA damage by the cobalt (II) and zinc (II) complexes of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using the single cell gel electrophoresis method, the tetraazamacrocycle Zn(II) complex (Zn(II)-L) and the tetraazamacrocycle Co(II) complex (Co(II)-L) were investigated focusing on their DNA damage to Tetrahymena thermophila. When the cells were treated with the 0.05, 0.25 and 0.50 mg/ml Zn(II)-L, the tail length ...

  18. DNA damage by the cobalt (II) and zinc (II) complexes of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-09-03

    Sep 3, 2008 ... Using the single cell gel electrophoresis method, the tetraazamacrocycle Zn(II) complex (Zn(II)-L) and the tetraazamacrocycle Co(II) complex (Co(II)-L) were investigated focusing on their DNA damage to. Tetrahymena thermophila. When the cells were treated with the 0.05, 0.25 and 0.50 mg/ml Zn(II)-L, the.

  19. Dicty_cDB: VHB207 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Tetrahymena thermophila cDNA clone TT1C849, mRNA sequence. 68 1e-11 2 CF445056 |CF445056.1 EST681401 normalized cDNA library of onio...1 3 CF439652 |CF439652.1 EST675997 normalized cDNA library of onion Allium cepa cDNA clone ACAAS01, mRNA seq

  20. Creating an Economically Enabling and Competitive Business ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Creating an Economically Enabling and Competitive Business Environment in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. The prospect of indefinite Israeli occupation of the ... Impact of implementing the Palestinian banking law on the performance of the private sector [Arabic language]. Documents. Impact of the commercial agents law ...

  1. Creating sustainable environmental management in Senegal's cities ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-28

    Apr 28, 2016 ... IAGU specializes in action research, technical support, and information on the urban environment including urban agriculture, solid waste management, strategic environmental planning, and urban risk management. It works with African city administrations to create sustainable, participatory systems for ...

  2. Mental Mapping: A Lesson that Creates Itself

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comenetz, Joshua

    2005-01-01

    Mental image and place-preference maps of college students in Florida were created through a two-part lesson. The patterns revealed by these maps were linked to students' life experiences, census data on migration and income, and similar studies conducted in other states. Students prefer states with established migration links to Florida and…

  3. Creating a Positive Classroom Environment for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prutzman, Priscilla

    1983-01-01

    Describes cooperation and affirmation activities designed to create a classroom environment in which children interact peacefully and resolve conflicts creatively. Exercises include cooperation drawing, group hand prints and shadow murals, a circle game entitled "Rainstorm," student interviews, affirmation shows using video, affirmation clapping,…

  4. Creating Career Awareness Among Secondary School Students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discussed the need for creating career awareness among Secondary School Students through career fair Career selection is a critical issue for secondary school students who may not be aware of the existing occupations in the labour market. It is important that career information be made available to students ...

  5. Understanding Critical Thinking to Create Better Doctors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayapragassarazan, Zayabalaradjane; Menon, Vikas; Kar, Sitanshu Sekhar; Batmanabane, Gitanjali

    2016-01-01

    Medical students master an enormous body of knowledge, but lack systematic problem solving ability and effective clinical decision making. High profile reports have called for reforms in medical education to create a better generation of doctors who can cope with the system based problems they would encounter in an interdisciplinary and…

  6. Creating a Character as a Writing Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latta, Alan D.

    2001-01-01

    Suggests an approach to teaching German as a second language in which students jointly create a character and her family and then write a series of stories during he year about the character in various everyday situations. Benefits include use of basic language, cultural issues, and stimulation of student creativity and interest. (Author/VWL)

  7. Creating and decomposing vector Bessel beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudley, Angela L

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available -1 58th Annual SAIP Conference, Richards Bay, 8-12 July 2013 Creating and decomposing vector Bessel beams Angela Dudley1,*, Yanming Li2, Thandeka Mhlanga1, Michael Escuti2 and Andrew Forbes1 1 CSIR National Laser Centre, Pretoria, South...

  8. Creating, Invigorating, and Sustaining Effective Teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Susan; Miller, John W.

    1996-01-01

    Teams can boost creativity, morale, and communication, but they can also unleash disharmony, create tension, and waste time. To maximize teaming benefits, administrators must share authority, cultivate teacher leadership, train all team members, use situational leadership, model effective team leader behaviors, provide incentives, support each…

  9. Creating Music Environments in Early Childhood Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achilles, Elayne

    1999-01-01

    Describes how teachers and caregivers can create music environments in early childhood settings that connect to other areas of development. Discusses how music environments can accommodate free-choice participation, describes the caregiver's role, and suggests music activities. Includes definitions of musical concepts for young children, also tips…

  10. The Media Creates Us in Its Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stivers, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Propaganda in all its forms is the culture of a mass society. The media transmits propaganda to form public opinion and recreate the human being. Reversing the Western ideal of a rational and free individual, the media creates a childish conformist ensconced in the peer group, who acts unconsciously.

  11. Extending the "Knowledge Advantage": Creating Learning Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqsood, Tayyab; Walker, Derek; Finegan, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop a synergy between the approaches of knowledge management in a learning organisation and supply chain management so that learning chains can be created in order to unleash innovation and creativity by managing knowledge in supply chains. Design/methodology/approach: Through extensive literature…

  12. Creating Future Memories: A Dialogue on Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehder, Mads Middelboe

    2016-01-01

    Desk of the Future” was created as a means of acting out how unhelpful many helpdesks actually are and to imagine how algorithms may be positioning our futures for us. The Museum of Random Memory functioned as a pop-up curatorial event where participants could offer up memories, experiences...

  13. Creating an Economically Enabling and Competitive Business ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Creating an Economically Enabling and Competitive Business Environment in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. The prospect of indefinite Israeli occupation of the Palestinian territories, and their extreme ... Country(s). Middle East, North of Sahara, South of Sahara, Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, Palestine ...

  14. Creating a Data Warehouse using SQL Server

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Otto; Alnor, Karl

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we construct a Star Join Schema and show how this schema can be created using the basic tools delivered with SQL Server 7.0. Major objectives are to keep the operational database unchanged so that data loading can be done with out disturbing the business logic of the operational...

  15. Introduction: Leadership and Diversity: Creating Inclusive Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Jean A.; Mabokela, Reitumetse Obakeng

    2002-01-01

    Introduces a theme issue that explores the perceptions of teachers toward African American school leaders as they seek to create inclusive school environments; the capacity of teachers and school leaders to negotiate intergroup conflict so they can work collaboratively on matters of race; and leaders' interpretation and implementation of policies…

  16. Creating social impact with sport events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hover, P.; Dijk, B.; Breedveld, K.; Eekeren, F.J.A. van; Slender, H.

    2016-01-01

    All over the world, sport events are seen as significant tools for creating positive social impact. This is understandable, as sport events have the power to attract enthusiastic participants, volunteers and to reach large audiences of visitors and followers via (social) media. Outbursts of

  17. Humanising education through technology: creating social presence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While it is difficult to create social presence in large classes, educational technologies can enhance the social dimension of online learning if educators relinquish the use of technology as an instrument of control. This article argues the importance of social presence as a building block of successful learning environments ...

  18. Creating Teams Increases Extension Educator Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalker-Scott, Linda; Daniels, Catherine H.; Martini, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    The Garden Team at Washington State University is a transdisciplinary group of faculty, staff, and students with expertise in applied plant and soil sciences and an interest in Extension education. The team's primary mission is to create current, relevant, and peer-reviewed materials as Extension publications for home gardeners. The average yearly…

  19. Green Energy Technologies Create Green Jobs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is developing advanced energy technologies that can help address climate change and reduce U.S. dependence on oil. As these new technologies are launched into commercial use, they create new jobs for American workers.

  20. Engineering Encounters: Creating a Prosthetic Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Kristin Leigh; Bush, Sarah B.; Cox, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The power of 3D printing technology has grown exponentially in just the past few years--people around the world are using 3D printers to prepare food, create tailored clothing, build cars and homes, and advance the medical field in ways that never seemed possible. In classrooms across the nation, 3D printers have become increasingly common because…

  1. Creating Learning Communities in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saville, Bryan K.; Lawrence, Natalie Kerr; Jakobsen, Krisztina V.

    2012-01-01

    There are many ways to construct classroom-based learning communities. Nevertheless, the emphasis is always on cooperative learning. In this article, the authors focus on three teaching methods--interteaching, team-based learning, and cooperative learning in large, lecture-based courses--that they have used successfully to create classroom-based…

  2. Creating seamless connections: Intersecting the social and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    university's effort to create intimate learning communities for students within residence halls as a way of integrating students' academic experiences with their residential lives. Both examples illustrate how learning becomes seamless and continues beyond the classroom by allowing students to be organised into learning ...

  3. Creating Smart-er Cities: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allwinkle, Sam; Cruickshank, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The following offers an overview of what it means for cities to be "smart." It draws the supporting definitions and critical insights into smart cities from a series of papers presented at the 2009 Trans-national Conference on Creating Smart(er) Cities. What the papers all have in common is their desire to overcome the all too often…

  4. Photocatalytic Solutions Create Self-Cleaning Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    A Stennis Space Center researcher investigating the effectiveness of photocatalytic materials for keeping the Center's buildings free of grime turned to a solution created by PURETi Inc. of New York City. Testing proved successful, and NASA and the company now share a Dual Use Technology partnership. PURETi's coatings keep surfaces clean and purify surrounding air, eliminating pollution, odors, and microbes.

  5. Creating sustainable empowering learning environments through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Creating sustainable empowering learning environments through scholarship of engagement. ... South African Journal of Higher Education ... Abstract. The assumption grounding this issue of SAJHE is that; a university or any institution of higher learning comes to its fullness through serious engagement with the community.

  6. Creating Self-Portraits. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redekopp, Dave E.; And Others

    Creating Self-Portraits is an individual and/or group career development tool designed to assess without testing. Researchers have found that testing can be counter-productive; once clients were labelled, they frequently stopped self-examination. A tool was needed that would help people understand themselves in a way that would encourage further…

  7. Creating the networking enterprises - logistics determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Kulińska

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The article describes the determinants of creating network enterprises with peculiar consideration of logistic factors which are conditioning the organization of processes, exchange of resources and competences. On the basis of literature analysis, there is proposed a model of creating network enterprises. A model is verified in the application part of the thesis. Methods: Within the publication a literature review of submitted scope of the interest was presented, as well as the empirical research. A research substance attaches the enterprises created on the basis of the reactivation of organizations which has collapsed due to bankruptcy proceeding. The research was based upon direct interviews with employees of the net-forming entities. Results and conclusions: Results of the research shows that taking up the cooperation and net-cooperation was the only possibility for new entities to come into existence, that were  based upon old assets and human resources liquidated during bankruptcy proceeding. There was indentified many determinants of enterprises network cooperation, however due to the research a conclusion draws, that basic factors of creating network cooperation are those which are profit-achieving oriented.

  8. Creating by Reusing Learning Design Solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernández-Leo, Davinia; Harrer, Andreas; Dodero, Juan Manuel; Asensio-Pérez, Juan; Burgos, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Hernández-Leo, D., Harrer, A., Dodero, J. M., Asension-Pérez, J. I., & Burgos, D. (2006). Creating by reusing Learning Design solutions. Proceedings of 8th Simposo Internacional de Informática Educativa, León, Spain: IEEE Technical Committee on Learning Technology. Retrieved October 3rd, 2006, from

  9. Creating Brand India: Strategies, Issues, and Challenges

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alok Chakrawal; Pratibha Goyal

    2016-01-01

    .... Bureaucracy, corruption, delay in clearance of business proposals, ethical standards and work culture, tax reforms, political interventions, socio-economic barriers, regionalism, etc. are some of the challenges that must be coped with. This article examines these various issues and challenges that must be overcome in creating Brand India.

  10. Creating Appropriate Graphics for Business Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Susan M.

    2008-01-01

    Charts and graphs are ubiquitous in business documents, and most students in the author's business communication courses are well aware that they need to be able to create many different types of data representation. Most of them have had a great deal of experience working with spreadsheet applications, and they know how to manipulate data and…

  11. Towards Creating Sustainable Ecotourism Interventions: Practical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-05-01

    May 1, 2017 ... Using the Sustainable Livelihoods Concept and a qualitative approach, this study sought to understand ... Towards Creating Sustainable Ecotourism Interventions: Practical Lessons from Mesomagoro, Ghana. Africa, was .... as mortars, pestles, stools, drums chewing sticks, sponges and material for houses;.

  12. AUTOMATED TECHNIQUE FOR CREATING LITHOLOGIC LOG PLOTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristijan Posavec

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Paper presents automated technique for creating lithologic log plots. Technique is based on three computer tools: Microsoft (MS Access program, LogPlot program, and Visual Basic (VB macros for MS Excel. MS Access ensures professional storage of lithologic data which can be in that way easier and faster entered, searched, updated, and also used for different purposes, while LogPlot provides tools for creating lithologic log plots. VB macros enable transfer of lithologic data from MS Access to LogPlot. Data stored in MS Access are exported in ASCII files which are later used by LogPlot for creation of lithologic log plots. Presented concept facilitates creation of lithologic log plots, and automated technique enables processing of a large number of data i.e. creation of lareg number lithologic log plots in a short period of time (the paper is published in Croatian.

  13. Creating a culture for information systems success

    CERN Document Server

    Belkhamza, Zakariya

    2015-01-01

    It has been widely reported that issues related to organizational context appear frequently in discussions of information systems success. The statement that the information system did not fit the behavioral context in an organization is often part of the explanation of why particular information system encountered unanticipated resistance and never met expectation. While this context has been intensively studied, we still lack evidence on how this organizational context is affecting the success of information system from a managerial action perspective. This type of managerial involvement is often neglected to the extent that it became an essential obstacle to organizational performance. The objective of Creating a Culture for Information Systems Success is to assist CIOs and IT managers on how to use their managerial actions to create a suitable cultural environment in the organization, which leads to a successful implementation of information systems. This  book will also provide guidelines fo...

  14. Creating and Editing Video to Accompany Manuscripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Shayna L; Porto, Dennis A; Ozog, David M; Council, M Laurin

    2016-02-01

    The use of video can enhance the learning experience by demonstrating procedural techniques that are difficult to relay in writing. Several peer-reviewed journals allow publication of videos alongside articles to complement the written text. The purpose of this article is to instruct the dermatologic surgeon on how to create and edit a video using a smartphone, to accompany a article. The authors describe simple tips to optimize surgical videography. The video that accompanies this article further demonstrates the techniques described. Creating a surgical video requires little experience or equipment and can be completed in a modest amount of time. Making and editing a video to accompany a article can be accomplished by following the simple recommendations in this article. In addition, the increased use of video in dermatologic surgery education can enhance the learning opportunity.

  15. Novel device for creating continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soylak, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a novel capsulorhexis system. Mechatronics Laboratory, University of Erciyes and Kayseri Maya Eye Hospital. A 3D model was created and simulations were conducted to develop a new device which was designed, fabricated and tested for continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis (CCC). The name of this system is the electro-mechanical capsulorhexis system (EMCS). The 3D model was created by using a commercial design software and a 3D printer was used to fabricate the EMCS Finite element analysis and geometrical relation tests of the EMCS for different sized lenses were performed. The results show that the EMCS is a perfect solution for capsulorhexis surgeries, without mechanical or geometrical problems. The EMCS can open the anterior lens capsule more easily and effectively than manual CCC applications and needs less experience.

  16. How do entrepreneurs think they create value?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyth Frederiksen, Dennis; Brem, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    The means with which entrepreneurs create and capture value can be difficult to get a comprehensive picture of. Looking at the tools they use can offer insights, and in this context, the book “The Lean Startup” by Eric Ries has received a tremendous amount of attention. Supposedly, many entrepren......The means with which entrepreneurs create and capture value can be difficult to get a comprehensive picture of. Looking at the tools they use can offer insights, and in this context, the book “The Lean Startup” by Eric Ries has received a tremendous amount of attention. Supposedly, many...... entrepreneurs have read the book and may have followed his advice. Hence, we investigate the merits and characteristics of the methods detailed by Ries through a comparison with leading theories and empirical evidence found in the scientific literature. The results indicate that overall the methods find...

  17. Designing value-creating supply chain networks

    CERN Document Server

    Martel, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Focusing on the design of robust value-creating supply chain networks (SCN) and key strategic issues related to the number; location, capacity and mission of supply chain facilities (plants, distribution centers) – as well as the network structure required to provide flexibility and resilience in an uncertain world – this book presents an innovative methodology for SCN reengineering that can be used to significantly improve the bottom line of supply chain dependent businesses. Providing readers with the tools needed to analyze and model value creation activities, Designing Value-Creating Supply Chain Networks examines the risks faced by modern supply chains, and shows how to develop plausible future scenarios to evaluate potential SCN designs. The design methods proposed are based on a visual representation formalism that facilitates the analysis and modeling of SCN design problems, book chapters incorporate several example problems and exercises which can be solved with Excel tools (Analysis tools and So...

  18. Creating interdisciplinary education within monodisciplinary structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindvig, Katrine; Lyall, Catherine; R. Meagher, Laura

    2017-01-01

    to the processes of creating interdisciplinary education initiatives within traditional monodisciplinary universities. In this study, we thus explore how interdisciplinary education and teaching emerge and develop within universities that have little or no established infrastructure to support interdisciplinarity......The literature on interdisciplinary higher education is influenced by two overall trends: one looks at the institutional level of specially designed interdisciplinary institutions, while the other assesses individual interdisciplinary educational activities. Much less attention is given....... Using qualitative data from a multi-part case study, we examine the development of diverse interdisciplinary educational efforts within a traditional faculty-structured university in order to map the ways in which interdisciplinary educational elements have been created, supported, challenged or even...

  19. Barriers to creating a secure MPI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brightwell, R.; Greenberg, D.S.; Matt, B.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Davida, G.I. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States). Dept. of Computer Sciences

    1997-08-01

    This paper explores some of the many issues in developing security enhanced MPI for embedded real-time systems supporting the Department of Defense`s Multi-level Security policy (DoD MLS) are presented along with the preliminary design for such an MPI variant. In addition some of the many issues that need to be addressed in creating security enhanced versions of MPI for other domains are discussed. 19 refs.

  20. Creating an Asthma-Friendly School

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-11-08

    This podcast features real-life success stories of students with asthma who, thanks to their schools' implementation of asthma-friendly policies and programs, now have their asthma under control.  Created: 11/8/2007 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Adolescent and School Health (DASH).   Date Released: 5/20/2008.

  1. Climate Change Creates Trade Opportunity in India

    OpenAIRE

    Dinda, Soumyananda

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is an emerging challenge to developing economy like India however it also creates opportunity to grow through climate friendly goods production and new direction of trade. This paper focuses India’s potential export trade in climate friendly goods. The estimated gravity model is defined as the potential trade and potential trade gap is measured as how well a bilateral trade flow performs relative to the mean as predicted by the model. Potential trade gap means that actual trade...

  2. Cognitive abilities and creating metaphorical names

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avanesyan, Marina O.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The cognitive processing of metaphor creation has been insufficiently investigated. Creating metaphors requires the ability to work in a fantastic, impossible context, using symbolic and associative means to express oneís thoughts. It has been shown recently that intelligence plays an important role in the creation of metaphors, but it is not the main factor in determining their success. The present research explores the roles of conceptual abilities, categorical abilities, and flexibility (as the factor creativity in metaphor creation. Participants (n = 38 young adults were asked to come up with names for three photos, without any special instruction to create metaphors. To classify conceptual abilities we used ìConceptual Synthesisî (M. A. Kholodnaya, 2012; to measure categorical ability we used the subtest ìSimilaritiesî (D. Wechsler, 1955; to identify the role of creativity in the metaphor process we used the test of ìUnusual Usesî (J. P. Guilford, 1960. The creation of complex metaphorical names was associated with a tendency to create highly organized mental structures and to retain them within the general semantic context (r = 0.344, p < 0.05. The tendency to create single-level situational connections was associated with a tendency to give specific names to photos (r = 0.475, p < 0.01. Photographic images proved out to be fruitful stimuli to investigate the processing of visual information. We developed a preliminary classification of names: 1 concrete; 2 situational; 3 abstract; 4 metaphorical (M1 and M2. We identified two types of metaphorical names — perceptual and complex metaphors — that relate to conceptual abilities in different ways. It is inaccurate to speak about a general concept of ìmetaphorical abilitiesî; we should differentiate the psychological mechanisms that lie at their base.

  3. How to create a UX story

    OpenAIRE

    Michailidou, Ioanna; von Saucken, Constantin; Kremer, Simon; Lindemann, Udo

    2014-01-01

    Narratives are a tool used in many disciplines. In the area of User Experience Design (UXD), in particular, a storytelling approach can be applied during the whole design process to improve the quality of developed concepts regarding user experience (UX). Furthermore stories support designers in ex-ploring and communicating their new concept ideas. However, the guidelines on how to create a story are either too abstract or do not focus on the experience elements of the interaction. This paper...

  4. Creating an international curriculum: why and how?

    OpenAIRE

    Magne, PJ

    2015-01-01

    Today’s globally interconnected world offers a vast array of new opportunities, but it has simultaneously created a need for greater intercultural understanding (Koehne, 2006). The current rise of internationalisation policy and strategy suggests that HEIs recognise the part they need to play to enable graduates to operate effectively in the 21st century (Bremer & Van-der-Wende, 1995; Knight & Yorke, 2003; Shiel, 2006) Whilst it is would be irresponsible to ignore the challenges posed by inte...

  5. Can cognitive science create a cognitive economics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chater, Nick

    2015-02-01

    Cognitive science can intersect with economics in at least three productive ways: by providing richer models of individual behaviour for use in economic analysis; by drawing from economic theory in order to model distributed cognition; and jointly to create more powerful 'rational' models of cognitive processes and social interaction. There is the prospect of moving from behavioural economics to a genuinely cognitive economics. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Creating an Online Training Module on RDM

    OpenAIRE

    Guy, Marieke; Cope, Jez; Pink, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Creating an Online Training Module on Research Data Management for the University of BathResearch 360In 2011 the University of Bath was awarded funding by the JISC Managing Research Data Programme to support and develop Research Data Management across the institution.The Research 360: Managing data across the institutional research lifecycle project (Research360@Bath) will develop policies, infrastructure and training resources to help researchers at the University of Bath to get the most out...

  7. Creating social impact with sport events

    OpenAIRE

    Hover, P.; Dijk, B.; Breedveld, K.; Eekeren, F.J.A. van; Slender, H.

    2016-01-01

    All over the world, sport events are seen as significant tools for creating positive social impact. This is understandable, as sport events have the power to attract enthusiastic participants, volunteers and to reach large audiences of visitors and followers via (social) media. Outbursts of excitement, pleasure and feelings of camaraderie are experienced among millions of people in the case of mega events. Still, a fairly large section of the population does not care that much for sports. Som...

  8. Creating an Innovative Attitude at Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Kaare; Tollestrup, Christian

    2012-01-01

    or tacit knowledge among colleagues in a complex organization. The set-up of the project was organized as a series of workshops also involving design students, and the paper outlines the difficulties and results from the initiative. The project showed that designerly methods can be very effective...... in creating the participants’ positive innovative approach, but also that it is a challenge to translate such methods and vocabulary, and more trained designerly assistance might need to be applied in the process....

  9. Public libraries: places creating social capital?

    OpenAIRE

    Vårheim, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to show why studies of public libraries, regarding their possible contribution in creating social capital, are important for social capital research in general, and are important for library practice in particular. Design/methodology/approach – Building on the latest theoretical developments and empirical findings of social capital research, the role of the public library as a potential creator of social capital is discussed. Findings from both quantita...

  10. Creating marketing strategies for higher education institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Lidia Białoń

    2015-01-01

    The article presents a thesis that the primary premise of creating marketing strategies for higher education institution is a three-dimensional notion of marketing. The first dimension lies in the theoretical notions of the essence of marketing, including the transactional marketing (1.0), relationship marketing (2.0) and spiritual marketing (3.0). The second dimension is formed by methods of marketing research and accurate notions of marketing, while the third are channels of marketing infor...

  11. Create a new vision for indigenous development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez Alba, Rafael; Sanchez Arancibia, Oscar Armando [TRANSIERRA S.A., Santa Cruz (Bolivia)

    2009-07-01

    Transierra is a Bolivian company created in the year 2000 with the goal of transporting natural gas from the fields of San Alberto and San Antonio, in Tarija, to the Rio Grande Gas Compression Plant in Santa Cruz, for export to Brazil. Transierra has implemented a Social Action Plan, which allowed it to execute more than 800 community projects for the benefit of over 40 thousand families living in it's area of influence, with the presence of 146 indigenous communities, generally lagging behind in economic and productive life in the region and country. The Support Program to Guarani Development Plans (PA-PDG) is part of the Social Plan and is part of a long-term agreement signed between Transierra and indigenous organizations. The program has implemented more than one hundred projects for productive development, health, education, cultural revaluation, and strengthening organizational infrastructure, generating huge benefits in improving the living conditions of thousands of families of the Guarani people. This year a unique initiative was created with 4 Indigenous Captains and with the support of the International Finance Corporation (World Bank Group), including Business Plans to promote sustainable economic growth, created productive economic cycles involving improvements to the production and productivity to enter the commercial distribution of local and national markets. These four initiatives have meant a shift in the implementation and is helping to generate new dynamics in production, in addition to capturing significant resources from public and private investment, laying the groundwork for the improvement of the incomes and quality of life of its beneficiaries. (author)

  12. 10 ways to create shareholder value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappaport, Alfred

    2006-09-01

    Executives have developed tunnel vision in their pursuit of shareholder value, focusing on short-term performance at the expense of investing in long-term growth. It's time to broaden that perspective and begin shaping business strategies in light of the competitive landscape, not the shareholder list. In this article, Alfred Rappaport offers ten basic principles to help executives create lasting shareholder value. For starters, companies should not manage earnings or provide earnings guidance; those that fail to embrace this first principle of shareholder value will almost certainly be unable to follow the rest. Additionally, leaders should make strategic decisions and acquisitions and carry assets that maximize expected value, even if near-term earnings are negatively affected as a result. During times when there are no credible value-creating opportunities to invest in the business, companies should avoid using excess cash to make investments that look good on the surface but might end up destroying value, such as ill-advised, overpriced acquisitions. It would be better to return the cash to shareholders in the form of dividends and buybacks. Rappaport also offers guidelines for establishing effective pay incentives at every level of management; emphasizes that senior executives need to lay their wealth on the line just as shareholders do; and urges companies to embrace full disclosure, an antidote to short-term earnings obsession that serves to lessen investor uncertainty, which could reduce the cost of capital and increase the share price. The author notes that a few types of companies--high-tech start-ups, for example, and severely capital-constrained organizations--cannot afford to ignore market pressures for short-term performance. Most companies with a sound, well-executed business model, however, could better realize their potential for creating shareholder value by adopting the ten principles.

  13. How leaders create and use networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra, Herman; Hunter, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Most people acknowledge that networking-creating a fabric of personal contacts to provide support, feedback, insight, and resources--is an essential activity for an ambitious manager. Indeed, it's a requirement even for those focused simply on doing their current jobs well. For some, this is a distasteful reality. Working through networks, they believe,means relying on "who you know" rather than "what you know"--a hypocritical, possibly unethical, way to get things done. But even people who understand that networking is a legitimate and necessary part of their jobs can be discouraged by the payoff--because they are doing it in too limited a fashion. On the basis of a close study of 30 emerging leaders, the authors outline three distinct forms of networking. Operational networking is geared toward doing one's assigned tasks more effectively. It involves cultivating stronger relationships with colleagues whose membership in the network is clear; their roles define them as stakeholders. Personal networking engages kindred spirits from outside an organization in an individual's efforts to learn and find opportunities for personal advancement. Strategic networking puts the tools of networking in the service of business goals. At this level, a manager creates the kind of network that will help uncover and capitalize on new opportunities for the company. The ability to move to this level of networking turns out to be a key test of leadership. Companies often recognize that networks are valuable, andthey create explicit programs to support them. But typically these programs facilitate only operational networking. Likewise, industry associations provide formal contexts for personal networking. The unfortunate effect is to give managers the impression that they know how to network and are doing so sufficiently. A sidebar notes the implication for companies' leadership development initiatives: that teaching strategic networking skills will serve their aspiring leaders and

  14. Workshop: Creating Your Institutional Research Repository

    KAUST Repository

    Grenz, Daryl M.

    2016-11-08

    In 2002, the Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition (SPARC) proposed the concept of an institutional repository to simultaneously disrupt and enhance the state of scholarly communications in the academic world. Thirteen years later, thousands of universities and other institutions have answered this call, but many more have not due to gaps in budgets, awareness and, most of all, practical guidance on creating an institutional repository. This workshop provides you with an essential primer on what it takes to establish a fully-functioning institutional repository. Every aspect of the process will be covered, including policies, procedures, staffing guidelines, workflows and repository technologies.

  15. Creating environments that foster academic integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tippitt, Michelle Pixley; Ard, Nell; Kline, Juanita Reese; Tilghman, Joan; Chamberlain, Barbara; Meagher, P Gail

    2009-01-01

    A number of studies related to academic dishonesty within the nursing student population have been published; however, little has been written in the nursing literature regarding academic integrity and means of promoting this value. In addition to the many short-term solutions to prevent cheating and dissuade academic misconduct that are offered, solutions that promote long-term affective changes underlying the acquisition of academic integrity are needed. This article provides a context for discussions related to academic integrity, explores issues facing faculty when dealing with this challenge, and offers short-term and long-term strategies for creating environments that foster academic integrity.

  16. Creating a Library Database Search using Drupal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle M. Rosenthal

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available When Florida Gulf Coast University Library was faced with having to replace its database locator, they needed to find a low-cost, non-staff intensive replacement for their 350 plus databases search tool. This article details the development of a library database locator, based on the methods described in Leo Klein’s “Creating a Library Database Page using Drupal” online presentation. The article describes how the library used Drupal along with several modules, such as CCK, Views, and FCKeditor. It also discusses various Drupal search modules that were evaluated during the process.

  17. Creating an organizational climate for multiculturalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruhn, J G

    1996-06-01

    Multiculturism is an ideal goal for our society, its organizations, and its institutions, involving a continuous process of education and change within organizations. Multiculturalism begins with diversity and requires various steps to achieve changes in attitudes, behaviors, and values. The leadership of organizations must not only commit to diversification, but they must participate in it and reward its efforts. Diversification should be managed by creating a climate of open participation, feedback, and control at the lower organizational levels. To micromanage the process of becoming diverse increases resistance and paranoia and counters educational efforts.

  18. Does the New Economy Create Higher Productivity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dilling-Hansen, Mogens; Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Smith, Valdemar

    2002-01-01

    The rapid and continuous growth in the US in the 1990s and the simultaneous boom in the IT industry created the concept "The New Economy". What connects the two phenomena is that the IT industry alone is considered productive, and increased productivity in other industries, as a result of increased...... IT use, has brought focus on the IT industry as a catalyst for growth. The Danish Ministry of Finance (2001) points out general increased productivity in Denmark at macro level and this increase is said to be a result of increased IT use. The question is, however, if the influence of IT investments...

  19. Do Treasure Islands Create Firm Value?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lai, Tat-kei; Ng, Travis

    They do! Otherwise, their use would not have been so prevalent among firms. How much firm value they create, however, is still an open question. Exploiting a political event in the U.K. that suddenly raised the cost of using tax havens, we find that there was a 0.87% reduction in cumulative...... abnormal return (CAR) among the sampled firms, corresponding to about £532 million in market capitalization. The firms of stronger corporate governance registered a stronger reduction in CAR. A simple linear extrapolation suggests that the firm value contributed by tax havens can be as much as £31 billion....

  20. Green electronics manufacturing creating environmental sensible products

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, John X

    2012-01-01

    Going ""green"" is becoming a major component of the mission for electronics manufacturers worldwide. While this goal seems simplistic, it poses daunting dilemmas. Yet, to compete effectively in the global economy, manufacturers must take the initiative to drive this crucial movement. Green Electronics Manufacturing: Creating Environmental Sensible Products provides you with a complete reference to design, develop, build, and install an electronic product with special consideration for the product's environmental impacts during its whole life cycle. The author discusses how to integrate the st

  1. Creating Posters for Effective Scientific Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavdekar, Sandeep B; Vyas, Shruti; Anand, Varun

    2017-08-01

    A scientific poster is a summary of one's research that is presented in a visually engaging manner. Posters are presented as a means of short and quick scientific communications at conferences and scientific meetings. Presenting posters has advantages for the presenters and for conference attendees and organizers. It also plays a part in dissemination of research findings and furthering science. An effective poster is the one that focuses on a single message and conveys it through a concise and artistically attractive manner. This communication intends to provide tips on creating an effective poster to young scientists. © Journal of the Association of Physicians of India 2011.

  2. Creating the Medical Schools of the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skochelak, Susan E; Stack, Steven J

    2017-01-01

    Despite wide consensus on needed changes in medical education, experts agree that the gap continues to widen between how physicians are trained and the future needs of our health care system. A new model for medical education is needed to create the medical school of the future. The American Medical Association (AMA) is working to support innovative models through partnerships with medical schools, educators, professional organizations, and accreditors. In 2013, the AMA designed an initiative to support rapid innovation among medical schools and disseminate the ideas being tested to additional medical schools. Awards of $1 million were made to 11 medical schools to redesign curricula for flexible, individualized learning pathways, measure achievement of competencies, develop new assessment tools to test readiness for residency, and implement new models for clinical experiences within health care systems. The medical schools have partnered with the AMA to create the AMA Accelerating Change in Medical Education Consortium, working together to share prototypes and participate in a national evaluation plan. Most of the schools have embarked on major curriculum revisions, replacing as much as 25% of the curriculum with new content in health care delivery and health system science in all four years of training. Schools are developing new certification in quality and patient safety and population management. In 2015, the AMA invited 21 additional schools to join the 11 founding schools in testing and disseminating innovation through the consortium and beyond.

  3. Creating Sister Cities: An Exchange Across Hemispheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, M. T.; Cabezon, S. A.; Hardy, E.; Harrison, R. J.

    2008-06-01

    Sponsored by Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI) and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), this project creates a cultural and educational exchange program between communities in South and North America, linking San Pedro de Atacama in Chile and Magdalena, New Mexico in the United States. Both communities have similar demographics, are in relatively undeveloped regions of high-elevation desert, and are located near major international radio astronomy research facilities. The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is just 40 km east of San Pedro; the Very Large Array (VLA) is just 40 km west of Magdalena. In February 2007, the Mayor of San Pedro and two teachers visited Magdalena for two weeks; in July 2007 three teachers from Magdalena will visit San Pedro. These visits enable the communities to lay the foundation for a permanent, unique partnership. The teachers are sharing expertise and teaching methodologies for physics and astronomy. In addition to creating science education opportunities, this project offers students linguistic and cultural connections. The town of San Pedro, Chile, hosts nearly 100,000 tourists per year, and English language skills are highly valued by local students. Through exchanges enabled by email and distance conferencing, San Pedro and Magdalena students will improve English and Spanish language skills while teaching each other about science and their respective cultures. This poster describes the AUI/NRAO Sister Cities program, including the challenges of cross-cultural communication and the rewards of interpersonal exchanges between continents and cultures.

  4. Cell adhesion pattern created by OSTE polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenjia; Li, Yiyang; Ding, Xianting

    2017-04-24

    Engineering surfaces with functional polymers is a crucial issue in the field of micro/nanofabrication and cell-material interface studies. For many applications of surface patterning, it does not need cells to attach on the whole surface. Herein, we introduce a novel polymer fabrication protocol of off-stoichiometry thiol-ene (OSTE) polymers to create heterogeneity on the surface by utilizing 3D printing and soft-lithography. By choosing two OSTE polymers with different functional groups, we create a pattern where only parts of the surface can facilitate cell adhesion. We also study the hydrophilic property of OSTE polymers by mixing poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) directly with pre-polymers and plasma treatments afterwards. Moreover, we investigate the effect of functional groups' excess ratio and hydrophilic property on the cell adhesion ability of OSTE polymers. The results show that the cell adhesion ability of OSTE materials can be tuned within a wide range by the coupling effect of functional groups' excess ratio and hydrophilic property. Meanwhile, by mixing PEG with pre-polymers and undergoing oxygen plasma treatment afterward can significantly improve the hydrophilic property of OSTE polymers.

  5. Creating a culture where employee engagement Thrives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Don Groover, C.S.P. [Behavioral Science Technology, Ojai, CA (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Safety leaders across industries face a critical challenge: engaging employees. While engagement of a few people may be easy in short-term projects, it is significantly more difficult with long-term processes. In this session we show leaders how they can create a culture where workers are more open and even eager to be involved in safety efforts. Our experience with safety leaders in the nuclear industry has verified that when the factors that drive organizational functioning are understood, leaders are enabled to augment employee engagement and attain significant improvement in safety outcomes. The underlying factors that influence employee engagement, performance, outcomes, and organizational culture are the same the world over. We will also show how safety is capable, by its intrinsic value, of winning profound support and direct engagement of employees. In this session, we will examine how leaders can leverage their decisions and actions to win over employees to safety and support them in their endeavors to promote it. Using the safety leadership best practices Vision, Credibility, Accountability, Communication, Collaboration, Action Orientation, and Recognition and Feedback, leaders increase their impact on their organization in favor of a culture that supports safety and employee engagement. Leaders that create a climate and culture where employee engagement thrives, realize better safety results. Leadership is not exclusively an inborn talent; it can be developed and enhanced. To this end, we will also show the advantages of transformational leadership style by comparing it to more classical transactional leadership.

  6. DO ROMANIAN MERGERS REALLY CREATE VALUE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca-Simona HROMEI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The realities of our modern society demonstrate that businesses operate in a competitive environment, which requires continuous improvement and development of production and sales. In this context, for financial, economic and fiscal reasons, companies resort to a process of concentration, through the merger of all the factors involved in the fulfilment and diversification of their activities. Often, the reasons for engaging in a merger refer to the fact that two merged companies create, in terms of value, an entity that exceeds the individual values of the two participants if they were to continue to activate separately. This paper aims at analysing whether the well-known relationship ‘1+1=3’, which describes merger synergies, applies at the Romanian level. For this reason, each of the values of 77 merged companies were compared with the sum of the individual values of the firms that initially created them. It was found that 56% of the mergers analysed generated added value for shareholders.

  7. Our Lunar Destiny: Creating a Lunar Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohwer, Christopher J.

    2000-01-01

    "Our Lunar Destiny: Creating a Lunar Economy" supports a vision of people moving freely and economically between the earth and the Moon in an expansive space and lunar economy. It makes the economic case for the creation of a lunar space economy and projects the business plan that will make the venture an economic success. In addition, this paper argues that this vision can be created and sustained only by private enterprise and the legal right of private property in space and on the Moon. Finally, this paper advocates the use of lunar land grants as the key to unleashing the needed capital and the economic power of private enterprise in the creation of a 21st century lunar space economy. It is clear that the history of our United States economic system proves the value of private property rights in the creation of any new economy. It also teaches us that the successful development of new frontiers-those that provide economic opportunity for freedom-loving people-are frontiers that encourage, respect and protect the possession of private property and the fruits of labor and industry. Any new 21st century space and lunar economy should therefore be founded on this same principle.

  8. Creating quality improvement culture in public health agencies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Davis, Mary V; Mahanna, Elizabeth; Joly, Brenda; Zelek, Michael; Riley, William; Verma, Pooja; Fisher, Jessica Solomon

    2014-01-01

    ...), or creating a quality improvement culture (n = 4). Agencies conducting formal quality improvement and creating a quality improvement culture had leadership support for quality improvement, participated in national...

  9. How to create high-performing teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Samuel M

    2010-02-01

    This article is intended to discuss inspirational aspects on how to lead a high-performance team. Cogent topics discussed include how to hire staff through methods of "topgrading" with reference to Geoff Smart and "getting the right people on the bus" referencing Jim Collins' work. In addition, once the staff is hired, this article covers how to separate the "eagles from the ducks" and how to inspire one's staff by creating the right culture with suggestions for further reading by Don Miguel Ruiz (The four agreements) and John Maxwell (21 Irrefutable laws of leadership). In addition, Simon Sinek's concept of "Start with Why" is elaborated to help a leader know what the core element should be with any superior culture. Thieme Medical Publishers.

  10. Creating marketing strategies for higher education institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Białoń

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a thesis that the primary premise of creating marketing strategies for higher education institution is a three-dimensional notion of marketing. The first dimension lies in the theoretical notions of the essence of marketing, including the transactional marketing (1.0, relationship marketing (2.0 and spiritual marketing (3.0. The second dimension is formed by methods of marketing research and accurate notions of marketing, while the third are channels of marketing information. Harmonizing these three dimensions is a precondition for effective marketing. Among other conditions for effective strategies there are: aligning goals of the chosen strategy with the mission of higher education institution, correct choice of targeted segments of the market and of marketing tools. The article also gives a sample classification of marketing strategies based on these criteria, with emphasis on the fact, that every higher education institution employs its own strategy.

  11. Creating Effective Dialogue Around Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiehl, J. T.

    2015-12-01

    Communicating climate change to people from diverse sectors of society has proven to be difficult in the United States. It is widely recognized that difficulties arise from a number of sources, including: basic science understanding, the psychologically affect laden content surrounding climate change, and the diversity of value systems that exist in our society. I explore ways of working with the affect that arises around climate change and describe specific methods to work with the resistance often encountered when communicating this important issue. The techniques I describe are rooted in psychology and group process and provide means for creating more effective narratives to break through the barriers to communicating climate change science. Examples are given from personal experiences in presenting climate change to diverse groups.

  12. Creating Visual Design and Meaningful Audience Experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steijn, Arthur; Ion Wille, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    conditions. The most important being 1) the development in new technology creating new expectations in audiences attending cultural events, including classical concerts, 2) resent decline in audiences attending classical music and 3) a will to strengthen relations between cultural institutions, creative......The main purpose of the EU Interreg funded Classical Composition Music and Experience Design project, was to rethink audience experiences and develop knowledge of applied technologies connected to classical music and live concerts. The project and its main objectives was motivated by at least thee...... businesses and educational institutions in the Øresund region (including the city and surroundings of Malmø and Copenhagen). Therefore the project Classical Composition Music and Experience Design focused on developing new and meaningful audience experiences where live classical music meets new digital...

  13. Creating Inclusive Youth Programs for LGBTQ+ Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine E. Soule

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available It is vital for youth to experience inclusive programming that is welcoming. Extension has a responsibility and an obligation to provide youth with programs and spaces that are inclusive of all sexes, gender identities, gender expressions, and sexual orientations. This article provides an overview of appropriate terminology, as well as steps for creating inclusive Extension spaces and programs for youth who identify as members of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, or queer/questioning (LGBTQ+ communities. With a focus on urban Extension audiences, this article uses accessible language, self-reflective prompts, and supporting visual aids to share lessons learned from ongoing inclusivity trainings with Extension personnel across the nation, as well as from research activities and inclusive programming.

  14. FoilSim: Basic Aerodynamics Software Created

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Ruth A.

    1999-01-01

    FoilSim is interactive software that simulates the airflow around various shapes of airfoils. The graphical user interface, which looks more like a video game than a learning tool, captures and holds the students interest. The software is a product of NASA Lewis Research Center s Learning Technologies Project, an educational outreach initiative within the High Performance Computing and Communications Program (HPCCP).This airfoil view panel is a simulated view of a wing being tested in a wind tunnel. As students create new wing shapes by moving slider controls that change parameters, the software calculates their lift. FoilSim also displays plots of pressure or airspeed above and below the airfoil surface.

  15. Co-Creating ‘Second Life’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gürsimsek, Remzi Ates

    2010-01-01

    Developments in digital communication technologies, emergence of Social Media and shifting of digital media landscape towards a more participatory platform are not only the driving forces behind the implication of new technologies to the market, but they also have significant effects on the ways...... that mediate communication in Second Life (SL). The outlined theoretical framework and methodological approach is intended to summarize impressions from my observations of Second Life ‘builders’ in order to understand who they are, how they collaborate, and how they make sense of their co-design experiences...... people communicate, interact, participate and create communicative content in social contexts. This PhD project aims to observe how residents of Second Life use the Virtual World as a collaborative tool for creativity and co-design of the world’s content; that is, virtual places and artifacts...

  16. Creating biological nanomaterials using synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, MaryJoe K; Ruder, Warren C

    2014-02-01

    Synthetic biology is a new discipline that combines science and engineering approaches to precisely control biological networks. These signaling networks are especially important in fields such as biomedicine and biochemical engineering. Additionally, biological networks can also be critical to the production of naturally occurring biological nanomaterials, and as a result, synthetic biology holds tremendous potential in creating new materials. This review introduces the field of synthetic biology, discusses how biological systems naturally produce materials, and then presents examples and strategies for incorporating synthetic biology approaches in the development of new materials. In particular, strategies for using synthetic biology to produce both organic and inorganic nanomaterials are discussed. Ultimately, synthetic biology holds the potential to dramatically impact biological materials science with significant potential applications in medical systems.

  17. Creating a turnkey hierarchical geospatial data warehouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libbey, Clinton R.

    1999-12-01

    The components of a web based data warehouse capable of populating, storing, searching, previewing, and disseminating a variety of information products over a TCP/IP network can be achieved through the use of commercially available products. The ability to deploy a solution that provides a central archive as well as distributed local archives of products is desirable. This approach is necessary due to the amount of data products generated for the community as well as the generation of custom products by regional users and the subsequent creation of their own archive for such products. Users must be able to leverage a central archive as well as have the ability to create their own local archive of data. This will increase efficiency at multiple levels and provide users with a solution that satisfies both their global data access needs and local data management.

  18. Minkowski metrics in creating universal ranking algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Ameljańczyk

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a general procedure for creating the rankings of a set of objects, while the relation of preference based on any ranking function. The analysis was possible to use the ranking functions began by showing the fundamental drawbacks of commonly used functions in the form of a weighted sum. As a special case of the ranking procedure in the space of a relation, the procedure based on the notion of an ideal element and generalized Minkowski distance from the element was proposed. This procedure, presented as universal ranking algorithm, eliminates most of the disadvantages of ranking functions in the form of a weighted sum.[b]Keywords[/b]: ranking functions, preference relation, ranking clusters, categories, ideal point, universal ranking algorithm

  19. Enabling Reanalysis Intercomparison with the CREATE-IP and CREATE-V Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carriere, L.; Potter, G. L.; Hertz, J.; Shen, Y.; Britzolakis, G.; Peters, J.; Maxwell, T. P.; Li, J.; Strong, S.; Schnase, J. L.

    2016-12-01

    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Office of Computational and Information Sciences and Technology, the NASA Center for Climate Simulation (NCCS), and the Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) are working together to build a uniform environment for the comparative study and use of a group of reanalysis datasets of particular importance to the research community. This effort is called the Collaborative REAnalysis Technical Environment (CREATE) and it contains two components: the CREATE-Intercomparison Project (CREATE-IP) and CREATE-V. For CREATE-IP, our target reanalyses include ECMWF ERA-Interim, NASA/GMAO MERRA and MERRA2, NOAA/NCEP CFSR, NOAA/ESRL 20CR and 20CRv2, JMA JRA25, and JRA55. Each dataset is reformatted similarly to the models in the CMIP5 archive. By repackaging the reanalysis data into a common structure and format, it simplifies access, subsetting, and reanalysis comparison. Both monthly average data and a selection of high frequency data (6-hr) relevant to investigations such as the 2016 El Niño are provided. Much of the processing workflow has been automated and new data appear on a regular basis. In collaboration with the CLIVAR Global Synthesis and Observations Panel (GSOP), we are also processing and publishing eight ocean reanalyses, from 1980 to the present. Here, the data are regridded to a common 1° x 1° grid, vertically interpolated to the World Ocean Atlas 09 (WOA09) depths, and an ensemble is generated. CREATE-V is a web based visualization tool that allows the user to simultaneously view four reanalyses to facilitate comparison. The addition of a backend analytics engine, based on UV-CDAT and Scala provides the ability to generate a time series and anomaly for any given location on a map. The system enables scientists to identify data of interest and visualize, subset, and compare data without the need for download large volumes of data for local visualization.

  20. Creating an organizational culture for medication safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennison, Robin Donohoe

    2005-03-01

    Medication errors are costly from human, economic, and societal perspectives. All patients are vulnerable to the detrimental effects of these errors. Recommendations regarding the problem of medication errors include: Prevention of error by learning from the nonpunitive reporting of errors and near misses; Evaluation of the system for potential causes of error through failure mode and effects analysis and encouragement of a questioning attitude; Elimination of system problems that increase the risk of error; Recognition that humans are fallible and that error will occur even in a perfect system; Minimization of the consequences of errors when they do occur. An important goal for healthcare organizations should be to create a culture that accepts the imperfection of human performance and solicits the assistance of team members in the development of safeguards for error prevention. Proposed interventions to prevent medication errors can be described by the PATIENT SAFE taxonomy, which includes: Patient participation; Adherence to established policy and procedures; Technology use; Information accessibility; Education regarding medication safety; Nonpunitive approach to reporting of errors and near misses; Teamwork, communication, and collaboration; Staffing: adequate number and staffing mix; Administration support for the clinical goal of patient safety; Failure mode and effects analysis with team member involvement; Environment and equipment to support patient safety

  1. Creating Affording Situations: Coaching through Animate Objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baber, Chris; Khattab, Ahmad; Russell, Martin; Hermsdörfer, Joachim; Wing, Alan

    2017-10-11

    We explore the ways in which animate objects can be used to cue actions as part of coaching in Activities of Daily Living (ADL). In this case, changing the appearance or behavior of a physical object is intended to cue actions which are appropriate for a given context. The context is defined by the intention of the users, the state of the objects and the tasks for which these objects can be used. We present initial design prototypes and simple user trials which explore the impact of different cues on activity. It is shown that raising the handle of a jug, for example, not only cues the act of picking up the jug but also encourages use of the hand adjacent to the handle; that combinations of lights (on the objects) and auditory cues influence activity through reducing uncertainty; and that cueing can challenge pre-learned action sequences. We interpret these results in terms of the idea that the animate objects can be used to create affording situations, and discuss implications of this work to support relearning of ADL following brain damage or injury, such as might arise following a stroke.

  2. Creating Affording Situations: Coaching through Animate Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Baber

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We explore the ways in which animate objects can be used to cue actions as part of coaching in Activities of Daily Living (ADL. In this case, changing the appearance or behavior of a physical object is intended to cue actions which are appropriate for a given context. The context is defined by the intention of the users, the state of the objects and the tasks for which these objects can be used. We present initial design prototypes and simple user trials which explore the impact of different cues on activity. It is shown that raising the handle of a jug, for example, not only cues the act of picking up the jug but also encourages use of the hand adjacent to the handle; that combinations of lights (on the objects and auditory cues influence activity through reducing uncertainty; and that cueing can challenge pre-learned action sequences. We interpret these results in terms of the idea that the animate objects can be used to create affording situations, and discuss implications of this work to support relearning of ADL following brain damage or injury, such as might arise following a stroke.

  3. Informational conflicts created by the waggle dance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grüter, Christoph; Balbuena, M. Sol; Farina, Walter M

    2008-01-01

    The honeybee (Apis mellifera) waggle dance is one of the most intriguing animal communication signals. A dancing bee communicates the location of a profitable food source and its odour. Followers may often experience situations in which dancers indicate an unfamiliar location but carry the scent of a flower species the followers experienced previously at different locations. Food scents often reactivate bees to resume food collection at previously visited food patches. This double function of the dance creates a conflict between the social vector information and the private navigational information. We investigated which kind of information followers with field experience use in this situation and found that followers usually ignored the spatial information encoded by the waggle dance even if they followed a dance thoroughly (five waggle runs or more). They relied on private information about food source locations instead (in 93% of all cases). Furthermore, foragers preferred to follow dancers carrying food odours they knew from previous field trips, independently of the spatial information encoded in the dance. Surprisingly, neither odour identity nor the location indicated by the dancer was an important factor for the reactivation success of a dance. Our results contrast with the assumption that (i) followers usually try to decode the vector information and (ii) dances indicating an unfamiliar location are of little interest to experienced foragers. PMID:18331980

  4. Creating the Nurses' Environmental Awareness Tool (NEAT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Elizabeth; Butterfield, Patricia; Postma, Julie; Barbosa-Leiker, Celestina; Corbett, Cindy

    2015-09-01

    Acute care delivery creates secondary health risks to patients, health care workers, and the environment through a complex waste stream, intensive energy use, and frequent use of harmful chemicals. Nurses are among the most affected by these risks and are also pivotal change agents in reducing the negative impacts of health care delivery. Assessing nurses' understanding of health care-associated environmental health risks is essential if care is to be delivered in an environmentally safe and healthy manner, as indicated by published professional standards of nursing practice. However, psychometrically sound instruments that measure nurses' awareness of the environmental impacts of nursing practice are not available. To address this gap, a prototype of the Nurse's Environmental Awareness Tool (NEAT) was developed. Seven content experts in environmental health nursing and/or psychometrics were asked to review draft items. Comments were analyzed and applied to the scale items. Several revisions from the original item pool were made. The resulting draft NEAT includes six subscales, in three paired subsets. This article provides a summary of the process of item development and scale design. These findings, although preliminary, provide a foundation for subsequent psychometric testing. The result of this study is the creation of an instrument to measure nurses' awareness of and behaviors associated with the environmental impact of their practices. © 2015 The Author(s).

  5. Creating the optimal conditions for rehabilitation research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakheit, Abdel Magid

    2009-09-01

    Current evidence suggests that productivity in biomedical research depends on the support that the research group enjoys from its parent institution, the composition of the group and the personal attributes of its members and leader. Supportive institutions provide adequate physical resources and allow substantial uninterrupted time for research. The effectiveness of the research group asa whole is also strongly influenced by the group's structure, the professional competence of the group leader, his leadership style and his ability to foster collaboration with other research groups and organizations. There is a good case for a flexible leadership style that is modelled on the situational theory of leadership. In addition, the personal characteristics of the individual members of the research group influence the quality and quantity of the research output. Effective groups are made of motivated individuals with research training and skills that are relevant to the objectives of the research group. Rehabilitation research is fundamentally different from traditional biomedical research. This study discusses how the factors that influence productivity of biomedical research relate to rehabilitation science and practice and examines the conditions that are necessary to create and maintain an academic environment that is conducive to large volume,high-quality research in rehabilitation medicine.

  6. Creating a Universe, a Conceptual Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R. Johnson

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Space is something. Space inherently contains laws of nature: universal rules (mathematics, space dimensions, types of forces, types of fields, and particle species, laws (relativity, quantum mechanics, thermodynamics, and electromagnetism and symmetries (Lorentz, Gauge, and symmetry breaking. We have significant knowledge about these laws of nature because all our scientific theories assume their presence. Their existence is critical for developing either a unique theory of our universe or more speculative multiverse theories. Scientists generally ignore the laws of nature because they “are what they are” and because visualizing different laws of nature challenges the imagination. This article defines a conceptual model separating space (laws of nature from the universe’s energy source (initial conditions and expansion (big bang. By considering the ramifications of changing the laws of nature, initial condition parameters, and two variables in the big bang theory, the model demonstrates that traditional fine tuning is not the whole story when creating a universe. Supporting the model, space and “nothing” are related to the laws of nature, mathematics and multiverse possibilities. Speculation on the beginning of time completes the model.

  7. Creating the optimized international marketing mix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grubor Aleksandar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In the international practice of Serbian companies still dominant approach is based on traditional foreign trade approach, which in the significant dimension ballast effective inclusion of domestic companies in the contemporary business. Such practice is a result of the modality of international trading evolved and stimulated recently including long lasting period of self managing socialism-business as well international orientation in trading was originated by the state support, which procured in the edification of so-called national corporations as a chief exporter. Long-time existing of that modality of the international trading procured in the shrinking and limitation possibilities for comprehensive development of the international orientation of domestic i.e local companies, which is an argument of objectively difficult international position of Serbian firms in the moment. Paper discuss different issues including assessment that incoming presence of regional or international investors on the domestic market will proffer possibilities for enhancement a domestic management and marketing know - how among others. So, this is a way how local management circles could make substantial progress in creating the optimized international marketing mix within domestic companies following on-going business experience.

  8. Creating healthy work environments: a strategic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Bonnie J

    2010-01-01

    Although I find Graham Lowe and Ben Chan's logic model and work environment metrics thought provoking, a healthy work environment framework must be more comprehensive and consider the addition of recommended diagnostic tools, vehicles to deliver the necessary change and a sustainability strategy that allows for the tweaking and refinement of ideas. Basic structure is required to frame and initiate an effective process, while allowing creativity and enhancements to be made by organizations as they learn. I support the construction of a suggested Canadian health sector framework for measuring the health of an organization, but I feel that organizations need to have some freedom in that design and the ability to incorporate their own indicators within the established proven drivers. Reflecting on my organization's experience with large-scale transformation efforts, I find that emotional intelligence along with formal leadership development and front-line engagement in Lean process improvement activities are essential for creating healthy work environments that produce the balanced set of outcomes listed in my hospital's Balanced Scorecard.

  9. Creating a national home visiting research network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggan, Anne; Minkovitz, Cynthia S; Chaffin, Mark; Korfmacher, Jon; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Crowne, Sarah; Filene, Jill; Gonsalves, Kay; Landsverk, John; Harwood, Robin

    2013-11-01

    Home visiting can play a key role in the early childhood system of services. For home visiting to achieve its potential, decision-makers must make informed choices regarding adoption, adaptation, coordination, scale-up, and sustainment. We need a coordinated, focused, and theory-based home visiting research infrastructure to inform such decisions. The transdisciplinary Home Visiting Research Network (HVRN) was established in July 2012 with funding from the Health Resources and Services Administration. Its goal is to promote the translation of research findings into policy and practice. Its objectives are to (1) develop a national home visiting research agenda, (2) advance the use of innovative research methods; and (3) provide a research environment that is supportive of the professional development of emerging researchers interested in home visiting. A Management Team designs and directs activities to achieve these objectives through Work Teams. A Steering Committee of national leaders representing stakeholder groups oversees progress. HVRN's Coordinating Center supports the Work Teams and HVRN's Home visiting Applied Research Collaborative, a practice-based research network of home visiting programs. This article describes HVRN's rationale, approach, and anticipated products. We use home visiting-primary care coordination as an illustration, noting potential roles for pediatric practices and pediatric researchers and research educators in HVRN activities. HVRN creates the infrastructure for a rigorous program of research to inform policy and practice on home visiting as part of the system of services to improve family functioning, parenting, and child outcomes.

  10. Creating better superconductors by periodic nanopatterning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan P. Allan, Mark H. Fischer, Oliver Ostojic, Arjo Andringa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The quest to create superconductors with higher transition temperatures is as old as superconductivity itself. One strategy, popular after the realization that (conventional superconductivity is mediated by phonons, is to chemically combine different elements within the crystalline unit cell to maximize the electron-phonon coupling. This led to the discovery of NbTi and Nb3Sn, to name just the most technologically relevant examples. Here, we propose a radically different approach to transform a `pristine' material into a better (meta- superconductor by making use of modern fabrication techniques: designing and engineering the electronic properties of thin films via periodic patterning on the nanoscale. We present a model calculation to explore the key effects of different supercells that could be fabricated using nanofabrication or deliberate lattice mismatch, and demonstrate that specific pattern will enhance the coupling and the transition temperature. We also discuss how numerical methods could predict the correct design parameters to improve superconductivity in materials including Al, NbTi, and MgB2

  11. Dancing Lights: Creating the Aurora Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, E. L.; Cobabe-Ammann, E. A.

    2009-12-01

    Science tells a story about our world, our existence, our history, and the larger environment our planet occupies. Bearing this in mind, we created a series of lessons for 3rd-5th grades using a cross-disciplinary approach to teaching about the aurora by incorporating stories, photos, movies, and geography into the science in order to paint a broad picture and answer the question, “why do we care?” The fundamental backbone of the program is literacy. Students write and illustrate fiction and non-fiction work, poetry, and brochures that solidify both language arts skills and science content. In a time when elementary teachers relegate science to less than one hour per week, we have developed a novel science program that can be easily integrated with other topics during the typical school day to increase the amount of science taught in a school year. We are inspiring students to take an interest in the natural world with this program, a stepping-stone for larger things.

  12. Creating cultures of excellence: Strategies and outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Mintrom

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Research findings on effective support for learning, the development of expertise, and the psychology of success suggest that the pursuit of excellence is teachable. Within the emerging field of research and practice termed “the scholarship of teaching and learning,” considerable effort has been made to document the practices of teachers who, by various measures, have been deemed excellent. In contrast, no effort has been made to codify how students can be trained to self-consciously build behaviors that generate excellent outcomes. This article reports on a multi-year effort to create cultures of excellence among cohorts of graduate students. A statistical analysis of subsequent student performance on a significant, related task indicates that explicitly promoting a culture of excellence among course participants can have a positive and sustained impact on their individual practices. Comments from subsequent student reflections further support this claim. The teaching strategies reported here could be refined, replicated, and reinvented to good effect across higher education. They are also of special relevance to those delivering professional development training to early- and mid-career professionals.

  13. Creating conditions for cooperative learning: Basic elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ševkušić-Mandić Slavica G.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Although a large number of research evidence speak out in favor of cooperative learning, its effectiveness in teaching does not depend only on teacher’s and students’ enthusiasm and willingness to work in such a manner. Creating cooperative situations in learning demands a serious preparation and engagement on the part of teacher who is structuring various aspects of work in the classroom. Although there exist a large number of models and techniques of cooperative learning, which vary in the way in which students work together, in the structure of learning tasks as well as in the degree to which cooperative efforts of students are coupled with competition among groups, some elements should be present in the structure of conditions irrespective of the type of group work in question. Potential effects of cooperation are not likely to emerge unless teachers apply five basic elements of cooperative structure: 1. structuring of the learning task and students’ positive interdependence, 2. individual responsibility, 3. upgrading of "face to face" interaction, 4. training of students’ social skills, and 5. evaluation of group processes. The paper discusses various strategies for establishing the mentioned elements and concrete examples for teaching practice are provided, which should be of assistance to teachers for as much successful cooperative learning application as possible in work with children.

  14. Creating Web Services from Community Sourced Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, D.; Scopel, C.; Boghici, E.

    2013-12-01

    In order to extend the World Hydro Basemap and build watershed delineation and river tracing services that cover the entire planet, we are integrating community-contributed data into a global hydrographic dataset. This dataset is the engine behind a foundational set of tools and services intended to enable hydrologic analysis on the web. However, each organization that collects hydrography uses a workflow and data model unique to their mission, which makes synthesizing their data difficult. Furthermore, these data are collected at different resolutions, so running analytics across regions with multiple contributors is not necessarily valid. Thus, instead of merging contributed data into a seamless geodatabase, the goal of our Community Maps for Hydrology program is to create workflows for converting any arbitrary dataset into the Arc Hydro Data Model. This way, tools and services can be pointed towards different contributions interchangeably while still maintaining the autonomy of each dataset. Contributors retain ownership of their data and are responsible for updates and edits, but the tools and services work identically across all contributions. HydroSHEDs data, contributed by the World Wildlife Fund, is used at the smallest scales to ensure global coverage, and national datasets extend our services to the medium-scales where available. A workflow to incorporate LIDAR and other large scale data is being developed as well, so that local governments and engineering companies can contribute to the program. Watershed Delineation Tool The World Hydro Basemap

  15. Creating supportive environments for AIDS prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    The World Health Organization's Global Programme on AIDS (GPA) argues that AIDS prevention requires a supportive environment, but that discriminatory laws make marginalized people even more vulnerable to sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). A country's legal, economic, and social environments can influence the pandemic. A short-term measure could be prostitutes collectively insisting that their clients wear condoms. Long-term measures of AIDS prevention require the improvement of the legal status of women and their access to education. Societies repress or tolerate drug use, prostitution, homosexuality, and casual sex, but often ministries forbid condom advertising, and condom possession by women can be used as evidence of prostitution. Fear of mandatory testing and detention prevents sex workers and drug users from accepting condoms and needles. A recent review of policies in 22 locations around the world found low seroprevalence of HIV among IV drug users in only 5 countries -- exactly the same countries where IV drug users had legal access to sterile needles. In Zambia a national condom promotion campaign was launched only after a 2-year debate, while free condoms had been distributed surreptitiously by a nongovernmental organization. Sex discrimination in many countries forces women to trade sex for money to make a living, and women in sex work are very vulnerable to HIV infection. Overcoming the subordination of women is a long-term undertaking, but an example of successful short-term empowerment of women is a credit scheme operated by a bank for rural women in Bangladesh. Socially, culturally, and economically male infidelity is often condoned, creating the risk of HIV infection and of passing the infection on to wives. Information campaigns stressing shared responsibility can be effective in changing social norms. Some traditional practices, e.g., ritual cleansing in Uganda and Zambia, also expose participants to the risk of HIV infection.

  16. DOES CIVIL SOCIETY CREATE SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gauca Oana

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze whether civil society itself can enhance or stimulate the creation of social entrepreneurs, by studying the traits of the civil society and the various definitions attributed to it. The main question that the paper wants to answer to is Does civil society create social entrepreneurs and the main approach used in this research paper is the theoretical one. By studying existing articles and books on the topic, the paper tries to emphasize the various dimensions that civil society can embrace, as pictured by various authors, as well as how these dimensions can relate to social entrepreneurs and the emergence of social businesses. The paper is not meant to be a breakthrough in the field, but rather to launch a question that is related to very important topics these days, social entrepreneurship, social innovation, social businesses and their connection to a very much debated topic-civil society. The paper is work-in progress and wants to stimulate research regarding the search of the sources of social entrepreneurship, in order to analyze them and better establish them as incubators for the future. It wants to be of use to whoever is researching the concepts illustrated above, as well as for those who want to get in touch with the new buzz words of the academic and entrepreneurial fields. The hereby paper stands, as previously stated, in a theoretical framework and the findings represent a mere analysis of the cause-effect relationship between the characteristics of civil society and those of social entrepreneurs. However, we are of the opinion that it can be a very good starting point for the ones interested in the domain, to analyze more sources of social entrepreneurship or further refine the answer to the question addressed in this article.

  17. Defectors Can Create Conditions That Rescue Cooperation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam James Waite

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cooperation based on the production of costly common goods is observed throughout nature. This is puzzling, as cooperation is vulnerable to exploitation by defectors which enjoy a fitness advantage by consuming the common good without contributing fairly. Depletion of the common good can lead to population collapse and the destruction of cooperation. However, population collapse implies small population size, which, in a structured population, is known to favor cooperation. This happens because small population size increases variability in cooperator frequency across different locations. Since individuals in cooperator-dominated locations (which are most likely cooperators will grow more than those in defector-dominated locations (which are most likely defectors, cooperators can outgrow defectors globally despite defectors outgrowing cooperators in each location. This raises the possibility that defectors can lead to conditions that sometimes rescue cooperation from defector-induced destruction. We demonstrate multiple mechanisms through which this can occur, using an individual-based approach to model stochastic birth, death, migration, and mutation events. First, during defector-induced population collapse, defectors occasionally go extinct before cooperators by chance, which allows cooperators to grow. Second, empty locations, either preexisting or created by defector-induced population extinction, can favor cooperation because they allow cooperator but not defector migrants to grow. These factors lead to the counterintuitive result that the initial presence of defectors sometimes allows better survival of cooperation compared to when defectors are initially absent. Finally, we find that resource limitation, inducible by defectors, can select for mutations adaptive to resource limitation. When these mutations are initially present at low levels or continuously generated at a moderate rate, they can favor cooperation by further reducing local

  18. Creating Porcine Biomedical Models Through Recombineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence B. Schook

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in genomics provide genetic information from humans and other mammals (mouse, rat, dog and primates traditionally used as models as well as new candidates (pigs and cattle. In addition, linked enabling technologies, such as transgenesis and animal cloning, provide innovative ways to design and perform experiments to dissect complex biological systems. Exploitation of genomic information overcomes the traditional need to choose naturally occurring models. Thus, investigators can utilize emerging genomic knowledge and tools to create relevant animal models. This approach is referred to as reverse genetics. In contrast to ‘forward genetics’, in which gene(s responsible for a particular phenotype are identified by positional cloning (phenotype to genotype, the ‘reverse genetics’ approach determines the function of a gene and predicts the phenotype of a cell, tissue, or organism (genotype to phenotype. The convergence of classical and reverse genetics, along with genomics, provides a working definition of a ‘genetic model’ organism (3. The recent construction of phenotypic maps defining quantitative trait loci (QTL in various domesticated species provides insights into how allelic variations contribute to phenotypic diversity. Targeted chromosomal regions are characterized by the construction of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC contigs to isolate and characterize genes contributing towards phenotypic variation. Recombineering provides a powerful methodology to harvest genetic information responsible for phenotype. Linking recombineering with gene-targeted homologous recombination, coupled with nuclear transfer (NT technology can provide ‘clones’ of genetically modified animals.

  19. Peculiarities of Creating Foreign Students’ Lexical Competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aigul Eskermesovna Sadenova

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Teaching of vocabulary includes several aspects of teaching content: linguistic, methodological and psychological. Teaching of vocabulary is a process which is inextricably entwined with understanding relations between new words and phonetic and grammar aspects of the language. On the one hand, simultaneous learning of two languages complicates the tasks set to the students, but, on the other hand, it simplifies the process. The complexity is in the scope of vocabulary to be remembered, as well as in the differences between grammar structures used in Russian and Kazakh. The simplification is in the fact that students are fully aware that lexical competence is formed gradually, and that every language has its lexical base required at the initial stage, and that such base is to be developed for mastering a specific language. Before identifying the methods of vocabulary semantization in the course of teaching a language to foreign students, students shall be offered active vocabulary, used to express their ideas orally and in written form, and passive vocabulary, used to perceive oral and written information. It is not possible to teach semantics only. It is necessary to create paradigmatic, syntactic and associative relations. The formation of lexical skills is connected with the solidity of vocabulary retention. In order to ensure reinforcement of the vocabulary learnt, the students shall be offered exercises contributing to the development of their skills of using vocabulary in listening, speaking, reading and writing. All above mentioned types of vocabulary semantization constitute a unified whole. Different ways of semantization are set forth for methodological purposes, to facilitate the achievement of the desired result. Translation and non-translation techniques for vocabulary presentation, as well as some tips and exercises, are given. The use of basic vocabulary at elementary and advanced levels is suggested. Certain methods for the

  20. Creating a Servitude to solve an encroachment Dispute: A Solution or creating another Problem?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsa-Zsa Temmers Boggenpoel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The main focus of this note is the case of Roseveare v Katmer, Katmer v Roseveare 2013 ZAGPJHC 18, which provides an interesting (though possibly constitutionally problematic perspective to the encroachment problem. The decision in this case has opened the door for courts to create servitudes in instances where encroachments are left intact based on policy reasons. Concerning these policy reasons, the note investigates the reasonableness standard as it was applied in the case. It is argued that it is important to differentiate between the applications of reasonableness in encroachment cases and alleged nuisance disputes. The decision in this case creates the impression that courts may now order that a servitude be registered in favour of the encroacher against the affected landowner’s property. It seems as though the court had in mind the creation of a praedial servitude to justify the continued existence of the encroachment. The servitude is created by court order against the will of the affected landowner. At common law, the creation of a servitude in this respect does not exist, and the authority from which the power derives to make an order like this is not entirely clear. The court also does not provide any authority for the creation of the servitude in favour of the encroacher. Consequently, it is argued that this may have serious constitutional implications. For one, lack of authority for the deprivation that results may be unconstitutional because there is no law of general application that authorises the deprivation in terms of section 25(1. The creation of a servitude to explain the continued existence of the encroachment is not automatically included in the general discretion to replace removal with compensation. It is contended that an order that forces the affected landowner to register a servitude in favour of the encroacher to preserve the existing encroachment situation will be in conflict with section 25(1 as far as the common

  1. Merging Galaxies Create a Binary Quasar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    Astronomers have found the first clear evidence of a binary quasar within a pair of actively merging galaxies. Quasars are the extremely bright centers of galaxies surrounding super-massive black holes, and binary quasars are pairs of quasars bound together by gravity. Binary quasars, like other quasars, are thought to be the product of galaxy mergers. Until now, however, binary quasars have not been seen in galaxies that are unambiguously in the act of merging. But images of a new binary quasar from the Carnegie Institution's Magellan telescope in Chile show two distinct galaxies with "tails" produced by tidal forces from their mutual gravitational attraction. "This is really the first case in which you see two separate galaxies, both with quasars, that are clearly interacting," says Carnegie astronomer John Mulchaey who made observations crucial to understanding the galaxy merger. Most, if not all, large galaxies, such as our galaxy the Milky Way, host super-massive black holes at their centers. Because galaxies regularly interact and merge, astronomers have assumed that binary super-massive black holes have been common in the Universe, especially during its early history. Black holes can only be detected as quasars when they are actively accreting matter, a process that releases vast amounts of energy. A leading theory is that galaxy mergers trigger accretion, creating quasars in both galaxies. Because most such mergers would have happened in the distant past, binary quasars and their associated galaxies are very far away and therefore difficult for most telescopes to resolve. The binary quasar, labeled SDSS J1254+0846, was initially detected by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, a large scale astronomical survey of galaxies and over 120,000 quasars. Further observations by Paul Green of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics and colleagues* using NASA's Chandra's X-ray Observatory and telescopes at Kitt Peak National Observatory in Arizona and Palomar

  2. Creating Partnerships on Campus to Facilitate Practical Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Craig M.; Johnson, Hans; McNeil, Michael P.; Warren, Karen

    2006-01-01

    College campuses create small communities where mutually beneficial partnerships can be used to create practical work experiences for students. The procedure outlined in this article outlines how to create a partnership between the campus health and recreation center and an academic department to evaluate the implementation of a new smoking…

  3. Download - CREATE portal | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available .6 KB) Simple search and download 3 InCeP create_portal_incep.zip (1 KB) Simple search and download 4 InCeP images create_portal_imag...es.zip (13.4 MB) - 5 KeyMolnet data create_portal_keymolnet.zip (7.1 MB) - 6 Mascot

  4. 31 CFR 900.8 - No private rights created.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false No private rights created. 900.8... No private rights created. The standards in this chapter do not create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law or in equity by a party against the United States, its agencies...

  5. 45 CFR 30.9 - No private rights created.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false No private rights created. 30.9 Section 30.9... Provisions § 30.9 No private rights created. The standards in this part do not create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law or in equity by a party against the United States, the...

  6. 10 CFR 1015.108 - No private rights created.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false No private rights created. 1015.108 Section 1015.108... § 1015.108 No private rights created. The standards in this part do not create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law or in equity by a party against the United States, its agencies...

  7. Synthetic biology ethically evaluated: The creating God and co-creating human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riaan Rheeder

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available God did not create once and then put an end to it. Testimony from Scripture shows that God continuously establishes or creates new things. Humans can therefore expect to always see and experience new things in creation. With this pattern of reasoning, one can anticipate that the human being as image of God will continuously establish new things in history. Although nature has value, it does not have absolute value and therefore it can be synthesised responsibly. The thought that humans are stewards of God is no longer adequate to, theologically put into words, the relationship human beings have with nature. New biotechnological developments ask for different answers from Scripture. Several ethicists are of the opinion that the theological construction of humans and created co-creators can help found the relationship of the human being to nature. Humans developed as God’s image evolutionary. On the one hand, this means humans themselves are a product of nature. On the other hand, the fact that humans are the image of God is also an ethical call that humans, like God, have to develop and create new things throughout history. Synthetic biology can be evaluated as technology that is possible, because humans are the image of God. However, it should, without a doubt, be executed responsibly.Sintetiese biologie eties geëvalueer: Die skeppende God en medeskeppende mens. God het nie net eenmaal geskep en daar gestop nie. Uit Skrifgetuienisse kan afgelei word dat God voortdurend nuwe dinge tot stand bring of skep. Daarom kan die mens verwag om gedurig nuwe dinge in die skepping te sien en te beleef. Hiermee saam kan verwag word dat die mens as beeld van God voortdurend nuwe dinge in die geskiedenis tot stand sal bring. Alhoewel die natuur waarde het, het dit nie absolute waarde nie en kan dus verantwoordelik gesintetiseer word. Die gedagte dat die mens rentmeester van God is, is nie meer voldoende om die mens se verhouding tot die natuur teologies te

  8. Creating real network with expected degree distribution: A statistical simulation

    OpenAIRE

    WenJun Zhang; GuangHua Liu

    2012-01-01

    The degree distribution of known networks is one of the focuses in network analysis. However, its inverse problem, i.e., to create network from known degree distribution has not yet been reported. In present study, a statistical simulation algorithm was developed to create real network with expected degree distribution. It is aniteration procedure in which a real network, with the least deviation of actual degree distribution to expected degree distribution, was created. Random assignment was...

  9. CREATING A CORPORATE ENTREPRENEURSHIP STRATEGY FOR COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE

    OpenAIRE

    ENGİNOĞLU, Didem; ARIKAN, Cenk Laçin

    2016-01-01

    Current competitive environment is rapidly changing. In today’s business environment, organizations are having an increasingly difficult time in creating competitive advantages. The main reason for this is the ease in contemporary business life for organizations to reach the same or very similar resources. Firms need innovation to create and sustain success and effectiveness. In such a highly competitive business life, the importance of creating competitive advantages for organizations based ...

  10. Creating 3D gelatin phantoms for experimental evaluation in biomedicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stein Nils

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe and evaluate a setup to create gelatin phantoms by robotic 3D printing. Key aspects are the large workspace, reproducibility and resolution of the created phantoms. Given its soft tissue nature, the gelatin is kept fluid during inside the system and we present parameters for additive printing of homogeneous, solid objects. The results indicate that 3D printing of gelatin can be an alternative for quickly creating larger soft tissue phantoms without the need for casting a mold.

  11. Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases from Myceliophthora thermophila C1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frommhagen, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Current developments aim at the effective enzymatic degradation of plant biomass polysaccharides into fermentable monosaccharides for biofuels and biochemicals. Recently discovered lytic polysaccharide monooxgygenases (LPMOs) boost the hydrolytic breakdown of lignocellulosic biomass, especially

  12. Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases from Myceliophthora thermophila C1

    OpenAIRE

    Frommhagen, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Current developments aim at the effective enzymatic degradation of plant biomass polysaccharides into fermentable monosaccharides for biofuels and biochemicals. Recently discovered lytic polysaccharide monooxgygenases (LPMOs) boost the hydrolytic breakdown of lignocellulosic biomass, especially cellulose, due to their oxidative mechanism. At the beginning of this thesis, only few LPMOs were characterized and many aspects related to their catalytic performance were unknown. Hence, in this thes...

  13. T. thermophila group I introns that cleave amide bonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Gerald F. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    The present invention relates to nucleic acid enzymes or enzymatic RNA molecules that are capable of cleaving a variety of bonds, including phosphodiester bonds and amide bonds, in a variety of substrates. Thus, the disclosed enzymatic RNA molecules are capable of functioning as nucleases and/or peptidases. The present invention also relates to compositions containing the disclosed enzymatic RNA molecule and to methods of making, selecting, and using such enzymes and compositions.

  14. Mandatory Parent Education Programs Can Create Positive Youth Sport Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofferson, Jennifer; Strand, Bradford

    2016-01-01

    Youth sport leaders must not ignore the influence parents have on creating a positive developmental experience for young athletes. Therefore, expectations involving parental involvement and conduct must be addressed prior to athletes' participation. This article aims to examine the importance of creating mandatory parental training programs for…

  15. Creating a Culture of Peace in the Elementary Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Tiffany J.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author shares how she created a "peaceable classroom" through activities which she incorporated into a 1st-grade curriculum and which fulfilled academic requirements. As a 1st-grade teacher at Redlands Adventist Academy in Redlands, CA, she wanted to create a learning environment that would foster values like…

  16. Creating Cartoons to Promote Leaderships Skills and Explore Leadership Qualities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Latisha L.; Clausen, Courtney K.; Teske, Jolene K.; Ghayoorrad, Maryam; Gray, Phyllis; Al Subia, Sukainah; Atwood-Blaine, Dana; Rule, Audrey C.

    2015-01-01

    This document describes a strategy for increasing student leadership and creativity skills through the creation of cartoons. Creating cartoons engages students in divergent thinking and cognitive processes, such as perception, recall, and mental processing. When students create cartoons focused on a particular topic, they are making connections to…

  17. Investigations into properties of charge traps created in CCDs by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Charge traps we observe are created when a vacancy in the crystalline structure of silicon (mobile by itself) combines with another vacancy (V) or doping atom (P) or impurity atom (O) to create a complex. Such a complex (VV or VP or VO) is immobile and has the ability to capture and retain electrons from charge packets.

  18. 5 CFR 9701.372 - Creating initial pay ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Creating initial pay ranges. 9701.372... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Transitional Provisions § 9701.372 Creating initial pay ranges. (a) DHS must, after coordination with OPM, set the initial band rate ranges for the...

  19. Talent Management for Creating a Performance Work Environment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines the extent to which talent management can contribute towards creating a performance work environment (PWE) that can enhance sustainable talent identifi cation and development in the public service. The literature analysis results reveal that talent management is essential in creating a PWE in the ...

  20. Fundamental Characteristics of Incentive Streams Created by Legal Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dari Mattiacci, G.

    2002-01-01

    The law shapes people’s behaviour by creating incentives. For example, tort law induces motorists to drive carefully by making them pay compensation for the accidents they may cause. This study analyses the way the law can create incentives in those cases in which the courts or the administrative

  1. Creating Learning Outcomes for a TESOL Teacher Preparation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrichsen, Lynn; Tanner, Mark

    2011-01-01

    This article shares the results of a multisemester effort to create learning outcomes and related assessment measures for a graduate-level teaching English to speakers of other languages (TESOL) teacher preparation program. It starts by explaining what learning outcomes are, why they are important, and how to create them. It then describes the…

  2. Gender differentiation in the Bible: created and recognized

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    So the study of the usage of the term 'ish reveals that gender differentiation is created. However, its usage does not show that the marginalization of the 'issha is inherent in its usage. 'issha'26. The first time we come across this term is in connection with creation in 2:22. As already noted, in 2:22 God creates gender ...

  3. Creating a Fellowship Curriculum in Patient Safety and Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abookire, Susan A; Gandhi, Tejal K; Kachalia, Allen; Sands, Kenneth; Mort, Elizabeth; Bommarito, Grace; Gagne, Jane; Sato, Luke; Weingart, Saul N

    2016-01-01

    The authors sought to create a curriculum suitable for a newly created clinical fellowship curriculum across Harvard Medical School-affiliated teaching hospitals as part of a newly created 2-year quality and safety fellowship program described in the companion article "Design and Implementation of the Harvard Fellowship in Patient Safety and Quality." The aim of the curriculum development process was to define, coordinate, design, and implement a set of essential skills for future physician-scholars of any specialty to lead operational quality and patient safety efforts. The process of curriculum development and the ultimate content are described in this article. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Creating a Podcast/Vodcast: A How-To Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, C. C.

    2011-09-01

    Creating podcasts and vodcasts is a wonderful way to share news of science research. Public affairs officers use them to reveal the latest discoveries done by scientists in their institutions. Educators can offer podcast/vodcast creation for students who want a unique way to demonstrate their mastery of science topics. Anyone with a computer and a USB microphone can create a podcast. To do a vodcast, you also need a digital video camera and video editing software. This session focused mainly on creating a podcast - writing the script and recording the soundtrack. Attendees also did a short activity to learn to write effective narrative copy for a podcast/vodcast.

  5. Online by design the essentials of creating information literacy courses

    CERN Document Server

    Mery, Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    As online instruction becomes more popular, librarians will want to develop the knowledge and skills needed to create an effective online information literacy course. Online by Design: The Essentials of Creating Information Literacy Courses will guide librarians as they go through the process of designing, developing, and delivering online information literacy courses. Yvonne Mery & Jill Newby offer proven techniques and tips for creating quality online courses that are engaging and effective. This handbook is perfect for instruction librarians who are interesting in developing new courses or

  6. Using information technology to create new educational situations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collis, Betty

    1990-01-01

    This paper provides a comprehensive, enlightening discussion of the potential, current realization, and likely future, of different ways in which computers can be used in education. The topics include individualizing instruction and creating new educational situations for students, general changes

  7. Creating tangible and intangible hospitality products with a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Creating tangible and intangible hospitality products with a sustainable value – The case of the Altes Land apples. Sofie-Charlotte Depke, Christina Lück, Jennifer Peters, Lara Wellmer, Sarah Seidel ...

  8. Kids Create Healthy Comics | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... School Students Using Medline Plus Kids Create Healthy Comics Past Issues / Fall 2015 Table of Contents Fresh, ... use of reliable health information resources." The Four Comic Books Are: The Expert Investigator explores the impact ...

  9. Creating a home for pure bison to roam

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Newspaper article on testing genetic of a head of bison used by the American Prairie Foundation as seed stock to re-create a large-scale native prairie landscape....

  10. Media created violence: a social determinant of mental health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Begum, Shamshad; Khowaja, Shaneela Sadruddin; Ali, Gulnar

    2012-01-01

    .... The primary goal of a health professional is to work for the maintenance of mental health. Therefore, it is imperative to create an understanding about the impact of media violence on mental health, particularly in the Pakistani context...

  11. Where They Play: Creating Healthy Environments for Youth Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has created a presentation to help coaches and athletic administrators better understand the environmental health risks associated with youth sports and the steps they can follow to protect young athletes.

  12. SOME PROBLEMS OF CREATING ELECTRIC ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY AIRCRAFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Kharkov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the questions connected with the possibility of creating environmentally friendly electric aircraft are considered. It is suggested to use modern accumulators based on the lithium-thionyl chloride as a source of electrical energy.

  13. Creating Cartoons: A Learner-Centered Approach to Comprehending Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malu, Kathleen F.; McNeal, Kelly

    2017-01-01

    In this article the authors describe how a specific technique--having learners create cartoons based on a reading passage--helped learners explore their understanding of reading passages and helped the teachers reflect on what the learners had comprehended.

  14. How to Create an Anti-Aging Skin Care Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... public", "mcat1=de12", ]; for (var c = 0; c How to create an anti-aging skin care plan Skin ... you select these products carefully. You can learn how to select these products by reading: How to select ...

  15. Creating Equal Opportunities for a Healthy Weight: workshop summary

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Breiner, Heather; Parker, Lynn; Olsen, Steven

    Creating Equal Opportunities for a Healthy Weight is the summary of a workshop convened by the Institute of Medicine's Standing Committee on Childhood Obesity Prevention in June 2013 to examine income...

  16. Retreating academics: creating spaces for the scholarship of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , this paper explores particular spaces created to support academic engagement in the scholarship of teaching and learning: the space of writing retreats. The metaphor of 'tapestry' is used to capture the development of a complex conceptual ...

  17. DES Science Portal: II- Creating Science-Ready Catalogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fausti Neto, Angelo; et al.

    2017-08-18

    We present a novel approach for creating science-ready catalogs through a software infrastructure developed for the Dark Energy Survey (DES). We integrate the data products released by the DES Data Management and additional products created by the DES collaboration in an environment known as DES Science Portal. Each step involved in the creation of a science-ready catalog is recorded in a relational database and can be recovered at any time. We describe how the DES Science Portal automates the creation and characterization of lightweight catalogs for DES Year 1 Annual Release, and show its flexibility in creating multiple catalogs with different inputs and configurations. Finally, we discuss the advantages of this infrastructure for large surveys such as DES and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope. The capability of creating science-ready catalogs efficiently and with full control of the inputs and configurations used is an important asset for supporting science analysis using data from large astronomical surveys.

  18. Creating Word Search Puzzles with a Pedagogical Purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Jay

    2002-01-01

    Examines ways that word search puzzles can be created and modified for use in the foreign language classroom. Examples show how word search puzzles can focus on a wide variety of vocabulary, grammar topics, and skills. (Author/VWL)

  19. Creating Simple Admin Tools Using Info*Engine and Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Corey; Kapatos, Dennis; Skradski, Cory; Felkins, J. D.

    2012-01-01

    PTC has provided a simple way to dynamically interact with Windchill using Info*Engine. This presentation will describe how to create a simple Info*Engine Tasks capable of saving Windchill 10.0 administration of tedious work.

  20. Creating Parallel Arabic Dialect Corpus: Pitfalls to Avoid

    OpenAIRE

    Harrat, Salima; Meftouh, Karima; Smaïli, Kamel

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Creating parallel corpora is a difficult issue that many researches try to deal with. In the context of under-resourced languages like Arabic dialects this issue is more complicated due to the nature of these spoken languages. In this paper, we share our experiment of creating a Parallel Corpus which contain several dialects and Modern Standard Arabic(MSA). We attempt to highlight the most important choices that we did and how good were these choices.

  1. Creating a Collection of Microalgae for use in Biofuels Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-25

    Dr. J. Polle – Brooklyn College of CUNY -1- Final Report for the Project: CREATING A COLLECTION OF MICROALGAE FOR USE IN BIOFUELS RESEARCH...For both direct and metabolic engineering approaches to improved biofuels production, it is vital to isolate a large variety of microalgae for...create a culture collection as a resource of diverse microalgae for biofuels research. To this end, from about 50 different habitats novel microalgae

  2. Create a virtual community: start an Internet discussion list.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergren, M D

    1999-12-01

    Internet discussion lists are valuable tools for sharing resources, creating professional relationships, and remaining current in a specialty. Despite the proliferation of health-related lists, there are still school nurse subspecialties and associations that would benefit from professional mailing lists. The process of starting a list is simple and quick. The effort required to manage a list is well worth the benefits of creating a virtual professional school nurse community.

  3. A New Method for Creating the Bladder Flap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandria J. Hill

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Bladder flaps are commonly created during routine cesarean deliveries and often require multiple steps that increase operating time and expose the surgeon to inadvertent injury. Objective We report a simple method of creating a bladder flap that eliminates the need for multiple instrument handoffs and repositioning. Conclusion The simplicity of this method allows the surgeon decreased operative entry time while decreasing exposure to injuries from multiple instrument handoffs during bladder flap development.

  4. A Mashup of Techniques to Create Reference Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    2012 Carnegie Mellon University A Mashup of Techniques to Create Reference Architectures Software Engineering Institute Carnegie Mellon...SUBTITLE A Mashup of Techniques to Create Reference Architectures 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d...reference architectures. We have developed a mashup of existing techniques that supports an architecture team in organizing the inputs required to

  5. Creating Virtual Exhibitions for Educational and Cultural Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela DUMITRESCU

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents different tools and mechanisms to implement a virtual exhibition in different cultural areas, such as museums and libraries. Quality characteristics of virtual exhibitions are identified and described. The possibility to create native mobile applications for virtual exhibitions presentation is analyzed. The functional flow of creating a virtual exhibition is presented and discussed. The Seals - History Treasure exhibition is presented and significant historical documents are revealed.

  6. Creating criteria for sustainable tourism products in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Stauffer-Korte, Jenni

    2014-01-01

    Commissioner of this thesis is HAAGA-HELIA University of Applied Sciences. The objective of this research is to create criteria for sustainable tourism products and find also existing products or sustainable supply in Finland. Negative impacts of tourism can be minimized and different criteria and indicators have been created worldwide in order to maintain sustainable tourism development and improve tourism management practices and decision-making in tourism destinations. As a consequenc...

  7. Legal and Organizational Issues in Collaborative User-Created Content

    OpenAIRE

    Sarvas, Risto

    2005-01-01

    Introduction In this paper we look into issues that arise when people collaboratively create digital content and want to publicly distribute it. We identify and analyze the issues based on four case studies on amateur content production. In our analysis we discuss the issues both from the amateurs’ point of view, and also, from the game brand owners’ perspective. User-created content (UCC) in games has become popular as demonstrated by game-related skins, mods and extensions, screenshots, gam...

  8. Thoughts About Created Environment: A Neuman Systems Model Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verberk, Frans; Fawcett, Jacqueline

    2017-04-01

    This essay is about the Neuman systems model concept of the created environment. The essay, based on work by Frans Verberk, a Neuman systems model scholar from the Netherlands, extends understanding of the created environment by explaining how this distinctive perspective of environment represents an elaboration of the physiological, psychological, sociocultural, developmental, and spiritual variables, which are other central concepts of the Neuman Systems Model.

  9. ProAuthor system, creating of electronic study documents

    OpenAIRE

    MAROUŠEK, Rostislav

    2011-01-01

    E-learning is a learning process, which uses information and communication technology to create courses, to distribute learning content, to communication between students and teachers and management studies. This task is focused on the program ProAuthor, which allows the creation of training courses. In the theoretical part is described how e-learning was developed, what are the current trends, comparison of e-learning and blended learning, how to create a course and a brief description of e-...

  10. Creating the Economy of Virtuality: Systemic Aspects and Educational Considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Julio Rezende

    2016-01-01

    This article discuss how an economy of virtuality had been created in Orlando, United States, with the great collaboration of entrepreneurs, creativists and the action of academic institutions like University of Central Florida (UCF). In UCF the Florida Interactive Entertainment Academy – FIEA is an exemplary initiative of education that aims at creating new professionals for the economy of virtuality. Examining the case of Orlando city, would be seen the economic outcomes of the operation of...

  11. Development of soil properties and nitrogen cycling in created wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, K.L.; Ahn, C.; Noe, G.B.

    2011-01-01

    Mitigation wetlands are expected to compensate for the loss of structure and function of natural wetlands within 5–10 years of creation; however, the age-based trajectory of development in wetlands is unclear. This study investigates the development of coupled structural (soil properties) and functional (nitrogen cycling) attributes of created non-tidal freshwater wetlands of varying ages and natural reference wetlands to determine if created wetlands attain the water quality ecosystem service of nitrogen (N) cycling over time. Soil condition component and its constituents, gravimetric soil moisture, total organic carbon, and total N, generally increased and bulk density decreased with age of the created wetland. Nitrogen flux rates demonstrated age-related patterns, with younger created wetlands having lower rates of ammonification, nitrification, nitrogen mineralization, and denitrification potential than older created wetlands and natural reference wetlands. Results show a clear age-related trajectory in coupled soil condition and N cycle development, which is essential for water quality improvement. These findings can be used to enhance N processing in created wetlands and inform the regulatory evaluation of mitigation wetlands by identifying structural indicators of N processing performance.

  12. IBES: A Tool for Creating Instructions Based on Event Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina eMura

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Receiving informative, well-structured, and well-designed instructions supports performance and memory in assembly tasks. We describe IBES, a tool with which users can quickly and easily create multimedia, step-by-step instructions by segmenting a video of a task into segments. In a validation study we demonstrate that the step-by-step structure of the visual instructions created by the tool corresponds to the natural event boundaries, which are assessed by event segmentation and are known to play an important role in memory processes. In one part of the study, twenty participants created instructions based on videos of two different scenarios by using the proposed tool. In the other part of the study, ten and twelve participants respectively segmented videos of the same scenarios yielding event boundaries for coarse and fine events. We found that the visual steps chosen by the participants for creating the instruction manual had corresponding events in the event segmentation. The number of instructional steps was a compromise between the number of fine and coarse events. Our interpretation of results is that the tool picks up on natural human event perception processes of segmenting an ongoing activity into events and enables the convenient transfer into meaningful multimedia instructions for assembly tasks. We discuss the practical application of IBES, for example, creating manuals for differing expertise levels, and give suggestions for research on user-oriented instructional design based on this tool.

  13. Biochemical approaches including the design and use of strains expressing epitope-tagged proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couvillion, Mary T; Collins, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    Epitope tagging is a powerful approach used to enable investigations of a cellular component by elucidating its localization, interaction partners, and/or activity targets. Successful tag-based affinity purification yields a mixture of the molecule of interest, associated proteins and nucleic acids, and nonspecific background proteins and nucleic acids, many of which can depend on details of the protocol for enrichment. This chapter provides guidelines and considerations for designing an affinity purification experiment, beginning with construction of a strain expressing a tagged subunit. Common biochemical methods for detecting protein, RNA, and DNA in Tetrahymena thermophila are also discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Pseudomonas aeruginosa adaptation to lungs of cystic fibrosis patients leads to lowered resistance to phage and protist enemies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friman, Ville-Petri; Ghoul, Melanie; Molin, Søren

    2013-01-01

    ) patients affects its survival in the presence of natural phage (14/1, ΦKZ, PNM and PT7) and protist (Tetrahymena thermophila and Acanthamoebae polyphaga) enemies. We found that most of the bacteria isolated from relatively recently intermittently colonised patients (1-25 months), were innately phage......-resistant and highly toxic for protists. In contrast, bacteria isolated from long time chronically infected patients (2-23 years), were less efficient in both resisting phages and killing protists. Moreover, chronic isolates showed reduced killing of wax moth larvae (Galleria mellonella) probably due to weaker...... will likely slow down the emergence of beneficial resistance mutations....

  15. Creating Value through Virtual Teams: A Current Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akemi Takeoka Chatfield

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Globally, virtual teams (VT as ICT-enabled emergent network organisation forms have gained international validity by innovative organisations, with a corresponding surge of interest in understanding how organisations can leverage VT to create business value. Despite growing deliberations in VT literature on managing VT, tasks and outcomes, however, creating business value through VT remains an unresolved theoretical and pragmatic conundrum. A review of prior relevant literature is essential to advancing knowledge. The paucity of published review articles seems to have impeded the field’s accumulation of VT knowledge. This research, therefore, reviews the current literature on case studies of VT to address the question: What are organisational challenges in creating business value through VT in the organisation? The key challenges found in the literature are effective communication, knowledge sharing, trust, and interpersonal skills in the new virtual boundary-less environment. Drawing on the IT business value model, we also discuss their resource-based implications.

  16. Creating the future with all finance and financial conglomerates

    CERN Document Server

    Berghe, Lutgart

    1998-01-01

    Creating the Future with All Finance and Financial Conglomerates comprises an academic search for an understanding of all finance and financial conglomerates. It presents a strategic and economic analysis of diversification strategies and the growing interface between different types of financial firms. On the basis of a solid analysis of theoretical foundations and practical value, the book develops basic concepts of creating the future: especially solutions in managing risks and fresh ideas for the development of integrated financial services. The structure of the book is logical: starting on theoretical foundations (section 1, part A) and examining the economic value of All Finance and Financial Conglomerates (part B), leads to creating a concept for the future (part C). Case studies add additional practical value to this research. The review of the subject is completed by aspects of risk management in this sector and by political guidelines for the EU single market (section 2). The book builds further on ...

  17. Creating Digital Elevation Model Using a Mobile Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durmaz, A. İ.

    2017-11-01

    DEM (Digital Elevation Models) is the best way to interpret topography on the ground. In recent years, lidar technology allows to create more accurate elevation models. However, the problem is this technology is not common all over the world. Also if Lidar data are not provided by government agencies freely, people have to pay lots of money to reach these point clouds. In this article, we will discuss how we can create digital elevation model from less accurate mobile devices' GPS data. Moreover, we will evaluate these data on the same mobile device which we collected data to reduce cost of this modeling.

  18. Excel Programming Your Visual Blueprint for Creating Interactive Spreadsheets

    CERN Document Server

    Etheridge, Denise

    2010-01-01

    A great guide to Excel programming that is perfect for visual learners and takes you beyond Excel basics!. This book is the perfect reference for Excel users who want to delve deeper into the application to create powerful and dynamic programs. From creating macros to customizing dialog boxes, this step-by-step guide helps you get more out of Excel than you knew was possible. Each step has callouts so you can see exactly where the action takes place and this Web site offers tons of usable code and sample macros that you can put to use instantly.: Explains step-by-step how to automate Excel, th

  19. Picture models for 2-scene comics creating system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miki UENO

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, computer understanding pictures and stories becomes one of the most important research topics in computer science. However, there are few researches about human like understanding by computers because pictures have not certain format and contain more lyric aspect than that of natural laguage. For picture understanding, a comic is the suitable target because it is consisted by clear and simple plot of stories and separated scenes.In this paper, we propose 2 different types of picture models for 2-scene comics creating system. We also show the method of the application of 2-scene comics creating system by means of proposed picture model.

  20. 100% Photoshop Create stunning illustrations without using any photographs

    CERN Document Server

    Caplin, Steve

    2010-01-01

    Just when you think you've learned all that you could ever know about working in Photoshop, digital artist and photomontage king Steve Caplin comes along with yet another masterful method for creating incredible works of art in Photoshop. This time, he'll show you how to create complete images, from start to finish, entirely within the software program. No source material, photographs, or existing files from other software packages are needed, saving you valuable time and resources. The techniques you'll learn in this ground-breaking new book will help you combine your artistic vision and skil

  1. CREATING DIGITAL ELEVATION MODEL USING A MOBILE DEVICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. İ. Durmaz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available DEM (Digital Elevation Models is the best way to interpret topography on the ground. In recent years, lidar technology allows to create more accurate elevation models. However, the problem is this technology is not common all over the world. Also if Lidar data are not provided by government agencies freely, people have to pay lots of money to reach these point clouds. In this article, we will discuss how we can create digital elevation model from less accurate mobile devices’ GPS data. Moreover, we will evaluate these data on the same mobile device which we collected data to reduce cost of this modeling.

  2. Blender production creating short animations from start to finish

    CERN Document Server

    Hess, Roland

    2012-01-01

    Blender has become one of the most popular 3D animation tools on the market because it is robust and absolutely free. Blender Production is the definitive resource for anyone who wants to create short animations from scratch. With this book, and Blender, you have the ideal platform to make it happen.  Blender expert and author Roland Hess walks you through the entire process of creating a short animation including: writing, storyboarding, blocking, character creation, animation, rendering, and production. The associated web site includes the full Blender software kit and a compl

  3. Creating symmetry the artful mathematics of wallpaper patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Farris, Frank A

    2015-01-01

    This lavishly illustrated book provides a hands-on, step-by-step introduction to the intriguing mathematics of symmetry. Instead of breaking up patterns into blocks-a sort of potato-stamp method-Frank Farris offers a completely new waveform approach that enables you to create an endless variety of rosettes, friezes, and wallpaper patterns: dazzling art images where the beauty of nature meets the precision of mathematics. Featuring more than 100 stunning color illustrations and requiring only a modest background in math, Creating Symmetry begins by addressing the enigma of a simple curve, who

  4. Solving Complex Problems to Create Charter Extension Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tippmann, Esther; Nell, Phillip Christopher

    This study examines subsidiary-driven problem solving processes and their potential to create advanced solutions for charter extension options. Problem solving theory suggests that biases in problem formulation and solution search can confine problem solving potential. We thus argue that balanced...... solution search, or activities to reconcile the need for some solution features to be locally-tailored while others can be internationally standardized, mediates the relationships between problem complexity/headquarters involvement and the capacity to create advanced solutions. An analysis of 67 projects...

  5. Can Participatory Action Research Create Value for Business Model Innovation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre, Mogens; Rasmussen, Ole Horn; Fast, Alf Michael

    Abstract: Participatory Action Research (PAR) has a longer academic history compared with the idea of business models (BMs). This paper indicates how industries gain by using the combined methodology. The research question "Can participatory action research create value for Business Model...... their monetary and/or non-monetary value creation doing BMI based upon PAR. The process is essential and using the methodology of PAR creates meaning. Behind the process, the RAR methodology and its link to BM and BMI may contribute to theory construction and creation of a common language in academia around...

  6. Twelve tips for creating an academic teaching portfolio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little-Wienert, Kim; Mazziotti, Mark

    2017-08-17

    An academic teaching portfolio is not only a requirement at many academic teaching institutions, but it is also important in a medical educator's growth and development through documentation, reflection, evaluation, and change. Creating an academic portfolio may appear daunting at first but with careful advanced preparation, organized evidence collection of your educational work, proof of scholarship, and thorough documentation of self-reflection and change, you can produce a successful product that accurately represents your educational beliefs, accomplishments, and growth throughout your career. This article provides medical educators with twelve steps for creating a successful academic teaching portfolio.

  7. Members of the NIMA-related kinase family promote disassembly of cilia by multiple mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wloga, Dorota; Camba, Amy; Rogowski, Krzysztof; Manning, Gerard; Jerka-Dziadosz, Maria; Gaertig, Jacek

    2006-06-01

    The genome of Tetrahymena thermophila contains 39 loci encoding NIMA-related kinases (NRKs), an extraordinarily large number for a unicellular organism. Evolutionary analyses grouped these sequences into several subfamilies, some of which have orthologues in animals, whereas others are protist specific. When overproduced, NRKs of three subfamilies caused rapid shortening of cilia. Ultrastructural studies revealed that each NRK triggered ciliary resorption by a distinct mechanism that involved preferential depolymerization of a subset of axonemal microtubules, at either the distal or proximal end. Overexpression of a kinase-inactive variant caused lengthening of cilia, indicating that constitutive NRK-mediated resorption regulates the length of cilia. Each NRK preferentially resorbed a distinct subset of cilia, depending on the location along the anteroposterior axis. We also show that normal Tetrahymena cells maintain unequal length cilia. We propose that ciliates used a large number of NRK paralogues to differentially regulate the length of specific subsets of cilia in the same cell.

  8. Talking Circle: Creating Community in our Elementary Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triplett, Cheri Foster; Hunter, Anne

    2005-01-01

    A Talking Circle incorporates traditions from various Native American tribes and represents the practice of gathering as a community to solve problems, and the practice of respectful listening. This article describes the benefits of introducing students to a Talking Circle as a way of creating community in the classroom. Having a weekly class…

  9. Creating a Single South African Keyboard Layout to Promote ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    R.B. Ruthven

    Abstract: In this case study, a description is given of a keyboard layout designed to address the input needs of South African languages, specifically Venda, a language which would otherwise be impossible to type on a computer. In creating this keyboard, the designer, Translate.org.za, uses a practical intervention that ...

  10. Creating a Collaborative Learning Community in the CIS Sandbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frydenberg, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of transforming a traditional university computer lab to create a collaborative learning community known as the CIS Sandbox, by remodeling a physical space and supporting it with a virtual presence through the use of social media tools. The discussion applies Selander's "designs for…

  11. Analysis of Web-Based Tutorials Created by Academic Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somoza-Fernandez, Marta; Abadal, Ernest

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to analyse the characteristics of tutorials created by academic libraries. It evaluates a sample of 180 tutorials by applying thirty basic indicators referring to general characteristics, content, teaching methodology, usability and technology. The general conclusion is that most of the tutorials are at an early stage of…

  12. MARLIN, software to create, run, and analyse spatially realistic simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meirmans, P.G.

    2011-01-01

    Marlin is a software to create, run, analyse, and visualize spatially explicit population genetic simulations. It provides an intuitive user interface with which the geographical layout of a metapopulation can be drawn by hand or loaded from a map. Furthermore, the interface allows easy selection of

  13. Creating healthy work in small enterprises - from understanding to action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stephen, Legg; Ian S., laird; Olsen, Kirsten Bendix

    2014-01-01

    Although much is known about small and medium enterprises (SMEs), our current knowledge and understanding of occupational health and safety (OHS) and the work environment in SMEs is limited. Far less is known about how SMEs put our knowledge of OSH into action. In short, how do we create healthy...

  14. Structural Barriers: Redesigning Schools to Create Learning Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randeree, Ebrahim

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to focus on schools and address the structural dimensions of the organization as well as the hierarchical design of information flows between stakeholders. The paper highlights current structural barriers to creating learning organizations. Design/methodology/approach: This paper utilizes a conceptual model.…

  15. Creating a Learning Climate: A South African Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrim, Nasima Mohamed Hoosen; Basson, Johan Schutte

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to ascertain whether there were differences in how one public and two private South African organizations created a learning climate. Design/methodology/approach: This article is based on a survey and comparative analysis of specific departments in a chemical and gas company, an insurance company, and a…

  16. Creating a hybrid sense of belonging in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monka, Malene

    to local products and culturally by enacting the competition (Coupland 2014). Yet, I argue that the participants do not create a copy of the activity as it is played out in its original setting, rather it is ascribed a certain urban coolness, which might be a way of demonstrating hybrid senses of belonging...

  17. Creating Subjects: The Language of the Stage 6 English Syllabus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anson, Daniel W. J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the language of the 2009 NSW Stage 6 English Syllabus. I argue that the language of the syllabus aims to create two distinct subjects: Subject English, that is, what students learn; and the subject position of its students, that is, what students are expected to become. Analysis reveals themes of personal development and…

  18. Students Create Fake E-Profiles to Bully Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Michelle R.

    2012-01-01

    Two teenage girls were arrested in Florida and charged with cyberstalking after creating a fake Facebook page impersonating another student and using it to bully her. Students at an Indianapolis high school set up false Twitter accounts for their principal and tweeted offensive comments before the account was shut down. And at a Minnesota middle…

  19. Internet factories: Creating application-specific networks on-demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strijkers, R.J.; Makkes, M.X.; Laat, C. de; Meijer, R.J.

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the concept of Internet factories. Internet factories structure the task of creating and managing application-specific overlay networks using infrastructure-as-a-service clouds. We describe the Internet factory architecture and report on a proof of concept with three examples that

  20. Innovation Zones: Creating Policy Flexibility for Personalized Learning. Issue Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Susan; Gentz, Susan

    2016-01-01

    There is a new state education policy concept termed either innovation zones or districts of innovation. State education agencies interested in shifting their role from enforcing compliance to one of supporting innovation and building capacity in districts are working to spur new innovative instructional models and create space for…

  1. Introduction to emerging threats and vulnerabilities to create user awareness

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Veerasamy, N

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available to the most current, pertinent attack strategies and trends. It aims to create an awareness of emerging areas that should be better studied and understood. The paper addresses the blurring lines of cyber crime, information warfare and cyber terror to indicate...

  2. Where am I? Creating spatial awareness in unmanned ground ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper presents a survey of Simultaneous Localization And Mapping (SLAM) algorithms for unmanned ground robots. SLAM is the process of creating a map of the environment, sometimes unknown a priori, while at the same time localizing the robot in the same map. The map could be one of different types i.e. metrical, ...

  3. Methodological questions of creating tissue-equivalent phantoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodkin, A. V.; Popov, V. I.; Sychkov, M. A.; Nikl, I.; Erdei, M.; Eyben, O.

    1974-01-01

    On the basis of analysis and generalization of literature data, the composition of tissue equivalent plastic was justified, parameters of a standard man were determined, plaster and metal forms were created for casting dummies, and an experimental model was produced from tissue equivalent material.

  4. Creating Collection Visibility for School Library Media Centres in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper focuses on the importance of creating collection visibility through the use of freely available softwares such as the CDS/ISIS for windows and The Library'Ihing as a strategy for the development of school library media centres in Nigeria. It discusses the benefits of having a visible collection among which is easy ...

  5. Creating Global Citizens : Impact of Volunteer and Work Abroad ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2009-05-28

    Papers. Young Canadians learning/volunteering abroad and their perceived impacts on host communities : CASID Conference paper, May 28, 2009, Carleton University, Ottawa. Download PDF. Reports. Creating global citizens? : the impact of learning/volunteer abroad programs; final report, January 2006 - June 2012.

  6. Creating Practitioners of Design for Quality through Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robotham, Antony John

    1998-01-01

    . A comparison is made between the design approach of engineering students versus that of industrial design students; the merits of the latter being the greater awareness of customer needs and a strong desire to create innovative products. At IKS, we believe that the designer often has an incomplete knowledge...

  7. Teacher mental health promotion in creating quality teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to find out challenges in the promotion of the teachers' mental health for them to create an environment that promotes quality teaching and learning in dysfunctional secondary schools in Mutale area in the Vhembe District of Limpopo Province. Quantitative research design was used, collecting data ...

  8. Creating Web Pages: Is Anyone Considering Visual Literacy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Barbara I.; And Others

    The purpose of this study was: (1) to look at the design, aesthetics, and functionality of educational and noneducational Web pages from the perspective of visual literacy; and (2) to evaluate printed and online materials that are used as resources by professionals and nonprofessionals to create these Web pages. These "how to" manuals…

  9. Identifying the challenges of creating an optimal dissemination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Helene Verhoef

    Ang L, 2009). Output areas for New Zealand were created by using a modified AZTool. According to Statistics NZ, the algorithm deployed by the tool is Openshaw's zone design algorithm. (Openshaw, 1977 and 1978) which addresses scale effects and geographical partitioning (i.e. the modifiable areal unit problem, MAUP).

  10. Children Creating Multimodal Stories about a Familiar Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kervin, Lisa; Mantei, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    Storytelling is a practice that enables children to apply their literacy skills. This article shares a collaborative literacy strategy devised to enable children to create multimodal stories about their familiar school environment. The strategy uses resources, including the children's own drawings, images from Google Maps, and the Puppet Pals…

  11. Creating Enabling Environments for Small and Medium Enterprises ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has been observed that small and medium scale enterprise ( SME) are the bedrock of a nation\\'s industrial and technological advancement. Hence, creating an enabling environment for SMEs to thrive will result in development. This paper examines the enabling environment with particular reference to good governance ...

  12. Creating a Successful Leadership Style: Principles of Personal Strategic Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnici, Charles A.

    2011-01-01

    "Creating a Successful Leadership Style" gives practical applications supported by real experiences. It presents the actual situations a principal or assistant principal faces on a day-to-day basis and provides strategies to address them. These strategies derive from a leadership style that is people oriented and designed to elicit positive…

  13. Creating and Validating Educational Material for Patients Undergoing Orthognathic Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Silva Sousa, MSc

    2012-12-01

    Conclusion: Creating a booklet involves more than simply writing summarized ideas on a paper and handing it to the patient. One must understand the population, involve the relevant professionals, and obtain high-quality graphic aids for this type of educational material.

  14. Creating opportunities for youth in East Africa | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-06-30

    Jun 30, 2016 ... The research findings recommend building youth capacity in leadership and enterprise, enhancing technical and vocational education to improve its relevancy, connecting demand from private sector employers with the supply of skills by youth, and facilitating partners to create a collaborative and ...

  15. Creating Original Products and Infomercials to Study Rhetorical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrotta, Clarena

    2017-01-01

    Rhetorical analysis was a required unit of study for college students enrolled in intermediate English as a second language (ESL) composition. Twenty-six students participated in a project creating an original product and its infomercial. The project aimed at increasing student motivation to continue writing essays in English and providing a space…

  16. Creating a Responsive Website: PPLD Friends--A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklyn, Virginia

    2013-01-01

    The Friends of the Pikes Peak Library District (PPLD) had a legacy website that was remotely hosted and maintained by a volunteer. They wanted a more significant presence on PPLD.org and an easier interface with which to update information. The developers decided to create a new Friends site in Drupal, using RWD, CSS3, and HTML5. The plan was to…

  17. Creating E-Books in a Distributed and Collaborative Way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Ruth Cobos; Alaman, Xavier

    2002-01-01

    Describes how groups of authors can create electronic books through unsupervised collaborative work. Proposes a Web-based groupware system that allows building Web sites that can be considered as electronic books without the need of an editor, and describes experiences at the Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain). (Author/LRW)

  18. Pharmacology Students' Perceptions of Creating Multimodal Digital Explanations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, W.; Hoban G.; Hyland, C. J. T.

    2017-01-01

    Students can now digitally construct their own representations of scientific concepts using a variety of modes including writing, diagrams, 2-D and 3-D models, images or speech, all of which communicate meaning. In this study, final-year chemistry students studying a pharmacology subject created a ''blended media'' digital product as an assignment…

  19. Creating a single South African keyboard layout to promote language

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this case study, a description is given of a keyboard layout designed to address the input needs of South African languages, specifically Venda, a language which would otherwise be impossible to type on a computer. In creating this keyboard, the designer, Translate.org.za, uses a practical intervention that transforms ...

  20. Promoting Inclusive Growth by Creating Opportunities for the Urban Poor

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2017-01-01

    This policy note discusses promoting inclusive growth by creating opportunities for the urban poor and is part of a broader Philippines urbanization study. Inclusive urbanization requires an integrated multi-dimensional approach that addresses three key dimensions of inclusion – economic, spatial, and social. The three dimensions of inclusion are interrelated and mutually reinforcing. Curr...

  1. 'Every teacher is a researcher!': Creating indigenous epistemologies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lesley Wood

    2012-12-13

    Dec 13, 2012 ... teachers to generate indigenous epistemologies and practices that not only are effective in creating sustainable and empowering learning environments for HIV prevention education, but also for teaching and learning in general. Keywords: HIV and AIDS prevention, gender education, action research, ...

  2. Creating Opportunities for Undocumented Youth: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Alejandra M.

    2011-01-01

    The increasing number of undocumented immigrants coming to the United States has created serious socioeconomic, sociocultural, and socioeducational challenges for the communities in which these immigrants settle. Minors represent over 1.3 million of the 10.8 million unauthorized immigrants presently living in the United States. Given the secretive…

  3. Creating Food Futures. Trade, Ethics and the Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farnworth, C.R.; Jiggins, J.L.S.; Thomas, E.V.

    2008-01-01

    A global transformation in food supply and consumption is placing our food security at risk. What changes need to be made to the ways we trade, process and purchase our food if everyone in the world is going to have enough wholesome food to eat? Is there genuine scope for creating food futures that

  4. Can Participatory Action Research Create Value for Business Model Innovation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre, Mogens; Rasmussen, Ole Horn; Fast, Alf Michael

    Abstract: Participatory Action Research (PAR) has a longer academic history compared with the idea of business models (BMs). This paper indicates how industries gain by using the combined methodology. The research question "Can participatory action research create value for Business Model...

  5. 'All Men Are Created Equal': Walker, Delany and the African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... paradoxical, if not conflicting, thesis on the status of African-Americans in America to advance their argument. We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights that among these are Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness.

  6. Prevalence of artificially created maxillary midline diastema and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Maxillary midline diastema (MMD) is generally regarded as a symbol of beauty in Nigeria. The desperation to look beautiful has caused many individuals to seek the creation of artificial midline diastema and that comes often with undesirable side effects. Aim: To determine the prevalence of artificially created ...

  7. Creating Start-up Companies around NCI Inventions | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Karen Surabian, Thomas Stackhouse, and Rose Freel, Contributing Writers, and Rosemarie Truman, Guest Writer The National Cancer Institute (NCI), led by the Technology Transfer Center (TTC),  the Avon Foundation, and The Center for Advancing Innovation have partnered to create a “first-of-a-kind” Breast Cancer Start-up Challenge.

  8. Creating Science Picture Books for an Authentic Audience

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFauw, Danielle L.; Saad, Klodia

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an authentic writing opportunity to help ninth-grade students use the writing process in a science classroom to write and illustrate picture books for fourth-grade students to demonstrate and share their understanding of a biology unit on cells. By creating a picture book, students experience the writing process, understand…

  9. Creating a conceptual hydrological soil response map for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-03-03

    Mar 3, 2014 ... The soil water regime is a defining ecosystem service, directly influencing vegetation and animal distribution. Therefore ... These observations were used to determine soil distribution rules, from which the soil map was created in SoLIM. The map was .... Determining characteristics. CHSRU. Sodic site.

  10. Powerful Writing: Description in Creating Monster Trading Cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbro, Michelle

    Description can make a piece of writing come alive. This lesson plan combines art and word play, emphasizing writing for an audience while drawing on multiple intelligences. Peer review and feedback reinforces the revision process as students create trading cards by drawing pictures of monsters and describing and categorizing them in detail.…

  11. Creating a German–Basque Electronic Dictionary for German ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    By means of modern Dictionary Writing Systems (DWS) as, for example, Tshwane-. Lex (Joffe, De Schryver and Prinsloo 2003, De Schryver and Joffe 2005), it is pos- sible to create Multifunctional Lexical Databases (about the concept, Pajzs 2009) based on XML-coded microstructures. Different monofunctional dictionaries,.

  12. Creating Cultures of Integrity: Ethics Education in UK Business Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Emma; Caulfield, Paul; Hibbert, Paul; Jennings, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Recent corporate scandals and responses by regulators have created an environment in which there is a heightened awareness of business ethics. This report presents a series of case studies exploring how the current curricula in UK business schools could be scoped differently to give new business leaders the tools required for strong ethical…

  13. Impact Of Non-Governmental Organizations\\' Activities In Creating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examines the impact of Non-Governmental Organizations\\' (NGOs) intervention in creating awareness and changing the mindset of people in typical rural communities in Kaduna State towards victims of HIV/AIDS. Structured questionnaire were used to collect data from adult male and female as well as young ...

  14. Learner-Created Podcasts: Students' Stories with Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolden, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    This article describes uses for podcasts in music education, focusing on learner-created podcasts as an opportunity for students to construct and represent knowledge. The author outlines a podcast assignment that enables secondary and postsecondary students to examine and more deeply understand the meaning music holds for them and the role it has…

  15. Creating Global Networks through an Online Engineering Graduate Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, M. H.

    2011-01-01

    Internationally, the railway industry is facing a severe shortage of engineers with high-level, relevant, professional and technical knowledge and abilities, in particular amongst engineers involved in the design, construction and maintenance of railway infrastructure. A unique graduate level programme has been created to meet that global need via…

  16. Identifying the challenges of creating an optimal dissemination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is crucial that census data is disseminated in such a way that it satisfies most user needs as far as possible, to ensure that there is optimum use of the information and that maximum value for money is provided. In the past, Statistics South Africa disseminated data at the same geographic level created for data collection.

  17. How to Create a Low-Cost Virtual Reality Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Noel

    1993-01-01

    Describes a project which developed a shared electronic environment of virtual reality using satellite telecommunications technologies to create desktop multimedia networking. The origins of the concept of shared electronic space are explained, and the importance for human communication of sharing both audio and visual space simultaneously is…

  18. Creating perturbations from a decaying field during inflation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazumdar, A.; Wang, L.

    2013-01-01

    Typically, the fluctuations generated from a decaying field during inflation do not contribute to the large scale structures. In this paper, we provide an example where it is possible for a field which slowly rolls and then decays during inflation to create all the matter perturbations...

  19. Creating an Arab Council for the Social Sciences | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Creating an Arab Council for the Social Sciences. The Arab World currently faces unprecedented socioeconomic and political problems on the domestic front, and serious security challenges on the international front. At the same time, the ability of Arab states to deal with these problems is constrained by lack of strong ...

  20. Creating Micro-Videos to Demonstrate Technology Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frydenberg, Mark; Andone, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Short videos, also known as micro-videos, have emerged as a platform for sharing ideas, experiences, and life events on online social networks. This paper shares preliminary results of a study involving students from two universities who created six-second videos using the Vine mobile app to explain or illustrate technology concepts. An analysis…