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Sample records for tetrafluoromethane

  1. Thermodynamic and transport properties of gaseous tetrafluoromethane in chemical equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, J. L.; Boney, L. R.

    1973-01-01

    Equations and in computer code are presented for the thermodynamic and transport properties of gaseous, undissociated tetrafluoromethane (CF4) in chemical equilibrium. The computer code calculates the thermodynamic and transport properties of CF4 when given any two of five thermodynamic variables (entropy, temperature, volume, pressure, and enthalpy). Equilibrium thermodynamic and transport property data are tabulated and pressure-enthalpy diagrams are presented.

  2. Perfluorocarbons in the global atmosphere: tetrafluoromethane, hexafluoroethane, and octafluoropropane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mühle

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We present atmospheric baseline growth rates from the 1970s to the present for the long-lived, strongly infrared-absorbing perfluorocarbons (PFCs tetrafluoromethane (CF4, hexafluoroethane (C2F6, and octafluoropropane (C3F8 in both hemispheres, measured with improved accuracies (~1–2% and precisions (<0.3%, or <0.2 ppt (parts per trillion dry air mole fraction, for CF4; <1.5%, or <0.06 ppt, for C2F6; <4.5%, or <0.02 ppt, for C3F8 within the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE. Pre-industrial background values of 34.7±0.2 ppt CF4 and 0.1±0.02 ppt C2F6 were measured in air extracted from Greenland ice and Antarctic firn. Anthropogenic sources are thought to be primary aluminum production (CF4, C2F6, C3F8, semiconductor production (C2F6, CF4, C3F8 and refrigeration use (C3F8. Global emissions calculated with the AGAGE 2-D 12-box model are significantly higher than most previous emission estimates. The sum of CF4 and C2F6 emissions estimated from aluminum production and non-metal production are lower than observed global top-down emissions, with gaps of ~6 Gg/yr CF4 in recent years. The significant discrepancies between previous CF4, C2F6, and C3F8 emission estimates and observed global top-down emissions estimated from AGAGE measurements emphasize the need for more accurate, transparent, and complete emission reporting, and for verification with atmospheric measurements to assess the emission sources of these long-lived and potent greenhouse gases, which alter the radiative budget of the atmosphere, essentially permanently, once emitted.

  3. Metal doped polymer films prepared by simultaneous plasma polymerization of tetrafluoromethane and evaporation of gold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinu, L.; Biederman, H. (Karlova Univ., Prague (Czechoslovakia). Fakulta Matematicko-Fyzikalni); Zemek, J. (Ceskoslovenska Akademie Ved, Prague. Fyzikalni Ustav)

    The incorporation of gold from an evaporation source during plasma polymerization of tetrafluoromethane CF/sub 4/ in an RF (20 MHz) glow discharge excited by means of a planar magnetron has been investigated. Optical emission spectroscopy was used to monitor the deposition process in situ. The structure of the films was studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations. The sheet resistance and optical transmission measurements have been performed showing a dramatic influence of gold concentration on the film properties. Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis were used for determining the concentration depth profiles through the films. It has been shown that the presence of gold in the layers substantially reduces the fluorine content. The effect of various gold incorporation methods on the film characteristics has been discussed.

  4. Surface modification of blood-contacting biomaterials by plasma-polymerized superhydrophobic films using hexamethyldisiloxane and tetrafluoromethane as precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsiao, Chaio-Ru [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Feng Chia University, No. 100, Wenhwa Rd., Seatwen District, Taichung City 40724, Taiwan (China); Lin, Cheng-Wei [Department of Dental Technology and Materials Science, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, No. 666, Buzih Rd., Beitun District, Taichung City 40601, Taiwan (China); Chou, Chia-Man, E-mail: cmchou@vghtc.gov.tw [Department of Surgery, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, No. 1650, Sec. 4, Taiwan Boulevard, Seatwen District, Taichung City 40705, Taiwan (China); Department of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, No. 155, Sec. 2, Linong Street, Beitou District, Taipei City 11221, Taiwan (China); Chung, Chi-Jen, E-mail: cjchung@seed.net.tw [Department of Dental Technology and Materials Science, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, No. 666, Buzih Rd., Beitun District, Taichung City 40601, Taiwan (China); He, Ju-Liang [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Feng Chia University, No. 100, Wenhwa Rd., Seatwen District, Taichung City 40724, Taiwan (China)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Biomaterials modified by nanoparticle-containing plasma polymerized films. • A superhydrophoic film was obtained, and the properties of the coating were examined. • In vitro blood compatibility tests revealed neither platelet adhesion nor fibrinogen adsorption. • Surface modification technology of medical devices: non-cytotoxic and no blood clot formation. - Abstract: This paper proposes a plasma polymerization system that can be used to modify the surface of the widely used biomaterial, polyurethane (PU), by employing low-cost hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) and tetrafluoromethane (CF{sub 4}) as precursors; this system features a pulsed-dc power supply. Plasma-polymerized HMDSO/CF{sub 4} (pp-HC) with coexisting micro- and nanoscale morphology was obtained as a superhydrophobic coating material by controlling the HMDSO/CF{sub 4} (f{sub H}) monomer flow ratio. The developed surface modification technology can be applied to medical devices, because it is non-cytotoxic and has favorable hemocompatibility, and no blood clots form when the device surface direct contacts. Experimental results reveal that the obtained pp-HC films contained SiO{sub x} nanoparticles randomly dispersed on the micron-scale three-dimensional network film surface. The −CF functional group, −CF{sub 2} bonding, and SiO{sub x} were detected on the film surface. The maximal water contact angle of the pp-HC coating was 161.2°, apparently attributable to the synergistic effect of the coexisting micro- and nanoscale surface morphology featuring a low surface-energy layer. The superhydrophobic and antifouling characteristics of the coating were retained even after it was rubbed 20 times with a steel wool tester. Results of in vitro cytotoxicity, fibrinogen adsorption, and platelet adhesion tests revealed favorable myoblast cell proliferation and the virtual absence of fibrinogen adsorption and platelet adhesion on the pp-HC coated specimens. These quantitative findings imply

  5. Tectonic activity as a significant source of crustal tetrafluoromethane emissions to the atmosphere: observations in groundwaters along the San Andreas Fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeds, Daniel A.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Muhle, Jens; Weiss, Ray F.

    2015-01-01

    Tetrafluoromethane (CF4) concentrations were measured in 14 groundwater samples from the Cuyama Valley, Mil Potrero and Cuddy Valley aquifers along the Big Bend section of the San Andreas Fault System (SAFS) in California to assess whether tectonic activity in this region is a significant source of crustal CF4 to the atmosphere. Dissolved CF4 concentrations in all groundwater samples but one were elevated with respect to estimated recharge concentrations including entrainment of excess air during recharge (CreCre; ∼30 fmol kg−1 H2O), indicating subsurface addition of CF4 to these groundwaters. Groundwaters in the Cuyama Valley contain small CF4 excesses (0.1–9 times CreCre), which may be attributed to an in situ release from weathering and a minor addition of deep crustal CF4 introduced to the shallow groundwater through nearby faults. CF4 excesses in groundwaters within 200 m of the SAFS are larger (10–980 times CreCre) and indicate the presence of a deep crustal flux of CF4 that is likely associated with the physical alteration of silicate minerals in the shear zone of the SAFS. Extrapolating CF4 flux rates observed in this study to the full extent of the SAFS (1300 km × 20–100 km) suggests that the SAFS potentially emits (0.3–1)×10−1 kg(0.3–1)×10−1 kg CF4 yr−1 to the Earth's surface. For comparison, the chemical weathering of ∼7.5×104 km2∼7.5×104 km2 of granitic rock in California is estimated to release (0.019–3.2)×10−1 kg(0.019–3.2)×10−1 kg CF4 yr−1. Tectonic activity is likely an important, and potentially the dominant, driver of natural emissions of CF4 to the atmosphere. Variations in preindustrial atmospheric CF4 as observed in paleo-archives such as ice cores may therefore represent changes in both continental weathering and tectonic activity, including changes driven by variations in continental ice cover during glacial–interglacial transitions.

  6. Synthesis of a composite inorganic membrane for the separation of nitrogen, tetrafluoromethane and hexafluoropropylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hertzog Bissett

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Composite inorganic membranes were synthesised for gas component separation of N2, CF4 and C3F6. Selectivities lower than Knudsen selectivities were obtained due to membrane defects. A composite ceramic membrane consisting of a ceramic support structure, a MFI intermediate zeolite layer and a Teflon top layer, was developed to improve separation.

  7. Synthesis of a composite inorganic membrane for the separation of nitrogen, tetrafluoromethane and hexafluoropropylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hertzog Bissett

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The advanced use of inorganic membranes, such as zeolites, in large-scale industrial processes is hindered by the inability to manufacture continuous and defect-free membranes. We therefore aimed to construct such a defect-free membrane. Various zeolites were synthesised on the inner surface of ?-alumina support tubes by a hydrothermal process. Gas permeation properties were investigated at 298 K for single component systems of N2, CF4 and C3F6. Ideal selectivities lower than Knudsen selectivities were obtained as a result of defects from intercrystalline slits and crack formation during synthesis and template removal. A composite ceramic membrane consisting of a ceramic support structure, a mordenite framework inverted intermediate zeolite layer and a Teflon AF 2400 top layer was developed to improve separation. The Teflon layer sealed possible defects present in the separation layer forcing the gas molecules to follow the path through the zeolite pores. Ideal selectivities of 88 and 71 were obtained for N2/CF4 and N2/C3F6 respectively. Adsorption experiments performed on materials present in the membrane structure suggested that although adsorption of C3F6 onto Teflon AF 2400 compared to CF4 results in a considerable contribution to permeation for the composite ceramic membrane, the sealing effect of the zeolite layer by the Teflon layer is the reason for the large N2/CF4 and N2/C3F6 selectivities obtained. The Teflon layer effectively sealed intercrystalline areas in-between zeolite crystals, which resulted in high ideal selectivies for N2/CF4 and N2/C3F6.

  8. Reaction of PFCs in water stabilized plasma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mastný, L.; Horníček, J.; Živný, Oldřich; Brožek, Vlastimil; Sember, Viktor

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 1 (2017), s. 161 ISSN 1336-7242. [Zjazd chemikov /69./. 11.09.2017-15.09.2017, Horný Smokovec] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GC17-10246J Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Water stabilized plasma * tetrafluoromethane * corrosion resistance * boron nitride * titanium nitride Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics)

  9. Surface modification of epoxy resin using He/CF4 atmospheric pressure plasma jet for flashover withstanding characteristics improvement in vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sile; Wang, Shuai; Wang, Yibo; Guo, Baohong; Li, Guoqiang; Chang, Zhengshi; Zhang, Guan-Jun

    2017-08-01

    For enhancing the surface electric withstanding strength of insulating materials, epoxy resin (EP) samples are treated by atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) with different time interval from 0 to 300s. Helium (He) and tetrafluoromethane (CF4) mixtures are used as working gases with the concentration of CF4 ranging 0%-5%, and when CF4 is ∼3%, the APPJ exhibits an optimal steady state. The flashover withstanding characteristics of modified EP in vacuum are greatly improved under appropriate APPJ treatment conditions. The surface properties of EP samples are evaluated by surface roughness, scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and water contact angle. It is considered that both physical and chemical effects lead to the enhancement of flashover strength. The physical effect is reflected in the increase of surface roughness, while the chemical effect is reflected in the graft of fluorine groups.

  10. DETECTING INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION IN THE ATMOSPHERES OF EARTH-LIKE EXOPLANETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Henry W. [Harvard College, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Abad, Gonzalo Gonzalez; Loeb, Abraham, E-mail: henrylin@college.harvard.edu, E-mail: ggonzalezabad@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: aloeb@cfa.harvard.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Detecting biosignatures, such as molecular oxygen in combination with a reducing gas, in the atmospheres of transiting exoplanets has been a major focus in the search for alien life. We point out that in addition to these generic indicators, anthropogenic pollution could be used as a novel biosignature for intelligent life. To this end, we identify pollutants in the Earth's atmosphere that have significant absorption features in the spectral range covered by the James Webb Space Telescope. We focus on tetrafluoromethane (CF{sub 4}) and trichlorofluoromethane (CCl{sub 3}F), which are the easiest to detect chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) produced by anthropogenic activity. We estimate that ∼1.2 days (∼1.7 days) of total integration time will be sufficient to detect or constrain the concentration of CCl{sub 3}F (CF{sub 4}) to ∼10 times the current terrestrial level.

  11. Multilayer adsorption of C{sub 2}H{sub 4} and CF{sub 4} on graphite: Grand Canonical Monte Carlo simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelatif, H., E-mail: habdelatif@usthb.dz; Drir, M., E-mail: mdrir@usthb.dz

    2016-11-10

    Highlights: • Finite number of layers, at saturated pressure, is found for low temperatures. • A layer is represented by a sharp step which is a first order phase transition. • A thin film to thick film transition around the triple point is observed. • Temperatures and relative pressures of layers formation and phase diagrams are given. - Abstract: We study the phase transitions in adsorbed multilayers by Grand Canonical Monte Carlo simulations (GCMC) of the lattice-gas model. The focus will be on ethylene (C{sub 2}H{sub 4}) and tetrafluoromethane (CF{sub 4}) on a homogeneous graphite surface. Earlier simulations of these systems investigated structural properties, dynamical behaviors of adsorbed films and thermodynamic quantities such as isosteric heat. The main purpose of this study is to consider the adsorbed multilayers by the evaluation of the layering behavior, the wetting phenomena and the critical temperatures. The isotherms obtained for temperature from 50 K to 170 K reproduce a number of interesting features observed experimentally: (i) we observe an important number of layers in contrast with previous simulations, (ii) a finite number of layers at saturated pressure for low temperatures are found, (iii) the isotherms present vertical steps typical of layer-by-layer growth, at higher temperatures these distinct layers tend to disappear signifying that the film thickness increases continuously, (iv) a thin film to thick film transition near the triple point temperature is noticed. In addition to this qualitative description, quantitative information are determined including temperatures and relative pressures of layers formation, layer-critical-point temperatures and phase diagrams. Comparing the two systems, ethylene/graphite and tetrafluoromethane/graphite, we observe a qualitatively similar behavior.

  12. UV excimer laser and low temperature plasma treatments of polyamide materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Yiu Wan Joanne

    Polyamides have found widespread application in various industrial sectors, for example, they are used in apparel, home furnishings and similar uses. However, the requirements for high quality performance products are continually increasing and these promote a variety of surface treatments for polymer modification. UV excimer laser and low temperature plasma treatments are ideally suited for polyamide modification because they can change the physical and chemical properties of the material without affecting its bulk features. This project aimed to study the modification of polyamides by UV excimer laser irradiation and low temperature plasma treatment. The morphological changes in the resulting samples were analysed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and tapping mode atomic force microscopy (TM-AFM). The chemical modifications were studied by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and chemical force microscopy (CFM). Change in degree of crystallinity was examined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). After high-fluence laser irradiation, topographical results showed that ripples of micrometer size form on the fibre surface. By contrast, sub-micrometer size structures form on the polyamide surface when the applied laser energy is well below its ablation threshold. After high-fluence laser irradiation, chemical studies showed that the surface oxygen content of polyamide is reduced. A reverse result is obtained with low-fluence treatment. The DSC result showed no significant change in degree of crystallinity in either high-fluence or low-fluence treated samples. The same modifications in polyamide surfaces were studied after low temperature plasma treatment with oxygen, argon or tetrafluoromethane gas. The most significant result was that the surface oxygen content of polyamide increased after oxygen and argon plasma treatments. Both treatments induced many hydroxyl (-OH) and carboxylic acid (-COOH

  13. Structures and properties of fluorinated amorphous carbon films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, K. P.; Lin, P.; Shih, H. C.

    2004-07-01

    Fluorinated amorphous carbon (a-C:F) films were deposited by radio frequency bias assisted microwave plasma electron cyclotron resonance chemical vapor deposition with tetrafluoromethane (CF4) and acetylene (C2H2) as precursors. The deposition process was performed at two flow ratios R=0.90 and R=0.97, where R=CF4/(CF4+C2H2). The samples were annealed at 300 °C for 30 min. in a N2 atmosphere. Both Fourier transform infrared and electron spectroscopy for chemical analyzer were used to characterize the a-C:F film chemical bond and fluorine concentration, respectively. A high resolution electron energy loss spectrometer was applied to detect the electronic structure. The higher CF4 flow ratio (R=0.97) produced more sp3 linear structure, and it made the a-C:F film smoother and softer. A lifetime of around 0.34 μs and an energy gap of ˜2.75 eV were observed in both the as-deposited and after annealing conditions. The short carriers lifetime in the a-C:F film made the photoluminescence peak blueshift. The annealing changed both the structure and composition of the a-C:F film. The type of fluorocarbon bond and electronic structure characterized the mechanical and physical properties of a-C:F film.

  14. Gas-phase reactivity of lanthanide cations with fluorocarbons: C-F versus C-H and C-C bond activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornehl, H.H.; Hornung, G.; Schwarz, H.

    1996-01-01

    The gas-phase reactivity of the fluorinated hydrocarbons CF 4 , CHF 3 , CH 3 F, C 2 F 6 , 1,1-C 2 H 4 F 2 , and C 6 F 6 with the lanthanide cations Ce + , Pr + , Sm + , Ho + , Tm + , and Yb + and the reactivity of C 6 H 5 F with all lanthanide cations Ln + (Ln = La-Lu, with the exception of Pm + ) have been examined by Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. The perfluorinated compounds tetrafluoromethane and hexafluoroethane as well as trifluoromethane do not react with any lanthanide cation. Selective activation of the strong C-F bonds in fluoromethane, 1,1-difluoroethane, hexafluorobenzene, and fluorobenzene appears as a general reaction scheme along the 4f row. Experimental evidence is given for a 'harpoon'-like mechanism for the F atom abstraction process which operates via an initial electron transfer from the lanthanide cation to the fluorinated substrate in the encounter complex Ln + RF. The most reactive lanthanides La + , Ce + , Gd + , and Tb + and also the formal closed-shell species Lu + exhibit additional C-H and C-C bond activation pathways in the reaction with fluorobenzene, namely dehydrohalogenation as well as loss of a neutral acetylene molecule. In the case of Tm + and Yb + the formation of neutral LnF 3 is observed in a multistep process via C-C coupling and charge transfer. 17 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  15. Simulator of Non-homogenous Alumina and Current Distribution in an Aluminum Electrolysis Cell to Predict Low-Voltage Anode Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dion, Lukas; Kiss, László I.; Poncsák, Sándor; Lagacé, Charles-Luc

    2018-04-01

    Perfluorocarbons are important contributors to aluminum production greenhouse gas inventories. Tetrafluoromethane and hexafluoroethane are produced in the electrolysis process when a harmful event called anode effect occurs in the cell. This incident is strongly related to the lack of alumina and the current distribution in the cell and can be classified into two categories: high-voltage and low-voltage anode effects. The latter is hard to detect during the normal electrolysis process and, therefore, new tools are necessary to predict this event and minimize its occurrence. This paper discusses a new approach to model the alumina distribution behavior in an electrolysis cell by dividing the electrolytic bath into non-homogenous concentration zones using discrete elements. The different mechanisms related to the alumina distribution are discussed in detail. Moreover, with a detailed electrical model, it is possible to calculate the current distribution among the different anodic assemblies. With this information, the model can evaluate if low-voltage emissions are likely to be present under the simulated conditions. Using the simulator will help the understanding of the role of the alumina distribution which, in turn, will improve the cell energy consumption and stability while reducing the occurrence of high- and low-voltage anode effects.

  16. Degradation of Albumin on Plasma-Treated Polystyrene by Soft X-ray Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Recek

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Thin films of human serum albumin (HSA were immobilized on polystyrene (PS substrates previously functionalized either with polar or nonpolar functional groups. The functionalization was performed by treatment with cold gaseous plasma created in pure oxygen and tetrafluoromethane (CF4 plasmas, respectively. Samples were examined with soft X-rays in the photon energy range of 520 to 710 eV in the ANTARES beam line at SOLEIL Synchrotron. NEXAFS spectra of O K-edge and F K-edge were collected at different spots of the sample, and measurements at each spot were repeated many times. A strong degradation of the HSA protein was observed. The weakly irradiated samples exhibited strong absorption at 531.5 eV associated with the O 1s→π*amide transitions, and a broad non distinctive peak at 540 eV was attributed to the O 1s→σ*C–O transitions. Both peaks decreased with increasing irradiation time until they were completely replaced by a broad non-distinctive peak at around 532 eV, indicating the destruction of the original protein conformation. The shortage of the amide groups indicated breakage of the peptide bonds.

  17. Fluorocarbon adsorption in hierarchical porous frameworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motkuri, RK; Annapureddy, HVR; Vijaykumar, M; Schaef, HT; Martin, PF; McGrail, BP; Dang, LX; Krishna, R; Thallapally, PK

    2014-07-09

    Metal-organic frameworks comprise an important class of solid-state materials and have potential for many emerging applications such as energy storage, separation, catalysis and bio-medical. Here we report the adsorption behaviour of a series of fluorocarbon derivatives on a set of microporous and hierarchical mesoporous frameworks. The microporous frameworks show a saturation uptake capacity for dichlorodifluoromethane of >4 mmol g(-1) at a very low relative saturation pressure (P/P-o) of 0.02. In contrast, the mesoporous framework shows an exceptionally high uptake capacity reaching >14 mmol g(-1) at P/P-o of 0.4. Adsorption affinity in terms of mass loading and isosteric heats of adsorption is found to generally correlate with the polarizability and boiling point of the refrigerant, with dichlorodifluoromethane >chlorodifluoromethane >chlorotrifluoromethane >tetrafluoromethane >methane. These results suggest the possibility of exploiting these sorbents for separation of azeotropic mixtures of fluorocarbons and use in eco-friendly fluorocarbon-based adsorption cooling.

  18. Mechanical properties of fluorinated DLC and Si interlayer on a Ti biomedical alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Chau-Chang; Wu, Yi-Yang; Lee, Jyh-Wei; Huang, Jen-Ching; Yeh, Chi-Hsiao

    2013-01-01

    Fluorinated amorphous diamond-like carbon (F-DLC) films were deposited on Ti6Al4V substrates by radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (rf PECVD) technique using a mixture of methane (CH 4 ) and tetrafluoromethane (CF 4 ) gasses. A 100 nm Si interlayer was coated in advance by physical vapor deposition (PVD) process to improve the adhesion between F-DLC and Ti alloy. The structure and surface properties of F-DLC coatings, prepared by various fluorine flow ratios, were investigated by using X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The mechanical properties were evaluated by nano-indentation, and the adhesion, by micro-scratch. The results showed that a moderate incorporation of the fluorine content in the DLC films can still maintain acceptable mechanical properties, which, on the other hand, obtains remarkable benefits of blood compatibility and anti-corrosion. - Highlights: ► F-DLC’s sp2 carbon cluster increases with the precursors’ CF 4 /CH 4 ratio. ► F-DLC’s reduced elastic modulus and hardness decrease with the CF 4 /CH 4 ratio. ► F-DLC film’s adhesion strength degrades as the CF 4 /CH 4 ratio elevated. ► An F-DLC deposited Ti6Al4V produced by a smaller CF 4 /CH 4 ratio, 1-3, is suggested

  19. Surface modification of epoxy resin using He/CF{sub 4} atmospheric pressure plasma jet for flashover withstanding characteristics improvement in vacuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Sile; Wang, Shuai; Wang, Yibo; Guo, Baohong; Li, Guoqiang; Chang, Zhengshi; Zhang, Guan-Jun, E-mail: gjzhang@xjtu.edu.cn

    2017-08-31

    Highlights: • Epoxy resin (EP) samples are treated by atmospheric pressures plasma jet (APPJ). • Flashover withstanding characteristics of epoxy resin samples are improved a lot after APPJ treatment. • Appropriate treatment conditions are important to modify EP samples by APPJ. • Both physical and chemical effects lead to the enhancement of flashover strength. - Abstract: For enhancing the surface electric withstanding strength of insulating materials, epoxy resin (EP) samples are treated by atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) with different time interval from 0 to 300s. Helium (He) and tetrafluoromethane (CF{sub 4}) mixtures are used as working gases with the concentration of CF{sub 4} ranging 0%-5%, and when CF{sub 4} is ∼3%, the APPJ exhibits an optimal steady state. The flashover withstanding characteristics of modified EP in vacuum are greatly improved under appropriate APPJ treatment conditions. The surface properties of EP samples are evaluated by surface roughness, scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and water contact angle. It is considered that both physical and chemical effects lead to the enhancement of flashover strength. The physical effect is reflected in the increase of surface roughness, while the chemical effect is reflected in the graft of fluorine groups.

  20. The Comparison of Biocompatibility Properties between Ti Alloys and Fluorinated Diamond-Like Carbon Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chavin Jongwannasiri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Titanium and titanium alloys have found several applications in the biomedical field due to their unique biocompatibility. However, there are problems associated with these materials in applications in which there is direct contact with blood, for instance, thrombogenesis and protein adsorption. Surface modification is one of the effective methods used to improve the performance of Ti and Ti alloys in these circumstances. In this study, fluorinated diamond-like carbon (F-DLC films are chosen to take into account the biocompatible properties compared with Ti alloys. F-DLC films were prepared on NiTi substrates by a plasma-based ion implantation (PBII technique using acetylene (C2H2 and tetrafluoromethane (CF4 as plasma sources. The structure of the films was characterized by Raman spectroscopy. The contact angle and surface energy were also measured. Protein adsorption was performed by treating the films with bovine serum albumin and fibrinogen. The electrochemical corrosion behavior was investigated in Hanks’ solution by means of a potentiodynamic polarization technique. Cytotoxicity tests were performed using MTT assay and dyed fluorescence. The results indicate that F-DLC films present their hydrophobic surfaces due to a high contact angle and low surface energy. These films can support the higher albumin-to-fibrinogen ratio as compared to Ti alloys. They tend to suppress the platelet adhesion. Furthermore, F-DLC films exhibit better corrosion resistance and less cytotoxicity on their surfaces. It can be concluded that F-DLC films can improve the biocompatibility properties of Ti alloys.

  1. Gas discharge plasma treatment of poly(ethylene glycol-co-1,3/1,4 cyclohexanedimethanol terephthalate) for enhanced paint adhesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salapare, Hernando S.; Cosiñero, Hannah Shamina O.; Suarez, Beverly Anne T.; Bacaoco, Miguel Y.; Ramos, Henry J.; Nuñez, Julius Andrew P.; Guittard, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Low-energy hydrogen-ions and tetrafluoromethane-ions produced from a gas discharge ion source were irradiated to poly(ethylene glycol-co-1,3/1,4 cyclohexanedimethanol terephthalate) (PETG) sheets for enhancing paint adhesion. The ion beams were characterized using a cast steel mass spectrometer, while the untreated and treated samples were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, contact angle measurements, and profilometry. The paint adhesion was determined by using the standard method for evaluating adhesion by knife [ASTM D6677-07, Standard Test Method for Evaluating Adhesion by Knife (ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2012)] and was correlated with the calculation of the work of adhesion derived from the Young–Dupré equation. After plasma treatment, a significant decrease in the contact angle was observed in all samples, except for the CF_4 ion-treated samples with the discharge current of 3 mA and an irradiation time of 30 min. At longer irradiation times, the treated samples showed lesser changes in the contact angle measurement. The increase in the average and root-mean-square surface roughness was observed on the samples after plasma treatment. The samples treated with either H_2 or CF_4 ions for 15 min showed a direct correlation between the discharge current and surface roughness. The samples treated for 30 min showed no significant correlation between the surface roughness and discharge current, which can be attributed to the possible melting of the samples since PETG has a low melting point. The observation made in this study on the relationship of wettability and surface roughness is consistent with the Wenzel wetting mode. Scanning electron micrographs showed surface etching on the hydrogen ion-treated samples while no significant surface changes were observed for the CF_4 ion-treated samples. In general, paint adhesion was stronger for samples that exhibited enhanced wettability

  2. Comparison of gas-solid chromatography and MM2 force field molecular binding energies for greenhouse gases on a carbonaceous surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybolt, Thomas R; Bivona, Kevin T; Thomas, Howard E; O'Dell, Casey M

    2009-10-01

    Gas-solid chromatography was used to determine B(2s) (gas-solid virial coefficient) values for eight molecular adsorbates interacting with a carbon powder (Carbopack B, Supelco). B(2s) values were determined by multiple size variant injections within the temperature range of 313-553 K. The molecular adsorbates included: carbon dioxide (CO(2)); tetrafluoromethane (CF(4)); hexafluoroethane (C(2)F(6)); 1,1-difluoroethane (C(2)H(4)F(2)); 1-chloro-1,1-difluoroethane (C(2)H(3)ClF(2)); dichlorodifluoromethane (CCl(2)F(2)); trichlorofluoromethane (CCl(3)F); and 1,1,1-trichloroethane (C(2)H(3)Cl(3)). Two of these molecules are of special interest because they are "super greenhouse gases". The global warming potential, GWP, for CF(4) is 6500 and for C(2)F(6) is 9200 relative to the reference value of 1 for CO(2). The GWP index considers both radiative blocking and molecular lifetime. For these and other industrial greenhouse gases, adsorptive trapping on a carbonaceous solid, which depends on molecule-surface binding energy, could avoid atmospheric release. The temperature variations of the gas-solid virial coefficients in conjunction with van't Hoff plots were used to find the experimental adsorption energy or binding energy values (E(*)) for each adsorbate. A molecular mechanics based, rough-surface model was used to calculate the molecule-surface binding energy (Ecal(*)) using augmented MM2 parameters. The surface model consisted of parallel graphene layers with two separated nanostructures each containing 17 benzene rings arranged in linear strips. The separation of the parallel nanostructures had been optimized in a prior study to appropriately represent molecule-surface interactions for Carbopack B. Linear regressions of E(*) versus Ecal(*) for the current data set of eight molecules and the same surface model gave E(*)=0.926 Ecal(*) and r(2)=0.956. A combined set of the current and prior Carbopack B adsorbates studied (linear alkanes, branched alkanes, cyclic alkanes

  3. Gas discharge plasma treatment of poly(ethylene glycol-co-1,3/1,4 cyclohexanedimethanol terephthalate) for enhanced paint adhesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salapare, Hernando S., E-mail: hssalapare@up.edu.ph [Université Nice Sophia Antipolis, CNRS, LPMC, UMR 7336, Parc Valrose, 06100 Nice (France); Department of Physical Sciences and Mathematics, College of Arts and Sciences, University of the Philippines Manila, Manila City 1000 (Philippines); College of Science, Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila, Intramuros, Manila City 1002 (Philippines); Cosiñero, Hannah Shamina O. [Materials Science and Engineering Program, College of Science, University of the Philippines Diliman, Quezon City 1101 (Philippines); Suarez, Beverly Anne T. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Doshisha University, Kyotanabe, Kyoto 610-0321 (Japan); Bacaoco, Miguel Y.; Ramos, Henry J. [National Institute of Physics, College of Science, University of the Philippines Diliman, Quezon City 1101 (Philippines); Nuñez, Julius Andrew P. [Department of Physical Sciences and Mathematics, College of Arts and Sciences, University of the Philippines Manila, Manila City 1000, Philippines and Materials Science and Engineering Program, College of Science, University of the Philippines Diliman, Quezon City 1101 (Philippines); Guittard, Frédéric [Université Nice Sophia Antipolis, CNRS, LPMC, UMR 7336, Parc Valrose, 06100 Nice (France)

    2016-07-15

    Low-energy hydrogen-ions and tetrafluoromethane-ions produced from a gas discharge ion source were irradiated to poly(ethylene glycol-co-1,3/1,4 cyclohexanedimethanol terephthalate) (PETG) sheets for enhancing paint adhesion. The ion beams were characterized using a cast steel mass spectrometer, while the untreated and treated samples were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, contact angle measurements, and profilometry. The paint adhesion was determined by using the standard method for evaluating adhesion by knife [ASTM D6677-07, Standard Test Method for Evaluating Adhesion by Knife (ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2012)] and was correlated with the calculation of the work of adhesion derived from the Young–Dupré equation. After plasma treatment, a significant decrease in the contact angle was observed in all samples, except for the CF{sub 4} ion-treated samples with the discharge current of 3 mA and an irradiation time of 30 min. At longer irradiation times, the treated samples showed lesser changes in the contact angle measurement. The increase in the average and root-mean-square surface roughness was observed on the samples after plasma treatment. The samples treated with either H{sub 2} or CF{sub 4} ions for 15 min showed a direct correlation between the discharge current and surface roughness. The samples treated for 30 min showed no significant correlation between the surface roughness and discharge current, which can be attributed to the possible melting of the samples since PETG has a low melting point. The observation made in this study on the relationship of wettability and surface roughness is consistent with the Wenzel wetting mode. Scanning electron micrographs showed surface etching on the hydrogen ion-treated samples while no significant surface changes were observed for the CF{sub 4} ion-treated samples. In general, paint adhesion was stronger for samples that exhibited

  4. Cyclo-octafluorobutane (PFC-318) in the global atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhle, J.; Vollmer, M. K.; Fraser, P. J.; Rhee, T. S.; Ivy, D. J.; Arnold, T.; Harth, C. M.; Salameh, P.; O'Doherty, S.; Young, D.; Steele, P.; Krummel, P. B.; Leist, M.; Schmidbauer, N.; Lunder, C.; Kim, J.; Kim, K.; Reimann, S.; Simmonds, P.; Prinn, R. G.; Weiss, R. F.

    2010-12-01

    of East Anglia, Norwich, U.K., 1999. Mühle et al., Perfluorocarbons in the global atmosphere: tetrafluoromethane, hexafluoroethane, and octafluoropropane, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10(11), 5145-5164, doi:10.5194/acp-10-5145-2010, 2010. Saito et al., Large Emissions of Perfluorocarbons in East Asia Deduced from Continuous Atmospheric Measurements, Environ. Sci. Technol., 44(11), 4089-4095, doi:10.1021/es1001488, 2010.

  5. Estimation of the minimum Prandtl number for binary gas mixtures formed with light helium and certain heavier gases: Application to thermoacoustic refrigerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campo, Antonio; Papari, Mohammad M.; Abu-Nada, Eiyad

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses a detailed procedure for the accurate estimation of low Prandtl numbers of selected binary gas mixtures. In this context, helium (He) is the light primary gas and the heavier secondary gases are nitrogen (N 2 ), oxygen (O 2 ), xenon (Xe), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), methane (CH 4 ), tetrafluoromethane or carbon tetrafluoride (CF 4 ) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF 6 ). The three thermophysical properties forming the Prandtl number of binary gas mixtures Pr mix are heat capacity at constant pressure C p,mix (thermodynamic property), viscosity η mix (transport property) and thermal conductivity λ mix (transport property), which in general depend on temperature T and molar gas composition w. The precise formulas for the calculation of the trio C p,mix , η mix , and λ mix are gathered from various dependable sources. When the set of computed Pr mix values for the seven binary gas mixtures He + N 2 , He + O 2 , He + Xe, He + CO 2 , He + CH 4 , He + CF 4 , He + SF 6 at atmospheric conditions T = 300 K, p = 1 atm is plotted against the molar gas composition w on the w-domain [0,1], the family of Pr mix (w) curves exhibited distinctive concave shapes. In the curves format, all Pr mix (w) curves initiate with Pr ∼ 0.7 at w = 0 (associated with light primary He). Forthwith, each Pr mix (w) curve descends to a unique minimum and thereafter ascend back to Pr ∼ 0.7 at the terminal point w = 1 (connected to heavier secondary gases). Overall, it was found that among the seven binary gas mixtures tested, the He + Xe gas mixture delivered the absolute minimum Prandtl number Pr mix,min = 0.12 at the optimal molar gas composition w opt = 0.975. - Highlights: →Accurate estimation of low Prandtl numbers for some helium-based binary gas mixtures. →The thermophysical properties of the gases are calculated with precise formulas. →The absolute minimum Prandtl number is delivered by the He + Xe binary gas mixture. →Application to experimental thermoacoustic