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Sample records for tetrahymena pyriformis exposed

  1. J-GLOBAL MeSH Dictionary: Tetrahymena pyriformis [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Tetrahymena pyriformis 名詞 一般 * * * * Tetrahymena... pyriformis ... MeSH D013769 200906097287118996 C LS07 UNKNOWN_2 Tetrahymena pyriformis

  2. Galvanotactic behavior of Tetrahymena pyriformis under electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dal Hyung; Kim, Paul Seung Soo; Kim, Min Jun; Lee, Kyoungwoo; Kim, JinSeok

    2013-01-01

    Tetrahymena pyriformis, a eukaryotic ciliate, swims toward a cathode in straight or cross-shaped microchannels under an applied electric field, a behavioral response called cathodal galvanotaxis. In straight channel experiments, a one-dimensional electric field was applied, and the galvanotactic swimming behavior of Tetrahymena pyriformis was observed and described in detail while the polarity of this field is switched. In most individual cases, the cell would immediately switch its direction toward the cathode; however, exceptional cases have been observed where cells exhibit a turning delay or do not turn after a polarity switch. In cross-channel experiments, feedback control using vision-based tracking was used to steer a cell in the microchannel intersection using a two-dimensional electric field generated by four electrodes placed at four ends of the cross channel. The motivation for this work is to study the swimming behavior of Tetrahymena pyriformis as a microrobot under the control of electric fields. (paper)

  3. Inhibition of Tetrahymena pyriformis growth by Aliphatic Alcohols ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Quantitative Structure- Activity Relationship (QSAR) study was undertaken to evaluate the relative toxicity of a mixed series of 21 (linear and branched-chain) alcohols and 9 normal aliphatic amines in term of the 50% inhibitory growth concentration (IGC50) of Tetrahymena pyriformis. The applied simple linear regression ...

  4. Ultraviolet light photobiology of the protozoan Tetrahymena pyriformis and chemical reactivation of DNA damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheeler, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    The tunable dye laser was developed in order to perform UV-B and UV-C (254-320 nm) action spectra studies on several different organisms. Using the laser, action spectra studies have been performed for Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces, Chlamydomonas, Caenorhabditis elegans, Paramecium, and Tetrahymena pyriformis. Studies generally indicate increasing LD 50 values with increasing wavelength. Two notable findings were made: (1) The action spectra does not follow the DNA absorption spectra at 280, 290 and 295 nm; (2) The repair competent/repair defective sensitization factor does not remain constant throughout the wavelength region. In addition it was found that the repair defective strain of E. coli, Bs-1, showed an increase in survival with increasing UV irradiation, at certain dose levels. Further experiments were designed to better characterize the reactivation. Tetrahymena were exposed to UV-C and reactivated with methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and 4-nitro quinoline oxide (4-NQO). In both cases survival was seen to increase after chemical exposure. Likewise, UV-C was found to reactivate chemical damage (MMS)

  5. Combinatorial QSAR modeling of chemical toxicants tested against Tetrahymena pyriformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hao; Tropsha, Alexander; Fourches, Denis; Varnek, Alexandre; Papa, Ester; Gramatica, Paola; Oberg, Tomas; Dao, Phuong; Cherkasov, Artem; Tetko, Igor V

    2008-04-01

    Selecting most rigorous quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) approaches is of great importance in the development of robust and predictive models of chemical toxicity. To address this issue in a systematic way, we have formed an international virtual collaboratory consisting of six independent groups with shared interests in computational chemical toxicology. We have compiled an aqueous toxicity data set containing 983 unique compounds tested in the same laboratory over a decade against Tetrahymena pyriformis. A modeling set including 644 compounds was selected randomly from the original set and distributed to all groups that used their own QSAR tools for model development. The remaining 339 compounds in the original set (external set I) as well as 110 additional compounds (external set II) published recently by the same laboratory (after this computational study was already in progress) were used as two independent validation sets to assess the external predictive power of individual models. In total, our virtual collaboratory has developed 15 different types of QSAR models of aquatic toxicity for the training set. The internal prediction accuracy for the modeling set ranged from 0.76 to 0.93 as measured by the leave-one-out cross-validation correlation coefficient ( Q abs2). The prediction accuracy for the external validation sets I and II ranged from 0.71 to 0.85 (linear regression coefficient R absI2) and from 0.38 to 0.83 (linear regression coefficient R absII2), respectively. The use of an applicability domain threshold implemented in most models generally improved the external prediction accuracy but at the same time led to a decrease in chemical space coverage. Finally, several consensus models were developed by averaging the predicted aquatic toxicity for every compound using all 15 models, with or without taking into account their respective applicability domains. We find that consensus models afford higher prediction accuracy for the

  6. QSAR studies for the acute toxicity of nitrobenzenes to the Tetrahymena pyriformis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Dan-Dan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR models play a key role in finding the relationship between molecular structures and the toxicity of nitrobenzenes to Tetrahymena pyriformis. In this work, genetic algorithm, along with partial least square (GA-PLS was employed to select optimal subset of descriptors that have significant contribution to the toxicity of nitrobenzenes to Tetrahymena pyriformis. A set of five descriptors, namely G2, HOMT, G(Cl…Cl, Mor03v and MAXDP, was used for the prediction of the toxicity of 45 nitrobenzene derivatives and then were used to build the model by multiple linear regression (MLR method. It turned out that the built model, whose stability was confirmed using the leave-one-out validation and external validation test, showed high statistical significance (R2=0.963, Q2LOO=0.944. Moreover, Y-scrambling test indicated there was no chance correlation in this model.

  7. Two-dimensional gravitactic bioconvection in a protozoan (tetrahymena pyriformis) culture

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen-Quang, Tri; Nguyen, The Hung; Guichard, Frederic; Nicolau, Ana; Szatmari, George; LePalec, Georges; Dusser, Martine; Lafossee, Josee; Bonnet, Jean Louis; Bohatier, Jacques

    2009-01-01

    Gravitactic bioconvective patterns created by Tetrahymena pyriformis in a Hele-Shaw apparatus were realized and compared with theoretical results. There were found to be two thresholds for bioconvection development: the first indicates the transition from the diffusion to the steady convection state; the second corresponds to the transition from the steady to the unsteady convection state. The results showed that the Hele-Shaw apparatus may be used as a physical analogy of poro...

  8. H3-THYMIDINE DERIVATIVE POOLS IN RELATION TO MACRONUCLEAR DNA SYNTHESIS IN TETRAHYMENA PYRIFORMIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, G. E.; Miller, O. L.; Prescott, D. M.

    1965-01-01

    The formation of a soluble H3-thymidine derivative pool has been examined in Tetrahymena pyriformis as a function of macronuclear DNA synthesis during the cell life cycle. An autoradiographic technique which allows the detection of water-soluble materials within a cell has shown that these cells do not take up and retain exogenous H3-thymidine during G1 or G2. Uptake of H3-thymidine is restricted to the S period of the cell cycle. Additional autoradiographic experiments show, however, that a soluble pool of H3-thymidine derivatives persists from the end of one DNA synthesis period to the beginning of the next synthesis period in the subsequent cell cycle. Since this persisting pool cannot be labeled with H3-thymidine, the pool does not turn over during non-S periods. PMID:19866660

  9. The effects of temperature upon the electrophysiological properties of Tetrahymena pyriformis-NT1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, J G; Brown, I D; Lee, A G; Kerkut, G A

    1985-01-01

    Cells of Tetrahymena pyriformis--NT1 were cultured at 38 degrees C (Tg 38 degrees C) and 20 degrees C (Tg 20 degrees C) and their properties investigated over the range 0-40 degrees C. Tg 20 degrees C cells were viable in the range 3-33 degrees C and changes in their properties were readily reversible between 10 degrees C and 30 degrees C. Tg 38 degrees cells were viable in the range 40-10 degrees C and their property changes were immediately reversible in the range 40-23 degrees C. The I-V relations of Tg 38 degrees C cells showed increased excitability as the cells were cooled from 40 degrees C. At 10 degrees C there was a considerable loss of excitability and slope resistance. Cooling Tg 20 degrees C cells from 20 degrees C gave a similar pattern, although over a narrower temperature range. Warming Tg 20 degrees C Tetrahymena above 20 degrees C led to a progressive loss of excitability and the cells were markedly less viable above 35 degrees C. Within physiological limits the regenerative spike magnitude, repolarization time, time to peak and input resistance increased as temperature was lowered, whereas resting potential was diminished. When compared at their growth temperatures and most intermediate temperatures, the value of the various parameters monitored were generally different for the two cultures. The Q10 value for resting potential changes of Tg 20 degrees C cells about 20 degrees C was 1.20. As in T. vorax this was significantly (P less than 0.01) greater than that predicted for a diffusion potential and suggested that T. pyriformis--NT1 may have an electrogenic pump component in its membrane potential.

  10. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Tetrahymena pyriformis [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Tetrahymena pyriformis 名詞 一般 * * ...* * Tetrahymena pyriformis Tetrahymena pyriformis ティーイーティーアールエイエイチワイエムイーエヌエイ ピーワイアールアイエフオーアールエムアイエス Thesaurus2015 200906097287118996 C LS07 UNKNOWN_2 Tetrahymena pyriformis

  11. In silico prediction of Tetrahymena pyriformis toxicity for diverse industrial chemicals with substructure pattern recognition and machine learning methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Feixiong; Shen, Jie; Yu, Yue; Li, Weihua; Liu, Guixia; Lee, Philip W; Tang, Yun

    2011-03-01

    There is an increasing need for the rapid safety assessment of chemicals by both industries and regulatory agencies throughout the world. In silico techniques are practical alternatives in the environmental hazard assessment. It is especially true to address the persistence, bioaccumulative and toxicity potentials of organic chemicals. Tetrahymena pyriformis toxicity is often used as a toxic endpoint. In this study, 1571 diverse unique chemicals were collected from the literature and composed of the largest diverse data set for T. pyriformis toxicity. Classification predictive models of T. pyriformis toxicity were developed by substructure pattern recognition and different machine learning methods, including support vector machine (SVM), C4.5 decision tree, k-nearest neighbors and random forest. The results of a 5-fold cross-validation showed that the SVM method performed better than other algorithms. The overall predictive accuracies of the SVM classification model with radial basis functions kernel was 92.2% for the 5-fold cross-validation and 92.6% for the external validation set, respectively. Furthermore, several representative substructure patterns for characterizing T. pyriformis toxicity were also identified via the information gain analysis methods. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Building up a QSAR model for toxicity toward Tetrahymena pyriformis by the Monte Carlo method: A case of benzene derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toropova, Alla P; Schultz, Terry W; Toropov, Andrey A

    2016-03-01

    Data on toxicity toward Tetrahymena pyriformis is indicator of applicability of a substance in ecologic and pharmaceutical aspects. Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) between the molecular structure of benzene derivatives and toxicity toward T. pyriformis (expressed as the negative logarithms of the population growth inhibition dose, mmol/L) are established. The available data were randomly distributed three times into the visible training and calibration sets, and invisible validation sets. The statistical characteristics for the validation set are the following: r(2)=0.8179 and s=0.338 (first distribution); r(2)=0.8682 and s=0.341 (second distribution); r(2)=0.8435 and s=0.323 (third distribution). These models are built up using only information on the molecular structure: no data on physicochemical parameters, 3D features of the molecular structure and quantum mechanics descriptors are involved in the modeling process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A serological study of removal of UV-induced photoproducts in the DNA of tetrahymena pyriformis GL: influence of caffeine, quinacrine and chloroquine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakhanisky, Th.; Hendrickx, B.; Mouton, R.F.; Cornelis, J.J.

    1979-01-01

    Antisera that recognise specifically UV-photoproducts in DNA have been used to follow the elimination of photolesions in UV irradiated Tetrahymena pyriformis. The amount of bound tritium-labelled antibodies to nuclei has been estimated by autoradiography. Curves of dose-response of DNA photo-products, their elimination by dark repair, and effect of caffeine, quinacrine, and chloroquine on the disappearance of UV-lesions have been evaluated. (author)

  14. Heteroagglomeration of zinc oxide nanoparticles with clay mineral modulates the bioavailability and toxicity of nanoparticle in Tetrahymena pyriformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Govind Sharan; Senapati, Violet Aileen; Dhawan, Alok; Shanker, Rishi

    2017-06-01

    The extensive use of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) in cosmetics, sunscreens and healthcare products increases their release in the aquatic environment. The present study explored the possible interaction of ZnO NPs with montmorillonite clay minerals in aqueous conditions. An addition of ZnO NPs on clay suspension significantly (pclay particles from 1652±90nm to 2158±13nm due to heteroagglomeration. The electrokinetic measurements showed a significant (pclay association (-1.37±0.03μmcm/Vs) that results to the electrostatic interaction between ZnO NPs and clay particles. The attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis of ZnO NPs-clay association demonstrated the binding of ZnO NPs with the Si-O-Al region on the edges of clay particles. The increase in size of ZnO NPs-clay heteroagglomerates further leads to their sedimentation at 24h. Although, the stability of ZnO NPs in the clay suspension was decreased due to heteroagglomeration, but the bioavailability and toxicity of ZnO NPs-clay heteroagglomerates in Tetrahymena pyriformis was enhanced. These observations provide an evidence on possible mechanisms available in natural environment that can facilitate nanoparticles entry into the organisms present in lower trophic levels of the food web. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. QSTR with extended topochemical atom (ETA) indices. 14. QSAR modeling of toxicity of aromatic aldehydes to Tetrahymena pyriformis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, Kunal, E-mail: kunalroy_in@yahoo.com [Drug Theoretics and Cheminformatics Laboratory, Division of Medicinal and Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Das, Rudra Narayan [Drug Theoretics and Cheminformatics Laboratory, Division of Medicinal and Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032 (India)

    2010-11-15

    Aldehydes are a toxic class of chemicals causing severe health hazards. In this background, quantitative structure-toxicity relationship (QSTR) models have been developed in the present study using Extended Topochemical Atom (ETA) indices for a large group of 77 aromatic aldehydes for their acute toxicity against the protozoan ciliate Tetrahymena pyriformis. The ETA models have been compared with those developed using various non-ETA topological indices. Attempt was also made to include the n-octanol/water partition coefficient (log K{sub o/w}) as an additional descriptor considering the importance of hydrophobicity in toxicity prediction. Thirty different models were developed using different chemometric tools. All the models have been validated using internal validation and external validation techniques. The statistical quality of the ETA models was found to be comparable to that of the non-ETA models. The ETA models have shown the important effects of steric bulk, lipophilicity, presence of electronegative atom containing substituents and functionality of the aldehydic oxygen to the toxicity of the aldehydes. The best ETA model (without using log K{sub o/w}) shows encouraging statistical quality (Q{sub int}{sup 2}=0.709,Q{sub ext}{sup 2}=0.744). It is interesting to note that some of the topological models reported here are better in statistical quality than previously reported models using quantum chemical descriptors.

  16. Spectral dependence of some UV-B and UV-C responses of Tetrahymena pyriformis irradiated with dye laser generated UV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calkins, John; Colley, Ed; Wheeler, John; Kentucky Univ., Lexington

    1987-01-01

    We have generated UV-B and UV-C radiations using a flashlamp driven tunable dye laser combined with frequency doubling crystals. Using this novel UV source, we have investigated lethality and its modification by growth phase, photoreactivation and caffeine in Tetrahymena pyriformis at 254 nm and from 260-315 nm in 5 nm steps. From the observed responses we have constructed action spectra for lethality, with or without caffeine (a repair inhibitor) and under conditions of photoreactivation. We have also estimated quantum efficiencies for these responses. Our observations suggest that complex changes in response occur at several wavelengths over the UV-C and UV-B regions. (author)

  17. Selective inhibition of precursor incorporation into ribosomal RNA in gamma-irradiated Tetrahymena pyriformis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernst, S.G.; Oleinick, N.L.; Rustad, R.C.; Greenblatt, R.M.

    1979-01-01

    Sublethal doses of γ radiation are known to inhibit total RNA synthesis in the ciliate protozoan Tetrahymena. To determine if the synthesis of a particular class of RNA is preferentially inhibited, pulse-labeled RNA was isolated from normal exponentially growing cells, irradiated cells, and cells in which total RNA synthesis had recovered to the pre-irradiation level. The RNAs were analyzed by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrphoresis and oligo(dT)-cellulose column chromatography. Inhibition of RNA synthesis primarily involves ribosomal RNA. However, radiation does not cause a delay in the processing of precursor rRNA or a preferential loss of either of the mature rRNAs. Following irradiation, poly(A)-containing RNA [poly(A+)RNA] is synthesized at a rate up to three times greater than the control rate. The elevated poly(A+)RNA synthesis occurs during the period of depressed rRNA synthesis and even after rRNA synthesis has recovered to its pre-irradiation rate. While the sizes of the total cellular ribonucleoside triphosphate pools are depressed in the irradiated cells, these pools probably do not represent the actual compartments containing the precursors for RNA synthesis, and the observed changes cannot explain the modifications in macromolecular synthesis in irradiated Tetrahymena. (Auth.)

  18. Tetrahymena pyriformis cells are deficient in all mannose-P-dolichol-dependent mannosyltransferases but not in mannose-P-dolichol synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagodnik, C.; de la Canal, L.; Parodi, A.J.

    1987-01-01

    Cells of the ciliated protozoan Tetrahymena pyriformis incubated with [ 14 C]glucose were found to synthesize Man-P-dolichol and Glc-P-dolichol, as well as Glc 3 Man 5 GlcNAc 2 -P-P-dolichol, the latter being the main and largest lipid derivative formed. The missing mannose residues were those known to be transferred from Man-P-dolichol in other systems. Formation of Man-P-dolichol and of dolichol-P-P-oligosaccharides containing up to five mannose units was detected in cell-free assays containing protozoan membranes, rat liver dolichol-P, unlabeled Man/sub 4-9/GlcNAc 2 -P-P-dolichol from pig liver, and GDP-[ 14 C]Man. Under exactly the same conditions but with UDP-[ 14 C]Glc instead of GDP-[ 14 C]Man, Glc-P-dolichol and dolichol-P-P-oligosaccharides containing five mannose and one to three glucose residues were formed in the absence of the pig liver compounds. In the presence of the latter, dolichol-P-P derivatives containing nine mannose and one to three glucose units were also synthesized. It is concluded that T. pyriformis cells are deficient in all Man-P-dolichol-dependent mannosyltransferases but not in Man-P-dolichol synthesis. The role of the latter compound in this microorganism is unknown

  19. Temperature-dependent changes in the swimming behaviour of Tetrahymena pyriformis-NT1 and their interrelationships with electrophysiology and the state of membrane lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, J G; Brown, I D; Lee, A G; Kerkut, G A

    1985-01-01

    The swimming velocity and the amplitude of the helical swimming path of T. pyriformis-NT1 cells grown at 20 degrees C (Tg 20 degrees C) and 38 degrees C (Tg 38 degrees C) were monitored between 0 and 40 degrees C in the presence and absence of electric fields. Within physiological limits the swimming velocity increased and the amplitude decreased as temperature was raised. The temperature profiles of these properties were not linear, and showed discontinuities at different temperatures for the different cultures. The break points in Arrhenius plots of the resting potential, regenerative spike magnitude, repolarization time, swimming velocity and swimming amplitude are tabulated and compared. The initial breakpoints upon cooling were clustered about the breakpoints in fluorescence polarization of D.P.H. in extracted phospholipids, and around the transition temperatures estimated from the literature for the pellicular membrane of these cells. The average of the initial breakpoints on cooling was 22.9 degrees C for Tg 38 degrees C cells and 13.7 degrees C for Tg 20 degrees C cells, a shift of 9.2 degrees C. Unlike Paramecium there is no depolarizing receptor potential in Tetrahymena upon warming. It is suggested that this may be the basis of a behavioural difference between Tetrahymena and Paramecium--namely that in Tetrahymena maximum swimming velocity occurs above growth temperature whereas in Paramecium the two points coincide. Swimming velocity and resting potential were correlated with membrane fluidity within physiological limits, but for other parameters the relationship with fluidity was more complex.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Prediction of acute toxicity of phenol derivatives using multiple linear regression approach for Tetrahymena pyriformis contaminant identification in a median-size database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieguez-Santana, Karel; Pham-The, Hai; Villegas-Aguilar, Pedro J; Le-Thi-Thu, Huong; Castillo-Garit, Juan A; Casañola-Martin, Gerardo M

    2016-12-01

    In this article, the modeling of inhibitory grown activity against Tetrahymena pyriformis is described. The 0-2D Dragon descriptors based on structural aspects to gain some knowledge of factors influencing aquatic toxicity are mainly used. Besides, it is done by some enlarged data of phenol derivatives described for the first time and composed of 358 chemicals. It overcomes the previous datasets with about one hundred compounds. Moreover, the results of the model evaluation by the parameters in the training, prediction and validation give adequate results comparable with those of the previous works. The more influential descriptors included in the model are: X3A, MWC02, MWC10 and piPC03 with positive contributions to the dependent variable; and MWC09, piPC02 and TPC with negative contributions. In a next step, a median-size database of nearly 8000 phenolic compounds extracted from ChEMBL was evaluated with the quantitative-structure toxicity relationship (QSTR) model developed providing some clues (SARs) for identification of ecotoxicological compounds. The outcome of this report is very useful to screen chemical databases for finding the compounds responsible of aquatic contamination in the biomarker used in the current work. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Vacuum ultraviolet photolysis of diclofenac and the effects of its treated aqueous solutions on the proliferation and migratory responses of Tetrahymena pyriformis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arany, Eszter; Láng, Júlia; Somogyvári, Dávid; Láng, Orsolya; Alapi, Tünde; Ilisz, István

    2014-01-01

    The effects of dissolved O 2 , phosphate buffer and the initial concentration of diclofenac on the vacuum ultraviolet photolysis of this contaminant molecule were studied. Besides kinetic measurements, the irradiated, multicomponent samples were characterized via the proliferation and migratory responses (in sublethal concentrations) of the bioindicator eukaryotic ciliate Tetrahymena pyriformis. The results suggest that hydroxyl radicals, hydrogen atoms and hydroperoxyl radicals may all contribute to the degradation of diclofenac. The aromatic by-products of diclofenac were presumed to include a hydroxylated derivative, 1-(8-chlorocarbazolyl)acetic acid and 1-(8-hydroxycarbazolyl)acetic acid. The biological activity of photoexposed samples reflected the chemical transformation of diclofenac and was also dependent on the level of dissolved O 2 . The increase in toxicity of samples taken after different irradiation times did not exceed a factor of two. Our results suggest that the combination of vacuum ultraviolet photolysis with toxicity and chemotactic measurements can be a valuable method for the investigation of the elimination of micropollutants. - Highlights: • The radical-scavenging effect of phosphates seems to be negligible. • Only higher concentrations of HO 2 · contribute to the degradation of diclofenac. • Toxicity of VUV-treated samples decreases with increasing rate of mineralization. • Dissolved O 2 enhances the mineralization of diclofenac by affecting the radical set. • Treated samples retain the chemorepellent character of the parent compound

  2. Vacuum ultraviolet photolysis of diclofenac and the effects of its treated aqueous solutions on the proliferation and migratory responses of Tetrahymena pyriformis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arany, Eszter [Research Group of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, University of Szeged, H-6720 Szeged, Rerrich Béla tér 1 (Hungary); Láng, Júlia [Department of Genetics, Cell- and Immunobiology, Semmelweis University, H-1089 Budapest, Nagyvárad tér 4 (Hungary); Somogyvári, Dávid [Research Group of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, University of Szeged, H-6720 Szeged, Rerrich Béla tér 1 (Hungary); Láng, Orsolya [Department of Genetics, Cell- and Immunobiology, Semmelweis University, H-1089 Budapest, Nagyvárad tér 4 (Hungary); Alapi, Tünde [Research Group of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, University of Szeged, H-6720 Szeged, Rerrich Béla tér 1 (Hungary); Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, University of Szeged, H-6720 Szeged, Dóm tér 7 (Hungary); Ilisz, István [Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, University of Szeged, H-6720 Szeged, Dóm tér 7 (Hungary); and others

    2014-01-01

    The effects of dissolved O{sub 2}, phosphate buffer and the initial concentration of diclofenac on the vacuum ultraviolet photolysis of this contaminant molecule were studied. Besides kinetic measurements, the irradiated, multicomponent samples were characterized via the proliferation and migratory responses (in sublethal concentrations) of the bioindicator eukaryotic ciliate Tetrahymena pyriformis. The results suggest that hydroxyl radicals, hydrogen atoms and hydroperoxyl radicals may all contribute to the degradation of diclofenac. The aromatic by-products of diclofenac were presumed to include a hydroxylated derivative, 1-(8-chlorocarbazolyl)acetic acid and 1-(8-hydroxycarbazolyl)acetic acid. The biological activity of photoexposed samples reflected the chemical transformation of diclofenac and was also dependent on the level of dissolved O{sub 2}. The increase in toxicity of samples taken after different irradiation times did not exceed a factor of two. Our results suggest that the combination of vacuum ultraviolet photolysis with toxicity and chemotactic measurements can be a valuable method for the investigation of the elimination of micropollutants. - Highlights: • The radical-scavenging effect of phosphates seems to be negligible. • Only higher concentrations of HO{sub 2}{sup ·} contribute to the degradation of diclofenac. • Toxicity of VUV-treated samples decreases with increasing rate of mineralization. • Dissolved O{sub 2} enhances the mineralization of diclofenac by affecting the radical set. • Treated samples retain the chemorepellent character of the parent compound.

  3. In silico prediction of toxicity of phenols to Tetrahymena pyriformis by using genetic algorithm and decision tree-based modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasitabar, Fatemeh; Zare-Shahabadi, Vahid

    2017-04-01

    Risk assessment of chemicals is an important issue in environmental protection; however, there is a huge lack of experimental data for a large number of end-points. The experimental determination of toxicity of chemicals involves high costs and time-consuming process. In silico tools such as quantitative structure-toxicity relationship (QSTR) models, which are constructed on the basis of computational molecular descriptors, can predict missing data for toxic end-points for existing or even not yet synthesized chemicals. Phenol derivatives are known to be aquatic pollutants. With this background, we aimed to develop an accurate and reliable QSTR model for the prediction of toxicity of 206 phenols to Tetrahymena pyriformis. A multiple linear regression (MLR)-based QSTR was obtained using a powerful descriptor selection tool named Memorized_ACO algorithm. Statistical parameters of the model were 0.72 and 0.68 for R training 2 and R test 2 , respectively. To develop a high-quality QSTR model, classification and regression tree (CART) was employed. Two approaches were considered: (1) phenols were classified into different modes of action using CART and (2) the phenols in the training set were partitioned to several subsets by a tree in such a manner that in each subset, a high-quality MLR could be developed. For the first approach, the statistical parameters of the resultant QSTR model were improved to 0.83 and 0.75 for R training 2 and R test 2 , respectively. Genetic algorithm was employed in the second approach to obtain an optimal tree, and it was shown that the final QSTR model provided excellent prediction accuracy for the training and test sets (R training 2 and R test 2 were 0.91 and 0.93, respectively). The mean absolute error for the test set was computed as 0.1615. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparative studies on the photosensitizing potency of 5-methoxypsoralen and 8-methoxypsoralen as measured by cytolysis in Paramecium caudatam and Tetrahymena pyriformis, and growth inhibition and survival in Candida albicans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, A.R.; Barth, J.

    1982-01-01

    The photosensitizing potencies of 5-methoxypsoralen and 8-methoxypsoralen were investigated using the following biological end-points for lethality: (i) cytolysis in the protozoans Paramecium caudatum and Tetrahymena pyriformis, (ii) inhibition of growth in the yeast Candida albicans and (iii) survival as measured by colony counts in Candida albicans. In all cases, 5-methoxypsoralen proved to be the more potent photosensitizing agent. The preliminary action spectra of the 2 compounds for growth inhibition in C. albicans were similar and showed maximal spectral efficiency in the 320-340 nm waveband. The molecular basis for the described end-points is unknown. Although it is well known that 5-methoxypsoralen and 8-methoxypsoralen readily photoreact with DNA, it is considered that photoreaction with protein should also be given serious consideration as the possible lethal event. The superior effect of 5-methoxypsoralen is in accordance with some of the physical and photochemical properties of this molecule, but this result is at variance with other studies in different test systems that have been used to compare the photobiological efficacy of these 2 compounds. (author)

  5. Comparative studies on the photosensitizing potency of 5-methoxypsoralen and 8-methoxypsoralen as measured by cytolysis in Paramecium caudatam and Tetrahymena pyriformis, and growth inhibition and survival in Candida albicans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, A.R. (Institute of Dermatology, London (UK)); Barth, J. (Karl-Marx-Universitaet, Leipzig (German Democratic Republic))

    1982-01-01

    The photosensitizing potencies of 5-methoxypsoralen and 8-methoxypsoralen were investigated using the following biological end-points for lethality: (i) cytolysis in the protozoans Paramecium caudatum and Tetrahymena pyriformis, (ii) inhibition of growth in the yeast Candida albicans and (iii) survival as measured by colony counts in Candida albicans. In all cases, 5-methoxypsoralen proved to be the more potent photosensitizing agent. The preliminary action spectra of the 2 compounds for growth inhibition in C. albicans were similar and showed maximal spectral efficiency in the 320-340 nm waveband. The molecular basis for the described end-points is unknown. Although it is well known that 5-methoxypsoralen and 8-methoxypsoralen readily photoreact with DNA, it is considered that photoreaction with protein should also be given serious consideration as the possible lethal event. The superior effect of 5-methoxypsoralen is in accordance with some of the physical and photochemical properties of this molecule, but this result is at variance with other studies in different test systems that have been used to compare the photobiological efficacy of these 2 compounds.

  6. Toxicogenomic investigation of Tetrahymena thermophila exposed to dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), tributyltin (TBT), and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yue; Feng, LiFang; Miao, Wei

    2011-07-01

    Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), tributyltin (TBT), and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) are persistent in the environment and cause continuous toxic effects in humans and aquatic life. Tetrahymena thermophila has the potential for use as a model for research regarding toxicants. In this study, this organism was used to analyze a genome-wide microarray generated from cells exposed to DDT, TBT and TCDD. To accomplish this, genes differentially expressed when treated with each toxicant were identified, after which their functions were categorized using GO enrichment analysis. The results suggested that the responses of T. thermophila were similar to those of multicellular organisms. Additionally, the context likelihood of relatedness method (CLR) was applied to construct a TCDD-relevant network. The T-shaped network obtained could be functionally divided into two subnetworks. The general functions of both subnetworks were related to the epigenetic mechanism of TCDD. Based on analysis of the networks, a model of the TCDD effect on T. thermophila was inferred. Thus, Tetrahymena has the potential to be a good unicellular eukaryotic model for toxic mechanism research at the genome level.

  7. Comparison of primary and secondary 26S rRNA structures in two Tetrahymena species: evidence for a strong evolutionary and structural constraint in expansion segments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, J; Nielsen, Henrik; Lenaers, G

    1990-01-01

    We have determined the nucleotide sequence of the 26S large subunit (LSU) rRNA genes for two Tetrahymena species, T. thermophila and T. pyriformis. The inferred rRNA sequences are presented in their most probable secondary structures based on compensatory mutations, energy, and conservation crite...

  8. The effect of extracellular environment on the sensitivity of two strains of Tetrahymena to gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebicki, J.M.; Darlington, J.L.; Baumgartner, S.

    1980-01-01

    The radiosensitivity of two strains of Tetrahymena pyriformis to gamma radiation was studied. Irradiation of mass suspensions of Tetrahymena in their normal growth medium confirmed earlier reports of their very high resistance to gamma rays. However this resistance was lowered when the cells were irradiated singly. Using mass and single cell cultures of Tetrahymena, it was shown that the mass cultures were not protected by anoxia from the effects of gamma radiation. However when lysates of Tetrahymena suspensions were added to single cell isolates just before irradiation, the cells were protected. Thus the high resistance of cells in mass culture might lie in the release of protective substances by other cells lysing spontaneously, or as a result of radiation damage. The absence of proteose-peptone-yeast in the growth medium markedly increased the lethality of the gamma rays for both strains. The most likely explanation appeared to lie in the protection of cells from indirect effects of radiation by organic materials in the external medium. The results of the present study emphasise the role of the indirect component of radiation damage in cell death. It is likely that much of this damage occurs in cell membranes. (U.K.)

  9. A community model of ciliate Tetrahymena and bacteria E. coli. Part 1: Individual-based models of Tetrahymena and E. coli populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaworska, J.S.; Hallam, T.G.; Schultz, T.W. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1996-03-01

    The dynamics of a microbial community consisting of a eucaryotic ciliate Tetrahymena pyriformis and procaryotic. Escherichia coli in a batch culture is explored by employing an individual-based approach. In this portion of the article, Part 1, population models are presented. Because both models are individual-based, models of individual organisms are developed prior to construction of the population models. The individual models use an energy budget method in which growth depends on energy gain from feeding and energy sinks such as maintenance and reproduction. These models are not limited by simplifying assumptions about constant yield, constant energy sinks and Monod growth kinetics as are traditional models of microbial organisms. Population models are generated from individual models by creating distinct individual types and assigning to each type the number of real individuals they represent. A population is a compilation of individual types that vary in a phase of cell cycle and physiological parameters such as filtering rate for ciliates and maximum anabolic rate for bacteria. An advantage of the developed models is that they realistically describe the growth of the individual cells feeding on resource which varies in density and composition. Part 2, the core of the project, integrates models into a dynamic microbial community and provides model analysis based upon available data.

  10. Rapid biotransformation of arsenic by a model protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin Xixiang [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); State Key Lab of Urban and Regional Ecology, Research Center for Eco-environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18 Shuangqing Road, Beijing 100085 (China); Zhang Yongyu; Yang Jun [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Zhu Yongguan, E-mail: ygzhu@rcees.ac.cn [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); State Key Lab of Urban and Regional Ecology, Research Center for Eco-environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18 Shuangqing Road, Beijing 100085 (China)

    2011-04-15

    Arsenic biomethylation and biovolatilization are thought to be two important metabolic pathways in aquatic and soil environments. Tetrahymena thermophila is a genus of free-living ciliated protozoan that is widely distributed in freshwater environments around the world. In this study, we studied arsenic accumulation, speciation, efflux, methylation and volatilization in this unicellular eukaryote exposed to various concentrations of arsenate. Our results show that T. thermophila accumulated 187 mg.kg{sup -1} dry weight of arsenic when exposed to 40 {mu}M for 48 h, with MMAs(V) (monomethylarsenate) and DMAs(V) (dimethylarsenate) as the dominant species, accounting for 66% of the total arsenic. Meanwhile, arsenate, arsenite, MMAs(V) and DMAs(V) were detected in the culture medium; the last three were released by the cells. The production of volatile arsenic increased with increasing external As(V) concentrations and exposure time. To our knowledge, this is the first study on arsenic metabolism, particularly biomethylation and biovolatilization, in protozoa. - Tetrahymena thermophila can rapidly methylate arsenic, and produce volatile arsenicals.

  11. Dynein light chain family in Tetrahymena thermophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, David E; Rajagopalan, Vidyalakshmi; Chan, Clarence W C; Kniazeva, Ekaterina; Wiedeman, Alice E; Asai, David J

    2007-02-01

    Dyneins are large protein complexes that produce directed movement on microtubules. In situ, dyneins comprise combinations of heavy, intermediate, light-intermediate, and light chains. The light chains regulate the locations and activities of dyneins but their functions are not completely understood. We have searched the recently sequenced Tetrahymena thermophila macronuclear genome to describe the entire family of dynein light chains expressed in this organism. We identified fourteen genes encoding putative dynein light chains and seven genes encoding light chain-like proteins. RNA-directed PCR revealed that all 21 genes were expressed. Quantitative real time reverse transcription PCR showed that many of these genes were upregulated after deciliation, indicating that these proteins are present in cilia. Using the nomenclature developed in Chlamydomonas, Tetrahymena expresses two isoforms each of LC2, LC4, LC7, and Tctex1, three isoforms of p28, and six LC8/LC8-like isoforms. Tetrahymena also expresses two LC3-like genes. No Tetrahymena orthologue was found for Chlamydomonas LC5 or LC6. This study provides a complete description of the different genes and isoforms of the dynein light chains that are expressed in Tetrahymena, a model organism in which the targeted manipulation of genes is straightforward. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Cloning and characterization of the major histone H2A genes completes the cloning and sequencing of known histone genes of Tetrahymena thermophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X; Gorovsky, M A

    1996-01-01

    A truncated cDNA clone encoding Tetrahymena thermophila histone H2A2 was isolated using synthetic degenerate oligonucleotide probes derived from H2A protein sequences of Tetrahymena pyriformis. The cDNA clone was used as a homologous probe to isolate a truncated genomic clone encoding H2A1. The remaining regions of the genes for H2A1 (HTA1) and H2A2 (HTA2) were then isolated using inverse PCR on circularized genomic DNA fragments. These partial clones were assembled into intact HTA1 and HTA2 clones. Nucleotide sequences of the two genes were highly homologous within the coding region but not in the noncoding regions. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences with protein sequences of T. pyriformis H2As showed only two and three differences respectively, in a total of 137 amino acids for H2A1, and 132 amino acids for H2A2, indicating the two genes arose before the divergence of these two species. The HTA2 gene contains a TAA triplet within the coding region, encoding a glutamine residue. In contrast with the T. thermophila HHO and HTA3 genes, no introns were identified within the two genes. The 5'- and 3'-ends of the histone H2A mRNAs; were determined by RNase protection and by PCR mapping using RACE and RLM-RACE methods. Both genes encode polyadenylated mRNAs and are highly expressed in vegetatively growing cells but only weakly expressed in starved cultures. With the inclusion of these two genes, T. thermophila is the first organism whose entire complement of known core and linker histones, including replication-dependent and basal variants, has been cloned and sequenced. PMID:8760889

  13. Biomechanics of Tetrahymena escaping from dead ends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Takuji; Kikuchi, Kenji

    2017-11-01

    Behaviors of swimming microorganisms in complex environments are important in understanding cells' distribution in nature and in industries. Although cell's swimming and spreading in an infinite fluid has been intensively investigated, that in a narrow region bounded by walls is still unclear. Thus, in this study, we used Tetrahymena thermophila as a model microorganism, and experimentally investigated its behavior between flat plates with an angle. The results showed that the cells tended to escape from the narrow region, and the swimming velocity and the radius of curvature of the trajectories decreased as they swam narrower region. We then developed a computational model of swimming Tetrahymena. The results showed that the escaping behavior could be well explained by fluid mechanics. The obtained knowledge is useful in understanding cells' behaviors in complex environments, such as in porous media and in a granular matter. This research was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grants, numbers 25000008 and 17H00853.

  14. Tetrahymena metallothioneins fall into two discrete subfamilies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Díaz

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Metallothioneins are ubiquitous small, cysteine-rich, multifunctional proteins which can bind heavy metals.We report the results of phylogenetic and gene expression analyses that include two new Tetrahymena thermophila metallothionein genes (MTT3 and MTT5. Sequence alignments of all known Tetrahymena metallothioneins have allowed us to rationalize the structure of these proteins. We now formally subdivide the known metallothioneins from the ciliate genus Tetrahymena into two well defined subfamilies, 7a and 7b, based on phylogenetic analysis, on the pattern of clustering of Cys residues, and on the pattern of inducibility by the heavy metals Cd and Cu. Sequence alignment also reveals a remarkably regular, conserved and hierarchical modular structure of all five subfamily 7a MTs, which include MTT3 and MTT5. The former has three modules, while the latter has only two. Induction levels of the three T. thermophila genes were determined using quantitative real time RT-PCR. Various stressors (including heavy metals brought about dramatically different fold-inductions for each gene; MTT5 showed the highest fold-induction. Conserved DNA motifs with potential regulatory significance were identified, in an unbiased way, upstream of the start codons of subfamily 7a MTs. EST evidence for alternative splicing in the 3' UTR of the MTT5 mRNA with potential regulatory activity is reported.The small number and remarkably regular structure of Tetrahymena MTs, coupled with the experimental tractability of this model organism for studies of in vivo function, make it an attractive system for the experimental dissection of the roles, structure/function relationships, regulation of gene expression, and adaptive evolution of these proteins, as well as for the development of biotechnological applications for the environmental monitoring of toxic substances.

  15. RNA precursor pool metabolism and RNA synthesis in X-irradiated Tetrahymena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, R.E.; Paul, I.J.; Zimmerman, A.M.

    1976-01-01

    The incorporation of a radioactive RNA precursor ( 3 H-uridine) has been used in many studies as an index for measuring the synthesis of RNA, yet there is a distinct possibility that the results so obtained were significantly influenced by radiation-induced effects on the metabolism of this precursor into UTP (the primary immediate precursor of RNA) before its incorporation into RNA. A direct examination was therefore undertaken of the effects of X-irradiation on the metabolism of 3 H-uridine and its relationship to RNA synthesis as determined by incorporation. X-irradiation of logarithmically growing Tetrahymena pyriformis caused a dose-dependent depression of total cellular RNA synthesis. Ribosomal RNA (which comprises about 80 per cent of total cellular RNA) synthesis was also depressed by X-irradiation in a dose-dependent manner. Measurements of the levels of radioactivity present in the UTP precursor pool of both irradiated and unirradiated cells were obtained by means of DEAE-cellulose column chromatography of the extracted free nucleotides. Metabolism of 3 H-uridine into UMP, UDP and UTP was depressed by 40%, 26% and 27% respectively, whereas incorporation of 3 H-uridine into RNA was depressed by 77%. The results show that about one-third of the observed (apparent) depression in RNA synthesis was due to radiation-induced effects on the precursor pool, and the remaining two-thirds due to some definite effect of radiation at the transcription level leading to depressed synthesis of RNA. (U.K.)

  16. J-GLOBAL MeSH Dictionary: Tetrahymena thermophila [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Tetrahymena thermophila 名詞 一般 * * * * Tetrahymena... thermophila ... MeSH D016808 200906086486381246 C LS07 UNKNOWN_2 Tetrahymena thermophila

  17. The glycolytic pathway of Trimastix pyriformis is an evolutionary mosaic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silberman Jeffrey D

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glycolysis and subsequent fermentation is the main energy source for many anaerobic organisms. The glycolytic pathway consists of ten enzymatic steps which appear to be universal amongst eukaryotes. However, it has been shown that the origins of these enzymes in specific eukaryote lineages can differ, and sometimes involve lateral gene transfer events. We have conducted an expressed sequence tag (EST survey of the anaerobic flagellate Trimastix pyriformis to investigate the nature of the evolutionary origins of the glycolytic enzymes in this relatively unstudied organism. Results We have found genes in the Trimastix EST data that encode enzymes potentially catalyzing nine of the ten steps of the glycolytic conversion of glucose to pyruvate. Furthermore, we have found two different enzymes that in principle could catalyze the conversion of phosphoenol pyruvate (PEP to pyruvate (or the reverse reaction as part of the last step in glycolysis. Our phylogenetic analyses of all of these enzymes revealed at least four cases where the relationship of the Trimastix genes to homologs from other species is at odds with accepted organismal relationships. Although lateral gene transfer events likely account for these anomalies, with the data at hand we were not able to establish with confidence the bacterial donor lineage that gave rise to the respective Trimastix enzymes. Conclusion A number of the glycolytic enzymes of Trimastix have been transferred laterally from bacteria instead of being inherited from the last common eukaryotic ancestor. Thus, despite widespread conservation of the glycolytic biochemical pathway across eukaryote diversity, in a number of protist lineages the enzymatic components of the pathway have been replaced by lateral gene transfer from disparate evolutionary sources. It remains unclear if these replacements result from selectively advantageous properties of the introduced enzymes or if they are neutral

  18. Binding and internalization of 3H-epinephrine in Tetrahymena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csaba, G.; Sudar, F.; Pados, R.

    1980-01-01

    Exposure of Tetrahymena to exogenous epinephrine is followed by appearance of the hormone in the cell membrane, intracytoplasmic vacuoles and nucleus. The intranuclear localization is always heterochromatic. Only a minor proportion of the epinephrine applied gains access to the nucleus, while the bulk of it attaches to the membrane. (author)

  19. Effects of Pluronic F-68 on Tetrahymena cells: protection against chemical and physical stress and prolongation of survival under toxic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellung-Larsen, P; Assaad, F; Pankratova, Stanislava

    2000-01-01

    exposed to hyperthermia (43 degrees C). The cellular survival is increased at reduced temperatures (e.g. 4 degrees C instead of 36 degrees C) and at increased cellular concentrations (e.g. 100 cells ml(-1) instead of 25 or 10 cells ml(-1)). There is no effect of pre-incubation with Pluronic......The effects of the non-ionic surfactant Pluronic F-68 (0.01% w/v) on Tetrahymena cells have been studied. A marked protection against chemical and physical stress was observed. The chemical stress effects were studied in cells suspended in buffer (starvation) or in buffers with added ingredients....... The protective effect of Pluronic towards Tetrahymena is observed for concentrations in the range from 0.001 to 0.1% w/v....

  20. Comparative Proteome Bioinformatics: Identification of Phosphotyrosine Signaling Proteins in the Unicellular Protozoan Ciliate Tetrahymena

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammeltoft, Steen; Christensen, Søren Tvorup; Joachimiak, Marcin

    2005-01-01

    Tetrahymena, bioinformatics, cilia, evolution, signaling, TtPTK1, PTK, Grb2, SH-PTP 2, Plcy, Src, PTP, PI3K, SH2, SH3, PH......Tetrahymena, bioinformatics, cilia, evolution, signaling, TtPTK1, PTK, Grb2, SH-PTP 2, Plcy, Src, PTP, PI3K, SH2, SH3, PH...

  1. The mitochondrion-like organelle of Trimastix pyriformis contains the complete glycine cleavage system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Zubáčová

    Full Text Available All eukaryotic organisms contain mitochondria or organelles that evolved from the same endosymbiotic event like classical mitochondria. Organisms inhabiting low oxygen environments often contain mitochondrial derivates known as hydrogenosomes, mitosomes or neutrally as mitochondrion-like organelles. The detailed investigation has shown unexpected evolutionary plasticity in the biochemistry and protein composition of these organelles in various protists. We investigated the mitochondrion-like organelle in Trimastix pyriformis, a free-living member of one of the three lineages of anaerobic group Metamonada. Using 454 sequencing we have obtained 7 037 contigs from its transcriptome and on the basis of sequence homology and presence of N-terminal extensions we have selected contigs coding for proteins that putatively function in the organelle. Together with the results of a previous transcriptome survey, the list now consists of 23 proteins - mostly enzymes involved in amino acid metabolism, transporters and maturases of proteins and transporters of metabolites. We have no evidence of the production of ATP in the mitochondrion-like organelle of Trimastix but we have obtained experimental evidence for the presence of enzymes of the glycine cleavage system (GCS, which is part of amino acid metabolism. Using homologous antibody we have shown that H-protein of GCS localizes into vesicles in the cell of Trimastix. When overexpressed in yeast, H- and P-protein of GCS and cpn60 were transported into mitochondrion. In case of H-protein we have demonstrated that the first 16 amino acids are necessary for this transport. Glycine cleavage system is at the moment the only experimentally localized pathway in the mitochondrial derivate of Trimastix pyriformis.

  2. Low Base-Substitution Mutation Rate in the Germline Genome of the Ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-15

    Tetrahymena thermophila, a model eukaryote. PLoS Biol. 4:e286. Farlow A, et al. 2015. The spontaneous mutation rate in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces...spontane- ous mutations in yeast . Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 105:9272–9277. Lynn DH, Doerder FP. 2012. The life and times of Tetrahymena. Methods Cell...Low Base-Substitution Mutation Rate in the Germline Genome of the Ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila Hongan Long1,2,y, David J. Winter3,*,y, Allan Y.-C

  3. Updating rDNA restriction enzyme maps of Tetrahymena reveals four new intron-containing species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik; Simon, E M; Engberg, J

    1985-01-01

    an intron in the 26s rRNA coding region. The evolutionary relationship among the species of the T. pyriformis complex was examined on the basis of the rDNA maps with emphasis on similarities between two of the new species and the widely studied T. thermophila and T. pigmentosa. Examination of a large number...

  4. Propagación y crecimiento inicial del abarco (Cariniana pyriformis Miers, utilizando semillas silvestres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harlenson Pinilla Cespedes

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó la propagación de la especie forestal Abarco Cariniana Pyriformis Miers, con el objetivo de analizar su comportamiento en vivero utilizando semillas botánicas no mejoradas. Se utilizó un diseño completamente aleatorio con arreglo factorial compuesto por 10 factores por condición lumínica -luz y sombra- y 45 unidades experimentales. Se utilizaron diferentes combinaciones de sustratos orgánicos. Las semillas fueron sometidas a un tratamiento pre-germinativo en presencia de un testigo. Las variables evaluadas fueron porcentaje de germinación, crecimiento en altura y diámetro y porcentaje de supervivencia. La especie comenzó la germinación 13 días después de la siembra y se extendió hasta el día 27. Los resultados del proceso de germinación fueron de 60 % y 40% a plena exposición solar y bajo malla poli-sombra, respectivamente. El crecimiento en altura de las plántulas muestra al factor CF con el mejor valor 28,94 cm, bajo condiciones de luz y el factor EF, con 25,56 cm a plena exposición de sombra. Mientras el incremento en diámetro los factores DF y EF registraron valores de 1,04 cm y 0,84 cm, bajo las condiciones sol y sombra respetivamente. Las semillas de esta especie son no-fotoblásticas, es decir que para su germinación es indiferente la presencia o ausencia de luz. Las plántulas ubicadas en la condición ambiental sol registraron mejores valores promedios en las variables diámetro y altura. Por tanto, esta condición ejerce efecto positivo para el crecimiento inicial de las plántulas de Abarco C. pyriformis

  5. Secondary metabolites of ponderosa lemon (Citrus pyriformis) and their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and cytotoxic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, Dalia; El-Readi, Mahmoud Zaki; Tahrani, Ahmad; Herrmann, Florian; Kaufmann, Dorothea; Farrag, Nawal; El-Shazly, Assem; Wink, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Column chromatography of the dichloromethane fraction from an aqueous methanolic extract of fruit peel of Citrus pyriformis Hassk. (Rutaceae) resulted in the isolation of seven compounds including one coumarin (citropten), two limonoids (limonin and deacetylnomilin), and four sterols (stigmasterol, ergosterol, sitosteryl-3-beta-D-glucoside, and sitosteryl-6'-O-acyl-3-beta-D-glucoside). From the ethyl acetate fraction naringin, hesperidin, and neohesperidin were isolated. The dichloromethane extract of the defatted seeds contained three additional compounds, nomilin, ichangin, and cholesterol. The isolated compounds were identified by MS (EI, CI, and ESI), 1H, 13C, and 2D-NMR spectral data. The limonoids were determined qualitatively by LC-ESI/MS resulting in the identification of 11 limonoid aglycones. The total methanolic extract of the peel and the petroleum ether, dichloromethane, and ethyl acetate fractions were screened for their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The ethyl acetate fraction exhibited a significant scavenging activity for DPPH free radicals (IC50 = 132.3 microg/mL). The petroleum ether fraction inhibited 5-lipoxygenase with IC50 = 30.6 microg/mL indicating potential anti-inflammatory properties. Limonin has a potent cytotoxic effect against COS7 cells [IC50 = (35.0 +/- 6.1) microM] compared with acteoside as a positive control [IC50 = (144.5 +/- 10.96) microM].

  6. Photosynthetic metabolism and quality of Eugenia pyriformis Cambess. seedlings on substrate function and water levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalon, Silvana P Q; Jeromini, Tatiane S; Mussury, Rosilda M; Dresch, Daiane M

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the quality and photosynthetic metabolism of "uvaia" seedlings (Eugenia pyriformis Cambess.) on different substrates and water regimes. The seeds were sown in tubes of 50 x 190 mm in the following substrates: Sand (S), Latosol + Sand (L + S) (1:1), Latosol + Sand + Semi Decomposed Poultry Litter (L + S1 + PL) ( 1:1:0.5), Latosol + Sand + Semi Decomposed Poultry Litter (L + S2 + PL) (1:2:0.5), Latosol + Bioplant® (L + B) (1:1), and the water levels assessed were 50, 75 and 100% of water retention capacity. At 60, 90, 120 and 150 days the seedlings were evaluated according to their chlorophyll index, leaf area (cm2) and Dickson Quality Index (DQI) and at 150 days their internal concentration of carbon (mol m-2 s-1), stomatal conductance (mol m-2 s-1), transpiration rate (mmol m-2 s-1), photosynthesis (µmol m-2 s-1) and efficiency of water use (µmol de CO2 / mmol de H2O). Until their 150th days, the seedlings had higher quality and photosynthetic metabolism when cultured with substrates containing latosol + sand + poultry litter on the two variations assessed and water retention capacity of 50%.

  7. Photosynthetic metabolism and quality of Eugenia pyriformis Cambess. seedlings on substrate function and water levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SILVANA P.Q. SCALON

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to evaluate the quality and photosynthetic metabolism of “uvaia” seedlings (Eugenia pyriformis Cambess. on different substrates and water regimes. The seeds were sown in tubes of 50 x 190 mm in the following substrates: Sand (S, Latosol + Sand (L + S (1:1, Latosol + Sand + Semi Decomposed Poultry Litter (L + S1 + PL ( 1:1:0.5, Latosol + Sand + Semi Decomposed Poultry Litter (L + S2 + PL (1:2:0.5, Latosol + Bioplant® (L + B (1:1, and the water levels assessed were 50, 75 and 100% of water retention capacity. At 60, 90, 120 and 150 days the seedlings were evaluated according to their chlorophyll index, leaf area (cm2 and Dickson Quality Index (DQI and at 150 days their internal concentration of carbon (mol m–2 s–1, stomatal conductance (mol m–2 s–1, transpiration rate (mmol m–2 s–1, photosynthesis (µmol m–2 s–1 and efficiency of water use (µmol de CO2 / mmol de H2O. Until their 150th days, the seedlings had higher quality and photosynthetic metabolism when cultured with substrates containing latosol + sand + poultry litter on the two variations assessed and water retention capacity of 50%.

  8. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Tetrahymena [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Tetrahymena 名詞 一般 * * * * テトラヒメナ属... テトラヒメナゾク テトラヒメナゾク Thesaurus2015 200906089871776382 C LS07 UNKNOWN_1 Tetrahymena

  9. Highly divergent mitochondrial ATP synthase complexes in Tetrahymena thermophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Balabaskaran Nina

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The F-type ATP synthase complex is a rotary nano-motor driven by proton motive force to synthesize ATP. Its F(1 sector catalyzes ATP synthesis, whereas the F(o sector conducts the protons and provides a stator for the rotary action of the complex. Components of both F(1 and F(o sectors are highly conserved across prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Therefore, it was a surprise that genes encoding the a and b subunits as well as other components of the F(o sector were undetectable in the sequenced genomes of a variety of apicomplexan parasites. While the parasitic existence of these organisms could explain the apparent incomplete nature of ATP synthase in Apicomplexa, genes for these essential components were absent even in Tetrahymena thermophila, a free-living ciliate belonging to a sister clade of Apicomplexa, which demonstrates robust oxidative phosphorylation. This observation raises the possibility that the entire clade of Alveolata may have invented novel means to operate ATP synthase complexes. To assess this remarkable possibility, we have carried out an investigation of the ATP synthase from T. thermophila. Blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (BN-PAGE revealed the ATP synthase to be present as a large complex. Structural study based on single particle electron microscopy analysis suggested the complex to be a dimer with several unique structures including an unusually large domain on the intermembrane side of the ATP synthase and novel domains flanking the c subunit rings. The two monomers were in a parallel configuration rather than the angled configuration previously observed in other organisms. Proteomic analyses of well-resolved ATP synthase complexes from 2-D BN/BN-PAGE identified orthologs of seven canonical ATP synthase subunits, and at least 13 novel proteins that constitute subunits apparently limited to the ciliate lineage. A mitochondrially encoded protein, Ymf66, with predicted eight transmembrane domains could be a

  10. Cell death in Tetrahymena thermophila: new observations on culture conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, S T; Sørensen, H; Beyer, N H; Kristiansen, K; Rasmussen, L; Rasmussen, M I

    2001-01-01

    We previously suggested that the cell fate of the protozoan ciliate, Tetrahymena thermophila, effectively relates to a quorum-sensing mechanism where cell-released factors support cell survival and proliferation. The cells have to be present above a critical initial density in a chemically defined nutrient medium in order to release a sufficient level of these factors to allow a new colony to flourish. At a relatively high rate of metabolism and/or macromolecular synthesis and below this critical density, cells began to die abruptly within 30 min of inoculation, and this death took the form of an explosive disintegration lasting less than 50 milliseconds. The cells died at any location in the culture, and the frequency of cell death was always lower in well-filled vials than those with medium/air interface. Cell death was inhibited by the addition of Actinomycin D or through modifications of the culture conditions either by reducing the oxygen tension or by decreasing the temperature of the growth medium. In addition, plastic caps in well-filled vials release substances, which promote cell survival. The fate of low-density cultures is related to certain 'physical' conditions, in addition to the availability of oxygen within closed culture systems. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  11. Evaluation of guppy (Poecilia reticulata Peters) immunization against Tetrahymena sp. by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharon, Galit; Nath, Pulak R; Isakov, Noah; Zilberg, Dina

    2014-09-15

    Analysis of the effectiveness of guppy (Poecilia reticulata Peters) immunization based on measurements of antibody (Ab) titers suffers from a shortage of reagents that can detect guppy antibodies (Abs). To overcome this problem, we immunized mice with different preparations of guppy immunoglobulins (Igs) and used the mouse antisera to develop a quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The most efficient immunogen for mouse immunization was guppy Igs adsorbed on protein A/G beads. Antisera from mice boosted with this immunoglobulin (Ig) preparation were highly specific and contained high Ab titers. They immunoreacted in a Western blot with Ig heavy and light chains from guppy serum, and Ig heavy chain from guppy whole-body homogenate. The mouse anti-guppy Ig was applied in an ELISA aimed at comparing the efficiency of different routes of guppy immunization against Tetrahymena: (i) anal intubation with sonicated Tetrahymena (40,000 Tetrahymena/fish in a total volume of 10 μL) mixed with domperidon, deoxycholic acid and free amino acids (valine, leucine, isoleucine, phenylalanine and tryptophan), or (ii) intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of sonicated Tetrahymena in complete Freund's adjuvant (15,000 Tetrahymena/fish in total a volume of 20 μL). Negative control fish were anally intubated with the intubation mixture without Tetrahymena, or untreated. ELISA measurement of anti-Tetrahymena Ab titer revealed a significantly higher level of Abs in i.p.-immunized guppies, compared to the anally intubated and control fish. In addition, the efficiency of immunization was tested by monitoring guppy mortality following (i) i.p. challenge with Tetrahymena (900 Tetrahymena/fish) or (ii) cold stress followed by immersion in water containing 10,000 Tetrahymena/mL. Fish mortality on day 14 post-Tetrahymena infection by i.p. injection exceeded 50% in the control and anally intubated fish, compared to 31% in i.p.-immunized fish. Immunization did not protect from

  12. Experimental identification and analysis of macronuclear non-coding RNAs from the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kasper Langebjerg; Nielsen, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    expressed during vegetative growth or sexual reorganization. In order to get an overview of medium-sized (40-500¿nt) RNAs expressed from the Tetrahymena genome, we created a size-fractionated cDNA library from macronuclear RNA and analyzed 80 RNAs, most of which were previously unknown. The most abundant...... class was small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs), many of which are formed by an unusual maturation pathway. The modifications guided by the snoRNAs were analyzed bioinformatically and experimentally and many Tetrahymena-specific modifications were found, including several in an essential, but not conserved...

  13. Differentially expressed genes of Tetrahymena thermophila in response to tributyltin (TBT) identified by suppression subtractive hybridization and real time quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Lifang; Miao, Wei; Wu, Yuxuan

    2007-02-15

    Tributyltin (TBT) is widely used as antifouling paints, agriculture biocides, and plastic stabilizers around the world, resulting in great pollution problem in aquatic environments. However, it has been short of the biomonitor to detect TBT in freshwater. We constructed the suppression subtractive hybridization library of Tetrahymena thermophila exposed to TBT, and screened out 101 Expressed Sequence Tags whose expressions were significantly up- or down-regulated with TBT treatment. From this, a series of genes related to the TBT toxicity were discovered, such as glutathione-S-transferase gene (down-regulated), plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPase isoforms 3 gene (up-regulated) and NgoA (up-regulated). Furthermore, their expressions under different concentrations of TBT treatment (0.5-40 ppb) were detected by real time fluorescent quantitative PCR. The differentially expressed genes of T. thermophila in response to TBT were identified, which provide the basic to make Tetrahymena as a sensitive, rapid and convenient TBT biomonitor in freshwater based on rDNA inducible expression system.

  14. Role of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF in programmed nuclear death during conjugation in Tetrahymena thermophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endoh Hiroshi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Programmed nuclear death (PND, which is also referred to as nuclear apoptosis, is a remarkable process that occurs in ciliates during sexual reproduction (conjugation. In Tetrahymena thermophila, when the new macronucleus differentiates, the parental macronucleus is selectively eliminated from the cytoplasm of the progeny, concomitant with apoptotic nuclear events. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these events are not well understood. The parental macronucleus is engulfed by a large autophagosome, which contains numerous mitochondria that have lost their membrane potential. In animals, mitochondrial depolarization precedes apoptotic cell death, which involves DNA fragmentation and subsequent nuclear degradation. Results We focused on the role of mitochondrial apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF during PND in Tetrahymena. The disruption of AIF delays the normal progression of PND, specifically, nuclear condensation and kilobase-size DNA fragmentation. AIF is localized in Tetrahymena mitochondria and is released into the macronucleus prior to nuclear condensation. In addition, AIF associates and co-operates with the mitochondrial DNase to facilitate the degradation of kilobase-size DNA, which is followed by oligonucleosome-size DNA laddering. Conclusions Our results suggest that Tetrahymena AIF plays an important role in the degradation of DNA at an early stage of PND, which supports the notion that the mitochondrion-initiated apoptotic DNA degradation pathway is widely conserved among eukaryotes.

  15. Thyrotropin (TSH) regulates triiodothyronine (T3) production in the unicellular Tetrahymena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csaba, G; Pállinger, Eva

    2011-09-01

    The aim of the experiments was to study the regulation of triiodothyronine (T3) production in the unicellular Tetrahymena. Untreated and troph-hormone treated specimen were prepared and in different timepoints T3 content was measured and compared by immunocytochemical flow cytometry. 0.1 or 0.001 IU TSH in tryptone-yeast medium stimulated T3 synthesis at 10, 20, 30 min, but does not stimulate after 1 h. The overlapping gonadotropic hormone (GTH) also did it, however only at 10 min. In Losina salt solution (physiological for Tetrahymena) the effect was weaker, however outer amino acid source was not absolutely needed for the production of the hormone. The results show that the TSH regulation of thyroid hormone synthesis (storage, secretion) and troph-hormone overlap can be deduced to a unicellular level. This may allow the hypothesis that the endocrine mechanisms proved at a low level of phylogeny are preserved for the higher ranked organisms.

  16. Comparative study of infection with Tetrahymena of different ornamental fish species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharon, G.; Leibowitz, M. Pimenta; Chettri, Jiwan Kumar

    2014-01-01

    different super orders. The species examined were platy (Xiphophorus), molly (Poecilia sphenops) and angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare) of the Acanthopterygii super order (which also includes guppies) and goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus) and koi carp (Cyprinus carpio) of the Ostariophysi super order....... These two super orders are phylogenetically distant from each other. Infection with Tetrahymena resulted in parasite invasion of internal organs, skin and muscle in all fish species. A relatively strong inflammatory response was observed in infected goldfish and koi, with negligible response in fish species...... of the Acanthopterygii super order. Guppies were the most susceptible to Tetrahymena infection, exhibiting a mortality rate of 87% and 100% in two separate experiments. A high mortality rate was also observed in platy (77%), while that of molly and angelfish was significantly lower (23% and 33%, respectively). Goldfish...

  17. Involvement of a putative intercellular signal-recognizing G protein-coupled receptor in the engulfment of Salmonella by the protozoan Tetrahymena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.N. Agbedanu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to investigate the molecular basis of protozoa engulfment-mediated hypervirulence of Salmonella in cattle, we evaluated protozoan G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs as transducers of Salmonella engulfment by the model protozoan Tetrahymena. Our laboratory previously demonstrated that non-pathogenic protozoa (including Tetrahymena engulf Salmonella and then exacerbate its virulence in cattle, but the mechanistic details of the phenomenon are not fully understood. GPCRs were investigated since these receptors facilitate phagocytosis of particulates by Tetrahymena, and a GPCR apparently modulates bacterial engulfment for the pathogenic protozoan Entamoeba histolytica. A database search identified three putative Tetrahymena GPCRs, based on sequence homologies and predicted transmembrane domains, that were the focus of this study. Salmonella engulfment by Tetrahymena was assessed in the presence of suramin, a non-specific GPCR inhibitor. Salmonella engulfment was also assessed in Tetrahymena in which expression of putative GPCRs was knocked-down using RNAi. A candidate GPCR was then expressed in a heterologous yeast expression system for further characterization. Our results revealed that Tetrahymena were less efficient at engulfing Salmonella in the presence of suramin. Engulfment was reduced concordantly with a reduction in the density of protozoa. RNAi-based studies revealed that knock-down of one the Tetrahymena GPCRs caused diminished engulfment of Salmonella. Tetrahymena lysates activated this receptor in the heterologous expression system. These data demonstrate that the Tetrahymena receptor is a putative GPCR that facilitates bacterial engulfment by Tetrahymena. Activation of the putative GPCR seemed to be related to protozoan cell density, suggesting that its cognate ligand is an intercellular signaling molecule.

  18. Dependence of the cytotoxicity of multi-walled carbon nanotubes on the culture medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Ying; Ran Tiecheng; Li Yuguo; Guo Jinxue; Li Wenxin

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the influence of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) on the growth of the unicellular protozoan Tetrahymena pyriformis. Contrary to the findings from most other investigations, our experiment indicated that MWNTs stimulated growth of the cells cultured in proteose peptone yeast extract medium (PPY). Atomic force microscopy images and thermogravimetric analysis showed the spontaneous formation of peptone-MWNT conjugates in the medium by noncovalent binding. Uptake of large amounts of the conjugates by Tetrahymena pyriformis was responsible for growth stimulation, evidenced by images with fluorescently labelled peptone. After the PPY medium was replaced by a filtrated pond water medium (FPW), however, inhibition of the growth of cells exposed to MWNTs occurred. Measurements of the level of malondialdehyde and superoxide dismutase activity demonstrated further that MWNTs might be either toxic or nontoxic, depending on the medium used to cultivate Tetrahymena pyriformis. The biological effects of the interaction of MWNTs with some composites in culture media would be helpful for understanding the mechanisms of the toxicity of carbon nanotubes to living systems

  19. Effects of protein kinase C activators and staurosporine on protein kinase activity, cell survival, and proliferation in Tetrahymena thermophila

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Straarup, EM; Schousboe, P; Hansen, HQ

    1997-01-01

    Autocrine factors prevent cell death in the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila, a unicellular eukaryote, in a chemically defined medium. At certain growth conditions these factors are released at a sufficient concentration by > 500 cells ml-1 to support cell survival and proliferation. The protein...

  20. Phylogenetic evidence for the acquisition of ribosomal RNA introns subsequent to the divergence of some of the major Tetrahymena groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sogin, M L; Ingold, A; Karlok, M

    1986-01-01

    . In an attempt to evaluate the evolutionary origins of the intervening sequences, we have now determined complete small subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequences from 13 species of Tetrahymena and the absolute number of nucleotide differences between the sequences was used to construct a phylogenetic tree...

  1. Selecting one of several mating types through gene segment joining and deletion in Tetrahymena thermophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella D Cervantes

    Full Text Available The unicellular eukaryote Tetrahymena thermophila has seven mating types. Cells can mate only when they recognize cells of a different mating type as non-self. As a ciliate, Tetrahymena separates its germline and soma into two nuclei. During growth the somatic nucleus is responsible for all gene transcription while the germline nucleus remains silent. During mating, a new somatic nucleus is differentiated from a germline nucleus and mating type is decided by a stochastic process. We report here that the somatic mating type locus contains a pair of genes arranged head-to-head. Each gene encodes a mating type-specific segment and a transmembrane domain that is shared by all mating types. Somatic gene knockouts showed both genes are required for efficient non-self recognition and successful mating, as assessed by pair formation and progeny production. The germline mating type locus consists of a tandem array of incomplete gene pairs representing each potential mating type. During mating, a complete new gene pair is assembled at the somatic mating type locus; the incomplete genes of one gene pair are completed by joining to gene segments at each end of germline array. All other germline gene pairs are deleted in the process. These programmed DNA rearrangements make this a fascinating system of mating type determination.

  2. Tetrahymena thermophila acidic ribosomal protein L37 contains an archaebacterial type of C-terminus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, T S; Andreasen, P H; Dreisig, H

    1991-01-01

    We have cloned and characterized a Tetrahymena thermophila macronuclear gene (L37) encoding the acidic ribosomal protein (A-protein) L37. The gene contains a single intron located in the 3'-part of the coding region. Two major and three minor transcription start points (tsp) were mapped 39 to 63 ...... by protein sequencing. The T. thermophila L37 clearly belongs to the P1-type family of eukaryotic A-proteins, but the C-terminal region has the hallmarks of archaebacterial A-proteins.......We have cloned and characterized a Tetrahymena thermophila macronuclear gene (L37) encoding the acidic ribosomal protein (A-protein) L37. The gene contains a single intron located in the 3'-part of the coding region. Two major and three minor transcription start points (tsp) were mapped 39 to 63...... nucleotides upstream from the translational start codon. The uppermost tsp mapped to the first T in a putative T. thermophila RNA polymerase II initiator element, TATAA. The coding region of L37 predicts a protein of 109 amino acid (aa) residues. A substantial part of the deduced aa sequence was verified...

  3. How applicable is the general adaptation syndrome to the unicellular Tetrahymena?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csaba, György; Pállinger, Eva

    2009-01-01

    Hormone receptors, hormones and signal transduction pathways characteristic of higher vertebrates can be observed also in the unicellular Tetrahymena. Previous work showed that stress conditions (starvation, high temperature, high salt concentration, formaldehyde or alcohol treatment) elevated the intracellular level of four hormones (ACTH, endorphin, serotonin and T(3)). Here, the effect of other stressors (CuSO4 poisoning, tryptophan hydroxylase inhibitor parachlorophenylalanine (PCPA) treatment) on the same and other hormones (epinephrine, insulin, histamine) was studied, using immunocytochemistry and flow cytometric analysis. It was found, that each effect increased the intracellular hormone contents, but some hormones (histamine, T(3)) were less reactive. Insulin--which is a life-saving factor for Tetrahymena--itself provoked elevation of hormone amounts in association with a stressor, further increased the level of hormones. It was concluded that the ancestor of Selye's General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) can be found already at unicellular level, and this possibly has a life saving function. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Distinct toxicological characteristics and mechanisms of Hg2+ and MeHg in Tetrahymena under low concentration exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cheng-Bin; Qu, Guang-Bo; Cao, Meng-Xi; Liang, Yong; Hu, Li-Gang; Shi, Jian-Bo; Cai, Yong; Jiang, Gui-Bin

    2017-12-01

    Inorganic divalent mercury complexes (Hg 2+ ) and monomethylmercury complexes (MeHg) are the main mercury species in aquatic systems and their toxicity to aquatic organisms is of great concern. Tetrahymena is a type of unicellular eukaryotic protozoa located at the bottom of food chain that plays a fundamental role in the biomagnification of mercury. In this work, the dynamic accumulation properties, toxicological characteristics and mechanisms of Hg 2+ and MeHg in five Tetrahymena species were evaluated in detail. The results showed that both Hg 2+ and MeHg were ingested and exhibited inhibitory effects on the proliferation or survival of Tetrahymena species. However, the ingestion rate of MeHg was significantly higher than that of Hg 2+ . The mechanisms responsible for the toxicity of MeHg and Hg 2+ were different, although both chemicals altered mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). MeHg disrupted the integrity of membranes while Hg 2+ had detrimental effects on Tetrahymena as a result of the increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In addition, the five Tetrahymena species showed different capacities in accumulating Hg 2+ and MeHg, with T. corlissi exhibiting the highest accumulations. The study also found significant growth-promoting effect on T. corlissi under low concentration exposure (0.003 and 0.01μg Hg/mL (15 and 50nM)), suggesting different effect and mechanism that should be more closely examined when assessing the bioaccumulation and toxicity of mercury in aquatic ecosystems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Transcriptome analysis of the model protozoan, Tetrahymena thermophila, using Deep RNA sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Xiong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The ciliated protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila is a well-studied single-celled eukaryote model organism for cellular and molecular biology. However, the lack of extensive T. thermophila cDNA libraries or a large expressed sequence tag (EST database limited the quality of the original genome annotation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This RNA-seq study describes the first deep sequencing analysis of the T. thermophila transcriptome during the three major stages of the life cycle: growth, starvation and conjugation. Uniquely mapped reads covered more than 96% of the 24,725 predicted gene models in the somatic genome. More than 1,000 new transcribed regions were identified. The great dynamic range of RNA-seq allowed detection of a nearly six order-of-magnitude range of measurable gene expression orchestrated by this cell. RNA-seq also allowed the first prediction of transcript untranslated regions (UTRs and an updated (larger size estimate of the T. thermophila transcriptome: 57 Mb, or about 55% of the somatic genome. Our study identified nearly 1,500 alternative splicing (AS events distributed over 5.2% of T. thermophila genes. This percentage represents a two order-of-magnitude increase over previous EST-based estimates in Tetrahymena. Evidence of stage-specific regulation of alternative splicing was also obtained. Finally, our study allowed us to completely confirm about 26.8% of the genes originally predicted by the gene finder, to correct coding sequence boundaries and intron-exon junctions for about a third, and to reassign microarray probes and correct earlier microarray data. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: RNA-seq data significantly improve the genome annotation and provide a fully comprehensive view of the global transcriptome of T. thermophila. To our knowledge, 5.2% of T. thermophila genes with AS is the highest percentage of genes showing AS reported in a unicellular eukaryote. Tetrahymena thus becomes an excellent unicellular

  6. Product analysis illuminates the final steps of IES deletion in Tetrahymena thermophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saveliev, S V; Cox, M M

    2001-06-15

    DNA sequences (IES elements) eliminated from the developing macronucleus in the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila are released as linear fragments, which have now been detected and isolated. A PCR-mediated examination of fragment end structures reveals three types of strand scission events, reflecting three steps in the deletion process. New evidence is provided for two steps proposed previously: an initiating double-stranded cleavage, and strand transfer to create a branched deletion intermediate. The fragment ends provide evidence for a previously uncharacterized third step: the branched DNA strand is cleaved at one of several defined sites located within 15-16 nucleotides of the IES boundary, liberating the deleted DNA in a linear form.

  7. Genetics and Epigenetics of Mating Type Determination in Paramecium and Tetrahymena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orias, Eduardo; Singh, Deepankar Pratap; Meyer, Eric

    2017-09-08

    While sex is an ancient and highly conserved eukaryotic invention, self-incompatibility systems such as mating types or sexes appear to be derived limitations that show considerable evolutionary plasticity. Within a single class of ciliates, Paramecium and Tetrahymena species have long been known to present a wide variety of mating type numbers and modes of inheritance, but only recently have the genes involved been identified. Although similar transmembrane proteins mediate self/nonself recognition in both ciliates, the mechanisms of mating type determination differ widely, ranging from Mendelian systems to developmental nuclear differentiation, either stochastic or maternally inherited. The non-Mendelian systems rely on programmed editing of the germline genome that occurs during differentiation of the somatic nucleus, and they have co-opted different DNA recombination mechanisms-some previously unknown. Here we review the recent molecular advances and some remaining unsolved questions and discuss the possible implications of these diverse mechanisms for inbreeding/outbreeding balance regulation.

  8. Tetrahymena thermophila acidic ribosomal protein L37 contains an archaebacterial type of C-terminus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, T S; Andreasen, P H; Dreisig, H; Højrup, P; Nielsen, H; Engberg, J; Kristiansen, K

    1991-09-15

    We have cloned and characterized a Tetrahymena thermophila macronuclear gene (L37) encoding the acidic ribosomal protein (A-protein) L37. The gene contains a single intron located in the 3'-part of the coding region. Two major and three minor transcription start points (tsp) were mapped 39 to 63 nucleotides upstream from the translational start codon. The uppermost tsp mapped to the first T in a putative T. thermophila RNA polymerase II initiator element, TATAA. The coding region of L37 predicts a protein of 109 amino acid (aa) residues. A substantial part of the deduced aa sequence was verified by protein sequencing. The T. thermophila L37 clearly belongs to the P1-type family of eukaryotic A-proteins, but the C-terminal region has the hallmarks of archaebacterial A-proteins.

  9. Uptake, localization and clearance of quantum dots in ciliated protozoa Tetrahymena thermophila

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortimer, Monika; Kahru, Anne; Slaveykova, Vera I.

    2014-01-01

    Protozoa as phagocytizing cells have been shown to integrate engineered nanoparticles (NPs), while the mechanism, dynamics and extent of such uptake are unclear. Here our fluorescence microscopy data showed that CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) with primary size of 12 nm were readily phagocytized into the food vacuoles of Tetrahymena thermophila in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Twenty hours after the exposure to QDs in sublethal concentration the clearance of the QDs from the cells was incomplete suggesting that phagocytosis of QDs into food vacuoles was not the only pathway of uptake by T. thermophila. This was further proven by the results that the inhibition of phagocytosis did not block the internalization of QDs into protozoans. This study provides a new insight into uptake and cellular trafficking of subtoxic concentrations of nanoparticles that may, due to prolonged retention times in the cells, pose risks by potentially becoming available to higher trophic levels. - Highlights: • Tetrahymena thermophila internalized QDs in a dose- and time-dependent manner. • The egested QDs were not significantly biodegraded in the food vacuoles. • In addition to phagocytosis QDs entered protozoa by alternative uptake pathways. • The clearance of the QDs from the cells was incomplete after 20 h in fresh medium. • The prolonged retention time of nontoxic NPs in protozoa could increase their transfer in food chain. - In addition to phagocytosis, quantum dots (QDs) entered protozoans by alternative pathways which did not lead to complete clearance of the QDs from the cells

  10. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Tetrahymena thermophila [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Tetrahymena thermophila 名詞 一般 * *... * * Tetrahymena thermophila Tetrahymena thermophila ティーイーティーアールエイエイチワイエムイーエヌエイ ティーエイチイーアールエムオーピーエイチアイエルエイ Thesaurus2015 200906086486381246 C LS07 UNKNOWN_2 Tetrahymena thermophila

  11. Different polyamine pathways from bacteria have replaced eukaryotic spermidine biosynthesis in ciliates Tetrahymena thermophila and Paramecium tetaurelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Kim, Sok Ho; Zhang, Yang; Hanfrey, Colin C; Elliott, Katherine A; Ealick, Steven E; Michael, Anthony J

    2015-09-01

    The polyamine spermidine is absolutely required for growth and cell proliferation in eukaryotes, due to its role in post-translational modification of essential translation elongation factor eIF5A, mediated by deoxyhypusine synthase. We have found that free-living ciliates Tetrahymena and Paramecium lost the eukaryotic genes encoding spermidine biosynthesis: S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (AdoMetDC) and spermidine synthase (SpdSyn). In Tetrahymena, they were replaced by a gene encoding a fusion protein of bacterial AdoMetDC and SpdSyn, present as three copies. In Paramecium, a bacterial homospermidine synthase replaced the eukaryotic genes. Individual AdoMetDC-SpdSyn fusion protein paralogues from Tetrahymena exhibit undetectable AdoMetDC activity; however, when two paralogous fusion proteins are mixed, AdoMetDC activity is restored and spermidine is synthesized. Structural modelling indicates a functional active site is reconstituted by sharing critical residues from two defective protomers across the heteromer interface. Paramecium was found to accumulate homospermidine, suggesting it replaces spermidine for growth. To test this concept, a budding yeast spermidine auxotrophic strain was found to grow almost normally with homospermidine instead of spermidine. Biosynthesis of spermidine analogue aminopropylcadaverine, but not exogenously provided norspermidine, correlated with some growth. Finally, we found that diverse single-celled eukaryotic parasites and multicellular metazoan Schistosoma worms have lost the spermidine biosynthetic pathway but retain deoxyhypusine synthase. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. A knockout mutation of a constitutive GPCR in Tetrahymena decreases both G-protein activity and chemoattraction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J Lampert

    Full Text Available Although G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs are a common element in many chemosensory transduction pathways in eukaryotic cells, no GPCR or regulated G-protein activity has yet been shown in any ciliate. To study the possible role for a GPCR in the chemoresponses of the ciliate Tetrahymena, we have generated a number of macronuclear gene knockouts of putative GPCRs found in the Tetrahymena Genome database. One of these knockout mutants, called G6, is a complete knockout of a gene that we call GPCR6 (TTHERM_00925490. Based on sequence comparisons, the Gpcr6p protein belongs to the Rhodopsin Family of GPCRs. Notably, Gpcr6p shares highest amino acid sequence homologies to GPCRs from Paramecium and several plants. One of the phenotypes of the G6 mutant is a decreased responsiveness to the depolarizing ions Ba²⁺ and K⁺, suggesting a decrease in basal excitability (decrease in Ca²⁺ channel activity. The other major phenotype of G6 is a loss of chemoattraction to lysophosphatidic acid (LPA and proteose peptone (PP, two known chemoattractants in Tetrahymena. Using microsomal [³⁵S]GTPγS binding assays, we found that wild-type (CU427 have a prominent basal G-protein activity. This activity is decreased to the same level by pertussis toxin (a G-protein inhibitor, addition of chemoattractants, or the G6 mutant. Since the basal G-protein activity is decreased by the GPCR6 knockout, it is likely that this gene codes for a constitutively active GPCR in Tetrahymena. We propose that chemoattractants like LPA and PP cause attraction in Tetrahymena by decreasing the basal G-protein stimulating activity of Gpcr6p. This leads to decreased excitability in wild-type and longer runs of smooth forward swimming (less interrupted by direction changes towards the attractant. Therefore, these attractants may work as inverse agonists through the constitutively active Gpcr6p coupled to a pertussis-sensitive G-protein.

  13. Molecular and biochemical analysis of conjugation and adolescence in Tetrahymena thermophila

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, M.B.

    1986-01-01

    A previously unrecognized stage in the development of sexual maturity in Tetrahymena thermophila, adolescence, has been described. When the progeny of successfully mated cells are grown logarithmically, they are unable to form mating pairs for about 65 generations. This period is known as immaturity. During the next stage, adolescence, the progeny pair with mature cells but not with other adolescent cells despite the presence of complementary mating types. Adolescence persists for 20-25 generations before the cells attain maturity (the ability to mate with any cell of different mating type). Once paired with mature cells, adolescents successfully complete conjugation was shown genetically. Mating pairs formed between adolescent and mature cells are indistinguishable from those formed between mature cells by the criteria of cytology and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of proteins extracted from mating pairs pulse-labelled with [ 35 S]methionine. An analysis of proteins induced during the first ten hours of conjugation was carried out using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The protein patterns obtained from all controls were similar. The synthesis of numerous large and basic proteins were induced during conjugation. The majority of the proteins were detected during meiosis and none were mating type specific. A library of micronuclear DNA was constructed in the plasmic PUC18. The library was screened by differential colony hybridization using cDNA complementary to polyA + RNA isolated from conjugating and control cells. Eight recombinant clones were isolated which contain sequences transcriptionally induced in conjugating cells

  14. Effect of salt and urban water samples on bacterivory by the ciliate, Tetrahymena thermophila

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    St Denis, C.H.; Pinheiro, M.D.O.; Power, M.E. [Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave. W, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Bols, Niels C., E-mail: ncbols@uwaterloo.c [Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave. W, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2010-02-15

    The effect of road salt on the eating of bacteria or bacterivory by the ciliate, Tetrahymena thermophila, was followed in non-nutrient Osterhout's solution with Escherichia coli expressing green fluorescent protein. Bacterivory was impaired at between 0.025 and 0.050% w/v but the ciliates appeared to have normal morphologies and motilities, whereas at above 0.1%, bacterivory was blocked and many ciliates died. By contrast, E. coli remained viable, suggesting salt could alter predator-prey relationships in microbial communities. In nutrient medium, salt was not toxic and the ciliates grew. After growth in salt, ciliates consumed bacteria in 0.2% salt, indicating the salt acclimation of bacterivory. Bacteria and ciliates were added to urban creek samples to compare their capacity to support exogenous bacterivory. Even though samples were collected weekly for a year and be expected to have fluctuating salt levels as a result of deicing, all creek samples supported a similar level of bacterivory. - Road salt at some concentrations inhibits bacterivory by ciliates, and thus potentially could alter the microbial food web.

  15. The key role of CYC2 during meiosis in Tetrahymena thermophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qianlan; Wang, Ruoyu; Ghanam, A R; Yan, Guanxiong; Miao, Wei; Song, Xiaoyuan

    2016-04-01

    Meiotic recombination is carried out through a specialized pathway for the formation and repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) made by the Spo11 protein. The present study shed light on the functional role of cyclin, CYC2, in Tetrahymena thermophila which has transcriptionally high expression level during meiosis process. Knocking out the CYC2 gene results in arrest of meiotic conjugation process at 2.5-3.5 h after conjugation initiation, before the meiosis division starts, and in company with the absence of DSBs. To investigate the underlying mechanism of this phenomenon, a complete transcriptome profile was performed between wild-type strain and CYC2 knock-out strain. Functional analysis of RNA-Seq results identifies related differentially expressed genes (DEGs) including SPO11 and these DEGs are enriched in DNA repair/mismatch repair (MMR) terms in homologous recombination (HR), which indicates that CYC2 could play a crucial role in meiosis by regulating SPO11 and participating in HR.

  16. The fate of deleted DNA produced during programmed genomic deletion events in Tetrahymena thermophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saveliev, S V; Cox, M M

    1994-01-01

    Thousands of DNA deletion events occur during macronuclear development in the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila. In two deleted genomic regions, designated M and R, the eliminated sequences form circles that can be detected by PCR. However, the circles are not normal products of the reaction pathway. The circular forms occur at very low levels in conjugating cells, but are stable. Sequencing analysis showed that many of the circles (as many as 50% of those examined) reflected a precise deletion in the M and R regions. The remaining circles were either smaller or larger and contained varying lengths of sequences derived from the chromosomal DNA surrounding the eliminated region. The chromosomal junctions left behind after deletion were more precise, although deletions in either the M or R regions can generate any of several alternative junctions (1). Some new chromosomal junctions were detected in the present study. The results suggest that the deleted segment is released as a linear DNA species that is degraded rapidly. The species is only rarely converted to the stable circles we detect. The deletion mechanism is different from those proposed for deletion events in hypotrichous ciliates (2-4), and does not reflect a conservative site-specific recombination process such as that promoted by the bacteriophage lambda integrase (5). Images PMID:7838724

  17. Developmentally programmed DNA deletion in Tetrahymena thermophila by a transposition-like reaction pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saveliev, S V; Cox, M M

    1996-01-01

    We provide a molecular description of key intermediates in the deletion of two internal eliminated sequences (IES elements), the M and R regions, during macronuclear development in Tetrahymena thermophila. Using a variety of PCR-based methods in vivo, double-strand breaks are detected that are generated by hydrolytic cleavage and correspond closely to the observed chromosomal junctions left behind in the macronuclei. The breaks exhibit a temporal and structural relationship to the deletion reaction that provides strong evidence that they are intermediates in the deletion pathway. Breaks in the individual strands are staggered by 4 bp, producing a four nucleotide 5' extension. Evidence is presented that breaks do not occur simultaneously at both ends. The results are most consistent with a deletion mechanism featuring initiation by double-strand cleavage at one end of the deleted element, followed by transesterification to generate the macronuclear junction on one DNA strand. An adenosine residue is found at all the nucleophilic 3' ends used in the postulated transesterification step. Evidence for the transesterification step is provided by detection of a 3' hydroxyl that would be liberated by such a step at a deletion boundary where no other DNA strand ends are detected. Images PMID:8654384

  18. Induced tubulin synthesis is caused by induced gene transcription in Tetrahymena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seyfert, H.M.; Kohle, D.; Jenovai, S.

    1987-01-01

    Tubulin synthesis and tubulin mRNA concentrations increase to variable extents during ciliary regeneration in the ciliate Tetrahymena. Experiments described here were carried out to determine whether the increased tubulin mRNa concentrations are due to induced transcription of tubulin genes or to stabilization of tubulin mRNA. In vivo labeling experiments with [ 3 H]uridine and in vitro transcription assays suggest that under conditions of increased protein and tubulin synthesis the rate of transcription is enhanced. Hybridization assays of in vitro transcribed RNA also demonstrate qualitatively that the tubulin genes are transcribed at higher rates when tubulin synthesis is stimulated during ciliary regeneration. This observation is supported by measurements of the half-life of tubulin mRNA molecules in nondeciliated cells: This is approximately 2 h. Since the concentration of tubulin mRNA in cells engaged in cilia regeneration increases from 5 to 19-fold during the first hour of the regeneration period, even a complete stabilization of the tubulin mRNA molecules could not account for an increase in tubulin mRNA concentration of this magnitude

  19. Effect of salt and urban water samples on bacterivory by the ciliate, Tetrahymena thermophila

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    St Denis, C.H.; Pinheiro, M.D.O.; Power, M.E.; Bols, Niels C.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of road salt on the eating of bacteria or bacterivory by the ciliate, Tetrahymena thermophila, was followed in non-nutrient Osterhout's solution with Escherichia coli expressing green fluorescent protein. Bacterivory was impaired at between 0.025 and 0.050% w/v but the ciliates appeared to have normal morphologies and motilities, whereas at above 0.1%, bacterivory was blocked and many ciliates died. By contrast, E. coli remained viable, suggesting salt could alter predator-prey relationships in microbial communities. In nutrient medium, salt was not toxic and the ciliates grew. After growth in salt, ciliates consumed bacteria in 0.2% salt, indicating the salt acclimation of bacterivory. Bacteria and ciliates were added to urban creek samples to compare their capacity to support exogenous bacterivory. Even though samples were collected weekly for a year and be expected to have fluctuating salt levels as a result of deicing, all creek samples supported a similar level of bacterivory. - Road salt at some concentrations inhibits bacterivory by ciliates, and thus potentially could alter the microbial food web.

  20. Nuclear localization signal targeting to macronucleus and micronucleus in binucleated ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Masaaki; Mori, Chie; Osakada, Hiroko; Koujin, Takako; Hiraoka, Yasushi; Haraguchi, Tokuko

    2018-06-08

    Ciliated protozoa possess two morphologically and functionally distinct nuclei: a macronucleus (MAC) and a micronucleus (MIC). The MAC is transcriptionally active and functions in all cellular events. The MIC is transcriptionally inactive during cell growth, but functions in meiotic events to produce progeny nuclei. Thus, these two nuclei must be distinguished by the nuclear proteins required for their distinct functions during cellular events such as cell proliferation and meiosis. To understand the mechanism of the nuclear transport specific to either MAC or MIC, we identified specific nuclear localization signals (NLSs) in two MAC- and MIC-specific nuclear proteins, macronuclear histone H1 and micronuclear linker histone-like protein (Mlh1), respectively. By expressing GFP-fused fragments of these proteins in Tetrahymena thermophila cells, two distinct regions in macronuclear histone H1 protein were assigned as independent MAC-specific NLSs and two distinct regions in Mlh1 protein were assigned as independent MIC-specific NLSs. These NLSs contain several essential lysine residues responsible for the MAC- and MIC-specific nuclear transport, but neither contains any consensus sequence with known monopartite or bipartite NLSs in other model organisms. Our findings contribute to understanding how specific nuclear targeting is achieved to perform distinct nuclear functions in binucleated ciliates. © 2018 The Authors. Genes to Cells published by Molecular Biology Society of Japan and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  1. The conjugation-specific Die5 protein is required for development of the somatic nucleus in both Paramecium and Tetrahymena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Atsushi; Shieh, Annie Wan-Yi; Chalker, Douglas L; Forney, James D

    2010-07-01

    Development in ciliated protozoa involves extensive genome reorganization within differentiating macronuclei, which shapes the somatic genome of the next vegetative generation. Major events of macronuclear differentiation include excision of internal eliminated sequences (IESs), chromosome fragmentation, and genome amplification. Proteins required for these events include those with homology throughout eukaryotes as well as proteins apparently unique to ciliates. In this study, we identified the ciliate-specific Defective in IES Excision 5 (DIE5) genes of Paramecium tetraurelia (PtDIE5) and Tetrahymena thermophila (TtDIE5) as orthologs that encode nuclear proteins expressed exclusively during development. Abrogation of PtDie5 protein (PtDie5p) function by RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated silencing or TtDie5p by gene disruption resulted in the failure of developing macronuclei to differentiate into new somatic nuclei. Tetrahymena DeltaDIE5 cells arrested late in development and failed to complete genome amplification, whereas RNAi-treated Paramecium cells highly amplified new macronuclear DNA before the failure in differentiation, findings that highlight clear differences in the biology of these distantly related species. Nevertheless, IES excision and chromosome fragmentation failed to occur in either ciliate, which strongly supports that Die5p is a critical player in these processes. In Tetrahymena, loss of zygotic expression during development was sufficient to block nuclear differentiation. This observation, together with the finding that knockdown of Die5p in Paramecium still allows genome amplification, indicates that this protein acts late in macronuclear development. Even though DNA rearrangements in these two ciliates look to be quite distinct, analysis of DIE5 establishes the action of a conserved mechanism within the genome reorganization pathway.

  2. An atom counting and electrophilicity based QSTR approach

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    QSTR models with two parameters result when global electrophilicity is used as the second descriptor. In ... Atom counting; QSTR; electrophilicity; conceptual DFT; Tetrahymena pyriformis. ... theoretical background whereas the computational.

  3. Quantum chemistry based quantitative structure-activity relationships for modeling the (sub)acute toxicity of substituted mononitrobenzenes in aquatic systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zvinavashe, E.; Murk, A.J.; Vervoort, J.; Soffers, A.E.M.F.; Freidig, A.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.

    2006-01-01

    Fifteen experimental literature data sets on the acute toxicity of substituted nitrobenzenes to algae (Scenedesmus obliquus, Chlorella pyrenoidosa, C. vulgaris), daphnids (Daphnia magna, D. carinata), fish (Cyprinus carpio, Poecilia reticulata), protozoa (Tetrahymena pyriformis), bacteria

  4. Purification, characterization and molecular cloning of TGP1, a novel G-DNA binding protein from Tetrahymena thermophila.

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Q; Schierer, T; Kang, S G; Henderson, E

    1998-01-01

    G-DNA, a polymorphic family of four-stranded DNA structures, has been proposed to play roles in a variety of biological processes including telomere function, meiotic recombination and gene regulation. Here we report the purification and cloning of TGP1, a G-DNA specific binding protein from Tetrahymena thermophila. TGP1 was purified by three-column chromatographies, including a G-DNA affinity column. Two major proteins (approximately 80 and approximately 40 kDa) were present in the most high...

  5. Rapid detection of predation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and sorting of bacterivorous Tetrahymena by flow cytometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley J. Hernlem

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Protozoa are known to harbor bacterial pathogens, alter their survival in the environment and make them hypervirulent. Rapid non-culture based detection methods are required to determine the environmental survival and transport of enteric pathogens from point sources such as dairies and feedlots to food crops grown in proximity. Grazing studies were performed on a soil isolate of Tetrahymena fed green fluorescent protein (GFP expressing Escherichia coli O157:H7 to determine the suitability of the use of such fluorescent prey bacteria to locate and sort bacterivorous protozoa by flow cytometry. In order to overcome autofluorescence of the target organism and to clearly discern Tetrahymena with ingested prey versus those without, a ratio of prey to host of at least 100:1 was determined to be preferable. Under these conditions, we successfully sorted the two populations using short 5 to 45 min exposures of the prey and verified the internalization of E. coli O157:H7 cells in protozoa by confocal microscopy. This technique can be easily adopted for environmental monitoring of rates of enteric pathogen destruction versus protection in protozoa.

  6. Macronuclear genome sequence of the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila, a model eukaryote.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan A Eisen

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila is a model organism for molecular and cellular biology. Like other ciliates, this species has separate germline and soma functions that are embodied by distinct nuclei within a single cell. The germline-like micronucleus (MIC has its genome held in reserve for sexual reproduction. The soma-like macronucleus (MAC, which possesses a genome processed from that of the MIC, is the center of gene expression and does not directly contribute DNA to sexual progeny. We report here the shotgun sequencing, assembly, and analysis of the MAC genome of T. thermophila, which is approximately 104 Mb in length and composed of approximately 225 chromosomes. Overall, the gene set is robust, with more than 27,000 predicted protein-coding genes, 15,000 of which have strong matches to genes in other organisms. The functional diversity encoded by these genes is substantial and reflects the complexity of processes required for a free-living, predatory, single-celled organism. This is highlighted by the abundance of lineage-specific duplications of genes with predicted roles in sensing and responding to environmental conditions (e.g., kinases, using diverse resources (e.g., proteases and transporters, and generating structural complexity (e.g., kinesins and dyneins. In contrast to the other lineages of alveolates (apicomplexans and dinoflagellates, no compelling evidence could be found for plastid-derived genes in the genome. UGA, the only T. thermophila stop codon, is used in some genes to encode selenocysteine, thus making this organism the first known with the potential to translate all 64 codons in nuclear genes into amino acids. We present genomic evidence supporting the hypothesis that the excision of DNA from the MIC to generate the MAC specifically targets foreign DNA as a form of genome self-defense. The combination of the genome sequence, the functional diversity encoded therein, and the presence of some pathways missing from

  7. Spliceosomal small nuclear RNAs of Tetrahymena thermophila and some possible snRNA-snRNA base-pairing interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orum, H; Nielsen, Henrik; Engberg, J

    1991-01-01

    We have identified and characterized the full set of spliceosomal small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs; U1, U2, U4, U5 and U6) from the ciliated protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila. With the exception of U4 snRNA, the sizes of the T. thermophila snRNAs are closely similar to their metazoan homologues. The T....... thermophila snRNAs all have unique 5' ends, which start with an adenine residue. In contrast, with the exception of U6, their 3' ends show some size heterogeneity. The primary sequences of the T. thermophila snRNAs contain the sequence motifs shown, or proposed, to be of functional importance in other...

  8. Cyc17, a meiosis-specific cyclin, is essential for anaphase initiation and chromosome segregation in Tetrahymena thermophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Guan-Xiong; Dang, Huai; Tian, Miao; Zhang, Jing; Shodhan, Anura; Ning, Ying-Zhi; Xiong, Jie; Miao, Wei

    2016-07-17

    Although the role of cyclins in controlling nuclear division is well established, their function in ciliate meiosis remains unknown. In ciliates, the cyclin family has undergone massive expansion which suggests that diverse cell cycle systems exist, and this warrants further investigation. A screen for cyclins in the model ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila showed that there are 34 cyclins in this organism. Only 1 cyclin, Cyc17, contains the complete cyclin core and is specifically expressed during meiosis. Deletion of CYC17 led to meiotic arrest at the diakinesis-like metaphase I stage. Expression of genes involved in DNA metabolism and chromosome organization (chromatin remodeling and basic chromosomal structure) was repressed in cyc17 knockout matings. Further investigation suggested that Cyc17 is involved in regulating spindle pole attachment, and is thus essential for chromosome segregation at meiosis. These findings suggest a simple model in which chromosome segregation is influenced by Cyc17.

  9. A novel mitochondrial nuclease-associated protein: a major executor of the programmed nuclear death in Tetrahymena thermophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osada, Eriko; Akematsu, Takahiko; Asano, Tomoya; Endoh, Hiroshi

    2014-03-01

    Programmed nuclear death (PND) in the ciliate Tetrahymena is an apoptosis-like phenomenon that occurs in a restricted space of cytoplasm during conjugation. In the process, only the parental macronucleus is selectively eliminated from the progeny cytoplasm, in conjunction with differentiation of new macronuclei for the next generation. For the last decade, mitochondria have been elucidated to be a crucial executioner like apoptosis: apoptosis-inducing factor and yet-unidentified nucleases localised in mitochondria are major factors for PND. To identify such nucleases, we performed a DNase assay in a PAGE (SDS-DNA-PAGE) using total mitochondrial proteins. Some proteins showed DNase activity, but particularly a 17 kDa protein exhibited the highest and predominant activity. Mass spectrometric analysis revealed a novel mitochondrial nuclease, named TMN1, whose homologue has been discovered only in the ciliate Paramecium tetraurelia, but not in other eukaryotes. Gene disruption of TMN1 led to a drastic reduction of mitochondrial nuclease activity and blocked nuclear degradation during conjugation, but did not affect accumulation of autophagic and lysosomal machinery around the parental macronucleus. These observations strongly suggest that the mitochondrial nuclease-associated protein plays a key role in PND as a major executor. Taking the novel protein specific to ciliates in consideration, Tetrahymena would have diverted a different protein from common apoptotic factors shared in eukaryotes to PND in the course of ciliate evolution. © 2014 Société Française des Microscopies and Société de Biologie Cellulaire de France. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. 1+1 = 3: a fusion of 2 enzymes in the methionine salvage pathway of Tetrahymena thermophila creates a trifunctional enzyme that catalyzes 3 steps in the pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah M W Salim

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The methionine salvage pathway is responsible for regenerating methionine from its derivative, methylthioadenosine. The complete set of enzymes of the methionine pathway has been previously described in bacteria. Despite its importance, the pathway has only been fully described in one eukaryotic organism, yeast. Here we use a computational approach to identify the enzymes of the methionine salvage pathway in another eukaryote, Tetrahymena thermophila. In this organism, the pathway has two fused genes, MTNAK and MTNBD. Each of these fusions involves two different genes whose products catalyze two different single steps of the pathway in other organisms. One of the fusion proteins, mtnBD, is formed by enzymes that catalyze non-consecutive steps in the pathway, mtnB and mtnD. Interestingly the gene that codes for the intervening enzyme in the pathway, mtnC, is missing from the genome of Tetrahymena. We used complementation tests in yeast to show that the fusion of mtnB and mtnD from Tetrahymena is able to do in one step what yeast does in three, since it can rescue yeast knockouts of mtnB, mtnC, or mtnD. Fusion genes have proved to be very useful in aiding phylogenetic reconstructions and in the functional characterization of genes. Our results highlight another characteristic of fusion proteins, namely that these proteins can serve as biochemical shortcuts, allowing organisms to completely bypass steps in biochemical pathways.

  11. Exposing diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørtoft, Kamilla; Nordentoft, Helle Merete

    professionals´ meetings with patients and relatives. In the paper we draw data from focus group discussions with interdisciplinary groups of health care professionals working in the area of care for older people. The video narratives used to initiate discussions are developed through ethnographic fieldwork...... in the homes of older people and in pedagogical institutions targeting older people. In the paper we look at the potentials and challenges in working with ethnographic video narratives as a pedagogical tool. Our findings indicate that the use of video narratives has the potential to expose the diversity...... focus on their own professional discipline and its tasks 2) stimulates collaborative learning when they discuss their different interpretations of the ethnographic video narratives and achieve a deeper understanding of each other’s work and their clients’ lifeworlds, which might lead to a better...

  12. Dissecting relative contributions of cis- and trans-determinants to nucleosome distribution by comparing Tetrahymena macronuclear and micronuclear chromatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Jie; Gao, Shan; Dui, Wen; Yang, Wentao; Chen, Xiao; Taverna, Sean D; Pearlman, Ronald E; Ashlock, Wendy; Miao, Wei; Liu, Yifan

    2016-12-01

    The ciliate protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila contains two types of structurally and functionally differentiated nuclei: the transcriptionally active somatic macronucleus (MAC) and the transcriptionally silent germ-line micronucleus (MIC). Here, we demonstrate that MAC features well-positioned nucleosomes downstream of transcription start sites and flanking splice sites. Transcription-associated trans-determinants promote nucleosome positioning in MAC. By contrast, nucleosomes in MIC are dramatically delocalized. Nucleosome occupancy in MAC and MIC are nonetheless highly correlated with each other, as well as with in vitro reconstitution and predictions based upon DNA sequence features, revealing unexpectedly strong contributions from cis-determinants. In particular, well-positioned nucleosomes are often matched with GC content oscillations. As many nucleosomes are coordinately accommodated by both cis- and trans-determinants, we propose that their distribution is shaped by the impact of these nucleosomes on the mutational and transcriptional landscape, and driven by evolutionary selection. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  13. Calcium signaling in closely related protozoan groups (Alveolata): non-parasitic ciliates (Paramecium, Tetrahymena) vs. parasitic Apicomplexa (Plasmodium, Toxoplasma).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plattner, H; Sehring, I M; Mohamed, I K; Miranda, K; De Souza, W; Billington, R; Genazzani, A; Ladenburger, E-M

    2012-05-01

    The importance of Ca2+-signaling for many subcellular processes is well established in higher eukaryotes, whereas information about protozoa is restricted. Recent genome analyses have stimulated such work also with Alveolates, such as ciliates (Paramecium, Tetrahymena) and their pathogenic close relatives, the Apicomplexa (Plasmodium, Toxoplasma). Here we compare Ca2+ signaling in the two closely related groups. Acidic Ca2+ stores have been characterized in detail in Apicomplexa, but hardly in ciliates. Two-pore channels engaged in Ca2+-release from acidic stores in higher eukaryotes have not been stingently characterized in either group. Both groups are endowed with plasma membrane- and endoplasmic reticulum-type Ca2+-ATPases (PMCA, SERCA), respectively. Only recently was it possible to identify in Paramecium a number of homologs of ryanodine and inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate receptors (RyR, IP3R) and to localize them to widely different organelles participating in vesicle trafficking. For Apicomplexa, physiological experiments suggest the presence of related channels although their identity remains elusive. In Paramecium, IP3Rs are constitutively active in the contractile vacuole complex; RyR-related channels in alveolar sacs are activated during exocytosis stimulation, whereas in the parasites the homologous structure (inner membrane complex) may no longer function as a Ca2+ store. Scrutinized comparison of the two closely related protozoan phyla may stimulate further work and elucidate adaptation to parasitic life. See also "Conclusions" section. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Genomic organization and developmental fate of adjacent repeated sequences in a foldback DNA clone of Tetrahymena thermophila

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschunko, A.H.; Loechel, R.H.; McLaren, N.C.; Allen, S.L.

    1987-01-01

    DNA sequence elimination and rearrangement occurs during the development of somatic cell lineages of eukaryotes and was first discovered over a century ago. However, the significance and mechanism of chromatin elimination are not understood. DNA elimination also occurs during the development of the somatic macronucleus from the germinal micronucleus in unicellular ciliated protozoa such as Tetrahymena thermophila. In this study foldback DNA from the micronucleus was used as a probe to isolate ten clones. All of those tested (4/4) contained sequences that were repetitive in the micronucleus and rearranged in the macronucleus. Inverted repeated sequences were present in one clone. This clone, pTtFBl, was subjected to a detailed analysis of its developmental fate. Subregions were subcloned and used as probes against Southern blots of micronuclear and macronuclear DNA. DNA was labeled with [ 33 P]-labeled dATP. The authors found that all subregions defined repeated sequence families in the micronuclear genome. A minimum of four different families was defined, two of which are retained in the macronucleus and two of which are completely eliminated. The inverted repeat family is retained with little rearrangement. Two of the families, defined by subregions that do not contain parts of the inverted repeat are totally eliminated during macronuclear development-and contain open reading frames. The significance of retained inverted repeats to the process of elimination is discussed

  15. Two Tetrahymena G-DNA-binding proteins, TGP1 and TGP3, share novel motifs and may play a role in micronuclear division

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Quan; Henderson, Eric

    2000-01-01

    G-DNA is a four-stranded DNA structure with diverse putative biological roles. We have previously purified and cloned a novel G-DNA-binding protein TGP1 from the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila. Here we report the molecular cloning of TGP3, an additional G-DNA-binding protein from the same organism. The TGP3 cDNA encodes a 365 amino acid protein that is homologous to TGP1 (34% identity and 44% similarity). The proteins share a sequence pattern that contains two novel repetitive and homologous...

  16. Effects of four commonly used UV filters on the growth, cell viability and oxidative stress responses of the Tetrahymena thermophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Li; Yuan, Tao; Zhou, Chuanqi; Cheng, Peng; Bai, Qifeng; Ao, Junjie; Wang, Wenhua; Zhang, Haimou

    2013-11-01

    UV filters are increasingly used in sunscreens and other personal care products. Although their residues have been widely identified in aquatic environment, little is known about the influences of UV filters to protozoan. The growth inhibition effects, cell viability and oxidative stress responses of four commonly used UV filters, 2-ethylhexyl 4-methoxycinnamate (EHMC), benzophenone-3 (BP-3), 4-methyl-benzylidene camphor (4-MBC) and octocrylene (OC), to protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila were investigated in this study. The 24-h EC50 values with 95% confidence intervals for BP-3 and 4-MBC were 7.544 (6.561-8.675) mg L(-1) and 5.125 (4.874-5.388) mg L(-1), respectively. EHMC and OC did not inhibit the growth of T. thermophila after 24h exposure at the tested concentrations. The results of cell viability assays with propidium iodide (PI) staining were consistent with that of the growth inhibition tests. As for BP-3 and 4-MBC, the relatively higher concentrations, i.e. of 10.0 and 15.0 mg L(-1), could lead to the cell membranes impairment after 4h exposure. With the increase of the exposure time to 6h, their adverse effects on cell viability of T. thermophila were observed at the relatively lower concentration groups (1.0 mg L(-1) and 5.0 mg L(-1)). In addition, it is noticeable that at environmentally relevant concentration (1.0 μg L(-1)), BP-3 and 4-MBC could lead to the significant increase of catalase (CAT) activities of the T. thermophila cells. Especially for the BP-3, the oxidative injuries were further confirmed by the reduction of glutathione (GSH) content. It is imperative to further investigate the additive action of UV filters and seek other sensitive endpoint, especially at environmentally relevant concentration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Buildings exposed to fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The 24 lectures presented to the colloquium cover the following subject fields: (1) Behaviour of structural components exposed to fire; (2) Behaviour of building materials exposed to fire; (3) Thermal processes; (4) Safety related, theoretical studies. (PW) [de

  18. Regulation of galactokinase gene expression in Tetrahymena thermophila. II. Identification of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine as a primary effector of adrenergic control of galactokinase expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, J C; Morse, D E

    1985-08-25

    Intracellular concentrations of catecholamines were determined in wild-type and mutant Tetrahymena thermophila, using the highly sensitive techniques of high-performance liquid chromatography and electro-chemical detection. Catecholamines were determined in these cell strains grown under various steady-state conditions, including those which initiate and maintain repression of galactokinase gene expression. Wild-type cells grown in defined minimal medium supplemented with 1% glycerol, exhibiting derepressed galactokinase synthesis, were found to contain considerable quantities of dopa (3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine) and dopamine, but no detectable levels of either norepinephrine or epinephrine. Analyses of wild-type cells revealed a strong positive correlation between the internal concentration of dopa and expression of the galactokinase gene, both of which are regulated by exogenous carbohydrates, catecholamine agonists, or dibutyryl-cAMP; an analogous relationship between intracellular dopamine concentrations and galactokinase activity was not found. In addition, a correlation between intracellular dopa content and the phenotypic expression of galactokinase in various mutants deficient in the catecholamine biosynthetic pathway or in glucokinase further confirms the role of dopa as a primary effector in the regulation of galactokinase gene expression.

  19. Tetrahymena telomerase protein p65 induces conformational changes throughout telomerase RNA (TER) and rescues telomerase reverse transcriptase and TER assembly mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Andrea J; Gooding, Anne R; Cech, Thomas R

    2010-10-01

    The biogenesis of the Tetrahymena telomerase ribonucleoprotein particle (RNP) is enhanced by p65, a La family protein. Single-molecule and biochemical studies have uncovered a hierarchical assembly of the RNP, wherein the binding of p65 to stems I and IV of telomerase RNA (TER) causes a conformational change that facilitates the subsequent binding of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) to TER. We used purified p65 and variants of TERT and TER to investigate the conformational rearrangements that occur during RNP assembly. Nuclease protection assays and mutational analysis revealed that p65 interacts with and stimulates conformational changes in regions of TER beyond stem IV. Several TER mutants exhibited telomerase activity only in the presence of p65, revealing the importance of p65 in promoting the correct RNP assembly pathway. In addition, p65 rescued TERT assembly mutants but not TERT activity mutants. Taken together, these results suggest that p65 stimulates telomerase assembly and activity in two ways. First, by sequestering stems I and IV, p65 limits the ensemble of structural conformations of TER, thereby presenting TERT with the active conformation of TER. Second, p65 acts as a molecular buttress within the assembled RNP, mutually stabilizing TER and TERT in catalytically active conformations.

  20. An atom counting and electrophilicity based QSTR approach

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Quantitative-structure-toxicity-relationship (QSTR) models are developed for predicting the toxicity (pIGC50) of 252 aliphatic compounds on Tetrahymena pyriformis. The single parameter models with a simple molecular descriptor, the number of atoms in the molecule, provide reasonable results. Better QSTR models with ...

  1. Co-Transport of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons by Motile Microorganisms Leads to Enhanced Mass Transfer under Diffusive Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilbert, Dorthea; Jakobsen, Hans H.; Winding, Anne

    2014-01-01

    as sink and source for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). This resulted in stable concentration gradients in water (>24 h). Adding the model organism Tetrahymena pyriformis to the experimental system enhanced PAH mass transfer up to hundred-fold (benzo[a]pyrene). Increasing mass transfer enhancement...

  2. Fire exposed aluminium structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljaars, J.; Fellinger, J.E.J.; Soetens, F.

    2005-01-01

    Material properties and mechanical response models for fire design of steel structures are based on extensive research and experience. Contrarily, the behaviour of aluminium load bearing structures exposed to fire is relatively unexplored. This article gives an overview of physical and mechanical

  3. The exposed breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingman, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    The skin and lungs are two tissues that are frequently bombarded with cancer-initiating factors, such as ultraviolet rays from the sun and smoke and pollutants in the air we breathe. Yet breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in Australian women, affecting one in eight before the age of 85. It is more common than skin melanoma and lung cancer. Why, then, does the breast so commonly get cancer when it is not a tissue that is particularly exposed to the environmental agents that increase cancer risk in other major organs? Is there something unique about this tissue that makes it particularly susceptible? The breast undergoes cellular changes over the course of the monthly menstrual cycle, and and these changes affect cancer susceptibility. Rising levels of the hormones oestrogen and progesterone occur immediately after the egg is released from the ovary, and these hormones cause the breast cells to divide and change to accommodate further development if pregnancy occurs. If the woman becomes pregnant, the cells in the breast continue to develop and become the milk-producing structures required to feed a newborn baby. But if pregnancy does not occur there is a drop in progesterone, which triggers the death of the newly developed breast cells. This occurs at the same time women have their period. Then the cycle starts again, and continues every month until menopause, unless the woman becomes pregnant.

  4. Exposing the faults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, P.J.

    1989-01-01

    UK NIREX, the body with responsibility for finding an acceptable strategy for deposition of radioactive waste has given the impression throughout its recent public consultation that the problem of nuclear waste is one of public and political acceptability, rather than one of a technical nature. However the results of the consultation process show that it has no mandate from the British public to develop a single, national, deep repository for the burial of radioactive waste. There is considerable opposition to this method of managing radioactive waste and suspicion of the claims by NIREX concerning the supposed integrity and safety of this deep burial option. This report gives substance to those suspicions and details the significant areas of uncertainty in the concept of effective geological containment of hazardous radioactive elements, which remain dangerous for tens of thousands of years. Because the science of geology is essentially retrospective rather than predictive, NIREX's plans for a single, national, deep 'repository' depend heavily upon a wide range of assumptions about the geological and hydrogeological regimes in certain areas of the UK. This report demonstrates that these assumptions are based on a limited understanding of UK geology and on unvalidated and simplistic theoretical models of geological processes, the performance of which can never be directly tested over the long time-scales involved. NIREX's proposals offer no guarantees for the safe and effective containment of radioactivity. They are deeply flawed. This report exposes the faults. (author)

  5. Development of thresholds of excess toxicity for environmental species and their application to identification of modes of acute toxic action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin J; Zhang, Xu J; Yang, Yi; Huang, Tao; Li, Chao; Su, Limin; Zhao, Yuan H; Cronin, Mark T D

    2018-03-01

    The acute toxicity of organic pollutants to fish, Daphnia magna, Tetrahymena pyriformis, and Vibrio fischeri was investigated. The results indicated that the Toxicity Ratio (TR) threshold of log TR =1, which has been based on the distribution of toxicity data to fish, can also be used to discriminate reactive or specifically acting compounds from baseline narcotics for Daphnia magna and Vibrio fischeri. A log TR=0.84 is proposed for Tetrahymena pyriformis following investigation of the relationships between the species sensitivity and the absolute averaged residuals (AAR) between the predicted baseline toxicity and the experimental toxicity. Less inert compounds exhibit relatively higher toxicity to the lower species (Tetrahymena pyriformis and Vibrio fischeri) than the higher species (fish and Daphnia magna). A greater number of less inert compounds with log TR greater than the thresholds was observed for Tetrahymena pyriformis and Vibrio fischeri. This may be attributed to the hydrophilic compounds which may pass more easily through cell membranes than the skin or exoskeleton of organisms and have higher bioconcentration factors in the lower species, leading to higher toxicity. Most of classes of chemical associated with excess toxicity to one species also exhibited excess toxicity to other species, however, a few classes with excess toxicity to one species exhibiting narcotic toxicity to other species and thus may have different MOAs between species. Some ionizable compounds have log TR much lower than one because of the over-estimated log K OW . The factors that influence the toxicity ratio calculated from baseline level are discussed in this paper. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Reprocessing of nonoptimally exposed holograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phipps, G.S.; Robertson, C.E.; Tamashiro, F.M.

    1980-01-01

    Two reprocessing techniques have been investigated that are capable of correcting the effects of nonoptimum optical density of photographic amplitude holograms recorded on Agfa-Gevaert type 10E75 plates. In some cases a reprocessed hologram will exhibit a diffraction efficiency even higher than that obtainable from a hologram exposed and processed to the optimum density. The SNR of the reprocessed holograms is much higher than that of the same holograms belached with cupric bromide. In some cases the SNR approaches the optimum value for a properly exposed amplitude hologram. Subjective image quality and resolution of reprocessed hologram reconstructins appear to be no different than for normal single-development holograms. Repeated reprocessing is feasible and in some cases desirable as a means of increasing diffraction efficiency

  7. Effect of C2 ceramide on the inositol phospholipid metabolism (uptake of 32P, 3H-serine and 3H-palmitic acid) and apoptosis-related morphological changes in Tetrahymena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, P.; Hegyesi, H.; Koehidai, L.; Nemes, P.; Csaba, G.

    1999-01-01

    Sphingomyelin metabolites have significant role in the regulation of many life processes of mammalian cells. In the present experiments the influence of phospholipid turnover and apoptosis related morphologic signs by one of this metabolite, C 2 ceramide was studied, and compared to the control, untreated cells, in the unicellular Tetrahymena. The incorporation of phospholipid head group components (serine, phosphorus) show a clear time-dependence; while the incorporation of fatty acid component (palmitic acid) is very fast: no significant alterations were found between 5- and 60-min incubations. C 2 ceramide treatment didn't alter 3 H-palmitic acid incorporation into phospholipids, however 3 H-serine incorporation was mainly inhibited. The amount of total incorporated 32 P was also decreased, on the other hand the lover concentration C 2 ceramide (10 μM) elevated the synthesis of inositol phospholipids. The higher concentration of C 2 ceramide (50 μM) had inhibitory effect on the synthesis of each phospholipids examined. This means that in the presence of the C 2 ceramide the synthesis, recovery and turnover of phospholipids, participating in signal transduction, are altered. However these observations were based the uptake of labeled phospholipid precursors, which gives information on the dynamics of the process, without using lipid mass measurements. C 2 ceramide also caused the rounding off the cells, DNA degradation and nuclear condensation. These latter observations point to morphological signs of apoptosis. The results call attention to the role of sphingomyelin metabolites on signalization of unicellulars, to the cross-talk between the inositol phospholipids and sphingomyelin metabolites, and the role of these molecules in the apoptotic processes at a low evolutionary level. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  8. Advances in treating exposed fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira Giglio, Pedro; Fogaça Cristante, Alexandre; Ricardo Pécora, José; Partezani Helito, Camilo; Lei Munhoz Lima, Ana Lucia; Dos Santos Silva, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    The management of exposed fractures has been discussed since ancient times and remains of great interest to present-day orthopedics and traumatology. These injuries are still a challenge. Infection and nonunion are feared complications. Aspects of the diagnosis, classification and initial management are discussed here. Early administration of antibiotics, surgical cleaning and meticulous debridement are essential. The systemic conditions of patients with multiple trauma and the local conditions of the limb affected need to be taken into consideration. Early skeletal stabilization is necessary. Definitive fixation should be considered when possible and provisional fixation methods should be used when necessary. Early closure should be the aim, and flaps can be used for this purpose.

  9. Leukemias in the progeny of exposed parents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosenko, M.M.; Gudkova, N.V.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the incidence of leukemias among the progeny of exposed parents. The parents were exposed as a result of discharge of radioactive waste from the Mayak atomic plant into the Techa river in the Southern Urals. The doses per parents gonads, ranging from 0.035 to 1.27 Sv, were due to external exposure in 1950-1956 and to incorporation of Cs-137. Nine cases with leukemia and four with lympohoma were recorded in 13.500 antenatally exposed subjects and descendants of exposed parents over the period of 1950 to 1988. The leukemia morbidity index for the progeny of exposed parents was 2.51, which virtually not statistically differ from that in control group. Refs. 7, figs. 3, tabs. 3

  10. Eryptosis in lead-exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Dorado, Itzel-Citlalli; Hernández, Gerardo; Quintanar-Escorza, Martha-Angelica; Maldonado-Vega, María; Rosas-Flores, Margarita; Calderón-Salinas, José-Víctor

    2014-12-01

    Eryptosis is a physiological phenomenon in which old and damaged erythrocytes are removed from circulation. Erythrocytes incubated with lead have exhibited major eryptosis. In the present work we found evidence of high levels of eryptosis in lead exposed workers possibly via oxidation. Blood samples were taken from 40 male workers exposed to lead (mean blood lead concentration 64.8μg/dl) and non-exposed workers (4.2μg/dl). The exposure to lead produced an intoxication characterized by 88.3% less δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δALAD) activity in lead exposed workers with respect to non-lead exposed workers. An increment of oxidation in lead exposed workers was characterized by 2.4 times higher thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) concentration and 32.8% lower reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio. Oxidative stress in erythrocytes of lead exposed workers is expressed in 192% higher free calcium concentration [Ca(2+)]i and 1.6 times higher μ-calpain activity with respect to non-lead exposed workers. The adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration was not significantly different between the two worker groups. No externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) was found in non-lead exposed workers (lead exposed workers showed 2.82% externalization. Lead intoxication induces eryptosis possibly through a molecular pathway that includes oxidation, depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH), increment of [Ca(2+)], μ-calpain activation and externalization of PS in erythrocytes. Identifying molecular signals that induce eryptosis in lead intoxication is necessary to understand its physiopathology and chronic complications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Eryptosis in lead-exposed workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar-Dorado, Itzel-Citlalli; Hernández, Gerardo; Quintanar-Escorza, Martha-Angelica; Maldonado-Vega, María; Rosas-Flores, Margarita; Calderón-Salinas, José-Víctor

    2014-01-01

    Eryptosis is a physiological phenomenon in which old and damaged erythrocytes are removed from circulation. Erythrocytes incubated with lead have exhibited major eryptosis. In the present work we found evidence of high levels of eryptosis in lead exposed workers possibly via oxidation. Blood samples were taken from 40 male workers exposed to lead (mean blood lead concentration 64.8 μg/dl) and non-exposed workers (4.2 μg/dl). The exposure to lead produced an intoxication characterized by 88.3% less δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δALAD) activity in lead exposed workers with respect to non-lead exposed workers. An increment of oxidation in lead exposed workers was characterized by 2.4 times higher thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) concentration and 32.8% lower reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio. Oxidative stress in erythrocytes of lead exposed workers is expressed in 192% higher free calcium concentration [Ca 2+ ] i and 1.6 times higher μ-calpain activity with respect to non-lead exposed workers. The adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration was not significantly different between the two worker groups. No externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) was found in non-lead exposed workers (< 0.1%), but lead exposed workers showed 2.82% externalization. Lead intoxication induces eryptosis possibly through a molecular pathway that includes oxidation, depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH), increment of [Ca 2+ ], μ-calpain activation and externalization of PS in erythrocytes. Identifying molecular signals that induce eryptosis in lead intoxication is necessary to understand its physiopathology and chronic complications. - Graphical abstract: Fig. 1. (A) Blood lead concentration (PbB) and (B) phosphatidylserine externalization on erythrocyte membranes of non-lead exposed (□) and lead exposed workers (■). Values are mean ± SD. *Significantly different (P < 0.001). - Highlights: • Erythrocytes of lead exposed workers showed higher PS

  12. Eryptosis in lead-exposed workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar-Dorado, Itzel-Citlalli [Biochemistry Department, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados IPN, México, DF (Mexico); Hernández, Gerardo [Section of Methodology of Science, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados IPN, México, DF (Mexico); Quintanar-Escorza, Martha-Angelica [Faculty of Medicine, UJED, Durango, DGO (Mexico); Maldonado-Vega, María [CIATEC, León, GTO (Mexico); Rosas-Flores, Margarita [Biochemistry Department, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados IPN, México, DF (Mexico); Calderón-Salinas, José-Víctor, E-mail: jcalder@cinvestav.mx [Biochemistry Department, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados IPN, México, DF (Mexico)

    2014-12-01

    Eryptosis is a physiological phenomenon in which old and damaged erythrocytes are removed from circulation. Erythrocytes incubated with lead have exhibited major eryptosis. In the present work we found evidence of high levels of eryptosis in lead exposed workers possibly via oxidation. Blood samples were taken from 40 male workers exposed to lead (mean blood lead concentration 64.8 μg/dl) and non-exposed workers (4.2 μg/dl). The exposure to lead produced an intoxication characterized by 88.3% less δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δALAD) activity in lead exposed workers with respect to non-lead exposed workers. An increment of oxidation in lead exposed workers was characterized by 2.4 times higher thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) concentration and 32.8% lower reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio. Oxidative stress in erythrocytes of lead exposed workers is expressed in 192% higher free calcium concentration [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} and 1.6 times higher μ-calpain activity with respect to non-lead exposed workers. The adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration was not significantly different between the two worker groups. No externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) was found in non-lead exposed workers (< 0.1%), but lead exposed workers showed 2.82% externalization. Lead intoxication induces eryptosis possibly through a molecular pathway that includes oxidation, depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH), increment of [Ca{sup 2+}], μ-calpain activation and externalization of PS in erythrocytes. Identifying molecular signals that induce eryptosis in lead intoxication is necessary to understand its physiopathology and chronic complications. - Graphical abstract: Fig. 1. (A) Blood lead concentration (PbB) and (B) phosphatidylserine externalization on erythrocyte membranes of non-lead exposed (□) and lead exposed workers (■). Values are mean ± SD. *Significantly different (P < 0.001). - Highlights: • Erythrocytes of lead exposed workers

  13. The properties degradation of exposed GFRP roof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainudin, Mohammad; Diharjo, Kuncoro; Kaavessina, Mujtahid; Setyanto, Djoko

    2018-02-01

    There is much consideration of roof selection as a protector of a building against the outside weather, such as lightweight, strong stiff, corrosion resistant and guarantee for the availability of products. Based on these considerations, glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) roof is a roof which can fulfill the requirement. The objective of this research is to investigate the degradation of physical and mechanical properties of GFRP roof exposed in outside weather. This GFRP roof composite was produced using a sheet molding compound (SMC) supplied by PT Intec Persada, Tangerang, Indonesia. There are two kinds GFRP roofs evaluated in this research that are GFRP roof exposed within 7 years and new GFRP roof that has not been exposed. The GFRP roofs were cut manually for preparing the specimens for hardness test, tensile test, SEM and FTIR test. The results show that the GFRP roof exposed within 7 years had the degradation of properties compared to the new GFRP roof. The exposed GFRP roof had lower strength and hardness compared to the new GFRP roof. The SEM observation indicates that exposed GFRP roof had the debonding of fiber on the surface, and in contrast, there are no debonding of fiber in the new GFRP roof surface. It can be recommended that the exposed GFRP roof may be repaired to enhance its performance and can re-increase its properties using the coating.

  14. Disposal of tritium-exposed metal hydrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nobile, A.; Motyka, T.

    1991-01-01

    A plan has been established for disposal of tritium-exposed metal hydrides used in Savannah River Site (SRS) tritium production or Materials Test Facility (MTF) R ampersand D operations. The recommended plan assumes that the first tritium-exposed metal hydrides will be disposed of after startup of the Solid Waste Disposal Facility (SWDF) Expansion Project in 1992, and thus the plan is consistent with the new disposal requiremkents that will be in effect for the SWDF Expansion Project. Process beds containing tritium-exposed metal hydride powder will be disposed of without removal of the powder from the bed; however, disposal of tritium-exposed metal hydride powder that has been removed from its process vessel is also addressed

  15. Exposing Latent Information in Folksonomies for Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-14

    1.73 $.") http://www.w3.org/2006/07/SWD/ SKOS /reference/20081001/ Spiteri, L.F. (2007) "The structure and form of folksonomy tags: The road to the...Exposing Latent Information in Folksonomies for Reasoning January 14, 2010 Sponsored by Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DOD...DATES COVERED (From - To! 4/14/2009-12/23/2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Exposing Latent Information in Folksonomies for Reasoning Sa. CONTRACT

  16. Genetic Alterations in Pesticide Exposed Bolivian Farmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørs, Erik; González, Ana Rosa; Ascarrunz, Maria Eugenia

    2007-01-01

    : Questionnaires were applied and blood tests taken from 81 volunteers from La Paz County, of whom 48 were pesticide exposed farmers and 33 non-exposed controls. Sixty males and 21 females participated with a mean age of 37.3 years (range 17-76). Data of exposure and possible genetic damage were collected...... and evaluated by well known statistical methods, controlling for relevant confounders. To measure genetic damage chromosomal aberrations and the comet assay analysis were performed. Results: Pesticide exposed farmers had a higher degree of genetic damage compared to the control group. The number of chromosomal......, probably related to exposure to pesticides. Due to the potentially negative long term health effects of genetic damage on reproduction and the development of cancer, preventive measures are recommended. Effective control with imports and sales, banning of the most toxic pesticides, education...

  17. Proximally exposed A-bomb survivors. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamada, Nanao

    1992-01-01

    Methods for observing chromosomes can be chronologically divided into the era of non-differential staining technique (1962-1975) and the era of differential staining method (since 1976). This paper reviews the literature of chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells found in the two eras. Findings during the era of 1962-1975 include the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells, comparison of chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells and T lymphocytes, and annual variation of chromosomal aberrations. The frequency of chromosomal aberrations was high in proximally exposed A-bomb survivors (90.5% and 52.6% in A-bomb survivors exposed within 500 m and at 501-1,000 m, respectively); on the contrary, it was low in those exposed far from 1,000 m (6.2% or less). The frequency of chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells was lower than that in T lymphocytes (21.5% vs 27.1% in those exposed within 500 m and 14.1% vs 23% in those exposed at 501-1,000 m). Annual analysis for chromosomal aberrations has shown the somewhat dependence upon medullary hematopoiesis and virus infection. The advent of differential staining technique since 1976 has made it possible to clarify the type of chromosomal aberrations and site of breakage. Of 710 bone marrow cells taken from 13 A-bomb survivors exposed within 1,000 m, 121 cells (from 11 A-bomb survivors) exhibited chromosomal aberrations. In differential staining analysis, all 121 cells but one were found to be of stable type, such as translocation and inversion. Furthermore, the site of breakage was found to be non-randomly distributed. Analysis of chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells has advantages of reflecting dynamic condition of these cells and determining gradual progression into leukemia. (N.K.)

  18. Exposing the Mathematical Wizard: Approximating Trigonometric Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Sheldon P.

    2011-01-01

    For almost all students, what happens when they push buttons on their calculators is essentially magic, and the techniques used are seemingly pure wizardry. In this article, the author draws back the curtain to expose some of the mathematics behind computational wizardry and introduces some fundamental ideas that are accessible to precalculus…

  19. Exposing Library Services with AngularJS

    OpenAIRE

    Jakob Voß; Moritz Horn

    2014-01-01

    This article provides an introduction to the JavaScript framework AngularJS and specific AngularJS modules for accessing library services. It shows how information such as search suggestions, additional links, and availability can be embedded in any website. The ease of reuse may encourage more libraries to expose their services via standard APIs to allow usage in different contexts.

  20. Expose Mechanical Engineering Students to Biomechanics Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hui

    2011-01-01

    To adapt the focus of engineering education to emerging new industries and technologies nationwide and in the local area, a biomechanics module has been developed and incorporated into a mechanical engineering technical elective course to expose mechanical engineering students at ONU (Ohio Northern University) to the biomedical engineering topics.…

  1. Stabilizer for seismically exposed bridge cranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelke, M.; Kuhr, H.

    1982-01-01

    The invention concerns a stabilizer for seismically exposed bridge cranes in reactor buildings. The trolley and the crane bridge are fitted with the stabilizer consisting of a bipartite safety catch which is connected with a joint and able to take up the vertical loads during an earthquake. This stabilizer is suitable for all kinds of bridge cranes operated in seismically active regions

  2. Dose coefficients for individual occupationally exposed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-11-01

    This Regulation refers to the requirements of the Regulation CNEN-NN.3.01, 'Basic Act of Radiological Protection', aiming its application to the dose calculation, with purposes of conformity verification with limits and restrictions of doses and level of reference for individual occupationally exposed, according to the express in its section 5

  3. Fibrosis biomarkers in workers exposed to MWCNTs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatkhutdinova, Liliya M.; Khaliullin, Timur O.; Vasil'yeva, Olga L.; Zalyalov, Ramil R.; Mustafin, Ilshat G.; Kisin, Elena R.; Birch, M. Eileen; Yanamala, Naveena; Shvedova, Anna A.

    2016-01-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) with their unique physico-chemical properties offer numerous technological advantages and are projected to drive the next generation of manufacturing growth. As MWCNT have already found utility in different industries including construction, engineering, energy production, space exploration and biomedicine, large quantities of MWCNT may reach the environment and inadvertently lead to human exposure. This necessitates the urgent assessment of their potential health effects in humans. The current study was carried out at NanotechCenter Ltd. Enterprise (Tambov, Russia) where large-scale manufacturing of MWCNT along with relatively high occupational exposure levels was reported. The goal of this small cross-sectional study was to evaluate potential biomarkers during occupational exposure to MWCNT. All air samples were collected at the workplaces from both specific areas and personal breathing zones using filter-based devices to quantitate elemental carbon and perform particle analysis by TEM. Biological fluids of nasal lavage, induced sputum and blood serum were obtained from MWCNT-exposed and non-exposed workers for assessment of inflammatory and fibrotic markers. It was found that exposure to MWCNTs caused significant increase in IL-1β, IL6, TNF-α, inflammatory cytokines and KL-6, a serological biomarker for interstitial lung disease in collected sputum samples. Moreover, the level of TGF-β1 was increased in serum obtained from young exposed workers. Overall, the results from this study revealed accumulation of inflammatory and fibrotic biomarkers in biofluids of workers manufacturing MWCNTs. Therefore, the biomarkers analyzed should be considered for the assessment of health effects of occupational exposure to MWCNT in cross-sectional epidemiological studies. - Highlights: • The effects of MWCNT exposure in humans remain unclear. • We found increased KL-6/TGF-β levels in the biofluids of MWCNT-exposed workers.

  4. Fibrosis biomarkers in workers exposed to MWCNTs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fatkhutdinova, Liliya M., E-mail: liliya.fatkhutdinova@gmail.com [Kazan State Medical University, ul. Butlerova 49, Kazan 420012 (Russian Federation); Khaliullin, Timur O., E-mail: Khaliullin.40k@gmail.com [Kazan State Medical University, ul. Butlerova 49, Kazan 420012 (Russian Federation); Department of Physiology & Pharmacology, WVU, Morgantown, WV (United States); Vasil' yeva, Olga L., E-mail: volgaleon@gmail.com [Kazan State Medical University, ul. Butlerova 49, Kazan 420012 (Russian Federation); Zalyalov, Ramil R., E-mail: zalyalov.ramil@gmail.com [Kazan State Medical University, ul. Butlerova 49, Kazan 420012 (Russian Federation); Mustafin, Ilshat G., E-mail: ilshat64@mail.ru [Kazan State Medical University, ul. Butlerova 49, Kazan 420012 (Russian Federation); Kisin, Elena R., E-mail: edk8@cdc.gov [National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV (United States); Birch, M. Eileen, E-mail: mib2@cdc.gov [National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Yanamala, Naveena, E-mail: wqu1@cdc.gov [National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV (United States); Shvedova, Anna A., E-mail: ats1@cdc.gov [National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV (United States); Department of Physiology & Pharmacology, WVU, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) with their unique physico-chemical properties offer numerous technological advantages and are projected to drive the next generation of manufacturing growth. As MWCNT have already found utility in different industries including construction, engineering, energy production, space exploration and biomedicine, large quantities of MWCNT may reach the environment and inadvertently lead to human exposure. This necessitates the urgent assessment of their potential health effects in humans. The current study was carried out at NanotechCenter Ltd. Enterprise (Tambov, Russia) where large-scale manufacturing of MWCNT along with relatively high occupational exposure levels was reported. The goal of this small cross-sectional study was to evaluate potential biomarkers during occupational exposure to MWCNT. All air samples were collected at the workplaces from both specific areas and personal breathing zones using filter-based devices to quantitate elemental carbon and perform particle analysis by TEM. Biological fluids of nasal lavage, induced sputum and blood serum were obtained from MWCNT-exposed and non-exposed workers for assessment of inflammatory and fibrotic markers. It was found that exposure to MWCNTs caused significant increase in IL-1β, IL6, TNF-α, inflammatory cytokines and KL-6, a serological biomarker for interstitial lung disease in collected sputum samples. Moreover, the level of TGF-β1 was increased in serum obtained from young exposed workers. Overall, the results from this study revealed accumulation of inflammatory and fibrotic biomarkers in biofluids of workers manufacturing MWCNTs. Therefore, the biomarkers analyzed should be considered for the assessment of health effects of occupational exposure to MWCNT in cross-sectional epidemiological studies. - Highlights: • The effects of MWCNT exposure in humans remain unclear. • We found increased KL-6/TGF-β levels in the biofluids of MWCNT-exposed workers.

  5. Ionizing radiation promotes protozoan reproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luckey, T.D.

    1986-01-01

    This experiment was performed to determine whether ionizing radiation is essential for maximum growth rate in a ciliated protozoan. When extraneous ionizing radiation was reduced to 0.15 mrad/day, the reproduction rate of Tetrahymena pyriformis was significantly less (P less than 0.01) than it was at near ambient levels, 0.5 or 1.8 mrad/day. Significantly higher growth rates (P less than 0.01) were obtained when chronic radiation was increased. The data suggest that ionizing radiation is essential for optimum reproduction rate in this organism

  6. Stability of people exposed to water flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Martínez-Gomariz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Our cities are formed by several elements which are exposed to floods of a magnitude according to the importance of the rainfall event and the design of the urban drainage system. The most important components in the cities are the pedestrians who develop various activities during rain events. Focusing on pedestrians, the research on their stability when they are exposed to water flows provides the necessary knowledge to understand and manage the associated hazard for them. In this research, several experiments with humans were carried out in order to determine the stability limits to pedestrians crossing through a water flow in a real scale platform. The results obtained and by comparing those with human stability criteria proposed by other authors and guidelines provide a more restrictive criterion.

  7. Children exposed to war/terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Jon A

    2003-12-01

    This paper reviews the prevalence of psychological morbidities in children who have been exposed to war-related traumas or terrorism as well as the diversity of war-related casualties and their associated psychological responses. The psychological responses to war-related stressors are categorized as (1) little or no reaction, (2) acute emotional and behavioral effects, and (3) long-term effects. Specific categories of war-related casualties discussed include refugee status, traumatic bereavement, effects of parental absence, and child soldiers. Psychological responses associated with terrorism and bioterrorism are presented. Lastly, mediators of the psychological response to war-related stressors are discussed, to include exposure effects, gender effects, parental, family and social factors, and child-specific factors. Children exposed to war-related stressors experience a spectrum of psychological morbidities including posttraumatic stress symptomatology, mood disorders, externalizing and disruptive behaviors, and somatic symptoms determined by exposure dose effect. Specific questions for future research are identified.

  8. Studies on persons exposed to plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voelz, G.L.; Stebbings, J.H.; Hempelmann, L.H.; Haxton, L.K.; York, D.A.

    1978-01-01

    The results of four studies of persons exposed, or potentially exposed, to plutonium are summarized. The studies are: a five-year update on clinical examinations and health experience of 26 Manhattan District workers heavily exposed at Los Alamos in 1944 to 1945; a 30-year mortality follow-up of 224 white male workers with plutonium body burdens of 10 nCi or more; a review of cancer mortality rates between 1950 and 1969 among Los Alamos County, New Mexico, male residents, all of whom have worked in or have lived within a few kilometers of a major plutonium plant and other nuclear facilities; and a review of cancer incidence rates between 1969 and 1974 in male residents of Los Alamos County. No excess of mortality due to any cause was observed in the 224 male subjects with the highest plutonium exposures at Los Alamos. Clinical examinations of the Manhattan District workers, whose average age in 1976 was 56 years, show them to be active persons with diseases that are not unusual for their ages. The two deaths in this group over the past 30 years have not been due to cancer. Mortality and incidence data indicate no excess of lung cancer in Los Alamos County males

  9. Damage of DNA by radiation and it's recovery, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narita, Noboru; Matsuura, Tomio; Sato, Hiroyuki.

    1974-01-01

    The damage and recovery of DNA was investigated by the incorporation of thymine derivatives (DHT, I trans, II trans, cis and glycol) into exponentially growing Tetrahymena cells. The strain employed was Tetrahymena pyriformis, Variety I, mating type IV. It is well known that these thymine derivatives are induced in vivo by radiation. The in vivo damage of DNA induced by radiation, and its recovery, were confirmed experimentally by means of gradient separation of sucrose density and by analytical ultra centrifugation (UVC). The recovery of DNA, its excision repair and its recombinational repair were compared with the recovery of Bacillus subtilis whose recovery kinetics were already known. 1) The damage of DNA was more sensitive to glycol than to II trans and cis. On the other hand, DHT is not sensitive for breaking DNA strand. 2) In its recovery damaged DNA was no more sensitive to glycol than to hhp as was true for Bacillus subtilis. (author)

  10. EXPOSE-R2: The Astrobiological ESA Mission on Board of the International Space Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke Rabbow

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available On July 23, 2014, the Progress cargo spacecraft 56P was launched from Baikonur to the International Space Station (ISS, carrying EXPOSE-R2, the third ESA (European Space Agency EXPOSE facility, the second EXPOSE on the outside platform of the Russian Zvezda module, with four international astrobiological experiments into space. More than 600 biological samples of archaea, bacteria (as biofilms and in planktonic form, lichens, fungi, plant seeds, triops eggs, mosses and 150 samples of organic compounds were exposed to the harsh space environment and to parameters similar to those on the Mars surface. Radiation dosimeters distributed over the whole facility complemented the scientific payload. Three extravehicular activities later the chemical samples were returned to Earth on March 2, 2016, with Soyuz 44S, having spent 588 days in space. The biological samples arrived back later, on June 18, 2016, with 45S, after a total duration in space of 531 days. The exposure of the samples to Low Earth Orbit vacuum lasted for 531 days and was divided in two parts: protected against solar irradiation during the first 62 days, followed by exposure to solar radiation during the subsequent 469 days. In parallel to the space mission, a Mission Ground Reference (MGR experiment with a flight identical Hardware and a complete flight identical set of samples was performed at the premises of DLR (German Aerospace Center in Cologne by MUSC (Microgravity User Support Center, according to the mission data either downloaded from the ISS (temperature data, facility status, inner pressure status or provided by RedShift Design and Engineering BVBA, Belgium (calculated ultra violet radiation fluence data. In this paper, the EXPOSE-R2 facility, the experimental samples, mission parameters, environmental parameters, and the overall mission and MGR sequences are described, building the background for the research papers of the individual experiments, their analysis and results.

  11. Towards harmonized qualifications for radiation exposed personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briso, Hugo A.

    2008-01-01

    The accelerated process of globalization affecting mankind doesn't exclude safety matters. Indeed, some trans national corporations are increasingly offering specialized engineering services such as industrial radiography or well lodging. As well, a growing scientific exchange involves the mobility of nuclear researchers in different areas, for instance radiochemistry, nuclear medicine and radiotherapy. Such a breakdown in the technological frontiers must necessarily be reflected by the regulatory solutions. Particularly, diverse levels of theoretical-practical training for radiation exposed personnel coexist in the Latin-American Region, being an especially sensitive problem for radiation protection matters. The spectrum goes from post-graduate courses required for radiation protection officers in some countries, while in others only basic recommendations are required for the operating personnel. Another scheme consists of medium level course for the operating personnel, while radiation protection officers don't have special requirements. Many educational private institutions teach non standardized courses which only give broad concepts of radiation protection. On the other hand, usually nothing is said about the operational training, or else its certification is entrusted to the employer itself. In some countries multiple Regulatory Authorities apply dissimilar criteria to assess safety matters, including the evaluation of workers applications. The necessary regional integration makes indispensable to establish common standards for granting authorizations. Having similar or homogeneous requirements for the universe of radiation exposed personnel, i.e. source operators, radiation protection officers, qualified experts and technical support people would be easier for the Regulatory Authorities to have common methodologies of evaluation for the applicants. An IAEA supported technical cooperation project related to this paper seeks to establish standardized

  12. Lymphocytic subsets in occupationally exposed persons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuschl, H.; Kovac, R.; Wottawa, A.

    1989-04-01

    The percentage of CD2, CD4, CD8 and NK cells of peripheral blood was investigated in persons occupationally exposed to very low doses of ionizing radiation. Investigations were carried out by monoclonal antibodies and flow-cytometry. While significant effects of age and smoking habits on the relative number of CD8 cells and CD4/CD8 ratios could be established, no influence of the very low radiation exposure on the profile of lymphocytic cells in blood was found, except a very slight effect on the relative number of total T cells (= CD2 cells). 7tabs., 2figs., 16refs. (Author)

  13. Renographic curve of persons exposed to mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolenic, J.; Jurgova, T.; Zimacek, J.; Petrovicova, J.; Bilicky, J.

    1995-01-01

    In the group of 72 workers which were exposed to fumes of metallic mercury we evaluated possible nephrotoxic effect of Hg 0 . We also used nuclear renography for evaluation of kidney. Nephrotoxic effect of Hg 0 was proved by increased proteinuria and relatively frequent findings of pathological renogram. In the group with pathological renogram, elimination of Hg 0 in urine (1822.8 nmol.dm -3 ) was increased. In the group with normal finding the value was 883.7 nmol.dm -3 . These findings pointed at toxic effect of Hg 0 on kidney and suitability of radionuclide examination for disclosing of subclinical pathological changes. (authors)

  14. Spoiled Onions: Exposing Malicious Tor Exit Relays

    OpenAIRE

    Winter, Philipp; Lindskog, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Several hundred Tor exit relays together push more than 1 GiB/s of network traffic. However, it is easy for exit relays to snoop and tamper with anonymised network traffic and as all relays are run by independent volunteers, not all of them are innocuous. In this paper, we seek to expose malicious exit relays and document their actions. First, we monitored the Tor network after developing a fast and modular exit relay scanner. We implemented several scanning modules for detecting common attac...

  15. Uniform Protection for Multi-exposed Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigo, Roberto; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2014-01-01

    the Quality Calculus that computes the combinations of data required to reach a program point and relates them to a notion of cost. In this way, we can compare the security deployed on different paths that expose the same resource. The analysis is formalised in terms of flow logic, and is implemented......Ensuring that information is protected proportionately to its value is a major challenge in the development of robust distributed systems, where code complexity and technological constraints might allow reaching a key functionality along various paths. We propose a protection analysis over...

  16. Backfilling of trenches exposed to waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelmager Jensen, Jacob; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    This paper treats the numerical prediction of initial and long-term morphology of small pipeline trenches. For this purpose a refined flow and sediment transport description is applied such that the entire mathematical problem is formulated and solved on a curvilinear grid using a k - ε turbulence......-closure. The backfilling process of trenches exposed to either waves or a steady current is of importance in relation to the implementation of pipelines in the marine environment. With respect to the sedimentation of trenches, the non-dimensional Trench-Keulegan-Carpenter number, KC = a/L, where a is the excursion length...

  17. Analyses of Concrete Structures Exposed to Fire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian

    The text book contains the data and methods necessary for fire safety design of concrete constructions. The methods relate to standard fire as well as to any time of any other fire course.Material data are presented for concretes exposed to fire, and calculation methods are given for the ultimate...... bending capacity of beams and slabs, the ultimate shear capacity of beams, for the instability of columns and walls and for the deflection of prestressed and non-prestressed beams, slabs, walls and columns.All methods have been derived and compared to tests by Kristian Hertz....

  18. Occupational health care of radiation exposed workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Rahim Rahman Hamzah

    1995-01-01

    The medical problems encountered by the earlier pioneer workers in radiation at the turn of the century are well known. In the 1928, the ICRP (International Committee for Radiological Protection) was instituted and the ALARA principle of radiation protection was evolved. Occupational health care is about maintaining the health and safety of workers in their workplaces. This involves using medical, nursing and engineering practices to achieve its objectives. In certain occupations, including those where workers are exposed to ionising radiation, some of these principles are enshrined in the legislation and would require statutory compliance. Occupational health care of radiation workers seek to prevent ill health arising from exposure to radiation by consolidating the benefits of exposures control and dosimetry. This is via health surveillance for spillages, contamination and exposures to unsealed sources of radiation. It is unlikely that can plan and hope to cater for a Chernobyl type of disaster. However, for the multitude of workers in industry exposed to radiation, control models are available. These are from the more in industrialize countries with a nuclear based energy industry, and where radioactive gadgetry are used in places ranging from factories and farms to construction sites. These models involve statutory requirements on the standard of work practices, assessment of fitness to work and the monitoring of both the worker and the workplace. A similar framework of activity is present in Malaysia. This will be further enhanced with the development of her general health and safety at work legislation. (author)

  19. Protection of man: the exposed individual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohnstedt, A.; Knebel, J.U. [Programme Nuclear Safety Research, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Herrmann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Breustedt, B. [Institute for Radiation Research, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Herrmann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Present methods for quantifying radiation exposure rely on a standardized reference man (75 kg) with defined average anatomical and physiological data. But individual person actually exposed differs from this idealized standard man. Therefore the focus of investigations at the Institute for Radiation Research (Institut fuer Strahlenforschung, ISF) which was founded at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, KIT) in 2009 is based on the vision to place the exposed individual with its anatomical and physiological particularities, under consideration of age, gender, body height, body shape and environment, in the centre of an individual-related quantification of the external and internal radiation exposure. Research work at the ISF is aiming at quantifying radiation exposure by improved determination of doses essentially caused by external radiation fields and the intake of radionuclides into the body. The three main topics of the institute are - external dosimetry (e.g. using a (voxel) model of the hand to simulate skin dose distribution); - internal dosimetry (e.g. body size related efficiency calibration of in-vivo counting equipment); - numerical methods/modeling (e.g. development of a mathematical/voxel-hybrid model of the human body). (authors)

  20. Zirconium ignition in exposed fuel channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elias, E., E-mail: merezra@technion.ac.il; Hasan, D.; Nekhamkin, Y.

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • We demonstrate the idea of runaway zirconium–steam reactions in severe accidents in today's LWRs. • We predict the thermal-hydraulics conditions relevant to cladding oxidation in an exposed fuel channel of a partially uncovered core. • The Semenov theory of metal combustion is extended to define a criterion for runaway oxidation reaction in fuel cladding. - Abstract: A theoretical model based on simultaneous solution of the heat and mass transfer equations is developed for predicting the rate of thermo-chemical reaction between zirconium cladding and a hot steam environment. Ignition conditions relevant to cladding oxidation in an exposed fuel channel of a partially uncovered core are predicted based on the theory of metal combustion. A range of decay power, convective heat transfer coefficients, and initial temperatures leading to uncontrolled runaway cladding oxidation is identified. The model could be readily integrated as part of a fuel channel analysis code for predicting possible outcomes of different accident mitigation procedures in light water nuclear reactors under LOCA conditions.

  1. To be a worker (exposed?) or not to be a worker (exposed?) that is the question

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammerich, M.

    2008-01-01

    The notion of personnel is detailed in this article in order to know exactly what personnel is considered as exposed and what radiation doses are under this term. The regulatory texts are studied in different articles of the French law and show that different kind of exposed personnel are considered. The definitions are varying with the notion of risk, of radiation doses and the work itself. This article asks for a better and more precise definition that will help the actors of radiation protection. (N.C.)

  2. Brain damage among the prenatally exposed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otake, Masanori; Schull, W.J.; Yoshimaru, Hiroshi.

    1991-01-01

    Significant effects on the developing brain of exposure to ionizing radiation are seen among those individuals exposed in the 8th through the 25th week after fertilization. These effects, particularly in the most sensitive period, 8-15 weeks after fertilization, manifest themselves as an increased frequency of severe mental retardation (SMR), a diminution in IQ score and in school performance, and an increase in the occurrence of seizures. Of 30 SMR cases, 18 (60%) had small heads. About 10% of the individuals with small head sizes observed among the in utero clinical sample were mentally retarded. When all of the cases of mental retardation are included in the analysis, a linear dose-response model fits the data adequately and no evidence of a threshold emerges; however, if the two probable nonradiation-related cases of Down's syndrome are excluded from the 19 SMR cases exposed 8-15 weeks after fertilization, the evidence of a threshold is stronger. The 95% lower bound of the threshold based on the new dosimetry system appears to be in the range of 0.12-0.23 Gy. In the 16-25 week period, the 95% lower bound of the threshold is 0.21 Gy both with and without inclusion of two probable nonradiation-related retarded cases. In a regression analysis of IQ scores and school performance data, a greater linearity is suggested with the new dosimetry (DS86) than with the old (T65DR), but the mean IQ score and the mean school performance of those exposed in utero to doses under 0.10 Gy are similar, and not statistically different from the means in the control group. The risk ratios for unprovoked seizures, following exposure during the 8th through the 15th week after fertilization, are 4.4 (90% confidence interval: 0.5-40.9) after 0.10-0.49 Gy and 24.9 (4.1-191.6) after 0.50 Gy or more when the mentally retarded are included and 4.4 (0.5-40.9) and 14.5 (0.4-199.6), respectively, when they are excluded. (author)

  3. Immune Response among Patients Exposed to Molds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan N. Fink

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Macrocyclic trichothecenes, mycotoxins produced by Stachybotrys chartarum, have been implicated in adverse reactions in individuals exposed to mold-contaminated environments. Cellular and humoral immune responses and the presence of trichothecenes were evaluated in patients with mold-related health complaints. Patients underwent history, physical examination, skin prick/puncture tests with mold extracts, immunological evaluations and their sera were analyzed for trichothecenes. T-cell proliferation, macrocyclic trichothecenes, and mold specific IgG and IgA levels were not significantly different than controls; however 70% of the patients had positive skin tests to molds. Thus, IgE mediated or other non-immune mechanisms could be the cause of their symptoms.

  4. Reactivity of lithium exposed graphite surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harilal, S.S.; Allain, J.P.; Hassanein, A.; Hendricks, M.R.; Nieto-Perez, M.

    2009-01-01

    Lithium as a plasma-facing component has many attractive features in fusion devices. We investigated chemical properties of the lithiated graphite surfaces during deposition using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and low-energy ion scattering spectroscopy. In this study we try to address some of the known issues during lithium deposition, viz., the chemical state of lithium on graphite substrate, oxide layer formation mechanisms, Li passivation effects over time, and chemical change during exposure of the sample to ambient air. X-ray photoelectron studies indicate changes in the chemical composition with various thickness of lithium on graphite during deposition. An oxide layer formation is noticed during lithium deposition even though all the experiments were performed in ultrahigh vacuum. The metal oxide is immediately transformed into carbonate when the deposited sample is exposed to air.

  5. Lifetime assessment of service-exposed components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalwa, G.; Weber, H.

    1988-01-01

    A longtime prognosis on the operation of creep-exposed components requires a lifetime analysis. The basis for such an analysis can be improved by an analysis of microstructure and material properties. Actually the grade of material exhaustion has to be regarded as proper assessment quantity. However, stress and time safety also are valuable assessment quantities which should be taken into consideration, especially when the grade of exhaustion is uncertain because of inaccurate input parameters. A correct assessment of the damage state cannot be made without taking into consideration the failure mechanism which has to be assumed for a specific component. With respect to creep the most critical component of a steamline system is the pipe bend because of the risk of large damage events. For this case component metallography by replicas is suggested as preventive test method. The continuation of service of a creep damage pipe bend cannot be recommended. (orig./MM) [de

  6. Water infiltration into exposed fractured rock surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, T.C.; Evans, D.D.

    1993-01-01

    Fractured rock media are present at many existing and potential waste disposal sites, yet characterization data and physical relationships are not well developed for such media. This study focused on water infiltration characteristics of an exposed fractured rock as an approach for defining the upper boundary condition for unsaturated-zone water percolation and contaminant transport modeling. Two adjacent watersheds of 0.24 and 1.73 ha with slopes up to 45% were instrumented for measuring rainfall and runoff. Fracture density was measured from readily observable fracture traces on the surface. Three methods were employed to evaluate the rainfall-runoff relationship. The first method used the annual totals and indicated that only 22.5% of rainfall occurred as runoff for the 1990-1991 water year, which demonstrates a high water intake rate by the exposed fracture system. The second method employed total rainfall and runoff for individual storms in conjunction with the commonly used USDA Soil Conservation Service curve number method developed for wide ranges of soils and vegetation. Curve numbers between 75 and 85 were observed for summer and winter storms with dry antecedent runoff conditions, while values exceeded 90 for wet conditions. The third method used a mass-balance approach for four major storms, which indicated that water intake rates ranged from 2.0 to 7.3 mm h -1 , yielding fracture intake velocities ranging from 122 to 293 m h -1 . The three analyses show the complexity of the infiltration process for fractured rock. However, they contribute to a better understanding of the upper boundary condition for predicting contaminant transport through an unsaturated fractured rock medium. 17 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  7. Exposing the Myths, Defining the Future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slavov, S.

    2013-01-01

    With this official statement, the WEC calls for policymakers and industry leaders to ''get real'' as the World Energy Council as a global energy body exposes the myths by informing the energy debate and defines a path to a more sustainable energy future. The World Energy Council urged stakeholders to take urgent and incisive actions, to develop and transform the global energy system. Failure to do so could put aspirations on the triple challenge of WEC Energy Trilemma defined by affordability, accessibility and environmental sustainability at serious risk. Through its multi-year in-depth global studies and issue-mapping the WEC has found that challenges that energy sector is facing today are much more crucial than previously envisaged. The WEC's analysis has exposed a number of myths which influence our understanding of important aspects of the global energy landscape. If not challenged, these misconceptions will lead us down a path of complacency and missed opportunities. Much has, and still is, being done to secure energy future, but the WEC' s studies reveal that current pathways fall short of delivering on global aspirations of energy access, energy security and environmental improvements. If we are to derive the full economic and social benefits from energy resources, then we must take incisive and urgent action to modify our steps to energy solutions. The usual business approaches are not effective, the business as usual is not longer a solution. The focus has moved from large universal solutions to an appreciation of regional and national contexts and sharply differentiated consumer expectations.(author)

  8. Clinical investigation of proximate exposed group, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Chikako; Hasegawa, Kazuyo; Kato, Masafumi; Kumasawa, Toshihiko

    1984-01-01

    In order to investigate effects of the A-bombing on prevalence of diabetes mellitus, follow-up studies were made on 5907 A-bomb survivors who received glucose tolerance test (GTT) during 20 years between 1963 and 1983. The A-bomb survivors were divided into the group A (1899 men and 1165 women exposed within 1.9 km from the hypocenter) and the group B (1725 men and 1118 women exposed 3.0 km or farther from it). Among non-obese survivors, 21.9% and 21.8% were being treated for diabetes mellitus or were evaluated as having diabetic type on GTT in the group A and the group B, respectively; while this was seen in 52.1% of obese survivors in the group A and 49.9% in the group B. There was no difference between the groups. In non-obese survivors, the annual development rate from the normal type to the diabetic type was 0.89% in the group A and 0.65% in the group B; the annual development rate from the borderline type to the diabetic type was 5.73% in the group A and 5.49% in the group B, showing no differences between the groups. The annual development rate from the normal or borderline type to the diabetic type was two times or higher in obese survivors than in non-obese survivors irrespective of exposure status. Regarding the number of diabetic survivors who became non-diabetic type in spite of having no treatment, and prevalence of diabetic complications, no difference was seen between the groups. These results suggest that the A-bombing has scarcely influenced the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and clinical course. (Namekawa, K.)

  9. Synergistic Interactions within a Multispecies Biofilm Enhance Individual Species Protection against Grazing by a Pelagic Protozoan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prem K. Raghupathi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Biofilm formation has been shown to confer protection against grazing, but little information is available on the effect of grazing on biofilm formation and protection in multispecies consortia. With most biofilms in nature being composed of multiple bacterial species, the interactions and dynamics of a multispecies bacterial biofilm subject to grazing by a pelagic protozoan predator were investigated. To this end, a mono and multispecies biofilms of four bacterial soil isolates, namely Xanthomonas retroflexus, Stenotrophomonas rhizophila, Microbacterium oxydans and Paenibacillus amylolyticus, were constructed and subjected to grazing by the ciliate Tetrahymena pyriformis. In monocultures, grazing strongly reduced planktonic cell numbers in P. amylolyticus and S. rhizophila and also X. retroflexus. At the same time, cell numbers in the underlying biofilms increased in S. rhizophila and X. retroflexus, but not in P. amylolyticus. This may be due to the fact that while grazing enhanced biofilm formation in the former two species, no biofilm was formed by P. amylolyticus in monoculture, either with or without grazing. In four-species biofilms, biofilm formation was higher than in the best monoculture, a strong biodiversity effect that was even more pronounced in the presence of grazing. While cell numbers of X. retroflexus, S. rhizophila, and P. amylolyticus in the planktonic fraction were greatly reduced in the presence of grazers, cell numbers of all three species strongly increased in the biofilm. Our results show that synergistic interactions between the four-species were important to induce biofilm formation, and suggest that bacterial members that produce more biofilm when exposed to the grazer not only protect themselves but also supported other members which are sensitive to grazing, thereby providing a “shared grazing protection” within the four-species biofilm model. Hence, complex interactions shape the dynamics of the biofilm and

  10. 9 CFR 78.8 - Brucellosis exposed cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed cattle. 78.8... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.8 Brucellosis exposed cattle. Brucellosis exposed cattle may be moved interstate only as follows: (a) Movement to recognized slaughtering...

  11. Biological monitoring results for cadmium exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDiarmid, M A; Freeman, C S; Grossman, E A; Martonik, J

    1996-11-01

    As part of a settlement agreement with the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) involving exposure to cadmium (Cd), a battery production facility provided medical surveillance data to OSHA for review. Measurements of cadmium in blood, cadmium in urine, and beta 2-microglobulin in urine were obtained for more than 100 workers over an 18-month period. Some airborne Cd exposure data were also made available. Two subpopulations of this cohort were of primary interest in evaluating compliance with the medical surveillance provisions of the Cadmium Standard. These were a group of 16 workers medically removed from cadmium exposure due to elevations in some biological parameter, and a group of platemakers. Platemaking had presented a particularly high exposure opportunity and had recently undergone engineering interventions to minimize exposure. The effect on three biological monitoring parameters of medical removal protection in the first group and engineering controls in platemakers is reported. Results reveal that both medical removal from cadmium exposures and exposure abatement through the use of engineering and work practice controls generally result in declines in biological monitoring parameters of exposed workers. Implications for the success of interventions are discussed.

  12. Behavioral changes in fish exposed to phytoestrogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clotfelter, Ethan D.; Rodriguez, Alison C.

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the behavioral effects of exposure to waterborne phytoestrogens in male fighting fish, Betta splendens. Adult fish were exposed to a range of concentrations of genistein, equol, β-sitosterol, and the positive control 17β-estradiol. The following behaviors were measured: spontaneous swimming activity, latency to respond to a perceived intruder (mirror reflection), intensity of aggressive response toward a perceived intruder, probability of constructing a nest in the presence of a female, and the size of the nest constructed. We found few changes in spontaneous swimming activity, the latency to respond to the mirror, and nest size, and modest changes in the probability of constructing a nest. There were significant decreases, however, in the intensity of aggressive behavior toward the mirror following exposure to several concentrations, including environmentally relevant ones, of 17β-estradiol, genistein, and equol. This suggests that phytoestrogen contamination has the potential to significantly affect the behavior of free-living fishes. - Environmentally relevant concentrations of phytoestrogens reduce aggressive behavior in fish

  13. Exposing the “One China” Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-yuan Tseng

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1992, when the governments from both sides across the Taiwan Strait began having contacts, both of them, at the People’s Republic of China (PRC’s request, expressed verbally, and in relation to functional issues, that they advocated the “one China” principle, though what “one China” actually meant was open to different interpretations, and the shift that elevated the 1992 “one China” interpretations from the functional level to the political level did not occur until April 2005. Since President Tsai Ing-wen was sworn in and the Democratic Progressive Party (DPP became the ruling party of the Republic of China (ROC on Taiwan in early 2016, the PRC has used Tsai’s rejection of this so-called “1992 consensus” as a pretext to discontinue all intergovernmental communication channels with the ROC on Taiwan, while also cutting down on cross-strait civil exchanges in travel and education. This thinkpiece article aims to scrutinise this “one China” principle, how it has developed over the years, and expose its underlying realities.

  14. Degradation of HEPA filters exposed to DMSO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, W.; Wilson, K.; Larsen, G.; Lopez, R.; LeMay, J.

    1994-01-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) sprays are being used to remove the high explosive (HE) from nuclear weapons in the process of their dismantlement. A boxed 50 cfm HEPA filter with an integral prefilter was exposed to DMSO vapor and aerosols that were generated by a spray nozzle to simulate conditions expected in the HE dissolution operation. After 198 hours of operation, the pressure drop of the filter had increased from 1.15 inches to 2.85 inches, and the efficiency for 0.3 μm dioctyl sebacate (DOS) aerosols decreased from 99.992% to 98.6%. Most of the DMSO aerosols had collected as a liquid pool inside the boxed HEPA. The liquid was blown out of the filter exit with 100 cfm air flow at the end of the test. Since the filter still met the minimum allowed efficiency of 99.97% after 166 hours of exposure, we recommend replacing the filter every 160 hours of operation or sooner if the pressure drop increases by 50%. Examination of the filter showed that visible cracks appeared at the joints of the wooden frame and a portion of the sealant had pulled away from the frame. Since all of the DMSO will be trapped in the first HEPA filter, the second HEPA filter should not suffer from DMSO degradation. Thus the combined efficiency for the first filter (98.6%) and the second filter (99.97%) is 99.99996% for 0.3μm particles. If the first filter is replaced prior to its degradation, each of the filters will have 99.97% efficiency, and the combined efficiency will be 99.999991%. The collection efficiency for DMSO/HE aerosols will be much higher because the particle size is much greater

  15. Degradation of HEPA filters exposed to DMSO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, W.; Wilson, K.; Larsen, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-02-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) sprays are being used to remove the high explosive (HE) from nuclear weapons in the process of their dismantlement. A boxed 50 cmf HEPA filter with an integral prefilter was exposed to DMSO vapor and aerosols that were generated by a spray nozzle to simulate conditions expected in the HE dissolution operation. After 198 hours of operation, the pressure drop of the filter had increased form 1.15 inches to 2,85 inches, and the efficiency for 0.3 {mu}m dioctyl sebacate (DOS) aerosols decreased form 99.992% to 98.6%. Most of the DMSO aerosols had collected as a liquid pool inside the boxed HEPA. The liquid was blown out of the filter exit with 100 cmf air flow at the end of the test. Since the filter still met the minimum allowed efficiency of 99.97% after 166 hours of exposure, we recommend replacing the filter every 160 hours of operation or sooner if the pressure drop increases by 50%. Examination of the filter showed that visible cracks appeared at the joints of the wooden frame and a portion of the sealant had pulled away from the frame. Since all of the DMSO will be trapped in the first HEPA filter, the second HEPA filter should not suffer from DMSO degradation. Thus the combined efficiency for the first filter (98.6%) and the second filter (99.97%) is 99.99996% for 0.3 {mu}m particles. If the first filter is replaced prior to its degradation, each of the filters will have 99.97% efficiency, and the combined efficiency will be 99.999991%. The collection efficiency for DMSO/HE aerosols will be much higher because the particle size is much greater.

  16. Educator Sexual Misconduct: Exposing or Causing Learners to Be Exposed to Child Pornography or Pornography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Coetzee

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available he law recognises that non-contact sexual offences can cause harm and several offences were created to regulate non-contact sexual child abuse offences. Several of these offences deal with the exposure or causing exposure of children to child pornography or pornography. Sexual grooming of children and the “Exposure or display of or causing exposure or display of child pornography or pornography to children” are criminalised in sections 18(2 and 19 of the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters Amendment Act 32 of 2007. And offences in relation to exposing children to disturbing, harmful and age-inappropriate materials are criminalised in sections 24A(2 and (4 of the Films and Publications Act 65 of 1996. In this article the author considered the content of the offences of “Exposure or display of or causing exposure or display of child pornography or pornography to children” in relation to the other offences dealing with exposure of children to child pornography or pornography. Benchmarked against these criminal offences the author then conceptualised exposing learners, or causing the exposure of learners to child pornography or pornography as forms of educator misconduct. The seriousness that should be attached to these forms of misconduct was considered in light of the various criminal offences. The review of the criminal offences and the forms of educator misconduct brought the ineffectiveness of current forms of serious educator misconduct to the fore. There is no form of serious misconduct that covers the transgression of educators who expose learners to child pornography or pornography that can be classified as “XX”. In conclusion a suggestion is made with regard to how a new form of serious misconduct could be worded so as to cover this gap, eg An educator must be dismissed if he or she is found guilty of – (g exposing a learner to or causing exposure of a learner to material classified as “Refused” or

  17. [A survey of occupational health among polyether-exposed workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xu-ying; Yu, Bin; Zhang, Chun-ping; Zheng, Guan-hua; Bai, Lan; Zhang, Pan-pan

    2013-06-01

    To investigate the occupational health of the workers simultaneously exposed to acrylonitrile, epoxyethane, epoxypropane, and styrene. A questionnaire survey was conducted in 70 front-line workers simultaneously exposed to acrylonitrile, epoxyethane, epoxypropane, and styrene (exposure group) and 50 managers (control group) in a polyether manufacturer; in addition, air monitoring at workplace and occupational health examination were also performed. The obtained data were analyzed. The female workers in exposure group and the spouses of male workers in exposure group had significantly higher spontaneous abortion rates than their counterparts in control group (P polyether-exposed working years had significantly higher mean levels of DNA damage than the control group (P polyether-exposed working years and those with not less than 20 polyether-exposed working years had significantly higher mean micronucleus rates than the control group (P polyether-exposed working years (P > 0.05); the workers with not less than 5 and less than 20 polyether-exposed working years and workers with not less than 20 polyether-exposed working years had significantly higher mean micronucleus rates than those with less than 5 polyether-exposed working years (P polyether manufacturer.

  18. Going beyond the most exposed people in a dose assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjerpe, Thomas; Broed, Robert [Facilia AB, Gustavslundsvaegen 151C, SE-167 51 Bromma (Sweden); Ikonen, Ari T.K. [Environmental Research and Assessment, EnviroCase, Ltd., Hallituskatu 1 D 4, FI-28 100 Pori (Finland)

    2014-07-01

    The dose assessment in a long-term radiation safety assessment often focus on assessing dose of a representative person to be used for determining compliance with a radiation dose constraint. This representative person is often assumed to receive a dose that is representative of the most exposed people, i.e., the more highly exposed individuals in the population. This is not always sufficient, the Finnish regulations for disposal of nuclear waste has radiation dose constraint to the most exposed people as well as for larger groups of exposed people. This work presents the methodology to assessing dose of a representative person for a larger group of exposed people as applied by Posiva in the TURVA-2012 safety case for the spent nuclear fuel disposal at Olkiluoto. In addition, annual doses from the set of biosphere calculation cases analysed in TURVA-2012 are presented and discussed. Special focus is given on explaining the differences in exposure levels and exposure routes between the estimated annual doses to representative persons for most exposed people and a larger exposed group. The results show that the annual doses to a larger group of people ranges from one to three orders of magnitude below the annual doses to the most exposed people. Furthermore, the exposure route related to food ingestion is less significant for the larger group of people compared to the most exposed people and that the exposure route related to water ingestion shows the opposite behaviour. (authors)

  19. Response of exposed bark and exposed lichen to an urban area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, A.M.J. [Polytechnic Institute of Coimbra, Oliveira do Hospital (Portugal). Oliveira do Hospital College of Technology and Management; Freitas, M.C.; Canha, N. [URSN, Sacavem (Portugal). Inst. Tecnologico e Nuclear (ITN); Verburg, T.G.; Wolterbeek, H.T. [Technical Univ. of Delft (Netherlands). Dept. of Radiation, Radionuclides and Reactors

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study is to understand emission sources of chemical elements using biomonitoring as a tool. The selected lichen and bark were respectively Parmotrema bangii and Criptomeria japonica, sampled in the pollution-free atmosphere of Azores (Sao Miguel island), Portugal, and were exposed in the courtyards of 22 basic schools of Lisbon. The exposure was from January to May 2008 and from June to October 2008 (designated through the text as winter and summer respectively). The chemical element concentrations were determined by INAA. Conductivity of the lichen samples was measured. Factor analysis (MCTTFA) was applied to winter/summer bark/lichen exposed datasets. Arsenic emission sources, soil with anthropogenic contamination, a Se source, traffic, industry, and a sea contribution, were identified. In lichens, a physiological source based on the conductivity values was found. The spatial study showed contribution of sources to specific school positioning. Conductivity values were high in summer in locations as international Lisbon airport and downtown. Lisbon is spatially influenced by marine air mass transportation. It is concluded that one air sampler in Lisbon might be enough to define the emission sources under which they are influenced. (orig.)

  20. Ecophysiological tolerance of duckweeds exposed to copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanoun-Boule, Myriam [Centre for Functional Ecology, Department of Botany, University of Coimbra, Coimbra 3000-456 (Portugal)], E-mail: mkb@ci.uc.pt; Vicente, Joaquim A.F.; Nabais, Cristina [Centre for Functional Ecology, Department of Botany, University of Coimbra, Coimbra 3000-456 (Portugal); Prasad, M.N.V. [Department of Plant Sciences, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500046 (India); Freitas, Helena [Centre for Functional Ecology, Department of Botany, University of Coimbra, Coimbra 3000-456 (Portugal)

    2009-01-18

    Although essential for plants, copper can be toxic when present in supra-optimal concentrations. Metal polluted sites, due to their extreme conditions, can harbour tolerant species and/or ecotypes. In this work we aimed to compare the physiological responses to copper exposure and the uptake capacities of two species of duckweed, Lemna minor (Lm(EC1)) and Spirodela polyrrhiza (SP), from an abandoned uranium mine with an ecotype of L. minor (Lm(EC2)) from a non-contaminated pond. From the lowest Cu concentration exposure (25 {mu}M) to the highest (100 {mu}M), Lm(EC2) accumulated higher amounts of copper than Lm(EC1) and SP. Dose-response curves showed that Cu content accumulated by Lm(EC2) increases linearly with Cu treatment concentrations (r{sup 2} = 0.998) whereas quadratic models were more suitable for Lm(EC1) and SP (r{sup 2} = 0.999 and r{sup 2} = 0.998 for Lm(EC1) and SP, respectively). A significant concentration-dependent decline of chlorophyll a (chl a) and carotenoid occurred as a consequence of Cu exposure. These declines were significant for Lm(EC2) exposed to the lowest Cu concentration (25 {mu}M) whereas for Lm(EC1) and SP a significant decrease in chl a and carotenoids was observed only at 50 and 100 {mu}M-Cu. Electric conductivity (EC) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content increased after Cu exposure, indicating oxidative stress. Significant increase of EC was observed in Lm(EC2) for all Cu concentrations whereas the increase for Lm(EC1) and SP became significant only after an exposure to 50 {mu}M-Cu. On the contrary, for Lm(EC1), SP, and Lm(EC2), MDA content significantly increased even at the lowest concentration. Protein content and catalase (CAT) activity showed a decrease with an increase in Cu concentration. For the species Lm(EC1) and SP, a significant effect of copper on CAT activity was observed only at the highest concentration (100 {mu}M-Cu) whereas, for Lm(EC2), this effect started to be significant after an exposure to 50 {mu

  1. Ecophysiological tolerance of duckweeds exposed to copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanoun-Boule, Myriam; Vicente, Joaquim A.F.; Nabais, Cristina; Prasad, M.N.V.; Freitas, Helena

    2009-01-01

    Although essential for plants, copper can be toxic when present in supra-optimal concentrations. Metal polluted sites, due to their extreme conditions, can harbour tolerant species and/or ecotypes. In this work we aimed to compare the physiological responses to copper exposure and the uptake capacities of two species of duckweed, Lemna minor (Lm(EC1)) and Spirodela polyrrhiza (SP), from an abandoned uranium mine with an ecotype of L. minor (Lm(EC2)) from a non-contaminated pond. From the lowest Cu concentration exposure (25 μM) to the highest (100 μM), Lm(EC2) accumulated higher amounts of copper than Lm(EC1) and SP. Dose-response curves showed that Cu content accumulated by Lm(EC2) increases linearly with Cu treatment concentrations (r 2 = 0.998) whereas quadratic models were more suitable for Lm(EC1) and SP (r 2 = 0.999 and r 2 = 0.998 for Lm(EC1) and SP, respectively). A significant concentration-dependent decline of chlorophyll a (chl a) and carotenoid occurred as a consequence of Cu exposure. These declines were significant for Lm(EC2) exposed to the lowest Cu concentration (25 μM) whereas for Lm(EC1) and SP a significant decrease in chl a and carotenoids was observed only at 50 and 100 μM-Cu. Electric conductivity (EC) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content increased after Cu exposure, indicating oxidative stress. Significant increase of EC was observed in Lm(EC2) for all Cu concentrations whereas the increase for Lm(EC1) and SP became significant only after an exposure to 50 μM-Cu. On the contrary, for Lm(EC1), SP, and Lm(EC2), MDA content significantly increased even at the lowest concentration. Protein content and catalase (CAT) activity showed a decrease with an increase in Cu concentration. For the species Lm(EC1) and SP, a significant effect of copper on CAT activity was observed only at the highest concentration (100 μM-Cu) whereas, for Lm(EC2), this effect started to be significant after an exposure to 50 μM-Cu. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity

  2. Psychopharmacologic treatment of children prenatally exposed to drugs of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulvershorn, Leslie A; Schroeder, Kristen M; Wink, Logan K; Erickson, Craig A; McDougle, Christopher J

    2015-05-01

    This pilot study compared the pharmacologic treatment history and clinical outcomes observed in pediatric outpatients with psychiatric disorders exposed to drugs of abuse in utero to those of an age-matched, sex-matched and psychiatric disorder-matched, non-drug-exposed group. In this matched cohort study, medical records of children treated at an academic, child and adolescent psychiatry outpatient clinic were reviewed. Children with caregiver-reported history of prenatal drug exposure were compared with a non-drug-exposed control group being cared for by the same providers. Patients were rated with the Clinical Global Impressions-Severity scale (CGI-S) throughout treatment. The changes in pre-treatment and post-treatment CGI-S scores and the total number of medication trials were determined between groups. The drug-exposed group (n = 30) had a higher total number of lifetime medication trials compared with the non-drug-exposed group (n = 28) and were taking significantly more total medications, at their final assessment. Unlike the non-drug-exposed group, the drug-exposed group demonstrated a lack of clinical improvement. These results suggest that in utero drug-exposed children may be more treatment-refractory to or experience greater side effects from the pharmacologic treatment of psychiatric disorders than controls, although we cannot determine if early environment or drugs exposure drives these findings. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Unusual presentation of necrotizing fasciitis in an HIV exposed infant

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... presentation of NF, in this instance, it presented on the scalp, in an HIV exposed neonate. It also stressed the importance prompt diagnosis of all skin lesions in HIV exposed neonates, and the role of early diagnosis and aggressive multi disciplinary team management in salvaging NF which is a potentially fatal condition.

  4. Animal Cruelty by Children Exposed to Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Cheryl L.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The first objective of this study was to determine if children exposed to domestic violence were significantly more likely to be cruel to animals than children not exposed to violence. The second was to determine if there were significant age and gender differences between children who were and were not cruel to animals. Method: A…

  5. 9 CFR 78.23 - Brucellosis exposed bison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed bison. 78.23... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Bison Because of Brucellosis § 78.23 Brucellosis exposed bison...

  6. 9 CFR 78.32 - Brucellosis exposed swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed swine. 78.32... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Swine Because of Brucellosis § 78.32 Brucellosis exposed swine. (a...

  7. Self-reported hearing performance in workers exposed to solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Fuente

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare hearing performance relating to the peripheral and central auditory system between solvent-exposed and non-exposed workers. METHODS: Forty-eight workers exposed to a mixture of solvents and 48 non-exposed control subjects of matched age, gender and educational level were selected to participate in the study. The evaluation procedures included: pure-tone audiometry (500 - 8,000 Hz, to investigate the peripheral auditory system; the Random Gap Detection test, to assess the central auditory system; and the Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap, to investigate subjects' self-reported hearing performance in daily-life activities. A Student t test and analyses of covariance (ANCOVA were computed to determine possible significant differences between solvent-exposed and non-exposed subjects for the hearing level, Random Gap Detection test and Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap. Pearson correlations among the three measures were also calculated. RESULTS: Solvent-exposed subjects exhibited significantly poorer hearing thresholds for the right ear than non-exposed subjects. Also, solvent-exposed subjects exhibited poorer results for the Random Gap Detection test and self-reported poorer listening performance than non-exposed subjects. Results of the Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap were significantly correlated with the binaural average of subject pure-tone thresholds and Random Gap Detection test performance. CONCLUSIONS: Solvent exposure is associated with poorer hearing performance in daily life activities that relate to the function of the peripheral and central auditory system.

  8. The differences in phenolic content in rivers exposed and non-exposed to anthropogenic contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michałowicz, Jaromir; Bukowska, Bozena; Duda, Wirgiliusz

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of the work was to determine the differences in a kind, number and concentrations of phenol, chlorophenols, chlorocatechols chlorinated methoxyphenols (chloroguaiacols, chlorosyringols) and 3,4,5-trichloroveratrole in the drainage of the Dzierzazna river, the flow non-exposed to anthropogenic contamination and in the Ner river, the flow exposed to anthropogenic pollution. The samples of water were collected in the Dzierzazna river in the Swoboda locality, the inflow of the Dzierzazna river - the Ciosenka river and, also, in the spring situated in Ciosny Sady locality. Water of the Ner river was collected in points near Łódź, Konstantynów, Poddebice and Dabie towns. The compounds were condensed (adsorbed) and eluted with methylene chloride on octadecyl C18 layer in a Baker Separex system. The obtained eluent was separated using the method of gas chromatography and analysed using mass spectrometry technique. In samples collected from the drainage of the Dzierzazna river phenol, chlorophenols, guaiacol, trichloroguaiacol, tetrachloroguaiacol, trichlorosyringol and 3,4,5-trichloroveratole were determined. As no anthropogenic sources are situated within the drainage of the Dzierzazna river, we may suppose that most of the determined compounds are mainly of natural origin. No or trace concentrations of chlorinated methoxyphenols were noted in the water of the Ner river, but a higher number, and concentrations of chlorophenols and additionally chlorocatechols were determined in this flow. It is also apparent that changes in a number and concentrations of phenols in the water of the Ner river did not prove a seasonal character, which was typical of the Dzierzazna drainage waters.

  9. Survey on Urinary Levels of Aflatoxins in Professionally Exposed Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulvio Ferri

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Feed mill workers may handle or process maize contaminated with aflatoxins (AFs. This condition may lead to an unacceptable intake of toxins deriving from occupational exposure. This study assessed the serological and urinary levels of AFs in workers exposed to potentially contaminated dusts in two mills. From March to April 2014, blood and urine samples were collected, on Monday and Friday morning of the same working week from 29 exposed workers and 30 non-exposed controls. AFs (M1, G2, G1, B1, B2 and aflatoxicol (AFOH A were analyzed. Each subject filled in a questionnaire to evaluate potential food-borne exposures to mycotoxins. AFs contamination in environmental dust was measured in both plants. No serum sample was found to be positive. Seventy four percent of urine samples (73.7% revealed AFM1 presence. AFM1 mean concentration was 0.035 and 0.027 ng/mL in exposed and non-exposed workers, respectively (p = 0.432; the concentration was slightly higher in Friday’s than in Monday’s samples, in exposed workers, 0.040 versus (vs. 0.031 and non-exposed controls (0.030 vs. 0.024, p = 0.437. Environmental AFs contamination ranged from 7.2 to 125.4 µg/kg. The findings of this study reveal the presence of higher AFs concentration in exposed workers than in non-exposed controls, although these differences are to be considered consistent with random fluctuations.

  10. Care of HIV-exposed and HIV-infected neonates

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, further reduction in MTCT may be possible if newborns at high risk of acquiring HIV ... infants of breastfeeding mothers with newly diagnosed HIV infection, dual NVP/ .... birth HIV DNA PCR testing for HIV-exposed low birth weight.

  11. UDS in lymphocytes of occupationally radiation exposed persons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuschl, H.; Kovac, R.

    1982-01-01

    To determine a possible effect of low dose radiation on DNA repair processes, peripheral lymphocytes of mine workers exposed to 222 Rn in the thermal gallery of Badgastein (Austria) and employees of the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf, exposed to varying doses of gamma radiation, were investigated. The capacity for unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) induced by in vitro UV irradiation was measured by autoradiography of isolated lymphocytes of exposed persons and unexposed controls. In all 222 Rn-exposed mine workers a significant increase of UDS above control values could be observed. Gamma irradiation 31 mrad had a significant effect on UDS, indicating a stimulation of DNA repair capability by chronic low dose exposure. (Author)

  12. Pulmonary function evaluations of dogs exposed to uranium ore dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loscutoff, S.M.; Buschbom, R.L.; Palmer, R.F.; Cross, F.T.

    1980-01-01

    Pulmonary function evaluations were conducted on dogs exposed to carnotite uranium ore dust. Significant changes were detected in the slope of the single-breath N 2 washout curve, suggesting an uneven distribution of ventilation

  13. Administrative norms on radiofrequency radiation for occupationally exposed persons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxeboel, G.

    1982-01-01

    The report presents a proposal for administrative norms on radiofrequency (RF) radiation for occupationally exposed persons. The norms establish maximum allowable field exposure in a frequency range from 1 MHz too 300 GHz. (RF)

  14. Micronuclei frequency in children exposed to environmental mutagens: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neri, Monica; Fucic, Aleksandra; Knudsen, Lisbeth E

    2003-01-01

    Cytogenetic monitoring has been traditionally used for the surveillance of populations exposed to genotoxic agents. In recent years sensitivity problems emerged in surveys of populations exposed to low levels of mutagens, and therefore alternative approaches have been explored. Biomonitoring....... The limited number of published papers indicates that the conduct of properly designed studies on the effect of environmental pollutants in children may be difficult. This review confirmed the usefulness of MN assay in biomonitoring studies conducted in children, revealing that in many circumstances...

  15. Epidemiological studies of some populations exposed to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weeks, J.L.

    1985-08-01

    During 1984 September 19 and 20, a meeting was held at the Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment, Pinawa, Manitoba to discuss current epidemiological studies of populations exposed to low levels of ionizing radiation. Twelve representatives from three countries attended the meeting and eleven papers were extensively discussed. The majority of these papers described studies of populations occupationally exposed to radiation. The report contains summaries of the papers presented and of the discussions that took place

  16. Behavioural changes in mice exposed to low level microwave fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goiceanu, C.; Gradinaru, F.; Danulescu, R.; Balaceanu, G.; Sandu, D. D.; Avadanei, O. G.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of our study is to point out some changes in mice behaviour due possibly to exposure to low-level microwave fields. Animals spontaneous behaviour were monitored and the exploring behaviour and motor activity were assessed. Ten selected Swiss male mice were exposed to low-level microwave fields of about 1 mW/cm 2 power density for a relatively long period of time (13 weeks), comparing to their lifetime. The exposure system consists in a transverse electromagnetic (TEM) Cell. A control lot of ten Swiss male mice was used. All twenty mice were selected to be of same age and of 202 g initial body weight. Each animal was placed in his own holder. The behaviour of the animals, from both exposed and control lots, was assessed by using a battery of three behavioural tests. The test sessions were performed every two weeks. During exposure period it was recorded a progressive but moderate loss of motor activity for both exposed and controls, probably due to weight gain and aging. Concerning exploratory activity there is a significant difference between control and exposed animals. Control mice had approximately constant performances in time. On the other hand exposed mice showed a progressive decrease in time of their exploratory ability. Motor activity of exposed animals does not seem to be affected by microwave exposure, in spite of moderate loss in time of motor activity in both lots, as long as it was recorded a quite similar evolution. The difference in performances of exposed and controls concerning exploratory activity seem to emphasise an effect of long-term low-level microwave exposure. The progressive loss in time of exploratory activity of exposed mice, in contrast with controls, could be due to the interference of microwaves with central nervous activity. (authors)

  17. Ethylene thiourea: thyroid function in two groups of exposed workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.M.

    1984-08-01

    Ethylene thiourea is manufactured at one factory in the United Kingdom and is mixed into masterbatch rubber at another. Clinical examinations and thyroid function tests were carried out over a period of three years on eight process workers and five mixers and on matched controls. The results show that the exposed mixers, but not exposed process workers, have significantly lower levels of total thyroxine (T4) than the controls. One mixer had an appreciably raised level of thyroid stimulation hormone (TSH).

  18. Ethylene thiourea: thyroid function in two groups of exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D M

    1984-08-01

    Ethylene thiourea is manufactured at one factory in the United Kingdom and is mixed into masterbatch rubber at another. Clinical examinations and thyroid function tests were carried out over a period of three years on eight process workers and five mixers and on matched controls. The results show that the exposed mixers, but not exposed process workers, have significantly lower levels of total thyroxine (T4) than the controls. One mixer had an appreciably raised level of thyroid stimulation hormone (TSH).

  19. Hearing Loss in Persons Exposed and not Exposed to Occupational Noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalova, Martina; Mrazkova, Eva; Sachova, Petra; Vojkovska, Kristyna; Tomaskova, Hana; Janoutova, Jana; Janout, Vladimir

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to compare hearing loss in individuals at risk and those not at risk for occupational noise and to compare working loss by gender. The analysis used data from a current Czech Ministry of Health grant project called Epidemiological and Genetic Study of the Frequency of Hearing Loss (2011 to 2015; NT12246-5/2011). The analyzed sample comprised 4988 participants. Hearing was tested using pure-tone threshold audiometry, tympanometry, and measurement of the stapedius reflex. Females at risk and those not at risk for occupational noise who were younger than 44 years and older than 75 years were found to have no statistically significant differences at any pure-tone threshold audiometry frequency. In females aged 45 to 74 years, statistically significant differences were found. In males, hearing loss was observed as early as 18 years of age. When comparing males and females at no risk for occupational noise, there were no statistically significant differences at any of the frequencies in those younger than 29 years. In females aged 30 years or older, statistically significant differences were observed at various frequencies in all age groups. When comparing males and females at risk for occupational noise, statistically significant differences were more frequent than in employees not exposed to noise. Hearing loss in females does not significantly vary depending on occupational exposure. The opposite is true for males. However, the maximum differences in mean levels did not exceed 10 dB. It is therefore clear that noise is a preventable factor, and the use of personal protective equipment is warranted.

  20. Analysis of reproductive function in persons exposed to chronic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kossenko, M.M.; Ostroumova, E.V.; Vyushkova, O.V.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to analyze the reproductive function in individuals exposed to radiation in the riverside villages on the Techa in the Southern Urals. The exposure of the population, numbering 28000, occurred in 1950-1956 as a result of discharges into the river of radioactive wastes from the Mayak facility for processing weapon plutonium. The residents were exposed to chronic radiation, both external and internal. The range of exposure doses to gonads was sufficiently wide: 20-1270 mSv. However, the distribution of doses among the exposed individuals was ununiform, and the proportion of people whose dose was below 120 mGy accounted for 74%. The following characteristics of exposed women were analyzed: menstrual function, outcomes of pregnancy, birth rates, health status for newborns. The analysis of the menstrual function in exposed women showed that in persons exposed in childhood, menarche was registered at the age of 14.3 years, on the average (based on literature sources, menarche is attained at the age of 13 for unexposed population). The mean age at menopause was 47.9 years for exposed women (the respective mean value for Russia is 50.8 years). Pregnancy outcomes were analyzed in 9000 exposed women. The rate of medical and criminal abortions was estimated as 79 per 100 labors. The rate of spontaneous abortions for exposed women was slightly higher, 3.11%, than for controls, 2.30%; these difference, however, were statistically insignificant. The total loss of fetus or neonate (unfavorable outcomes of pregnancy: spontaneous abortions, stillbirths, early neonatal death) was estimated to be 4.58% at zero dose. Exposure to gonads at the dose 1 Sv, estimated using the above-indicated method, yielded 3% of additional unfavorable outcomes of pregnancy. It was shown, based on the analysis of birth rates for the Techa Cohort that they had not undergone any essential changes over the first 25 years of exposure compared to the respective coefficients for

  1. Analysis of reproductive function in persons exposed to chronic radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kossenko, M.M.; Ostroumova, E.V.; Vyushkova, O.V. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine, Chelyabinsk (Russian Federation)

    2000-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to analyze the reproductive function in individuals exposed to radiation in the riverside villages on the Techa in the Southern Urals. The exposure of the population, numbering 28000, occurred in 1950-1956 as a result of discharges into the river of radioactive wastes from the Mayak facility for processing weapon plutonium. The residents were exposed to chronic radiation, both external and internal. The range of exposure doses to gonads was sufficiently wide: 20-1270 mSv. However, the distribution of doses among the exposed individuals was ununiform, and the proportion of people whose dose was below 120 mGy accounted for 74%. The following characteristics of exposed women were analyzed: menstrual function, outcomes of pregnancy, birth rates, health status for newborns. The analysis of the menstrual function in exposed women showed that in persons exposed in childhood, menarche was registered at the age of 14.3 years, on the average (based on literature sources, menarche is attained at the age of 13 for unexposed population). The mean age at menopause was 47.9 years for exposed women (the respective mean value for Russia is 50.8 years). Pregnancy outcomes were analyzed in 9000 exposed women. The rate of medical and criminal abortions was estimated as 79 per 100 labors. The rate of spontaneous abortions for exposed women was slightly higher, 3.11%, than for controls, 2.30%; these difference, however, were statistically insignificant. The total loss of fetus or neonate (unfavorable outcomes of pregnancy: spontaneous abortions, stillbirths, early neonatal death) was estimated to be 4.58% at zero dose. Exposure to gonads at the dose 1 Sv, estimated using the above-indicated method, yielded 3% of additional unfavorable outcomes of pregnancy. It was shown, based on the analysis of birth rates for the Techa Cohort that they had not undergone any essential changes over the first 25 years of exposure compared to the respective coefficients for

  2. Analysis of the mortality of the progeny of exposed parents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosenko, M.M.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the values, time course, and structure of mortality of the progeny of exposed residents of villages on the banks of the Techa river in the Urals. The exposure was caused by discharge of radioactive waste of Mayak radiochemical plant for the manufacture of bomb plutonium into the river. A total of 76x10 6 m 3 liquid waste with a total activity of 2,75x10 6 Ci was discharged into the river from 1949 to 1956. The population of villages on the banks of the river, 26554 subjects was exposed to external and internal radiation. The doses per gonads caused by external exposure and incorporation of evenly distributed radionuclides (mainly 137 Cs) ranged 20 to 1270 mSv. A total of 23869 children were born to exposed subjects since the beginning of exposure; 3160 of these were exposed in utero. The mortality rates int he studied cohort was nothigher than in controls. However, deaths from the so-called endogenous causes were more frequent for the descendants of exposed subjects: neonatal diseases, congenital developmental defects, and states that could not be accurately defined. Correlation of the number of deaths from congenital developmental defects to the collective gonadal dose permitted us to assess the risk as 0.004 perSv, this being in agreement with the estimates of the International Committee for Radiation Protection. 7 refs.; 2 figs.; 6 tabs

  3. Serum-thyroxine levels in microwave-exposed rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, S.T.; Lebda, N.; Michaelson, S.M.; Pettit, S.

    1985-01-01

    The nature of the response of the thyroid gland in animals exposed to microwave irradiation is controversial. Animal experimentation has contributed to the controversy because both increased and decreased thyroid functions have been reported. The thyroxine concentration in rats as representative of thyroid function in animals exposed to 2.45-GHz, 120-Hz amplitude-modulated microwaves has been studied. These studies covered a long time span; rats from two commercial sources (BS and CR) were used and subjected to different numbers of exposures, and therefore these data were evaluated for their stability. Two factors could influence in the result significantly, i.e., source of animal and number of sham exposures. Rats used in the 2-hr exposures were from two different commercial sources; rats from CR had a higher (but normal) thyroxine concentration than did rats from BS. Therefore the data of these animals were separated by commercial source for reevaluation. Instead of increased thyroxine concentration in rats exposed at 25, 30, and 40 mW/cm 2 , changes were not noted in any microwave-exposed rats. The influence of sham exposure revealed that appropriate concurrent control and specification of animal source are needed in longitudinal studies. Furthermore, statistical procedures used can greatly influence the conclusions. Thus the specificity of changes in thyroxine concentration in rats exposed to microwaves because of its sporadic occurrence and because of inconsistencies among experiments was doubted

  4. Screening and surveillance of workers exposed to mineral dusts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, G.R.

    1997-12-31

    This publication resulted from a World Health Organisation initiated project to investigate the harmonisation of definitions, approaches and methodologies for the screening and surveillance of workers exposed to mineral dust. The first part of the book provides definitions of screening and surveillance and describes the main elements of such programmes. The second part discusses the practical aspect of the screening and surveillance of working populations exposed to crystalline silica, coal mine dust and asbestos. Although no single set of guidelines is applicable to the development and implementation of a programme for the screening and surveillance of workers exposed to mineral dust, the recommendations, together with certain caveats, should provide a useful starting point. Annexes provide examples of existing programmes in various countries and environments and discuss the use and interpretation of questionnaires, lung spirometry and chest radiography. Overall the book should be of interest to occupational health professionals.

  5. Cytogenetic investigation of subjects professionally exposed to radiofrequency radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Annemarie; Van Gorp, Urbain; Verschaeve, Luc

    2006-03-01

    Nowadays, virtually everybody is exposed to radiofrequency radiation (RFR) from mobile phone base station antennas or other sources. At least according to some scientists, this exposure can have detrimental health effects. We investigated cytogenetic effects in peripheral blood lymphocytes from subjects who were professionally exposed to mobile phone electromagnetic fields in an attempt to demonstrate possible RFR-induced genetic effects. These subjects can be considered well suited for this purpose as their RFR exposure is 'normal' though rather high, and definitely higher than that of the 'general population'. The alkaline comet assay, sister chromatid exchange (SCE) and chromosome aberration tests revealed no evidence of RFR-induced genetic effects. Blood cells were also exposed to the well known chemical mutagen mitomycin C in order to investigate possible combined effects of RFR and the chemical. No cooperative action was found between the electromagnetic field exposure and the mutagen using either the comet assay or SCE test.

  6. Histomorphological patterns in osseous rests exposed at fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina, C.; Tiesler, V.; Oliva, A.I.; Quintana, P.

    2005-01-01

    Histomorphology as part of morphological research studies bony structure on the tissue level. Its methods are applied in this investigation to evaluate histomorphological impact patterns in heat-exposed bony material, particularly color changes, fissure patterns, volumetric reduction, and changes in the size of Haversian canals. These variables were evaluated in exposed thin sections of porcine long bones, obtained during two experimental series. The first one was conducted under stable thermal conditions in a furnace by measuring heat impact in stepped time (I to S hours) and temperature intervals (200 to 800 C). During a second experimental phase, bony samples were exposed to direct fire in defined time and heat intervals. The treated specimens were then sectioned and microscopically scrutinized. The results presented here were designed to offer new analytical, measurable standards in the investigation of forms of heat exposition of the human body, applicable in forensics and the study of ancient Maya posthumous body treatments. (Author)

  7. Urine nickel concentrations in nickel-exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernacki, E J; Parsons, G E; Roy, B R; Mikac-Devic, M; Kennedy, C D; Sunderman, F W

    1978-01-01

    Electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry was employed for analyses of nickel concentrations in urine samples from nickel-exposed workers in 10 occupational groups and from non-exposed workers in two control groups. Mean concentrations of nickel in urine were greatest in workers who were exposed to inhalation of aerosols of soluble nickel salts (e.g., workers in nickel plating operations and in an electrolytic nickel refinery). Less marked increases in urine nickel concentrations were found in groups of metal sprayers, nickel battery workers, bench mechanics and are welders. No significant increases in mean concentrations of nickel were found in urine samples from workers who performed grinding, buffing and polishing of nickel-containing alloys or workers in a coal gasification plant who employed Raney nickel as a hydrogenation catalyst. Measurements of nickel concentrations in urine are more sensitive and practical than measurements of serum nickel concentrations for evaluation of nickel exposures in industrial workers.

  8. Liver function in workers exposed of the cosmetics industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casale, T; Caciari, T; Rosati, M V; Biagi, M; De Sio, S; Andreozzi, G; Schifano, M P; Capozzella, A; Pimpinella, B; Tomei, G; Tomei, F

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess whether occupational exposure to substances used in the cosmetic factories may cause effects on the liver and blood counts in exposed workers. The study included 48 exposed workers and 86 unexposed controls. All workers included in the study underwent blood count, white blood count, total, direct and indirect bilirubin, transaminases, alkaline phosphatase and cholinesterase. The differences between the means and frequencies were compared using the Student's t-test and chi-square test with Yates correction and were considered significant when the p value was cosmetics industry had liver test values above the range. We noted a statistically significant higher prevalence of GPT (p cosmetics industry compared with the control group. The results obtained suggest that occupational exposure to low doses of substances used in the cosmetic industry is able to influence some liver parameters in occupationally exposed workers.

  9. Ice nucleation of ammonia gas exposed montmorillonite mineral dust particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Salam

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The ice nucleation characteristics of montmorillonite mineral dust aerosols with and without exposure to ammonia gas were measured at different atmospheric temperatures and relative humidities with a continuous flow diffusion chamber. The montmorillonite particles were exposed to pure (100% and diluted ammonia gas (25 ppm at room temperature in a stainless steel chamber. There was no significant change in the mineral dust particle size distribution due to the ammonia gas exposure. 100% pure ammonia gas exposure enhanced the ice nucleating fraction of montmorillonite mineral dust particles 3 to 8 times at 90% relative humidity with respect to water (RHw and 5 to 8 times at 100% RHw for 120 min exposure time compared to unexposed montmorillonite within our experimental conditions. The percentages of active ice nuclei were 2 to 8 times higher at 90% RHw and 2 to 7 times higher at 100% RHw in 25 ppm ammonia exposed montmorillonite compared to unexposed montmorillonite. All montmorillonite particles are more efficient as ice nuclei with increasing relative humidities and decreasing temperatures. The activation temperature of montmorillonite exposed to 100% pure ammonia was 15°C higher than for unexposed montmorillonite particles at 90% RHw. In the 25 ppm ammonia exposed montmorillonite experiments, the activation temperature was 10°C warmer than unexposed montmorillonite at 90% RHw. Degassing does not reverse the ice nucleating ability of ammonia exposed montmorillonite mineral dust particles suggesting that the ammonia is chemically bound to the montmorillonite particle. This is the first experimental evidence that ammonia gas exposed montmorillonite mineral dust particles can enhance its activation as ice nuclei and that the activation can occur at temperatures warmer than –10°C where natural atmospheric ice nuclei are very scarce.

  10. Intrapulmonary reactions of workers exposed to dust and ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsunoda, T; Nakadate, T; Sakurai, M; Sakurai, Y

    1984-01-01

    Forty-one dust-and-ozone-exposed and 37 nonexposed workers, belonging to the Research and Development Division of a photo-copier manufacturing industry, were examined to assess the effect of the exposure to carbon, iron and resin dust and ozone in the air of the work environment by means of questionnaires on their physical condition, smoking habits and exposure history by interview, chest X-rays, testing of ventilatory functions, transcutaneous PO2 (tcPO2) test and H2O2-induced hemolysis test. The following results were obtained. Respirable dust concentrations in the air of the work place were 0.1-1.0 mg/m3, total dust concentrations 0.2-2.0 mg/m3, and ozone concentrations 0.004-0.06 ppm (0.008-0.12 mg/m3). According to the Japanese Classification of Radiographs of Pneumoconioses, the exposed workers showed a higher rate of profusion 0/1 and over, and category 1 and over (1/0 and over) than the nonexposed workers. Ventilatory function testing revealed no difference between exposed workers and nonexposed workers, but small airway narrowing was suspected in smoking workers in comparison with nonsmoking workers. Transcutaneous PO2 showed no difference between exposed and nonexposed workers, between smoking and nonsmoking workers, and between any of the paired six combinations out of the four groups of workers, i.e., nonsmoking and nonexposed, nonsmoking and exposed, smoking and nonexposed, and smoking and exposed. It was estimated by H2O2-induced hemolysis test that smoking and/or dust exposure, especially long-term exposure, gave rise to aggravation of fragility of the erythrocyte membrane by lipid peroxidation with ozone or active oxygen produced by the reaction of dust and alveolar macrophages.

  11. [Hepatotoxicity in healthy infants exposed to nevirapine during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iveli, Pablo; Noguera-Julian, Antoni; Soler-Palacín, Pere; Martín-Nalda, Andrea; Rovira-Girabal, Núria; Fortuny-Guasch, Clàudia; Figueras-Nadal, Concepció

    2016-01-01

    The use of nevirapine in HIV-infected pregnant women is discouraged due to its potential to cause hepatotoxicity. There is limited information available on the toxicity in non-HIV infected newborn exposed to this drug during pregnancy. The aim of the study is to determine the extent of hepatotoxicity in the newborn exposed to nevirapine and HIV during pregnancy. A cross-sectional, observational, multicenter study was conducted on a cohort of healthy infants born to HIV-infected mothers, in whom the first determination of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), before 6weeks of age, was collected. Patients were allocated to 2groups according to exposure to nevirapine during pregnancy. Hepatotoxicity was rated according to the AIDS Table for Grading the Severity of Adult and Pediatric Adverse Events (DAIDS). This study included 160newborns from 159pregnancies (88exposed to nevirapine-based regimens and 71 exposed to protease inhibitors-based therapies). No cases of hepatotoxicity were observed according to the DAIDS Table for Grading. Two cases of ALT above normal values (2.8%; 95%CI: 0.3-9.8%) were observed in patients not exposed to nevirapine, and one case (1.1%; 95%CI: 0.0-6.1%) in the group exposed to nevirapine (P=.585). The lack of differences between groups suggests that highly active antiretroviral treatment regimens including nevirapine administered during pregnancy do not involve a higher risk of liver disease compared to other treatment combinations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  12. Contaminations of inner surface of magnesium fluoride windows in the `Expose-R' experiment on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skurat, V. E.

    2017-10-01

    A series of experiments was carried out previously on board of the International Space Station in `EXPOSE-R', a multi-user expose facility, provided by European Space Agency attached to the external surface of the Russian Segment. In one experiment, spores of microorganisms and species of higher plant seeds, in heat-sealed polymer bags were irradiated by solar radiation passed through MgF2 windows in a high space vacuum. After sample exposure, it was found that in many cases the inner surfaces of windows were contaminated. Analysis of the contamination revealed the presence of chemical groups CH2, CH3, NH, OH, C═O, Si-CH3 (Demets et al. in 2015). Their presence in deposits was explained by photofixation of gaseous precursors - some of the vapours of glues and additives in polymeric materials in the core facility of `Expose-R'. Carbon-, oxygen- and silicon-containing groups may be deposited from outer intrinsic atmosphere. This atmosphere is connected with sample compartments and core facility. However, the presence of NH groups on inner surfaces of windows was not expected. This paper shows that the process responsible for carbon-, nitrogen- and oxygen-containing group formation can be a photopolymerization of caprolactam, which is released from the outer Nylon 6 layer of polymer bags under Solar vacuum ultraviolet radiation.

  13. Analysis of early mortality rates of survivors exposed within Japanese wooden houses in Hiroshima by exposed distance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Norihiko; Munaka, Masaki; Kurihara, Minoru; Ohkita, Takeshi.

    1986-01-01

    Mortality for 3,215 A-bomb survivors who were exposed in Japanese wooden houses at ≤ 1,300 m from the hypocenter on August 6, 1945 was examined. An overall mortality was 51 % (1,640/3,215 survivors) within 61 days after the exposure. According to the distance from the hypocenter, it was 100 % in A-bomb survivors exposed at ≤ 600 m, and 20 % in those exposed between 1,201 m and 1,300 m. The mortality decreased with increasing the distance from the hypocenter. In conjunction with the duration after the exposure and the distance from the hypocenter, the mortality was 100 % 12 days after the exposure in survivors exposed at ≤ 600 m. In survivors exposed at > 800 m, the mortality tended to be higher two weeks after the exposure than immediately after that. The distance from the hypocenter causing 50 per cent mortality was estimated to be 1,026 m from August 6 to October 5; 1,002 m from August 6 to September 10; 887 m from August 7 to September 10; and 867 m from August 20 to September 16. However, these figures were probably lower than the real mortality rates, since no information was available when whole family died. (Namekawa, K.)

  14. Survival of Spores of Trichoderma longibrachiatum in Space: data from the Space Experiment SPORES on EXPOSE-R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuberger, Katja; Lux-Endrich, Astrid; Panitz, Corinna

    2015-01-01

    In the space experiment `Spores in artificial meteorites' (SPORES), spores of the fungus Trichoderma longibrachiatum were exposed to low-Earth orbit for nearly 2 years on board the EXPOSE-R facility outside of the International Space Station. The environmental conditions tested in space were: space vacuum at 10-7-10-4 Pa or argon atmosphere at 105 Pa as inert gas atmosphere, solar extraterrestrial ultraviolet (UV) radiation at λ > 110 nm or λ > 200 nm with fluences up to 5.8 × 108 J m-2, cosmic radiation of a total dose range from 225 to 320 mGy, and temperature fluctuations from -25 to +50°C, applied isolated or in combination. Comparable control experiments were performed on ground. After retrieval, viability of spores was analysed by two methods: (i) ethidium bromide staining and (ii) test of germination capability. About 30% of the spores in vacuum survived the space travel, if shielded against insolation. However, in most cases no significant decrease was observed for spores exposed in addition to the full spectrum of solar UV irradiation. As the spores were exposed in clusters, the outer layers of spores may have shielded the inner part. The results give some information about the likelihood of lithopanspermia, the natural transfer of micro-organisms between planets. In addition to the parameters of outer space, sojourn time in space seems to be one of the limiting parameters.

  15. Highly Divergent Mitochondrial ATP Synthase Complexes in Tetrahymena thermophila

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nina, Praveen Balabaskaran; Dudkina, Natalya V.; Kane, Lesley A.; van Eyk, Jennifer E.; Boekema, Egbert J.; Mather, Michael W.; Vaidya, Akhil B.; Eisen, Jonathan A.

    The F-type ATP synthase complex is a rotary nano-motor driven by proton motive force to synthesize ATP. Its F(1) sector catalyzes ATP synthesis, whereas the F(o) sector conducts the protons and provides a stator for the rotary action of the complex. Components of both F(1) and F(o) sectors are

  16. Small phosphatidate phosphatase (TtPAH2) of Tetrahymena ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anoop Narayana Pillai

    2017-10-03

    Oct 3, 2017 ... There was no significant difference (indicated as 'ns') in the number of lipid droplets as analysed by Kruskal-Wallis test. (p \\0.01). .... and Goodman JM 2011 The yeast lipin orthologue Pah1p is ... gamma transcriptional activity.

  17. Tetrahymena dynamin-related protein 6 self-assembles ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Usha P Kar

    2017-12-30

    Dec 30, 2017 ... multi-domain proteins, and share similar domain architecture. Classical dynamins ... domains: a GTPase domain, middle domain (MD), GTPase ..... influenced by bacterial environment, we have expressed human dynamin in ...

  18. Effects of platinic chloride on Tetrahymena pyrifromis GL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Jytte R.

    1992-01-01

    Cellebiologi, platinum(IV)chloride, endocytosis, detoxification, cell proliferation, fine structure, cisplatin......Cellebiologi, platinum(IV)chloride, endocytosis, detoxification, cell proliferation, fine structure, cisplatin...

  19. Preventing Alcohol-Exposed Pregnancy among American-Indian Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Jamie; Kenyon, DenYelle Baete; Hanson, Jessica D.

    2016-01-01

    Research has determined that the prevention of alcohol-exposed pregnancies (AEP) must occur preconceptually, either by reducing alcohol intake in women planning pregnancy or at risk for becoming pregnant, or by preventing pregnancy in women drinking at risky levels. One such AEP prevention programme with non-pregnant American-Indian (AI) women is…

  20. Maternal ability to take care of children exposed to HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julyana Gomes Freitas

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to assess the ability of mothers to take care of children exposed to HIV, using the Assessment Scale of Care Skills for Children Exposed to HIV at Birth and to check the association between the scale dimensions and maternal characteristics. METHOD: this cross-sectional study involved 62 HIV+ mothers whose children of up to one year old had been exposed to the virus at birth. The Assessment Scale of Care Skills for Children Exposed to HIV at Birth consists of 52 items and five dimensions, indicating high, moderate or low care ability. RESULTS: 72.7% of the mothers appropriately offered zidovudine syrup; 86.0% were highly skilled to prepare and administer milk formula; 44.4% were moderately able to prepare and administer complementary feeding; 76.5% revealed high ability to administer prophylactic treatment against pneumonia and 95.3% demonstrated high abilities for clinical monitoring and immunization. Significant associations were found between some maternal variables and the scale dimensions. CONCLUSION: the scale permits the assessment of maternal care delivery to these children and the accomplishment of specific child health interventions.

  1. 3. cotrimoxazole prophylaxis compliance among hiv exposed infants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    reported that their spouses knew about their HIV status and 65.7% said that they felt free to give their child cotrimoxazole in public.61.8% of the respondents did not know that there was a social support group for mothers/caretakers of HIV exposed infants in their community and 74.5% stated that there were misconceptions ...

  2. Rich Representations with Exposed Semantics for Deep Visual Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    of a relationship between visual recognition, associative processing, and episodic memory and provides important clues into the neural mechanism...provides critical evidence of a relationship between visual recognition, associative processing, and episodic memory and provides important clues into...From - To) ;run.- ~01~ Final!Technical 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sa. CONTRACT NUMBER Rich Representations with Exposed Semantics for Deep Visual

  3. Erosion of marker coatings exposed to Pilot-PSI plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paris, P.; Hakola, A.; Bystrov, K.; De Temmerman, G.; Aints, M.; I. Jõgi,; Kiisk, M.; Kozlova, J.; Laan, M.; Likonen, J.; Lissovski, A.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been used to study plasma-induced erosion processes. Samples with ITER-relevant coatings were exposed to controlled plasma fluxes whose parameters were characteristic to those occurring in the reactor walls. After the experiments,

  4. Identification of Surface Exposed Elementary Body Antigens of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study sought to identify the surface exposed antigenic components of Cowdria ruminantium elementary body (EB) by biotin labeling, determine effect of reducing and non-reducing conditions and heat on the mobility of these antigens and their reactivity to antibodies from immunized animals by Western blotting.

  5. Seroprevalence of Hepatitis C Virus in People Exposed to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was therefore undertaken to determine the seroprevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in people who had been exposed to traditional surgical practices in Edo State, Nigeria. Sera from the subjects were tested for HCV antibodies using Clinotech Diagnostic test device supplied by Clinotech Diagnostic and ...

  6. Computed temperature profile in materials exposed to gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ping, Tso Chin; Choong, Yap Siew; Seon, Chan Kam

    1987-06-01

    Computed temperature profiles are presented for the materials of lead, steel, concrete and water in curved shells, when they are exposed to gamma radiation. The results are based on the usual simplified theory of thermal conduction with an exponential heat source.

  7. Histopathology of the organs of Broiler Chickens exposed to flames ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Histopathology of the organs of broiler chickens exposed to the flame and fumes of refined petroleum product kerosene at varying distances over a period of 16hrs daily for 56 days in a poultry house were evaluated. Kerosene burning was simulated in a designed burner. Kerosene flame in a designed burner was placed 4, ...

  8. Thyroidal angiogenesis in zebrafish ( Danio rerio ) exposed to high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As a well known environmental contaminant, perchlorate inhibits thyroidal iodide uptake and reduces thyroid hormone levels. In zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to high concentrations of sodium perchlorate (200, 350 and 500 mg/L) for 10 days, remarkable angiogenesis was identified, not only histopathologically but also ...

  9. Management of Patients with Post- Traumatic Exposed Bones at Moi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The global frequency for open long bone fracture is at least 11.5 cases per 100,000 persons per year. Precise published research information regarding the characteristics and the management of patients with post- traumatic exposed bones for Africa, Kenya and Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital- Eldoret is ...

  10. Rapid Assessment of Anthropogenic Impacts of Exposed Sandy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We applied a rapid assessment methodology to estimate the degree of human impact of exposed sandy beaches in Ghana using ghost crabs as ecological indicators. The use of size ranges of ghost crab burrows and their population density as ecological indicators to assess extent of anthropogenic impacts on beaches ...

  11. Methane formation in tritium gas exposed to stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, G.A.

    1977-01-01

    Tests were performed to determine the effect cleanliness of a surface exposed to tritium gas had on methane formation. These tests performed on 304 stainless steel vessels, cleaned in various ways, showed that the methane formation was reduced by the use of various cleaning procedures

  12. 'Unicorn' among rats exposed to mycotoxins from Fusarium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoental, R

    1983-05-01

    A horn-like nodule developed in the middle of the forehead of a white rat, exposed perinatally to T-2 toxin and to zearalenone, the secondary metabolites of Fusarium. The hard nodule consisted mainly of keratine, derived from a squamous carcinoma spreading through the nasal turbinals and invading the brain.

  13. Predictors of incident tuberculosis in HIV-exposed children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To examine the predictors of tuberculosis infection in HIV-exposed children. Design: A longitudinal cohort study nested within a randomised controlled trial. Setting: Antenatal clinics in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania. Subjects: Children born to 875 HIV-infected women in Tanzania. Results: A total of 82 children ...

  14. Equilibrium disorders in workers exposed to mixed solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgianni, Concetto; Tanzariello, Mariagiuseppina; De Pasquale, Domenico; Brecciaroli, Renato; Spatari, Giovanna

    2018-02-06

    Organic solvents cause diseases of the vestibular system. However, little is known regarding the correlation between vestibular damage and exposure to organic solvents below threshold limit values. The best measure by which to evaluate vestibular disorders is static and dynamic posturography. The aim of this study was to evaluate equilibrium disorders via static and dynamic posturography in workers without clear symptoms and exposed to low doses of mixed solvents. 200 subjects were selected. Using an Otometrics device (Madsen, Denmark), all subjects endured static and dynamic posturography testing with both eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions. Results were compared with a control group of unexposed individuals. Based on the obtained data, the following results can be drawn: (a) subjects exposed to mixtures of solvents show highly significant differences regarding all static and dynamic posturography parameters in comparison to the control group; (b) posturography testing has proven to be a valid means by which to detect subliminal equilibrium disorders in subjects exposed to solvents. We can confirm that refinery workers exposed to mixtures of solvents can present subliminal equilibrium disorders. Early diagnosis of the latter is made possible by static and dynamic posturography.

  15. Uranium in the tissue of occupationally exposed workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, E.E.; McInroy, J.F.; Schulte, H.F.

    1975-04-01

    Data are presented on the content of uranium in tissue samples from deceased occupationally exposed uranium workers. Data on the distribution in lungs, lymph nodes, liver, kidneys, and bone tissues are correlated with available data on the urinary excretion of U during the period of occupational exposure. (CH)

  16. Clinical findings on in utero exposed microcephalic children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabuchi, Akira; Hirai, Tsuyoshi; Nakagawa, Shigeru; Shimada, Katsunobu; Fujito, Junro

    1966-12-24

    Since animal experiments have shown that microcephaly is induced by fetal exposure to radiation and microcephaly has been found in children of mothers exposed to x-ray therapy during pregnancy (Murphy et al), the main cause of microcephaly in children exposed in utero to the A-bomb is considered to be ionizing radiation. Wood et al reported the increased incidence of microcephaly and mental retardation in children exposed in utero at proximal distances which they felt could not be attributed to any other known variable. ABCC has recently concluded that the effect of in utero exposure is primarily due to the immediate effect of radiation upon the fetuses although in A-bomb exposure the physical injury to the mother due to the A-bomb cannot be completely ignored. Our survey likewise revealed an increase of microcephaly in children exposed early in pregnancy at less than 15 weeks at closer distances than 1500 m. Thus, we presume that A-bomb radiation increases the incidence of microcephaly. 16 references, 8 tables.

  17. Protecting exposed tissues with external ultrasonic super-hydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberg, Barry Neil

    2006-01-01

    The author contends that a technique preventing dehydration of exposed tissues, such as external ultrasonic super-hydration, will result in a lower morbidity rate, decreasing deep tissue pain, susceptibility to infection, fat necrosis, wound dehiscence, and improving recovery times. He discusses how he uses this technique in his aesthetic surgery practice.

  18. 46 CFR 108.223 - Guards on exposed equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... have hand covers, guards, or rails installed on all belts, gears, shafts, pulleys, sprockets, spindles... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Guards on exposed equipment. 108.223 Section 108.223 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN...

  19. Thyroidal angiogenesis in zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-04-20

    Apr 20, 2009 ... As a well known environmental contaminant, perchlorate inhibits thyroidal iodide uptake and reduces thyroid hormone levels. In zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to high concentrations of sodium perchlorate (200, 350 and 500 mg/L) for 10 days, remarkable angiogenesis was identified, not only.

  20. Donation to disaster relief campaigns: underlying social cognitive factors exposed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhof, Liesbeth; Heuvelman, A.; Peters, O.

    2009-01-01

    number of very serious natural disasters have put an enormous pressure on relief organizations in the last few years. The present study exposes underlying social cognitive factors for donation to relief campaigns. A causal model was constructed, based on social cognitive theory, research on

  1. Obstetric Outcomes of Mothers Previously Exposed to Sexual Violence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Gisladottir

    Full Text Available There is a scarcity of data on the association of sexual violence and women's subsequent obstetric outcomes. Our aim was to investigate whether women exposed to sexual violence as teenagers (12-19 years of age or adults present with different obstetric outcomes than women with no record of such violence.We linked detailed prospectively collected information on women attending a Rape Trauma Service (RTS to the Icelandic Medical Birth Registry (IBR. Women who attended the RTS in 1993-2010 and delivered (on average 5.8 years later at least one singleton infant in Iceland through 2012 formed our exposed cohort (n = 1068. For each exposed woman's delivery, nine deliveries by women with no RTS attendance were randomly selected from the IBR (n = 9126 matched on age, parity, and year and season of delivery. Information on smoking and Body mass index (BMI was available for a sub-sample (n = 792 exposed and n = 1416 non-exposed women. Poisson regression models were used to estimate Relative Risks (RR with 95% confidence intervals (CI.Compared with non-exposed women, exposed women presented with increased risks of maternal distress during labor and delivery (RR 1.68, 95% CI 1.01-2.79, prolonged first stage of labor (RR 1.40, 95% CI 1.03-1.88, antepartum bleeding (RR 1.95, 95% CI 1.22-3.07 and emergency instrumental delivery (RR 1.16, 95% CI 1.00-1.34. Slightly higher risks were seen for women assaulted as teenagers. Overall, we did not observe differences between the groups regarding the risk of elective cesarean section (RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.61-1.21, except for a reduced risk among those assaulted as teenagers (RR 0.56, 95% CI 0.34-0.93. Adjusting for maternal smoking and BMI in a sub-sample did not substantially affect point estimates.Our prospective data suggest that women with a history of sexual assault, particularly as teenagers, are at increased risks of some adverse obstetric outcomes.

  2. Obstetric Outcomes of Mothers Previously Exposed to Sexual Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisladottir, Agnes; Luque-Fernandez, Miguel Angel; Harlow, Bernard L; Gudmundsdottir, Berglind; Jonsdottir, Eyrun; Bjarnadottir, Ragnheidur I; Hauksdottir, Arna; Aspelund, Thor; Cnattingius, Sven; Valdimarsdottir, Unnur A

    2016-01-01

    There is a scarcity of data on the association of sexual violence and women's subsequent obstetric outcomes. Our aim was to investigate whether women exposed to sexual violence as teenagers (12-19 years of age) or adults present with different obstetric outcomes than women with no record of such violence. We linked detailed prospectively collected information on women attending a Rape Trauma Service (RTS) to the Icelandic Medical Birth Registry (IBR). Women who attended the RTS in 1993-2010 and delivered (on average 5.8 years later) at least one singleton infant in Iceland through 2012 formed our exposed cohort (n = 1068). For each exposed woman's delivery, nine deliveries by women with no RTS attendance were randomly selected from the IBR (n = 9126) matched on age, parity, and year and season of delivery. Information on smoking and Body mass index (BMI) was available for a sub-sample (n = 792 exposed and n = 1416 non-exposed women). Poisson regression models were used to estimate Relative Risks (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Compared with non-exposed women, exposed women presented with increased risks of maternal distress during labor and delivery (RR 1.68, 95% CI 1.01-2.79), prolonged first stage of labor (RR 1.40, 95% CI 1.03-1.88), antepartum bleeding (RR 1.95, 95% CI 1.22-3.07) and emergency instrumental delivery (RR 1.16, 95% CI 1.00-1.34). Slightly higher risks were seen for women assaulted as teenagers. Overall, we did not observe differences between the groups regarding the risk of elective cesarean section (RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.61-1.21), except for a reduced risk among those assaulted as teenagers (RR 0.56, 95% CI 0.34-0.93). Adjusting for maternal smoking and BMI in a sub-sample did not substantially affect point estimates. Our prospective data suggest that women with a history of sexual assault, particularly as teenagers, are at increased risks of some adverse obstetric outcomes.

  3. The mitochondrion-like organelle of Trimastix pyriformis contains the complete glycine cleavage system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zubáčová, Z.; Novák, L.; Bublíková, J.; Vacek, V.; Fousek, Jan; Rídl, Jakub; Tachezy, J.; Doležal, P.; Vlček, Čestmír; Hampl, V.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 3 (2013), e55417 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/12/1010 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : transcriptome sequencing * Trimastix * mitochondrion -like organelle * glycine cleavage complex Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.534, year: 2013

  4. Measurement of DNA repair deficiency in workers exposed to benzene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallberg, L.M.; Au, W.W.; El Zein, R.; Grossman, L.

    1996-01-01

    We hypothesize that chronic exposure to environmental toxicants can induce genetic damage causing DNA repair deficiencies and leading to the postulated mutator phenotype of carcinogenesis. To test our hypothesis, a host cell reactivation (HCR) assay was used in which pCMVcat plasmids were damaged with UV light (175, 350 J/m 2 UV light), inactivating the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene, and then transfected into lymphocytes. Transfected lymphocytes were therefore challenged to repair the damaged plasmids, reactivating the reporter gene. Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) and Gaucher cell lines were used as positive and negative controls for the HCR assay. The Gaucher cell line repaired normally but XP cell lines demonstrated lower repair activity. Additionally, the repair activity of the XP heterozygous cell line showed intermediate repair compared to the homozygous XP and Gaucher cells. We used HCR to measure the effects of benzene exposure on 12 exposed and 8 nonexposed workers from a local benzene plant. Plasmids 175 J/m 2 and 350 J/m 2 were repaired with a mean frequency of 66% and 58%, respectively, in control workers compared to 71% and 62% in exposed workers. Conversely, more of the exposed workers were grouped into the reduced repair category than controls. These differences in repair capacity between exposed and control workers were, however, not statistically significant. The lack of significant differences between the exposed and control groups may be due to extremely low exposure to benzene (<0.3 ppm), small population size, or a lack of benzene genotoxicity at these concentrations. These results are consistent with a parallel hprt gene mutation assay. 26 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Micronuclei frequency in albino rats exposed to high natural radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aneesh, D.; Godwin Wesley, S.

    2013-01-01

    Genotoxicity and DNA damage endpoints are used to evaluate results in the context of cell survival. Genotoxicity in mammalian cells is monitored mostly by using cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay. The score of micronuclei (MN) in peripheral blood lymphocytes can be used as a biomarker and also as a bio-dosimeter of radiation exposure. In the present study the effect of natural radiation on albino rats has been investigated, to find out if there is any increase in MN frequency in peripheral blood lymphocytes. Animals at the age of 2-3 weeks were exposed to natural radiation, at the dose of 10.38 μGyh -1 for a period of 6 months. A parallel control set was also maintained (0.12 μGy h -1 '). Blood samples were collected from both test (exposed to natural radiation) and control rats. Lymphocyte culture was done following 'microculture techniques' for 72 h. Cytochalasin B, at a concentration of 6.0 μg/ml, was added to the lymphocyte cultures at 44 h to block cytokinesis. The frequency of MN was evaluated by scoring a total of 1000 binucleated (BN) cells from one slide. The frequency of MN among the rats exposed to natural radiation was found to be 1.83±0.05 per 1000 BN cells and in the control it was 1.82±0.07 per 1000 BN cells. No statistically significant difference in the MN frequencies of exposed and control groups (p>0.05) was seen. The lower MN frequency in natural radiation exposed rats could be an indication of adaptive response. (author)

  6. Increased gluconeogenesis in rats exposed to hyper-G stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daligcon, B.C.; Oyama, J.; Hannak, K.

    1985-01-01

    The role of gluconeogenesis on the increase in plasma glucose and liver glycogen of rats exposed to hyper-G (radial acceleration) stress was determined. Overnight-fasted, male Sprague-Dawley rats (250-300 g) were injected i.p. with uniformly labeled 14 C lactate, alanine, or glycerol (5 μCi/rat) and immediately exposed to 3.1 G for 0.25, 0.50, and 1.0 hr. 14 C incorporation of the labeled substrates into plasma glucose and liver glycogen was measured and compared to noncentrifuged control rats injected in a similar manner. Significant increases in 14 C incorporation of all three labeled substrates into plasma glucose were observed in centrifuged rats at all exposure periods; 14 C incorporation into liver glycogen was significantly increased only at 0.50 and 1.0 hr. The i.p. administration (5 mg/100-g body wt) of 5-methoxyindole-2-carboxylic acid, a potent gluconeogenesis inhibitor, prior to centrifugation blocked the increase in plasma glucose and liver glycogen during the first hour of centrifugation. The increase in plasma glucose and liver glycogen was also abolished in adrenodemedullated rats exposed to centrifugation for 1.0 hr. Propranolol, a beta-adrenergic blocker, suppressed the increase in plasma glucose of rats exposed to centrifugation for 0.25 hr. From the results of this study, it is concluded that the initial, rapid rise in plasma glucose as well as the increase in liver glycogen of rats exposed to hyper-G stress can be attributed to an increased rate of gluconeogenesis, and that epinephrine plays a dominant role during the early stages of exposure to centrifugation. 11 references, 3 tables

  7. Biological behaviour of buccal cells exposed to blue light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gritsch, Kerstin; Ponsonnet, Laurence; Schembri, Catherine; Farge, Pierre; Pourreyron, Laurence; Grosgogeat, Brigitte

    2008-01-01

    Blue light is used in dental practise to cure resin-based materials, but the path of the light often includes oral tissues such as gingival tissues. While adverse effects of blue light exposure on cells - such as retina cells - are well known, few studies have investigated the impact of blue light exposure on oral cells. The aim of the present in vitro study was to assess the biological effects of blue light emitted by two dental curing devices (a plasma-arc and a light-emitting diode curing unit) on human gingival fibroblasts. Light intensities and light-induced temperature rise were respectively measured with a radiometer and a thermocouple. Cellular response to blue light exposure was assessed by the observation of cell morphology (scanning electron microscopy) and the estimation of cell mitochondrial activity (MTT assay). Light intensities measured at the clinical distance were 488 ± 42 mW/cm 2 for the plasma-arc unit and ranged from 61 ± 5 to 140 ± 16 mW/cm 2 for the light-emitting diodes unit, according to the curing program used. The highest temperature rise was 0.5 and 3.5 deg. C for exposure to the plasma-arc light and to the light-emitting diodes light, respectively. Results showed no differences between exposed- and non-exposed cells in regards to cell morphology. However, cells exposed to blue light presented an increased mitochondrial activity compared to control cells (non-exposed), and mostly those exposed to plasma-arc light

  8. Are students exposed to tobacco smoke in German schools?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinrich, Joachim

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate to which extent 6th grade school children are exposed to tobacco smoke by others. As biomarker for the exposure to tobacco smoke nicotine and cotinine were measured in the urine. Our study population consisted of 771 schoolchildren aged 11-14 years who according to a questionnaire did not smoke. In addition we analysed the data of 459 school children who were not exposed to tobacco smoke at home. The nicotine and cotinine concentrations in the spontaneous urine sample were determined by HPLC methods.On average in about 20% of all non-smoking children, who were not exposed to tobacco smoke at home, biomarker (nicotine or cotinine were detected in the urine. The percentage of the detected biomarker values (nicotine and/or cotinine in the urine of the school children varied between 0% and 50% between schools. In addition we determined the proportion of smoking classmates per school. No positive association was found between the detected biomarker values of the non-smoking school children not exposed to tobacco smoke at home and the proportion of smokers per school. The concentration of biomarker depending on the time of day the urine samples were collected showed higher nicotine and cotinine values when the urine sample was collected between 10 and 12 o'clock in the morning compared to urine samples collected between 7 and 10 a.m.In spite of the limitations our study provides some evidence that children are exposed involuntarily to tobacco smoke by others at school. That is why our results support the requirement of a general legal ban on smoking for teachers, the school staff and students.

  9. Cancer risk in men exposed in utero to diethylstilbestrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohsnitter, W C; Noller, K L; Hoover, R N; Robboy, S J; Palmer, J R; Titus-Ernstoff, L; Kaufman, R H; Adam, E; Herbst, A L; Hatch, E E

    2001-04-04

    An association between prenatal diethylstilbestrol (DES) exposure and cancer in men, especially testicular cancer, has been suspected, but findings from case-control studies have been inconsistent. This study was conducted to investigate the association between prenatal DES exposure and cancer risk in men via prospective follow-up. A total of 3613 men whose prenatal DES exposure status was known were followed from 1978 through 1994. The overall and site-specific cancer incidence rates among the DES-exposed men were compared with those of the unexposed men in the study and with population-based rates. The relative rate (RR) was used to assess the strength of the association between prenatal DES exposure and cancer development. All statistical tests were two-sided. Overall cancer rates among DES-exposed men were similar to those among unexposed men (RR = 1.07; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.58 to 1.96) and to national rates (RR = 0.99; 95% CI = 0.65 to 1.44). Testicular cancer may be elevated among DES-exposed men, since the RRs for testicular cancer were 3.05 (95% CI = 0.65 to 22.0) times those of unexposed men in the study and 2.04 (95% CI = 0.82 to 4.20) times those of males in the population-based rates. The higher rate of testicular cancer in the DES-exposed men is, however, also compatible with a chance observation. To date, men exposed to DES in utero do not appear to have an increased risk of most cancers. It remains uncertain, however, whether prenatal DES exposure is associated with testicular cancer.

  10. Nutritional Status among the Children of Age Group 5-14 Years in Selected Arsenic Exposed and Non-Exposed Areas of Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rezaul Karim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To assess and compare the nutritional status of children aged 5-14 years in arsenic exposed and non- exposed areas.It was a cross sectional study conducted on 600 children of age 5-14 years from arsenic exposed and non-exposed areas in Bangladesh. Designed questionnaire and check list were used for collection of data. To estimate BMI necessary anthropometric measurements of the studied children were done. Dietary intakes of the study children were assessed using 24-hours recall method.The difference of socio-economic conditions between the children of exposed area and non-exposed area was not significant. On an average the body mass index was found to be significantly (p < 0.01 lower among the children of arsenic exposed area (49% in comparison to that of children in non-exposed area (38%. Stunting (p < 0.01, wasting (p < 0.05 and underweight (p < 0.05 were significantly higher in exposed group in comparison to non-exposed group. No significant difference of nutrition intake was found between exposed and non-exposed children as well as thin and normal children.In this study children exposed to arsenic contaminated water were found to be suffered from lower nutritional status.

  11. Nutritional Status among the Children of Age Group 5-14 Years in Selected Arsenic Exposed and Non-Exposed Areas of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaul Karim, Mohammad; Ahmad, Sk Akhtar

    2014-12-01

    To assess and compare the nutritional status of children aged 5-14 years in arsenic exposed and non- exposed areas. It was a cross sectional study conducted on 600 children of age 5-14 years from arsenic exposed and non-exposed areas in Bangladesh. Designed questionnaire and check list were used for collection of data. To estimate BMI necessary anthropometric measurements of the studied children were done. Dietary intakes of the study children were assessed using 24-hours recall method. The difference of socio-economic conditions between the children of exposed area and non-exposed area was not significant. On an average the body mass index was found to be significantly (p < 0.01) lower among the children of arsenic exposed area (49%) in comparison to that of children in non-exposed area (38%). Stunting (p < 0.01), wasting (p < 0.05) and underweight (p < 0.05) were significantly higher in exposed group in comparison to non-exposed group. No significant difference of nutrition intake was found between exposed and non-exposed children as well as thin and normal children. In this study children exposed to arsenic contaminated water were found to be suffered from lower nutritional status.

  12. Chest X ray examination of workers exposed to pneumoconiosis risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indovina, P.L.; Reggiani, A.; Calicchia, A.; Nicolosi, A.

    1986-01-01

    Chest X-ray examination of workers exposed to pneumoconiosis risk: critical analysis of legal and radiation protection aspects. Chest X-ray examination is one of the most common radiological examinations practised in Italy. According to Presidential Decree 1124/65, workers exposed to risk of asbestosis and silicosis must undergo a chest radiography once a year, on occasion of the periodic medical examination. Basic requirements aimed at the radiation protection of the patient must therefore be complied with, and optimization of the chest radiography execution procedures is required. This paper illustrates the results obtained with the implementation of the NEXT programme in Italy for this kind of X-ray examination. The main objective of the NEXT programme is the optimization of radiological techniques. On the basis of the most recent publications in the field of radiation protection, a critical analysis is made of the laws in force in Italy

  13. Mental health interventions for children exposed to disasters and terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Newman, Elana; Nelson, Summer D

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this review is to describe interventions used with children who are exposed to disasters and terrorism and to present information about the potential benefits of these interventions. A literature search conducted in January 2013 using relevant databases and literature known to the authors that was not generated by the search yielded a total of 85 studies appropriate for review. Intervention approaches used with children exposed to disasters and terrorism included preparedness interventions, psychological first aid, psychological debriefing, psychoeducation, cognitive behavioral techniques, exposure and narrative techniques, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing, and traumatic grief interventions. The investigation of these interventions is complex, and studies varied in methodological rigor (e.g., sample size, the use of control groups, outcomes measured). Given the limitations in the currently available empirical information, this review integrates the literature, draws tentative conclusions about the current state of knowledge, and suggests future directions for study.

  14. Structural analysis of osseous rests exposed to heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina, C.; Tiesler, V.; Quintana, P.; Oliva, A.I.

    2005-01-01

    Heat exposed human remains present physical and chemical changes that, when analysed, may provide important indications about the type of heating they were exposed. This information, jointly with that of the archaeological context, allows us to know about the cultural practices of the past from a methodological perspective that actually, has not been explored sufficiently. The present investigation applies a series of structural parameters of bone in the evaluation of skeletal sample from the archaeological site of Calakmul, which exhibits signs of thermal exposure. Results on the Pre hispanic specimens are compared to those obtained from an experimental series of animal bone, which was submitted to different types of heat with the objective to contribute with new data on the forms of heating and their role in ancient Maya society. (Author)

  15. Genomic damage in children accidentally exposed to ionizing radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fucic, A; Brunborg, G; Lasan, R

    2007-01-01

    During the last decade, our knowledge of the mechanisms by which children respond to exposures to physical and chemical agents present in the environment, has significantly increased. Results of recent projects and programmes focused on children's health underline a specific vulnerability of chil...... and efficient preventive measures, by means of a better knowledge of the early and delayed health effects in children resulting from radiation exposure....... of children to environmental genotoxicants. Environmental research on children predominantly investigates the health effects of air pollution while effects from radiation exposure deserve more attention. The main sources of knowledge on genome damage of children exposed to radiation are studies performed...... after the Chernobyl nuclear plant accident in 1986. The present review presents and discusses data collected from papers analyzing genome damage in children environmentally exposed to ionizing radiation. Overall, the evidence from the studies conducted following the Chernobyl accident, nuclear tests...

  16. Chromosome aberrations in pesticide-exposed greenhouse workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lander, B F; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.; Gamborg, M O

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of subtoxic exposure to pesticides causing chromosome aberrations in greenhouse workers. METHODS: In a cross-sectional and prospective study design chromosome aberration frequencies in cultured lymphocytes were examined for 116...... greenhouse workers exposed to a complex mixture of almost 50 insecticides, fungicides, and growth regulators and also for 29 nonsmoking, nonpesticide-exposed referents. RESULTS: The preseason frequencies of chromosome aberrations were slightly but not statistically significantly elevated for the greenhouse...... workers when they were compared with the referents. After a summer season of pesticide spraying in the greenhouses, the total frequencies of cells with chromosome aberrations were significantly higher than in the preseason samples (P=0.02) and also higher than for the referents (P=0.05). This finding...

  17. Granulocytes enzymes as a biomarker of radiotoxicity in exposed workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milacic, S.; Jovicic, D.; Tanaskovic, I.; Marinkovic, O.; Milacic, S.)

    2007-01-01

    When radionuclide reaches the organism it causes internal irradiation and the lesions may be long lasting in various tissues. Enzymes in leukocytes will be used as a biomarkers of contamination with radio-nuclide in nuclear medicine workers. The analysed group had been consisted of 74 workers, exposed to radioactive isotopes J 131 and mTc 99 in nuclear medicine. Duration of occupational exposure (DOE) varied, so the groups with DOE of 1-5, 6-15, and 16-30 years, were compared to one another. The control group consisted of 52 subjects exposed to radionuclides (Cs 137 ) from environmental. Alkaline phosphatases and myeloperoxidase activity were inhibited in the granulocytes. The neutrophilic granulocytes count was lower while the number of eosinophils was higher

  18. Cytogenetic study of in utero exposed individuals, 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, Masahiro; Honda, Takeo

    1986-11-01

    In 20 persons exposed in uterus to atomic radiation, chromosomes in the peripheral lymphocytes were examined using G-band differential staining and conventional Giemsa staining techniques. The subjects were divided into Group A of the mothers receiving 17 - 535 rad and Group B of the mothers receiving 0 rad. Chromosome aberrations were observed in 72 (5%) of 1,463 cells in Group A and in 19 (1%) of 1503 cells in Group B. Most of the chromosome aberrations were stable type involving translocation, inversion, and deletion. In one person whose mother was exposed to 453 rad, structural chromosome aberrations were observed in 53 (38%) of 141 cells. Furthermore, 11 cells had two kinds of clones. This finding may provide clues for elucidating the promotion of cloning of cells with stable type structural chromosome aberrations due to in uterus exposure to high doses of atomic radiation. (Namekawa, K.).

  19. Cytogenetic study of in utero exposed individuals, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Masahiro; Honda, Takeo

    1986-01-01

    In 20 persons exposed in uterus to atomic radiation, chromosomes in the peripheral lymphocytes were examined using G-band differential staining and conventional Giemsa staining techniques. The subjects were divided into Group A of the mothers receiving 17 - 535 rad and Group B of the mothers receiving 0 rad. Chromosome aberrations were observed in 72 (5 %) of 1,463 cells in Group A and in 19 (1 %) of 1503 cells in Group B. Most of the chromosome aberrations were stable type involving translocation, inversion, and deletion. In one person whose mother was exposed to 453 rad, structural chromosome aberrations were observed in 53 (38 %) of 141 cells. Furthermore, 11 cells had two kinds of clones. This finding may provide clues for elucidating the promotion of cloning of cells with stable type structural chromosome aberrations due to in uterus exposure to high doses of atomic radiation. (Namekawa, K.)

  20. English exposed common mistakes made by Chinese speakers

    CERN Document Server

    Hart, Steve

    2017-01-01

    Having analysed the most common English errors made in over 600 academic papers written by Chinese undergraduates, postgraduates, and researchers, Steve Hart has written an essential, practical guide specifically for the native Chinese speaker on how to write good academic English. English Exposed: Common Mistakes Made by Chinese Speakers is divided into three main sections. The first section examines errors made with verbs, nouns, prepositions, and other grammatical classes of words. The second section focuses on problems of word choice. In addition to helping the reader find the right word, it provides instruction for selecting the right style too. The third section covers a variety of other areas essential for the academic writer, such as using punctuation, adding appropriate references, referring to tables and figures, and selecting among various English date and time phrases. Using English Exposed will allow a writer to produce material where content and ideas-not language mistakes-speak the loudest.

  1. Personality and psychopathological profiles in individuals exposed to mobbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardi, Paolo; Monaco, Edoardo; Prestigiacomo, Claudio; Talamo, Alessandra; Ruberto, Amedeo; Tatarelli, Roberto

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly, mental health and medical professionals have been asked to assess claims of psychological harm arising from harassment at the workplace, or "mobbing." This study assessed the personality and psychopathological profiles of 146 individuals exposed to mobbing using validity, clinical, and content scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory 2. Profiles and factor analyses were obtained. Two major dimensions emerged among those exposed to mobbing: (a) depressed mood, difficulty in making decisions, change-related anguish, and passive-aggressive traits (b) somatic symptoms, and need for attention and affection. This cross-sectional pilot study provides evidence that personality profiles of mobbing victims and psychological damage resulting from mobbing may be evaluated using standardized assessments, though a longitudinal study is needed to delineate cause-and-effect relationships.

  2. Corrosion of beryllium exposed to celotex and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, M.A.; Butt, D.P.; Lillard, R.S.

    1997-01-01

    Celotex is a commercial rigid cellulose fiberboard product primarily used in the building construction industry. Currently celotex is being used as a packing material in AL-R8 containers. Ion chromatography of celotex packing material at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has indicated that this material contains aggressive anions, including chloride, which may accelerate corrosion. It is well known that beryllium is susceptible to pitting corrosion when exposed to chloride containing environments. Levy noted pitting in beryllium at the open circuit potential when exposed to 0.1 M NaCl solution. This investigation attempts to evaluate the potential risk of accelerated beryllium corrosion from celotex and water which may occur naturally when celotex dust comes into contact with moisture from the atmosphere

  3. Upgrade and Design of Coastal Structures Exposed to Climate Changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen Quvang Harck

    This thesis “Upgrade and Design of Coastal Structures Exposed to Climate Changes” evaluates the performance of existing types of structures when exposed to climate changes. This includes also the potential of using cost‐sharing multipurpose structures for protection against the effects of future...... climate changes. The thesis consists of three parts. The first part evaluates the performance of existing design formulae for estimation of wave actions on structures, especially in shallow water since these structures are most vulnerable to the rising sea water levels caused by climate changes. Existing...... of coastal protection structures, which are extended to a wider range of wave conditions, and which can be used to more accurately estimate the influence from climate changes. In the second part of the thesis, the extended and modified formulae are used in case studies to evaluate the influence from climate...

  4. Upgrade and Design of Coastal Structures Exposed to Climate Changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen Quvang Harck

    This thesis "Upgrade and Design of Coastal Structures Exposed to Climate Changes" evaluates the performance of existing types of structures when exposed to climate changes. This includes also the potential of using cost‐sharing multipurpose structures for protection against the effects of future...... climate changes. The thesis consists of three parts. The first part evaluates the performance of existing design formulae for estimation of wave actions on structures, especially in shallow water since these structures are most vulnerable to the rising sea water levels caused by climate changes. Existing...... of coastal protection structures, which are extended to a wider range of wave conditions, and which can be used to more accurately estimate the influence from climate changes. In the second part of the thesis, the extended and modified formulae are used in case studies to evaluate the influence from climate...

  5. Warfarin binding to plasma of workers exposed to toluene diisocyanate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachmann, K.; Shapiro, R.; Forney, R.B. Jr.

    1982-02-01

    The extent of (14)C-warfarin binding to plasma proteins was evaluated in a group of normal, healthy volunteers and in two groups of individuals occupationally exposed to toluene diisocyanate (TDI). Plasma binding was assessed by ultrafiltration after the addition of racemic (14)C-warfarin to a final concentration of 0.8 microgram/ml. Chronic occupational exposure to TDI did not affect the extent of warfarin binding since warfarin free fractions (normalized to an albumin concentration of 4.5 g/dl) were 1.09 +/- 0.23 (mean +/- SD), 0.98 +/- 0.19, and 0.97 +/- 0.15 for controls and the two groups of TDI-exposed individuals, respectively.

  6. Immunotoxic effects of iodine-131 in prenatally exposed rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, D.A.; Stevens, R.H.; Lindholm, P.A.; Cheng, H.F.

    1985-01-01

    Present results suggest that offspring exposed in utero to radioactive iodine-131 develop a measureable cell-mediated immune (CMI) response. Regnant Fischer F344 inbred rats were exposed to 370 kBg to 3.7 MBg (10 to 100 μCi) Na 131I on 16 to 18 days of gestation and evaluated for CMI responsiveness 2 to 3 months post exposure using an 125I radiolabeled membrane release assay. Current data suggest that not only the F1, but also the F2 pups develop a measureable CMI response. In order to determine whether other immune functions are altered studies have been initiated to evaluate the immunotoxic effect of prenatal exposure to 131I. These studies include the evaluation of the delayed hypersensitivity response and the blastogenic responses to phytoheemagglutinin, concanavalin A, and lipopolysaccharide

  7. Studies on health risks to persons exposed to plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voelz, G.L.; Stebbings, J.H. Jr.; Healy, J.W.; Hempelmann, L.H.

    1979-01-01

    Two studies on Los Alamos workers exposed to plutonium have shown no increase in cancers of the lung, bone, and liver, three principal cancers of interest following plutonium deposition. A clinical study of 26 workers exposed 32 years ago shows no cases of cancer other than two skin cancers that were excised successfully. A mortality study of 224 workers, all persons with estimated deposition of 10 nCi or moe in 1974, showed no excess of mortality due to any cause. No bone or liver cancers were present, while one death due to lung cancer was observed as compared to an expected three cases. These negative findings on such small groups are not able to prove or disprove the validity of commonly used risk estimates as recommended in the 1972 BEIR and 1977 UNSCEAR reports, but the data do indicate that much higher risk estimates are not warranted

  8. Studies on health risks to persons exposed to plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voelz, G.L.; Stebbings, J.H. Jr.; Healy, J.W.; Hempelmann, L.H.

    1979-01-01

    Two studies on Los Alamos workers exposed to plutonium have shown no increase in cancers of the lung, bone, and liver, three principal cancers of interest following plutonium deposition. A clinical study of 26 workers exposed 32 years ago shows no cases of cancer other than two skin cancers that were excised successfully. A mortality study of 224 workers, all persons with estimated deposition of 10 nCi or moe in 1974, showed no excess of mortality due to any cause. No bone or liver cancers were present, while one death due to lung cancer was observed as compared to an expected three cases. These negative findings on such small groups are not able to prove or disprove the validity of commonly used risk estimates as recommended in the 1972 BEIR and 1977 UNSCEAR reports, but the data do indicate that much higher risk estimates are not warranted.

  9. Potential contribution of exposed resin to ecosystem emissions of monoterpenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eller, Allyson S. D.; Harley, Peter; Monson, Russell K.

    2013-10-01

    Conifers, especially pines, produce and store under pressure monoterpene-laden resin in canals located throughout the plant. When the plants are damaged and resin canals punctured, the resin is exuded and the monoterpenes are released into the atmosphere, a process that has been shown to influence ecosystem-level monoterpene emissions. Less attention has been paid to the small amounts of resin that are exuded from branches, expanding needles, developing pollen cones, and terminal buds in the absence of any damage. The goal of this study was to provide the first estimate of the potential of this naturally-exposed resin to influence emissions of monoterpenes from ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) ecosystems. When resin is first exuded as small spherical beads from undamaged tissues it emits monoterpenes to the atmosphere at a rate that is four orders of magnitude greater than needle tissue with an equivalent exposed surface area and the emissions from exuded beads decline exponentially as the resin dries. We made measurements of resin beads on the branches of ponderosa pine trees in the middle of the growing season and found, on average, 0.15 cm2 of exposed resin bead surface area and 1250 cm2 of total needle surface area per branch tip. If the resin emerged over the course of 10 days, resin emissions would make up 10% of the ecosystem emissions each day. Since we only accounted for exposed resin at a single point in time, this is probably an underestimate of how much total resin is exuded from undamaged pine tissues over the course of a growing season. Our observations, however, reveal the importance of this previously unrecognized source of monoterpenes emitted from pine forests and its potential to influence regional atmospheric chemistry dynamics.

  10. Examination of respiratory tract in workers occupationally exposed to beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cianciara, M.; Swiatkowski, J.

    1989-01-01

    In a group (30) occupationally exposed to beryllium below the Maximum Allowed Concentration, deviations from the norm were found in 13% of chest x rays and impairments of lung ventilatory reserves in 46%. The low intensity and non-specific character of the changes did not allow confirmation of connection with occupational exposure. Radiological examination of the lungs, expanded functional testing of the respiratory system and measurements of blood gases are recommended to identify workers with respiratory changes at an early stage. (UK)

  11. Haemogram of adult Clarias gariepinus exposed to chronic levels of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clarias gariepinus (mean weight, 850 ± 60 g) mean length, 38.75 ± 6.7 cm) were exposed individually to four concentrations of Roundup, containing 360g/l glyphosate in the form of 480g/l isopropylamine salt (1.5, 3.0, 4.5 and 6.0 mg/l) and a control (0 mg/l), five replicates per concentration for 70 days in static renewal ...

  12. Limit State of Trapezoidal Metal Sheets Exposed to Concentrated Load

    OpenAIRE

    Kateřina Jurdová

    2013-01-01

    In most industrial compounds are used trapezoidal metal sheets like a roof decks. These trapezoidal metal sheets are exposed by concentrated loads, usually by service loads arise from installation of air distribution, sanitary distribution, sprinkler system or wiring installation. In objects of public facilities (like shopping centre, tennis hall, etc.) they can be used for hanging advertising posters etc, too. These systems work as “building kit”. These anchoring systems are represented by c...

  13. Toxicity of lunar dust assessed in inhalation-exposed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Chiu-wing; Scully, Robert R; Zhang, Ye; Renne, Roger A; Hunter, Robert L; McCluskey, Richard A; Chen, Bean T; Castranova, Vincent; Driscoll, Kevin E; Gardner, Donald E; McClellan, Roger O; Cooper, Bonnie L; McKay, David S; Marshall, Linda; James, John T

    2013-10-01

    Humans will again set foot on the moon. The moon is covered by a layer of fine dust, which can pose a respiratory hazard. We investigated the pulmonary toxicity of lunar dust in rats exposed to 0, 2.1, 6.8, 20.8 and 60.6 mg/m(3) of respirable-size lunar dust for 4 weeks (6 h/day, 5 days/week); the aerosols in the nose-only exposure chambers were generated from a jet-mill ground preparation of a lunar soil collected during the Apollo 14 mission. After 4 weeks of exposure to air or lunar dust, groups of five rats were euthanized 1 day, 1 week, 4 weeks or 13 weeks after the last exposure for assessment of pulmonary toxicity. Biomarkers of toxicity assessed in bronchoalveolar fluids showed concentration-dependent changes; biomarkers that showed treatment effects were total cell and neutrophil counts, total protein concentrations and cellular enzymes (lactate dehydrogenase, glutamyl transferase and aspartate transaminase). No statistically significant differences in these biomarkers were detected between rats exposed to air and those exposed to the two low concentrations of lunar dust. Dose-dependent histopathology, including inflammation, septal thickening, fibrosis and granulomas, in the lung was observed at the two higher exposure concentrations. No lesions were detected in rats exposed to ≤6.8 mg/m(3). This 4-week exposure study in rats showed that 6.8 mg/m(3) was the highest no-observable-adverse-effect level (NOAEL). These results will be useful for assessing the health risk to humans of exposure to lunar dust, establishing human exposure limits and guiding the design of dust mitigation systems in lunar landers or habitats.

  14. Under-exposed. And if radiations were good for you?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, Michel

    2016-01-01

    This book is in fact a synthesis of an American publication (Under-Exposed). The author, with its characteristic style, aims at giving a positive perception of nuclear energy, at denying catastrophist speeches on nuclear energy, and more particularly on radioactivity: low doses are not dangerous, and even can be useful for our health and well-being, notably in many spa resorts. Thus, he also aims at struggling against what he considers as an ecological obscurantism

  15. Environmental Monitoring Of Microbiological Laboratory: Expose Plate Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yahaya Talib; Othman Mahmud; Noraisyah Mohd Yusof; Asmah Mohibat; Muhamad Syazwan Zulkifli

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring of microorganism is important and conducted regularly on environment of microbiological laboratory at Medical Technology Division. Its objective is to ensure the quality of working environment is maintained according to microbial contamination, consequently to assure the quality of microbiological tests. This paper presents report of environmental monitoring since year 2007. The test involved was bacterial colony counts after the growth media was exposed to air at identified location. (author)

  16. End stage renal disease among ceramic workers exposed to silica

    OpenAIRE

    Rapiti, E.; Sperati, A.; Miceli, M.; Forastiere, F.; Di, L; Cavariani, F.; Goldsmith, D. F.; Perucci, C. A.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether ceramic workers exposed to silica experience an excess of end stage renal disease. METHODS: On the basis of a health surveillance programme, a cohort of 2980 male ceramic workers has been enrolled during the period 1974-91 in Civitacastellana, Lazio, Italy. For each worker, employment history, smoking data, and x ray film readings were available. The vital status was ascertained for all cohort members. All 2820 people still alive and resident in the Lazio...

  17. Humidity Buildup in Electronic Enclosures Exposed to Constant Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conseil, Helene; Staliulionis, Zygimantas; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl

    2017-01-01

    Electronic components and devices are exposed to a wide variety of climatic conditions, therefore the protection of electronic devices from humidity is becoming a critical factor in the system design. The ingress of moisture into typical electronic enclosures has been studied with defined paramet....... The moisture buildup inside the enclosure has been simulated using an equivalent RC circuit consisting of variables like controlled resistors and capacitors to describe the diffusivity, permeability, and storage in polymers....

  18. Analysis of uranium in urine of persons occupationaly exposed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunes, S.C.

    1985-01-01

    A technique of uranium analysis in urine of persons occupationaly exposed, using the fluorimetric method is proposed. Two procedures for the determination are presented: the first employs platinum dishes, obtaining a detection limit of 1 ppb and the second one, using aluminium dishes, shows a detection limit of 100 ppb. Uranium and urine physico-chemical characteristics are described, as well as norms for the exposition of workers to uranium. (M.A.C.) [pt

  19. Urine mutagenicity of steel workers exposed to coke oven emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Meo, M.P.; Dumenil, G.; Botta, A.H.; Laget, M.; Zabaloueff, V.; Mathias, A.

    1987-03-01

    Urine mutagenicity of 19 individuals was investigated at a steel mill. All the subjects worked on the coal processing unit. Urine samples were collected at the end of a working day. Urine samples of two exposed workers were collected at the end of two periods of rest and two periods of working. Mutagens were extracted on XAD-2 resin and tested by the Salmonella microsomal assay and the SOS spot test. Mutagenic potencies of exposed smokers and exposed non-smokers were 8.62 +/- 6.56 and 1.1 +/- 0.48 revertants/mg creatinine respectively with Salmonella typhimurium strain TA98 + S9. Both values were significantly higher than those of unexposed smokers and non-smokers (5.07 +/- 3.33 and 0.47 +/- 0.72 revertants/mg creatinine respectively). The urinary mutagenic potency of the two exposed individuals increased at the end of periods of working (15.97 +/- 2.57 revertants/mg creatinine) and decreased at the end of periods of rest (12.31 +/- 2.45 revertants/mg creatinine). Urinary mutagens were detected with S. typhimurium strain TA100 + S9 to a lesser extent. No direct-acting mutagens were detected by the SOS spot test. Atmospheric benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) were also measured by h.p.l.c. on the coke battery. BaP concentrations ranged between 0.01 and 0.6 microgram/m3 air at the different working sites. Biological monitoring with short-term tests is discussed.

  20. Children exposed to domestic violences assessment and psychopathology /

    OpenAIRE

    Olaya Guzmán, Beatriz

    2010-01-01

    Descripció del recurs: 17-06-2010 Exposure to domestic violence is a current, complex concern with negative aftermath on the child's mental health. Aim: to answer the following questions about the effects that this exposure has on children's mental health: a) what should be assessed; b) what kind of psychopathology do outpatient exposed children have; c) which characteristics of the situation are more influential; and d) what is the role of parenting styles. Method: A retrospective cohort ...

  1. Entanglement witnesses arising from exposed positive linear maps

    OpenAIRE

    Ha, Kil-Chan; Kye, Seung-Hyeok

    2011-01-01

    We consider entanglement witnesses arising from positive linear maps which generate exposed extremal rays. We show that every entanglement can be detected by one of these witnesses, and this witness detects a unique set of entanglement among those. Therefore, they provide a minimal set of witnesses to detect all entanglement in a sense. Furthermore, if those maps are indecomposable then they detect large classes of entanglement with positive partial transposes which have nonempty relative int...

  2. Behavior of cardiac variables in animals exposed to cigarette smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Alberto Rupp de Paiva

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the behavior of cardiac variables in animals exposed to cigarette smoke. METHODS: Two groups of Wistar rats were studied as follows: control group (C, comprising 28 animals; and smoking group (S, comprising 23 animals exposed to cigarette smoke for 30 days. Left ventricular cardiac function was assessed in vivo with transthoracic echocardiography, and myocardial performance was analyzed in vitro in preparations of isolated left ventricular papillary muscle. The cardiac muscle was assessed in isometric contractions with an extracellular calcium concentration of 2.5 mmol/L. RESULTS: No statistical difference was observed in the values of the body variables of the rats and in the mechanical data obtained from the papillary muscle between the control and smoking groups. The values of left ventricular systolic diameter were significantly greater in the smoking animals than in the control animals (C= 3.39 ± 0.4 mm and S= 3.71 ± 0.51 mm, P=0.02. A significant reduction was observed in systolic shortening fraction (C= 56.7 ± 4.2% and S= 53.5 ± 5.3%, P=0.02 and in ejection fraction (C= 0.92 ± 0.02 and S= 0.89 ± 0.04, P=0.01. CONCLUSION: The rats exposed to cigarette smoke had a reduction in left ventricular systolic function, although their myocardial function was preserved.

  3. Increased oxidative stress in infants exposed to passive smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aycicek, Ali; Erel, Ozcan; Kocyigit, Abdurrahim

    2005-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of passive cigarette smoking on the oxidative and anti-oxidative status of plasma in infants. Eighty-four infants aged 6-28 weeks were divided into two groups: the study group included infants who had been exposed to passive smoking via at least five cigarettes per day for at least the past 6 weeks at home, while the control group included infants who had never been exposed to passive smoking. The antioxidative status of plasma was assessed by the measurement of individual antioxidant components: vitamin C, albumin, bilirubin, uric acid, thiol contents and total antioxidant capacity (TAC 1 and TAC 2). Oxidative status was assessed by the determination of total peroxide levels and the oxidative stress index (OSI 1 and OSI 2). Plasma vitamin C, thiol concentration and TAC 1 and TAC 2 levels were significantly lower, whereas plasma total peroxide levels and OSI 1 and OSI 2 were significantly higher, in passive smoking infants than in the controls (Pantioxidant defence system in infants, and exposes them to potent oxidative stress.

  4. Differential cardiac effects in rats exposed to atmospheric ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The results of this study demonstrate that atmospheric smog generated from both isoprene and toluene cause cardiac effects in rats. In addition, it appears that smog from toluene is more toxic in terms of cardiac arrhythmogenicity. Smog, which is a complex mixture of particulate matter and gaseous irritants (ozone, sulfur dioxide, reactive aldehydes), as well as components which react with sunlight to form secondary pollutants, has recently been linked to increased risk of adverse cardiac responses. The components, and therefore health effects, of atmospheric smog are determined by the fuel used to generate them. In this study we examined the difference between isoprene- and toluene-generated smog in causing cardiac effects in rats and hypothesized that both atmospheres would cause cardiac electrical and functional changes in rats. Male Wistar-Kyoto rats were exposed to either atmospheric smog generated by the USEPA’s mobile reaction chamber using either isoprene or toluene, or filtered air for four hours. One day later, rats were anesthetized and left ventricular functional responses to dobutamine were measured using a Millar probe and arrhythmia sensitivity to aconitine. Baseline left ventricular pressure (LVP) was lower in toluene-exposed animals but not isoprene when compared to air. Increases in LVP with increasing doses of dobutamine were impaired only in toluene-exposed rats. Both isoprene and toluene impaired the rate of ventri

  5. Preventive medical programmes to personnel exposed to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrada F, E.

    1996-01-01

    The increasing use of ionizing radiation in the medical field as well as in industry and research grants has special importance to the security aspects related to the individual as well as his surroundings, reason for which the implementation of effective Occupational Radiation Protection Programmes constitutes a priority. Presently, in Guatemala, an Occupational Medicine Programme, directed to the Radiosanitary watch over of occupationally exposed personnel does not exist. It is the goal in this project to organize and establish such programme, based on protective and training actions focused toward the employee as the main entity, his specific activities and his work surroundings. Medical watch over together with Radiation Protection will permit the reduction of the occurrence probability of accidents or incidents, as well as the limitation of stochastic effects to the undermost values. The application scope of the present project is, in the first place, directed to the occupationally exposed personnel of the Direcci[n General de Energ[a Nuclear, as regulatory entity of these activities, and afterwards, its application in the different institutions which work with ionizing radiations. All the previously exposed is based on the Nuclear Legislation prevailing in Guatemala as well as the recommendations of international organizations. (author)

  6. Rapid genetic erosion in pollutant-exposed experimental chironomid populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, Carsten [Abteilung Okologie und Evolution, Institut fuer Okologie, Evolution und Diversitaet, J. W. Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt am Main, Siesmayerstrasse 70, 60054 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)], E-mail: cnowak@senckenberg.de; Vogt, Christian [Abteilung Aquatische Okotoxikologie, Institut fuer Okologie, Evolution und Diversitaet, J. W. Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt am Main, Siesmayerstrasse 70, 60054 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)], E-mail: vogt@bio.uni-frankfurt.de; Pfenninger, Markus [Abteilung Okologie und Evolution, Institut fuer Okologie, Evolution und Diversitaet, J. W. Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt am Main, Siesmayerstrasse 70, 60054 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)], E-mail: pfenninger@bio.uni-frankfurt.de; Schwenk, Klaus [Abteilung Okologie und Evolution, Institut fuer Okologie, Evolution und Diversitaet, J. W. Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt am Main, Siesmayerstrasse 70, 60054 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)], E-mail: k.schwenk@bio.uni-frankfurt.de; Oehlmann, Joerg [Abteilung Aquatische Okotoxikologie, Institut fuer Okologie, Evolution und Diversitaet, J. W. Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt am Main, Siesmayerstrasse 70, 60054 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)], E-mail: oehlmann@bio.uni-frankfurt.de; Streit, Bruno [Abteilung Okologie und Evolution, Institut fuer Okologie, Evolution und Diversitaet, J. W. Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt am Main, Siesmayerstrasse 70, 60054 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)], E-mail: streit@bio.uni-frankfurt.de; Oetken, Matthias [Abteilung Aquatische Okotoxikologie, Institut fuer Okologie, Evolution und Diversitaet, J. W. Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt am Main, Siesmayerstrasse 70, 60054 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)], E-mail: oetken@bio.uni-frankfurt.de

    2009-03-15

    Few studies have evaluated how effectively environmental contamination may reduce genetic diversity of a population. Here, we chose a laboratory approach in order to test if tributyltin (TBT) exposure at environmentally relevant concentrations leads to reduced genetic variation in the midge Chironomus riparius. Two TBT-exposed and two unexposed experimental populations were reared simultaneously in the laboratory for 12 generations. We recorded several life-history traits in each generation and monitored genetic variation over time using five variable microsatellite markers. TBT-exposed strains showed increased larval mortality (treatments: 43.8%; controls: 27.8%), slightly reduced reproductive output, and delayed larval development. Reduction of genetic variation was strongest and only significant in the TBT-exposed strains (treatments: -45.9%, controls: -24.4% of initial heterozygosity) after 12 generations. Our findings document that chemical pollution may lead to a rapid decrease in genetic diversity, which has important implications for conservation strategies and ecological management in polluted environments. - Chronic TBT exposure reduces allelic variation at five variable microsatellite loci in experimental populations of Chironomus riparius.

  7. Rapid genetic erosion in pollutant-exposed experimental chironomid populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowak, Carsten; Vogt, Christian; Pfenninger, Markus; Schwenk, Klaus; Oehlmann, Joerg; Streit, Bruno; Oetken, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated how effectively environmental contamination may reduce genetic diversity of a population. Here, we chose a laboratory approach in order to test if tributyltin (TBT) exposure at environmentally relevant concentrations leads to reduced genetic variation in the midge Chironomus riparius. Two TBT-exposed and two unexposed experimental populations were reared simultaneously in the laboratory for 12 generations. We recorded several life-history traits in each generation and monitored genetic variation over time using five variable microsatellite markers. TBT-exposed strains showed increased larval mortality (treatments: 43.8%; controls: 27.8%), slightly reduced reproductive output, and delayed larval development. Reduction of genetic variation was strongest and only significant in the TBT-exposed strains (treatments: -45.9%, controls: -24.4% of initial heterozygosity) after 12 generations. Our findings document that chemical pollution may lead to a rapid decrease in genetic diversity, which has important implications for conservation strategies and ecological management in polluted environments. - Chronic TBT exposure reduces allelic variation at five variable microsatellite loci in experimental populations of Chironomus riparius

  8. Studies of workers exposed to low doses of external radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, E.S.

    1991-04-01

    Currently, several epidemiologic studies of workers who have been exposed occupationally to low levels of radiation are being conducted, and include studies of workers in the United States, Great Britain, and Canada involved in the production of both defense materials and nuclear power. This paper focuses on studies that evaluate the possible adverse effects resulting from external exposure to radiation. The radiation risk estimates that have been used to establish radiation protection standards for workers and others have been obtained mainly from studies of persons exposed at high doses and dose rates. However, questions remain with regard to the extrapolation process that has been necessary for estimating low-level radiation risks. Occupational studies provide a direct assessment of risk based on data on persons exposed at the actual levels of interest. If current risk estimates are correct, these studies have very little chance of detecting risk, but can still be used to provide useful upper limits on risks. The studies are also adequate to detect serious underestimation of risks. 36 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  9. Assessing color vision loss among solvent-exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergler, D; Blain, L

    1987-01-01

    Acquired color vision loss has been associated with exposure to organic solvents in the workplace. However, not all tests of chromatic discrimination loss are designed to detect acquired, as opposed to congenital, loss. The Lanthony D-15 desaturated panel (D-15-d), a simple 15 cap color arrangement test, designed to identify mild acquired dyschromatopsia, can be administered rapidly in the field, under standard conditions. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the D-15-d among 23 solvent-exposed workers of a paint manufacturing plant, by comparing the results obtained with the D-15-d to those obtained with the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 Hue (FM-100), a highly sensitive measure of color vision loss. The D-15-d revealed a significantly higher prevalence of dyschromatopsia among the ten highly exposed workers (80%) as compared to the 13 moderately exposed workers (30.8%); FM-100 results revealed one false positive. All dyschromatopic workers presented blue-yellow loss; the FM-100 detected eight complex patterns, while the D-15-d identified 5. Comparison of D-15-d and FM-100 scores were highly correlated (corr. coeff. 0.87; p less than 0.001). Multiple regression analyses showed both scores to be significantly related to age and exposure level. The findings of this study indicate that the D-15-d is an adequate instrument for field study batteries. However, the FM-100 should be used for more detailed assessment.

  10. Ethanol emission from loose corn silage and exposed silage particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafner, Sasha D.; Montes, Felipe; Rotz, C. Alan; Mitloehner, Frank

    2010-11-01

    Silage on dairy farms has been identified as a major source of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. However, rates of VOC emission from silage are not accurately known. In this work, we measured ethanol (a dominant silage VOC) emission from loose corn silage and exposed corn silage particles using wind tunnel systems. Flux of ethanol was highest immediately after exposing loose silage samples to moving air (as high as 220 g m -2 h -1) and declined by as much as 76-fold over 12 h as ethanol was depleted from samples. Emission rate and cumulative 12 h emission increased with temperature, silage permeability, exposed surface area, and air velocity over silage samples. These responses suggest that VOC emission from silage on farms is sensitive to climate and management practices. Ethanol emission rates from loose silage were generally higher than previous estimates of total VOC emission rates from silage and mixed feed. For 15 cm deep loose samples, mean cumulative emission was as high as 170 g m -2 (80% of initial ethanol mass) after 12 h of exposure to an air velocity of 5 m s -1. Emission rates measured with an emission isolation flux chamber were lower than rates measured in a wind tunnel and in an open setting. Results show that the US EPA emission isolation flux chamber method is not appropriate for estimating VOC emission rates from silage in the field.

  11. Immunomodulatory effects in workers exposed to naturally occurring asbestos fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledda, Caterina; Costa, Chiara; Matera, Serena; Puglisi, Beatrice; Costanzo, Valentina; Bracci, Massimo; Fenga, Concettina; Rapisarda, Venerando; Loreto, Carla

    2017-05-01

    Natural asbestiform fibers are defined 'naturally occurring asbestos' (NOA) and refer to the mineral as a natural component of soils or rocks. The release of NOA fibers into the air from rocks or soils by routine human activities or natural weathering processes represents a risk for human beings. Fluoro-edenite (FE) is a NOA fiber detected in the benmoreitic lava in the area of Biancavilla, South-west slope of Mt. Etna. The aim of the present study was to investigate FE immunotoxicity pathways in a group of 38 occupationally exposed construction workers, in order to find any biological markers of its effect. Subjects underwent respiratory function tests and HRCT total chest scanning. Serum IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α were measured. The presence of PPs was significantly greater in subjects exposed than in the control (25 vs. 2). In subjects exposed to FE, IL-1β and TNF-α values were significantly higher than the controls. The previously observed increase of IL-1β and IL-18 showed a probable involvement of the proteic complex defined inflammosome by FE fibers.

  12. Unmet Health Care Needs among Children Exposed to Parental Incarceration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Kristin

    2017-05-01

    Objectives The incarceration rate in the United States has increased rapidly since the mid-1970s and, accordingly, a large number of children are exposed to parental incarceration. Research finds that parental incarceration is associated with deleterious physical and mental health outcomes among children, but little is known about these children's health care access. Methods I used data from the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health (N = 95,531), a population-based and nationally representative survey of non-institutionalized children ages 0-17 in the United States, to estimate the association between exposure to parental incarceration and children's unmet health care needs. Results In logistic regression models that adjust for an array of demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, children exposed to parental incarceration, compared to their counterparts, have 1.26 (95% CI 1.02-1.54) times the odds of having any unmet health care need. Analyses that disaggregate by type of unmet health care need (mental, dental, vision, mental health, or other) suggest this association is driven by a greater likelihood of unmet mental health care needs (OR 1.60; 95% CI 1.04-2.46). Conclusions Children exposed to parental incarceration, a vulnerable group especially at risk of physical and mental health problems, face challenges to health care access, especially mental health care access. Given that parental incarceration is concentrated among those children most in need of health care, parental incarceration may exacerbate existing inequalities in unmet health care needs.

  13. Antioxidant status of neonates exposed in utero to tobacco smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayol, L; Gulian, J M; Dalmasso, C; Calaf, R; Simeoni, U; Millet, V

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the influence of maternal smoke exposure on neonatal and maternal antioxidant status, 39 mothers who were active smokers, 14 mothers exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), 17 controls, and their newborns were included in a prospective, controlled study. Plasma total antioxidant capacity, measured as total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and concentrations of specific antioxidants were measured in cord and in maternal blood. A similar, significant increase in ceruloplasmin concentration was observed in neonates born to actively smoking mothers and in those born to ETS exposed mothers. Uric acid and TRAP concentrations were significantly increased in ETS-exposed newborns and their mothers, compared to newborns and mothers from the active smoking and no-exposure groups with a trend towards increased uric acid, TRAP and FRAP concentrations being observed in the active smokers group. Neonatal and maternal antioxidant concentrations correlated significantly, except for ceruloplasmin. Cord blood vitamin A, E and C concentrations were unaffected by smoke exposure. These results show that maternal active smoking as well as ETS exposure significantly affect neonatal and maternal antioxidant status. Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

  14. Biomarkers of genetic damage in human populations exposed to pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiassa, Delia; Manas, Fernando; Bosch, Beatriz; Gentile, Natalia; Bernardi, Natali; Gorla, Nora

    2012-01-01

    The effect of pesticides on human, animal and environmental health has been cause of concern in the scientific community for a long time. Numerous studies have reported that pesticides are not harmless and that their use can lead to harmful biological effects in the medium and long term, in exposed human and animals, and their offspring. The importance of early detection of genetic damage is that it allows us to take the necessary measures to reduce or eliminate the exposure to the deleterious agent when damage is still reversible, and thus to prevent and to diminish the risk of developing tumors or other alterations. In this paper we reviewed the main concepts in the field, the usefulness of genotoxicity studies and we compiled studies performed during the last twenty years on genetic monitoring of people occupationally exposed to pesticides. we think that genotoxicity tests, including that include chromosomal aberrations, micronucleus, sister chromatid exchanges and comet assays, should be considered as essential tools in the implementation of complete medical supervision for people exposed to potential environmental pollutants, particularly for those living in the same place as others who were others have already developed some type of malignancy. This action is particularly important at early stages to prevent the occurrence of tumors, especially from environmental origins.

  15. Evaluation of radiation protection educational level of professional exposed workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinkovic, O.; Krstev, S.; Jovanovic, S.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Serbia and Montenegro legislation concerning with radiation protection was upgrading after publication ICRP- 60 and B.S.S., No.115. Present Law on the Protection against Ionizing Radiation is in force from 1996. Among quite new issues in radiation protection regulations there was article relate to obligatory refresher training. Due to adverse political and economic situation through many years radiation protection regulations were not fulfill completely. The aim of this investigation was to get real view to education level of professional exposed workers. In Serbia and Montenegro the most of ionizing radiation sources are in medical use and the most exposed workers are radiographers and radiologists. The test was passed by 200 radiographers and 50 radiologists. Main groups of questions were: Radiation protection and safety; difference between safety and security; legislation: law and regulations; incidents, accidents and operational failures: recording, learning. Usually, knowledge from school pales. New quantities (as ambient and personal dose equivalent) are mostly unknown. It is easier to understand the real difference between safety and security than to understand linguistic differences. Discussing regulations workers are more interesting in syndicate regulations than radiation protection ones. Operational failures and incidents are hidden. Better to say: nobody dare to speak about them. The results imposed conclusion that regulatory body has to pay more attention to upraise safety culture and radiation protection education level of professional exposed workers. (authors)

  16. Expose : procedure and results of the joint experiment verification tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panitz, C.; Rettberg, P.; Horneck, G.; Rabbow, E.; Baglioni, P.

    The International Space Station will carry the EXPOSE facility accommodated at the universal workplace URM-D located outside the Russian Service Module. The launch will be affected in 2005 and it is planned to stay in space for 1.5 years. The tray like structure will accomodate 2 chemical and 6 biological PI-experiments or experiment systems of the ROSE (Response of Organisms to Space Environment) consortium. EXPOSE will support long-term in situ studies of microbes in artificial meteorites, as well as of microbial communities from special ecological niches, such as endolithic and evaporitic ecosystems. The either vented or sealed experiment pockets will be covered by an optical filter system to control intensity and spectral range of solar UV irradiation. Control of sun exposure will be achieved by the use of individual shutters. To test the compatibility of the different biological systems and their adaptation to the opportunities and constraints of space conditions a profound ground support program has been developed. The procedure and first results of this joint Experiment Verification Tests (EVT) will be presented. The results will be essential for the success of the EXPOSE mission and have been done in parallel with the development and construction of the final hardware design of the facility. The results of the mission will contribute to the understanding of the organic chemistry processes in space, the biological adaptation strategies to extreme conditions, e.g. on early Earth and Mars, and the distribution of life beyond its planet of origin.

  17. Expose-R experiment on effects of open space condition on survivorship in dormant stages of aquatic invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseev, Victor; Novikova, Nataliya; Levinskikh, Margarita; Sychev, Vladimir; Yusoff, Fatimah; Azuraidi, Osman

    2012-07-01

    Dormancy protects animals and plants in harsh environmental conditions from months up to hundred years. This phenomenon is perspective for space researches especially for interplanetary missions. Direct experiments in open space BYORYSK supported in principle the fact of survivorship of bacteria, fungi spores, seed of plants and crustacean dormant cysts. Even though the rate of survivorship in long-term treatments was low but good enough to conclude that biological invasion even to Mars is a real danger. As soon as the BYORYSK lunch was made of metal the possibility for resting stages to survive under UV treatment in vacuum without some protection was not clear. To test it an ESA and RSA equipment titled EXPOSE-R was applied. The EXPOSE-R facility was an external facility attached to the outside of the Zvezda Service Module in ISS in the end of November 2008. It had glace windows transparent for UV-radiation and possibility to measure temperature, space- and UV-radiation. Among a number of experiments requiring exposure to the open space environment it had a biological launch containing resting stages of terrestrial and aquatic organisms. These stages included dried ephippia of cladoceran Daphnia magna differentiated on size, dormant eggs of ostracode Eucypris ornate, cysts of fair-shrimp Streptocephalus torvicornis ( all from hemi desert Caspian area) and Artemis salina from salt lake Crimean populations. All dormant stages were kept in transparent to UV plastic bags placed in three layers. After about two years of exposing in open space dormant stages of 3 species A. salina, D. magna, S. torvicornis successfully survived at different scales but in second and third layers only . The highest level of survivorship was found in A. salina cysts. In preliminary land experiments that imitated land EXPOSE imitation of outside space station UV and vacuum conditions survivorship in resting eggs of D .magna, S. torvicornis and E. ornate was tested also. The total UV dose of

  18. Work ability score of solvent-exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furu, Heidi; Sainio, Markku; Hyvärinen, Hanna-Kaisa; Kaukiainen, Ari

    2018-03-28

    Occupational chronic solvent encephalopathy (CSE), characterized by neurocognitive dysfunction, often leads to early retirement. However, only the more severe cases are diagnosed with CSE, and little is known about the work ability of solvent-exposed workers in general. The aim was to study memory and concentration symptoms, work ability and the effect of both solvent-related and non-occupational factors on work ability, in an actively working solvent-exposed population. A questionnaire on exposure and health was sent to 3640 workers in four solvent-exposed fields, i.e. painters and floor-layers, boat builders, printers, and metal workers. The total number of responses was 1730. We determined the work ability score (WAS), a single question item of the Work Ability Index, and studied solvent exposure, demographic factors, Euroquest memory and concentration symptoms, chronic diseases, and employment status using univariate and multivariate analyses. The findings were compared to those of a corresponding national blue-collar reference population (n = 221), and a small cohort of workers with CSE (n = 18). The proportion of workers with memory and concentration symptoms was significantly associated with solvent exposure. The WAS of solvent-exposed workers was lower than that of the national blue-collar reference group, and the difference was significant in the oldest age group (those aged over 60). Solvent-exposed worker's WAS were higher than those of workers diagnosed with CSE. The WAS were lowest among painters and floor-layers, followed by metal workers and printers, and highest among boat builders. The strongest explanatory factors for poor work ability were the number of chronic diseases, age and employment status. Solvent exposure was a weak independent risk factor for reduced WAS, comparable to a level of high alcohol consumption. Even if memory and concentration symptoms were associated with higher solvent exposure, the effect of solvents on self

  19. Color discrimination impairment in workers exposed to mercury vapor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Pavel; Gobba, Fabriziomaria; Nerudová, Jana; Lukás, Edgar; Cábelková, Zdena; Cikrt, Miroslav

    2003-08-01

    To study color discrimination impairment in workers exposed to elemental mercury (Hg) vapor. Twenty-four male workers from a chloralkali plant exposed to Hg vapor, aged 42+/-9.8 years, duration of exposure 14.7+/-9.7 years, were examined. The 8h TWA air-borne Hg concentration in workplace was 59 microg/m(3); mean Hg urinary excretion (HgU) was 20.5+/-19.3 microg/g creatinine; mean Hg urinary excretion after the administration of a chelating agent, sodium 2,3-dimercapto-1-propane-sulfonate (DMPS), was 751.9+/-648 microg/48h. Twenty-four age- and gender-matched control subjects were compared. Visual acuity, alcohol intake, smoking habits, and history of diseases or drugs potentially influencing color vision were registered. The Lanthony 15-Hue desaturated test (L-D15-d) was used to assess color vision. The results were expressed quantitatively as Bowman's Color Confusion Index (CCI), and qualitatively according to Verriest's classification of acquired dyschromatopsias. The CCI was significantly higher in the exposed group than in the control (mean CCI 1.15 versus 1.04; P=0.04). The proportion of subjects with errorless performance on the Lanthony test was significantly lower in the Hg exposed group compared to referents (52% versus 73%; P=0.035). The exposed group showed higher frequency of type III dyschromatopsias (blue-yellow confusion axis) in comparison with the control group (12.5% versus 8.3%), however, the difference did not reach statistical significance. Multiple regression did not show any significant relationship between the CCI, and age, alcohol consumption, or measures of exposure. In agreement with previous studies by Cavalleri et al. [Toxicol. Lett. 77 (1995) 351; Environ. Res. Sec. A 77 (1998) 173], the results of this study support the hypothesis that exposure to mercury vapor can induce sub-clinical color vision impairment. This effect was observed at an exposure level below the current biological limit for occupational exposure to mercury. This

  20. Interaction of Al with O2 exposed Mo2BC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolvardi, Hamid; Music, Denis; Schneider, Jochen M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Al adheres to many surfaces. • Solid–solid interactions challenging for real (oxidized) surfaces. • Dissociative O 2 adsorption on Mo 2 BC(0 4 0). • Al nonamer is disrupted on oxidized Mo 2 BC(0 4 0). • Adhesion of a residual Al on the native oxide. - Abstract: A Mo 2 BC(0 4 0) surface was exposed to O 2 . The gas interaction was investigated using ab initio molecular dynamics and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) of air exposed surfaces. The calculations suggest that the most dominating physical mechanism is dissociative O 2 adsorption whereby Mo−O, O−Mo−O and Mo 2 −C−O bond formation is observed. To validate these results, Mo 2 BC thin films were synthesized utilizing high power pulsed magnetron sputtering and air exposed surfaces were probed by XPS. MoO 2 and MoO 3 bond formation is observed and is consistent with here obtained ab initio data. Additionally, the interfacial interactions of O 2 exposed Mo 2 BC(0 4 0) surface with an Al nonamer is studied with ab initio molecular dynamics to describe on the atomic scale the interaction between this surface and Al to mimic the interface present during cold forming processes of Al based alloys. The Al nonamer was disrupted and Al forms chemical bonds with oxygen contained in the O 2 exposed Mo 2 BC(0 4 0) surface. Based on the comparison of here calculated adsorption energy with literature data, Al−Al bonds are shown to be significantly weaker than the Al−O bonds formed across the interface. Hence, Al−Al bond rupture is expected for a mechanically loaded interface. Therefore the adhesion of a residual Al on the native oxide layer is predicted. This is consistent with experimental observations. The data presented here may also be relevant for other oxygen containing surfaces in a contact with Al or Al based alloys for example during forming operations

  1. PERSONAL FEATURES OF CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS ILL WITH RESPIRATORY TUBERCULOSIS EXPOSED AND NOT EXPOSED TO THE SOURCE OF INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Zolotova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Specific personal features of 296 children and adolescents exposed to tuberculosis and those with unidentified exposure were comparatively analyzed. Children with unidentified exposure demonstrated psychic tension, poor self-control, poorly developed social communication skills which determined disruptive interpersonal relations and uneasy personal growth. Children exposed to tuberculosis in their families were characterized by judging didactive position towards their neighbors which was formed by dysfunctional patterns of relations in their parental families. Adolescent with unidentified exposure manifested the contrast combination of pre-morbid personal attitudes which had certain etiologic contribution to the development of borderline neurotic states. The higher level of destructive reactions in the interpersonal communication was observed in the adolescents exposed to tuberculosis in their families. Identified personal features are considered to be psychological factors determining the hyperactivation of adaptive systems at the pre-morbid state and consequent development of structural functional disorders in various systems of the host, as well as providing impact on the course of tuberculosis.

  2. Comparative ultraviolet action spectra (254-320 nm) of five wild-type eukaryotic microorganisms and Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calkins, J.; Wheeler, J.S.; Keller, C.I.; Colley, E.; Hazle, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    The action spectra of five eukaryotic organisms and the prokaryote, Escherichia coli, were examined over the wavelength range, 254-320 nm. Both the repair competent and three repair defective strains (E. coli, Caenorhabditis elegans, Saccharomyces) were examined. Tetrahymena pyriformis action spectra were performed with and without the excision repair inhibitor caffeine present. Others have observed that lethality, mutation, and the production of pyrimidine dimers show much the same wavelength dependence as DNA absorption. The results presented here demonstrate several action spectra which deviate from the DNA absorption spectra. Ultraviolet sensitization ratios (repair competent/repair defective) were also examined and were shown to change over the wavelength range. These findings suggest that DNA may not be the only important chromophore leading to cell death in the uv wavelength range studied. Since uv-B is of major importance in solar uv damage, these findings may also yield important implications for solar uv studies

  3. A combined QSAR and partial order ranking approach to risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, L

    2006-04-01

    QSAR generated data appear as an attractive alternative to experimental data as foreseen in the proposed new chemicals legislation REACH. A preliminary risk assessment for the aquatic environment can be based on few factors, i.e. the octanol-water partition coefficient (Kow), the vapour pressure (VP) and the potential biodegradability of the compound in combination with the predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) and the actual tonnage in which the substance is produced. Application of partial order ranking, allowing simultaneous inclusion of several parameters leads to a mutual prioritisation of the investigated substances, the prioritisation possibly being further analysed through the concept of linear extensions and average ranks. The ranking uses endpoint values (log Kow and log VP) derived from strictly linear 'noise-deficient' QSAR models as input parameters. Biodegradation estimates were adopted from the BioWin module of the EPI Suite. The population growth impairment of Tetrahymena pyriformis was used as a surrogate for fish lethality.

  4. A biosensor for cadmium based on bioconvective patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noever, David A.; Matsos, Helen C.

    1990-01-01

    An 'in vitro' method for monitoring cadmium, one of the most lethal bivalent heavy metals, can detect biologically active levels. The effects of cadmium tend to concentrate in protozoa far above natural levels and therein begin transferring through freshwater food chains to animals and humans. In a small sample volume (approximately 5 ml) the method uses the toxic response to the protozoa, Tetrahymena pyriformis, to cadmium. The assay relies on macroscopic bioconvective patterns to measure the toxic response, giving a sensitivity better than 1 micro-g/1 and a toxicity threshold to 7 micro-g/1 for Cd(2+). Cadmium hinders pattern formation in a dose-dependent manner. Arrested organism growth arises from slowed division and mutation to non-dividing classes. Unlike previous efforts, this method can be performed in a shallow flow device and does not require electronic or chemical analyses to monitor toxicity.

  5. Storage Stability and Improvement of Intermediate Moisture Foods, Phase 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labuza, T. P.

    1975-01-01

    Methods were determined for the improvement of shelf-life stability of intermediate moisture foods (IMF). Microbial challenge studies showed that protection against molds and Staphylococcus aureus could be achieved by a combination of antimicrobial agents, humectants and food acids. Potassium sorbate and propylene glycol gave the best results. It was also confirmed that the maximum in heat resistance shown by vegetative pathogens at intermediate water activities also occurred in a solid food. Glycols and sorbitol both achieve browning inhibition because of their action as a medium for reaction and effect on viscosity of the adsorbed phase. Chemical availability results showed rapid lysine loss before visual discoloration occurred. This is being confirmed with a biological test using Tetrahymena pyriformis W. Accelerated temperature tests show that effectiveness of food antioxidants against rancidity development can be predicted; however, the protection factor changes with temperature. BHA was found to be the best antioxidant for iron catalyzed oxidation.

  6. Vascular Hyperpermeability Response in Animals Systemically Exposed to Arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shih-Chieh; Chang, Chao-Yuah; Lin, Ming-Lu

    2018-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying cardiovascular diseases induced by chronic exposure to arsenic remain unclarified. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether increased vascular leakage is induced by inflammatory mustard oil in mice systemically exposed to various doses of arsenic and whether an increased vascular leakage response is still present in arsenic-fed mice after arsenic discontinuation for 2 or 6 months. ICR mice were fed water or various doses of sodium arsenite (10, 15, or 20 mg/kg/day; 5 days/week) for 8 weeks. In separate experiments, the mice were treated with sodium arsenite (20 mg/kg) for 2 or 8 weeks, followed by arsenic discontinuation for 2 or 6 months. Vascular permeability to inflammatory mustard oil was quantified using Evans blue (EB) techniques. Both arsenic-exposed and water-fed (control) mice displayed similar basal levels of EB leakage in the ears brushed with mineral oil, a vehicle of mustard oil. The levels of EB leakage induced by mustard oil in the arsenic groups fed with sodium arsenite (10 or 15 mg/kg) were similar to those of water-fed mice. However, increased levels of EB leakage in response to mustard oil stimulation were significantly higher in mice treated with sodium arsenite (20 mg/kg; high dose) than in arsenic-fed (10 or 15 mg/kg; low and middle doses) or control mice. After arsenic discontinuation for 2 or 6 months, mustard oil-induced vascular EB leakage in arsenic-fed (20 mg/kg) mice was similar to that in control mice. Dramatic increases in mustard oil-induced vascular leakage were only present in mice systemically exposed to the high arsenic dose, indicating the synergistic effects of the high arsenic dose and mustard oil.

  7. Neurobehavioral evaluation of Venezuelan workers exposed to organic solvent mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalona, E; Yanes, L; Feo, O; Maizlish, N

    1995-01-01

    To assess the applicability of the World Health Organization (WHO) Neurobehavioral Core Test Battery (NCTB), we evaluated 53 male and 29 female Venezuelan workers exposed to mixtures of organic solvents in an adhesive factory, and 56 male and 11 female workers unexposed to any type of neurotoxic chemical. The average age of unexposed workers was 30 years and 33 years for those exposed, average schooling for both groups was 8 years, and the mean duration of exposure was 7 years. The NCTB, which assesses central nervous system functions, is composed of seven tests that measure simple motor function, short-term memory, eye-hand coordination, affective behavior, and psychomotor perception and speed. The battery includes: profile of mood states (POMS); Simple Reaction Time for attention and response speed; Digit Span for auditory memory; Santa Ana manual dexterity; Digit-Symbol for perceptual motor speed; the Benton visual retention for visual perception and memory; and Pursuit Aiming II for motor steadiness. In each of 13 subtests, the exposed group had a poorer performance than the nonexposed group. The range of differences in mean performance was between 5% and 89%, particularly in POMS (tension-anxiety, anger-hostility, depression-rejection, fatigue-inertia, confusion-bewilderment), Simple Reaction Time, Digit-Symbol, and Santa Ana Pegboard (p memory, confusion, paresthesias in upper and lower extremities, and sleep disturbances. We conclude that the methodology is applicable to the population studied. The tests of the NCTB were accepted by the subjects and were administered satisfactorily, except for occasional difficulties in verbal comprehension in subtests of POMS, which is the only test that requires more demanding verbal skills. The magnitude of the behavioral deficits is consistent with the probable high level of exposure and with the range of deficits previously reported in workers with long-term solvent exposures.

  8. Effects of volcanic deposit disaggregation on exposed water composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, W. E.; Genareau, K. D.

    2016-12-01

    Explosive volcanic eruptions produce a variety of hazards. Pyroclastic material can be introduced to water through ash fallout, pyroclastic flows entering water bodies, and/or lahars. Remobilization of tephras can occur soon after eruption or centuries later, introducing additional pyroclastic material into the environment. Introduction of pyroclastic material may alter the dissolved element concentration and pH of exposed waters, potentially impacting drinking water supplies, agriculture, and ecology. This study focuses on the long-term impacts of volcanic deposits on water composition due to the mechanical breakup of volcanic deposits over time. Preliminary work has shown that mechanical milling of volcanic deposits will cause significant increases in dissolved element concentrations, conductivity, and pH of aqueous solutions. Pyroclastic material from seven eruptions sites was collected, mechanically milled to produce grain sizes Soufriere Hills, Ruapehu), mafic (Lathrop Wells) and ultramafic (mantle xenoliths) volcanic deposits. Lathrop Wells has an average bulk concentration of 49.15 wt.% SiO2, 6.11 wt. % MgO, and 8.39 wt. % CaO and produces leachate concentrations of 85.69 mg/kg for Ca and 37.22 mg/kg for Mg. Taupo and Valles Caldera samples have a bulk concentration of 72.9 wt.% SiO2, 0.59 wt. % MgO, and 1.48 wt. % CaO, and produces leachate concentrations of 4.08 mg/kg for Ca and 1.56 mg/kg for Mg. Similar testing will be conducted on the intermediate and ultramafic samples to test the hypothesis that bulk magma composition and mineralogy will directly relate to the increased dissolved element concentration of exposed waters. The measured effects on aqueous solutions will aid in evaluation of impacts to marine and freshwater systems exposed to volcanic deposits.

  9. Variance in exposed perturbations impairs retention of visuomotor adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canaveral, Cesar Augusto; Danion, Frédéric; Berrigan, Félix; Bernier, Pierre-Michel

    2017-11-01

    Sensorimotor control requires an accurate estimate of the state of the body. The brain optimizes state estimation by combining sensory signals with predictions of the sensory consequences of motor commands using a forward model. Given that both sensory signals and predictions are uncertain (i.e., noisy), the brain optimally weights the relative reliance on each source of information during adaptation. In support, it is known that uncertainty in the sensory predictions influences the rate and generalization of visuomotor adaptation. We investigated whether uncertainty in the sensory predictions affects the retention of a new visuomotor relationship. This was done by exposing three separate groups to a visuomotor rotation whose mean was common at 15° counterclockwise but whose variance around the mean differed (i.e., SD of 0°, 3.2°, or 4.5°). Retention was assessed by measuring the persistence of the adapted behavior in a no-vision phase. Results revealed that mean reach direction late in adaptation was similar across groups, suggesting it depended mainly on the mean of exposed rotations and was robust to differences in variance. However, retention differed across groups, with higher levels of variance being associated with a more rapid reversion toward nonadapted behavior. A control experiment ruled out the possibility that differences in retention were accounted for by differences in success rates. Exposure to variable rotations may have increased the uncertainty in sensory predictions, making the adapted forward model more labile and susceptible to change or decay. NEW & NOTEWORTHY The brain predicts the sensory consequences of motor commands through a forward model. These predictions are subject to uncertainty. We use visuomotor adaptation and modulate uncertainty in the sensory predictions by manipulating the variance in exposed rotations. Results reveal that variance does not influence the final extent of adaptation but selectively impairs the retention of

  10. Improving antenatal risk assessment in women exposed to high risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Natasha; Newman, Louise K; Hunter, Mick; Dunlop, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Antenatal substance use and related psychosocial risk factors are known to increase the likelihood of child protection involvement; less is known about the predictive nature of maternal reflective functioning (RF) in this population. This preliminary study assessed psychosocial and psychological risk factors for a group of substance dependent women exposed to high risks in pregnancy, and their impact on child protection involvement. Pregnant women on opiate substitution treatment (n = 11) and a comparison group (n = 15) were recruited during their third trimester to complete measures of RF (Pregnancy Interview), childhood trauma, mental health and psychosocial assessments. At postnatal follow-up, RF was reassessed (Parent Development Interview - Revised Short Version) and mother-infant dyads were videotaped to assess emotional availability (EA). Child protection services were contacted to determine if any concerns had been raised for infant safety. Significant between-group differences were observed for demographics, psychosocial factors, trauma and mental health symptoms. Unexpectedly, no significant differences were found for RF or EA between groups. Eight women in the 'exposed to high risks' group became involved with child protection services. Reflective functioning was not significantly associated with psychosocial risk factors, and therefore did not mediate the outcome of child protection involvement. Women 'exposed to high risks' were equally able to generate a model of their own and their infants' mental states and should not be seen within a deficit perspective. Further research is required to better understand the range of risk factors that predict child protection involvement in high risk groups. © The Author(s) 2013.

  11. Heart rate variability in workers chronically exposed to lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajek, Jacek; Zyśko, Dorota; Chlebda, Ewa

    2004-07-01

    Lead is a strong neurotoxin. The effects of lead on the activity of the autonomic nervous system, assessed by the use of heart rate variability (HRV) analysis, have not yet been established. To assess the effects of occupational chronic lead exposure on the autonomic nervous system activity. The study group consisted of 22 copper foundry workers (mean age 41.8+/-8.7 years) who had elevated parameters of lead overload and were admitted to the hospital for chelate therapy. The control group consisted of 13 age-matched healthy males. Lead concentration was measured with the use of atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and concentration of free protoporphyrins in erythrocytes (FEP) using a fluorometric method. Each patient underwent 24-hour ambulatory ECG monitoring, and standard short-term as well as long-term HRV parameters were obtained. There were no significant differences between patients and controls in HRV parameters. In the control group, HRV parameters correlated with age. In patients, a significant negative correlation between lead concentration and some short-term HRV parameters calculated during the night was found: SDNN (r=-0.48, p<0.05), TP (r=-0.48, p<0.01) and LF (r=-0.48, p<0.01). In patients, a negative correlation between lead concentration and HFnight/HFday index was found (r=-0.47 p<0.01), whereas in controls this correlation was positive (r=0.66 p<0.05). Overall HRV indices are similar in subjects exposed to lead and in healthy controls. A decrease in the physiological elevation of HF values during the night, together with an increase in lead blood concentration and lack of relationship between age and HRV parameters in workers chronically exposed to lead may suggest disturbances of the autonomic system. In subjects not exposed to lead a decrease in heart rate with an increase in FEP concentration was observed.

  12. Oxidative damage of DNA in subjects occupationally exposed to lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlas, Natalia; Olewińska, Elżbieta; Markiewicz-Górka, Iwona; Kozłowska, Agnieszka; Januszewska, Lidia; Lundh, Thomas; Januszewska, Ewa; Pawlas, Krystyna

    2017-09-01

    Exposure to lead (Pb) in environmental and occupational settings continues to be a serious public health problem and may pose an elevated risk of genetic damage. The aim of this study was to assess the level of oxidative stress and DNA damage in subjects occupationally exposed to lead. We studied a population of 78 male workers exposed to lead in a lead and zinc smelter and battery recycling plant and 38 men from a control group. Blood lead levels were detected by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry and plasma lead levels by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The following assays were performed to assess the DNA damage and oxidative stress: comet assay, determination of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), lipid peroxidation and total antioxidant status (TAS). The mean concentration of lead in the blood of the exposed group was 392 ± 103 μg/L and was significantly higher than in the control group (30.3 ± 29.4 μg/L, p lead exposure [lead in blood, lead in plasma, zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP)] and urine concentration of 8-OHdG. The level of oxidative damage of DNA was positively correlated with the level of lipid peroxidation (TBARS) and negatively with total anti-oxidative status (TAS). Our study suggests that occupational exposure causes an increase in oxidative damage to DNA, even in subjects with relatively short length of service (average length of about 10 years). 8-OHdG concentration in the urine proved to be a sensitive and non-invasive marker of lead induced genotoxic damage.

  13. Comments on Simplified Calculation Method for Fire Exposed Concrete Columns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    1998-01-01

    The author has developed new simplified calculation methods for fire exposed columns. Methods, which are found In ENV 1992-1-2 chapter 4.3 and in proposal for Danish code of Practise DS411 chapter 9. In the present supporting document the methods are derived and 50 eccentrically loaded fire expos...... columns are calculated and compared to results of full-scale tests. Furthermore 500 columns are calculated in order to present each test result related to a variation of the calculation in time of fire resistance....

  14. Oral and dental affections in mercury-exposed workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahmy, M.S.

    1978-07-01

    A total of 222 mercury-exposed workers in the Chlor-Alkali plant in Kuwait were investigated for oral and dental affections. The levels of mercury-vapor ranged from 566.6 microgram/m3 to 0.3 microgram/m3 in different parts of the factory. The periods of exposure varied from 1 to 11 years. Although the level of mercury vapor in the air and the period of exposure proved to be the main factors as regards the oral signs and symptoms, the oral hygiene condition and the individual sensitivity played substantial roles. Oral affections were found not to be due to allergy to mercury.

  15. Experiences of being exposed to intimate partner violence during pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Engnes, Kristin; Lidén, Eva; Lundgren, Ingela

    2012-01-01

    In this study a phenomenological approach was used in order to enter deeply into the experience of living with violence during pregnancy. The aim of the study was to gain a deeper understanding of women’s experiences of being exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy. The data were collected through in-depth interviews with five Norwegian women; two during pregnancy and three after the birth. The women were between the age of 20 and 38 years. All women had received support f...

  16. Exposing government response action contractors to environmental tort liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    Government contractors, particularly those involved with hazardous waste response action activities, are encountering increased risks for environmental tort liabilities. Contracts often include tasks and work assignments requiring the management of industrial, chemical, nuclear or mining wastes, spent fuels, munitions or other toxic substances. Contractors exposure to liability for damages results directly from the environmental laws and regulations pursuant to which the Government has contracted them to respond. Additionally, contractors may be exposed to common law liability under such dogmas as nuisance, trespass and strict liability in tort

  17. Evaluation of carbons exposed to the Three Mile Island accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deitz, V.R.; Romans, J.B.; Bellamy, R.R.

    1981-01-01

    One of the lines of defense that served to mitigate the radiological effects of the accident at Three Mile Island was the activated carbon installed in ventilation air flows. Filters in the Auxiliary and Fuel Handling Buildings of Unit 2 adsorbed tens to hundreds of curies of iodine-131, preventing the release to the environment. The carbon exposed to the accident has been replaced and the spent carbon has been analyzed in the laboratory. Independent analyses were performed for the two filter trains in both the Auxiliary and Fuel Handling Buildings, replaced at various times after the accident. The results of these analyses are compared to new (unexposed) carbons

  18. Corrosivity Sensor for Exposed Pipelines Based on Wireless Energy Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawand, Lydia; Shiryayev, Oleg; Al Handawi, Khalil; Vahdati, Nader; Rostron, Paul

    2017-05-30

    External corrosion was identified as one of the main causes of pipeline failures worldwide. A solution that addresses the issue of detecting and quantifying corrosivity of environment for application to existing exposed pipelines has been developed. It consists of a sensing array made of an assembly of thin strips of pipeline steel and a circuit that provides a visual sensor reading to the operator. The proposed sensor is passive and does not require a constant power supply. Circuit design was validated through simulations and lab experiments. Accelerated corrosion experiment was conducted to confirm the feasibility of the proposed corrosivity sensor design.

  19. Analysis of plutonium-239 in occupationally exposed personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez M, H.

    2017-10-01

    Apart from radiometric techniques, several mass spectrometry (Ms) techniques can be used to evaluate the incorporation of plutonium-239 in occupationally exposed personnel, among which we can consider mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma source (Icp-Ms); mass spectrometry with accelerators (AMS); thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (Sims). In this work we evaluated analytical methods to measure isotopes of plutonium-239 in urine samples from occupationally exposed personnel, using alpha spectroscopy (As), magnetic sector mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma source (Icp-SFMS) and AMS. The samples were collected during 24 h were acidified with HNO 3 at 5% in v/v. The processes used in the preparation of the samples were: a) co-precipitation, b) acid digestion, c) radiochemical separation and d) electro deposition. The results obtained in terms of minimum detectable activity of plutonium-239 were 0.1 μBq (∼ 0.4 fg per sample), 5.1 μBq (∼ 2 fg per sample), 30.1 μBq (∼ 13 fg per sample) and 0.1 μBq (∼ 51 fg per sample) for AMS, Aridus-Icp-SFMS, Icp, SFMS and As, respectively. On the other hand, samples previously analyzed by As were re-evaluated by Aridus-Icp-SFMS and AMS. The results show that extraction with 60 ml of 5% HNO 3 at 60 degrees Celsius and for 2.5 h is enough to extract 90% of Pu electrodeposited on the planchette. In conclusion, AMS is an ultra-sensitive technique for determining isotope ratios of Pu, especially when is desired to validate a method to measure plutonium-239. Additionally, Icp-SFMS is a rapid analysis technique and can be used as a screening technique in situations of radiological incidents or accidents with Pu in the occupationally exposed personnel. Regarding alpha spectroscopy has been considered as the technique of excellence in the routine analysis to measure plutonium-239 in occupationally exposed personnel, due to the low cost. Finally, Icp-SFMS and AMS

  20. Rubella virus detection by ELISA method in exposed radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jianmei; Zhu Bo; Zhu Youming; Shao Jinhui; Wu Weiping; Han Jinxiang

    2005-01-01

    Objective: A rapid diagnosis method was developed to detect Rubella virus infection in radiation workers. Methods: Modified ELISA method was used to detect the level of lgG and lgM antibodies in 514 in Jinan district. Results: 90.47% of 514 cases was shown to be resistant against Rubella virus; 6.42% were sensitive type; 0.78% belonged to be reinfected. Conclusion: Detection of Rubella virus in exposed radiation workers was imperative, and vaccine against Rubella virus was also needed to eliminate the infection risk. (authors)

  1. Brain biochemistry of infant mice and rats exposed to lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berber, G.B.; Maes, J.; Gilliavod, N.; Casale, G.

    1978-05-01

    Brains of rats and mice exposed to lead from birth receive biochemical examinations. Mice are given drinking water with lead and are studied until they are 17 days old. Rats ae given lead in the diet and followed for more than a year. In mice a retardation in body growth and development in brain DNA is found. In rats, cathepsin is enhanced at almost all times. An important role of proteolytic processes and biogenic animes is suggested in lead encephalopathy. (33 references, 7 tables)

  2. Haematological evaluation of Wistar rats exposed to chronic doses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two groups (A and B) were respectively exposed to CdCl2 (0.25 and 2.5 mg/kg), two other groups (C and D) respectively received HgCl2 (0.12 and 1.2 mg/kg) and the last two groups (E and F) were respectively treated with the combination of these two metals: (0.25 mg/kg Cd + 0.12 mg/kg Hg) and (2.5 mg/kg Cd + 1.2 ...

  3. Test Method for Spalling of Fire Exposed Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl; Sørensen, Lars Schiøtt

    2005-01-01

    A new material test method is presented for determining whether or not an actual concrete may suffer from explosive spalling at a specified moisture level. The method takes into account the effect of stresses from hindered thermal expansion at the fire-exposed surface. Cylinders are used, which...... in many countries serve as standard specimens for testing the compressive strength. Consequently, the method is quick, cheap and easy to use in comparison to the alternative of testing full-scale or semi full-scale structures with correct humidity, load and boundary conditions. A number of concretes have...

  4. Multiple endocrine disrupting effects in rats perinatally exposed to butylparaben

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boberg, Julie; Petersen, Marta Axelstad; Svingen, Terje

    2016-01-01

    ) expression was reduced in prepubertal, but not adult animals exposed to butylparaben. In adult testes, Nr5a1 expression was reduced at all doses, indicating persistent disruption of steroidogenesis. Prostate histology was altered at prepuberty and adult prostate weights were reduced in the high dose group......Parabens comprise a group of preservatives commonly added to cosmetics, lotions and other consumer products. Butylparaben has estrogenic and anti-androgenic properties and is known to reduce sperm counts in rats following perinatal exposure. Whether butylparaben exposure can affect other endocrine...

  5. Erosion of graphite surface exposed to hot supersonic hydrogen gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, O. P.

    1972-01-01

    A theoretical model based on laminar boundary layer flow equations was developed to predict the erosion rate of a graphite (AGCarb-101) surface exposed to a hot supersonic stream of hydrogen gas. The supersonic flow in the nozzle outside the boundary layer formed over the surface of the specimen was determined by assuming one-dimensional isentropic conditions. An overall surface reaction rate expression based on experimental studies was used to describe the interaction of hydrogen with graphite. A satisfactory agreement was found between the results of the computation, and the available experimental data. Some shortcomings of the model and further possible improvements are discussed.

  6. Comparative proteomic analysis in Miscanthus sinensis exposed to antimony stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, Liang; Ren, Huadong; Li, Sheng; Gao, Ming; Shi, Shengqing; Chang, Ermei; Wei, Yuan; Yao, Xiaohua; Jiang, Zeping; Liu, Jianfeng

    2015-01-01

    To explore the molecular basis of Sb tolerance mechanism in plant, a comparative proteomic analysis of both roots and leaves in Miscanthus sinensis has been conducted in combination with physiological and biochemical analyses. M. sinensis seedlings were exposed to different doses of Sb, and both roots and leaves were collected after 3 days of treatment. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and image analyses found that 29 protein spots showed 1.5-fold change in abundance in leaves and 19 spots in roots, of which 31 were identified by MALDI-TOF-MS and MALDI-TOF-TOF-MS. Proteins involved in antioxidant defense and stress response generally increased their expression all over the Sb treatments. In addition, proteins relative to transcription, signal transduction, energy metabolism and cell division and cell structure showed a variable expression pattern over Sb concentrations. Overall these findings provide new insights into the probable survival mechanisms by which M. sinensis could be adapting to Sb phytotoxicity. - Highlights: • Proteomics in Miscanthus sinensis leaves and roots exposed to Sb stress were studied. • There were 31 spots that were identified by mass spectrometry. • Most of these proteins were involved in antioxidant defense and stress response. • Our findings provide new insights into the tolerant mechanisms to Sb stress. - Miscanthus sinensis proteomic analysis under Sb stress reveals probable molecular mechanisms on Sb detoxification

  7. P300 brain potential among workers exposed to organic solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bente E. Moen

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available  SUMMARYThe P300 component of the auditory event-related brain potential was examined in a group of 11workers exposed to low levels of organic solvents in a paint factory and 11 unexposed controls beforeand after 3 weeks of summer vacation. The P300 latency time was found to be prolonged among theexposed workers compared to the reference group before the summer vacation, and to be significantlylonger before the vacation than after in the exposed group.The P300 component was also examined in a group of 85 seamen from chemical tankers, experiencingpeak exposures to organic solvents. They were compared to a reference group of unexposedseamen. Comparing these two groups, no difference was found in the P300 latency time. No relationshipbetween the P300 latency time and exposure was found in a multiple regression analysis, includingthe variables age, alcohol consumption, smoking and cerebral concussions.The study indicates the occurrence of an acute biological effect in the nervous system related toorganic solvent exposure, expressed by prolonged P300 latency time. This was found at very lowexposure levels and should be studied further.

  8. Experiences of being exposed to intimate partner violence during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Engnes

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study a phenomenological approach was used in order to enter deeply into the experience of living with violence during pregnancy. The aim of the study was to gain a deeper understanding of women's experiences of being exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV during pregnancy. The data were collected through in-depth interviews with five Norwegian women; two during pregnancy and three after the birth. The women were between the age of 20 and 38 years. All women had received support from a professional research and treatment centre. The essential structure shows that IPV during pregnancy is characterized by difficult existential choices related to ambivalence. Existential choices mean questioning one's existence, the meaning of life as well as one's responsibility for oneself and others. Five constituents further explain the essential structure: Living in unpredictability, the violence is living in the body, losing oneself, feeling lonely and being pregnant leads to change. Future life with the child is experienced as a possibility for existential change. It is important for health professionals to recognize and support pregnant women who are exposed to violence as well as treating their bodies with care and respect.

  9. Experiences of being exposed to intimate partner violence during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engnes, Kristin; Lidén, Eva; Lundgren, Ingela

    2012-01-01

    In this study a phenomenological approach was used in order to enter deeply into the experience of living with violence during pregnancy. The aim of the study was to gain a deeper understanding of women's experiences of being exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy. The data were collected through in-depth interviews with five Norwegian women; two during pregnancy and three after the birth. The women were between the age of 20 and 38 years. All women had received support from a professional research and treatment centre. The essential structure shows that IPV during pregnancy is characterized by difficult existential choices related to ambivalence. Existential choices mean questioning one's existence, the meaning of life as well as one's responsibility for oneself and others. Five constituents further explain the essential structure: Living in unpredictability, the violence is living in the body, losing oneself, feeling lonely and being pregnant leads to change. Future life with the child is experienced as a possibility for existential change. It is important for health professionals to recognize and support pregnant women who are exposed to violence as well as treating their bodies with care and respect.

  10. Ultrastructural and metabolic changes in osteoblasts exposed to uranyl nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasat, D.R.; Orona, N.S.; Mandalunis, P.M.; Cabrini, R.L.; Ubios, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Exposure to uranium is an occupational hazard to workers who continually handle uranium and an environmental risk to the population at large. Since the cellular and molecular pathways of uranium toxicity in osteoblast cells are still unknown, the aim of the present work was to evaluate the adverse effects of uranyl nitrate (UN) on osteoblasts both in vivo and in vitro. Herein we studied the osteoblastic ultrastructural changes induced by UN in vivo and analyzed cell proliferation, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), apoptosis, and alkaline phosphatase (APh) activity in osteoblasts exposed to various UN concentrations (0.1, 1, 10, and 100 μM) in vitro. Cell proliferation was quantified by means of the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, ROS was determined using the nitro blue tetrazolium test, apoptosis was morphologically determined using Hoechst 3332 and APh activity was assayed spectrophotometrically. Electron microscopy revealed that the ultrastructure of active and inactive osteoblasts exposed to uranium presented cytoplasmic and nuclear alterations. In vitro, 1-100 μM UN failed to modify cell proliferation ratio and to induce apoptosis. ROS generation increased in a dose-dependent manner in all tested doses. APh activity was found to decrease in 1-100 μM UN-treated cells vs. controls. Our results show that UN modifies osteoblast cell metabolism by increasing ROS generation and reducing APh activity, suggesting that ROS may play a more complex role in cell physiology than simply causing oxidative damage. (orig.)

  11. Exposing the cancer genome atlas as a SPARQL endpoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deus, Helena F.; Veiga, Diogo F.; Freire, Pablo R.; Weinstein, John N.; Mills, Gordon B.; Almeida, Jonas S.

    2011-01-01

    The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) is a multidisciplinary, multi-institutional effort to characterize several types of cancer. Datasets from biomedical domains such as TCGA present a particularly challenging task for those interested in dynamically aggregating its results because the data sources are typically both heterogeneous and distributed. The Linked Data best practices offer a solution to integrate and discover data with those characteristics, namely through exposure of data as Web services supporting SPARQL, the Resource Description Framework query language. Most SPARQL endpoints, however, cannot easily be queried by data experts. Furthermore, exposing experimental data as SPARQL endpoints remains a challenging task because, in most cases, data must first be converted to Resource Description Framework triples. In line with those requirements, we have developed an infrastructure to expose clinical, demographic and molecular data elements generated by TCGA as a SPARQL endpoint by assigning elements to entities of the Simple Sloppy Semantic Database (S3DB) management model. All components of the infrastructure are available as independent Representational State Transfer (REST) Web services to encourage reusability, and a simple interface was developed to automatically assemble SPARQL queries by navigating a representation of the TCGA domain. A key feature of the proposed solution that greatly facilitates assembly of SPARQL queries is the distinction between the TCGA domain descriptors and data elements. Furthermore, the use of the S3DB management model as a mediator enables queries to both public and protected data without the need for prior submission to a single data source. PMID:20851208

  12. Spatial variability of macrobenthic zonation on exposed sandy beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, Puri; Rubal, Marcos; Cacabelos, Eva; Maldonado, Cristina; Sousa-Pinto, Isabel

    2014-07-01

    We analysed the consistence of vertical patterns of distribution (i.e. zonation) for macrofauna at different spatial scales on four intermediate exposed beaches in the North of Portugal. We tested the hypothesis that biological zonation on exposed sandy beaches would vary at the studied spatial scales. For this aim, abundance, diversity and structure of macrobenthic assemblages were examined at the scales of transect and beach. Moreover, the main environmental factors that could potentially drive zonation patterns were investigated. Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that the number of biological zones ranged from two to three depending on the beach and from indistinct zonation to three zones at the scale of transect. Therefore, results support our working hypothesis because zonation patterns were not consistent at the studied spatial scales. The median particle size, sorting coefficient and water content were significantly correlated with zonation patterns of macrobenthic assemblages. However, a high degree of correlation was not reached when the total structure of the assemblage was considered.

  13. Error-related negativities during spelling judgments expose orthographic knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Lindsay N; Perfetti, Charles A; Rickles, Benjamin

    2014-02-01

    In two experiments, we demonstrate that error-related negativities (ERNs) recorded during spelling decisions can expose individual differences in lexical knowledge. The first experiment found that the ERN was elicited during spelling decisions and that its magnitude was correlated with independent measures of subjects' spelling knowledge. In the second experiment, we manipulated the phonology of misspelled stimuli and observed that ERN magnitudes were larger when misspelled words altered the phonology of their correctly spelled counterparts than when they preserved it. Thus, when an error is made in a decision about spelling, the brain processes indexed by the ERN reflect both phonological and orthographic input to the decision process. In both experiments, ERN effect sizes were correlated with assessments of lexical knowledge and reading, including offline spelling ability and spelling-mediated vocabulary knowledge. These results affirm the interdependent nature of orthographic, semantic, and phonological knowledge components while showing that spelling knowledge uniquely influences the ERN during spelling decisions. Finally, the study demonstrates the value of ERNs in exposing individual differences in lexical knowledge. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Differential Adjustment Among Rural Adolescents Exposed to Family Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sianko, Natallia; Hedge, Jasmine M.; McDonell, James R.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines differences in psychological adjustment in a sample of rural adolescents who have been exposed to family violence. Self-report questionnaires were administered to 580 adolescents and their primary caregivers. The results revealed that over two thirds of the study participants (68.8%) had been exposed to violence in their families. As hypothesized, cluster analysis identified several profiles among adolescents, distinguished by their psychological and emotional functioning: well adjusted (46.2%), moderately adjusted (44.3%), and struggling (9.5%). Discriminant function analysis confirmed the groupings and revealed that family functioning was among the most influential factors explaining adjustment differences. Multivariate analyses of variance (MANOVAs) further showed that adolescents from each of the three adjustment profiles reported significantly different levels of family social support, parental involvement, and perceived neighborhood safety. Overall, the results confirm heterogeneity of adolescent adaptation in the aftermath of family violence and provide insights into family and neighborhood factors that account for variability in adolescents’ reactions to violence. Implications for future research and practical interventions are discussed. PMID:27106255

  15. Lipid peroxidation in workers exposed to hexavalent chromium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y L; Chen, C Y; Sheu, J Y; Chuang, I C; Pan, J H; Lin, T H

    1999-02-26

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether exposure to hexavalent chromium induces lipid peroxidation in human. This study involved 25 chrome-plating factory workers and a reference group of 28 control subjects. The whole-blood and urinary chromium concentrations were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Malondialdehyde (MDA), the product of lipid peroxidation, was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography, and the activities of protective enzymes were measured by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry. In the chrome-plating workers, the mean concentrations of chromium in blood and urine were 5.98 microg/L and 5.25 microg/g creatinine, respectively; the mean concentrations of MDA in blood and urine were 1.7 micromol/L and 2.24 micromol/g creatinine. The concentrations of both chromium and MDA in blood and urine were significantly higher in the chromium-exposed workers. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and catalase (CAT) were not markedly different between control and exposed workers. Data suggest that MDA may be used as a biomarker for occupational chromium exposure. Antioxidant enzymic activities are not a suitable marker for chromium exposure.

  16. The exposed proteomes of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and B. pilosicoli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Casas

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available B. hyodysenteriae and B. pilosicoli are well-known intestinal pathogens in pigs. B. hyodysenteriae is the causative agent of swine dysentery, a disease with an important impact on pig production while B. pilosicoli is responsible of a milder diarrheal disease in these animals, porcine intestinal spirochetosis. Recent sequencing projects have provided information for the genome of these species facilitating the search of vaccine candidates using reverse vaccinology approaches. However, practically no experimental evidence exists of the actual gene products being expressed and of those proteins exposed on the cell surface or released to the cell media. Using a cell-shaving strategy and a shotgun proteomic approach we carried out a large-scale characterization of the exposed proteins on the bacterial surface in these species as well as of peptides and proteins in the extracellular medium. The study included 3 strains of B. hyodysenteriae and 2 strains of B. pilosicoli and involved 148 LC-MS/MS runs on a high resolution Orbitrap instrument. Overall, we provided evidence for more than 29000 different peptides pointing to 1625 and 1338 different proteins in B. hyodysenteriae and B. pilosicoli, respectively. Many of the most abundant proteins detected corresponded to described virulence factors and vaccine candidates. The level of expression of these proteins, however, was different among species and strains, stressing the value of determining actual gene product levels as a complement of genomic-based approaches for vaccine design.

  17. Differential Adjustment Among Rural Adolescents Exposed to Family Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sianko, Natallia; Hedge, Jasmine M; McDonell, James R

    2016-04-22

    This study examines differences in psychological adjustment in a sample of rural adolescents who have been exposed to family violence. Self-report questionnaires were administered to 580 adolescents and their primary caregivers. The results revealed that over two thirds of the study participants (68.8%) had been exposed to violence in their families. As hypothesized, cluster analysis identified several profiles among adolescents, distinguished by their psychological and emotional functioning: well adjusted (46.2%), moderately adjusted (44.3%), and struggling (9.5%). Discriminant function analysis confirmed the groupings and revealed that family functioning was among the most influential factors explaining adjustment differences. Multivariate analyses of variance (MANOVAs) further showed that adolescents from each of the three adjustment profiles reported significantly different levels of family social support, parental involvement, and perceived neighborhood safety. Overall, the results confirm heterogeneity of adolescent adaptation in the aftermath of family violence and provide insights into family and neighborhood factors that account for variability in adolescents' reactions to violence. Implications for future research and practical interventions are discussed. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. The Immune System of HIV-Exposed Uninfected Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Raya, Bahaa; Kollmann, Tobias R; Marchant, Arnaud; MacGillivray, Duncan M

    2016-01-01

    Infants born to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected women are HIV-exposed but the majority remains uninfected [i.e., HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU)]. HEU infants suffer greater morbidity and mortality from infections compared to HIV-unexposed (HU) peers. The reason(s) for these worse outcomes are uncertain, but could be related to an altered immune system state. This review comprehensively summarizes the current literature investigating the adaptive and innate immune system of HEU infants. HEU infants have altered cell-mediated immunity, including impaired T-cell maturation with documented hypo- as well as hyper-responsiveness to T-cell activation. And although prevaccination vaccine-specific antibody levels are often lower in HEU than HU, most HEU infants mount adequate humoral immune response following primary vaccination with diphtheria toxoid, haemophilus influenzae type b, whole cell pertussis, measles, hepatitis B, tetanus toxoid, and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. However, HEU infants are often found to have lower absolute neutrophil counts as compared to HU infants. On the other hand, an increase of innate immune cytokine production and expression of co-stimulatory markers has been noted in HEU infants, but this increase appears to be restricted to the first few weeks of life. The immune system of HEU children beyond infancy remains largely unexplored.

  19. Thyroid neoplasia in Marshall Islanders exposed to nuclear fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, T.E.; van Belle, G.; LoGerfo, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    We studied the risk of thyroid neoplasia in Marshall Islanders exposed to radioiodines in nuclear fallout from the 1954 BRAVO thermonuclear test. We screened 7266 Marshall Islanders for thyroid nodules; the islanders were from 14 atolls, including several southern atolls, which were the source of the best available unexposed comparison group. Using a retrospective cohort design, we determined the prevalence of thyroid nodularity in a subgroup of 2273 persons who were alive in 1954 and who therefore were potentially exposed to fallout from the BRAVO test. For those 12 atolls previously thought to be unexposed to fallout, the prevalence of thyroid nodules ranged from 0.9% to 10.6%. Using the distance of each atoll from the test site as a proxy for the radiation dose to the thyroid gland, a weighted linear regression showed an inverse linear relationship between distance and the age-adjusted prevalence of thyroid nodules. Distance was the strongest single predictor in logistic regression analysis. A new absolute risk estimate was calculated to be 1100 excess cases/Gy/y/1 X 10(6) persons (11.0 excess cases/rad/y/1 million persons), 33% higher than previous estimates. We conclude that an excess of thyroid nodules was not limited only to the two northern atolls but extended throughout the northern atolls; this suggests a linear dose-response relationship

  20. RESPONSE OF TOMATO PLANTS EXPOSED TO TREATMENT WITH NANOPARTICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso Giordani

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work the response of Tomato plants cv. Micro-Tom to nanoparticles (NPs treatment was investigated. Tomato seedlings were grown in hydroponic condition and NPs treatments were carried out by adding Fe3O4 or TiO2 NPs to nutrient solution. At the end of treatments, NPs root uptake and tissue deposition were investigated using Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope, equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy for chemical identification. At morphological level, one week after the beginning of NP treatment, seedlings grown with high concentration of TiO2 NPs showed an abnormal proliferation of root hairs, as compared to the control seedlings and to the seedlings exposed to Fe3O4 NPs, Shoot morphology did not differ in tomato seedlings grown under different conditions and no symptoms of toxicity were observed in NP-treated plants. In order to analyse genetic effects of NPs treatments, RNA transcription was studied in roots of NP-exposed and control plants by Illumina RNA sequencing, evidencing the induction of transposable elements.

  1. Ultrastructural changes of photodegradation of wood surfaces exposed to UV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuo, M.L.; Hu, N.

    1991-01-01

    Red pine sapwood transverse and radial surfaces were exposed to ultraviolet (UV) light for 3 to 40 days. Effect of UV irradiation on ultrastructural changes of cell walls were studied by scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy. SEM study of transverse sections showed that during initial stages of UV irradiation, lignin in cell corners and in the compound middle lamellae was preferentially degraded and that the radial middle lamellae substained a greater rate of UV degradation than did the tangential middle lamellae. Massive cell wall degradation, as indicated by cell wall thinning, did not occur until surfaces were exposed to UV light for more than 10 days. TEM study of radial cell wall surfaces indicated that lignin lining the warty layer was removed by UV irradiation in 3 days and that warts were destroyed by a UV irradiation in 7 days. UV irradiation of cell wall surfaces produced a substantial amount of water-soluble degradation products. After 30 days of UV irradiation, the S3 layer was totally removed and revealed the very fragile S2 layer. (author)

  2. Prevalence of tinnitus in workers exposed to noise and organophosphates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delecrode, Camila Ribas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Research on the workplace has emphasized the effects of noise exposure on workers' hearing, but has not considered the effects of agrochemicals. Aim: To evaluate and correlate the hearing level and tinnitus of workers exposed simultaneously to noise and organophosphates in their workplace and to measure tinnitus distress on their quality of life. Method: A retrospective clinical study. We evaluated 82 organophosphate sprinklers from the São Paulo State Regional Superintendence who were active in the fight against dengue and who were exposed to noise and organophosphates. We performed pure tone audiometry and applied the translated THI (Tinnitus Handicap Inventory questionnaire. Results: Of the sample, 28.05% reported current tinnitus or had presented tinnitus, and the workers with tinnitus had an increased incidence of abnormal audiometry. The average hearing threshold for the 4-8-kHz frequency range of the workers with current tinnitus was higher than that of the others, and was most affected at the 4-kHz frequency. The THI score ranged 0-84, with an average score of 13.1. Twelve (52.17% workers had THI scores consistent with discrete handicap. Conclusion: There is an increased incidence of abnormal pure tone audiometry in workers with tinnitus, and its impact on the workers' quality of life was discrete. The correlation between average hearing threshold and tinnitus distress was weak.

  3. Chromosomal aberrations in subjects exposed to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovicic, D.; Milacic, S.; Kovacevic, R.; Tanaskovic, I.

    2006-01-01

    Occupational exposure is particularly delicate because of chronic exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation and its cumulative effect, where it is important to consider the biological response of body to given conditions of exposure. The objective of this study was the observation of the recovery of the DNA damages in subjects working in the radiation area in two different intervals.Group I, consisting of 30 subjects, was exposed to ionizing radiation and unstable chromosomal aberrations were identified. Group II included the same, re-examined subjects (30) 9 months later. It was verified that 5 (16.67%) subjects still had unstable chromosomal aberrations, although they had been excluded from radiation area Controls groups (C) consisted of 64 subjects that were not exposed to mutagenic agents.The comparison of the control group with the two studied groups revealed the reduction of the unstable aberrations (p<0.05). The total effective doses, which increased with the years spent in radiation area, reflected the yield of chromosomal aberrations. The presence of chromosomal aberrations in some subjects, after the exclusion from the ionising radiation exposure, suggests that the time needed for the recovery of the DNA damages is different, which indicates the individual differences in radiosensitivity as well as different of the reparatory cellular response. (author)

  4. Cancer incidence among workers exposed to softwood dust in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smailyte, Giedre

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess cancer incidence in a cohort of woodworkers exposed to softwood dust in a Lithuanian wooden joinery products factory. The study population consisted of 1518 workers (1080 men and 438 women) employed in the factory for at least 1 year between 1947 and 1996 and living in Lithuania on 1 January 1978, when the follow-up for cancer incidence began. The follow-up period for cancer was 1978-2007. Cancer risk was assessed by standardised incidence ratios (SIR) with reference to the national population. Overall cancer incidence was not increased among woodworkers. However, the number of mouth and pharynx cancer cases among male woodworkers was significantly increased compared with expected numbers (SIR 2.19, 95% CI 1.17 to 3.74). A higher risk was found for cancer of the buccal cavity than for pharyngeal cancer (SIRs 2.83 and 1.45, respectively). The SIR for larynx cancer was also elevated (SIR 1.39, 95% CI 0.64 to 2.64) among men, while the number of lung cancer cases was higher than expected only among women (SIR 2.07, 95% CI 00.57 to 5.31). This results of this study support the hypothesis that exposure to softwood dust may increase the risk of oral and pharyngeal cancer. No support was found for an increased risk of other respiratory cancers among workers exposed to softwood dust.

  5. Cytogenetic diagnostic of 3 populations of occupationally exposed personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero C, C.; Arceo M, C.

    2013-10-01

    In the year 2000 the first service of biological dosimetry was requested to the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ), and until the year 2012 have been assisted 52 cases approximately. Most of the cases correspond to workers dedicated to the industrial radiography, followed by the occupationally exposed personnel either in the hospital area or health services and the minority corresponds to individuals linked to research institutions. The incident with more serious consequences to the individual happened to workers that ingested I-131 in the year 2003. Using the biological dosimetry to estimate exposure dose by damage in the lymphocyte chromosomes of each worker has been possible to establish the exposure dose in each one of them, or also to discard the supposed exposure. The dosimetry demonstrates to be an useful tool for situations with exposure suspicion, for example when the reading of thermoluminescent dosimeter of a occupationally exposed personnel does not correspond to the event, or when the personnel forgets to carry his dosimeter, the exposure dose can be determined. (Author)

  6. Image restorations constrained by a multiply exposed picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breedlove, J.R. Jr.; Kruger, R.P.; Trussell, H.J.; Hunt, B.R.

    1977-01-01

    There are a number of possible industrial and scientific applications of nanosecond cineradiographs. While the technology exists to produce closely spaced pulses of x rays for this application, the quality of the time-resolved radiographs is severely limited. The limitations arise from the necessity of using a fluorescent screen to convert the transmitted x rays to light and then using electro-optical imaging systems to gate and to record the images with conventional high-speed cameras. It has been proposed that in addition to the time-resolved images, a conventional multiply-exposed radiograph be obtained. Simulations are used to demonstrate that the additional information supplied by the multiply-exposed radiograph can be used to improve the quality of digital image restorations of the time-resolved pictures over what could be achieved with the degraded images alone. Because of the need for image registration and rubber sheet transformations, this problem is one which can best be solved on a digital, as opposed to an optical, computer

  7. Direct assessment of cumulative aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonist activity in sera from experimentally exposed mice and environmentally exposed humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlezinger, Jennifer J; Bernard, Pamela L; Haas, Amelia

    2010-01-01

    (PCB)-exposed Faroe Islanders using an AhR-driven reporter cell line. To validate relationships between serum AhR agonist levels and biological outcomes, AhR agonist activity in mouse sera correlated with toxic end points. AhR agonist activity in unmanipulated ("neat") human sera was compared......, was associated with the frequency of recent pilot whale dinners, but did not correlate with levels of PCBs quantified by GC/MS. Surprisingly, significant "baseline" AhR activity was found in commercial human sera. CONCLUSIONS: An AhR reporter assay revealed cumulative levels of AhR activation potential in neat...

  8. Nasal biopsies of children exposed to air pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, L; Rodriguez-Alcaraz, A; Valencia-Salazar, G; Mora-Tascareño, A; García, R; Osnaya, N; Villarreal-Calderón, A; Devlin, R B; Van Dyke, T

    2001-01-01

    Southwest Metropolitan Mexico City (SWMMC) atmosphere is a complex mixture of air pollutants, including ozone, particulate matter, and aldehydes. Children in SWMMC are exposed chronically and sequentially to numerous toxicants, and they exhibit significant nasal damage. The objective of this study was to assess p53 accumulation by immunohistochemistry in nasal biopsies of SWMMC children. We evaluated 111 biopsies from 107 children (83 exposed SWMMC children and 24 control children residents in a pollutant-compliant Caribbean island). Complete clinical histories and physical examinations, including an ear-nose-throat (ENT) exam were done. There was a significant statistical difference in the upper and lower respiratory symptomatology and ENT findings between control and exposed children (p < 0.001). Control children gave no respiratory symptomatology in the 3 months prior to the study; their biopsies exhibited normal ciliated respiratory epithelium and were p53-negative. SWMMC children complained of epistaxis, nasal obstruction. and crusting. Irregular areas of whitish-gray recessed mucosa over the inferior and middle turbinates were seen in 25% of SWMMC children, and their nasal biopsies displayed basal cell hyperplasia, decreased numbers of ciliated and goblet cells, neutrophilic epithelial infiltrates, squamous metaplasia. and mild dysplasia. Four of 21 SWMMC children with grossly abnormal mucosal changes exhibited strong transmural nuclear p53 staining in their nasal biopsies (p 0.005, odds ratio 26). In the context of lifetime exposures to toxic and potentially carcinogenic air pollutants, p53 nasal induction in children could potentially represent. a) a checkpoint response to toxic exposures, setting up a selective condition for p53 mutation, or b) a p53 mutation has already occurred as a result of such selection. Because the biological significance of p53 nuclear accumulation in the nasal biopsies of these children is not clear at this point, we strongly

  9. Genetic Analysis of Mice Skin Exposed by Hyper-Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Rika; Terada, Masahiro; Seki, Masaya; Higashibata, Akira; Majima, Hideyuki J.; Ohira, Yoshinobu; Mukai, Chiaki; Ishioka, Noriaki

    2013-02-01

    In the space environment, physiological alterations, such as low bone density, muscle weakness and decreased immunity, are caused by microgravity and cosmic radiation. On the other hand, it is known that the leg muscles are hypertrophy by 2G-gravity. An understanding of the effects on human body from microgravity to hyper-gravity is very important. Recently, the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) has started a project to detect the changes on gene expression and mineral metabolism caused by microgravity by analyzing the hair of astronauts who stay in the international Space Station (ISS) for a long time. From these results of human hair’s research, the genetic effects of human hair roots by microgravity will become clear. However, it is unclear how the gene expression of hair roots was effected by hypergravity. Therefore, in this experiment, we analyzed the effect on mice skin contained hair roots by comparing microgravity or hypergravity exposed mice. The purpose of this experiment is to evaluate the genetic effects on mice skin by microgravity or 2G-gravity. The samples were taken from mice exposed to space flight (FL) or hypergravity environment (2G) for 3-months, respectively. The extracted and amplified RNA from these mice skin was used to DNA microarray analysis. in this experiment, we analyzed the effect of gravity by using mice skin contained hair roots, which exposed space (FL) and hyper-gravity (2G) for 3 months and each control. By DNA microarray analysis, we found the common 98 genes changed in both FL and 2G. Among these 98 genes, the functions and pathways were identified by Gene Ontology (GO) analysis and Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA) software. Next, we focused the one of the identified pathways and compared the effects on each molecules in this pathways by the different environments, such as FL and 2G. As the results, we could detect some interesting molecules, which might be depended on the gravity levels. In addition, to investigate

  10. Analysing deterioration of marble stones exposed to underwater conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cámara, Beatriz; Álvarez de Buergo, Mónica; Bethencourt, Manuel; Freire-Lista, David; Fort, Rafael

    2016-04-01

    The peculiar conditions of the marine environment make the conservation of underwater archaeological sites an extremely complex procedure. This is due to the fact that the prevailing conditions in this environment promote the development of deterioration phenomena in submerged artefacts through the synergistic action of physical, chemical and biological factors. The objective of the present investigation was to determine how petrophysical properties of cultural heritage materials can be affected by being exposed to the specific underwater conditions of the sea bottom, and so, to evaluate how this can affect, in a long term, in their durability and evolution when they part of an archaeological site. For this purpose, two types of marble (the Italian Carrara and the Spanish Macael) were subjected to an experiment consisting of exposing stone materials for one and a half year to underwater conditions. The experimental test was located in an archaeological site in the Bay of Cadiz (southern Spain), Bajo del Chapitel (recognized as Cultural Interest), which includes remains of shipwrecks from different periods. In this site, samples were submerged to 12 m depth and placed in the sea bottom simulating the different positions in which underwater archaeological objects can be found (fully exposed, half buried and covered). Petrophysical characterisation involved determination of the apparent and bulk densities, water saturation (maximum water content a material may contain), open porosity (porosity accessible to water), chromatic parameters and ultrasonic velocity. Before measuring, samples were subjected to mechanical cleaning (in those samples with biological colonization) and to removal of salt deposits. Results showed significant differences in these petrophysical properties after underwater submersion, which were directly related to the type of underwater exposure condition. Comparative analysis of petrophysical properties, like the one conducted in this study

  11. Genotoxic damage in pathology anatomy laboratory workers exposed to formaldehyde

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Solange; Coelho, Patricia; Costa, Carla; Silva, Susana; Mayan, Olga; Silva Santos, Luis; Gaspar, Jorge; Teixeira, Joao Paulo

    2008-01-01

    Formaldehyde (FA) is a chemical traditionally used in pathology and anatomy laboratories as a tissue preservative. Several epidemiological studies of occupational exposure to FA have indicated an increased risk of nasopharyngeal cancers in industrial workers, embalmers and pathology anatomists. There is also a clear evidence of nasal squamous cell carcinomas from inhalation studies in the rat. The postulated mode of action for nasal tumours in rats was considered biologically plausible and considered likely to be relevant to humans. Based on the available data IARC, the International Agency for Research on Cancer, has recently classified FA as a human carcinogen. Although the in vitro genotoxic as well as the in vivo carcinogenic potentials of FA are well documented in mammalian cells and in rodents, evidence for genotoxic effects and carcinogenic properties in humans is insufficient and conflicting thus remains to be more documented. To evaluate the genetic effects of long-term occupational exposure to FA a group of 30 Pathological Anatomy laboratory workers was tested for a variety of biological endpoints, cytogenetic tests (micronuclei, MN; sister chromatid exchange, SCE) and comet assay. The level of exposure to FA was evaluated near the breathing zone of workers, time weighted average of exposure was calculated for each subject. The association between the biomarkers and polymorphic genes of xenobiotic metabolising and DNA repair enzymes was also assessed. The mean level of exposure was 0.44 ± 0.08 ppm (0.04-1.58 ppm). MN frequency was significantly higher (p = 0.003) in the exposed subjects (5.47 ± 0.76) when compared with controls (3.27 ± 0.69). SCE mean value was significantly higher (p < 0.05) among the exposed group (6.13 ± 0.29) compared with control group (4.49 ± 0.16). Comet assay data showed a significant increase (p < 0.05) of TL in FA-exposed workers (60.00 ± 2.31) with respect to the control group (41.85 ± 1.97). A positive correlation was

  12. Ionizing radiation and frequency of chromosomal aberrations in exposed personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spasojevic-Tisma, Vera; Pavlovic, Snezana

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Frequencies of chromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes of peripheral blood were investigated among the observed groups of subjects who were exposed to low radiation doses (external exposure) in comparison with the control group. The first group of subjects is involved in the production of radioisotope technetium, whose accumulated work exposure time ranges between 3 and 30 years. The second group works on inspection of the medical X-ray equipment, whose accumulated work exposure time is between 2 and 34 years. The third group worked on decontamination of the terrain from depleted uranium radioactive ammunition. These workers were involved in mechanical removal of the surface soil layer to a depth of 50 cm. They were selected out of a group of professionals otherwise exposed to radiation from confined sources in their daily work. The accumulated work exposure of this group ranged from 2 to 34 years. The control group consisted of individuals not working in the ionizing radiation zone. The average yearly absorbed dose measured by TL dosimeters for all three observed groups did not exceed 2 mSv. The chromosomal aberrations were analyzed by a modified Moorhead method. The objective of the study was to establish the existence of differences in the frequencies of chromosomal aberrations change with respect to the source type, i.e. type of radioactive emission. Comparisons of the chromosomal changes in the observed groups revealed that the group working on technetium production had an increase in the frequency of chromosomal aberrations with respect to control. The aberrations found were of the acentric fragment and chromosomal break types. A comparison of the exposed groups between each other, no statistically significant differences in the numbers of chromosomal aberrations were found. Soil decontamination from depleted uranium did not contribute to the relative radiation risk, since it lasted only a few months, and was done by the professionals fully clothed

  13. Ion irradiated graphite exposed to fusion-relevant deuterium plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deslandes, Alec; Guenette, Mathew C.; Corr, Cormac S.; Karatchevtseva, Inna; Thomsen, Lars; Ionescu, Mihail; Lumpkin, Gregory R.; Riley, Daniel P.

    2014-01-01

    Graphite samples were irradiated with 5 MeV carbon ions to simulate the damage caused by collision cascades from neutron irradiation in a fusion environment. The ion irradiated graphite samples were then exposed to a deuterium plasma in the linear plasma device, MAGPIE, for a total ion fluence of ∼1 × 10 24 ions m −2 . Raman and near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy were used to characterize modifications to the graphitic structure. Ion irradiation was observed to decrease the graphitic content and induce disorder in the graphite. Subsequent plasma exposure decreased the graphitic content further. Structural and surface chemistry changes were observed to be greatest for the sample irradiated with the greatest fluence of MeV ions. D retention was measured using elastic recoil detection analysis and showed that ion irradiation increased the amount of retained deuterium in graphite by a factor of four

  14. Reduced recruitment in Hyalella azteca (Saussure, 1858) exposed to copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, M Shuhaimi; Pascoe, David

    2002-09-01

    Neonates of the amphipod Hyalella azteca were exposed for a 35-day period in the laboratory to a range of copper concentrations, nominally 18 microg/l, 40 microg/l, 70 microg/l and 260 microg/l. The reproductive status of the population was assessed by recording recruitment, the number of precopulatory pairs and number of gravid females. At the end of the experiment, the body lengths of individuals were measured using image analysis. There was a significant decrease in the final population size of H. azteca with increasing copper concentration and compared with the control. Copper significantly reduced recruitment of juveniles and length composition of the final population and there was also a trend toward reduced precopula number with increasing copper concentrations.

  15. Mothers and infants exposed to intimate partner violence compensate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letourneau, Nicole; Morris, Catherine Young; Secco, Loretta; Stewart, Miriam; Hughes, Jean; Critchley, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Reasons for the developmental variability in children exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV) are unclear and under studied. This article presents exploratory findings on (a) the potential impact of IPV on mother-child relationships and child development and (b) the association between these maternal-child relationship impacts and child development. The fit of findings with compensatory, spillover, and compartmentalization hypotheses was explored. Participants were 49 mothers and 51 children younger than 3 years of age affected by IPV. Data were collected on maternal-child interactions, child development, social support, difficult life circumstances, family functioning, child temperament, and parental depression. The findings suggested developmental impacts on children in the sample, along with children's high sensitivity and responsiveness to their caregivers. Although some spillover effects were observed, the predominant observation was of mothers and infants compensating for exposure to IPV in their interactions.

  16. Exposing the QCD Splitting Function with CMS Open Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkoski, Andrew; Marzani, Simone; Thaler, Jesse; Tripathee, Aashish; Xue, Wei

    2017-09-29

    The splitting function is a universal property of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) which describes how energy is shared between partons. Despite its ubiquitous appearance in many QCD calculations, the splitting function cannot be measured directly, since it always appears multiplied by a collinear singularity factor. Recently, however, a new jet substructure observable was introduced which asymptotes to the splitting function for sufficiently high jet energies. This provides a way to expose the splitting function through jet substructure measurements at the Large Hadron Collider. In this Letter, we use public data released by the CMS experiment to study the two-prong substructure of jets and test the 1→2 splitting function of QCD. To our knowledge, this is the first ever physics analysis based on the CMS Open Data.

  17. Supporting awareness in creative group work by exposing design rationale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umer Farooq

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available When creativity is taken as a long-term, complex, and collaborative activity, support for awareness is required for group members to monitor the development of ideas, track how these ideas became narrowed, and understand how alternatives are being implemented and integrated by colleagues. In this paper, we investigate the effects of exposing design rationale to convey awareness, specifically activity awareness, in group creativity. Through evaluating a prototype, we investigate status updates that convey design rationale, and to what consequences, in small groups in fully distributed collaboration. We found that status updates are used for a variety of purposes and that participants’ comments on their collaborators’ status updates provided feedback. Overall, results suggest that participants’ awareness about their collaborators’ future plans increased over time. Majority of participants found the status updates useful, particularly those with higher metacognitive knowledge. Based on our results, two design strategies for activity awareness are proposed.

  18. Own experiences in genetic counselling of radiation exposed persons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laude, G.; Bruening, L.

    1995-01-01

    An outline is given of genetic counselling provided to 46 radiation-exposed persons during the period from 1978 to 1994. The radiation exposure had, in most cases, been due to radiation-therapeutic measures (n=22). To a low extent, counselling was carried out because of fear of genetic consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident (n=11), preceding radiation exposure from X-ray (n=9) and nuclear diagnosis (n=1) as well as occupation radiation exposure (n=3). During counselling, information was given on the genetic risk to be expected, taking into consideration the risk factor that is valid at present and the malformation doubling dose. After performance of radiation therapy, an avoidance of conception for 2 years has been recommended. After termination of this period, in the case of an urgent wish of having children, pregnancy was not discouraged if no further risk factors existed. (orig.) [de

  19. Patients exposed to therapeutic irradiation for benign conditions in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, R.G.

    1976-01-01

    In the United States there are over 1 million individuals who have been irradiated for benign conditions in the head and neck. Many recent reports document conclusively that individuals who have had head and neck radiation for benign conditions have markedly increased risk of thyroid, salivary, and perhaps breast cancer as compared to the general population. Although the relative risk as compared to the general population is high, the risk that any one individual who has had head or neck irradiation will develop a subsequent malignancy is relatively low. Identification of these patients through some type of screening procedure may be beneficial in terms of prevention of subsequent mortality and morbidity from cancer, especially thyroid and salivary cancer. The American Medical Association and the American Hospital Association issued a joint statement of October 17, 1975, urging hospitals and physicians to work together in their communities to develop guidelines and procedures for screening of exposed individuals and for public education

  20. Brain plasticity of rats exposed to prenatal immobilization stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badalyan B. Yu.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim. This histochemical and immunohistochemical study was aimed at examining the brain cellular structures of newborn rats exposed to prenatal immobilization (IMO stress. Methods. Histochemical method on detection of Ca2+-dependent acid phosphatase activity and ABC immunohistochemical technique. Results. Cell structures with radial astrocytes marker GFAP, neuroepithelial stem cell marker gene nestin, stem-cells marker and the hypothalamic neuroprotective proline-rich polypeptide PRP-1 (Galarmin, a natural cytokine of a common precursor to neurophysin vasopressin associated glycoprotein have been revealed in several brain regions. Conclusions. Our findings indicate the process of generation of new neurons in response to IMO and PRP-1 involvement in this recovery mechanism, as PRP-1-Ir was detected in the above mentioned cell structures, as well as in the neurons and nerve fibers.

  1. Psychological distress of adolescents exposed to Hurricane Hugo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin, S B; Weinrich, M; Weinrich, S; Hardin, T L; Garrison, C

    1994-07-01

    To ascertain the effects of a natural disaster on adolescents, 1482 South Carolina high school students who were exposed to Hurricane Hugo were surveyed 1 year after the disaster. Subjects completed a self-administered questionnaire measuring Hugo exposure, nonviolent and violent life events, social support, self-efficacy, and psychological distress. Results showed that the students reported minimal exposure to the hurricane and psychological distress variables approximated national norms. As exposure increased, adolescents reported increased symptoms of psychological distress; i.e., anger, depression, anxiety, and global mental distress. Females and white students experienced higher levels of distress. In most cases, other stressful life events were at least as strong a predictor of psychological distress as was exposure to the hurricane. Self-efficacy and social support were protective.

  2. Self-protection of unsealed anodised aluminium exposed to atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escudero, E.; Bartolome, M. J.; Lopez, V.; Simancas, J.; Gonalez, J. A.; Morcillo, M.; Otero, E.

    2005-01-01

    To confirm or refute the widely held idea that the sealing operation is vital to guarantee the good resistance of anodised aluminium to atmospheric corrosion, unsealed, anodised specimens with three different film thick messes were exposed in 9 atmospheres in Ibero america with salinity values of between 3.9 and 684 mg m''2 day ''-1 of chlorides. Using a wide variety of techniques, from scanning and transmission electron microscopy to direct measurements by gravimetry, and including indirect measurements by electrochemical techniques as well as standard sealing quality control tests, the self-sealing capacity of unsealed anodic coating during atmospheric exposure is demonstrated. Surprisingly, unlike other types of protective coatings, the quality of anodic films improves with ageing. (Author) 15 refs

  3. Protection of persons occupationally exposed to radiation and of patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stieve, F.E.

    1976-01-01

    The experiences of the last ten years have shown that the measures of the First Radiation Protection Ordinance generally proved to be sufficient for the protection of the employed or of the patients. They had to be amended in so far as the exposure to radiation for those occupationally exposed can be reduced. This results in changes to the regulations so that certain groups of persons can also be effectively controlled. The recognition that medical supervision for radiation protection reasons is reasonable only if exposure has occurred should be additionally utilized in the regulations if the Euratom standards make this possible. The protection of patients attains some new rules which can be derived from handling and from therapeutical use. In this case too experience resulted in a more reasonable application of ionizing radiation and radioactive materials than was expected when the First Radiation Protection Ordinance was issued. (orig.) [de

  4. Medical examination of the workers occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Toshio

    1991-01-01

    The hazardous effects of ionizing radiation to man are well recognized, and they are divided into two groups, the stochastic effects (hereditary and carcinogenic effect) and non-stochastic effects (somatic effects such as depression of hematopoiesis, chronic dermatitis and cataracta). The basic framework of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) is intended to prevent the occurrence of non-stochastic effects, by keeping doses below the relevant thresholds, and to ensure that all reasonable aspects are taken to reduce the incidence of stochastic effects. In Japan, the regulatory provisions of radiological protection of the workers occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation are based on the recommendation of ICRP adopted in 1977. According to these regulations, the dose equivalent limits of occupational exposure of man has been decided at 50 mSv/year. The monitoring of exposure to the individual and the procedure of medical examination of the workers are briefly described and discussed. (author)

  5. Reproductive toxicity in boron exposed workers in Bandirma, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Başaran, Nurşen; Duydu, Yalçin; Bolt, Hermann M

    2012-06-01

    Boric acid and sodium borates have been considered as being "toxic to reproduction and development", following results of animal studies with high doses. However unfavorable effects of boron exposure on reproduction and development have not been proved in epidemiological studies so far. The aim of the present study was to investigate the reproductive toxicity indicators in highly exposed workers employed in a boric acid production plant in Bandırma, Turkey. Two hundred and four workers participated in this study. The mean blood boron concentration of the high exposure group of workers was 223.89 ± 69.49 (152.82-454.02)ng/g. Unfavorable effects of boron exposure on the reproductive toxicity indicators were not observed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. The hearing of rural workers exposed to noise and pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sena, Tereza R R; Dourado, Solano S F; Lima, Lucas V; Antoniolli, Ângelo R

    2018-01-01

    n work environments, different physical and chemical agents that may pose a risk to workers' hearing health coexist. In this context, occupational hearing loss stands out. It has mostly been attributed to only noise exposure, although there are other agents, that is, pesticides that might contribute to occupational hearing loss. In this report, two cases will be presented that consider rural workers exposed to pesticides and intense noise generated by an adapted rudimentary vehicle. The noise measured in this vehicle was 88.3 dBA up to 93.4 dBA. Pure-tone audiometry, distortion product otoacoustic emissions, and high-frequency audiometry tests were performed. This report is unusual because of the short time of exposure to noise and pesticides and the hearing loss found, indicating a synergy between those agents.

  7. Hot spring therapy of atomic bomb exposed patients, (9)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatta, O [Balneogic Sanatorium for the Atomic Bomb Injured Beppu, Oita (Japan); Tsuji, H

    1978-03-01

    The following description shows the statistics and the results of medical examinatin concerning the patients utilized Beppu Atomic Bomb Center from April, 1977, to March, 1978. Number of persons utilized the center was 3904, and 20285 man-days in total. Number of case treated there was 268. Number of diseases amounted to 442 of 66 sorts, excluding temporary of acute diseases such as acute entergastritis and cold diseases, etc. According to the report by the Ministry of Health and Welfare, atomic bomb-exposed persons show twice as much rate of incidence as normal persons, and owing to aging, many of them have more than two kinds of diseases. Among the diseases, 60 cases were hypertension, 32 heart disease, 30 knee-arthritis, 26 diabetes, 25 hepatitis, 23 spondylosis deformans, etc. Among 268 cases treated by hot spring therapy, 6 were totally cured, and 252 showed alleviation, while 10 showed no change.

  8. NeuLand submodules exposed to fast neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasparic, Igor [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany); Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Zagreb (Croatia); Aumann, Thomas [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Boretzky, Konstanze; Heil, Michael; Simon, Haik [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Jaehrling, Simon [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany); Collaboration: R3B-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    Within the R{sup 3}B collaboration (Reactions with Relativistic Radioactive Beams), a new neutron detector NeuLAND (New Large Area Neutron Detector) is being developed. The technical design was finalized in November 2011, a fully active scintillator concept was chosen. It will be a box-shaped 2.5 x 2.5 x 3 m{sup 3} detector consisting of 3000 scintillator bars arranged in 60 planes with mutually orthogonal orientation. An array of 150 NeuLAND bars was exposed to fast ''mono-energetic'' neutrons stemming from quasi-free deuteron breakup reactions on a CH{sub 2} target (250 to 1500 AMeV). The experiment carried out at GSI in Nov. 2012 aims for determination of both time resolution and efficiency of NeuLAND submodules. Preliminary results of the analysis are presented.

  9. Brain magnetic resonance imaging of infants exposed prenatally to buprenorphine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahila, H.; Kivitie-Kallio, S.; Halmesmaki, E.; Valanne, L.; Autti, T.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the brains of newborns exposed to buprenorphine prenatally. Material and Methods: Seven neonates followed up antenatally in connection with their mothers' buprenorphine replacement therapy underwent 1.5T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain before the age of 2 months. The infants were born to heavy drug abusers. Four mothers were hepatitis C positive, and all were HIV negative. All mothers smoked tobacco and used benzodiazepines. All pregnancies were full term, and no perinatal asphyxia occurred. All but one neonate had abstinence syndrome and needed morphine replacement therapy. Results: Neither structural abnormalities nor abnormalities in signal intensity were recorded. Conclusion: Buprenorphine replacement therapy does not seem to cause any major structural abnormalities of the brain, and it may prevent known hypoxic-ischemic brain changes resulting from uncontrolled drug abuse. Longitudinal studies are needed to assess possible abnormalities in the brain maturation process

  10. Exposed Biologies and the Banking of Reproductive Vitality in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlberg, Ayo

    2018-01-01

    The looming figures of smog-choked cities, cancer villages and contaminated food have become iconic of a modernising China: the tragic, perhaps unavoidable, side effects of a voracious economy. In this article, I examine how the sperm bank—jingzi ku—in China has emerged quite literally as a sanct......The looming figures of smog-choked cities, cancer villages and contaminated food have become iconic of a modernising China: the tragic, perhaps unavoidable, side effects of a voracious economy. In this article, I examine how the sperm bank—jingzi ku—in China has emerged quite literally...... as a sanctuary of vitality amidst concerns around food safety, air and water pollution, rising infertility and declining population quality. As a twist on Margaret Lock’s concept of ‘local biologies’, I argue that ‘exposed biologies’ have become a matter of concern in China in ways that have corroborated a place...

  11. Susceptible-infected-recovered and susceptible-exposed-infected models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tome, Tania; De Oliveira, Mario J

    2011-01-01

    Two stochastic epidemic lattice models, the susceptible-infected-recovered and the susceptible-exposed-infected models, are studied on a Cayley tree of coordination number k. The spreading of the disease in the former is found to occur when the infection probability b is larger than b c = k/2(k - 1). In the latter, which is equivalent to a dynamic site percolation model, the spreading occurs when the infection probability p is greater than p c = 1/(k - 1). We set up and solve the time evolution equations for both models and determine the final and time-dependent properties, including the epidemic curve. We show that the two models are closely related by revealing that their relevant properties are exactly mapped into each other when p = b/[k - (k - 1)b]. These include the cluster size distribution and the density of individuals of each type, quantities that have been determined in closed forms.

  12. Brain magnetic resonance imaging of infants exposed prenatally to buprenorphine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahila, H.; Kivitie-Kallio, S.; Halmesmaki, E.; Valanne, L.; Autti, T. [Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Dept. of Pediatrics, and Helsinki Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital (Finland)

    2007-02-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the brains of newborns exposed to buprenorphine prenatally. Material and Methods: Seven neonates followed up antenatally in connection with their mothers' buprenorphine replacement therapy underwent 1.5T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain before the age of 2 months. The infants were born to heavy drug abusers. Four mothers were hepatitis C positive, and all were HIV negative. All mothers smoked tobacco and used benzodiazepines. All pregnancies were full term, and no perinatal asphyxia occurred. All but one neonate had abstinence syndrome and needed morphine replacement therapy. Results: Neither structural abnormalities nor abnormalities in signal intensity were recorded. Conclusion: Buprenorphine replacement therapy does not seem to cause any major structural abnormalities of the brain, and it may prevent known hypoxic-ischemic brain changes resulting from uncontrolled drug abuse. Longitudinal studies are needed to assess possible abnormalities in the brain maturation process.

  13. Radiation pneumonitis in a patient exposed to asbestos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashford, R.F.U.; Maher, J.; Drury, A.; Pickering, D.

    1981-01-01

    A case report is presented of a 58 year old man who had for many years run an asbestos importing and fibreizing plant. He developed radiation pneumonitis following radiotherapy to a squamous cell carcinoma of the middle 3rd of the oesophagus. Detailed lung studies at autopsy revealed asbestos bodies associated with macrophages in many alveoli and areas of subpleural fibrosis typical of asbestos exposure. This was the most florid case of radiation seen in the Westminster Hospital for some years and the first seen in patients treated for carcinoma of the oesophagus using a three field technique. It is suggested that when planning radiotherapy to an asbestos-exposed patient, a possible increase in lung sensitivity to radiation should be considered when planning dosage. (U.K.)

  14. Action spectra in mammalian cells exposed to ultraviolet radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    A review is given of the literature published since 1977 on action spectra in mammalian cells exposed to ultraviolet radiation in the wavelength region above 220 nm. Action spectra for lethal events are discussed for cell inactivation in normal cells, growth arrested cells and photosensitive cells. Action spectra for non-lethal events are also discussed in relation to pyrimidine dimer formation, photoreactivation and the use of photosensitisers. It was concluded from these studies that damage to the DNA, and the extent of the repair of this damage, seems to determine a cell's response to such parameters as inactivation, mutation, transformation, latent viral activation, cellular viral capacity and ultraviolet enhanced viral reactivation. In addition to the direct effects of UV on DNA, photosensitization of cellular responses with chemicals such as 8-MOP extend the wavelength range at which damage can be demonstrated. (U.K.)

  15. Damage assessment in CFRP laminates exposed to impact fatigue loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsigkourakos, George; Silberschmidt, Vadim V; Ashcroft, I A

    2011-01-01

    Demand for advanced engineering composites in the aerospace industry is increasing continuously. Lately, carbon fibre reinforced polymers (CFRPs) became one of the most important structural materials in the industry due to a combination of characteristics such as: excellent stiffness, high strength-to-weight ratio, and ease of manufacture according to application. In service, aerospace composite components and structures are exposed to various transient loads, some of which can propagate in them as cyclic impacts. A typical example is an effect of the wind gusts during flight. This type of loading is known as impact fatigue (IF); it is a repetition of low-energy impacts. Such loads can cause various types of damage in composites: fibre breaking, transverse matrix cracking, de-bonding between fibres and matrix and delamination resulting in reduction of residual stiffness and loss of functionality. Furthermore, this damage is often sub-surface, which reinforces the need for more regular inspection. The effects of IF are of major importance due its detrimental effect on the structural integrity of components that can be generated after relatively few impacts at low force levels compared to those in a standard fatigue regime. This study utilises an innovative testing system with the capability of subjecting specimens to a series of repetitive impacts. The primary subject of this paper is to assess the damaging effect of IF on the behaviour of drilled CFRP specimens, exposed to such loading. A detailed damage analysis is implemented utilising an X-ray micro computed tomography system. The main findings suggested that at early stages of life damage is governed by o degree splits along the length of the specimens resulting in a 20% reduction of stiffness. The final failure damage scenario indicated that transverse crasks in the 90 degree plies are the main reason for complete delamination which can be translated to a 50% stiffness reduction.

  16. Exposing the cancer genome atlas as a SPARQL endpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deus, Helena F; Veiga, Diogo F; Freire, Pablo R; Weinstein, John N; Mills, Gordon B; Almeida, Jonas S

    2010-12-01

    The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) is a multidisciplinary, multi-institutional effort to characterize several types of cancer. Datasets from biomedical domains such as TCGA present a particularly challenging task for those interested in dynamically aggregating its results because the data sources are typically both heterogeneous and distributed. The Linked Data best practices offer a solution to integrate and discover data with those characteristics, namely through exposure of data as Web services supporting SPARQL, the Resource Description Framework query language. Most SPARQL endpoints, however, cannot easily be queried by data experts. Furthermore, exposing experimental data as SPARQL endpoints remains a challenging task because, in most cases, data must first be converted to Resource Description Framework triples. In line with those requirements, we have developed an infrastructure to expose clinical, demographic and molecular data elements generated by TCGA as a SPARQL endpoint by assigning elements to entities of the Simple Sloppy Semantic Database (S3DB) management model. All components of the infrastructure are available as independent Representational State Transfer (REST) Web services to encourage reusability, and a simple interface was developed to automatically assemble SPARQL queries by navigating a representation of the TCGA domain. A key feature of the proposed solution that greatly facilitates assembly of SPARQL queries is the distinction between the TCGA domain descriptors and data elements. Furthermore, the use of the S3DB management model as a mediator enables queries to both public and protected data without the need for prior submission to a single data source. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Neurodevelopmental delay in children exposed in utero to hyperemesis gravidarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fejzo, Marlena S; Magtira, Aromalyn; Schoenberg, Frederic Paik; Macgibbon, Kimber; Mullin, Patrick M

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the frequency of emotional, behavioral, and learning disorders in children exposed in utero to hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) and to identify prognostic factors for these disorders. Neurodevelopmental outcomes of 312 children from 203 mothers with HG were compared to neurodevelopmental outcomes from 169 children from 89 unaffected mothers. Then the clinical profiles of patients with HG and a normal child outcome were compared to the clinical profiles of patients with HG and a child with neurodevelopmental delay to identify prognostic factors. Binary responses were analyzed using either a Chi-square or Fisher Exact test and continuous responses were analyzed using a t-test. Children exposed in utero to HG have a 3.28-fold increase in odds of a neurodevelopmental diagnosis including attention disorders, learning delay, sensory disorders, and speech and language delay (Pneurodevelopmental delay. We found no evidence for increased risk of 13 emotional, behavioral, and learning disorders, including autism, intellectual impairment, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. However, the study was not sufficiently powered to detect rare conditions. Medications, treatments, and preterm birth were not associated with an increased risk for neurodevelopmental delay. Women with HG are at a significantly increased risk of having a child with neurodevelopmental delay. Common antiemetic treatments were not linked to neurodevelopmental delay, but early symptoms may play a role. There is an urgent need to address whether aggressive treatment that includes vitamin and nutrient supplementation in women with early symptoms of severe nausea of pregnancy decreases the risk of neurodevelopmental delay. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Clastogenic factors in the plasma of children exposed at Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emerit, I.; Levy, A.; Cernjavski, L.; Alaoui-Youssefi, A.; Pogossian, A.; Quastel, M.; Goldsmith, J.; Merkin, L.; Riklis, E.

    1997-01-01

    Clastogenic factors (CFs), as they were described previously in accidentally or therapeutically irradiated persons, in A-bomb survivors and in liquidators of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, were also detected in the plasma of Chernobyl-exposed children. A high percentage of plasma ultrafiltrates from 170 children, immigrated to Israel in 1990, exerted clastogenic effects in test cultures set up with blood from healthy donors. The differences were highly significant in comparison to children immigrated from 'clean' cities of the former Soviet Union or children born in Israel. The percentage of CF-positive children and the mean values of the adjusted clastogenic scores (ACS) were higher for those coming from Gomel and Mozyr, which are high exposure sites (IAEA measurements), compared to those coming from Kiev. There was no correlation between residual 137-Caesium body burden and presence of CFs. However, both measurements were not done at the same time (in 1990 and 1992-1994, respectively). Also no relationship could be revealed between enlargement of the thyroid gland and CF-positivity. CFs are not only observed after irradiation, but in a variety of chronic inflammatory diseases with autoimmune reactions. They were also described in the congenital breakage syndromes, which are hereditary diseases with the highest cancer incidence in humans. Whether the clastogenic effects continuously produced by circulating CFs represent a risk factor for malignant late effects deserves further study and follow-up. Since CF formation and CF action are mediated by superoxide radicals, prophylactic treatment with antioxidants may be suggested for Chernobyl-exposed children, whose plasma induces a strongly positive CF-test

  19. Viability and Virulence of Entomopathogenic Nematodes Exposed to Ultraviolet Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro-Ilan, David I; Hazir, Selcuk; Lete, Luis

    2015-09-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) can be highly effective biocontrol agents, but their efficacy can be reduced due to exposure to environmental stress such as from ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Our objectives were to 1) compare UV tolerance among a broad array of EPN species, and 2) investigate the relationship between reduced nematode viability (after exposure to UV) and virulence. Nematodes exposed to a UV radiation (254 nm) for 10 or 20 min were assessed separately for viability (survival) and virulence to Galleria mellonella. We compared 9 different EPN species and 15 strains: Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Baine, fl11, Oswego, and Vs strains), H. floridensis (332), H. georgiana (Kesha), H. indica (HOM1), H. megidis (UK211), Steinernema carpocapsae (All, Cxrd, DD136, and Sal strains), S. feltiae (SN), S. rarum (17C&E), and S. riobrave (355). In viability assessments, steinernematids, particularly strains of S. carpocapsae, generally exhibited superior UV tolerance compared with the heterorhabditids. However, some heterorhabditids tended to be more tolerant than others, e.g., H. megidis and H. bacteriophora (Baine) were most susceptible and H. bacteriophora (Vs) was the only heterorhabditid that did not exhibit a significant effect after 10 min of exposure. All heterorhabditids experienced reduced viability after 20 min exposure though several S. carpocapsae strains did not. In total, after 10 or 20 min exposure, the viability of seven nematode strains did not differ from their non-UV exposed controls. In virulence assays, steinernematids (particularly S. carpocapsae strains) also tended to exhibit higher UV tolerance. However, in contrast to the viability measurements, all nematodes experienced a reduction in virulence relative to their controls. Correlation analysis revealed that viability among nematode strains is not necessarily related to virulence. In conclusion, our results indicate that the impact of UV varies substantially among EPNs, and viability alone

  20. Beta dosimetry in teeth from SR-90 exposed subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fattibene, P.; De Coste, V.; Onori, S.; Veronese, I.; Giussani, A.; Cantone, M.C.; Shishkina, E.

    2006-01-01

    Tooth enamel is a well recognized dosimeter for retrospective dose reconstruction of individuals accidentally exposed to ionizing radiation. The measurements of the absorbed dose in tooth enamel is conventionally carried out with the Electron Paramagnetic Resonance technique. Tooth enamel is sensitive to all kind of ionizing radiation. Its response to photons has been widely investigated. For application to contaminated teeth with 90 Sr, one of the most common osteo tropic radionuclides, the effectiveness of tooth enamel response to the β spectrum needs be evaluated. The response function to 90 Sr of the EPR/tooth enamel systems, its linearity and reproducibility have been investigated under a controlled geometry, and the results will be presented and compared to those obtained with photons. When the subject has been exposed to both external and internal radiation, a combined EPR/T.L. method can be used to distinguish the internal from the external contribution to the cumulative dose in tooth (Gosku et al., 2002;=Veronese et al. 2004, Shishkina et al. 2005). The T.L. measurement, performed putting thin ± Al 2 O 3 :C dosimeters at contact with the tooth surfaces, enables to estimate the beta dose rate due to the radionuclides present in tooth. The combination of this information with that coming from EPR allows, under specific assumptions, to evaluate separately the internal and external contribution to the tooth dose. In a previous work (Veronese et al., 2004) the dose in enamel measured by EPR in a tooth contaminated with 90 Sr of a Techa River resident was compared to the dose rate measured by TLDs. The test has been extended to a larger number of 90 Sr contaminated teeth. EPR measurements have been also performed in other portions of the teeth, i.e. tooth dentin and root. The correlation between the results, obtained from EPR and TLD measurements, and the evaluation of the relative proportion of internal and external dose are presented and discussed. (authors)

  1. Performance of Raphidocelis subcapitata exposed to heavy metal mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Expósito, Nora; Kumar, Vikas; Sierra, Jordi; Schuhmacher, Marta; Giménez Papiol, Gemma

    2017-12-01

    Microalgae growth inhibition assays are candidates for referent ecotoxicological assays, and are a fundamental part in the strategy to reduce the use of fish and other animal models in aquatic toxicology. In the present work, the performance of Raphidocelis subcapitata exposed to heavy metals following standardized growth inhibition assays has been assessed in three different scenarios: 1) dilutions of single heavy metals, 2) artificial mixture of heavy metals at similar levels than those found in natural rivers and, 3) natural samples containing known mixtures of contaminants (heavy metals). Chemical speciation of heavy metals has been estimated with Eh-pH diagram and Visual MINTEQ software; heavy metal and free heavy metal ion concentrations were used as input data, together with microalgae growth inhibition, for Dr. Fit software. The final goal was to assess the suitability of the ecotoxicological test based on the growth inhibition of microalgae cultures, and the mathematic models based on these results, for regulatory and decision-making purposes. The toxicity of a given heavy metal is not only determined by its chemical speciation; other chemical and biological interaction play an important role in the final toxicity. Raphidocelis subcapitata 48h-h-EC50 for tested heavy metals (especially Cu and Zn) were in agreement with previous studies, when ion metal bioavailability was assumed to be 100%. Nevertheless, the calculated growth inhibition was not in agreement with the obtained inhibition when exposed to the artificial mixture of heavy metals or the natural sample. Interactions between heavy metal ions and the compounds of the culture media and/or the natural sample determine heavy metal bioavailability, and eventually their toxicity. More research is needed for facing the challenge posed by pollutant mixtures as they are present in natural environments, and make microalgae-based assays suitable for pollution management and regulatory purposes. Copyright

  2. Developmental dental defects in children exposed to PCBs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jan, J. [Ljubljana Univ. (Slovenia). Fac. of Medicine; Sovcikova, E.; Kovrizhnykh, I.; Wimmerova, S.; Trnovec, T. [Slovak Medical Univ., Bratislava (Slovakia). Inst. of Preventive and Clinical Medicine; Kocan, A. [Institute of Preventive and Clinical Medicine, Bratislava (Slovakia). Dept. of Toxic Organic Pollutants

    2004-09-15

    Developing enamel is sensitive to a wide range of local and systemic disturbances. Because of the absolute metabolic stability of its structure, changes in enamel during its development are permanent in nature. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) have been shown to disturb tooth development in experimental animals, but only limited amounts of data exist on their adverse effects in humans. Dental changes such as mottled, chipped, carious, and neonatal teeth have been reported in accidentally exposed humans. Nevertheless, co-contamination with polychlorinated dibenzo-furans (PCDFs) was largely responsible for the overall toxicity4. Alaluusua et al. found that developmental dental defects were correlated with the total exposure to polychlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons via mother's milk. The correlation was strong with exposure to prevailing levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and furans (PCDF) but weak with exposure to PCBs alone. In our previous study we have shown developmental dental defects in children exposed to PCBs alone6, suggesting that the developing human teeth are vulnerable to PCBs. In the Michalovce region of eastern Slovakia, PCBs from a chemical plant manufacturing Delors contaminated the surrounding district7. The total serum PCB levels in samples from the general population there exceeded by several times the background levels in subjects living in a comparable unexposed Svidnik district. PCB levels in breast milk samples in the Michalovce region were the highest in Slovakia. Levels of toxic polychlorinated aromatics (PCDFs, PCNs, and planar PCBs) in technical Delors were high. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of long-term exposure to PCBs, measured at the individual level, on developmental dental defects in children in eastern Slovakia.

  3. Study of chromosome aberrations on the workers occupationally exposed to thorium and rare earth mixed dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wei; Wang Chunyan; Lv Huiming; Zhang Cuilan; Hao Shuxia; Su Xu; Jia Kejun; Liu Yufei

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of thorium and rare earth mixed dust on chromosome aberrations in the lymphocytes of occupational exposed workers. Methods: Analyses of unstable chromosome aberrations on 53 occupational exposed workers and 58 control workers were carried out by the conventional Giemsa staining method. Fluorescence in situ hybridization method was performed to analyze the chromosome stable aberrations on 10 occupational exposed workers and l0 control workers. Results: The frequencies of chromosomal aberration cells, dicentrics plus rings, total aberrations in exposed workers were significantly higher than those in controls. No significant difference was found in the frequency of acentric aberrations between exposed and non-exposed workers. No significant difference was found in the frequency of translocations between exposed and non-exposed workers. Conclusions: Chronically occupational exposure to thorium and rare earth mixed dust can increase the induction of unstable chromosome aberration, but the increase of stable chromosome aberrations (translocation) can not be observed. (authors)

  4. 9 CFR 73.8 - Cattle infected or exposed during transit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cattle infected or exposed during... SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.8 Cattle infected or exposed during transit. (a) Healthy cattle from unquarantined State exposed en route. Should healthy cattle in transit from a State not quarantined by the Secretary...

  5. Overview of the ISS Radiation Environment Observed during the ESA EXPOSE-R2 Mission in 2014-2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dachev, T. P.; Bankov, N. G.; Tomov, B. T.; Matviichuk, Yu. N.; Dimitrov, Pl. G.; Häder, D.-P.; Horneck, G.

    2017-11-01

    The radiation risk radiometer-dosimeter (R3D)-R2 solid-state detector performed radiation measurements at the European Space Agency EXPOSE-R2 platform outside of the Russian "Zvezda" module at the International Space Station (ISS) from 24 October 2014 to 11 January 2016. The ISS orbital parameters were average altitude of 415 km and 51.6° inclination. We developed special software and used experimentally obtained formulas to determine the radiation flux-to-dose ratio from the R3DR2 Liulin-type deposited-energy spectrometer. We provide for the first time simultaneous, long-term estimates of radiation dose external to the ISS for four source categories: (i) galactic cosmic ray particles and their secondary products; (ii) protons in the South Atlantic Anomaly region of the inner radiation belt (IRB); (iii) relativistic electrons and/or bremsstrahlung in the outer radiation belt (ORB); and (iv) solar energetic particle (SEP) events. The latter category is new in this study. Additionally, in this study, secondary particles (SP) resulting from energetic particle interaction with the detector and nearby materials are identified. These are observed continuously at high latitudes. The detected SPs are identified using the same sorting requirements as SEP protons. The IRB protons provide the highest consistent hourly dose, while the ORB electrons and SEPs provide the most extreme hourly doses. SEPs were observed 11 times during the study interval. The R3DR2 data support calculation of average equivalent doses. The 30 day and 1 year average equivalent doses are much smaller than the skin and eyes doses recommendations by the National Council on Radiation Protection (Report 132), which provides radiation protection guidance for Low Earth Orbit.

  6. Loi constitutive chimioplastique pour le beton expose aux hautes temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammoud, Rabah

    Concrete is the most widely used construction material in the world. Even though it has been used for several centuries, its behavior to high temperature remains to be understood. In the light of recent extreme events, including accidents, and arson, special attention has been focused on the performance of concrete in the fire safety assessment of buildings and tunnels. Fire represents one of the most severe conditions encountered during the life-time of a structure. Concrete exposed to high temperature can significantly jeopardize the structural integrity and load bearing capacity of the structure. Spalling of concrete remains one of the main issues to be addressed in the case of fire in buildings and tunnels. Successful modeling of this phenomenon depends not only on the accurate prediction of the temperature distribution through structural concrete but also on its mechanical response to the heating and boundaries restrains conditions and the migration of moisture and associated pore pressures. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a reliable formulation of concrete with all required information to understand its behavior during and after exposure to elevated temperature. It is also necessary to properly assess the effects of thermal degradation in order to develop predictive tools and validate design codes. Many structural problems can be adequately worthy by an elastoplastic model. The ultimate goal of this study is the development of a new constitutive model under a chemoplastic framework. To do this, an experimental program is carried out. The purpose of this program is twofold. First, it is essential to calibrate the proposed constitutive law that will be developed, and, second, for defining an inverse a problem. Usually, uniaxial and triaxial tests, conducted with confining pressure varied between 1.3 and 24 MPa and a temperature up to 700°C, allow us to identify the constitutive law parameters. This law reproduces the reduced field strength due to

  7. Durability of Selected Membrane Materials when Exposed to Chlorine Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eikeland, Marianne Soerflaten

    2001-03-01

    This thesis is focusing on the durability of selected membrane materials when exposed to chlorine gas in the temperature range 30-100{sup o}C. Studies of the changes of membrane separation properties and the mechanisms promoting these changes have been studied. The selected membrane materials were poly(dimethylsioxane) (PDMS), Fluorel, fluorosilicone, and blends of PDMS and Fluorel. The thesis is organised in seven chapters. The first chapter gives an introduction to the background of the work. The second chapter presents the theory for gas separation using dense rubbery membranes. The properties of the selected membrane materials are presented in chapter three. The fourth chapter describes degradation mechanisms for polymeric materials in general and for the selected membrane materials in particular. Presentation of the experimental work is given in chapter five, while the results with discussions are presented in chapter six. The conclusions and recommendations for further studies are given in chapter seven. Five appendixes are attached: Appendix A describes the calculations of permeability and solubility coefficients and the accuracy of the experimental measurements. Appendix B summarises the measured values in tables and Appendix C describes the analytical methods. Appendix D gives the properties of the gases used in the experiments. Appendix E is the article ''Durability of Poly(dimethylsiloxane) when Exposed to Chlorine Gas'', submitted to the Journal of Applied Polymer Science. Highly crosslinked PDMS was found to have an initial high permeability for chlorine gas and a high Cl{sub 2}/O{sub 2} selectivity. However when exposed to chlorine gas the permeability decreased significantly. Crosslinking of the PDMS polymer chain and chlorination of the polymer gave a denser polymer structure and thus lower permeability. Fluorel showed very low permeabilities and selectivities for the gases in question and was thus not interesting for this

  8. Pulmonary nodules in workers exposed to urban stressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sancini, A.; Fioravanti, M.; Ciarrocca, M.; Palermo, P.; Fiaschetti, M.; Schifano, M.P.; Tomei, G.; Tomei, F.

    2010-01-01

    By multilayer spiral low-dose computed tomography (LD-CT) of the chest this study assesses the early detection of lung lesions on a sample of 100 traffic policemen of a big Italian city professionally exposed to urban pollutants and 100 controls non-occupationally exposed to urban pollutants matched by sex, age, length of service and cigarette smoking habit. Exposure to urban pollutants in traffic policemen was characterized using the annual average concentrations of PM 10 , NO 2 and benzene in the period 1998-2008 measured by fixed monitoring stations located in different areas of the city. A significant and increasing number of suspicious lung nodules with diameters between 5 and 10 mm was observed: in traffic policemen (including smokers and non-smokers) vs. controls (including smokers and non-smokers); in total smokers (including traffic policemen and controls) vs. total non-smokers (traffic policemen and controls); in smoker traffic policemen vs. smoker controls and vs. non-smoker traffic policemen; in non-smoker traffic policemen vs. non-smoker controls. The RR of finding cases with at least one lung nodule with diameters between 5 and 10 mm in traffic policemen (including smokers and non-smokers) compared to controls (including smokers and non-smokers) is 1.94 (CI 1.13-3.31); in total smokers vs. non-smokers the RR is 1.96 (CI 1.20-3.19). The comparison between the interaction exposure and smoking shows an increase in smoker traffic policemen than in smoker controls (RR=2.14; CI 1.02-4.52). The RR for smoker traffic policemen was higher than in non-smoker traffic policemen (RR=2.09; CI 1.19-3.66). The results of our study show that: (1) while smoker workers have a higher risk for developing solid suspicious lung nodules, the simple routinely exposure to urban pollutants is unable to produce the same kind of increased risk; (2) the interaction of smoking and exposure to urban pollutants greatly increases the risk for the development of solid suspicious lung

  9. Pulmonary nodules in workers exposed to urban stressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sancini, A. [University of Rome ' Sapienza' , Department of Occupational Medicine, Viale Regina Elena 336, 00161 Rome (Italy); Fioravanti, M. [University of Rome ' Sapienza' , Department of Psychiatric Science and Psychological Medicine, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Ciarrocca, M.; Palermo, P.; Fiaschetti, M.; Schifano, M.P. [University of Rome ' Sapienza' , Department of Occupational Medicine, Viale Regina Elena 336, 00161 Rome (Italy); Tomei, G. [University of Rome ' Sapienza' , Department of Psychiatric Science and Psychological Medicine, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Tomei, F., E-mail: francesco.tomei@uniroma1.it [University of Rome ' Sapienza' , Department of Occupational Medicine, Viale Regina Elena 336, 00161 Rome (Italy)

    2010-07-15

    By multilayer spiral low-dose computed tomography (LD-CT) of the chest this study assesses the early detection of lung lesions on a sample of 100 traffic policemen of a big Italian city professionally exposed to urban pollutants and 100 controls non-occupationally exposed to urban pollutants matched by sex, age, length of service and cigarette smoking habit. Exposure to urban pollutants in traffic policemen was characterized using the annual average concentrations of PM{sub 10}, NO{sub 2} and benzene in the period 1998-2008 measured by fixed monitoring stations located in different areas of the city. A significant and increasing number of suspicious lung nodules with diameters between 5 and 10 mm was observed: in traffic policemen (including smokers and non-smokers) vs. controls (including smokers and non-smokers); in total smokers (including traffic policemen and controls) vs. total non-smokers (traffic policemen and controls); in smoker traffic policemen vs. smoker controls and vs. non-smoker traffic policemen; in non-smoker traffic policemen vs. non-smoker controls. The RR of finding cases with at least one lung nodule with diameters between 5 and 10 mm in traffic policemen (including smokers and non-smokers) compared to controls (including smokers and non-smokers) is 1.94 (CI 1.13-3.31); in total smokers vs. non-smokers the RR is 1.96 (CI 1.20-3.19). The comparison between the interaction exposure and smoking shows an increase in smoker traffic policemen than in smoker controls (RR=2.14; CI 1.02-4.52). The RR for smoker traffic policemen was higher than in non-smoker traffic policemen (RR=2.09; CI 1.19-3.66). The results of our study show that: (1) while smoker workers have a higher risk for developing solid suspicious lung nodules, the simple routinely exposure to urban pollutants is unable to produce the same kind of increased risk; (2) the interaction of smoking and exposure to urban pollutants greatly increases the risk for the development of solid

  10. Airway inflammation among compost workers exposed to actinomycetes spores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari Kulvik Heldal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To study the associations between exposure to bioaerosols and work-related symptoms, lung function and biomarkers of airway inflammation in compost workers. Materials and method. Personal full-shift exposure measurements were performed on 47 workers employed at five windrow plants (n=20 and five reactor plants (n=27. Samples were analyzed for endotoxins, bacteria, fungal and actinomycetes spores. Health examinations were performed on workers and 37 controls before and after work on the day exposure was measured. The examinations included symptoms recorded by questionnaire, lung function by spirometry and nasal dimensions by acoustic rhinometry (AR. The pneumoproteins CC16, SP-D and SP-A were measured in a blood sample drawn at the end of the day. Results. The levels of endotoxins (median 3 EU/m[sup]3[/sup] , range 0–730 EU/m[sup]3[/sup] and actinomycetes spores (median 0.2 × 10[sup]6[/sup] spores/m[sup]3[/sup] , range 0–590 × 10[sup]6[/sup] spores/m[sup]3[/sup] were significantly higher in reactor plants compared to windrow plants. However, windrow composting workers reported more symptoms than reactor composting workers, probably due to use of respiratory protection. Exposure-response relationships between actinomycetes spores exposure and respiratory effects, found as cough and nose irritation during a shift, was significantly increased (OR 4.3, 95% CI 1.1–16, OR 6.1, 95% CI 1.5–25, respectively, p<0.05 among workers exposed to 0.02–0.3 × 10[sup]6[/sup] actinomycetes spores/m 3 , and FEV1/FVC% decreased cross shift (b=–3.2, SE=1.5%, p<0.01. Effects were weaker in the highest exposed group, but these workers used respiratory protection, frequently limiting their actual exposure. No relationships were found between exposure and pneumoprotein concentrations. Conclusions. The major agent in the aerosol generated at compost plants was actinomycetes spores which was associated with work related cough symptoms and work

  11. Frequency of marriage and live birth among survivors prenatally exposed to the atomic bomb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blot, W.J.; Shimizu, Y.; Kato, H.; Miller, R.W.

    1975-01-01

    Frequency of marriage and birth as of January 1973 was determined for persons exposed in utero to the atomic bombs in 1945 and for controls. The marriage rate was lower in persons heavily exposed in utero than in the non-exposed or lightly exposed. This difference is attributed partly to the lesser marriageability of persons with mental retardation who are significantly more numerous among the heavily exposed, and partly to unmeasured variables, possibly including social discrimination against survivors of the atomic bomb. No consistent relation was observed between radiation exposure and three reproductive indices: childless marriages, number of births, and interval between marriage and first birth

  12. The management of workers occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-10-01

    In Canada, the regulation of radiation protection is a shared responsibility between the federal body (the Atomic Energy Control Board) and the appropriate provincial body (usually the Department of Health, or Department of Labour). The AECB is responsible, for example, for regulating the development, application and use of nuclear energy and radioisotopes, and the provinces are responsible for the regulation of all other forms of ionizing and non-ionizing radiations and for naturally-occurring radioactive material (NORM). Although there is consultation between the federal and provincial regulatory agencies, the division of jurisdictional authority has resulted in considerable differences in the approach towards implementation radiation protection programs in Canada. This is especially true in the management of workers occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation. These differences have produced unwarranted discrepancies in operating procedures and practices in the allocation of resources and manpower, and in the requirements governing radiological training, personnel monitoring and medical surveillance. In light of the General Amendments to the AEC Regulations, the 1990 Recommendations of the ICRP, and the IAEA recommendations on safety culture, the ACRP has considered it timely to undertake a study to examine the feasibility of establishing a more coherent approach to harmonize radiation protection practices within Canada. This study comprised an examination of the regulatory approach used in several countries: a review of the nature of radiation safety programs in various types of licensed institutions and facilities in Canada; and a review of recommendations of internationally-recognized authorities in radiation protection

  13. Psychological therapies for children and adolescents exposed to trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Donna; Maiocchi, Licia; Bhandari, Abhishta P; Taylor, Fiona; Gray, Carl; O'Brien, Louise

    2016-10-11

    Children and adolescents who have experienced trauma are at high risk of developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other negative emotional, behavioural and mental health outcomes, all of which are associated with high personal and health costs. A wide range of psychological treatments are used to prevent negative outcomes associated with trauma in children and adolescents. To assess the effects of psychological therapies in preventing PTSD and associated negative emotional, behavioural and mental health outcomes in children and adolescents who have undergone a traumatic event. We searched the Cochrane Common Mental Disorders Group's Specialised Register to 29 May 2015. This register contains reports of relevant randomised controlled trials from The Cochrane Library (all years), EMBASE (1974 to date), MEDLINE (1950 to date) and PsycINFO (1967 to date). We also checked reference lists of relevant studies and reviews. We did not restrict the searches by date, language or publication status. All randomised controlled trials of psychological therapies compared with a control such as treatment as usual, waiting list or no treatment, pharmacological therapy or other treatments in children or adolescents who had undergone a traumatic event. Two members of the review group independently extracted data. We calculated odds ratios for binary outcomes and standardised mean differences for continuous outcomes using a random-effects model. We analysed data as short-term (up to and including one month after therapy), medium-term (one month to one year after therapy) and long-term (one year or longer). Investigators included 6201 participants in the 51 included trials. Twenty studies included only children, two included only preschool children and ten only adolescents; all others included both children and adolescents. Participants were exposed to sexual abuse in 12 trials, to war or community violence in ten, to physical trauma and natural disaster in six each and to

  14. Exposing region duplication through local geometrical color invariant features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jiachang; Guo, Jichang

    2015-05-01

    Many advanced image-processing softwares are available for tampering images. How to determine the authenticity of an image has become an urgent problem. Copy-move is one of the most common image forgery operations. Many methods have been proposed for copy-move forgery detection (CMFD). However, most of these methods are designed for grayscale images without any color information used. They are usually not suitable when the duplicated regions have little structure or have undergone various transforms. We propose a CMFD method using local geometrical color invariant features to detect duplicated regions. The method starts by calculating the color gradient of the inspected image. Then, we directly take the color gradient as the input for scale invariant features transform (SIFT) to extract color-SIFT descriptors. Finally, keypoints are matched and clustered before their geometrical relationship is estimated to expose the duplicated regions. We evaluate the detection performance and computational complexity of the proposed method together with several popular CMFD methods on a public database. Experimental results demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed method in detecting duplicated regions with various transforms and poor structure.

  15. Lung scintigraphy evaluation in workers exposed to abrasive dusts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terra Filho, Mario

    1995-01-01

    The production process of abrasives use aluminium, or silicon carbide a synthetic material with a hardness only slightly less than that of a diamond. It is popularly known as carborundum since it was first manufactured as an abrasive in 1891, produced by the fusion of high grade silica and petroleum coke with sawdust. For many years silicon carbide was thought not to give rise to pulmonary lesions. Recently several researchers suggested the existence of a carborundum pneumoconiosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of the pulmonary clearance of 99m Technetium chelated to diethylene-triamine penta-acetate ( 99m Tc DTPA), and 67 Gallium lung scanning in workers exposed to abrasive dusts. Thirty seven subjects, 13 smokers and 24 nonsmokers and ex smokers were studied. In 32 (86,48%) 67 Gallium lung scanning was positive including 13 (40,62%) retired workers. We conclude that non smoking workers of abrasives plants have a pulmonary alveolar epithelial permeability disturbance similar as observed in smoking workers and smoking controls. Most workers, ex-workers of these industries and in patients with carborundum pneumoconiosis there is an evidence of pulmonary inflammation measured with abnormal 67 Gallium lung scan. (author)

  16. Studies on chromosome aberrations in workers occupationally exposed to radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Hyung; Oh, Hyeon Joo; Shim, Sun Bo; Roh, Hye Won; Lee, Hai Yong [Korea Food and Drug Administration, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Soon Ja [Ewha Womens Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-06-01

    Cytogenetic assays for unstable chromosomes were performed on 54 medical radiation workers who are occupationally exposed to radiation and 42 controls. A total of 15,577 metaphase cells were scored. The frequencies of dicentrics and acentric chromosomes on controls were 0.52*10{sup -3} and 0.82*10{sup -2}, respectively. On radiation workers those were 2.28*10{sup -3} and 1.34*10{sup -2}, respectively. Though the frequencies of all types of chromosome aberrations in the workers were higher than those in the controls, the only significant difference was found in the case of dicentrics (P < 0.01). When we considered exposure dose of recent one year, duration of employment and smoking habit in radiation worker, a slight increase was shown in frequency of unstable chromosome aberrations on these workers, but no statistical differences were observed (P > 0.05) except exposure dose of recent one year (P < 0.05). These results could indicate that low level exposure to ionizing radiation can induce unstable chromosome aberrations in blood lymphocytes.

  17. Reproductive function in mice exposed to ancestral and direct irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, D.J.; Sprackling, L.S.

    1978-01-01

    Reproduction was studied in 13 inbred strains of mice that had been exposed continuously to 60 Co gamma radiation for varying numbers of generations. At weaning the mice were removed from the irradiation chamber and were tested for reproductive performance. Ancestral and direct levels of irradiation were determined for each animal. Each irradiated or control female was scored as fertile or sterile, and in utero litter counts were made in pregnant females that were dissected past the 10th day of pregnancy. The number of resorptions, dead embryos, and live embryos were counted, and the ratio of living embryos to the total number of embryos was determined for each litter. The overall fertility curves were sigmoid in the range of doses below those which caused complete sterility, which indicated some sort of cumulative damage. In 11 of the 13 strains studied, an increase in ancestral and/or direct irradiation led to significant decreases in fertility. The means of the number alive in the litters for the control and irradiated mice in each strain showed a definite trend toward fewer live mice in utero after irradiation. Least-squares analyses of variance were made to detect possible effects of any of six irradiation variables (ancestral linear, ancestral quadratic, ancestral cubic, direct linear, direct quadratic, or direct cubic) or of strain differences on total litter size and on ratio. Strain effects were significant in each instance. Litter size was more likely to be affected by radiation variables than ratios were

  18. Photoactivation of corticosteroids in UVB-exposed skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miolo, G; Caffieri, S; Dalzoppo, D; Gallocchio, F; Fasani, E; Beyersbergen van Henegouwen, G M J

    2011-04-04

    The photodegradation of flumethasone (FM) and fluocinolone acetonide (FC) was studied in solution and in the pig skin. Both glucocorticosteroids applied to the pig skin were unstable under UVB light. The photoproducts formed in the skin were the lumi-, photolumi- and andro-derivatives for FM, the same found in vitro. Instead, FC hydroperoxide formed in solution was not found in the skin: the reactivity and oxidative ability of this photoproduct towards biological substrates (lipids, proteins) seems the reason of the lack of its detection in the ex vivo model. In fact, it demonstrated to quickly oxidize amino acids and peptides, and to react with BSA both in the dark and under irradiation. Moreover, the presence in the irradiated pig skin of the FC andro-derivative, which usually forms in H-donating environment, seems consistent with the mechanism of Norrish I fragmentation followed by H-abstraction, likely from the surrounding biological substrates. These findings indicate that photoreactivity of these compounds may take place in the skin of patients exposing themselves to sunlight and is a warning about possible skin damage as a result of that. Furthermore, photolability of these drugs in the skin might cause loss of their therapeutic activity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Exercise Training Reverses Extrapulmonary Impairments in Smoke-exposed Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, T Scott; Aakerøy, Lars; Eisenkolb, Sophia; Kunth, Patricia; Bakkerud, Fredrik; Wohlwend, Martin; Ormbostad, Anne Marie; Fischer, Tina; Wisloff, Ulrik; Schuler, Gerhard; Steinshamn, Sigurd; Adams, Volker; Bronstad, Eivind

    2017-05-01

    Cigarette smoking is the main risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and emphysema. However, evidence on the extrapulmonary effects of smoke exposure that precede lung impairments remains unclear at present, as are data on nonpharmacological treatments such as exercise training. Three groups of mice, including control (n = 10), smoking (n = 10), and smoking with 6 wk of high-intensity interval treadmill running (n = 11), were exposed to 20 wk of fresh air or whole-body cigarette smoke. Exercise capacity (peak oxygen uptake) and lung destruction (histology) were subsequently measured, whereas the heart, peripheral endothelium (aorta), and respiratory (diaphragm) and limb (extensor digitorum longus and soleus) skeletal muscles were assessed for in vivo and in vitro function, in situ mitochondrial respiration, and molecular alterations. Smoking reduced body weight by 26% (P 0.05). Smoking impaired exercise capacity by 15% while inducing right ventricular dysfunction by ~20%, endothelial dysfunction by ~20%, and diaphragm muscle weakness by ~15% (all P exercise training (P smoking mice had normal limb muscle and mitochondrial function (cardiac and skeletal muscle fibers); however, diaphragm measures of oxidative stress and protein degradation were increased by 111% and 65%, respectively (P exercise training (P smoking reduced exercise capacity concomitant with functional impairments to the heart, peripheral endothelium, and respiratory muscle that preceded the development of overt emphysema. However, high-intensity exercise training was able to reverse these smoke-induced extrapulmonary impairments.

  20. Relaxation of microparticles exposed to hydrodynamic forces in microfluidic conduits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janča, Josef; Halabalová, Věra; Polášek, Vladimír; Vašina, Martin; Menshikova, Anastasia Yu

    2011-02-01

    The behavior of microparticles exposed to gravitational and lift forces and to the velocity gradient in flow velocity profile formed in microfluidic conduits is studied from the viewpoint of the transient period (the relaxation) between the moment at which a particle starts to be transported by the hydrodynamic flow and the time at which it reaches an equilibrium position, characterized by a balance of all active forces. The theoretical model allowing the calculation of the relaxation time is proposed. The numerical calculus based on the proposed model is compared with the experimental data obtained under different experimental conditions, namely, for different lengths of microfluidic channels, different average linear velocities of the carrier liquid, and different sizes and densities of the particles used in the study. The results are important for the optimization of microfluidic separation units such as microthermal field-flow fractionation channels in which the separation or manipulation of the microparticles of various origin, synthetic, natural, biological, etc., is performed under similar experimental conditions but by applying an additional thermodynamic force.

  1. Optical flow estimation on image sequences with differently exposed frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson, Tomas; McKelvey, Tomas; Lindström, Konstantin

    2015-09-01

    Optical flow (OF) methods are used to estimate dense motion information between consecutive frames in image sequences. In addition to the specific OF estimation method itself, the quality of the input image sequence is of crucial importance to the quality of the resulting flow estimates. For instance, lack of texture in image frames caused by saturation of the camera sensor during exposure can significantly deteriorate the performance. An approach to avoid this negative effect is to use different camera settings when capturing the individual frames. We provide a framework for OF estimation on such sequences that contain differently exposed frames. Information from multiple frames are combined into a total cost functional such that the lack of an active data term for saturated image areas is avoided. Experimental results demonstrate that using alternate camera settings to capture the full dynamic range of an underlying scene can clearly improve the quality of flow estimates. When saturation of image data is significant, the proposed methods show superior performance in terms of lower endpoint errors of the flow vectors compared to a set of baseline methods. Furthermore, we provide some qualitative examples of how and when our method should be used.

  2. Cytogenetic monitoring of nuclear workers occupationally exposed to ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griciene, B.; Slapsyte, G.; Mierauskiene, J.

    2014-01-01

    Chromosome aberration (CA) analysis using Giemsa techniques was performed in blood lymphocytes of 84 nuclear workers with cumulative doses of 1-632 mSv during employment periods of 1-25 y. The control group comprised 82 healthy male donors. An estimated CA frequency in the total radiation-exposed group was significantly higher when compared with the controls (2.27 vs. 1.76 CA/100 cells, p 0.05). However, significant increase in the total CA frequency was determined in workers with additional internal exposure (2.54 CA/100 cells, p < 0.05) and those with registered neutron doses (2.95 CA/100 cells, p < 0.01). No correlation was found between CA frequency and occupational exposure dose. Borderline significant correlation was found between duration of employment and total CA (r = 0.218, p = 0.046, Fig. 2) and chromosome-type aberration (r = 0.265, p = 0.015) frequency. (authors)

  3. Synthesis of protein in intestinal cells exposed to cholera toxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, J.W.; Berg, W.D. Jr.; Coppenhaver, D.H.

    1987-01-01

    The mechanism by which cyclic adenosine monophosphate (AMP), formed by intestinal epithelial cells in response to cholera toxin, ultimately results in alterations in water and electrolyte transport is poorly understood. Several studies have indicated that inhibitors of transcription or translation block much of the transport of ions and water in the intestine and edema formation in tissue elicited by cholera toxin. Data presented in this study confirmed the inhibitory effects of cycloheximide on cholera toxin-induced fluid accumulation in the rabbit intestinal loop model. Neither cycloheximide nor actinomycin D altered the amount of cyclic AMP that accumulated in intestinal cells and Chinese hamster ovary cells exposed to cholera toxin. An increase in [ 3 H] leucine incorporation was readily demonstrable in intestinal epithelial cells from rabbits challenged with Vibrio cholerae. Similarly, intestinal epithelial cells incubated with cholera toxin for 4 hr synthesized substantially more protein than controls as determined by relative incorporation of [ 35 S] methionine. Most of the new protein synthesized in response to cholera toxin was membrane associated and of high molecular weight. The possible significance of the toxin-induced protein relative to cholera pathogenesis was discussed

  4. Melatonin protects uterus and oviduct exposed to nicotine in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Saadat Seyedeh Nazanin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Smoking is associated with higher infertility risk. The aim of this study was to evaluate protective effects of melatonin on the uterus and oviduct in mice exposed to nicotine. Adult female mice (n=32 were divided into four groups. Group A: control animals received normal saline, Group B: injected with nicotine 40 μg/kg, Group C: injected with melatonin 10 μg, Group D: injected with nicotine 40 μg/kg and melatonin 10 μg. All animals were treated over 15 days intraperitoneally. On the 16th day, animals in the estrus phase were dissected and their uterus and oviducts were removed. Immunohistochemistry was recruited for studying apoptosis and for detection of estrogen receptor (ER alpha in luminal epithelium of the uterus and oviduct. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used for serum estradiol level determination. Nicotine in group B decreased estradiol level and ERalpha numbers both in the uterus and oviduct (p<0.05. Co-administration of melatonin-nicotine in Group D ameliorated the histology of the uterus and oviduct, increased ERalpha numbers and reduced apoptosis in the uterus and oviduct compared with the nicotine Group B (p<0.05. This study indicates that nicotine impairs the histology of the uterus and oviduct and co-administration of melatonin-nicotine ameliorates these findings, partly through alteration in ERalpha numbers and reduction of apoptosis

  5. Toward Exposing Timing-Based Probing Attacks in Web Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jian; Chen, Yue; Shi, Futian; Jia, Yaoqi; Liang, Zhenkai

    2017-02-25

    Web applications have become the foundation of many types of systems, ranging from cloud services to Internet of Things (IoT) systems. Due to the large amount of sensitive data processed by web applications, user privacy emerges as a major concern in web security. Existing protection mechanisms in modern browsers, e.g., the same origin policy, prevent the users' browsing information on one website from being directly accessed by another website. However, web applications executed in the same browser share the same runtime environment. Such shared states provide side channels for malicious websites to indirectly figure out the information of other origins. Timing is a classic side channel and the root cause of many recent attacks, which rely on the variations in the time taken by the systems to process different inputs. In this paper, we propose an approach to expose the timing-based probing attacks in web applications. It monitors the browser behaviors and identifies anomalous timing behaviors to detect browser probing attacks. We have prototyped our system in the Google Chrome browser and evaluated the effectiveness of our approach by using known probing techniques. We have applied our approach on a large number of top Alexa sites and reported the suspicious behavior patterns with corresponding analysis results. Our theoretical analysis illustrates that the effectiveness of the timing-based probing attacks is dramatically limited by our approach.

  6. Mammalian cells exposed to ionizing radiation: structural and biochemical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabanero, M.; Flores V, L. L.; Azorin V, J. C.; Vallejo, M. A.; Cordova F, T.; Sosa A, M.; Castruita D, J. P.; Barbosa S, G.

    2015-10-01

    Acute or chronic exposure to ionizing radiation is a factor that may be hazardous to health. It has been reported that exposure to low doses of radiation (less than 50 mSv / year) and subsequently exposure to high doses have greater effects in people. However, it is unknown molecular and biochemical level alteration. This study, analyzes the susceptibility of a biological system (HeLa Atcc CCL-2 human cervix cancer cell line) to ionizing radiation (6 and 60 mSv/ 90). Our evaluate multiple variables such as: total protein profile, mitochondrial metabolic activity (XTT assay), cell viability (Trypan blue exclusion assay), cytoskeleton (actin micro filaments), nuclei (D API), genomic DNA. The results indicate, that cells exposed to ionizing radiation structurally show alterations in nuclear phenotype and aneuploidy, further disruption in the tight junctions and consequently on the distribution of actin micro filaments. Similar alterations were observed in cells treated with a genotoxic agent (200μM H 2 O 2 /1 h). In conclusion, this multi-criteria assessment enables precise comparisons of the effects of radiation between any biological systems. However, it is necessary to determine stress markers for integration of the effects of ionizing radiation. (Author)

  7. Men in nursing on television: exposing and reinforcing stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Roslyn; Ferguson, Caleb; Wilbourn, Mark; Salamonson, Yenna

    2014-04-01

    To describe the results of a study of images of men in nursing on television. Previous research has highlighted stereotypical images around nursing, such as the battle-axe, naughty nurse and handmaiden. More recent research focuses on images of nurses who are men, because of the growing numbers of men in the nursing workforce. Given that negative images can harm recruitment and retention in the profession, it is important to interrogate how men in nursing are portrayed in popular culture. Representations on television are particularly critical to explore because of the medium's wide audience. Qualitative study. Five American medical television programmes appearing between 2007 and 2010 were analysed for their construction of men in nursing: Grey's Anatomy, Hawthorne, Mercy, Nurse Jackie and Private Practice. Men in nursing on television were portrayed in ways that engaged with explicit and implicit stereotypes. The men were often subject to questions about their choice of career, masculinity and sexuality and their role usually reduced to that of prop, minority spokesperson or source of comedy. Thus, rather contradictorily, although the programmes often sought to expose common stereotypes about men in nursing, they nonetheless often reinforced stereotypes in more implicit ways. This research has implications for better understanding not only the status of nursing in our society but also for nursing practice and education and attracting more men to the profession. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Runaway chemical reaction exposes community to highly toxic chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaszniak, Mark; Vorderbrueggen, John

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board (CSB) conducted a comprehensive investigation of a runaway chemical reaction at MFG Chemical (MFG) in Dalton, Georgia on April 12, 2004 that resulted in the uncontrolled release of a large quantity of highly toxic and flammable allyl alcohol and allyl chloride into the community. Five people were hospitalized and 154 people required decontamination and treatment for exposure to the chemicals. This included police officers attempting to evacuate the community and ambulance personnel who responded to 911 calls from residents exposed to the chemicals. This paper presents the findings of the CSB report (U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board (CSB), Investigation Report: Toxic Chemical Vapor Cloud Release, Report No. 2004-09-I-GA, Washington DC, April 2006) including a discussion on tolling practices; scale-up of batch reaction processes; Process Safety Management (PSM) and Risk Management Plan (RMP) implementation; emergency planning by the company, county and the city; and emergency response and mitigation actions taken during the incident. The reactive chemical testing and atmospheric dispersion modeling conducted by CSB after the incident and recommendations adopted by the Board are also discussed

  9. End stage renal disease among ceramic workers exposed to silica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapiti, E; Sperati, A; Miceli, M; Forastiere, F; Di Lallo, D; Cavariani, F; Goldsmith, D F; Perucci, C A

    1999-08-01

    To evaluate whether ceramic workers exposed to silica experience an excess of end stage renal disease. On the basis of a health surveillance programme, a cohort of 2980 male ceramic workers has been enrolled during the period 1974-91 in Civitacastellana, Lazio, Italy. For each worker, employment history, smoking data, and x ray film readings were available. The vital status was ascertained for all cohort members. All 2820 people still alive and resident in the Lazio region as in June 1994 were searched for a match in the regional end stage renal diseases registry, which records (since June, 1994) all patients undergoing dialysis treatment in public and private facilities of the region. Expected numbers of prevalent cases from the cohort were computed by applying the rate of patients on dialysis treatment by the age distribution of the cohort. A total of six cases was detected when 1.87 were expected (observed/expected (O/E) = 3.21; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.17 to 6.98). The excess risk was present among non-smokers (O = 2; O/E = 4.34) and smokers (O = 4; O/E = 2.83), as well as among workers without silicosis (O = 4; O/E = 2.78) and workers with silicosis (O = 2; O/E = 4.54). The risk was higher among subjects with 20 years. These results provide further evidence that exposure to silica dust among ceramic workers is associated with nephrotoxic effects.

  10. Toward Exposing Timing-Based Probing Attacks in Web Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Mao

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Web applications have become the foundation of many types of systems, ranging from cloud services to Internet of Things (IoT systems. Due to the large amount of sensitive data processed by web applications, user privacy emerges as a major concern in web security. Existing protection mechanisms in modern browsers, e.g., the same origin policy, prevent the users’ browsing information on one website from being directly accessed by another website. However, web applications executed in the same browser share the same runtime environment. Such shared states provide side channels for malicious websites to indirectly figure out the information of other origins. Timing is a classic side channel and the root cause of many recent attacks, which rely on the variations in the time taken by the systems to process different inputs. In this paper, we propose an approach to expose the timing-based probing attacks in web applications. It monitors the browser behaviors and identifies anomalous timing behaviors to detect browser probing attacks. We have prototyped our system in the Google Chrome browser and evaluated the effectiveness of our approach by using known probing techniques. We have applied our approach on a large number of top Alexa sites and reported the suspicious behavior patterns with corresponding analysis results. Our theoretical analysis illustrates that the effectiveness of the timing-based probing attacks is dramatically limited by our approach.

  11. Thermoluminescent behavior of diamond thin films exposed to ultraviolet radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barboza F, M.; Gastelum, S.; Melendrez, R.; Chernov, V.; Bernal, R.; Cruz V, C.; Brown, F.

    2002-01-01

    In this work the thermoluminescent properties of diamond thin films are discussed which are grown up through the chemical vapor method exposed to ultraviolet radiation of 200-280 nm. The films with thickness 3, 6, 9, 12, 180 and 500 microns were grown up using a precursor gas formed of H 2 -CH 4 -CO excited through microwave energy or hot filament.The structure and morphology of the films were examined through scanning electron microscopy, indicating the formation of different diamond polycrystal structures which depend on the type of heating of the precursor gas used as well as the film dimensions. In general, the brilliance curve depends on the sample and the wavelength of the irradiation ultraviolet light, however it presents clearly thermoluminescence bands in 148, 160, 272, 304, 320 and 324 C degrees. The maximum of the thermoluminescence efficiency is obtained for the case of sample exposure with light of 214 nm. The sample of 500 microns is what exhibits greater thermoluminescent efficiency of those studied samples. The thermoluminescent behavior in function of radiation dose presents regions of linearity and supra linearity for higher and small doses respectively. The disappearance of the thermoluminescent signal depends on the characteristics of the film and it can reach until a 30 % of loss before to reach the stability. (Author)

  12. Mammalian cells exposed to ionizing radiation: structural and biochemical aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabanero, M.; Flores V, L. L. [Universidad de Guanajuato, Departamento de Biologia, DCNE, Noria Alta s/n, 36250 Guanajuato, Gto. (Mexico); Azorin V, J. C.; Vallejo, M. A.; Cordova F, T.; Sosa A, M. [Universidad de Guanajuato, Departamento de Ingenieria Fisica, DCI, Loma del Bosque 103, Col. Lomas del Campestre, 37150 Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico); Castruita D, J. P. [Universidad de Guadalajara, Departamento de Ecologia, CUCBA, Las Agujas, 45100 Zapopan, Jalisco (Mexico); Barbosa S, G., E-mail: myrna.sabanero@gmail.com [Universidad de Guanajuato, Departamento de Ciencias Medicas, DCS, 20 de Enero No. 929, Col. Obregon, 37000 Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    Acute or chronic exposure to ionizing radiation is a factor that may be hazardous to health. It has been reported that exposure to low doses of radiation (less than 50 mSv / year) and subsequently exposure to high doses have greater effects in people. However, it is unknown molecular and biochemical level alteration. This study, analyzes the susceptibility of a biological system (HeLa Atcc CCL-2 human cervix cancer cell line) to ionizing radiation (6 and 60 mSv/ 90). Our evaluate multiple variables such as: total protein profile, mitochondrial metabolic activity (XTT assay), cell viability (Trypan blue exclusion assay), cytoskeleton (actin micro filaments), nuclei (D API), genomic DNA. The results indicate, that cells exposed to ionizing radiation structurally show alterations in nuclear phenotype and aneuploidy, further disruption in the tight junctions and consequently on the distribution of actin micro filaments. Similar alterations were observed in cells treated with a genotoxic agent (200μM H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/1 h). In conclusion, this multi-criteria assessment enables precise comparisons of the effects of radiation between any biological systems. However, it is necessary to determine stress markers for integration of the effects of ionizing radiation. (Author)

  13. The effect of kinetin on wheat seedlings exposed to boron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eser, Ahmet; Aydemir, Tülin

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study was to examine relationship between boron (B) induced oxidative stress and antioxidant system in boron sensitive and tolerant wheat cultivars Bezostaya and Kutluk, and also to investigate whether Kinetin (KN) enhances the level of antioxidant system, relative growth, concentration of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), malondialdehyde (MDA) and proline and chlorophyll content in both cultivars exposed to B stress. B treatments diminished growth and chlorophyll content whereas, it enhanced accumulation of H 2 O 2 , MDA and proline, and various antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) and lipoxygenase (LOX) in the shoot and root of both cultivars. However, the follow-up application of KN to the B stressed plants improved growth and chlorophyll content and further enhanced the mentioned antioxidant enzymes and level of H 2 O 2 , MDA and proline. This study thus suggests that KN improves B tolerance of the studied cultivars grown under B toxicity. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  14. Neurophysiological findings in vibration-exposed male workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strömberg, T; Dahlin, L B; Rosén, I; Lundborg, G

    1999-04-01

    Fractionated nerve conduction, vibrotactile sense, and temperature thresholds were studied in 73 symptomatic vibration-exposed male workers. Three symptomatic groups were distinguished: patients with isolated sensorineural symptoms; with isolated vasospastic problems; and with both. Clinical carpal tunnel syndrome occurred in 14 patients and abnormal cold intolerance (without blanching of the fingers) in 23. In the group as a whole, nerve conduction studies were abnormal in the median nerve but not in the ulnar nerve and vibration perception and temperature thresholds were impaired. Of the three symptomatic groups, patients with isolated sensorineural symptoms differed from controls. No differences were seen between patients with and without clinical carpal tunnel syndrome. With severe sensorineural symptoms the vibration perception thresholds, but not the values of the nerve conduction studies, were further impaired. The results indicated two injuries that are easily confused: one at receptor level in the fingertips and one in the carpal tunnel. Careful clinical assessment, neurophysiological testing, and examination of vibrotactile sense are required before carpal tunnel release should be considered in these patients.

  15. Decreased antibody formation in mice exposed to lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koller, L D; Kovacic, S

    1974-07-12

    Swiss Webster mice were given 1375, 137.5, or 13.75 ppM lead acetate in deionized water for 56 days. The control group was given deionized water orally. There were 120 mice in each group. The diet fed to all the mice was contaminated with 1.12 ppM lead. After 56 days, all mice were inoculated intraperitoneally with 0.2 ml of a 2% suspension of sheep red blood cells. Ten mice in each group were killed on days 3 to 7 to measure primary immune response (19S or IgM antibody) and on days 9 to 14 for the secondary response (7S or IgG antibody) after a second inoculation of sheep red blood cells while they remained on 137.5 ppM lead. The number of plaque forming cells was measured in the spleen. Erythrocytes were observed for basophilic stippling, packed cell volume was measured, serum was collected for hemolysin titration, and kidneys were examined for lead. Chronic exposure to lead produced a significant decrease in antibody synthesis, particularly IgG, indicating that the memory cell was involved. The results also indicated that the reduced antibody synthesis was responsible for the increased mortality from bacterial and viral diseases in animals that were chronically exposed to lead. Other environmental contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls, cadmium, mercury, DDT, and sulfur dioxide have also resulted in reduction of circulating antibodies in animals, in other experiments.

  16. Neurovegetative disturbances in workers exposed to 50 Hz electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bortkiewicz, A.; Gadzicka, E.; Zmyslony, M.; Szymczak, W.

    2006-01-01

    Since the circulatory and nervous systems are composed of of electrically excitable tissues, it is plausible that they can be stimulated by electromagnetic fields (EMF). No clinical studies have as been carried out to explain whether and how occupational exposure to 50 Hz EMF can influence the neurovegetative regulation of the cardiovascular function. The present project was undertaken to assess the the autonomic function in workers occupationally exposed to 50 Hz EMF, by analyzing the heart rate variability. The study group comprised 63 workers of switchyard substations, aged 22-67 years (39.2±10.0 years), and the control group 42 workers of radio link stations, aged 20-68 years (40.7±9.2 years), employed at workposts free from EMF exposure. The age range and employment duration in both groups did not differ significantly. To assess the neurovegetative regulation of the cardiac function, heart rate variability HRV) analysis was made based on 512 normal heart beats recorded at rest. The analysis, performed using fast Fourier transformation, concerned the time - and frequency-domain HRV parameters. Power spectrum in the very low (VLF), low (LF) and high (HF) frequency bands was determined. The relative risk of decreased HRV (STD R-R ) was significantly higher in the study group than in control (65% vs. 47%). It was concluded that occupational exposure to 50 Hz EMF could influence the neurovegetative regulation of the cardiovascular system. (author)

  17. Long-term study on workers occupationally exposed to ethylbenzene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardodĕj, Z; Círek, A

    1988-01-01

    Ethylbenzene is synthesized from benzene; subject to catalytic dehydrogenation it yields styrene, a raw material for the production of synthetic rubber and plastics. Long-term biomonitoring of occupational ethylbenzene exposures, carried out in the past 20 years in some 200 ethylbenzene-production workers, revealed this substance to pose little hazard to human health. As it turned out, mandelic acid concentrations in these workers' urine never exceeded 3.25 mmol.l-1 and none of the exposed showed damage to hematopoiesis and/or liver tissue. Over the last 10 years no case of malignancy has been recorded in this industrial facility belonging to a larger chemical complex where the overall incidence of cancer is about 3 times the national average. Today's low-level ethylbenzene exposures would make it fully justifiable if the present-day MAC limits, both whole-shift (200 mg.m-3) and peak (1,000 mg.m-3), were to be halved, i.e. to be lowered to 100 mg.m3 and 500 mg.m3 respectively. These newly recommended limit values are no more exceeded nowadays.

  18. Possible weathering of the brick matrix when exposed to water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rörig-Dalgaard, Inge

    2014-01-01

    The main reasons for deterioration of bricks are frost, crystallization pressure and chemical exposure. Despite of this the effect of chemical exposure is limited clarified. Depending on the brick type the original pH of bricks are 9-10. Though bricks can to subjected to water in shape of acid rain...... with different well-defined pH values are examined to investigate the long term effect of acid rain or other reasons causing pH changes to bricks (as e.g. electrokinetic treatment). Through capillary suction, macro pictures from the exposed surfaces, measurement of the pH and electrical conductivity it seemed...... that there is a consistence with the literature of the glassy phase describing ion exchange at low pH and break down of the lattice in the glassy structure at high pH. At present remains examination of polished sections with SEM/EDX, measurements of each of the ionic contents in the brick matrix and new series with a longer...

  19. Bio-dosimetry for radiation-exposed individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauvaigo, Sylvie; Chapuis, Violaine; Caillat, Sylvain; Sarrazy, Fanny; Breton, Jean

    2013-01-01

    Exposure of civil populations to genotoxic chemicals or radioactive hazard is an increased concern. It is not only an industrial risk (chemistry plant accident for example) but also a national security problem due to the threat of radiological and nuclear terrorism. It is important to anticipate the need of a bio-dosimetry tool aimed at identifying exposed population in the absence of acute syndrome, in order to assure the medical care that would prevent carcinogenic consequences. DNA repair is a bio-marker of exposure to geno-toxics in individuals. A DNA repair signature can be assessed from Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMCs) that reflects the exposure history of the individuals, using a functional enzymatic assay on bio-chip. A proof of concept was obtained using PBMCs from patients undergoing radiotherapy regimen. We identified two classes of responses among patients, if we except a very atypical signature in one patient that could reflect defects in DNA repair. Interestingly, repair of the major oxidative lesions increased during the course of the radiotherapy. We propose to implement this fast, quantitative, possibly automatized assay to identify bio-markers of exposure to geno-toxics and to validate the exposure bio-markers through ex vivo exposure of blood from volunteers. (authors)

  20. The efficiency of photovoltaic cells exposed to pulsed laser light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, R. A.; Landis, G. A.; Jenkins, P.

    1993-01-01

    Future space missions may use laser power beaming systems with a free electron laser (FEL) to transmit light to a photovoltaic array receiver. To investigate the efficiency of solar cells with pulsed laser light, several types of GaAs, Si, CuInSe2, and GaSb cells were tested with the simulated pulse format of the induction and radio frequency (RF) FEL. The induction pulse format was simulated with an 800-watt average power copper vapor laser and the RF format with a frequency-doubled mode-locked Nd:YAG laser. Averaged current vs bias voltage measurements for each cell were taken at various optical power levels and the efficiency measured at the maximum power point. Experimental results show that the conversion efficiency for the cells tested is highly dependent on cell minority carrier lifetime, the width and frequency of the pulses, load impedance, and the average incident power. Three main effects were found to decrease the efficiency of solar cells exposed to simulated FEL illumination: cell series resistance, LC 'ringing', and output inductance. Improvements in efficiency were achieved by modifying the frequency response of the cell to match the spectral energy content of the laser pulse with external passive components.

  1. Effects of Ionizing Radiation in Atopic Patients Exposed to Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radwan, N.K.A.

    2014-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a chronic relapsing inflammatory skin disease that arises most commonly during early infancy, and is characterized by severe pruritus, age-dependant skin manifestations, and a fluctuating clinical course. Hereditary, environmental and immunological factors are involved in the aetiopathogenesis of AD. Also the differentiation of helper T- cells, local cytokine profile, IgE, infectious agents and superantigens are factors identified as being involved in the pathogenesis of AD. One hundred patients with AD were selected from the outpatient clinic of the National Center for Radiation Research and Technology in Cairo, Egypt. They were divided into 2 groups; group 1 included radiation workers in the Hall of gamma irradiation unit and group 2 included workers outside controlled area and not exposed to radiation with comparable age and sex. The severity of the disease was evaluated according to the grade of atopic dermatitis. Total and specific serum IgE was measured and Complete Blood Count was also carried out. Four Malassezia species were isolated from AD patients M. globosa, M. furfur, M. sympodialis and M. obtusa. The clinical isolates consisted of two bacterial strains, S. aureus and S. epidermidis. The significant increase of AD severity seems to be more closely related to the prevalence of S. aureus and Malassezia on the skin of radiation workers. This was proved by the presence of high IgE and eosinophils in radiation workers. So, the interactions of low gamma radiation and skin seems to further complicate the risk of assessments of atopic dermatitis

  2. Atmospheric deposition exposes Qinling pandas to toxic pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Ping; Zheng, Ying-Juan; Liu, Qiang; Song, Yi; An, Zhi-Sheng; Ma, Qing-Yi; Ellison, Aaron M

    2017-03-01

    The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) is one of the most endangered animals in the world, and it is recognized worldwide as a symbol for conservation. A previous study showed that wild and captive pandas, especially those of the Qinling subspecies, were exposed to toxicants in their diet of bamboo; the ultimate origin of these toxicants is unknown. Here we show that atmospheric deposition is the most likely origin of heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the diets of captive and wild Qinling pandas. Average atmospheric deposition was 199, 115, and 49 g·m -2 ·yr -1 in the center of Xi'an City, at China's Shaanxi Wild Animal Research Center (SWARC), and at Foping National Nature Reserve (FNNR), respectively. Atmospheric deposition of heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg, Co, Cu, Zn, Mn, and Ni) and POPs was highest at Xi'an City, intermediate at SWARC, and lowest at FNNR. Soil concentrations of the aforementioned heavy metals other than As and Zn also were significantly higher at SWARC than at FNNR. Efforts to conserve Qinling pandas may be compromised by air pollution attendant to China's economic development. Improvement of air quality and reductions of toxic emissions are urgently required to protect China's iconic species. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  3. Yangjing Capsule Ameliorates Spermatogenesis in Male Mice Exposed to Cyclophosphamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongle Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Yangjing capsule (YC, a traditional Chinese compound herbal preparation, has been proven as an effective drug to improve spermatogenesis in clinical practice. However, its pharmacological mechanisms were not fully clarified. This study was designed to investigate the protective effects of YC on spermatogenesis in the mouse model of spermatogenesis dysfunction induced by cyclophosphamide (CP. The administration of YC significantly increased the epididymal index, sperm count, and sperm motility of model mice. Histopathological changes demonstrated that CP caused obvious structural damage to testis, which were reversed by the administration of YC. Results from TUNEL assay showed that treatment with YC dramatically decreased the apoptosis of spermatogenic cell induced by CP. Moreover, YC treatment could inhibit the mRNA and protein expression of Bax to Bcl-2 and also raised expression of AR at both mRNA and protein levels. These data suggest that YC might ameliorate spermatogenesis in male mice exposed to CP through inhibiting the apoptosis of spermatogenic cell and enhancing the actions of testosterone in spermatogenesis.

  4. Brain dysfunctions in Wistar rats exposed to municipal landfill leachates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chibuisi G. Alimba

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Brain damage induced by Olusosun and Aba-Eku municipal landfill leachates was investigated in Wistar rats. Male rats were orally exposed to 1–25% concentrations of the leachates for 30 days. Catalase (CAT and superoxide dismutase (SOD activities, and malondialdehyde (MDA concentrations in the brain and serum of rats were evaluated; body and brain weight gain and histopathology were examined. There was significant (p < 0.05 decrease in body weight gain and SOD activity but increase in absolute and relative brain weight gain, MDA concentration and CAT activity in both brain and serum of treated rats. The biochemical parameters, which were more altered in the brain than serum, corroborated the neurologic lesions; neurodegeneration of purkinje cells with loss of dendrites, perineural vacuolations of the neuronal cytoplasm (spongiosis and neuronal necrosis in the brain. The concentrations of Cr, Cu, Pb, As, Cd, Mn, Ni, sulphates, ammonia, chloride and phosphate in the leachate samples were above standard permissible limits. The interactions of the neurotoxic constituents of the leachates induced the observed brain damage in the rats via oxidative damage. This suggests health risk in wildlife and human populations.

  5. OPC Paste Samples Exposed To Aggressive Solutions. Cementitious Barriers Partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-11-01

    The study presented in this report focused on a low-activity wasteform containing a high-pH pore solution with a significant level of sulfate. The purpose of the study was to improve understanding of the complex concrete/wasteform reactive transport problem, in particular, the role of pH in sulfate attack. Paste samples prepared at three different water-to-cement ratios were tested. The mixtures were prepared with ASTM Type I cement, without additional admixtures. The samples were exposed to two different sodium sulfate contact solutions. The first solution was prepared at 0.15M Na2SO4. The second solution also incorporated 0.5M NaOH, to mimic the high pH conditions found in Saltstone. The data collected indicated that, in Na2SO4 solution, damage occurs to the pastes. In the case of the high-pH sulfate solution (Na2SO4 + NaOH), no signs of damage were observed on any of the paste mixtures. These results indicate that the high sulfate content found in the wasteform pore solution will not necessarily lead to severe damage to concrete. Good-quality mixtures could thus prove durable over the long term, and act as an effective barrier to prevent radionuclides from reaching the environment.

  6. Psychosocial consequences of the Chernobyl disaster (A survey of Chernobyl accidental exposed and a non-exposed population sample)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havenaar, J.M.; Savelkoul, T.J.F.; Bout, J. van-den; Bootsma, P.A.

    1996-01-01

    The importance of psychological factors in the aftermath of industrial disasters is being recognized increasingly. Two field studies (total N=3084) were conducted in two regions of the former Soviet Union, to investigate the long-term psychosocial consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant disaster in 1986. A sub sample of the respondents (N=449) was studied using a standardized physical and psychiatric examination. The first study took place in the Gomel region (Belarus) in the direct vicinity of the damaged nuclear plant. A control study was conducted in the Tver region (the Russian Federation), about 250 km north-west of Moscow. The results of the study indicate significantly higher levels of psychological distress, poorer subjective health and higher medical consumption in the exposed population. These findings were most prominent in risk groups such as evacuated people and mothers with children. No significant differences in overall levels of psychiatric or physical morbidity were found. Radiation related diseases could not account for the poor health perception in the investigated sample. These results indicate that psychological factors following the Chernobyl disaster had a marked effect upon psychological well being, on perceived health and on subsequent illness behavior. Fears about future health play a key role in determining this response. The provision of adequate information to the public as well as to the public health services may be important to counteract these fears

  7. Exposing SAMOS Data and Vocabularies within the Semantic Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dockery, Nkemdirim; Elya, Jocelyn; Smith, Shawn

    2014-05-01

    As part of the Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP), we at the Center for Ocean-Atmospheric Prediction Studies (COAPS) will present the development process for the exposure of quality-controlled data and core vocabularies managed by the Shipboard Automated Meteorological Oceanographic System (SAMOS) initiative using Semantic Web technologies. Participants in the SAMOS initiative collect continuous navigational (position, course, heading, speed), meteorological (winds, pressure, temperature, humidity, radiation), and near-surface oceanographic (sea temperature, salinity) parameters while at sea. One-minute interval observations are packaged and transmitted back to COAPS via daily emails, where they undergo standardized formatting and quality control. The authors will present methods used to expose these daily datasets. The Semantic Web, a vision of the World Wide Web Consortium, focuses on extending the principles of the web from connecting documents to connecting data. The creation of a web of Linked Data that can be used across different applications in a machine-readable way is the ultimate goal. The Resource Description Framework (RDF) is the standard language and format used in the Semantic Web. RDF pages may be queried using the SPARQL Protocol and RDF Query Language (SPARQL). The authors will showcase the development of RDF resources that map SAMOS vocabularies to internationally served vocabularies such as those found in the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) Vocabulary Server. Each individual SAMOS vocabulary term (data parameter and quality control flag) will be described in an RDF resource page. These RDF resources will define each SAMOS vocabulary term and provide a link to the mapped vocabulary term (or multiple terms) served externally. Along with enhanced retrieval by parameter, time, and location, we will be able to add additional parameters with the confidence that they follow an international standard. The production of RDF

  8. Psychosomatic health status of children exposed to the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korol, N.; Shibata, Yoshisada; Nakane, Yoshibumi

    1998-01-01

    Childhood victims were investigated focussing on the psychosomatic disorders. The subjects were some of the 3834 children who evacuated from the Chernobyl zone to Kiev (evacuees) and 200 children who have been living in Kiev since prior to the accident (comparison group). A psychological test administered to 504 evacuees aged 12-14 years at the time of the accident and the comparison group indicated that the frequencies of neutroticism, high level of anxiety and conflicts were significantly higher in the evacuees than in the comparison group (p<0.001). Another psychological test administered at puberty to the 504 evacuees and 200 other evacuees exposed to the accident at 4-6 years of age indicated that the psycho-emotional portrait of evacuated teenagers significantly changed with time since the accident. The effects of the Chernobyl accident on the health of the vegetative dystonia observed in 1987-1990 and 1990-1995 were higher in the evacuees than in the comparison group, although they were not statistically significant. Furthermore, a significant (p<0.001) association of the vegetative dystonia with peptic and cardiovascular disorders was observed. The present study indicates that the vegetative dystonia is still highly prevalent among childhood victims and deems to support that the vegetative dystonia may be a precursor of several diseases such as cardiovascular and peptic disorders. It should be emphasized that a health promotion program to produce a change in psychological and social problems after the Chernobyl accident is necessary to decrease the health impact among Ukrainian people. (author)

  9. Respiratory damage in children exposed to urban pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Mora-Tiscareño, Antonieta; Fordham, Lynn A; Valencia-Salazar, Gildardo; Chung, Charles J; Rodriguez-Alcaraz, Antonio; Paredes, Rogelio; Variakojis, Daina; Villarreal-Calderón, Anna; Flores-Camacho, Lourdes; Antunez-Solis, Angelina; Henríquez-Roldán, Carlos; Hazucha, Milan J

    2003-08-01

    Southwest Metropolitan Mexico City (SWMMC) children are chronically exposed to complex mixtures of air pollutants. In a cross-sectional arm of our study, we investigated the association between exposure to SWMMC atmosphere and nasal abnormalities, hyperinflation, and interstitial markings assessed by chest X-rays, lung function changes, several serum cytokines, and endothelin-1 in 174 children aged 5-17 years vs. 27 control children residents in low-polluted areas. Control children had no nasal lesions, and only one child showed an abnormal chest X-ray. SWMMC children exhibited nasal abnormalities (22%), hyperinflation (67%), interstitial markings (49%), and a mild restrictive pattern by spirometry (10%). Interstitial markings were associated with a decrease in predicted values of FEF(25-75), FEF(75), and the FEV(1)/FVC ratio. Boys had a higher probability of developing interstitial markings with age (P = 0.004). Blood smear findings included toxic granulations in neutrophils and schistocytes. SWMMC children had more serum IL10 and IL6 and less IL8 than controls. In a longitudinal arm of our study, we found a significant seasonal drop in FVC and FEV(1) associated with a 6-month period of high ozone and PM(10) levels. Our data strongly suggest that a lifelong exposure to urban air pollution causes respiratory damage in children. Moreover, a cytokine network becomes imbalanced, with a shift towards upregulation of anti-inflammatory cytokines. Consequently, these children are potentially at risk for developing chronic lung disease and other systemic effects later in life. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Ethnic minority health in Vietnam: a review exposing horizontal inequity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mats Målqvist

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Equity in health is a pressing concern and reaching disadvantaged populations is necessary to close the inequity gap. To date, the discourse has predominately focussed on reaching the poor. At the same time and in addition to wealth, other structural determinants that influence health outcomes exist, one of which is ethnicity. Inequities based on group belongings are recognised as ‘horizontal’, as opposed to the more commonly used notion of ‘vertical’ inequity based on individual characteristics. Objective: The aim of the present review is to highlight ethnicity as a source of horizontal inequity in health and to expose mechanisms that cause and maintain this inequity in Vietnam. Design: Through a systematic search of available academic and grey literature, 49 publications were selected for review. Information was extracted on: a quantitative measures of health inequities based on ethnicity and b qualitative descriptions explaining potential reasons for ethnicity-based health inequities. Results: Five main areas were identified: health-care-seeking and utilization, maternal and child health, nutrition, infectious diseases, and oral health and hygiene. Evidence suggests the presence of severe health inequity in health along ethnic lines in all these areas. Research evidence also offers explanations derived from both external and internal group dynamics to this inequity. It is reported that government policies and programs appear to be lacking in culturally adaptation and sensitivity, and examples of bad attitudes and discrimination from health staff toward minority persons were identified. In addition, traditions and patriarchal structures within ethnic minority groups were seen to contribute to the maintenance of harmful health behaviors within these groups. Conclusion: Better understandings of the scope and pathways of horizontal inequities are required to address ethnic inequities in health. Awareness of ethnicity as a

  11. Polyamines and polyamine biosynthesis in cells exposed to hyperthermia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerner, E.W.; Stickney, D.G.; Herman, T.S.; Fuller, D.J.

    1983-02-01

    The issue of how polyamines act to sensitize cultured cells to the lethal effects of hyperthermia was investigated using Chinese hamster cells which were induced to express thermotolerance. Intracellular levels of these naturally occurring polycations were manipulated in certain situations by treating whole cells with methylglyoxal bis-(guanylhydrazone), an inhibitor of the S-adenosyl-L-methionine decarboxylases. Exogenous spermine as low as 100 ..mu..M in the culture media dramatically sensitized cells expressing thermotolerance to the lethal effects of subsequent 42/sup 0/C exposures. When thermotolerance was differentially induced in cultures exposed to 42.4/sup 0/C by varying the rate of heating from 37 to 42.4/sup 0/C, the most resistant cells and the highest levels of intracellular spermidine and spermine. This finding was explainable in part by the observation that the putrescine-dependent S-adenosyl-L-methionine decarboxylase activity was minimally affected in cells expressng the greatest degree of thermotolerance. When this enzyme activity was inhibited by drug, lowered intracellular polyamine levels did not correspond with subsequent survival responses to heat. Interestingly, cultures treated with methylglyoxal bis-(guanylhydrazone) 24 hr previous to heat exposure showed a reduced capacity to express rate of heating-induced thermotolerance. Together, these results demonstrate that the polyamines, especially spermidine and spermine, enhance hyperthermia-induced cell killing by some mechanism involving the plasma membrane. Further, our data suggest that methylglyoxal bis-(guanylhydrazone) can act to affect thermal responses by a mechanism(s) other than modification of intracellular polyamine levels.

  12. Characterization of serrated yielding in service exposed Inconel 625 alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, Arnomitra; Sharma, Garima; Chakravartty, J.K.

    2016-01-01

    The Alloy-625 is an austentic alloy which is being used for a variety of components in the aerospace, marine, chemical and nuclear industries. Tensile tests have been carried out on service exposed Inconel 625 ammonia cracker tube used at heavy water production plant to study the effect of microstructure on the mechanical properties of the material. Owing to temperature gradient during in service condition the microstructure was different in top (T), middle (M) and bottom (B) sections of the tube. The stress-strain curve obtained from conventional tensile test was found to exhibit serrated yielding with in an intermediate temperature regime of 250-600 °C. Both normal and inverse Portevin-Le Chatelier (PLC) effect could be identified at lower and higher temperature regime respectively. The normal behavior was associated with type (A+B) serrations and interstitial atom C was held responsible for the aging of dislocations in this region. On the contrary, the serrations were of type C in nature in inverse PLC regime and were attributed to the locking of dislocations by substitutional Mo atoms. Further analyses of activation energy and transition temperature for normal to inverse PLC dynamics, supported with Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) observation revealed that the basic deformation mechanism was different in M and B samples than that in the T samples. While the deformation in T samples were achieved by usual dislocation migration, in M and B samples it was through the propagation of stacking faults in large γ” precipitates. The transition temperature from normal to inverse PLC dynamics also varied appreciably in T samples than that of the M and B ones which could be explained in terms of the delayed depletion of Mo solutes in solution for T samples. (author)

  13. Increased oxidative stress in preschool children exposed to passive smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldırım, Faruk; Sermetow, Kabil; Aycicek, Ali; Kocyigit, Abdurrahim; Erel, Ozcan

    2011-01-01

    To study the effect of passive cigarette smoking on plasma oxidative and antioxidative status in passive smoking preschool children and to compare them with controls. Thirty-four passive smoking (five to 50 cigarettes per day) preschool children (study group) and 32 controls who had never been exposed to cigarette smoke were randomly chosen from children aged from 4 to 6 years. Urinary cotinine and plasma indicators of oxidative and antioxidative status, i.e., total oxidant status (TOS), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and oxidative stress index (OSI), were determined. Mean environmental cigarette consumption was 22±13 cigarettes per day in passive smoking children. Mean urinary cotinine levels were 77.6±41.4 ng/mL and 11.9±2.3 ng/mL in the study and control groups, respectively (p < 0.001). Mean plasma TAC levels were 0.95±0.13 mmol Trolox equivalent/L and 1.01±0.09 mmol Trolox equivalent/L, respectively (p = 0.039). Mean plasma TOS levels were 28.6±7.9 µmol H2O2 equivalent/L and 18.5±6.3 µmol H2O2 equivalent/L, respectively (p < 0.001). Mean OSI levels were 3.08±0.98 arbitrary units and 1.84±0.64 arbitrary units, respectively (p < 0.001). A small amount of cigarette smoke (five to 10 cigarettes per day) causes considerable oxidative stress. There were significant correlations between number of cigarettes consumed and oxidant status and OSI levels. Passive smoke is a potent oxidant in preschool children. Its deleterious effects are not limited just to heavy passive smoking, but also occur with exposure to small amounts of smoke.

  14. Reactions of macrophages exposed to particles <10 μm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monn, Christian; Naef, Roland; Koller, Theo

    2003-01-01

    This study describes experiments on cytotoxic effects and the production of oxidative radicals and the proinflammatory cytokine tumor growth factor alpha (TNFα) in a cell line of rat lung macrophages exposed to aqueou extracts from ambient air particles 10 ) collected on Teflon filters. The particles were collected during the four seasons at two urban sites, one rural site, and one alpine site in Switzerland. Cytotoxic effects determined as a reduction in the metabolic activity, were found in particle extracts from all sites and seasons. Taking together the data from all site and seasons, a dose-response function was observed between the particle mass on the filter and toxicity (r 2 =0.633, linear regression). The release of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNFα as well as of oxidative radicals was most pronounced in particles collected in spring-summer and autumn. While a Montana (alpine), the stimulation of the cells was positively correlated with the particle mass on the filters, this correlation was negative at the urban sites Zuerich and Lugano. It is interpreted that at high PM 10 levels, as in these cities, macrophages are inhibited by increasing air pollution due to toxic effects. Cytotoxic effects and the release of oxidative radicals could be inhibited when the extracts were treated with an endotoxin-neutralizing protein. This suggests that endotoxin, a cell-wall constituent of gram-negative bacteria, is one of the factors which modulates macrophag activity. All together, the experiments indicate that in the PM 10 fraction water-soluble macrophage-toxic and macrophage-stimulating compounds ar present. The data offer an explanation for at least some of the known harmful effects of PM 10 , and confirm endotoxin as a possible reactant

  15. Simulation of processes in a SSNTD exposed by monoenergetic neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, P.; Fromm, M.; Groetz, J. E.; Torrealba, F.; Chambaudet, A.

    1998-03-01

    The nuclear track technique is based on the registering of latent track ions in a solid state dielectric material (Solid State Nuclear Track Detector) which will be chemically etched in order to be observed and analysed using microscopic analysis tools. The purpose of this study is to observe how a polymeric detector irradiated by a neutron fluence can explain the intensity of ionizing radiations to which structures, electronic components or living organism are exposed. To do this, it is necessary to take into account on the one hand the production of ionizing particles in the detector, and on the other hand the efficacy of their detection. The model we propose must be able to link the number of etched tracks and their parameters to the neutron fluence. The use of both a Monte Carlo code which determines the number of recoil nuclei and a computed model of etched track parameters calculations is needed. The Monte Carlo code performs a simulation of neutron-nucleus elastic collision in the detector. We compute the number of recoil nuclei produced between the surface and a depth of 20 μm in the detector. The computer code assigns six pseudo-random numbers ( xE, zE, a, b, c, α) to each neutron having an energy EN and an angle of incidence and give the results of calculations. We used statistical tests (the moments of the origin of order n and of the average of order n, the χ2 test, the gap test, the Pearson test, the run-up run-down test and the serial test) to check the quality of our pseudo-random number generator. Finally, we will compare the calculated results of the response of the SSNTD (tracks cm -2) with the experimental ones to validate the simulation.

  16. Internal dosimetry for occupationally exposed personnel in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, M.T.; Alfaro, L.M.M.; Angeles, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    Internal dosimetry plays an important role in nuclear medicine dosimetry control of personnel occupationally exposed, and that in recent years there has been a large increase in the use of radionuclides both in medical diagnosis as radiotherapy. But currently, in Mexico and in many parts of the world, this internal dosimetry control is not performed. The Instituto Nacional de lnvestigaciones Nucleares de Mexico (ININ) together with the Centro Oncologico de Toluca (ISEMMYM) have developed a simple and feasible methodology for monitoring of personnel working in these facilities. It was aimed to carry out the dosimetry of the personnel, due to the incorporation of I-131, using the spectrometric devices that the hospital has, a gamma camera. The first step in this methodology was to make a thyroid phantom to meet the specifications of the ninth ANSI. This phantom is compared under controlled conditions with RMC- II phantom used for system calibration of the ININ internal dosimetry (ACCUSCAN - Ll), and with another phantom developed in Brazil with ANSI specifications, in order to determine the variations in measurements due to the density of the material of each of the phantoms and adjust to the system ACCUSCAN, already certificate. Furthermore, necessary counts were performed with the gamma camera of the phantom developed at ININ, with a standard source of 133 Ba which simulates the energy of 131 I. With these data, were determined the counting efficiencies for a distance of 15 to 20 cm between the surface of the phantom and the the plate of the detectors. Another important aspect was to determine the lower limit of detection (LLD). In this paper we present the results obtained from the detectors calibration of the gamma camera of the hospital.

  17. Ethnic minority health in Vietnam: a review exposing horizontal inequity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Målqvist, Mats; Hoa, Dinh Thi Phuong; Liem, Nguyen Thanh; Thorson, Anna; Thomsen, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Background Equity in health is a pressing concern and reaching disadvantaged populations is necessary to close the inequity gap. To date, the discourse has predominately focussed on reaching the poor. At the same time and in addition to wealth, other structural determinants that influence health outcomes exist, one of which is ethnicity. Inequities based on group belongings are recognised as ‘horizontal’, as opposed to the more commonly used notion of ‘vertical’ inequity based on individual characteristics. Objective The aim of the present review is to highlight ethnicity as a source of horizontal inequity in health and to expose mechanisms that cause and maintain this inequity in Vietnam. Design Through a systematic search of available academic and grey literature, 49 publications were selected for review. Information was extracted on: a) quantitative measures of health inequities based on ethnicity and b) qualitative descriptions explaining potential reasons for ethnicity-based health inequities. Results Five main areas were identified: health-care-seeking and utilization, maternal and child health, nutrition, infectious diseases, and oral health and hygiene. Evidence suggests the presence of severe health inequity in health along ethnic lines in all these areas. Research evidence also offers explanations derived from both external and internal group dynamics to this inequity. It is reported that government policies and programs appear to be lacking in culturally adaptation and sensitivity, and examples of bad attitudes and discrimination from health staff toward minority persons were identified. In addition, traditions and patriarchal structures within ethnic minority groups were seen to contribute to the maintenance of harmful health behaviors within these groups. Conclusion Better understandings of the scope and pathways of horizontal inequities are required to address ethnic inequities in health. Awareness of ethnicity as a determinant of health, not

  18. Psychosomatic health status of children exposed to the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korol, N. [Scientific Center for Radiation Medicine, Kiev (Ukraine); Shibata, Yoshisada; Nakane, Yoshibumi

    1998-12-01

    Childhood victims were investigated focussing on the psychosomatic disorders. The subjects were some of the 3834 children who evacuated from the Chernobyl zone to Kiev (evacuees) and 200 children who have been living in Kiev since prior to the accident (comparison group). A psychological test administered to 504 evacuees aged 12-14 years at the time of the accident and the comparison group indicated that the frequencies of neutroticism, high level of anxiety and conflicts were significantly higher in the evacuees than in the comparison group (p<0.001). Another psychological test administered at puberty to the 504 evacuees and 200 other evacuees exposed to the accident at 4-6 years of age indicated that the psycho-emotional portrait of evacuated teenagers significantly changed with time since the accident. The effects of the Chernobyl accident on the health of the vegetative dystonia observed in 1987-1990 and 1990-1995 were higher in the evacuees than in the comparison group, although they were not statistically significant. Furthermore, a significant (p<0.001) association of the vegetative dystonia with peptic and cardiovascular disorders was observed. The present study indicates that the vegetative dystonia is still highly prevalent among childhood victims and deems to support that the vegetative dystonia may be a precursor of several diseases such as cardiovascular and peptic disorders. It should be emphasized that a health promotion program to produce a change in psychological and social problems after the Chernobyl accident is necessary to decrease the health impact among Ukrainian people. (author)

  19. Asymmetric Hearing Loss in Chinese Workers Exposed to Complex Noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoxiao; Li, Nan; Zeng, Lin; Tao, Liyuan; Zhang, Hua; Yang, Qiuling; Qiu, Wei; Zhu, Liangliang; Zhao, Yiming

    2016-01-01

    Evaluate the audiometric asymmetry in Chinese industrial workers and investigate the effects of noise exposure, sex, and binaural average thresholds on audiometric asymmetry. Data collected from Chinese industrial workers during a cross-sectional study were reanalyzed. Of the 1388 workers, 266 met the inclusion criteria for this study. Each subject underwent a physical examination and an otologic examination and completed a health-related questionnaire. χ and t tests were used to examine the differences between the asymmetric and symmetric hearing loss groups. One hundred thirty-one subjects (49.2%) had a binaural hearing threshold difference of 15 dB or more for at least one frequency, and there was no statistically significant difference between the left and right ears. The asymmetric hearing loss group was not exposed to higher cumulative noise levels (t = 0.522, p = 0.602), and there was no dose-response relation between asymmetry and cumulative noise levels (χ = 6.502, p = 0.165). Men were 1.849 times more likely to have asymmetry than women were (95% confidence interval, 1.051 to 3.253). Among the workers with higher high-frequency hearing thresholds, audiometric asymmetry was 1.024 times more prevalent than that among those with lower high-frequency hearing thresholds (95% confidence interval, 1.004 to 1.044). The results indicated that occupational noise exposure contributed minimally to asymmetry, whereas sex and binaural average thresholds significantly affected audiometric asymmetry. There was no evidence that the left ears were worse than the right ears.

  20. Immunotoxicity Monitoring in a Population Exposed to Polychlorinated Biphenyls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajo Haase

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB burden and several indicators of immune function was investigated as part of the HELPcB (Health Effects in High-Level Exposure to PCB program, offering bio-monitoring to workers, relatives, and neighbors exposed to PCBs by a German transformers and capacitors recycling company. The present retrospective observational study evaluates the correlation of plasma levels of total PCBs, five indicator congeners (28, 101, 138, 153, 180, and seven dioxin-like congeners (105, 114, 118, 156, 157, 167, 189 with several parameters of immune function. The cross-sectional study was performed immediately after the end of exposure (258 subjects, and one (218 subjects, and two (177 subjects years later. At the first time point, measurements showed significant positive correlation between congeners with low to medium chlorination and the relative proportion of CD19 positive B-cells among lymphocytes, as well as a negative correlation of PCB114 with serum IgM, and of PCB 28 with suppressor T-cell and NK-cell numbers. Congeners with a high degree of chlorination, in particular PCB157 and 189, were positively associated with expression of the activation marker CD25 on T-cells in the cohort of the second time point. No associations between PCB levels and IFN-y production by T-cells and killing by NK-cells were found. In conclusion, there were several effects on the cellular composition of adaptive immunity, affecting both T- and B-cells. However, the values were not generally outside the reference ranges for healthy adult individuals and did not indicate overt functional immunodeficiency, even in subjects with the uppermost PCB burden.

  1. Adenine nucleotide depletion from endothelial cells exposed to xanthine oxidase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aalto, T.K.; Raivio, K.O.

    1990-01-01

    Hypoxia causes breakdown of cellular nucleotides, accumulation of hypoxanthine (HX), and conversion of xanthine dehydrogenase into xanthine oxidase (XO). Upon reoxygenation, the HX-XO reaction generates free radicals, one potential mechanism of tissue damage. Because endothelial cells contain XO and are exposed to circulating HX, they are a likely target for damage. We studied the effect of XO and/or HX at physiologically relevant concentrations on nucleotide metabolism of cultured endothelial cells from human umbilical veins. Cells were labeled with [14C]adenine and incubated for up to 6 h with HX, XO, or both, in the absence or presence of serum. Adenine nucleotides from cell extracts and nucleotide breakdown products (HX, xanthine, and urate) from the medium were separated and counted. HX alone had no effect. XO (80 mU/ml) alone caused a 70% (no serum) or 40% (with serum) fall in adenine nucleotides and an equivalent increase of xanthine and urate. The combination of HX and XO caused a 90% (no serum) or 70% (with serum) decrease in nucleotides, decrease in energy charge, and detachment of cells from the culture plate. Nucleotide depletion was not accounted for by proteolytic activity in the XO preparation. Albumin was only half as effective as serum in preventing nucleotide loss. Thus exogenous XO, in the presence of endogenous HX, triggers adenine nucleotide catabolism, but endogenous XO activity is too low to influence nucleotide levels even at high exogenous HX concentrations. Serum limits the catabolic effect of XO and thus protects cells from free radical damage

  2. Limited transcriptional responses of Rickettsia rickettsii exposed to environmental stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damon W Ellison

    Full Text Available Rickettsiae are strict obligate intracellular pathogens that alternate between arthropod and mammalian hosts in a zoonotic cycle. Typically, pathogenic bacteria that cycle between environmental sources and mammalian hosts adapt to the respective environments by coordinately regulating gene expression such that genes essential for survival and virulence are expressed only upon infection of mammals. Temperature is a common environmental signal for upregulation of virulence gene expression although other factors may also play a role. We examined the transcriptional responses of Rickettsia rickettsii, the agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever, to a variety of environmental signals expected to be encountered during its life cycle. R. rickettsii exposed to differences in growth temperature (25 degrees C vs. 37 degrees C, iron limitation, and host cell species displayed nominal changes in gene expression under any of these conditions with only 0, 5, or 7 genes, respectively, changing more than 3-fold in expression levels. R. rickettsii is not totally devoid of ability to respond to temperature shifts as cold shock (37 degrees C vs. 4 degrees C induced a change greater than 3-fold in up to 56 genes. Rickettsiae continuously occupy a relatively stable environment which is the cytosol of eukaryotic cells. Because of their obligate intracellular character, rickettsiae are believed to be undergoing reductive evolution to a minimal genome. We propose that their relatively constant environmental niche has led to a minimal requirement for R. rickettsii to respond to environmental changes with a consequent deletion of non-essential transcriptional response regulators. A minimal number of predicted transcriptional regulators in the R. rickettsii genome is consistent with this hypothesis.

  3. Magnetic behavioural change of silane exposed graphene nanoflakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, Sekhar C., E-mail: raysc@unisa.ac.za [Department of Physics, College of Science, Engineering and Technology, University of South Africa, Private Bag X6, Florida, 1710, Science Campus, Christiaan de Wet and Pioneer Avenue, Florida Park, Johannesburg 1710 (South Africa); Mishra, D. K. [Department of Physics, College of Science, Engineering and Technology, University of South Africa, Private Bag X6, Florida, 1710, Science Campus, Christiaan de Wet and Pioneer Avenue, Florida Park, Johannesburg 1710 (South Africa); Department of Physics, Institute of Technical Research and Education, Siksha ‘O’ Anusandhan University, Khandagiri Square, Bhubaneswar 751030, Odisha (India); Strydom, A. M. [Highly Correlated Matter Research Group, Physics Department, University of Johannesburg, PO Box 524, Auckland Park 2006 (South Africa); Papakonstantinou, P. [Nanotechnology and Integrated Bioengineering Center (NIBEC), School of Engineering, University of Ulster, Jordanstown Campus, Newtownabbey BT37 0QB (United Kingdom)

    2015-09-21

    The electronic structures and magnetic properties of graphene nanoflakes (GNFs) exposed to an organo-silane precursor [tetra-methyl-silane, Si(CH{sub 3}){sub 4}] were studied using atomic force microscopy, electron field emission (EFE), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and magnetization. The result of XPS indicates that silyl radical based strong covalent bonds were formed in GNFs, which induced local structural relaxations and enhanced sp{sup 3} hybridization. The EFE measurements show an increase in the turn-on electric field from 9.8 V/μm for pure GNFs to 26.3 V/μm for GNFs:Si having highest Si/(Si + C) ratio ( ≅ 0.35) that also suggests an enhancement of the non-metallic sp{sup 3} bonding in the GNFs matrix. Magnetic studies show that the saturation magnetization (Ms) is decreased from 172.53 × 10{sup −6} emu/g for pure GNFs to 13.00 × 10{sup −6} emu/g for GNFs:Si with the highest Si/(Si + C) ratio 0.35, but on the other side, the coercivity (Hc) increases from 66 to 149 Oe due to conversion of sp{sup 2} → sp{sup 3}-hybridization along with the formation of SiC and Si-O bonding in GNFs. The decrease in saturation magnetization and increase in coercivity (Hc) in GNFs on Si-functionalization are another routes to tailor the magnetic properties of graphene materials for magnetic device applications.

  4. Droplet impaction on solid surfaces exposed to impinging jet fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazemi, Zia

    2005-12-15

    The thermal response of hot surfaces exposed to impinging jet fire and subsequent impacting water droplets is investigated. The research was done mainly experimentally by utilizing three different concepts. This included experiments on a laboratory scale steel plate and large outdoor fire tests with a quadratic steel channel and steel plates. Besides the horizontal jet flame itself was characterized in a comprehensive study. As a comparative study, the last three types of the experiment were additionally modeled by the CFD-code Kameleon FireEx for validation of results. The purpose of the experiments done on bench scale steel plate (L x W x T : 300 x 200 x 8 mm) was mainly to map data on wetting temperature, water droplet size, droplet impingement angle, and droplet velocity prior to large scale jet fire tests. The droplet release angle normal to hot surface gives best cooling effect, when the surface is oriented in upright position. The partial wetting begins at about 165 degrees C. When the surface is positioned in horizontal plane, the droplet of about 5 mm in diameter wets the hot surface partially at around 240-250 degrees C within an impaction distance of 20 cm. At about 150 degrees C, the droplet is entirely attached to the surface with almost zero contact angle, and cools down the solid at a critical heat flux equivalent to 1750 kW/m{sup 2}. The cooling effectiveness is about 8 % with a Weber number of 68. Although in the event of horizontal channel (L x W x T : 1000 x 200 x 8 mm) water droplets were not applied, however, the knowledge gained with jet fire tests gave valuable information about temperature progress in solids (steels and insulation) and their response to impinging jet fire during long duration experiments. The temperature of the insulated area of the channel keeps 200 degrees C below that of the exposed surface, as long as the insulation material remained intact. Upon long test fire durations, the insulation either burns or degrades despite

  5. Respiratory tract toxicity in rats exposed to Mexico City air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, O R; Gross, E A; James, R A; Janszen, D B; Ross, P W; Roberts, K C; Howard, A M; Harkema, J R; Calderón-Garcidueñas, L; Morgan, K T

    2001-03-01

    The rat has been used extensively as a health sentinel, indicator, or monitor of environmental health hazards, but this model has not been directly validated against human exposures. Humans in Mexico City show upper respiratory tract lesions and evidence of pulmonary damage related to their environmental inhalation exposure. In this study, male and female F344 rats were exposed (23 hr/day) in Mexico City to local Mexico City air (MCA)* for up to seven weeks. Controls were maintained at the same location under filtered air. Prior to these exposures, several steps were taken. First, the nasal passages of normal male rats shipped from the United States and housed in Mexico City were examined for mycoplasma infection; no evidence of infection was found. In addition, a mobile exposure and monitoring system was assembled and, with an ozone (O3) exposure atmosphere, was tested along with supporting histopathology techniques and analysis of rat nasal and lung tissues. Last, the entire exposure model (equipment and animals) was transported to Mexico City and validated for a three-week period. During the seven-week study there were 18 one-hour intervals during which the average O3 concentration of MCA in the exposure chamber exceeded the US National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) of 0.120 ppm 03 (hourly average, not to be exceeded more than once per year). This prolonged exposure of healthy F344 rats to MCA containing episodically low to moderate concentrations of 03 (as well as other urban air pollutants) did not induce inflammatory or epithelial lesions in the nasal airways or lung as measured by qualitative histologic techniques or quantitative morphometric techniques. These findings agree with those of previous controlled O3 inhalation studies, but they are in contrast to reports indicating that O3-polluted MCA causes significant nasal mucosal injury in adults and children living in southwestern Mexico City. Taken together, these findings may suggest that human

  6. Hippocampal phosphoproteomics of F344 rats exposed to 1-bromopropane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Zhenlie; Ichihara, Sahoko; Oikawa, Shinji; Chang, Jie; Zhang, Lingyi; Hu, Shijie; Huang, Hanlin; Ichihara, Gaku

    2015-01-01

    1-Bromopropane (1-BP) is neurotoxic in both experimental animals and human. To identify phosphorylated modification on the unrecognized post-translational modifications of proteins and investigate their role in 1-BP-induced neurotoxicity, changes in hippocampal phosphoprotein expression levels were analyzed quantitatively in male F344 rats exposed to 1-BP inhalation at 0, 400, or 1000 ppm for 8 h/day for 1 or 4 weeks. Hippocampal protein extracts were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively by Pro-Q Diamond gel staining and SYPRO Ruby staining coupled with two-dimensional difference in gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE), respectively, as well as by matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) to identify phosphoproteins. Changes in selected proteins were further confirmed by Manganese II (Mn 2+ )-Phos-tag SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Bax and cytochrome c protein levels were determined by western blotting. Pro-Q Diamond gel staining combined with 2D-DIGE identified 26 phosphoprotein spots (p < 0.05), and MALDI-TOF/MS identified 18 up-regulated proteins and 8 down-regulated proteins. These proteins are involved in the biological process of response to stimuli, metabolic processes, and apoptosis signaling. Changes in the expression of phosphorylated 14-3-3 θ were further confirmed by Mn 2+ -Phos-tag SDS-PAGE. Western blotting showed overexpression of Bax protein in the mitochondria with down-regulation in the cytoplasm, whereas cytochrome c expression was high in the cytoplasm but low in the mitochondria after 1-BP exposure. Our results suggest that the pathogenesis of 1-BP-induced hippocampal damage involves inhibition of antiapoptosis process. Phosphoproteins identified in this study can potentially serve as biomarkers for 1-BP-induced neurotoxicity. - Highlights: • 1-BP modified hippocampal phosphoproteome in rat and 23 altered proteins were identified. • 1-BP changed phosphorylation of GRP78

  7. Hippocampal phosphoproteomics of F344 rats exposed to 1-bromopropane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Zhenlie [Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Occupational Disease Prevention and Treatment, Guangdong Province Hospital for Occupational Disease Prevention and Treatment, Guangzhou 510-300 (China); Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Ichihara, Sahoko [Graduate School of Regional Innovation Studies, Mie University, Tsu 514-8507 (Japan); Oikawa, Shinji [Department of Environmental and Molecular Medicine, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Mie 514-8507 (Japan); Chang, Jie [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Graduate School of Regional Innovation Studies, Mie University, Tsu 514-8507 (Japan); Zhang, Lingyi [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokyo University of Science, Noda 278-8510 (Japan); Hu, Shijie [Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Occupational Disease Prevention and Treatment, Guangdong Province Hospital for Occupational Disease Prevention and Treatment, Guangzhou 510-300 (China); Huang, Hanlin, E-mail: huanghl@gdoh.org [Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Occupational Disease Prevention and Treatment, Guangdong Province Hospital for Occupational Disease Prevention and Treatment, Guangzhou 510-300 (China); Ichihara, Gaku, E-mail: gak@rs.tus.ac.jp [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokyo University of Science, Noda 278-8510 (Japan)

    2015-01-15

    1-Bromopropane (1-BP) is neurotoxic in both experimental animals and human. To identify phosphorylated modification on the unrecognized post-translational modifications of proteins and investigate their role in 1-BP-induced neurotoxicity, changes in hippocampal phosphoprotein expression levels were analyzed quantitatively in male F344 rats exposed to 1-BP inhalation at 0, 400, or 1000 ppm for 8 h/day for 1 or 4 weeks. Hippocampal protein extracts were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively by Pro-Q Diamond gel staining and SYPRO Ruby staining coupled with two-dimensional difference in gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE), respectively, as well as by matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) to identify phosphoproteins. Changes in selected proteins were further confirmed by Manganese II (Mn{sup 2+})-Phos-tag SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Bax and cytochrome c protein levels were determined by western blotting. Pro-Q Diamond gel staining combined with 2D-DIGE identified 26 phosphoprotein spots (p < 0.05), and MALDI-TOF/MS identified 18 up-regulated proteins and 8 down-regulated proteins. These proteins are involved in the biological process of response to stimuli, metabolic processes, and apoptosis signaling. Changes in the expression of phosphorylated 14-3-3 θ were further confirmed by Mn{sup 2+}-Phos-tag SDS-PAGE. Western blotting showed overexpression of Bax protein in the mitochondria with down-regulation in the cytoplasm, whereas cytochrome c expression was high in the cytoplasm but low in the mitochondria after 1-BP exposure. Our results suggest that the pathogenesis of 1-BP-induced hippocampal damage involves inhibition of antiapoptosis process. Phosphoproteins identified in this study can potentially serve as biomarkers for 1-BP-induced neurotoxicity. - Highlights: • 1-BP modified hippocampal phosphoproteome in rat and 23 altered proteins were identified. • 1-BP changed phosphorylation

  8. Integrity of Disposable Nitrile Exam Gloves Exposed to Simulated Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phalen, Robert N.; Wong, Weng Kee

    2011-01-01

    Every year, millions of health care, first responder, and industry workers are exposed to chemical and biological hazards. Disposable nitrile gloves are a common choice as both a chemical and physical barrier to these hazards, especially as an alternative to natural latex gloves. However, glove selection is complicated by the availability of several types or formulations of nitrile gloves, such as low-modulus, medical-grade, low-filler, and cleanroom products. This study evaluated the influence of simulated movement on the physical integrity (i.e., holes) of different nitrile exam glove brands and types. Thirty glove products were evaluated out-of-box and after exposure to simulated whole-glove movement for 2 hr. In lieu of the traditional 1-L water-leak test, a modified water-leak test, standardized to detect a 0.15 ± 0.05 mm hole in different regions of the glove, was developed. A specialized air inflation method simulated bidirectional stretching and whole-glove movement. A worst-case scenario with maximum stretching was evaluated. On average, movement did not have a significant effect on glove integrity (chi-square; p=0.068). The average effect was less than 1% between no movement (1.5%) and movement (2.1%) exposures. However, there was significant variability in glove integrity between different glove types (p ≤ 0.05). Cleanroom gloves, on average, had the highest percentage of leaks, and 50% failed the water-leak test. Low-modulus and medical-grade gloves had the lowest percentages of leaks, and no products failed the water-leak test. Variability in polymer formulation was suspected to account for the observed discrepancies, as well as the inability of the traditional 1-L water-leak test to detect holes in finger/thumb regions. Unexpectedly, greater than 80% of the glove defects were observed in the finger and thumb regions. It is recommended that existing water-leak tests be re-evaluated and standardized to account for product variability. PMID:21476169

  9. Polymorphic trial in oxidative damage of arsenic exposed Vietnamese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujihara, Junko; Soejima, Mikiko; Yasuda, Toshihiro; Koda, Yoshiro; Kunito, Takashi; Iwata, Hisato; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Takeshita, Haruo

    2011-01-01

    Arsenic causes DNA damage and changes the cellular capacity for DNA repair. Genes in the base excision repair (BER) pathway influence the generation and repair of oxidative lesions. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in human 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (hOGG1) Ser326Cys; apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (APE1) Asp148Glu; X-ray and repair and cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1) Arg280His and Arg399Gln in the BER genes were analyzed, and the relationship between these 4 SNPs and the urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) concentrations of 100 Vietnamese population exposed to arsenic was investigated. Individuals with hOGG1 326Cys/Cys showed significantly higher urinary 8-OHdG concentrations than did those with 326 Ser/Cys and Ser/Ser. As for APE1 Asp148Glu, heterozygous subjects showed significantly higher urinary 8-OHdG concentrations than did those homozygous for Asp/Asp. Moreover, global ethnic comparison of the allelic frequencies of the 4SNPs was performed in 10 population and previous reported data. The mutant allele frequencies of hOGG1 Ser326Cys in the Asian populations were higher than those in the African and Caucasian populations. As for APE1 Asp148Glu, Caucasians showed higher mutant frequencies than those shown by African and Asian populations. Among Asian populations, the Bangladeshi population showed relatively higher mutant allele frequencies of the APE1 Asp148Glu polymorphism. This study is the first to demonstrate the existence of genetic heterogeneity in a worldwide distribution of SNPs (hOGG1 Ser326Cys, APE1 Asp148Glu, XRCC1 Arg280His, and XRCC1 Arg399Gln) in the BER genes. - Highlights: → We showed that hOGG1 and APE1 are associated with urinary 8-OHdG concentrations. → We showed the existence of inter-ethnic differences in hOGG1 and APE1 polymorphism. → These polymorphisms is a genetic marker of susceptibility to oxidative stress.

  10. Influence of Some Pesticides on Humoral and Cellular Immunity of Exposed Workers in Pesticides Industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osely, E.Sh.M.

    2010-01-01

    Pesticide poisoning is a major public health problem in developing countries. In most of these countries organophosphate pesticides constitute the most widely used pesticides. The main toxicity of OPs is neurotoxicity, which is caused by the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase. OPs also affect the immune response, including effects on cellular and humoral immunity. Our study examined the effect of organophosphorus compounds on humoral and cellular immunity of exposed workers in pesticides industries. The study was conducted into 40 subjects. They were 2 groups; 20 exposed workers from Gharbeia and Kafr Elsheikh at 2008 and 2009 and 20 unexposed individuals as a control group at the same period of time. We examined some immune parameters; pseudocholinesterase, WBCs count, CD4%, CD8%, CD4/CD8, CD56%, Interleukin 2, IgG and IgM. Also we take history and clinical examination for them. We reported a highly significant decrease in pseudo cholinesterase level among the exposed group in comparison to the control group, highly significant increase in percentage of CD8 in the exposed group in comparison to control group, highly significant decrease in CD4 / CD8 ratio in the exposed group in comparison to control group, highly significant decrease in percentage of CD56 in the exposed group in comparison to control group and a highly significant increase in IgG level in the exposed group in comparison to control group. On the other hand, we reported no significant change in white blood cells count between the exposed and control groups, no significant change in percentage of CD4 among the exposed and control group, no significant change in Interleukin 2 level among the exposed and control group and no significant change in IgM level among the exposed and control group. We concluded that pesticides extensively affect the humoral and cellular immune system of occupationally exposed workers.

  11. Pulmonary function and oxidative stress in workers exposed to styrene in plastic factory: occupational hazards in styrene-exposed plastic factory workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sati, Prakash Chandra; Khaliq, Farah; Vaney, Neelam; Ahmed, Tanzeel; Tripathi, Ashok K; Banerjee, Basu Dev

    2011-11-01

    Styrene is a volatile organic compound used in factories for synthesis of plastic products. The pneumotoxicity of styrene in experimental animals is known. The aim of the present study was to study the effect of styrene on lung function and oxidative stress in occupationally exposed workers in plastic factory. Thirty-four male workers, between 18 and 40 years of age, exposed to styrene for atleast 8 hours a day for more than a year were studied, while 30 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects not exposed to styrene served as controls. Assessment of lung functions showed a statistically significant reduction (p volumes, capacities (FVC, FEV(1), VC, ERV, IRV, and IC) and flow rates (PEFR, MEF(75%), and MVV) in the study group (workers) as compared to controls. Malondialdehyde (MDA) was observed to be significantly high (p < 0.05) while ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) was significantly low (p < 0.05) in styrene-exposed subjects. Reduced glutathione (GSH) level was significantly depleted in exposed subjects as compared to control group. The mean value of serum cytochrome c in styrene-exposed subjects was found to be 1.1 ng/ml (0.89-1.89) while in control its levels were under detection limit (0.05 ng/ml). It shows that styrene inhalation by workers leads to increased level of oxidative stress, which is supposed to be the cause of lung damage.

  12. Potassium ion influx measurements on cultured Chinese hamster cells exposed to 60-hertz electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, A.P.; Tobey, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    Potassium ion influx was measured by monitoring 42 KCl uptake by Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells grown in suspension culture and exposed in the culture medium to 60-Hz electromagnetic fields up to 2.85 V/m. In the presence of the field CHO cells exhibited two components of uptake, the same as previously observed for those grown under normal conditions; both these components of influx were decreased when compared to sham-exposed cells. Although decreases were consistently observed in exposed cells when plotted as loge of uptake, the differences between the means of the calculated fluxes of exposed and sham-exposed cells were quite small (on the order of 4-7%). When standard deviations were calculated, there was no significant difference between these means; however, when time-paired uptake data were analyzed, the differences were found to be statistically significant. Cells exposed only to the magnetic field exhibited similar small decreases in influx rates when compared to sham-exposed cells, suggesting that the reduction in K+ uptake could be attributed to the magnetic field. Additionally, intracellular K+ levels were measured over a prolonged exposure period (96 h), and no apparent differences in intracellular K+ levels were observed between field-exposed and sham-exposed cultures. These results indicate that high-strength electric fields have a small effect on the rate of transport of potassium ions but no effect on long-term maintenance of intracellular K+

  13. Cytokine mRNA profiles in pigs exposed prenatally and postnatally to Schistosoma japonicum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Techau, Michala E.; Johansen, Maria V.; Aasted, Bent

    2007-01-01

    of septal fibrosis were significantly higher in the postnatal group compared to the prenatal group (P prenatally infected animals compared to the control...... group (P prenatal group showed higher levels of TGF-beta 1 in the liver compared with the postnatally infected group (P control group (P prenatally exposed pigs.......The pig is a natural host for Schistosoma japonicum and a useful animal model of human infection. The aim of the present study was to assess the differences between the cytokine profiles in prenatally or postnatally S. japonicum exposed pigs. Seven prenatally exposed pigs, 7 postnatally exposed...

  14. The affect of the space environment on the survival of Halorubrum chaoviator and Synechococcus (Nägeli): data from the Space Experiment OSMO on EXPOSE-R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancinelli, R. L.

    2015-01-01

    We have shown using ESA's Biopan facility flown in Earth orbit that when exposed to the space environment for 2 weeks the survival rate of Synechococcus (Nägeli), a halophilic cyanobacterium isolated from the evaporitic gypsum-halite crusts that form along the marine intertidal, and Halorubrum chaoviator a member of the Halobacteriaceae isolated from an evaporitic NaCl crystal obtained from a salt evaporation pond, were higher than all other test organisms except Bacillus spores. These results led to the EXPOSE-R mission to extend and refine these experiments as part of the experimental package for the external platform space exposure facility on the ISS. The experiment was flown in February 2009 and the organisms were exposed to low-Earth orbit for nearly 2 years. Samples were either exposed to solar ultraviolet (UV)-radiation (λ > 110 nm or λ > 200 nm, cosmic radiation (dosage range 225-320 mGy), or kept in darkness shielded from solar UV-radiation. Half of each of the UV-radiation exposed samples and dark samples were exposed to space vacuum and half kept at 105 pascals in argon. Duplicate samples were kept in the laboratory to serve as unexposed controls. Ground simulation control experiments were also performed. After retrieval, organism viability was tested using Molecular Probes Live-Dead Bac-Lite stain and by their reproduction capability. Samples kept in the dark, but exposed to space vacuum had a 90 +/- 5% survival rate compared to the ground controls. Samples exposed to full UV-radiation for over a year were bleached and although results from Molecular Probes Live-Dead stain suggested ~10% survival, the data indicate that no survival was detected using cell growth and division using the most probable number method. Those samples exposed to attenuated UV-radiation exhibited limited survival. Results from of this study are relevant to understanding adaptation and evolution of life, the future of life beyond earth, the potential for interplanetary

  15. The Affect of the Space Environment on the Survival of Halorubrum Chaoviator and Synechococcus (Nageli): Data from the Space Experiment OSMO on EXPOSE-R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancinelli, R. L.

    2014-01-01

    We have shown using ESA's Biopan facility flown in Earth orbit that when exposed to the space environment for 2 weeks the survival rate of Synechococcus (Nageli), a halophilic cyanobacterium isolated from the evaporitic gypsum-halite crusts that form along the marine intertidal, and Halorubrum chaoviator a member of the Halobacteriaceae isolated from an evaporitic NaCl crystal obtained from a salt evaporation pond, were higher than all other test organisms except Bacillus spores. These results led to the EXPOSE-R mission to extend and refine these experiments as part of the experimental package for the external platform space exposure facility on the ISS. The experiment was flown in February 2009 and the organisms were exposed to low-Earth orbit for nearly 2 years. Samples were either exposed to solar ultraviolet (UV)-radiation (lambda is greater than 110 nm or lambda is greater than 200 nm, cosmic radiation (dosage range 225-320 mGy), or kept in darkness shielded from solar UV-radiation. Half of each of the UV-radiation exposed samples and dark samples were exposed to space vacuum and half kept at 105 pascals in argon. Duplicate samples were kept in the laboratory to serve as unexposed controls. Ground simulation control experiments were also performed. After retrieval, organism viability was tested using Molecular Probes Live-Dead Bac-Lite stain and by their reproduction capability. Samples kept in the dark, but exposed to space vacuum had a 90 +/- 5% survival rate compared to the ground controls. Samples exposed to full UV-radiation for over a year were bleached and although results from Molecular Probes Live-Dead stain suggested approximately 10% survival, the data indicate that no survival was detected using cell growth and division using the most probable number method. Those samples exposed to attenuated UV-radiation exhibited limited survival. Results from of this study are relevant to understanding adaptation and evolution of life, the future of life

  16. SCM Paste Samples Exposed To Aggressive Solutions. Cementitious Barriers Partnership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, T.

    2014-01-01

    This report summarizes experimental work performed by SIMCO Technologies Inc. (SIMCO) as part of the Cementitious Barriers Partnership (CBP) project. The test series followed an experimental program dedicated to the study of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) hydrated cement pastes exposed to aggressive solutions. In the present study, the scope is extended to hydrated cement pastes incorporating supplementary cementitious materials (SCM) such as fly ash and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS). Also, the range of aggressive contact solutions was expanded. The experimental program aimed at testing aggressive contact solutions that more closely mimic the chemical composition of saltstone pore solution. Five different solutions, some of which incorporated high levels of carbonate and nitrate, were placed in contact with four different hydrated cement paste mixes. In all solutions, 150 mmol/L of SO 4 2- (14 400 ppm) were present. The solutions included different pH conditions and different sodium content. Two paste mixes were equivalent to Vault 1/4 and Vault 2 concrete mixes used at SRS in storage structures. Two additional paste mixes, cast at the same water-to-cement ratio and using the same cements but without SCMs, were also tested. The damage evolution in samples was monitored using ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) and mass measurements. After three and twelve months of exposure conditions, samples were taken out of solution containers and analyzed to perform migration tests and porosity measurements. Globally, results were in line with the previous study and confirmed that high pH may limit the formation of some deleterious phases like gypsum. In this case, ettringite may form but is not necessarily associated with damage. However, the high concentration of sodium may be associated with the formation of an AFm-like mineral called U-phase. The most significant evidences of damage were all associated with the Vault 2 paste analog. This material

  17. Durability of reinforced adobe exposed to chloride ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giménez, A.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the primary shortcomings of adobe, a dried mudblock stabilized with sisal hemp and cement widely used across all of Latin America, is its dimensional instability when exposed to water or aggressive environments. The present paper evaluates the electrochemical performance of reinforced adobe block after 1,000 days of exposure to a simulated marine environment. The specimens used were adobe blocks internally reinforced with 3/8-inch steel bars. The specimens were watered every two weeks: one group with potable water to simulate a natural urban environment and the other with a 3% sodium chloride solution to simulate a marine environment.Chloride penetration in powder extracted from the specimens was determined using the Mohr method. Electrochemical measurements included Gecor 6 electric potential(Eº and corrosion intensity (icorr readings. The final conclusion drawn from an analysis of the results was that in all cases the amount of free chlorides present sufficed to depassivate reinforcing steel and that the system component providing the most effective protection was the rough casting mortar. Consequently, this type of adobe mixes is not recommended for use in marine or industrial environments.La tierra-cemento-sisal es un material cuyo uso se encuentra muy difundido en toda Latinoamérica, entre sus principales limitaciones está la inestabilidad volumétrica ante el agua y ambientes agresivos. Por tal motivo, en este trabajo se evaluó el comportamiento electroquímico de bloques de tierra-cemento-sisal armado expuestos durante 1.000 días a un ambiente marino simulado. Las probetas utilizadas fueron bloques de tierra-cemento-sisal incorporándole internamente barras de acero de 3/8 de pulg. Las probetas se sometieron a un rociado quincenal: las de ambiente natural urbano con agua potable y las de ambiente marino simulado con una solución al 3% de cloruro de sodio. La penetración de cloruros se determinó extrayendo polvillo y

  18. SCM Paste Samples Exposed To Aggressive Solutions. Cementitious Barriers Partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-12-01

    This report summarizes experimental work performed by SIMCO Technologies Inc. (SIMCO) as part of the Cementitious Barriers Partnership (CBP) project. The test series followed an experimental program dedicated to the study of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) hydrated cement pastes exposed to aggressive solutions. In the present study, the scope is extended to hydrated cement pastes incorporating supplementary cementitious materials (SCM) such as fly ash and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS). Also, the range of aggressive contact solutions was expanded. The experimental program aimed at testing aggressive contact solutions that more closely mimic the chemical composition of saltstone pore solution. Five different solutions, some of which incorporated high levels of carbonate and nitrate, were placed in contact with four different hydrated cement paste mixes. In all solutions, 150 mmol/L of SO42– (14 400 ppm) were present. The solutions included different pH conditions and different sodium content. Two paste mixes were equivalent to Vault 1/4 and Vault 2 concrete mixes used at SRS in storage structures. Two additional paste mixes, cast at the same water-to-cement ratio and using the same cements but without SCMs, were also tested. The damage evolution in samples was monitored using ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) and mass measurements. After three and twelve months of exposure conditions, samples were taken out of solution containers and analyzed to perform migration tests and porosity measurements. Globally, results were in line with the previous study and confirmed that high pH may limit the formation of some deleterious phases like gypsum. In this case, ettringite may form but is not necessarily associated with damage. However, the high concentration of sodium may be associated with the formation of an AFm-like mineral called U-phase. The most significant evidences of damage were all associated with the Vault 2 paste analog. This

  19. Methylomic changes in individuals with psychosis, prenatally exposed to endocrine disrupting compounds: Lessons from diethylstilbestrol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrice Rivollier

    Full Text Available In the Western world, between 1940 and 1970, more than 2 million people were exposed in utero to diethylstilbestrol (DES. In exposed individuals, and in their descendants, adverse outcomes have been linked to such exposure, including cancers, genital malformations, and less consistently, psychiatric disorders. We aimed to explore whether prenatal DES exposure would be associated with DNA methylation changes, and whether these epigenetic modifications would be associated with increased risk of psychosis.From 247 individuals born from mothers exposed to DES, we selected 69 siblings from 30 families. In each family, at least one sibling was exposed in utero to DES. We performed a methylome-wide association study using HumanMethylation450 DNA Analysis BeadChip® in peripheral blood. We analyzed methylation changes at individual CpGs or regions in exposed (n = 37 versus unexposed individuals (n = 32. We also compared exposed individuals with (n = 7 and without psychosis (n = 30.There were more individuals with schizophrenia in the DES-exposed group. We found no significant differences between exposed and unexposed individuals with respect to differentially methylated CpGs or regions. The largest difference was in a region near the promoter of an ADAMTS proteoglycanase gene (ADAMTS9. Compared to exposed individuals without psychosis, exposed individuals with psychosis had differential methylation in the region encompassing the gene encoding the zinc finger protein 57 (ZFP57.In utero exposure to DES was not associated with methylation changes at specific CpG or regions. In exposed individuals, however, psychosis was associated with specific methylomic modifications that could impact neurodevelopment and neuroplasticity.

  20. Cytogenetics observation and radiation influence evaluation of exposed persons in a discontinuous radiation exposure event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Ying; Liu Xiulin; Yang Guoshan; Ge Shili; Jin Cuizhen; Yao Bo

    2003-01-01

    The cytogenetics results and dose estimation of exposed and related persons in an discontinuous radiation exposure event were reported in this paper. According to dicentrics + ring and micronucleus results combined with clinical data, slight (middle) degree of subacute radiation symptom of the victim was diagnosed. A part of 52 examined persons were exposed to radiation in a certain degree

  1. Effects of Vitamin C on Kidney and Bone of Rats Exposed to Low ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT: In this study, the effect of vitamin C on cadmium-induced toxicity was investigated. Wister rats were exposed to ... and muscles of cadmium exposed rats (1.0- ..... Fauci, A.S., Braunwald, K., Isselbacher, K.J., Wilson,. J.D., Martin ...

  2. Modeling lung cancer risks in laboratory dogs exposed to inhaled plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, E.S.; Park, J.F.; Buschbom, R.L.

    1990-06-01

    These analyses are based on data from a lifespan study of beagle dogs exposed to inhaled plutonium being conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. An important goal of this study is to increase understanding of health risk resulting from this exposure, with particular attention to lung cancer risks. Data on humans exposed to plutonium are inadequate for achieving this goal

  3. Differentiation of peripheral lymphocyte population in Pu-exposed beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, J.E.

    1977-01-01

    The percentage of peripheral lymphocytes binding fluorescent-labeled anticanine antibodies was measured in plutonium-oxide-exposed and unexposed beagle dogs. With this assay system, there was a significant decrease in the percentage of lymphocytes binding the labeled antibody in exposed animals compared to control animals

  4. 30 CFR 75.521 - Lightning arresters; ungrounded and exposed power conductors and telephone wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lightning arresters; ungrounded and exposed... Electrical Equipment-General § 75.521 Lightning arresters; ungrounded and exposed power conductors and... leads underground shall be equipped with suitable lightning arresters of approved type within 100 feet...

  5. 76 FR 67761 - Establishment of the Attorney General's National Task Force on Children Exposed to Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ... the Attorney General's National Task Force on Children Exposed to Violence AGENCY: Office of Juvenile.... SUMMARY: The Attorney General's National Task Force on Children Exposed to Violence (the Task Force) is....C., App. 2. The Task Force will provide the Attorney General with valuable advice on a broad array...

  6. Hepatitis B immunisation in persons not previously exposed to hepatitis B or with unknown exposure status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathew, Joseph L; El Dib, Regina; Mathew, Preethy J

    2008-01-01

    The benefits and harms of hepatitis B vaccination in persons not previously exposed to hepatitis B infection or with unknown exposure status have not been established.......The benefits and harms of hepatitis B vaccination in persons not previously exposed to hepatitis B infection or with unknown exposure status have not been established....

  7. 46 CFR 169.721 - Storm sails and halyards (exposed and partially protected waters only).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Storm sails and halyards (exposed and partially... § 169.721 Storm sails and halyards (exposed and partially protected waters only). (a) Unless clearly unsuitable, each vessel must have one storm trysail of appropriate size. It must be sheeted independently of...

  8. Optimization of radiological surveillance of occupationally-exposed workers in the Republic of Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This works analyzes the results of the dosimetric control to occupationally-exposed workers. during the 1987-1990 period. It states a criterium for knowing when it will be necessary to give or not an individual dosimeter to occupationally-exposed workers. It also proposes to take the dosimeter away to a number of workers as a result of such criterium

  9. Project VALOR: Trajectories of Change in PTSD in Combat-Exposed Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Post - traumatic stress disorder ( PTSD ), military sexual trauma (MST), suicide, combat-exposed veterans, PTSD ...develop the first longitudinal registry of combat-exposed men and women with post - traumatic stress disorder ( PTSD ), 1649 participants from across the...Keane, T. M. (2012). Project VALOR: Design and methods of a longitudinal registry of post - traumatic stress disorder ( PTSD ) in

  10. Evaluation of selenium in biological sample of arsenic exposed female skin lesions and skin cancer patients with related to non-exposed skin cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolachi, Nida F.; Kazi, Tasneem G., E-mail: tgkazi@yahoo.com; Wadhwa, Sham K.; Afridi, Hassan I.; Baig, Jameel A.; Khan, Sumaira; Shah, Faheem

    2011-08-01

    The antagonistic effects between selenium (Se) and arsenic (As) suggest that low Se status plays an important role in arsenism development. The objective of present study was to assess Se contents in biological samples of As exposed females have skin lesions and cancer with related to non-exposed skin cancer patients. The biological samples (blood and scalp hair) of As exposed group comprises, female skin cancer (ESC) patients admitted in cancer hospitals have skin lesions (ESL) and exposed referents have not both diseases (ER), belongs to As exposed area of Pakistan. For comparative purposes, age matched female skin cancerous patient (RP) and non-cancerous females (NER) belong to non-exposed areas were also selected. The As and Se in acid digests of biological samples were pre-concentrated by complexing with chelating agent (ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate), and resulted complexes were extracted into non-ionic extractant (Triton X-114), prior to analysis by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The enhancement factor of about 25 was obtained by pre-concentrating 10 mL of sample solutions. The accuracy of the optimized procedure was evaluated by using certified reference material (BCR 397) with certified values for Se and As and standard addition method at three concentration levels in real samples. No significant differences was observed (p > 0.05) when comparing the values obtained by the proposed method, added and certified values of both elements. The biological samples of ESC patients had 2-3 folds higher As and lower Se levels as compared to RP (p < 0.001). Understudied exposed referents have high level of As and lower Se contents as compared to referents subjects of non-exposed area (p < 0.01). The higher concentration of As and lower levels of Se in biological samples of cancerous patients are consisted with reported studies. - Research Highlights: {yields} Advance extraction method for the enrichment of arsenic and selenium in biological

  11. Evaluation of selenium in biological sample of arsenic exposed female skin lesions and skin cancer patients with related to non-exposed skin cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolachi, Nida F.; Kazi, Tasneem G.; Wadhwa, Sham K.; Afridi, Hassan I.; Baig, Jameel A.; Khan, Sumaira; Shah, Faheem

    2011-01-01

    The antagonistic effects between selenium (Se) and arsenic (As) suggest that low Se status plays an important role in arsenism development. The objective of present study was to assess Se contents in biological samples of As exposed females have skin lesions and cancer with related to non-exposed skin cancer patients. The biological samples (blood and scalp hair) of As exposed group comprises, female skin cancer (ESC) patients admitted in cancer hospitals have skin lesions (ESL) and exposed referents have not both diseases (ER), belongs to As exposed area of Pakistan. For comparative purposes, age matched female skin cancerous patient (RP) and non-cancerous females (NER) belong to non-exposed areas were also selected. The As and Se in acid digests of biological samples were pre-concentrated by complexing with chelating agent (ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate), and resulted complexes were extracted into non-ionic extractant (Triton X-114), prior to analysis by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The enhancement factor of about 25 was obtained by pre-concentrating 10 mL of sample solutions. The accuracy of the optimized procedure was evaluated by using certified reference material (BCR 397) with certified values for Se and As and standard addition method at three concentration levels in real samples. No significant differences was observed (p > 0.05) when comparing the values obtained by the proposed method, added and certified values of both elements. The biological samples of ESC patients had 2-3 folds higher As and lower Se levels as compared to RP (p < 0.001). Understudied exposed referents have high level of As and lower Se contents as compared to referents subjects of non-exposed area (p < 0.01). The higher concentration of As and lower levels of Se in biological samples of cancerous patients are consisted with reported studies. - Research Highlights: → Advance extraction method for the enrichment of arsenic and selenium in biological matrices

  12. Psychophysical Evaluation of Achromatic and Chromatic Vision of Workers Chronically Exposed to Organic Solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacerda, E.M.D.B.; Lima, M.G.; Silveira, L.C.D.S.; Rodrigues, A.R.; Teixeira, C.E.C.; De Lima, L.J.B.; Silveira, L.C.D.S.; Ventura, D.F.; Ventura, D.F.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to evaluate achromatic and chromatic vision of workers chronically exposed to organic solvents through psychophysical methods. Thirty-one gas station workers (31.5 ± 8.4 years old) were evaluated. Psychophysical tests were achromatic tests (Snellen chart, spatial and temporal contrast sensitivity, and visual perimetry) and chromatic tests (Ishihara's test, color discrimination ellipses, and Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue test FM100). Spatial contrast sensitivities of exposed workers were lower than the control at spatial frequencies of 20 and 30 cpd whilst the temporal contrast sensitivity was preserved. Visual field losses were found in 10-30 degrees of eccentricity in the solvent exposed workers. The exposed workers group had higher error values of FM100 and wider color discrimination ellipses area compared to the controls. Workers occupationally exposed to organic solvents had abnormal visual functions, mainly color vision losses and visual field constriction

  13. Genetic and demographic responses of mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) populations exposed to mercury for multiple generations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatara, C.P.; Mulvey, M.; Newman, M.C.

    1999-12-01

    Genetic and demographic responses of mosquitofish were examined after multiple generations of exposure to mercury. Previous studies of acute lethal exposures of mosquitofish to either mercury or arsenic demonstrated a consistent correlation between time to death and genotype at the glucosephosphate isomerase-2 (Gpi-2) locus. A mesocosm study involving mosquitofish populations exposed to mercury for 111 d showed significant female sexual selection and fecundity selection at the Gpi-2 locus. Here the mesocosm study was extended to populations exposed to mercury for several (approx. four) generations. After 2 years, control and mercury-exposed populations met Hardy-Weinberg expectations and showed no evidence of genetic bottlenecks. The mean number of heterozygous loci did not differ significantly between the mercury-exposed and control populations. Significant differences in allele frequencies at the Gpi-2 locus were observed between the mercury-exposed and control populations. Relative to the initial and control allele frequencies, the GPI-2{sup 100} allele frequency was lower, the Gpi-2{sup 66} allele frequency increased, but the Gpi-2{sup 38} allele frequency did not change in mercury-exposed populations. No significant differences were found in standard length, weight, sex ratio, or age class ratio between the control and mercury-exposed populations. Allele frequency changes at the Gpi-2 locus suggest population-level response to chronic mercury exposure. Changes in allele frequency may be useful as indicators of population response to contaminants, provided that the population in question is well understood.

  14. Analysis of emotionality and locomotion in radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation exposed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Sareesh Naduvil; Kumar, Raju Suresh; Paval, Jaijesh; Kedage, Vivekananda; Bhat, M Shankaranarayana; Nayak, Satheesha; Bhat, P Gopalakrishna

    2013-07-01

    In the current study the modulatory role of mobile phone radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) on emotionality and locomotion was evaluated in adolescent rats. Male albino Wistar rats (6-8 weeks old) were randomly assigned into the following groups having 12 animals in each group. Group I (Control): they remained in the home cage throughout the experimental period. Group II (Sham exposed): they were exposed to mobile phone in switch-off mode for 28 days, and Group III (RF-EMR exposed): they were exposed to RF-EMR (900 MHz) from an active GSM (Global system for mobile communications) mobile phone with a peak power density of 146.60 μW/cm(2) for 28 days. On 29th day, the animals were tested for emotionality and locomotion. Elevated plus maze (EPM) test revealed that, percentage of entries into the open arm, percentage of time spent on the open arm and distance travelled on the open arm were significantly reduced in the RF-EMR exposed rats. Rearing frequency and grooming frequency were also decreased in the RF-EMR exposed rats. Defecation boli count during the EPM test was more with the RF-EMR group. No statistically significant difference was found in total distance travelled, total arm entries, percentage of closed arm entries and parallelism index in the RF-EMR exposed rats compared to controls. Results indicate that mobile phone radiation could affect the emotionality of rats without affecting the general locomotion.

  15. Cigarette smoke-exposed saliva suppresses cellular and humoral immune responses in an animal model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jafarzadeh, A.; Bakhshi, H.; Rezayati, M.T.; Nemati, M.

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of cigarette smoke (CS)-exposed saliva on cellular and antibody responses in an animal model. The stimulatory and non-stimulatory saliva samples were collected from 10 healthy subjects and were then exposed to CS for 20 or 80 minutes. The CS-exposed saliva samples were administrated intraperitoneally (i.p) to male Balb/c mice. Then the delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) and antibody responses to sheep red blood cell (SRBC) was assessed. Moreover, the total white blood cells (WBC) counts and the blood lymphocytes counts were determined. The mean of DTH responses of animal groups received 20 minutes or 80 minutes CS-exposed saliva samples was significantly lower than that observed in control group. Moreover, The mean titer of anti-SRBC antibody was significantly lower in animal groups who received 80 minutes CS-exposed stimulatory or non-stimulatory saliva as compared to control group (P<0.04 and P<0.002, respectively). The mean counts of blood lymphocytes in 80 minutes CS exposed-stimulatory saliva group was also significantly lower as compared to control group (P<0.05). These results show that the CS-exposed saliva samples have profound suppressive effects on both cellular and humoral immune response in a mouse animal model (JPMA 59:760; 2009). (author)

  16. Oxidative stress biomarkers and aggressive behavior in fish exposed to aquatic cadmium contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeane A. Almeida

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the possible link between cadmium exposure, hepatic markers of oxidative stress and aggressive behavior in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. Fish were first exposed to 0.75 mg/L CdCl2 for 15 days (12 isolated fish for each group and afterward a behavioral test was performed. Fish from the control and cadmium-exposed groups were paired for 1 h (6 pairs of fish per group for determination of aggressiveness parameters. Immediately after the behavioral test, the animals were sacrificed and the liver was used to determine biochemical parameters. Cadmium decreased aggression in Nile tilapia. Subordinate animals exposed to cadmium showed decreased glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px activity compared to dominant ones. No alterations were observed in selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase Se-GSH-P and Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase activities, but total superoxide dismutase activity was increased in subordinate animals exposed to cadmium compared to subordinate control. Catalase activity was increased in cadmium-exposed fish. Lipoperoxide concentrations also increased in cadmium exposed fish indicating that cadmium toxicity may affect oxidative stress biomarkers in Nile tilapia. Social stress induced lipoperoxidation in Nile tilapia, and subordinate animals exposed to cadmium responded with lower activities of liver antioxidant enzymes compared to dominant fish. The present study shows that cadmium exposure is capable of inducing changes in the social status and oxidative stress parameters in this species.

  17. Technical Nuances of Exposing Rat Common Carotid Arteries for Practicing Microsurgical Anastomosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayebi Meybodi, Ali; Aklinski, Joseph; Gandhi, Sirin; Lawton, Michael T; Preul, Mark C

    2018-04-17

    Animal models are commonly used in training protocols for microsurgical vascular anastomosis. Rat common carotid arteries (CCAs) are frequently used for this purpose. Much attention has been paid to the technical details of various anastomosis configurations using these arteries. However, technical nuances of exposing rat CCAs have been understudied. The purpose of this study is to describe nuances of technique for safely and efficiently exposing rat CCAs in preparation for a vascular anastomosis. Bilateral CCAs were exposed and prepared for anastomosis in 10 anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats through a midline cervical incision. The exposed length of the CCA was measured. Additionally, technical nuances of exposure and surgically relevant anatomic details were recorded. The CCAs were exposed from the sternoclavicular joint to their bifurcation (average length, 19.1 ± 2.8 mm). Tenets important for a safe and efficient exposure of the CCAs included 1) generous subcutaneous dissection to expose the external jugular veins (EJVs), 2) avoiding injury to or compression of the EJVs, 3) superior mobilization of the salivary glands, 4) division of internal jugular veins, 5) opening the carotid sheath at its midlevel and from medial to lateral, and 6) avoiding injury to the vagus nerve or sympathetic trunk. Using the principles introduced in this study, trainees may safely and efficiently expose rat CCAs in preparation for a bypass. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of Nanoparticles Exposure on Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide (FENO in Workers Exposed to Nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Te Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO measurement is a useful diagnostic test of airway inflammation. However, there have been few studies of FENO in workers exposed to nanomaterials. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of nanoparticle (NP exposure on FENO and to assess whether the FENO is increased in workers exposed to nanomaterials (NM. In this study, both exposed workers and non-exposed controls were recruited from NM handling plants in Taiwan. A total of 437 subjects (exposed group = 241, non-exposed group = 196 completed the FENO and spirometric measurements from 2009–2011. The authors used a control-banding (CB matrix to categorize the risk level of each participant. In a multivariate linear regression analysis, this study found a significant association between risk level 2 of NP exposure and FENO. Furthermore, asthma, allergic rhinitis, peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR, and NF-κB were also significantly associated with FENO. When the multivariate logistic regression model was adjusted for confounders, nano-TiO2 in all of the NM exposed categories had a significantly increased risk in FENO > 35 ppb. This study found associations between the risk level of NP exposure and FENO (particularly noteworthy for Nano-TiO2. Monitoring FENO in the lung could open up a window into the role nitric oxide (NO may play in pathogenesis.

  19. DNA damage and cytotoxicity in pathology laboratory technicians exposed to organic solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TATIANE DE AQUINO

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate potential DNA damage and cytotoxicity in pathology laboratory technicians exposed to organic solvents, mainly xylene. Peripheral blood and buccal cells samples were collected from 18 technicians occupationally exposed to organic solvents and 11 non-exposed individuals. The technicians were sampled at two moments: Monday and Friday. DNA damage and cytotoxicity were evaluated using the Comet Assay and the Buccal Micronucleus Cytome assay. Fifteen subjects (83.5% of the exposed group to solvents complained about some symptom probably related to contact with vapours of organic solvents. DNA damage in the exposed group to solvents was nearly 2-fold higher on Friday than on Monday, and in both moments the individuals of this group showed higher levels of DNA damage in relation to controls. No statistical difference was detected in buccal cell micronucleus frequency between the laboratory technicians and the control group. However, in the analysis performed on Friday, technicians presented higher frequency (about 3-fold of karyolytic and apoptotic-like cells (karyorrhectic and pyknotic in relation to control group. Considering the damage frequency and the working time, a positive correlation was found in the exposed group to solvents (r=0.468; p=0.05. The results suggest that pathology laboratory workers inappropriately exposed to organic solvents have increased levels of DNA damage.

  20. Incidence of brain tumours in rats exposed to an aerosol of 239PuO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, C.L.; Dagle, G.E.; Mahaffey, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    Incidence of brain tumours was investigated in 3390 female and male Wistar rats exposed to an aerosol of 239 PuO 2 , or as sham-exposed controls. Lung doses ranged from 0.05 to 22 Gy. In females, six brain tumours were found in 1058 control rats (incidence, 0.6%) and 24 brain tumours in 2134 rats exposed to Pu (incidence, 1.1%); the survival-adjusted level of significance was p = 0.29 for comparing control with exposed females. In males, two brain tumours were found in 60 control rats (incidence, 3.3%) and seven brain tumours in 138 rats exposed to Pu (incidence, 5.1%); the survival-adjusted level of significance was p = 0.33. Brain tumour incidence was about five times greater in male than in female rats (p = 0.0001), a highly significant sex difference in brain tumour incidence. Tumour types were distributed similarly among control and Pu-exposed groups of both sexes; most were astrocytomas. Mean lifespans for rats with brain tumours were not significantly different between control and Pu-exposed rats. (author)

  1. Fracture behaviour of the 14Cr ODS steel exposed to helium and liquid lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hojna, Anna, E-mail: Anna.Hojna@cvrez.cz [Centrum Vyzkumu Rez s.r.o., UJV Group, Rez 130, 250 68 Husinec (Czech Republic); Di Gabriele, Fosca [Centrum Vyzkumu Rez s.r.o., UJV Group, Rez 130, 250 68 Husinec (Czech Republic); Hadraba, Hynek; Husak, Roman; Kubena, Ivo [CEITEC IPM, Institute of Physics of Materials, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Zizkova 22, 616 62 Brno (Czech Republic); Rozumova, Lucia; Bublikova, Petra; Kalivodova, Jana [Centrum Vyzkumu Rez s.r.o., UJV Group, Rez 130, 250 68 Husinec (Czech Republic); Matejicek, Jiri [Institute of Plasma Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Za Slovankou 1782/3, 182 00 Praha (Czech Republic)

    2017-07-15

    This work describes the fracture behaviour of the 14Cr ODS steel produced by mechanical alloying process, after high temperature exposures. Small specimens were exposed to helium gas in a furnace at 720 °C for 500 h. Another set of specimens was exposed to flowing liquid lead in the COLONRI II loop at 650 °C for 1000 h. All specimens were tested for the impact and tensile behaviour. The impact test results are compared to other sets of specimens in the as received state and after isothermal annealing at 650 °C for 1000 h. The impact curves of the exposed materials showed positive shifts on the transition temperature. While the upper shelf value did not change in the Pb exposed ODS steel, it significantly increased in the He exposed one. The differences are discussed in terms of surface and subsurface microscopy observation. The embrittlement can be explained as the effect of a slight change in the grain boundary and size distribution combined with the depletion of sub-surface region from alloying elements forming oxide scale on the surface. - Highlights: •We compared the impact energy curves of as received, isothermally aged and He/Pb exposed ODS steel samples. •The highest transition temperature showed the ODS steel exposed to liquid Pb at 650 °C for 1000 h. •We observed the higher tendency of the He exposed samples to crack arrester delamination than the Pb exposed ones. •The crack arrested delamination induced apparent increase of impact energies.

  2. Studies on the hazard of leukaemia and cancer in persons occupationally exposed to radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streffer, C.

    1988-01-01

    The mortality rates of British radiologists in dependence of the duration of their radiation work are compared with the general mortality rate in England and Wales, the mortality rates of men of the social class 1 and the mortality rates of practicing physicians. It turns out that the mortality by malignant diseases (leukemia and cancer) of persons exposed to radiation at work in nuclear plants is not considerably higher than it is for comparable groups of persons not exposed to radiation. Tumour entities of the GI tract have not been found either in the British radiologists exposed to radiation. (DG) [de

  3. Nocardia brasiliensis endophthalmitis in a patient with an exposed Ahmed glaucoma drainage implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Michael W; Bolling, James P; Bendel, Rick E

    2013-01-01

    To report a case of endophthalmitis due to Nocardia brasiliensis in an eye with an exposed, infected Ahmed glaucoma drainage implant (GDI). Retrospective case report. A patient with an exposed GDI experienced recurrent episodes of endophthalmitis despite repeated intravitreal injections of antibiotics and steroids. The tube was initially repositioned and finally removed. Whereas repeated cultures from the anterior chamber and vitreous were negative, cultures from the removed tube grew Nocardia brasiliensis. Despite oral trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and intravitreal amikacin the eye became phthisical and lost light perception. An exposed GDI may lead to endophthalmitis due to Nocardia brasiliensis and may require explantation to establish a diagnosis.

  4. Sister chromatid exchanges and micronuclei analysis in lymphocytes of men exposed to simazine through drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, Susanna; Rubio, Arantxa; Sueiro, Rosa Ana; Garrido, Joaquín

    2003-06-06

    In some cities of the autonomous community of Extremadura (south-west of Spain), levels of simazine from 10 to 30 ppm were detected in tap water. To analyse the possible effect of this herbicide, two biomarkers, sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) and micronuclei (MN), were used in peripheral blood lymphocytes from males exposed to simazine through drinking water. SCE and MN analysis failed to detect any statistically significant increase in the people exposed to simazine when compared with the controls. With respect to high frequency cells (HFC), a statistically significant difference was detected between exposed and control groups.

  5. Contribution to the problem of biological dose assessment in occupationally exposed personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anger, H.; Jacobsohn, E.

    1976-01-01

    Chromosome studies were made on lymphocytes taken from the peripheral blood of occupationally exposed personnel (4 groups, exposure < 5 rems). In all exposed individuals the rate of aberration was found to be higher compared to the controls, with maximum values observed in those who had been additionally exposed to acute partial body irradiation. In order to get statistically significant differences over the controls, it is necessary, however, to calculate the frequency of the various aberrations in terms of a 'point system' rather than in per cent. (author)

  6. The fate of chromosomal aberrations in 137Cs-exposed individuals in the Goiania radiation accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramalho, A.T.; Nascimento, A.C.

    1991-01-01

    Following the Goiania radiation accident, lymphocytes from 110 exposed or potentially exposed individuals were analyzed for the frequencies of chromosomal aberrations (dicentrics and centric rings) to estimate absorbed radiation dose. Dose estimates for 21 subjects exceeded 1.0 Gy, and for eight subjects they exceeded 4.0 Gy. Four of the subjects died. After the emergency period, a cytogenetic follow-up of 10 of the highest exposed patients was started. The results suggest that the average disappearance half-time of lymphocytes containing dicentric and centric rings was 130 d, which is shorter than the usually accepted value of 3 y reported in the literature

  7. A synthetic medical and sociological study on twins exposed by atomic bomb, 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satow, Yukio; Watanabe, Shoji; Kyo, Taiichi

    1984-01-01

    The relationship between immunoglobulin (IgG, IgA, IgM) levels and the exposure status was examined in 13 enzygotic twin pairs who had been exposed to atomic bomb under the same or different conditions and who had no disease showing changes in immunoglobulin levels. The difference in immunoglobulin levels tended to be smaller between the twins exposed under the same conditions and to be larger between the twins exposed under the different conditions. This should be further studied because there were some exceptions in this study. (Namekawa, K.)

  8. Inducción de organogénesis indirecta en Abarco (Cariniana pyriformis Miers. (Juz. et Buk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Luz Yaya

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se indujeron procesos primarios de morfogénesis de novo vía organogénesis indirecta en segmentos de hipocótilo de abarco, provenientes de plántulas in vitro de dos semanas de edad. El material fuente se obtuvo por germinación de embriones en Woody Plant Médium (WPM diluido a la mitad y sin reguladores de crecimiento. La formación de callo organogénico se estimuló mediante la adición de ácido indolacético (AIA conjuntamente con 6-bencilaminopurina (BAP. Después de cuatro semanas el mayor porcentaje de formación de callo (75% se observó con la combinación AIA 1,21 µM y BAP 7,6 µM

  9. Sensitisation to common allergens and respiratory symptoms in endotoxin exposed workers: a pooled analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basinas, I.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313908206; Schlünssen, V.; Heederik, D.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072910542; Sigsgaard, T.; Smit, L.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/311470882; Samadi, S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304838551; Omland, O.; Hjort, C.; Madsen, A.M.; Skov, S.; Wouters, I.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/274156652

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the hypotheses that current endotoxin exposure is inversely associated with allergic sensitisation and positively associated with non-allergic respiratory diseases in four occupationally exposed populations using a standardised analytical approach. METHODS: Data were pooled from

  10. Pathophysiology and multifactorial etiology of acquired vasospastic disease (Raynaud syndrome) in vibration-exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemne, G

    1982-12-01

    The article reviews available pathophysiological evidence for a multifactorial etiology of the Raynaud type of peripheral circulation disorder in persons exposed to vibration from handheld tools and discusses the consequences this viewpoint may have for diagnostics, preventive work, and research.

  11. [The adaptive capacities of the cardiovascular system in miners exposed to vibration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konevskikh, L A; Oranskiĭ, I E; Makogon, I S

    2013-01-01

    Diagnostics criteria for work-related adaptation disorders in respect of cardiovascular system factors have been developed; the stages of disadaptation have been characterized through the example of vibration exposed miners working under the conditions of cool microclimate.

  12. Occurrence of zoonotic tuberculosis in occupationally exposed high-risk groups in Peshawar, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Khattak

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Zoonotic TB is a significant public health issue among professionally exposed groups in Peshawar, Pakistan, and suggests a need for further detailed investigations of the disease in this and similar areas.

  13. USING PROTEOMICS TO MONITOR PROTEIN EXPRESSION IN HUMAN CELLS EXPOSED TO CARCINOGENS

    Science.gov (United States)

    People are continuously exposed exogenously to varying amounts of chemicals that have been shown to have carcinogenic properties in experimental systems. It has been estimated that exposure to environmental chemical carcinogens in the environment may contribute significantly to t...

  14. Dosimetry of paranasal sinus and mastoid epithelia in radium-exposed humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlenker, R.A.

    1981-01-01

    Dose calculations for 228 Ra and 226 Ra are presented for the sinus and mastoid epithelia and lead to the conclusion that the isotopes are of comparable dosimetric significance for the production of carcinomas in patients exposed to comparable levels

  15. Effects of lead on the visual system of occupationally exposed subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalleri, A.; Trimarchi, F.; Gelmi, C.; Baruffini, A.; Minoia, C.; Biscaldi, G.; Gallo, G.

    1982-01-01

    A quantitative measurement of visual field in mesopic adaptation was performed for 35 workers occupationally exposed to lead and 35 referents matched for age, smoking, and alcohol consumption. The mean level (+/- SD) of lead in blood was 47 +/- 16 microgram/100 ml (2.25 +/- 0.77 mumol/l) (range 21-82 microgram/100 ml (1.01-3.94 mumol/l)). In 10 exposed subjects a central scotoma was found that was not evidenced in any of the referents. A highly significant decrease in visual sensitivity was observed for the exposed subjects a central scotoma was found that was not evidenced in any of the referents. A highly significant decrease in visual sensitivity was observed for the exposed subjects. The results point to damage of central and peripheral optic nerve fibers. In the most severe cases, central vision is preferentially affected, and therefore the results are suggestive of subclinical optic neuropathy.

  16. Drug and Alcohol Exposed Children: Implications for Special Education for Students Identified as Behaviorally Disordered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Anne M.

    1991-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on children prenatally exposed to drugs and alcohol, the potential impact on the educational and social services systems, and implications for programing for children identified as behaviorally disordered. (Author/JDD)

  17. The extent of unwanted infrared photoacoustic signals from polymer sampling tubings exposed to ultraviolet radiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bicanic, D.; Solyom, A.; Angeli, G.; Wegh, H.; Postumus, M.; Jalink, H.

    1995-01-01

    The extent of unwanted photoacoustic (PA) signals due to volatiles released from various polymer tubing materials [transparent, red and black polyethylene (PE), polymer of tetrafluorethylene (PTFE) and copolymer of tetrafluorethylene and hexafluorethylene (FEP)] when exposed to 245 nm radiation was

  18. Cerebrospinal fluid cells and proteins in patients occupationally exposed to organic solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juntunen, J; Taskinen, E; Luisto, M; Iivanainen, M; Nurminen, M

    1982-06-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cells and proteins were determined for 33 patients exposed to industrial organic solvents. A lymphoid reaction, i.e., a pathologically elevated number or percentage of enlarged lymphoid cells was observed in one-third of the patients, more often in patients with chronic intoxication (40%) than in those currently exposed to organic solvents (32%). An almost significant decrease of small lymphocytes in the CSF was observed among patients who had a past history of chronic solvent intoxication but no recent exposure. No cytological evidence of tissue destruction was found. Signs of slight blood--CSF barrier damage occurred in 5 (23%) of the currently exposed patients, but intrathecal IgG synthesis was not observed. Increased cellular activity in the CSF was also accentuated in principal component analysis. The results suggest slight nonspecific immunoactivation in the central nervous system of subjects exposed to organic solvents.

  19. Exogenous ascorbic acid improves defence responses of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) exposed to multiple stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Armagan

    2017-09-01

    Ascorbic acid is an important antioxidant that plays role both on growth and development and also stress response of the plant. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of ascorbate on physiological and biochemical changes of sunflower that was exposed to multiple stresses. Chlorophyll and carotenoid contents decreased and glutathione, ascorbate and malondialdehyde contents as well as antioxidant enzyme activities increased for sunflower plant that was exposed to 50 mM NaCl and pendimethalin at different concentrations. These changes were found to be more significant in groups simultaneously exposed to both stress factors. While malondialdehyde content decreased, chlorophyll, carotenoid, ascorbate, glutathione contents and antioxidant enzyme activities increased in plants treated exogenously with ascorbate, compared to the untreated samples. According to the findings of our study; compared to individual stress, the effect of stress is more pronounced in sunflower exposed to multiple stresses, and treatment with exogenous ascorbate reduces the negative effects of stress.

  20. Transcription profiling of Drosophila exposed to a levitation magnet for different lengths of time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Drosophila samples were exposed to the levitation magnet inside a 25mm diameter tubes with 3 ml of yeast-based Drosophila food in the bottom and a chamber of only 5...

  1. ANTIOXIDANT SUPPLEMENTATION AND NASAL INFLAMMATORY RESPONSES AMONG YOUNG ASTHMATICS EXPOSED TO HIGH LEVELS OF OZONE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Recent studies examining the inflammatory response in atopic asthma to ozone suggest a release of soluble mediators of inflammation factors that might be related to reactive oxygen species (ROS). Antioxidant could prove useful in subjects exposed to additional oxidati...

  2. A synthetic medical and sociological study of A-bomb exposed twin, 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Shoji; Satow, Yukio; Kyo, Taiichi

    1984-01-01

    The status of A-bomb exposure and family or relative relationship were investigated in seven twin pairs exposed to A-bomb (14 survivors). The survivors ranged in age between 4 and 24 years when they were exposed to A-bomb. Twins' relationship was comparatively strong. Both of the twins who were exposed to A-bomb tended to be closely connected with each other because of the fearful experience of A-bomb exposure and the subsequent hard social life. Even though one of the pair was not exposed to A-bomb, he (she) was likely to continue to help the other for a long time to restore from the disaster. (Namekawa, K.)

  3. 90 days bioassay in sprague-dawley rats exposed to 20KHz magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung-Ho [College of Veterinary Medicine, Chonnam National Univ. Kwangju (Korea, Republic of); Song, Ji-Eun; Lee, Yun-Sil [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Pack, Jeong-Ki [ETRI, Daejon (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Done-SIk [College of Engineering, Daejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    Sprague Dawley rats (20 rats/group [10 males, 10 females] in sham and magnetic field exposed groups) were exposed in carrousel irradiator to an 20 KHz magnetic field for 8 hrs/day, 5 days/week, for 90 days. Urine analysis (pH, SG, protein, ketone body, RBC, WBC, glucose, bilirubin, and urobilinogen), blood analysis (WBC, RBC, HGB; henoglubin concentration, HCT; hematocrit, MCV; mean corpuscular volume, MCH; mean corpuscular hemoglobin, MCHC; mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, and PLT; platelet or thrombocyte count), blood biochemistry (total protein, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, glucose, total bilirubin, total cholesterol, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and lactate dehydrogenase), histopathological analysis for organs such as liver, kidney, testis, ovary, spleen, brain, heart, and lung were performed. When compared to the sham control rats, there were no significant differences in above analysis of magnetic field exposed rats. From the results, there were no significant differences between control and exposed fetus.

  4. Individual doses' register of occupationally exposed persons in the Republic of Moldova

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hustuc, A.; Chiruta, Iu.

    2009-01-01

    The storage and processing of the data acquired through different monitoring techniques are of vital importance for controlling the individual doses of the occupationally exposed workers facilitating the determination of exposure pathway and furthering the policy of radiological protection. The use of the data bases for the evidence of the individual doses of the occupationally exposed workers to the ionizing radiation is useful in studies of risks and potential exposure, and in future epidemiological studies. (authors)

  5. Medical status of Marshallese accidentally exposed to 1954 Bravo fallout radiation: January 1988 through December 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, J.E.; Heotis, P.M.; Scott, W.A.; Adams, W.H.

    1995-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to disseminate information concerning the medical status of 253 Marshallese exposed to fallout radiation in 1954. This report discusses the medical care provided and the medical findings for the years 1988-1991. Details of the BRAVO thermonuclear accident that caused the exposure have been published, and a 1955 article in the Journal of the American Medical Association describing the acute medical effects in the exposed population remains a definitive and relevant description of events. Participation in the Marshall Islands Medical Program by the exposed Marshallese is voluntary. In the spring and fall of each year, medical surveillance is provided to exposed and unexposed cohorts. Examinations performed include: a cancer-related examination as defined by the American Society, an annual thyroid examination and thyroid function testing, serum prolactin testing looking for pituitary tumors, annual blood counts to include platelets, and evaluation for paraneoplastic evidence of neoplasms. This report details the medical program, medical findings, and thyroid surgery findings. Deaths (4 exposed and 10 nonexposed) that occurred during the reporting period are discussed. There is a mild but relatively consistent depression of neutrophil, lymphocyte, and platelet concentrations in the blood of the exposed population. This depression appears to be of no clinical significance. Thyroid hypofunction, either clinical or biochemical, has been documented as a consequence of radiation exposure in 14 exposed individuals. Previously, one other exposed person was diagnosed with basal cell carcinoma. During this reporting period, a thyroid nodule was identified in an individual who was in utero during the exposure. Upon pathologic review, the nodule was diagnosed as occult papillary carcinoma.

  6. One-stage explant-implant procedure of exposed porous orbital implants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Peter B; Rasmussen, Marie L Roed; Prause, Jan Ulrik

    2011-01-01

    Purpose:  To investigate the risks of implant exposure after a combined explant-implant procedure in patients with an exposed porous orbital implant. Methods:  Twenty-four consecutive patients who had a combined explant-implant procedure of an exposed hydroxyapatite (21) or porous polyethylene (3...... at the same procedure in sockets without profound signs of infection. The procedure carries a possible risk of poor motility....

  7. Exposed versus buried intramedullary implants for pediatric forearm fractures: a comparison of complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Brian A; Miller, Patricia; Shore, Benjamin J; Waters, Peter M; Bae, Donald S

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the rate of complications between buried and exposed intramedullary implants after fixation of pediatric forearm fractures. A retrospective comparative cohort study of 339 children treated with intramedullary fixation for displaced forearm fractures between 2004 and 2009 was performed. Implants were left exposed in 128 patients (37.8%) and buried beneath the skin in 208 patients (61.4%); 3 patients had buried and exposed hardware (0.9%). Data on demographics, injury, surgical technique, and complications were analyzed. The buried implant group was older (mean 10.3 vs. 8.5 y; P exposed implant group. The buried group had their implants removed later than the exposed group (median 3.5 vs. 1.2 mo; P exposed implants were successfully removed in the office. Complications were seen in 56 patients (16.5%). There were 16 patients (4.7%) with refracture and 12 patients (3.5%) with infection. The buried and exposed implant groups did not differ significantly with respect to refracture (3.1% vs. 7.0%; P = 0.20), infection (3.5% vs. 2.3%; P = 0.66), or overall complications (14.5% vs. 17.2%; P = 0.87). There was also no difference between groups with respect to loss of reduction, nondelayed or delayed union, loss of motion, hypertrophic granuloma, or tendon rupture. Buried implants were also associated with penetration through the skin (3.9%). Injury to the dominant arm and need for open reduction were significant predictors of complication (OR = 1.01; 95% CI, 1.001-1.012; P = 0.02 and OR = 0.51; 95% CI, 0.264-0.974; P = 0.04, respectively). There were no significant differences seen in number of infections, refractures, or overall complications based on whether implants were left exposed or buried beneath the skin after surgery. Level III, therapeutic.

  8. Affect Expression and Self-Regulation Capacities of Infants Exposed In Utero to Psychotropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratibha N Reebye

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the affect expression and self-regulation capacities of eight month old infants exposed in utero to psychotropic medications. This is a continuation of our previous study conducted on the same cohort when infants were three months old. Psychotropics implicated are antidepressant medications: selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI, and a benzodiazepine derivative anxiolytic (clonazepam. The three comparison groups were: control (n=23 (infants gestationally non-exposed to psychotropics, SSRI-alone (n=22 (infants exposed to SSRIs only and having mothers who had a primary diagnosis of depressive disorder without having comorbid anxiety disorder, and SSRI+ group (n=15 (infants gestationally exposed to SSRIs and Clonazepam and having mothers that had both clinical depression and anxiety disorder. Thirty-seven participants from the initial cohort were recruited. Using the Parent Child Early Relational Assessment Scale (PCERA, infants were assessed in a dyadic context during free play and a structured task. There were clear significant differences in psychotropic exposed and non-exposed dyads regarding infant negative affect management. Notable findings were that the SSRI+ group mothers showed significant associations with only one infant affect: i.e. infant negative affect. This group of mothers also showed significant associations with infant’s averting and avoiding behaviors. These associations were seen in both free play and structured task situations signifying probable established pattern. SSRI-alone group was similar to control mothers and showed variable associations with infant’s positive, negative and sober moods unlike SSRI+ group. There were no differences in infants’ capacity for self–regulation in psychotropic exposed and non-exposed groups. Increased awareness of these vulnerable subgroups (SSRI-alone and SSRI+ is needed, in order to safeguard these dyads through better support systems and improved

  9. In vitro cell-mediated immunity studies of plutonium-exposed beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, J.E.; Graham, T.; Park, J.F.

    1980-01-01

    Mitogen-induced activation was measured in spleen and mesenteric lymph node cell preparations from dogs exposed to a single inhalation exposure of plutonium oxide ( 238 Pu or 239 Pu). Reduced stimulation indices of splenic lymphocytes from exposed animals suggest that a reduction in lymphocyte function has occurred in this tissue. No apparent reduction in mitogen stimulation indices was observed in mesenteric lymph node cultures

  10. A Sink-driven Approach to Detecting Exposed Component Vulnerabilities in Android Apps

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Daoyuan; Luo, Xiapu; Chang, Rocky K. C.

    2014-01-01

    Android apps could expose their components for cooperating with other apps. This convenience, however, makes apps susceptible to the exposed component vulnerability (ECV), in which a dangerous API (commonly known as sink) inside its component can be triggered by other (malicious) apps. In the prior works, detecting these ECVs use a set of sinks pertaining to the ECVs under detection. In this paper, we argue that a more comprehensive and effective approach should start by a systematic selectio...

  11. Medical status of Marshallese accidentally exposed to 1954 Bravo fallout radiation: January 1988 through December 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, J.E.; Heotis, P.M.; Scott, W.A.; Adams, W.H.

    1995-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to disseminate information concerning the medical status of 253 Marshallese exposed to fallout radiation in 1954. This report discusses the medical care provided and the medical findings for the years 1988-1991. Details of the BRAVO thermonuclear accident that caused the exposure have been published, and a 1955 article in the Journal of the American Medical Association describing the acute medical effects in the exposed population remains a definitive and relevant description of events. Participation in the Marshall Islands Medical Program by the exposed Marshallese is voluntary. In the spring and fall of each year, medical surveillance is provided to exposed and unexposed cohorts. Examinations performed include: a cancer-related examination as defined by the American Society, an annual thyroid examination and thyroid function testing, serum prolactin testing looking for pituitary tumors, annual blood counts to include platelets, and evaluation for paraneoplastic evidence of neoplasms. This report details the medical program, medical findings, and thyroid surgery findings. Deaths (4 exposed and 10 nonexposed) that occurred during the reporting period are discussed. There is a mild but relatively consistent depression of neutrophil, lymphocyte, and platelet concentrations in the blood of the exposed population. This depression appears to be of no clinical significance. Thyroid hypofunction, either clinical or biochemical, has been documented as a consequence of radiation exposure in 14 exposed individuals. Previously, one other exposed person was diagnosed with basal cell carcinoma. During this reporting period, a thyroid nodule was identified in an individual who was in utero during the exposure. Upon pathologic review, the nodule was diagnosed as occult papillary carcinoma

  12. Environmental impact of heavy metals on the blood cells in professionally exposed workers

    OpenAIRE

    Velickova, Nevenka

    2017-01-01

    Aims of the study is to explain and research the effects of the heavy metals (lead, zinc and cadmium) on erythrocytes and leukocytes in miners with different work experience or exposure. The results and conclusions are made based on a three-year period of continuous testing on 120 miners, as professionally exposed workers. We confirmed that the miners long been professionally exposed to heavy metals, in the blood have an increased content of heavy metals (lead, zinc and cadmium) and they ha...

  13. Study of behavior of concrete and cement based composite materials exposed to high temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Bodnárová, L.; Horák, D.; Válek, J.; Hela, R.; Sitek, L. (Libor)

    2013-01-01

    The paper describes possibilities of observation of behaviour of concrete and cement based composite material exposed to high temperatures. Nowadays, for large-scale tests of behaviour of concrete exposed to high temperatures, testing devices of certified fire testing stations in the Czech Republic and surrounding states are used. These tests are quite expensive. For experimental verification of smaller test specimens, a testing device was built at the Technical University in Brno, wher...

  14. Mitochondrial DNA damage and oxidative damage in HL-60 cells exposed to 900 MHz radiofrequency fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yulong; Zong, Lin; Gao, Zhen [School of Public Health, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu Province (China); Zhu, Shunxing [Laboratory Animal Center, Nantong University, Nantong, Jiangsu Province (China); Tong, Jian [School of Public Health, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu Province (China); Cao, Yi, E-mail: yicao@suda.edu.cn [School of Public Health, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu Province (China)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • Increased reactive oxygen species. • Decreased mitochondrial transcription Factor A and polymerase gamma. • Decreased mitochondrial transcripts (ND1 and 16S) and mtDNA copy number. • Increased 8-hydroxy-2′deoxyguanosine. • Decreased adenosine triphosphate. - Abstract: HL-60 cells, derived from human promyelocytic leukemia, were exposed to continuous wave 900 MHz radiofrequency fields (RF) at 120 μW/cm{sup 2} power intensity for 4 h/day for 5 consecutive days to examine whether such exposure is capable damaging the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mediated through the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In addition, the effect of RF exposure was examined on 8-hydroxy-2′-dexoyguanosine (8-OHdG) which is a biomarker for oxidative damage and on the mitochondrial synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) which is the energy required for cellular functions. The results indicated a significant increase in ROS and significant decreases in mitochondrial transcription factor A, mtDNA polymerase gamma, mtDNA transcripts and mtDNA copy number in RF-exposed cells compared with those in sham-exposed control cells. In addition, there was a significant increase in 8-OHdG and a significant decrease in ATP in RF-exposed cells. The response in positive control cells exposed to gamma radiation (GR, which is also known to induce ROS) was similar to those in RF-exposed cells. Thus, the overall data indicated that RF exposure was capable of inducing mtDNA damage mediated through ROS pathway which also induced oxidative damage. Prior-treatment of RF- and GR-exposed the cells with melatonin, a well-known free radical scavenger, reversed the effects observed in RF-exposed cells.

  15. Durability of fibre reinforced concrete structures exposed to combined mechanical and environmental load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan De Place; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    1999-01-01

    The main conclusions from a research project on durability of cracked fibre reinforced concrete structures exposed to chlorides, water or freeze-thaw are presented. The effect of fibres and cracks on the durability of concrete is studied.......The main conclusions from a research project on durability of cracked fibre reinforced concrete structures exposed to chlorides, water or freeze-thaw are presented. The effect of fibres and cracks on the durability of concrete is studied....

  16. Laboratory results of some biological measures in workers exposed to lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Secchi, G.C.; Alessio, L.

    1974-12-01

    Erthrocyte ALA-dehydratase (ALAD) activity and blood lead values were studied in different groups of subjects not occupationally exposed to lead and compared with values for exposed workers. The results lead to the conclusion that measurement of ALAD activity is more useful in evaluating possible exposure of general population groups to minimal quantities of lead than in the surveillance of workers in the lead industries.

  17. Evidence for alteration of the membrane-bound ribosomes in Micrococcus luteus cells exposed to lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrow, W; Himmel, M; Squire, P G; Tornabene, T G

    1978-01-01

    Micrococcus luteus cells exposed to Pb(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/ contained cytosol ribosomal particles and disaggregated membranal ribosomal particles as determined by ultracentrifugation and spectral studies. Approximately 60% of the membrane ribosome fraction from lead exposed cells had a sedimentation value of 8.4S. Cytosol ribosome from lead exposed cells as well as membranal and cytosol ribosomes from control cells were comparable by their contents of predominantly the 70S type with the 50S and 100S present in relatively small amounts. The lead content of the 8.4S components was more than 200 times higher than the components with higher sedimentation coefficients from lead exposed cells and approximately 650 times more than that of control cell ribosomes. The cells exposed to lead, however, showed no adverse effects from the lead in respect to their growth rates and cellular yields. These results indicate that lead is interacting only at specific sites of the membrane and is inducing events initiated only in strategic cellular regions. These data further substantiate that subtle changes do occur in lead exposed cells that show no obvious effects. It is assumed that these minor alterations are, in toto, biologically significant. 24 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  18. Increased lung function decline in blue-collar workers exposed to welding fumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaon, Isabelle; Demange, Valérie; Herin, Fabrice; Touranchet, Annie; Paris, Christophe

    2012-07-01

    There is no consensus at the present time about the effect of welding on lung function decline. This study compared lung function decline between blue-collar workers exposed and not exposed to welding fumes in a French longitudinal cohort of 21,238 subjects aged 37 to 52 years at inclusion. Medical data, occupation, sector of activity, and spirometry were recorded twice by occupational physicians in 1990 and 1995. A job-exposure matrix was used to identify 503 male blue-collar workers exposed to welding fumes and 709 control subjects and to define the weekly duration of exposure to welding fumes. Baseline lung function parameters were higher in workers exposed to welding fumes than in control subjects. After a 5-year follow-up, welding-fume exposure was associated with a nonsignificant decline in FVC (P = .06) and FEV(1) (P = .07) after adjustment for age, pack-years, BMI, and baseline value of the parameter. A significant accelerated decline in FEV(1) (P = .046) was also observed in never smokers exposed to welding fumes. An “exposure-response” relationship was observed between FEV(1) decline and weekly duration of exposure to welding fumes in nonsmokers but not in smokers. Blue-collar workers exposed to welding fumes showed accelerated decline in lung function, which, in nonsmokers, was related to weekly duration of exposure.

  19. Preference for safflower oil in rats exposed to a cold environment under free-feeding conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitoh, Masaji; Ishii, Toshiaki; Takewaki, Tadashi; Nishimura, Masakazu

    2005-07-01

    There are several benefits to a high-fat diet for animals exposed to cold, including improved tolerance to severe cold conditions and increased survival rates in cold environments. It is therefore of interest to examine whether animals exposed to cold will selectively consume lipids. We examined the intake of safflower oil (SO) by rats exposed to cold (4 +/- 2 degrees C) under a feeding condition in which the rats were given free access to SO. Rats exposed to cold consumed more SO than those housed at 25 +/- 2 degrees C. This finding suggests that rats prefer SO in a cold environment. There was no significant difference in the ratio of calories of SO ingested to that of matter (standard laboratory chow plus SO) ingested between rats exposed to cold and those at 25 +/- 2 degrees C. The high SO intake also affected cold tolerance and metabolite kinetics in the rats. Factors that affected the SO intake of rats exposed to cold are also discussed.

  20. Life satisfaction and school performance of children exposed to classic and cyber peer bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilić, Vesna; Flander, Gordana Buljan; Rafajac, Branko

    2014-03-01

    This paper analyses the relationship between the exposure of school children to various forms of peer bullying (classic/cyber) and their life satisfaction in the domain of school, family, friends and school performance. The sample included 562 children from rural and urban areas of Croatia who were attending the seventh and the eighth grade of primary school. Results show that children were more often exposed to classic forms of peer bullying, especially verbal, and then physical bullying. On the other hand, cyber bullying most often comprises harassment in forums, blogs, chats or social networks, then on the web, by e-mail and mobile phone. Almost half of the examinees knew the identity of the bully, while a minority believes that bullies are the same ones who also physically abuse them at school. We found that children exposed to all forms of both classic and cyber bullying, unlike their peers who do not have such experience, show less satisfaction with friends, while those exposed to physical and cyber bullying show dissatisfaction with their family, too. However no statistically significant difference was found in their satisfaction with school. Children exposed to physical bullying showed poorer school performance, poorer achievement in Croatian and math, while children exposed to verbal and cyber bullying and children who were not exposed to such forms of bullying showed no differences in their school achievement.