Sample records for tetrahedron-based inhomogeneous monte

  1. A Monte Carlo study of the spectra from inhomogeneous accretion flow (United States)

    Yu, Xiao-Di; Li, Ya-Ping; Xie, Fu-Guo; Ma, Ren-Yi


    A model of an inhomogeneous accretion flow, in which cold clumps are surrounded by hot gas or corona, has been proposed to explain the spectral features of black hole X-ray binaries. In this work, we try to find possible observational features in the continuum that can indicate the existence of clumps. The spectra of an inhomogeneous accretion flow are calculated via the Monte Carlo method. Since the corresponding accretion flow is unsteady and complex, the accretion flow is described by a set of free parameters, the ranges of which can include the real cases. The influences of the parameters are investigated. It is found that the thermal component of the spectra deviates from multi-color black body spectra in the middle power-law part. On one hand, a warp appears due to the gaps between the clumps and the outer cold disk, and on the other hand, the slope of the line connecting the thermal peaks deviates from 4/3. The warp feature, as well as the correlation between the thermal peak at higher frequency and the spectral index, possibly indicate the existence of clumps, and are worthy of further investigation with more self-consistent models.

  2. Inhomogeneous Monte Carlo simulation of the vapor-liquid equilibrium of benzene between 300 K and 530 K

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The inhomogeneous Monte Carlo technique is used in studying the vapor-liquid interface of benzene in a broad range of temperatures using the TraPPE potential field. The obtained values of the VLE parameters are in good agreement with the experimental values as well as with the results from GEMC simulations. In contrast to the GEMC, within one simulation box the inhomogeneous MC technique also yields information on the structural properties of the interphase between the two phases. The values of the vaporization enthalpy and the vapor pressure very well satisfy the Clausius-Clapeyron equation.

  3. The effect of patient inhomogeneities in oesophageal 192Ir HDR brachytherapy: a Monte Carlo and analytical dosimetry study (United States)

    Anagnostopoulos, G.; Baltas, D.; Pantelis, E.; Papagiannis, P.; Sakelliou, L.


    The effect of patient inhomogeneities surrounding the oesophagus on the dosimetry planning of an upper thoracic oesophageal 192Ir HDR brachytherapy treatment is studied. The MCNPX Monte Carlo code is used for dosimetry in a patient-equivalent phantom geometry and results are compared in terms of isodose contours as well as dose volume histograms with corresponding calculations by a contemporary treatment planning system software featuring a full TG-43 dose calculation algorithm (PLATO BPS version 14.2.4). It is found that the presence of patient inhomogeneities does not alter the delivery of the planned dose distribution to the planning treatment volume. Regarding the organs at risk, the common practice of current treatment planning systems (TPSs) to consider the patient geometry as a homogeneous water medium leads to a dose overestimation of up to 13% to the spinal cord and an underestimation of up to 15% to the sternum bone. These findings which correspond to the dose region of about 5-10% of the prescribed dose could only be of significance when brachytherapy is used as a boost to external beam therapy. Additionally, an analytical dosimetry model, which is efficient in calculating dose in mathematical phantoms containing inhomogeneity shells of materials of radiobiological interest, is utilized for dosimetry in the patient-equivalent inhomogeneous phantom geometry. Analytical calculations in this work are in good agreement with corresponding Monte Carlo results within the bone inhomogeneities of spinal cord and sternum bone but, like treatment planning system calculations, the model fails to predict the dose distribution in the proximal lung surface as well as within the lungs just as the TPS does, due to its inherent limitation in treating lateral scatter and backscatter radiation.

  4. Inhomogeneous fluids of colloidal hard dumbbells: fundamental measure theory and Monte Carlo simulations. (United States)

    Marechal, Matthieu; Goetzke, Hanns Hagen; Härtel, Andreas; Löwen, Hartmut


    Recently, a density functional theory for hard particles with shape anisotropy was developed, the extended deconvolution fundamental measure theory (edFMT). We apply edFMT to hard dumbbells, arguably the simplest non-convex shape and readily available experimentally in the form of colloids. We obtain good agreement between edFMT and Monte Carlo simulations for fluids of dumbbells in a slit and for the same system under gravity. This indicates that edFMT can be successfully applied to nearly all colloidal shapes, not just for the convex shapes for which edFMT was originally derived. A theory, such as edFMT, that allows a fast and general way of mapping the phase behavior of anisotropic colloids, can act as a useful guide for the design of colloidal shapes for various applications.

  5. Monte Carlo study of dosimetric parameters and dose distribution effect of inhomogeneities and source position of GammaMed Plus source. (United States)

    Chandola, Rakesh M; Tiwari, Samit; Painuly, Nirmal K; Choudhary, Vivek; Azad, Surendra K; Beck, Manjula


    The conventional treatment planning system (TPS) gives analytical calculations with approximately ± 15-20% dose uncertainty, which may lead to over exposure of critical organs or under dose of target as well as the presence of inhomogeneities, and the position of source affects the exact dose calculation like in breast and intraluminal brachytherapy. To obtain dose distribution parameters of GammaMed Plus high dose rate (HDR) 192 Ir source using Monte Carlo (MC) EGSnrc and GEANT4 codes as well as to find the effect on dose distribution due to source position, and due to presence of air and cortical bone by using MC GEANT4 code, and to find the similarity of both studies with any past study of any HDR brachytherapy source for either as input to TPS or verification of TPS calculations. It is done using different software of the computer, e.g., excel, MS word, etc. The source, source position for different studies, water phantom, water characteristics, points of measurements, air and cortical bone inhomogeneities, and position of inhomogeneities were simulated. For uncertainties calculation, mean and probability are used. The calculated dose rate constant, radial dose function, and 2D anisotropy function of the source show similarity with published data. Calculated dose distribution differences due to presence of air and cortical bone, and position of source in water phantom also show similarity with published data. These results can either be implemented in TPS or can be used for verification of TPS calculations.

  6. Evaluation of the Effects of Inhomogeneities on Dose Profiles Using Polymer Gel Dosimeter and Monte Carlo Simulation in Gamma Knife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayeb Allahverdi Pourfallah


    Full Text Available Introduction Polymer gel dosimeters offer a practical solution to 3D dose verification for conventional radiotherapy as well as intensity-modulated and stereotactic radiotherapy. In this study, EGSnrc calculated and PAGAT polymer gel dosimeter measured dose profiles from single shot irradiation with 18 mm collimator of Gamma Knife in homogeneous and inhomogeneous phantoms were compared with each other. Materials and Methods The head phantom was a custom-built 16 cm diameter plexiglas sphere. Inside the phantom, there were two cubic cutouts for inserting the gel vials and inhomogeneities. Following irradiation with the Gamma Knife unit, the polymer gel dosimeters were scanned with a 1.5 T MRI scanner. For the purpose of simulation the simplified channel of 60Co source of Gamma Knife BEAMnrc and for extracting the 3D dose distribution in the phantom, DOSXYZnrc codes were used. Results Within high isodose levels (>80%, there are dose differences higher than 7%, especially between air inserted and PTFE inserted phantoms, which were obtained using both simulation and experiment. This means that these values exceed the acceptance criterion of conformal radiotherapy and stereotactic radiosurgery (i.e., within some isodose levels, less than 93% of prescription dose are delivered to the target. Conclusion The discrepancies observed between the results obtained from heterogeneous and homogeneous phantoms suggest that Leksell Gamma Knife planning system (LGP predictions which assume the target as a homogeneous material must be corrected in order to take care of the air- and bone-tissue inhomogeneities.

  7. SU-F-T-62: Three-Dimensional Dosimetric Gamma Analysis for Impacts of Tissue Inhomogeneity Using Monte Carlo Simulation in Intracavitary Brachytheray for Cervix Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Tran Thi Thao; Nakamoto, Takahiro; Shibayama, Yusuke [Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University (Japan); Arimura, Hidetaka [Faculty of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University (Japan); Oku, Yoshifumi [Kagoshima University Hospital (Japan); Yoshiura, Takashi [Graduate School of Diagnostic Radiotherapy, Kagoshima University (Japan)


    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the impacts of tissue inhomogeneity on dose distributions using a three-dimensional (3D) gamma analysis in cervical intracavitary brachytherapy using Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. Methods: MC simulations for comparison of dose calculations were performed in a water phantom and a series of CT images of a cervical cancer patient (stage: Ib; age: 27) by employing a MC code, Particle and Heavy Ion Transport Code System (PHIT) version 2.73. The {sup 192}Ir source was set at fifteen dwell positions, according to clinical practice, in an applicator consisting of a tandem and two ovoids. Dosimetric comparisons were performed for the dose distributions in the water phantom and CT images by using gamma index image and gamma pass rate (%). The gamma index is the minimum Euclidean distance between two 3D spatial dose distributions of the water phantom and CT images in a same space. The gamma pass rates (%) indicate the percentage of agreement points, which mean that two dose distributions are similar, within an acceptance criteria (3 mm/3%). The volumes of physical and clinical interests for the gamma analysis were a whole calculated volume and a region larger than t% of a dose (close to a target), respectively. Results: The gamma pass rates were 77.1% for a whole calculated volume and 92.1% for a region within 1% dose region. The differences of 7.7% to 22.9 % between two dose distributions in the water phantom and CT images were found around the applicator region and near the target. Conclusion: This work revealed the large difference on the dose distributions near the target in the presence of the tissue inhomogeneity. Therefore, the tissue inhomogeneity should be corrected in the dose calculation for clinical treatment.

  8. Comparison of pencil beam–based homogeneous vs inhomogeneous target dose planning for stereotactic body radiotherapy of peripheral lung tumors through Monte Carlo–based recalculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohtakara, Kazuhiro, E-mail: [Department of Radiation Oncology, Murakami Memorial Hospital, Asahi University, Gifu (Japan); Hoshi, Hiroaki [Department of Radiology, Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine, Gifu (Japan)


    This study was conducted to ascertain whether homogeneous target dose planning is suitable for stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) of peripheral lung cancer under appropriate breath-holding. For 20 peripheral lung tumors, paired dynamic conformal arc plans were generated by only adjusting the leaf margin to the planning target volume (PTV) edge for fulfilling the conditions such that the prescription isodose surface (IDS) encompassing exactly 95% of the PTV (PTV D{sub 95}) corresponds to 95% and 80% IDS, normalized to 100% at the PTV isocenter under a pencil beam (PB) algorithm with radiologic path length correction. These plans were recalculated using the x-ray voxel Monte Carlo (XVMC) algorithm under otherwise identical conditions, and then compared. Lesions abutting the parietal pleura or not were defined as edge or island tumors, respectively, and the influences of the target volume and its location relative to the chest wall on the target dose were examined. The median (range) leaf margin required for the 95% and 80% plans was 3.9 mm (1.3 to 5.0) and −1.2 mm (−1.8 to 0.1), respectively. Notably, the latter was significantly correlated negatively with PTV. In the 80% plans, the PTV D{sub 95} was slightly higher under XVMC, whereas the PTV D{sub 98} was significantly lower, irrespective of the dose calculation algorithm used. Other PTV and all gross tumor volume doses were significantly higher, while the lung doses outside the PTV were slightly lower. The target doses increased as a function of PTV and were significantly lower for island tumors than for edge tumors. In conclusion, inhomogeneous target dose planning using smaller leaf margin for a larger tumor volume was deemed suitable in ensuring more sufficient target dose while slightly reducing lung dose. In addition, more inhomogeneous target dose planning using <80% IDS (e.g., 70%) for PTV covering would be preferable for island tumors.

  9. Two-stage ionoacoustic range verification leveraging Monte Carlo and acoustic simulations to stably account for tissue inhomogeneity and accelerator-specific time structure - A simulation study. (United States)

    Patch, Sarah K; Hoff, Daniel E M; Webb, Tyler B; Sobotka, Lee G; Zhao, Tianyu


    Range errors constrain treatment planning by limiting choice of ion beam angles and requiring large margins. Ionoacoustic range verification requires recovering the location of an acoustic source from low frequency signals. A priori information is applied to stably overcome resolution limits of inverse acoustic source imaging in this simulation study. In particular, the accuracy and robustness of ionoacoustic range verification for lateral and oblique delivery of high-energy protons to the prostate is examined. Dose maps were computed using GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulations via the TOPAS user interface. Thermoacoustic pulses were propagated using k-Wave software, with initial pressures corresponding to instantaneous dose deposition and piecewise constant maps of tissue properties derived from the planning CT. A database of dose maps with corresponding thermoacoustic emissions and Bragg peak locations, referred to as "control points," were precomputed. Corresponding thermoacoustic emissions were also precomputed. Pulses were recorded at four coplanar locations corresponding to the outer surface of a virtual transrectal array. To model experimental beam delivery, k-Wave results were convolved in time with a Gaussian envelope to account for noninstantaneous proton delivery by a synchrocyclotron. Thermoacoustic pulses were bandlimited below 150 kHz, and amplitudes were directly proportional to charge delivered. To test robustness of our method, white noise was added. Range was estimated in a two-step process. The first step obtained a preliminary range estimate by one-way beamforming. The second step was taken using data corresponding to the "control point" nearest to the preliminary range estimate. For each receiver, the time of flight difference, ∆t, between the measured and control thermoacoustic signals were accurately estimated by applying the Fourier shift theorem. Receiver-Bragg peak distance was then estimated by adding vs ∆t to the known distance of the

  10. Backflow transformations in inhomogeneous systems (United States)

    Lopez Rios, Pablo; Ma, Andrea; Drummond, Neil D.; Needs, Richard J.


    The quality of trial wave-functions, and of their nodal surface in particular, determines the accuracy of the results obtained within the Fixed-Node Diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) method. Backflow transformations have been proven capable of improving the nodal surface of Slater-Jastrow (SJ) wave-functions in homogeneous systems. In this work we will present the extension of backflow to inhomogeneous systems, along with DMC results for atoms, molecules and solids which show the improved accuracy of this form of trial wave-function. We will also discuss the advantages of using electron-by-electron algorithms to enhance the computational efficiency of QMC with backflow wave-functions.

  11. Waves in inhomogeneous media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, S.


    In this thesis we study wave propagation in inhomogeneous media. Examples of the classical (massless) waves we consider are acoustic waves (sound) and electromagnetic waves (light, for example). Interaction with inhomogeneities embedded in a reference medium alter the propagation direction, velocity

  12. Study of homogeneity and inhomogeneity phantom in CUDA EGS for small field dosimetry (United States)

    Yani, Sitti; Rhani, Mohamad Fahdillah; Haryanto, Freddy; Arif, Idam


    CUDA EGS was CUDA implementation to simulate transport photon in a material based on Monte Carlo algorithm for X-ray imaging. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of inhomogeneities in inhomogeneity phantom for small field dosimetry (1×1, 2×2, 3×3, 4×4 and 5×5 cm2). Two phantoms, homogeneity and inhomogeneity phantom were used. The interaction in homogeneity and inhomogeneity phantom was dominated by Compton interaction and multiple scattering. The CUDA EGS can represent the inhomogeneity effect in small field dosimetry by combining the grayscale curve between homogeneity and inhomogeneity phantom. The grayscale curve in inhomogeneity phantom is not asymmetric because of the existence of different material in phantom.

  13. Antennas in inhomogeneous media

    CERN Document Server

    Galejs, Janis; Fock, V A; Wait, J R


    Antennas in Inhomogeneous Media details the methods of analyzing antennas in such inhomogeneous media. The title covers the complex geometrical configurations along with its variational formulations. The coverage of the text includes various conditions the antennas are subjected to, such as antennas in the interface between two media; antennas in compressible isotropic plasma; and linear antennas in a magnetoionic medium. The selection also covers insulated loops in lossy media; slot antennas with a stratified dielectric or isotropic plasma layers; and cavity-backed slot antennas. The book wil

  14. Inhomogeneous non-Gaussianity

    CERN Document Server

    Byrnes, Christian T; Tasinato, Gianmassimo; Wands, David


    We propose a method to probe higher-order correlators of the primordial density field through the inhomogeneity of local non-Gaussian parameters, such as f_NL, measured within smaller patches of the sky. Correlators between n-point functions measured in one patch of the sky and k-point functions measured in another patch depend upon the (n+k)-point functions over the entire sky. The inhomogeneity of non-Gaussian parameters may be a feasible way to detect or constrain higher-order correlators in local models of non-Gaussianity, as well as to distinguish between single and multiple-source scenarios for generating the primordial density perturbation, and more generally to probe the details of inflationary physics.

  15. Colloids in inhomogeneous external magnetic fields: particle tweezing, trapping and void formation (United States)

    Froltsov, V. A.; Likos, C. N.; Löwen, H.


    Two-dimensional super-paramagnetic suspensions that are confined to a planar liquid-gas interface and exposed to an inhomogeneous external magnetic field directed perpendicular to the interface are studied by extensive Monte Carlo computer simulations. The external field is a superposition of a homogeneous field and a localized inhomogeneity, modelled by a Gaussian function. The inhomogeneity causes two combined effects that compete against each other: it provides an external potential, modifying at the same time the mutual interparticle repulsion. If the inhomogeneity enhances the strength of the homogeneous profile, the inhomogeneous field is a 'magnetic tweezer' for low particle densities. At higher densities, on the other hand, there is a small accumulation in the centre of the inhomogeneous field, which leads to a depletion zone outside the inhomogeneity due to the mutual interparticle repulsion. Very large inhomogeneities produce local crystallites surrounded by a depletion ring. If the inhomogeneity reduces the total field strength, particles are repelled from the inhomogeneity and voids are generated in the suspension. Our predictions are of relevance to the direct transport of magnetic particles and can be verified in real-space experiments of super-paramagnetic suspensions.

  16. The inhomogeneous Suslov problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Naranjo, Luis C., E-mail: [Departamento de Matemáticas y Mecánica, IIMAS-UNAM, Apdo Postal 20-726, Mexico City 01000 (Mexico); Maciejewski, Andrzej J., E-mail: [J. Kepler Institute of Astronomy, University of Zielona Góra, Licealna 9, 65-417 Zielona Góra (Poland); Marrero, Juan C., E-mail: [ULL-CSIC, Geometría Diferencial y Mecánica Geométrica, Departamento de Matemática Fundamental, Facultad de Matemáticas, Universidad de la Laguna, La Laguna, Tenerife, Canary Islands (Spain); Przybylska, Maria, E-mail: [Institute of Physics, University of Zielona Góra, Licealna 9, 65-417 Zielona Góra (Poland)


    We consider the Suslov problem of nonholonomic rigid body motion with inhomogeneous constraints. We show that if the direction along which the Suslov constraint is enforced is perpendicular to a principal axis of inertia of the body, then the reduced equations are integrable and, in the generic case, possess a smooth invariant measure. Interestingly, in this generic case, the first integral that permits integration is transcendental and the density of the invariant measure depends on the angular velocities. We also study the Painlevé property of the solutions. - Highlights: • We consider the Suslov problem of nonholonomic rigid body motion with inhomogeneous constraints. • We study the problem in detail for a particular choice of the parameters that has a clear physical interpretation. • We show that the equations of motion possess an invariant measure whose density depends on the velocity variables. • We show that the reduced system is integrable due to the existence of a transcendental first integral. • We study the Painlevé property of the solutions.

  17. Inhomogeneous anisotropic cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleban, Matthew [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, New York University,4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Senatore, Leonardo [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, Stanford University,382 Via Pueblo Mall, Stanford, CA 94306 (United States); Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University and SLAC,2575 Sand Hill Road, M/S 29, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)


    In homogeneous and isotropic Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology, the topology of the universe determines its ultimate fate. If the Weak Energy Condition is satisfied, open and flat universes must expand forever, while closed cosmologies can recollapse to a Big Crunch. A similar statement holds for homogeneous but anisotropic (Bianchi) universes. Here, we prove that arbitrarily inhomogeneous and anisotropic cosmologies with “flat” (including toroidal) and “open” (including compact hyperbolic) spatial topology that are initially expanding must continue to expand forever at least in some region at a rate bounded from below by a positive number, despite the presence of arbitrarily large density fluctuations and/or the formation of black holes. Because the set of 3-manifold topologies is countable, a single integer determines the ultimate fate of the universe, and, in a specific sense, most 3-manifolds are “flat” or “open”. Our result has important implications for inflation: if there is a positive cosmological constant (or suitable inflationary potential) and initial conditions for the inflaton, cosmologies with “flat” or “open” topology must expand forever in some region at least as fast as de Sitter space, and are therefore very likely to begin inflationary expansion eventually, regardless of the scale of the inflationary energy or the spectrum and amplitude of initial inhomogeneities and gravitational waves. Our result is also significant for numerical general relativity, which often makes use of periodic (toroidal) boundary conditions.

  18. Sample inhomogeneity in PIXE analysis (United States)

    Kajfosz, J.; Szymczyk, S.; Kornaś, G.


    The influence of sample inhomogeneity on the precision of analytical results obtained by PIXE was investigated. A simple method for the determination of sample inhomogeneity is proposed and its applicability is shown on a series of examples. Differences in the distribution of individual elements in samples were observed.

  19. Electron avalanches in inhomogeneous media

    CERN Document Server

    Byrne, J


    We derive a general expression for the cumulant generating function describing the propagation of electron avalanches in inhomogeneous media. The results have applications in the theory of particle counting devices which rely on signal amplification by electron multiplication.

  20. Inclusions and inhomogeneities under stress

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nabarro, FRN


    Full Text Available Some general theorems, new and old, concerning the behaviour of elastic inclusions and inhomogeneities in bodies without or with external stress, are assembled. The principal new result is that arbitrary external tractions cannot influence the shape...


    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    INHOMOGENEOUS DIOPHANTINE APPROXIMATION WITH PRIME. CONSTRAINTS. STEPHAN BAIER AND ANISH GHOSH. Abstract. We study the problem of ... this area under primality constraints. Indeed, the ...... [7] A. Ghosh, Diophantine approximation on subspaces of Rn and dynamics on homogeneous spaces, to.

  2. Inhomogeneous microstructural growth by irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krishan, K.; Singh, Bachu Narain; Leffers, Torben


    In the present paper we discuss the development of heterogeneous microstructure for uniform irradiation conditions. It is shown that microstructural inhomogeneities on a scale of 0.1 μm can develop purely from kinematic considerations because of the basic structure of the rate equations used...

  3. Inhomogeneous Markov point processes by transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Eva B. Vedel; Nielsen, Linda Stougaard


    We construct parametrized models for point processes, allowing for both inhomogeneity and interaction. The inhomogeneity is obtained by applying parametrized transformations to homogeneous Markov point processes. An interesting model class, which can be constructed by this transformation approach...

  4. Quasiadiabatic modes from viscous inhomogeneities

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannini, Massimo


    The viscous inhomogeneities of a relativistic plasma determine a further class of entropic modes whose amplitude must be sufficiently small since curvature perturbations are observed to be predominantly adiabatic and Gaussian over large scales. When the viscous coefficients only depend on the energy density of the fluid the corresponding curvature fluctuations are shown to be almost adiabatic. After addressing the problem in a gauge-invariant perturbative expansion, the same analysis is repeated at a non-perturbative level by investigating the nonlinear curvature inhomogeneities induced by the spatial variation of the viscous coefficients. It is demonstrated that the quasiadiabatic modes are suppressed in comparison with a bona fide adiabatic solution. Because of its anomalously large tensor to scalar ratio the quasiadiabatic mode cannot be a substitute for the conventional adiabatic paradigm so that, ultimately, the present findings seems to exclude the possibility of a successful accelerated dynamics solely...

  5. Inhomogeneous dusty universes and their deceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giovannini, Massimo [Centro ' Enrico Fermi' , Compendio del Viminale, Via Panisperna 89/A, 00184 Rome (Italy) and Department of Physics, Theory Division, CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)]. E-mail:


    Exact results stemming directly from Einstein equations imply that inhomogeneous universes endowed with vanishing pressure density can only decelerate, unless the energy density of the universe becomes negative. Recent proposals seem to argue that inhomogeneous (but isotropic) space-times, filled only with incoherent matter, may turn into accelerated universes for sufficiently late times. To scrutinize these scenarios, fully inhomogeneous Einstein equations are discussed in the synchronous system. In a dust-dominated universe, the inhomogeneous generalization of the deceleration parameter is always positive semi-definite implying that no acceleration takes place.

  6. Using fundamental measure theory to treat the correlation function of the inhomogeneous hard-sphere fluid. (United States)

    Schulte, Jeff B; Kreitzberg, Patrick A; Haglund, Chris V; Roundy, David


    We investigate the value of the correlation function of an inhomogeneous hard-sphere fluid at contact. This quantity plays a critical role in statistical associating fluid theory, which is the basis of a number of recently developed classical density functionals. We define two averaged values for the correlation function at contact and derive formulas for each of them from the White Bear version of the fundamental measure theory functional, using an assumption of thermodynamic consistency. We test these formulas, as well as two existing formulas, against Monte Carlo simulations and find excellent agreement between the Monte Carlo data and one of our averaged correlation functions.

  7. Morphology of atmospheric transparent inhomogeneities (United States)

    Eaton, Frank D.; Peterson, William A.; Hines, John R.; Drexler, James J.; Soules, David B.; Waldie, Arthur H.; Qualtrough, John A.


    Observations are presented displaying the evolution of transparent inhomogeneities in the natural atmosphere. All results are for horizontal paths in the first few meters above ground level. Measurements were taken using both a schlieren optical system capable of sensing fine scale gradients of refractive index and an optical system sensing the fine structure of intensity scintillation over various path lengths. Laser sources were utilized for both systems, and a full description of the two optical systems is included. The schlieren system employs two high quality 10-in-diameter mirrors to produce the illuminated working section. Trade-offs between this and other schlieren optical system configurations are discussed. The intensity scintillation measurements were taken with a collimated laser beam projected on a target board. System characteristics including the CCD camera, sampled frame rates, exposure times, and data processing are discussed. The central problem addressed in this study is to identify the conditions when G. Taylor's "frozen turbulence" hypothesis is justified. The optically derived results are compared to results from previous studies using tower, aircraft, and tethered balloon measurements. Analyses presented include histograms, three-dimensional displays, contour maps of features, and frame subtraction schemes. Simultaneous measurements of integrated path and point measurements of the refractive index structure parameter (Cn2), and wind , are included in the results.

  8. Spherically symmetric inhomogeneous dust collapse in higher ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We consider a collapsing spherically symmetric inhomogeneous dust cloud in higher dimensional space-time. We show that the central singularity of collapse can be a strong curvature or a weak curvature naked singularity depending on the initial density distribution.

  9. How Forest Inhomogeneities Affect the Edge Flow (United States)

    Boudreault, Louis-Étienne; Dupont, Sylvain; Bechmann, Andreas; Dellwik, Ebba


    Most of our knowledge on forest-edge flows comes from numerical and wind-tunnel experiments where canopies are horizontally homogeneous. To investigate the impact of tree-scale heterogeneities ({>}1 m) on the edge-flow dynamics, the flow in an inhomogeneous forest edge on Falster island in Denmark is investigated using large-eddy simulation. The three-dimensional forest structure is prescribed in the model using high resolution helicopter-based lidar scans. After evaluating the simulation against wind measurements upwind and downwind of the forest leading edge, the flow dynamics are compared between the scanned forest and an equivalent homogeneous forest. The simulations reveal that forest inhomogeneities facilitate flow penetration into the canopy from the edge, inducing important dispersive fluxes in the edge region as a consequence of the flow spatial variability. Further downstream from the edge, the forest inhomogeneities accentuate the canopy-top turbulence and the skewness of the wind-velocity components while the momentum flux remains unchanged. This leads to a lower efficiency in the turbulent transport of momentum within the canopy. Dispersive fluxes are only significant in the upper canopy. Above the canopy, the mean flow is less affected by the forest inhomogeneities. The inhomogeneities induce an increase in the mean wind speed that was found to be equivalent to a decrease in the aerodynamic height of the canopy. Overall, these results highlight the importance of forest inhomogeneities when looking at canopy-atmosphere exchanges in forest-edge regions.

  10. Direct aperture optimization for IMRT using Monte Carlo generated beamlets. (United States)

    Bergman, Alanah M; Bush, Karl; Milette, Marie-Pierre; Popescu, I Antoniu; Otto, Karl; Duzenli, Cheryl


    This work introduces an EGSnrc-based Monte Carlo (MC) beamlet does distribution matrix into a direct aperture optimization (DAO) algorithm for IMRT inverse planning. The technique is referred to as Monte Carlo-direct aperture optimization (MC-DAO). The goal is to assess if the combination of accurate Monte Carlo tissue inhomogeneity modeling and DAO inverse planning will improve the dose accuracy and treatment efficiency for treatment planning. Several authors have shown that the presence of small fields and/or inhomogeneous materials in IMRT treatment fields can cause dose calculation errors for algorithms that are unable to accurately model electronic disequilibrium. This issue may also affect the IMRT optimization process because the dose calculation algorithm may not properly model difficult geometries such as targets close to low-density regions (lung, air etc.). A clinical linear accelerator head is simulated using BEAMnrc (NRC, Canada). A novel in-house algorithm subdivides the resulting phase space into 2.5 X 5.0 mm2 beamlets. Each beamlet is projected onto a patient-specific phantom. The beamlet dose contribution to each voxel in a structure-of-interest is calculated using DOSXYZnrc. The multileaf collimator (MLC) leaf positions are linked to the location of the beamlet does distributions. The MLC shapes are optimized using direct aperture optimization (DAO). A final Monte Carlo calculation with MLC modeling is used to compute the final dose distribution. Monte Carlo simulation can generate accurate beamlet dose distributions for traditionally difficult-to-calculate geometries, particularly for small fields crossing regions of tissue inhomogeneity. The introduction of DAO results in an additional improvement by increasing the treatment delivery efficiency. For the examples presented in this paper the reduction in the total number of monitor units to deliver is approximately 33% compared to fluence-based optimization methods.

  11. A comparative assessment of different methods for detecting inhomogeneities in Turkish temperature data set (United States)

    Tayanç, Mete; Nüzhet Dalfes, H.; Karaca, Mehmet; Yenigün, Orhan


    A combination of different methods is described whereby climatological time series can be tested for inhomogeneities using relative homogeneity techniques. The method set includes graphical analysis, a non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis homogeneity test and a Wald-Wolfowitz runs test application to the annual mean difference temperature series between highly correlated stations. A series of Monte Carlo simulation studies was carried out, which determined the inhomogeneity detection efficiencies of these tests. The procedure is statistically rigorous and provides estimates of the time and magnitude of change in the mean. Its application to annual mean temperature differences series for 82 Turkish climate stations indicates that the method set is a valuable tool for testing time series.

  12. Traveltime approximations for inhomogeneous HTI media

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali


    Traveltimes information is convenient for parameter estimation especially if the medium is described by an anisotropic set of parameters. This is especially true if we could relate traveltimes analytically to these medium parameters, which is generally hard to do in inhomogeneous media. As a result, I develop traveltimes approximations for horizontaly transversely isotropic (HTI) media as simplified and even linear functions of the anisotropic parameters. This is accomplished by perturbing the solution of the HTI eikonal equation with respect to η and the azimuthal symmetry direction (usually used to describe the fracture direction) from a generally inhomogeneous elliptically anisotropic background medium. The resulting approximations can provide accurate analytical description of the traveltime in a homogenous background compared to other published moveout equations out there. These equations will allow us to readily extend the inhomogenous background elliptical anisotropic model to an HTI with a variable, but smoothly varying, η and horizontal symmetry direction values. © 2011 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  13. Immunity of intersubband polaritons to inhomogeneous broadening (United States)

    Manceau, J.-M.; Biasiol, G.; Tran, N. L.; Carusotto, I.; Colombelli, R.


    We demonstrate that intersubband (ISB) polaritons are robust to inhomogeneous effects originating from the presence of multiple quantum wells (MQWs). In a series of samples that exhibit mid-infrared ISB absorption transitions with broadenings varying by a factor of 5 (from 4 to 20 meV), we observed polariton linewidths always lying in the 4 to 7 meV range only. We experimentally verified the dominantly inhomogeneous origin of the broadening of the ISB transition, and that the linewidth reduction effect of the polariton modes persists up to room-temperature. This immunity to inhomogeneous broadening is a direct consequence of the coupling of the large number of ISB oscillators to a single photonic mode. It is a precious tool to gauge the natural linewidth of the ISB plasmon that is otherwise masked in such MQWs system, and is also beneficial in view of perspective applications such as intersubband polariton lasers.

  14. Evaluation of dose distribution for targets near inhomogeneities in photon beam radiation therapy (United States)

    Spirydovich, Siarhei

    Purpose. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the accuracy of the dose calculated in the presence of inhomogeneities by the top performing algorithms employed by some commercially available modern treatment planning systems for the external photon beam radiotherapy. Materials and methods. A new Fluence Map Monte Carlo (FMMC) method that can serve as a benchmark for such evaluation under certain conditions for a given linear accelerator was developed and tested. Dose perturbation on the inhomogeneities composed of high, low and very low density materials was measured with film dosimeters and calculated with various algorithms. The algorithms included general purpose Monte Carlo and FMMC methods as well as the treatment planning dose calculation algorithms such as pencil beam kernel convolution, point kernel convolution, and superposition, which is the most accurate of the three. Results. The dosimetric comparison results for high density materials obtained by FMMC, superposition, and measurement revealed that the superposition overestimates (up to 16%) of the dose downstream of the inhomogeneity. A very low density medium such as an air cavity was found to have an overestimation (up to 20%) of the dose by the superposition algorithm. The dose in a lung (low density medium) equivalent material was found to be significantly overestimated when calculated with either point kernel (up to 20%) or pencil beam kernel (up to 40%) convolution algorithms. Conclusion. Based on these findings it is recommended that a particular attention should be given to the verification of a dose calculated for the treatment of tumors located in anatomical sites where inhomogeneities are predominant. In many cases a verification process can be successfully performed with the proposed FMMC method which is shown to have a good match with the measurements.

  15. On electromagnetic field problems in inhomogeneous media (United States)

    Mohsen, A.


    Analysis of electromagnetic fields in inhomogeneous media is of practical interest in general scattering and propagation problems and in the study of lenses. For certain types of inhomogeneities, the fields may be represented in terms of two scalars. In a general orthogonal coordinate system, these potentials satisfy second order differential equations. Exact solutions of these equations are known only for a few particular cases and in general, an approximate or numerical technique must be employed. The present work reviews and generalizes some of the main methods of attack of the problem. The results are presented in a form appropriate for numerical computation.

  16. Special inhomogeneous electromagnetic waves in hyperbolic metamaterials (United States)

    Kurilkina, S. N.; Petrov, N. S.; Zimin, A. B.; Belyi, V. N.


    Herein, it is shown that under conditions of total internal reflection of plane homogeneous electromagnetic waves at the interface of a hyperbolic metamaterial (HMM) and an ordinary isotropic medium, special inhomogeneous electromagnetic waves are excited in certain circumstances near the surface of the metamaterial and their amplitude changes with distance according to the non-exponential law. The existence conditions for such waves are established for the case when the optical axis is located within the interface plane and forms an angle with the plane of incidence. The energy flux and density of energy of special inhomogeneous waves in a HMM are determined.

  17. Cosmic inhomogeneities and averaged cosmological dynamics. (United States)

    Paranjape, Aseem; Singh, T P


    If general relativity (GR) describes the expansion of the Universe, the observed cosmic acceleration implies the existence of a "dark energy." However, while the Universe is on average homogeneous on large scales, it is inhomogeneous on smaller scales. While GR governs the dynamics of the inhomogeneous Universe, the averaged homogeneous Universe obeys modified Einstein equations. Can such modifications alone explain the acceleration? For a simple generic model with realistic initial conditions, we show the answer to be "no." Averaging effects negligibly influence the cosmological dynamics.

  18. Spectral distortion in a radially inhomogeneous cosmology (United States)

    Caldwell, R. R.; Maksimova, N. A.


    The spectral distortion of the cosmic microwave background blackbody spectrum in a radially inhomogeneous space-time, designed to exactly reproduce a ΛCDM expansion history along the past light cone, is shown to exceed the upper bound established by COBE-FIRAS by a factor of approximately 3700. This simple observational test helps uncover a slew of pathological features that lie hidden inside the past light cone, including a radially contracting phase at decoupling and, if followed to its logical extreme, a naked singularity at the radially inhomogeneous big bang.

  19. Exploring Monte Carlo methods

    CERN Document Server

    Dunn, William L


    Exploring Monte Carlo Methods is a basic text that describes the numerical methods that have come to be known as "Monte Carlo." The book treats the subject generically through the first eight chapters and, thus, should be of use to anyone who wants to learn to use Monte Carlo. The next two chapters focus on applications in nuclear engineering, which are illustrative of uses in other fields. Five appendices are included, which provide useful information on probability distributions, general-purpose Monte Carlo codes for radiation transport, and other matters. The famous "Buffon's needle proble

  20. Manifestations of Magnetic Field Inhomogeneities Lawrence Rudnick

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Both observations and simulations reveal large inhomo- geneities in magnetic field distributions in diffuse plasmas. Incorporating these inhomogeneities into various calculations can significantly change the inferred physical conditions. In extragalactic sources, e.g., these can compromise analyses of spectral ...

  1. Electron magnetohydrodynamics of magnetized, inhomogeneous plasmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuvshinov, B. N.; Westerhof, E.; Schep, T. J.; Berning, M.


    A modified EMHD model is derived that includes the effects of density perturbations and inhomogeneity in a strong magnetic field. Similar to previous EMHD models, the derived equation takes the form of a flux conservation law for a modified vorticity. The modified vorticity is frozen into the

  2. Inhomogeneous nucleosynthesis in linearly coasting cosmology (United States)

    Singh, Gurvinder; Lohiya, Daksh


    We investigate primordial nucleosynthesis in a universe in which the scale factor evolves linearly with cosmic time and which has an inhomogeneous baryon density. We report that in principle one can close the bounds on dynamic estimates of matter by baryons alone - with no need of any exotic dark matter. We address to some concerns on the overall viability of such an evolution.

  3. On the inhomogeneous magnetised electron gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kettenis, M.M.


    In this thesis, we investigate an inhomogeneous gas of charged particles in the presence of a hard wall. From the point of view of physics one would like to study a `real' plasma, taking into account the inter-particle (Coulomb) interactions. Unfortunately, this would be a very difficult task. Since

  4. Inhomogeneous Pre-Big Bang String Cosmology


    Veneziano, G


    An inhomogeneous version of pre--Big Bang cosmology emerges, within string theory, from quite generic initial conditions, provided they lie deeply inside the weak-coupling, low-curvature regime. Large-scale homogeneity, flatness, and isotropy appear naturally as late-time outcomes of such an evolution.

  5. Effective permittivity of finite inhomogeneous objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raghunathan, S.B.; Budko, N.V.


    A generalization of the S-parameter retrieval method for finite three-dimensional inhomogeneous objects under arbitrary illumination and observation conditions is presented. The effective permittivity of such objects may be rigorously defined as a solution of a nonlinear inverse scattering problem.

  6. Waves and vibrations in inhomogeneous structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard

    Denne afhandling omhandler bølger og vibrationer i inhomogene strukturer med speciel fokus på undersøgelse af båndgabsfænomenet og optimering af båndgabsstrukturer. Afhandlingen består af 21 artikler, hvoraf 17 er publiceret i internationale tidsskrifter og 4 er publiceret i konferenceproceedings...

  7. Metric inhomogeneous Diophantine approximation in positive characteristic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, S.

    We obtain asymptotic formulae for the number of solutions to systems of inhomogeneous linear Diophantine inequalities over the field of formal Laurent series with coefficients from a finite fields, which are valid for almost every such system. Here 'almost every' is with respect to Haar measure o...

  8. Metric inhomogeneous Diophantine approximation in positive characteristic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Simon


    We obtain asymptotic formulae for the number of solutions to systems of inhomogeneous linear Diophantine inequalities over the field of formal Laurent series with coefficients from a finite fields, which are valid for almost every such system. Here `almost every' is with respect to Haar measure o...

  9. Nonlocal inhomogeneous broadening in plasmonic nanoparticle ensembles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tserkezis, Christos; Maack, Johan Rosenkrantz; Liu, Z.

    )] or realistic noble metals, following sharp or smooth size distribution functions around an ensemble mean value, and identify examples where inhomogeneous broadening can be significant. We also explain how its role becomes less important in most experimentally accessible situations, provided that all...

  10. Mesoscale inhomogeneities in an aqueous ternary system (United States)

    Subramanian, Deepa; Hayward, Stephen; Altabet, Elia; Collings, Peter; Anisimov, Mikhail


    Aqueous solutions of certain low-molecular-weight organic compounds, such as alcohols, amines, or ethers, which are considered macroscopically homogeneous, show the presence of mysterious mesoscale inhomogeneities, order of a hundred nm in size. We have performed static and dynamic light scattering experiments in an aqueous ternary system consisting of tertiary butyl alcohol and propylene oxide. Tertiary butyl alcohol is completely soluble in water and in propylene oxide, and forms strong hydrogen bonds with water molecules. Based on results of the study, we hypothesize that the mesoscale inhomogeneities are akin to a micro phase separation, resulting from a competition between water molecules and propylene oxide molecules, wanting to be adjacent to amphiphilic tertiary butyl alcohol molecules. Coupling between two competing order parameters, super-lattice binary-alloy-like (``antiferromagnetic'' type) and demixing (``ferromagnetic'' type) may explain the formation of these inhomogeneities. Long-term stability investigation of this supramolecular structure has revealed that these inhomogeneities are exceptionally long-lived non-equilibrium structures that persist for weeks or even months.

  11. Local principles of wave propagation in inhomogeneous media (United States)

    Gingold, Harry; She, Jianming; Zorumski, William E.


    Four local principles are proven for waves propagating in a layered medium with a variable wave speed. These principles are (1) that inhomogeneities increase the amplitude of waves generated by a source of fixed strength, (2) that inhomogeneities reduce spatial oscillation, or increase the wavelength, (3) that inhomogeneities decrease transmission, or increase reflection, and (4) that transmission increases monotonically with frequency. Definitions of inhomogeneity, local wave function, and local reflection and transmission coefficients are made as a basis for stating these principles.

  12. Acceleration of near-field scattering from an inhomogeneous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The back scattering of near-field from a spherical shell, is independent of radial inhomogeneity of wave velocity. Inhomogeneity with smoothly perturbed wave velocity does not back-scatter any acceleration. Accelerations are computed numerically for scattering from a part of inhomogeneous spherical shell.

  13. Droplet induced compositional inhomogeneities in GaAsBi (United States)

    Tait, C. Ryan; Yan, Lifan; Millunchick, Joanna M.


    Compositional inhomogeneities in III-V alloys heavily influence the device performance. This work presents evidence for Ga droplets inducing inhomogeneities in the Bi composition, which we propose is due to a variation in the Ga flux across the surface. These inhomogeneities may be manipulated through the use of growth interrupts, which eliminate the buildup of Ga at the growth front.

  14. Study the sensitivity of dose calculation in prism treatment planning system using Monte Carlo simulation of 6 MeV electron beam (United States)

    Hardiansyah, D.; Male, S.; Haryanto, F.


    Prism is a non-commercial Radiotherapy Treatment Planning System (RTPS) develop by Ira J. Kalet from Washington University. Inhomogeneity factor is included in Prism TPS dose calculation. The aim of this study is to investigate the sensitivity of dose calculation on Prism using Monte Carlo simulation. Phase space source from head linear accelerator (LINAC) for Monte Carlo simulation is implemented. To achieve this aim, Prism dose calculation is compared with EGSnrc Monte Carlo simulation. Percentage depth dose (PDD) and R50 from both calculations are observed. BEAMnrc is simulated electron transport in LINAC head and produced phase space file. This file is used as DOSXYZnrc input to simulated electron transport in phantom. This study is started with commissioning process in water phantom. Commissioning process is adjusted Monte Carlo simulation with Prism RTPS. Commissioning result is used for study of inhomogeneity phantom. Physical parameters of inhomogeneity phantom that varied in this study are: density, location and thickness of tissue. Commissioning result is shown that optimum energy of Monte Carlo simulation for 6 MeV electron beam is 6.8 MeV. This commissioning is used R50 and PDD with Practical length (Rp) as references. From inhomogeneity study, the average deviation for all case on interest region is below 5 %. Based on ICRU recommendations, Prism has good ability to calculate the radiation dose in inhomogeneity tissue.

  15. Polynomial description of inhomogeneous topological superconducting wires (United States)

    Pérez, Marcos; Martínez, Gerardo


    We present the universal features of the topological invariant for p-wave superconducting wires after the inclusion of spatial inhomogeneities. Three classes of distributed potentials are studied, a single-defect, a commensurate and an incommensurate model, using periodic site modulations. An analytic polynomial description is achieved by splitting the topological invariant into two parts; one part depends on the chemical potential and the other does not. For the homogeneous case, an elliptical region is found where the topological invariant oscillates. The zeros of these oscillations occur at points where the fermion parity switches for finite wires. The increase of these oscillations with the inhomogeneity strength leads to new isolated non-topological phases. We characterize these new phases according to each class of spatial distributions. Such phases could also be observed in the XY model, to which our model is dual.

  16. Inhomogeneities from quantum collapse scheme without inflation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel R. Bengochea


    Full Text Available In this work, we consider the problem of the emergence of seeds of cosmic structure in the framework of the non-inflationary model proposed by Hollands and Wald. In particular, we consider a modification to that proposal designed to account for breaking the symmetries of the initial quantum state, leading to the generation of the primordial inhomogeneities. This new ingredient is described in terms of a spontaneous reduction of the wave function. We investigate under which conditions one can recover an essentially scale free spectrum of primordial inhomogeneities, and which are the dominant deviations that arise in the model as a consequence of the introduction of the collapse of the quantum state into that scenario.

  17. Inhomogeneities from quantum collapse scheme without inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Bengochea, Gabriel R; Sudarsky, Daniel


    In this work, we consider the problem of the emergence of seeds of cosmic structure in the framework of the non-inflationary model proposed by Hollands and Wald. In particular, we consider a modification to that proposal designed to account for breaking the symmetries of the initial quantum state, leading to the generation of the primordial inhomogeneities. This new ingredient is described in terms of a spontaneous reduction of the wave function. We investigate under which conditions one can recover an essentially scale free spectrum of primordial inhomogeneities, and which are the dominant deviations that arise in the model as a consequence of the introduction of the collapse of the quantum state into that scenario.

  18. Automatically generated code for relativistic inhomogeneous cosmologies (United States)

    Bentivegna, Eloisa


    The applications of numerical relativity to cosmology are on the rise, contributing insight into such cosmological problems as structure formation, primordial phase transitions, gravitational-wave generation, and inflation. In this paper, I present the infrastructure for the computation of inhomogeneous dust cosmologies which was used recently to measure the effect of nonlinear inhomogeneity on the cosmic expansion rate. I illustrate the code's architecture, provide evidence for its correctness in a number of familiar cosmological settings, and evaluate its parallel performance for grids of up to several billion points. The code, which is available as free software, is based on the Einstein Toolkit infrastructure, and in particular leverages the automated code generation capabilities provided by its component Kranc.

  19. Inhomogeneities from quantum collapse scheme without inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bengochea, Gabriel R., E-mail: [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (IAFE), UBA-CONICET, CC 67, Suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Cañate, Pedro, E-mail: [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, UNAM, México D.F. 04510, México (Mexico); Sudarsky, Daniel, E-mail: [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, UNAM, México D.F. 04510, México (Mexico)


    In this work, we consider the problem of the emergence of seeds of cosmic structure in the framework of the non-inflationary model proposed by Hollands and Wald. In particular, we consider a modification to that proposal designed to account for breaking the symmetries of the initial quantum state, leading to the generation of the primordial inhomogeneities. This new ingredient is described in terms of a spontaneous reduction of the wave function. We investigate under which conditions one can recover an essentially scale free spectrum of primordial inhomogeneities, and which are the dominant deviations that arise in the model as a consequence of the introduction of the collapse of the quantum state into that scenario.

  20. How Forest Inhomogeneities Affect the Edge Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boudreault, Louis-Étienne; Dupont, Sylvain; Bechmann, Andreas


    Most of our knowledge on forest-edge flows comes from numerical and wind-tunnel experiments where canopies are horizontally homogeneous. To investigate the impact of tree-scale heterogeneities (>1 m) on the edge-flow dynamics, the flow in an inhomogeneous forest edge on Falster island in Denmark...... is investigated using large-eddy simulation. The three-dimensional forest structure is prescribed in the model using high resolution helicopter-based lidar scans. After evaluating the simulation against wind measurements upwind and downwind of the forest leading edge, the flow dynamics are compared between...... the scanned forest and an equivalent homogeneous forest. The simulations reveal that forest inhomogeneities facilitate flow penetration into the canopy from the edge, inducing important dispersive fluxes in the edge region as a consequence of the flow spatial variability. Further downstream from the edge...

  1. Inhomogeneous Field MSFVW-Optical Interaction (United States)

    Wey, C. T.; Tuan, H. S.; Parekh, J. P.; Craig, A. E.; Lee, J. N.


    The experimentally determined bandwidth of the interaction of laser light with magnetostatic waves (MSWs) has been limited, until recently, to about 30 MHz. This limitation is caused by the pronounced dispersiveness of the MSW. We report an approach employing an inhomogeneous bias magnetic field which has yielded a significant improvement in the bandwidth of Bragg diffraction of an optical guided wave from magneto-static forward volume waves (MSFVWs). In the experiment, a bandwidth of about 350 MHz was observed.

  2. Inhomogeneous Markov Models for Describing Driving Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Jan Emil Banning; Møller, Jan Kloppenborg; Morales González, Juan Miguel

    It has been predicted that electric vehicles will play a crucial role in incorporating a large renewable component in the energy sector. If electric vehicles are integrated in a naive way, they may exacerbate issues related to peak demand and transmission capacity limits while not reducing pollut...... collected from the actual utilization of a vehicle. Inhomogeneous Markov models imply a large number of parameters. The number of parameters in the proposed model is reduced using B-splines....

  3. Gaussian beam evolution in nonlinear inhomogeneous plasma (United States)

    Berczynski, P.; Kravtsov, Yu. A.; Tikhonchuk, V.; Tikhonchuk


    The method of nonlinear complex geometrical optics (NCGO) is proposed in this paper for description of the evolution of a spatially narrow Gaussian beam (GB) in an inhomogeneous nonlinear plasma. NCGO method deals with first-order ordinary differential equations for the complex curvature of the wave front and for GB amplitude and for second-order ordinary differential equation for GB width. Thus, NCGO simplifies the description of GB diffraction and self-focusing effects as compared to the known methods of plasma physics and this way it can be assumed to be attractive and comprehensive approach in problems of plasma heating by electromagnetic waves. Moreover, we demonstrate in this paper some regularity for nonlinear inhomogeneous plasma in the framework of which central ray of a GB is not subjected to nonlinear refraction within NCGO method boundary applicability. On the contrary, the beam width, wave front curvature, and GB amplitude are modified by diffraction and self-focusing processes. General properties of the beam propagation are illustrated with results of numerical modeling for two particular cases: GB diffraction and self-focusing along curvilinear trajectory with torsion in axially symmetric plasma column and GB reflection from nonlinear inhomogeneous plasma layer. We prove in this paper that NCGO is new effective method of plasma physics, which can be applied for improvement of ray tracing techniques and plasma diagnostics.

  4. Monte-Carlo simulation of a stochastic differential equation (United States)

    Arif, ULLAH; Majid, KHAN; M, KAMRAN; R, KHAN; Zhengmao, SHENG


    For solving higher dimensional diffusion equations with an inhomogeneous diffusion coefficient, Monte Carlo (MC) techniques are considered to be more effective than other algorithms, such as finite element method or finite difference method. The inhomogeneity of diffusion coefficient strongly limits the use of different numerical techniques. For better convergence, methods with higher orders have been kept forward to allow MC codes with large step size. The main focus of this work is to look for operators that can produce converging results for large step sizes. As a first step, our comparative analysis has been applied to a general stochastic problem. Subsequently, our formulization is applied to the problem of pitch angle scattering resulting from Coulomb collisions of charge particles in the toroidal devices.

  5. Modeling Electromagnetic Scattering From Complex Inhomogeneous Objects (United States)

    Deshpande, Manohar; Reddy, C. J.


    This software innovation is designed to develop a mathematical formulation to estimate the electromagnetic scattering characteristics of complex, inhomogeneous objects using the finite-element-method (FEM) and method-of-moments (MoM) concepts, as well as to develop a FORTRAN code called FEMOM3DS (Finite Element Method and Method of Moments for 3-Dimensional Scattering), which will implement the steps that are described in the mathematical formulation. Very complex objects can be easily modeled, and the operator of the code is not required to know the details of electromagnetic theory to study electromagnetic scattering.

  6. Cherenkov radiation threshold in random inhomogeneous media

    CERN Document Server

    Grichine, V M


    Cherenkov radiation in media with random inhomogeneities like aerogel or Earth atmosphere is discussed. The spectral-angular distribution of Cherenkov photons emitted by relativistic charged particle and averaged over the dielectric permittivity fluctuations shows angular broadening similarly to the case of media with the photon absorption. The broadening results in the smoothing of Cherenkov threshold, and therefore media with strong photon scattering have more extended dependence of Cherenkov light output on the particle speed. It can be potentially used for the particle identification

  7. Albedo and transmittance of inhomogeneous stratus clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuev, V.E.; Kasyanov, E.I.; Titov, G.A. [Institute of Atmospheric Optics, Tomsk (Russian Federation)] [and others


    A highly important topic is the study of the relationship between the statistical parameters of optical and radiative charactertistics of inhomogeneous stratus clouds. This is important because the radiation codes of general circulation models need improvement, and it is important for geophysical information. A cascade model has been developed at the Goddard Space Flight Center to treat stratocumulus clouds with the simplest geometry and horizontal fluctuations of the liquid water path (optical thickness). The model evaluates the strength with which the stochastic geometry of clouds influences the statistical characteristics of albedo and the trnasmittance of solar radiation.

  8. Acoustic Streaming and Its Suppression in Inhomogeneous Fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Jonas Tobias; Qiu, Wei; Augustsson, Per


    We present a theoretical and experimental study of boundary-driven acoustic streaming in an inhomogeneous fluid with variations in density and compressibility. In a homogeneous fluid this streaming results from dissipation in the boundary layers (Rayleigh streaming). We show that in an inhomogene...... with inhomogeneous aqueous iodixanol solutions in a glass-silicon microchip....... that in an inhomogeneous fluid, an additional nondissipative force density acts on the fluid to stabilize particular inhomogeneity configurations, which markedly alters and even suppresses the streaming flows. Our theoretical and numerical analysis of the phenomenon is supported by ultrasound experiments performed......We present a theoretical and experimental study of boundary-driven acoustic streaming in an inhomogeneous fluid with variations in density and compressibility. In a homogeneous fluid this streaming results from dissipation in the boundary layers (Rayleigh streaming). We show...

  9. Delayed Buckling and Guided Folding of Inhomogeneous Capsules


    Datta, Sujit; Kim, Shin-Hyun; Paulose, Jayson; Abbaspourrad, Alireza; Nelson, David R.; Weitz, David A


    Colloidal capsules can sustain an external osmotic pressure; however, for a sufficiently large pressure, they will ultimately buckle. This process can be strongly influenced by structural inhomogeneities in the capsule shells. We explore how the time delay before the onset of buckling decreases as the shells are made more inhomogeneous; this behavior can be quantitatively understood by coupling shell theory with Darcy’s law. In addition, we show that the shell inhomogeneity can dramatically c...

  10. Fast Monte Carlo-assisted simulation of cloudy Earth backgrounds (United States)

    Adler-Golden, Steven; Richtsmeier, Steven C.; Berk, Alexander; Duff, James W.


    A calculation method has been developed for rapidly synthesizing radiometrically accurate ultraviolet through longwavelengthinfrared spectral imagery of the Earth for arbitrary locations and cloud fields. The method combines cloudfree surface reflectance imagery with cloud radiance images calculated from a first-principles 3-D radiation transport model. The MCScene Monte Carlo code [1-4] is used to build a cloud image library; a data fusion method is incorporated to speed convergence. The surface and cloud images are combined with an upper atmospheric description with the aid of solar and thermal radiation transport equations that account for atmospheric inhomogeneity. The method enables a wide variety of sensor and sun locations, cloud fields, and surfaces to be combined on-the-fly, and provides hyperspectral wavelength resolution with minimal computational effort. The simulations agree very well with much more time-consuming direct Monte Carlo calculations of the same scene.

  11. Quantum electrodynamics of inhomogeneous anisotropic media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Adrian E.R.; Lombardo, Fernando C. [Ciudad Universitaria, Departamento de Fisica Juan Jose Giambiagi, Buenos Aires (Argentina); IFIBA CONICET-UBA, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Buenos Aires (Argentina)


    In this work we calculate the closed time path generating functional for the electromagnetic (EM) field interacting with inhomogeneous anisotropic matter. For this purpose, we first find a general expression for the electromagnetic field's influence action from the interaction of the field with a composite environment consisting in the quantum polarization degrees of freedom in each point of space, at arbitrary temperatures, connected to thermal baths. Then we evaluate the generating functional for the gauge field, in the temporal gauge, by implementing the Faddeev-Popov procedure. Finally, through the point-splitting technique, we calculate closed expressions for the energy, the Poynting vector, and the Maxwell tensor in terms of the Hadamard propagator. We show that all the quantities have contributions from the field's initial conditions and also from the matter degrees of freedom. Throughout the whole work we discuss how the gauge invariance must be treated in the formalism when the EM-field is interacting with inhomogeneous anisotropic matter. We study the electrodynamics in the temporal gauge, obtaining the EM-field's equation and a residual condition. Finally we analyze the case of the EM-field in bulk material and also discuss several general implications of our results in relation with the Casimir physics in a non-equilibrium scenario. (orig.)

  12. Robustness of inflation to inhomogeneous initial conditions (United States)

    Clough, Katy; Lim, Eugene A.; DiNunno, Brandon S.; Fischler, Willy; Flauger, Raphael; Paban, Sonia


    We consider the effects of inhomogeneous initial conditions in both the scalar field profile and the extrinsic curvature on different inflationary models. In particular, we compare the robustness of small field inflation to that of large field inflation, using numerical simulations with Einstein gravity in 3+1 dimensions. We find that small field inflation can fail in the presence of subdominant gradient energies, suggesting that it is much less robust to inhomogeneities than large field inflation, which withstands dominant gradient energies. However, we also show that small field inflation can be successful even if some regions of spacetime start out in the region of the potential that does not support inflation. In the large field case, we confirm previous results that inflation is robust if the inflaton occupies the inflationary part of the potential. Furthermore, we show that increasing initial scalar gradients will not form sufficiently massive inflation-ending black holes if the initial hypersurface is approximately flat. Finally, we consider the large field case with a varying extrinsic curvature K, such that some regions are initially collapsing. We find that this may again lead to local black holes, but overall the spacetime remains inflationary if the spacetime is open, which confirms previous theoretical studies.

  13. Inhomogeneous parallel arrays of Josephson junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caputo, J.-G., E-mail: caputo@insa-rouen.f [Laboratoire de Mathematiques, INSA de Rouen, B.P. 8, Avenue de l' Universite, 76801 Saint-Etienne du Rouvray (France); Loukitch, L., E-mail: lionel.loukitch@insa-rouen.f [Laboratoire de Mathematiques, INSA de Rouen, B.P. 8, Avenue de l' Universite, 76801 Saint-Etienne du Rouvray (France)


    Highlights: {yields} New long wave model of an inhomogeneous parallel array of Josephson junctions. {yields} Adapted spectral problem giving resonances in the current-voltage characteristic. {yields} At resonances solution is described by two ordinary differential equations. {yields} Good agreement with the characteristic curve of a real five junction array. - Abstract: We model new inhomogeneous parallel arrays of small Josephson junctions by taking into account the time and space variations of the field in the cavity and the capacity miss-match at the junctions. The model consists in a wave equation with Dirac delta function sine nonlinearities. We introduce an adapted spectral problem whose spectrum gives the resonances in the current-voltage characteristic curve of any array. It is shown that at the resonances the solution is described by two simple ordinary differential equations. The resonances obtained by this approach are in good agreement with the characteristic curve of a real five junction array. This flexible approach is a first step towards building a device tailored for given purposes.

  14. Variational Monte Carlo Technique

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Major ad- vances of the MC techniques were made during World. War II by scientists such as John Von Neumann, En- rico Fermi, S M Ulam and Nicholas Metropolis working on the development of nuclear weapons in Los Alamos. National Laboratory, USA [10, 11]. 3. Monte Carlo Integration Using Importance. Sampling.

  15. Markov Chain Monte Carlo

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    GENERAL I ARTICLE. Markov Chain Monte Carlo. 1. ... Note that I have numbered only those squares that are. 'stable', 'i. e., do not have .... probability approaches 1 in the limit as t tends to infinity was obvious even without all this mathematics, since it is a common experience that all games of Ludo eventually end since.

  16. Monte Carlo modelling of an extended DXA technique (United States)

    Michael, G. J.; Henderson, C. J.


    The precision achieved in measuring bone mineral density (BMD) by commercial dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) machines is typically better than 1%, but accuracy is considerably worse. Errors, due to inhomogeneous distributions of fat, of up to 10% have been reported. These errors arise because the DXA technique assumes a two-component model for the human body, i.e. bone mineral and soft tissue. This paper describes an extended DXA technique that uses a three-component model of human tissue and significantly reduces errors due to inhomogeneous fat distribution. In addition to two x-ray transmission measurements, a measurement of the path length of the x-ray beam within the patient is required. This provides a third equation, i.e. where T, , and are the total, lean soft tissue, bone mineral and fatty tissue thicknesses respectively. Monte Carlo modelling was undertaken to make a comparison of the standard and extended DXA techniques in the presence of inhomogeneous fat distribution. Two geometries of varying complexity were simulated. In each case the extended DXA technique produced BMD measurements that were independent of soft tissue composition whereas the standard technique produced BMD measurements that were strongly dependent on soft tissue composition. For example, in one case, the gradients of the plots of BMD versus fractional fat content were for standard DXA and for extended DXA . In all cases the extended DXA method produced more accurate but less precise results than the standard DXA technique.

  17. Effect of the Inhomogeneity of Ice Crystals on Retrieving Ice Cloud Optical Thickness and Effective Particle Size (United States)

    Xie, Yu; Minnis, Patrick; Hu, Yong X.; Kattawar, George W.; Yang, Ping


    Spherical or spheroidal air bubbles are generally trapped in the formation of rapidly growing ice crystals. In this study the single-scattering properties of inhomogeneous ice crystals containing air bubbles are investigated. Specifically, a computational model based on an improved geometric-optics method (IGOM) has been developed to simulate the scattering of light by randomly oriented hexagonal ice crystals containing spherical or spheroidal air bubbles. A combination of the ray-tracing technique and the Monte Carlo method is used. The effect of the air bubbles within ice crystals is to smooth the phase functions, diminish the 22deg and 46deg halo peaks, and substantially reduce the backscatter relative to bubble-free particles. These features vary with the number, sizes, locations and shapes of the air bubbles within ice crystals. Moreover, the asymmetry factors of inhomogeneous ice crystals decrease as the volume of air bubbles increases. Cloud reflectance lookup tables were generated at wavelengths 0.65 m and 2.13 m with different air-bubble conditions to examine the impact of the bubbles on retrieving ice cloud optical thickness and effective particle size. The reflectances simulated for inhomogeneous ice crystals are slightly larger than those computed for homogenous ice crystals at a wavelength of 0.65 microns. Thus, the retrieved cloud optical thicknesses are reduced by employing inhomogeneous ice cloud models. At a wavelength of 2.13 microns, including air bubbles in ice cloud models may also increase the reflectance. This effect implies that the retrieved effective particle sizes for inhomogeneous ice crystals are larger than those retrieved for homogeneous ice crystals, particularly, in the case of large air bubbles.

  18. Ventilation inhomogeneity in alpha1-antitrypsin-deficient emphysema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fregonese, L.; van Veen, H. P. A. A.; Sterk, P. J.; Stolk, J.


    The slope of phase III of the single-breath nitrogen wash-out test (sbN2-test) measures ventilation inhomogeneity and, in smokers, is strongly associated with small airways pathology. The present authors aimed to study ventilation inhomogeneity in emphysema related to type Z alpha1-antitrypsin (AAT)

  19. Superfluorescence in the presence of inhomogeneous broadening and relaxation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balko, B.; Kay, I.W.; Silk, J.D.; Vuduc, R.; Neuberger, J.W


    In this paper we show how inhomogeneous broadening produces dephasing, inhibits cooperative emission and thus reduces the intensity of the SF pulse. We also show how electronic relaxation or time-dependent hyperfine interactions can mollify the effect of inhomogeneous broadening so that SF can be recovered.

  20. Collapse arresting in an inhomogeneous quintic nonlinear Schrodinger model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich; Schjødt-Eriksen, Jens; Christiansen, Peter Leth


    Collapse of (1 + 1)-dimensional beams in the inhomogeneous one-dimensional quintic nonlinear Schrodinger equation is analyzed both numerically and analytically. It is shown that in the vicinity of a narrow attractive inhomogeneity, the collapse of beams in which the homogeneous medium would blow up...

  1. Baryon inhomogeneities due to cosmic string wakes at the quark ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Baryon inhomogeneities generated during the quark–hadron transition may alter the abundances of light elements if they persist up to the time of nucleosynthesis. These inhomogeneities survive up to the nucleosynthesis epoch if they are separated by a distance of at least a few metres. In this work we present a ...

  2. Origin of Inhomogeneity in Glass Melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin; Keding, Ralf; Yue, Yuanzheng

    The homogeneity of a glass plays a crucial role in many applications as the inhomogeneities can provide local changes in mechanical properties, optical properties, and thermal expansion coefficient. Homogeneity is not a single property of the glass, instead, it consists of several factors...... such as bubbles, striae, trace element concentration, undissolved species, and crystallised species. As it is not possible to address all the factors in a single study, this work focuses on one of the major factors: chemical striae. Up to now, the quantification of chemical striae in glasses, particularly......, in less transparent glasses, has been a challenge due to the lack of an applicable method. In this study, we have established a simple and accurate method for quantifying the extent of the striae, which is based on the scanning and picture processing through the Fourier transformation. By performing...

  3. Particle diffusion in an inhomogeneous medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bringuier, E, E-mail: [UFR de Physique, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)


    This paper is an elementary introduction to particle diffusion in a medium where the coefficient of diffusion varies with position. The introduction is aimed at third-year university courses. We start from a simple model of particles hopping on a discrete lattice, in one or more dimensions, and then take the continuous-space limit so as to obtain the differential equation of diffusion. The discrete-step model is next adapted to investigate diffusion by continuous-length steps; the coefficient of diffusion is related to the mean free path. In both the discrete- and continuous-step models, the diffusion law has the Fokker-Planck (instead of Fick) pattern if the jumps are not biased and occur equally likely in all directions. Lastly, three experimental examples of diffusion in inhomogeneous media are examined; the observed law can be of a Fokker-Planck, Fick or hybrid type.

  4. Inhomogeneous cosmology and backreaction: Current status and future prospects (United States)

    Bolejko, Krzysztof; Korzyński, Mikołaj

    Astronomical observations reveal hierarchical structures in the universe, from galaxies, groups of galaxies, clusters and superclusters, to filaments and voids. On the largest scales, it seems that some kind of statistical homogeneity can be observed. As a result, modern cosmological models are based on spatially homogeneous and isotropic solutions of the Einstein equations, and the evolution of the universe is approximated by the Friedmann equations. In parallel to standard homogeneous cosmology, the field of inhomogeneous cosmology and backreaction is being developed. This field investigates whether small scale inhomogeneities via nonlinear effects can backreact and alter the properties of the universe on its largest scales, leading to a non-Friedmannian evolution. This paper presents the current status of inhomogeneous cosmology and backreaction. It also discusses future prospects of the field of inhomogeneous cosmology, which is based on a survey of 50 academics working in the field of inhomogeneous cosmology.

  5. Handleiding Mont Ventoux on Wheels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. A.E. Schep-Akkerman; Drs. J.T. van der Vinne


    De handleiding Mont Ventoux on Wheels is ontwikkeld door Stichting WIEL en Werkplaats Sociaal Domein. In 2017-2018 wordt (evaluatie)onderzoek gedaan naar praktijkervaringen met de aanpak van Mont Ventoux on Wheels. De kern van Mont Ventoux on Wheels is dat een gemengde groep van deelnemers,

  6. Monte Carlo and nonlinearities

    CERN Document Server

    Dauchet, Jérémi; Blanco, Stéphane; Caliot, Cyril; Charon, Julien; Coustet, Christophe; Hafi, Mouna El; Eymet, Vincent; Farges, Olivier; Forest, Vincent; Fournier, Richard; Galtier, Mathieu; Gautrais, Jacques; Khuong, Anaïs; Pelissier, Lionel; Piaud, Benjamin; Roger, Maxime; Terrée, Guillaume; Weitz, Sebastian


    The Monte Carlo method is widely used to numerically predict systems behaviour. However, its powerful incremental design assumes a strong premise which has severely limited application so far: the estimation process must combine linearly over dimensions. Here we show that this premise can be alleviated by projecting nonlinearities on a polynomial basis and increasing the configuration-space dimension. Considering phytoplankton growth in light-limited environments, radiative transfer in planetary atmospheres, electromagnetic scattering by particles and concentrated-solar-power-plant productions, we prove the real world usability of this advance on four test-cases that were so far regarded as impracticable by Monte Carlo approaches. We also illustrate an outstanding feature of our method when applied to sharp problems with interacting particles: handling rare events is now straightforward. Overall, our extension preserves the features that made the method popular: addressing nonlinearities does not compromise o...

  7. Improved diffusion Monte Carlo


    Hairer, Martin; Weare, Jonathan


    We propose a modification, based on the RESTART (repetitive simulation trials after reaching thresholds) and DPR (dynamics probability redistribution) rare event simulation algorithms, of the standard diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) algorithm. The new algorithm has a lower variance per workload, regardless of the regime considered. In particular, it makes it feasible to use DMC in situations where the "na\\"ive" generalisation of the standard algorithm would be impractical, due to an exponential e...

  8. Fundamentals of Monte Carlo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wollaber, Allan Benton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    This is a powerpoint presentation which serves as lecture material for the Parallel Computing summer school. It goes over the fundamentals of the Monte Carlo calculation method. The material is presented according to the following outline: Introduction (background, a simple example: estimating π), Why does this even work? (The Law of Large Numbers, The Central Limit Theorem), How to sample (inverse transform sampling, rejection), and An example from particle transport.

  9. Effects of nanoscale density inhomogeneities on shearing fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ben, Dalton,; Peter, Daivis,; Hansen, Jesper Schmidt


    . This gives us a method for direct measurement of the coupling between the density and velocity fields and allows us to introduce various feedback control mechanisms which customize fluid behavior in individual Fourier components. We briefly discuss the role of temperature inhomogeneity and consider whether......It is well known that density inhomogeneities at the solid-liquid interface can have a strong effect on the velocity profile of a nanoconfined fluid in planar Poiseuille flow. However, it is difficult to control the density inhomogeneities induced by solid walls, making this type of system...

  10. Hydrodynamic charge and heat transport on inhomogeneous curved spaces (United States)

    Scopelliti, Vincenzo; Schalm, Koenraad; Lucas, Andrew


    We develop the theory of hydrodynamic charge and heat transport in strongly interacting quasirelativistic systems on manifolds with inhomogeneous spatial curvature. In solid-state physics, this is analogous to strain disorder in the underlying lattice. In the hydrodynamic limit, we find that the thermal and electrical conductivities are dominated by viscous effects and that the thermal conductivity is most sensitive to this disorder. We compare the effects of inhomogeneity in the spatial metric to inhomogeneity in the chemical potential and discuss the extent to which our hydrodynamic theory is relevant for experimentally realizable condensed-matter systems, including suspended graphene at the Dirac point.

  11. Measurements of weak localization of graphene in inhomogeneous magnetic fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindvall, N.; Shivayogimath, Abhay; Yurgens, A.


    attribute this to the inhomogeneous field caused by vortices in the superconductor. The deviation, which depends on the carrier concentration in graphene, can be tuned by the gate voltage. In addition, collective vortex motion, known as vortex avalanches, is observed through magnetoresistance measurements......Weak localization in graphene is studied in inhomogeneous magnetic fields. To generate the inhomogeneous field, a thin film of type-II superconducting niobium is put in close proximity to graphene. A deviation from the ordinary quadratic weak localization behavior is observed at low fields. We...... of graphene....

  12. Self-Sustained Conditions in Inhomogeneous Fields (United States)

    Held, B.; Soulem, N.; Peyrous, R.; Spyrou, N.


    A theoretical model allowing to plot the breakdown voltage V_B as a function of the product p_d (pressure × interelectrode distance) is presented for a D.C. corona discharge. For a parabolic point, it is shown that the Paschen curve can be generalized to inhomogeneous fields, since the homogeneous fields are the asymptotic limit of this theory. The analytical expression obtained from this model is finally plotted and compared to experimental results in nitrogen and dry air. Un modèle théorique permettant de tracer le potentiel disruptif V_B en fonction du produit p_d (pression × distance interélectrodes) est présenté pour une décharge couronne en tension continue. On montre, pour une pointe parabolique, que la corbe de Paschen peut être généralisée au cas des champs inhomogènes, le cas du champ homogène étant la limite asymptotique de cette théorie, l'expression analytique obtenue à partir de ce modèle est finalement tracée et comparée aux résultats expérimentaux obtenus dans l'air et l'azote.

  13. LMC: Logarithmantic Monte Carlo (United States)

    Mantz, Adam B.


    LMC is a Markov Chain Monte Carlo engine in Python that implements adaptive Metropolis-Hastings and slice sampling, as well as the affine-invariant method of Goodman & Weare, in a flexible framework. It can be used for simple problems, but the main use case is problems where expensive likelihood evaluations are provided by less flexible third-party software, which benefit from parallelization across many nodes at the sampling level. The parallel/adaptive methods use communication through MPI, or alternatively by writing/reading files, and mostly follow the approaches pioneered by CosmoMC (ascl:1106.025).

  14. Monts Jura Jazz Festival

    CERN Multimedia

    Jazz Club


    The 5th edition of the "Monts Jura Jazz Festival" that will take place on September 21st and 22nd 2012 at the Esplanade du Lac in Divonne-les-Bains. This festival is organized by the "CERN Jazz Club" with the support of the "CERN Staff Association". This festival is a major musical event in the French/Swiss area and proposes a world class program with jazz artists such as D.Lockwood and D.Reinhardt. More information on

  15. Monts Jura Jazz Festival

    CERN Multimedia


    The 5th edition of the "Monts Jura Jazz Festival" will take place at the Esplanade du Lac in Divonne-les-Bains, France on September 21 and 22. This festival organized by the CERN Jazz Club and supported by the CERN Staff Association is becoming a major musical event in the Geneva region. International Jazz artists like Didier Lockwood and David Reinhardt are part of this year outstanding program. Full program and e-tickets are available on the festival website. Don't miss this great festival!

  16. Axi-symmetric analysis of vertically inhomogeneous elastic multilayered systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maina, JW


    Full Text Available The importance of accounting for material nonlinearity and anisotropic behaviour in order to improve the resilient models for pavement materials and numerical analysis is presented in this paper. Effects of material inhomogeneity on the pavement...

  17. An oscillation criterion for inhomogeneous Stieltjes integro-differential equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. El-Sayed


    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to give an oscillation theorem for inhomogeneous Stieltjes integro-differential equation of the form p(tx′+∫atx(sdσ=f(t. The paper generalizes the author's work [2].

  18. Recovery of superfluorescence in inhomogeneously broadened systems through rapid relaxation (United States)

    Balko, B.; Kay, I. W.; Vuduc, R.; Neuberger, J. W.


    This paper shows that time-dependent hyperfine interactions of the nucleus with electrons can enhance the superfluorescence (SF) intensity by countering the destructive effect of inhomogeneous broadening on SF.

  19. SU-E-T-344: Validation and Clinical Experience of Eclipse Electron Monte Carlo Algorithm (EMC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pokharel, S [21st Century Oncology, Fort Myers, FL (United States); Rana, S [Procure Proton Therapy Center, Oklahoma City, OK (United States)


    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to validate Eclipse Electron Monte Carlo (Algorithm for routine clinical uses. Methods: The PTW inhomogeneity phantom (T40037) with different combination of heterogeneous slabs has been CT-scanned with Philips Brilliance 16 slice scanner. The phantom contains blocks of Rando Alderson materials mimicking lung, Polystyrene (Tissue), PTFE (Bone) and PMAA. The phantom has 30×30×2.5 cm base plate with 2cm recesses to insert inhomogeneity. The detector systems used in this study are diode, tlds and Gafchromic EBT2 films. The diode and tlds were included in CT scans. The CT sets are transferred to Eclipse treatment planning system. Several plans have been created with Eclipse Monte Carlo (EMC) algorithm 11.0.21. Measurements have been carried out in Varian TrueBeam machine for energy from 6–22mev. Results: The measured and calculated doses agreed very well for tissue like media. The agreement was reasonably okay for the presence of lung inhomogeneity. The point dose agreement was within 3.5% and Gamma passing rate at 3%/3mm was greater than 93% except for 6Mev(85%). The disagreement can reach as high as 10% in the presence of bone inhomogeneity. This is due to eclipse reporting dose to the medium as opposed to the dose to the water as in conventional calculation engines. Conclusion: Care must be taken when using Varian Eclipse EMC algorithm for dose calculation for routine clinical uses. The algorithm dose not report dose to water in which most of the clinical experiences are based on rather it just reports dose to medium directly. In the presence of inhomogeneity such as bone, the dose discrepancy can be as high as 10% or even more depending on the location of normalization point or volume. As Radiation oncology as an empirical science, care must be taken before using EMC reported monitor units for clinical uses.

  20. Paraxial theory of electromagnetic waves in plane inhomogeneous media. (United States)

    Hacyan, Shahen


    The problem of electromagnetic waves propagating in inhomogeneous media is formulated within the paraxial approximation. The analysis is restricted to a medium with a plane and smooth inhomogeneity. The general form of a Gaussian beam is obtained in terms of the permittivity and permeability of the medium. Particular attention is paid to the case of internal reflection, where a short-wavelength approximation breaks down; a possible treatment of the problem is proposed. A simple model is worked out to illustrate the formalism.

  1. Minimum weight design of inhomogeneous rotating discs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahed, Hamid [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran 16844 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Farshi, Behrooz [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran 16844 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail:; Bidabadi, Jalal [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran 16844 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    There are numerous applications for gas turbine discs in the aerospace industry such as in turbojet engines. These discs normally work under high temperatures while subjected to high angular velocities. Minimizing the weight of such items in aerospace applications results in benefits such as low dead weights and lower costs. High speed of rotation causes large centrifugal forces in a disc and simultaneous application of high temperatures reduces disc material strength. Thus, the latter effects tend to increase deformations of the disc under the applied loads. In order to obtain a reliable disc analysis and arrive at the corresponding correct stress distribution, solutions should consider changes in material properties due to the temperature field throughout the disc. To achieve this goal, an inhomogeneous disc model with variable thickness is considered. Using the variable material properties method, stresses are obtained for the disc under rotation and a steady temperature field. In this paper this is done by modelling the rotating disc as a series of rings of different but constant properties. The optimum disc profile is arrived at by sequentially proportioning the thicknesses of each ring to satisfy the stress requirements. This method vis-a-vis a mathematical programming procedure for optimization shows several advantages. Firstly, it is simple iterative proportioning in each design cycle not requiring involved mathematical operations. Secondly, due to its simplicity it alleviates the necessity of certain simplifications that are common in so-called rigorous mathematical procedures. The results obtained, compared to those published in the literature show agreement and superiority. A further advantage of the proposed method is the independence of the end results from the initially assumed point in the iterative design routine, unlike most methods published so far.

  2. MCMini: Monte Carlo on GPGPU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcus, Ryan C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    MCMini is a proof of concept that demonstrates the possibility for Monte Carlo neutron transport using OpenCL with a focus on performance. This implementation, written in C, shows that tracing particles and calculating reactions on a 3D mesh can be done in a highly scalable fashion. These results demonstrate a potential path forward for MCNP or other Monte Carlo codes.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Gorlyak


    Full Text Available The paper deals with investigation of application peculiarities of ellipsometry methods and UF spectrophotometry at mechanical and chemical processing of optical engineering surface elements made of quartz glass. Ellipsometer LEF–3M–1, spectrophotometer SF–26 and interferometer MII–4 are used as experiment tools; they obtain widely known technical characteristics. Polarization characteristics of reflected light beam were measured by ellipsometry method; spectrophotometry method was used for measuring radiation transmission factor in UF spectrum area; by interference method surface layer thickness at quartz glass etching was measured. A method for HF–sectioning of inhomogeneous surface layer of polished quartz glass is developed based on ellipsometry equation for reflection system «inhomogeneous layer – inhomogeneous padding». The method makes it possible to carry out the measuring and analysis of optical characteristics for inhomogeneous layers system on inhomogeneous padding and to reconstruct optical profile of surface layers at quartz glass chemical processing. For definition of refractive index change along the layer depth, approximation of experimental values for polarization characteristics of homogeneous layers system is used. Inhomogeneous surface layer of polished quartz glass consists of an area (with thickness up to 20 nm and layer refractive index less than refractive index for quartz glass and an area (with thickness up to 0,1 μm and layer refractive index larger than refractive index for quartz glass. Ellipsometry and photometry methods are used for definition of technological conditions and optical characteristics of inhomogeneous layers at quartz glass chemical processing for optical elements with minimum radiation losses in UF spectrum area.

  4. Monte Carlo methods for electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Sadiku, Matthew NO


    Until now, novices had to painstakingly dig through the literature to discover how to use Monte Carlo techniques for solving electromagnetic problems. Written by one of the foremost researchers in the field, Monte Carlo Methods for Electromagnetics provides a solid understanding of these methods and their applications in electromagnetic computation. Including much of his own work, the author brings together essential information from several different publications.Using a simple, clear writing style, the author begins with a historical background and review of electromagnetic theory. After addressing probability and statistics, he introduces the finite difference method as well as the fixed and floating random walk Monte Carlo methods. The text then applies the Exodus method to Laplace's and Poisson's equations and presents Monte Carlo techniques for handing Neumann problems. It also deals with whole field computation using the Markov chain, applies Monte Carlo methods to time-varying diffusion problems, and ...

  5. Treatment planning in radiosurgery: parallel Monte Carlo simulation software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scielzo, G. [Galliera Hospitals, Genova (Italy). Dept. of Hospital Physics; Grillo Ruggieri, F. [Galliera Hospitals, Genova (Italy) Dept. for Radiation Therapy; Modesti, M.; Felici, R. [Electronic Data System, Rome (Italy); Surridge, M. [University of South Hampton (United Kingdom). Parallel Apllication Centre


    The main objective of this research was to evaluate the possibility of direct Monte Carlo simulation for accurate dosimetry with short computation time. We made us of: graphics workstation, linear accelerator, water, PMMA and anthropomorphic phantoms, for validation purposes; ionometric, film and thermo-luminescent techniques, for dosimetry; treatment planning system for comparison. Benchmarking results suggest that short computing times can be obtained with use of the parallel version of EGS4 that was developed. Parallelism was obtained assigning simulation incident photons to separate processors, and the development of a parallel random number generator was necessary. Validation consisted in: phantom irradiation, comparison of predicted and measured values good agreement in PDD and dose profiles. Experiments on anthropomorphic phantoms (with inhomogeneities) were carried out, and these values are being compared with results obtained with the conventional treatment planning system.

  6. A tractable molecular theory of flow in strongly inhomogeneous fluids (United States)

    Bitsanis, I.; Vanderlick, T. K.; Tirrell, M.; Davis, H. T.


    A recently introduced model is used to study several flows in fluids with large density variations over distances comparable to their molecular dimensions (strongly inhomogeneous fluids). According to our model, the local average density model (LADM), local viscosity coefficients can be assigned at each point in a strongly inhomogeneous fluid and the stress tensor retains its Newtonian form provided that the properly defined local viscosities are used. The model has been previously shown to agree with the results of molecular dynamics simulations on diffusion and flow properties in plane Couette flow. Application of this model requires determination of the molecular density profiles in the flow region. Using a successful closure for the pair distribution function, we solve the Yvon-Born-Green (YBG) equation of fluid structure in order to determine the density profiles of a fluid confined between planar micropore walls only a few molecular diameters apart. The fluid confinement produces a strongly inhomogeneous structure. Subsequently we apply LADM to set up the fluid mechanical equations for Couette flow, Poiseuille flow, and squeezing flow between parallel plates. With the use of the YBG theoretical density profiles we solve the flow equations and predict velocity profiles, stress distributions, and effective viscosities. The dependence of these quantities on the fluid inhomogeneity is described. The effective viscosity of strongly inhomogeneous fluids is found to be quite sensitive to the nature of the flow. Our squeezing flow analysis provides a first explanation of recent experimental findings on the effective viscosity of simple fluids confined in very narrow spaces.

  7. Lung liquid and protein exchange: the four inhomogeneities. (United States)

    Staub, N C


    William of Ockham, 14th-century scholastic philosopher at Oxford and Munich, emphasized the principle of economy, "pleurality is not to be supposed without necessity" (Ockham's razor). Necessity is the key word. In the modeling of steady-state lung liquid and protein exchange, the desire for simplicity has sometimes outweighed good judgment. In fact, we and others have shown that simple models do not work. It is necessary to include several forms of inhomogeneity. The air-filled lung shows regional (top to bottom) variations of mass, microvascular pressure, and perimicrovascular protein concentration. Normally, the small longitudinal (arterioles to venules) gradient of microvascular and perimicrovascular pressures is not a major concern, but in nonuniform disease processes, such as microembolism, longitudinal inhomogeneity, and parallel inhomogeneity are dominant. Multiple pores should also be considered a form of inhomogeneity. The effect on liquid and protein exchange, when plasma protein concentration or microvascular pressure change, can be readily explained using pore heterogeneity. The model I am currently using consists of a large number of discrete compartments (18), rather than a continuous distribution. We have recently identified a fifth inhomogeneity, which is that lung lymph flow might not always represent steady-state transvascular filtration because interstitial liquid may leak through the pleura or along the bronchovascular liquid cuffs into the mediastinum.

  8. Inhomogeneity in microstructure and mechanical properties during twist extrusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noor, Sh. Vakili [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Eivani, A.R., E-mail: [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jafarian, H.R. [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mirzaei, M. [Material Engineering Group, Islamic Azad University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    In the present paper, the effect of twist extrusion (TE) on the variations of hardness and tensile properties in commercial pure copper is investigated. It is found that hardness, yield and ultimate tensile strength of the alloy increased by increasing distance from the center of the sample after one pass TE. Similar consequences are observed when the second pass of deformation is considered. This is attributed to inhomogeneity of deformation and the higher strain imposed on the material at the peripheral regions. It should be noted that the inhomogeneity is increased at the second pass when route A of deformation is utilized and reduces by utilization of route D. This has as a well-established effect on the development of microstructure throughout the cross section of the samples. In fact, it is found that the microstructure at the peripheral regions is more significantly deformed leading to higher dislocation density and extensive subgrain formation. In addition, it is found that at the second pass using route A, inhomogeneity of deformation and microstructure increases. However, less inhomogeneity is observed when route D is utilized which is in line with the hardness and tensile test results. In the end, it is concluded that depending on the aim of the SPD process, if more homogeneous deformation and microstructure is required, route D is recommended and route A should be utilized in case if maximum inhomogeneity is desirable.

  9. Metropolis Methods for Quantum Monte Carlo Simulations


    Ceperley, D.M.


    Since its first description fifty years ago, the Metropolis Monte Carlo method has been used in a variety of different ways for the simulation of continuum quantum many-body systems. This paper will consider some of the generalizations of the Metropolis algorithm employed in quantum Monte Carlo: Variational Monte Carlo, dynamical methods for projector monte carlo ({\\it i.e.} diffusion Monte Carlo with rejection), multilevel sampling in path integral Monte Carlo, the sampling of permutations, ...

  10. Modulational excitation of inhomogeneities in dusty ionospheric plasma (United States)

    Kopnin, S. I.; Popel, S. I.; Morozova, T. I.


    The mechanism for the formation of inhomogeneities of the electron and ion densities in dusty ionospheric plasma as a result of the modulational instability of a pump electromagnetic wave caused by the excitation of dust acoustic perturbations is considered. The inhomogeneities of the electron density produced by the monochromatic radiation of heating facilities at altitudes of 80 and 100 km are estimated numerically. The possibility of excitation of relatively large inhomogeneities of the electron and ion densities δ n e( i)/ n e( i) ≈ 0.05 at altitudes of 80-100 km as a result of modulational interaction is demonstrated. The applicability domains of the method presented in this work are determined.

  11. Characteristics of inhomogeneous jets in confined swirling air flows (United States)

    So, R. M. C.; Ahmed, S. A.


    An experimental program to study the characteristics of inhomogeneous jets in confined swirling flows to obtain detailed and accurate data for the evaluation and improvement of turbulent transport modeling for combustor flows is discussed. The work was also motivated by the need to investigate and quantify the influence of confinement and swirl on the characteristics of inhomogeneous jets. The flow facility was constructed in a simple way which allows easy interchange of different swirlers and the freedom to vary the jet Reynolds number. The velocity measurements were taken with a one color, one component DISA Model 55L laser-Doppler anemometer employing the forward scatter mode. Standard statistical methods are used to evaluate the various moments of the signals to give the flow characteristics. The present work was directed at the understanding of the velocity field. Therefore, only velocity and turbulence data of the axial and circumferential components are reported for inhomogeneous jets in confined swirling air flows.

  12. Local Inhomogeneities and the Value of the Cosmological Constant (United States)

    Romano, Antonio Enea


    Supernovae observations strongly support the presence of a cosmological constant, but its value, which we will call apparent, is normally determined assuming that the Universe can be accurately described by a homogeneous model. Even in the presence of a cosmological constant we cannot exclude nevertheless the presence of a small local inho-mogeneity which could affect the apparent value of the cosmological constant. Neglecting the presence of the inhomogeneity can in fact introduce a systematic misinterpretation of cosmological data, leading to the distinction between an apparent and the true value of the cosmological constant. But is such a difference distinguishable? Recently we set out to model the local inhomogeneity with a ΛLTB solution and computed the relation between the apparent and the true value of the cosmological constant. In this essay we reproduce the essence of our model with the emphasis on its physical implications.

  13. Scattering of Gaussian beam by arbitrarily shaped inhomogeneous particles (United States)

    Cui, Z. W.; Han, Y. P.; Wang, J. J.; Zhao, W. J.


    A hybrid finite element-boundary integral method is applied to characterize the scattering of an arbitrarily incident-focused Gaussian beam by arbitrarily shaped inhomogeneous particles. Specifically, the Davis-Barton fifth-order approximation in combination with rotation Euler angles is used to represent the arbitrarily incident Gaussian beams. The finite element method is employed to formulate the fields in the interior region of the inhomogeneous particle, while the boundary integral equation is applied to represent the fields in the exterior region. The interior and exterior fields are coupled by means of the field continuity conditions. To reduce the computational burden, the frontal method and the multilevel fast multipole algorithm are adopted to solve the resultant matrix equation. Numerical results for differential scattering cross sections of several selected inhomogeneous particles are presented and can be served as further study on this subject.

  14. A method for longitudinal relaxation time measurement in inhomogeneous fields (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Cai, Shuhui; Chen, Zhong


    The spin-lattice relaxation time (T1) plays a crucial role in the study of spin dynamics, signal optimization and data quantification. However, the measurement of chemical shift-specific T1 constants is hampered by the magnetic field inhomogeneity due to poorly shimmed external magnetic fields or intrinsic magnetic susceptibility heterogeneity in samples. In this study, we present a new protocol to determine chemical shift-specific T1 constants in inhomogeneous fields. Based on intermolecular double-quantum coherences, the new method can resolve overlapped peaks in inhomogeneous fields. The measurement results are in consistent with the measurements in homogeneous fields using the conventional method. Since spatial encoding technique is involved, the experimental time for the new method is very close to that for the conventional method. With the aid of T1 knowledge, some concealed information can be exploited by T1 weighting experiments.

  15. Impact of Inhomogeneities in HTS Coated Conductors for Resistive FCLs (United States)

    Colangelo, Daniele; Memiaghe, Steeve; Lacroix, Christian; Sirois, Frédéric; Dutoit, Bertrand

    Several issues remain to be addressed for the commercial development of ResistiveFault Current Limiters based on superconducting technologies (RFCL). In particular, the inhomogeneity of high temperature superconducting coated conductors (HTS-CC) combined with the diffculty to predict RFCLs behaviour when interfaced with the existing electrical grid represents an important bottleneck that limits their competitiveness on the electrical market. In order to study the influence of the local inhomogeneity of the HTS tape on the global effective performance of an RFCL, a modular equivalent circuit model has been developed using SimPowerSystemsTM. The model implements an inhomogeneity distribution based on statistical data and takes into account the thermal conduction between different zones of the HTS-CC. It has been calibrated with experimental measurements and finite element simulations. The model can be used to study various scenarios common to power systems, such as transformer in-rush currents, motor starts, etc.

  16. A study of low-dimensional inhomogeneous systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arredondo Leon, Yesenia


    While the properties of homogeneous one-dimensional systems, even with disorder, are relatively well-understood, very little is known about the properties of strongly interacting inhomogeneous systems. Their high-energy physics is determined by the underlying chemistry which, in the atomic scale, introduces Coulomb correlations and local potentials. On the other hand, at large length scales, the physics has to be described by the Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid (TLL) model. In order to establish a connection between the low-energy TLL and the quasi-one-dimensional systems synthesized in the laboratory, we investigate the density-density correlation function in inhomogeneous one-dimensional systems in the asymptotic region. To investigate homogeneous as well as inhomogeneous systems, we use the density-matrix renormalization group (DMRG) method. We present results for ground state properties, such as the density-density correlation function and the parameter K{sub c}, which characterizes its decay at large distances. (orig.)

  17. Lectures on Monte Carlo methods

    CERN Document Server

    Madras, Neal


    Monte Carlo methods form an experimental branch of mathematics that employs simulations driven by random number generators. These methods are often used when others fail, since they are much less sensitive to the "curse of dimensionality", which plagues deterministic methods in problems with a large number of variables. Monte Carlo methods are used in many fields: mathematics, statistics, physics, chemistry, finance, computer science, and biology, for instance. This book is an introduction to Monte Carlo methods for anyone who would like to use these methods to study various kinds of mathemati

  18. Wormhole Hamiltonian Monte Carlo. (United States)

    Lan, Shiwei; Streets, Jeffrey; Shahbaba, Babak


    In machine learning and statistics, probabilistic inference involving multimodal distributions is quite difficult. This is especially true in high dimensional problems, where most existing algorithms cannot easily move from one mode to another. To address this issue, we propose a novel Bayesian inference approach based on Markov Chain Monte Carlo. Our method can effectively sample from multimodal distributions, especially when the dimension is high and the modes are isolated. To this end, it exploits and modifies the Riemannian geometric properties of the target distribution to create wormholes connecting modes in order to facilitate moving between them. Further, our proposed method uses the regeneration technique in order to adapt the algorithm by identifying new modes and updating the network of wormholes without affecting the stationary distribution. To find new modes, as opposed to redis-covering those previously identified, we employ a novel mode searching algorithm that explores a residual energy function obtained by subtracting an approximate Gaussian mixture density (based on previously discovered modes) from the target density function.

  19. Monte Carlo-based Noise Compensation in Coil Intensity Corrected Endorectal MRI

    CERN Document Server

    Lui, Dorothy; Haider, Masoom; Wong, Alexander


    Background: Prostate cancer is one of the most common forms of cancer found in males making early diagnosis important. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been useful in visualizing and localizing tumor candidates and with the use of endorectal coils (ERC), the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) can be improved. The coils introduce intensity inhomogeneities and the surface coil intensity correction built into MRI scanners is used to reduce these inhomogeneities. However, the correction typically performed at the MRI scanner level leads to noise amplification and noise level variations. Methods: In this study, we introduce a new Monte Carlo-based noise compensation approach for coil intensity corrected endorectal MRI which allows for effective noise compensation and preservation of details within the prostate. The approach accounts for the ERC SNR profile via a spatially-adaptive noise model for correcting non-stationary noise variations. Such a method is useful particularly for improving the image quality of coil i...

  20. Nonlinear acoustic waves in micro-inhomogeneous solids

    CERN Document Server

    Nazarov, Veniamin


    Nonlinear Acoustic Waves in Micro-inhomogeneous Solids covers the broad and dynamic branch of nonlinear acoustics, presenting a wide variety of different phenomena from both experimental and theoretical perspectives. The introductory chapters, written in the style of graduate-level textbook, present a review of the main achievements of classic nonlinear acoustics of homogeneous media. This enables readers to gain insight into nonlinear wave processes in homogeneous and micro-inhomogeneous solids and compare it within the framework of the book. The subsequent eight chapters covering: Physical m

  1. Inhomogeneous Spin Diffusion in Traps with Cold Atoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Henning


    The spin diusion and damped oscillations are studied in the collision of two spin polarized clouds of cold atoms with resonant interactions. The strong density dependence of the diusion coecient leads to inhomogeneous spin diusion that changes from central to surface spin ow as the temperature...... increases. The inhomogeneity and the smaller nite trap size signicantly reduce the spin diusion rate at low temperatures. The resulting spin diusion rates and spin drag at longer time scales are compatible with measurements at low to high temperatures for resonant attractive interactions...

  2. Pyroelectric response of inhomogeneous ferroelectric-semiconductor films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available We have modified Landau-Khalatnikov approach and shown that the pyroelectric response of inhomogeneous ferroelectric-semiconductor films can be described by using six coupled equations for the average displacement, its mean-square fluctuation and correlation with charge defects density fluctuations, average pyroelectric coefficient, its fluctuation and correlation with density fluctuations of charged defects. Coupled equations demonstrate the inhomogeneous reversal of pyroelectric response in contrast to the equations of Landau-Khalatnikov type, which describe the homogeneous reversal with sharp pyroelectric coefficient peaks near the thermodynamic coercive field values. Our approach explains pyroelectric loops observed in Pb(Zr,TiO3 film.

  3. Inhomogeneous helicity effect in the solar angular-momentum transport (United States)

    Yokoi, Nobumitsu


    Coupled with mean absolute vorticity Ω∗ (rotation and mean relative vorticity), inhomogeneous turbulent helicity is expected to contribute to the generation of global flow structure against the linear and angular momentum mixing due to turbulent or eddy viscosity. This inhomogeneous helicity effect was originally derived in Yokoi & Yoshizawa (1993) [1], and recently has been validated by direct numerical simulations (DNSs) of rotating helical turbulence [2]. Turbulence effect enters the mean-vorticity equation through the turbulent vortexmotive force ⟨u'×ω'⟩ [u': velocity fluctuation, ω'(= ∇× u'): vorticity fluctuation], which is the vorticity counterpart of the electromotive force ⟨u'× b'⟩ (b': magnetic fluctuation) in the mean magnetic-field induction. The mean velocity induction δU is proportional to the vortexmotive force. According to the theoretical result [1,2], it is expressed as δU = -νT∇×Ω∗-ηT(∇2H)Ω∗, where ηT is the transport coefficient, H = ⟨u'ṡω'⟩ the turbulent helicity, and Ω∗ the mean absolute vorticity. The first term corresponds to the enhanced diffusion due to turbulent viscosity νT. The second term expresses the large-scale flow generation due to inhomogeneous helicity. Since helicity is self-generated in rotating stratified turbulence [3], an inhomogeneous helicity distribution is expected to exist in the solar convection zone. A rising flow with expansion near the surface of the Sun generates a strongly negative helicity there [4]. This spatial distribution of helicity would lead to a positive Laplacian of turbulent helicity (∇2H > 0) in the subsurface layer of the Sun. In the combination with the large-scale vorticity associated with the meridional circulation, the inhomogeneous helicity effect works for accelerating the mean velocity in the azimuthal direction. The relevance of this inhomogeneous helicity effect in the solar convection zone is discussed further. References [1] Yokoi, N. and

  4. Advanced Multilevel Monte Carlo Methods

    KAUST Repository

    Jasra, Ajay


    This article reviews the application of advanced Monte Carlo techniques in the context of Multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC). MLMC is a strategy employed to compute expectations which can be biased in some sense, for instance, by using the discretization of a associated probability law. The MLMC approach works with a hierarchy of biased approximations which become progressively more accurate and more expensive. Using a telescoping representation of the most accurate approximation, the method is able to reduce the computational cost for a given level of error versus i.i.d. sampling from this latter approximation. All of these ideas originated for cases where exact sampling from couples in the hierarchy is possible. This article considers the case where such exact sampling is not currently possible. We consider Markov chain Monte Carlo and sequential Monte Carlo methods which have been introduced in the literature and we describe different strategies which facilitate the application of MLMC within these methods.

  5. Sensitivity of resistive and Hall measurements to local inhomogeneities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koon, Daniel W.; Wang, Fei; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth


    We derive exact, analytic expressions for the sensitivity of resistive and Hall measurements to local inhomogeneities in a specimen's material properties in the combined linear limit of a weak perturbation over an infinitesimal area in a small magnetic field. We apply these expressions both to four...

  6. Mechanism for an absolute parametric instability of an inhomogeneous plasma (United States)

    Arkhipenko, V. I.; Budnikov, V. N.; Gusakov, E. Z.; Romanchuk, I. A.; Simonchik, L. V.


    The structure of plasma oscillations in a region of parametric spatial amplification has been studied experimentally for the first time. A new mechanism for an absolute parametric instability has been observed. This mechanism operates when a pump wave with a spatial structure more complicated than a plane wave propagates through a plasma which is inhomogeneous along more than one dimension.

  7. Effect of Inhomogeneity of the Universe on a Gravitationally Bound ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy; Volume 33; Issue 2. Effect of Inhomogeneity of the Universe on a Gravitationally Bound Local System: A No-Go Result for Explaining the Secular Increase in the Astronomical Unit. Hideyoshi Arakida. Volume 33 Issue 2 June 2012 pp 201-211 ...

  8. One-dimensional diffusion model in an Inhomogeneous region

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fedotov, I


    Full Text Available A one-dimensional model is developed to describe atomic diffusion in a graphite tube atomizer for electrothermal atomic adsorption spectrometry. The underlying idea of the model is the solution of an inhomogeneous one-dimensional diffusion equation...

  9. Acoustic Force Density Acting on Inhomogeneous Fluids in Acoustic Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Jonas Tobias; Augustsson, Per; Bruus, Henrik


    We present a theory for the acoustic force density acting on inhomogeneous fluids in acoustic fields on time scales that are slow compared to the acoustic oscillation period. The acoustic force density depends on gradients in the density and compressibility of the fluid. For microfluidic systems...

  10. Ion-acoustic solitons in multispecies spatially inhomogeneous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ion-acoustic solitons are investigated in the spatially inhomogeneous plasma having electrons-positrons and ions. The soliton characteristics are described by Korteweg-de Vries equation which has an additional term. The density and temperature of different species play an important role for the amplitude and width of the ...

  11. Ion-acoustic solitons in multispecies spatially inhomogeneous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Ion-acoustic solitons are investigated in the spatially inhomogeneous plasma having electrons–positrons and ions. The soliton characteristics are described by. Korteweg–de Vries equation which has an additional term. The density and temperature of different species play an important role for the amplitude and ...

  12. Spatial inhomogeneity in spectra and exciton dynamics in porphyrin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Aug 26, 2016 ... ... Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 128; Issue 11. Spatial inhomogeneity in spectra and exciton dynamics in porphyrin micro-rods and micro-brushes: Confocal microscopy. SHYAMTANU CHATTORAJ KANKAN BHATTACHARYYA. Regular Article Volume 128 Issue 11 November 2016 pp 1717-1724 ...

  13. Full-wave solution of short impulses in inhomogeneous plasma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    physics pp. 249–268. Full-wave solution of short impulses in inhomogeneous plasma. ORSOLYA E FERENCZ. Space Research Group, Eötvös University, Geophysical Department, H-1518, Budapest,. P.O. Box 32, Hungary ...... lightning, traveling through the ionosphere up to the magnetosphere (whistler pre- cursors).

  14. Spherically symmetric inhomogeneous bianisotropic media: Wave propagation and light scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novitsky, Andrey; Shalin, Alexander S.; Lavrinenko, Andrei


    We develop a technique for finding closed-form expressions for electromagnetic fields in radially inhomogeneous bianisotropic media, both the solutions of the Maxwell equations and material tensors being defined by the set of auxiliary two-dimensional matrices. The approach is applied to determin...... the scattering cross-sections by spherical particles, the fields inside which correspond to the Airy-exponential waves....

  15. Inhomogeneous Chemical Evolution of the Galaxy in the Solar ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy; Volume 34; Issue 4. Inhomogeneous Chemical Evolution of the ... A complex chemical evolutionary history is inferred that registers episodes of time-dependent contributions from SN II+Ib/c with respect to SN Ia. It was observed that heterogeneities can remerge even ...

  16. Multiple solutions for inhomogeneous nonlinear elliptic problems arising in astrophyiscs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Calahorrano


    Full Text Available Using variational methods we prove the existence and multiplicity of solutions for some nonlinear inhomogeneous elliptic problems on a bounded domain in $mathbb{R}^n$, with $ngeq 2$ and a smooth boundary, and when the domain is $mathbb{R}_+^n$

  17. Jeans instability of an inhomogeneous streaming dusty plasma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The dynamics of a self-gravitating unmagnetized, inhomogeneous, streaming dusty plasma is studied in the present work. The presence of the shear flow causes the coupling between gravitational and electrostatic forces. In the absence of self-gravity, the fluctuations in the plasma may grow at the expense of the density ...

  18. Collisionless stopping of electron current in an inhomogeneous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A brief review of a recent work on a novel collisionless scheme for stopping electron cur- rent pulse in plasma is presented. This scheme relies on the inhomogeneity of the plasma medium. This mechanism can be used for heating an overdense regime of plasma where lasers cannot pene- trate. The method can ...

  19. Material inhomogeneities and their evolution a geometric approach

    CERN Document Server

    Epstein, Marcelo


    Presents a unified treatment of the inhomogeneity theory using some of the tools of modern differential geometry. This book deals with the geometrical description of uniform bodies and their homogeneity conditions. It also develops a theory of material evolution and discusses its relevance in various applied contexts.

  20. Inhomogeneous magnetic field in AdS/CFT superconductor


    Wen, Wen-Yu


    We study the holographically dual description of superconductor in (2+1)-dimensions in the presence of inhomogeneous magnetic field and observe that there exists type I and type II superconductor. A new feature of type changing is observed for type I superconductor near critical temperature.

  1. Mindlin plate theory for damage detection: imaging of flexural inhomogeneities. (United States)

    Rose, L R Francis; Wang, Chun H


    The scattering of plate waves by localized damage or defects that can be modeled as flexural inhomogeneities is examined within the framework of Mindlin plate theory. These inhomogeneities are characterized by variations in one or more of the four plate-theory parameters: the bending stiffness, shear stiffness, rotary inertia, and transverse inertia. It is shown that the Born approximation for the scattered field leads to a plate-theory analog of the Fourier diffraction theorem, which relates the far-field scattering amplitude to the spatial Fourier transform of the inhomogeneity variations. The application of this result is illustrated by using synthetic data derived for an idealized model of a delamination as a flexural inhomogeneity, ignoring mode coupling effects. A computationally efficient implementation of the filtered back-propagation algorithm, based on the eigensystem of the scattering operator, is employed for image reconstruction. The implications for in-situ imaging of structural damage in plate-like structures are briefly discussed, and some directions for further work are indicated.

  2. Lower hybrid waves instability in a velocity–sheared inhomogenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An electrostatic linear kinetic analysis of velocity-sheared inhomogeneous charged dust streaming parallel to a magnetic field in plasma is presented. Excited mode and the growth rates are derived in the lower hybrid-like mode regime, with collisional effects included. In the case where the drift velocity u is very small the ...

  3. Optical coherent control in semiconductors: Fringe contrast and inhomogeneous broadening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, John Erland; Vadim, Lyssenko; Hvam, Jørn Märcher


    in the interplay between the homogeneous and inhomogeneous broadenings are measured. Based on these experiments, a coherent control model describing the optical fringe contrast using different detection schemes, such as photoluminescence or four-wave mixing, is established. Significant spectral modulation...

  4. Inhomogeneous Chemical Evolution of the Galaxy in the Solar ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. N-body numerical simulations of an inhomogeneous Galac- tic Chemical Evolution (GCE) of the solar neighbourhood with a high temporal resolution are presented. The solar annular ring is divided into distinct spatial grids of area ∼1–2 kpc2. Each grid evolves distinctly in terms of star formation and ...

  5. Nonlinear interaction of waves in a hot inhomogeneous magnetized plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara Prasad Khan


    inhomogeneous magnetized plasma, is used to determine the threshold value of the electric field and the frequency shift. The results of this paper are also compared with the other known results. It is shown that the findings of this study are in excellent agreement with the results of earlier investigators.

  6. Rate-optimal Bayesian intensity smoothing for inhomogeneous Poisson processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belitser, E.N.; Serra, P.; van Zanten, H.


    We apply nonparametric Bayesian methods to study the problem of estimating the intensity function of an inhomogeneous Poisson process. To motivate our results we start by analyzing count data coming from a call center which we model as a Poisson process. This analysis is carried out using a certain

  7. Particle Production and Effective Thermalization in Inhomogeneous Mean Field Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, G.; Smit, J.


    As a toy model for dynamics in nonequilibrium quantum field theory we consider the abelian Higgs model in 1+1 dimensions with fermions. In the approximate dynamical equations, inhomogeneous classical (mean) Bose fields are coupled to quantized fermion fields, which are treated with a mode function

  8. Coherent excitonic nonlinearity versus inhomogeneous broadening in single quantum wells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langbein, Wolfgang Werner; Borri, Paola; Hvam, Jørn Märcher


    The coherent response of excitons in semiconductor nanostructures, as measured in four wave mixing (FWM) experiments, depends strongly on the inhomogeneous broadening of the exciton transition. We investigate GaAs-AlGaAs single quantum wells (SQW) of 4 nm to 25 nm well width. Two main mechanisms ...

  9. Electron-Bernstein Waves in Inhomogeneous Magnetic Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armstrong, R. J.; Frederiksen, Å.; Pécseli, Hans


    The propagation of small amplitude electron-Bernstein waves in different inhomogeneous magnetic field geometries is investigated experimentally. Wave propagation towards both cut-offs and resonances are considered. The experimental results are supported by a numerical ray-tracing analysis. Spatial...... enhancements of the wave amplitude are interpreted as a result of caustic formation....

  10. Damping of Slow Magnetoacoustic Waves in an Inhomogeneous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We study the propagation and dissipation of slow magneto- acoustic waves in an inhomogeneous viscous coronal loop plasma permeated by uniform magnetic field. Only viscosity and thermal con- ductivity are taken into account as dissipative processes in the coronal loop. The damping length of slow-mode ...

  11. Two-terminal quantized conductance in inhomogeneous graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao Zhimin, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics, and Electron Microscopy Laboratory, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Han Binghong; Zhou Yangbo [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics, and Electron Microscopy Laboratory, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Yu Dapeng, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics, and Electron Microscopy Laboratory, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)


    Quantized two-terminal conductance plateaus in graphene were observed and were explained through the mechanism of different Landau level filling factors in inhomogeneous sample. Furthermore, the quantized conductance plateaus are different due to the difference of the carrier exchange through the graphene-substrate interface during the increasing and decreasing gate voltage-sweeps.

  12. Inhomogeneous broadening in non-interacting nonlocal plasmonic ensembles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tserkezis, Christos; Maack, Johan Rosenkrantz; Liu, Z.


    The importance of inhomogeneous broadening due to the size dependence of plasmon resonances in few-nm metallic particle ensembles is investigated through different models describing the nonlocal optical response of plasmonic nanospheres. Modal shifts and plasmon line broadening are shown to becom...

  13. Inhomogeneous generalizations of Bianchi type VIh models with perfect fluid (United States)

    Roy, S. R.; Prasad, A.


    Inhomogeneous universes admitting an Abelian G2 of isometry and filled with perfect fluid have been derived. These contain as special cases exact homogeneous universes of Bianchi type VIh. Many of these universes asymptotically tend to homogeneous Bianchi VIh universes. The models have been discussed for their physical and kinematical behaviors.

  14. Bistable soliton states and switching in doubly inhomogeneously ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Lecture Workshops · Refresher Courses · Symposia. Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 57; Issue 5-6. Bistable soliton states and switching in doubly inhomogeneously doped fiber couplers. Ajit Kumar. Theoretical aspects of optical solitons Volume 57 Issue 5-6 November-December 2001 pp 969-979 ...

  15. An algorithm of computing inhomogeneous differential equations for definite integrals


    Nakayama, Hiromasa; Nishiyama, Kenta


    We give an algorithm to compute inhomogeneous differential equations for definite integrals with parameters. The algorithm is based on the integration algorithm for $D$-modules by Oaku. Main tool in the algorithm is the Gr\\"obner basis method in the ring of differential operators.

  16. Image reconstruction of the location of macro-inhomogeneity in random turbid medium by using artificial neural networks (United States)

    Veksler, Boris A.; Maksimova, Irina L.; Meglinski, Igor V.


    Nowadays the artificial neural network (ANN), an effective powerful technique that is able denoting complex input and output relationships, is widely used in different biomedical applications. In present study the applying of ANN for the determination of characteristics of random highly scattering medium (like bio-tissue) is considered. Spatial distribution of the backscattered light calculated by Monte Carlo method is used to train ANN for multiply scattering regimes. The potential opportunities of use of ANN for image reconstruction of an absorbing macro inhomogeneity located in topical layers of random scattering medium are presented. This is especially of high priority because of new diagnostics/treatment developing that is based on the applying gold nano-particles for labeling cancer cells.

  17. Lung Volume, Breathing Pattern and Ventilation Inhomogeneity in Preterm and Term Infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Latzin, Philipp; Roth, Stefan; Thamrin, Cindy; Hutten, Gerard J.; Pramana, Isabelle; Kuehni, Claudia E.; Casaulta, Carmen; Nelle, Matthias; Riedel, Thomas; Frey, Urs


    Background: Morphological changes in preterm infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) have functional consequences on lung volume, ventilation inhomogeneity and respiratory mechanics. Although some studies have shown lower lung volumes and increased ventilation inhomogeneity in BPD infants,

  18. Inhomogeneity of methane emissions from a dairy waste lagoon. (United States)

    Grant, Richard H; Boehm, Matthew T


    Methane (CH4) is the dominant greenhouse gas emitted by animal agriculture manure. Since the gas is relatively insoluble in water, it is concentrated in discrete bubbles that rise through waste lagoons and burst at the surface. This results in lagoon emissions that are inhomogeneous in both space and time. Emissions from a midwestern dairy waste lagoon were measured over 2 weeks to evaluate the spatial homogeneity of the source emissions and to compare two methods for measuring this inhomogeneous emission. Emissions were determined using an inverse dispersion model based on CH4 concentrations measured both by a single scanning tunable diode laser (TDL) aimed at a series of reflectors and by flame ionization detection (FID) gas chromatography on line-sampled air. Emissions were best estimated using scanned TDL concentrations over relatively short optical paths that collectively span the entire cross-wind width of the source, so as to provide both the best capture of discrete plumes from the bursting bubbles on the lagoon surface and the best detection of CH4 background concentrations. The lagoon emissions during the study were spatially inhomogeneous at hourly time scales. Partitioning the inhomogeneous source into two source regions reduced the estimated emissions of the overall lagoon by 57% but increased the variability. Consequently, it is important to assess the homogeneity of a source prior to measurements and final emissions calculation. Plans for measuring methane emissions from waste lagoons must take into account the spatial inhomogeneity of the source strength. The assumption of emission source homogeneity for a low-solubility gas such as CH4 emitted from an animal waste lagoon can result in significant emission overestimates. The entire breadth and length of the area source must be measured, preferably with multiple optical paths, for the detection of discrete plumes from the different emitting regions and for determining the background concentration

  19. Measurement of the microwave emitter's inhomogeneity using optical fiber DTS (United States)

    Jaros, Jakub; Papes, Martin; Liner, Andrej; Vašinek, Vladimir; Smira, Pavel; Nasswettrova, Andrea; Cubik, Jakub; Kepak, Stanislav


    Researcher's teams were dealing with the microwave emitter's inhomogeneity problem since the microwaves were used. One possible way, how to measure electromagnetic field is the measurement on inhomogeneous temperature distribution on the irradiated sample, which can cause problems as in other material processing, so in the undesirable change of properties and even security. Inhomogeneity of electromagnetic field is specific by creating spots with higher or lower temperature called "hot spots". This inhomogeneity strongly affects the temperature distribution in the cross section of the material and its resultant heating. Given the impossibility of using classical electronic devices with metal temperature sensors were various indirect methods used in the past. This paper deals with experimental measurement of the microwave emitter's inhomogeneity (2.45 GHz) using the optical fiber DTS. The greatest advantage of this sensor system is just in using of the optical fiber (electromagnetic resistance, small size, safety using in inflammable and explosive area, easy installation). Due to these properties of the optical fiber sensor it's possible to measure the temperature of the sample in real time. These sensor are able to measure the temperature along the fiber, in some cases they use nonlinear effect in optical fiber (Raman nonlinear effect). The verification of non-homogeneity consists in experimental measuring of the temperature distribution within the wooden sample. The method is based on heat exchange in an isolated system where wooden sample serves as an absorber of the irradiated energy. To identify locations with different power density was used DTS system, based on nonlinear phenomena in optical fibers.

  20. SU-G-TeP3-14: Three-Dimensional Cluster Model in Inhomogeneous Dose Distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, J [City College of New York, New York, NY (United States); Penagaricano, J; Narayanasamy, G [University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR (United States); Chao, M [The Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York, NY (United States)


    Purpose: We aim to investigate 3D cluster formation in inhomogeneous dose distribution to search for new models predicting radiation tissue damage and further leading to new optimization paradigm for radiotherapy planning. Methods: The aggregation of higher dose in the organ at risk (OAR) than a preset threshold was chosen as the cluster whose connectivity dictates the cluster structure. Upon the selection of the dose threshold, the fractional density defined as the fraction of voxels in the organ eligible to be part of the cluster was determined according to the dose volume histogram (DVH). A Monte Carlo method was implemented to establish a case pertinent to the corresponding DVH. Ones and zeros were randomly assigned to each OAR voxel with the sampling probability equal to the fractional density. Ten thousand samples were randomly generated to ensure a sufficient number of cluster sets. A recursive cluster searching algorithm was developed to analyze the cluster with various connectivity choices like 1-, 2-, and 3-connectivity. The mean size of the largest cluster (MSLC) from the Monte Carlo samples was taken to be a function of the fractional density. Various OARs from clinical plans were included in the study. Results: Intensive Monte Carlo study demonstrates the inverse relationship between the MSLC and the cluster connectivity as anticipated and the cluster size does not change with fractional density linearly regardless of the connectivity types. An initially-slow-increase to exponential growth transition of the MSLC from low to high density was observed. The cluster sizes were found to vary within a large range and are relatively independent of the OARs. Conclusion: The Monte Carlo study revealed that the cluster size could serve as a suitable index of the tissue damage (percolation cluster) and the clinical outcome of the same DVH might be potentially different.

  1. Percentage depth dose distributions in inhomogeneous phantoms with lung and bone equivalent media for small fields of CyberKnife

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Chung Il; Yoon, Sei-Chul; Suh, Tae Suk; Hong, Seung-Woo; Min, Kyung Joo; Lee, Sang Deok; Chung, Su Mi; Jung, Jae-Yong


    The percentage depth dose distributions in inhomogeneous phantoms with lung and bone equivalent media are studied. For lung equivalent media a Balsa wood is used, and for a soft bone equivalent media a compound material with epoxy resin, hardener and calcium carbonate is used. Polystyrene slabs put together with these materials are used as an inhomogeneous phantom. Dose measurements are performed with Gafchromic EBT film by using photon beams from 6MV CyberKnife at the Seoul Uridul Hospital. The cone sizes of the photon beams are varied from 5, 10 to 30 mm. As a simulation tool GEANT4 Monte Carlo code v9.4.p02 is used. When the Balsa wood is inserted in the phantom, the dose measured with EBT film is found to be significantly different from the dose without the EBT film in and beyond the Balsa wood region, particularly for small field sizes. On the other hand, when the soft bone equivalent material is inserted in the phantom, discrepancy between the dose measured with EBT film and the dose without EBT film ca...

  2. Study of solid-liquid phase transition using the modified weighted density approximation of inhomogeneous hard sphere systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Moradi


    Full Text Available  In this article we first introduce the weighted density approximation (WDA to study the classical inhomogeneous system such as inhomogeneous fluids. Then we introduce the modified weighted density approximation (MWDA to calculate the structure and thermodynamical properties of the FCC hard sphere crystal. The MWDA is a self consistent method where the free energy is expressed as an unperturbed expression. Usually the required input is the Percus-Yevick (PY direct correlation function of hard sphere. In addition to this, we use the hard sphere DCF introduced by Roth et al. [ J. Phys. Condense Matter, 14, 12063 (2002. ], here we call it RELK, we also introduce a new expression for the DCF which is a combination of the PY and RELK. This new expression gives the best result for the DCF of hard sphere, as it compared with the Monte Carlo simulation. In our calculation we use all these DCFs to calculate the free energy and freezing parameters of FCC hard sphere crystals. Although we obtained the better results using the PY-RELK DCF but it seems we should improve the MWDA to get better result.

  3. Multilevel sequential Monte Carlo samplers

    KAUST Repository

    Beskos, Alexandros


    In this article we consider the approximation of expectations w.r.t. probability distributions associated to the solution of partial differential equations (PDEs); this scenario appears routinely in Bayesian inverse problems. In practice, one often has to solve the associated PDE numerically, using, for instance finite element methods which depend on the step-size level . hL. In addition, the expectation cannot be computed analytically and one often resorts to Monte Carlo methods. In the context of this problem, it is known that the introduction of the multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) method can reduce the amount of computational effort to estimate expectations, for a given level of error. This is achieved via a telescoping identity associated to a Monte Carlo approximation of a sequence of probability distributions with discretization levels . ∞>h0>h1⋯>hL. In many practical problems of interest, one cannot achieve an i.i.d. sampling of the associated sequence and a sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) version of the MLMC method is introduced to deal with this problem. It is shown that under appropriate assumptions, the attractive property of a reduction of the amount of computational effort to estimate expectations, for a given level of error, can be maintained within the SMC context. That is, relative to exact sampling and Monte Carlo for the distribution at the finest level . hL. The approach is numerically illustrated on a Bayesian inverse problem. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

  4. Do we need Monte Carlo treatment planning for linac based radiosurgery? A case study. (United States)

    Ayyangar, K M; Jiang, S B


    The accuracy of conventional empirical and semi-empirical dose calculation algorithms for radiation therapy treatment planning is limited. The main problem is that these algorithms fail to adequately consider the lateral transport of radiation. Most conventional algorithms use measured dose distribution data as input. These data induce an added inaccuracy to stereotactic radiosurgery dose calculations due to the difficulty of acquiring accurate dosimetric data for very small beams; however, since multiple arcs of large solid angles are usually used in stereotactic radiosurgery, the errors introduced by conventional dose algorithms are quite likely to be diluted. The use of Monte Carlo treatment planning for stereotactic radiosurgery has been investigated and described in the present paper. The OMEGA Monte Carlo code system is used as the dose engine in an in-house developed radiosurgery treatment planning system. The Monte Carlo treatment plans are done for two typical clinical cases. In one case, the collimator of 20 mm diameter is used and the lesion is located in the peripheral part of the brain. In the other case, the collimator diameter is 30 mm and the lesion is in the central part of the brain. The resultant dose distributions are compared with those calculated with a conventional dose algorithm which is based on the standard Tissue Maximum Ratio (TMR)/Off Axis Ratio (OAR) formalism. Without the inhomogeneity correction, the conventional algorithm yields accurate relative dose distributions for both cases compared with the Monte Carlo calculations. The absolute dose at the isocenter may be overestimated by the conventional algorithm by 1.5% for the first case and 2.6% for the second case; however, using the method of ratio of TMRs for inhomogeneity correction, the overestimation can be greatly reduced for both cases. The inclusion of the inhomogeneity correction into the conventional dose algorithm does not alter the relative dose distributions. Based on the

  5. Proton Upset Monte Carlo Simulation (United States)

    O'Neill, Patrick M.; Kouba, Coy K.; Foster, Charles C.


    The Proton Upset Monte Carlo Simulation (PROPSET) program calculates the frequency of on-orbit upsets in computer chips (for given orbits such as Low Earth Orbit, Lunar Orbit, and the like) from proton bombardment based on the results of heavy ion testing alone. The software simulates the bombardment of modern microelectronic components (computer chips) with high-energy (.200 MeV) protons. The nuclear interaction of the proton with the silicon of the chip is modeled and nuclear fragments from this interaction are tracked using Monte Carlo techniques to produce statistically accurate predictions.

  6. Complex geometrical optics of inhomogeneous and nonlinear saturable media (United States)

    Berczynski, Pawel


    The method of complex geometrical optics (CGO) is presented, which describes Gaussian beam (GB) diffraction and self-focusing along curvilinear trajectory in smoothly inhomogeneous and nonlinear saturable media. CGO method reduces the problem of Gaussian beam propagation in inhomogeneous and nonlinear media to the system of the first order ordinary differential equations for the complex curvature of the wave front and for GB amplitude, which can be readily solved both analytically and numerically. As a result, CGO radically simplifies the description of Gaussian beam diffraction and self-focusing effects as compared to the other methods of nonlinear optics such as: variational method approach, method of moments and beam propagation method. The power of CGO method is presented on the example of the evolution of beam intensity and wave front cross-section along curvilinear central ray with torsion in weakly absorptive and nonlinear saturable graded-index fiber, where the effect of initial beam ellipticity is included into our description.

  7. Influence of inhomogeneities on holographic mutual information and butterfly effect (United States)

    Cai, Rong-Gen; Zeng, Xiao-Xiong; Zhang, Hai-Qing


    We study the effect of inhomogeneity, which is induced by the graviton mass in massive gravity, on the mutual information and the chaotic behavior of a 2+1-dimensional field theory from the gauge/gravity duality. When the system is near-homogeneous, the mutual information increases as the graviton mass grows. However, when the system is far from homogeneity, the mutual information decreases as the graviton mass increases. By adding the perturbations of energy into the system, we investigate the dynamical mutual information in the shock wave geometry. We find that the greater perturbations disrupt the mutual information more rapidly, which resembles the butterfly effect in chaos theory. Besides, the greater inhomogeneity reduces the dynamical mutual information more quickly just as in the static case.

  8. Phase transitions, inhomogeneous horizons and second-order hydrodynamics (United States)

    Attems, Maximilian; Bea, Yago; Casalderrey-Solana, Jorge; Mateos, David; Triana, Miquel; Zilhão, Miguel


    We use holography to study the spinodal instability of a four-dimensional, strongly-coupled gauge theory with a first-order thermal phase transition. We place the theory on a cylinder in a set of homogeneous, unstable initial states. The dual gravity configurations are black branes afflicted by a Gregory-Laflamme instability. We numerically evolve Einstein's equations to follow the instability until the system settles down to a stationary, inhomogeneous black brane. The dual gauge theory states have constant temperature but non-constant energy density. We show that the time evolution of the instability and the final states are accurately described by second-order hydrodynamics. In the static limit, the latter reduces to a single, second-order, non-linear differential equation from which the inhomogeneous final states can be derived.

  9. Glauber theory and the quantum coherence of curvature inhomogeneities

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannini, Massimo


    The curvature inhomogeneities are systematically scrutinized in the framework of the Glauber approach. The amplified quantum fluctuations of the scalar and tensor modes of the geometry are shown to be first-order coherent while the interference of the corresponding intensities is larger than in the case of Bose-Einstein correlations. After showing that the degree of second-order coherence does not suffice to characterize unambiguously the curvature inhomogeneities, we argue that direct analyses of the degrees of third and fourth-order coherence are necessary to discriminate between different correlated states and to infer more reliably the statistical properties of the large-scale fluctuations. We speculate that the moments of the multiplicity distributions of the relic phonons might be observationally accessible thanks to new generations of instruments able to count the single photons of the Cosmic Microwave Background in the THz region.

  10. Inhomogeneous and homogeneous broadening effects on nuclear resonance experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balko, B.; Kay, I.W.; Nicoll, J.; Silk, J.D.; Herling, G


    Inhomogeneous broadening of resonance lines causes a reduction of absorption in nuclear resonance experiments. This is particularly devastating to the observation of the Moessbauer effect in isomers like {sup 107}Ag with a half-life of 44s. It has been suggested in the literature that homogeneous broadening can provide overlap of resonance lines and thus the Moessbauer effect can be recovered. The analysis presented in this paper shows that this is not the case for Moessbauer experiments, unless the radiative width {gamma}{sub {gamma}} also increases. Although overlap occurs when the lines are homogeneously broadened to a total width {gamma}{sub H} which exceeds the natural width {gamma}, and the inhomogeneous width {delta}, the Moessbauer absorption remains low because it is proportional to the factor of {gamma}{sub {gamma}}/{gamma}{sub H}.

  11. Inhomogeneous and homogeneous broadening effects onnuclear resonance experiments (United States)

    Balko, B.; Kay, I. W.; Nicoll, J.; Silk, J. D.; Herling, G.


    Inhomogeneous broadening of resonance lines causes a reduction of absorption in nuclear resonance experiments. This is particularly devastating to the observation of the Mössbauer effect in isomers like 107Ag with a half-life of 44s.It has been suggested in the literature that homogeneous broadening can provide overlap of resonance lines and thus theMössbauer effect can be recovered. The analysis presented in this paper shows that this is not the case for Mössbauer experiments, unless the radiative width ΓΓ also increases. Although overlap occurs when the lines are homogeneously broadened to a total width Γ_H which exceeds the natural width Γ, and the inhomogeneous width Δ, the Mössbauer absorption remains low because it is proportional to the factor of Γγ/Γ H.

  12. Cloaking by shells with radially inhomogeneous anisotropic permittivity. (United States)

    Reshetnyak, V Yu; Pinkevych, I P; Sluckin, T J; Evans, D R


    We model electromagnetic cloaking of a spherical or cylindrical nanoparticle enclosed by an optically anisotropic and optically inhomogeneous symmetric shell, by examining its electric response in a quasi-static uniform electric field. When the components of the shell permittivity are radially anisotropic and power-law dependent (ε~r(m)) whereris distance to the shell center, and m a positive or negative exponent which can be varied), the problem is analytically tractable. Formulas are calculated for the degree of cloaking in the general case, allowing the determination of a dielectric condition for the shells to be used as an invisibility cloak. Ideal cloaking is known to require that homogeneous shells exhibit an infinite ratio of tangential and radial components of the shell permittivity, but for radially inhomogeneous shells ideal cloaking can occur even for finite values of this ratio.

  13. An automatically generated code for relativistic inhomogeneous cosmologies

    CERN Document Server

    Bentivegna, Eloisa


    The applications of numerical relativity to cosmology are on the rise, contributing insight into such cosmological problems as structure formation, primordial phase transitions, gravitational-wave generation, and inflation. In this paper, I present the infrastructure for the computation of inhomogeneous dust cosmologies which was used recently to measure the effect of nonlinear inhomogeneity on the cosmic expansion rate. I illustrate the code's architecture, provide evidence for its correctness in a number of familiar cosmological settings, and evaluate its parallel performance for grids of up to several billion points. The code, which is available as free software, is based on the Einstein Toolkit infrastructure, and in particular leverages the automated-code-generation capabilities provided by its component Kranc.

  14. Determination of critical exponents of inhomogeneous Gd films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosales-Rivera, A., E-mail: [Laboratorio de Magnetismo y Materiales Avanzados, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Manizales, Manizales (Colombia); Salazar, N.A. [Laboratorio de Magnetismo y Materiales Avanzados, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Manizales, Manizales (Colombia); Hovorka, O.; Idigoras, O.; Berger, A. [CIC nanoGUNE Consolider, Tolosa Hiribidea 76, E-20018 Donostia-San Sebastian (Spain)


    The role of inhomogeneity on the critical behavior is studied for non-epitaxial Gd films. For this purpose, the film inhomogeneity was varied experimentally by annealing otherwise identical samples at different temperatures T{sub AN}=200, 400, and 500 Degree-Sign C. Vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) was used for magnetization M vs. T measurements at different external fields H. A method based upon the linear superposition of different sample parts having different Curie temperatures T{sub C} was used to extract the critical exponents and the intrinsic distribution of Curie temperatures. We found that this method allows extracting reliable values of the critical exponents for all annealing temperatures, which enabled us to study the effects of disorder onto the universality class of Gd films.

  15. Spin diffusion from an inhomogeneous quench in an integrable system (United States)

    Ljubotina, Marko; Žnidarič, Marko; Prosen, Tomaž


    Generalized hydrodynamics predicts universal ballistic transport in integrable lattice systems when prepared in generic inhomogeneous initial states. However, the ballistic contribution to transport can vanish in systems with additional discrete symmetries. Here we perform large scale numerical simulations of spin dynamics in the anisotropic Heisenberg XXZ spin 1/2 chain starting from an inhomogeneous mixed initial state which is symmetric with respect to a combination of spin reversal and spatial reflection. In the isotropic and easy-axis regimes we find non-ballistic spin transport which we analyse in detail in terms of scaling exponents of the transported magnetization and scaling profiles of the spin density. While in the easy-axis regime we find accurate evidence of normal diffusion, the spin transport in the isotropic case is clearly super-diffusive, with the scaling exponent very close to 2/3, but with universal scaling dynamics which obeys the diffusion equation in nonlinearly scaled time.

  16. Polarized beam splitting effect in inhomogeneously magnetized magnetooptic films. (United States)

    Waring, M


    Linearly polarized light passing through a several micron thick magnetooptic film in the inhomogeneous magnetization state is split into a linearly polarized central beam and linearly polarized first and higher order diverging rings. The polarization of the central output beam lies in the same direction as the linearly polarized input, while the polarization of the diverging rings lies in a direction orthogonal to the input plane of polarization. The effect is described, and applications of the effect are discussed.

  17. Characterization of residual stresses generated during inhomogeneous plastic deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, T.; Faurholdt, T.; Clausen, B.


    Residual stresses generated by macroscopic inhomogeneous plastic deformation are predicted by an explicit finite element (FE) technique. The numerical predictions are evaluated by characterizing the residual elastic strains by neutron diffraction using two different (hkl) reflections. Intergranular...... compare well and verify the capability of the numerical technique as well as the possibilities of experimental validation using neutron diffraction. The presented experimental and numerical approach will subsequently be utilized for the evaluation of more complicated plastic deformation processes...

  18. Nonlinear gas chromatography as a way of studying inhomogeneous sorbents (United States)

    Kotel'nikova, T. A.


    A way of organizing and processing the results from gas-chromatographic experiments to obtain chromatographic retention characteristics for a fixed concentration of sorbate in the gas phase or on the surface of the sorbent is proposed and substantiated. The suitability and expediency of such retention characteristics for describing the sorption properties of inhomogenous sorbents is demonstrated using a wide variety of adsorbents of different natures (activated carbons, swelling and nonswelling polymers, silicas and their silver derivatives) as examples.

  19. Fundamental vibrational mode in a highly inhomogeneous star


    Bastrukov, S. I.; Chang, H. -K.; Wu, E. -H.; Molodtsova, I. V.


    The eigenfrequency problem of fundamental vibrational mode in a highly inhomogeneous star, modeled by self-gravitating mass of viscous liquid with singular density at the center, is considered in juxtaposition with that for Kelvin fundamental mode in the liquid star model with uniform density. Particular attention is given to the difference between spectral equations for the frequency and lifetime of f-mode in the singular and homogeneous star models. The newly obtained results are discussed ...

  20. Two-step estimation for inhomogeneous spatial point processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waagepetersen, Rasmus; Guan, Yongtao

    This paper is concerned with parameter estimation for inhomogeneous spatial point processes with a regression model for the intensity function and tractable second order properties (K-function). Regression parameters are estimated using a Poisson likelihood score estimating function and in a seco...... step minimum contrast estimation is applied for the residual clustering parameters. Asymptotic normality of parameter estimates is established under certain mixing conditions and we exemplify how the results may be applied in ecological studies of rain forests....

  1. Some Inhomogeneous Magnetized Viscous Fluid Cosmological Models with Varying $\\Lambda$


    Pradhan,Anirudh; Srivastav, Sudhir Kumar; Jotania, Kanti R.


    Some cylindrically symmetric inhomogeneous viscous fluid cosmological models with electro-magnetic field are obtained. To get a solution a supplementary condition between metric potentials is used. The viscosity coefficient of bulk viscous fluid is assumed to be a power function of mass density. Without assumin g any {\\it ad hoc} law, we obtain a cosmological constant as a decreasing function of time. The behaviour of the electro-magnetic field tensor together with some p hysical aspects of t...

  2. Influence of B{sub 1}-inhomogeneity on pharmacokinetic modeling of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI: A simulation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Bun Woo [Dept. of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Byung Se [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); and others


    To simulate the B1-inhomogeneity-induced variation of pharmacokinetic parameters on dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). B1-inhomogeneity-induced flip angle (FA) variation was estimated in a phantom study. Monte Carlo simulation was performed to assess the FA-deviation-induced measurement error of the pre-contrast R1, contrast-enhancement ratio, Gd-concentration, and two-compartment pharmacokinetic parameters (Ktrans, ve, and vp). B1-inhomogeneity resulted in −23–5% fluctuations (95% confidence interval [CI] of % error) of FA. The 95% CIs of FA-dependent % errors in the gray matter and blood were as follows: −16.7–61.8% and −16.7–61.8% for the pre-contrast R1, −1.0–0.3% and −5.2–1.3% for the contrast-enhancement ratio, and −14.2–58.1% and −14.1–57.8% for the Gd-concentration, respectively. These resulted in −43.1–48.4% error for Ktrans, −32.3–48.6% error for the ve, and −43.2–48.6% error for vp. The pre-contrast R1 was more vulnerable to FA error than the contrast-enhancement ratio, and was therefore a significant cause of the Gd-concentration error. For example, a −10% FA error led to a 23.6% deviation in the pre-contrast R1, −0.4% in the contrast-enhancement ratio, and 23.6% in the Gd-concentration. In a simulated condition with a 3% FA error in a target lesion and a −10% FA error in a feeding vessel, the % errors of the pharmacokinetic parameters were −23.7% for Ktrans, −23.7% for ve, and −23.7% for vp. Even a small degree of B1-inhomogeneity can cause a significant error in the measurement of pharmacokinetic parameters on DCE-MRI, while the vulnerability of the pre-contrast R1 calculations to FA deviations is a significant cause of the miscalculation.

  3. Magnetostatic modes in ferromagnetic samples with inhomogeneous internal fields (United States)

    Arias, Rodrigo


    Magnetostatic modes in ferromagnetic samples are very well characterized and understood in samples with uniform internal magnetic fields. More recently interest has shifted to the study of magnetization modes in ferromagnetic samples with inhomogeneous internal fields. The present work shows that under the magnetostatic approximation and for samples of arbitrary shape and/or arbitrary inhomogeneous internal magnetic fields the modes can be classified as elliptic or hyperbolic, and their associated frequency spectrum can be delimited. This results from the analysis of the character of the second order partial differential equation for the magnetostatic potential under these general conditions. In general, a sample with an inhomogeneous internal field and at a given frequency, may have regions of elliptic and hyperbolic character separated by a boundary. In the elliptic regions the magnetostatic modes have a smooth monotonic character (generally decaying form the surfaces (a ``tunneling'' behavior)) and in hyperbolic regions an oscillatory wave-like character. A simple local criterion distinguishes hyperbolic from elliptic regions: the sign of a susceptibility parameter. This study shows that one may control to some extent magnetostatic modes via external fields or geometry. R.E.A. acknowledges Financiamiento Basal para Centros Cientificos y Tecnologicos de Excelencia under Project No. FB 0807 (Chile), Grant No. ICM P10-061-F by Fondo de Innovacion para la Competitividad-MINECON, and Proyecto Fondecyt 1130192.

  4. Off-center observers versus supernovae in inhomogeneous pressure universes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balcerzak, Adam; Dabrowski, Mariusz P.; Denkiewicz, Tomasz [Institute of Physics, University of Szczecin, Wielkopolska 15, 70-451 Szczecin (Poland)


    Exact luminosity distance and apparent magnitude formulae are applied to the Union2 557 supernovae sample in order to constrain the possible position of an observer outside of the center of symmetry in spherically symmetric inhomogeneous pressure Stephani universes, which are complementary to inhomogeneous density Lemaître-Tolman-Bondi (LTB) void models. Two specific models are investigated. The first allows a barotropic equation of state at the center of symmetry without the need to specify a scale factor function (model IIA). The second has no barotropic equation of state at the center, but has an explicit dust-like scale factor evolution (model IIB). It is shown that even at 3σ CL, an off-center observer cannot be further than about 4.4 Gpc away from the center of symmetry, which is comparable to the reported size of a void in LTB models with the most likely value of the distance from the center at about 341 Mpc for model IIA and 68 Mpc for model IIB. The off-center observer cannot be farther away from the center than about 577 Mpc for model IIB at 3σ CL. It is determined that the best-fit parameters which characterize inhomogeneity are Ω{sub inh} = 0.77 (dimensionless: model IIA) and α = 7.31 × 10{sup –9} (s km{sup –1}){sup 2/3} Mpc{sup –4/3} (model IIB).

  5. Non-Linear Forced Vibrations of AN Inhomogeneous Layer (United States)



    The non-linear vibrations of an inhomogeneous soil layer which is subjected to a harmonic motion along its bottom are investigated in this study. The Ramberg-Osgood model is transformed to a suitable form to obtain an analytical solution and it is assumed that the shear modulus of the layer varies with depth. The governing equation is a non-linear partial differential equation. Because of weak non-linearity, the displacement and forcing frequency are expanded into perturbation series by using the Lindstedt-Poincaré technique, and it is assumed that the response has the same periodicity as the forcing. Then, the zeroeth and the first order linear equations of motion and boundary conditions are obtained. Different types of solutions are obtained for the zeroeth order equation depending on the inhomogeneity parameter α. The orthogonality condition of Millman-Keller [1] is used to extract secular terms which are important in the resonance region. Then, the variation of the amplitude at the top versus the forcing frequency Ω is investigated for some values of inhomogeneity and perturbation parameters.

  6. Control of inhomogeneous materials strength by method of acoustic emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. В. Носов


    Full Text Available The ambiguous connection between the results of acoustic emission control and the strength of materials makes acoustic-emission diagnosis ineffective and actualizes the problem of strength and metrological heterogeneity. Inhomogeneity is some deviation from a certain norm. The real object is always heterogeneous, homogeneity is an assumption that simplifies the image of the object and the solution of the tasks associated with it. The need to consider heterogeneity is due to the need to clarify a particular task and is a transition to a more complex level of research. Accounting for heterogeneity requires the definition of its type, criterion and method of evaluation. The type of heterogeneity depends on the problem being solved and should be related to the property that determines the function of the real object, the criterion should be informative, and the way of its evaluation is non-destructive. The complexity of predicting the behavior of heterogeneous materials necessitates the modeling of the destructive process that determines the operability, the formulation of the inhomogeneity criterion, the interpretation of the Kaiser effect, as showing inhomogeneity of the phenomenon of non-reproduction of acoustic emission (AE activity upon repeated loading of the examined object.The article gives an example of modeling strength and metrological heterogeneity, analyzes and estimates the informative effect of the Kaiser effect on the danger degree of state of diagnosed object from the positions of the micromechanical model of time dependencies of AE parameters recorded during loading of structural materials and technical objects.

  7. Inhomogeneous ensembles of radical pairs in chemical compasses (United States)

    Procopio, Maria; Ritz, Thorsten


    The biophysical basis for the ability of animals to detect the geomagnetic field and to use it for finding directions remains a mystery of sensory biology. One much debated hypothesis suggests that an ensemble of specialized light-induced radical pair reactions can provide the primary signal for a magnetic compass sensor. The question arises what features of such a radical pair ensemble could be optimized by evolution so as to improve the detection of the direction of weak magnetic fields. Here, we focus on the overlooked aspect of the noise arising from inhomogeneity of copies of biomolecules in a realistic biological environment. Such inhomogeneity leads to variations of the radical pair parameters, thereby deteriorating the signal arising from an ensemble and providing a source of noise. We investigate the effect of variations in hyperfine interactions between different copies of simple radical pairs on the directional response of a compass system. We find that the choice of radical pair parameters greatly influences how strongly the directional response of an ensemble is affected by inhomogeneity.

  8. A preliminary study of in-house Monte Carlo simulations: an integrated Monte Carlo verification system. (United States)

    Mukumoto, Nobutaka; Tsujii, Katsutomo; Saito, Susumu; Yasunaga, Masayoshi; Takegawa, Hideki; Yamamoto, Tokihiro; Numasaki, Hodaka; Teshima, Teruki


    To develop an infrastructure for the integrated Monte Carlo verification system (MCVS) to verify the accuracy of conventional dose calculations, which often fail to accurately predict dose distributions, mainly due to inhomogeneities in the patient's anatomy, for example, in lung and bone. The MCVS consists of the graphical user interface (GUI) based on a computational environment for radiotherapy research (CERR) with MATLAB language. The MCVS GUI acts as an interface between the MCVS and a commercial treatment planning system to import the treatment plan, create MC input files, and analyze MC output dose files. The MCVS consists of the EGSnrc MC codes, which include EGSnrc/BEAMnrc to simulate the treatment head and EGSnrc/DOSXYZnrc to calculate the dose distributions in the patient/phantom. In order to improve computation time without approximations, an in-house cluster system was constructed. The phase-space data of a 6-MV photon beam from a Varian Clinac unit was developed and used to establish several benchmarks under homogeneous conditions. The MC results agreed with the ionization chamber measurements to within 1%. The MCVS GUI could import and display the radiotherapy treatment plan created by the MC method and various treatment planning systems, such as RTOG and DICOM-RT formats. Dose distributions could be analyzed by using dose profiles and dose volume histograms and compared on the same platform. With the cluster system, calculation time was improved in line with the increase in the number of central processing units (CPUs) at a computation efficiency of more than 98%. Development of the MCVS was successful for performing MC simulations and analyzing dose distributions.

  9. Markov Chain Monte Carlo Methods

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Monte Carlo is a city in Monaco, famous for its casinos offering games of chance. Games of chance ex- hibit random behaviour, much like the random variables generated for the statistical simulation exercises. Early ideas of probability and simulation were developed in the context of gambling here and hence these simula-.

  10. Markov Chain Monte Carlo Methods

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Markov Chain Monte Carlo Methods. 2. The Markov Chain Case. K B Athreya, Mohan Delampady and T Krishnan. K B Athreya is a Professor at. Cornell University. His research interests include mathematical analysis, probability theory and its application and statistics. He enjoys writing for Resonance. His spare time is ...

  11. Exact Monte Carlo for molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lester, W.A. Jr.; Reynolds, P.J.


    A brief summary of the fixed-node quantum Monte Carlo method is presented. Results obtained for binding energies, the classical barrier height for H + H2, and the singlet-triplet splitting in methylene are presented and discussed. 17 refs.

  12. Monte Carlo calculations of nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pieper, S.C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Physics Div.


    Nuclear many-body calculations have the complication of strong spin- and isospin-dependent potentials. In these lectures the author discusses the variational and Green`s function Monte Carlo techniques that have been developed to address this complication, and presents a few results.

  13. Markov Chain Monte Carlo Methods

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Introduction. In parts 1 and 2 of this series it was shown how Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods can be employed to obtain satisfactory approximations for integrals that are not easy to evaluate analytically. Such integrals arise routinely in statistical problems. Some of the statistical concepts that are relevant for the ...

  14. Technical Note: Experimental carbon ion range verification in inhomogeneous phantoms using prompt gammas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, M.; Dauvergne, D.; Dedes, G.; Krimmer, J.; Ray, C.; Testa, E., E-mail:; Testa, M. [IPNL, Université de Lyon, Lyon F-69003 |(France); Université Lyon 1, Villeurbanne F-69622 (France); CNRS/IN2P3, UMR 5822, Villeurbanne F-69622 (France); De Rydt, M. [IPNL, Université de Lyon, Lyon F-69003 (France); Université Lyon 1, Villeurbanne F-69622 (France); CNRS/IN2P3, UMR 5822, Villeurbanne F-69622 (France); Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, Leuven B-3001 (Belgium); Freud, N.; Létang, J. M. [CREATIS, Université de Lyon, Lyon F-69003 (France); Université Lyon 1, Villeurbanne F-69622 (France); CNRS UMR 5220, INSERM U1044, INSA-Lyon, Centre Léon Bérard, 69008 Lyon (France)


    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to experimentally assess the possibility to monitor carbon ion range variations—due to tumor shift and/or elongation or shrinking—using prompt-gamma (PG) emission with inhomogeneous phantoms. Such a study is related to the development of PG monitoring techniques to be used in a carbon ion therapy context. Methods: A 95 MeV/u carbon ion beam was used to irradiate phantoms with a variable density along the ion path to mimic the presence of bone and lung in homogeneous humanlike tissue. PG profiles were obtained after a longitudinal scan of the phantoms. A setup comprising a narrow single-slit collimator and two detectors placed at 90° with respect to the beam axis was used. The time of flight technique was applied to allow the selection between PG and background events. Results: Using the positions at 50% entrance and 50% falloff of the PG profiles, a quantity called prompt-gamma profile length (PGPL) is defined. It is possible to observe shifts in the PGPL when there are absolute ion range shifts as small as 1–2 mm. Quantitatively, for an ion range shift of −1.33 ± 0.46 mm (insertion of a Teflon slab), a PGPL difference of −1.93 ± 0.58 mm and −1.84 ± 1.27 mm is obtained using a BaF{sub 2} and a NaI(Tl) detector, respectively. In turn, when an ion range shift of 4.59 ± 0.42 mm (insertion of a lung-equivalent material slab) is considered, the difference is of 4.10 ± 0.54 and 4.39 ± 0.80 mm for the same detectors. Conclusions: Herein, experimental evidence of the usefulness of employing PG to monitor carbon ion range using inhomogeneous phantoms is presented. Considering the homogeneous phantom as reference, the results show that the information provided by the PG emission allows for detecting ion range shifts as small as 1–2 mm. When considering the expected PG emission from an energy slice in a carbon ion therapy scenario, the experimental setup would allow to retrieve the same PGPL as the high statistics of

  15. (U) Introduction to Monte Carlo Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hungerford, Aimee L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Monte Carlo methods are very valuable for representing solutions to particle transport problems. Here we describe a “cook book” approach to handling the terms in a transport equation using Monte Carlo methods. Focus is on the mechanics of a numerical Monte Carlo code, rather than the mathematical foundations of the method.

  16. Comparison of the Batho, ETAR and Monte Carlo dose calculation methods in CT based patient models. (United States)

    du Plessis, F C; Willemse, C A; Lötter, M G; Goedhals, L


    This paper shows the contribution that Monte Carlo methods make in regard to dose distribution calculations in CT based patient models and the role it plays as a gold standard to evaluate other dose calculation algorithms. The EGS4 based BEAM code was used to construct a generic 8 MV accelerator to obtain a series of x-ray field sources. These were used in the EGS4 based DOSXYZ code to generate beam data in a mathematical water phantom to set up a beam model in a commercial treatment planning system (TPS), CADPLAN V.2.7.9. Dose distributions were calculated with the Batho and ETAR inhomogeneity correction algorithms in head/sinus, lung, and prostate patient models for 2 x 2, 5 x 5, and 10 X 10 cm2 open x-ray beams. Corresponding dose distributions were calculated with DOSXYZ that were used as a benchmark. The dose comparisons are expressed in terms of 2D isodose distributions, percentage depth dose data, and dose difference volume histograms (DDVH's). Results indicated that the Batho and ETAR methods contained inaccuracies of 20%-70% in the maxillary sinus region in the head model. Large lung inhomogeneities irradiated with small fields gave rise to absorbed dose deviations of 10%-20%. It is shown for a 10 x 10 cm2 field that DOSXYZ models lateral scatter in lung that is not present in the Batho and ETAR methods. The ETAR and Batho methods are accurate within 3% in a prostate model. We showed how the performance of these inhomogeneity correction methods can be understood in realistic patient models using validated Monte Carlo codes such as BEAM and DOSXYZ.

  17. Monte Carlo Particle Lists: MCPL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kittelmann, Thomas; Klinkby, Esben Bryndt; Bergbäck Knudsen, Erik


    simulation packages. Program summary: Program Title: MCPL. Program Files doi: Licensing provisions: CC0 for core MCPL, see LICENSE file for details. Programming language: C and C++ External routines/libraries: Geant4, MCNP, McStas, McXtrace Nature of problem: Saving......A binary format with lists of particle state information, for interchanging particles between various Monte Carlo simulation applications, is presented. Portable C code for file manipulation is made available to the scientific community, along with converters and plugins for several popular...... particle states in Monte Carlo simulations, for interchange between simulation packages or for reuse within a single package. Solution method: Binary interchange format with associated code written in portable C along with tools and interfaces for relevant simulation packages....

  18. Shell model Monte Carlo methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koonin, S.E. [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States). W.K. Kellogg Radiation Lab.; Dean, D.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)


    We review quantum Monte Carlo methods for dealing with large shell model problems. These methods reduce the imaginary-time many-body evolution operator to a coherent superposition of one-body evolutions in fluctuating one-body fields; resultant path integral is evaluated stochastically. We first discuss the motivation, formalism, and implementation of such Shell Model Monte Carlo methods. There then follows a sampler of results and insights obtained from a number of applications. These include the ground state and thermal properties of pf-shell nuclei, thermal behavior of {gamma}-soft nuclei, and calculation of double beta-decay matrix elements. Finally, prospects for further progress in such calculations are discussed. 87 refs.

  19. Adaptive Multilevel Monte Carlo Simulation

    KAUST Repository

    Hoel, H


    This work generalizes a multilevel forward Euler Monte Carlo method introduced in Michael B. Giles. (Michael Giles. Oper. Res. 56(3):607–617, 2008.) for the approximation of expected values depending on the solution to an Itô stochastic differential equation. The work (Michael Giles. Oper. Res. 56(3):607– 617, 2008.) proposed and analyzed a forward Euler multilevelMonte Carlo method based on a hierarchy of uniform time discretizations and control variates to reduce the computational effort required by a standard, single level, Forward Euler Monte Carlo method. This work introduces an adaptive hierarchy of non uniform time discretizations, generated by an adaptive algorithmintroduced in (AnnaDzougoutov et al. Raùl Tempone. Adaptive Monte Carlo algorithms for stopped diffusion. In Multiscale methods in science and engineering, volume 44 of Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. Eng., pages 59–88. Springer, Berlin, 2005; Kyoung-Sook Moon et al. Stoch. Anal. Appl. 23(3):511–558, 2005; Kyoung-Sook Moon et al. An adaptive algorithm for ordinary, stochastic and partial differential equations. In Recent advances in adaptive computation, volume 383 of Contemp. Math., pages 325–343. Amer. Math. Soc., Providence, RI, 2005.). This form of the adaptive algorithm generates stochastic, path dependent, time steps and is based on a posteriori error expansions first developed in (Anders Szepessy et al. Comm. Pure Appl. Math. 54(10):1169– 1214, 2001). Our numerical results for a stopped diffusion problem, exhibit savings in the computational cost to achieve an accuracy of ϑ(TOL),from(TOL−3), from using a single level version of the adaptive algorithm to ϑ(((TOL−1)log(TOL))2).

  20. NMR, MRI, and spectroscopic MRI in inhomogeneous fields (United States)

    Demas, Vasiliki; Pines, Alexander; Martin, Rachel W; Franck, John; Reimer, Jeffrey A


    A method for locally creating effectively homogeneous or "clean" magnetic field gradients (of high uniformity) for imaging (with NMR, MRI, or spectroscopic MRI) both in in-situ and ex-situ systems with high degrees of inhomogeneous field strength. THe method of imaging comprises: a) providing a functional approximation of an inhomogeneous static magnetic field strength B.sub.0({right arrow over (r)}) at a spatial position {right arrow over (r)}; b) providing a temporal functional approximation of {right arrow over (G)}.sub.shim(t) with i basis functions and j variables for each basis function, resulting in v.sub.ij variables; c) providing a measured value .OMEGA., which is an temporally accumulated dephasing due to the inhomogeneities of B.sub.0({right arrow over(r)}); and d) minimizing a difference in the local dephasing angle .phi.({right arrow over (r)},t)=.gamma..intg..sub.0.sup.t{square root over (|{right arrow over (B)}.sub.1({right arrow over (r)},t')|.sup.2+({right arrow over (r)}{right arrow over (G)}.sub.shimG.sub.shim(t')+.parallel.{right arrow over (B)}.sub.0({right arrow over (r)}){right arrow over (r)},t'/.gamma/).sup.2)}dt'-.OMEGA. by varying the v.sub.ij variables to form a set of minimized v.sub.ij variables. The method requires calibration of the static fields prior to minimization, but may thereafter be implemented without such calibration, may be used in open or closed systems, and potentially portable systems.

  1. Sensitivity of resistive and Hall measurements to local inhomogeneities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koon, Daniel W.; Wang, Fei; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth


    We derive exact, analytic expressions for the sensitivity of sheet resistance and Hall sheet resistance measurements to local inhomogeneities for the cases of nonzero magnetic fields, strong perturbations, and perturbations over a finite area, extending our earlier results on weak perturbations. We...... express these sensitivities for conductance tensor components and for other charge transport quantities. Both resistive and Hall sensitivities, for a van der Pauw specimen in a finite magnetic field, are a superposition of the zero-field sensitivities to both sheet resistance and Hall sheet resistance...

  2. Intrinsic inhomogeneities and effects of resistive switching in doped manganites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tulina, N.A. [Institute of Solid State Physics RASc, Chernogolovka 142432, Moscow dist. (Russian Federation)]. E-mail:; Uspenskaya, L.S. [Institute of Solid State Physics RASc, Chernogolovka 142432, Moscow dist. (Russian Federation); Sirotkin, V.V. [Institute of Microelectronics Technology and High Purity Materials RASc, Chernogolovka 142432, Moscow dist. (Russian Federation); Mukovskii, Y.M. [Moscow State Steel and Alloys Institute, Leninskii pr-t 4, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Shulyatev, D.A. [Moscow State Steel and Alloys Institute, Leninskii pr-t 4, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)


    The effect of resistive switching in doped manganites being in the ferromagnetic state has been studied using resistive and magneto-optic methods. The visualization of magnetic structure of La{sub 0.75}Sr{sub 0.25}MnO{sub 3-x} single crystals, and its transformation under electric current proposed local superheating of the material above the Curie temperature, which was supported by numerical calculation. The obtained results suggest a significant role of micrometer-scale inhomogeneity of manganites in phase separation, magnetic and transport properties of the material.

  3. Inhomogeneous atomic Bose-Fermi mixtures in cubic lattices. (United States)

    Cramer, M; Eisert, J; Illuminati, F


    We determine the ground state properties of inhomogeneous mixtures of bosons and fermions in cubic lattices and parabolic confining potentials. For finite hopping we determine the domain boundaries between Mott-insulator plateaux and hopping-dominated regions for lattices of arbitrary dimension within mean-field and perturbation theory. The results are compared with a new numerical method that is based on a Gutzwiller variational approach for the bosons and an exact treatment for the fermions. The findings can be applied as a guideline for future experiments with trapped atomic Bose-Fermi mixtures in optical lattices.

  4. Hydraulic jumps in inhomogeneous strongly coupled toroidal dust flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piel, Alexander, E-mail:; Wilms, Jochen [IEAP, Christian-Albrechts-Universität, D-24098 Kiel (Germany)


    The inhomogeneous flow of strongly coupled dust particles in a toroidal particle trap with harmonic radial confinement is analyzed in the incompressible fluid limit. It is shown that the flow can spontaneously generate shock-like events, which are similar to the hydraulic jump in open channel flows. A definition of the Froude number for this model is given and the critical speed is recovered as the group velocity of surface waves. This hydraulic model is compared with molecular-dynamics simulations, which show that a sudden bifurcation of the flow lines and a localized temperature peak appear just at the point where the critical condition for the hydraulic jump is located.

  5. Inhomogeneity-induced cosmic acceleration in a dust universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuang, C-H; Gu, J-A; Hwang, W-Y P [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)], E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:


    It is the common consensus that the expansion of a universe always slows down if the gravity provided by the energy sources therein is attractive and accordingly one needs to invoke dark energy as a source of anti-gravity for understanding the cosmic acceleration. To examine this point we find counterexamples for a spherically symmetric dust fluid described by the LemaItre-Tolman-Bondi solution without singularity. Thus, the validity of this naive consensus is indeed doubtful and the effects of inhomogeneities should be restudied. These counter-intuitive examples open a new perspective on the understanding of the evolution of our universe.

  6. Estimation of geometrically undistorted B0 inhomogeneity maps (United States)

    Matakos, A.; Balter, J.; Cao, Y.


    Geometric accuracy of MRI is one of the main concerns for its use as a sole image modality in precision radiation therapy (RT) planning. In a state-of-the-art scanner, system level geometric distortions are within acceptable levels for precision RT. However, subject-induced B0 inhomogeneity may vary substantially, especially in air-tissue interfaces. Recent studies have shown distortion levels of more than 2 mm near the sinus and ear canal are possible due to subject-induced field inhomogeneity. These distortions can be corrected with the use of accurate B0 inhomogeneity field maps. Most existing methods estimate these field maps from dual gradient-echo (GRE) images acquired at two different echo-times under the assumption that the GRE images are practically undistorted. However distortion that may exist in the GRE images can result in estimated field maps that are distorted in both geometry and intensity, leading to inaccurate correction of clinical images. This work proposes a method for estimating undistorted field maps from GRE acquisitions using an iterative joint estimation technique. The proposed method yields geometrically corrected GRE images and undistorted field maps that can also be used for the correction of images acquired by other sequences. The proposed method is validated through simulation, phantom experiments and applied to patient data. Our simulation results show that our method reduces the root-mean-squared error of the estimated field map from the ground truth by ten-fold compared to the distorted field map. Both the geometric distortion and the intensity corruption (artifact) in the images caused by the B0 field inhomogeneity are corrected almost completely. Our phantom experiment showed improvement in the geometric correction of approximately 1 mm at an air-water interface using the undistorted field map compared to using a distorted field map. The proposed method for undistorted field map estimation can lead to improved geometric

  7. Two-step estimation for inhomogeneous spatial point processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waagepetersen, Rasmus; Guan, Yongtao


    The paper is concerned with parameter estimation for inhomogeneous spatial point processes with a regression model for the intensity function and tractable second-order properties (K-function). Regression parameters are estimated by using a Poisson likelihood score estimating function and in the ...... and in the second step minimum contrast estimation is applied for the residual clustering parameters. Asymptotic normality of parameter estimates is established under certain mixing conditions and we exemplify how the results may be applied in ecological studies of rainforests....

  8. Slices method to describe ray propagation in inhomogeneous media (United States)

    Aguilar-Gutiérrez, J. F.; Arroyo Carrasco, M. L.; Iturbe-Castillo, M. D.


    We describe an alternative method that numerically calculates the trajectory followed by a light ray in rotationally symmetric inhomogeneous media in the paraxial approximation. The medium is divided into thin parallel slices and a radial quadratic refractive index is considered for each slice. The ABCD matrix is calculated in each slice and the trajectory of the ray was obtained. The method is demonstrated considering media with a refractive index distribution used to describe the human eye lens. The results are compared with the exact numerical solution for each particular distribution. In all cases, a good agreement is obtained for the proposed method and the exact numerical solution.

  9. Ventilation inhomogeneity in children with primary ciliary dyskinesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Kent; Buchvald, Frederik F; Marthin, June Kehlet


    damage in children with cystic fibrosis, which shares features with primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD). Normalised phase III slope indices S(cond) and S(acin) reflect function of the small conducting and acinar airways, respectively. The involvement of the peripheral airways assessed by MBW tests has......The lung clearance index (LCI) derived from the multiple breath inert gas washout (MBW) test reflects global ventilation distribution inhomogeneity. It is more sensitive than forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)) for detecting abnormal airway function and correlates closely with structural lung...

  10. Tight coupling expansion and fully inhomogeneous magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannini, Massimo


    The tight coupling expansion, appropriately generalized to include large-scale magnetic fields, allows the estimate of the brightness perturbations of CMB anisotropies for typical wavelengths that are larger than the Hubble radius after matter-radiation equality. After discussing the basic features of the the pre-decoupling initial conditions in the presence of fully inhomogeneous magnetic fields, the tight coupling expansion is studied both analytically and numerically. From the requirement that the amplitudes and phases of Sakharov oscillations are (predominantly) adiabatic and from the inferred value of the plateau in the temperature autocorrelation, the effects of the magnetized contribution can be systematically investigated and constrained.

  11. Optical bistabilities of higher harmonics: Inhomogeneous and transverse effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, S.S., E-mail: [Department of Mathematics, College of Science, University of Bahrain, P.O. Box 32038 (Bahrain); Manchester Metropolitan University, Dept. of Computing, Maths. and Digital Technology, Manchester M1 5GD (United Kingdom); Sharaby, Y.A., E-mail: [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Suez (Egypt); Ali, M.F.M., E-mail: [Department of Mathematics: Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); Joshi, A., E-mail: [Department of Physics, Eastern Illinois University, Charleston, IL 61920 (United States)


    The steady state behavior of optical bistable system in a ring cavity with transverse field variations and inhomogeneousely broadened two-level atoms is investigated outside the rotating wave approximation (RWA). Analytical and numerical investigation is presented for different cases of transverse field variations with Lorentzian or Gaussian line widths. When both (transverse and inhomogeneous) features taken into account, the first harmonic output field component outside the RWA exhibits a one-way switching down processes (butterfly OB) or reversed (clockwise) OB behavior, depending on the atomic linewidth shape.

  12. Inhomogeneous critical current in nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaudio, R., E-mail:; Hoog, K. P. M. op ' t; Zhou, Z.; Sahin, D.; Fiore, A. [COBRA Research Institute, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, NL-5600MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)


    A superconducting thin film with uniform properties is the key to realize nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors (SSPDs) with high performance and high yield. To investigate the uniformity of NbN films, we introduce and characterize simple detectors consisting of short nanowires with length ranging from 100 nm to 15 μm. Our nanowires, contrary to meander SSPDs, allow probing the homogeneity of NbN at the nanoscale. Experimental results, endorsed by a microscopic model, show the strongly inhomogeneous nature of NbN films on the sub-100 nm scale.

  13. How Does A Porous Shell Collapse? Delayed Buckling And Guided Folding Of Inhomogeneous Capsules


    Datta, Sujit S.; Kim, Shin-Hyun; Paulose, Jayson; Abbaspourrad, Alireza; Nelson, David R.; Weitz, David A


    Colloidal capsules can sustain an external osmotic pressure; however, for a sufficiently large pressure, they will ultimately buckle. This process can be strongly influenced by structural inhomogeneities in the capsule shells. We explore how the time delay before the onset of buckling decreases as the shells are made more inhomogeneous; this behavior can be quantitatively understood by coupling shell theory with Darcy's law. In addition, we show that the shell inhomogeneity can dramatically c...

  14. Inhomogeneous Deformation of Brain Tissue During Tension Tests

    CERN Document Server

    Rashid, Badar; Gilchrist, Michael D; 10.1016/j.commatsci.2012.05.030


    Mechanical characterization of brain tissue has been investigated extensively by various research groups over the past fifty years. These properties are particularly important for modelling Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). In this research, we present the design and calibration of a High Rate Tension Device (HRTD) capable of performing tests up to a maximum strain rate of 90/s. We use experimental and numerical methods to investigate the effects of inhomogeneous deformation of porcine brain tissue during tension at different specimen thicknesses (4.0-14.0 mm), by performing tension tests at a strain rate of 30/s. One-term Ogden material parameters (mu = 4395.0 Pa, alpha = -2.8) were derived by performing an inverse finite element analysis to model all experimental data. A similar procedure was adopted to determine Young's modulus (E= 11200 Pa) of the linear elastic regime. Based on this analysis, brain specimens of aspect ratio (diameter/thickness) S < 1.0 are required to minimise the effects of inhomogeneous...

  15. Size effects on magnetoelectric response of multiferroic composite with inhomogeneities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yue, Y.M. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Mechanics in Energy Engineering, Department of Mechanics, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Xu, K.Y., E-mail: [Shanghai Institute of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Mechanics in Energy Engineering, Department of Mechanics, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Chen, T. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Mechanics in Energy Engineering, Department of Mechanics, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Aifantis, E.C. [Laboratory of Mechanics and Materials (LMM), Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki GR-54124 (Greece); Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI 49931 (United States); King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); School of Mechanics and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, 610031 (China); International Laboratory for Modern Functional Materials, ITMO University, St. Petersburg 191002 (Russian Federation)


    This paper investigates the influence of size effects on the magnetoelectric performance of multiferroic composite with inhomogeneities. Based on a simple model of gradient elasticity for multiferroic materials, the governing equations and boundary conditions are obtained from an energy variational principle. The general formulation is applied to consider an anti-plane problem of multiferroic composites with inhomogeneities. This problem is solved analytically and the effective magnetoelectric coefficient is obtained. The influence of the internal length (grain size or particle size) on the effective magnetoelectric coefficients of piezoelectric/piezomagnetic nanoscale fibrous composite is numerically evaluated and analyzed. The results suggest that with the increase of the internal length of piezoelectric matrix (PZT and BaTiO{sub 3}), the magnetoelectric coefficient increases, but the rate of increase is ratcheting downwards. If the internal length of piezoelectric matrix remains unchanged, the magnetoelectric coefficient will decrease with the increase of internal length scale of piezomagnetic nonfiber (CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 3}). In a composite consisiting of a piezomagnetic matrix (CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) reinforced with piezoelectric nanofibers (BaTiO{sub 3}), an increase of the internal length in the piezomagnetic matrix, results to a decrease of the magnetoelectric coefficient, with the rate of decrease diminishing.

  16. Stable dissipative optical vortex clusters by inhomogeneous effective diffusion. (United States)

    Li, Huishan; Lai, Shiquan; Qui, Yunli; Zhu, Xing; Xie, Jianing; Mihalache, Dumitru; He, Yingji


    We numerically show the generation of robust vortex clusters embedded in a two-dimensional beam propagating in a dissipative medium described by the generic cubic-quintic complex Ginzburg-Landau equation with an inhomogeneous effective diffusion term, which is asymmetrical in the two transverse directions and periodically modulated in the longitudinal direction. We show the generation of stable optical vortex clusters for different values of the winding number (topological charge) of the input optical beam. We have found that the number of individual vortex solitons that form the robust vortex cluster is equal to the winding number of the input beam. We have obtained the relationships between the amplitudes and oscillation periods of the inhomogeneous effective diffusion and the cubic gain and diffusion (viscosity) parameters, which depict the regions of existence and stability of vortex clusters. The obtained results offer a method to form robust vortex clusters embedded in two-dimensional optical beams, and we envisage potential applications in the area of structured light.

  17. Inhomogeneity of optical turbulence over False Bay (South Africa) (United States)

    Ullwer, Carmen; Sprung, Detlev; van Eijk, Alexander M. J.; Gunter, Willi; Stein, Karin


    Atmospheric turbulence impacts on the propagation of electro-optical radiation. Typical manifestations of optical turbulence are scintillation (intensity fluctuations), beam wander and (for laser systems) reduction of beam quality. For longer propagation channels, it is important to characterize the vertical and horizontal distribution (inhomogeneity) of the optical turbulence. In the framework of the First European South African Transmission ExpeRiment (FESTER) optical turbulence was measured between June 2015 and February 2016 on a 2 km over-water link over False Bay. The link ran from the Institute of Maritime Technology (IMT) in Simons Town to the lighthouse at Roman Rock Island. Three Boundary layer scintillometers (BLS900) allowed assessing the vertical distribution of optical turbulence at three different heights between 5 and 12 m above the water surface. The expected decrease of Cn2 with height is not always found. These results are analyzed in terms of the meteorological scenarios, and a comparison is made with a fourth optical link providing optical turbulence data over a 8.7 km path from IMT to Kalk Bay, roughly 36° to the north of the three 2 km paths. The results are related to the inhomogeneous meteorological conditions over the Bay as assessed with the numerical weather prediction tool, the Weather Forecast and Research model WRF.

  18. Inhomogeneous feed gas processing in industrial ozone generation. (United States)

    Krogh, Fabio; Merz, Reto; Gisler, Rudolf; Müller, Marco; Paolini, Bernhard; Lopez, Jose L; Freilich, Alfred


    The synthesis of ozone by means of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) is extensively used in industry. Ozone generators available on the market differ in ozone production capacities, electrode arrangements and working parameters, but operate with a uniformly distributed filamentary discharge plasma pattern.In the presented work the benefits of inhomogeneous feed gas processing are explored. Causality between power induction, production efficiency and working parameters are investigated. Different electrode arrangements, evenly distributed within a given space parameter, were designed, simulated, manufactured and tested on a representative scale. A finite element model was utilized to simulate an inhomogeneous power induction pattern along the ozone generator tube. The simulation yielded the local power density, the local gas temperature gradient and the relative DBD packing density.Results show that the degree of filamentation turns out to be decisive, indicating a new potential by means of plasma tailoring. An arrangement with a pronounced power induction at the inlet of the ozone generator revealed several advantages over homogeneous plasma processing arrangements, for which an increase in robustness and a reduction in electrical power consumption are achieved. Copyright (c) IWA Publishing 2008.

  19. Modeling of sectionally continuous communication channel with inhomogeneously distributed tissues. (United States)

    Zhang, Shuang; Qin, Yu-Ping; Kuang, Jiang-Ming; Liu, Yi-He; Yang, Ji-Ning; Yin, Fu-Cheng


    This study aimed to investigate effects on the transmission channel caused by heterogeneous distribution in tissues and joint characteristics. Human arm section scans were taken using CT technology, and zoned, following which, a circumference measurement experiment was performed to analyze the effect of inhomogeneous distribution of tissues. In order to analyze the arm joint's effect on channel transmission, we proposed a piecewise modeling method in combination with connection conditions. It can be seen from the experiment that, in the quasi-static mode, the communication channel error caused by the inhomogeneous distribution of tissues is small enough to be negligible. The error between calculated and experimental results is reduced by 3.93 dB in this experiment relative to models that did not include joint characteristics, and the average error is lowered by 0.73 dB. The variation curve fit to experimental data is also improved in this method. As such, it can be quantitatively determined that a channel model with joint characteristics is superior to models excluding joint characteristics.

  20. Statistical energy conservation principle for inhomogeneous turbulent dynamical systems. (United States)

    Majda, Andrew J


    Understanding the complexity of anisotropic turbulent processes over a wide range of spatiotemporal scales in engineering shear turbulence as well as climate atmosphere ocean science is a grand challenge of contemporary science with important societal impact. In such inhomogeneous turbulent dynamical systems there is a large dimensional phase space with a large dimension of unstable directions where a large-scale ensemble mean and the turbulent fluctuations exchange energy and strongly influence each other. These complex features strongly impact practical prediction and uncertainty quantification. A systematic energy conservation principle is developed here in a Theorem that precisely accounts for the statistical energy exchange between the mean flow and the related turbulent fluctuations. This statistical energy is a sum of the energy in the mean and the trace of the covariance of the fluctuating turbulence. This result applies to general inhomogeneous turbulent dynamical systems including the above applications. The Theorem involves an assessment of statistical symmetries for the nonlinear interactions and a self-contained treatment is presented below. Corollary 1 and Corollary 2 illustrate the power of the method with general closed differential equalities for the statistical energy in time either exactly or with upper and lower bounds, provided that the negative symmetric dissipation matrix is diagonal in a suitable basis. Implications of the energy principle for low-order closure modeling and automatic estimates for the single point variance are discussed below.

  1. Flexural Behavior of HPFRCC Members with Inhomogeneous Material Properties. (United States)

    Shin, Kyung-Joon; Jang, Kyu-Hyeon; Choi, Young-Cheol; Lee, Seong-Cheol


    In this paper, the flexural behavior of High-performance Fiber-Reinforced Cementitious Composite (HPFRCC) has been investigated, especially focusing on the localization of cracks, which significantly governs the flexural behavior of HPFRCC members. From four points bending tests with HPFRCC members, it was observed that almost evenly distributed cracks formed gradually, followed by a localized crack that determined the failure of the members. In order to investigate the effect of a localized crack on the flexural behavior of HPFRCC members, an analytical procedure has been developed with the consideration of intrinsic inhomogeneous material properties of HPFRCC such as cracking and ultimate tensile strengths. From the comparison, while the predictions with homogeneous material properties overestimated flexural strength and ductility of HPFRCC members, it was found that the analysis results considering localization effect with inhomogeneous material properties showed good agreement with the test results, not only the flexural strength and ductility but also the crack widths. The test results and the developed analysis procedure presented in this paper can be usefully applied for the prediction of flexural behaviors of HPFRCC members by considering the effect of localized cracking behavior.

  2. Dynamic laser speckle analyzed considering inhomogeneities in the biological sample (United States)

    Braga, Roberto A.; González-Peña, Rolando J.; Viana, Dimitri Campos; Rivera, Fernando Pujaico


    Dynamic laser speckle phenomenon allows a contactless and nondestructive way to monitor biological changes that are quantified by second-order statistics applied in the images in time using a secondary matrix known as time history of the speckle pattern (THSP). To avoid being time consuming, the traditional way to build the THSP restricts the data to a line or column. Our hypothesis is that the spatial restriction of the information could compromise the results, particularly when undesirable and unexpected optical inhomogeneities occur, such as in cell culture media. It tested a spatial random approach to collect the points to form a THSP. Cells in a culture medium and in drying paint, representing homogeneous samples in different levels, were tested, and a comparison with the traditional method was carried out. An alternative random selection based on a Gaussian distribution around a desired position was also presented. The results showed that the traditional protocol presented higher variation than the outcomes using the random method. The higher the inhomogeneity of the activity map, the higher the efficiency of the proposed method using random points. The Gaussian distribution proved to be useful when there was a well-defined area to monitor.

  3. Kinetic approach to the dynamics of strongly coupled inhomogeneous plasmas (United States)

    Kählert, Hanno; Kalman, Gabor J.; Bonitz, Michael


    Based on the BBGKY hierarchy and an extended STLS ansatz for the two-particle distribution function, we derive kinetic and fluid equations for strongly coupled inhomogeneous plasmas that take both strong coupling and thermal effects into account. The kinetic equation is employed to study the collective modes in a uniform plasma. The fluid equations are used to study the temperature dependence of the breathing mode of confined dusty plasmas, where excellent agreement with molecular dynamics simulations is observed. In the limit of weak density inhomogeneities, they can be reduced to the equations of linearized elasticity theory. The bulk and shear moduli emerge directly from the theory as integrals over the pair correlation function, and previous results in the literature are recovered. The theory should be useful to study the collective modes of confined strongly coupled plasmas, where large density variations make the application of methods that were developed for uniform systems impractical. Supported by the DAAD via a postdoctoral scholarship and the DFG via SFB-TR24.

  4. The fermion Monte Carlo revisited (United States)

    Assaraf, Roland; Caffarel, Michel; Khelif, Anatole


    In this work we present a detailed study of the fermion Monte Carlo algorithm (FMC), a recently proposed stochastic method for calculating fermionic ground-state energies. A proof that the FMC method is an exact method is given. In this work the stability of the method is related to the difference between the lowest (bosonic-type) eigenvalue of the FMC diffusion operator and the exact Fermi energy. It is shown that within a FMC framework the lowest eigenvalue of the new diffusion operator is no longer the bosonic ground-state eigenvalue as in standard exact diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) schemes but a modified value which is strictly greater. Accordingly, FMC can be viewed as an exact DMC method built from a correlated diffusion process having a reduced Bose-Fermi gap. As a consequence, the FMC method is more stable than any transient method (or nodal release-type approaches). It is shown that the most recent ingredient of the FMC approach (Kalos M H and Pederiva F 2000 Phys. Rev. Lett. 85 3547), namely the introduction of non-symmetric guiding functions, does not necessarily improve the stability of the algorithm. We argue that the stability observed with such guiding functions is in general a finite-size population effect disappearing for a very large population of walkers. The counterpart of this stability is a control population error which is different in nature from the standard diffusion Monte Carlo algorithm and which is at the origin of an uncontrolled approximation in FMC. We illustrate the various ideas presented in this work with calculations performed on a very simple model having only nine states but a full 'sign problem'. Already for this toy model it is clearly seen that FMC calculations are inherently uncontrolled.

  5. Monte Carlo techniques in radiation therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Verhaegen, Frank


    Modern cancer treatment relies on Monte Carlo simulations to help radiotherapists and clinical physicists better understand and compute radiation dose from imaging devices as well as exploit four-dimensional imaging data. With Monte Carlo-based treatment planning tools now available from commercial vendors, a complete transition to Monte Carlo-based dose calculation methods in radiotherapy could likely take place in the next decade. Monte Carlo Techniques in Radiation Therapy explores the use of Monte Carlo methods for modeling various features of internal and external radiation sources, including light ion beams. The book-the first of its kind-addresses applications of the Monte Carlo particle transport simulation technique in radiation therapy, mainly focusing on external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy. It presents the mathematical and technical aspects of the methods in particle transport simulations. The book also discusses the modeling of medical linacs and other irradiation devices; issues specific...

  6. The macro response Monte Carlo method for electron transport (United States)

    Svatos, Michelle Marie


    This thesis proves the feasibility of basing depth dose calculations for electron radiotherapy on first- principles single scatter physics, in an amount of time that is comparable to or better than current electron Monte Carlo methods. The Macro Response Monte Carlo (MRMC) method achieves run times that have potential to be much faster than conventional electron transport methods such as condensed history. This is possible because MRMC is a Local-to- Global method, meaning the problem is broken down into two separate transport calculations. The first stage is a local, single scatter calculation, which generates probability distribution functions (PDFs) to describe the electron's energy, position and trajectory after leaving the local geometry, a small sphere or 'kugel'. A number of local kugel calculations were run for calcium and carbon, creating a library of kugel data sets over a range of incident energies (0.25 MeV-8 MeV) and sizes (0.025 cm to 0.1 cm in radius). The second transport stage is a global calculation, where steps that conform to the size of the kugels in the library are taken through the global geometry, which in this case is a CT (computed tomography) scan of a patient or phantom. For each step, the appropriate PDFs from the MRMC library are sampled to determine the electron's new energy, position and trajectory. The electron is immediately advanced to the end of the step and then chooses another kugel to sample, which continues until transport is completed. The MRMC global stepping code was benchmarked as a series of subroutines inside of the Peregrine Monte Carlo code against EGS4 and MCNP for depth dose in simple phantoms having density inhomogeneities. The energy deposition algorithms for spreading dose across 5-10 zones per kugel were tested. Most resulting depth dose calculations were within 2-3% of well-benchmarked codes, with one excursion to 4%. This thesis shows that the concept of using single scatter-based physics in clinical radiation

  7. Suitability of new anode materials in mammography: dose and subject contrast considerations using Monte Carlo simulation. (United States)

    Delis, H; Spyrou, G; Costaridou, L; Tzanakos, G; Panayiotakis, G


    Mammography is the technique with the highest sensitivity and specificity, for the early detection of nonpalpable lesions associated with breast cancer. As screening mammography refers to asymptomatic women, the task of optimization between the image quality and the radiation dose is critical. A way toward optimization could be the introduction of new anode materials. A method for producing the x-ray spectra of different anode/filter combinations is proposed. The performance of several mammographic spectra, produced by both existing and theoretical anode materials, is evaluated, with respect to their dose and subject contrast characteristics, using a Monte Carlo simulation. The mammographic performance is evaluated utilizing a properly designed mathematical phantom with embedded inhomogeneities, irradiated with different spectra, based on combinations of conventional and new (Ru, Ag) anode materials, with several filters (Mo, Rh, Ru, Ag, Nb, Al). An earlier developed and validated Monte Carlo model, for deriving both image and dose characteristics in mammography, was utilized and overall performance results were derived in terms of subject contrast to dose ratio and squared subject contrast to dose ratio. Results demonstrate that soft spectra, mainly produced from Mo, Rh, and Ru anodes and filtered with k-edge filters, provide increased subject contrast for inhomogeneities of both small size, simulating microcalcifications and low density, simulating masses. The harder spectra (W and Ag anode) come short in the discrimination task but demonstrate improved performance when considering the dose delivered to the breast tissue. As far as the overall performance is concerned, new theoretical spectra demonstrate a noticeable good performance that is similar, and in some cases better compared to commonly used systems, stressing the possibility of introducing new materials in mammographic practice as a possible contribution to its optimization task. In the overall

  8. Mean field simulation for Monte Carlo integration

    CERN Document Server

    Del Moral, Pierre


    In the last three decades, there has been a dramatic increase in the use of interacting particle methods as a powerful tool in real-world applications of Monte Carlo simulation in computational physics, population biology, computer sciences, and statistical machine learning. Ideally suited to parallel and distributed computation, these advanced particle algorithms include nonlinear interacting jump diffusions; quantum, diffusion, and resampled Monte Carlo methods; Feynman-Kac particle models; genetic and evolutionary algorithms; sequential Monte Carlo methods; adaptive and interacting Marko

  9. Monte Carlo simulation of light propagation in skin tissue phantoms using a parallel computing method (United States)

    Wu, Di M.; Zhao, S. S.; Lu, Jun Q.; Hu, Xin-Hua


    In Monte Carlo simulations of light propagating in biological tissues, photons propagating in the media are described as classic particles being scattered and absorbed randomly in the media, and their path are tracked individually. To obtain any statistically significant results, however, a large number of photons is needed in the simulations and the calculations are time consuming and sometime impossible with existing computing resource, especially when considering the inhomogeneous boundary conditions. To overcome this difficulty, we have implemented a parallel computing technique into our Monte Carlo simulations. And this moment is well justified due to the nature of the Monte Carlo simulation. Utilizing the PVM (Parallel Virtual Machine, a parallel computing software package), parallel codes in both C and Fortran have been developed on the massive parallel computer of Cray T3E and a local PC-network running Unix/Sun Solaris. Our results show that parallel computing can significantly reduce the running time and make efficient usage of low cost personal computers. In this report, we present a numerical study of light propagation in a slab phantom of skin tissue using the parallel computing technique.

  10. Uncertainty Propagation with Fast Monte Carlo Techniques (United States)

    Rochman, D.; van der Marck, S. C.; Koning, A. J.; Sjöstrand, H.; Zwermann, W.


    Two new and faster Monte Carlo methods for the propagation of nuclear data uncertainties in Monte Carlo nuclear simulations are presented (the "Fast TMC" and "Fast GRS" methods). They are addressing the main drawback of the original Total Monte Carlo method (TMC), namely the necessary large time multiplication factor compared to a single calculation. With these new methods, Monte Carlo simulations can now be accompanied with uncertainty propagation (other than statistical), with small additional calculation time. The new methods are presented and compared with the TMC methods for criticality benchmarks.

  11. Analytical model of the statistical properties of contrast of large-scale ionospheric inhomogeneities. (United States)

    Vsekhsvyatskaya, I. S.; Evstratova, E. A.; Kalinin, Yu. K.; Romanchuk, A. A.


    A new analytical model is proposed for the distribution of variations of the relative electron-density contrast of large-scale ionospheric inhomogeneities. The model is characterized by other-than-zero skewness and kurtosis. It is shown that the model is applicable in the interval of horizontal dimensions of inhomogeneities from hundreds to thousands of kilometers.

  12. Effect of pre-existing baryon inhomogeneities on the dynamics of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    light elements, leading to an inhomogeneous nucleosynthesis scenario. Inhomogeneities generated during the quark–hadron (Q–H) transition may survive until nucleosynthesis, but those generated earlier (through baryogenesis mechanisms) are likely to be wiped out by the effects of neutrino inflation and baryon diffusion.

  13. Inhomogeneity of the grain size of aircraft engine turbine polycrystalline blades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Chmiela


    Full Text Available The determination of the behaviour of inhomogeneous materials with a complex microstructure requires taking into account the inhomogeneity of the grain size, as it is the basis for the process of designing and modelling effective behaviours. Therefore, the functional description of the inhomogeneity is becoming an important issue. The paper presents an analytical approach to the grain size inhomogeneity, based on the derivative of a logarithmic-logistic function. The solution applied enabled an effective evaluation of the inhomogeneity of two macrostructures of aircraft engine turbine blades, characterized by a high degree of diversity in the grain size. For the investigated single-modal and bimodal grain size distributions on a perpendicular projection and for grains with a non-planar surface, we identified the parameters that describe the degree of inhomogeneity of the constituents of weight distributions and we also derived a formula describing the overall degree of inhomogeneity of bimodal distributions. The solution presented in the paper is of a general nature and it can be used to describe the degree of inhomogeneity of multi-modal distributions. All the calculations were performed using the Mathematica® package.

  14. Collapse arresting in an inhomogeneous two-dimensional nonlinear Schrodinger model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjødt-Eriksen, Jens; Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich; Christiansen, Peter Leth


    Collapse of (2 + 1)-dimensional beams in the inhomogeneous two-dimensional cubic nonlinear Schrodinger equation is analyzed numerically and analytically. It is shown that in the vicinity of a narrow attractive inhomogeneity, the collapse of beams that in a homogeneous medium would collapse may be...

  15. geometric optics and WKB method for electromagnetic wave propagation in an inhomogeneous plasma near cutoff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Light, Max Eugene [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    This report outlines the theory underlying electromagnetic (EM) wave propagation in an unmagnetized, inhomogeneous plasma. The inhomogeneity is given by a spatially nonuniform plasma electron density ne(r), which will modify the wave propagation in the direction of the gradient rne(r).

  16. Spatial inhomogeneous barrier heights at graphene/semiconductor Schottky junctions (United States)

    Tomer, Dushyant

    Graphene, a semimetal with linear energy dispersion, forms Schottky junction when interfaced with a semiconductor. This dissertation presents temperature dependent current-voltage and scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/S) measurements performed on graphene Schottky junctions formed with both three and two dimensional semiconductors. To fabricate Schottky junctions, we transfer chemical vapor deposited monolayer graphene onto Si- and C-face SiC, Si, GaAs and MoS2 semiconducting substrates using polymer assisted chemical method. We observe three main type of intrinsic spatial inhomogeneities, graphene ripples, ridges and semiconductor steps in STM imaging that can exist at graphene/semiconductor junctions. Tunneling spectroscopy measurements reveal fluctuations in graphene Dirac point position, which is directly related to the Schottky barrier height. We find a direct correlation of Dirac point variation with the topographic undulations of graphene ripples at the graphene/SiC junction. However, no such correlation is established at graphene/Si and Graphene/GaAs junctions and Dirac point variations are attributed to surface states and trapped charges at the interface. In addition to graphene ripples and ridges, we also observe atomic scale moire patterns at graphene/MoS2 junction due to van der Waals interaction at the interface. Periodic topographic modulations due to moire pattern do not lead to local variation in graphene Dirac point, indicating that moire pattern does not contribute to fluctuations in electronic properties of the heterojunction. We perform temperature dependent current-voltage measurements to investigate the impact of topographic inhomogeneities on electrical properties of the Schottky junctions. We observe temperature dependence in junction parameters, such as Schottky barrier height and ideality factor, for all types of Schottky junctions in forward bias measurements. Standard thermionic emission theory which assumes a perfect

  17. Shear waves in inhomogeneous, compressible fluids in a gravity field. (United States)

    Godin, Oleg A


    While elastic solids support compressional and shear waves, waves in ideal compressible fluids are usually thought of as compressional waves. Here, a class of acoustic-gravity waves is studied in which the dilatation is identically zero, and the pressure and density remain constant in each fluid particle. These shear waves are described by an exact analytic solution of linearized hydrodynamics equations in inhomogeneous, quiescent, inviscid, compressible fluids with piecewise continuous parameters in a uniform gravity field. It is demonstrated that the shear acoustic-gravity waves also can be supported by moving fluids as well as quiescent, viscous fluids with and without thermal conductivity. Excitation of a shear-wave normal mode by a point source and the normal mode distortion in realistic environmental models are considered. The shear acoustic-gravity waves are likely to play a significant role in coupling wave processes in the ocean and atmosphere.

  18. Metric Expansion from Microscopic Dynamics in an Inhomogeneous Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Vongehr, Sascha


    Theories with ingredients like the Higgs mechanism, gravitons, and inflaton fields rejuvenate the idea that relativistic kinematics is dynamically emergent. Eternal inflation treats the Hubble constant H as depending on location. Microscopic dynamics implies that H is over much smaller lengths than pocket universes to be understood as a local space reproduction rate. We illustrate this via discussing that even exponential inflation in TeV-gravity is slow on the relevant time scale. In our on small scales inhomogeneous cosmos, a reproduction rate H depends on position. We therefore discuss Einstein-Straus vacuoles and a Lindquist-Wheeler like lattice to connect the local rate properly with the scaling of an expanding cosmos. Consistency allows H to locally depend on Weyl curvature similar to vacuum polarization. We derive a proportionality constant known from Kepler's third law and discuss the implications for the finiteness of the cosmological constant.

  19. Discharge characteristics in inhomogeneous fields under air flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Stephan; Holbøll, Joachim


    This research investigates the impact of high velocity air flow on Partial Discharge (PD) patterns generated in strongly inhomogeneous fields. In the laboratory, a needle plane electrode configuration was exposed to a high electrical DC-field and a laminar air flow up to 22 ms. The needle...... was connected to a variable DC potential of up to 100kV over a grounded plate in order to trigger different corona modes. The impact of the air flow on the space charges created in the vicinity of the electrode is evaluated by means of PD measurements in time domain. The results indicate that the wind increases...... streamer corona can be extinguished if wind speeds of more than 14.3 ms are applied to the electrode....

  20. Real-space Hopfield diagonalization of inhomogeneous dispersive media (United States)

    Gubbin, Christopher R.; Maier, Stefan A.; De Liberato, Simone


    We introduce a real-space technique able to extend the standard Hopfield approach commonly used in quantum polaritonics to the case of inhomogeneous lossless materials interacting with the electromagnetic field. We derive the creation and annihilation polaritonic operators for the system normal modes as linear, space-dependent superpositions of the microscopic light and matter fields. We prove their completeness and invert the Hopfield transformation expressing the microscopic fields as functions of the polaritonic operators. As an example, we apply our approach to the case of a planar interface between vacuum and a polar dielectric, showing how we can consistently treat both propagative and surface modes, and express their nonlinear interactions, arising from phonon anharmonicity, as polaritonic scattering terms. We also show that our theory, including the proof of completeness, can be naturally extended to the case of dissipative materials.

  1. A note on generalized hydrodynamics: inhomogeneous fields and other concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Doyon, Benjamin


    Generalized hydrodynamics (GHD) was proposed recently as a formulation of hydrodynamics for integrable systems, taking into account infinitely-many conservation laws. In this note we further develop the theory in various directions. By extending GHD to all commuting flows of the integrable model, we provide a full description of how to take into account weakly varying force fields, temperature fields and other inhomogeneous external fields within GHD. We expect this can be used, for instance, to characterize the non-equilibrium dynamics of one-dimensional Bose gases in trap potentials. We also show that the GGE equations of state, and thus GHD, emerge uniformly in free particle models under the condition that the space-time variation scale of hydrodynamic observables grows unboundedly with time. We further show how the equations of state at the core of GHD follow from the continuity relation for entropy, and we show how to recover Euler-like equations and discuss possible viscosity terms.

  2. A note on generalized hydrodynamics: inhomogeneous fields and other concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Doyon, Takato Yoshimura


    Full Text Available Generalized hydrodynamics (GHD was proposed recently as a formulation of hydrodynamics for integrable systems, taking into account infinitely-many conservation laws. In this note we further develop the theory in various directions. By extending GHD to all commuting flows of the integrable model, we provide a full description of how to take into account weakly varying force fields, temperature fields and other inhomogeneous external fields within GHD. We expect this can be used, for instance, to characterize the non-equilibrium dynamics of one-dimensional Bose gases in trap potentials. We further show how the equations of state at the core of GHD follow from the continuity relation for entropy, and we show how to recover Euler-like equations and discuss possible viscosity terms.

  3. Novel application of the kernel polynomial method to inhomogeneous superconductivity (United States)

    Covaci, Lucian; Berciu, Mona


    Inhomogeneities (surface, interfaces, impurities, etc.) in superconductors give rise to interesting phenomena, like broken time-reversal states, bound states near surfaces, etc. Numerical solutions of the self-consistent Bogoliubov-de Gennes mean field equations become computationally intensive for systems whose translational symmetry is broken. We propose a new method of solving the mean-field equations based on the Kernel Polynomial Method by expanding the Green's functions in terms of Chebyshev polynomials and calculating the order parameters self-consistently. The benefits of this method are multiple: usage of large systems, easy implementation of symmetries, multiple bands. Although we apply this method to a specific example (formation of Andreev states in 2D superconductors), it is applicable to any mean-field calculation.

  4. Modelling nanofluidic field amplified sample stacking with inhomogeneous surface charge (United States)

    McCallum, Christopher; Pennathur, Sumita


    Nanofluidic technology has exceptional applications as a platform for biological sample preconcentration, which will allow for an effective electronic detection method of low concentration analytes. One such preconcentration method is field amplified sample stacking, a capillary electrophoresis technique that utilizes large concentration differences to generate high electric field gradients, causing the sample of interest to form a narrow, concentrated band. Field amplified sample stacking has been shown to work well at the microscale, with models and experiments confirming expected behavior. However, nanofluidics allows for further concentration enhancement due to focusing of the sample ions toward the channel center by the electric double layer. We have developed a two-dimensional model that can be used for both micro- and nanofluidics, fully accounting for the electric double layer. This model has been used to investigate even more complex physics such as the role of inhomogeneous surface charge.

  5. Rainbows from inhomogeneous transparent spheres: a ray-theoretic approach. (United States)

    Adam, John A; Laven, Philip


    A ray-theoretic account of the passage of light through a radially inhomogeneous transparent sphere has been used to establish the existence of multiple primary rainbows for some refractive index profiles. The existence of such additional bows is a consequence of a sufficiently attractive potential in the interior of the drop, i.e., the refractive index gradient should be sufficiently negative there. The profiles for which this gradient is monotonically increasing do not result in this phenomenon, but nonmonotone profiles can do so, depending on the form of n. Sufficiently oscillatory profiles can lead to apparently singular behavior in the deviation angle (within the geometrical optics approximation) as well as multiple rainbows. These results also apply to systems with circular cylindrical cross sections, and may be of value in the field of rainbow refractometry.

  6. Limits for density dependent time inhomogeneous Markov processes. (United States)

    Smith, Andrew G


    A new functional law of large numbers to approximate a time inhomogeneous Markov process that is only density dependent in the limit as an index parameter goes to infinity is developed. This extends previous results by other authors to a broader class of Markov processes while relaxing some of the conditions required for those results to hold. This result is applied to a stochastic metapopulation model that accounts for spatial structure as well as within patch dynamics with the novel addition of time dependent dynamics. The resulting nonautonomous differential equation is analysed to provide conditions for extinction and persistence for a number of examples. This condition shows that the migration of a species will positively impact the reproduction in less populated areas while negatively impacting densely populated areas. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. From empirical data to time-inhomogeneous continuous Markov processes. (United States)

    Lencastre, Pedro; Raischel, Frank; Rogers, Tim; Lind, Pedro G


    We present an approach for testing for the existence of continuous generators of discrete stochastic transition matrices. Typically, existing methods to ascertain the existence of continuous Markov processes are based on the assumption that only time-homogeneous generators exist. Here a systematic extension to time inhomogeneity is presented, based on new mathematical propositions incorporating necessary and sufficient conditions, which are then implemented computationally and applied to numerical data. A discussion concerning the bridging between rigorous mathematical results on the existence of generators to its computational implementation is presented. Our detection algorithm shows to be effective in more than 60% of tested matrices, typically 80% to 90%, and for those an estimate of the (nonhomogeneous) generator matrix follows. We also solve the embedding problem analytically for the particular case of three-dimensional circulant matrices. Finally, a discussion of possible applications of our framework to problems in different fields is briefly addressed.

  8. Noise interferometry in an inhomogeneous environment in the geometric limit. (United States)

    Brown, Michael G


    An approximation to the transient Green's function G(x(a)∣x(b),t) between points x(a) and x(b) can be estimated by taking the time derivative of the correlation function C(ab)(t) of records of ambient noise measured at locations x(a) and x(b). From the general relationship between C(ab)(t) and G(x(a)∣x(b),t) it is shown, using a stationary-phase-like argument, that in an inhomogeneous environment in the geometric limit C(ab)(t) consists of a superposition of signed step functions and two-sided logarithmic singularities that are delayed in time by the travel times of the rays connecting x(a) and x(b). © 2011 Acoustical Society of America

  9. Superconductivity in an Inhomogeneous Bundle of Metallic and Semiconducting Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilya Grigorenko


    Full Text Available Using Bogoliubov-de Gennes formalism for inhomogeneous systems, we have studied superconducting properties of a bundle of packed carbon nanotubes, making a triangular lattice in the bundle's transverse cross-section. The bundle consists of a mixture of metallic and doped semiconducting nanotubes, which have different critical transition temperatures. We investigate how a spatially averaged superconducting order parameter and the critical transition temperature depend on the fraction of the doped semiconducting carbon nanotubes in the bundle. Our simulations suggest that the superconductivity in the bundle will be suppressed when the fraction of the doped semiconducting carbon nanotubes will be less than 0.5, which is the percolation threshold for a two-dimensional triangular lattice.

  10. Traveltime approximations for transversely isotropic media with an inhomogeneous background

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq


    A transversely isotropic (TI) model with a tilted symmetry axis is regarded as one of the most effective approximations to the Earth subsurface, especially for imaging purposes. However, we commonly utilize this model by setting the axis of symmetry normal to the reflector. This assumption may be accurate in many places, but deviations from this assumption will cause errors in the wavefield description. Using perturbation theory and Taylor\\'s series, I expand the solutions of the eikonal equation for 2D TI media with respect to the independent parameter θ, the angle the tilt of the axis of symmetry makes with the vertical, in a generally inhomogeneous TI background with a vertical axis of symmetry. I do an additional expansion in terms of the independent (anellipticity) parameter in a generally inhomogeneous elliptically anisotropic background medium. These new TI traveltime solutions are given by expansions in and θ with coefficients extracted from solving linear first-order partial differential equations. Pade approximations are used to enhance the accuracy of the representation by predicting the behavior of the higher-order terms of the expansion. A simplification of the expansion for homogenous media provides nonhyperbolic moveout descriptions of the traveltime for TI models that are more accurate than other recently derived approximations. In addition, for 3D media, I develop traveltime approximations using Taylor\\'s series type of expansions in the azimuth of the axis of symmetry. The coefficients of all these expansions can also provide us with the medium sensitivity gradients (Jacobian) for nonlinear tomographic-based inversion for the tilt in the symmetry axis. © 2011 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  11. Radar image sequence analysis of inhomogeneous water surfaces (United States)

    Seemann, Joerg; Senet, Christian M.; Dankert, Heiko; Hatten, Helge; Ziemer, Friedwart


    The radar backscatter from the ocean surface, called sea clutter, is modulated by the surface wave field. A method was developed to estimate the near-surface current, the water depth and calibrated surface wave spectra from nautical radar image sequences. The algorithm is based on the three- dimensional Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) of the spatio- temporal sea clutter pattern in the wavenumber-frequency domain. The dispersion relation is used to define a filter to separate the spectral signal of the imaged waves from the background noise component caused by speckle noise. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) contains information about the significant wave height. The method has been proved to be reliable for the analysis of homogeneous water surfaces in offshore installations. Radar images are inhomogeneous because of the dependency of the image transfer function (ITF) on the azimuth angle between the wave propagation and the antenna viewing direction. The inhomogeneity of radar imaging is analyzed using image sequences of a homogeneous deep-water surface sampled by a ship-borne radar. Changing water depths in shallow-water regions induce horizontal gradients of the tidal current. Wave refraction occurs due to the spatial variability of the current and water depth. These areas cannot be investigated with the standard method. A new method, based on local wavenumber estimation with the multiple-signal classification (MUSIC) algorithm, is outlined. The MUSIC algorithm provides superior wavenumber resolution on local spatial scales. First results, retrieved from a radar image sequence taken from an installation at a coastal site, are presented.

  12. Degradation of the Bragg peak due to inhomogeneities. (United States)

    Urie, M; Goitein, M; Holley, W R; Chen, G T


    The rapid fall-off of dose at the end of range of heavy charged particle beams has the potential in therapeutic applications of sparing critical structures just distal to the target volume. Here we explored the effects of highly inhomogeneous regions on this desirable depth-dose characteristic. The proton depth-dose distribution behind a lucite-air interface parallel to the beam was bimodal, indicating the presence of two groups of protons with different residual ranges, creating a step-like depth-dose distribution at the end of range. The residual ranges became more spread out as the interface was angled at 3 degrees, and still more at 6 degrees, to the direction of the beam. A second experiment showed little significant effect on the distal depth-dose of protons having passed through a mosaic of teflon and lucite. Anatomic studies demonstrated significant effects of complex fine inhomogeneities on the end of range characteristics. Monoenergetic protons passing through the petrous ridges and mastoid air cells in the base of skull showed a dramatic degradation of the distal Bragg peak. In beams with spread out Bragg peaks passing through regions of the base of skull, the distal fall-off from 90 to 20% dose was increased from its nominal 6 to well over 32 mm. Heavy ions showed a corresponding degradation in their ends of range. In the worst case in the base of skull region, a monoenergetic neon beam showed a broadening of the full width at half maximum of the Bragg peak to over 15 mm (compared with 4 mm in a homogeneous unit density medium). A similar effect was found with carbon ions in the abdomen, where the full width at half maximum of the Bragg peak (nominally 5.5 mm) was found to be greater than 25 mm behind gas-soft-tissue interfaces. We address the implications of these data for dose computation with heavy charged particles.

  13. Monte Carlo validation of the TrueBeam 10XFFF phase–space files for applications in lung SABR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teke, Tony, E-mail: [Medical Physics, BC Cancer Agency—Centre for the Southern Interior, Kelowna, British Columbia V1Y 5L3 (Canada); Duzenli, Cheryl; Bergman, Alanah; Viel, Francis; Atwal, Parmveer; Gete, Ermias [Medical Physics, BC Cancer Agency—Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia V5Z 4E6 (Canada)


    Purpose: To establish the clinical acceptability of universal Monte Carlo phase–space data for the 10XFFF (flattening filter free) photon beam on the Varian TrueBeam Linac, including previously unreported data for small fields, output factors, and inhomogeneous media. The study was particularly aimed at confirming the suitability for use in simulations of lung stereotactic ablative radiotherapy treatment plans. Methods: Monte Carlo calculated percent depth doses (PDDs), transverse profiles, and output factors for the TrueBeam 10 MV FFF beam using generic phase–space data that have been released by the Varian MC research team were compared with in-house measurements and published data from multiple institutions (ten Linacs from eight different institutions). BEAMnrc was used to create field size specific phase–spaces located underneath the jaws. Doses were calculated with DOSXYZnrc in a water phantom for fields ranging from 1 × 1 to 40 × 40 cm{sup 2}. Particular attention was paid to small fields (down to 1 × 1 cm{sup 2}) and dose per pulse effects on dosimeter response for high dose rate 10XFFF beams. Ion chamber measurements were corrected for changes in ion collection efficiency (P{sub ion}) with increasing dose per pulse. MC and ECLIPSE ANISOTROPIC ANALYTICAL ALGORITHM (AAA) calculated PDDs were compared to Gafchromic film measurement in inhomogeneous media (water, bone, lung). Results: Measured data from all machines agreed with Monte Carlo simulations within 1.0% and 1.5% for PDDs and in-field transverse profiles, respectively, for field sizes >1 × 1 cm{sup 2} in a homogeneous water phantom. Agreements in the 80%–20% penumbra widths were better than 2 mm for all the fields that were compared. For all the field sizes considered, the agreement between their measured and calculated output factors was within 1.1%. Monte Carlo results for dose to water at water/bone, bone/lung, and lung/water interfaces as well as within lung agree with film

  14. Monte Carlo validation of the TrueBeam 10XFFF phase-space files for applications in lung SABR. (United States)

    Teke, Tony; Duzenli, Cheryl; Bergman, Alanah; Viel, Francis; Atwal, Parmveer; Gete, Ermias


    To establish the clinical acceptability of universal Monte Carlo phase-space data for the 10XFFF (flattening filter free) photon beam on the Varian TrueBeam Linac, including previously unreported data for small fields, output factors, and inhomogeneous media. The study was particularly aimed at confirming the suitability for use in simulations of lung stereotactic ablative radiotherapy treatment plans. Monte Carlo calculated percent depth doses (PDDs), transverse profiles, and output factors for the TrueBeam 10 MV FFF beam using generic phase-space data that have been released by the Varian MC research team were compared with in-house measurements and published data from multiple institutions (ten Linacs from eight different institutions). BEAMnrc was used to create field size specific phase-spaces located underneath the jaws. Doses were calculated with DOSXYZnrc in a water phantom for fields ranging from 1 × 1 to 40 × 40 cm(2). Particular attention was paid to small fields (down to 1 × 1 cm(2)) and dose per pulse effects on dosimeter response for high dose rate 10XFFF beams. Ion chamber measurements were corrected for changes in ion collection efficiency (P(ion)) with increasing dose per pulse. MC and ECLIPSE ANISOTROPIC ANALYTICAL ALGORITHM (AAA) calculated PDDs were compared to Gafchromic film measurement in inhomogeneous media (water, bone, lung). Measured data from all machines agreed with Monte Carlo simulations within 1.0% and 1.5% for PDDs and in-field transverse profiles, respectively, for field sizes >1 × 1 cm(2) in a homogeneous water phantom. Agreements in the 80%-20% penumbra widths were better than 2 mm for all the fields that were compared. For all the field sizes considered, the agreement between their measured and calculated output factors was within 1.1%. Monte Carlo results for dose to water at water/bone, bone/lung, and lung/water interfaces as well as within lung agree with film measurements to within 2.8% for 10 × 10 and 3 × 3 cm(2

  15. The Effect of Habitat Inhomogeneities and Fragmentation on Population Density and Time to Extinction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostova, T; Carlsen, T


    We present a study, based on simulations with SERDYCA, a spatially-explicit individual based model of rodent dynamics, on the connection between population persistence and the presence of inhomogeneities in the habitat. We are specifically interested on the effect that inhomogeneities that do not fragment the environment, have on population persistence. Our results suggest that a certain percentage of inhomogeneities can increase the average time to extinction of the population. Inhomogeneities decrease the population density and can increase the ratio of juveniles in the population thus providing a better chance for the population to restore itself after a severe period with critically low population density. We call this the ''inhomogeneity localization effect''.

  16. Second-harmonic generation of cylindrical electromagnetic waves propagating in an inhomogeneous and nonlinear medium. (United States)

    Xiong, Hao; Si, Liu-Gang; Ding, Chunling; Yang, Xiaoxue; Wu, Ying


    A general description of cylindrical electromagnetic waves propagating in nonlinear and inhomogeneous media is given by deducing cylindrical coupled-wave equations. Based on the cylindrical coupled-wave equations, we analyze second-harmonic generation (SHG) of some special cases of inhomogeneity, and find that the inhomogeneity of the first- and second-order polarization can influence the amplitude of the SHG. From a different point of view, exact solutions of cylindrical electromagnetic waves propagating in a nonlinear medium with a special case of inhomogeneity have been obtained previously. We show that cylindrical SHG in an inhomogeneous and nonlinear medium can also be deduced from exact solutions. As verification, we compare the results obtained from the two different methods and find that descriptions of SHG by the coupled-wave equations are in good agreement with the exact solutions.

  17. Path integral Monte Carlo simulations of silicates


    Rickwardt, Chr.; Nielaba, P.; Müser, M. H.; Binder, K.


    We investigate the thermal expansion of crystalline SiO$_2$ in the $\\beta$-- cristobalite and the $\\beta$-quartz structure with path integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) techniques. This simulation method allows to treat low-temperature quantum effects properly. At temperatures below the Debye temperature, thermal properties obtained with PIMC agree better with experimental results than those obtained with classical Monte Carlo methods.

  18. Advanced Computational Methods for Monte Carlo Calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Forrest B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    This course is intended for graduate students who already have a basic understanding of Monte Carlo methods. It focuses on advanced topics that may be needed for thesis research, for developing new state-of-the-art methods, or for working with modern production Monte Carlo codes.

  19. Monte Carlo simulation of model Spin systemsr

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    three~dimensional Ising models and Heisenberg models are dealt with in some detail. Recent applications of the Monte Carlo method to spin glass systems and to estimate renormalisation group critical exponents are reviewod. Keywords. _ Monte-carlo simulation; critical phenomena; Ising models; Heisenberg models ...

  20. Monte Carlo Simulation of Phase Transitions


    村井, 信行; N., MURAI; 中京大学教養部


    In the Monte Carlo simulation of phase transition, a simple heat bath method is applied to the classical Heisenberg model in two dimensions. It reproduces the correlation length predicted by the Monte Carlo renor-malization group and also computed in the non-linear σ model

  1. Monte Carlo calculations for HTRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogenbirk, A. [ECN Nuclear Research, Petten (Netherlands)


    From a neutronics point of view pebble-bed HTRs are completely different from standard LWRs. The most important differences are to be found in the reactor geometry, the properties of the moderator (graphite instead of water) and the self-shielding of the fuel regions. Therefore, computer packages normally used for core analyses should be validated with experimental data before they can be used for HTR analyses. This especially holds for deterministic computer codes, in which approximations are made which may not be valid in pebble-bed HTRs. Monte Carlo codes more based on first principles suffer much less from this problem. In order to study small- and medium-sized LEU-HTR systems in the late 1980s an IAEA Coordinated Research Programme (CRP) was started. This CRP was mainly directed to the effects of water ingress and neutron streaming. The PROTEUS facility at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in Villigen, Switzerland, played a central role in this CRP. Benchmark quality measurements were provided in clean, easy-to-interpret critical configurations, using pebble-type fuel. ECN in Petten, Netherlands, contributed to the CRP by performing reactor calculations using the WIMS code system with deterministic calculations. However, a need was felt for reference calculations, in which as few approximations as possible were made. These analyses were performed with the Monte Carlo code MCNP-4A. In this contribution the results are given of the main MCNP-calculations. In these analyses a detailed model of the PROTEUS experimental set-up was used, whereas in the calculations use was made of high-quality continuous-energy cross-section data. The attention was focused on the calculation of the value of k{sub eff} and of streaming effects in the pebble-bed core. 15 refs.

  2. Challenges of Monte Carlo Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Alex Roberts [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    These are slides from a presentation for Parallel Summer School at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Solving discretized partial differential equations (PDEs) of interest can require a large number of computations. We can identify concurrency to allow parallel solution of discrete PDEs. Simulated particles histories can be used to solve the Boltzmann transport equation. Particle histories are independent in neutral particle transport, making them amenable to parallel computation. Physical parameters and method type determine the data dependencies of particle histories. Data requirements shape parallel algorithms for Monte Carlo. Then, Parallel Computational Physics and Parallel Monte Carlo are discussed and, finally, the results are given. The mesh passing method greatly simplifies the IMC implementation and allows simple load-balancing. Using MPI windows and passive, one-sided RMA further simplifies the implementation by removing target synchronization. The author is very interested in implementations of PGAS that may allow further optimization for one-sided, read-only memory access (e.g. Open SHMEM). The MPICH_RMA_OVER_DMAPP option and library is required to make one-sided messaging scale on Trinitite - Moonlight scales poorly. Interconnect specific libraries or functions are likely necessary to ensure performance. BRANSON has been used to directly compare the current standard method to a proposed method on idealized problems. The mesh passing algorithm performs well on problems that are designed to show the scalability of the particle passing method. BRANSON can now run load-imbalanced, dynamic problems. Potential avenues of improvement in the mesh passing algorithm will be implemented and explored. A suite of test problems that stress DD methods will elucidate a possible path forward for production codes.

  3. Realization of the thermal equilibrium in inhomogeneous magnetic systems by the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation with stochastic noise, and its dynamical aspects (United States)

    Nishino, Masamichi; Miyashita, Seiji


    It is crucially important to investigate the effects of temperature on magnetic properties such as critical phenomena, nucleation, pinning, domain wall motion, and coercivity. The Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation has been applied extensively to study dynamics of magnetic properties. Approaches of Langevin noises have been developed to introduce the temperature effect into the LLG equation. To have the thermal equilibrium state (canonical distribution) as the steady state, the system parameters must satisfy some condition known as the fluctuation-dissipation relation. In inhomogeneous magnetic systems in which spin magnitudes are different at sites, the condition requires that the ratio between the amplitude of the random noise and the damping parameter depend on the magnitude of the magnetic moment at each site. Focused on inhomogeneous magnetic systems, we systematically showed agreement between the stationary state of the stochastic LLG equation and the corresponding equilibrium state obtained by Monte Carlo simulations in various magnetic systems including dipole-dipole interactions. We demonstrated how violations of the condition result in deviations from the true equilibrium state. We also studied the characteristic features of the dynamics depending on the choice of the parameter set. All the parameter sets satisfying the condition realize the same stationary state (equilibrium state). In contrast, different choices of parameter set cause seriously different relaxation processes. We show two relaxation types, i.e., magnetization reversals with uniform rotation and with nucleation.

  4. Subluminal and superluminal parametric doppler effects in the case of light reflection from a moving smooth medium inhomogeneity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozanov, N. N., E-mail: [Vavilov State Optical Institute (Russian Federation)


    The reflection of test radiation from a smooth inhomogeneity of medium characteristics propagating with a subluminal or superluminal velocity is analyzed. The equations describing the propagation of the forward- and counter-propagating waves in such an inhomogeneous medium are derived. Quasi-phase conjugation is demonstrated in the case of superluminal inhomogeneities. The Bragg resonance conditions are formulated and the conditions for increasing the reflection coefficient of radiation from an inhomogeneity are discussed.

  5. Monte Carlo modeling of the MammoSite(Reg) treatments: Dose effects of air pockets (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Huei Jessica

    system, and Monte Carlo results. (4) Calculate dose differences for various treatment parameters. The results from thermoliminescent dosimeter phantom measurements proves that with correct geometric and source models, Monte Carlo method can be used to estimate homogeneity and heterogeneity doses in MammoSiteRTM treatment. The resulting dose differences at various points of interests in Monte Carlo calculations were presented and compared between different calculation methods. The air pocket doses were found to be underestimated by the treatment planning system. It was concluded that after correcting for inverse square law, the underestimation error from the treatment planning system will be less than +/- 2.0%, and +/- 3.5%, at the air pocket surface and air pocket planning target volume, respectively, when comparing Monte Carlo N-Particle (version 5) results. If the skin surface is located close to the air pocket, the underestimation effect at the air pocket surface and air pocket planning target volume doses becomes less because the air outside of the skin surface reduces the air pocket inhomogeneity effect. In order to maintain appropriate skin dose within tolerance, the skin surface criterion should be considered as the smallest thickness of the breast tissue located between the air pocket and the skin surface. The thickness should be at least 5 mm. In conclusion, the air pocket outside the balloon had less than 10% inhomogeneity effect based on the situations studied. It is recommended that at least an inverse square correction should be taken into consideration in order to relate clinical outcomes to actual delivered doses to the air pocket and surrounding tissues.

  6. On the use of Gafchromic EBT3 films for validating a commercial electron Monte Carlo dose calculation algorithm. (United States)

    Chan, EuJin; Lydon, Jenny; Kron, Tomas


    This study aims to investigate the effects of oblique incidence, small field size and inhomogeneous media on the electron dose distribution, and to compare calculated (Elekta/CMS XiO) and measured results. All comparisons were done in terms of absolute dose. A new measuring method was developed for high resolution, absolute dose measurement of non-standard beams using Gafchromic® EBT3 film. A portable U-shaped holder was designed and constructed to hold EBT3 films vertically in a reproducible setup submerged in a water phantom. The experimental film method was verified with ionisation chamber measurements and agreed to within 2% or 1 mm. Agreement between XiO electron Monte Carlo (eMC) and EBT3 was within 2% or 2 mm for most standard fields and 3% or 3 mm for the non-standard fields. Larger differences were seen in the build-up region where XiO eMC overestimates dose by up to 10% for obliquely incident fields and underestimates the dose for small circular fields by up to 5% when compared to measurement. Calculations with inhomogeneous media mimicking ribs, lung and skull tissue placed at the side of the film in water agreed with measurement to within 3% or 3 mm. Gafchromic film in water proved to be a convenient high spatial resolution method to verify dose distributions from electrons in non-standard conditions including irradiation in inhomogeneous media.

  7. Can a one-layer optical skin model including melanin and inhomogeneously distributed blood explain spatially resolved diffuse reflectance spectra? (United States)

    Karlsson, Hanna; Pettersson, Anders; Larsson, Marcus; Strömberg, Tomas


    Model based analysis of calibrated diffuse reflectance spectroscopy can be used for determining oxygenation and concentration of skin chromophores. This study aimed at assessing the effect of including melanin in addition to hemoglobin (Hb) as chromophores and compensating for inhomogeneously distributed blood (vessel packaging), in a single-layer skin model. Spectra from four humans were collected during different provocations using a twochannel fiber optic probe with source-detector separations 0.4 and 1.2 mm. Absolute calibrated spectra using data from either a single distance or both distances were analyzed using inverse Monte Carlo for light transport and Levenberg-Marquardt for non-linear fitting. The model fitting was excellent using a single distance. However, the estimated model failed to explain spectra from the other distance. The two-distance model did not fit the data well at either distance. Model fitting was significantly improved including melanin and vessel packaging. The most prominent effect when fitting data from the larger separation compared to the smaller separation was a different light scattering decay with wavelength, while the tissue fraction of Hb and saturation were similar. For modeling spectra at both distances, we propose using either a multi-layer skin model or a more advanced model for the scattering phase function.

  8. A constrained-equilibrium Monte Carlo method for quantum dots-the problem of intermixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelires, P C [Physics Department, University of Crete, PO Box 2208, 710 03 Heraclion, Crete (Greece); Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas (FORTH), PO Box 1527, 711 10 Heraclion, Crete (Greece)


    Islands grown during semiconductor heteroepitaxy are in a thermodynamically metastable state. Experiments show that diffusion at the surface region, including the interior of the islands, is fast enough to establish local equilibrium. I review here applications of a Monte Carlo method which takes advantage of the quasi-equilibrium nature of quantum dots and is able to address the issue of intermixing and island composition. Both Ge islands grown on the bare Si(100) surface and C-induced Ge islands grown on Si(100) precovered with C are discussed. In the bare case, the interlinking of the stress field with the composition is revealed. Both are strongly inhomogeneous. In the C-induced case, the interplay of strain and chemical effects is the dominant key factor. Islands do not contain C under any conditions of coverage and temperature.

  9. The Daskop Granophyre Dyke: Inhomogeneous clast distribution and chemistry (United States)

    Kovaleva, Elizaveta; Huber, Matthew S.; Somers, Andrew; Bateman, Stuart


    The Vredefort Granophyre is present in the central basement of the Vredefort impact structure as a set of dykes up to 9 km long and up to 65 m wide and is considered to be the remnant of the impact melt sheet (e.g. French et al. 1989; French and Nielsen 1990). The dykes intruded into the floor of the structure's core during the crater modification and settling stages (e.g. Therriault et al. 1996). Granophyre is typically considered a well-homogenized and uniform melt (e.g., Nel 1927; Gibson and Reimold 2008). This study presents new insights into the chemical variety and inhomogeneous clast distribution of the Vredefort granophyre. The Granophyre dyke on the farm Daskop is located in the core of the impact structure and hosted by granitic gneiss of the Archean basement. The clast distribution was mapped in the eastern half of the dyke. Additionally, non-destructive geochemical methods (handheld µXRF and LIBS systems) were used to obtain chemical analysis of the dyke along strike. The map of clast distribution in the granophyre dyke reveals an inhomogeneous content of clasts, with a consistently higher concentration of clasts along the southern contact. This distribution suggests that either 1) the dyke orientation is non-vertical, allowing gravitational settling to affect the distribution of the clasts after the dyke intruded; or 2) that clasts were preferentially entrained along the southern margin of the dyke. Clast frequency also differs along strike. Many elongated clasts are oriented parallel to the dyke walls, indicating flow. We have also documented linear structures resembling flow channels. These structures are strictly parallel to the dyke walls and have a finer texture than the host granophyre. These may represent differentiation of the melt during crystallization. Chemical inhomogeneity of granophyre dyke has also been documented along strike. Such chemical variation may reflect local differences in the relative amounts of target rocks incorporated

  10. Monte Carlo modeling in CT-based geometries: dosimetry for biological modeling experiments with particle beam radiation. (United States)

    Diffenderfer, Eric S; Dolney, Derek; Schaettler, Maximilian; Sanzari, Jenine K; McDonough, James; Cengel, Keith A


    The space radiation environment imposes increased dangers of exposure to ionizing radiation, particularly during a solar particle event (SPE). These events consist primarily of low energy protons that produce a highly inhomogeneous dose distribution. Due to this inherent dose heterogeneity, experiments designed to investigate the radiobiological effects of SPE radiation present difficulties in evaluating and interpreting dose to sensitive organs. To address this challenge, we used the Geant4 Monte Carlo simulation framework to develop dosimetry software that uses computed tomography (CT) images and provides radiation transport simulations incorporating all relevant physical interaction processes. We found that this simulation accurately predicts measured data in phantoms and can be applied to model dose in radiobiological experiments with animal models exposed to charged particle (electron and proton) beams. This study clearly demonstrates the value of Monte Carlo radiation transport methods for two critically interrelated uses: (i) determining the overall dose distribution and dose levels to specific organ systems for animal experiments with SPE-like radiation, and (ii) interpreting the effect of random and systematic variations in experimental variables (e.g. animal movement during long exposures) on the dose distributions and consequent biological effects from SPE-like radiation exposure. The software developed and validated in this study represents a critically important new tool that allows integration of computational and biological modeling for evaluating the biological outcomes of exposures to inhomogeneous SPE-like radiation dose distributions, and has potential applications for other environmental and therapeutic exposure simulations.

  11. Analysis of interferograms of refractive index inhomogeneities produced in optical materials (United States)

    Tarjányi, N.


    Optical homogeneity of materials intended for optical applications is one of the criterions which decide on an appropriate application method for the material. The existence of a refractive index inhomogeneity inside a material may disqualify it from utilization or by contrary, provide an advantage. For observation of a refractive index inhomogeneity, even a weak one, it is convenient to use any of interferometric methods. They are very sensitive and provide information on spatial distribution of the refractive index, immediately. One can use them also in case when the inhomogeneity evolves in time, usually due to action of some external fields. Then, the stream of interferograms provides a dynamic evolution of a spatial distribution of the inhomogeneity. In the contribution, there are presented results of the analysis of interferograms obtained by observing the creation of a refractive index inhomogeneity due to illumination of thin layers of a polyvinyl-alcohol/acrylamide photopolymer and a plate of photorefractive crystal, lithium niobate, by light and a refractive index inhomogeneity originated at the boundary of two layers of polydimethylsiloxane. The obtained dependences can be used for studying of the mechanisms responsible for the inhomogeneity creation, designing various technical applications or for diagnostics of fabricated components.

  12. Sci—Thur AM: YIS - 04: Gold Nanoparticle Enhanced Arc Radiotherapy: A Monte Carlo Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koger, B [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Kirkby, C [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Dept. of Oncology, Dept. Of Medical Physics, Jack Ady Cancer Centre, Lethbridge, Alberta (Canada)


    Introduction: The use of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) in radiotherapy has shown promise for therapeutic enhancement. In this study, we explore the feasibility of enhancing radiotherapy with GNPs in an arc-therapy context. We use Monte Carlo simulations to quantify the macroscopic dose-enhancement ratio (DER) and tumour to normal tissue ratio (TNTR) as functions of photon energy over various tumour and body geometries. Methods: GNP-enhanced arc radiotherapy (GEART) was simulated using the PENELOPE Monte Carlo code and penEasy main program. We simulated 360° arc-therapy with monoenergetic photon energies 50 – 1000 keV and several clinical spectra used to treat a spherical tumour containing uniformly distributed GNPs in a cylindrical tissue phantom. Various geometries were used to simulate different tumour sizes and depths. Voxel dose was used to calculate DERs and TNTRs. Inhomogeneity effects were examined through skull dose in brain tumour treatment simulations. Results: Below 100 keV, DERs greater than 2.0 were observed. Compared to 6 MV, tumour dose at low energies was more conformai, with lower normal tissue dose and higher TNTRs. Both the DER and TNTR increased with increasing cylinder radius and decreasing tumour radius. The inclusion of bone showed excellent tumour conformality at low energies, though with an increase in skull dose (40% of tumour dose with 100 keV compared to 25% with 6 MV). Conclusions: Even in the presence of inhomogeneities, our results show promise for the treatment of deep-seated tumours with low-energy GEART, with greater tumour dose conformality and lower normal tissue dose than 6 MV.

  13. Laser Beam Propagation Through Inhomogeneous Media with Shock-Like Profiles: Modeling and Computing (United States)

    Adamovsky, Grigory; Ida, Nathan


    Wave propagation in inhomogeneous media has been studied for such diverse applications as propagation of radiowaves in atmosphere, light propagation through thin films and in inhomogeneous waveguides, flow visualization, and others. In recent years an increased interest has been developed in wave propagation through shocks in supersonic flows. Results of experiments conducted in the past few years has shown such interesting phenomena as a laser beam splitting and spreading. The paper describes a model constructed to propagate a laser beam through shock-like inhomogeneous media. Numerical techniques are presented to compute the beam through such media. The results of computation are presented, discussed, and compared with experimental data.

  14. Nonequilibrium statistical Zubarev's operator and Green's functions for an inhomogeneous electron gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Nonequilibrium properties of an inhomogeneous electron gas are studied using the method of the nonequilibrium statistical operator by D.N. Zubarev. Generalized transport equations for the mean values of inhomogeneous operators of the electron number density, momentum density, and total energy density for weakly and strongly nonequilibrium states are obtained. We derive a chain of equations for the Green's functions, which connects commutative time-dependent Green's functions "density-density", "momentum-momentum", "enthalpy-enthalpy" with reduced Green's functions of the generalized transport coefficients and with Green's functions for higher order memory kernels in the case of a weakly nonequilibrium spatially inhomogeneous electron gas.

  15. Single photon quantum non-demolition measurements in the presence of inhomogeneous broadening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greentree, Andrew D; Hollenberg, L C L; Prawer, S [Centre for Quantum Computer Technology, School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC 3010 (Australia); Beausoleil, R G [Hewlett-Packard Laboratories, 1501 Page Mill Rd, Palo Alto, CA 94304-1123 (United States); Munro, W J; Spiller, T P [Hewlett-Packard Laboratories, Filton Road, Stoke Gifford, Bristol BS34 8QZ (United Kingdom); Nemoto, Kae [National Institute of Informatics, 2-1-2 Hitotsubashi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-8430 (Japan)], E-mail:


    Electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) has often been proposed for generating nonlinear optical effects at the single photon level; in particular, as a means to effect a quantum non-demolition measurement of a single-photon field. Previous treatments have usually considered homogeneously broadened samples, but realizations in any medium will have to contend with inhomogeneous broadening. Here we reappraise an earlier scheme (Munro et al 2005 Phys. Rev. A 71 033819) with respect to inhomogeneities and show an alternative mode of operation that is preferred in an inhomogeneous environment. We further show the implications of these results on a potential implementation in diamond-containing nitrogen-vacancy colour centres.

  16. Single photon quantum non-demolition measurements in the presence of inhomogeneous broadening (United States)

    Greentree, Andrew D.; Beausoleil, R. G.; Hollenberg, L. C. L.; Munro, W. J.; Nemoto, Kae; Prawer, S.; Spiller, T. P.


    Electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) has often been proposed for generating nonlinear optical effects at the single photon level; in particular, as a means to effect a quantum non-demolition measurement of a single-photon field. Previous treatments have usually considered homogeneously broadened samples, but realizations in any medium will have to contend with inhomogeneous broadening. Here we reappraise an earlier scheme (Munro et al 2005 Phys. Rev. A 71 033819) with respect to inhomogeneities and show an alternative mode of operation that is preferred in an inhomogeneous environment. We further show the implications of these results on a potential implementation in diamond-containing nitrogen-vacancy colour centres.

  17. Inhomogeneous diffusion and ergodicity breaking induced by global memory effects. (United States)

    Budini, Adrián A


    We introduce a class of discrete random-walk model driven by global memory effects. At any time, the right-left transitions depend on the whole previous history of the walker, being defined by an urnlike memory mechanism. The characteristic function is calculated in an exact way, which allows us to demonstrate that the ensemble of realizations is ballistic. Asymptotically, each realization is equivalent to that of a biased Markovian diffusion process with transition rates that strongly differs from one trajectory to another. Using this "inhomogeneous diffusion" feature, the ergodic properties of the dynamics are analytically studied through the time-averaged moments. Even in the long-time regime, they remain random objects. While their average over realizations recovers the corresponding ensemble averages, departure between time and ensemble averages is explicitly shown through their probability densities. For the density of the second time-averaged moment, an ergodic limit and the limit of infinite lag times do not commutate. All these effects are induced by the memory effects. A generalized Einstein fluctuation-dissipation relation is also obtained for the time-averaged moments.

  18. Analytical solution for irradiance due to inhomogeneous Lambertian polygonal emitters. (United States)

    Chen, Min; Arvo, James


    We present an analytic solution for the irradiance at a point due to a polygonal Lambertian emitter with radiant exitance that varies with position according to a polynomial of arbitrary degree. This is a basic problem that arises naturally in radiative transfer and more specifically in global illumination, a subfield of computer graphics. Our solution is closed form except for a single nonalgebraic special function known as the Clausen integral. We begin by deriving several useful formulas for high-order tensor analogs of irradiance, which are natural generalizations of the radiation pressure tensor. We apply the resulting tensor formulas to linearly varying emitters, obtaining a solution that exhibits the general structure of higher-degree cases, including the dependence on the Clausen integral. We then generalize to higher-degree polynomials with a recurrence formula that combines solutions for lower-degree polynomials; the result is a generalization of Lambert's formula for homogeneous diffuse emitters, a well-known formula with many applications in radiative transfer and computer graphics. Similar techniques have been used previously to derive closed-form solutions for the irradiance due to homogeneous polygonal emitters with directionally varying radiance. The present work extends this previous result to include inhomogeneous emitters, which proves to be significantly more challenging to solve in closed form. We verify our theoretical results with numerical approximations and briefly discuss their potential applications.

  19. Instabilities in magnetized inhomogeneous plasmas with the effect of recombination (United States)

    Jyoti, Joshi, Vishal; Kumar, Tanuj


    The Inhomogeneous plasma with positive ions and electrons in which collisions are taking place is considered. To include the modification due to the magnetized plasma, a static magnetic field B0 is considered to be applied in the z-direction and the wave propagation is taken at an angle θ with it in the (X, Z) plane. The ions are assumed to be cold and singly charged. Fluid equations which take into account the recombination effects are formulated for ions and the electrons. Potential is found from Poisson's equation using normal mode analysis (NMA) along with linear approximation, neglecting higher order perturbed terms. From Potential equation, dispersion relation is generated which is solved numerically for obtaining the value of ω using typical plasma parameters. The behavior of growth rate with magnetic field, propagation angle, recombination constant along with different plasma oscillation wavelength to Debye length ratio (λ / λDe) has been studied. Two types of instabilities has been observed. Both the instabilities showing the same behavior with respect to recombination constant, magnetic field and (λ / λDe) plasma oscillation wavelength to Debye wavelength ratio. But they behave opposite to each other with respect to propagation angle (angle between the magnetic field and the propagation vector).

  20. Two Stream Instability in an Inhomogeneous Magnetized Plasma (United States)

    Jyoti, Jyoti; Malik, Hitendra


    A plasma can support several kinds of electrostatic and electromagnetic waves depending upon what the external perturbations are and how the plasma is generated or under what conditions the waves are excited. In the presence of magnetic field, more new kinds of the waves can evolve in the plasma. Moreover, if the free energy is available in the system, then these waves can grow at the cost of this free energy and hence instabilities can take place. In the present investigation, we make an analytical study of a two stream instability in an inhomogeneous magnetized plasma having drifting ions and electrons. We consider a general situation by taking an oblique propagation of the wave from the magnetic field and a constant ionization. Using normal mode analysis, we derive dispersion relation which is solved numerically for the growth rate of the instability. The behavior of growth rate with magnetic field and the propagation angle along with ionization constant has been studied for two different wavelengths of the oscillations. We observe two type of the instabilities out of which one grows at a faster rate and hence is named as fast growing instability. The growth rate of the other slowly growing instability is also examined. We find that the growth rates of both the instabilities attain higher magnitudes at smaller wavelength of the oscillations.

  1. Excitons in InP/InAs inhomogeneous quantum dots

    CERN Document Server

    Assaid, E; Khamkhami, J E; Dujardin, F


    Wannier excitons confined in an InP/InAs inhomogeneous quantum dot (IQD) have been studied theoretically in the framework of the effective mass approximation. A finite-depth potential well has been used to describe the effect of the quantum confinement in the InAs layer. The exciton binding energy has been determined using the Ritz variational method. The spatial correlation between the electron and the hole has been taken into account in the expression for the wavefunction. It has been shown that for a fixed size b of the IQD, the exciton binding energy depends strongly on the core radius a. Moreover, it became apparent that there are two critical values of the core radius, a sub c sub r sub i sub t and a sub 2 sub D , for which important changes of the exciton binding occur. The former critical value, a sub c sub r sub i sub t , corresponds to a minimum of the exciton binding energy and may be used to distinguish between tridimensional confinement and bidimensional confinement. The latter critical value, a ...

  2. Shock-initiated Combustion of a Spherical Density Inhomogeneity (United States)

    Haehn, Nicholas; Oakley, Jason; Rothamer, David; Anderson, Mark; Ranjan, Devesh; Bonazza, Riccardo


    A spherical density inhomogeneity is prepared using fuel and oxidizer at a stoichiometric ratio and Xe as a diluent that increases the overall density of the bubble mixture (55% Xe, 30% H2, 15% O2). The experiments are performed in the Wisconsin Shock Tube Laboratory in a 9.2 m vertical shock tube with a 25.4 cm x 25.4 cm square cross-section. An injector is used to generate a 5 cm diameter soap film bubble filled with the combustible mixture. The injector retracts flush into the side of the tube releasing the bubble into a state of free fall. The combustible bubble is accelerated by a planar shock wave in N2 (2.0 temperatures and pressures significantly larger than nominal conditions behind a planar shock wave, resulting in auto-ignition at the focus. Planar Mie scattering and chemiluminescence are used simultaneously to visualize the bubble morphology and combustion characteristics. During the combustion phase, both the span-wise and stream-wise lengths of the bubble are seen to increase compared to the non-combustible scenario. Additionally, smaller instabilities are observed on the upstream surface, which are absent in the non-combustible bubbles.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krafft, C. [Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas, Ecole Polytechnique, F-91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Volokitin, A. S. [IZMIRAN, Troitsk, 142190, Moscow (Russian Federation); Krasnoselskikh, V. V., E-mail: [Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie de l’Environnement et de l’Espace, 3A Av. de la Recherche Scientifique, F-45071 Orléans Cedex 2 (France)


    Langmuir turbulence excited by electron flows in solar wind plasmas is studied on the basis of numerical simulations. In particular, nonlinear wave decay processes involving ion-sound (IS) waves are considered in order to understand their dependence on external long-wavelength plasma density fluctuations. In the presence of inhomogeneities, it is shown that the decay processes are localized in space and, due to the differences between the group velocities of Langmuir and IS waves, their duration is limited so that a full nonlinear saturation cannot be achieved. The reflection and the scattering of Langmuir wave packets on the ambient and randomly varying density fluctuations lead to crucial effects impacting the development of the IS wave spectrum. Notably, beatings between forward propagating Langmuir waves and reflected ones result in the parametric generation of waves of noticeable amplitudes and in the amplification of IS waves. These processes, repeated at different space locations, form a series of cascades of wave energy transfer, similar to those studied in the frame of weak turbulence theory. The dynamics of such a cascading mechanism and its influence on the acceleration of the most energetic part of the electron beam are studied. Finally, the role of the decay processes in the shaping of the profiles of the Langmuir wave packets is discussed, and the waveforms calculated are compared with those observed recently on board the spacecraft Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory and WIND.

  4. Inhomogeneity Based Characterization of Distribution Patterns on the Plasma Membrane.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Paparelli


    Full Text Available Cell surface protein and lipid molecules are organized in various patterns: randomly, along gradients, or clustered when segregated into discrete micro- and nano-domains. Their distribution is tightly coupled to events such as polarization, endocytosis, and intracellular signaling, but challenging to quantify using traditional techniques. Here we present a novel approach to quantify the distribution of plasma membrane proteins and lipids. This approach describes spatial patterns in degrees of inhomogeneity and incorporates an intensity-based correction to analyze images with a wide range of resolutions; we have termed it Quantitative Analysis of the Spatial distributions in Images using Mosaic segmentation and Dual parameter Optimization in Histograms (QuASIMoDOH. We tested its applicability using simulated microscopy images and images acquired by widefield microscopy, total internal reflection microscopy, structured illumination microscopy, and photoactivated localization microscopy. We validated QuASIMoDOH, successfully quantifying the distribution of protein and lipid molecules detected with several labeling techniques, in different cell model systems. We also used this method to characterize the reorganization of cell surface lipids in response to disrupted endosomal trafficking and to detect dynamic changes in the global and local organization of epidermal growth factor receptors across the cell surface. Our findings demonstrate that QuASIMoDOH can be used to assess protein and lipid patterns, quantifying distribution changes and spatial reorganization at the cell surface. An ImageJ/Fiji plugin of this analysis tool is provided.

  5. Suppression of probe background signals via B1 field inhomogeneity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Jian; Reimer, Jeffrey


    A new approach combining a long pulse with the DEPTH sequence (Cory and Ritchey, Journal of Magnetic Resonance, 1988) greatly improves the efficiency for suppressing probe background signals arising from spinning modules. By applying a long initial excitation pulse in the DEPTH sequence, instead of a {pi}/2 pulse, the inhomogeneous B{sub 1} fields outside the coil can dephase the background coherence in the nutation frame. The initial long pulse and the following two consecutive EXORCYCLE {pi} pulses function complementarily and prove most effective in removing background signals from both strong and weak B{sub 1} fields. Experimentally, the length of the long pulse can be optimized around odd multiples of the {pi}/2 pulse, depending on the individual probe design, to preserve signals inside the coil while minimizing those from probe hardware. This method extends the applicability of the DEPTH sequence to probes with small differences in B{sub 1} field strength between the inside and outside of the coil, and can readily combine with well-developed double resonance experiments for quantitative measurement. In general, spin systems with weak internal interactions are required to attain efficient and uniform excitation for powder samples, and the principles to determine the applicability are discussed qualitatively in terms of the relative strength of spin interactions, r.f. power and spinning rate.

  6. Advancement of magma fragmentation by inhomogeneous bubble distribution. (United States)

    Kameda, M; Ichihara, M; Maruyama, S; Kurokawa, N; Aoki, Y; Okumura, S; Uesugi, K


    Decompression times reported in previous studies suggest that thoroughly brittle fragmentation is unlikely in actual explosive volcanic eruptions. What occurs in practice is brittle-like fragmentation, which is defined as the solid-like fracture of a material whose bulk rheological properties are close to those of a fluid. Through laboratory experiments and numerical simulation, the link between the inhomogeneous structure of bubbles and the development of cracks that may lead to brittle-like fragmentation was clearly demonstrated here. A rapid decompression test was conducted to simulate the fragmentation of a specimen whose pore morphology was revealed by X-ray microtomography. The dynamic response during decompression was observed by high-speed photography. Large variation was observed in the responses of the specimens even among specimens with equal bulk rheological properties. The stress fields of the specimens under decompression computed by finite element analysis shows that the presence of satellite bubbles beneath a large bubble induced the stress concentration. On the basis of the obtained results, a new mechanism for brittle-like fragmentation is proposed. In the proposed scenario, the second nucleation of bubbles near the fragmentation surface is an essential process for the advancement of fragmentation in an upward magma flow in a volcanic conduit.

  7. Monte carlo simulation for soot dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Kun


    A new Monte Carlo method termed Comb-like frame Monte Carlo is developed to simulate the soot dynamics. Detailed stochastic error analysis is provided. Comb-like frame Monte Carlo is coupled with the gas phase solver Chemkin II to simulate soot formation in a 1-D premixed burner stabilized flame. The simulated soot number density, volume fraction, and particle size distribution all agree well with the measurement available in literature. The origin of the bimodal distribution of particle size distribution is revealed with quantitative proof.

  8. GPU-Monte Carlo based fast IMRT plan optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongbao Li


    Full Text Available Purpose: Intensity-modulated radiation treatment (IMRT plan optimization needs pre-calculated beamlet dose distribution. Pencil-beam or superposition/convolution type algorithms are typically used because of high computation speed. However, inaccurate beamlet dose distributions, particularly in cases with high levels of inhomogeneity, may mislead optimization, hindering the resulting plan quality. It is desire to use Monte Carlo (MC methods for beamlet dose calculations. Yet, the long computational time from repeated dose calculations for a number of beamlets prevents this application. It is our objective to integrate a GPU-based MC dose engine in lung IMRT optimization using a novel two-steps workflow.Methods: A GPU-based MC code gDPM is used. Each particle is tagged with an index of a beamlet where the source particle is from. Deposit dose are stored separately for beamlets based on the index. Due to limited GPU memory size, a pyramid space is allocated for each beamlet, and dose outside the space is neglected. A two-steps optimization workflow is proposed for fast MC-based optimization. At first step, a rough dose calculation is conducted with only a few number of particle per beamlet. Plan optimization is followed to get an approximated fluence map. In the second step, more accurate beamlet doses are calculated, where sampled number of particles for a beamlet is proportional to the intensity determined previously. A second-round optimization is conducted, yielding the final result.Results: For a lung case with 5317 beamlets, 105 particles per beamlet in the first round, and 108 particles per beam in the second round are enough to get a good plan quality. The total simulation time is 96.4 sec.Conclusion: A fast GPU-based MC dose calculation method along with a novel two-step optimization workflow are developed. The high efficiency allows the use of MC for IMRT optimizations.--------------------------------Cite this article as: Li Y, Tian Z

  9. Adaptive Markov Chain Monte Carlo

    KAUST Repository

    Jadoon, Khan


    A substantial interpretation of electromagnetic induction (EMI) measurements requires quantifying optimal model parameters and uncertainty of a nonlinear inverse problem. For this purpose, an adaptive Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm is used to assess multi-orientation and multi-offset EMI measurements in an agriculture field with non-saline and saline soil. In the MCMC simulations, posterior distribution was computed using Bayes rule. The electromagnetic forward model based on the full solution of Maxwell\\'s equations was used to simulate the apparent electrical conductivity measured with the configurations of EMI instrument, the CMD mini-Explorer. The model parameters and uncertainty for the three-layered earth model are investigated by using synthetic data. Our results show that in the scenario of non-saline soil, the parameters of layer thickness are not well estimated as compared to layers electrical conductivity because layer thicknesses in the model exhibits a low sensitivity to the EMI measurements, and is hence difficult to resolve. Application of the proposed MCMC based inversion to the field measurements in a drip irrigation system demonstrate that the parameters of the model can be well estimated for the saline soil as compared to the non-saline soil, and provide useful insight about parameter uncertainty for the assessment of the model outputs.

  10. 11th International Conference on Monte Carlo and Quasi-Monte Carlo Methods in Scientific Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Nuyens, Dirk


    This book presents the refereed proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Monte Carlo and Quasi-Monte Carlo Methods in Scientific Computing that was held at the University of Leuven (Belgium) in April 2014. These biennial conferences are major events for Monte Carlo and quasi-Monte Carlo researchers. The proceedings include articles based on invited lectures as well as carefully selected contributed papers on all theoretical aspects and applications of Monte Carlo and quasi-Monte Carlo methods. Offering information on the latest developments in these very active areas, this book is an excellent reference resource for theoreticians and practitioners interested in solving high-dimensional computational problems, arising, in particular, in finance, statistics and computer graphics.

  11. Underwater sound radiation from an elastically coated infinite plate with periodic inhomogeneities of finite width. (United States)

    Zhang, Yanni; Huang, Hai; Pan, Jie


    The underwater sound radiation from a line-force-driven coated infinite plate with periodically attached distributed inhomogeneities is investigated. A typical example of a distributed inhomogeneity is a signal conditioning plate (SCP), which can be inserted between the coating and a hydrophone to increase the strength of the incoming signal. Using the wavenumber transform approach, the surface normal velocity and radiated sound power of the plate are determined by solving the indexed equations of the wavenumber components. This study demonstrates that the elastic coating between the base plate and periodic inhomogeneities may reduce the effect of band-passes and band-gaps on the radiated sound power caused by the inhomogeneities. This is explained in detail by the insulation effect of the coating as a decoupler. The effect of the SCP's width and spatial period on the radiated sound is also examined. Finally, recommendations are given for the application of SCPs for underwater sensing purposes.

  12. On the gravitational potential of an inhomogeneous ellipsoid of revolution (spheroid)


    Gvaramadze, V. V.; Lominadze, J. G.


    It is shown that the gravitational potential outside an inhomogeneous ellipsoid of revolution (spheroid) whose isodensity surfaces are confocal spheroids is identical to the gravitational potential of a homogeneous spheroid of the same mass.

  13. Counteracting radio frequency inhomogeneity in the human brain at 7 Tesla using strongly modulating pulses

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boulant, N; Mangin, J-F; Amadon, A


    We report flip angle and spoiled gradient echo measurements at 7 Tesla on human brains in three-dimensional imaging, using strongly modulating pulses to counteract the transmitted radiofrequency inhomogeneity problem...

  14. Inhomogeneous media characterization: a hybrid method of state space and frequency diversity (United States)

    Baharian, Mohammad; Abdolali, Ali; Zarifi, Davoud


    This paper presents an analytical method for the reconstruction of permittivity profile of an inhomogeneous slab. The proposed method which is based on state transition matrix combines state space formulation and frequency domain data. This methodology and formulation lead to an accurate inversion of complex inhomogeneous profiles. Comparing with other analytical methods, the proposed approach avoids solving the nonlinear integro-differential equation, which consequently yields mathematical implementation. In order to validate the algorithm, some inhomogeneous profiles with different levels of complexity are considered and analyzed. The results show that the proposed method can be considered as a robust technique for one-dimensional inverse scattering problems. The results are valuable for the study and electromagnetic characterization of inhomogeneous and planar layered media.

  15. On the global regularity of three dimensional density patch for inhomogeneous incompressible viscous flow


    Liao, Xian; Liu, Yanlin


    The present work is devoted to proving that the boundary regularity of the three dimensional density patch persists by time evolution for inhomogeneous incompressible viscous flow, with some smallness condition on the initial velocity.

  16. Love seam-waves in a horizontally inhomogenous three-layered medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobroka, M.


    Using the WKBJ-method the absorption-dispersion relation and the amplitude functions are derived for Love seam-waves that propagate in a horizontally inhomogeneous three-layered medium. To describe the anelastic friction the constant Q-model is applied. The inhomogeneity that appears in either the elastic moduli, or quality factors is assumed to remain weak in the coal as well as in the adjacent layers, which are assumed to have different material properties (asymmetric channel). Using numerical solutions of the dispersion relation, it is shown that the weak horizontal inhomogeneities can be optimally detected using channel-wave constituents of a frequency near to the Airy frequency while inhomogeneities of the adjacent rock can only be detected at frequencies close to, but higher than, the cut-off frequency. 11 refs.

  17. Nonlinear electrostatic periodic waves and solitons in an inhomogeneous magnetized dusty plasma (United States)

    Mahmood, S.; Haque, Q.


    Low frequency nonlinear electrostatic cnoidal and solitary waves are investigated in an inhomogeneous magnetized dusty plasma in the presence of shear flow. The Sagdeev potential approach is used to find the nonlinear wave solution. It is found that nonlinear electrostatic potential rarefactive (dip) structures are formed for cnoidal waves and solitons in a magnetized inhomogeneous dusty plasma instead of compressive (hump) nonlinear electrostatic wave structures formed in an inhomogeneous magnetized electron-ion plasma. The amplitude of the nonlinear electrostatic potential structure is found to be increased in the case of decreasing shear flow parameter values in comparison with the case of increasing shear flow parameter values. The D'Angelo instability in an inhomogeneous magnetized dusty plasma in the presence of shear flow is also discussed. The numerical plots are also presented for illustrations which are applicable to space dusty plasma regions containing shear flows. The Hamiltonian function of such a dynamical planar system is also discussed for its phase portrait analysis.

  18. Diffuse-reflectance spectroscopy from 500 to 1060 nm by correction for inhomogeneously distributed absorbers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veen, R. L. P.; Verkruysse, W.; Sterenborg, H. J. C. M.


    Diffuse-reflectance spectroscopy for measurement of the absorption and scattering coefficients of biological tissue produces reliable results for wavelengths from 650 to 1050 nm Implicitly, this approach assumes homogeneously distributed absorbers. A correction factor is introduced for inhomogeneous

  19. Regular Bulk Solutions in Brane-Worlds with Inhomogeneous Dust and Generalized Dark Radiation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Herrera-Aguilar, A; Kuerten, A. M; da Rocha, Roldão


      From the dynamics of a brane-world with matter fields present in the bulk, the bulk metric and the black string solution near the brane are generalized, when both the dynamics of inhomogeneous dust...

  20. Simulation and the Monte Carlo method

    CERN Document Server

    Rubinstein, Reuven Y


    Simulation and the Monte Carlo Method, Third Edition reflects the latest developments in the field and presents a fully updated and comprehensive account of the major topics that have emerged in Monte Carlo simulation since the publication of the classic First Edition over more than a quarter of a century ago. While maintaining its accessible and intuitive approach, this revised edition features a wealth of up-to-date information that facilitates a deeper understanding of problem solving across a wide array of subject areas, such as engineering, statistics, computer science, mathematics, and the physical and life sciences. The book begins with a modernized introduction that addresses the basic concepts of probability, Markov processes, and convex optimization. Subsequent chapters discuss the dramatic changes that have occurred in the field of the Monte Carlo method, with coverage of many modern topics including: Markov Chain Monte Carlo, variance reduction techniques such as the transform likelihood ratio...

  1. Monte Carlo simulations for plasma physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamoto, M.; Murakami, S.; Nakajima, N.; Wang, W.X. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)


    Plasma behaviours are very complicated and the analyses are generally difficult. However, when the collisional processes play an important role in the plasma behaviour, the Monte Carlo method is often employed as a useful tool. For examples, in neutral particle injection heating (NBI heating), electron or ion cyclotron heating, and alpha heating, Coulomb collisions slow down high energetic particles and pitch angle scatter them. These processes are often studied by the Monte Carlo technique and good agreements can be obtained with the experimental results. Recently, Monte Carlo Method has been developed to study fast particle transports associated with heating and generating the radial electric field. Further it is applied to investigating the neoclassical transport in the plasma with steep gradients of density and temperatures which is beyong the conventional neoclassical theory. In this report, we briefly summarize the researches done by the present authors utilizing the Monte Carlo method. (author)

  2. Monte Carlo methods for particle transport

    CERN Document Server

    Haghighat, Alireza


    The Monte Carlo method has become the de facto standard in radiation transport. Although powerful, if not understood and used appropriately, the method can give misleading results. Monte Carlo Methods for Particle Transport teaches appropriate use of the Monte Carlo method, explaining the method's fundamental concepts as well as its limitations. Concise yet comprehensive, this well-organized text: * Introduces the particle importance equation and its use for variance reduction * Describes general and particle-transport-specific variance reduction techniques * Presents particle transport eigenvalue issues and methodologies to address these issues * Explores advanced formulations based on the author's research activities * Discusses parallel processing concepts and factors affecting parallel performance Featuring illustrative examples, mathematical derivations, computer algorithms, and homework problems, Monte Carlo Methods for Particle Transport provides nuclear engineers and scientists with a practical guide ...

  3. Hybrid Monte Carlo methods in computational finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leitao Rodriguez, A.


    Monte Carlo methods are highly appreciated and intensively employed in computational finance in the context of financial derivatives valuation or risk management. The method offers valuable advantages like flexibility, easy interpretation and straightforward implementation. Furthermore, the

  4. Avariide kiuste Monte Carlosse / Aare Arula

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Arula, Aare


    Vt. ka Tehnika dlja Vsehh nr. 3, lk. 26-27. 26. jaanuaril 1937 Tallinnast Monte Carlo tähesõidule startinud Karl Siitanit ja tema meeskonda ootasid ees seiklused, mis oleksid neile peaaegu elu maksnud

  5. Quantum Monte Carlo approaches for correlated systems

    CERN Document Server

    Becca, Federico


    Over the past several decades, computational approaches to studying strongly-interacting systems have become increasingly varied and sophisticated. This book provides a comprehensive introduction to state-of-the-art quantum Monte Carlo techniques relevant for applications in correlated systems. Providing a clear overview of variational wave functions, and featuring a detailed presentation of stochastic samplings including Markov chains and Langevin dynamics, which are developed into a discussion of Monte Carlo methods. The variational technique is described, from foundations to a detailed description of its algorithms. Further topics discussed include optimisation techniques, real-time dynamics and projection methods, including Green's function, reptation and auxiliary-field Monte Carlo, from basic definitions to advanced algorithms for efficient codes, and the book concludes with recent developments on the continuum space. Quantum Monte Carlo Approaches for Correlated Systems provides an extensive reference ...

  6. Spatial distribution of random velocity inhomogeneities in the western part of Nankai subduction zone (United States)

    Takahashi, T.; Obana, K.; Yamamoto, Y.; Nakanishi, A.; Kodaira, S.; Kaneda, Y.


    In the Nankai trough, there are three seismogenic zones of megathrust earthquakes (Tokai, Tonankai and Nankai earthquakes). Lithospheric structures in and around these seismogenic zones are important for the studies on mutual interactions and synchronization of their fault ruptures. Recent studies on seismic wave scattering at high frequencies (>1Hz) make it possible to estimate 3D distributions of random inhomogeneities (or scattering coefficient) in the lithosphere, and clarified that random inhomogeneity is one of the important medium properties related to microseismicity and damaged structure near the fault zone [Asano & Hasegawa, 2004; Takahashi et al. 2009]. This study estimates the spatial distribution of the power spectral density function (PSDF) of random inhomogeneities the western part of Nankai subduction zone, and examines the relations with crustal velocity structure and seismic activity. Seismic waveform data used in this study are those recorded at seismic stations of Hi-net & F-net operated by NIED, and 160 ocean bottom seismographs (OBSs) deployed at Hyuga-nada region from Dec. 2008 to Jan. 2009. This OBS observation was conducted by JAMSTEC as a part of "Research concerning Interaction Between the Tokai, Tonankai and Nankai Earthquakes" funded by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan. Spatial distribution of random inhomogeneities is estimated by the inversion analysis of the peak delay time of small earthquakes [Takahashi et al. 2009], where the peak delay time is defined as the time lag from the S-wave onset to its maximal amplitude arrival. We assumed the von Karman type functional form for the PSDF. Peak delay times are measured from root mean squared envelopes at 4-8Hz, 8-16Hz and 16-32Hz. Inversion result can be summarized as follows. Random inhomogeneities beneath the Quaternary volcanoes are characterized by strong inhomogeneities at small spatial scale (~ a few hundreds meter) and weak spectral gradient

  7. Inhomogeneous vortex tangles in counterflow superfluid turbulence: flow in convergent channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saluto Lidia


    Full Text Available We investigate the evolution equation for the average vortex length per unit volume L of superfluid turbulence in inhomogeneous flows. Inhomogeneities in line density L andincounterflowvelocity V may contribute to vortex diffusion, vortex formation and vortex destruction. We explore two different families of contributions: those arising from asecondorder expansionofthe Vinenequationitself, andthose whichare notrelated to the original Vinen equation but must be stated by adding to it second-order terms obtained from dimensional analysis or other physical arguments.

  8. Multiple scattering of elliptically polarized light in two-dimensional medium with large inhomogeneities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorodnichev, E. E., E-mail: [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute) (Russian Federation)


    For elliptically polarized light incident on a two-dimensional medium with large inhomogeneities, the Stokes parameters of scattered waves are calculated. Multiple scattering is assumed to be sharply anisotropic. The degree of polarization of scattered radiation is shown to be a nonmonotonic function of depth when the incident wave is circularly polarized or its polarization vector is not parallel to the symmetry axis of the inhomogeneities.

  9. Using the three-frequency bioimpedance measurement for inhomogeneous biological objects


    G. V. Timoshenko


    Introduction. The possibility of using three-frequency bioimpedance to determine the structure of a biological object with two inhomogeneities are investigated. Formulation of the problem. The veracity of the determination the internal structure of inhomogeneous biological objects using three-frequency bioimpedance measuring method are studied insufficiently. Methods of research and analysis of the results. Describes the method of determining the possibility of using the three-frequency bioim...

  10. Multilevel Monte Carlo in Approximate Bayesian Computation

    KAUST Repository

    Jasra, Ajay


    In the following article we consider approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) inference. We introduce a method for numerically approximating ABC posteriors using the multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC). A sequential Monte Carlo version of the approach is developed and it is shown under some assumptions that for a given level of mean square error, this method for ABC has a lower cost than i.i.d. sampling from the most accurate ABC approximation. Several numerical examples are given.

  11. Blazar spectral variability as explained by a twisted inhomogeneous jet. (United States)

    Raiteri, C M; Villata, M; Acosta-Pulido, J A; Agudo, I; Arkharov, A A; Bachev, R; Baida, G V; Benítez, E; Borman, G A; Boschin, W; Bozhilov, V; Butuzova, M S; Calcidese, P; Carnerero, M I; Carosati, D; Casadio, C; Castro-Segura, N; Chen, W-P; Damljanovic, G; D'Ammando, F; Di Paola, A; Echevarría, J; Efimova, N V; Ehgamberdiev, Sh A; Espinosa, C; Fuentes, A; Giunta, A; Gómez, J L; Grishina, T S; Gurwell, M A; Hiriart, D; Jermak, H; Jordan, B; Jorstad, S G; Joshi, M; Kopatskaya, E N; Kuratov, K; Kurtanidze, O M; Kurtanidze, S O; Lähteenmäki, A; Larionov, V M; Larionova, E G; Larionova, L V; Lázaro, C; Lin, C S; Malmrose, M P; Marscher, A P; Matsumoto, K; McBreen, B; Michel, R; Mihov, B; Minev, M; Mirzaqulov, D O; Mokrushina, A A; Molina, S N; Moody, J W; Morozova, D A; Nazarov, S V; Nikolashvili, M G; Ohlert, J M; Okhmat, D N; Ovcharov, E; Pinna, F; Polakis, T A; Protasio, C; Pursimo, T; Redondo-Lorenzo, F J; Rizzi, N; Rodriguez-Coira, G; Sadakane, K; Sadun, A C; Samal, M R; Savchenko, S S; Semkov, E; Skiff, B A; Slavcheva-Mihova, L; Smith, P S; Steele, I A; Strigachev, A; Tammi, J; Thum, C; Tornikoski, M; Troitskaya, Yu V; Troitsky, I S; Vasilyev, A A; Vince, O


    Blazars are active galactic nuclei, which are powerful sources of radiation whose central engine is located in the core of the host galaxy. Blazar emission is dominated by non-thermal radiation from a jet that moves relativistically towards us, and therefore undergoes Doppler beaming. This beaming causes flux enhancement and contraction of the variability timescales, so that most blazars appear as luminous sources characterized by noticeable and fast changes in brightness at all frequencies. The mechanism that produces this unpredictable variability is under debate, but proposed mechanisms include injection, acceleration and cooling of particles, with possible intervention of shock waves or turbulence. Changes in the viewing angle of the observed emitting knots or jet regions have also been suggested as an explanation of flaring events and can also explain specific properties of blazar emission, such as intra-day variability, quasi-periodicity and the delay of radio flux variations relative to optical changes. Such a geometric interpretation, however, is not universally accepted because alternative explanations based on changes in physical conditions-such as the size and speed of the emitting zone, the magnetic field, the number of emitting particles and their energy distribution-can explain snapshots of the spectral behaviour of blazars in many cases. Here we report the results of optical-to-radio-wavelength monitoring of the blazar CTA 102 and show that the observed long-term trends of the flux and spectral variability are best explained by an inhomogeneous, curved jet that undergoes changes in orientation over time. We propose that magnetohydrodynamic instabilities or rotation of the twisted jet cause different jet regions to change their orientation and hence their relative Doppler factors. In particular, the extreme optical outburst of 2016-2017 (brightness increase of six magnitudes) occurred when the corresponding emitting region had a small viewing angle

  12. Microstructural inhomogeneity of electrical conductivity in subcutaneous fat tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilja L Kruglikov

    Full Text Available Microscopic peculiarities stemming from a temperature increase in subcutaneous adipose tissue (sWAT after applying a radio-frequency (RF current, must be strongly dependent on the type of sWAT. This effect is connected with different electrical conductivities of pathways inside (triglycerides in adipocytes and outside (extra-cellular matrix the cells and to the different weighting of these pathways in hypertrophic and hyperplastic types of sWAT. The application of the RF current to hypertrophic sWAT, which normally has a strongly developed extracellular matrix with high concentrations of hyaluronan and collagen in a peri-cellular space of adipocytes, can produce, micro-structurally, a highly inhomogeneous temperature distribution, characterized by strong temperature gradients between the peri-cellular sheath of the extra-cellular matrix around the hypertrophic adipocytes and their volumes. In addition to normal temperature effects, which are generally considered in body contouring, these temperature gradients can produce thermo-mechanical stresses on the cells' surfaces. Whereas these stresses are relatively small under normal conditions and cannot cause any direct fracturing or damage of the cell structure, these stresses can, under some supportive conditions, be theoretically increased by several orders of magnitude, causing the thermo-mechanical cell damage. This effect cannot be realized in sWAT of normal or hyperplastic types where the peri-cellular structures are under-developed. It is concluded that the results of RF application in body contouring procedures must be strongly dependent on the morphological structure of sWAT.

  13. A sodar for profiling in a spatially inhomogeneous urban environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Bradley


    Full Text Available The urban boundary layer, above the canopy, is still poorly understood. One of the challenges is obtaining data by sampling more than a few meters above the rooftops, given the spatial and temporal inhomogeneities in both horizontal and vertical. Sodars are generally useful tools for ground-based remote sensing of winds and turbulence, but rely on horizontal homogeneity (as do lidars in building up 3-component wind vectors from sampling three or more spatially separated volumes. The time taken for sound to travel to a typical range of 200 m and back is also a limitation. A sodar of radically different design is investigated, aimed at addressing these problems. It has a single vertical transmitted sound pulse. Doppler shifted signals are received from a number of volumes around the periphery of the transmitted beam with microphones which each having tight angular sensitivity at zenith angles slightly off-vertical. The spatial spread of sampled volumes is therefore smaller. By having more receiver microphones than a conventional sodar, the effect of smaller zenith angle is offset. More rapid profiling is also possible with a single vertical transmitted beam, instead of the usual multiple beams.A prototype design is described, together with initial field measurements. It is found that the beam forming using a single dish antenna and the drift of the sound pulse downwind both give rise to reduced performance compared with expectations. It is concluded that, while the new sodar works in principle, the compromises arising in the design mean that the expected advantages have not been realized

  14. Wrinkling instability of an inhomogeneously stretched viscous sheet (United States)

    Srinivasan, Siddarth; Wei, Zhiyan; Mahadevan, L.


    Motivated by the redrawing of hot glass into thin sheets, we investigate the shape and stability of a thin viscous sheet that is inhomogeneously stretched in an imposed nonuniform temperature field. We first determine the associated base flow by solving the long-time-scale stretching flow of a flat sheet as a function of two dimensionless parameters: the normalized stretching velocity α and a dimensionless width of the heating zone β . This allows us to determine the conditions for the onset of an out-of-plane wrinkling instability stated in terms of an eigenvalue problem for a linear partial differential equation governing the displacement of the midsurface of the sheet. We show that the sheet can become unstable in two regions that are upstream and downstream of the heating zone where the minimum in-plane stress is negative. This yields the shape and growth rates of the most unstable buckling mode in both regions for various values of the stretching velocity and heating zone width. A transition from stationary to oscillatory unstable modes is found in the upstream region with increasing β , while the downstream region is always stationary. We show that the wrinkling instability can be entirely suppressed when the surface tension is large enough relative to the magnitude of the in-plane stress. Finally, we present an operating diagram that indicates regions of the parameter space that result in a required outlet sheet thickness upon stretching while simultaneously minimizing or suppressing the out-of-plane buckling, a result that is relevant for the glass redraw method used to create ultrathin glass sheets.

  15. Gradient effects on the fracture of inhomogeneous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Terrence Lee [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    Functionally Graded Materials (FGMs) have a spatial variation in physical properties that can be tailored to meet the needs of a specific application and/or to minimize internal stresses arising from thermal and elastic mismatch. Modeling these materials as inhomogeneous continua allows assessment of the role of the gradient without requiring detailed knowledge of the microstructure. Motivated by the relative difficulty of obtaining analytical solutions to boundary value problems for FGMs, an accurate finite-element code is developed for obtaining numerical planar and axisymmetric linear thermoelastic solutions. In addition an approximate analytical technique for mapping homogeneous-modulus solutions to those for FGMs is assessed and classes of problems to which it applies accurately are identified. The fracture mechanics analysis of FGMs can be characterized by the classic stress intensities, KI and KII, but there has been scarce progress in understanding the role of the modulus gradient in determining fracture initiation and propagation. To address this question, a statistical fracture model is used to correlate near-tip stresses with brittle fracture initiation behavior. This describes the behavior of a material experiencing fracture initiation away from the crack tip. Widely dispersed zones of fracture initiation sites are expected. Finite-length kinks are analyzed to describe the crack path for continuous crack growth. For kink lengths much shorter than the gradient dimension, a parallel stress term describes the deviation of the kinking angle from that for homogeneous materials. For longer kinks there is a divergence of the kink angle predicted by the maximum energy release rate and the pure opening mode criteria.

  16. The oscillator model for dissipative QED in an inhomogeneous dielectric (United States)

    van Wonderen, A. J.; Suttorp, L. G.


    The Ullersma model for the damped harmonic oscillator is coupled to the quantized electromagnetic field. All material parameters and interaction strengths are allowed to depend on position. The ensuing Hamiltonian is expressed in terms of canonical fields, and diagonalized by performing a normal-mode expansion. The commutation relations of the diagonalizing operators are in agreement with the canonical commutation relations. For the proof we replace all sums of normal modes by complex integrals with the help of the residue theorem. The same technique helps us to explicitly calculate the quantum evolution of all canonical and electromagnetic fields. We identify the dielectric constant and the Green function of the wave equation for the electric field. Both functions are meromorphic in the complex frequency plane. The solution of the extended Ullersma model is in keeping with well-known phenomenological rules for setting up quantum electrodynamics in an absorptive and spatially inhomogeneous dielectric. To establish this fundamental justification, we subject the reservoir of independent harmonic oscillators to a continuum limit. The resonant frequencies of the reservoir are smeared out over the real axis. Consequently, the poles of both the dielectric constant and the Green function unite to form a branch cut. Performing an analytic continuation beyond this branch cut, we find that the long-time behaviour of the quantized electric field is completely determined by the sources of the reservoir. Through a Riemann-Lebesgue argument we demonstrate that the field itself tends to zero, whereas its quantum fluctuations stay alive. We argue that the last feature may have important consequences for application of entanglement and related processes in quantum devices.

  17. SU-E-T-297: Dosimetric Assessment of An Air-Filled Balloon Applicator in HDR Vaginal Cuff Brachytherapy Using the Monte Carlo Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, H; Lee, Y; Pokhrel, D; Badkul, R [University of Kansas Hospital, Kansas City, KS (United States)


    Purpose: As an alternative to cylindrical applicators, air inflated balloon applicators have been introduced into HDR vaginal cuff brachytherapy treatment to achieve sufficient dose to vagina mucosa as well as to spare rectum and bladder. In general, TG43 formulae based treatment planning systems do not take into account tissue inhomogeneity, and air in the balloon applicator can cause higher delivered dose to mucosa than treatment plan reported. We investigated dosimetric effect of air in balloon applicator using the Monte Carlo method. Methods: The thirteen-catheter Capri applicator with a Nucletron Ir-192 seed was modeled for various balloon diameters (2cm to 3.5cm) using the MCNP Monte Carlo code. Ir-192 seed was placed in both central and peripheral catheters to replicate real patient situations. Existence of charged particle equilibrium (CPE) with air balloon was evaluated by comparing kerma and dose at various distances (1mm to 70mm) from surface of air-filled applicator. Also mucosa dose by an air-filled applicator was compared with by a water-filled applicator to evaluate dosimetry accuracy of planning system without tissue inhomogeneity correction. Results: Beyond 1mm from air/tissue interface, the difference between kerma and dose was within 2%. CPE (or transient CPE) condition was deemed existent, and in this region no electron transport was necessary in Monte Carlo simulations. At 1mm or less, the deviation of dose from kerma became more apparent. Increase of dose to mucosa depended on diameter of air balloon. The increment of dose to mucosa was 2.5% and 4.3% on average for 2cm and 3.5cm applicators, respectively. Conclusion: After introduction of air balloon applicator, CPE fails only at the proximity of air/tissue interface. Although dose to mucosa is increased, there is no significant dosimetric difference (<5%) between air and water filled applicators. Tissue inhomogeneity correction is not necessary for air-filled applicators.

  18. Three-dimensional distribution of random velocity inhomogeneities at the Nankai trough seismogenic zone (United States)

    Takahashi, T.; Obana, K.; Yamamoto, Y.; Nakanishi, A.; Kaiho, Y.; Kodaira, S.; Kaneda, Y.


    The Nankai trough in southwestern Japan is a convergent margin where the Philippine sea plate is subducted beneath the Eurasian plate. There are major faults segments of huge earthquakes that are called Tokai, Tonankai and Nankai earthquakes. According to the earthquake occurrence history over the past hundreds years, we must expect various rupture patters such as simultaneous or nearly continuous ruptures of plural fault segments. Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) conducted seismic surveys at Nankai trough in order to clarify mutual relations between seismic structures and fault segments, as a part of "Research concerning Interaction Between the Tokai, Tonankai and Nankai Earthquakes" funded by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan. This study evaluated the spatial distribution of random velocity inhomogeneities from Hyuga-nada to Kii-channel by using velocity seismograms of small and moderate sized earthquakes. Random velocity inhomogeneities are estimated by the peak delay time analysis of S-wave envelopes (e.g., Takahashi et al. 2009). Peak delay time is defined as the time lag from the S-wave onset to its maximal amplitude arrival. This quantity mainly reflects the accumulated multiple forward scattering effect due to random inhomogeneities, and is quite insensitive to the inelastic attenuation. Peak delay times are measured from the rms envelopes of horizontal components at 4-8Hz, 8-16Hz and 16-32Hz. This study used the velocity seismograms that are recorded by 495 ocean bottom seismographs and 378 onshore seismic stations. Onshore stations are composed of the F-net and Hi-net stations that are maintained by National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED) of Japan. It is assumed that the random inhomogeneities are represented by the von Karman type PSDF. Preliminary result of inversion analysis shows that spectral gradient of PSDF (i.e., scale dependence of

  19. Atom optics with Rydberg states in inhomogeneous electric fields (United States)

    Kritsun, Oleg Anton

    Atom optics has become subject of intense investigation in recent years. Control of atomic motion is of great importance in atomic physics and applications like lithography or nanofabrication. Neutral atoms are not affected greatly by magnetic or electric field as they don't have a charge or large magnetic and electric moments. But by exciting a neutral atom to a high Rydberg state it is possible to increase its electric moment considerably. The purpose of this thesis is to demonstrate experimentally and theoretically the possibility of creating atom optical elements for the beam of neutral atoms based on the polarizability of highly excited states in an electric field. First this work will present a review of the basic concepts that are used for atom optics and also a discussion of the progress to date in realizations of the neutral atom manipulation techniques. In our earlier experiments deflection and beam-splitting was demonstrated for a beam of neutral Lithium atoms excited in a three-step scheme [3.5, 3.6]. In later experiments, metastable Helium was excited from 23S state to the 33P state using lambda = 389 nm light, and then to the 25--30 S or D states using lambda = 785--815 nm light. Because this was a two-step excitation and it had the higher laser power in the last step, this method increased the percentage of excited atoms by a factor close to 103 compared to the Lithium experiment. Furthermore coherent excitation technique, Stimulated Raman Adiabatic Population Transfer (STIRAP), is investigated in this system, which allows a complete transfer of the atoms from 23S to the Rydberg states. STIRAP is also very tolerant of experimental imperfections such as intensity and frequency fluctuations, Doppler shifts, etc. and can be done with modest laser power. Efficient excitation enables us to do the following atom manipulations in inhomogeneous electric field [3.6, 4.42]. (1) Deflection and reflection; (2) Beam-splitting; (3) Collimation and focusing. Since

  20. Approaching Chemical Accuracy with Quantum Monte Carlo

    CERN Document Server

    Petruzielo, F R; Umrigar, C J


    A quantum Monte Carlo study of the atomization energies for the G2 set of molecules is presented. Basis size dependence of diffusion Monte Carlo atomization energies is studied with a single determinant Slater-Jastrow trial wavefunction formed from Hartree-Fock orbitals. With the largest basis set, the mean absolute deviation from experimental atomization energies for the G2 set is 3.0 kcal/mol. Optimizing the orbitals within variational Monte Carlo improves the agreement between diffusion Monte Carlo and experiment, reducing the mean absolute deviation to 2.1 kcal/mol. Moving beyond a single determinant Slater-Jastrow trial wavefunction, diffusion Monte Carlo with a small complete active space Slater-Jastrow trial wavefunction results in near chemical accuracy. In this case, the mean absolute deviation from experimental atomization energies is 1.2 kcal/mol. It is shown from calculations on systems containing phosphorus that the accuracy can be further improved by employing a larger active space.

  1. Performance Evaluation of Algorithms in Lung IMRT: A comparison of Monte Carlo, Pencil Beam, Superposition, Fast Superposition and Convolution Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verma T. R.


    Full Text Available Background: Inclusion of inhomogeneity corrections in intensity modulated small fields always makes conformal irradiation of lung tumor very complicated in accurate dose delivery. Objective: In the present study, the performance of five algorithms via Monte Carlo, Pencil Beam, Convolution, Fast Superposition and Superposition were evaluated in lung cancer Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy planning. Materials and Methods: Treatment plans for ten lung cancer patients previously planned on Monte Carlo algorithm were re-planned using same treatment planning indices (gantry angel, rank, power etc. in other four algorithms. Results: The values of radiotherapy planning parameters such as Mean dose, volume of 95% isodose line, Conformity Index, Homogeneity Index for target, Maximum dose, Mean dose; %Volume receiving 20Gy or more by contralateral lung; % volume receiving 30 Gy or more; % volume receiving 25 Gy or more, Mean dose received by heart; %volume receiving 35Gy or more; %volume receiving 50Gy or more, Mean dose to Easophagous; % Volume receiving 45Gy or more, Maximum dose received by Spinal cord and Total monitor unit, Volume of 50 % isodose lines were recorded for all ten patients. Performance of different algorithms was also evaluated statistically. Conclusion: MC and PB algorithms found better as for tumor coverage, dose distribution homogeneity in Planning Target Volume and minimal dose to organ at risks are concerned. Superposition algorithms found to be better than convolution and fast superposition. In the case of tumors located centrally, it is recommended to use Monte Carlo algorithms for the optimal use of radiotherapy.

  2. Vlasov simulations of electron hole dynamics in inhomogeneous magnetic field (United States)

    Kuzichev, Ilya; Vasko, Ivan; Agapitov, Oleksiy; Mozer, Forrest; Artemyev, Anton


    Electron holes (EHs) or phase space vortices are solitary electrostatic waves existing due to electrons trapped within EH electrostatic potential. Since the first direct observation [1], EHs have been widely observed in the Earth's magnetosphere: in reconnecting current sheets [2], injection fronts [3], auroral region [4], and many other space plasma systems. EHs have typical spatial scales up to tens of Debye lengths, electric field amplitudes up to hundreds of mV/m and propagate along magnetic field lines with velocities of about electron thermal velocity [5]. The role of EHs in energy dissipation and supporting of large-scale potential drops is under active investigation. The accurate interpretation of spacecraft observations requires understanding of EH evolution in inhomogeneous plasma. The critical role of plasma density gradients in EH evolution was demonstrated in [6] using PIC simulations. Interestingly, up to date no studies have addressed a role of magnetic field gradients in EH evolution. In this report, we use 1.5D gyrokinetic Vlasov code to demonstrate the critical role of magnetic field gradients in EH dynamics. We show that EHs propagating into stronger (weaker) magnetic field are decelerated (accelerated) with deceleration (acceleration) rate dependent on the magnetic field gradient. Remarkably, the reflection points of decelerating EHs are independent of the average magnetic field gradient in the system and depend only on the EH parameters. EHs are decelerated (accelerated) faster than would follow from the "quasi-particle" concept assuming that EH is decelerated (accelerated) entirely due to the mirror force acting on electrons trapped within EH. We demonstrate that EH propagation in inhomogeneous magnetic fields results in development of a net potential drop along an EH, which depends on the magnetic field gradient. The revealed features will be helpful for interpreting spacecraft observations and results of advanced particle simulations. In

  3. Self-learning Monte Carlo method (United States)

    Liu, Junwei; Qi, Yang; Meng, Zi Yang; Fu, Liang


    Monte Carlo simulation is an unbiased numerical tool for studying classical and quantum many-body systems. One of its bottlenecks is the lack of a general and efficient update algorithm for large size systems close to the phase transition, for which local updates perform badly. In this Rapid Communication, we propose a general-purpose Monte Carlo method, dubbed self-learning Monte Carlo (SLMC), in which an efficient update algorithm is first learned from the training data generated in trial simulations and then used to speed up the actual simulation. We demonstrate the efficiency of SLMC in a spin model at the phase transition point, achieving a 10-20 times speedup.

  4. Monte Carlo strategies in scientific computing

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jun S


    This paperback edition is a reprint of the 2001 Springer edition This book provides a self-contained and up-to-date treatment of the Monte Carlo method and develops a common framework under which various Monte Carlo techniques can be "standardized" and compared Given the interdisciplinary nature of the topics and a moderate prerequisite for the reader, this book should be of interest to a broad audience of quantitative researchers such as computational biologists, computer scientists, econometricians, engineers, probabilists, and statisticians It can also be used as the textbook for a graduate-level course on Monte Carlo methods Many problems discussed in the alter chapters can be potential thesis topics for masters’ or PhD students in statistics or computer science departments Jun Liu is Professor of Statistics at Harvard University, with a courtesy Professor appointment at Harvard Biostatistics Department Professor Liu was the recipient of the 2002 COPSS Presidents' Award, the most prestigious one for sta...

  5. Off-diagonal expansion quantum Monte Carlo. (United States)

    Albash, Tameem; Wagenbreth, Gene; Hen, Itay


    We propose a Monte Carlo algorithm designed to simulate quantum as well as classical systems at equilibrium, bridging the algorithmic gap between quantum and classical thermal simulation algorithms. The method is based on a decomposition of the quantum partition function that can be viewed as a series expansion about its classical part. We argue that the algorithm not only provides a theoretical advancement in the field of quantum Monte Carlo simulations, but is optimally suited to tackle quantum many-body systems that exhibit a range of behaviors from "fully quantum" to "fully classical," in contrast to many existing methods. We demonstrate the advantages, sometimes by orders of magnitude, of the technique by comparing it against existing state-of-the-art schemes such as path integral quantum Monte Carlo and stochastic series expansion. We also illustrate how our method allows for the unification of quantum and classical thermal parallel tempering techniques into a single algorithm and discuss its practical significance.

  6. Off-diagonal expansion quantum Monte Carlo (United States)

    Albash, Tameem; Wagenbreth, Gene; Hen, Itay


    We propose a Monte Carlo algorithm designed to simulate quantum as well as classical systems at equilibrium, bridging the algorithmic gap between quantum and classical thermal simulation algorithms. The method is based on a decomposition of the quantum partition function that can be viewed as a series expansion about its classical part. We argue that the algorithm not only provides a theoretical advancement in the field of quantum Monte Carlo simulations, but is optimally suited to tackle quantum many-body systems that exhibit a range of behaviors from "fully quantum" to "fully classical," in contrast to many existing methods. We demonstrate the advantages, sometimes by orders of magnitude, of the technique by comparing it against existing state-of-the-art schemes such as path integral quantum Monte Carlo and stochastic series expansion. We also illustrate how our method allows for the unification of quantum and classical thermal parallel tempering techniques into a single algorithm and discuss its practical significance.

  7. Simulation and quantitative assessment of homogeneous and inhomogeneous particle distributions in particulate metal matrix composites. (United States)

    Yang, N.; Boselli, J.; Sinclair, I.


    Reinforcement distributions play an important role in various aspects of the processing and final mechanical behaviour of particulate metal matrix composites (PMMCs). Methods for quantifying spatial distribution in such materials are, however, poorly developed, particularly in relation to the range of particle size, shape and orientation that may be present in any one system. The present work investigates via computer simulations the influences of particle morphology, homogeneity and inhomogeneity on spatial distribution measurements obtained by finite-body tessellation. Distribution inhomogeneity was simulated both by the segregation of particles away from specified regions within a microstructure and by generating point density peaks at random locations within a microstructure. Both isotropic and anisotropic inhomogeneous distributions were considered to simulate distribution patterns in PMMCs before and after mechanical working. It was found that the coefficient of variation of the mean near-neighbour distance (COV(dmean)), derived from particle interfaces using finite-body tessellation, was essentially independent of particle shape, size distribution, orientation and area fraction in homogeneous (random) distributions, but showed great sensitivity to inhomogeneity. Increased values of COV(dmean) were seen for both forms of inhomogeneous distributions considered here, with little influence of particle morphology. The COV(dmean) was also seen to be sensitive to anisotropic clustering, the presence of which was identified via nearest-neighbour angles and cell orientations. Although generally formulated for PMMCs, the present results may be generalized to other systems containing low aspect ratio finite bodies of low to moderate area fraction.

  8. The effects of inhomogeneous proton-α drifts on the heating of the solar wind (United States)

    Ofman, L.; Viñas, A. F.; Roberts, D. A.


    Previous modeling studies have demonstrated that waves and super-Alfvénic drift can lead to perpendicular preferential heating of the α particles with respect to protons. Using 2.5-D hybrid model of the solar wind α-proton plasma, we study the effects of inhomogeneous (across the magnetic field) background streaming focusing on the fast solar wind. We explore the effects of an initial relative, inhomogeneous ion drift on the perpendicular ion heating and cooling and consider the effects of solar wind expansion. We study the spectrum of the magnetic fluctuations in the inhomogeneous background solar wind and demonstrate the generation of oblique waves and their effects on enhanced resonant anisotropic ion heating. The model reproduces the typical ion temperature anisotropy values seen in observations. Using our model, we find that inhomogeneous super-Alfvénic ion drift in the plasma generates significant power of oblique waves in the solar wind plasma, in addition to enhanced heating compared to the nondrifting populations. We demonstrate the effects of various inhomogeneity profiles and regions of the drift on the ion anisotropic heating in super-Alfvénic and near-Alfvénic drifts. We find that the cooling effect due to the solar wind expansion is not significant when super-Alfvénic drifts are considered.

  9. Monte Carlo sampling for stochastic weight functions. (United States)

    Frenkel, Daan; Schrenk, K Julian; Martiniani, Stefano


    Conventional Monte Carlo simulations are stochastic in the sense that the acceptance of a trial move is decided by comparing a computed acceptance probability with a random number, uniformly distributed between 0 and 1. Here, we consider the case that the weight determining the acceptance probability itself is fluctuating. This situation is common in many numerical studies. We show that it is possible to construct a rigorous Monte Carlo algorithm that visits points in state space with a probability proportional to their average weight. The same approach may have applications for certain classes of high-throughput experiments and the analysis of noisy datasets.

  10. Monte Carlo Treatment Planning for Advanced Radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cronholm, Rickard

    This Ph.d. project describes the development of a workflow for Monte Carlo Treatment Planning for clinical radiotherapy plans. The workflow may be utilized to perform an independent dose verification of treatment plans. Modern radiotherapy treatment delivery is often conducted by dynamically...... modulating the intensity of the field during the irradiation. The workflow described has the potential to fully model the dynamic delivery, including gantry rotation during irradiation, of modern radiotherapy. Three corner stones of Monte Carlo Treatment Planning are identified: Building, commissioning...

  11. AlphaGo ja Monte Carlo -puuhaku


    Kumpulainen, Samu


    Tässä tutkielmassa käsittelen Monte Carlo -puuhakualgoritmia sekä sen roolia hyvin menestyneessä AlphaGo-tekoälyssä. Tavoitteena oli muodostaa kokonaiskuva AlphaGo:n toiminnasta, painottuen etenkin Monte Carlo -puuhaun näkökulmaan. Tutkimuksen perusteella selvisi miten ohjelma hyödyntää omassa hakualgoritmissään kyseistä puuhakua, jota se parantaa hyödyntäen koneoppimista ja useita eri tarkoituksiin opetettuja neuroverkkoja. AlphaGo saavutti näin tehokkuuden, johon muut go-ohjelmat eivä...

  12. Fast sequential Monte Carlo methods for counting and optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Rubinstein, Reuven Y; Vaisman, Radislav


    A comprehensive account of the theory and application of Monte Carlo methods Based on years of research in efficient Monte Carlo methods for estimation of rare-event probabilities, counting problems, and combinatorial optimization, Fast Sequential Monte Carlo Methods for Counting and Optimization is a complete illustration of fast sequential Monte Carlo techniques. The book provides an accessible overview of current work in the field of Monte Carlo methods, specifically sequential Monte Carlo techniques, for solving abstract counting and optimization problems. Written by authorities in the

  13. Use of Monte Carlo Methods in brachytherapy; Uso del metodo de Monte Carlo en braquiterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granero Cabanero, D.


    The Monte Carlo method has become a fundamental tool for brachytherapy dosimetry mainly because no difficulties associated with experimental dosimetry. In brachytherapy the main handicap of experimental dosimetry is the high dose gradient near the present sources making small uncertainties in the positioning of the detectors lead to large uncertainties in the dose. This presentation will review mainly the procedure for calculating dose distributions around a fountain using the Monte Carlo method showing the difficulties inherent in these calculations. In addition we will briefly review other applications of the method of Monte Carlo in brachytherapy dosimetry, as its use in advanced calculation algorithms, calculating barriers or obtaining dose applicators around. (Author)

  14. Monte Carlo methods in AB initio quantum chemistry quantum Monte Carlo for molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Lester, William A; Reynolds, PJ


    This book presents the basic theory and application of the Monte Carlo method to the electronic structure of atoms and molecules. It assumes no previous knowledge of the subject, only a knowledge of molecular quantum mechanics at the first-year graduate level. A working knowledge of traditional ab initio quantum chemistry is helpful, but not essential.Some distinguishing features of this book are: Clear exposition of the basic theory at a level to facilitate independent study. Discussion of the various versions of the theory: diffusion Monte Carlo, Green's function Monte Carlo, and release n

  15. On the use of stochastic approximation Monte Carlo for Monte Carlo integration

    KAUST Repository

    Liang, Faming


    The stochastic approximation Monte Carlo (SAMC) algorithm has recently been proposed as a dynamic optimization algorithm in the literature. In this paper, we show in theory that the samples generated by SAMC can be used for Monte Carlo integration via a dynamically weighted estimator by calling some results from the literature of nonhomogeneous Markov chains. Our numerical results indicate that SAMC can yield significant savings over conventional Monte Carlo algorithms, such as the Metropolis-Hastings algorithm, for the problems for which the energy landscape is rugged. © 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Invariant imbedding theory of wave propagation in arbitrarily inhomogeneous stratified bi-isotropic media

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Seulong


    Bi-isotropic media, which include isotropic chiral media and Tellegen media as special cases, are the most general form of linear isotropic media where the electric displacement and the magnetic induction are related to both the electric field and the magnetic intensity. In inhomogeneous bi-isotropic media, electromagnetic waves of two different polarizations are coupled to each other. In this paper, we develop a generalized version of the invariant imbedding method for the study of wave propagation in arbitrarily-inhomogeneous stratified bi-isotropic media, which can be used to solve the coupled wave propagation problem accurately and efficiently. We verify the validity and usefulness of the method by applying it to several examples, including the wave propagation in a uniform chiral slab, the surface wave excitation in a bilayer system made of a layer of Tellegen medium and a metal layer, and the mode conversion of transverse electromagnetic waves into longitudinal plasma oscillations in inhomogeneous Telle...

  17. Electro-osmosis in inhomogeneously charged microporous media by pore-scale modeling. (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Wang, Moran


    Surface charge at solid-electrolyte interface is generally coupled with the local electrolyte properties (ionic concentration, pH, etc.), and therefore not as assumed homogeneous on the solid surfaces in the previous studies. The inhomogeneous charge brings huge challenges in predictions of electro-osmotic transport and has never been well studied. In this work, we first propose a classification of electro-osmosis based on a dimensionless number which is the ratio of the Debye length to the characteristic pore size. In the limit of thin electrical double layer, we establish a pore-scale numerical model for inhomogeneously charged electro-osmosis including four ions: Na(+),Cl(-),H(+) and OH(-). Based on reconstructed porous media, we simulate the electro-osmosis with inhomogeneous charge using lattice Boltzmann method. The nonlinear response of electro-osmotic velocity to applied electrical field and the reverse flow have been observed and analyzed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. On distortions of TPC coordinates: inhomogeneities of electric and magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Dydak, F


    After a general discussion of electron drift in a gas volume with electric and magnetic fields, distortions in the r and r phi coordinates arising from inhomogeneities of the electric and magnetic fields in the HARP TPC are calculated. Inhomogeneities of the electric field arise from i) positive ions released by cosmic rays, ii) positive ions released by interaction secondaries, iii) positive ions released by beam muons, iv) positive ions released from beam particles downstream of the inner field cage, and v) a high voltage misalignment between the outer and inner field cages. Also, distortions arising from the inhomogeneity of the magnetic field are calculated. These effects resolve the controversy on unphysical numbers of 'wrong-charge' TPC tracks. The bad news are that effects are too big to be neglected. The good news are that, with enough sweat and tears, they can be adequately corrected.

  19. Electric field computation and measurements in the electroporation of inhomogeneous samples (United States)

    Bernardis, Alessia; Bullo, Marco; Campana, Luca Giovanni; Di Barba, Paolo; Dughiero, Fabrizio; Forzan, Michele; Mognaschi, Maria Evelina; Sgarbossa, Paolo; Sieni, Elisabetta


    In clinical treatments of a class of tumors, e.g. skin tumors, the drug uptake of tumor tissue is helped by means of a pulsed electric field, which permeabilizes the cell membranes. This technique, which is called electroporation, exploits the conductivity of the tissues: however, the tumor tissue could be characterized by inhomogeneous areas, eventually causing a non-uniform distribution of current. In this paper, the authors propose a field model to predict the effect of tissue inhomogeneity, which can affect the current density distribution. In particular, finite-element simulations, considering non-linear conductivity against field relationship, are developed. Measurements on a set of samples subject to controlled inhomogeneity make it possible to assess the numerical model in view of identifying the equivalent resistance between pairs of electrodes.

  20. Effects of inhomogeneities on apparent cosmological observables: "fake" evolving dark energy (United States)

    Romano, Antonio Enea; Starobinsky, Alexei A.; Sasaki, Misao


    Using the exact Lemaitre-Bondi-Tolman solution with a non-vanishing cosmological constant Λ, we investigate how the presence of a local spherically symmetric inhomogeneity can affect apparent cosmological observables, such as the deceleration parameter or the effective equation of state of dark energy (DE), derived from the luminosity distance under the assumption that the real space-time is exactly homogeneous and isotropic. The presence of a local underdensity is found to produce apparent phantom behavior of DE, while a locally overdense region leads to apparent quintessence behavior. We consider relatively small large scale inhomogeneities which today are not linear and could be seeded by primordial curvature perturbations compatible with CMB bounds. Our study shows how observations in an inhomogeneous ΛCDM universe with initial conditions compatible with the inflationary beginning, if interpreted under the wrong assumption of homogeneity, can lead to the wrong conclusion about the presence of "fake" evolving dark energy instead of Λ.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Prokešová


    Full Text Available In the literature on point processes the by far most popular option for introducing inhomogeneity into a point process model is the location dependent thinning (resulting in a second-order intensity-reweighted stationary point process. This produces a very tractable model and there are several fast estimation procedures available. Nevertheless, this model dilutes the interaction (or the geometrical structure of the original homogeneous model in a special way. When concerning the Markov point processes several alternative inhomogeneous models were suggested and investigated in the literature. But it is not so for the Cox point processes, the canonical models for clustered point patterns. In the contribution we discuss several other options how to define inhomogeneous Cox point process models that result in point patterns with different types of geometric structure. We further investigate the possible parameter estimation procedures for such models.

  2. Excitation of s-polarized surface electromagnetic waves in inhomogeneous dielectric media. (United States)

    Kim, Kihong


    We consider a model of an inhomogeneous dielectric slab first studied by Shvartzburg, Petite and Auby [J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 966 (1999)] and several variations of that model and study the excitation of s-polarized surface electromagnetic waves on the surface of inhomogeneous dielectric media. Using the invariant imbedding theory of wave propagation in stratified media, we calculate the reflectance and the absorptance of an s wave incident obliquely on a dielectric slab in the Otto configuration, as a function of incident angle and frequency. We also calculate the spatial distribution of the electric field intensity in the inhomogeneous region. We find that in all cases we have considered, s-polarized surface waves are excited at certain incident angles and frequencies. We discuss the physical mechanism of the surface wave generation and the possibility of experimental observations of these effects.

  3. Regular Bulk Solutions in Brane-Worlds with Inhomogeneous Dust and Generalized Dark Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Herrera-Aguilar


    Full Text Available From the dynamics of a brane-world with matter fields present in the bulk, the bulk metric and the black string solution near the brane are generalized, when both the dynamics of inhomogeneous dust/generalized dark radiation on the brane-world and inhomogeneous dark radiation in the bulk as well are considered as exact dynamical collapse solutions. Based on the analysis on the inhomogeneous static exterior of a collapsing sphere of homogeneous dark radiation on the brane, the associated black string warped horizon is studied, as well as the 5D bulk metric near the brane. Moreover, the black string and the bulk are shown to be more regular upon time evolution, for suitable values for the dark radiation parameter in the model, by analyzing the soft physical singularities.

  4. Inhomogeneous superfluid phases in 6Li-40K mixtures at unitarity (United States)

    Baarsma, J. E.; Stoof, H. T. C.


    We show that the ultracold three-dimensional 6Li-40K mixture at unitarity can exhibit the highly exotic Larkin-Ovchinnikov superfluid phase. We determine the phase diagram for majorities of 40K atoms within mean-field theory taking the inhomogeneities of the fermion states into account exactly. We find two different inhomogeneous superfluid phases in mixtures with a majority of 40K atoms, namely the Larkin-Ovchinnikov (LO ) phase with one inhomogeneous direction and a cubic phase (LO3) where three spatial translational symmetries are broken. We determine the transition between these two phases by solving the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations in the superfluid LO phase. Subsequently, we calculate the atomic density modulation of the atoms in the LO phase and show that it is sufficiently large to be visible in experiment.

  5. Regular Bulk Solutions in Brane-worlds with Inhomogeneous Dust and Generalized Dark Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Herrera-Aguilar, A; da Rocha, Roldao


    From the dynamics of a brane-world with matter fields present in the bulk, the bulk metric and the black string solution near the brane are generalized, when both the dynamics of inhomogeneous dust/generalized dark radiation on the brane-world and inhomogeneous dark radiation in the bulk as well are considered -- as exact dynamical collapse solutions. Based on the analysis on the inhomogeneous static exterior of a collapsing sphere of homogeneous dark radiation on the brane, the associated black string warped horizon is studied, as well as the 5D bulk metric near the brane. Moreover, the black string and the bulk are shown to be more regular upon time evolution, for suitable values for the dark radiation parameter in the model, by analyzing the physical soft singularities.

  6. Two-step estimation procedures for inhomogeneous shot-noise Cox processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prokesová, Michaela; Dvorák, Jirí; Jensen, Eva B. Vedel

    In the present paper we develop several two-step estimation procedures for inhomogeneous shot-noise Cox processes. The intensity function is parametrized by the inhomogeneity parameters while the pair-correlation function is parametrized by the interaction parameters. The suggested procedures...... likelihood and Palm likelihood, are compared both theoretically and by means of a simulation study. Two-step estimation with Palm likelihood has not been considered before. Asymptotic normality of the two-step estimator with Palm likelihood is proved....... are based on a combination of Poisson likelihood estimation of the inhomogeneity parameters in the first step and an adaptation of a method from the homogeneous case for estimation of the interaction parameters in the second step. The adapted methods, based on minimum contrast estimation, composite...

  7. Exploring entropic uncertainty relation in the Heisenberg XX model with inhomogeneous magnetic field (United States)

    Huang, Ai-Jun; Wang, Dong; Wang, Jia-Ming; Shi, Jia-Dong; Sun, Wen-Yang; Ye, Liu


    In this work, we investigate the quantum-memory-assisted entropic uncertainty relation in a two-qubit Heisenberg XX model with inhomogeneous magnetic field. It has been found that larger coupling strength J between the two spin-chain qubits can effectively reduce the entropic uncertainty. Besides, we observe the mechanics of how the inhomogeneous field influences the uncertainty, and find out that when the inhomogeneous field parameter b1. Intriguingly, the entropic uncertainty can shrink to zero when the coupling coefficients are relatively large, while the entropic uncertainty only reduces to 1 with the increase of the homogeneous magnetic field. Additionally, we observe the purity of the state and Bell non-locality and obtain that the entropic uncertainty is anticorrelated with both the purity and Bell non-locality of the evolution state.

  8. Non-linear curvature inhomogeneities and backreaction for relativistic viscous fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannini, Massimo


    The non-perturbative curvature inhomogeneities induced by relativistic viscous fluids are not conserved in the large-scale limit. However when the bulk viscosity is a function of the total energy density of the plasma (or of the trace of the extrinsic curvature) the relevant evolution equations develop a further symmetry preventing the non-linear growth of curvature perturbations. In this situation the fully inhomogeneous evolution can be solved to leading order in the gradient expansion. Over large-scales both the acceleration and the curvature inhomogeneities are determined by the bulk viscosity coefficients. Conversely the shear viscosity does not affect the evolution of the curvature and does not produce any acceleration. The curvature modes analyzed here do not depend on the choice of time hypersurfaces and are invariant for infinitesimal coordinate transformations in the perturbative regime.

  9. Granule fraction inhomogeneity of calcium carbonate/sorbitol in roller compacted granules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacher, Charlotte; Olsen, P.M.; Bertelsen, P.


    (the calcium carbonate: calcium carbonate bonds) and consequently exposed the weakest areas of bond formation on the surface of the granules. Accordingly, the non-uniform allocation of the interparticulate attractive forces in a tablet would cause a lowering of the compactibility. Furthermore......The granule fraction inhomogeneity of roller compacted granules was examined on mixtures of three different morphologic forms of calcium carbonate and three particle sizes of sorbitol. The granule fraction inhomogeneity was determined by the distribution of the calcium carbonate in each of the 10...... size fractions between 0 and 2000 µm and by calculating the demixing potential. Significant inhomogeneous occurrence of calcium carbonate in the size fractions was demonstrated, depending mostly on the particles sizes of sorbitol but also on the morphological forms of calcium carbonate...

  10. A unified perspective on preferential solvation and adsorption based on inhomogeneous solvation theory (United States)

    Shimizu, Seishi; Matubayasi, Nobuyuki


    How cosolvents affects solvation has been revealed through the independent determination of solute-solvent and solute-cosolvent interactions guaranteed by the phase rule. Based on the first principles of inhomogeneous solvation theory, we present here a general matrix theory encompassing both preferential solvation and surface adsorption. The central role of the stability conditions, that govern how many excess numbers (surface excesses) are independently determinable, have been clarified from the first principles. The advantage of the inhomogeneous approach has been demonstrated to be in its ease in treating solvation and adsorption in a unified manner, while its disadvantage, for example in membrane dialysis experiments, can be overcome by the inhomogeneous-homogeneous conversion.

  11. Scalable Domain Decomposed Monte Carlo Particle Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Brien, Matthew Joseph [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)


    In this dissertation, we present the parallel algorithms necessary to run domain decomposed Monte Carlo particle transport on large numbers of processors (millions of processors). Previous algorithms were not scalable, and the parallel overhead became more computationally costly than the numerical simulation.

  12. Monte Carlo studies of uranium calorimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brau, J.; Hargis, H.J.; Gabriel, T.A.; Bishop, B.L.


    Detailed Monte Carlo calculations of uranium calorimetry are presented which reveal a significant difference in the responses of liquid argon and plastic scintillator in uranium calorimeters. Due to saturation effects, neutrons from the uranium are found to contribute only weakly to the liquid argon signal. Electromagnetic sampling inefficiencies are significant and contribute substantially to compensation in both systems. 17 references.

  13. Quantum algorithm for exact Monte Carlo sampling


    Destainville, Nicolas; Georgeot, Bertrand; Giraud, Olivier


    We build a quantum algorithm which uses the Grover quantum search procedure in order to sample the exact equilibrium distribution of a wide range of classical statistical mechanics systems. The algorithm is based on recently developed exact Monte Carlo sampling methods, and yields a polynomial gain compared to classical procedures.

  14. Monte Carlo calculations of atoms and molecules (United States)

    Schmidt, K. E.; Moskowitz, J. W.


    The variational and Green's function Monte Carlo (GFMC) methods can treat many interesting atomic and molecular problems. These methods can give chemical accuracy for up to 10 or so electrons. The various implementations of the GFMC method, including the domain Green's function method and the short-time approximation, are discussed. Results are presented for several representative atoms and molecules.

  15. Dynamic bounds coupled with Monte Carlo simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajabali Nejad, Mohammadreza; Meester, L.E.; van Gelder, P.H.A.J.M.; Vrijling, J.K.


    For the reliability analysis of engineering structures a variety of methods is known, of which Monte Carlo (MC) simulation is widely considered to be among the most robust and most generally applicable. To reduce simulation cost of the MC method, variance reduction methods are applied. This paper

  16. An analysis of Monte Carlo tree search

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    James, S


    Full Text Available Monte Carlo Tree Search (MCTS) is a family of directed search algorithms that has gained widespread attention in recent years. Despite the vast amount of research into MCTS, the effect of modifications on the algorithm, as well as the manner...

  17. Spatial Kibble–Zurek mechanism through susceptibilities: the inhomogeneous quantum Ising model case (United States)

    Łącki, Mateusz; Damski, Bogdan


    We study the quantum Ising model in the transverse inhomogeneous magnetic field. Such a system can be approached numerically through exact diagonalization and analytically through the renormalization group techniques. Basic insight into its physics, however, can be obtained by adopting the Kibble–Zurek theory of non-equilibrium phase transitions to description of spatially inhomogeneous systems at equilibrium. We employ all these approaches and focus on derivatives of longitudinal and transverse magnetizations, which have extrema near the critical point. We discuss how these extrema can be used for locating the critical point and for verification of the Kibble–Zurek scaling predictions in the spatial quench.

  18. Generalized Ginzburg–Landau approach to inhomogeneous phases in nonlocal chiral quark models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlomagno, J.P. [IFLP, CONICET – Dpto. de Física, FCE, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, C.C. 67, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); CONICET, Rivadavia 1917, 1033 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Gómez Dumm, D., E-mail: [IFLP, CONICET – Dpto. de Física, FCE, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, C.C. 67, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); CONICET, Rivadavia 1917, 1033 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Scoccola, N.N. [CONICET, Rivadavia 1917, 1033 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Physics Department, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Av. Libertador 8250, 1429 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Universidad Favaloro, Solís 453, 1078 Buenos Aires (Argentina)


    We analyze the presence of inhomogeneous phases in the QCD phase diagram within the framework of nonlocal chiral quark models. We concentrate in particular in the positions of the tricritical (TCP) and Lifshitz (LP) points, which are studied in a general context using a generalized Ginzburg–Landau approach. We find that for all the phenomenologically acceptable model parametrizations considered the TCP is located at a higher temperature and a lower chemical potential in comparison with the LP. Consequently, these models seem to favor a scenario in which the onset of the first order transition between homogeneous phases is not covered by an inhomogeneous, energetically favored phase.

  19. Lie Symmetry Analysis of the Inhomogeneous Toda Lattice Equation via Semi-Discrete Exterior Calculus (United States)

    Liu, Jiang; Wang, Deng-Shan; Yin, Yan-Bin


    In this work, the Lie point symmetries of the inhomogeneous Toda lattice equation are obtained by semi-discrete exterior calculus, which is a semi-discrete version of Harrison and Estabrook’s geometric approach. A four-dimensional Lie algebra and its one-, two- and three-dimensional subalgebras are given. Two similarity reductions of the inhomogeneous Toda lattice equation are obtained by using the symmetry vectors. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11375030, 11472315, and Department of Science and Technology of Henan Province under Grant No. 162300410223 and Beijing Finance Funds of Natural Science Program for Excellent Talents under Grant No. 2014000026833ZK19

  20. Second-order analysis of structured inhomogeneous spatio-temporal point processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper; Ghorbani, Mohammad

    Statistical methodology for spatio-temporal point processes is in its infancy. We consider second-order analysis based on pair correlation functions and K-functions for first general inhomogeneous spatio-temporal point processes and second inhomogeneous spatio-temporal Cox processes. Assuming......-temporal Gaussian process. Another concerns shot-noise Cox processes with a separable spatio-temporal covariance density. We propose diagnostic procedures for checking hypotheses of second-order spatio-temporal separability, which we apply on simulated and real data (the UK 2001 epidemic foot and mouth disease data)....

  1. Reducing inhomogeneity in the dynamic properties of quantum dots via self-aligned plasmonic cavities. (United States)

    Demory, Brandon; Hill, Tyler A; Teng, Chu-Hsiang; Deng, Hui; Ku, P C


    A plasmonic cavity is shown to greatly reduce the inhomogeneity of dynamic optical properties such as quantum efficiency and radiative lifetime of InGaN quantum dots. By using an open-top plasmonic cavity structure, which exhibits a large Purcell factor and antenna quantum efficiency, the resulting quantum efficiency distribution for the quantum dots narrows and is no longer limited by the quantum dot inhomogeneity. The standard deviation of the quantum efficiency can be reduced to 2% while maintaining the overall quantum efficiency at 70%, making InGaN quantum dots a viable candidate for high-speed quantum cryptography and random number generation applications.

  2. Application of hybrid boundary element method: Example of semishperical ground inhomogeneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković Nenad N.


    Full Text Available One new, so-called hybrid boundary element method (HBEM is presented in this paper. It is a recently proposed numerical method for stationary and quasi-stationary EM field analysis. The method application is illustrated on the example of solving the problem of modelling hemispherical ground inhomogeneity influence on grounding system. The applied procedure also includes using of quasi-stationary image-theory. The obtained results are compared with those ones based on using the Green’s function for the point source inside semi-spherical inhomogeneities as well as with the results obtained by applying COMSOL program package. [TR 33008

  3. Correction of X-ray absorption spectra for thickness inhomogeneity and fluorescence of sample

    CERN Document Server

    Babanov, Y A; Miyanaga, T


    For thin powder samples, the EXAFS spectra are often tampered due to the thickness inhomogeneity, and, thick samples, due to the fluorescence at energies above the absorption edge. As a result, the EXAFS amplitude decreases and information about the coordination numbers is distorted. To correct the X-ray absorption spectra for inhomogeneity and fluorescence effects, we propose a new method, which comes to solve the inverse problem. Model calculations were carried out. This method is applied to preliminary processing EXAFS spectra for Ni-Mn alloys.

  4. Efficient Numerical Approach to Inhomogeneous Superconductivity: The Chebyshev-Bogoliubov-de Gennes Method (United States)

    Covaci, L.; Peeters, F. M.; Berciu, M.


    We propose a highly efficient numerical method to describe inhomogeneous superconductivity by using the kernel polynomial method in order to calculate the Green’s functions of a superconductor. Broken translational invariance of any type (impurities, surfaces, or magnetic fields) can be easily incorporated. We show that limitations due to system size can be easily circumvented and therefore this method opens the way for the study of scenarios and/or geometries that were unaccessible before. The proposed method is highly efficient and amenable to large scale parallel computation. Although we only use it in the context of superconductivity, it is applicable to other inhomogeneous mean-field theories.

  5. The acoustic force density acting on inhomogeneous fluids in acoustic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Karlsen, Jonas T; Bruus, Henrik


    We present a theory for the acoustic force density acting on inhomogeneous fluids in acoustic fields on time scales that are slow compared to the acoustic oscillation period. The acoustic force density depends on gradients in the density and compressibility of the fluid. For microfluidic systems, the theory predicts a relocation of the inhomogeneities into stable field-dependent configurations, which are qualitatively different from the horizontally layered configurations due to gravity. Experimental validation is obtained by confocal imaging of aqueous solutions in a glass-silicon microchip.

  6. Impact of time-inhomogeneous jumps and leverage type effects on returns and realised variances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veraart, Almut

    This paper studies the effect of time-inhomogeneous jumps and leverage type effects on realised variance calculations when the logarithmic asset price is given by a Lévy-driven stochastic volatility model. In such a model, the realised variance is an inconsistent estimator of the integrated varia...... of inhomogeneous ordinary differential equations....... variance. Nevertheless it can be used within a quasi-maximumlikelihood setup to draw inference on the model parameters. In order to do that, this paper introduces a new methodology for deriving all cumulants of the returns and realised variance in explicit form by solving a recursive system...

  7. Spontaneous superfluid unpinning and the inhomogeneous distribution of vortex lines in neutron stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, K.S.; Pines, D.; Alpar, M. A.; Shaham, J.


    The equation of motion of the pinned superfluid which couples to the crust of neutron stars via thermal vortex creep is studied. Spontaneous unpinning at locations characterized by a very inhomogeneous distribution of vortex lines is examined as a possible mechanism for the initiation of glitches. It is suggested that structural inhomogeneities in the crust of neutron stars may be responsible for frequent microglitches which lead to pulsar timing noise. A generalization of the model shows promise for explaining the origin of the giant glitches in pulsars. 21 references.

  8. Spontaneous superfluid unpinning and the inhomogeneous distribution of vortex lines in neutron stars (United States)

    Cheng, K. S.; Pines, D.; Alpar, M. A.; Shaham, J.


    The equation of motion of the pinned superfluid which couples to the crust of neutron stars via thermal vortex creep is studied. Spontaneous unpinning at locations characterized by a very inhomogeneous distribution of vortex lines is examined as a possible mechanism for the initiation of glitches. It is suggested that structural inhomogeneities in the crust of neutron stars may be responsible for frequent microglitches which lead to pulsar timing noise. A generalization of the model shows promise for explaining the origin of the giant glitches in pulsars.

  9. Generalized Ginzburg–Landau approach to inhomogeneous phases in nonlocal chiral quark models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P. Carlomagno


    Full Text Available We analyze the presence of inhomogeneous phases in the QCD phase diagram within the framework of nonlocal chiral quark models. We concentrate in particular in the positions of the tricritical (TCP and Lifshitz (LP points, which are studied in a general context using a generalized Ginzburg–Landau approach. We find that for all the phenomenologically acceptable model parametrizations considered the TCP is located at a higher temperature and a lower chemical potential in comparison with the LP. Consequently, these models seem to favor a scenario in which the onset of the first order transition between homogeneous phases is not covered by an inhomogeneous, energetically favored phase.

  10. Generation of a sequence of frequency-modulated pulses in longitudinally inhomogeneous optical waveguides (United States)

    Zolotovskii, I. O.; Lapin, V. A.; Sementsov, D. I.; Stolyarov, D. A.


    The conditions for the generation and efficient amplification of frequency-modulated soliton-like wave packets in longitudinally inhomogeneous active optical waveguides have been studied. The possibility of forming a sequence of pico- and subpicosecond pulses from quasi-continuous radiation in active and passive optical waveguides with the group-velocity dispersion (GVD) changing over the waveguide length is considered. The behavior of a wave packet in the well-developed phase of modulation instability with a change in the waveguide inhomogeneity parameters has been investigated based on the numerical analysis.

  11. Monte Carlo computer simulation of sedimentation of charged hard spherocylinders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viveros-Méndez, P. X., E-mail:; Aranda-Espinoza, S. [Unidad Académica de Física, Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas, Calzada Solidaridad esq. Paseo, La Bufa s/n, 98060 Zacatecas, Zacatecas, México (Mexico); Gil-Villegas, Alejandro [Departamento de Ingeniería Física, División de Ciencias e Ingenierías, Campus León, Universidad de Guanajuato, Loma del Bosque 103, Lomas del Campestre, 37150 León, Guanajuato, México (Mexico)


    In this article we present a NVT Monte Carlo computer simulation study of sedimentation of an electroneutral mixture of oppositely charged hard spherocylinders (CHSC) with aspect ratio L/σ = 5, where L and σ are the length and diameter of the cylinder and hemispherical caps, respectively, for each particle. This system is an extension of the restricted primitive model for spherical particles, where L/σ = 0, and it is assumed that the ions are immersed in an structureless solvent, i.e., a continuum with dielectric constant D. The system consisted of N = 2000 particles and the Wolf method was implemented to handle the coulombic interactions of the inhomogeneous system. Results are presented for different values of the strength ratio between the gravitational and electrostatic interactions, Γ = (mgσ)/(e{sup 2}/Dσ), where m is the mass per particle, e is the electron's charge and g is the gravitational acceleration value. A semi-infinite simulation cell was used with dimensions L{sub x} ≈ L{sub y} and L{sub z} = 5L{sub x}, where L{sub x}, L{sub y}, and L{sub z} are the box dimensions in Cartesian coordinates, and the gravitational force acts along the z-direction. Sedimentation effects were studied by looking at every layer formed by the CHSC along the gravitational field. By increasing Γ, particles tend to get more packed at each layer and to arrange in local domains with an orientational ordering along two perpendicular axis, a feature not observed in the uncharged system with the same hard-body geometry. This type of arrangement, known as tetratic phase, has been observed in two-dimensional systems of hard-rectangles and rounded hard-squares. In this way, the coupling of gravitational and electric interactions in the CHSC system induces the arrangement of particles in layers, with the formation of quasi-two dimensional tetratic phases near the surface.

  12. Monte Albán V y los mixtecos

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fahmel Beyer, Bernd


    Oaxaca; Monte Albán V; Zapotecos; Mixtecos Abstract This paper focuses on the archaeology of period V at Monte Alban and the material culture associated with the Mixtecs in the central valleys of Oaxaca...

  13. Monte Carlo-based correction factors for ion chamber dosimetry in heterogeneous phantoms for megavoltage photon beams (United States)

    Araki, Fujio


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the perturbation correction factors and inhomogeneity correction factors (ICFs) for a thin-walled cylindrical ion chamber in a heterogeneous phantom including solid water, lung and bone plastic materials. The perturbation factors due to the replacement of the air cavity, non-water equivalence of the wall and the stem, non-air equivalence of the central electrode and the overall perturbation factor, PQ, for a cylindrical chamber, in the heterogeneous phantom were calculated with the EGSnrc/Cavity Monte Carlo code for 6 and 15 MV photon beams. The PTW31010 (0.125 cm3) chamber was modeled with Monte Carlo simulations, and was used for measurements and calculations of percentage depth ionization (PDI) or percentage depth dose (PDD). ICFs were calculated from the ratio of the product of the stopping power ratios (SPRs) and PQ of lung or bone to solid water. Finally, the measured PDIs were converted to PDDs by using ICFs and were compared with those calculated by the Monte Carlo method. The perturbation effect for the ion chamber in lung material is insignificant at 5 × 5 and 10 × 10 cm2 fields, but the effect needs to be considered under conditions of lateral electron disequilibrium with a 3 × 3 cm2 field. ICFs in lung varied up to 2% and 4% depending on the field size for 6 and 15 MV, respectively. For bone material, the perturbation effects due to the chamber wall and the stem were more significant at up to 3.5% and 1.6% for 6 MV, respectively. ICFs for bone material were approximately 0.945 and 0.940 for 6 and 15 MV, respectively. The converted PDDs by using ICFs were in good agreement with Monte Carlo calculated PDDs. The chamber perturbation correction and SPRs should strictly be considered for ion chamber dosimetry in heterogeneous media. This is more important for small field dosimetry in lung and bone materials.

  14. SU-E-T-467: Implementation of Monte Carlo Dose Calculation for a Multileaf Collimator Equipped Robotic Radiotherapy System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, JS; Fan, J; Ma, C-M [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States)


    Purpose: To improve the treatment efficiency and capabilities for full-body treatment, a robotic radiosurgery system has equipped with a multileaf collimator (MLC) to extend its accuracy and precision to radiation therapy. To model the MLC and include it in the Monte Carlo patient dose calculation is the goal of this work. Methods: The radiation source and the MLC were carefully modeled to consider the effects of the source size, collimator scattering, leaf transmission and leaf end shape. A source model was built based on the output factors, percentage depth dose curves and lateral dose profiles measured in a water phantom. MLC leaf shape, leaf end design and leaf tilt for minimizing the interleaf leakage and their effects on beam fluence and energy spectrum were all considered in the calculation. Transmission/leakage was added to the fluence based on the transmission factors of the leaf and the leaf end. The transmitted photon energy was tuned to consider the beam hardening effects. The calculated results with the Monte Carlo implementation was compared with measurements in homogeneous water phantom and inhomogeneous phantoms with slab lung or bone material for 4 square fields and 9 irregularly shaped fields. Results: The calculated output factors are compared with the measured ones and the difference is within 1% for different field sizes. The calculated dose distributions in the phantoms show good agreement with measurements using diode detector and films. The dose difference is within 2% inside the field and the distance to agreement is within 2mm in the penumbra region. The gamma passing rate is more than 95% with 2%/2mm criteria for all the test cases. Conclusion: Implementation of Monte Carlo dose calculation for a MLC equipped robotic radiosurgery system is completed successfully. The accuracy of Monte Carlo dose calculation with MLC is clinically acceptable. This work was supported by Accuray Inc.

  15. Poster - Thur Eve - 08: A1SL ion chamber charged particle disequilibrium corrections for lung dose measurements using Monte Carlo. (United States)

    Mulligan, M; Disher, B; Fakir, H


    An in house inhomogeneous insert for use with ArcCHECK ™ was developed for dose calculation verification of Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) lung plans. The inhomogeneous insert has various ion chamber inserts for different geometrical configurations (lung, soft tissue, bone, air). However, the insertion of an ion chamber in a low density medium perturbs the dose to that region by creating Charged Particle Disequilibrium (CPD), limiting the accuracy of ion chamber measurements. By simulating the ion chamber and phantom using Monte Carlo, a correction factor could be calculated and measured to verify the dose difference caused by CPD. BEAMnrc was used to generate a phase space input file for DOSXYZnrc with beam characteristics that matched clinical commissioning data. A model of the A1SL ion chamber geometry (shell, collector, stem, guard) was simulated in a simple water-lung-water slab phantom. Dose to the active area of the ion chamber was measured in several locations throughout the phantom. The active area of the ion chamber was replaced by the surrounding medium; i.e., water or lung within the phantom, and the dose to the same voxels was calculated. The dose was measured on a Linac and the results agreed within 3% and confirmed that the presence of the ion chamber in low density lung perturbs the dose measured in the field by over 31%. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  16. Evaluation of PENFAST - A fast Monte Carlo code for dose calculations in photon and electron radiotherapy treatment planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habib, B.; Poumarede, B.; Tola, F.; Barthe, J. [CEA, LIST, Dept Technol Capteur et Signal, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, (France)


    The aim of the present study is to demonstrate the potential of accelerated dose calculations, using the fast Monte Carlo (MC) code referred to as PENFAST, rather than the conventional MC code PENELOPE, without losing accuracy in the computed dose. For this purpose, experimental measurements of dose distributions in homogeneous and inhomogeneous phantoms were compared with simulated results using both PENELOPE and PENFAST. The simulations and experiments were performed using a Saturne 43 linac operated at 12 MV (photons), and at 18 MeV (electrons). Pre-calculated phase space files (PSFs) were used as input data to both the PENELOPE and PENFAST dose simulations. Since depth-dose and dose profile comparisons between simulations and measurements in water were found to be in good agreement (within {+-} 1% to 1 mm), the PSF calculation is considered to have been validated. In addition, measured dose distributions were compared to simulated results in a set of clinically relevant, inhomogeneous phantoms, consisting of lung and bone heterogeneities in a water tank. In general, the PENFAST results agree to within a 1% to 1 mm difference with those produced by PENELOPE, and to within a 2% to 2 mm difference with measured values. Our study thus provides a pre-clinical validation of the PENFAST code. It also demonstrates that PENFAST provides accurate results for both photon and electron beams, equivalent to those obtained with PENELOPE. CPU time comparisons between both MC codes show that PENFAST is generally about 9-21 times faster than PENELOPE. (authors)

  17. Quantifying acoustic doppler current profiler discharge uncertainty: A Monte Carlo based tool for moving-boat measurements (United States)

    Mueller, David S.


    This paper presents a method using Monte Carlo simulations for assessing uncertainty of moving-boat acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) discharge measurements using a software tool known as QUant, which was developed for this purpose. Analysis was performed on 10 data sets from four Water Survey of Canada gauging stations in order to evaluate the relative contribution of a range of error sources to the total estimated uncertainty. The factors that differed among data sets included the fraction of unmeasured discharge relative to the total discharge, flow nonuniformity, and operator decisions about instrument programming and measurement cross section. As anticipated, it was found that the estimated uncertainty is dominated by uncertainty of the discharge in the unmeasured areas, highlighting the importance of appropriate selection of the site, the instrument, and the user inputs required to estimate the unmeasured discharge. The main contributor to uncertainty was invalid data, but spatial inhomogeneity in water velocity and bottom-track velocity also contributed, as did variation in the edge velocity, uncertainty in the edge distances, edge coefficients, and the top and bottom extrapolation methods. To a lesser extent, spatial inhomogeneity in the bottom depth also contributed to the total uncertainty, as did uncertainty in the ADCP draft at shallow sites. The estimated uncertainties from QUant can be used to assess the adequacy of standard operating procedures. They also provide quantitative feedback to the ADCP operators about the quality of their measurements, indicating which parameters are contributing most to uncertainty, and perhaps even highlighting ways in which uncertainty can be reduced. Additionally, QUant can be used to account for self-dependent error sources such as heading errors, which are a function of heading. The results demonstrate the importance of a Monte Carlo method tool such as QUant for quantifying random and bias errors when

  18. A scheme comparison of Autler-Townes based slow light in inhomogeneously broadened quantum dot media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per Lunnemann; Mørk, Jesper


    We propose a method to achieve significant optical signal delays exploiting the effect of Autler–Townes splitting (ATS) in an inhomogeneously broadened quantum dot medium. The absorption and slowdown effects are compared for three schemes i.e., Ξ, V, and Λ, corresponding to different excitation c...

  19. Influence of matrix inhomogeneity on the rheological properties of emulsion-filled gels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliver, L.; Wieck, L.; Scholten, E.


    The aim of this work was to determine the effect and magnitude of matrix inhomogeneity on the rheological properties of emulsion-filled gels. To this end, we have investigated the rheological properties in casein gels containing different volume fractions of dispersed fat droplets with varying

  20. Can color inhomogeneity of bruises be used to establish their age?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, Barbara; van Gemert, Martin J. C.; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Teeuw, Arianne H.; van der Wal, Allard C.; Aalders, Maurice C. G.


    Bruises become spatially inhomogeneous during the healing process; a smaller red-blue core area, caused by hemoglobin, is surrounded by a larger yellow area, caused by bilirubin, which is enzymatically formed from hemoglobin. These two areas develop at different rates and hence carry information

  1. Limits to the primordial helium abundance in the baryon-inhomogeneous big bang (United States)

    Mathews, G. J.; Schramm, D. N.; Meyer, B. S.


    The parameter space for baryon inhomogeneous big bang models is explored with the goal of determining the minimum helium abundance obtainable in such models while still satisfying the other light-element constraints. We find that the constraint of (D + He-3)/H less than 10 exp -4 restricts the primordial helium mass fraction from baryon-inhomogeneous big bang models to be greater than 0.231 even for a scenario which optimizes the effects of the inhomogeneities and destroys the excess lithium production. Thus, this modification to the standard big bang as well as the standard homogeneous big bang model itself would be falsifiable by observation if the primordial He-4 abundance were observed to be less than 0.231. Furthermore, a present upper limit to the observed helium mass fraction of Y(obs)(p) less than 0.24 implies that the maximum baryon-to-photon ratio allowable in the inhomogeneous models corresponds to eta less than 2.3 x 10 exp -9 (omega(b) h-squared less than 0.088) even if all conditions are optimized.

  2. Utilizing pulsed laser deposition lateral inhomogeneity as a tool in combinatorial material science. (United States)

    Keller, David A; Ginsburg, Adam; Barad, Hannah-Noa; Shimanovich, Klimentiy; Bouhadana, Yaniv; Rosh-Hodesh, Eli; Takeuchi, Ichiro; Aviv, Hagit; Tischler, Yaakov R; Anderson, Assaf Y; Zaban, Arie


    Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) is widely used in combinatorial material science, as it enables rapid fabrication of different composite materials. Nevertheless, this method was usually limited to small substrates, since PLD deposition on large substrate areas results in severe lateral inhomogeneity. A few technical solutions for this problem have been suggested, including the use of different designs of masks, which were meant to prevent inhomogeneity in the thickness, density, and oxidation state of a layer, while only the composition is allowed to be changed. In this study, a possible way to take advantage of the large scale deposition inhomogeneity is demonstrated, choosing an iron oxide PLD-deposited library with continuous compositional spread (CCS) as a model system. An Fe₂O₃-Nb₂O₅ library was fabricated using PLD, without any mask between the targets and the substrate. The library was measured using high-throughput scanners for electrical, structural, and optical properties. A decrease in electrical resistivity that is several orders of magnitude lower than pure α-Fe₂O₃ was achieved at ∼20% Nb-O (measured at 47 and 267 °C) but only at points that are distanced from the center of the PLD plasma plume. Using hierarchical clustering analysis, we show that the PLD inhomogeneity can be used as an additional degree of freedom, helping, in this case, to achieve iron oxide with much lower resistivity.

  3. An estimating function approach to inference for inhomogeneous Neyman-Scott processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waagepetersen, Rasmus


    This article is concerned with inference for a certain class of inhomogeneous Neyman-Scott point processes depending on spatial covariates. Regression parameter estimates obtained from a simple estimating function are shown to be asymptotically normal when the "mother" intensity for the Neyman-Sc...

  4. Structure of isolated large-scale inhomogeneities in the outer ionosphere (United States)

    Kalinin, Iu. K.; Romanchuk, A. A.


    The structure of large-scale inhomogeneities in the outer ionosphere is examined with reference to Thomson scattering data. The dependence of delta Ne/Ne and delta Ne on the local coordinates is established. The shape function is also examined.

  5. Inhomogeneities of plasma density and electric field as sources of electrostatic turbulence in the auroral region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilyasov, Askar A., E-mail: [Space Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Science, Moscow 117997 (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Dolgoprudny, Moscow region 141700 (Russian Federation); Chernyshov, Alexander A., E-mail:; Mogilevsky, Mikhail M., E-mail: [Space Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Science, Moscow 117997 (Russian Federation); Golovchanskaya, Irina V., E-mail:; Kozelov, Boris V., E-mail: [Polar Geophysical Institute of the Russian Academy of Science, Apatity, Murmansk region 184209 (Russian Federation)


    Inhomogeneities of plasma density and non-uniform electric fields are compared as possible sources of a sort of electrostatic ion cyclotron waves that can be identified with broadband extremely low frequency electrostatic turbulence in the topside auroral ionosphere. Such waves are excited by inhomogeneous energy-density-driven instability. To gain a deeper insight in generation of these waves, computational modeling is performed with various plasma parameters. It is demonstrated that inhomogeneities of plasma density can give rise to this instability even in the absence of electric fields. By using both satellite-observed and model spatial distributions of plasma density and electric field in our modeling, we show that specific details of the spatial distributions are of minor importance for the wave generation. The solutions of the nonlocal inhomogeneous energy-density-driven dispersion relation are investigated for various ion-to-electron temperature ratios and directions of wave propagation. The relevance of the solutions to the observed spectra of broadband extremely low frequency emissions is shown.

  6. Quantitative analysis of structural inhomogeneity in nanomaterials using transmission electron microscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klinger, Miloslav; Polívka, Leoš; Jäger, Aleš; Tyunina, Marina


    Roč. 49, Jun (2016), 762-770 ISSN 1600-5767 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP108/12/G043; GA ČR GA15-15123S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : transmission electron microscopy * structural inhomogeneity * lattice parameters * image processing Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.495, year: 2016

  7. Explicit solution of the Volterra integral equation for transient fields on inhomogeneous arbitrarily shaped dielectric bodies

    KAUST Repository

    Al Jarro, Ahmed


    A new predictor-corrector scheme for solving the Volterra integral equation to analyze transient electromagnetic wave interactions with arbitrarily shaped inhomogeneous dielectric bodies is considered. Numerical results demonstrating stability and accuracy of the proposed method are presented. © 2011 IEEE.

  8. Fuel effects on the stability of turbulent flames with compositionally inhomogeneous inlets

    KAUST Repository

    Guiberti, T. F.


    This paper reports an analysis of the influence of fuels on the stabilization of turbulent piloted jet flames with inhomogeneous inlets. The burner is identical to that used earlier by the Sydney Group and employs two concentric tubes within the pilot stream. The inner tube, carrying fuel, can be recessed, leading to a varying degree of inhomogeneity in mixing with the outer air stream. Three fuels are tested: dimethyl ether (DME), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), and compressed natural gas (CNG). It is found that improvement in flame stability at the optimal compositional inhomogeneity is highest for CNG and lowest for DME. Three possible reasons for this different enhancement in stability are investigated: mixing patterns, pilot effects, and fuel chemistry. Numerical simulations realized in the injection tube highlight similarities and differences in the mixing patterns for all three fuels and demonstrate that mixing cannot explain the different stability gains. Changing the heat release rates from the pilot affects the three fuels in similar ways and this also implies that the pilot stream is unlikely to be responsible for the observed differences. Fuel reactivity is identified as a key factor in enhancing stability at some optimal compositional inhomogeneity. This is confirmed by inference from joint images of PLIF-OH and PLIF-CHO, collected at a repetition rate of 10kHz in turbulent flames of DME, and from one-dimensional calculations of laminar flames using detailed chemistry for DME, CNG, and LPG.

  9. Optical/Dielectric Properties of Inhomogeneous Optical Material: A New Method of Evaluation (United States)

    Nagendra, C. L.; Lamb, J. L.


    A new method, based on Effective mean Field Theory, is proposed for the evaluation of the optical/dielectric properties of inhomogeneous materials, in which the real and imaginary parts of the dielectric function are determined by solving a simultaneous non-linear equation.

  10. Measuring the self-healing of the spatially inhomogeneous states of polarization of vector Bessel beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Milione, G


    Full Text Available of the “self-healing” of the spatially inhomogeneous states of polarization of radially and azimuthally polarized vector Bessel beams Giovanni Milione,1,2,3∗ Angela Dudley,4∗ Thien An Nguyen,1,3 Kamonasish Chakraborty,1,3 Ebrahim Karimi,5 Andrew Forbes,4...

  11. Measuring the self-healing of the spatially inhomogeneous states of polarization of vector Bessel beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Milione, G


    Full Text Available us My IOPscience Measuring the self-healing of the spatially inhomogeneous states of polarization of vector Bessel beams Giovanni Milione1,2,3,4, Angela Dudley5, Thien An Nguyen1,2, Ougni Chakraborty1,2, Ebrahim Karimi6, Andrew Forbes5,7 and Robert R...

  12. 3-D stochastic finite elements for thermal creep analysis of piping structures with spatial material inhomogeneities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Appalanaidu, Y.; Roy, A.; Gupta, S.


    A stochastic finite element-based methodology is developed for creep damage assessment in pipings carrying high-temperature fluids. The material properties are assumed to be spatially randomly inhomogeneous and are modelled as 3-D non-Gaussian fields. A spectral-based approach for random field

  13. Enhancement of sweetness intensity in gels by inhomogeneous distribution of sucrose

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mosca, A.C.; Velde, van de F.; Bult, J.H.F.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Stieger, M.A.


    Model systems consisting of layers of mixed agar/gelatin gel were used to investigate the effect of the spatial distribution of sucrose on perceived sweetness intensity. 2-Alternative forced choice tests were performed with consumers to compare the sweetness of layered samples with an inhomogeneous

  14. Constitutive model of friction stir weld with consideration of its inhomogeneous mechanical properties (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Min, Junying; Wang, Bin; Lin, Jianping; Li, Fangfang; Liu, Jing


    In practical engineering, finite element(FE) modeling for weld seam is commonly simplified by neglecting its inhomogeneous mechanical properties. This will cause a significant loss in accuracy of FE forming analysis, in particular, for friction stir welded(FSW) blanks due to the large width and good formability of its weld seam. The inhomogeneous mechanical properties across weld seam need to be well characterized for an accurate FE analysis. Based on a similar AA5182 FSW blank, the metallographic observation and micro-Vickers hardness analysis upon the weld cross-section are performed to identify the interfaces of different sub-zones, i.e., heat affected zone(HAZ), thermal-mechanically affected zone(TMAZ) and weld nugget(WN). Based on the rule of mixture and hardness distribution, a constitutive model is established for each sub-zone to characterize the inhomogeneous mechanical properties across the weld seam. Uniaxial tensile tests of the AA5182 FSW blank are performed with the aid of digital image correlation(DIC) techniques. Experimental local stress-strain curves are obtained for different weld sub-zones. The experimental results show good agreement with those derived from the constitutive models, which demonstrates the feasibility and accuracy of these models. The proposed research gives an accurate characterization of inhomogeneous mechanical properties across the weld seam produced by FSW, which provides solutions for improving the FE simulation accuracy of FSW sheet forming.

  15. A Statistical Approach to Galaxy Cluster Gas Inhomogeneity: Chandra Observations of Nearby Galaxy Clusters (United States)

    Reese, Erik D.; Kawahara, H.; Kitayama, T.; Sasaki, S.; Suto, Y.


    Motivated by cosmological hydrodynamic simulations, the intracluster medium (ICM) inhomogeneity of galaxy clusters is modeled statistically with a lognormal model for density inhomogeneity. Through mock observations of synthetic clusters the relationship between density inhomogeneities and that of the X-ray surface brightness has been developed. This enables one to infer the statistical properties of the fluctuations of the underlying three-dimensional density distribution of real galaxy clusters from X-ray observations. We explore inhomogeneity in the intracluster medium by applying the above methodology to Chandra observations of a sample of nearby galaxy clusters. We also consider extensions of the model, including Poissonian effects and compare this hybrid lognormal-Poisson model to the nearby cluster Chandra data. EDR gratefully acknowledges support from JSPS (Japan Society for the Promotion of Science) Postdoctoral Fellowhip for Foreign Researchers award P07030. HK is supported by Grands-in-Aid for JSPS of Science Fellows. This work is also supported by Grant-in-Aid for Scientific research of Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (Nos. 20.10466, 19.07030, 16340053, 20340041, and 20540235) and by JSPS Core-to-Core Program "International Research Network for Dark Energy".

  16. Scattering of inhomogeneous circularly polarized optical field and mechanical manifestation of the internal energy flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekshaev, A. Ya; Angelsky, O. V.; Hanson, Steen Grüner


    Based on the Mie theory and on the incident beam model via superposition of two plane waves, we analyze numerically the momentum flux of the field scattered by a spherical, nonmagnetic microparticle placed within the spatially inhomogeneous circularly polarized paraxial light beam. The asymmetry ...

  17. Influence of inhomogeneous conditions on the kinetic energy of dust macroparticles in plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaulina, O. S., E-mail: [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation)


    A brief review of the mechanisms leading to the “anomalous heating” of charged dust particles (macroparticles) in a plasma is presented. Their comparative characteristics are given. An analytical model to estimate the influence of spatial inhomogeneities on the anomalous heating of macroparticles in plasma–dust systems is proposed.

  18. Genomic mid-range inhomogeneity correlates with an abundance of RNA secondary structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Jun


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomes possess different levels of non-randomness, in particular, an inhomogeneity in their nucleotide composition. Inhomogeneity is manifest from the short-range where neighboring nucleotides influence the choice of base at a site, to the long-range, commonly known as isochores, where a particular base composition can span millions of nucleotides. A separate genomic issue that has yet to be thoroughly elucidated is the role that RNA secondary structure (SS plays in gene expression. Results We present novel data and approaches that show that a mid-range inhomogeneity (~30 to 1000 nt not only exists in mammalian genomes but is also significantly associated with strong RNA SS. A whole-genome bioinformatics investigation of local SS in a set of 11,315 non-redundant human pre-mRNA sequences has been carried out. Four distinct components of these molecules (5'-UTRs, exons, introns and 3'-UTRs were considered separately, since they differ in overall nucleotide composition, sequence motifs and periodicities. For each pre-mRNA component, the abundance of strong local SS ( Conclusion We demonstrate that the excess of strong local SS in pre-mRNAs is linked to the little explored phenomenon of genomic mid-range inhomogeneity (MRI. MRI is an interdependence between nucleotide choice and base composition over a distance of 20–1000 nt. Additionally, we have created a public computational resource to support further study of genomic MRI.

  19. Inhomogeneity effects in HTS coated conductors used as resistive FCLs in medium voltage grids (United States)

    Colangelo, Daniele; Dutoit, Bertrand


    For resistive fault current limiters (RFCLs) based on high temperature superconducting coated conductors (HTS-CCs), inhomogeneity, in terms of critical current and geometrical imperfections such as stabilizer and substrate thicknesses, plays a very important role and it may limit the penetration of such devices into the electrical market. This paper presents an electrothermal model, developed in SimPowerSystem™, able to describe the transient response of HTS-CC candidates with different degrees of inhomogeneity, both in terms of critical current and of stabilizer thickness. Critical current inhomogeneity has been modeled with Gaussian distributions. The layer thicknesses used in the simulations have been chosen by fitting the temperature dependence of real tape resistances. Our approach considers relative inhomogeneity positions as well as thermal conduction along the HTS-CC length. The model is tuned using experimental measurements made on ReBaCuO coated conductors. A new dynamical thermal calibration of the model is proposed using finite element method calculations. Inhomegeneity effects with different possible faults (e.g. three phase and single phase short-circuit) are presented.

  20. Cylindrically symmetric inhomogeneous cosmological models with viscous fluid and varying Λ (United States)

    Pradhan, Anirudh; Singh, Prashant Kumar; Jotania, R. Kanti


    Cylindrically symmetric non-static cosmological models representing a bulk viscous fluid distribution have been obtained which are inhomogeneous and anisotropic. Without assuming any adhoc law, we obtain a cosmological constant as a decreasing function of time. Various physical and geometrical features of the models are also discussed.

  1. High temperature healing of Ti2AlC : On the origin of inhomogeneous oxide scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, H. J.; Pei, Y. T.; Rao, J. C.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.; Li, S. B.; Song, G. M.

    The microstructure of oxide scales formed on Ti2AlC surface after oxidation at 1200 °C is investigated. The results reveal an inhomogeneous morphology of the oxide scales, i.e. islands of coarse rutile grains pile up on fine-grained Al2O3 layer. Local cross-sectional observations show that the

  2. Fano diagonalization of a polariton model for an inhomogeneous absorptive dielectric

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suttorp, L.G.; van Wonderen, A.J.


    The Hamiltonian of a polariton model for an inhomogeneous linear absorptive dielectric is diagonalized by means of Fano's diagonalization method. The creation and annihilation operators for the independent normal modes are explicitly found as linear combinations of the canonical operators. The

  3. FEM investigation of the parameters of the local plastic deformations of an inhomogeneous bar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mamuzic, [No Value; Medvedeva, L; Skorobogatko, A


    The problem of compression of a long inhomogeneous elastoplastic with rigid indentors is investigated. The solution is based on the theory of plastic flow using the Finite Element Method (FEM). The distribution of stresses and displacements in the bar is calculated.

  4. Current-voltage characteristic of parallel-plane ionization chamber with inhomogeneous ionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoyanov, D G [Faculty of Engineering and Pedagogy in Sliven, Technical University of Sofia, 59, Bourgasko Shaussee Blvd, 8800 Sliven (Bulgaria)


    The balances of particles and charges in the volume of parallel-plane ionization chamber are considered. Differential equations describing the distribution of current densities in the chamber volume are obtained. As a result of the differential equations solution an analytical form of the current-voltage characteristic of parallel-plane ionization chamber with inhomogeneous ionization in the volume is obtained.

  5. Lung volume, breathing pattern and ventilation inhomogeneity in preterm and term infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Latzin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Morphological changes in preterm infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD have functional consequences on lung volume, ventilation inhomogeneity and respiratory mechanics. Although some studies have shown lower lung volumes and increased ventilation inhomogeneity in BPD infants, conflicting results exist possibly due to differences in sedation and measurement techniques. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied 127 infants with BPD, 58 preterm infants without BPD and 239 healthy term-born infants, at a matched post-conceptional age of 44 weeks during quiet natural sleep according to ATS/ERS standards. Lung function parameters measured were functional residual capacity (FRC and ventilation inhomogeneity by multiple breath washout as well as tidal breathing parameters. Preterm infants with BPD had only marginally lower FRC (21.4 mL/kg than preterm infants without BPD (23.4 mL/kg and term-born infants (22.6 mL/kg, though there was no trend with disease severity. They also showed higher respiratory rates and lower ratios of time to peak expiratory flow and expiratory time (t(PTEF/t(E than healthy preterm and term controls. These changes were related to disease severity. No differences were found for ventilation inhomogeneity. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that preterm infants with BPD have a high capacity to maintain functional lung volume during natural sleep. The alterations in breathing pattern with disease severity may reflect presence of adaptive mechanisms to cope with the disease process.

  6. Inhomogeneous generalizations of Bianchi Type VIh universes with stiff perfect fluid and radiation (United States)

    Roy, S. R.; Prasad, A.


    Families of inhomogeneous models filled with a stiff perfect fluid and radiation have been derived in which there is no flow of total momentum. The models are generalizations of those of Bianchi Type VIh and are discussed for some particular forms of the arbitrary functions appearing in them.

  7. Inhomogeneous Linear Random Differential Equations with Mutual Correlations between Multiplicative, Additive and Initial-Value Terms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, J.B.T.M.


    The cumulant expansion for linear stochastic differential equations is extended to the general case in which the coefficient matrix, the inhomogeneous part and the initial condition are all random and, moreover, statistically interdependent. The expansion now involves not only the autocorrelation

  8. Comparison of procedures for determination of acoustic nonlinearity of some inhomogeneous materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Leif Bjørnø


    The widespread use of ultrasonic energy in medical diagnosis and therapy and the recent research showing the existence of nonlinear acoustic effects in inhomogeneous materials, like biological media, have led to a strongly increased interest in investigations aiming at providing enough information...

  9. Ventilatory inhomogeneity determined from multiple-breath washouts during sustained microgravity on Spacelab SLS-1 (United States)

    Prisk, G. Kim; Guy, Harold J. B.; Elliott, Ann R.; Paiva, Manuel; West, John B.


    We used multiple-breath N2 washouts (MBNW) to study the homogeneity of ventilation in four normal humans (mean age 42.5 yr) before, during, and after 9 days of exposure to microgravity on Spacelab Life Sciences-1. Subjects performed 20-breath MBNW at tidal volumes of approximately 700 ml and 12-breath MBNW at tidal volumes of approximately 1,250 ml. Six indexes of ventilatory inhomogeneity were derived from data from (1) distribution of specific ventilation (SV) from mixed-expired and (2) end-tidal N2, (3) change of slope of N2 washout (semilog plot) with time, (4) change of slope of normalized phase III of successive breaths, (5) anatomic lead dead space, and (6) Bohr dead space. Significant ventilatory inhomogeneity was seen in the standing position at normal gravity (1 G). When we compared standing 1 G with microgravity, the distributions of SV became slightly narrower, but the difference was not significant. Also, there were no significant changes in the change of slope of the N2 washout, change of normalized phase III slopes, or the anatomic and Bohr dead spaces. By contrast, transition from the standing to supine position in 1 G resulted in significantly broader distributions of SV and significantly greater changes in the changes in slope of the N2 washouts, indicating more ventilatory inhomogeneity in that posture. Thus these techniques can detect relatively small changes in ventilatory inhomogeneity. We conclude that the primary determinants of ventilatory inhomogeneity during tidal breathing in the upright posture are not gravitational in origin.

  10. A community-detection based approach to identification of inhomogeneities in granular matter (United States)

    Navakas, Robertas; Džiugys, Algis; Peters, Bernhard


    Interparticle interactions in granular matter are commonly represented by appropriate graphs, therefore, inhomogeneities in granular matter can be possibly reflected by community structure in the respective graphs. Approaches and algorithms for community detection are being actively developed and the achievements in this area can be utilized for analysis of granular systems, where bridging the gap from microscopic configuration to macroscopic phenomena is of great interest. Here, we analyse applicability of graph community detection algorithms for identification of inhomogeneities of particle parameter distribution in granular matter, in order to explore the relevance of the selected approach in general. As an example application, we analyse identification of temperature distribution inhomogeneities in a simulated packed bed of fuel particles on a moving grate. We build a graph based on particle parameter similarity from the particle temperature data, available from Discrete Element/Particle Modelling, and the problem of identification of particle temperature inhomogeneities is thereby made equivalent to community detection in graphs. We apply a number of well-known community detection algorithms: Edge Betweenness, Walktrap, Infomap, Label Propagation, Spinglass and compare the resulting partitions. We apply this approach to a number of graphs, corresponding to different particle configurations, in order to identify regularities characteristic of partitions produced by different algorithms. We propose a procedure for additional postprocessing of the partitions in order to improve the quality of clusterization. In addition, we apply two alternative algorithms (not related to community detection in graphs) to identify particle distribution inhomogeneities. We also introduce a parameter to evaluate the cluster structure in particle systems.

  11. Hypothesis testing of scientific Monte Carlo calculations (United States)

    Wallerberger, Markus; Gull, Emanuel


    The steadily increasing size of scientific Monte Carlo simulations and the desire for robust, correct, and reproducible results necessitates rigorous testing procedures for scientific simulations in order to detect numerical problems and programming bugs. However, the testing paradigms developed for deterministic algorithms have proven to be ill suited for stochastic algorithms. In this paper we demonstrate explicitly how the technique of statistical hypothesis testing, which is in wide use in other fields of science, can be used to devise automatic and reliable tests for Monte Carlo methods, and we show that these tests are able to detect some of the common problems encountered in stochastic scientific simulations. We argue that hypothesis testing should become part of the standard testing toolkit for scientific simulations.

  12. No-compromise reptation quantum Monte Carlo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuen, W K [Department of Mathematics, Brock University, St. Catharines, ON L2S 3A1 (Canada); Farrar, Thomas J [Department of Mathematics, Brock University, St. Catharines, ON L2S 3A1 (Canada); Rothstein, Stuart M [Departments of Chemistry and Physics, Brock University, St. Catharines, ON L2S 3A1 (Canada)


    Since its publication, the reptation quantum Monte Carlo algorithm of Baroni and Moroni (1999 Phys. Rev. Lett. 82 4745) has been applied to several important problems in physics, but its mathematical foundations are not well understood. We show that their algorithm is not of typical Metropolis-Hastings type, and we specify conditions required for the generated Markov chain to be stationary and to converge to the intended distribution. The time-step bias may add up, and in many applications it is only the middle of a reptile that is the most important. Therefore, we propose an alternative, 'no-compromise reptation quantum Monte Carlo' to stabilize the middle of the reptile. (fast track communication)

  13. Multilevel sequential Monte-Carlo samplers

    KAUST Repository

    Jasra, Ajay


    Multilevel Monte-Carlo methods provide a powerful computational technique for reducing the computational cost of estimating expectations for a given computational effort. They are particularly relevant for computational problems when approximate distributions are determined via a resolution parameter h, with h=0 giving the theoretical exact distribution (e.g. SDEs or inverse problems with PDEs). The method provides a benefit by coupling samples from successive resolutions, and estimating differences of successive expectations. We develop a methodology that brings Sequential Monte-Carlo (SMC) algorithms within the framework of the Multilevel idea, as SMC provides a natural set-up for coupling samples over different resolutions. We prove that the new algorithm indeed preserves the benefits of the multilevel principle, even if samples at all resolutions are now correlated.

  14. Multilevel Monte Carlo Approaches for Numerical Homogenization

    KAUST Repository

    Efendiev, Yalchin R.


    In this article, we study the application of multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) approaches to numerical random homogenization. Our objective is to compute the expectation of some functionals of the homogenized coefficients, or of the homogenized solutions. This is accomplished within MLMC by considering different sizes of representative volumes (RVEs). Many inexpensive computations with the smallest RVE size are combined with fewer expensive computations performed on larger RVEs. Likewise, when it comes to homogenized solutions, different levels of coarse-grid meshes are used to solve the homogenized equation. We show that, by carefully selecting the number of realizations at each level, we can achieve a speed-up in the computations in comparison to a standard Monte Carlo method. Numerical results are presented for both one-dimensional and two-dimensional test-cases that illustrate the efficiency of the approach.

  15. Evaluation Function Based Monte-Carlo LOA (United States)

    Winands, Mark H. M.; Björnsson, Yngvi

    Recently, Monte-Carlo Tree Search (MCTS) has advanced the field of computer Go substantially. Also in the game of Lines of Action (LOA), which has been dominated so far by αβ, MCTS is making an inroad. In this paper we investigate how to use a positional evaluation function in a Monte-Carlo simulation-based LOA program (MC-LOA). Four different simulation strategies are designed, called Evaluation Cut-Off, Corrective, Greedy, and Mixed. They use an evaluation function in several ways. Experimental results reveal that the Mixed strategy is the best among them. This strategy draws the moves randomly based on their transition probabilities in the first part of a simulation, but selects them based on their evaluation score in the second part of a simulation. Using this simulation strategy the MC-LOA program plays at the same level as the αβ program MIA, the best LOA-playing entity in the world.

  16. Adaptive Monte Carlo for nuclear data evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schnabel Georg


    Full Text Available An adaptive Monte Carlo method for nuclear data evaluation is presented. A fast evaluation method based on the linearization of the nuclear model guides the adaptation of the sampling distribution towards the posterior distribution. The method is suited for parallel computation and provides detailed uncertainty information about nuclear model parameters. Especially, the posterior distribution of the model parameters is not restricted to be multivariate normal. The method is demonstrated in an evaluation of the 181Ta total cross section for incident neutrons. Future applications are as an efficient sampling scheme in the Total Monte Carlo method, and the restriction of parameter uncertainties in nuclear models by both differential and integral data.

  17. Monte Carlo Simulation for Particle Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Pia, Maria Grazia


    Monte Carlo simulation is an essential component of experimental particle physics in all the phases of its life-cycle: the investigation of the physics reach of detector concepts, the design of facilities and detectors, the development and optimization of data reconstruction software, the data analysis for the production of physics results. This note briefly outlines some research topics related to Monte Carlo simulation, that are relevant to future experimental perspectives in particle physics. The focus is on physics aspects: conceptual progress beyond current particle transport schemes, the incorporation of materials science knowledge relevant to novel detection technologies, functionality to model radiation damage, the capability for multi-scale simulation, quantitative validation and uncertainty quantification to determine the predictive power of simulation. The R&D on simulation for future detectors would profit from cooperation within various components of the particle physics community, and synerg...

  18. Null-collision meshless Monte-Carlo—Application to the validation of fast radiative transfer solvers embedded in combustion simulators (United States)

    Eymet, V.; Poitou, D.; Galtier, M.; El Hafi, M.; Terrée, G.; Fournier, R.


    The Monte-Carlo method is often presented as a reference method for radiative transfer simulation when dealing with participating, inhomogeneous media. The reason is that numerical uncertainties are only of a statistical nature and are accurately evaluated by measuring the standard deviation of the Monte Carlo weight. But classical Monte-Carlo algorithms first sample optical thicknesses and then determine absorption or scattering locations by inverting the formal integral definition of optical thickness as an increasing function of path length. This function is only seldom analytically invertible and numerical inversion procedures are required. Most commonly, a volumic grid is introduced and optical properties within each cell are replaced by approximate homogeneous or linear fields. Simulation results are then sensitive to the grid and can no longer be considered as references. We propose a new algorithmic formulation based on the use of null-collisions that eliminate the need for numerical inversion: no volumic grid is required. Benchmark configurations are first considered in order to evaluate the effect of two free parameters: the amount of null-collisions, and the criterion used to decide at which stage a Russian Roulette is used to exit the path tracking process. Then the corresponding algorithm is implemented using a development environment allowing to deal with complex geometries (thanks to computer graphics techniques), leading to a Monte Carlo code that can be easily used for validation of fast radiative transfer solvers embedded in combustion simulators. "Easily" means here that the way the Monte Carlo algorithm deals with both the geometry and the temperature/pressure/concentration fields is independent of the choices made inside the combustion solver: there is no need for the design of a new path-tracking procedure adapted to each new CFD grid. The Monte Carlo simulator is ready for use as soon as combustion specialists provide a localization

  19. Monte Carlo methods for preference learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viappiani, P.


    Utility elicitation is an important component of many applications, such as decision support systems and recommender systems. Such systems query the users about their preferences and give recommendations based on the system’s belief about the utility function. Critical to these applications is th...... is the acquisition of prior distribution about the utility parameters and the possibility of real time Bayesian inference. In this paper we consider Monte Carlo methods for these problems....



    Tarnóczi Tibor; Tóth Réka; Fenyves Veronika


    We present a simulation model in this paper to determine the value of intellectual capital. In frame of the simulation model we have used the Baruch Lev’s intellectual capital valuation modell.We have built in the Baruch Lev model in a two-dimensional Monte Carlo simulation modell. We have determined the intellectual capital in case of some stock exchange company. The calculation are presented in case of a selected company.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarnóczi Tibor


    Full Text Available We present a simulation model in this paper to determine the value of intellectual capital. In frame of the simulation model we have used the Baruch Lev’s intellectual capital valuation modell.We have built in the Baruch Lev model in a two-dimensional Monte Carlo simulation modell. We have determined the intellectual capital in case of some stock exchange company. The calculation are presented in case of a selected company.

  2. Efficient Monte Carlo sampling by parallel marginalization


    Weare, Jonathan


    Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling methods often suffer from long correlation times. Consequently, these methods must be run for many steps to generate an independent sample. In this paper, a method is proposed to overcome this difficulty. The method utilizes information from rapidly equilibrating coarse Markov chains that sample marginal distributions of the full system. This is accomplished through exchanges between the full chain and the auxiliary coarse chains. Results of numerical tests o...

  3. Handbook of Markov chain Monte Carlo

    CERN Document Server

    Brooks, Steve


    ""Handbook of Markov Chain Monte Carlo"" brings together the major advances that have occurred in recent years while incorporating enough introductory material for new users of MCMC. Along with thorough coverage of the theoretical foundations and algorithmic and computational methodology, this comprehensive handbook includes substantial realistic case studies from a variety of disciplines. These case studies demonstrate the application of MCMC methods and serve as a series of templates for the construction, implementation, and choice of MCMC methodology.

  4. Applications of Maxent to quantum Monte Carlo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silver, R.N.; Sivia, D.S.; Gubernatis, J.E. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Jarrell, M. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (USA). Dept. of Physics)


    We consider the application of maximum entropy methods to the analysis of data produced by computer simulations. The focus is the calculation of the dynamical properties of quantum many-body systems by Monte Carlo methods, which is termed the Analytical Continuation Problem.'' For the Anderson model of dilute magnetic impurities in metals, we obtain spectral functions and transport coefficients which obey Kondo Universality.'' 24 refs., 7 figs.

  5. Conical Reflection in Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (United States)

    Sampson, Andrew; Payne, Adam; Somers, William; Spencer, Ross


    Fenix is a particle-in-cell simulation, using a Direct Simulation Monte Carlo method, and is aimed to improve the accuracy of Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). It currently focuses on the ICP-MS first expansion region through a supersonic nozzle in cylindrical symmetry. Due to increased complexity in Fenix, it has become necessary to solve the general conical surface reflection problem. The previous method, the new solution, and results from the enhanced simulation will be presented.

  6. Shielding Calculations on Waste Packages – The Limits and Possibilities of different Calculation Methods by the example of homogeneous and inhomogeneous Waste Packages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adams Mike


    Full Text Available For nuclear waste packages the expected dose rates and nuclide inventory are beforehand calculated. Depending on the package of the nuclear waste deterministic programs like MicroShield® provide a range of results for each type of packaging. Stochastic programs like “Monte-Carlo N-Particle Transport Code System” (MCNP® on the other hand provide reliable results for complex geometries. However this type of program requires a fully trained operator and calculations are time consuming. The problem here is to choose an appropriate program for a specific geometry. Therefore we compared the results of deterministic programs like MicroShield® and stochastic programs like MCNP®. These comparisons enable us to make a statement about the applicability of the various programs for chosen types of containers. As a conclusion we found that for thin-walled geometries deterministic programs like MicroShield® are well suited to calculate the dose rate. For cylindrical containers with inner shielding however, deterministic programs hit their limits. Furthermore we investigate the effect of an inhomogeneous material and activity distribution on the results. The calculations are still ongoing. Results will be presented in the final abstract.

  7. Physically based radiative transfer framework for hyperspectral modelling of light interaction with volumetrically inhomogeneous scattering tissue-like media (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Doronin, Alexander; Bykov, Alexander; Rushmeier, Holly E.; Meglinski, Igor


    In the current report we present further developments of a unified Monte Carlo-based computational model and explore hyperspectral modelling of light interaction with volumetrically inhomogeneous scattering tissue-like media. The developed framework utilizes voxelized representation of the medium and considers spatial/volumetric variations in both structural e.g. surface roughness and wavelength-dependant optical properties. We present the detailed description of algorithms for modelling of light-medium interactions and schemes used for voxel-to-voxel photon packet transitions. The results of calculation of diffuse reflectance and Bidirectional Scattering-Surface Reflectance Distribution Function (BSSRDF) are presented. The results of simulations are compared with exact analytical solutions, phantom studies and measurements obtained by a low-cost experimental system developed in house for acquiring shape and subsurface scattering properties of objects by means of projection of temporal sequences of binary patterns. The computational solution is accelerated by the graphics processing units (GPUs) and compatible with most standard graphics/ and computer tomography file formats.

  8. Belo Monte hydropower project: actual studies; AHE Belo Monte: os estudos atuais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueira Netto, Carlos Alberto de Moya [CNEC Engenharia S.A., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Rezende, Paulo Fernando Vieira Souto [Centrais Eletricas Brasileiras S.A. (ELETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    This article presents the evolution of the studies of Belo Monte Hydro Power Project (HPP) since the initial inventory studies of the Xingu River in 1979 until the current studies for conclusion of the Technical, Economic and Environmental Feasibility Studies the Belo Monte Hydro Power Project, as authorized by Brazilian National Congress. The current studies characterize the Belo Monte HPP with an installed capacity of 11,181.3 MW (20 units of 550 MW in the main power house and 7 units of 25.9 MW in the additional power house), connected to the Brazilian Interconnected Power Grid, allowing to generate 4,796 mean MW of firm energy, without depending on any flow rate regularization of the upstream Xingu river flooding only 441 k m2, of which approximately 200 k m2, correspond to the normal annual wet season flooding of the Xingu River. (author)

  9. Mechanically unzipping dsDNA with built-in sequence inhomogeneities and bound proteins. (United States)

    Lu, Ping; Pegg, Ian L; Sarkar, Abhijit


    We theoretically analyze the force signal expected during unzipping through a single double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) molecule with designed subsequences or inhomogeneities with large stability differentials compared to the rest of the molecule. Our calculations describe experiments where the extension between the unzipped ends is fixed--the so-called fixed-extension ensemble--and the equilibrium force is measured. Two different types of force traces are obtained depending on the inhomogeneity length and strength. For short inhomogeneities, a "sawtooth" force trace is obtained, with a force jump corresponding to release of the entire inhomogeneity at once, as observed in unzipping of natural-sequence DNA (Bockelmann et al., Biophy. J. 82, 1537 (2002)). For longer inhomogeneities, traces with force plateaus are obtained, corresponding to a gradual unpeeling of the strongly bound region. We find that inhomogeneities are disrupted in sequence giving rise to a succession of force spikes superposed on the baseline unzipping force of 15pN. The height of the force pulses diminishes as regions further down the molecule are unzipped, and asymptotically the force response approaches that of DNA without large stability-enhanced islands. Our model also allows us to describe the transition between intact and disrupted binding zones by thermally activated kinetics. We then analyze the related situation where multiple proteins are bound at specific points on the DNA with or without cooperative interactions between proteins, and where the removal of each protein is required for unzipping to proceed further along the DNA. The proteins bind stably to dsDNA and also to single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) but with a lower binding enthalpy. The force jumps correspond to the extra mechanical work that has to be done to overcome the large protein binding enthalpy to either dsDNA or ssDNA. Each force jump leads to the dissociation of a corresponding protein, but we do not find simultaneous release of

  10. Effect of active medium inhomogeneity on lasing characteristics of InAs/InP quantum-dash lasers

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Mohammed Zahed Mustafa


    The authors report on the effect of quantum-dash (Qdash) inhomogeneity on the characteristics of InAs/InP Qdash laser utilizing a single state rate equation model. The inhomogeneity is assumed to follow the Gaussian approximation. From our observation, an increased in Qdash inhomogeneity results in increasing of threshold current density and redshifting of the peak lasing wavelength. The lasing linewidth of the Qdash lasers has also found to increase under large injection current, attaining a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of ~ 17 nm.

  11. Evaluation of deep inspiration breath-hold lung treatment plans with Monte Carlo dose calculation. (United States)

    Yorke, Ellen D; Wang, Lu; Rosenzweig, Kenneth E; Mah, Dennis; Paoli, Jean-Baptiste; Chui, Chen-Shou


    To evaluate dosimetry of deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) relative to free breathing (FB) for three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy of lung cancer with 6-MV photons and Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculations. Static three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy, 6-MV plans, based on DIBH and FB CT images for five non-small-cell lung cancer patients, were generated on a clinical treatment planning system with equivalent path length tissue inhomogeneity correction. Margins of gross to planning target volume were not reduced for DIBH plans. Cord and lung toxicity determined the maximum treatment dose for each plan. Dose distributions were recalculated for the same beams with an MC dose calculation algorithm and electron density distributions derived from the CT images. MC calculations showed decreased target coverage relative to treatment-planning system predictions. Lateral disequilibrium caused more degradation of target coverage for DIBH than for FB (approximately 4% worse than expected for FB vs. 8% for DIBH). However, with DIBH higher treatment doses could be delivered without violating normal tissue constraints, resulting in higher total doses to gross target volume and to >99% of planning target volume. If DIBH enables prescription dose increases exceeding 10%, MC calculations indicate that, despite lateral disequilibrium, higher doses will be delivered to medium-to-large, partly mediastinal gross target volumes, providing that 6-MV photons are used and margins are not reduced.

  12. Status of Monte-Carlo Event Generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeche, Stefan; /SLAC


    Recent progress on general-purpose Monte-Carlo event generators is reviewed with emphasis on the simulation of hard QCD processes and subsequent parton cascades. Describing full final states of high-energy particle collisions in contemporary experiments is an intricate task. Hundreds of particles are typically produced, and the reactions involve both large and small momentum transfer. The high-dimensional phase space makes an exact solution of the problem impossible. Instead, one typically resorts to regarding events as factorized into different steps, ordered descending in the mass scales or invariant momentum transfers which are involved. In this picture, a hard interaction, described through fixed-order perturbation theory, is followed by multiple Bremsstrahlung emissions off initial- and final-state and, finally, by the hadronization process, which binds QCD partons into color-neutral hadrons. Each of these steps can be treated independently, which is the basic concept inherent to general-purpose event generators. Their development is nowadays often focused on an improved description of radiative corrections to hard processes through perturbative QCD. In this context, the concept of jets is introduced, which allows to relate sprays of hadronic particles in detectors to the partons in perturbation theory. In this talk, we briefly review recent progress on perturbative QCD in event generation. The main focus lies on the general-purpose Monte-Carlo programs HERWIG, PYTHIA and SHERPA, which will be the workhorses for LHC phenomenology. A detailed description of the physics models included in these generators can be found in [8]. We also discuss matrix-element generators, which provide the parton-level input for general-purpose Monte Carlo.

  13. Weakening of antiferromagnetism due to frustration on inhomogeneous 2D lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagannathan, Anuradha, E-mail: jagannathan@lps.u-psud.f [Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, Universite Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay (France)


    I consider the ground state of quantum spins interacting via Heisenberg antiferromagnetic exchange, in lattices having several types of local environment. In unfrustrated cases, when a Neel type order exists, it is known that quantum fluctuations are site-dependent, and lead to an inhomogeneous local staggered order parameter. This paper discusses some effects of adding frustration to such a system, by including next nearest neighbor antiferromagnetic interactions. Within linear spinwave theory, it is found that as the frustration parameter increases, the local order parameters decrease at a rate that depends on the type of sites involved in the frustrated loops. The cases of a decorated square lattice system, and of a quasiperiodic tiling are considered to study different ways in which antiferromagnetism is suppressed in these inhomogeneous systems.

  14. Fast methods of computing bulk radiative properties of inhomogeneous clouds illuminated by solar radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabriel, P. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)


    The use of cloud fraction as a means of incorporating horizontal cloud inhomogeneity in radiative transfer calculations is widespread in the atmospheric science community. This research attempts to bypass the use of cloud fraction in radiative transfer modeling for two-dimensional media. Gabriel describes two approximation techniques useful in calculating the domain averaged bulk radiative properties such as albedo, flux divergence and mean radiance that dispense with the need to use cloud fraction as a specifier of cloud inhomogeneity. The results suggest that the variability of the medium can largely be accounted for through the pseudo-source term, offering hope of parameterizing the equation of transfer in terms of the statistical properties of the medium. 1 fig.

  15. Quantum mechanical E × B drift velocity in a weakly inhomogeneous electromagnetic field (United States)

    Chan, Poh Kam; Oikawa, Shun-ichi; Kosaka, Wataru


    The analytical solution for the quantum mechanical drift velocity for a non-relativistic spinless charged particle of E × B drift in the presence of a weakly inhomogeneous electric and magnetic field for the magnetized plasma is presented. Using the Heisenberg equation of motion, the time evolution of the position and momentum operators for the charged particle is solved. From the time dependent operators, the analytical solution of the time dependent momenta operators and position operators is derived. The quantum mechanical expansion rates of variances are shown to agree with the numerical results. Most importantly, the quantum mechanical E × B drift velocity coincides perfectly with the classical drift velocity in the limit of Planck's constant being zero. With higher order electric field inhomogeneity, low energy particles would drift faster than what the classical drift theory predicts.

  16. Coupling behavior of the pH/temperature sensitive hydrogels for the inhomogeneous and homogeneous swelling (United States)

    Mazaheri, H.; Baghani, M.; Naghdabadi, R.; Sohrabpour, S.


    In this work, a model is developed to continuously predict homogeneous and inhomogeneous swelling behavior of pH/temperature sensitive PNIPAM hydrogels. Employing the model, homogeneous swelling of the pH/temperature sensitive hydrogel is investigated for free and biaxial constrained swelling cases. Comparing the model results with the experimental data available in the literature, the validity of the model is confirmed. The model is then employed to investigate inhomogeneous swelling of a spherical shell on a hard core both analytically and numerically for pH or temperature variations. In this regard, numerical tools are developed via preparing a user defined subroutine in ABAQUS software. Then, the complicated problem of contact between the hydrogel shell and a micro-channel with rigid walls is also investigated. Considering the results, we can say that the model is applicable for solving engineering boundary value problem of pH/temperature sensitive hydrogels.

  17. Quasi-diagonal inhomogeneous closure for classical and quantum statistical dynamics (United States)

    Frederiksen, Jorgen S.


    The Quasi-diagonal Direct Interaction Approximation (QDIA) closure equations are formulated for inhomogeneous classical and quantum fields interacting through dynamical equations with quadratic nonlinearity and with first or second-order time derivatives. Associated more complex inhomogeneous DIA and Self-energy closure equations are expounded as part of the derivation. The QDIA employs a bare vertex approximation and is only a few times more computationally intensive than the homogeneous DIA. Examples of applications to turbulent classical geophysical and Navier Stokes fluids, including non-Gaussian noise, to classical and quantum Klein-Gordon equations with g ϕ3 Lagrangian interaction, and to coupled field-auxiliary field equations associated with λ ϕ4 Lagrangian interaction are presented.

  18. Optimal inhomogeneity for pairing in Hubbard systems with next-nearest-neighbor hopping (United States)

    Wachtel, Gideon; Baruch, Shirit; Orgad, Dror


    Previous studies have shown that bipartite Hubbard systems with inhomogeneous hopping amplitudes can exhibit higher pair-binding energies than the uniform model. Here we examine whether this result holds for systems with a more generic band structure. To this end, we use exact diagonalization and the density matrix renormalization-group method to study the 4 ×4 Hubbard cluster and the two-leg Hubbard ladder with checkerboard-modulated nearest-neighbor hopping, t , and next-nearest-neighbor (diagonal) hopping, td. We find that the strongest pairing continues to occur at an intermediate level of inhomogeneity. While the maximal pair-binding energy is enhanced by a positive td/t , it is suppressed and appears at weaker repulsion strengths and lower hole concentrations when td/t is negative. We point out a possible connection between the pairing maximum and the magnetic properties of the system.

  19. Dynamics of Peregrine combs and Peregrine walls in an inhomogeneous Hirota and Maxwell-Bloch system (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Wang, Zi-Qi; Sun, Wen-Rong; Shi, Yu-Ying; Li, Min; Xu, Min


    Under investigation in this paper is an inhomogeneous Hirota-Maxwell-Bloch (IHMB) system which can describe the propagation of optical solitons in an erbium-doped optical fiber. The breather multiple births (BMBs) are derived with periodically varying group velocity dispersion (GVD) coefficients. Under large periodic modulations in the GVD coefficient of IHMB system, the Peregrine comb (PC) solution is produced, which can be viewed as the limiting case of the BMBs. When the amplitude of the modulation satisfies a special condition, the Peregrine wall (PW) that can be regarded as an intermediate state between rogue wave and PC is obtained. The effects of the third-order dispersion on the spatiotemporal characteristics of PCs and PWs are studied. Our results may be useful for the experimental control and manipulation of the formation of generalized Peregrine rogue waves in inhomogeneous erbium-doped optical fiber.

  20. Equilibrium stochastic dynamics of a Brownian particle in inhomogeneous space: Derivation of an alternative model (United States)

    Bhattacharyay, A.


    An alternative equilibrium stochastic dynamics for a Brownian particle in inhomogeneous space is derived. Such a dynamics can model the motion of a complex molecule in its conformation space when in equilibrium with a uniform heat bath. The derivation is done by a simple generalization of the formulation due to Zwanzig for a Brownian particle in homogeneous heat bath. We show that, if the system couples to different number of bath degrees of freedom at different conformations then the alternative model gets derived. We discuss results of an experiment by Faucheux and Libchaber which probably has indicated possible limitation of the Boltzmann distribution as equilibrium distribution of a Brownian particle in inhomogeneous space and propose experimental verification of the present theory using similar methods.

  1. Study of the observational compatibility of an inhomogeneous cosmology with linear expansion according to SNe Ia (United States)

    Monjo, R.


    Most of current cosmological theories are built combining an isotropic and homogeneous manifold with a scale factor that depends on time. If one supposes a hyperconical universe with linear expansion, an inhomogeneous metric can be obtained by an appropriate transformation that preserves the proper time. This model locally tends to a flat Friedman-Robertson-Walker metric with linear expansion. The objective of this work is to analyze the observational compatibility of the inhomogeneous metric considered. For this purpose, the corresponding luminosity distance was obtained and was compared with the observations of 580 SNe Ia, taken from the Supernova Cosmology Project. The best fit of the hyperconical model obtains χ02=562 , the same value as the standard Λ CDM model. Finally, a possible relationship is found between both theories.

  2. Cooperation is enhanced by inhomogeneous inertia in spatial prisoner's dilemma game (United States)

    Chang, Shuhua; Zhang, Zhipeng; Wu, Yu'e.; Xie, Yunya


    Inertia is an important factor that cannot be ignored in the real world for some lazy individuals in the process of decision making. In this work, we introduce a simple classification mechanism of strategy changing in evolutionary prisoner's dilemma games on different topologies. In this model, a part of players update their strategies according to not only the payoff difference, but also the inertia factor, which makes nodes heterogeneous and the system inhomogeneous. Moreover, we also study the impact of the number of neighbors on the evolution of cooperation. The results show that the evolution of cooperation will be promoted to a high level when the inertia factor and the inhomogeneous system are combined. In addition, we find that the more neighbors one player has, the higher density of cooperators is sustained in the optimal position. This work could be conducive to understanding the emergence and persistence of cooperative behavior caused by the inertia factor in reality.

  3. Propagation of flexural waves in inhomogeneous plates exhibiting hysteretic nonlinearity: Nonlinear acoustic black holes. (United States)

    Gusev, Vitalyi E; Ni, Chenyin; Lomonosov, Alexey; Shen, Zhonghua


    Theory accounting for the influence of hysteretic nonlinearity of micro-inhomogeneous material on flexural wave in the plates of continuously varying thickness is developed. For the wedges with thickness increasing as a power law of distance from its edge strong modifications of the wave dynamics with propagation distance are predicted. It is found that nonlinear absorption progressively disappearing with diminishing wave amplitude leads to complete attenuation of acoustic waves in most of the wedges exhibiting black hole phenomenon. It is also demonstrated that black holes exist beyond the geometrical acoustic approximation. Applications include nondestructive evaluation of micro-inhomogeneous materials and vibrations damping. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Boundary Integral Equations for an Anisotropic Bimaterial with Thermally Imperfect Interface and Internal Inhomogeneities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulym Heorhiy


    Full Text Available This paper studies a thermoelastic anisotropic bimaterial with thermally imperfect interface and internal inhomogeneities. Based on the complex variable calculus and the extended Stroh formalism a new approach is proposed for obtaining the Somigliana type integral formulae and corresponding boundary integral equations for a thermoelastic bimaterial consisting of two half-spaces with different thermal and mechanical properties. The half-spaces are bonded together with mechanically perfect and thermally imperfect interface, which model interfacial adhesive layers present in bimaterial solids. Obtained integral equations are introduced into the modified boundary element method that allows solving arbitrary 2D thermoelacticity problems for anisotropic bimaterial solids with imperfect thin thermo-resistant inter-facial layer, which half-spaces contain cracks and thin inclusions. Presented numerical examples show the effect of thermal resistance of the bimaterial interface on the stress intensity factors at thin inhomogeneities.

  5. Foerster resonance energy transfer in inhomogeneous non-dispersive nanophotonic environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wubs, Martijn; Vos, Willem L.

    A nondispersive inhomogeneous dielectric environment of a donor-acceptor pair of quantum emitters affects their Foerster resonance energy transfer (FRET) rate. We find that this rate does not depend on the emission frequency and hence not on the local optical density of states (LDOS) at that freq......A nondispersive inhomogeneous dielectric environment of a donor-acceptor pair of quantum emitters affects their Foerster resonance energy transfer (FRET) rate. We find that this rate does not depend on the emission frequency and hence not on the local optical density of states (LDOS......) at that frequency, but that it can be expressed as a broad frequency integral over the optical LDOS. Our numerical results illustrate that even with the broadband LDOS it is hard to control the FRET rate....

  6. A study of the propagation of ulf electromagnetic fields in collisional, inhomogeneous, magnetized plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borovsky, J.E.


    The propagation of ultralow-frequency (ulf) electromagnetic signals (Alfven and magnetosonic waves) in collisional, inhomogeneous, magnetized plasmas is analyzed by numerical simulation. The problem is formulated from a Maxwell-equation orbit-theory approach rather than from a magnetohydrodynamic point of view, and the problem is numerically treated in a fully time-dependent manner. Boundary-value-problem behavior is distinguished from initial-value-problem behavior. The propagation of two-dimensional small-amplitude electromagnetic disturbances in plasmas with spatially dependent densities and in plasmas with spatially dependent conductivities is numerically simulated, and when possible, the simulations are compared with theory. Changes in the plasma density lead to changes in the signal speed and to reflections; collisions lead to changes in the signal speed, to reflections, and to attenuations. Theoretical descriptions based upon discontinuities in the media are generally incorrect in predicting the amplitudes of signals reflected from plasma inhomogeneities. 19 refs., 16 figs.

  7. SENSE shimming (SSH): A fast approach for determining B(0) field inhomogeneities using sensitivity coding. (United States)

    Splitthoff, D N; Zaitsev, M


    The pursuit of ever higher field strengths and faster data acquisitions has led to the construction of coil arrays with high numbers of elements. With the sensitivity encoding (SENSE) technique, it has been shown that the sensitivity of those elements can be used for spatial image encoding. Here, a proof-of-principle is presented of a method that can be considered an extreme case of the SENSE approach, completely abstaining from using encoding gradients. The resulting sensitivity encoded free-induction decay (FID) data are then not used for imaging, but for determining B(0) field inhomogeneity distribution. The method has therefore been termed "SENSE shimming" (SSH). In phantom experiments the method's ability to detect inhomogeneities of up to the second order is demonstrated. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Bose-Einstein condensates with spatially inhomogeneous interaction and bright solitons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, H.J., E-mail: [Department of Physics and Research Institute of Basic Sciences, Kyunghee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Radha, R., E-mail: [Centre for Nonlinear Science, Department of Physics, Government College for Women (Autonomous), Kumbakonam 612001 (India); Kumar, V. Ramesh [Centre for Nonlinear Science, Department of Physics, Government College for Women (Autonomous), Kumbakonam 612001 (India); Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)


    In this Letter, we investigate the dynamics of Bose-Einstein Condensates (BECs) with spatially inhomogeneous interaction and generate bright solitons for the condensates by solving the associated mean field description governed by the Gross-Pitaevskii (GP) equation. We then investigate the properties of BECs in an optical lattice and periodic potential. We show that the GP equation in an optical lattice potential is integrable provided the interaction strength between the atoms varies periodically in space. The model discussed in the Letter offers the luxury of choosing the form of the lattice without destroying the integrability. Besides, we have also brought out the possible ramifications of the integrable model in the condensates of quasi-particles. -- Highlights: → We generate bright solitons for the collisionally inhomogeneous BECs. → We then study their properties in an optical lattice and periodic potential. → The model may have wider ramifications in the BECs of quasi-particles.

  9. Frequency-domain modelling of gain in pump-probe experiment by an inhomogeneous medium (United States)

    Kim, Minkyung; Oh, Sang Soon; Hess, Ortwin; Rho, Junsuk


    Introduction of a gain medium in lossy plasmonic metamaterials reduces and compensates losses or even amplifies an incident light often with nonlinear optical effect. Here, optical gain in a pump-probe experimental setup is effectively calculated in the frequency-domain by approximating a gain material as an inhomogeneous medium. Spatially varying local field amplitudes of the pump and probe beams are included in the model to reproduce the inhomogeneous gain effect, in which population inversion occurs most strongly near the surface and decays along the propagation direction. We demonstrate that transmission spectra calculated by this method agree well with finite-difference time-domain simulation results. This simplified approach of gain modelling offers an easy and reliable way to analyze wave propagation in a gain medium without nonlinear time-domain calculation.

  10. Inhomogeneous distribution of Chlamydomonas in a cylindrical container with a bubble plume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Nonaka


    Full Text Available Swimming microalgae show various taxes, such as phototaxis and gravitaxis, which sometimes result in the formation of a cell-rich layer or a patch in a suspension. Despite intensive studies on the effects of shear flow and turbulence on the inhomogeneous distribution of microalgae, the effect of a bubble plume has remained unclear. In this study, we used Chlamydomonas as model microalgae, and investigated the spatial distribution of cells in a cylindrical container with a bubble plume. The results illustrate that cells become inhomogeneously distributed in the suspension due to their motility and photo-responses. A vortical ring distribution was observed below the free surface when the bubble flow rate was sufficiently small. We performed a scaling analysis on the length scale of the vortical ring, which captured the main features of the experimental results. These findings are important in understanding transport phenomena in a microalgae suspension with a bubble plume.

  11. New sets of eigenvalues in inverse scattering for inhomogeneous media and their determination from scattering data (United States)

    Audibert, Lorenzo; Cakoni, Fioralba; Haddar, Houssem


    In this paper we develop a general mathematical framework to determine interior eigenvalues from a knowledge of the modified far field operator associated with an unknown (anisotropic) inhomogeneity. The modified far field operator is obtained by subtracting from the measured far field operator the computed far field operator corresponding to a well-posed scattering problem depending on one (possibly complex) parameter. Injectivity of this modified far field operator is related to an appropriate eigenvalue problem whose eigenvalues can be determined from the scattering data, and thus can be used to obtain information about material properties of the unknown inhomogeneity. We discuss here two examples of such modification leading to a Steklov eigenvalue problem, and a new type of the transmission eigenvalue problem. We present some numerical examples demonstrating the viability of our method for determining the interior eigenvalues form far field data.

  12. Faraday and resonant waves in binary collisionally-inhomogeneous Bose-Einstein condensates

    CERN Document Server

    Sudharsan, J B; Raportaru, Mihaela Carina; Nicolin, Alexandru I; Balaz, Antun


    We study Faraday and resonant waves in two-component quasi-one-dimensional (cigar-shaped) collisionally inhomogeneous Bose-Einstein condensates subject to periodic modulation of the radial confinement. We show by means of extensive numerical simulations that, as the system exhibits stronger spatially-localised binary collisions (whose scattering length is taken for convenience to be of Gaussian form), the system becomes effectively a linear one. In other words, as the scattering length approaches a delta-function, we observe that the two nonlinear configurations typical for binary cigar-shaped condensates, namely the segregated and the symbiotic one, turn into two overlapping Gaussian wave functions typical for linear systems, and that the instability onset times of the Faraday and resonant waves become longer. Moreover, our numerical simulations show that the spatial period of the excited waves (either resonant or Faraday ones) decreases as the inhomogeneity becomes stronger. Our results also demonstrate tha...

  13. Monte Carlo Simulation of an American Option

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gikiri Thuo


    Full Text Available We implement gradient estimation techniques for sensitivity analysis of option pricing which can be efficiently employed in Monte Carlo simulation. Using these techniques we can simultaneously obtain an estimate of the option value together with the estimates of sensitivities of the option value to various parameters of the model. After deriving the gradient estimates we incorporate them in an iterative stochastic approximation algorithm for pricing an option with early exercise features. We illustrate the procedure using an example of an American call option with a single dividend that is analytically tractable. In particular we incorporate estimates for the gradient with respect to the early exercise threshold level.

  14. A Monte Carlo algorithm for degenerate plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turrell, A.E., E-mail:; Sherlock, M.; Rose, S.J.


    A procedure for performing Monte Carlo calculations of plasmas with an arbitrary level of degeneracy is outlined. It has possible applications in inertial confinement fusion and astrophysics. Degenerate particles are initialised according to the Fermi–Dirac distribution function, and scattering is via a Pauli blocked binary collision approximation. The algorithm is tested against degenerate electron–ion equilibration, and the degenerate resistivity transport coefficient from unmagnetised first order transport theory. The code is applied to the cold fuel shell and alpha particle equilibration problem of inertial confinement fusion.

  15. Markov chains analytic and Monte Carlo computations

    CERN Document Server

    Graham, Carl


    Markov Chains: Analytic and Monte Carlo Computations introduces the main notions related to Markov chains and provides explanations on how to characterize, simulate, and recognize them. Starting with basic notions, this book leads progressively to advanced and recent topics in the field, allowing the reader to master the main aspects of the classical theory. This book also features: Numerous exercises with solutions as well as extended case studies.A detailed and rigorous presentation of Markov chains with discrete time and state space.An appendix presenting probabilistic notions that are nec

  16. Exascale Monte Carlo R&D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcus, Ryan C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    Overview of this presentation is (1) Exascale computing - different technologies, getting there; (2) high-performance proof-of-concept MCMini - features and results; and (3) OpenCL toolkit - Oatmeal (OpenCL Automatic Memory Allocation Library) - purpose and features. Despite driver issues, OpenCL seems like a good, hardware agnostic tool. MCMini demonstrates the possibility for GPGPU-based Monte Carlo methods - it shows great scaling for HPC application and algorithmic equivalence. Oatmeal provides a flexible framework to aid in the development of scientific OpenCL codes.

  17. Efficient Monte Carlo sampling by parallel marginalization. (United States)

    Weare, Jonathan


    Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling methods often suffer from long correlation times. Consequently, these methods must be run for many steps to generate an independent sample. In this paper, a method is proposed to overcome this difficulty. The method utilizes information from rapidly equilibrating coarse Markov chains that sample marginal distributions of the full system. This is accomplished through exchanges between the full chain and the auxiliary coarse chains. Results of numerical tests on the bridge sampling and filtering/smoothing problems for a stochastic differential equation are presented.

  18. Mosaic crystal algorithm for Monte Carlo simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Seeger, P A


    An algorithm is presented for calculating reflectivity, absorption, and scattering of mosaic crystals in Monte Carlo simulations of neutron instruments. The algorithm uses multi-step transport through the crystal with an exact solution of the Darwin equations at each step. It relies on the kinematical model for Bragg reflection (with parameters adjusted to reproduce experimental data). For computation of thermal effects (the Debye-Waller factor and coherent inelastic scattering), an expansion of the Debye integral as a rapidly converging series of exponential terms is also presented. Any crystal geometry and plane orientation may be treated. The algorithm has been incorporated into the neutron instrument simulation package NISP. (orig.)

  19. Canonical demon Monte Carlo renormalization group

    CERN Document Server

    Hasenbusch, M; Wieczerkowski, C


    We describe a new method to compute renormalized coupling constants in a Monte Carlo renormalization group calculation. The method can be used for a general class of models, e.g., lattice spin or gauge models. The basic idea is to simulate a joint system of block spins and canonical demons. In contrast to the Microcanonical Renormalization Group invented by Creutz et al. our method does not suffer from systematical errors stemming from a simultaneous use of two different ensembles. We present numerical results for the O(3) nonlinear \\sigma-model.

  20. Score Bounded Monte-Carlo Tree Search (United States)

    Cazenave, Tristan; Saffidine, Abdallah

    Monte-Carlo Tree Search (MCTS) is a successful algorithm used in many state of the art game engines. We propose to improve a MCTS solver when a game has more than two outcomes. It is for example the case in games that can end in draw positions. In this case it improves significantly a MCTS solver to take into account bounds on the possible scores of a node in order to select the nodes to explore. We apply our algorithm to solving Seki in the game of Go and to Connect Four.

  1. by means of FLUKA Monte Carlo method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermis Elif Ebru


    Full Text Available Calculations of gamma-ray mass attenuation coefficients of various detector materials (crystals were carried out by means of FLUKA Monte Carlo (MC method at different gamma-ray energies. NaI, PVT, GSO, GaAs and CdWO4 detector materials were chosen in the calculations. Calculated coefficients were also compared with the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST values. Obtained results through this method were highly in accordance with those of the NIST values. It was concluded from the study that FLUKA MC method can be an alternative way to calculate the gamma-ray mass attenuation coefficients of the detector materials.

  2. Archimedes, the Free Monte Carlo simulator

    CERN Document Server

    Sellier, Jean Michel D


    Archimedes is the GNU package for Monte Carlo simulations of electron transport in semiconductor devices. The first release appeared in 2004 and since then it has been improved with many new features like quantum corrections, magnetic fields, new materials, GUI, etc. This document represents the first attempt to have a complete manual. Many of the Physics models implemented are described and a detailed description is presented to make the user able to write his/her own input deck. Please, feel free to contact the author if you want to contribute to the project.

  3. Scalar QED, NLO and PHOTOS Monte Carlo


    Nanava, G.; Was, Z.


    Recently, QED bremsstrahlung in $B$-meson decays into pair of scalars (\\pi's and/or K's) is of interest. If experimental acceptance must be taken into account, PHOTOS Monte Carlo is often used in experimental simulations. We will use scalar QED to benchmark PHOTOS, even though this theory is of limited use for complex objects. We present the analytical form of the kernel used in the older versions of PHOTOS, and the new, exact (scalar QED) one. Matrix element and phase-space Jacobians are sep...

  4. Monte Carlo simulations of dense quantum plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filinov, V S [Institute for High Energy Density, Izhorskay 13/19, Moscow 125412 (Russian Federation); Bonitz, M [Universitaet Kiel, Leibnizstrasse 15, 24098 Kiel (Germany); Fortov, V E [Institute for High Energy Density, Izhorskay 13/19, Moscow 125412 (Russian Federation); Ebeling, W [Humbold Universitaet Berlin, Invalidenstrasse 110, D-10115 Berlin (Germany); Fehske, H [Universitaet Greifswald, Domstrasse 10a, D-17487, Greifswald (Germany); Kremp, D [Universitaet Rostock, Universitaetsplatz 3, D-18051 Rostock (Germany); Kraeft, W D [Universitaet Greifswald, Domstrasse 10a, D-17487, Greifswald (Germany); Bezkrovniy, V [Universitaet Rostock, Universitaetsplatz 3, D-18051 Rostock (Germany); Levashov, P [Institute for High Energy Density, Izhorskay 13/19, Moscow 125412 (Russian Federation)


    Thermodynamic properties of the equilibrium strongly coupled quantum plasmas investigated by direct path integral Monte Carlo (DPIMC) simulations within a wide region of density, temperature and positive to negative particle mass ratio. Pair distribution functions (PDF), equation of state (EOS), internal energy and Hugoniot are compared with available theoretical and experimental results. Possibilities of the phase transition in hydrogen and electron-hole plasma from neutral particle system to metallic-like state and crystal-like structures, including antiferromagnetic hole structure in semiconductors at low temperatures, are discussed.

  5. On the effect of random inhomogeneities in Kerr media modelled by a nonlinear Schroedinger equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villarroel, Javier [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Salamanca, Plaza Merced s/n, E-37008 Salamanca (Spain); Montero, Miquel, E-mail: javier@usal.e, E-mail: miquel.montero@ub.ed [Departament de FIsica Fonamental, Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 647, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain)


    We consider the propagation of optical beams under the interplay of dispersion and Kerr nonlinearity in optical fibres with impurities distributed at random uniformly on the fibre. By using a model based on the nonlinear Schroedinger equation we clarify how such inhomogeneities affect different aspects such as the number of solitons present and the intensity of the signal. We also obtain the mean distance for the signal to dissipate to a given level.

  6. Incremental localized boundary-domain integro-differential equations of elastic damage mechanics for inhomogeneous body


    Mikhailov, SE


    Copyright @ 2006 Tech Science Press A quasi-static mixed boundary value problem of elastic damage mechanics for a continuously inhomogeneous body is considered. Using the two-operator Green-Betti formula and the fundamental solution of an auxiliary homogeneous linear elasticity with frozen initial, secant or tangent elastic coe±cients, a boundary-domain integro-differential formulation of the elasto-plastic problem with respect to the displacement rates and their gradients is derived. Usin...

  7. On the Applicability of Fick's Law to Diffusion in Inhomogeneous Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Milligen, B. Ph. [Asociacion EURATOM-CIEMAT; Bons, P. D. [University Tubingen, Institute Geowissensch; Carreras, Benjamin A [ORNL; Sanchez, Raul [Universidad Carlos III, Madrid, Spain


    Two alternative expressions exist for the diffusive flux in inhomogeneous systems: Fick's law and the Fokker-Planck law. Here we re-examine the origin of these expressions and perform numerical and physical experiments to shed light on this duality. We conclude that in general the Fokker-Planck expression should be conceded preference, in spite of the fact that Fick's law seems to be more popular.

  8. On the applicability of Fick's law to diffusion in inhomogeneous systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milligen, B Ph van [Asociacion EURATOM-CIEMAT para Fusion, Avda Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Bons, P D [Institut fuer Geowissenschaften, Eberhard Karls Universitaet Tuebingen, Sigwartstrasse 10, D-72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Carreras, B A [Fusion Energy Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, PO Box 2001, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-2001 (United States); Sanchez, R [Departamento de FIsica, Universidad Carlos III, Avda de la Universidad 30, 28911 Leganes (Spain)


    Two alternative expressions exist for the diffusive flux in inhomogeneous systems: Fick's law and the Fokker-Planck law. Here we re-examine the origin of these expressions and perform numerical and physical experiments to shed light on this duality. We conclude that in general the Fokker-Planck expression should be conceded preference, in spite of the fact that Fick's law seems to be more popular.

  9. Energy diffusion and the butterfly effect in inhomogeneous Sachdev-Ye-Kitaev chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingfei Gu, Andrew Lucas, Xiao-Liang Qi


    Full Text Available We compute the energy diffusion constant $D$, Lyapunov time $\\tau_{\\text{L}}$ and butterfly velocity $v_{\\text{B}}$ in an inhomogeneous chain of coupled Majorana Sachdev-Ye-Kitaev (SYK models in the large $N$ and strong coupling limit. We find $D\\le v_{\\text{B}}^2 \\tau_{\\text{L}}$ from a combination of analytical and numerical approaches. Our example necessitates the sharpening of postulated transport bounds based on quantum chaos.

  10. Inhomogeneous Oxygen Vacancy Distribution in Semiconductor Gas Sensors: Formation, Migration and Determination on Gas Sensing Characteristics


    Liu, Jianqiao; Gao, Yinglin; Wu, Xu; Jin, Guohua; Zhai, Zhaoxia; Liu, Huan


    The density of oxygen vacancies in semiconductor gas sensors was often assumed to be identical throughout the grain in the numerical discussion of the gas-sensing mechanism of the devices. In contrast, the actual devices had grains with inhomogeneous distribution of oxygen vacancy under non-ideal conditions. This conflict between reality and discussion drove us to study the formation and migration of the oxygen defects in semiconductor grains. A model of the gradient-distributed oxygen vacanc...

  11. Application of a statistical downscaling method to detect inhomogeneities in a temperature time series (United States)

    Marcos, R.; Turco, M.; Llasat, M. C.; Quintana-Seguí, P.


    In the context of climate studies, the analysis of long homogeneous time series is of the utmost importance. A homogeneous climate series is defined as a series whose variations are caused only by changes in weather and climate (Conrad and Pollak, 1950). Unfortunately, a time series is often affected by one or more artificial inhomogeneities. Regardless of the type and the effect of inhomogeneities, the analysis of a non-homogeneous series can be misleading. Consequently, it is crucial to determine, assign and adjust any discontinuities in the data, especially in those reference series used in climate change studies. The Twentieth Century Reanalysis (20CR) data can provide an independent estimate of, among other variables, surface temperature. However, the difference in scale affects its potential use as a tool to detect non-climatic inhomogeneities in a local temperature time series. To avoid this limitation, we propose a new approach based on a parsimonious statistical downscaling method to bridge the gap between reanalysis data and the local temperature time series. This method was applied to two high-quality international reference stations in the North-East of Spain (present in the ECA database, whose temperature series are used, for example, in the report of climatic change in Catalonia, Cunillera et al., 2009: Ebre (Tortosa) and Fabra (Barcelona), for the periods 1940-2008 and 1914-2008, respectively. Both series show an anomalous period which is clearly identifiable by visual inspection. The statistical downscaling model was calibrated for these stations and independently tested over the reliable periods with good results. The model was then applied to reproduce the doubtful years. The results of the study are in agreement with the metadata: for the Fabra series, the method proposed clearly identifies the artificial inhomogeneity; whilst for the Ebre Observatory, there is no documented change in the station and the suspicious period

  12. Spectrally resolved four-wave mixing in semiconductors: Influence of inhomogeneous broadening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erland, J.; Pantke, K.-H.; Mizeikis, V.


    We study the influence of inhomogeneous broadening on results obtained from spectrally resolved transient four-wave mixing. In particular, we study the case where more resonances are coherently excited, leading to polarization interference or quantum beats, depending on the microscopic nature of ...... of the resonances. To demonstrate the ideas, we present experimental results from bulk CdSe and from GaAs multiple quantum wells....

  13. Transformation of Thernal Energy in Electric Energy in an Inhomogeneous Superconducting Ring


    Nikulov, A. V.


    It is shown that a heat energy can be transformed in an electric energy of direct current by the use of an inhomogeneous superconducting ring. This trasformation is possible both at an iterative change of temperature and at an unaltered temperature. In the first case the ring is a classical heat engine with a maximum efficiency in the Carno cycle. The second case contradicts to the second thermodynamic law formulated in the middle of last century. Nevertheless this result is correct because t...

  14. Optimization of lines with small inhomogeneities for wide-band matching (United States)

    Popovkin, V. I.; Mironov, O. V.


    A mathematical model is developed for an inhomogeneous matching line. The requirement that maximum power be delivered to the load over the frequency band is shown to reduce the problem of the optimum synthesis of a matching microwave circuit to a maximin programming problem with a pseudo-convex efficiency function. The problem is solved using an epsilon-subgradient optimization algorithm. Computation and experimental results are presented.

  15. Effect of off-resonance on T1 saturation recovery measurement in inhomogeneous fields (United States)

    Duan, Chong; Ryan, Colm; Utsuzawa, Shin; Song, Yi-Qiao; Hürlimann, Martin D.


    Saturation-recovery measurements with Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill sequences are commonly employed to measure the longitudinal relaxation time constant, T1 , in grossly inhomogeneous fields. We show that in general the off-resonant effect generates unexpected extra signals in the T1 measurement. In the present study, we derive a modified T1 kernel that accounts for this off-resonance effect quantitatively. The new kernel has been tested with numerical simulations and experiments, and excellent agreement is found.

  16. Simulation of inhomogeneous, non-stationary and non-Gaussian turbulent winds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose


    Turbulence time series are needed for wind turbine load simulation. The multivariate Fourier simulation method often used for this purpose is extended for inhomogeneous and non-stationary processes of general probability distribution. This includes optional conditional simulation matching simulated...... series to field measurements at selected points. A probability model for the application of turbine wind loads is discussed, and finally the technique for non-stationary processes is illustrated by turbulence simulation during a front passage....

  17. Casimir force in the Goedel space-time and its possible induced cosmological inhomogeneity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khodabakhshi, Sh. [University of Tehran, Department of Physics, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shojai, A. [University of Tehran, Department of Physics, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), Foundations of Physics Group, School of Physics, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    The Casimir force between two parallel plates in the Goedel universe is computed for a scalar field at finite temperature. It is observed that when the plates' separation is comparable with the scale given by the rotation of the space-time, the force becomes repulsive and then approaches zero. Since it has been shown previously that the universe may experience a Goedel phase for a small period of time, the induced inhomogeneities from the Casimir force are also studied. (orig.)

  18. Magnetized string cosmological model in cylindrically symmetric inhomogeneous universe with time dependent cosmological-term lambda


    Pradhan,Anirudh; Jotania, Kanti; Singh, Archana


    Cylindrically symmetric inhomogeneous magnetized string cosmological model is investigated with cosmological term lambda varying with time. To get the deterministic solution, it has been assumed that the expansion (theta) in the model is proportional to the eigen value sigma1 1 of the shear tensor sigmai j. The value of cosmological constant for the model is found to be small and positive which is supported by the results from recent supernovae Ia observations. The physical and geometric prop...

  19. Some Inhomogeneous Magnetized Viscous-Fluid Cosmological Models with Varying Λ (United States)

    Pradhan, Anirudh; Srivastav, Sudhir Kumar; Jotania, Kanti R.


    Some cylindrically symmetric inhomogeneous viscous-fluid cosmological models with electromagnetic field are obtained. To get a solution a supplementary condition between metric potentials is used. The viscosity coefficient of bulk viscous fluid is assumed to be a power function of mass density. Without assuming any ad hoc law, we obtain a cosmological constant as a decreasing function of time. The behaviour of the electromagnetic field tensor together with some physical aspects of the model are also discussed.

  20. Inhomogeneous Bulk Viscous Fluid Universe with Electromagnetic Field and Variable $\\Lambda$-Term


    Pradhan,Anirudh; Rai, Vandana; Jotania, Kanti


    Cylindrically symmetric inhomogeneous cosmological model for bulk viscous fluid distribution with electromagnetic field is obtained. The source of the magnetic field is due to an electric current produced along the z-axis. $F_{12}$ is the non-vanishing component of electromagnetic field tensor. To get the deterministic solution, it has been assumed that the expansion $\\theta$ in the model is proportional to the shear $\\sigma$. The values of cosmological constant for these models are found to ...

  1. Classification of minimal mass blow-up solutions for an L2 critical inhomogeneous NLS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Combet, V.; Genoud, S.F.


    We establish the classification of minimal mass blow-up solutions of the L2 critical inhomogeneous nonlinear Schrödinger equation i?tu+?u+|x|?b|u|4?2bNu=0, thereby extending the celebrated result of Merle (Duke Math J 69(2):427–454, 1993) from the classic case b=0 to the case 0

  2. Postnatal myocardium remodelling generates inhomogeneity in the architecture of the ventricular mass. (United States)

    Jouk, Pierre-Simon; Truong, Ba Luu; Michalowicz, Gabrielle; Usson, Yves


    The 3D architecture of the ventricular mass is poorly known, although in vivo imaging techniques show the physiological inhomogeneity of ventricular walls mechanics. Polarized light imaging makes it possible to quantitatively analyse the myosin filament orientation. In this paper, we focus on the study the 3D architecture and regional isotropy of myocardial cells. Twenty normal human hearts, 10 from the perinatal period and 10 from the post-neonatal period were studied by polarized light microscopy. In each voxel of the ventricular mass (90 × 90 × 500 µm) the principal orientation segment was automatically and unambiguously extracted as well as a regional isotropy index (regional orientation tensor of the voxel neighbourhood). During the first months of postnatal age, the median regional isotropy values decreased in the ventricular mesh. This global decrease was not homogeneous across the ventricular walls. From the perinatal to the neonatal period, this decrease was more marked in the inner two-third of the lateral left ventricular wall and in the right part of the interventricular septum. There was a progressive post-neonatal appearance of a particularly inhomogeneous secondary arrangement of myocardial cells with alternation of thick low-RI and thin high-RI areas. This study has shown a postnatal change in ventricular myocardial architecture, which became more inhomogeneous. The cell rearrangements responsible for the inhomogeneity in ventricular myocardial architecture are revealed by a variation of the regional isotropy index. These major changes are probably an adaptive consequence of the major haemodynamic changes occurring after birth during the neonatal period that generates major parietal stress variations and parietal remodelling.

  3. Apparently the first closed-form solution of vibrating inhomogeneous beam with a tip mass (United States)

    Elishakoff, I.; Johnson, V.


    Whereas there are numerous papers on the free vibrations of beams of uniform or non-uniform cross-section carrying concentrated masses, the problem does not lend itself to the closed-form solution. Here such a solution is reported, apparently for the first time. The solution originally derived for the inhomogeneous beam without a concentrated mass is generalized to include a tip mass. The semi-inverse method is utilized, to achieve this goal.

  4. Central symmetry and antisymmetry of the microwave background inhomogeneities on Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe maps


    Kudriavtcev, Iurii; Semenov, Dmitry A.


    We performed a visual and numeric analysis of the deviation of the microwave background temperature on WMAP maps. We proved that the microwave background inhomogeneities possess the property of the central symmetry resulting from the two kinds of central symmetry of the opposite signs. After the computer modeling we have established the relation between the coefficient of the central symmetry and the values of the symmetrical and antisymmetrical components of the deviation of the temperature....

  5. Dissipation peak as an indicator of sample inhomogeneity in solid $^4$He oscillator experiments


    Huse, David A.; Khandker, Zuhair U.


    A simple phenomenological model is developed for the recent torsional oscillator experiments on solid $^4$He. Within this model, for a homogeneous sample there is a specific quantitative relation between the change in the oscillator's frequency and its maximum damping at the apparent supersolid transition. Much of the published data do not satisfy this relation, indicating that the dissipation peaks in those samples are strongly inhomogeneously broadened.

  6. Particle diffusion and localized acceleration in inhomogeneous AGN jets - Part I: Steady-state spectra


    Chen, Xuhui; Pohl, Martin; Boettcher, Markus


    We study the acceleration, transport, and emission of particles in relativistic jets. Localized stochastic particle acceleration, spatial diffusion, and synchrotron as well as synchrotron self-Compton emission are considered in a leptonic model. To account for inhomogeneity, we use a 2D axi-symmetric cylindrical geometry for both relativistic electrons and magnetic field. In this first phase of our work, we focus on steady-state spectra that develop from a time-dependent model. We demonstrate...

  7. A Variational Approach to an Inhomogeneous Second-Order Ordinary Differential System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Muatjetjeja


    Full Text Available This paper studies the coupled inhomogeneous Lane-Emden system from the Lagrangian formulation point of view. The existence of multiple positive solutions has been discussed in the literature. Here we aim to classify the system with respect to a first-order Lagrangian according to the Noether point symmetries it admits. We then obtain first integrals of the various cases which admit Noether point symmetries.

  8. Network-derived inhomogeneity in monthly rainfall analyses over western Tasmania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fawcett, Robert; Trewin, Blair [National Climate Centre, Australian Bureau of Meteorology, Docklands, Victoria 3008 (Australia); Barnes-Keoghan, Ian, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Tasmanian Regional Office, Australian Bureau of Meteorology, Hobart, Tasmania 3000 (Australia)


    Monthly rainfall in the wetter western half of Tasmania was relatively poorly observed in the early to middle parts of the 20th century, and this causes a marked inhomogeneity in the operational gridded monthly rainfall analyses generated by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology up until the end of 2009. These monthly rainfall analyses were generated for the period 1900 to 2009 in two forms; a national analysis at 0.25{sup 0} latitude-longitude resolution, and a southeastern Australia regional analysis at 0.1{sup 0} resolution. For any given month, they used all the monthly data from the standard Bureau rainfall gauge network available in the Australian Data Archive for Meteorology. Since this network has changed markedly since Federation (1901), there is obvious scope for network-derived inhomogeneities in the analyses. In this study, we show that the topography-resolving techniques of the new Australian Water Availability Project analyses, adopted as the official operational analyses from the start of 2010, substantially diminish those inhomogeneities, while using largely the same observation network. One result is an improved characterisation of recent rainfall declines across Tasmania. The new analyses are available at two resolutions, 0.25{sup 0} and 0.05{sup 0}.

  9. Nanoscale Electronic Inhomogeneity in In_2Se_3 Nanoribbons Revealed by Microwave Impedance Microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, K.J.


    Driven by interactions due to the charge, spin, orbital, and lattice degrees of freedom, nanoscale inhomogeneity has emerged as a new theme for materials with novel properties near multiphase boundaries. As vividly demonstrated in complex metal oxides and chalcogenides, these microscopic phases are of great scientific and technological importance for research in hightemperature superconductors, colossal magnetoresistance effect, phase-change memories, and domain switching operations. Direct imaging on dielectric properties of these local phases,however, presents a big challenge for existing scanning probe techniques. Here, we report the observation of electronic inhomogeneity in indium selenide (In{sub 2}Se{sub 3}) nanoribbons by near-field scanning microwave impedance microscopy. Multiple phases with local resistivity spanning six orders of magnitude are identified as the coexistence of superlattice, simple hexagonal lattice and amorphous structures with {approx}100nm inhomogeneous length scale, consistent with high-resolution transmission electron microscope studies. The atomic-force-microscope-compatible microwave probe is able to perform quantitative sub-surface electronic study in a noninvasive manner. Finally, the phase change memory function in In{sub 2}Se{sub 3} nanoribbon devices can be locally recorded with big signal of opposite signs.

  10. Effect of magnetic field inhomogeneity on ion cyclotron motion coherence at high magnetic field. (United States)

    Vladimirov, Gleb; Kostyukevich, Yury; Hendrickson, Christopher L; Blakney, Greg T; Nikolaev, Eugene


    A three-dimensional code based on the particle-in-cell algorithm modified to account for the inhomogeneity of the magnetic field was applied to determine the effect of Z(1), Z(2), Z(3), Z(4), X, Y, ZX, ZY, XZ(2) YZ(2), XY and X(2)-Y(2) components of an orthogonal magnetic field expansion on ion motion during detection in an FT-ICR cell. Simulations were performed for magnetic field strengths of 4.7, 7, 14.5 and 21 Tesla, including experimentally determined magnetic field spatial distributions for existing 4.7 T and 14.5 T magnets. The effect of magnetic field inhomogeneity on ion cloud stabilization ("ion condensation") at high numbers of ions was investigated by direct simulations of individual ion trajectories. Z(1), Z(2), Z(3) and Z(4) components have the largest effect (especially Z(1)) on ion cloud stability. Higher magnetic field strength and lower m/z demand higher relative magnetic field homogeneity to maintain cloud coherence for a fixed time period. The dependence of mass resolving power upper limit on Z(1) inhomogeneity is evaluated for different magnetic fields and m/z. The results serve to set the homogeneity requirements for various orthogonal magnetic field components (shims) for future FT-ICR magnet design.

  11. Efficiencies of Inhomogeneity-Detection Algorithms: Comparison of Different Detection Methods and Efficiency Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Domonkos


    Full Text Available Efficiency evaluations for change point Detection methods used in nine major Objective Homogenization Methods (DOHMs are presented. The evaluations are conducted using ten different simulated datasets and four efficiency measures: detection skill, skill of linear trend estimation, sum of squared error, and a combined efficiency measure. Test datasets applied have a diverse set of inhomogeneity (IH characteristics and include one dataset that is similar to the monthly benchmark temperature dataset of the European benchmarking effort known by the acronym COST HOME. The performance of DOHMs is highly dependent on the characteristics of test datasets and efficiency measures. Measures of skills differ markedly according to the frequency and mean duration of inhomogeneities and vary with the ratio of IH-magnitudes and background noise. The study focuses on cases when high quality relative time series (i.e., the difference between a candidate and reference series can be created, but the frequency and intensity of inhomogeneities are high. Results show that in these cases the Caussinus-Mestre method is the most effective, although appreciably good results can also be achieved by the use of several other DOHMs, such as the Multiple Analysis of Series for Homogenisation, Bayes method, Multiple Linear Regression, and the Standard Normal Homogeneity Test.

  12. Spatial autocorrelation of radiation measured by the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment: Scene inhomogeneity and reciprocity violation (United States)

    Davies, Roger


    The spatial autocorrelation functions of broad-band longwave and shortwave radiances measured by the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) are analyzed as a function of view angle in an investigation of the general effects of scene inhomogeneity on radiation. For nadir views, the correlation distance of the autocorrelation function is about 900 km for longwave radiance and about 500 km for shortwave radiance, consistent with higher degrees of freedom in shortwave reflection. Both functions rise monotonically with view angle, but there is a substantial difference in the relative angular dependence of the shortwave and longwave functions, especially for view angles less than 50 deg. In this range, the increase with angle of the longwave functions is found to depend only on the expansion of pixel area with angle, whereas the shortwave functions show an additional dependence on angle that is attributed to the occlusion of inhomogeneities by cloud height variations. Beyond a view angle of about 50 deg, both longwave and shortwave functions appear to be affected by cloud sides. The shortwave autocorrelation functions do not satisfy the principle of directional reciprocity, thereby proving that the average scene is horizontally inhomogeneous over the scale of an ERBE pixel (1500 sq km). Coarse stratification of the measurements by cloud amount, however, indicates that the average cloud-free scene does satisfy directional reciprocity on this scale.

  13. Intensity inhomogeneity correction for magnetic resonance imaging of human brain at 7T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uwano, Ikuko; Yamashita, Fumio; Higuchi, Satomi; Ito, Kenji; Sasaki, Makoto [Division of Ultrahigh Field MRI, Institute for Biomedical Sciences, Iwate Medical University, Yahaba, Iwate 028-3694 (Japan); Kudo, Kohsuke, E-mail:; Goodwin, Jonathan; Harada, Taisuke [Division of Ultrahigh Field MRI, Institute for Biomedical Sciences, Iwate Medical University, Yahaba, Iwate 028-3694, Japan and Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hokkaido University Hospital, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8648 (Japan); Ogawa, Akira [Department of Neurosurgery, Iwate Medical University, Morioka, Iwate 020-8505 (Japan)


    Purpose: To evaluate the performance and efficacy for intensity inhomogeneity correction of various sequences of the human brain in 7T MRI using the extended version of the unified segmentation algorithm. Materials: Ten healthy volunteers were scanned with four different sequences (2D spin echo [SE], 3D fast SE, 2D fast spoiled gradient echo, and 3D time-of-flight) by using a 7T MRI system. Intensity inhomogeneity correction was performed using the “New Segment” module in SPM8 with four different values (120, 90, 60, and 30 mm) of full width at half maximum (FWHM) in Gaussian smoothness. The uniformity in signals in the entire white matter was evaluated using the coefficient of variation (CV); mean signal intensities between the subcortical and deep white matter were compared, and contrast between subcortical white matter and gray matter was measured. The length of the lenticulostriate (LSA) was measured on maximum intensity projection (MIP) images in the original and corrected images. Results: In all sequences, the CV decreased as the FWHM value decreased. The differences of mean signal intensities between subcortical and deep white matter also decreased with smaller FWHM values. The contrast between white and gray matter was maintained at all FWHM values. LSA length was significantly greater in corrected MIP than in the original MIP images. Conclusions: Intensity inhomogeneity in 7T MRI can be successfully corrected using SPM8 for various scan sequences.

  14. Hybrid Model of Inhomogeneous Solar Wind Plasma Heating by Alfven Wave Spectrum: Parametric Studies (United States)

    Ofman, L.


    Observations of the solar wind plasma at 0.3 AU and beyond show that a turbulent spectrum of magnetic fluctuations is present. Remote sensing observations of the corona indicate that heavy ions are hotter than protons and their temperature is anisotropic (T(sub perpindicular / T(sub parallel) >> 1). We study the heating and the acceleration of multi-ion plasma in the solar wind by a turbulent spectrum of Alfvenic fluctuations using a 2-D hybrid numerical model. In the hybrid model the protons and heavy ions are treated kinetically as particles, while the electrons are included as neutralizing background fluid. This is the first two-dimensional hybrid parametric study of the solar wind plasma that includes an input turbulent wave spectrum guided by observation with inhomogeneous background density. We also investigate the effects of He++ ion beams in the inhomogeneous background plasma density on the heating of the solar wind plasma. The 2-D hybrid model treats parallel and oblique waves, together with cross-field inhomogeneity, self-consistently. We investigate the parametric dependence of the perpendicular heating, and the temperature anisotropy in the H+-He++ solar wind plasma. It was found that the scaling of the magnetic fluctuations power spectrum steepens in the higher-density regions, and the heating is channeled to these regions from the surrounding lower-density plasma due to wave refraction. The model parameters are applicable to the expected solar wind conditions at about 10 solar radii.

  15. Influence of rigid boundary on the propagation of torsional surface wave in an inhomogeneous layer (United States)

    Gupta, Shishir; Sultana, Rehena; Kundu, Santimoy


    The present work illustrates a theoretical study on the effect of rigid boundary for the propagation of torsional surface wave in an inhomogeneous crustal layer over an inhomogeneous half space. It is believed that the inhomogeneity in the half space arises due to hyperbolic variation in shear modulus and density whereas the layer has linear variation in shear modulus and density. The dispersion equation has been obtained in a closed form by using Whittaker's function, which shows the variation of phase velocity with corresponding wave number. Numerical results show the dispersion equations, which are discussed and presented by means of graphs. Results in some special cases are also compared with existing solutions available from analytical methods, which show a close resemblance. It is also observed that, for a layer over a homogeneous half space, the velocity of torsional waves does not coincide with that of Love waves in the presence of the rigid boundary, whereas it does at the free boundary. Graphical user interface (GUI) software has been developed using MATLAB 7.5 to generalize the effect of various parameter discussed.

  16. Wrinkle surface instability of an inhomogeneous elastic block with graded stiffness (United States)

    Yang, Shengyou; Chen, Yi-chao


    Surface instabilities have been studied extensively for both homogeneous materials and film/substrate structures but relatively less for materials with continuously varying properties. This paper studies wrinkle surface instability of a graded neo-Hookean block with exponentially varying modulus under plane strain by using the linear bifurcation analysis. We derive the first variation condition for minimizing the potential energy functional and solve the linearized equations of equilibrium to find the necessary conditions for surface instability. It is found that for a homogeneous block or an inhomogeneous block with increasing modulus from the surface, the critical stretch for surface instability is 0.544 (0.456 strain), which is independent of the geometry and the elastic modulus on the surface of the block. This critical stretch coincides with that reported by Biot (1963 Appl. Sci. Res. 12, 168-182. (doi:10.1007/BF03184638)) 53 years ago for the onset of wrinkle instabilities in a half-space of homogeneous neo-Hookean materials. On the other hand, for an inhomogeneous block with decreasing modulus from the surface, the critical stretch for surface instability ranges from 0.544 to 1 (0-0.456 strain), depending on the modulus gradient, and the length and height of the block. This sheds light on the effects of the material inhomogeneity and structural geometry on surface instability.

  17. Traveltime approximations for inhomogeneous transversely isotropic media with a horizontal symmetry axis

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali


    Traveltime information is crucial for parameter estimation, especially if the medium is described by a set of anisotropy parameters. We can efficiently estimate these parameters if we are able to relate them analytically to traveltimes, which is generally hard to do in inhomogeneous media. I develop traveltime approximations for transversely isotropic media with a horizontal symmetry axis (HTI) as simplified and even linear functions of the anisotropy parameters. This is accomplished by perturbing the solution of the HTI eikonal equation with respect to the anellipticity parameter, η and the azimuth of the symmetry axis (typically associated with the fracture direction) from a generally inhomogeneous, elliptically anisotropic background medium. Such a perturbation is convenient since the elliptically anisotropic information might be obtained from well velocities in HTI media. Thus, we scan for only η and the symmetry-axis azimuth. The resulting approximations can provide a reasonably accurate analytical description of the traveltime in a homogenous background compared to other published moveout equations. They also help extend the inhomogenous background isotropic or elliptically anisotropic models to an HTI one with a smoothly variable η and symmetry-axis azimuth. © 2012 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.

  18. A Monte Carlo-adjusted goodness-of-fit test for parametric models describing spatial point patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Dao, Ngocanh


    Assessing the goodness-of-fit (GOF) for intricate parametric spatial point process models is important for many application fields. When the probability density of the statistic of the GOF test is intractable, a commonly used procedure is the Monte Carlo GOF test. Additionally, if the data comprise a single dataset, a popular version of the test plugs a parameter estimate in the hypothesized parametric model to generate data for theMonte Carlo GOF test. In this case, the test is invalid because the resulting empirical level does not reach the nominal level. In this article, we propose a method consisting of nested Monte Carlo simulations which has the following advantages: the bias of the resulting empirical level of the test is eliminated, hence the empirical levels can always reach the nominal level, and information about inhomogeneity of the data can be provided.We theoretically justify our testing procedure using Taylor expansions and demonstrate that it is correctly sized through various simulation studies. In our first data application, we discover, in agreement with Illian et al., that Phlebocarya filifolia plants near Perth, Australia, can follow a homogeneous Poisson clustered process that provides insight into the propagation mechanism of these plants. In our second data application, we find, in contrast to Diggle, that a pairwise interaction model provides a good fit to the micro-anatomy data of amacrine cells designed for analyzing the developmental growth of immature retina cells in rabbits. This article has supplementary material online. © 2013 American Statistical Association, Institute of Mathematical Statistics, and Interface Foundation of North America.

  19. The Monte Vista Story; an Evaluation Report on the Monte Vista Project. Interviews with Basic Instructors. (United States)

    Adams, William T., Ed.

    To be used as teaching aids, these interviews were developed in a training program for VISTA volunteers in Monte Vista, Colorado, during the summer of 1965. The instructors, whose comments constitute a major scope of the document were mothers, ex-delinquents, school dropouts, and young unwed mothers from the poverty area. It is felt that this…

  20. Monte Carlo Based Framework to Support HAZOP Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danko, Matej; Frutiger, Jerome; Jelemenský, Ľudovít


    This study combines Monte Carlo based process simulation features with classical hazard identification techniques for consequences of deviations from normal operating conditions investigation and process safety examination. A Monte Carlo based method has been used to sample and evaluate different...... deviations in process parameters simultaneously, thereby bringing an improvement to the Hazard and Operability study (HAZOP), which normally considers only one at a time deviation in process parameters. Furthermore, Monte Carlo filtering was then used to identify operability and hazard issues including...