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Sample records for tetrahydronaphthalenes

  1. New Emivirine (MKC-442) Analogues Containing a Tetrahydronaphthalene at C-6 and their Anti-HIV Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkelsen, Frans; Jørgensen, Per Trolle; Nielsen, Claus

    2007-01-01

    An 5-ethyl-2-thiouracil derivative with a 6-(tetrahydronaphthalen-1-yl)methyl substituent was synthesized by condensation of thiourea with an adequate ß-ketoester which in turn was synthesized in a single step from (tetrahydronaphthalen-1-yl)acetonitrile. The latter starting material was also used...

  2. A New Antibacterial Tetrahydronaphthalene Lignanamide, Foveolatamide, from the Stems of Ficusfoveolata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerungrueang, Wirod; Panichayupakaranant, Parkphoom

    2016-01-01

    An antibacterial assay-guided isolation of the crude ethyl acetate extract from Ficus foveolata stems afforded four compounds, including a tetrahydronaphthalene lignanamide, foveolatamide (1), together with two known lignanamides, flavifloramide B (2) and N-trans-grossamide (3), and a known phenolic amide, N-trans-feruloyltyramine (4). The structures of these compounds were established on the basis of NMR spectroscopic and MS techniques. Among the isolated compounds, only 1 showed satisfactory antibacterial activities against Streptococcus pyogenes, with an MIC and MBC value of 45 µM. This is the first report of these four compounds from the stems of F. foveolata.

  3. Regioselectivity of the bromination of 1-oxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene and 6,7-dimethyl-1-oxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene, and thiabiscyclanones synthesis on their basis

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    YURI YU. ELISEEV

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of quantum chemical (PM3 and RHF/6-31G* study, the regioselectivity of the bromination of 1-oxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene (1 and 6,7-dimethyl-1-oxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene (2 at their alicyclic and aromatic fragments was quantum chemically substantiated and confirmed experimentally. It was found that the above compounds undergo aromatic at the a-methylene position. The conditions for bromination at the positions 5, 8 of benzannelated ring were established. For the first time, non- and 2,2’-dibromosubstituted with respect to the oxo group bis(6,7-dimethyl-1-oxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphth-2-yl sulphides (7, 8a, b were obtained. The latter were found to show promise as stabilizing agents for the storage of cholera sera.

  4. Conformational analysis, UV-VIS, MESP, NLO and NMR studies of 6-methoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arivazhagan, M; Kavitha, R; Subhasini, V P

    2014-07-15

    The detailed HF and B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) comparative studies on the complete FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of 6-methoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene [MTHN] have been studied. In view of the special properties and uses, the present investigation has been undertaken to provide a satisfactorily vibrational analysis of 6-methoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene. Therefore, a thorough Raman, IR, molecular electrostatic potential (MESP), non-linear optical (NLO) properties, UV-VIS, HOMO-LUMO and NMR spectroscopic investigation are reported complemented by B3LYP theoretical predictions with basis set 6-311++G(d,p) to provide novel insight on vibrational assignments and conformational stability of MTHN. Potential energy surface scans (PES) of the CH3 group are undertaken to shed light on the rather complicated conformational interchanges in the compound under investigation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Hex-1-ene C6H12 + C10H12 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydronaphthalene (VMSD1211, LB3980_V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes II' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Hex-1-ene C6H12 + C10H12 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydronaphthalene (VMSD1211, LB3980_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure dilatometric measurement of molar excess volume at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  6. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Cyclohexane C6H12 + C10H12 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydronaphthalene (VMSD1212, LB3848_V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes II' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Cyclohexane C6H12 + C10H12 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydronaphthalene (VMSD1212, LB3848_V)' providing data by calculation of molar excess volume from low-pressure density measurements at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  7. Heat of Mixing and Solution of Hex-1-ene C6H12 + C10H12 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydronaphthalene (HMSD1111, LB4061_H)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes II' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Heat of Mixing and Solution of Hex-1-ene C6H12 + C10H12 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydronaphthalene (HMSD1111, LB4061_H)' providing data from direct low-pressure calorimetric measurement of molar excess enthalpy at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  8. Discovery of 5-substituted tetrahydronaphthalen-2yl-methyl with N-phenyl-N-(piperidin-4-yl)propionamide derivatives as potent opioid receptor ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deekonda, Srinivas; Wugalter, Lauren; Kulkarni, Vinod; Rankin, David; Largent-Milnes, Tally M; Davis, Peg; Bassirirad, Neemah M; Lai, Josephine; Vanderah, Todd W; Porreca, Frank; Hruby, Victor J

    2015-09-15

    A new series of novel opioid ligands have been designed and synthesized based on the 4-anilidopiperidine scaffold containing a 5-substituted tetrahydronaphthalen-2yl)methyl group with different N-phenyl-N-(piperidin-4-yl)propionamide derivatives to study the biological effects of these substituents on μ and δ opioid receptor interactions. Recently our group reported novel 4-anilidopiperidine analogues, in which several aromatic ring-contained amino acids were conjugated with N-phenyl-N-(piperidin-4-yl)propionamide and examined their biological activities at the μ and δ opioid receptors. In continuation of our efforts in these novel 4-anilidopiperidine analogues, we took a peptidomimetic approach in the present design, in which we substituted aromatic amino acids with tetrahydronaphthalen-2yl methyl moiety with amino, amide and hydroxyl substitutions at the 5th position. In in vitro assays these ligands, showed very good binding affinity and highly selective toward the μ opioid receptor. Among these, the lead ligand 20 showed excellent binding affinity (2 nM) and 5000 fold selectivity toward the μ opioid receptor, as well as functional selectivity in GPI assays (55.20 ± 4.30 nM) and weak or no agonist activities in MVD assays. Based on the in vitro bioassay results the lead compound 20 was chosen for in vivo assessment for efficacy in naïve rats after intrathecal administration. Compound 20 was not significantly effective in alleviating acute pain. This discrepancy between high in vitro binding affinity, moderate in vitro activity, and low in vivo activity may reflect differences in pharmacodynamics (i.e., engaging signaling pathways) or pharmacokinetics (i.e., metabolic stability). In sum, our data suggest that further optimization of this compound 20 is required to enhance in vivo activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Crystal structure of cis-bis[4-phenyl-2-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen-1-ylidenehydrazinecarbothioamidato-κ2N1,S]nickel(II monohydrate tetrahydrofuran disolvate

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    Adriano Bof de Oliveira

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The reaction of NiII acetate tetrahydrate with the ligand 4-phenyl-2-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen-1-ylidenehydrazinecarbothioamide in a 2:1 molar ratio yielded the title compound, [Ni(C16H16N3S2]·2C4H8O·H2O. The deprotonated ligands act as N,S-donors, forming five-membered metallacycles with the metal ion exhibiting a cis coordination mode unusual for thiosemicarbazone complexes. The NiII ion is four-coordinated in a tetrahedrally distorted square-planar geometry. Trans-arranged anagostic C—H...Ni interactions are observed. In the crystal, the complex molecules are linked by water molecules through N—H...O and O—H...S hydrogen-bonding interactions into centrosymmetric dimers stacked along the c axis, forming rings of graph-set R44(12. Classical O—H...O hydrogen bonds involving the water and tetrahydrofuran solvent molecules as well as weak C—H...π interactions are also present.

  10. Synthesis, Molecular Docking and Preliminary in-Vitro Cytotoxic Evaluation of Some Substituted Tetrahydro-naphthalene (2',3',4',6'-Tetra-O-Acetyl-β-D-Gluco/-Galactopyranosyl Derivatives

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    Maha S. Al-Mutairi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A facile, convenient and high yielding synthesis of novel S-glycosides and N-glycosides incorporating 1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene and or 1,2-dihydropyridines moieties has been described. The aglycons 2, 4, and 7 were coupled with different activated halosugars in the presence of basic and acidic medium. The preliminary in-vitro cytotoxic evaluation revealed that compounds 3c, 3f, 5c and 7b show promising activity. A molecular docking study was performed against tyrosine kinase (TK (PDB code: 1t46 by Autodock Vina. The docking output was analyzed and some compounds have shown hydrogen bond (H-B formation with reasonable distances ranged from 2.06 A° to 3.06 A° with Thr 670 and Cys 673 residues found in the specified pocket. No hydrogen bond was observed with either Glu 640 nor Asp 810 residues, as was expected from pdbsum.

  11. A new example of intramolecular C—H...Ni anagostic interactions: synthesis, crystal structure and Hirshfeld analysis of cis-bis[4-methyl-2-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen-1-ylidenehydrazinecarbothioamidato-κ2N1,S]nickel(II dimethylformamide monosolvate

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    Adriano Bof de Oliveira

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The reaction of NiII acetate tetrahydrate with 4-methyl-2-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen-1-ylidenehydrazinecarbothioamide in a 2:1 molar ratio and recrystallization from dimethylformamide yielded the title compound, [Ni(C12H14N3S2]·C3H7NO. The ligands act as monoanionic κ2N1,S-donors, forming five-membered metallarings. The NiII ion is fourfold coordinated in a distorted square-planar cis-configuration, which is rather uncommon for monothiosemicarbazone complexes. Intramolecular H...Ni trans-interactions are observed [H...Ni distances are 2.50 and 2.57 Å] and thus anagostic interactions can be suggested. The Hirshfeld surface analysis indicates that the major contributions for the crystal packing are H...H (66.6%, H...S (12.3% and H...C (10.9% interactions. In the crystal, the complex molecules are linked by dimethylformamide solvent molecules through N—H...O interactions into one-dimensional hydrogen-bonded polymers along [010].

  12. Crystal structure of N-ethyl-2-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen-1-ylidenehydrazinecarbothioamide

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    Adriano Bof de Oliveira

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available There are two crystallographically independent molecules in the asymmetric unit of the title compound, C13H17N3S, one of them being disordered over the methyl group [site-occupancy ratio = 0.705 (5:0.295 (5]. The maximum r.m.s. deviations from the mean plane of the non-H atoms for the tetralone fragments amount to 0.4572 (17 and 0.4558 (15 Å. The N—N—C—N fragments are not planar and torsion angles are −9.4 (2 and 8.3 (2°. In the crystal, the molecules are linked by weak N—H...S interactions into chains along [100] with graph-set motif C(4 and connected by weak N—H...S and C—H...S interactions, forming R21(10 rings. The Hirshfeld surface analysis indicates that the most important contributions for the crystal packing are the H...H (64.20%, H...S (12.60% and H...C (12.00% interactions. The crystal packing resembles a herringbone arrangement when viewed along [001].

  13. 8,8-Diethyl-1,4,5,8-tetrahydronaphthalene-1,4,5-trione

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    Ramiro Araya-Maturana

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The title molecule, C14H14O3, contains two fused six-membered carbon rings with keto groups at positions 1, 4 and 5 and a gem-diethyl group at position 8. The molecule is close to planar (maximum deviation = 0.044 Å, with one ethyl group at each side of the molecular plane, with exception of the keto group at position 1 which is slightly deviated from the plane and disordered over two positions one on each side of it (occupancies 0.80/0.20. The packing of the molecule shows weak bonded chains along a through C—H...O contacts and two intramolecular C—H...O interactions are also present.

  14. Crystal structure of 3-benzyl-1-[(1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen-1-ylideneamino]thiourea

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    Shaaban K. Mohamed

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C18H19N3S, the dihedral angle between the planes of the benzene rings is 58.63 (8°. The six-membered ring bonded to the thiosemicarbazide group (r.m.s. deviation = 0.038 Å adopts a sofa conformation, with one of the methylene-group C atoms as the flap. A short intramolecular N—H...N contact is observed. In the crystal, molecules are linked by weak N—H...S interactions to generate C(4 chains propagating in the [010] direction, with adjacent molecules related by glide symmetry.

  15. N-Phenyl-2-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen-1-ylidenehydrazinecarbothioamide

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    Adriano Bof de Oliveira

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The conformation of the title molecule, C17H17N3S, is stabilized by an intramolecular N—H...N hydrogen bond involving the azometinic group. The dihedral angle between the two aromatic rings is 36.49 (06°. The non-aromatic ring of the tetralone substituent adopts a sofa conformation. In the crystal, molecules are linked by pairs of N—H...S hydrogen bonds related via centres of symmetry, forming dimers.

  16. N-Methyl-2-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen-1-ylidenehydrazinecarbothioamide

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    Adriano Bof de Oliveira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available There are two independent molecules in the asymmetric unit of the title compound, C12H15N3S, both of which display disorder of several C atoms in the N-bound ring (occupancy ratios of 0.75:0.25 in the first independent molecule and 0.50:0.50 in the second with the methyl H atoms also being disordered in the first molecule (occupancy ratio of 0.70:0.30. The planes of the benzene ring and the N—N—C—N fragment make dihedral angles of 12.92 (14° in the first independent molecule and 7.60 (13° in the second. In the crystal, molecules are linked by weak N—H...S hydrogen bonds into chains along the a-axis direction. The crystal packing ressembles a herringbone arrangement.

  17. Synthesis and antiviral evalution of some novel pyrazoles and pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyridazines bearing 5,6,7,8-tetrahydronaphthalene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdy, Nehal A; El-Senousy, Waled M

    2013-01-01

    The enaminone 2 was reacted with hydrazonyl halides 3a-d to afford the corresponding pyrazole derivatives (6a-d) which reacted with hydrazine hydrate to afford the new pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyridazine derivatives 7a-d, respectively. In addition, compound 2 was reacted with some primary aromatic amines to afford the corresponding secondary enaminones 10a-c and reacted with sulfapyridine or sulfapyrimidine to afford the corresponding sulfonamide derivatives 12a and 12b. Evaluation of these new compounds against rotavirus Wa strain and adenovirus type 7 showed promising antiviral activity.

  18. Retinoid N-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)-5,5,8,8-tetramethyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydronaphthalene-2-carboxamide induces p21-dependent senescence in breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumcuoglu, Mine; Gurkan-Alp, A Selen; Buyukbingol, Erdem; Cetin-Atalay, Rengul

    2016-04-01

    Retinoids have been implicated as pharmacological agents for the prevention and treatment of various types of cancers, including breast cancers. We analyzed 27 newly synthesized retinoids for their bioactivity on breast, liver, and colon cancer cells. Majority of the retinoids demonstrated selective bioactivity on breast cancer cells. Retinoid 17 had a significant inhibitory activity (IC50 3.5 μM) only on breast cancer cells while no growth inhibition observed with liver and colon cancer cells. The breast cancer selective growth inhibitory action by retinoid 17 was defined as p21-dependent cell death, reminiscent of senescence, which is an indicator of targeted receptor mediated bioactivity. A comparative analysis of retinoid receptor gene expression levels in different breast cancer cells and IC50 values of 17 indicated the involvement of Retinoid X receptors in the cytotoxic bioactivity of retinoid 17 in the senescence associated cell death. Furthermore, siRNA knockdown studies with RXRγ induced decrease in cell proliferation. Therefore, we suggest that retinoid derivatives that target RXRγ, can be considered for breast cancer therapies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Conformationally Constrained Analogues of N'-(4-t-Butylbenzyl)-N-(4-Methylsulfonylaminobenzyl)Thiourea as TRPV1 Antagonists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, HyungChul; Lim, Ju-Ok; Kang, Dong Wook; Pearce, Larry V.; Tran, Richard; Toth, Attila; Lee, Jeewoo; Blumberg, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    A series of bicyclic analogues having indan and tetrahydronaphthalene templates in the A-region were designed as conformationally constrained analogues of our previously reported potent TRPV1 antagonists (1, 3). The activities for rat TRPV1 of the conformationally restricted analogues were moderately or markedly diminished, particularly in the case of the tetrahydronaphthalene analogues. The analysis indicated that steric constraints at the benzylic position in the bicyclic analogues were an important factor for their unfavorable interaction with the receptor. PMID:18406014

  20. Crystal structure of (E)-2-[(2-bromopyridin-3-yl)methyl-idene]-6-meth-oxy-3,4-di-hydro-naphthalen-1(2H)-one and 3-[(E)-(6-meth-oxy-1-oxo-1,2,3,4-tetra-hydro-naphthalen-2-ylidene)meth-yl]pyridin-2(1H)-one.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zingales, Sarah K; Moore, Morgan E; Goetz, Andrew D; Padgett, Clifford W

    2016-07-01

    The title compounds C17H14BrNO2, (I), and C17H15NO3, (II), were obtained from the reaction of 6-meth-oxy-3,4-di-hydro-2H-naphthalen-1-one and 2-bromo-nicotinaldehyde in ethanol. Compound (I) was the expected product and compound (II) was the oxidation product from air exposure. In the crystal structure of compound (I), there are no short contacts or hydrogen bonds. The structure does display π-π inter-actions between adjacent benzene rings and adjacent pyridyl rings. Compound (II) contains two independent mol-ecules, A and B, in the asymmetric unit; both are non-planar, the dihedral angles between the meth-oxy-benzene and 1H-pyridin-2-one mean planes being 35.07 (9)° in A and 35.28 (9)°in B. In each mol-ecule, the 1H-pyridin-2-one unit participates in inter-molecular N-H⋯O hydrogen bonding to another mol-ecule of the same type (A to A or B to B). The structure also displays π-π inter-actions between the pyridyl and the benzene rings of non-equivalent mol-ecules (viz., A to B and B to A).

  1. Polyhydride complexes for hydrogen storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, C.M. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Polyhydride metal complexes are being developed for application in hydrogen storage. Efforts have focused on developing complexes with improved available hydrogen weight percentages. We have explored the possibility that complexes containing aromatic hydrocarbon ligands could store hydrogen at both the metal center and in the ligands. We have synthesized novel indenyl hydride complexes and explored their reactivity with hydrogen. The reversible hydrogenation of [IrH{sub 3}(PPh{sub 3})({eta}{sup 5}-C{sub 10}H{sub 7})]{sup +} has been achieved. While attempting to prepare {eta}{sup 6}-tetrahydronaphthalene complexes, we discovered that certain polyhydride complexes catalyze both the hydrogenation and dehydrogenation of tetrahydronaphthalene.

  2. 5-(2,5-Dioxooxolan-3-yl-8-methyl-3,3a,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-naphtho[1,2-c]furan-1,3-dione

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    Y. Z. Guo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C17H14O6, the dihedral angle between the two anhydride rings is 76.01 (8°while the dihedral angles between the benzene and anhydride rings are 42.60 (7 and 68.94 (7°. The cyclohexene ring of the tetrahydronaphthalene unit exhibits an envelope conformation.

  3. Novel polyketide metabolites from Streptomyces rimosus mutant strain R1059.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deseo, Myrna A; Hunter, lain S; Waterman, Peter G

    2005-12-01

    Three novel polyketide metabolites were isolated from laboratory-scale fermentation of the Streptomyces rimosus mutant strain R1059. Structural elucidation of the compounds was based on NMR experiments. The compounds were characterized as naphthalene derivatives: (rel)-4beta,8-dihydroxy-3alpha-hydroxymethyl-4alpha-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene1-one (1), 4xi8-dihydroxy-3-hydroxymethyl-4xi-methyl-1,4-dihydronaphthalene-1-one (2) and (rel)-4beta,8-dihydroxy-3alpha-O-[alpha-glucopyranosyl]hydroxymethyl-4alpha-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene-1-one (3). The compounds isolated appear to be derived via a shorter polyketide backbone than oxytetracycline (4), the normal end-product made by the parent of this strain. Compound 3 was the glucoside of 1 and must be formed as a post-PKS reaction by the activation of a glycosyl transferase, which has not been reported in this species before.

  4. Synthesis and Anticancer Activity of Novel Ureas and Sulfamides Incorporating 1-Aminotetralins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özgeriş, Bünyamin; Akbaba, Yusuf; Özdemir, Özlem; Türkez, Hasan; Göksu, Süleyman

    2017-12-13

    In the present study, a series of ureas and sulfamides derived from 1-aminotetralins were synthesized. For this purpose, urea and sulfamide analogues were synthesized from the reactions of substituted 1-aminotetralins with N,N-dimethylcarbamoyl chloride and N,N-dimethylsulfamoyl chloride. The anticancer activity of newly synthesized compounds was tested against human U-87MG glioblastoma and PC-3 prostate cancer cell lines. Cytotoxicity was examined using MTT and LDH release assays. The obtained data revealed that tested compounds showed a variable degree of cytotoxic activity against the tested cell lines. 3-(5-methoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen-1-yl)-1,1-dimethylurea (9) and 3-(6-methoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen-1-yl)-1,1-dimethylurea (10) proved to be the most active cytotoxic members in this study. These two compounds could be considered as possible anticancer agents. Copyright © 2017 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Isolation and Characterization of Silyl Enol Ether Intermediates in the Synthesis of 5,6,9,10–Tetrahydro-7,8-benzocyclooctenedione

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    Adeleh Moshtaghi Zenouz

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available The 5,6,9,10-tetrahydro-7,8-benzocyclooctenedione 4 has been synthesized through fragmentation of a bicyclo[4.2.0]octane system using an acyloin reaction on the trans-2,3-dicarboethoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene 1 in the presence of trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS. The two intermediates of this reaction, bis(trimethylsiloxy derivatives 2 and 3, have been isolated and characterized.

  6. Mechanism of cobalt(II) porphyrin-catalyzed C−H amination with organic azides: radical nature and H-atom abstraction ability of the key cobalt(III)-nitrene intermediates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lyaskovskyy, V.; Olivos Suarez, A.I.; Lu, H.; Jiang, H.; Zhang, X.P.; de Bruin, B.

    2011-01-01

    The mechanism of cobalt(II) porphyrin-catalyzed benzylic C-H bond amination of ethylbenzene, toluene, and 1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene (tetralin) using a series of different organic azides [N3C(O)OMe, N3SO2Ph, N3C(O)Ph, and N3P(O)(OMe)2] as nitrene sources was studied by means of density functional

  7. 1-(2-Hydroxyethyl-1′-methyl-4′-(naphthalen-1-yl-1′′,2′′,3′′,4′′-tetrahydrodispiro[indoline-3,2′-pyrrolidine-3′,2′′-naphthalene]-2,1′′-dione

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    R. Raghunathan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C33H30N2O3, the pyrrolidine ring adopts an envelope conformation in which the H atom attached the an ortho-C atom deviates from the plane, whereas the cyclohexanone ring in the tetrahydronaphthalene fused-ring system adopts a sofa conformation. The oxindoline ring system is almost perpendicular with respect to the mean plane of the pyrrolidine ring, with a dihedral angle of 89.0 (1°. Five intramolecular C—H...O close contacts are observed. In the crystal, molecules associate via O—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming R22(14 dimers. In addition, there are weak C—H...π interactions.

  8. Friedel-Craft Acylation of ar-Himachalene: Synthesis of Acyl-ar-Himachalene and a New Acyl-Hydroperoxide

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    Abdallah Karim

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Friedel-Craft acylation at 100 °C of 2,5,9,9-tetramethyl-6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-5H-benzocycloheptene [ar-himachalene (1], a sesquiterpenic hydrocarbon obtained by catalytic dehydrogenation of α-, β- and γ-himachalenes, produces a mixture of two compounds: (3,5,5,9-tetramethyl-6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-5H-benzocyclohepten-2-yl-ethanone (2, in 69% yield, with a conserved reactant backbone, and 3, with a different skeleton, in 21% yield. The crystal structure of 3 reveals it to be 1-(8-ethyl-8-hydroperoxy-3,5,5-trimethyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydronaphthalen-2-yl-ethanone. In this compound O-H…O bonds form dimers. These hydrogen-bonds, in conjunction with weaker C-H…O interactions, form a more extended supramolecular arrangement in the crystal.

  9. Hydrogenation of Tetralin over Supported Ni and Ir Catalysts

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    Dipali P. Upare

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Selective hydrogenation and ring opening (SRO of tetrahydronaphthalene (tetralin was studied over nickel and iridium supported catalysts in the context of the removal of polynuclear aromatics from diesel fuel. The tetralin hydrogenation was carried out in a fixed-bed reactor at 270°C, using H2 pressure of 30 bars, WHSV of 2.3 h−1, and H2/feed molar ratio of 40; the resultant products were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The Ir/SiO2 catalyst gave 85% of tetralin conversion and 75.1% of decalin products selectivity whereas Ni/SiO2 catalyst showed an unprecedented high catalytic performance with 88.3% of tetralin conversion and 93% of decalin products selectivity. The catalysts were characterized by using different characterization techniques such as XRD, TPR, and HR-TEM to know the physicochemical properties as well as active sites in the catalysts.

  10. An unusual racemic C12-norabietane diterpene and a new abietane diterpene alkaloid from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xue-Ge; He, Jun; Wang, Xiao-Xue; Zhang, Jia; Ma, Bing-Zhi; Zhang, Wei-Ku; Xu, Jie-Kun

    2018-03-01

    A rare C 12 -norabietane diterpene racemate (1) and a new abietane diterpene alkaloid (2) were isolated from the roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. Their structures were established by comprehensive spectroscopic analyses, and 1 was successfully resolved by chiral HPLC, demonstrating that 1 is racemic. The absolute configurations of 1a [(+)-miltiorolide A], 1b [(-)-miltiorolide A], and 2 were determined using TDDFT-ECD calculations. 1a and 1b are the first examples of enantiomeric C 12 -norabietane diterpenes featuring an isobutylene with a tetrahydronaphthalene-butyrolactone ring system. The cytotoxic activities of the isolates (1 and 2) were evaluated against three human cancer cell lines BEL-7402, HT-29 and PANC-28. A plausible biogenetic pathway of 1 was also proposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Identification and derivatization of selected cathinones by spectroscopic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nycz, Jacek E; Pazdziorek, Tadeusz; Malecki, Grzegorz; Szala, Marcin

    2016-09-01

    In this study we identified three novel hydrochloride salts of cathinones 2-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)-1-(5,6,7,8-tetrahydronaphthalen-2-yl)pentan-1-one (1a) (TH-PVP), 2-(methylamino)-1-(2-methylphenyl)-1-propanone (1b) (2-MMC) and 1-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-(methylamino)propan-1-one (1c) (4-CMC). Their properties have been examined through combinations of GC-MS, IR, NMR, electronic absorption spectroscopy and single crystal X-ray diffraction method. NMR solution spectra showed readily diagnostic H-1 and C-13 signals from methyl, N-methyl and carbonyl groups. Additionally the use of thionation and amination reactions for identification of selected cathinones was presented. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Synthesis of [N-C[sup 3]-H[sub 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyrick, S.D.; Booth, R.G.; Myers, A.M. (North Carolina Univ., Chapel Hill, NC (United States). School of Pharmacy); Kula, N.S.; Baldessarini, R.J. (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States) Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States))

    1992-11-01

    The biological function of the sigma receptor in the central nervous system is not well understood at the present time. Once thought to be an opiate receptor, the sigma receptor has now been shown to have a neuromodulatory effect upon the synthesis of dopamine in the striatal nerve terminal. A novel sigma agonist, racemic-trans-1-phenyl-3-dimethylamino-6-chloro-7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene, PAT-6, has demonstrated the greatest potency of any compound tested to date as a sigma agonist in stimulating the synthesis of dopamine in vitro and may be functioning at a novel sigma receptor subtype. The synthesis of tritiated PAT-6 at high specific activity is described herein. This labeled ligand was prepared for use in radioreceptor binding studies in order to identify the putative sigma receptor subtype responsible for mediation of the stimulatory effect on in vitro dopamine synthesis. (author).

  13. [A Quick Quantitative Analysis for Group Composition of Coal Liquefaction Oil by Ultraviolet Spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wen-jun; Wu, Mei-xiang; Hao, Jian-shu; Feng, Jie; Li, Wen-ying

    2015-07-01

    Gas chromatography is now the primary analysis method for the coal liquefaction oil. However, a simple and rapid quantification/qualification of the coal liquefaction oil can hardly be realized, because the coal liquefaction oil is in a heterogeneous state with a long boiling range. The aim of this study was to establish a rapid and accurate method for the quantification of phenolic compounds, aromatics and aliphatic hydrocarbons in coal liquefaction oil. A representative composition of coal liquefaction light oil, i.e., the distillate fractions of the boiling point range 180-200 degrees C, was chosen as the investigated object. The characteristic absorption peaks of the samples in the UV spectra (200-400 nm) were examined, using three kinds of solvents, cyclohexane, ethanol, 50 Wt% NaOH/ethanol mixture. Among them, the mixture solvent provided the best performance, where the aromatics interfered minimally with the quantification of phenolic compounds by avoiding the peak overlapping problem. By comparison of the UV absorption standard curves between the standard compounds (phenol, m-cresol, p-cresol and o-cresol) and the phenolic mixtures in coal liquefaction oil, m-cresol was selected for the quantification of phenolic compounds in coal liquefaction oil. The content of phenolic compounds was determined to be 32.14% according to the calibration curve of m-cresol at 290 nm, and this result is largely consistent with that determined by weighing after separation. Based on UV and GC analysis of the dephenolized oil, the standard curve of tetrahydronaphthalene at 266 nm was used for the quantification of aromatic hydrocarbons in coal liquefaction oil. The contents of aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons were determined to be 44.91% and 22.95%, respectively. To verify the accuracy of the method, recovery of added standards in the oil samples was determined and found to be 104.3%-110.75% and 84.3%-91.75% for phenolic compounds and aromatics, respectively. These results

  14. Hierarchical Fullerene Assembly: Seeded Coprecipitation and Electric Field Directed Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelson, Angela C; Penterman, Sonny J; Watson, Chekesha M Liddell

    2017-05-01

    Hierarchical C60 colloidal films are assembled from nanoscale to macroscale. Fullerene molecular crystals are grown via seeded cosolvent precipitation with mixed solvent [tetrahydronaphthalene (THN)/trimethylpyridine (TMP)] and antisolvent 2-propanol. The fullerene solutions are aged under illumination, which due to the presence of TMP reduces the free monomer concentration through fullerene aggregation into nanoparticles. The nanoparticles seed the growth of monodisperse fullerene colloids on injection into the antisolvent. Diverse colloidal morphologies are prepared as a function of injection volume and fullerene solution concentration. The high fullerene solubility of THN enables C60 colloids to be prepared in quantities sufficient for assembly (5 × 10(8) ). Electric fields are applied to colloidal C60 platelets confined to two dimensions. The particles assemble under dipolar forces, dielectrophoretic forces, and electrohydrodynamic flows. Frequency-dependent phase transitions occur at the critical Maxwell-Wagner crossover frequency, where the effective polarizability of the particles in the medium is substantially reduced. Structures form as a function of field strength, frequency, and confinement including hexagonal, oblique, string fluid, coexistent hexagonal-rhombic, and tetratic. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Effect of (−)-trans-PAT, a novel 5-HT2C receptor agonist, on intake of palatable food in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Neil E.; Crump, Erica M.; Nguyen, Nancy; Robertson, Kimberly; Sun, Zhuming; Booth, Raymond G.

    2013-01-01

    (1R,3S)-(−)-trans-1-phenyl-3-dimethylamino-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene (PAT) is a novel compound that has full-efficacy agonist activity at human 5-HT2C receptors and inverse agonist/antagonist activity at 5HT2A and 5HT2B receptors. In the present paper we describe its effects on food intake in non-deprived C57BL/6 mice adapted to eating a palatable dessert meal each day. PAT showed a dose-related inhibition of food intake with a 50% inhibitory dose of 4.2 mg/kg. The dose–effect curve was similar to that obtained using WAY-161503. Abnormal behaviors were not observed by casual inspection following administration of PAT. The anorectic effect of PAT was additive with that of amphetamine. When PAT, or PAT+amphetamine, were injected 2 h before access to food, most of the anorectic activity had dissipated, indicating that PAT has a biologically effective period of about 1 h. Four daily injections of PAT were associated with some, but not complete loss of the initial anorectic effect; this differs from the rapid tolerance that has been reported to fenfluramine anorexia and suggests that different mechanism(s) are involved in the loss of anorexia. PMID:18692085

  16. The interaction of lisuride, an ergot derivative, with serotonergic and dopaminergic receptors in rabbit brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, M R; Makman, M H

    1981-03-01

    The interaction of lisuride (Lysenyl, Spofa), an ergot derivative, with serotonergic and dopaminergic receptors and with adenylate cyclase was studied in homogenates of rabbit brain. In frontal cortex, lisuride interacts with serotonin receptors as shown by its ability to compete with [3H]serotonin, [3H]spiroperidol and [3H]lysergic acid diethylamide for their receptor binding sites, with respective IC50 values of 14, 1.0 and 3.7 nM. The IC50 for displacement of [3H]spiroperidol by lisuride in frontal cortex was increased by the GTP analog, 5'-guanylylimidodiphosphate, indicating an agonist-like interaction. Lisuride is extraordinarily potent in stimulating serotonin-sensitive adenylate cyclase in this brain region, with maximal stimulations occurring at 0.1 nM lisuride. In caudate nucleus, lisuride interacted with both serotonergic and dopaminergic receptor sites as labeled by [3H]serotonin, [3H]lysergic acid diethylamide and [3H]2-amino-6,7-dihydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene, with IC50 values ranging from 2.0 to 7 nM. Lisuride did not stimulate adenylate cyclase in caudate nucleus. In summary, lisuride is a very potent stimulator of serotonin-sensitive adenylate cyclase in rabbit frontal cortex and can interact with serotonin and dopamine receptor binding sites in rabbit cortex and caudate nucleus.

  17. Synthesis and biological evaluation of a series of aminoalkyl-tetralones and tetralols as dual dopamine/serotonin ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carro, Laura; Torrado, María; Raviña, Enrique; Masaguer, Christian F; Lage, Sonia; Brea, José; Loza, María I

    2014-01-01

    A series of novel α-tetralone and α-tetralol derivatives was synthesized, and their binding affinities for 5-HT(2A) and D₂ receptors, the most important targets implicated in the anti-schizophrenia drug action, were evaluated to elucidate how substitutions in the aromatic ring of the pharmacophore affect to the affinity or selectivity for these receptors. The replacement of the H-7 in the tetrahydronaphthalene system by an amino group resulted in privileged 5-HT(2A) affinity of the 6-fluorobenzo[d]isoxazol derivative 36 and the alcohol 25 both showing a pK(i) value for 5-HT(2A) higher than 8.3 and good binding affinities for D₂ receptor leading to a Meltzer's ratio characteristic of an atypical antipsychotic profile. Additionally, a small collection of 3-aminomethyltetralone derivatives was prepared and examined here for their affinities and selectivities as 5-HT(2A)/D₂ dual ligands. Compound 11 shows the best profile with good pKi values for 5-HT(2A) and D₂ receptors leading to a Meltzer's ratio characteristic of a typical antipsychotic behaviour. These three compounds behaved as competitive antagonists of both 5-HT(2A) and D₂ receptors, and might be promising pharmacological tools for the investigation of the dual function of the 5HT(2A)-D₂ ligands. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. 3D QSAR based design of novel oxindole derivative as 5HT7 inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitta, Aparna; Sivan, Sree Kanth; Manga, Vijjulatha

    2014-06-01

    To understand the structural requirements of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT7) receptor inhibitors and to design new ligands against 5HT7 receptor with enhanced inhibitory potency, a three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship study with comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA) for a data set of 56 molecules consisting of oxindole, tetrahydronaphthalene, aryl ketone substituted arylpiperazinealkylamide derivatives was performed. Derived model showed good statistical reliability in terms of predicting 5HT7 inhibitory activity of the molecules, based on molecular property fields like steric, electrostatic, hydrophobic, hydrogen bond donor and hydrogen bond acceptor fields. This is evident from statistical parameters like conventional r2 and a cross validated (q2) values of 0.985, 0.743 for CoMFA and 0.970, 0.608 for CoMSIA, respectively. Predictive ability of the models to determine 5HT7 antagonistic activity is validated using a test set of 16 molecules that were not included in the training set. Predictive r2 obtained for the test set was 0.560 and 0.619 for CoMFA and CoMSIA, respectively. Steric, electrostatic fields majorly contributed toward activity which forms the basis for design of new molecules. Absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination (ADME) calculation using QikProp 2.5 (Schrodinger 2010, Portland, OR) reveals that the molecules confer to Lipinski's rule of five in majority of the cases.

  19. Effect of the solvent used to prepare the photoactive layer on the performance of inverted bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwabara, Takayuki; Kuzuba, Mitsuhiro; Emoto, Natsumi; Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Taima, Tetsuya; Takahashi, Kohshin

    2014-02-01

    The initial performance and subsequent degradation of inverted polymer solar cells [indium-tin oxide/titanium oxide (TiOx)/[6,6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM): regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT)/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxylenethiophene):poly(4-styrene sulfonic acid)/Au, TiOx cell] are studied by photocurrent-voltage measurements as well as ac impedance spectroscopy (IS) and carrier mobility measurements. The TiOx cells containing a P3HT:PCBM layer prepared from a solution of chlorobenzene (CB) showed a maximum power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 2.23%. In contrast, the TiOx cells containing a P3HT:PCBM layer prepared from a solution of 1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene (tetralin) containing 2 vol % 1,8-octanedithiol (ODT) exhibited a maximum PCE of 2.92%. However, after exposure to light irradiation for 100 h, the maximum PCE of the tetralin:ODT cell decreased to 68% of its initial value. On the other hand, over 96% of the maximum PCE was maintained in the CB cell after 100 h of irradiation. The IS measurement results suggest that the degradation of the Tetralin:ODT cell was caused by a morphological change of the P3HT:PCBM layer that made efficient photoinduced charge separation difficult.

  20. Three novel metal-organic frameworks based on flexible porphyrin tetracarboxylic acids as highly effective catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zengqi [Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry & Materials Science, Northwest University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710069 (China); Su, Xiaoqin [School of Materials and Chemical Engineering, Xi’an Technological University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710021 (China); Yu, Fan; Li, Jun [Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry & Materials Science, Northwest University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710069 (China)

    2016-06-15

    Targeted synthesis of metalloporphyrinic frameworks (MPFs) with Cu(II) (1), Ni(II) (2, 3) 5, 10, 15, 20-tetrakis[4-(carboxymethyleneoxy)phenyl]porphyrin (Cu(TCMOPP) and Ni(TCMOPP)) as building blocks afforded three new extended coordination polymers inter-linked by Zn(II) (1) and K(I) (2, 3). 1 shows 2D frameworks while 2, 3 are 3D frameworks. The open channel are 7–17 Å wide and accessible to guest/solvent molecules. Besides, the thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) indicate that the framework structures of the three compounds are stable until 300 °C. In addition, the catalytic activities of 1–3 to the alkylbenzenes oxidation are examined, and the results indicate that 1 exhibit high catalytic activity to oxidation of ethylbenzene and 1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene with conversion of 64.1% and 80.3% respectively. - Graphical abstract: Three novel metalloporphyrinic frameworks (1, 2, 3) were synthesized based on tetracarboxylic Cu(II) (1), Ni(II) (2, 3) metalloporphyrin inter-linked by Zn(II) (1) , K(I) (2, 3), and 1 shows high catalytic activity to oxidation reaction of alkylbenzenes with conversion 80.3%. Display Omitted.

  1. Ultrasound-induced cracking and pyrolysis of some aromatic and naphthenic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, F

    2000-01-01

    The action of intense ultrasound on solutions of decahydronaphthalene (decalin) or tetrahydronaphthalene (tetralin) causes, in both cases, a dehydrogenation reaction at room temperature. According to thermodynamic calculations, temperatures as high as 500 degrees C are necessary to achieve the same results. The use of Pd and Se as dehydrogenation catalysts has confirmed the dehydrogenation reactions. Benzene and toluene sonication at room temperature causes aromatic ring breakdown with formation of acetylene and other products. The analogy with radiolysis was noticed. A thermodynamic analysis was conducted on the possible reaction products formed from benzene ring cleavage including polymerization products. It was concluded that acetylene formation from benzene is possible for instance at 650 degrees C only if it is accompanied by coke formation. Otherwise temperatures as high as 1700 degrees C are needed. The nature of the 'coke' formed during sonication is discussed, it was revealed by FT-IR spectroscopy to be a crosslinked polystyrene and hence it is a sonopolymer derived from benzene or toluene ring breakdown products reacted with phenyl and polyphenyl radicals. Again the striking analogy between the IR spectrum of irradiated polystyrene and benzene sonopolymer was noticed. The formation of poly-p-phenylene was excluded by the FT-IR pattern which did not match that of an authentic sample.

  2. Structure-activity relationships of amide-phosphonate derivatives as inhibitors of the human soluble epoxide hydrolase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, In-Hae; Park, Yong-Kyu; Nishiwaki, Hisashi; Hammock, Bruce D; Nishi, Kosuke

    2015-11-15

    Structure-activity relationships of amide-phosphonate derivatives as inhibitors of the human soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) were investigated. First, a series of alkyl or aryl groups were substituted on the carbon alpha to the phosphonate function in amide compounds to see whether substituted phosphonates can act as a secondary pharmacophore. A tert-butyl group (16) on the alpha carbon was found to yield most potent inhibition on the target enzyme. A 4-50-fold drop in inhibition was induced by other substituents such as aryls, substituted aryls, cycloalkyls, and alkyls. Then, the modification of the O-substituents on the phosphonate function revealed that diethyl groups (16 and 23) were preferable for inhibition to other longer alkyls or substituted alkyls. In amide compounds with the optimized diethylphosphonate moiety and an alkyl substitution such as adamantane (16), tetrahydronaphthalene (31), or adamantanemethane (36), highly potent inhibitions were gained. In addition, the resulting potent amide-phosphonate compounds had reasonable water solubility, suggesting that substituted phosphonates in amide inhibitors are effective for both inhibition potency on the human sEH and water solubility as a secondary pharmacophore. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Crystal structures of bis-[(9S,13S,14S)-3-meth-oxy-17-methyl-morphinanium] tetra-chlorido-cobaltate and tetra-chlorido-cuprate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauchat, Eric; Nazarenko, Alexander Y

    2017-01-01

    (9S,13S,14S)-3-Meth-oxy-17-methyl-morphinan (dextromethorphan) forms two isostructural salts with (a) tetra-chlorido-cobaltate, namely bis-[(9S,13S,14S)-3-meth-oxy-17-methyl-morphinanium] tetra-chlorido-cobaltate, (C18H26NO)2[CoCl4], and (b) tetra-chlorido-cuprate, namely bis-[(9S,13S,14S)-3-meth-oxy-17-methyl-morphinanium] tetra-chlorido-cuprate, (C18H26NO)2[CuCl4]. The distorted tetra-hedral anions are located on twofold rotational axes. The dextromethorphan cation can be described as being composed of two ring systems, a tetra-hydro-naphthalene system A+B and a deca-hydro-isoquinolinium subunit C+D, that are nearly perpendicular to one another: the angle between mean planes of the A+B and C+D moieties is 78.8 (1)° for (a) and 79.0 (1)° for (b). Two symmetry-related cations of protonated dextromethorphan are connected to the tetra-chlorido-cobaltate (or tetra-chlorido-cuprate) anions via strong N-H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds, forming neutral ion associates. These associates are packed in the (001) plane with no strong attractive bonding between them. Both compounds are attractive crystalline forms for unambiguous identification of the dextromethorphan and, presumably, of its optical isomer, levomethorphan.

  4. Kinetic modeling of [18 F]VAT, a novel radioligand for PET imaging vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) in nonhuman primate brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hongjun; Yue, Xuyi; Liu, Hui; Han, Junbin; Flores, Hubert; Su, Yi; Parsons, Stanley M; Perlmutter, Joel S; Tu, Zhude

    2018-01-06

    Molecular imaging of vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) in the brain provides an important cholinergic biomarker for the pathophysiology and treatment of dementias including Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, kinetics modeling methods were applied and compared for quantifying regional brain uptake of the VAChT-specific PET radiotracer, ((-)-(1-(-8-(2-fluoroethoxy)-3-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen-2-yl)piperidin-4-yl)(4-fluorophenyl)-methanone) ([18 F]VAT) in macaques. Total volume distribution (VT ) estimates were compared for one-tissue compartment model (1TCM), two-tissue compartment model (2TCM), Logan graphic analysis (LoganAIF) and multiple linear analysis (MA1) with arterial blood input function using data from three macaques. Using the cerebellum-hemispheres as the reference region with data from seven macaques, three additional models were compared: reference tissue model (RTM), simplified reference tissue model (SRTM), and Logan graphic analysis (LoganREF). Model selection criterion (MSC) indicated that a) 2TCM and SRTM were the most appropriate kinetics models for [18 F]VAT; and b) SRTM was strongly correlated with 2TCM (Pearson's coefficients r > 0.93, p VAT has good reproducibility and reliability (TRV 0.72). These studies demonstrate [18 F]VAT is a promising VAChT PET tracer for quantitative assessment of VAChT levels in the brain of living subjects. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Development of an ultrasensitive PCR assay for polycyclic musk determination in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaohan; Zhuang, Huisheng

    2018-01-18

    Polycyclic musks (PCMs) in the aquatic environment and organisms have become an emerging environmental issue because of their potential risk. The most used method for polycyclic musk determination is gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with different sample extractions, which are somewhat expensive to operate, complex and laborious. In this study, a novel and ultrasensitive real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay with multiple signal amplification of carboxylic-DNA by gold nanoparticle-polyamidoamine conjugation (Au-PAMAM) was developed for determining polycyclic musks in fish. Hapten and immunogen were specially prepared. Polyclonal antibodies were produced based on the optimal immunization, and the antibodies were characterized. Due to PAMAM's unique nanostructure of numerous functional amino groups, polyclonal antibody and carboxylic-DNA were immobilized by Au-PAMAM conjugation to develop the antibody-Au-PAMAM-DNA probes, which were used as a signal DNA amplifier in the PCR system. Compared with real-time immuno-PCR, this biological probe-amplified immuno-PCR (BPAI-PCR) assay had higher sensitivity due to the probes' higher ratio of signal DNA. Finally, the BPAI-PCR assay was applied to analyze AHTN (7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene,Tonalide) concentrations in fish samples in the range from 1 pg/L-10 ng/L, giving the LOD 0.61 pg/L. In general, due to the specificity of the antibody and novel nanoprobe design, this BPAI-PCR assay provided a potential way for trace analysis of AHTN in the aquatic organisms. The high concentrations of AHTN found in cultivated fish should encourage further toxicological studies.

  6. Low severity coal liquefaction promoted by cyclic olefins. Quarterly report, October 1995--December 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, C.W.

    1995-12-31

    The goal of this research is to develop a methodology for analyzing the reactivity of cyclic olefins in situ in a high temperature and high pressure infrared cell. Cyclic olefins, such as 1,4,5,8-tetrahydronaphthalene (isotetralin) and 1,4,5,8,9,10-hexahydroanthracene (HHA), are highly reactive donor compounds that readily donate their hydrogen to coal and model acceptors when heated to temperatures of 200{degrees}C and above. These donors are active donors in the low severity liquefaction of coal at 350{degrees}C as shown in the research performed in this project. The infrared studies are being performed in a high temperature infrared cell that was obtained from AABSPEC. Modifications to that cell have been made and have been reported in previous progress reports. During this last quarter the useful temperature range of the high temperature infrared cell was extended to 230{degrees}C through the use of a high-boiling perfluorocarbon solvent. The solvent used was an Air Products and Chemicals Company proprietary product trade named Multifluor APF-240. Solubilities of aromatics and cyclic olefins were quite low in APF-240, usually less than 0.1 wt% at room temperature, but were found to be a strong function of temperature, increasing markedly when the mixtures were heated to 65{degrees}C. Spectra have been obtained of n-hexadecane and naphthalene at temperatures of 65, 100, 125, 150, 175, 200 and 230{degrees}C. This demonstration of the safe operation of the high temperature IR cell and the acquisition of spectra at elevated temperatures paves the way for kinetic studies of the hydrogen donor capability of isotetralin. A perfluoroether has been obtained from Dupont which should extend the useful temperature range of the high temperature IR cell to 350{degrees}C.

  7. Melanin is not required for turgor generation but enhances cell-wall rigidity in appressoria of the corn pathogen Colletotrichum graminicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Nancy; Löhrer, Marco; Hempel, Marcus; Mathea, Sebastian; Schliebner, Ivo; Menzel, Matthias; Kiesow, Andreas; Schaffrath, Ulrich; Deising, Holger B; Horbach, Ralf

    2014-04-01

    The ascomycete and causative agent of maize anthracnose and stem rot, Colletotrichum graminicola, differentiates melanized infection cells called appressoria that are indispensable for breaching the plant cell wall. High concentrations of osmolytes accumulate within the appressorium, and the internal turgor pressure of up to 5.4 MPa provides sufficient force to penetrate the leaf epidermis directly. In order to assess the function of melanin in C. graminicola appressoria, we identified and characterized the polyketide synthase 1 (CgPKS1) gene which displayed high similarity to fungal polyketide synthases (PKS) involved in synthesis of 1,3,6,8-tetrahydronaphthalene, the first intermediate in melanin biosynthesis. Cgpks1 albino mutants created by targeted gene disruption were unable to penetrate intact leaves and ruptured frequently but, surprisingly, were able to penetrate ultrathin polytetrafluoroethylene membranes mimicking the plant surface. Nonmelanized Cgpks1 appressoria were sensitive to externally applied cell-wall-degrading enzymes whereas melanized appressoria were not affected. Expression studies using a truncated CgPKS1 fused to green fluorescent protein revealed fluorescence in immature appressoria and in setae, which is in agreement with transcript data obtained by RNA-Seq and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Unexpectedly, surface scans of mutant and wild-type appressoria revealed considerable differences in cell-wall morphology. Melanization of appressoria is indispensable for successful infection of intact leaves. However, cell collapse experiments and analysis of the appressorial osmolyte content by Mach-Zehnder interferometry convincingly showed that melanin is not required for solute accumulation and turgor generation, thus questioning the role of melanin as a barrier for osmolytes in appressoria of C. graminicola.

  8. Material and energy intensity of fullerene production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anctil, Annick; Babbitt, Callie W; Raffaelle, Ryne P; Landi, Brian J

    2011-03-15

    Fullerenes are increasingly being used in medical, environmental, and electronic applications due to their unique structural and electronic properties. However, the energy and environmental impacts associated with their commercial-scale production have not yet been fully investigated. In this work, the life cycle embodied energy of C(60) and C(70) fullerenes has been quantified from cradle-to-gate, including the relative contributions from synthesis, separation, purification, and functionalization processes, representing a more comprehensive scope than used in previous fullerene life cycle studies. Comparison of two prevalent production methods (plasma and pyrolysis) has shown that pyrolysis of 1,4-tetrahydronaphthalene emerges as the method with the lowest embodied energy (12.7 GJ/kg of C(60)). In comparison, plasma methods require a large amount of electricity, resulting in a factor of 7-10× higher embodied energy in the fullerene product. In many practical applications, fullerenes are required at a purity >98% by weight, which necessitates multiple purification steps and increases embodied energy by at least a factor of 5, depending on the desired purity. For applications such as organic solar cells, the purified fullerenes need to be chemically modified to [6,6]-phenyl-C(61)-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM), thus increasing the embodied energy to 64.7 GJ/kg C(60)-PCBM for the specified pyrolysis, purification, and functionalization conditions. Such synthesis and processing effects are even more significant for the embodied energy of larger fullerenes, such as C(70), which are produced in smaller quantities and are more difficult to purify. Overall, the inventory analysis shows that the embodied energy of all fullerenes are an order of magnitude higher than most bulk chemicals, and, therefore, traditional cutoff rules by weight during life cycle assessment of fullerene-based products should be avoided.

  9. Enantioselective Determination of Polycyclic Musks in River and Wastewater by GC/MS/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Injung Lee

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The separation of chiral compounds is an interesting and challenging topic in analytical chemistry, especially in environmental fields. Enantioselective degradation or bioaccumulation has been observed for several chiral pollutants. Polycyclic musks are chiral and are widely used as fragrances in a variety of personal care products such as soaps, shampoos, cosmetics and perfumes. In this study, the gas chromatographic separation of chiral polycyclic musks, 1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethylcyclo-penta-γ-2-benzopyrane (HHCB, 7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamethyl-1,2,3,4-tetra-hydronaphthalene (AHTN, 6-acetyl-1,1,2,3,3,5-hexamethylindane (AHDI, 5-acetyl-1,1,2,6-tetramethyl-3-iso-propylindane (ATII, and 6,7-dihydro-1,1,2,3,3-pentamethyl-4(5H-indanone (DPMI was achieved on modified cyclodextrin stationary phase (heptakis (2,3-di-O-methyl-6-O-tert-butyl-dimethylsilyl-β-CD in DV-1701. Separation techniques are coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS, as it provides the sensitivity and selectivity needed. River and wastewaters (influents and effluents of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs in the Nakdong River were investigated with regard to the concentrations and the enantiomeric ratios of polycyclic musks. HHCB was most frequently detected in river and wastewaters, and an enantiomeric enrichment was observed in the effluents of one of the investigated wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs. We reported the contamination of river and wastewaters in Korea by chiral polycyclic musks. The results of this investigation suggest that enantioselective transformation may occur during wastewater treatment.

  10. Noncatalytic hydrogenation of naphthalene in nanosized membrane reactors with accumulated hydrogen and controlled adjustment of their reaction zone volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldatov, A. P.

    2017-05-01

    As part of ongoing studies aimed at designing the next generation of nanosized membrane reactors (NMRs) with accumulated hydrogen, the noncatalytic hydrogenation of naphthalene in pores of ceramic membranes (TRUMEM ultrafiltration membranes with D av = 50 and 90 nm) is performed for the first time, using hydrogen preadsorbed in a hybrid carbon nanostructure: mono- and multilayered oriented carbon nanotubes with graphene walls (OCNTGs) that form on inner pore surfaces. In this technique, the reaction proceeds in the temperature range of 330-390°C at contact times of 10-16 h. The feedstock is an 8% naphthalene solution in decane. The products are analyzed via chromatography on a quartz capillary column coated with polydimethylsiloxane (SE-30). It is established for the first time that in NMRs, the noncatalytic hydrogenation of naphthalene occurs at 370-390°C, forming 1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene in amounts of up to 0.61%. The rate constants and activation energy (123.5 kJ/mol) of the noncatalytic hydrogenation reaction are determined for the first time. The possibility of designing an NMR with an adjustable reaction zone volume is explored. Changes in the pore structure of the membranes after their modification with pyrocarbon nanosized crystallites (PNCs) are therefore studied as well. It is shown that lengthening the process time reduces pore size: within 23 h after the deposition of PNCs, the average pore radius ( r av) falls from 25 to 3.1 nm. The proposed approach would allow us to design nanoreactors of molecular size and conduct hydrogenation reactions within certain guidelines to synthesize new chemical compounds.

  11. Molecular interactions of agonist and inverse agonist ligands at serotonin 5-HT2C G protein-coupled receptors: computational ligand docking and molecular dynamics studies validated by experimental mutagenesis results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdova-Sintjago, Tania C.; Liu, Yue; Booth, Raymond G.

    2015-02-01

    To understand molecular determinants for ligand activation of the serotonin 5-HT2C G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), a drug target for obesity and neuropsychiatric disorders, a 5-HT2C homology model was built according to an adrenergic β2 GPCR (β2AR) structure and validated using a 5-HT2B GPCR crystal structure. The models were equilibrated in a simulated phosphatidyl choline membrane for ligand docking and molecular dynamics studies. Ligands included (2S, 4R)-(-)-trans-4-(3'-bromo- and trifluoro-phenyl)-N,N-dimethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene-2-amine (3'-Br-PAT and 3'-CF3-PAT), a 5-HT2C agonist and inverse agonist, respectively. Distinct interactions of 3'-Br-PAT and 3'-CF3-PAT at the wild-type (WT) 5-HT2C receptor model were observed and experimental 5-HT2C receptor mutagenesis studies were undertaken to validate the modelling results. For example, the inverse agonist 3'-CF3-PAT docked deeper in the WT 5-HT2C binding pocket and altered the orientation of transmembrane helices (TM) 6 in comparison to the agonist 3'-Br-PAT, suggesting that changes in TM orientation that result from ligand binding impact function. For both PATs, mutation of 5-HT2C residues S3.36, T3.37, and F5.47 to alanine resulted in significantly decreased affinity, as predicted from modelling results. It was concluded that upon PAT binding, 5-HT2C residues T3.37 and F5.47 in TMs 3 and 5, respectively, engage in inter-helical interactions with TMs 4 and 6, respectively. The movement of TMs 5 and 6 upon agonist and inverse agonist ligand binding observed in the 5-HT2C receptor modelling studies was similar to movements reported for the activation and deactivation of the β2AR, suggesting common mechanisms among aminergic neurotransmitter GPCRs.

  12. Alterations in ZENK and glucagon RNA transcript expression during increased ocular growth in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, Regan; Kozulin, Peter; Megaw, Pam L; Morgan, Ian G

    2010-04-13

    To examine in detail the time-course of changes in Zif268, Egr-1, NGFI-A, and Krox-24 (ZENK) and pre-proglucagon (PPG) RNA transcript levels in the chick retina during periods of increased ocular growth induced by form-deprivation and negative-lens wear. To further elucidate the role of ZENK in the modulation of ocular growth, we investigated the effect of intravitreal injections of the muscarinic antagonist atropine and the dopamine agonist 2-amino-6,7-dihydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene hydrobromide (ADTN), both of which block the development of experimental myopia, on the expression of ZENK in eyes fitted with negative-lenses. Myopia was induced by fitting translucent diffusers or -10D polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) lenses over one eye of the chicken. At times from 1 h to 10 days after fitting of the diffusers or negative lenses, retinal RNA transcript levels of the selected genes were determined by semi-quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). For the pharmacology experiments, -10D lenses were fitted over the left eye of chicks for a period of 1h. Intravitreal injections of atropine (10 mul-25 mM), ADTN (10 mul-10 mM), or a vehicle solution were made immediately before fitting of the lenses. ZENK RNA transcript levels were rapidly and persistently down-regulated following the attachment of the optical devices over the eye. With a delay relative to ZENK, PPG transcript levels were also down-regulated. Induced changes in gene expression were similar for both form-deprivation and negative-lens wear. When atropine or ADTN were administered immediately before lens attachment, the rapid down-regulation in ZENK RNA transcript levels normally seen following 1 h of negative-lens wear was not seen, and ZENK transcript levels rose above those values seen in control eyes. However, injection of atropine or ADTN into untreated eyes had no effect on ZENK transcript levels. Both form-deprivation and negative-lens wear modulated the

  13. Expression of dopamine receptors in the subthalamic nucleus of the rat: characterization using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and autoradiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, G.; Liang, J.J. [Instituto de Fisiologia, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Apartado postal 406, 72000 Puebla (Mexico); Sierra, A.; Martinez-Fong, D. [Departamento de Fisiologia, Biofisica y Neurociencias, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politecnico Nacional de Mexico, Apartado postal 14-740, 07000 Mexico City (Mexico); Quirion, R. [McGill Center for Research in Schizophrenia, Douglas Hospital Research Center, Department of Psychiatry, McGill University, Montreal (Canada); Aceves, J. [Departamento de Fisiologia, Biofisica y Neurociencias, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politecnico Nacional de Mexico, Apartado postal 14-740, 07000 Mexico City (Mexico); Srivastava, L.K. [McGill Center for Research in Schizophrenia, Douglas Hospital Research Center, Department of Psychiatry, McGill University, Montreal (Canada)

    1999-06-01

    We analysed the expression of dopamine receptor subtypes in the subthalamic nucleus by means of reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. We also studied, using autoradiography, all pharmacologically characterized dopamine receptors in four subregions of the subthalamic nucleus. For comparison, dopamine receptor subtypes were also evaluated in brain regions where they are more abundant and well characterized. The radioligands used were: [{sup 3}H]SCH-23390, [{sup 3}H]emonapride and [{sup 3}H]2-dipropylamino-7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene for dopamine D{sub 1}, D{sub 2} and D{sub 3} receptors, respectively; and [{sup 3}H]YM-09151-2 in the presence of raclopride for dopamine D{sub 4} receptors. Finally, we also evaluated the effect of unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine injection into the medial forebrain bundle on dopamine receptor levels expressed in the ipsilateral subthalamic nucleus. The lesion was estimated by decrease in the binding of [{sup 3}H]WIN-35428, a specific dopamine transporter label. D{sub 1}, D{sub 2} and D{sub 3} receptor messenger RNAs and binding sites were present in the subthalamic nucleus, but no messenger RNA for D{sub 4} receptors was found, although specific binding sites for these receptors were observed. As compared to the intact side, the 6-hydroxydopamine lesion did not change D{sub 1} receptors, increased D{sub 2} receptors, and decreased D{sub 3} receptors and the dopamine transporter. The results suggest that postsynaptic D{sub 1}, D{sub 2} or D{sub 3} receptors can mediate the effect of dopamine on subthalamic nucleus neuronal activity. D{sub 4} receptors would mediate exclusively presynaptic effects.These results reinforce the idea that dopamine receptors in the subthalamic nucleus may play an important role in the physiology of the basal ganglia and in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  14. Bipyrimidine ruthenium(II) arene complexes: structure, reactivity and cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betanzos-Lara, Soledad; Novakova, Olga; Deeth, Robert J; Pizarro, Ana M; Clarkson, Guy J; Liskova, Barbora; Brabec, Viktor; Sadler, Peter J; Habtemariam, Abraha

    2012-10-01

    The synthesis and characterization of complexes [(η(6)-arene)Ru(N,N')X][PF(6)], where arene is para-cymene (p-cym), biphenyl (bip), ethyl benzoate (etb), hexamethylbenzene (hmb), indane (ind) or 1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene (thn), N,N' is 2,2'-bipyrimidine (bpm) and X is Cl, Br or I, are reported, including the X-ray crystal structures of [(η(6)-p-cym)Ru(bpm)I][PF(6)], [(η(6)-bip)Ru(bpm)Cl][PF(6)], [(η(6)-bip)Ru(bpm)I][PF(6)] and [(η(6)-etb)Ru(bpm)Cl][PF(6)]. Complexes in which N,N' is 1,10-phenanthroline (phen), 1,10-phenanthroline-5,6-dione or 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (bathophen) were studied for comparison. The Ru(II) arene complexes undergo ligand-exchange reactions in aqueous solution at 310 K; their half-lives for hydrolysis range from 14 to 715 min. Density functional theory calculations on [(η(6)-p-cym)Ru(bpm)Cl][PF(6)], [(η(6)-p-cym)Ru(bpm)Br][PF(6)], [(η(6)-p-cym)Ru(bpm)I][PF(6)], [(η(6)-bip)Ru(bpm)Cl][PF(6)], [(η(6)-bip)Ru(bpm)Br][PF(6)] and [(η(6)-bip)Ru(bpm)I][PF(6)] suggest that aquation occurs via an associative pathway and that the reaction is thermodynamically favourable when the leaving ligand is I > Br ≈ Cl. pK (a)* values for the aqua adducts of the complexes range from 6.9 to 7.32. A binding preference for 9-ethylguanine (9-EtG) compared with 9-ethyladenine (9-EtA) was observed for [(η(6)-p-cym)Ru(bpm)Cl][PF(6)], [(η(6)-hmb)Ru(bpm)Cl](+), [(η(6)-ind)Ru(bpm)Cl](+), [(η(6)-thn)Ru(bpm)Cl](+), [(η(6)-p-cym)Ru(phen)Cl](+) and [(η(6)-p-cym)Ru(bathophen)Cl](+) in aqueous solution at 310 K. The X-ray crystal structure of the guanine complex [(η(6)-p-cym)Ru(bpm)(9-EtG-N7)][PF(6)](2) shows multiple hydrogen bonding. Density functional theory calculations show that the 9-EtG adducts of all complexes are thermodynamically preferred compared with those of 9-EtA. However, the bmp complexes are inactive towards A2780 human ovarian cancer cells. Calf thymus DNA interactions for [(η(6)-p-cym)Ru(bpm)Cl][PF(6)] and [(η(6)-p

  15. Anthropogenic organic compounds in source water of nine community water systems that withdraw from streams, 2002-05

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsbury, James A.; Delzer, Gregory C.; Hopple, Jessica A.

    2008-01-01

    Source water, herein defined as stream water collected at a water-system intake prior to water treatment, was sampled at nine community water systems, ranging in size from a system serving about 3,000 people to one that serves about 2 million people. As many as 17 source-water samples were collected at each site over about a 12-month period between 2002 and 2004 for analysis of 258 anthropogenic organic compounds. Most of these compounds are unregulated in drinking water, and the compounds analyzed include pesticides and selected pesticide degradates, gasoline hydrocarbons, personal-care and domestic-use compounds, and solvents. The laboratory analytical methods used in this study have relatively low detection levels - commonly 100 to 1,000 times lower than State and Federal standards and guidelines for protecting water quality. Detections, therefore, do not necessarily indicate a concern to human health but rather help to identify emerging issues and to track changes in occurrence and concentrations over time. About one-half (134) of the compounds were detected at least once in source-water samples. Forty-seven compounds were detected commonly (in 10 percent or more of the samples), and six compounds (chloroform, atrazine, simazine, metolachlor, deethylatrazine, and hexahydrohexamethylcyclopentabenzopyran (HHCB) were detected in more than one-half of the samples. Chloroform was the most commonly detected compound - in every sample (year round) at five sites. Findings for chloroform and the fragrances HHCB and acetyl hexamethyl tetrahydronaphthalene (AHTN) indicate an association between occurrence and the presence of large upstream wastewater discharges in the watersheds. The herbicides atrazine, simazine, and metolachlor also were among the most commonly detected compounds. Degradates of these herbicides, as well as those of a few other commonly occurring herbicides, generally were detected at concentrations similar to or greater than concentrations of the parent