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Sample records for tetradecylthioacetic acid prevents

  1. Tetradecylthioacetic acid prevents high fat diet induced adiposity and insulin resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lise; Guerre-Millo, Michéle; Flindt, Esben N

    2002-01-01

    Tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA) is a non-beta-oxidizable fatty acid analog, which potently regulates lipid homeostasis. Here we evaluate the ability of TTA to prevent diet-induced and genetically determined adiposity and insulin resistance. In Wistar rats fed a high fat diet, TTA administration...... in the ranking order PPARalpha > PPARdelta > PPARgamma. Expression of PPARgamma target genes in adipose tissue was unaffected by TTA treatment, whereas the hepatic expression of PPARalpha-responsive genes encoding enzymes involved in fatty acid uptake, transport, and oxidation was induced. This was accompanied...... by increased hepatic mitochondrial beta-oxidation and a decreased fatty acid/ketone body ratio in plasma. These findings indicate that PPARalpha-dependent mechanisms play a pivotal role, but additionally, the involvement of PPARalpha-independent pathways is conceivable. Taken together, our results suggest...

  2. Tetradecylthioacetic acid prevents high fat diet induced adiposity and insulin resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lise; Guerre-Millo, Michéle; Flindt, Esben N

    2002-01-01

    completely prevented diet-induced insulin resistance and adiposity. In genetically obese Zucker (fa/fa) rats TTA treatment reduced the epididymal adipose tissue mass and improved insulin sensitivity. All three rodent peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) subtypes were activated by TTA...... in the ranking order PPARalpha > PPARdelta > PPARgamma. Expression of PPARgamma target genes in adipose tissue was unaffected by TTA treatment, whereas the hepatic expression of PPARalpha-responsive genes encoding enzymes involved in fatty acid uptake, transport, and oxidation was induced. This was accompanied...

  3. Proteomics identifies molecular networks affected by tetradecylthioacetic acid and fish oil supplemented diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wrzesinski, Krzysztof; León, Ileana R.; Kulej, Katarzyna

    2013-01-01

    ; lipid oxidation, amino acid metabolism and oxidative phosphorylation pathways are involved in fish oil and TTA action. Evidence for the involvement of PPAR mediated signalling is provided. Additionally we postulate that down regulation of components of complexes I and II contributes to the strong......, however, shows additionally that amino acid metabolism and oxidative phosphorylation pathways are also strongly affected by TTA and also to some extent by fish oil administration. Strong evidence for the involvement of PPAR mediated signalling is provided linking the different metabolic effects......Fish oil (FO) and tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA) - a synthetic modified fatty acid have beneficial effects in regulating lipid metabolism. In order to dissect the mechanisms underlying the molecular action of those two fatty acids we have investigated the changes in mitochondrial protein...

  4. Fish oil and the pan-PPAR agonist tetradecylthioacetic acid affect the amino acid and carnitine metabolism in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørndal, Bodil; Brattelid, Trond; Strand, Elin; Vigerust, Natalya Filipchuk; Svingen, Gard Frodahl Tveitevåg; Svardal, Asbjørn; Nygård, Ottar; Berge, Rolf Kristian

    2013-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are important in the regulation of lipid and glucose metabolism. Recent studies have shown that PPARα-activation by WY 14,643 regulates the metabolism of amino acids. We investigated the effect of PPAR activation on plasma amino acid levels using two PPARα activators with different ligand binding properties, tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA) and fish oil, where the pan-PPAR agonist TTA is a more potent ligand than omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. In addition, plasma L-carnitine esters were investigated to reflect cellular fatty acid catabolism. Male Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) were fed a high-fat (25% w/w) diet including TTA (0.375%, w/w), fish oil (10%, w/w) or a combination of both. The rats were fed for 50 weeks, and although TTA and fish oil had hypotriglyceridemic effects in these animals, only TTA lowered the body weight gain compared to high fat control animals. Distinct dietary effects of fish oil and TTA were observed on plasma amino acid composition. Administration of TTA led to increased plasma levels of the majority of amino acids, except arginine and lysine, which were reduced. Fish oil however, increased plasma levels of only a few amino acids, and the combination showed an intermediate or TTA-dominated effect. On the other hand, TTA and fish oil additively reduced plasma levels of the L-carnitine precursor γ-butyrobetaine, as well as the carnitine esters acetylcarnitine, propionylcarnitine, valeryl/isovalerylcarnitine, and octanoylcarnitine. These data suggest that while both fish oil and TTA affect lipid metabolism, strong PPARα activation is required to obtain effects on amino acid plasma levels. TTA and fish oil may influence amino acid metabolism through different metabolic mechanisms.

  5. Genome wide response to dietary tetradecylthioacetic acid supplementation in the heart of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L

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    Grammes Fabian

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Under-dimensioned hearts causing functional problems are associated with higher mortality rates in intensive Atlantic salmon aquaculture. Previous studies have indicated that tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA induces cardiac growth and also stimulates transcription of peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPAR αand βin the Atlantic salmon heart. Since cardiac and transcriptional responses to feed are of high interest in aquaculture, the objective of this study was to characterize the transcriptional mechanisms induced by TTA in the heart of Atlantic salmon. Results Atlantic salmon were kept at sea for 17 weeks. During the first 8 weeks the fish received a TTA supplemented diet. Using microarrays, profound transcriptional effects were observed in the heart at the end of the experiment, 9 weeks after the feeding of TTA stopped. Approximately 90% of the significant genes were expressed higher in the TTA group. Hypergeometric testing revealed the over-representation of 35 gene ontology terms in the TTA fed group. The GO terms were generally categorized into cardiac performance, lipid catabolism, glycolysis and TCA cycle. Conclusions Our results indicate that TTA has profound effects on cardiac performance based on results from microarray and qRT-PCR analysis. The gene expression profile favors a scenario of ”physiological”lright hypertrophy recognized by increased oxidative fatty acid metabolism, glycolysis and TCA cycle activity as well as cardiac growth and contractility in the heart ventricle. Increased cardiac efficiency may offer significant benefits in the demanding Aquaculture situations.

  6. Long-term treatment with the pan-PPAR agonist tetradecylthioacetic acid or fish oil is associated with increased cardiac content of n-3 fatty acids in rat

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    Strand Elin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Excess peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR stimulation has been associated with detrimental health effects including impaired myocardial function. Recently, supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA has been associated with improved left ventricular function and functional capacity in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. We investigated the long-term effects of the pan-PPAR agonist tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA and/or high-dose fish oil (FO on cardiac fatty acid (FA composition and lipid metabolism. Male Wistar rats were given one out of four different 25% (w/v fat diets: control diet; TTA diet; FO diet; or diet containing both TTA and FO. Results After 50 weeks n-3 PUFA levels were increased by TTA and FO in the heart, whereas liver levels were reduced following TTA administration. TTA was associated with a decrease in arachidonic acid, increased activities of carnitine palmitoyltransferase II, fatty acyl-CoA oxidase, glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase, and fatty acid synthase in the heart. Furthermore, cardiac Ucp3 and Cact mRNA was upregulated. Conclusions Long-term treatment with the pan-PPAR agonist TTA or high-dose FO induced marked changes in PUFA composition and enzymatic activity involved in FA metabolism in the heart, different from liver. Changes included increased FA oxidation and a selective increase in cardiac n-3 PUFA.

  7. SATURATED PICRIC ACID PREVENTS AUTOPHAGIA

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    V Rahimi-Movaghar

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available "nThe dysesthesia and paresthesia that occurs in laboratory rats after spinal cord injury (SCI results in autophagia. This self-destructive behavior interferes with functional assessments in designed studies and jeopardizes the health of the injured rat. In this study, we evaluated role of saturated picric acid in the prevention of autophagia and self-mutilation. All rats were anesthetized with an intraperitoneal injection of a mixture of ketamine (100 mg/kg and xylazine (10 mg/kg for the SCI procedures. In the first 39 rats, no solution applied to the hind limbs, but in the next 26 cases, we smeared the saturated picric acid on the tail, lower extremities, pelvic, and abdomen of the rats immediately after SCI. In the rats without picric acid, 23 rats died following autophagia, but in the 26 rats with picric acid, there was no autophagia (P < 0.001. Picric acid side effects in skin and gastrointestinal signs such as irritation, redness and diarrhea were not seen in any rat. Saturated picric acid is a topical solution that if used appropriately and carefully, might be safe and effectively prevents autophagia and self-mutilation. When the solution is applied to the lower abdomen and limbs, we presume that its bitterness effectively prevents the rat from licking and biting the limb.

  8. Modulation of keratinocyte gene expression and differentiation by PPAR-selective ligands and tetradecylthioacetic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, M; Henningsen, J; Svendsen, M L

    2001-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are pleiotropic regulators of growth and differentiation of many cell types. We have performed a comprehensive analysis of the expression of PPARs, transcriptional cofactors, and marker genes during differentiation of normal human keratinocytes ...

  9. [Acetylsalicylic acid and prevention of preeclampsia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Pia M; Kajantie, Eero; Laivuori, Hannele

    2014-01-01

    Two to six percent of all pregnant women develop preeclampsia. In the worst case its complications threaten the life of both the fetus and the mother. It seems that especially an early and severe preeclampsia diagnosed before 34 weeks of pregnancy can be prevented by using low-dose acetylsalicylic acid medication, which shall be started sufficiently early, not later than pregnancy week 16. Acetylsalicylic acid is safe during pregnancy at a daily dose of 100 mg. For the prevention of preeclampsia, it is worth considering for women who are at high risk of developing the disease.

  10. DOES JASMONIC ACID PREVENT THE GERMINATION

    OpenAIRE

    ÇAVUŞOĞLU, Kürşat

    2009-01-01

    Abstract: Effect of jasmonic acid on seed germination and seedling growth of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Bülbül 89) was investigated in the present study. Jasmonic acid concentrations less than 1500 µM have not inhibited the seed germination, while 1500 and 2000 µM jasmonic acid levels caused atypical germination. The germination was completely inhibited at 3000 µM level of jasmonic acid. However, the seedling growth clearly slowed down with increasing concentrations of jasmonic acid. Furt...

  11. ACETYLSALICYLIC ACID IN THE PREVENTION OF ATHEROTHROMBOTIC EVENTS

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    A. V. Govorin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of large-scale clinical trials have convincingly demonstrated the effectiveness of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA in primary and secondary prevention of atherothrombotic events. Studies on the safety of different ASA formulations have been continuing. Magnesium hydroxide included in combined medicine, Сardiomagnil, prevents ASA adverse effects on the gastric mucosa and reduces in severity of dyspeptic symptoms.

  12. ACETYLSALICYLIC ACID IN THE PREVENTION OF ATHEROTHROMBOTIC EVENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Govorin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of large-scale clinical trials have convincingly demonstrated the effectiveness of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA in primary and secondary prevention of atherothrombotic events. Studies on the safety of different ASA formulations have been continuing. Magnesium hydroxide included in combined medicine, Сardiomagnil, prevents ASA adverse effects on the gastric mucosa and reduces in severity of dyspeptic symptoms.

  13. Prevention of spina bifida: Folic acid intake during pregnancy in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The intake of folic acid before conception and during the first trimester of pregnancy can prevent spina bifida. This paper describes folic acid intake in women in Gulu district in northern Uganda. Methods: Structured interviews were held with 394 women attending antenatal care (ANC), 15 mothers of children ...

  14. Folic Acid for the Prevention of Neural Tube Defects : US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calonge, Ned; Petitti, Diana B.; DeWitt, Thomas G.; Dietrich, Allen J.; Gregory, Kimberly D.; Grossman, David; Isham, George; LeFevre, Michael L.; Leipzig, Rosanne M.; Marion, Lucy N.; Melnyk, Bernadette; Moyer, Virginia A.; Ockene, Judith K.; Sawaya, George F.; Schwartz, J. Sanford; Wilt, Timothy

    2009-01-01

    Description: In 1996, the U. S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommended that all women planning or capable of pregnancy take a multivitamin supplement containing folic acid for the prevention of neural tube defects. This recommendation is an update of the 1996 USPSTF recommendation.

  15. [Acetylsalicylic acid in primary prevention of cardiovascular events; literature study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bredie, S.J.H.; Wollersheim, H.C.H.; Verheugt, F.W.A.; Thien, Th.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate literature data on the use of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) as a primary prevention measure for cardiovascular events. DESIGN: Literature search. METHOD: Using Medline, all randomised placebo-controlled trials of ASA published between 1985 and 1 May 2001, and which used

  16. Use of topical tranexamic acid or aminocaproic acid to prevent bleeding after major surgical procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipema, Heather J; Tanzi, Maria G

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the literature describing topical use of tranexamic acid or aminocaproic acid for prevention of postoperative bleeding after major surgical procedures. Literature was retrieved through MEDLINE (1946-September 2011) and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (1970-September 2011) using the terms tranexamic acid, aminocaproic acid, antifibrinolytic, topical, and surgical. In addition, reference citations from publications identified were reviewed. All identified articles in English were evaluated. Clinical trials, case reports, and meta-analyses describing topical use of tranexamic acid or aminocaproic acid to prevent postoperative bleeding were included. A total of 16 publications in the setting of major surgical procedures were included; the majority of data were for tranexamic acid. For cardiac surgery, 4 trials used solutions containing tranexamic acid (1-2.5 g in 100-250 mL of 0.9% NaCl), and 1 trial assessed a solution containing aminocaproic acid (24 g in 250 mL of 0.9% NaCl). These solutions were poured into the chest cavity before sternotomy closure. For orthopedic procedures, all of the data were for topical irrigation solutions containing tranexamic acid (500 mg-3 g in 50-100 mL of 0.9% NaCl) or for intraarticular injections of tranexamic acid (250 mg to 2 g in 20-50 mL of 0.9% sodium chloride, with or without carbazochrome sodium sulfate). Overall, use of topical tranexamic acid or aminocaproic acid reduced postoperative blood loss; however, few studies reported a significant reduction in the number of packed red blood cell transfusions or units given, intensive care unit stay, or length of hospitalization. Topical application of tranexamic acid and aminocaproic acid to decrease postsurgical bleeding after major surgical procedures is a promising strategy. Further data are needed regarding the safety of this hemostatic approach.

  17. Yeast adaptation to weak acids prevents futile energy expenditure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Azmat; Chandrasekaran, Gayathri; Brul, Stanley; Smits, Gertien J.

    2013-01-01

    Weak organic acids (WOAs) are widely used preservatives to prevent fungal spoilage of foods and beverages. Exposure of baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to WOA leads to cellular acidification and anion accumulation. Pre-adaptation of cultures reduced the rate of acidification caused by weak acid exposure, most likely as a result of changes in plasma membrane or cell wall composition. In order to adapt to sublethal concentrations of the acids and grow, yeast cells activate ATP consuming membrane transporters to remove protons and anions. We explored to what extent ATP depletion contributes to growth inhibition in sorbic or acetic acid treated cells. Therefore, we analyzed the effect of the reduction of proton and anion pumping activity on intracellular pH (pHi), growth, and energy status upon exposure to the hydrophilic acetic acid (HA) and the lipophilic sorbic acid (HS). ATP concentrations were dependent on the severity of the stress. Unexpectedly, we observed a stronger reduction of ATP with growth reducing than with growth inhibitory concentrations of both acids. We deduce that the not the ATP reduction caused by proton pumping, but rather the cost of sorbate anion pumping contributes to growth inhibition. A reduction of proton pumping activity may reduce ATP consumption, but the resulting decrease of pHi affects growth more. ATP utilization was differentially regulated during moderate and severe stress conditions. We propose that the energy depletion alone is not the cause of growth inhibition during HA or HS stress. Rather, the cells appear to reduce ATP consumption in high stress conditions, likely to prevent futile cycling and maintain energy reserves for growth resumption in more favorable conditions. The mechanism for such decision making remains to be established. PMID:23781215

  18. Yeast adaptation to weak acids prevents futile energy expenditure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azmat eUllah

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Weak organic acids (WOA are widely used preservatives to prevent fungal spoilage of foods and beverages. Exposure of baker’s yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to WOA leads to cellular acidification and anion accumulation. Pre-adaptation of cultures reduced the rate of acidification caused by weak acid exposure, most likely as a result of changes in plasma membrane or cell wall composition. In order to adapt to sublethal concentrations of the acids and grow, yeast cells activate ATP consuming membrane transporters to remove protons and anions. We explored to what extent ATP depletion contributes to growth inhibition in sorbic or acetic acid treated cells. Therefore, we analyzed the effect of the reduction of proton and anion pumping activity on intracellular pH (pHi, growth, and energy status upon exposure to the hydrophilic acetic acid (HA and the lipophilic sorbic acid (HS. ATP concentrations were dependent on the severity of the stress. Unexpectedly, we observed a stronger reduction of ATP with growth reducing than with growth inhibitory concentrations of both acids. We deduce that the not the ATP reduction caused by proton pumping, but rather the cost of sorbate anion pumping contributes to growth inhibition. A reduction of proton pumping activity may reduce ATP consumption, but the resulting decrease of intracellular pH affects growth more. ATP utilization was differentially regulated during moderate and severe stress conditions. We propose that the energy depletion alone is not the cause of growth inhibition during HA or HS stress. Rather, the cells appear to reduce ATP consumption in high stress conditions, likely to prevent futile cycling and maintain energy reserves for growth resumption in more favorable conditions. The mechanism for such decision making remains to be established.

  19. [Folic acid: Primary prevention of neural tube defects. Literature Review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llamas Centeno, M J; Miguélez Lago, C

    2016-03-01

    Neural tube defects (NTD) are the most common congenital malformations of the nervous system, they have a multifactorial etiology, are caused by exposure to chemical, physical or biological toxic agents, factors deficiency, diabetes, obesity, hyperthermia, genetic alterations and unknown causes. Some of these factors are associated with malnutrition by interfering with the folic acid metabolic pathway, the vitamin responsible for neural tube closure. Its deficit produce anomalies that can cause abortions, stillbirths or newborn serious injuries that cause disability, impaired quality of life and require expensive treatments to try to alleviate in some way the alterations produced in the embryo. Folic acid deficiency is considered the ultimate cause of the production of neural tube defects, it is clear the reduction in the incidence of Espina Bifida after administration of folic acid before conception, this leads us to want to further study the action of folic acid and its application in the primary prevention of neural tube defects. More than 40 countries have made the fortification of flour with folate, achieving encouraging data of decrease in the prevalence of neural tube defects. This paper attempts to make a literature review, which clarify the current situation and future of the prevention of neural tube defects.

  20. Liquid Paraffin vs Hyaluronic Acid in Preventing Intraperitoneal Adhesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataria, Hanish; Singh, Vinod Prem

    2017-12-01

    Adhesion formation after abdominal and pelvic operations remains a challenging problem. Role of adjuvant barriers have been studied but there is no comparative study between liquid paraffin and hyaluronic acid as a barrier method. Hence, we planned to compare the effectiveness of 0.4 % hyaluronic acid and liquid paraffin in the prevention of postoperative intraperitoneal adhesions in rats. This prospective, randomized and controlled study was conducted in 60 adult Wistar albino rats. Surgical trauma by caecal abrasion and 1 g talcum powder was used in the rat model to induce adhesion formation. After trauma, 3 ml normal saline was instilled in the peritoneal cavity in control group ( n  = 20), 3 ml liquid paraffin was instilled in experimental group A ( n  = 20) and 3 ml 0.4 % hyaluronic acid was instilled in experimental group B ( n  = 20). Two weeks after laparotomy, repeat laparotomy was performed and the adhesions were scored according to Zuhlke classification. Liquid paraffin and hyaluronic acid both reduce the extent and grade of adhesions both macroscopically ( p  = 0.018, p  = 0.017) and microscopically ( p  = 0.019, p  = 0.019) respectively. Although there was significant reduction in adhesions by hyaluronic acid at certain specific sites as compared with liquid paraffin, its overall effectiveness in preventing postoperative intraperitoneal adhesions is not significantly different from liquid paraffin ( p  = 0.092, p  = 0.193) respectively. The presence of liquid paraffin and hyaluronic acid in the peritoneal cavity reduce postoperative intraperitoneal adhesions significantly in rats. However, there is no overall significant difference in the effectiveness of two groups. Dosage and safety of these chemicals in human beings remains to be established.

  1. Acid Sphingomyelinase Inhibition Prevents Hemolysis During Erythrocyte Storage

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    Richard S. Hoehn

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: During storage, units of human red blood cells (pRBCs experience membrane destabilization and hemolysis which may cause harm to transfusion recipients. This study investigates whether inhibition of acid sphingomyelinase could stabilize erythrocyte membranes and prevent hemolysis during storage. Methods: Human and murine pRBCs were stored under standard blood banking conditions with and without the addition of amitriptyline, a known acid sphingomyelinase inhibitor. Hemoglobin was measured with an electronic hematology analyzer and flow cytometry was used to measure erythrocyte size, complexity, phosphatidylserine externalization, and band 3 protein expression. Results: Cell-free hemoglobin, a marker of hemolysis, increased during pRBC storage. Amitriptyline treatment decreased hemolysis in a dose-dependent manner. Standard pRBC storage led to loss of erythrocyte size and membrane complexity, increased phosphatidylserine externalization, and decreased band 3 protein integrity as determined by flow cytometry. Each of these changes was reduced by treatment with amitriptyline. Transfusion of amitriptyline-treated pRBCs resulted in decreased circulating free hemoglobin. Conclusion: Erythrocyte storage is associated with changes in cell size, complexity, membrane molecular composition, and increased hemolysis. Acid sphingomyelinase inhibition reduced these changes in a dose-dependent manner. Our data suggest a novel mechanism to attenuate the harmful effects after transfusion of aged blood products.

  2. Preventive and therapeutic effects of tranexamic acid on postpartum bleeding

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    Samaneh Solltani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Postpartum hemorrhage is among the leading causes of maternal mortality throughout the world. Severe blood loss contributes to  the increased blood transfusion risk with its concerned inherent adverse events and therefore increased rate of emergency re-operative interventions such as arterial ligation or hysterectomy. It also can lead to protracted anemia, particularly in low or median income countries. Extended application of antifibrinolytic agents such as tranexamic acid has been customary for long years to stop or reduce blood loss in postpartum period. However, there are not enough reliable evidence to approve the real efficacy of these drugs. In this brief and summary review, we pointed to a few conducted studies. The PubMed was searched for keyword including postpartum hemorrhage, tranexamic acid, cesarean section, vaginal delivery, and blood loss prevention. The articles with language other than English were excluded from our review.  We concluded that more convincing information is needed to determine the precise effects of tranexamic acid, and its benefits against adverse effects.

  3. Skin tumorigenic potential of benzanthrone: prevention by ascorbic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Neelam; Kumar, Sandeep; Ansari, Kausar M; Khanna, S K; Das, Mukul

    2013-09-01

    Benzanthrone (BA) exposed occupational workers have been found to exhibit toxicological manifestations in the skin, thus it is quite likely that long term exposure may lead to skin tumorigenicity. Thus, attempts were made to elucidate the tumor initiating and promoting potentials of pure (PBA) and commercial benzanthrone (CBA). Additionally, the preventive role of ascorbic acid (AsA) was also assessed. PBA showed tumor initiating activity while CBA demonstrated tumor initiating as well as promoting activities in two-stage mouse skin tumor protocol. Further, prior treatment of AsA to PBA and CBA followed by twice weekly application of 12-o-tetradecanoyl phorbal myristate acetate (TPA) resulted into delayed onset of tumor formation and similarly single application of 7,12-dimethylbenz [α] anthracene (DMBA) followed by twice weekly application of AsA and CBA showed an increase in the latency period. Thus, AsA showed a protective effect against CBA promoted skin tumor. Furthermore, the topical application of CBA significantly increased the levels of xenobiotic enzymes. The animals topically treated with AsA along with topical application of CBA, restored all the impairment observed in enzyme activities. Thus, this study suggested that AsA can be useful in preventing PBA and CBA induced skin tumorigenicity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Fatty Acid Incubation of Myotubues from Humans with Type 2 Diabetes Leads to Enhanced Release of Beta Oxidation Products Due to Impaired Fatty Acid Oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wensaas, Andreas J; Rustan, Arild C; Just, Marlene

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Increased availability of fatty acids is important for accumulation of intracellular lipids and development of insulin resistance in human myotubes. It is unknown whether different types of fatty acids like eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) or tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA) influence...... these processes. Research Design and Methods: We examined fatty acid and glucose metabolism, and gene expression in cultured human skeletal muscle cells from control and T2D individuals after four days preincubation with EPA or TTA. Results: T2D myotubes exhibited reduced formation of CO(2) from palmitic acid (PA....... EPA markedly enhanced TAG accumulation in myotubes, more pronounced in T2D cells. TAG accumulation and fatty acid oxidation were inversely correlated only after EPA preincubation, and total level of acyl-CoA was reduced. Glucose oxidation (CO(2) formation) was enhanced and lactate production decreased...

  5. Omega-3 fatty acid supplement prevents development of intracranial atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jiamei; Hafeez, Adam; Stevenson, James; Yang, Jianjie; Yin, Changbin; Li, Fengwu; Wang, Sainan; Du, Huishan; Ji, Xunming; Rafols, Jose A; Geng, Xiaokun; Ding, Yuchuan

    2016-10-15

    Intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis (ICAS) is one of the most common causes of stroke worldwide and, in particular, has been implicated as a leading cause of recurrent ischemic stroke. We adapted a rat model of atherosclerosis to study brain intracranial atherosclerosis, and further investigated the effect of omega-3 fatty acids (O3FA) in attenuating development of ICAS. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into control normal-cholesterol or high-cholesterol diet groups with or without O3FA for up to 6weeks. During the first 2weeks, NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME, 3mg/mL) was added to the drinking water of the high-cholesterol groups. The rats received supplementation with O3FA (5mg/kg/day) by gavages. Blood lipids including low density lipoprotein (LDL), cholesterol (CHO), triglycerides (TG) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) were measured at 3 and 6weeks. The lumen of middle cerebral artery (MCA) and the thickness of the vessel wall were assessed. Inflammatory molecular markers were assessed by Western blot. A high-cholesterol diet exhibited a significant increase in the classic blood markers (LDL, CHO, and TG) for atherosclerosis, as well as a decrease in HDL. These markers were found to be progressively more severe with time. Lumen stenosis and intimal thickening were increased in MCA. O3FA showed attenuation of blood lipids with an absence of morphological changes. O3FA significantly reduced the inflammatory marker CD68 in MCA and prevented monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP-1) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) expression in the brain. O3FA similarly decreased inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin 6 (IL-6), markers affiliated with monocyte activity in atherosclerosis. Furthermore, O3FA significantly inhibited the expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), a marker for endothelial activation. Lastly, O3FA increased ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) protein expression via

  6. Prevention of Neural-Tube Defects with Periconceptional Folic Acid, Methylfolate, or Multivitamins?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Czeizel, Andrew E; Dudás, István; Paput, László; Bánhidy, Ferenc

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aims: To review the main results of intervention trials which showed the efficacy of periconceptional folic acid-containing multivitamin and folic acid supplementation in the prevention of neural-tube defects (NTD...

  7. Prevention of spina bifida: folic acid intake during pregnancy in Gulu district, northern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannink, Femke; Larok, Rita; Kirabira, Peter; Bauwens, Lieven; van Hove, Geert

    2015-01-01

    The intake of folic acid before conception and during the first trimester of pregnancy can prevent spina bifida. This paper describes folic acid intake in women in Gulu district in northern Uganda. Structured interviews were held with 394 women attending antenatal care (ANC), 15 mothers of children with spina bifida, and 35 health workers in 2012 and 2013. SPSS16 was used for data analysis. 1/4 mothers of children with spina bifida took folic acid during late pregnancy, none preconception. None had knowledge about folic acid and spina bifida prevention. 33.5% of women attending ANC had ever heard about spina bifida, 1% knew folic acid intake can prevent spina bifida. 42.4% took folic acid supplements in late pregnancy, 8.1% during the first trimester, none preconception. All women said to have eaten food rich in folic acid. None were aware about fortified foods. 7% of health workers understood the importance of early folic acid intake. All health workers recommended folic acid intake to women attending ANC. 20% of the health workers and 25% of the women said folic acid supplements are not always available. Folic acid intake is limited in northern Uganda. This is attributed to limited education and understanding of women and health workers about the importance of early folic acid intake, late presentation of women at ANC, poor supply chain and dilapidated health services caused by war and poverty. A combination of food fortification, sensitization of health workers, women, and improving folic acid supply is recommended.

  8. Secondary prevention with folic acid : Effects on clinical outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liem, A; Reynierse-Buitenwerf, GH; Zwinderman, AH; Jukema, JW; van Veldhuisen, DJ

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES We sought to conduct a randomized trial with folic acid 0.5 mg/day in a patient population with stable coronary artery disease (CAD). BACKGROUND Folic acid has favorable effects on vascular endothelium and lowers plasma homocysteine levels. In addition, homocysteine appears to be an

  9. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Primary and Secondary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yong; Lu, Lei; Liang, Jun; Liu, Min; Li, Xianchi; Sun, RongRong; Zheng, Yi; Zhang, Peiying

    2015-05-01

    The prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is increasing dramatically especially in developing countries like India. CVD is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. There has been a growing awareness of the role of nutrients in the prevention of CVD. One specific recommendation in the battle against CVD is the increased intake of omega-3 fatty acids, which are polyunsaturated fatty acids. Studies have reported inverse associations of CVD with dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids, suggesting that omega-3 fatty acids supplementation might exert protective effects on CVD. They exert their cardioprotective effect through multiple mechanisms. Omega-3 fatty acid therapy has shown promise as a useful tool in the primary and secondary prevention of CVD. This review briefly summarizes the effects of omega-3 fatty acids in primary and secondary prevention of CVD.

  10. Secondary cardiovascular prevention: omega-3 fatty acids ineffective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    A meta-analysis of comparative clinical trials including about 20,000 patients with a history of cardiovascular disease showed that omega-3 fatty acid supplementation did not reduce the risk of a subsequent cardiovascular event.

  11. α-Linolenic acid prevents endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis of stearic acid lipotoxicity on primary rat hepatocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Hongyang

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims Lipid accumulation in non-adipose tissues leads to cell dysfunction and apoptosis, a phenomenon known as lipotoxicity. Unsaturated fatty acids may offset the lipotoxicity associated with saturated fatty acids. Stearic acid induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress and caused apoptotic and necrotic cell death in the primary rat hepatocytes. Methods Cell viability was investigated using MTT assay, and apoptosis was evaluated with Hoechst 33342 staining. Western blot analysis was used to examine the changes in the expression levels of glucose regulated protein 78 (GRP78, glucose regulated protein 94 (GRP94, and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP. Caspase-3 activity was evaluated using a Caspase-3 substrate kit. Results We have studied the ability of α-linolenic acid to prevent endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis of rat hepatocytes elicited by stearic acid and thapsigargin. Incubation of primary rat hepatocytes for 16 h with stearic acid produced a significant increase in cell death. Stearic acid also increased levels of three indicators of ER stress -- GRP78, CHOP, and GRP94. α-Linolenic acid distinctly reduced cell death and levels of all three indicators of ER stress brought about by stearic acid. Thapsigargin, which induces ER stress produced similar effects to those obtained using stearic acid; its effects were partly reversed by α-linolenic acid. Conclusion These results suggest that α-linolenic acid prevents ER stress-mediated apoptosis of stearic acid lipotoxicity on primary rat hepatocytes might become a target to develop new antiapoptotic compounds in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD.

  12. Prevention of Sports Injuries by Marine Omega-3 Fatty Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryhn, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Sport injuries are common and costly for the professional athlete, the "weekend warrior," and the community. Acute injuries are treated according to current guidelines with the aim of bringing the athlete back into the arena. These guidelines have not taken into account new scientific results of the inflammatory process following a trauma. The 4 hallmarks of inflammation, namely, pain, swelling, redness, and heat, are results of an adequate inflammatory response with the aim of bringing the affected tissue back to restitution (Latin: restitutio ad integrum). Cooling of the affected limb and anti-inflammatory drugs are widely used but may deter healing. The healing process is governed by fatty acids of the omega-3 and omega-6 series. In order to facilitate healing, these fatty acids have to be present in significant amounts in the affected tissues before the trauma occurs. This is particularly relevant for marine omega-3 fatty acids, which are often running low due to insignificant intake of seafood, common in individuals practicing sports. High-energy sports often lead to head and brain trauma. Continuous head traumata may even result in later mental defects. Saturation of brain cells with omega-3 fatty acids, in particular docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), may facilitate healing after brain trauma, thereby counteracting negative long-term results. The present understanding of a normal inflammatory process leading to restitution will be discussed along with data from recent scientific trials.

  13. Preventive and therapeutic potential of ascorbic acid in neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Morgana; Fraga, Daiane Bittencourt; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S

    2017-12-01

    In this review, we summarize the involvement of ascorbic acid in neurodegenerative diseases by presenting available evidence on the behavioral and biochemical effects of this compound in animal models of neurodegeneration as well as the use of ascorbic acid as a therapeutic approach to alleviate neurodegenerative progression in clinical studies. Ascorbate, a reduced form of vitamin C, has gained interest for its multiple functions and mechanisms of action, contributing to the homeostasis of normal tissues and organs as well as to tissue regeneration. In the brain, ascorbate exerts neuromodulatory functions and scavenges reactive oxygen species generated during synaptic activity and neuronal metabolism. These are important properties as redox imbalance and abnormal protein aggregation constitute central mechanisms implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's diseases, multiple sclerosis, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Indeed, several studies have indicated an association between low serum ascorbate concentrations and neurodegeneration. Moreover, ascorbic acid is a suitable candidate for supplying either antioxidant defense or modulation of neuronal and astrocytic metabolism under neurodegenerative conditions. Ascorbic acid acts mainly by decreasing oxidative stress and reducing the formation of protein aggregates, which may contribute to the reduction of cognitive and/or motor impairments observed in neurodegenerative processes. Although several studies support a possible role of ascorbic acid administration against neurodegeneration, more researches are essential to substantiate the existing results and accelerate the knowledge in this field. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. [Role of omega-3 fatty acids in cardiovascular disease prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñeiro-Corrales, Guadalupe; Lago Rivero, N; Culebras-Fernández, Jesús M

    2013-01-01

    Fatty acids, in addition to its known energy value and its structural function, have other beneficial properties. In particular, the polyunsaturated fatty acids omega-3 acting on the cardiovascular apparatus through many channels exerting a protective effect against cardiovascular risk. The benefits associated with the reduction in cardiac mortality and sudden death particular, are related to the incorporation of EPA and DHA in phospholipid membrane of cardiomyocytes. An index is established that relates the percentage of EPA + DHA of total fatty acids in erythrocytes and risk of death from cardiovascular disease may layering in different degrees. Therefore, the primary source of fatty fish w-3 PUFA, behaves like a reference food in cardiosaludables diets. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  15. The confusion about dietary fatty acids recommendations for CHD prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kromhout, D.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Menotti, A.; Jacobs, D.R.

    2011-01-01

    A recent meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies has not found an association between dietary saturated fat intake and CHD incidence. This funnelled the discussion about the importance of the recommendation to lower the intake of saturated fat for the prevention of CHD. At the same time a

  16. MINE WASTE TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM PREVENTION OF ACID MINE DRAINAGE GENERATION FROM OPEN-PIT HIGHWALLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document summarizes the results of Mine Waste Technology Program Activity III, Project 26, Prevention of Acid Mine Drainage Generation from Open-Pit Highwalls. The intent of this project was to obtain performance data on the ability of four technologies to prevent the gener...

  17. Role of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Exercise in Breast Cancer Prevention: Identifying Common Targets

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelmagid, Salma A.; MacKinnon, Jessica L.; Janssen, Sarah M.; Ma, David W.L.

    2016-01-01

    Diet and exercise are recognized as important lifestyle factors that significantly influence breast cancer risk. In particular, dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been shown to play an important role in breast cancer prevention. Growing evidence also demonstrates a role for exercise in cancer and chronic disease prevention. However, the potential synergistic effect of n-3 PUFA intake and exercise is yet to be determined. This review explores targets for breast cancer prevent...

  18. [The role of omega-3 fatty acids from fish in prevention of cardiovascular diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner, Eljko; Tedeschi-Reiner, Eugenia; Stajminger, Gordana

    2007-01-01

    Fish and fish oil are rich sources of omega-3 fatty acids--essential polyunsaturated fatty acids. These acids in doses of 1 g per day have been shown to significantly reduce the all-cause mortality in post myocardial infarction (MI) patients and the risk for sudden death caused by cardiac arrhythmias. One of the recently most studied mechanisms that may contribute to this benefits of omega-3 fatty acids is their anti-arrhythmic effect. Namely, these acids influence membrane ion channels, increase ventricular fibrillation threshold and increase heart rate variability. Although the data concerning primary prevention is less straightforward than the data relating secondary prevention, it seems that the use of omega-3 fatty acids in primary prevention might be justified as well. In higher doses (2 to 4 g per day) they are used to treat hypertriglyceridemia. Potential mechanisms by which omega-3 fatty acids may reduce risk for cardiovascular disease include also antithrombotic (they decrease platelet aggregation/reactivity, reduce plasma viscosity, enhance fibrinolysis) and anti-inflammatory effects (e.g. they decrease IL-6, MCP-1, TNF), improving vascular endothelial cell function (e.g. they increase availability of nitric oxide), reducing expression of endothelial cells adhesion molecules, inhibiting smooth muscle cells migration and proliferation, and reducing blood pressure. Based upon clinical studies the use of omega-3 fatty acids should be considered today at least as a part of comprehensive secondary prevention strategy in post-MI patients. It has been also shown that adding highly concentrated omega-3 fatty acids to standard treatment in the secondary prevention of MI is cost effective versus standard treatment alone. Particularly important is that there are no significant drug interactions with omega-3 fatty acids.

  19. Synthetic Fatty Acids Prevent Plasmid-Mediated Horizontal Gene Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getino, María; Sanabria-Ríos, David J.; Fernández-López, Raúl; Campos-Gómez, Javier; Sánchez-López, José M.; Fernández, Antonio; Carballeira, Néstor M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacterial conjugation constitutes a major horizontal gene transfer mechanism for the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes among human pathogens. Antibiotic resistance spread could be halted or diminished by molecules that interfere with the conjugation process. In this work, synthetic 2-alkynoic fatty acids were identified as a novel class of conjugation inhibitors. Their chemical properties were investigated by using the prototype 2-hexadecynoic acid and its derivatives. Essential features of effective inhibitors were the carboxylic group, an optimal long aliphatic chain of 16 carbon atoms, and one unsaturation. Chemical modification of these groups led to inactive or less-active derivatives. Conjugation inhibitors were found to act on the donor cell, affecting a wide number of pathogenic bacterial hosts, including Escherichia, Salmonella, Pseudomonas, and Acinetobacter spp. Conjugation inhibitors were active in inhibiting transfer of IncF, IncW, and IncH plasmids, moderately active against IncI, IncL/M, and IncX plasmids, and inactive against IncP and IncN plasmids. Importantly, the use of 2-hexadecynoic acid avoided the spread of a derepressed IncF plasmid into a recipient population, demonstrating the feasibility of abolishing the dissemination of antimicrobial resistances by blocking bacterial conjugation. PMID:26330514

  20. Nucleic Acid Drugs for Prevention of Cardiac Rejection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-ichi Suzuki

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Heart transplantation has been broadly performed in humans. However, occurrence of acute and chronic rejection has not yet been resolved. Several inflammatory factors, such as cytokines and adhesion molecules, enhance the rejection. The graft arterial disease (GAD, which is a type of chronic rejection, is characterized by intimal thickening comprised of proliferative smooth muscle cells. Specific treatments that target the attenuation of acute rejection and GAD formation have not been well studied in cardiac transplantation. Recent progress in the nucleic acid drugs, such as antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs to regulate the transcription of disease-related genes, has important roles in therapeutic applications. Transfection of cis-element double-stranded DNA, named as “decoy,” has been also reported to be a useful nucleic acid drug. This decoy strategy has been not only a useful method for the experimental studies of gene regulation but also a novel clinical strategy. In this paper, we reviewed the experimental results of NF-κB, E2F, AP-1, and STAT-1 decoy and other ODNs using the experimental heart transplant models.

  1. [Meta analysis of lactic acid bacteria as probiotics for the primary prevention of infantile eczema].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Di-Ling; Yang, Wen-Xu; Yang, Hui-Ming

    2010-09-01

    To determine whether lactic acid bacteria as probiotics is efficacious in the primary prevention of infantile eczema or atopic eczema. For this meta analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCT) describing the efficacy of probiotics in infants with eczema or atopic eczema at ages of ≤2 years, a comprehensive search in the databases was performed up to January 2010. Three reviewers independently evaluated the studies for methodological qualities. RevMan 5.0.2 software was used for meta analysis. Twelve RCTs on the preventive effects of lactic acid bacteria as probiotics on infantile eczema were included, and 7 of the 12 RCTs reported the preventive effect of lactic acid bacteria on atopic eczema. The meta analysis showed that there was an overall significant reduction in infantile eczema and atopic eczema favoring lactic acid bacteria compared with placebo. The relative risk (RR) ratios for eczema and atopic eczema were 0.80 (95%CI: 0.70-0.90; PLactic acid bacteria combined with other probiotics decreased significantly the incidence of eczema, with a RR ratio of 0.79 (95%CI: 0.68-0.93; Plactic acid bacteria alone did not result in a reduction in the incidence of eczema, with a RR ratio of 0.85 (95%CI: 0.69-1.05; P>0.05). The data from this meta analysis suggest that lactic acid probiotics combined with other probiotics play a role in the prevention of infantile eczema. There is insufficient evidence to recommend single use of lactic acid bacteria for prevention of eczema. Further studies are required to determine whether the findings are reproducible.

  2. Folic acid supplement use in the prevention of neural tube defects.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Delany, C

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, planned folic acid fortification for the prevention of Neural Tube Defects (NTD) was postponed. Concurrently, the economic recession may have affected dietary folic acid intake, placing increased emphasis on supplement use. This study examined folic acid supplement use in 2009. A cross-sectional survey of 300 ante-natal women was undertaken to assess folic acid knowledge and use. Associations between demographic, obstetric variables and folic acid knowledge and use were examined. A majority, 284\\/297 (96%), had heard of folic acid, and 178\\/297 (60%) knew that it could prevent NTD. Most, 270\\/297 (91%) had taken it during their pregnancy, but only 107\\/297 (36%) had used it periconceptionally. Being older, married, planned pregnancy and better socioeconomic status were associated with periconceptional use. Periconceptional folic acid use in 2009 was very low, little changed from economic status were associated with periconceptional use. Periconceptional folic acid use in 2009 was very low, little changed from earlier years. Continuous promotion efforts are necessary. Close monitoring of folic acid intake and NTD rates is essential, particularly in the absence of fortification.

  3. Polylactic acid and polyethylene glycol prevent surgical adhesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozpolat, B; Gunal, N; Pekcan, Z; Ayva, E S; Bozdogan, O; Gunaydin, S; Dural, K

    2016-01-01

    Re-mediastinoscopy could be risky because of adhesions from the previous mediastinoscopy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a bio-resorbable barrier on adhesion formation in a re-mediastinoscopy rat model. Mediastinal dissection similar to mediastinoscopy was done in twenty-eight rats and a polymeric film comprising of polylactic acid and polyethylene glycol (Repel-cv®, SyntheMed Inc., NJ, USA) was placed on trachea in the study groups. Group 1 (sham, sacrificed at day 30), Group 2 (single barrier, sacrificed at day 30), Group 3 (single barrier, sacrificed at day 60), Group 4(double layer barrier, sacrificed at day 60). Mediastinal adhesions, degree of inflammation, vascular proliferation, foreign body reaction and fibroblast proliferation was compared. Macroscopic dissection showed significantly dense adhesions in Sham Group and Group 3 (p < 0.05). Histopathologic examination showed that there was a significant difference between groups when the foreign body reaction and fibroblast proliferation was evaluated (p0.05). This unique experimental study showed that adhesion barrier was effective as single layer application at day 30 and double layer application at day 60. At clinical conversion, by the application of barrier, the formation of adhesions might be decreased to provide a safe re-mediastinoscopy (Tab. 2, Fig. 4, Ref. 23).

  4. Techniques to correct and prevent acid mine drainage: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Pozo-Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En la actualidad uno de los problemas medioambientales con mayor necesidad de actuación es la contaminación por la formación de drenajes ácidos de mina (AMD: “Acid Mine Drainage” procedentes de estériles de mina. Este es el término utilizado para describir el drenaje generado por la oxidación natural de sulfuros minerales que son expuestos a la acción combinada de agua y oxígeno atmosférico. Los minerales responsables de la generación de AMD son los sulfuros de hierro (pirita, FeS2 y en menor medida la pirrotita, Fe1-XS, los cuales son estables e insolubles mientras no se encuentren en contacto con agua y oxígeno atmosférico. Sin embargo, como consecuencia de la actividad minera, estos dos sulfuros son expuestos a condiciones ambientales oxidantes. La necesidad de prevenir la formación de AMD ha desarrollado numerosas investigaciones sobre los mecanismos de oxidación y su prevención. En el presente trabajo además de realizar una explicación y valoración teórica del proceso de oxidación de la pirita también se realiza un compendio de las medidas preventivas y correctoras más empleadas.

  5. Prevention of neural tube defects in Lrp2 mutant mouse embryos by folic acid supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatino, Julia A; Stokes, Bethany A; Zohn, Irene E

    2017-01-20

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are among the most common structural birth defects in humans and are caused by the complex interaction of genetic and environmental factors. Periconceptional supplementation with folic acid can prevent NTDs in both mouse models and human populations. A better understanding of how genes and environmental factors interact is critical toward development of rational strategies to prevent NTDs. Low density lipoprotein-related protein 2 (Lrp2) is involved in endocytosis of the folic acid receptor among numerous other nutrients and ligands. We determined the effect of iron and/or folic acid supplementation on the penetrance of NTDs in the Lrp2(null) mouse model. The effects of supplementation on folate and iron status were measured in embryos and dams. Periconceptional dietary supplementation with folic acid did not prevent NTDs in Lrp2 mutant embryos, whereas high levels of folic acid supplementation by intraperitoneal injection reduced incidence of NTDs. Importantly, Lrp2(null/+) dams had reduced blood folate levels that improved with daily intraperitoneal injections of folate but not dietary supplementation. On the contrary, iron supplementation had no effect on the penetrance of NTDs in Lrp2 mutant embryos and negated the preventative effect of folic acid supplementation in Lrp2(null/null) mutants. Lrp2 is required for folate homeostasis in heterozygous dams and high levels of supplementation prevents NTDs. Furthermore, high levels of dietary iron supplementation interfered with folic acid supplementation negating the positive effects of supplementation in this model. Birth Defects Research 109:16-26, 2017. © 2016 The Authors Birth Defects Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 The Authors Birth Defects Research Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. In situ forming hydrogel composed of hyaluronate and polygalacturonic acid for prevention of peridural fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Cheng-Yi; Peng, Hsiu-Hui; Chen, Mei-Hsiu; Sun, Jui-Sheng; Liu, Tse-Ying; Chen, Ming-Hong

    2015-04-01

    Hyaluronic acid-based hydrogels can reduce postoperative adhesion. However, the long-term application of hyaluronic acid is limited by tissue mediated enzymatic degradation. To overcome this limitation, we developed a polygalacturonic acid and hyaluronate composite hydrogel by Schiff's base crosslinking reaction. The polygalacturonic acid and hyaluronate composite hydrogels had short gelation time (less than 15 s) and degraded by less than 50 % in the presence of hyaluronidase for 7 days. Cell adhesion and migration assays showed polygalacturonic acid and hyaluronate composite hydrogels prevented fibroblasts from adhesion and infiltration into the hydrogels. Compared to hyaluronate hydrogels and commercial Medishield™ gels, polygalacturonic acid and hyaluronate composite hydrogel was not totally degraded in vivo after 4 weeks. In the rat laminectomy model, polygalacturonic acid and hyaluronate composite hydrogel also had better adhesion grade and smaller mean area of fibrous tissue formation over the saline control and hyaluronate hydrogel groups. Polygalacturonic acid and hyaluronate composite hydrogel is a system that can be easy to use due to its in situ cross-linkable property and potentially promising for adhesion prevention in spine surgeries.

  7. Folic acid supplements to prevent neural tube defects: trends in East of Ireland 1996-2002.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ward, M

    2004-10-01

    Promotion of folic acid to prevent neural Tube Defects (NTD) has been ongoing for ten years in Ireland, without a concomitant reduction in the total birth prevalence of NTD. The effectiveness of folic acid promotion as the sole means of primary prevention of NTD is therefore questionable. We examined trends in folic acid knowledge and peri-conceptional use from 1996-2002 with the aim of assessing the value of this approach. From 1996-2002, 300 women attending ante-natal clinics in Dublin hospitals annually were surveyed regarding their knowledge and use of folic acid. During the period the proportion who had heard of folic acid rose from 54% to 94% between 1996 and 2002 (c2 test for trend: p<0.001). Knowledge that folic acid can prevent NTD also rose from 21% to 66% (c2 test for trend: p<0.001). Although the proportion who took folic acid during pregnancy increased from 14% to 83% from 1996 to 2002 (c2 test for trend: p<0.001), peri-conceptional intake did not rise above 24% in any year. There is a high awareness of folic acid and its relation to NTD, which is not matched by peri-conceptional uptake. The main barrier to peri-conceptional uptake is the lack of pregnancy planning. To date promotional campaigns appear to have been ineffective in reducing the prevalence of NTD in Ireland. Consequently, fortification of staple foodstuffs is the only practical and reliable means of primary prevention of NTD.

  8. Asiatic Acid Prevents the Deleterious Effects of Valproic Acid on Cognition and Hippocampal Cell Proliferation and Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jariya Umka Welbat

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Valproic acid (VPA is commonly prescribed as an anticonvulsant and mood stabilizer used in the treatment of epilepsy and bipolar disorder. A recent study has demonstrated that VPA reduces histone deacetylase (HDAC activity, an action which is believed to contribute to the effects of VPA on neural stem cell proliferation and differentiation which may explain the cognitive impairments produced in rodents and patients. Asiatic acid is a triterpenoid derived from the medicinal plant Centella asiatica. Our previous study has shown that Asiatic acid improves working spatial memory and increases cell proliferation in the sub granular zone of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. In the present study we investigate the effects of Asiatic acid in preventing the memory and cellular effects of VPA. Male Spraque-Dawley rats were orally administered Asiatic acid (30 mg/kg/day for 28 days, while VPA-treated animals received injections of VPA (300 mg/kg twice a day from Day 15 to Day 28 for 14 days. Spatial memory was determined using the novel object location (NOL test and hippocampal cell proliferation and survival was quantified by immuostaining for Ki-67 and Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU, respectively. The results showed that VPA-treated animals were unable to discriminate between objects in familiar and novel locations. Moreover, VPA significantly reduced numbers of Ki-67 and BrdU positive cells. These results indicate that VPA treatment caused impairments of spatial working memory, cell proliferation and survival in the subgranular zone (SGZ of the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG. However, these abnormalities were restored to control levels by co-treatment with Asiatic acid. These data demonstrate that Asiatic acid could prevent the spatial memory and neurogenesis impairments caused by VPA.

  9. Ascorbic acid prevents vascular dysfunction induced by oral glucose load in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marchi, Sergio; Prior, Manlio; Rigoni, Anna; Zecchetto, Sara; Rulfo, Fanny; Arosio, Enrico

    2012-01-01

    To examine the effects of oral glucose load on forearm circulatory regulation before and after ascorbic acid administration in healthy subjects. Microcirculation study with laser Doppler was performed at the hand in basal conditions, after ischemia and after acetylcholine and nitroprusside; strain gauge plethysmography was performed at basal and after ischemia. The tests were repeated in the same sequence 2 hour after oral administration of glucose (75 g). The subjects were randomised for administration of ascorbic acid (1 g bid) or placebo (sodium bicarbonate 1 g bid) for 10 days. After that, the tests were repeated before and after a new oral glucose load. Blood pressure and heart rate were monitored. Macrocirculatory flux, pressure values and heart rate were unvaried throughout the study. The glucose load caused a reduction in the hyperemic peak flow with laser Doppler and plethysmography; it reduced flux recovery time and hyperemic curve area after ischemia; acetylcholine elicited a minor increase in flux with laser Doppler. The response to nitroprusside was unvaried after glucose load as compared to basal conditions. Treatment with ascorbic acid prevented the decrease in hyperemia after glucose, detected with laser Doppler and plethysmography. Ascorbic acid prevented the decreased response to acetylcholine after glucose, the response to nitroprusside was unaffected by ascorbic acid. Results after placebo were unvaried. Oral glucose load impairs endothelium dependent dilation and hyperaemia at microcirculation, probably via oxidative stress; ascorbic acid can prevent it. Copyright © 2011 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Probenecid prevents acute tubular necrosis in a mouse model of aristolochic acid nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudoux, Thomas E R; Pozdzik, Agnieszka A; Arlt, Volker M; De Prez, Eric G; Antoine, Marie-Hélène; Quellard, Nathalie; Goujon, Jean-Michel; Nortier, Joëlle L

    2012-11-01

    Experimental aristolochic acid nephropathy is characterized by early tubulointerstitial injury followed by fibrosis, reproducing chronic lesions seen in humans. In vitro, probenecid inhibits aristolochic acid entry through organic anion transporters, reduces specific aristolochic acid-DNA adduct formation, and preserves cellular viability. To test this in vivo, we used a mouse model of aristolochic acid nephropathy displaying severe tubulointerstitial injuries consisting of proximal tubular epithelial cell necrosis associated to transient acute kidney injury followed by mononuclear cell infiltration, tubular atrophy, and interstitial fibrosis. Treatment with probenecid prevented increased plasma creatinine and tubulointerstitial injuries, and reduced both the extent and the severity of ultrastructural lesions induced by aristolochic acid, such as the loss of brush border, mitochondrial edema, and the disappearance of mitochondrial crests. Further, the number of proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive cells and total aristolochic acid-DNA adducts were significantly reduced in mice receiving aristolochic acid plus probenecid compared with mice treated with aristolochic acid alone. Thus, we establish the nephroprotective effect of probenecid, an inhibitor of organic acid transporters, in vivo toward acute proximal tubular epithelial cell toxicity in a mouse model of aristolochic acid nephropathy.

  11. Nucleotide precursors prevent folic acid-resistant neural tube defects in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Kit-Yi; De Castro, Sandra C P; Savery, Dawn; Copp, Andrew J; Greene, Nicholas D E

    2013-09-01

    Closure of the neural tube during embryogenesis is a crucial step in development of the central nervous system. Failure of this process results in neural tube defects, including spina bifida and anencephaly, which are among the most common birth defects worldwide. Maternal use of folic acid supplements reduces risk of neural tube defects but a proportion of cases are not preventable. Folic acid is thought to act through folate one-carbon metabolism, which transfers one-carbon units for methylation reactions and nucleotide biosynthesis. Hence suboptimal performance of the intervening reactions could limit the efficacy of folic acid. We hypothesized that direct supplementation with nucleotides, downstream of folate metabolism, has the potential to support neural tube closure. Therefore, in a mouse model that exhibits folic acid-resistant neural tube defects, we tested the effect of specific combinations of pyrimidine and purine nucleotide precursors and observed a significant protective effect. Labelling in whole embryo culture showed that nucleotides are taken up by the neurulating embryo and incorporated into genomic DNA. Furthermore, the mitotic index was elevated in neural folds and hindgut of treated embryos, consistent with a proposed mechanism of neural tube defect prevention through stimulation of cellular proliferation. These findings may provide an impetus for future investigations of supplemental nucleotides as a means to prevent a greater proportion of human neural tube defects than can be achieved by folic acid alone.

  12. Cancer Preventive Potential of Kimchi Lactic Acid Bacteria (Weissella cibaria, Lactobacillus plantarum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Shin-Hye; Cho, Young-Mi; Noh, Geon-Min; Om, Ae-Son

    2014-12-01

    The number of death due to cancer has been increasing in Korea. Chemotherapy is known to cause side effects because it damages not only cancerous cells but healthy cells. Recently, attention has focused on food-derived chemopreventive and anti-tumor agents or formulations with fewer side effects. Kimchi, most popular and widely consumed in Korea, contains high levels of lactic acid bacteria and has been shown to possess chemopreventive effects. This review focuses on Weissella cibaria and Lactobacillus plantarum, the representatives of kimchi lactic acid bacteria, in terms of their abilities to prevent cancer. Further studies are needed to understand the mechanisms by which lactic acid bacteria in kimchi prevent carcinogenic processes and improve immune functions.

  13. Incorporated fish oil fatty acids prevent action potential shortening induced by circulating fish oil fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hester M Den Ruijter

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Increased consumption of fatty fish, rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (3-PUFAs reduces the severity and number of arrhythmias. Long term 3-PUFA-intake modulates the activity of several cardiac ion channels leading to cardiac action potential shortening. Circulating 3-PUFAs in the bloodstream and incorporated 3-PUFAs in the cardiac membrane have a different mechanism to shorten the action potential. It is, however, unknown whether circulating 3-PUFAs in the bloodstream enhance or diminish the effects of incorporated 3-PUFAs. In the present study, we address this issue. Rabbits were fed a diet rich in fish oil (3 or sunflower oil (9, as control for 3 weeks. Ventricular myocytes were isolated by enzymatic dissociation and action potentials were measured using the perforated patch clamp technique in the absence and presence of acutely administered 3-PUFAs. Plasma of 3 fed rabbits contained more free eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and isolated myocytes of 3 fed rabbits contained higher amounts of both EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA in their sarcolemma compared to control. In the absence of acutely administered fatty acids, 3 myocytes had a shorter action potential with a more negative plateau than 9 myocytes. In the 9 myocytes, but not in the 3 myocytes, acute administration of a mixture of EPA+DHA shortened the action potential significantly. From these data we conclude that incorporated 3-PUFAs into the sarcolemma and acutely administered 3 fatty acids do not have a cumulative effect on action potential duration and morphology. As a consequence, patients with a high cardiac 3-PUFA status will probably not benefit from short term 3 supplementation as an antiarrhythmic therapy.

  14. Incorporated fish oil fatty acids prevent action potential shortening induced by circulating fish oil fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Den Ruijter, Hester M; Verkerk, Arie O; Coronel, Ruben

    2010-01-01

    Increased consumption of fatty fish, rich in omega-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3-PUFAs) reduces the severity and number of arrhythmias. Long-term ω3-PUFA-intake modulates the activity of several cardiac ion channels leading to cardiac action potential shortening. Circulating ω3-PUFAs in the bloodstream and incorporated ω3-PUFAs in the cardiac membrane have a different mechanism to shorten the action potential. It is, however, unknown whether circulating ω3-PUFAs in the bloodstream enhance or diminish the effects of incorporated ω3-PUFAs. In the present study, we address this issue. Rabbits were fed a diet rich in fish oil (ω3) or sunflower oil (ω9, as control) for 3 weeks. Ventricular myocytes were isolated by enzymatic dissociation and action potentials were measured using the perforated patch-clamp technique in the absence and presence of acutely administered ω3-PUFAs. Plasma of ω3 fed rabbits contained more free eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and isolated myocytes of ω3 fed rabbits contained higher amounts of both EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in their sarcolemma compared to control. In the absence of acutely administered fatty acids, ω3 myocytes had a shorter action potential with a more negative plateau than ω9 myocytes. In the ω9 myocytes, but not in the ω3 myocytes, acute administration of a mixture of EPA + DHA shortened the action potential significantly. From these data we conclude that incorporated ω3-PUFAs into the sarcolemma and acutely administered ω3 fatty acids do not have a cumulative effect on action potential duration and morphology. As a consequence, patients with a high cardiac ω3-PUFA status will probably not benefit from short term ω3 supplementation as an antiarrhythmic therapy.

  15. The importance of γ-linolenic acid in the prevention and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Białek

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The etiology of diet-related disorders is closely associated with dietary factors. A special role is attributed to intake of fat and fatty acid profile, both quantitative and qualitative. For prevention and treatment of the abovementioned diseases a proper supply of unsaturated fatty acids plays a significant role, because of their particular importance to health. γ-Linolenic acid (GLA, with three double bonds in the carbon chain, also known as all-cis 6,9,12-octadecatrienoic acid, belongs to the n-6 family of fatty acids. It plays biologically important functions in the human body, such as being a substrate for eicosanoids synthesis, involvement in the transport and oxidation of cholesterol, and being one of the components of lipid membrane. Its inadequate dietary intake or impaired formation is the cause of many inflammatory and degenerative diseases. A rich source of this fatty acid is vegetable oils, until recently used mainly in folk medicine. Nowadays, studies conducted both in animal models and in humans suggest its health-promoting properties in the prevention and treatment of atopic dermatitis, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancers and rheumatoid arthritis.

  16. Are conjugated linolenic acid isomers an alternative to conjugated linoleic acid isomers in obesity prevention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Jonatan; Arias, Noemi; Fernández-Quintela, Alfredo; del Puy Portillo, María

    2014-04-01

    Despite its benefits, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) may cause side effects after long-term administration. Because of this and the controversial efficacy of CLA in humans, alternative biomolecules that may be used as functional ingredients have been studied in recent years. Thus, conjugated linolenic acid (CLNA) has been reported to be a potential anti-obesity molecule which may have additional positive effects related to obesity. According to the results reported in obesity, CLNA needs to be given at higher doses than CLA to be effective. However, because of the few studies conducted so far, it is still difficult to reach clear conclusions about the potential use of these CLNAs in obesity and its related changes (insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, or inflammation). Copyright © 2012 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Prevention of free fatty acid-induced hepatic lipotoxicity by carnitine via reversal of mitochondrial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Dae Won; Cho, Won Kyeong; Jun, Jin Hyun; Kwon, Hyuk Jin; Jang, Ki-Seok; Kim, Hyun-Jeong; Jeon, Hye Jun; Lee, Kang Nyeong; Lee, Hang Lak; Lee, Oh Young; Yoon, Byung Chul; Choi, Ho Soon; Hahm, Joon Soo; Lee, Min Ho

    2011-10-01

    Mitochondria are the main sites for fatty acid oxidation and play a central role in lipotoxicity and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. We investigated whether carnitine prevents free fatty acid (FFA)-induced lipotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. HepG2 cells were incubated with FFA, along with carnitine and carnitine complexes. Mitochondrial β-oxidation, transmembrane potential, intracellular ATP levels and changes in mitochondrial copy number and morphology were analysed. Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty and Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka rats were segregated into three experimental groups and fed for 8 weeks with (i) normal chow, (ii) a methionine choline-deficient (MCD) diet or (iii) an L-carnitine-supplemented MCD diet. Carnitine prevented FFA-induced apoptosis (16% vs. 3%, P mitochondria with increased inner matrix density and loss of cristae. However, mitochondria co-treated with carnitine had normal ultrastructure. The mitochondrial DNA copy number was higher in the carnitine treatment group than in the palmitic acid treatment group (375 vs. 221 copies, P carnitine group showed higher mitochondrial β-oxidation than did the control and palmitic acid treatment groups (597 vs. 432 and 395 ccpm, P Carnitine treatment increased the mRNA expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ, and carnitine-lipoic acid further augmented the mRNA expression. In the in vivo model, carnitine-treated rats showed lower alanine transaminase levels and lesser lobular inflammation than did the MCD-treated rats. Carnitine and carnitine-lipoic acid prevent lipotoxicity by increasing mitochondrial β-oxidation and reducing intracellular oxidative stress. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  18. Resveratrol and ascorbic acid prevent DNA damage induced by cryopreservation in human semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, Cátia S; Garcez, Márcia E; Pasqualotto, Fábio F; Erdtman, Bernardo; Salvador, Mirian

    2010-04-01

    Cryopreservation of human semen can cause DNA damages, which compromise the fertilization and normal embryo development. The present study showed that the antioxidant resveratrol prevents these damages both in fertile and infertile men. The addition of ascorbic acid before cryopreservation can reduce DNA damages only in infertile men. Although further studies are needed, the present work showed that resveratrol could be considered in human cryopreservation procedures to avoid/minimize DNA damages and preserve sperm integrity. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Prevention of Mood and Anxiety Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Kuan-Pin; Matsuoka, Yutaka; Pae, Chi-Un

    2015-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders in general, and major depression and anxiety disorders in particular, account for a large burden of disability, morbidity and premature mortality worldwide. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have a range of neurobiological activities in modulation of neurotransmitters, anti-inflammation, anti-oxidation and neuroplasticity, which could contribute to psychotropic effects. Here we reviewed recent research on the benefits of omega-3 PUFA supplements in prevention a...

  20. Ca2+ channel blockade prevents lysergic acid diethylamide-induced changes in dopamine and serotonin metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antkiewicz-Michaluk, L; Románska, I; Vetulani, J

    1997-07-30

    To investigate the effect of a single and multiple administration of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) on cerebral metabolism of dopamine and serotonin, male Wistar rats were treated with low and high doses (0.1 and 2.0 mg/kg i.p.) of LSD and the levels of dopamine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, homovanillic acid, 3-methoxytyramine, serotonin and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid were assayed by HPLC in the nucleus accumbens, striatum and frontal cortex. Some rats received nifedipine, 5 mg/kg i.p., before each injection of LSD to assess the effect of a Ca2+ channel blockade. High-dose LSD treatment (8 x 2 mg/kg per day) caused a strong stimulation of dopamine metabolism in the nucleus accumbens and striatum, and serotonin metabolism in the nucleus accumbens: the changes were observed 24 (but not 1 h) after the last dose. The changes induced by the low-dose treatment (8 x 0.1 mg/kg per day) had a different pattern, suggesting the release of dopamine from vesicles to cytoplasm. Co-administration of nifedipine completely prevented the LSD-induced biochemical changes. The results suggest that Ca2+ channel blocking agents may prevent development of some behavioral consequences of chronically used LSD.

  1. Prevention of neural tube defects with folic acid: The Chinese experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Ai-Guo

    2015-08-08

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are a group of congenital malformations of the central nervous system that are caused by the closure failure of the embryonic neural tube by the 28(th) day of conception. Anencephaly and spina bifida are the two major subtypes. Fetuses with anencephaly are often stillborn or electively aborted due to prenatal diagnosis, or they die shortly after birth. Most infants with spina bifida are live-born and, with proper surgical treatment, can survive into adulthood. However, these children often have life-long physical disabilities. China has one of the highest prevalence of NTDs in the world. Inadequate dietary folate intake is believed to be the main cause of the cluster. Unlike many other countries that use staple fortification with folic acid as the public health strategy to prevent NTDs, the Chinese government provides all women who have a rural household registration and who plan to become pregnant with folic acid supplements, free of charge, through a nation-wide program started in 2009. Two to three years after the initiation of the program, the folic acid supplementation rate increased to 85% in the areas of the highest NTD prevalence. The mean plasma folate level of women during early and mid-pregnancy doubled the level before the program was introduced. However, most women began taking folic acid supplements when they knew that they were pregnant. This is too late for the protection of the embryonic neural tube. In a post-program survey of the women who reported folic acid supplementation, less than a quarter of the women began taking supplements prior to pregnancy, indicating that the remaining three quarters of the fetuses remained unprotected during the time of neural tube formation. Therefore, staple food fortification with folic acid should be considered as a priority in the prevention of NTDs.

  2. Glutamic acid not beneficial for the prevention of vincristine neurotoxicity in children with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradfield, Scott M; Sandler, Eric; Geller, Thomas; Tamura, Roy N; Krischer, Jeffrey P

    2015-06-01

    Vincristine causes known side effects of peripheral sensory, motor, autonomic and cranial neuropathies. No preventive interventions are known. We performed a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of oral glutamic acid as a preventive agent in pediatric patients with cancer who would be receiving vincristine therapy for at least 9 consecutive weeks (Stratum 1 = Wilms tumor and rhabdomyosarcoma) or 4 consecutive weeks in conjunction with steroids (Stratum 2 = Acute lymphoblastic leukemia and non-Hodgkin lymphoma). At designated time points, a scored neurologic exam using the Modified Balis Pediatric Scale of Peripheral Neuropathies was performed to document neurologic toxicity. Between 2007 and 2012, 250 patients were enrolled (Stratum 1 = 50, Stratum 2 = 200). The glutamic acid treated group did not have a significantly lower percentage of neurotoxicity compared to placebo treated group either overall or within stratum or age subgroups. The only subgroup which was suggestive of treatment effect was for age. Patients 13 years or older showed a larger benefit in favor of glutamic acid (P = 0.055) compared to patients less than 13 years (P = 1.00). Constipation was the most frequently reported (14%) Grade II or higher neurotoxicity. Vincristine-associated neurotoxicity in pediatric oncology remains a frequent complication of chemotherapy for multiple diagnoses with an approximate 30% of patients affected. Glutamic acid is not effective for prevention in pre-adolescents. There is a suggestion of benefit in patients 13 years or older, but the study was not designed to provide adequate power to test the treatment effect within this age group alone. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. The Role of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in the Prevention and Treatment of Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajie Liu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer (BC is the most common cancer among women worldwide. Dietary fatty acids, especially n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, are believed to play a role in reducing BC risk. Evidence has shown that fish consumption or intake of long-chain n-3 PUFA, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, are beneficial for inhibiting mammary carcinogenesis. The evidence regarding α-linolenic acid (ALA, however, remains equivocal. It is essential to clarify the relation between ALA and cancer since ALA is the principal source of n-3 PUFA in the Western diet and the conversion of ALA to EPA and DHA is not efficient in humans. In addition, the specific anticancer roles of individual n-3 PUFA, alone, have not yet been identified. Therefore, the present review evaluates ALA, EPA and DHA consumed individually as well as in n-3 PUFA mixtures. Also, their role in the prevention of BC and potential anticancer mechanisms of action are examined. Overall, this review suggests that each n-3 PUFA has promising anticancer effects and warrants further research.

  4. Unsaturated fatty acids prevent activation of NLRP3 inflammasome in human monocytes/macrophages[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'homme, Laurent; Esser, Nathalie; Riva, Laura; Scheen, André; Paquot, Nicolas; Piette, Jacques; Legrand-Poels, Sylvie

    2013-01-01

    The NLRP3 inflammasome is involved in many obesity-associated diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis, and gouty arthritis, through its ability to induce interleukin (IL)-1β release. The molecular link between obesity and inflammasome activation is still unclear, but free fatty acids have been proposed as one triggering event. Here we reported opposite effects of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) compared with unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) on NLRP3 inflammasome in human monocytes/macrophages. Palmitate and stearate, both SFAs, triggered IL-1β secretion in a caspase-1/ASC/NLRP3-dependent pathway. Unlike SFAs, the UFAs oleate and linoleate did not lead to IL-1β secretion. In addition, they totally prevented the IL-1β release induced by SFAs and, with less efficiency, by a broad range of NLRP3 inducers, including nigericin, alum, and monosodium urate. UFAs did not affect the transcriptional effect of SFAs, suggesting a specific effect on the NLRP3 activation. These results provide a new anti-inflammatory mechanism of UFAs by preventing the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome and, therefore, IL-1β processing. By this way, UFAs might play a protective role in NLRP3-associated diseases. PMID:24006511

  5. Hypochlorous acid gel technology-Its impact on postprocedure treatment and scar prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Michael H; Andriessen, Anneke; Dayan, Steven H; Fabi, Sabrina G; Lorenc, Z Paul; Henderson Berg, Meagan-Helen

    2017-06-01

    A pre-and postprocedure regime aimed at prevention of infection, reduction of inflammation and risk of scarring, is to enable optimal outcomes. The role of a hypochlorous acid containing spray and translucent scar gel formulation that combines modified silicon oil with hypochlorous acid, was explored for pre- and postprocedure treatment and scar management. For this purpose a literature review was conducted to explore the value of the technology used in pre-and postprocedural regimes. A panel of dermatologists and plastic surgeons who practice in the United States discussed the summarized search results, taking into account their current clinical practice. A nominal group process for consensus was used, followed by online reviews of the manuscript. Based on panel discussions, consensus was reached regarding clinical recommendations given for postprocedure treatment and scar management. The hypochlorous acid products are produced with electrolysis and are classified among biocidal substances. The technology has demonstrated efficacy and safety for pre-and postprocedure use. The safety of hypochlorous solution use demonstrated to be comparable to that of standard local antiseptics. Small studies demonstrated better results with the scar gel compared to silicone gel regarding the appearance of hypertrophic and keloid scars, relief of associated pruritus and pain. A postprocedure regime using this technology, aimed at preventing infection, reducing inflammation, and promoting healing is proposed to have benefits over current regimes as it appears to be effective, safe, and well tolerated. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Ketogenic essential amino acids modulate lipid synthetic pathways and prevent hepatic steatosis in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasushi Noguchi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Although dietary ketogenic essential amino acid (KAA content modifies accumulation of hepatic lipids, the molecular interactions between KAAs and lipid metabolism are yet to be fully elucidated.We designed a diet with a high ratio (E/N of essential amino acids (EAAs to non-EAAs by partially replacing dietary protein with 5 major free KAAs (Leu, Ile, Val, Lys and Thr without altering carbohydrate and fat content. This high-KAA diet was assessed for its preventive effects on diet-induced hepatic steatosis and whole-animal insulin resistance. C57B6 mice were fed with a high-fat diet, and hyperinsulinemic ob/ob mice were fed with a high-fat or high-sucrose diet. The high-KAA diet improved hepatic steatosis with decreased de novo lipogenesis (DNL fluxes as well as reduced expressions of lipogenic genes. In C57B6 mice, the high-KAA diet lowered postprandial insulin secretion and improved glucose tolerance, in association with restored expression of muscle insulin signaling proteins repressed by the high-fat diet. Lipotoxic metabolites and their synthetic fluxes were also evaluated with reference to insulin resistance. The high-KAA diet lowered muscle and liver ceramides, both by reducing dietary lipid incorporation into muscular ceramides and preventing incorporation of DNL-derived fatty acids into hepatic ceramides.Our results indicate that dietary KAA intake improves hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance by modulating lipid synthetic pathways.

  7. Free fatty acid induced impairment of insulin signaling is prevented by the diastereomeric mixture of calophyllic acid and isocalophyllic acid in skeletal muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Natasha; Gunaganti, Naresh; Maurya, Chandan Kumar; Narender, Tadigoppula; Tamrakar, Akhilesh Kumar

    2015-01-05

    Elevated fatty acid levels play a pathogenic role in the development of insulin resistance, associated with type 2 diabetes. Interventions with ability to ameliorate fatty acid-induced insulin resistance might be useful for the management of diabetes. Here, we explored the effect of the diastereomeric mixture of calophyllic acid and isocalophyllic acid (F015) on palmitate-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle cells. An incubation of L6 myotubes with palmitate inhibited insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and translocation of GLUT4 to cell surface. Addition of F015 strongly prevented these inhibitions. Furthermore, F015 effectively inhibited the ability of palmitate to reduce insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of IRS-1, AKT and GSK-3β in L6 myotubes. F015 presented a strong inhibition on palmitate-induced production of reactive oxygen species and associated inflammation, as the activation JNK, ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK were greatly reduced. F015 also inhibited inflammation-stimulated IRS-1 serine phosphorylation and restored insulin-stimulated IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation in presence of palmitate, resulted in enhanced insulin sensitivity. Results suggest that F015 inhibits palmitate-induced, reactive oxygen species-associated MAPK kinase activation and restored insulin sensitivity through regulating IRS-1 function. All these indicate F015 to be a potentially therapeutic candidate for insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Treatment with dehydroepiandrosterone prevents oxidative stress induced by 3-nitropropionic acid in synaptosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Túnez, Isaac; Muñoz, M Carmen; Montilla, Pedro

    2005-06-01

    This study evaluates the antioxidative effect of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) treatment on 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NPA)-induced oxidative stress in striatal and brain cortex synaptosomes. The oxidative derangement was confirmed by a high level of lipid peroxidation products and protein carbonyls, as well as by an enhanced superoxide dismutase activity (p < 0.001). These changes were partially prevented by DHEA. Moreover, 3-NPA induced a drop in succinate dehydrogenase activity, while DHEA treatment restored the succinate dehydrogenase activity. These results show that DHEA reduces oxidative stress in synaptosomes isolated from the brain of 3-NPA-treated rats, and they suggest this neurosteroid may protect mitochondrial and maintain synaptic integrity against damage induced by this acid. 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

  9. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids: a necessity for a comprehensive secondary prevention strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeetesh V Patel

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Jeetesh V Patel, Inessa Tracey, Elizabeth A Hughes, Gregory YH LipHaemostasis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology Unit, University of Birmingham Centre for Cardiovascular Sciences, City Hospital, Birmingham, England, UKAbstract: Long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA supplementation has been used for the secondary prevention of fatal and nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI. However, the benefit of this therapy is frequently confused with other established treatments in the therapeutic strategy among such patients. We review the data on omega-3 PUFA use in secondary care and consider indications for its use which include post-MI and raised triglycerides. We suggest that the available evidence supports the use of omega-3 supplementation as part of the comprehensive secondary care package for post-MI patients.Keywords: omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, myocardial infarction

  10. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Prevention of Mood and Anxiety Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Kuan-Pin; Matsuoka, Yutaka; Pae, Chi-Un

    2015-08-31

    Psychiatric disorders in general, and major depression and anxiety disorders in particular, account for a large burden of disability, morbidity and premature mortality worldwide. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have a range of neurobiological activities in modulation of neurotransmitters, anti-inflammation, anti-oxidation and neuroplasticity, which could contribute to psychotropic effects. Here we reviewed recent research on the benefits of omega-3 PUFA supplements in prevention against major depression, bipolar disorders, interferon-α-induced depression patients with chronic hepatitis C viral infection, and posttraumatic stress disorder. The biological mechanisms underlying omega-3 PUFAs'psychotropic effects are proposed and reviewed. Nutrition is a modifiable environmental factor that might be important in prevention medicine, which have been applied for many years in the secondary prevention of heart disease with omega-3 PUFAs. This review extends the notion that nutrition in psychiatry is a modifiable environmental factor and calls for more researches on prospective clinical studies to justify the preventive application of omega-3 PUFAs in daily practice.

  11. Scarred for life: The impact of the Acid Control and Acid Crime Prevention Act of 2010 on addressing violence against women in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    von Werlhof, Emily

    2013-01-01

    This article uses the Pakistani Acid Control and Acid Crime Prevention Act of 2010 (Act of 2010) as an example to discuss the use of ad hoc legislation on issues of violence against women in Pakistan. From 2008 to 2011, the Aurat Foundation reported that 158 acid attacks occurred in Pakistan. While one remedy for the victims of acid attacks may be to see their attackers punished, a lasting remedy would be to ensure this type of horrific attack does not happen to anyone else. This article exam...

  12. Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplementation Early in Pregnancy May Prevent Deep Placentation Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge A. Carvajal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Uteroplacental ischemia may cause preterm birth, either due to preterm labor, preterm premature rupture of membranes, or medical indication (in the presence of preeclampsia or fetal growth restriction. Uteroplacental ischemia is the product of defective deep placentation, a failure of invasion, and transformation of the spiral arteries by the trophoblast. The failure of normal placentation generates a series of clinical abnormalities nowadays called “deep placentation disorders”; they include preeclampsia, fetal growth restriction, preterm labor, preterm premature rupture of membranes, in utero fetal death, and placental abruption. Early reports suggested that a LC-PUFAs (long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids rich diet reduces the incidence of deep placentation disorders. Recent randomized controlled trials are inconsistent to show the benefit of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA supplementation during pregnancy to prevent deep placentation disorders, but most of them showed that DHA supplementation was associated with lower risk of early preterm birth. We postulate that DHA supplementation, early in pregnancy, may reduce the incidence of deep placentation disorders. If our hypothesis is correct, DHA supplementation, early in pregnancy, will become a safe and effective strategy for primary prevention of highly relevant pregnancy diseases, such as preterm birth, preeclampsia, and fetal growth restriction.

  13. Meta-analysis of ascorbic acid for prevention of postoperative atrial fibrillation after cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, William L; Coleman, Craig I

    2016-12-15

    Results of a systematic review and meta-analysis of published data on use of ascorbic acid to prevent postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) after cardiac surgery are presented. MEDLINE and other sources were searched for reports on trials evaluating the effects of preoperative and/or postoperative use of ascorbic acid in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. For each study selected for meta-analysis, an assessment for risks of methodological bias was performed. Data on POAF frequency and length of stay (LOS) outcomes were pooled and analyzed via random-effects modeling. The 11 identified studies involved patients receiving coronary artery bypass grafts with or without valve replacement; both i.v. and oral ascorbic acid formulations were used. Analysis of pooled outcomes data on treatment and control groups indicated that ascorbic acid prophylaxis was associated with reductions in POAF frequency (odds ratio, 0.44; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.32 to 0.61), intensive care unit (ICU) LOS (difference in means, -0.24 day; 95% CI, -0.45 to -0.03 day), and total hospital LOS (difference in means, -0.94 day; 95% CI, -1.65 to -0.23 day). Significant statistical, methodological, and clinical heterogeneity were observed. A meta-analysis revealed that, compared with use of a placebo or a nonplacebo control, perioperative administration of ascorbic acid to patients undergoing cardiac surgery was associated with a reduced frequency of POAF and a shorter ICU LOS and total hospital LOS. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The use of folic acid for the prevention of neural tube defects and other congenital anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, R Douglas; Davies, Gregory; Désilets, Valérie; Reid, Gregory J; Summers, Anne; Wyatt, Philip; Young, David

    2003-11-01

    To provide information regarding the use of folic acid for the prevention of neural tube defects (NTDs) and other congenital anomalies, in order that physicians, midwives, nurses, and other health-care workers can assist in the education of women in the preconception phase of their health care. OPTION: Folic acid supplementation is problematic, since 50% of pregnancies are unplanned and the health status of women may not be optimal. Folic acid supplementation has been proven to decrease or minimize specific birth defects. A systematic review of the literature, including review and peer-reviewed articles, government publications, the previous Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada (SOGC) Policy Statement of March 1993, and statements from the American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology, was used to develop a new clinical practice guideline for the SOGC. Peer-review process within the committee structure. The benefit is reduced lethal and severe morbidity birth defects and the harm is minimal. The personal cost is of vitamin supplementation on a daily basis and eating a healthy diet. 1. Women in the reproductive age group should be advised about the benefits of folic acid supplementation during wellness visits (birth control renewal, Pap testing, yearly examination), especially if pregnancy is contemplated. (III-A) 2. Women should be advised to maintain a healthy nutritional diet, as recommended in Canada's Food Guide to Healthy Eating (good or excellent sources of folic acid: broccoli, spinach, peas, Brussels sprouts, corn, beans, lentils, oranges). (III-A) 3. Women who could become pregnant should be advised to take a multivitamin containing 0.4 mg to 1.0 mg of folic acid daily. (II-1A) 4. Women taking a multivitamin with folic acid supplement should be advised not to take more than 1 daily dose of vitamin supplement, as indicated on the product label. (II-2A) 5. Women in intermediate- to high-risk categories for NTDs (NTD-affected previous

  15. Randomized, Prospective Comparison of Ursodeoxycholic Acid for the Prevention of Gallstones after Sleeve Gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Lindsay B; Chang, Craig; Pope, Janet; Kim, Yeonsoo; Liu, Pei; Yates, Amy

    2016-05-01

    Several studies have examined the role of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) for the prevention of cholelithiasis (gallstones) following rapid weight loss from restrictive diets, vertical band gastroplasty, and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. However, to date, there have been no prospective, controlled studies examining the role of UDCA for the prevention of gallstones following sleeve gastrectomy (SG). This study was conducted to identify the effectiveness of UDCA for prevention of gallstones after SG. Following SG, eligible patients were randomized to a control group who did not receive UDCA treatment or to a group who were prescribed 300 mg UDCA twice daily for 6 months. Gallbladder ultrasounds were performed preoperatively and at 6 and 12 months postoperatively. Patients with positive findings preoperatively were excluded from the study. Compliance with UDCA was assessed. Between December 2011 and April 2013, 37 patients were randomized to the UDCA treatment arm and 38 patients were randomized to no treatment. At baseline, the two groups were similar. At 6 months, the UDCA group had a statistically significant lower incidence of gallstones (p = 0.032). Analysis revealed no significant difference in gallstones between the two groups at 1 year (p = 0.553 and p = 0.962, respectively). The overall gallstone formation rate was 29.8%. The incidence of gallstones is higher than previously estimated in SG patients. UDCA significantly lowers the gallstone formation rate at 6 months postoperatively.

  16. Valproic acid prevents penile fibrosis and erectile dysfunction in cavernous nerve-injured rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, Johanna L; Kutlu, Omer; Stopak, Bernard L; Liu, Xiaopu; Castiglione, Fabio; Hedlund, Petter; Burnett, Arthur L; Bivalacqua, Trinity J

    2014-06-01

    Bilateral cavernous nerve injury (BCNI) causes profound penile changes such as apoptosis and fibrosis leading to erectile dysfunction (ED). Histone deacetylase (HDAC) has been implicated in chronic fibrotic diseases. This study will characterize the molecular changes in penile HDAC after BCNI and determine if HDAC inhibition can prevent BCNI-induced ED and penile fibrosis. Five groups of rats (8-10 weeks, n = 10/group) were utilized: (i) sham; (ii and iii) BCNI 14 and 30 days following injury; and (iv and v) BCNI treated with HDAC inhibitor valproic acid (VPA 250 mg/kg; 14 and 30 days). All groups underwent cavernous nerve stimulation (CNS) to determine intracavernosal pressure (ICP). Penile HDAC3, HDAC4, fibronectin, and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) protein expression (Western blot) were assessed. Trichrome staining and the fractional area of fibrosis were determined in penes from each group. Cavernous smooth muscle content was assessed by immunofluorescence to alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) antibodies. We measured ICP; HDAC3, HDAC4, fibronectin, and TGF-β1 protein expression; penile fibrosis; penile α-SMA content. There was a voltage-dependent decline (P erectile responses to CNS (P dysfunction. Pharmacological inhibition of HDAC prevents penile fibrosis, normalizes fibronectin expression, and preserves erectile function. The HDAC pathway may represent a suitable target in preventing the progression of ED occurring post-radical prostatectomy. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  17. Complex cardiac defects after ethanol exposure during discrete cardiogenic events in zebrafish: Prevention with folic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmah, Swapnalee; Marrs, James A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) describes a range of birth defects including various congenital heart defects (CHDs). Mechanisms of FASD-associated CHDs are not understood. Whether alcohol interferes with a single critical event or with multiple events in heart formation is not known. RESULTS Our zebrafish embryo experiments showed that ethanol interrupts different cardiac regulatory networks and perturbed multiple steps of cardiogenesis (specification, myocardial migration, looping, chamber morphogenesis and endocardial cushion formation). Ethanol exposure during gastrulation until cardiac specification or during myocardial midline migration did not produce severe or persistent heart development defects. However, exposure comprising gastrulation until myocardial precursor midline fusion or during heart patterning stages produced aberrant heart looping and defective endocardial cushions. Continuous exposure during entire cardiogenesis produced complex cardiac defects leading to severely defective myocardium, endocardium, and endocardial cushions. Supplementation of retinoic acid with ethanol partially rescued early heart developmental defects, but the endocardial cushions did not form correctly. In contrast, supplementation of folic acid rescued normal heart development, including the endocardial cushions. CONCLUSIONS Our results indicate that ethanol exposure interrupted divergent cardiac morphogenesis events causing heart defects. Folic acid supplementation was effective in preventing a wide spectrum of ethanol-induced heart developmental defects. PMID:23832875

  18. Do omega-3 polyunsaturated Fatty acids prevent cardiovascular disease? A review of the randomized clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmig, Lucas M; Karalis, Dean G

    2013-01-01

    Fish oil is rich in the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Numerous epidemiological studies and several large randomized clinical trials have shown that modest doses of omega-3 PUFAs significantly reduce the risk of unstable angina, myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death as well as death in coronary artery disease and heart failure patients. Based on the scientific evidence, the American Heart Association (AHA) has recommended all individuals eat fish at least twice a week to prevent cardiovascular disease. For individuals with coronary artery disease, the recommended dose of omega-3 PUFAs is 1 g of EPA and DHA daily. To lower triglyceride levels, much higher doses are needed. However, more recent randomized clinical trials have questioned the cardiovascular benefits of fish oil. These studies have contributed to the uncertainty health care providers face when recommending omega-3 PUFA supplementation according to clinical guidelines. The purpose of this review is to examine the randomized clinical trials and scientific evidence between omega-3 PUFAs and cardiovascular outcomes to better understand the current role of omega-3 PUFAs in improving cardiovascular health.

  19. gamma-Aminobutyric acid (A) receptor agonists accelerate cutaneous barrier recovery and prevent epidermal hyperplasia induced by barrier disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denda, Mitsuhiro; Inoue, Kaori; Inomata, Shinji; Denda, Sumiko

    2002-11-01

    gamma-Aminobutyric acid, is an amino acid transmitter, which mediates rapid inhibition in the central nervous system. gamma-Aminobutyric acid (A) receptor is a ligand-gated chloride ion channel playing an important part in polarizing the cell membrane and reducing neuronal excitability in the neuron. In this study, we demonstrated the effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid (A) receptor agonists on the cutaneous barrier repair process after the barrier disruption of hairless mice. Topical application of gamma-aminobutyric acid and gamma-aminobutyric acid (A) receptor-specific agonists, musimol and isoguvacine, after barrier disruption accelerated the barrier recovery. The gamma-aminobutyric acid (B)-specific agonist, baclofen, did not affect the barrier recovery rate. The effect of gamma-aminobutyric acid on the barrier recovery was blocked by the gamma-aminobutyric acid (A)-receptor antagonist, bicuculline methobromide, but gamma-aminobutyric acid (B) receptor antagonist, saclofen, did not affect the effect of gamma-aminobutyric acid. Topical application of gamma-aminobutyric acid also prevented epidermal hyperplasia, which was induced by the barrier insults under low environmental humidity and bicuculline methobromide blocked the effect of gamma-aminobutyric acid on the epidermal hyperplasia. Immunoreactivity against gamma-aminobutyric acid (A) polyclonal antibody was observed in hairless mouse epidermis. The fluorescent probe of gamma-aminobutyric acid (A) receptor, TXR-musimol showed the localization of gamma-aminobutyric acid (A) receptor in the epidermis of the hairless mice. Elevation of intracellular chloride ion was induced by gamma-aminobutyric acid in cultured human keratinocytes and it was blocked by bicuculline methobromide. These results suggest that the gamma-aminobutyric acid (A)-like receptor is associated with skin barrier homeostasis and regulation of the receptor clinically effective for barrier dysfunctional or epidermal hyperproliferative diseases.

  20. Rosmarinic acid prevents fibrillization and diminishes vibrational modes associated to β sheet in tau protein linked to Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornejo, Alberto; Aguilar Sandoval, Felipe; Caballero, Leonardo; Machuca, Luis; Muñoz, Patricio; Caballero, Julio; Perry, George; Ardiles, Alejandro; Areche, Carlos; Melo, Francisco

    2017-12-01

    Alzheimer's disease is a common tauopathy where fibril formation and aggregates are the hallmark of the disease. Efforts targeting amyloid-β plaques have succeeded to remove plaques but failed in clinical trials to improve cognition; thus, the current therapeutic strategy is at preventing tau aggregation. Here, we demonstrated that four phenolic diterpenoids and rosmarinic acid inhibit fibrillization. Since, rosmarinic acid was the most active compound, we observe morphological changes in atomic force microscopy images after treatment. Hence, rosmarinic acid leads to a decrease in amide regions I and III, indicating that rosmarinic acid prevents β-sheet assembly. Molecular docking study inside the steric zipper model of the hexapeptide 306VQIVYK311 involved in fibrillization and β sheet formation, suggests that rosmarinic acid binds to the steric zipper with similar chemical interactions with respect to those observed for orange G, a known pharmacofore for amyloid.

  1. Occult microlithiasis in 'idiopathic' acute pancreatitis: prevention of relapses by cholecystectomy or ursodeoxycholic acid therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros, E; Navarro, S; Bru, C; Garcia-Pugés, A; Valderrama, R

    1991-12-01

    Gallstone pancreatitis is usually related to small stones, which may not be detected by conventional cholecystographic techniques. In the current study, it was hypothesized that some patients with acute pancreatitis of unknown cause could harbor occult microstones in the gallbladder. Therefore, evidence was sought prospectively of missed gallstones by biliary drainage and microscopic examination of centrifuged duodenal bile in 51 patients recovering from an attack of acute pancreatitis, including 24 patients with relapsing episodes. Clusters of cholesterol monohydrate crystals, calcium bilirubinate granules, and/or CaCO3 microspheroliths were found in 67% of the patients. Biliary drainage showed no abnormal findings in 12 patients convalescing from a bout of known alcoholic pancreatitis. Examination of gallbladder bile at cholecystectomy and/or serial ultrasonography of the gallbladder for up to 12 months showed that 73% of the patients with unexplained pancreatitis had biliary sludge or microlithiasis; the prior finding of biliary crystal/solid markers predicted their existence with both a sensitivity and a specificity of 86% and a predictive value of 94%. The probability of harboring occult gallstones was also associated with age (P = 0.004), prior recurrent pancreatitis (P = 0.024), and altered liver function tests results during an index episode (P = 0.003). In 13 patients with cholesterol monohydrate crystals in bile, ursodeoxycholic acid (10 mg.kg-1.day-1) eliminated gallbladder microlithiasis within 3-6 months, and subsequent maintenance treatment with a daily dose of 300 mg prevented both gallstone recurrence and further attacks of pancreatitis over a mean follow-up period of 44 months. Cholecystectomy also prevented gallstone-associated relapses in 17 of 18 patients followed up for a mean postoperative period of 36 months. This study provides firm evidence showing that in most patients with idiopathic acute pancreatitis, the disease is related to

  2. Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerry Britton; Barbara Illman; Gary Man

    2010-01-01

    Prevention is considered the most cost-effective element of the Forest Service Invasive Species Strategy (USDA Forest Service 2004). What makes prevention difficult is the desire to maximize free trade and the resulting benefits to society while, at the same time, protecting natural resources. The role of science is to first identify which commodities pose an...

  3. Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Høst, A

    2001-01-01

    , breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation....... Preventive dietary restrictions after the age of 4-6 months are not scientifically documented....

  4. Uric acid lowering therapies for preventing or delaying the progression of chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Anna L; Singer, Richard F; Walters, Giles D

    2017-10-30

    participants: MD -73.35 µmol/L, 95% CI -107.28 to -39.41) and a rise in eGFR (1 study, 113 participants: MD 5.50 mL/min/1.73 m 2 , 95% CI 0.59 to 10.41). However it probably makes little or no difference to eGFR at two years (2 studies, 164 participants: MD 4.00 mL/min, 95% CI -3.28 to 11.28). Uric acid lowering therapy reduced uric acid levels at all time points (3, 4, 6, 12 and 24 months) (high certainty evidence).There is insufficient evidence to support an effect on blood pressure, proteinuria or other cardiovascular markers by uric acid lowering therapy. It should be noted that the apparent benefits of treatment were not apparent at all time points, introducing the potential for bias. There is limited data which suggests uric acid lowering therapy may prevent progression of chronic kidney disease but the conclusion is very uncertain. Benefits were not observed at all time points and study quality was generally low. Larger studies are required to study the effect of uric acid lowering therapy on CKD progression. Three ongoing studies will hopefully provide much needed high quality data.

  5. Omega-3 fatty acids prevent the ketamine-induced increase in acetylcholinesterase activity in an animal model of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zugno, Alexandra I; Chipindo, Helder; Canever, Lara; Budni, Josiane; Alves de Castro, Adalberto; Bittencourt de Oliveira, Mariana; Heylmann, Alexandra Stephanie; Gomes Wessler, Patrícia; da Rosa Silveira, Flávia; Damázio, Louyse S; Mastella, Gustavo Antunes; Kist, Luiza W; Bogo, Maurício R; Quevedo, João; Gama, Clarissa S

    2015-01-15

    Schizophrenia is a debilitating neurodevelopmental disorder that is associated with dysfunction in the cholinergic system. Early prevention is a target of treatment to improve long-term outcomes. Therefore, we evaluated the preventive effects of omega-3 fatty acids on AChE activity in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and striatum in an animal model of schizophrenia. Young Wistar rats (30 days old) were initially treated with omega-3 fatty acids or vehicle alone. Animals received ketamine to induce an animal model of schizophrenia or saline plus omega-3 fatty acids or vehicle alone for 7 consecutive days beginning on day 15. A total of 22 days elapsed between the treatment and intervention. Animals were sacrificed, and brain structures were dissected to evaluate AChE activity and gene expression. Our results demonstrate that ketamine increased AChE activity in these three structures, and omega-3 fatty acids plus ketamine showed lower values for the studied parameters, which indicate a partial preventive mechanism of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation. We observed no effect on AChE expression. Together, these results indicate that omega-3 fatty acid supplementation effectively reduced AChE activity in an animal model of schizophrenia in all studied structures. In conclusion, the present study provides evidence that ketamine and omega-3 fatty acids affect the cholinergic system, and this effect may be associated with the physiopathology of schizophrenia. Further studies are required to investigate the mechanisms that are associated with this effect. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Dietary docosahexaenoic acid supplementation prevents the formation of cholesterol oxidation products in arteries from orchidectomized rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalpando, Diva M.; Rojas, Mibsam M.; García, Hugo S.

    2017-01-01

    Testosterone deficiency has been correlated with increased cardiovascular diseases, which in turn has been associated with increased oxidative stress. Several studies have considered cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) as oxidative stress biomarkers, since some of them play pro-oxidant and pro-inflammatory roles. We have previously described the cardioprotective effects of a dosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplemented diet on the aortic and mesenteric artery function of orchidectomized rats. The aim of this study was to investigate whether impaired gonadal function alters the formation of COPs, as well as the potential preventive role of a DHA-supplemented diet on that effect. For this purpose, aortic and mesenteric artery segments obtained from control and orchidectomized rats, fed with a standard or supplemented with DHA, were used. The content of the following COPs: 7α-hydroxycholesterol, 7β-hydroxycholesterol, 7-ketocholesterol, 5,6α-epoxycholesterol, 5,6β-epoxycholesterol, cholestanetriol and 25-hydroxycholesterol, were analyzed by gas chromatography. The results showed that orchidectomy increased the formation of COPs in arteries from orchidectomized rats, which may participate in the orchidectomy-induced structural and functional vascular alterations already reported. The fact that the DHA-supplemented diet prevented the orchidectomy-induced COPs increase confirms the cardiovascular protective actions of DHA, which could be of special relevance in mesenteric arterial bed, since it importantly controls the systemic vascular resistance. PMID:28968462

  7. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in the prevention of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walz, Courtney P; Barry, Arden R; Koshman, Sheri L

    2016-05-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have purported protective cardiovascular (CV) effects. We sought to assess the evidence available for the use of omega-3 PUFAs for the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD). A systematic literature search was conducted using MEDLINE and EMBASE from 1999 to 2015. Placebo-controlled, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that enrolled over 1000 patients with follow-up greater than 1 year and meta-analyses of RCTs were included. Eight RCTs and 2 meta-analyses were included. In patients with preexisting CVD, only 1 of 5 included RCTs demonstrated a reduction in CV events with omega-3 PUFAs; however, the effect size was minimal, and the study was limited by an open-label design and lack of placebo control. Two meta-analyses concluded omega-3 PUFAs do not reduce CV events in addition to standard, evidence-based therapy in patients after myocardial infarction. Of the 3 predominantly primary prevention RCTs, only 1 demonstrated a minor reduction in major coronary events; however, it was also an open-label study. Furthermore, the safety of omega-3 PUFAs should be considered. While data from RCTs have not demonstrated serious safety concerns, omega-3 PUFAs can increase the risk of bleeding and may interact with other medications that affect hemostasis, such as antiplatelet agents and warfarin. There is currently a lack of evidence to support the routine use of omega-3 PUFAs in the primary and secondary prevention of CVD. Pharmacists are ideally situated to engage patients in the discussion of the lack of benefit and possible risk of omega-3 PUFA supplements.

  8. Hyaluronate acid and oxidized regenerated cellulose prevent adhesion reformation after adhesiolysis in rat models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Y

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Yan Zhang, Qin Liu, Ning Yang, Xuegang Zhang Department of Gynecology, Kunshan Hospital Affiliated to Jiangsu University, Kunshan, Jiangsu, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Postsurgical adhesion formation is the most common complication in abdominal and pelvic surgery. Adhesiolysis is the most commonly applied treatment for adhesion formation but is often followed by adhesion reformation. Therefore, an efficient strategy should be adopted to solve these problems. This study aimed to explore whether hyaluronic acid and oxidized regenerated cellulose (ORC could prevent adhesion formation and reformation. Thirty female Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups (n=10 each and subjected to different treatments during the first and second surgery. The control group was treated with isotonic sodium chloride, the ORC group was treated with ORC (1.5×1 cm, and the medical sodium hyaluronate (MSH group was treated with 1% MSH (0.5 mL. At 2 weeks after the first surgery, adhesion scores in the MSH group (1.90±0.99 and the ORC group (1.40±0.97 were significantly lower than those in the control group (3.00±0.82 (P=0.005. Similarly, 2 weeks after the second surgery, adhesion scores in the MSH group (2.00±0.82 and the ORC group (1.50±1.27 were significantly lower than those in the control group (3.50±0.53 (P=0.001. In addition, body weights in the MSH group and the ORC group did not change significantly, whereas the control group showed a consistent decrease in body weight during the experiment. Histological examination revealed that inflammatory infiltration was involved in both adhesion formation and reformation. In conclusion, hyaluronic acid and ORC were both efficient in reducing adhesion formation and reformation in the rat model. Keywords: hyaluronic acid, oxidized regenerated cellulose, adhesion formation, adhesion reformation, rat model 

  9. Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tips Latest Research Getting More Help Related Topics Cancer COPD Dementia Depression Diabetes Drug and Substance Abuse Falls Prevention Hearing Loss Heart Attack High Blood Pressure Nutrition Osteoporosis Shingles Skin Cancer Related News Quitting Smoking, ...

  10. Docosahexaenoic acid prevents trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in mice by altering expression of hepatic genes regulating fatty acid synthesis and oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Concomitant supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 n-3; DHA) prevented t10, c12- conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and insulin resistance. Effective dose of DHA and mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Methods: We examined abi...

  11. Omega 6 fatty acids for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khudairy, Lena; Hartley, Louise; Clar, Christine; Flowers, Nadine; Hooper, Lee; Rees, Karen

    2015-11-16

    Omega 6 plays a vital role in many physiological functions but there is controversy concerning its effect on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. There is conflicting evidence whether increasing or decreasing omega 6 intake results in beneficial effects. The two primary objectives of this Cochrane review were to determine the effectiveness of:1. Increasing omega 6 (Linoleic acid (LA), Gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), Dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA), Arachidonic acid (AA), or any combination) intake in place of saturated or monounsaturated fats or carbohydrates for the primary prevention of CVD.2. Decreasing omega 6 (LA, GLA, DGLA, AA, or any combination) intake in place of carbohydrates or protein (or both) for the primary prevention of CVD. We searched the following electronic databases up to 23 September 2014: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) on the Cochrane Library (Issue 8 of 12, 2014); MEDLINE (Ovid) (1946 to September week 2, 2014); EMBASE Classic and EMBASE (Ovid) (1947 to September 2014); Web of Science Core Collection (Thomson Reuters) (1990 to September 2014); Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE) and Health Technology Assessment Database, and Health Economics Evaluations Database on the Cochrane Library (Issue 3 of 4, 2014). We searched trial registers and reference lists of reviews for further studies. We applied no language restrictions. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of interventions stating an intention to increase or decrease omega 6 fatty acids, lasting at least six months, and including healthy adults or adults at high risk of CVD. The comparison group was given no advice, no supplementation, a placebo, a control diet, or continued with their usual diet. The outcomes of interest were CVD clinical events (all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, non-fatal end points) and CVD risk factors (changes in blood pressure, changes in blood lipids, occurrence of type 2 diabetes). We excluded trials involving

  12. Ascorbic acid supplementation partially prevents the delayed reproductive development in juvenile male rats exposed to rosuvastatin since prepuberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Gabriel Adan Araújo; Figueiredo, Thamiris Moreira; Sanabria, Marciana; Dias, Ana Flávia Mota Gonçalves; Silva, Patrícia Villela E; Martins Junior, Airton da Cunha; Barbosa Junior, Fernando; Kempinas, Wilma De Grava

    2017-10-01

    Dyslipidemias are occurring earlier in the population due to the increase of obesity and bad eating habits. Rosuvastatin inhibits the enzyme HMG-CoA reductase, decreasing total cholesterol. Ascorbic acid is an important antioxidant compound for male reproductive system. This study aimed to evaluate whether ascorbic acid supplementation may prevent the reproductive damage provoked by rosuvastatin administration at prepuberty. Male pups were distributed into six experimental groups that received saline solution 0.9%, 3 or 10mg/kg/day of rosuvastatin, 150mg/day of ascorbic acid, or 150mg/day of ascorbic acid associated with 3 or 10mg/kg/day of rosuvastatin from post-natal day (PND) 23 until PND53. Rosuvastatin-treated groups showed delayed puberty installation, androgen depletion and impairment on testicular and epididymal morphology. Ascorbic acid partially prevented these reproductive damages. In conclusion, rosuvastatin exposure is a probable risk to reproductive development and ascorbic acid supplementation may be useful to prevent the reproductive impairment of rosuvastatin exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Treatments of free fatty acids to prevent or decrease colour fixation in cottonseed oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmy, H. E.

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Some treatments have been investigated to prevent or remove colour fixation of cottonseed oil containing high level of free fatty acids without using excess of sodium hydroxide in the refining step. The treatments included use of sodium carbonate and ethanolamine before and after subjecting a crude cottonseed oil containing excess of free fatty acid to a colour fixation treatment.
    The results revealed that the carbonate/ethanolamine treatment improved the oil colour by decreasing the free fatty acids and gossypol in the oil, without using any excess of sodium hydroxide.
    Carrying out the carbonate/ethanolamine treatment on cottonseed oil with high levels of free fatty acid before colour fixation takes place is more recommended than carrying out the same treatment on the same oil after it has been fixed.

    Se han investigado algunos tratamientos para prevenir o eliminar la fijación del color de aceite de semilla de algodón que contienen alto nivel de ácidos grasos libres, sin utilizar un exceso de hidróxido sódico en la etapa de refinación.
    Los tratamientos incluyeron el uso de carbonato sódico y etanolamina antes y después, sometiendo un aceite crudo de semilla de algodón que contiene exceso de ácidos grasos libres a tratamiento de fijación del color.
    Los resultados mostraron que el tratamiento carbonato/etanolamina mejoró el color del aceite por disminución de los ácidos grasos libres y gosipol en el aceite, sin utilizar un exceso de hidróxido sódico.
    Llevar a cabo el tratamiento con carbonato/etanolamina sobre aceite de semilla de algodón con niveles altos de ácidos grasos libres antes que tenga lugar la fijación del color es más recomendable que llevar a cabo el mismo tratamiento sobre el mismo aceite después de que se haya fijado.

  14. The cholecystokinin CCK2 receptor antagonist, JNJ-26070109, inhibits gastric acid secretion and prevents omeprazole-induced acid rebound in the rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, TD; Lagaud, G; Wagaman, P; Freedman, JM; Yan, W; Andries, L; Rizzolio, MC; Morton, MF; Shankley, NP

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE JNJ-26070109 [(R)4-bromo-N-[1-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-ethyl]-2-(quinoxaline-5-sulfonylamino)-benzamide] is a novel antagonist at cholecystokinin CCK2 receptors with good pharmacokinetic properties and represents a novel mechanism for the treatment of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD). The purpose of the present study was to determine whether chronic treatment with JNJ-26070109 could prevent, as well as treat, acid rebound in rats. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH A chronic fistula was surgically inserted into the stomach of rats to enable the measurement of acid secretion under basal, pentagastrin and histamine-stimulated conditions. JNJ-26070109 and omeprazole were administered separately and in combination. KEY RESULTS Sustained administration of omeprazole alone and in combination with JNJ-26070109 inhibited gastric acid secretion by >90%. However, 3 days after withdrawing treatment, there was a rebound hypersecretion by ∼1.5-fold in omeprazole-treated animals. No such acid rebound was observed with JNJ-26070109 alone or with co-administration of JNJ-26070109 and omeprazole. The anti-trophic effects of JNJ-26070109 in the gastric mucosal paralleled the effects on acid rebound. Administration of JNJ-26070109 for 3 days after cessation of omeprazole prevented the occurrence of acid rebound. Interestingly, chronic, but not acute, treatment with JNJ-26070109 also inhibited histamine-stimulated acid secretion. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Chronic administration of JNJ-26070109 effectively inhibited gastric acid secretion and suppressed proton pump inhibitor (PPI)-induced acid rebound in the rat. This work advances the field by demonstrating that modest doses of a competitive CCK2 receptor antagonist have significant and functionally important anti-trophic actions in the gastric mucosa. These properties make JNJ-26070109 a suitable candidate for clinical investigation for the treatment of GORD. PMID:22300007

  15. Primary prevention of neural-tube defects and some other congenital abnormalities by folic acid and multivitamins: history, missed opportunity and tasks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Czeizel, Andrew E; Bártfai, Zoltán; Bánhidy, Ferenc

    2011-01-01

    The history of intervention trials of periconception folic acid with multivitamin and folic acid supplementation in women has shown a recent breakthrough in the primary prevention of structural birth...

  16. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (fish oil) supplementation and the prevention of clinical cardiovascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multiple randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have assessed the effects of supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid plus docosahexaenoic acid (omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, commonly called fish oils) on the occurrence of clinical cardiovascular diseases. Although the effects of supplementati...

  17. Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Protection Equipment (PPE) Sequence for Putting on Personal Protection Equipment (PPE) [PDF – 2.85MB] Select Your PPE Equipment Combination Guidance ... PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word ... last updated: May 11, 2015 Content Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center ...

  18. Awareness and intake of folic acid for the prevention of neural tube defects among Lebanese women of childbearing age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasr Hage, Claudine; Jalloul, Maya; Sabbah, Mohamad; Adib, Salim M

    2012-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, international recommendations have promoted folic acid supplementation during the periconception period as an effective way of preventing neural tube defects (NTDs). However, the adoption of this recommendation remains insufficient. To assess the awareness and actual intake of folic acid among married Lebanese women aged 18-45 years, a cross-sectional study was conducted among 600 women selected from all five administrative districts in Lebanon, using a multistage cluster sampling procedure. An anonymous questionnaire was completed which covered measures of knowledge and use of folate supplements, as well as demographic, socioeconomic and obstetrical factors. Sixty percent of surveyed women (60%; n = 360) had heard about folic acid. Doctors were the most frequent source of information (61.1%) but only 24.7% of women have been told of the correct period during which folic acid supplementation was useful. Overall, only 6.2% had taken folic acid tablets during the adequate period. Younger age, higher education level and stability/sufficiency of income appeared to be significant predictors of awareness among Lebanese women. Actual folic acid intake was significantly associated with younger age, higher number of pregnancies, planning the last pregnancy and having had that last one after 1990. In Lebanon, the level of folic acid awareness and adequate intake remain relatively low. Several approaches should be used to promote folic acid intake including awareness campaigns, and routine counseling by primary health care physicians on folic acid during preconception visits.

  19. Folic acid and polyunsaturated fatty acids improve cognitive function and prevent depression, dementia, and Alzheimer's disease--but how and why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Undurti N

    2008-01-01

    Low blood folate and raised homocysteine concentrations are associated with poor cognitive function. Folic acid supplementation improves cognitive function. Folic acid enhances the plasma concentrations of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). EPA, DHA, and arachidonic acid (AA) are of benefit in dementia and Alzheimer's disease by up-regulating gene expression concerned with neurogenesis, neurotransmission and connectivity, improving endothelial nitric oxide (eNO) generation, enhancing brain acetylcholine levels, and suppressing the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. EPA, DHA, and AA also form precursors to anti-inflammatory compounds such as lipoxins, resolvins, and neuroprotectin D1 (NPD1) that protect neurons from the cytotoxic action of various noxious stimuli. Furthermore, various neurotrophins and statins enhance the formation of NPD1 and thus, protect neurons from oxidative stress and prevent neuronal apoptosis Folic acid improves eNO generation, enhances plasma levels of EPA/DHA and thus, could augment the formation of NPD1. These results suggest that a combination of EPA, DHA, AA and folic acid could be of significant benefit in dementia, depression, and Alzheimer's disease and improve cognitive function.

  20. Hyaluronic acid/carboxymethylcellulose membrane barrier versus taurolidine for the prevention of adhesions to polypropylene mesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erpek, Hakan; Tuncyurek, Pars; Soyder, Aykut; Boylu, Sukru

    2006-01-01

    A hyaluronic acid/carboxymethylcellulose (HA/CMC) membrane is an effective measure to prevent polypropylene mesh induced adhesions. We hypothesized that taurolidine 2% solution might be a cost-effective alternative to decrease adhesion formation. Twenty-four rats were randomized into three groups: mesh alone (group 1), mesh + taurolidine 2% (group 2), and mesh + HA/CMC (group 3). Polypropylene mesh (4 cm2) was used to repair surgically induced anterior abdominal wall defects. Taurolidine 2%or a HA/CMC membrane was used as an antiadhesive measure. The animals were sacrificed 6 weeks after the operation, and adhesions to the prosthetic material were evaluated with digital image analysis. Group 1 (mesh alone) had the highest adhesion ratio (58.5 +/- 4.8%) compared with groups 2 and 3 (p CMC; adhesion ratio 40.3 +/- 3.0%) were not significant (p > 0.05). The animals of both treatment groups (2 and 3) had lower adhesion ratios compared with the controls (group 1). In particular, the HA/CMC membrane did not present with a superior antiadhesive effect compared with taurolidine. Therefore, taurolidine is a cost-effective alternative to HA/CMC membranes when a polypropylene mesh is used in direct contact with the abdominal viscera. Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Salicylic acid prevents Trichoderma harzianum from entering the vascular system of roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Ramírez, Ana; Poveda, Jorge; Martín, Ignacio; Hermosa, Rosa; Monte, Enrique; Nicolás, Carlos

    2014-10-01

    Trichoderma is a soil-borne fungal genus that includes species with a significant impact on agriculture and industrial processes. Some Trichoderma strains exert beneficial effects in plants through root colonization, although little is known about how this interaction takes place. To better understand this process, the root colonization of wild-type Arabidopsis and the salicylic acid (SA)-impaired mutant sid2 by a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-marked Trichoderma harzianum strain was followed under confocal microscopy. Trichoderma harzianum GFP22 was able to penetrate the vascular tissue of the sid2 mutant because of the absence of callose deposition in the cell wall of root cells. In addition, a higher colonization of sid2 roots by GFP22 compared with that in Arabidopsis wild-type roots was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction. These results, together with differences in the expression levels of plant defence genes in the roots of both interactions, support a key role for SA in Trichoderma early root colonization stages. We observed that, without the support of SA, plants were unable to prevent the arrival of the fungus in the vascular system and its spread into aerial parts, leading to later collapse. © 2014 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  2. Resveratrol prevents social deficits in animal model of autism induced by valproic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambini-Junior, Victorio; Zanatta, Geancarlo; Della Flora Nunes, Gustavo; Mueller de Melo, Gabriela; Michels, Marcus; Fontes-Dutra, Mellanie; Nogueira Freire, Valder; Riesgo, Rudimar; Gottfried, Carmem

    2014-11-07

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) involve a complex interplay of both genetic and environmental risk factors, such as prenatal exposure to valproic acid (VPA). Considering the neuroprotective, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of resveratrol (RSV), we investigated the influence of prenatal RSV treatment on social behaviors of a rodent model of autism induced by prenatal exposure to VPA. In the three-chambered apparatus test, the VPA group showed a reduced place preference conditioned by conspecific and no preference between exploring a wire-cage or a rat enclosed inside a wire cage, revealing sociability impairments. Prenatal administration of RSV prevented the VPA-induced social impairments evaluated in this study. A bioinformatics analysis was used to discard possible molecular interactions between VPA and RSV during administration. The interaction energy between RSV and VPA is weak and highly unstable, suggesting cellular effects instead of a single chemical process. In summary, the present study highlights a promising experimental strategy to evaluate new molecular targets possibly involved in the etiology of autism and developmental alterations implicated in neural and behavioral impairments in ASD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Oleanolic acid prevents cartilage degeneration in diabetic mice via PPARγ associated mitochondrial stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Xia; Yang, Zhikui; Sheng, Jun; Liu, Jin-Biao; Xie, Qing-Yun; Zheng, Wei; Chen, Ken

    2017-08-26

    Hyperglycemia-induced cartilage degeneration induces osteoarthritis (OA). Since oleanolic acid (OLA) have several pharmacological effects such as anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, we hypothesized it possesses protection against high glucose injured cartilage. We now report that OLA decreased type X collagen and reversed the cartilage degeneration in growth plate from db/db mice. OLA increased type Ⅱ collagen expression in a concentration-dependent manner (10-50 μΜ) in high glucose-treated chondrocytes. OLA prevented the high glucose induced cell injury and decreased the level of MMP-13, PGE2 and IL-6 due to decreasing mitochondrial membrane potential and stimulated the ATP production. Moreover, OLA treatment inhibited apoptosis. And the reversed SOD2 expression and activity may be ascribed to decreased SOD2 protein degradation by OLA treatment, via PPPAγ. In conclusion, OLA protected against the high-glucose-induced cartilage injury via PPARγ/SOD2 pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Omega 3 fatty acid for the prevention of cognitive decline and dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Sydenham

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence from observational studies suggests that diets high in omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA may protect people from cognitive decline and dementia. The strength of this potential protective effect has recently been tested in randomized controlled trials. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of omega-3 PUFA supplementation for the prevention of dementia and cognitive decline in cognitively healthy older people. METHODS: Search: We searched ALOIS - the Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement Group's Specialized Register on - 6 April 2012 using the terms: "omega 3", PUFA, "fatty acids", "fatty acid", fish, linseed, eicosapentaenoic, docosahexaenoic. Selection criteria: Randomised controlled trials of an omega-3 PUFA intervention which was provided for a minimum of six months to participants aged 60 years and over who were free from dementia or cognitive impairment at the beginning of the study. Two review authors independently assessed all trials. Data collection and analysis: The review authors sought and extracted data on incident dementia, cognitive function, safety and adherence, either from published reports or by contacting the investigators for original data. Data were extracted by two review authors. We calculated mean difference (MD or standardised mean differences (SMD and 95% confidence intervals (CI on an intention-to-treat basis, and summarized narratively information on safety and adherence. MAIN RESULTS: Information on cognitive function at the start of a study was available on 4080 participants randomised in three trials. Cognitive function data were available on 3536 participants at final follow-up. In two studies participants received gel capsules containing either omega-3 PUFA (the intervention or olive or sunflower oil (placebo for six or 24 months. In one study, participants received margarine spread for 40 months; the margarine for the intervention group contained omega-3 PUFA. Two studies

  5. Omega 3 fatty acid for the prevention of cognitive decline and dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Sydenham

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence from observational studies suggests that diets high in omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA may protect people from cognitive decline and dementia. The strength of this potential protective effect has recently been tested in randomized controlled trials. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of omega-3 PUFA supplementation for the prevention of dementia and cognitive decline in cognitively healthy older people. METHODS: Search: We searched ALOIS - the Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement Group's Specialized Register on - 6 April 2012 using the terms: "omega 3", PUFA, "fatty acids", "fatty acid", fish, linseed, eicosapentaenoic, docosahexaenoic. Selection criteria: Randomised controlled trials of an omega-3 PUFA intervention which was provided for a minimum of six months to participants aged 60 years and over who were free from dementia or cognitive impairment at the beginning of the study. Two review authors independently assessed all trials. Data collection and analysis: The review authors sought and extracted data on incident dementia, cognitive function, safety and adherence, either from published reports or by contacting the investigators for original data. Data were extracted by two review authors. We calculated mean difference (MD or standardised mean differences (SMD and 95% confidence intervals (CI on an intention-to-treat basis, and summarized narratively information on safety and adherence. MAIN RESULTS: Information on cognitive function at the start of a study was available on 4080 participants randomised in three trials. Cognitive function data were available on 3536 participants at final follow-up. In two studies participants received gel capsules containing either omega-3 PUFA (the intervention or olive or sunflower oil (placebo for six or 24 months. In one study, participants received margarine spread for 40 months; the margarine for the intervention group contained omega-3 PUFA. Two studies

  6. Efficacy of Poly(D,L-Lactic Acid-co-Glycolic acid)-Poly(Ethylene Glycol)-Poly(D,L-Lactic Acid-co-Glycolic Acid) Thermogel As a Barrier to Prevent Spinal Epidural Fibrosis in a Postlaminectomy Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangqian; Chen, Lin; Lin, Hong; Cao, Luping; Cheng, Ji'an; Dong, Jian; Yu, Lin; Ding, Jiandong

    2017-04-01

    Experimental animal study. The authors conducted a study to determine the efficacy and safety of the poly(D,L-lactic acid-co-glycolic acid)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(D,L-lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA-PEG-PLGA) thermogel to prevent peridural fibrosis in an adult rat laminectomy model. Peridural fibrosis often occurs after spinal laminectomy. It might cause persistent back and/or leg pain postoperatively and make a reoperation more difficult and dangerous. Various materials have been used to prevent epidural fibrosis, but only limited success has been achieved. The PLGA-PEG-PLGA thermogel was synthesized by us. Total L3 laminectomies were performed on 24 rats. The PLGA-PEG-PLGA thermogel or chitosan (CHS) gel (a positive control group) was applied to the operative sites in a blinded manner. In the control group, the L3 laminectomy was performed and the defect was irrigated with the NS solution 3 times. All the rats were killed 4 weeks after the surgery. The cytotoxicity of this thermogel was evaluated in vitro and the result demonstrated that no evidence of cytotoxicity was observed. The extent of epidural fibrosis, the area of epidural fibrosis, and the density of the fibroblasts and blood vessel were evaluated histologically. There were statistical differences among the PLGA-PEG-PLGA thermogel or CHS gel group compared with the control group. Although there was no difference between the PLGA-PEG-PLGA thermogel and CHS gel, the efficiency of the PLGA-PEG-PLGA thermogel was shown to be slightly improved compared with the CHS gel. The biocompatibility of the PLGA-PEG-PLGA thermogel was proven well. The application of this thermogel effectively reduced epidural scarring and prevented the subsequent adhesion to the dura mater. No side effects were noted in the rats.

  7. Comparison between conjugated linoleic acid and essential fatty acids in preventing oxidative stress in bovine mammary epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basiricò, L; Morera, P; Dipasquale, D; Tröscher, A; Bernabucci, U

    2017-03-01

    Some in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated protective effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers against oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation. However, only a few and conflicting studies have been conducted showing the antioxidant potential of essential fatty acids. The objectives of the study were to compare the effects of CLA to other essential fatty acids on the thiol redox status of bovine mammary epithelia cells (BME-UV1) and their protective role against oxidative damage on the mammary gland by an in vitro study. The BME-UV1 cells were treated with complete medium containing 50 μM of cis-9,trans-11 CLA, trans-10,cis-12 CLA, α-linolenic acid, γ-linolenic acid, and linoleic acid. To assess the cellular antioxidant response, glutathione, NADPH, and γ-glutamyl-cysteine ligase activity were measured 48 h after addition of fatty acids (FA). Intracellular reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde production were also assessed in cells supplemented with FA. Reactive oxygen species production after 3 h of H2O2 exposure was assessed to evaluate and to compare the potential protection of different FA against H2O2-induced oxidative stress. All FA treatments induced an intracellular GSH increase, matched by high concentrations of NADPH and an increase of γ-glutamyl-cysteine ligase activity. Cells supplemented with FA showed a reduction in intracellular malondialdehyde levels. In particular, CLA isomers and linoleic acid supplementation showed a better antioxidant cellular response against oxidative damage induced by H2O2 compared with other FA. The Authors. Published by the Federation of Animal Science Societies and Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the American Dairy Science Association®. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

  8. Folic acid therapy reduces serum uric acid in hypertensive patients: a substudy of the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial (CSPPT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xianhui; Li, Youbao; He, Mingli; Tang, Genfu; Yin, Delu; Liang, Min; Wang, Binyan; Nie, Jing; Huo, Yong; Xu, Xin; Hou, Fan Fan

    2017-04-01

    Background: The effect of folic acid supplementation on uric acid (UA) concentrations is still inconclusive.Objective: We aimed to test the efficacy of folic acid therapy in reducing serum UA in hypertensive patients.Design: A total of 15,364 hypertensive patients were randomly assigned to a double-blind daily treatment with a single tablet that contained 10 mg enalapril and 0.8 mg folic acid (n = 7685) or 10 mg enalapril alone (n = 7679). The main outcome was the change in serum UA, which was defined as UA at the exit visit minus that at baseline. Secondary outcomes were as follows: 1) controlled hyperuricemia (UA concentration folic acid group, which resulted in a mean group difference of -4.0 μmol/L (95% CI: -6.5, -1.6 μmol/L; P = 0.001). Furthermore, compared with enalapril alone, enalapril-folic acid treatment showed an increase in controlled hyperuricemia (30.3% compared with 25.6%; OR: 1.31; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.70) and a decrease in new-onset hyperuricemia (15.0% compared with 16.3%; OR: 0.89; 95% CI: 0.79, 0.99). A greater beneficial effect was observed in subjects with hyperuricemia (P-interaction = 0.07) or higher concentrations of total homocysteine (tHcy) (P-interaction = 0.02) at baseline. Furthermore, there was a significant inverse relation (P folic acid therapy, compared with enalapril alone, can significantly reduce the magnitude of the increase of UA concentrations in hypertensive adults. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00794885. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  9. Membrane Omega-3 Fatty Acid Deficiency as a Preventable Risk Factor for Comorbid Coronary Heart Disease in Major Depressive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert K. McNamara

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Major depression disorder (MDD significantly increases the risk for coronary heart disease (CHD which is a leading cause of mortality in patients with MDD. Moreover, depression is frequently observed in a subset of patients following acute coronary syndrome (ACS and increases risk for mortality. Here evidence implicating omega-3 (n-3 fatty acid deficiency in the pathoaetiology of CHD and MDD is reviewed, and the hypothesis that n-3 fatty acid deficiency is a preventable risk factor for CHD comorbidity in MDD patients is evaluated. This hypothesis is supported by cross-national and cross-sectional epidemiological surveys finding an inverse correlation between n-3 fatty acid status and prevalence rates of both CHD and MDD, prospective studies finding that lower dietary or membrane EPA+DHA levels increase risk for both MDD and CHD, case-control studies finding that the n-3 fatty acid status of MDD patients places them at high risk for emergent CHD morbidity and mortality, meta-analyses of controlled n-3 fatty acid intervention studies finding significant advantage over placebo for reducing depression symptom severity in MDD patients, and for secondary prevention of cardiac events in CHD patients, findings that n-3 fatty acid status is inversely correlated with other documented CHD risk factors, and patients diagnosed with MDD after ACS exhibit significantly lower n-3 fatty acid status compared with nondepressed ACS patients. This body of evidence provides strong support for future studies to evaluate the effects of increasing dietary n-3 fatty acid status on CHD comorbidity and mortality in MDD patients.

  10. Conjugation of Hyaluronic Acid onto Surfaces via the Interfacial Polymerization of Dopamine to Prevent Protein Adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Renliang; Liu, Xia; Ye, Huijun; Su, Rongxin; Qi, Wei; Wang, Libing; He, Zhimin

    2015-11-10

    A versatile, convenient, and cost-effective method that can be used for grafting antifouling materials onto different surfaces is highly desirable in many applications. Here, we report the one-step fabrication of antifouling surfaces via the polymerization of dopamine and the simultaneous deposition of anionic hyaluronic acid (HA) on Au substrates. The water contact angle of the Au surfaces decreased from 84.9° to 24.8° after the attachment of a highly uniform polydopamine (PDA)/HA hybrid film. The results of surface plasmon resonance analysis showed that the Au-PDA/HA surfaces adsorbed proteins from solutions of bovine serum albumin, lysozyme, β-lactoglobulin, fibrinogen, and soybean milk in ultralow or low amounts (4.8-31.7 ng/cm(2)). The hydrophilicity and good antifouling performance of the PDA/HA surfaces is attributable to the HA chains that probably attached onto their upper surface via hydrogen bonding between PDA and HA. At the same time, the electrostatic repulsion between PDA and HA probably prevents the aggregation of PDA, resulting in the formation of a highly uniform PDA/HA hybrid film with the HA chains (with a stretched structure) on the upper surface. We also developed a simple method for removing this PDA/HA film and recycling the Au substrates by using an aqueous solution of NaOH as the hydrolyzing agent. The Au surface remained undamaged, and a PDA/HA film could be redeposited on the surface, with the surface exhibiting good antifouling performance even after 10 such cycles. Finally, it was found that this grafting method is applicable to other substrates, including epoxy resins, polystyrene, glass, and steel, owing to the strong adhesion of PDA with these substrates.

  11. Structured triacylglycerol containing behenic and oleic acids suppresses triacylglycerol absorption and prevents obesity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takamatsu Kiyoharu

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary 1(3-behenoyl-2,3(1-dioleoyl-rac-glycerol (BOO has been reported to inhibit pancreatic lipase activity in vitro and suppress postprandial hypertriacylglycerolemia in humans. In the present study, the anti-obesity activities of BOO and its inhibitory effects on lymphatic triacylglycerol (TAG absorption were investigated in rats. Methods In Experiment 1, rats were fed either BOO or soybean oil (SO diet for 6 weeks. In the BOO diet, 20% of SO was replaced with an experimental oil rich in BOO. In Experiments 2 and 3, rats cannulated in the thoracic duct were administered an emulsions containing trioleoylglycerol (OOO or an oil mixture (OOO:BOO, 9:1. Tri[1-14C]oleoylglycerol (14C-OOO was added to the emulsions administered in Experiment 3. Results No observable differences were detected in food intake or body weight gain between the BOO and SO groups in Experiment 1. Plasma and liver TAG concentrations and visceral fat weights were significantly lower in the BOO group than in the SO group. The apparent absorption rate of fat was significantly lower in the BOO group than in the SO group. In Experiment 2, the lymphatic recovery of oleic and behenic acids was significantly lower at 5 and 6 h after BOO administration than after OOO administration. In Experiment 3, the lymphatic recovery of 14C-OOO was significantly lower at 5 and 6 h after BOO administration than after OOO administration. Conclusions These results suggest that BOO prevents deposition of visceral fat and hepatic TAG by lowering and delaying intestinal absorption of TAG.

  12. Caffeic acid ethanolamide prevents cardiac dysfunction through sirtuin dependent cardiac bioenergetics preservation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Shih-Yi; Ku, Hui-Chun; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Yang, Kai-Chien; Tu, Ping-Chen; Chiu, His-Lin; Su, Ming-Jai

    2015-01-01

    .... Caffeic acid ethanolamide (CAEA), a synthesized derivative from caffeic acid that exerted antioxidative properties, was thus applied in this study to explore its effects on the pathogenesis of heart failure...

  13. Potassium citrate prevents increased osteoclastogenesis resulting from acidic conditions: Implication for the treatment of postmenopausal bone loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Granchi

    Full Text Available The extracellular acidic milieu in bones results in activation of osteoclasts (OC and inhibition of osteoblasts (OB causing a net loss of calcium from the skeleton and the deterioration of bone microarchitecture. Alkalinization through supplementation with potassium citrate (K citrate has been proposed to limit the osteopenia progression, even though its pharmacological activity in bone microenvironment is not well defined. We evaluated if K citrate was able to prevent the adverse effects that acidic milieu induces on bone cells. OC and OB were maintained in neutral (pH 7.4 versus acidic (pH 6.9 culture medium, and treated with different K citrate concentrations. We evaluated the OC differentiation at seven days, by counting of multinucleated cells expressing tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, and the activity of mature OC at 14 days, by quantifying of collagen degradation. To evaluate the effects on OB, we analyzed proliferation, mineralization, and expression of bone-related genes. We found that the low pH increased OC differentiation and activity and decreased OB function. The osteoclastogenesis was also promoted by RANKL concentrations ineffective at pH 7.4. Non-cytotoxic K citrate concentrations were not sufficient to steadily neutralize the acidic medium, but a inhibited the osteoclastogenesis, the collagen degradation, and the expression of genes involved in RANKL-mediated OC differentiation, b enhanced OB proliferation and alkaline phosphatase expression, whereas it did not affect the in vitro mineralization, and c were effective also in OC cultures resistant to alendronate, i.e. the positive control of osteoclastogenesis inhibition. In conclusion, K citrate prevents the increase in OC activity induced by the acidic microenvironment, and the effect does not depend exclusively on its alkalizing capacity. These data provide the biological basis for the use of K citrate in preventing the osteopenia progression resulting from low

  14. Omega-3 fatty acids prevent early-life antibiotic exposure-induced gut microbiota dysbiosis and later-life obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliannan, K; Wang, B; Li, X-Y; Bhan, A K; Kang, J X

    2016-06-01

    Early-life antibiotic exposure can disrupt the founding intestinal microbial community and lead to obesity later in life. Recent studies show that omega-3 fatty acids can reduce body weight gain and chronic inflammation through modulation of the gut microbiota. We hypothesize that increased tissue levels of omega-3 fatty acids may prevent antibiotic-induced alteration of gut microbiota and obesity later in life. Here, we utilize the fat-1 transgenic mouse model, which can endogenously produce omega-3 fatty acids and thereby eliminates confounding factors of diet, to show that elevated tissue levels of omega-3 fatty acids significantly reduce body weight gain and the severity of insulin resistance, fatty liver and dyslipidemia resulting from early-life exposure to azithromycin. These effects were associated with a reversal of antibiotic-induced dysbiosis of gut microbiota in fat-1 mice. These results demonstrate the beneficial effects of omega-3 fatty acids on antibiotic-induced gut dysbiosis and obesity, and suggest the potential utility of omega-3 supplementation as a safe and effective means for the prevention of obesity in children who are exposed to antibiotics.

  15. Sodium Bicarbonate-Ascorbic Acid Combination for Prevention of Contrast-Induced Nephropathy in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients Undergoing Catheterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komiyama, Kota; Ashikaga, Takashi; Inagaki, Dai; Miyabe, Tomonori; Arai, Marina; Yoshida, Kiyotaka; Miyazawa, Satoshi; Nakada, Akihiro; Kawamura, Iwanari; Masuda, Shinichiro; Nagamine, Sho; Hojo, Rintaro; Aoyama, Yuya; Tsuchiyama, Takaaki; Fukamizu, Seiji; Shibui, Takashi; Sakurada, Harumizu

    2017-01-25

    Sodium bicarbonate and ascorbic acid have been proposed to prevent contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN). The present study evaluated the effect of their combined use on CIN incidence.Methods and Results:We prospectively enrolled 429 patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD: baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate ascorbic acid (n=211) groups, a total of 1,500-2,500 mL 0.9% saline was given before and after the procedure. In addition, the combination group received 20 mEq sodium bicarbonate and 3 g ascorbic acid i.v. before the procedure, followed by 2 g ascorbic acid after the procedure and a further 2 g after 12 h. There were no significant differences between the basic characteristics and contrast volume in the 2 groups. CIN occurred in 19 patients (8.7%) in the saline group, and in 6 patients (2.8%) in the combined treatment group (P=0.008). Combined sodium bicarbonate and ascorbic acid could prevent CIN following catheterization in CKD patients.

  16. Current evidence and future perspectives of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids for the prevention of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizos, Evangelos C; Elisaf, Moses S

    2013-04-15

    Omega-3 fatty acids have been traditionally used for the prevention of major cardiovascular events in patients with or without a history of cardiovascular disease. Their main mechanism of action is to lower triglyceride levels, but they also exert anti-arrythmic and anti-inflammatory properties, they reduce blood pressure levels and stabilize the atherosclerotic plaques. There is a vast amount of evidence derived from randomized studies that seems to question their benefit for the prevention of major cardiovascular events. Upcoming trials will help to better clarify their use in certain indications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Folic acid prevents depressive-like behavior and hippocampal antioxidant imbalance induced by restraint stress in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budni, Josiane; Zomkowski, Andréa Dias; Engel, Daiane; Santos, Danúbia Bonfanti; dos Santos, Alessandra Antunes; Moretti, Morgana; Valvassori, Samira S; Ornell, Felipe; Quevedo, João; Farina, Marcelo; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S

    2013-02-01

    Experimental and epidemiological studies have shown the close relationship between stressful events, depression, and cognitive impairment. Folic acid has been reported to present antidepressant-like effects in both experimental and clinical approaches. However, the mechanisms mediating such effects are not understood. In the present study, we evaluated if folic acid administration to mice could protect against restraint stress-induced depressive-like behavior and cognitive deficit. Considering that oxidative stress has been pointed as a key event involved with depressive disorders, cerebrocortical and hippocampal oxidative stress-related parameters, such as the activities of antioxidant enzymes (mainly those related to the hydroperoxide-detoxifying system) and markers of lipid peroxidation, were also investigated. Restraint stress induced depressive-like behavior in the forced swimming test and memory impairment in the object recognition test, without altering locomotor activity of mice. Folic acid (50 mg/kg, p.o.) was able to prevent the stress-induced increase on immobility time in the forced swimming test, but did not prevent memory impairment. Moreover, restraint stress increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substance levels, and catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus, and superoxide dismutase activity in the hippocampus. Folic acid treatment restored the activity of the antioxidant enzymes and reduced lipid peroxidation in the hippocampus. Glutathione, a non-enzymatic antioxidant, was not altered by stress and/or folic acid administration. Together, the results of the present work reinforce the notion that folic acid displays a specific antidepressant profile in the restraint stress paradigm that may be at least partly due to its antioxidant role. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Folate Deficiency and Folic Acid Supplementation: The Prevention of Neural-Tube Defects and Congenital Heart Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew E. Czeizel

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Diet, particularly vitamin deficiency, is associated with the risk of birth defects. The aim of this review paper is to show the characteristics of common and severe neural-tube defects together with congenital heart defects (CHD as vitamin deficiencies play a role in their origin. The findings of the Hungarian intervention (randomized double-blind and cohort controlled trials indicated that periconceptional folic acid (FA-containing multivitamin supplementation prevented the major proportion (about 90% of neural-tube defects (NTD as well as a certain proportion (about 40% of congenital heart defects. Finally the benefits and drawbacks of three main practical applications of folic acid/multivitamin treatment such as (i dietary intake; (ii periconceptional supplementation; and (iii flour fortification are discussed. The conclusion arrived at is indeed confirmation of Benjamin Franklin’s statement: “An ounce of prevention is better than a pound of care”.

  19. Pre-conception Folic Acid and Multivitamin Supplementation for the Primary and Secondary Prevention of Neural Tube Defects and Other Folic Acid-Sensitive Congenital Anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, R Douglas; Wilson, R Douglas; Audibert, François; Brock, Jo-Ann; Carroll, June; Cartier, Lola; Gagnon, Alain; Johnson, Jo-Ann; Langlois, Sylvie; Murphy-Kaulbeck, Lynn; Okun, Nanette; Pastuck, Melanie; Deb-Rinker, Paromita; Dodds, Linda; Leon, Juan Andres; Lowel, Hélène L; Luo, Wei; MacFarlane, Amanda; McMillan, Rachel; Moore, Aideen; Mundle, William; O'Connor, Deborah; Ray, Joel; Van den Hof, Michiel

    2015-06-01

    To provide updated information on the pre- and post-conception use of oral folic acid with or without a multivitamin/micronutrient supplement for the prevention of neural tube defects and other congenital anomalies. This will help physicians, midwives, nurses, and other health care workers to assist in the education of women about the proper use and dosage of folic acid/multivitamin supplementation before and during pregnancy. Published literature was retrieved through searches of PubMed, Medline, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library in January 2011 using appropriate controlled vocabulary and key words (e.g., folic acid, prenatal multivitamins, folate sensitive birth defects, congenital anomaly risk reduction, pre-conception counselling). Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized control trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies published in English from 1985 and June 2014. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated in the guideline to June 2014 Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies. Costs, risks, and benefits: The financial costs are those of daily vitamin supplementation and eating a healthy folate-enriched diet. The risks are of a reported association of dietary folic acid supplementation with fetal epigenetic modifications and with an increased likelihood of a twin pregnancy. These associations may require consideration before initiating folic acid supplementation. The benefit of folic acid oral supplementation or dietary folate intake combined with a multivitamin/micronutrient supplement is an associated decrease in neural tube defects and perhaps in other specific birth defects and obstetrical complications. The quality of evidence in the document was rated using the criteria

  20. Hexanoic Acid Treatment Prevents Systemic MNSV Movement in Cucumis melo Plants by Priming Callose Deposition Correlating SA and OPDA Accumulation

    OpenAIRE

    Emma Fernández-Crespo; Navarro, Jose A.; Marta Serra-Soriano; Iván Finiti; Pilar García-Agustín; Vicente Pallás; Carmen González-Bosch

    2017-01-01

    Unlike fungal and bacterial diseases, no direct method is available to control viral diseases. The use of resistance-inducing compounds can be an alternative strategy for plant viruses. Here we studied the basal response of melon to Melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV) and demonstrated the efficacy of hexanoic acid (Hx) priming, which prevents the virus from systemically spreading. We analysed callose deposition and the hormonal profile and gene expression at the whole plant level. This allowed u...

  1. Proteomic Approaches to Predict Bioavailability of Fatty Acids and Their Influence on Cancer and Chronic Disease Prevention123

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Roos, Baukje; Romagnolo, Donato F.

    2012-01-01

    A low intake of fish and PUFA and high dietary trans- and SFA are considered to be among the main preventable causes of death. Unfortunately, epidemiological and preclinical studies have yet to identify biomarkers that accurately predict the influence of fatty acid intake on risk of chronic diseases, including cancer. Changes in protein profile and post-translational modifications in tissue and biofluids may offer important clues about the impact of fatty acids on the etiology of chronic diseases. However, conventional protein methodologies are not adequate for assessing the impact of fatty acids on protein expression patterns and modifications and the discovery of protein biomarkers that predict changes in disease risk and progression in response to fatty acid intake. Although fluctuations in protein structure and abundance and inter-individual variability often mask subtle effects caused by dietary intervention, modern proteomic platforms offer tremendous opportunities to increase the sensitivity of protein analysis in tissues and biofluids (plasma, urine) and elucidate the effects of fatty acids on regulation of protein networks. Unfortunately, the number of studies that adopted proteomic tools to investigate the impact of fatty acids on disease risk and progression is quite small. The future success of proteomics in the discovery of biomarkers of fatty acid nutrition requires improved accessibility and standardization of proteomic methodologies, validation of quantitative and qualitative protein changes (e.g., expression levels, post-translational modifications) induced by fatty acids, and application of bioinformatic tools that can inform about the cause-effect relationships between fatty acid intake and health response. PMID:22649259

  2. Marine OMEGA-3 fatty acids in the prevention of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Trevor A

    2017-11-01

    Omega-6 (ω6) and omega-3 (ω3) fatty acids are two classes of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from linoleic acid (18:2ω6) and α-linolenic acid (18:3ω3), respectively. Enzymatic metabolism of linoleic and α-linolenic acids generates arachidonic acid (20:4ω6) and eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5ω3; EPA), respectively, both of which are substrates for enzymes that yield eicosanoids with multiple and varying physiological functions. Further elongation and desaturation of EPA yields the 22-carbon fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (22:6ω3; DHA). The main dietary source of EPA and DHA for human consumption is fish, especially oily fish. There is considerable evidence that EPA and DHA are protective against cardiovascular disease (heart disease and stroke), particularly in individuals with pre-existing disease. ω3 Fatty acids benefit multiple risk factors including blood pressure, blood vessel function, heart function and blood lipids, and they have antithrombotic, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative actions. ω3 Fatty acids do not adversely interact with medications. Supplementation with ω3 fatty acids is recommended in individuals with elevated blood triglyceride levels and patients with coronary heart disease. A practical recommendation for the general population is to increase ω3 fatty acid intake by incorporating fish as part of a healthy diet that includes increased fruits and vegetables, and moderation of salt intake. Health authorities recommend the general population should consume at least two oily fish meals per week. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) prevents lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroinflammation, amyloidogenesis and memory impairment in aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behairi, Nassima; Belkhelfa, Mourad; Rafa, Hayet; Labsi, Moussa; Deghbar, Nahla; Bouzid, Nora; Mesbah-Amroun, Hamida; Touil-Boukoffa, Chafia

    2016-11-15

    We aimed to investigate preventive effects of All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) on a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced aged neuroinflammation model. We analyzed behavior, systemic nitric oxide (NO) production, cerebral NO synthase (NOS2) and β-amyloid (Aβ) 1-42 expression and tissue integrity in the neuroinflammation model pretreated with ATRA (150μg/ml/rat/day) for 30days. Our results showed that LPS treatment (500μg/kg/day) for 7days disturbed memory, enhanced systemic NO production, NOS2 and Aβ 1-42 cerebral expression and generated an Alzheimer's disease (AD)-like neuronal degeneration. Interestingly, ATRA pretreatment prevented the LPS-induced deleterious effects. ATRA could be a potent preventive approach in AD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Conjugated linoleic acid as a potential protective factor in prevention of breast cancer 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Białek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancers are the second leading cause of deaths in Poland, among both women and men. Breast cancer is the malignancy most frequently diagnosed in women. In 2008 mammary cancer was diagnosed in up to 14 500 patients. It is also the second most common cause of cancer deaths among women in our country. Although the etiology of most cases of this disease is not known, risk factors include a variety of nutritional factors. The amount of fat consumed in the diet and the quantity and quality of fatty acids are especially crucial. Among fatty acids to which great importance in modification of cancer risk is attributed are conjugated linoleic acid. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA are a group of positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid, with a conjugated double bond system in the carbon chain. The main natural source of them is milk and dairy products and meat of different species of ruminants, in which cis-9, trans-11 octadecadienoic acid (rumenic acid occurs in the largest quantities, constituting over 90�0of the total pool of CLA. Another important isomer is trans-10, cis-12 octadecadienoic acid, which occurs with rumenic acid in dietary supplements, usually in the ratio 1:1. Surveys conducted show their possible health promoting effects in obesity, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, diabetes, insulin resistance, inflammation, and various types of cancer, especially breast cancer. 

  5. Folic Acid Supplementation for the Prevention of Neural Tube Defects: An Updated Evidence Report and Systematic Review for the US Preventive Services Task Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Meera; Treiman, Katherine A; Kish-Doto, Julia; Middleton, Jennifer C; Coker-Schwimmer, Emmanuel J L; Nicholson, Wanda K

    2017-01-10

    Neural tube defects are among the most common congenital anomalies in the United States. Periconceptional folic acid supplementation is a primary care-relevant preventive intervention. To review the evidence on folic acid supplementation for preventing neural tube defects to inform the US Preventive Services Task Force for an updated Recommendation Statement. MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and trial registries through January 28, 2016, with ongoing surveillance through November 11, 2016; references; experts. English-language studies of folic acid supplementation in women. Excluded were poor-quality studies; studies of prepubertal girls, men, women without the potential for childbearing, and neural tube defect recurrence; and studies conducted in developing countries. Two investigators independently reviewed abstracts, full-text articles, and risk of bias of included studies. One investigator extracted data and a second checked accuracy. Because of heterogeneity, data were not pooled. Neural tube defects, harms of treatment (twinning, respiratory outcomes). A total of 24 studies (N > 58 860) were included. In 1 randomized clinical trial from Hungary initiated in 1984, incidence of neural tube defects for folic acid supplementation compared with trace element supplementation was 0% vs 0.25% (Peto odds ratio [OR], 0.13 [95% CI, 0.03-0.65]; n = 4862). Odds ratios from cohort studies recruiting participants between 1984 and 1996 demonstrated beneficial associations and ranged from 0.11 to 0.27 (n = 19 982). Three of 4 case-control studies with data from 1976 through 1998 reported ORs ranging from 0.6 to 0.7 (n > 7121). Evidence of benefit led to food fortification in the United States beginning in 1998, after which no new prospective studies have been conducted. More recent case-control studies drawing from data collected after 1998 have not demonstrated a protective association consistently with folic acid supplementation, with ORs ranging from

  6. Cyclin A2 and CDK2 as Novel Targets of Aspirin and Salicylic acid: a Potential Role in Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dachineni, Rakesh; Ai, Guoqiang; Kumar, D. Ramesh; Sadhu, Satya S.; Tummala, Hemachand; Bhat, G. Jayarama

    2015-01-01

    Data emerging from the past 10 years have consolidated the rationale for investigating the use of aspirin as a chemopreventive agent; however, the mechanisms leading to its anti-cancer effects are still being elucidated. We hypothesized that aspirin’s chemopreventive actions may involve cell cycle regulation through modulation of the levels or activity of cyclin A2/cyclin dependent kinase-2 (CDK2). In this study, HT-29 and other diverse panel of cancer cells were used to demonstrate that both aspirin and its primary metabolite, salicylic acid, decreased cyclin A2 (CCNA2) and CDK2 protein and mRNA levels. The down regulatory effect of either drugs on cyclin A2 levels was prevented by pretreatment with lactacystin, an inhibitor of proteasomes, suggesting the involvement of 26S proteasomes. In-vitro kinase assays showed that lysates from cells treated with salicylic acid had lower levels of CDK2 activity. Importantly, three independent experiments revealed that salicylic acid directly binds to CDK2. Firstly, inclusion of salicylic acid in naïve cell lysates, or in recombinant CDK2 preparations, increased the ability of the anti-CDK2 antibody to immunoprecipitate CDK2, suggesting that salicylic acid may directly bind and alter its conformation. Secondly, in 8-anilino-1-naphthalene-sulfonate (ANS)-CDK2 fluorescence assays, pre-incubation of CDK2 with salicylic acid, dose-dependently quenched the fluorescence due to ANS. Thirdly, computational analysis using molecular docking studies identified Asp145 and Lys33 as the potential sites of salicylic acid interactions with CDK2. These results demonstrate that aspirin and salicylic acid down-regulate cyclin A2/CDK2 proteins in multiple cancer cell lines, suggesting a novel target and mechanism of action in chemoprevention. Implications Biochemical and structural studies indicate that the anti-proliferative actions of aspirin are mediated through cyclin A2/CDK2. PMID:26685215

  7. Cyclin A2 and CDK2 as Novel Targets of Aspirin and Salicylic Acid: A Potential Role in Cancer Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dachineni, Rakesh; Ai, Guoqiang; Kumar, D Ramesh; Sadhu, Satya S; Tummala, Hemachand; Bhat, G Jayarama

    2016-03-01

    Data emerging from the past 10 years have consolidated the rationale for investigating the use of aspirin as a chemopreventive agent; however, the mechanisms leading to its anticancer effects are still being elucidated. We hypothesized that aspirin's chemopreventive actions may involve cell-cycle regulation through modulation of the levels or activity of cyclin A2/cyclin-dependent kinase-2 (CDK2). In this study, HT-29 and other diverse panel of cancer cells were used to demonstrate that both aspirin and its primary metabolite, salicylic acid, decreased cyclin A2 (CCNA2) and CDK2 protein and mRNA levels. The downregulatory effect of either drugs on cyclin A2 levels was prevented by pretreatment with lactacystin, an inhibitor of proteasomes, suggesting the involvement of 26S proteasomes. In-vitro kinase assays showed that lysates from cells treated with salicylic acid had lower levels of CDK2 activity. Importantly, three independent experiments revealed that salicylic acid directly binds to CDK2. First, inclusion of salicylic acid in naïve cell lysates, or in recombinant CDK2 preparations, increased the ability of the anti-CDK2 antibody to immunoprecipitate CDK2, suggesting that salicylic acid may directly bind and alter its conformation. Second, in 8-anilino-1-naphthalene-sulfonate (ANS)-CDK2 fluorescence assays, preincubation of CDK2 with salicylic acid dose-dependently quenched the fluorescence due to ANS. Third, computational analysis using molecular docking studies identified Asp145 and Lys33 as the potential sites of salicylic acid interactions with CDK2. These results demonstrate that aspirin and salicylic acid downregulate cyclin A2/CDK2 proteins in multiple cancer cell lines, suggesting a novel target and mechanism of action in chemoprevention. Biochemical and structural studies indicate that the antiproliferative actions of aspirin are mediated through cyclin A2/CDK2. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  8. Prevention of small black spots on sugar-coated tablets containing aluminum acetylsalicylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomida, Y; Makino, T

    1999-04-01

    Sugar-coated tablets containing aluminum acetylsalicylate gradually developed black spots on their surface. A factorial experiment was performed based on an L32 orthogonal array table in an attempt to halt this phenomenon. The factor responsible proved to be talc used to formulate the smooth coating layer over the subcoating layer containing aluminum acetylsalicylate. When HCl-treated talc was used as a filler for the smoothing layer, the black spots were markedly decreased. The spotting mechanism was considered to be due to hydrolysis of aluminum acetylsalicylate in the subcoating layer to salicylic acid and acetic acid, which sublimated into the pores of the smoothing layer. Then, ferrous ion substituted from magnesium ion in the talc molecule center was extracted by salicylic acid, acetic acid, and moisture. Finally, the ferrous ion was oxidized to ferric ion, and this produced an Fe3+ chelate compound together with salicylic acid.

  9. Ferulic acid exhibits antiepileptogenic effect and prevents oxidative stress and cognitive impairment in the kindling model of epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanzadeh, Parichehr; Arbabi, Elham; Atyabi, Fatemeh; Dinarvand, Rassoul

    2017-06-15

    Some conventional antiepileptic drugs induce oxidative stress and cognitive impairment which may limit their clinical applications. Ferulic acid is a phenolic phytochemical with antioxidant and neuroprotective properties that prompted us to evaluate its therapeutic potential in epilepsy which is usually associated with oxidative stress and cognitive decline. Male Wistar rats received 30mg/kg of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) intraperitoneally (i.p.) once every alternate day until the development of kindling. The locomotor activity, elevated plus maze, and passive avoidance tests were performed. Oxidative stress was evaluated by the determination of brain malondialdehyde and reduced glutathione. The effects of pre-treatment with ferulic acid (25, 50, 75, and 100mg/kg, i.p.) against PTZ-kindled seizures, cognitive impairment, and oxidative stress were investigated. Kindling was developed 34.18±1.54days after PTZ treatment which was associated with generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS), myoclonic jerks, cognitive deficit, and oxidative stress. Ferulic acid at doses of 75 and 100mg/kg significantly reduced the seizure score, number of myoclonic jerks, cognitive decline and oxidative stress. Spontaneous locomotor activity did not significantly differ between the groups. Ferulic acid exhibits antiepileptogenic effect and prevents oxidative stress and cognitive impairment induced by PTZ kindling. Therefore, this phenolic phytochemical appears as a promising adjuvant for antiepileptic drugs. Meanwhile, further experimental and clinical studies are required to provide insights into the cellular/molecular mechanism(s) underlying the action of ferulic acid. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Hexanoic Acid Treatment Prevents Systemic MNSV Movement in Cucumis melo Plants by Priming Callose Deposition Correlating SA and OPDA Accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Fernández-Crespo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Unlike fungal and bacterial diseases, no direct method is available to control viral diseases. The use of resistance-inducing compounds can be an alternative strategy for plant viruses. Here we studied the basal response of melon to Melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV and demonstrated the efficacy of hexanoic acid (Hx priming, which prevents the virus from systemically spreading. We analysed callose deposition and the hormonal profile and gene expression at the whole plant level. This allowed us to determine hormonal homeostasis in the melon roots, cotyledons, hypocotyls, stems and leaves involved in basal and hexanoic acid-induced resistance (Hx-IR to MNSV. Our data indicate important roles of salicylic acid (SA, 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA, jasmonic-isoleucine, and ferulic acid in both responses to MNSV. The hormonal and metabolites balance, depending on the time and location associated with basal and Hx-IR, demonstrated the reprogramming of plant metabolism in MNSV-inoculated plants. The treatment with both SA and OPDA prior to virus infection significantly reduced MNSV systemic movement by inducing callose deposition. This demonstrates their relevance in Hx-IR against MNSV and a high correlation with callose deposition. Our data also provide valuable evidence to unravel priming mechanisms by natural compounds.

  11. The rationale for preventing cancer cachexia: targeting excessive fatty acid oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Chao-Nan

    2016-07-21

    Cachexia commonly occurs at the terminal stage of cancer and has largely unclear molecular mechanisms. A recent study published in Nature Medicine, entitled "Excessive fatty acid oxidation induces muscle atrophy in cancer cachexia," reveals that cachectic cancer cells can secrete multiple cytokines that induce excessive fatty acid oxidation, which is responsible for muscle loss in cancer cachexia. Inhibition of fatty acid oxidation using etomoxir can increase muscle mass and body weight in cancer cachexia animal models. The usage of stable cachexia animal models is also discussed in this research highlight.

  12. Folic acid supplementation in pregnancy to prevent preterm birth: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccone, Gabriele; Berghella, Vincenzo

    2016-04-01

    Folic acid (FA) may have a role in the prevention of pregnancy complications. However, the efficacy of FA supplementation in reducing the risk of preterm birth (PTB) is still unclear. The aim of this systematic review with meta-analysis was to evaluate the efficacy of folic acid supplementation during pregnancy to prevent preterm birth (PTB). The research protocol was designed a priori, defining methods for searching the literature in electronic databases, including and examining articles, and extracting and analyzing data. We included all randomized trials (RCTs) of asymptomatic singleton gestations without prior PTB who were randomized to prophylactic treatment with either FA supplementation or control (placebo or no treatment). The primary outcome was the incidence of PTB supplementation had a similar rate of PTB birth weight (mean difference 85.58g, 95% CI -55.17-226.34), low birth weight (21.0% vs 15.1%; RR 0.79, 95% CI 0.49 to 1.28) and perinatal death (2.9% vs 2.4%; RR 0.90, 95% CI 0.60-1.34). In summary, FA supplementation during pregnancy does not prevent PTB supplementation remains the most important intervention to reduce the risk of neural tube defects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Assessing Folic Acid Awareness and its Usage for the Prevention of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The common sources of information about folic acid were health workers (68.5%) and the media (14.6%). Only 26.5% (93/351) of them could correctly identify a natural source of food rich in folic acid. Multivariate logistic regression showed that maternal age >30 years (P=0.01) and higher educational status (P=0.001) were ...

  14. [A two-faced vitamin : Folic acid - prevention or promotion of colon cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weißenborn, Anke; Ehlers, Anke; Hirsch-Ernst, Karen-I; Lampen, Alfonso; Niemann, Birgit

    2017-03-01

    In the late 1930s, it was discovered that liver and yeast extracts can be used to correct certain cases of megaloblastic anemia in pregnancy. The factor responsible for this was isolated from spinach leaves in the 1940s, and referred to as folate, a term derived from the Latin word folium for leaf. Folate is considered an essential nutrient for human beings. Folic acid, the synthetic form of the vitamin, is used in dietary supplements, medicines and fortified foods. Since the 1980s, it has been recommended that women who plan to become pregnant and pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy take folic acid supplements. This recommendation was based on studies that revealed that periconceptional folic acid supplementation can reduce the risk for neural tube defects (NTDs). Many countries later implemented folic acid fortification programs. The resulting population-wide increase of folic acid intakes led to significant reductions in NTD rates. However, a temporarily increased colorectal cancer incidence has been reported to coincide with the fortification programs in the USA and Canada. On the basis of currently available data from experimental and human studies it can be concluded that the association between folate/folic acid and cancer is rather complex: Folate intake in the range of the dietary reference intake (DRI) is associated with a reduced risk for cancer in healthy populations, whereas high intakes of folic acid might result in an increased risk for cancer incidence or progression in persons with precancerous lesions and under certain conditions. Since no adverse effects have been observed in association with the intake of dietary folate, research activities that aim at investigating cause and effect relationships focus on folic acid.

  15. Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Early Prevention of Inflammatory Neurodegenerative Disease: A Focus on Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is the leading cause of dementia and the most common neurodegenerative disease in the elderly. Furthermore, AD has provided the most positive indication to support the fact that inflammation contributes to neurodegenerative disease. The exact etiology of AD is unknown, but environmental and genetic factors are thought to contribute, such as advancing age, family history, presence of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD and diabetes, and poor diet and lifestyle. It is hypothesised that early prevention or management of inflammation could delay the onset or reduce the symptoms of AD. Normal physiological changes to the brain with ageing include depletion of long chain omega-3 fatty acids and brains of AD patients have lower docosahexaenoic acid (DHA levels. DHA supplementation can reduce markers of inflammation. This review specifically focusses on the evidence in humans from epidemiological, dietary intervention, and supplementation studies, which supports the role of long chain omega-3 fatty acids in the prevention or delay of cognitive decline in AD in its early stages. Longer term trials with long chain omega-3 supplementation in early stage AD are warranted. We also highlight the importance of overall quality and composition of the diet to protect against AD and dementia.

  16. Prevention of bovine mastitis by a postmilking teat disinfectant containing chlorous acid and chlorine dioxide in a soluble polymer gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, S P; King, S H; Torre, P M; Shull, E P; Dowlen, H H; Lewis, M J; Sordillo, L M

    1989-11-01

    A natural exposure study was conducted in a herd of 150 lactating dairy cows for 18 mo to determine the effectiveness of chlorous acid and chlorine dioxide in a soluble polymer gel as a postmilking teat disinfectant for the prevention of bovine mastitis. Right quarters of cows were dipped in the experimental teat dip after milking machine removal. Left quarters were not dipped and served as within-cow negative controls. The experimental teat dip reduced Staphylococcus aureus infections 67.4%, Streptococcus dysgalactiae infections 63.8%, and Streptococcus uberis infections 27.8%. Overall efficacy of the chlorous acid and chlorine dioxide teat dip against major mastitis pathogens was 52.2%. The experimental teat dip reduced Corynebacterium bovis infections and coagulase-negative staphylococcal infections also by 45.8 and 38.7%, respectively. Overall efficacy against minor mastitis pathogens was 43.4%. Under conditions of this trial, the experimental teat dip containing chlorous acid and chlorine dioxide was effective in preventing new intramammary infections against a variety of mastitis pathogens.

  17. Effects of folic acid supplementation during different pregnancy periods and relationship with the other primary prevention measures to neural tube defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Rui; Wang, Zhi-Ping; Wang, Meng; Gao, Li-Jie; Zhao, Zhong-Tang

    2016-12-01

    To find out the prevention effects of folic acid supplements during different pregnancy periods on neural tube defects (NTDs) and the relationship of folic acid supplements with the other NTDs' primary preventive measures. A 1:1 case-control study was conducted. Four hundred and fifty-nine women who delivered or gestate infants/fetuses with NTDs in the last two years were randomly selected as cases and were matched with women who delivered babies without obvious birth defects as controls. For anencephaly, folic acid supplementation during the periconceptional period and preconceptional period has a 57-83% reduction in risk of NTDs(ORs ranged from 0.17 to 0.43). For spina bifida, folic acid supplementation during the periconceptional period has a 79% reduction in risk of NTDs (OR = 0.21). For encephalocele, folic acid supplementation during the periconceptional period has a 67% reduction in risk of NTDs (OR = 0.33). The prevention effects on NTDs were significant when these preventive measures combined with folic acid supplements during the periconceptional period, with OR 0.04, 0.07, 0.10 and 0.11. The specific effects of folic acid supplementation during different periods show the reduction in the risk of NTDs, anencephaly, spina bifida, encephalocele. During periconceptional period, folic acid supplements have preventive effects on all NTDs' subtypes.

  18. Inactivation of fatty acid transport protein 1 prevents fat-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jason K.; Gimeno, Ruth E.; Higashimori, Takamasa; Kim, Hyo-Jeong; Choi, Hyejeong; Punreddy, Sandhya; Mozell, Robin L.; Tan, Guo; Stricker-Krongrad, Alain; Hirsch, David J.; Fillmore, Jonathan J.; Liu, Zhen-Xiang; Dong, Jianying; Cline, Gary; Stahl, Andreas; Lodish, Harvey F.; Shulman, Gerald I.

    2004-01-01

    Insulin resistance in skeletal muscle plays a major role in the development of type 2 diabetes and may be causally associated with increases in intramuscular fatty acid metabolites. Fatty acid transport protein 1 (FATP1) is an acyl-CoA synthetase highly expressed in skeletal muscle and modulates fatty acid uptake and metabolism by converting fatty acids into fatty acyl-CoA. To investigate the role of FATP1 in glucose homeostasis and in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance, we examined the effect of acute lipid infusion or chronic high-fat feeding on insulin action in FATP1 KO mice. Whole-body adiposity, adipose tissue expression of adiponectin, intramuscular fatty acid metabolites, and insulin sensitivity were not altered in FATP1 KO mice fed a regular chow diet. In contrast, FATP1 deletion protected the KO mice from fat-induced insulin resistance and intramuscular accumulation of fatty acyl-CoA without alteration in whole-body adiposity. These findings demonstrate an important role of intramuscular fatty acid metabolites in causing insulin resistance and suggest that FATP1 may be a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. PMID:14991074

  19. Potential mechanisms explaining why hydrolyzed casein-based diets outclass single amino acid-based diets in the prevention of autoimmune diabetes in diabetes-prone BB rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, J. T. J.; Bos, N. A.; Harthoorn, L. F.; Stellaard, F.; Beijer-Liefers, S.; Rozing, J.; van Tol, E. A. F.

    Background It remains controversial whether avoidance of dietary diabetogenic triggers, such as cow's milk proteins, can prevent type 1 diabetes in genetically susceptible individuals. Here, different extensive casein hydrolysates (HC) and single amino acid (AA) formulations were tested for their

  20. An immunomodulating fatty acid analogue targeting mitochondria exerts anti-atherosclerotic effect beyond plasma cholesterol-lowering activity in apoe(-/- mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Vik

    Full Text Available Tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA is a hypolipidemic antioxidant with immunomodulating properties involving activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs and proliferation of mitochondria. This study aimed to penetrate the effect of TTA on the development of atherosclerotic lesions in apolipoprotein (apo-E(-/- mice fed a high-fat diet containing 0.3% TTA for 12 weeks. These mice displayed a significantly less atherosclerotic development vs control. Plasma cholesterol was increased by TTA administration and triacylglycerol (TAG levels in plasma and liver were decreased by TTA supplementation, the latter, probably due to increased mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and reduced lipogenesis. TTA administration also changed the fatty acid composition in the heart, and the amount of arachidonic acid (ARA and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA was reduced and increased, respectively. The heart mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxidase (NOS-2 was decreased in TTA-treated mice, whereas the mRNA level of catalase was increased. Finally, reduced plasma levels of inflammatory mediators as IL-1α, IL-6, IL-17, TNF-α and IFN-γ were detected in TTA-treated mice. These data show that TTA reduces atherosclerosis in apoE(-/- mice and modulates risk factors related to atherosclerotic disorders. TTA probably acts at both systemic and vascular levels in a manner independent of changes in plasma cholesterol, and triggers TAG catabolism through improved mitochondrial function.

  1. α-Linolenic Acid-Enriched Diet Prevents Myocardial Damage and Expands Longevity in Cardiomyopathic Hamsters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiaccavento, Roberta; Carotenuto, Felicia; Minieri, Marilena; Masuelli, Laura; Vecchini, Alba; Bei, Roberto; Modesti, Andrea; Binaglia, Luciano; Fusco, Angelo; Bertoli, Aldo; Forte, Giancarlo; Carosella, Luciana; Di Nardo, Paolo

    2006-01-01

    Randomized clinical trials have demonstrated that the increased intake of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids significantly reduces the risk of ischemic cardiovascular disease, but no investigations have been performed in hereditary cardiomyopathies with diffusely damaged myocardium. In the present study, δ-sarcoglycan-null cardiomyopathic hamsters were fed from weaning to death with an α-linolenic acid (ALA)-enriched versus standard diet. Results demonstrated a great accumulation of ALA and eicosapentaenoic acid and an increased eicosapentaenoic/arachidonic acid ratio in cardiomyopathic hamster hearts, correlating with the preservation of myocardial structure and function. In fact, ALA administration preserved plasmalemma and mitochondrial membrane integrity, thus maintaining proper cell/extracellular matrix contacts and signaling, as well as a normal gene expression profile (myosin heavy chain isoforms, atrial natriuretic peptide, transforming growth factor-β1) and a limited extension of fibrotic areas within ALA-fed cardiomyopathic hearts. Consequently, hemodynamic indexes were safeguarded, and more than 60% of ALA-fed animals were still alive (mean survival time, 293 ± 141.8 days) when all those fed with standard diet were deceased (mean survival time, 175.9 ± 56 days). Therefore, the clinically evident beneficial effects of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are mainly related to preservation of myocardium structure and function and the attenuation of myocardial fibrosis. PMID:17148657

  2. Once-yearly zoledronic acid in the prevention of osteoporotic bone fractures in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Lambrinoudaki

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Irene Lambrinoudaki, Sophia Vlachou, Fotini Galapi, Dimitra Papadimitriou, K Papadias2nd Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Athens, Aretaieio Hospital, GreeceAbstract: Zoledronic acid is a nitrogen-containing, third-generation bisphosphonate that has recently been approved for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis as an annual intravenous infusion. Zoledronic acid is an antiresorptive agent which has a high affinity for mineralized bone and especially for sites of high bone turnover. Zoledronic acid is excreted by the kidney without further metabolism. Zoledronic acid administered as a 5 mg intravenous infusion annually increases bone mineral density in the lumbar spine and femoral neck by 6.7% and 5.1% respectively and reduces the incidence of new vertebral and hip fractures by 70% and 41% respectively in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Most common side effects are post-dose fever, flu-like symptoms, myalgia, arthralgia, and headache which usually occur in the first 3 days after infusion and are self-limited. Rare adverse effects include renal dysfunction, hypocalcemia, atrial fibrillation, and osteonecrosis of the jaw.Keywords: zoledronic acid, postmenopausal osteoporosis, bisphosphonate

  3. Synthesis of the cancer preventive peptide lunasin by lactic acid bacteria during sourdough fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzello, Carlo G; Nionelli, Luana; Coda, Rossana; Gobbetti, Marco

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to exploit the potential of sourdough lactic acid bacteria to release lunasin during fermentation of cereal and nonconventional flours. The peptidase activities of a large number of sourdough lactic acid bacteria were screened using synthetic substrates. Selected lactic acid bacteria were used as sourdough starters to ferment wholemeal wheat, soybean, barley, amaranth, and rye flours. Proteinase activity during fermentation was characterized by SDS-PAGE analysis of the water-soluble extracts. Albumins having molecular masses of 18 to 22 kDa, which included the size of lunasin precursors, were markedly affected by proteolysis of lactic acid bacteria. After fermentation, lunasin from the water-soluble extracts was quantified, purified, and identified through RP-HPLC and nano-LC-ESI-MS analyses. Compared to control doughs, the concentration of lunasin increased up to 2-4 times during fermentation. Lactobacillus curvatus SAL33 and Lactobacillus brevis AM7 synthesized the highest concentrations of lunasin in all the flours. Besides the presence of the entire lunasin sequence, fragments containing the immunoreactive epitope RGDDDDDDDDD were also found. This study shows that fermentation by lactic acid bacteria increased the concentration of lunasin to levels that would suggest new possibilities for the biological synthesis and for the formulation of functional foods.

  4. Prevention of postcoronary angioplasty restenosis by omega-3 fatty acids: main results of the Esapent for Prevention of Restenosis ITalian Study (ESPRIT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maresta, Aleardo; Balduccelli, Marco; Varani, Elisabetta; Marzilli, Mario; Galli, Claudio; Heiman, Franca; Lavezzari, Maurizio; Stragliotto, Eduardo; De Caterina, Raffaele

    2002-06-01

    Previous trials of omega-3 fatty acids (omega-3 FA) for restenosis prevention after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) have yielded conflicting results. We tested the hypothesis that long-term administration of omega-3 FA before PTCA may have significant effects on restenosis. We randomized 339 patients in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study of omega-3 FA (as an ethyl ester preparation given as 6 1-g capsules providing 3 g eicosapentaenoic acid and 2.1 g docosahexaenoic acid/d started 1 month before PTCA and given for 1 month thereafter, then continued at half-dose for 6 months) versus an olive oil placebo. Of these, 257 patients (125 on omega-3 FA, 132 on placebo) well matched for risk factors underwent successful balloon-only PTCA (280 total lesions) and were evaluable at 6 months with repeat angiography. Restenosis was defined at quantitative angiography as a recurrence of >50% diameter stenosis in the dilated vessel (Definition I) and as >50% loss of the short-term gain immediately after PTCA (Definition II). Restenosis rates per vessel were 29.4% and 31.6% in the omega-3 FA group, and 39.6% and 35.4% in the placebo group according to Definitions I (P =.04) and II (P = not significant), respectively. Restenosis rates per patient were 31.2% and 33.6% in the omega-3 FA group, and 40.9% and 37.1% in the placebo group according to Definitions I (P =.05) and II (P = not significant), respectively. With a long treatment before PTCA, omega-3 FA produced a small but significant decrease in the restenosis rate compared with placebo.

  5. Melatonin prevents myeloperoxidase heme destruction and the generation of free iron mediated by self-generated hypochlorous acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faten Shaeib

    Full Text Available Myeloperoxidase (MPO generated hypochlorous acid (HOCl formed during catalysis is able to destroy the MPO heme moiety through a feedback mechanism, resulting in the accumulation of free iron. Here we show that the presence of melatonin (MLT can prevent HOCl-mediated MPO heme destruction using a combination of UV-visible photometry, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2-specific electrode, and ferrozine assay techniques. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis showed that MPO heme protection was at the expense of MLT oxidation. The full protection of the MPO heme requires the presence of a 1:2 MLT to H2O2 ratio. Melatonin prevents HOCl-mediated MPO heme destruction through multiple pathways. These include competition with chloride, the natural co-substrate; switching the MPO activity from a two electron oxidation to a one electron pathway causing the buildup of the inactive Compound II, and its subsequent decay to MPO-Fe(III instead of generating HOCl; binding to MPO above the heme iron, thereby preventing the access of H2O2 to the catalytic site of the enzyme; and direct scavenging of HOCl. Collectively, in addition to acting as an antioxidant and MPO inhibitor, MLT can exert its protective effect by preventing the release of free iron mediated by self-generated HOCl. Our work may establish a direct mechanistic link by which MLT exerts its antioxidant protective effect in chronic inflammatory diseases with MPO elevation.

  6. Arsenic is associated with reduced effect of folic acid in myelomeningocele prevention: a case control study in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumdar, Maitreyi; Ibne Hasan, Md Omar Sharif; Hamid, Rezina; Valeri, Linda; Paul, Ligi; Selhub, Jacob; Rodrigues, Ema G; Silva, Fareesa; Mia, Selim; Mostofa, Md Golam; Quamruzzaman, Quazi; Rahman, Mahmuder; Christiani, David C

    2015-04-10

    Arsenic induces neural tube defects in several animal models, but its potential to cause neural tube defects in humans is unknown. Our objective was to investigate the associations between maternal arsenic exposure, periconceptional folic acid supplementation, and risk of posterior neural tube defect (myelomeningocele) among a highly exposed population in rural Bangladesh. We performed a case-control study that recruited physician-confirmed cases from community health clinics served by Dhaka Community Hospital in Bangladesh, as well as local health facilities that treat children with myelomeningocele. Controls were selected from pregnancy registries in the same areas. Maternal arsenic exposure was estimated from drinking water samples taken from wells used during the first trimester of pregnancy. Periconceptional folic acid use was ascertained by self-report, and maternal folate status was further assessed by plasma folate levels measured at the time of the study visit. Fifty-seven cases of myelomeningocele were identified along with 55 controls. A significant interaction was observed between drinking water inorganic arsenic and periconceptional folic acid use. As drinking water inorganic arsenic concentrations increased from 1 to 25 μg/L, the estimated protective effect of folic acid use declined (OR 0.22 to 1.03), and was not protective at higher concentrations of arsenic. No main effect of arsenic exposure on myelomeningocele risk was identified. Our study found a significant interaction between drinking water inorganic arsenic concentration from wells used during the first trimester of pregnancy and reported intake of periconceptional folic acid supplements. Results suggest that environmental arsenic exposure reduces the effectiveness of folic acid supplementation in preventing myelomeningocele.

  7. Docosahexaenoic acid prevents paraquat-induced reactive oxygen species production in dopaminergic neurons via enhancement of glutathione homeostasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyoung Jun; Han, Jeongsu; Jang, Yunseon; Kim, Soo Jeong; Park, Ji Hoon; Seo, Kang Sik [Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Soyeon; Shin, Soyeon; Lim, Kyu [Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Infection Signaling Network Research Center, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Heo, Jun Young, E-mail: junyoung3@gmail.com [Brainscience Institute, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kweon, Gi Ryang, E-mail: mitochondria@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Infection Signaling Network Research Center, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-30

    Highlights: • DHA prevents PQ-induced dopaminergic neuronal loss via decreasing of excessive ROS. • DHA increases GR and GCLm derivate GSH pool by enhancement of Nrf2 expression. • Protective mechanism is removal of PQ-induced ROS via DHA-dependent GSH pool. • DHA may be a good preventive strategy for Parkinson’s disease (PD) therapy. - Abstract: Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels are reduced in the substantia nigra area in Parkinson’s disease patients and animal models, implicating docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) as a potential treatment for preventing Parkinson’s disease and suggesting the need for investigations into how DHA might protect against neurotoxin-induced dopaminergic neuron loss. The herbicide paraquat (PQ) induces dopaminergic neuron loss through the excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We found that treatment of dopaminergic SN4741 cells with PQ reduced cell viability in a dose-dependent manner, but pretreatment with DHA ameliorated the toxic effect of PQ. To determine the toxic mechanism of PQ, we measured intracellular ROS content in different organelles with specific dyes. As expected, all types of ROS were increased by PQ treatment, but DHA pretreatment selectively decreased cytosolic hydrogen peroxide content. Furthermore, DHA treatment-induced increases in glutathione reductase and glutamate cysteine ligase modifier subunit (GCLm) mRNA expression were positively correlated with glutathione (GSH) content. Consistent with this increase in GCLm mRNA levels, Western blot analysis revealed that DHA pretreatment increased nuclear factor-erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) protein levels. These findings indicate that DHA prevents PQ-induced neuronal cell loss by enhancing Nrf2-regulated GSH homeostasis.

  8. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids for the prevention of cardiovascular disease: do formulation, dosage & comparator matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiNicolantonio, James J; Meier, Pascal; O'Keefe, James H

    2013-01-01

    Multiple trials over the past two decades testing omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), containing eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), have shown substantial benefits for reducing major coronary heart disease (CHD) events, all-cause mortality, cardiovascular (CV) death, sudden cardiac death (SCD), and stroke. However, recent trials testing omega-3s have generally failed to confirm these benefits. While increased fish and fish oil intake among the general population, increased use of optimal medical therapy (including statins, aspirin, and modern antihypertensive medications) probably make it more challenging for fish oil supplementation to show additional benefits, there might be further explanations in the formulation, dosage, and comparator used in these recent omega-3 trials.

  9. Antimicrobial activity of transition metal acid MoO{sub 3} prevents microbial growth on material surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zollfrank, Cordt, E-mail: cordt.zollfrank@ww.uni-erlangen.de [University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Materials Science and Engineering 3-Glass and Ceramics, Martensstr. 5, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Gutbrod, Kai [University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Materials Science and Engineering 3-Glass and Ceramics, Martensstr. 5, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Wechsler, Peter [LEONI Kabel GmbH, Stieberstrasse 5, D-91154 Roth (Germany); Guggenbichler, Josef Peter [Laboratory for the Development of Healthcare Products, Leitweg 23, A-6345 Koessen (Austria)

    2012-01-01

    Serious infectious complications of patients in healthcare settings are often transmitted by materials and devices colonised by microorganisms (nosocomial infections). Current strategies to generate material surfaces with an antimicrobial activity suffer from the consumption of the antimicrobial agent and emerging multidrug-resistant pathogens amongst others. Consequently, materials surfaces exhibiting a permanent antimicrobial activity without the risk of generating resistant microorganisms are desirable. This publication reports on the extraordinary efficient antimicrobial properties of transition metal acids such as molybdic acid (H{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}), which is based on molybdenum trioxide (MoO{sub 3}). The modification of various materials (e.g. polymers, metals) with MoO{sub 3} particles or sol-gel derived coatings showed that the modified materials surfaces were practically free of microorganisms six hours after contamination with infectious agents. The antimicrobial activity is based on the formation of an acidic surface deteriorating cell growth and proliferation. The application of transition metal acids as antimicrobial surface agents is an innovative approach to prevent the dissemination of microorganisms in healthcare units and public environments. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The presented modifications of materials surfaces with MoO{sub 3} are non-cytotoxic and decrease biofilm growth and bacteria transmission. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The material is insensitive towards emerging resistances of bacteria. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Strong potential to reduce spreading of infectious agents on inanimate surfaces.

  10. Prevention of Diet-Induced Metabolic Dysregulation, Inflammation, and Atherosclerosis in Ldlr(-/-) Mice by Treatment With the ATP-Citrate Lyase Inhibitor Bempedoic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsoondar, Joshua P; Burke, Amy C; Sutherland, Brian G; Telford, Dawn E; Sawyez, Cynthia G; Edwards, Jane Y; Pinkosky, Stephen L; Newton, Roger S; Huff, Murray W

    2017-04-01

    Bempedoic acid (ETC-1002, 8-hydroxy-2,2,14,14-tetramethylpentadecanedioic acid) is a novel low-density lipoprotein cholesterol-lowering compound. In animals, bempedoic acid targets the liver where it inhibits cholesterol and fatty acid synthesis through inhibition of ATP-citrate lyase and through activation of AMP-activated protein kinase. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that bempedoic acid would prevent diet-induced metabolic dysregulation, inflammation, and atherosclerosis. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Ldlr(-/-) mice were fed a high-fat, high-cholesterol diet (42% kcal fat, 0.2% cholesterol) supplemented with bempedoic acid at 0, 3, 10 and 30 mg/kg body weight/day. Treatment for 12 weeks dose-dependently attenuated diet-induced hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, fatty liver and obesity. Compared to high-fat, high-cholesterol alone, the addition of bempedoic acid decreased plasma triglyceride (up to 64%) and cholesterol (up to 50%) concentrations, and improved glucose tolerance. Adiposity was significantly reduced with treatment. In liver, bempedoic acid prevented cholesterol and triglyceride accumulation, which was associated with increased fatty acid oxidation and reduced fatty acid synthesis. Hepatic gene expression analysis revealed that treatment significantly increased expression of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation while suppressing inflammatory gene expression. In full-length aorta, bempedoic acid markedly suppressed cholesteryl ester accumulation, attenuated the expression of proinflammatory M1 genes and attenuated the iNos/Arg1 ratio. Treatment robustly attenuated atherosclerotic lesion development in the aortic sinus by 44%, with beneficial changes in morphology, characteristic of earlier-stage lesions. Bempedoic acid effectively prevents plasma and tissue lipid elevations and attenuates the onset of inflammation, leading to the prevention of atherosclerotic lesion development in a mouse model of metabolic

  11. Lipoic acid prevents fructose-induced changes in liver carbohydrate metabolism: Role of oxidative stress

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, María Cecilia; Massa, Maria Laura; Gagliardino, Juan Jose; Francini, Flavio

    2016-01-01

    Fructose administration rapidly induces oxidative stress that triggers compensatory hepatic metabolic changes. We evaluated the effect of an antioxidant, R/S-α-lipoic acid on fructose-induced oxidative stress and carbohydrate metabolism changes. METHODS: Wistar rats were fed a standard commercial diet, the same diet plus 10% fructose in drinking water, or injected with R/S-α-lipoic acid (35mg/kg, i.p.) (control+L and fructose+L). Three weeks thereafter, blood samples were drawn to measure g...

  12. [Prevention of preeclampsia with low-dose acetyl salicylic acid: critical assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrotti, C; Fieni, S; Gualdi, M; Cavatorta, E

    1999-01-01

    The Authors present a critical review of the published literature about the effect of low dose of acido acetilsalicilico on prevention and treatment of preeclampic. Beginning from the effects of low daily dose of acido acetilsalicilico on the pregnancy, the Authors present the published datas from 1970 until today, and suggest the present directions for use of acido acetilsalicilico in pregnancy.

  13. Combination of Antiestrogens and Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Breast Cancer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Manni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The molecular and biological heterogeneity of human breast cancer emphasizes the importance of a multitargeted approach for effective chemoprevention. Targeting the estrogen receptor pathway alone with the antiestrogens, Tamoxifen and Raloxifene reduces the incidence of estrogen receptor positive tumors but is ineffective against the development of hormone independent cancers. Our preclinical data indicate that the administration of omega-3 fatty acids potentiates the antitumor effects of Tamoxifen by inhibiting multiple proliferative and antiapoptotic pathways, several of which interact with estrogen receptor signaling. The complementarity in the mechanism of antitumor action of Tamoxifen and omega-3 fatty acids is well supported by our signaling, genomic, and proteomic studies. Furthermore, administration of omega-3 fatty acids allows the use of lower and, hence, likely less toxic doses of Tamoxifen. If these findings are supported in the clinical setting, the combination of omega-3 fatty acids and anteistrogens may emerge as a promising, effective, and safe chemopreventive strategy to be tested in a large multi-institutional trial using breast cancer incidence as the primary endpoint.

  14. Assessing Folic Acid Awareness and its Usage for the Prevention of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Neural Tube Defects Among Pregnant Women in Jos, Nigeria. Ajen Stephen Anzaku ... KEY WORDS: Awareness in pregnant women, folic acid, neural tube defects, peri-conceptional usage. Access this article online ..... Folate deficiency in women of reproductive age in nine administrative regions of Ethiopia: An emerging ...

  15. Ascorbic acid prevents cimetidine-induced decrease of serum hydrocortisone concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. Boidin (Marinus Pieter); A. Stuurman (Arie); W. Erdmann (Wilhelm)

    1990-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract A blind, parallel, prospective, clinical study was conducted to investigate the effect of ascorbic acid on human serum hydrocortisone concentrations which were decreased by the administration of cimetidine. The study population included 16 male adults scheduled for major

  16. PREVENTION OF ACID MINE DRAINAGE GENERATION FROM OPEN-PIT MINE HIGHWALLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposed, open pit mine highwalls contribute significantly to the production of acid mine drainage (AMD) thus causing environmental concerns upon closure of an operating mine. Available information on the generation of AMD from open-pit mine highwalls is very limit...

  17. ACETYLSALICYLIC ACID IN LOW DOSES FOR SECONDARY PREVENTION OF CARDIO-VASCULAR COMPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Dmitrieva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Data of evidence based medicine which confirm efficacy of acetylsalicylic acid (ACA in cardiologic practice are presented. The special attention is given to generic drugs of ACA. Their application has increased essentially recently. Some of generics are comparable with original drugs on clinical efficacy but have economic advantages.

  18. Roles of amino acids in preventing and treating intestinal diseases: recent studies with pig models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yulan; Wang, Xiuying; Hou, Yongqing; Yin, Yulong; Qiu, Yinsheng; Wu, Guoyao; Hu, Chien-An Andy

    2017-08-01

    Animal models are needed to study and understand a human complex disease. Because of their similarities in anatomy, structure, physiology, and pathophysiology, the pig has proven its usefulness in studying human gastrointestinal diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease, ischemia/reperfusion injury, diarrhea, and cancer. To understand the pathogenesis of these diseases, a number of experimental models generated in pigs are available, for example, through surgical manipulation, chemical induction, microbial infection, and genetic engineering. Our interests have been using amino acids as therapeutics in pig and human disease models. Amino acids not only play an important role in protein biosynthesis, but also exert significant physiological effects in regulating immunity, anti-oxidation, redox regulation, energy metabolism, signal transduction, and animal behavior. Recent studies in pigs have shown that specific dietary amino acids can improve intestinal integrity and function under normal and pathological conditions that protect the host from different diseases. In this review, we summarize several pig models in intestinal diseases and how amino acids can be used as therapeutics in treating pig and human diseases.

  19. Anti-oxidants do not prevent bile acid-induced cell death in rat hepatocytes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woudenberg-Vrenken, T.E.; Buist-Homan, M.; Conde de la Rosa, L.; Faber, K.N.; Moshage, H.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bile acids, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammatory cytokines are crucial regulators of cell death in acute and chronic liver diseases. The contribution of each factor to hepatocyte death, either apoptosis or necrosis, has not been clarified as yet. It has been suggested that the

  20. Anti-oxidants do not prevent bile acid-induced cell death in rat hepatocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woudenberg-Vrenken, Titia E.; Buist-Homan, Manon; Conde de la Rosa, Laura; Faber, Klaas Nico; Moshage, Han

    2010-01-01

    Background Bile acids, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammatory cytokines are crucial regulators of cell death in acute and chronic liver diseases. The contribution of each factor to hepatocyte death, either apoptosis or necrosis, has not been clarified as yet. It has been suggested that the

  1. Indole ring oxidation by activated leukocytes prevents the production of hypochlorous acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.F. Ximenes

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Hypochlorous acid (HOCl released by activated leukocytes has been implicated in the tissue damage that characterizes chronic inflammatory diseases. In this investigation, 14 indole derivatives, including metabolites such as melatonin, tryptophan and indole-3-acetic acid, were screened for their ability to inhibit the generation of this endogenous oxidant by stimulated leukocytes. The release of HOCl was measured by the production of taurine-chloramine when the leukocytes (2 x 10(6 cells/mL were incubated at 37ºC in 10 mM phosphate-buffered saline, pH 7.4, for 30 min with 5 mM taurine and stimulated with 100 nM phorbol-12-myristate acetate. Irrespective of the group substituted in the indole ring, all the compounds tested including indole, 2-methylindole, 3-methylindole, 2,3-dimethylindole, 2,5-dimethylindole, 2-phenylindole, 5-methoxyindole, 6-methoxyindole, 5-methoxy-2-methylindole, melatonin, tryptophan, indole-3-acetic acid, 5-methoxy-2-methyl-3-indole-acetic acid, and indomethacin (10 µM inhibited the chlorinating activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO in the 23-72% range. The compounds 3-methylindole and indole-3-acetic acid were chosen as representative of indole derivatives in a dose-response study using purified MPO. The IC50 obtained were 0.10 ± 0.03 and 5.0 ± 1.0 µM (N = 13, respectively. These compounds did not affect the peroxidation activity of MPO or the production of superoxide anion by stimulated leukocytes. By following the spectral change of MPO during the enzyme turnover, the inhibition of HOCl production can be explained on the basis of the accumulation of the redox form compound-II (MPO-II, which is an inactive chlorinating species. These results show that indole derivatives are effective and selective inhibitors of MPO-chlorinating activity.

  2. Prevention of comorbidity and acute attack of gout by uric acid lowering therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Kowoon; Kwon, Seong-Ryul; Lim, Mie-Jin; Jung, Kyong-Hee; Joo, Hoyeon; Park, Won

    2014-05-01

    The object of this study was to evaluate the effect of uric acid lowering therapy in reducing the new development of comorbidities and the frequency of acute attacks in gout patients. We retrospectively reviewed patients who were diagnosed to have gout with at least 3 yr of follow up. They were divided into 2 groups; 53 patients with mean serum uric acid level (sUA)gout such as hypertension (HTN), type II diabetes mellitus (DM), chronic kidney disease, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and urolithiasis were compared in each group at baseline and at last follow-up visit. Frequency of acute gout attacks were also compared between the groups. During the mean follow up period of 7.6 yr, the yearly rate of acute attack and the new development of HTN, DM, CVD and urolithiasis was lower in the adequately treated group compared to the inadequately treated group. Tight control of uric acid decreases the incidence of acute gout attacks and comorbidities of gout such as HTN, DM, CVD and urolithiasis.

  3. Prevention of angiotensin II-induced hypertension, cardiovascular hypertrophy and oxidative stress by acetylsalicylic acid in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Rong; Laplante, Marc-André; De Champlain, Jacques

    2004-04-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced oxidative stress has been suspected to play an important part in the pathogenesis of many cardiovascular diseases. Our previous study demonstrated that acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) possesses potent antioxidative properties. To evaluate the pathogenetic role of oxidative stress in Ang II-induced hypertension and cardiovascular hypertrophy. Chronic infusion of Ang II (200 ng/kg per min for 12 days) increased the aortic and cardiac tissue production of superoxide anion (O2) (lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence method) by 77 and 35%, respectively. These effects were associated with progressive increases in systolic blood pressure (from 135 to 194 mmHg) and heart/body weight ratio (from 2.25 to 2.69). Chronic treatment with oral ASA alone (100 mg/kg per day for 12 days) significantly reduced aortic and cardiac production of O2 (by 31 and 33%, respectively), without alteration in blood pressure and heart/body weight ratio in control normotensive animals. However, concurrent treatment with ASA in Ang II-infused rats completely prevented the Ang II-induced production of O2, in addition to hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy. Similar protective effects were observed in cultured aortic smooth muscle cells, in which increases in O2 production and [H]leucine incorporation (221 and 38%, respectively) induced by Ang II (10 mol/l) were totally prevented by concurrent incubation with ASA (10 mol/l). Losartan, but not PD 123319, also blocked the Ang II-induced oxidative and hypertrophic effects in those cells. Other anti-inflammatory drugs, such as salicylic acid, indomethacin and ibuprofen, did not show similar anti-Ang II and antioxidative effects in vivo. Oxidative stress plays a major part in chronic Ang II-induced hypertension and cardiovascular hypertrophy. Chronic concurrent treatment with ASA was found to prevent those Ang II-induced effects on the cardiovascular system, presumably through its antioxidative properties.

  4. Indications for Omega-3 Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid in the Prevention and Treatment of Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestel, Paul; Clifton, Peter; Colquhoun, David; Noakes, Manny; Mori, Trevor A; Sullivan, David; Thomas, Beth

    2015-08-01

    The National Heart Foundation of Australia (NHFA) 2008 review on omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) made recommendations with respect to supplementation for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Since then, new findings have been published regarding the relationship between omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, including supplementation, and cardiovascular health. A literature search was undertaken in PubMed and Medline, for literature published between January 1, 2007 and August 31, 2013. A total of eight research questions were developed and, using the National Health and Medical Research Council's evidence assessment framework, conclusions were made in relation to dietary intake of fish and omega-3 LCPUFA for cardiovascular health. In the evidence published since 2007, this summary of evidence concludes that dietary intake of fish was found to be mostly consistent with respect to protection from heart disease and stroke. Higher fish intake was associated with lower incident rates of heart failure in addition to lower sudden cardiac death, stroke and myocardial infarction. In relation to omega-3 LCPUFA supplementation, neither a beneficial nor adverse effect was demonstrated in primary or secondary prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD). Although the evidence continues to be positive for the role of omega-3 LCPUFA in the treatment of hypertriglyceridaemia and a modest positive benefit in heart failure. No further evidence was found to support the consumption of 2g alpha-linolenic acid (ALA)/day over the current Australian guidelines for 1 g/day. Copyright © 2015 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. What California sea lions exposed to domoic acid might teach us about autism: lessons for predictive and preventive medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahvis, Garet Paul

    2017-09-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) shares many biological and behavioral similarities with the deleterious effects of domoic acid (DA) exposure. DA is produced by marine algae and most commonly by species of Pseudo-nitzschia. Humans and marine mammals can be exposed to DA when they consume whole fish or shellfish. The mammalian fetus is highly sensitive to the deleterious effects of DA exposure. Both ASD and exposures to toxic levels of DA feature repetitive behaviors, challenges with social interaction, and seizures. They can also share a commonality in brain anatomy and function, particularly the balance between excitatory and inhibitory mechanisms. The current article is relevant to predictive, preventive, and personalized medicine for three reasons. First, shellfish consumption may be a risk factor for ASD and the regulatory limit for DA should be adjusted to prevent this possibility. Human contributions to increased algal production of DA in coastal waters should be identified and reduced. Second, evaluations of sentinel species wild and free-roaming in the environment, though typically outside the purview of biomedical research, should be much more fully employed to gain insights to risk factors for human disease. To better identify and prevent disease, biomedical researchers should study wild populations. Third, studies of DA exposure highlight the possibility that glutamate additives to processed foods may also have deleterious impacts on human brain development and behavior.

  6. The omega-3 fatty acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, prevents the damaging effects of tumour necrosis factor (TNF-alpha during murine skeletal muscle cell differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pearson Stephen

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA is a ώ-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid with anti-inflammatory and anti-cachetic properties that may have potential benefits with regards to skeletal muscle atrophy conditions where inflammation is present. It is also reported that pathologic levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor (TNF-α are associated with muscle wasting, exerted through inhibition of myogenic differentiation and enhanced apoptosis. These findings led us to hypothesize that EPA may have a protective effect against skeletal muscle damage induced by the actions of TNF-α. Results The deleterious effects of TNF-α on C2C12 myogenesis were completely inhibited by co-treatment with EPA. Thus, EPA prevented the TNF-mediated loss of MyHC expression and significantly increased myogenic fusion (p p p p p p Conclusion In conclusion, EPA has a protective action against the damaging effects of TNF-α on C2C12 myogenesis. These findings support further investigations of EPA as a potential therapeutic agent during skeletal muscle regeneration following injury.

  7. Improvement of glassy sol-gel sensors for preventive conservation of historical materials against acidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmona, N.

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Sensors based on sol-gel glassy coatings doped with 2[4-(dimethyl-amino phenylazo] benzoic acid are able to change their optical absorption when they are submitted to different concentration of H3O+ and OH-. The sensors behaviour in field tests was studied in Cracow (Poland, varying the normal procedure of operation to improve their response. Both the sensors optical parameters and the environmental conditions (temperature, humidity, pressure, SO2 and NOx concentrations were measured. The sensors response was analysed in terms of their visible absorbance changes, which are due to local neutralisation reactions in the sensors surface by the join effect of acid pollutants and humidity. Correlations between the main acid pollutant (SO2 concentration and the sensors response are established to provide a relation between the optical absorption and the environmental pH. The sensors are able to detect and monitorise environmental acidity, as well as to alert on the pollutant concentration that may damage most of the historical materials.

    Los sensores a base de recubrimientos vítreos sol-gel dopados con ácido 2[4-(dimetil-amino fenilazo] benzoico son capaces de cambiar su absorción óptica cuando se someten a distintas concentraciones de iones H3O+ y OH-. La respuesta de los sensores en ensayos de campo se estudió en Cracovia (Polonia variando el procedimiento normal de uso, con el fin de mejorar su respuesta. Se midieron tanto los parámetros ópticos de los sensores como las condiciones ambientales (temperatura, humedad, presión y concentraciones de SO2 y de NOx. La respuesta de los sensores se analizó en términos de los cambios de su absorción visible. Dichos cambios se deben a reacciones locales de neutralización que tienen lugar en la superficie de los sensores, debido al efecto conjunto de los contaminantes de carácter ácido y a la humedad ambiental. Se establecieron correlaciones entre la concentración del contaminante

  8. Neonatal striatal grafts prevent lethal syndrome produced by bilateral intrastriatal injection of kainic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulipan, N; Huang, S; Whetsell, W O; Allen, G S

    1986-07-02

    It is reported that unilateral grafts of neonatal striatal tissue protect the recipient from the lethal aphagia and adipsia produced by bilateral intrastriatal injection of 10 nmol of kainic acid in rats. It is shown that neither adult striatum nor neonatal tissue from other sites have the same lifesaving effect and that the salutary effect of the graft is dependent upon graft survival. Grafts from a histoincompatible donor are apparently rejected, leading to the death of the recipient. Cyclosporine inhibits rejection thereby enabling recipient survival. It is postulated that the graft exerts a neurohumoral influence that protects the striatum from the toxic effect of kainate.

  9. Role of zoledronic acid in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Räkel A

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Agnès Räkel, Andrée Boucher, Louis-Georges Ste-MarieEndocrinology, Department of Medicine. Centre de recherche du CHUM, Université de Montréal, Montréal, QC, CanadaAbstract: Taken once a year, intravenous zoledronic acid (Zol (Reclast® or Aclasta® is a third-generation nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate that is effective compared with placebo in reducing the risk of fractures in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis and recent low-trauma hip fracture. In glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis, there is no significant difference between Zol and risedronate for new fractures. Improvements in bone mineral density and early reduction of bone remodeling markers are observed in postmenopausal osteoporosis, recent low-trauma hip fracture, and glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. Given that Zol is generally well tolerated and very convenient, it is an interesting therapeutic option for aging patients who take multiple oral drugs, who have adherence or gastrointestinal tolerance issues, and who have an indication for oral bisphosphonates. Zol is not recommended for patients with severe renal impairment. Vitamin D deficiency should be corrected before the administration of Zol.Keywords: zoledronic acid, osteoporosis, elderly 

  10. Role of zoledronic acid in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räkel, Agnès; Boucher, Andrée; Ste-Marie, Louis-Georges

    2011-01-01

    Taken once a year, intravenous zoledronic acid (Zol) (Reclast® or Aclasta®) is a third-generation nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate that is effective compared with placebo in reducing the risk of fractures in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis and recent low-trauma hip fracture. In glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis, there is no significant difference between Zol and risedronate for new fractures. Improvements in bone mineral density and early reduction of bone remodeling markers are observed in postmenopausal osteoporosis, recent low-trauma hip fracture, and glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. Given that Zol is generally well tolerated and very convenient, it is an interesting therapeutic option for aging patients who take multiple oral drugs, who have adherence or gastrointestinal tolerance issues, and who have an indication for oral bisphosphonates. Zol is not recommended for patients with severe renal impairment. Vitamin D deficiency should be corrected before the administration of Zol. PMID:21594000

  11. Salvianolic acid A, a novel matrix metalloproteinase-9 inhibitor, prevents cardiac remodeling in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Baohong; Li, Defang; Deng, Yanping; Teng, Fukang; Chen, Jing; Xue, Song; Kong, Xiangqian; Luo, Cheng; Shen, Xu; Jiang, Hualiang; Xu, Feng; Yang, Wengang; Yin, Jun; Wang, Yanhui; Chen, Hui; Wu, Wanying; Liu, Xuan; Guo, De-an

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac fibrosis is a deleterious consequence of hypertension which may further advance to heart failure and increased matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) contributes to the underlying mechanism. Therefore, new therapeutic strategies to attenuate the effects of MMP-9 are urgently needed. In the present study, we characterize salvianolic acid A (SalA) as a novel MMP-9 inhibitor at molecular, cellular and animal level. We expressed a truncated form of MMP-9 which contains only the catalytic domain (MMP-9 CD), and used this active protein for enzymatic kinetic analysis and Biacore detection. Data generated from these assays indicated that SalA functioned as the strongest competitive inhibitor of MMP-9 among 7 phenolic acids from Salvia miltiorrhiza. In neonatal cardiac fibroblast, SalA inhibited fibroblast migration, blocked myofibroblast transformation, inhibited secretion of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) as well as collagen induced by MMP-9 CD. Functional effects of SalA inhibition on MMP-9 was further confirmed in cultured cardiac H9c2 cell overexpressing MMP-9 in vitro and in heart of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) in vivo. Moreover, SalA treatment in SHR resulted in decreased heart fibrosis and attenuated heart hypertrophy. These results indicated that SalA is a novel inhibitor of MMP-9, thus playing an inhibitory role in hypertensive fibrosis. Further studies to develop SalA and its analogues for their potential clinical application of cardioprotection are warranted.

  12. Structure-Antifungal Activity Relationship of Fluorinated Dihydroguaiaretic Acid Derivatives and Preventive Activity against Alternaria alternata Japanese Pear Pathotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiwaki, Hisashi; Nakazaki, Shoko; Akiyama, Koichi; Yamauchi, Satoshi

    2017-08-09

    The structure-activity relationship of the antifungal fluorinated dihydroguaiaretic acid derivatives was evaluated. Some of the newly synthesized lignan compounds were found to show higher antifungal activity against phytopathogenic fungi such as Alternaria alternata (Japanese pear and apple pathotypes) and A. citri than the lead compound, 3-fluoro-3'-methoxylignan-4'-ol (3). The broad antifungal spectrum of 3'-hydroxyphenyl derivative 16 was observed, and the 3'-fluoro-4'-hydroxyphenyl derivative 38 was found to show the highest activity against the A. alternata Japanese pear pathotype, with an EC 50 value of 11 μM. The preventive effect of the potent lignan on the infection of A. alternata in the Japanese pear's leaves was also shown.

  13. A newborn lethal defect due to inactivation of retinaldehyde dehydrogenase type 3 is prevented by maternal retinoic acid treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupé, Valérie; Matt, Nicolas; Garnier, Jean-Marie; Chambon, Pierre; Mark, Manuel; Ghyselinck, Norbert B.

    2003-01-01

    The retinoic acid (RA) signal, produced locally from vitamin A by retinaldehyde dehydrogenase (Raldh) and transduced by the nuclear receptors for retinoids (RA receptor and 9-cis-RA receptor), is indispensable for ontogenesis and homeostasis of numerous tissues. We demonstrate that Raldh3 knockout in mouse suppresses RA synthesis and causes malformations restricted to ocular and nasal regions, which are similar to those observed in vitamin A-deficient fetuses and/or in retinoid receptor mutants. Raldh3 knockout notably causes choanal atresia (CA), which is responsible for respiratory distress and death of Raldh3-null mutants at birth. CA is due to persistence of nasal fins, whose rupture normally allows the communication between nasal and oral cavities. This malformation, which is similar to isolated congenital CA in humans and may result from impaired RA-controlled down-regulation of Fgf8 expression in nasal fins, can be prevented by a simple maternal treatment with RA. PMID:14623956

  14. A Malaria Transmission-Blocking (+)-Usnic Acid Derivative Prevents Plasmodium Zygote-to-Ookinete Maturation in the Mosquito Midgut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastrana-Mena, Rebecca; Mathias, Derrick K; Delves, Michael; Rajaram, Krithika; King, Jonas G; Yee, Rebecca; Trucchi, Beatrice; Verotta, Luisella; Dinglasan, Rhoel R

    2016-12-16

    The evolution of drug resistance is a recurrent problem that has plagued efforts to treat and control malaria. Recent emergence of artemisinin resistance in Southeast Asia underscores the need to develop novel antimalarials and identify new targetable pathways in Plasmodium parasites. Transmission-blocking approaches, which typically target gametocytes in the host bloodstream or parasite stages in the mosquito gut, are recognized collectively as a strategy that when used in combination with antimalarials that target erythrocytic stages will not only cure malaria but will also prevent subsequent transmission. We tested four derivatives of (+)-usnic acid, a metabolite isolated from lichens, for transmission-blocking activity against Plasmodium falciparum using the standard membrane feeding assay. For two of the derivatives, BT37 and BT122, we observed a consistent dose-response relationship between concentration in the blood meal and oocyst intensity in the midgut. To explore their mechanism of action, we used the murine model Plasmodium berghei and found that both derivatives prevent ookinete maturation. Using fluorescence microscopy, we demonstrated that in the presence of each compound zygote vitality was severely affected, and those that did survive failed to elongate and mature into ookinetes. The observed phenotypes were similar to those described for mutants of specific kinases (NEK2/NEK4) and of inner membrane complex 1 (IMC1) proteins, which are all vital to the zygote-to-ookinete transition. We discuss the implications of our findings and our high-throughput screening approach to identifying next generation, transmission-blocking antimalarials based on the scaffolds of these (+)-usnic acid derivatives.

  15. Salicylic acid improves the salinity tolerance of Medicago sativa in symbiosis with Sinorhizobium meliloti by preventing nitrogen fixation inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, F; López-Gómez, M; Tejera, N A; Lluch, C

    2013-07-01

    In this work we have investigated the contribution of pretreatment with 0.1 and 0.5mM salicylic acid (SA) to the protection against salt stress in root nodules of Medicago sativa in symbiosis with Sinorhizobium meliloti. SA alleviated the inhibition induced by salinity in the plant growth and photosynthetic capacity of M. sativa-S. meliloti symbiosis. In addition, SA prevented the inhibition of the nitrogen fixation capacity under salt stress since nodule biomass was not affected by salinity in SA pretreated plants. Antioxidant enzymes peroxidase (POX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), dehidroascorbate reductase (DHAR) and glutathione reductase (GR), key in the main pathway that scavenges H2O2 in plants, were induced by SA pretreatments which suggest that SA may participate in the redox balance in root nodules under salt stress. Catalase activity (CAT) was inhibited around 40% by SA which could be behind the increase of H2O2 detected in nodules of plants pretreated with SA. The accumulation of polyamines (PAs) synthesized in response to salinity was prevented by SA which together with the induction of 1-aminocyclopropane-l-carboxylic acid (ACC) content suggest the prevalence of the ethylene signaling pathway induced by SA in detriment of the synthesis of PAs. In conclusion, SA alleviated the negative effect of salt stress in the M. sativa-S. meliloti symbiosis through the increased level of nodule biomass and the induction of the nodular antioxidant metabolism under salt stress. The H2O2 accumulation and the PAs inhibition induced by SA in nodules of M. sativa suggest that SA activates a hypersensitive response dependent on ethylene. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Knowledge and periconceptional use of folic acid for the prevention of neural tube defects in ethnic communities in the United Kingdom: Systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peake, Jordana N; Copp, Andrew J; Shawe, Jill

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is widely accepted that periconceptional supplementation with folic acid can prevent a significant proportion of neural tube defects (NTDs). The present study evaluated how folic acid knowledge and periconceptional use for NTD prevention varies by ethnicity in the United Kingdom (U.K.). METHODS: A literature search was conducted to identify studies that included assessment of folic acid knowledge or use in U.K. women of different ethnicities. Only research and referenced sources published after 1991, the year of the landmark Medical Research Council’s Vitamin Study, were included. A meta-analysis was performed of studies that assessed preconceptional folic acid use in Caucasians and non-Caucasians. RESULTS: Five studies met the inclusion criteria for assessment of knowledge and/or use of folic acid supplements in U.K. women including non-Caucasians. The available evidence indicates that South Asians specifically have less knowledge and lower periconceptional use of folic acid than Caucasians; one study found that West Indian and African women also had lower folic acid uptake. A synthesis of results from three of the studies, in a meta-analysis, shows that Caucasians are almost three times more likely to take folic acid before conception than non-Caucasians. CONCLUSION: From the limited evidence available, U.K. women of non-Caucasian ethnicity appear to have less knowledge and a lower uptake of folic acid supplementation than Caucasians during the periconceptional period. Implementing targeted, innovative education campaigns together with a mandatory fortification policy, including the fortification of ethnic minority foods, will be required for maximum prevention of folic acid–preventable NTDs across different ethnic groups. Birth Defects Research (Part A) 97:444–451, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23873812

  17. Total prevention of folic acid-preventable spina bifida and anencephaly would reduce child mortality in India: Implications in achieving Target 3.2 of the Sustainable Development Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kancherla, Vijaya; Oakley, Godfrey P

    2017-12-01

    The potential to reduce child mortality by preventing folic acid-preventable spina bifida and anencephaly (FAP SBA) is inadequately appreciated. To quantify possible reduction in FAP SBA-associated child mortality in low- and middle-income countries, we conducted an analysis to demonstrate in India, a country with more than 25 million births and 1.2 million under-five deaths each year, the decrease in neonatal, infant, and under-five mortality that would occur through total prevention of FAP SBA. We estimated the percent reductions in neonatal, infant, and under-five mortality that would have occurred in India in 2015 had all of FAP SBA been prevented. We also estimated the contributions of these reductions toward India's Sustainable Development Goals on child mortality indicators. We considered the overall prevalence of spina bifida and anencephaly in India as 5 per 1,000 live births, of which 90% were preventable with effective folic acid intervention. In the year 2015, folic acid interventions would have prevented about 116,070 cases of FAP SBA and 101,565 under-five deaths associated with FAP SBA. Prevention of FAP SBA would have reduced annually, neonatal, infant, and under-five mortality by 10.2%, 8.9%, and 8.3%, respectively. These reductions would have contributed 18.5% and 17.2% to the reductions in neonatal and under-five mortality, respectively, needed by India to achieve its 2030 Sustainable Developmental Goal Target 3.2 addressing preventable child mortality. Total prevention of FAP SBA clearly has a significant potential for immediate reductions in neonatal, infant, and under-five mortality in India, and similarly other countries. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Endovascular photodynamic therapy with aminolaevulinic acid prevents balloon induced intimal hyperplasia and constrictive remodelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabeler, E E E; van Hillegersberg, R; Statius van Eps, R G; Sluiter, W; Mulder, P; van Urk, H

    2002-10-01

    intimal hyperplasia (IH) and constrictive remodelling are important causes of restenosis following endovascular interventions, such as percutaneous transluminal angioplasty. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with 5-aminolaevulinic (ALA) may prevent restenosis by cellular depletion and the elimination of cholinergic innervation. rats (n=90) were subdivided into 4 main groups. In the experimental group (n=36: 3 replications x 4 doses x 3 examination time-points), ALA was administered (200mg/kg i.v.) 2-3h before balloon injury (BI) of the common iliac artery followed by endovascular illumination with 633nm at either 12.5, 25, 50 or 100J/cm diffuser length (dl BI+PDT group). As control groups served the BI+Light only (LO) group (n=36) that received no ALA, the BI only group (n=9) (BI), and a group (n=9) that received a Sham procedure (Sham group). planimetric analysis showed IH of 0.28+/-0.12mm(2) (BI), 0.27+/-0.12mm(2) (BI+LO at 100J/cmdl) in contrast to 0.02+/-0.02mm(2) after BI+PDT at 100J/cmdl at 16 weeks (pcmdl.

  19. Immunonutrition with long-chain fatty acids prevents activation of macrophages in the gut wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisner, Friederike; Jacob, Petra; Frick, Julia-Stefanie; Feilitzsch, Maximilian; Geisel, Julia; Mueller, Mario H; Küper, Markus A; Raybould, Helen E; Königsrainer, Ingmar; Glatzle, Jörg

    2011-05-01

    Immune cells and inflammatory mediators are released from the gastrointestinal tract into the mesenteric lymph during sepsis causing distant organ dysfunction. Recently, it was demonstrated that macrophages in the gut wall are controlled by the vagus nerve, the so-called cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. This study aims to investigate whether an enteral diet with lipid prevents the activation of leukocytes in the gut wall. Mesenteric lymph was obtained from rats, receiving an enteral infusion of glucose or glucose + lipid before and after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection. Immune cells in mesenteric lymph were analyzed with fluorescence-activated cell sorting before and after LPS injection. Mesenteric lymph leukocytes from rats receiving enteral glucose with or without lipid were stimulated in vitro with LPS and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α was measured in the supernatant. The release of macrophages from the gut during sepsis was not significantly different in animals enterally treated with glucose or lipid. However, the release of TNFα from mesenteric lymph leukocytes after in vitro LPS stimulation was more than 3-fold higher in the glucose group compared to the lipid-treated group. During sepsis, activated macrophages are released from the gut into mesenteric lymph. However, an enteral diet with lipid is able to suppress the inflammatory cytokine release from mesenteric lymph leukocytes.

  20. The potential of omega-3 fatty acids in the prevention of non-melanoma skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Homer S; Rhodes, Lesley E

    2006-01-01

    In toto, there is strong circumstantial evidence from both experimental and clinical studies to support a role for omega-3 FA in the prevention of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). In experimental animal studies there is direct evidence that dietary omega-3 FA inhibits ultraviolet radiation (UVR) carcinogenic expression, with regard to both increased tumor latent period and reduced tumor multiplicity. Equivalent levels of omega-6 FA increase UVR carcinogenic expression. Dietary omega-3 FA dramatically reduces the plasma and cutaneous pro-inflammatory and immunosuppressive PGE(2) levels in mice. Dietary omega-6 FA increases prostaglandin E synthase type 2 (PGE(2)) level. Dietary omega-3 FA significantly reduces the inflammatory response and sustains, or enhances, the delayed type hypersensitivity immune response in mice when compared to an equivalent dietary level of omega-6 FA. Supplementary omega-3 FA significantly increases the UVR-mediated erythema threshold in humans. Supplementary omega-3 FA significantly reduces the level of pro-inflammatory and immunosuppressive PGE(2) levels in Ultraviolet B-irradiated human skin.

  1. A prospective randomized controlled study of oral tranexamic acid for preventing postinflammatory hyperpigmentation after Q-switched ruby laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Harunosuke; Araki, Jun; Eto, Hitomi; Doi, Kentaro; Hirai, Rintaro; Kuno, Shinichiro; Higashino, Takuya; Yoshimura, Kotaro

    2011-05-01

    Postinflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH) is the most common skin complication in Asians after invasive cosmetic treatments. To determine whether oral tranexamic acid (TA) reduces the incidence of PIH after Q-switched ruby laser (QSRL) treatment. Thirty-two Japanese women underwent QSRL treatment for senile lentigines on the face. They were randomly divided into two groups that did (n=15) and did not (n=17) receive oral TA treatment (750 mg/d) for the first 4 weeks after QSRL treatment. Nineteen participants had melasma-like maculae at baseline. Clinical and colorimetric assessments were performed at baseline and 2 and 4 weeks later. Pigmentation was effectively treated using QSRL at 2 weeks, but PIH was frequently seen at 4 weeks. There was no significant difference in the incidence of PIH between participants who received oral TA and those who did not. The presence of melasma did not influence the effectiveness of the treatment. Although oral TA has been reported to have depigmentation effects, it may not be effective for preventing PIH after QSRL. Considering the dosage and duration of treatment, an optimal protocol may be needed to induce the efficacy of this treatment to achieve the PIH-preventing effect of oral TA. © 2011 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc.

  2. Association between polyunsaturated fatty acids and inflammatory markers in patients in secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersch-Ferreira, Ângela Cristine; Sampaio, Geni Rodrigues; Gehringer, Marcella Omena; Ross-Fernandes, Maria Beatriz; Kovacs, Cristiane; Alves, Renata; Pereira, Jaqueline Lopes; Magnoni, Carlos Daniel; Weber, Bernardete; Rogero, Marcelo Macedo

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the association between polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and inflammatory biomarkers among patients in secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD). In this cross-sectional substudy from BALANCE Program Trial, we have collected data from 364 patients with established CVD. Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls and plasma FA concentrations were analyzed to estimate the FA intake. Inflammatory biomarkers measurement consisted of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, C-reactive protein, adiponectin, and tumor necrosis factor-α. After log-transformation of inflammatory biomarkers, multivariate-adjusted general linear model was used to examine the effect of FA intake. The association was adjusted for body mass index, waist circumference, energy, smoking status, age, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, physical activity, and calcium channel blockers. PUFAs were inversely associated with C-reactive protein levels (P = 0.006) and with IL-1 β. The increase of 1 g/1000 kcal in PUFAs, omega-3, and omega-6 reduces, on average, 6%, 48%, and 8% respectively, the mean concentration of IL-1 β. Omega-3 and omega-6 FA intakes are inversely associated with inflammatory biomarkers among CVD patients. Additional studies on omega-3 and omega-6 intake in relation to inflammatory biomarkers in patients in secondary prevention of CVD are needed, particularly regarding dietary patterns that are rich in some sources of PUFA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Tranexamic acid without prophylactic factor replacement for prevention of bleeding in hereditary bleeding disorder patients undergoing endoscopy: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, A; Walsh, M; McCarthy, P; Brown, G; Roberts, S; Tran, H; Street, A; Fong, C Y; Kemp, W

    2013-07-01

    The risk of bleeding in patients with hereditary bleeding disorders (HBD) undergoing gastro-intestinal (GI) endoscopic procedures is unknown but guidelines generally recommend correction of factor deficiency. Investigate the safety of oral tranexamic acid (TA) without prophylactic factor replacement to prevent bleeding complications in patients with HBD undergoing elective GI endoscopic procedures. A prospective single-arm pilot study testing the feasibility of using TA, without prophylactic factor replacement or desmopressin preprocedure, for prevention of bleeding complications following elective standard risk (A/B (n = 12), severe haemophilia A/B (n = 9), von Willebrand disease (n = 5), FXI deficiency (n = 1) and FVII deficiency (n = 1). Procedures performed included 11 gastroscopies, 12 colonoscopies, 8 gastroscopies and colonoscopies and 1 flexible sigmoidoscopy. Fourteen standard risk procedures and two high risk procedures were performed. Two patients experienced Grade 1 bleeding and one patient experienced Grade 2 bleeding. This study suggests that TA without prophylactic factor replacement may be a safe approach for mild and moderate HBD patients undergoing standard risk endoscopic procedures, particularly where no biopsy is performed. These findings should be confirmed in a larger study. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Ferulic acid promotes survival and differentiation of neural stem cells to prevent gentamicin-induced neuronal hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Lintao; Cui, Xinhua; Wei, Wei; Yang, Jia; Li, Xuezhong

    2017-11-15

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) have exhibited promising potential in therapies against neuronal hearing loss. Ferulic acid (FA) has been widely reported to enhance neurogenic differentiation of different stem cells. We investigated the role of FA in promoting NSC transplant therapy to prevent gentamicin-induced neuronal hearing loss. NSCs were isolated from mouse cochlear tissues to establish in vitro culture, which were then treated with FA. The survival and differentiation of NSCs were evaluated. Subsequently, neurite outgrowth and excitability of the in vitro neuronal network were assessed. Gentamicin was used to induce neuronal hearing loss in mice, in the presence and absence of FA, followed by assessments of auditory brainstem response (ABR) and distortion product optoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) amplitude. FA promoted survival, neurosphere formation and differentiation of NSCs, as well as neurite outgrowth and excitability of in vitro neuronal network. Furthermore, FA restored ABR threshold shifts and DPOAE in gentamicin-induced neuronal hearing loss mouse model in vivo. Our data, for the first time, support potential therapeutic efficacy of FA in promoting survival and differentiation of NSCs to prevent gentamicin-induced neuronal hearing loss. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Tailor-made preventive medicine integrating amino acid checkup and its application toward disaster-stricken areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Masahiro; Tochikubo, Osamu

    2012-01-01

    ICT technologies for healthcare are useful in myriad locations for people with lifestyle-related illnesses and health irregularities. When symptoms turn into actual illnesses, it is difficult for them to be managed, and this situation is relevant for managing the health of victims after large-scale disasters; it is important to keep people healthy to prevent them from acquiring illness. This paper proposes a system of personalized preventive medicine for individuals to maintain their health and receive evidence-based feedback. We introduce general medical checkups, ubiquitous sensing, and plasma amino acid analysis as the system's core components. We evaluate these elements and discuss their applicability toward the disaster-stricken Tohoku area of Japan. This is an initial evaluation, but some functions are being used in the area. There are gaps between research results and actually deployable technologies, but it is important to use and improve the quality of life of victims who are ultimately forced to live in temporary housing for more than five years.

  6. Long-Chain Omega-3 Fatty Acids Supplementation Accelerates Nerve Regeneration and Prevents Neuropathic Pain Behavior in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela V. Silva

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Fish oil (FO is the main source of long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs, which display relevant analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties. Peripheral nerve injury is driven by degeneration, neuroinflammation, and neuronal plasticity which results in neuropathic pain (NP symptoms such as allodynia and hyperalgesia. We tested the preventive effect of an EPA/DHA-concentrate fish oil (CFO on NP development and regenerative features. Swiss mice received daily oral treatment with CFO 4.6 or 2.3 g/kg for 10 days after NP was induced by partial sciatic nerve ligation. Mechanical allodynia and thermal hypernociception were assessed 5 days after injury. CFO 2.3 g/kg significantly prevented mechanical and thermal sensitization, reduced TNF levels in the spinal cord, sciatic MPO activity, and ATF-3 expression on DRG cells. CFO improved Sciatic Functional Index (SFI as well as electrophysiological recordings, corroborating the increased GAP43 expression and total number of myelinated fibers observed in sciatic nerve. No locomotor activity impairment was observed in CFO treated groups. These results point to the regenerative and possibly protective properties of a combined EPA and DHA oral administration after peripheral nerve injury, as well as its anti-neuroinflammatory activity, evidencing ω-3 PUFAs promising therapeutic outcomes for NP treatment.

  7. Preventive Effect of Quercetin(A Flavonoid on Ulcerogenic of Acetyl Salisylic Acid in Rat’s Gastric Mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Malek

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Lesion of the gastric mucosa is the most prevalent side effect of aspirin. Flavonoids with actions such as antioxidant, free radical scavenger and lipid peroxidant inhibitor can prevent mucosal lesion caused by aspirin. In this research effect of quercetin, as the most abundant flavonoid in human diet, was investigated on preventing ulcerogenic effect of aspirin or Acetyl Salisylic Acid(ASA.Eighteen male Wistar rats (220-330gr were randomly divided into 3 groups (6 in each group. In all groups consumption materials were adminstrated only once in acute form. First and second groups, as control groups, received ASA vehicle (1ml, orally and ASA suspension (300mg/kg, 1ml, orally respectively. The third group had a pretreatment with quercetin (200mg/kg half an hour before consumption of 300mg/kg ASA. After consumptiom the materials animals were kept 3hours, after that stomach was removed and was assessed for macroscopic and microscopis stomach mucosal lesions. Our results showed that, oral adminstration of ASA (300mg/kg caused considerable stomach mucosal lesions (P<0.05 and pretreatment with quercetin decreased the lesions (P<0.05. Therefore quercetin can be effecttive in protecting stomach mucosa against ulcers caused by ASA. Although the mechanism of quercetin action is not known, it might be used for mucosal protection with further investigations.

  8. Prevention of valproic acid-induced neural tube defects by sildenafil citrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiboni, Gian Mario; Ponzano, Adalisa

    2015-08-15

    This study was undertaken to test the effects of sildenafil citrate (SC), a type 5 phosphodiesterase inhibitor, on valproic acid (VPA)-induced teratogenesis. On gestation day (GD) 8, ICR (CD-1) mice were treated by gastric intubation with SC at 0 (vehicle), 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 or 10mg/kg. One hour later, animals received a teratogenic dose of VPA (600mg/kg) or vehicle. Developmental endpoints were evaluated near the end of gestation. Twenty-eighth percent of fetuses exposed to VPA had neural tube defects (exencephaly). Pretreatment with SC at 2.5, 5.0 or 10mg/kg significantly reduced the rate of VPA-induced exencephaly to 15.9%, 13.7%, and 10.0%, respectively. Axial skeletal defects were observed in 75.8% of VPA-exposed fetuses. Pre-treatment with SC at 10mg/kg, but not at lower doses, significantly decreased the rate of skeletally affected fetuses to 61.6%. These results show that SC, which prolongs nitric oxide (NO) signaling action protects from VPA-induced teratogenesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Characterization of Green Liquor Dregs, Potentially Useful for Prevention of the Formation of Acid Rock Drainage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Mäkitalo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Using alternative materials such as residual products from other industries to mitigate the negative effects of acid rock drainage would simultaneously solve two environmental problems. The main residual product still landfilled by sulphate paper mills is the alkaline material green liquor dregs (GLD. A physical, mineralogical and chemical characterization of four batches of GLD was carried out to evaluate the potential to use it as a sealing layer in the construction of dry covers on sulphide-bearing mine waste. GLD has relatively low hydraulic conductivity (10−8 to 10−9 m/s, a high water retention capacity (WRC and small particle size. Whilst the chemical and mineralogical composition varied between the different batches, these variations were not reflected in properties such as hydraulic conductivity and WRC. Due to relatively low trace element concentrations, leaching of contaminants from the GLD is not a concern for the environment. However, GLD is a sticky material, difficult to apply on mine waste deposits and the shear strength is insufficient for engineering applications. Therefore, improving the mechanical properties is necessary. In addition, GLD has a high buffering capacity indicating that it could act as an alkaline barrier. Once engineering technicalities have been overcome, the long-term effectiveness of GLD should be studied, especially the effect of aging and how the sealing layer would be engineered in respect to topography and climatic conditions.

  10. OMEGA-3 POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS IN ATRIAL FIBRILLATION PREVENTION AFTER SURGICAL MYOCARDIAL REVASCULARIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Panov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To estimate an efficacy of therapy with ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA in patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD before and after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG.Material and methods. 189 patients (125 men, 64 women; aged 64,2±9,4 y.o. with IHD having indications to CABG were enrolled in the study. Patients of the first group (control had standard pre- and postoperative treatment. Patients of the second group received ω-3 PUFA (ОМАCОR, Solvay Pharma 2 g/daily in addition to standard therapy. Both groups were similar in clinical characteristics. ω-3 PUFA therapy started 7±4 day before CABG, renewed in early postoperative period (24-36 hours after surgery and lasted next 14 days. Efficacy of the therapy was estimated by atrial fibrillation frequency in postoperative period and time before hospital discharge after CABG. An automatic complex for transesophageal electrophysiological cardiac examination was used for the estimation of atrial conduction before and after CABG.Results. Omacor therapy in patients with ICD before CABG and in the early postoperative period reduces atrial fibrillation risk. It results in reduction of hemodynamic disorders and time before hospital discharge. Conclusion. Omacor therapy is safe and can be recommended to all patients going through CABG.

  11. Fusarium Head Blight Control and Prevention of Mycotoxin Contamination in Wheat with Botanicals and Tannic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Rudolf Forrer

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Suspensions or solutions with 1% of Chinese galls (Galla chinensis, GC or 1% of tannic acid (TA, inhibited germination of conidia or mycelium growth of Fusarium graminearum (FG by 98%–100% or by 75%–80%, respectively, whereas dried bark from buckthorn (Frangula alnus, FA showed no effect at this concentration. In climate chamber experiments where the wheat variety “Apogee” was artificially inoculated with FG and F. crookwellense (FCr and treated with 5% suspensions of TA, GC and FA, the deoxynivalenol (DON content in grains was reduced by 81%, 67% and 33%, respectively. In field experiments with two commercial wheat varieties and artificial or semi-natural inoculations, mean DON reductions of 66% (TA and 58% (FA, respectively, were obtained. Antifungal toxicity can explain the high efficacies of TA and GC but not those of FA. The Fusarium head blight (FHB and mycotoxin reducing effect of FA is probably due to elicitation of resistance in wheat plants. With semi-natural inoculation, a single FA application in the first half of the flowering period performed best. However, we assume that applications of FA at the end of ear emergence and a treatment, triggered by an infection period, with TA or GC during flowering, might perform better than synthetic fungicides.

  12. Enzyme responsive hyaluronic acid nanocapsules containing polyhexanide and their exposure to bacteria to prevent infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baier, Grit; Cavallaro, Alex; Vasilev, Krasimir; Mailänder, Volker; Musyanovych, Anna; Landfester, Katharina

    2013-04-08

    Antibacterial nanodevices could bring coatings of plastic materials and wound dressings a big step forward if the release of the antibacterial agents could be triggered by the presence of the bacteria themselves. Here, we show that novel hyaluronic acid (HA)-based nanocapsules containing the antimicrobial agent polyhexanide are specifically cleaved in the presence of hyaluronidase, a factor of pathogenicity and invasion for bacteria like Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. This resulted in an efficient killing of the pathogenic bacteria by the antimicrobial agent. The formation of different polymeric nanocapsules was achieved through a polyaddition reaction in inverse miniemulsion. After the synthesis, the nanocapsules were transferred to an aqueous medium and investigated in terms of size, size distribution, functionality, and morphology using dynamic light scattering, zeta potential measurements and scanning electron microscopy. The enzyme triggered release of a model dye and the antimicrobial polyhexanide was monitored using fluorescence and UV spectroscopy. The stability of the nanocapsules in several biological media was tested and the interaction of nanocapsules with human serum protein was studied using isothermal titration calorimetry. The antibacterial effectiveness is demonstrated by determination of the antibacterial activity and determination of the minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC).

  13. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids: Their potential role in blood pressure prevention and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Borghi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs from fish and fish oils appear to protect against coronary heart disease: their dietary intake is in fact inversely associated to cardiovascular disease morbidity/mortality in population studies. Recent evidence suggests that at least part of their heart protective effect is mediated by a relatively small but significant decrease in blood pressure level. In fact, omega-3 PUFAs exhibit wide-ranging biological actions that include regulating both vasomotor tone and renal sodium excretion, partly competing with omega- 6 PUFAs for common metabolic enzymes and thereby decreasing the production of vasocostrincting rather than vasodilating and anti-inflammatory eicosanoids. PUFAs also reduce angiotensin- converting enzyme (ACE activity, angiotensin II formation, TGF-beta expression, enhance eNO generation and activate the parasympathetic nervous system. The final result is improved vasodilation and arterial compliance of both small and large arteries. Preliminary clinical trials involving dyslipidemic patients, diabetics and elderly subjects, as well as normotensive and hypertensive subjects confirm this working hypothesis. Future research will clarify if PUFA supplementation could improve the antihypertensive action of specific blood pressure lowering drug classes and of statins.

  14. Epsilon aminocaproic acid prevents bleeding in severely thrombocytopenic patients with hematological malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antun, Ana G; Gleason, Shannon; Arellano, Martha; Langston, Amelia A; McLemore, Morgan L; Gaddh, Manila; el Rassi, Fuad; Bernal-Mizrachi, Leon; Galipeau, Jacques; Heffner, Leonard T; Winton, Elliott F; Khoury, Hanna J

    2013-11-01

    Despite prophylactic platelet transfusions, bleeding remains a significant problem in thrombocytopenic patients. The antifibrinolytic agent epsilon aminocaproic acid (EACA) was administered to 44 chronically (median duration, 273 days) and severely (platelet count, 8 × 10(9)/L; range, 1 × 10(9)/L-19 × 10(9)/L) thrombocytopenic patients with hematological malignancies. Prophylactic EACA at a dose of 1 g twice daily was orally administered for a median duration of 47 days (range, 7 days-209 days) until the platelet count recovered to > 30; × 10(9) /L. Platelets were only transfused if bleeding occurred. While receiving EACA, 59% of the patients did not bleed, 25% had 19 episodes of spontaneously resolving minor bleeding that did not require platelet transfusion, and 16% received a median of 4 platelet transfusions (range, 1 transfusion-8 transfusions) for 1 major traumatic and 9 spontaneous grade 2 to grade 3 bleeding (based on the World Health Organization classification of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura). No EACA toxicities were noted, and venous thromboses were not observed. EACA is well tolerated and is associated with a low risk of major bleeding in patients with hematological malignancies who are experiencing chronic severe thrombocytopenia. © 2013 American Cancer Society.

  15. Epsilon aminocaproic acid for the prevention of delayed postoperative bleeding in retired racing greyhounds undergoing gonadectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín, Liliana M; Iazbik, M Cristina; Zaldivar-Lopez, Sara; Guillaumin, Julien; McLoughlin, Mary A; Couto, C Guillermo

    2012-07-01

    To evaluate the effects of epsilon aminocaproic acid (EACA) on the prevalence of postoperative bleeding in retired racing Greyhounds (RRG), and to assess its effects on selected thrombelastography (TEG) and fibrinolysis variables. Double-blinded, prospective, randomized study. 100 RRG had elective ovariohysterectomy or orchiectomy and were administered EACA or placebo for 3 days after surgery. TEG variables were analyzed preoperatively and 24, 48, and 72 hours after surgery. Thirty percent (15/50) of RRG in the placebo group had delayed postoperative bleeding starting 36-48 hours after surgery compared with 10% (5/50) in the EACA group (P = .012). On the TEG variables, the slopes for R and K time were significantly different between treatment groups (P <.05); the R and K time decreased over time in the EACA group after surgery whereas they increased in the placebo group. The angle, maximal amplitude (MA), and G slopes were also significantly different between treatment groups (P = .001, .001, and .006, respectively). The angle, MA, and G increased postoperatively over time in the EACA group and decreased in the placebo group. All these changes are supportive of hypercoagulability associated with EACA administration. Postoperative administration of EACA significantly decreased the prevalence of postoperative bleeding in RRG undergoing surgery by increasing the clot strength. © Copyright 2012 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  16. Ellagic acid prevents monocrotaline-induced pulmonary artery hypertension via inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasome activation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Bing; Chen, Guang-xian; Liang, Meng-ya; Yao, Jian-ping; Wu, Zhong-kai

    2015-02-01

    Pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH) is characterized by vascular remodeling, high pulmonary blood pressure, and right ventricular hypertrophy. Oxidative stress, inflammation and pulmonary artery remodeling are important components in PAH. Ellagic acid (EA) is a phenolic compound with anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-proliferative properties. This study aimed to investigate whether EA could prevent the development of monocrotaline (MCT)-induced PAH in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received EA (30 and 50mg/kg/day) or vehicle one day after a single-dose of monocrotaline (MCT, 60mg/kg). Hemodynamic changes, right ventricular hypertrophy, and lung morphological features were assessed 4weeks later. Activation of the NLRP3 (NACHT, LRR, and PYD domain-containing protein 3) inflammasome pathway in the lungs was assessed using Western blot analysis. MCT induced PAH, oxidative stress, and NLRP3 inflammasome activation in vehicle-treated rats. EA reduced the right ventricle systolic pressure, the right ventricular hypertrophy and the wall thickness/external diameter ratio of the pulmonary arteries compared with vehicle. EA also inhibited the MCT-induced elevation of oxidative stress, NLRP3, and caspase-1, IL-β in the lungs and the elevated levels of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and inflammatory cytokines in serum. Ellagic acid ameliorates monocrotaline-induced pulmonary artery hypertension via exerting its anti-oxidative property inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasome signal pathway in rats. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  17. A Prevention of Pre-eclampsia with the Use of Acetylsalicylic Acid and Low-molecular Weight Heparin - Molecular Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmochwal-Kolarz, Dorota; Kolarz, Bogdan; Korzeniewski, Michal; Kimber-Trojnar, Zaneta; Patro-Malysza, Jolanta; Mierzynski, Radzisław; Przegalinska-Kałamucka, Monika; Oleszczuk, Jan

    Pre-eclampsia appears to be the main cause for the maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Pregnant women with pre-eclampsia are more likely to be threatened with conditions which potentially may be lethal, such as: disseminated intravascular coagulation, cerebral hemorrhage, liver and renal failure. Pregnancy complicated with pre-eclampsia is also associated with a greater risk for iatrogenic prematurity, intrauterine growth retardation, premature abruption of placenta, and even intrauterine fetal death. In the majority of cases the reasons for arterial hypertension among pregnant women remain obscure. For the past decades, there were many abortive attempts in the use of some microelements, vitamins or specific diets, such as polyunsaturated fatty acids, for the prophylaxis of pre-eclampsia. Recently, it has been shown that a prevention of pre-eclampsia with the use of a lowmolecular- weight heparins (LMWHs) and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) could considerably reduce the frequency of preeclampsia. In this review, we present the studies concerning the applications of LMWHs and aspirin in the prophylaxis of pre-eclampsia and some important data about the mechanisms of anti-inflammatory actions of LMWHs and ASA.

  18. High Pancreatic n-3 Fatty Acids Prevent STZ-Induced Diabetes in Fat-1 Mice: Inflammatory Pathway Inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellenger, Jérôme; Bellenger, Sandrine; Bataille, Amandine; Massey, Karen A.; Nicolaou, Anna; Rialland, Mickaël; Tessier, Christian; Kang, Jing X.; Narce, Michel

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Because of confounding factors, the effects of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on type 1 diabetes remain to be clarified. We therefore evaluated whether fat-1 transgenic mice, a well-controlled experimental model endogenously synthesizing n-3 PUFA, were protected against streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes. We then aimed to elucidate the in vivo response at the pancreatic level. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS β-Cell destruction was produced by multiple low-doses STZ (MLD-STZ). Blood glucose level, plasma insulin level, and plasma lipid analysis were then performed. Pancreatic mRNA expression of cytokines, the monocyte chemoattractant protein, and GLUT2 were evaluated as well as pancreas nuclear factor (NF)-κB p65 and inhibitor of κB (IκB) protein expression. Insulin and cleaved caspase-3 immunostaining and lipidomic analysis were performed in the pancreas. RESULTS STZ-induced fat-1 mice did not develop hyperglycemia compared with wild-type mice, and β-cell destruction was prevented as evidenced by lack of histological pancreatic damage or reduced insulin level. The prevention of β-cell destruction was associated with no proinflammatory cytokine induction (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, inducible nitric oxide synthase) in the pancreas, a decreased NF-κB, and increased IκB pancreatic protein expression. In the fat-1–treated mice, proinflammatory arachidonic-derived mediators as prostaglandin E2 and 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid were decreased and the anti-inflammatory lipoxin A4 was detected. Moreover, the 18-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid, precursor of the anti-inflammatory resolvin E1, was highly increased. CONCLUSIONS Collectively, these findings indicate that fat-1 mice were protected against MLD-STZ–induced diabetes and pointed out for the first time in vivo the beneficial effects of n-3 PUFA at the pancreatic level, on each step of the development of the pathology—inflammation, β-cell damage—through cytokine

  19. Ursodeoxycholic acid prevents ventricular conduction slowing and arrhythmia by restoring T-type calcium current in fetuses during cholestasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oladipupo Adeyemi

    Full Text Available Increased maternal serum bile acid concentrations in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP are associated with fetal cardiac arrhythmias. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA has been shown to demonstrate anti-arrhythmic properties via preventing ICP-associated cardiac conduction slowing and development of reentrant arrhythmias, although the cellular mechanism is still being elucidated.High-resolution fluorescent optical mapping of electrical activity and electrocardiogram measurements were used to characterize effects of UDCA on one-day-old neonatal and adult female Langendorff-perfused rat hearts. ICP was modelled by perfusion of taurocholic acid (TC, 400μM. Whole-cell calcium currents were recorded from neonatal rat and human fetal cardiomyocytes.TC significantly prolonged the PR interval by 11.0±3.5% (P<0.05 and slowed ventricular conduction velocity (CV by 38.9±5.1% (P<0.05 exclusively in neonatal and not in maternal hearts. A similar CV decline was observed with the selective T-type calcium current (ICa,T blocker mibefradil 1μM (23.0±6.2%, P<0.05, but not with the L-type calcium current (ICa,L blocker nifedipine 1μM (6.9±6.6%, NS. The sodium channel blocker lidocaine (30μM reduced CV by 60.4±4.5% (P<0.05. UDCA co-treatment was protective against CV slowing induced by TC and mibefradil, but not against lidocaine. UDCA prevented the TC-induced reduction in the ICa,T density in both isolated human fetal (-10.2±1.5 versus -5.5±0.9 pA/pF, P<0.05 and neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (-22.3±1.1 versus -9.6±0.8 pA/pF, P<0.0001, whereas UDCA had limited efficacy on the ICa,L.Our findings demonstrate that ICa,T plays a significant role in ICP-associated fetal cardiac conduction slowing and arrhythmogenesis, and is an important component of the fetus-specific anti-arrhythmic activity of UDCA.

  20. Ursodeoxycholic acid prevents ventricular conduction slowing and arrhythmia by restoring T-type calcium current in fetuses during cholestasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyemi, Oladipupo; Alvarez-Laviada, Anita; Schultz, Francisca; Ibrahim, Effendi; Trauner, Michael; Williamson, Catherine; Glukhov, Alexey V; Gorelik, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Increased maternal serum bile acid concentrations in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) are associated with fetal cardiac arrhythmias. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) has been shown to demonstrate anti-arrhythmic properties via preventing ICP-associated cardiac conduction slowing and development of reentrant arrhythmias, although the cellular mechanism is still being elucidated. High-resolution fluorescent optical mapping of electrical activity and electrocardiogram measurements were used to characterize effects of UDCA on one-day-old neonatal and adult female Langendorff-perfused rat hearts. ICP was modelled by perfusion of taurocholic acid (TC, 400μM). Whole-cell calcium currents were recorded from neonatal rat and human fetal cardiomyocytes. TC significantly prolonged the PR interval by 11.0±3.5% (P<0.05) and slowed ventricular conduction velocity (CV) by 38.9±5.1% (P<0.05) exclusively in neonatal and not in maternal hearts. A similar CV decline was observed with the selective T-type calcium current (ICa,T) blocker mibefradil 1μM (23.0±6.2%, P<0.05), but not with the L-type calcium current (ICa,L) blocker nifedipine 1μM (6.9±6.6%, NS). The sodium channel blocker lidocaine (30μM) reduced CV by 60.4±4.5% (P<0.05). UDCA co-treatment was protective against CV slowing induced by TC and mibefradil, but not against lidocaine. UDCA prevented the TC-induced reduction in the ICa,T density in both isolated human fetal (-10.2±1.5 versus -5.5±0.9 pA/pF, P<0.05) and neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (-22.3±1.1 versus -9.6±0.8 pA/pF, P<0.0001), whereas UDCA had limited efficacy on the ICa,L. Our findings demonstrate that ICa,T plays a significant role in ICP-associated fetal cardiac conduction slowing and arrhythmogenesis, and is an important component of the fetus-specific anti-arrhythmic activity of UDCA.

  1. Folic acid usage and associated factors in the prevention of neural tube defects among pregnant women in Ethiopia: cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessie, Meselech Ambaw; Zeleke, Ejigu Gebeye; Workie, Shimelash Bitew; Berihun, Ayanaw Worku

    2017-09-21

    Neural tube defects are among the most common birth defects, contributing to miscarriage, infant mortality, severe congenital abnormalities and serious disabilities. It is burdensome to patients, caregivers, healthcare systems and society. It could be reduced if women consume a folic acid supplement before and during the early weeks of pregnancy. This study assesses folic acid usage and associated factors for the prevention of neural tube defects among pregnant women in Ethiopia. Institution based cross-sectional study was conducted on 417 systematically sampled, consented pregnant women that visited Adama hospital medical college for antenatal care during August to November 2014. Pretested interviewer administered questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic, obstetric characteristics and folic acid usage of women. About 48.4% of women took a folic acid supplement at different period of pregnancy; but, only 1.92% of women took the supplement at a protective period against neural tube defects. Age, the early timing of antenatal registration, was a preconception consulted, previous unsuccessful pregnancies and level of folic acid awareness were significantly associated with folic acid usage for prevention of neural tube defects. Folic acid usage during the protective period against neural tube defects among women in Ethiopia is very low, so healthcare plan to improve intake of folic acid is required.

  2. Prevention of Bone Loss after Acute SCI by Zoledronic Acid: Durability, Effect on Bone Strength, and Use of Biomarkers to Guide Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-14-2-0193 TITLE: Prevention of Bone Loss after Acute SCI by Zoledronic Acid: Durability, Effect on Bone Strength, and Use of... Bone Loss after Acute SCI by Zoledronic Acid: Durability, Effect on Bone Strength, and Use of Biomarkers to Guide Therapy 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Rapid bone loss is a universal accompaniment of acute spinal cord injury (SCI) and leads to severe loss of bone

  3. Glycyrrhizic acid, active component from Glycyrrhizae radix, prevents toxicity of graphene oxide by influencing functions of microRNAs in nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yunli; Jia, Ruhan; Qiao, Yan; Wang, Dayong

    2016-04-01

    We investigated effects of pretreatment with Glycyrrhizae radix (GR) or its specific components on toxicity of graphene oxide (GO) in Caenorhabditis elegans. GR pretreatment prevented GO toxicity on function of both primary and secondary targeted organs. Among active components in GR, the beneficial effects of GR were attributable to presence of glycyrrhizic acid. Glycyrrhizic acid pretreatment suppressed translocation of GO into secondary targeted organs through intestinal barrier. Glycyrrhizic acid pretreatment recovered expression patterns of dysregulated microRNAs (miRNAs) induced by GO, and genes required for oxidative stress control acted as targeted genes for some of these miRNAs. Among these miRNAs, mir-360 mutation enhanced beneficial effects of glycyrrhizic acid. We hypothesize that glycyrrhizic acid may prevent GO toxicity and translocation by influencing functions of miRNAs which upstream regulate functions of their targeted genes. Furthermore, glycyrrhizic acid had potential to extend lifespan, and to suppress accelerated aging process induced by GO. Exposure to graphene oxide may pose toxic effects to health, as suggested in animal studies. In this article, the authors showed that the use of glycyrrhizae radix (GR) prevented toxicity of graphene oxide in Caenorhabditis elegans. These results may provide novel strategies in the reducing potential side effects of nanoparticles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Preventive effects of p-coumaric acid on cardiac hypertrophy and alterations in electrocardiogram, lipids, and lipoproteins in experimentally induced myocardial infarcted rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Abhro Jyoti; Stanely Mainzen Prince, P

    2013-10-01

    The present study evaluated the preventive effects of p-coumaric acid on cardiac hypertrophy and alterations in electrocardiogram, lipids, and lipoproteins in experimentally induced myocardial infarcted rats. Rats were pretreated with p-coumaric acid (8 mg/kg body weight) daily for a period of 7 days and then injected with isoproterenol (100mg/kg body weight) on 8th and 9th day to induce myocardial infarction. Myocardial infarction induced by isoproterenol was indicated by increased level of cardiac sensitive marker and elevated ST-segments in the electrocardiogram. Also, the levels/concentrations of serum and heart cholesterol, triglycerides and free fatty acids were increased in myocardial infarcted rats. Isoproterenol also increased the levels of serum low density and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol and decreased the levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol. It also enhanced the activity of liver 3-hydroxy-3 methyl glutaryl-Coenzyme-A reductase. p-Coumaric acid pretreatment revealed preventive effects on all the biochemical parameters and electrocardiogram studied in myocardial infarcted rats. The in vitro study confirmed the free radical scavenging property of p-coumaric acid. Thus, p-coumaric acid prevented cardiac hypertrophy and alterations in lipids, lipoproteins, and electrocardiogram, by virtue of its antihypertrophic, antilipidemic, and free radical scavenging effects in isoproterenol induced myocardial infarcted rats. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Prevention of Acid Mine Drainage Through Complexation of Ferric Iron by Soluble Microbial Growth Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, S.; Yacob, T. W.; Silverstein, J.; Rajaram, H.; Minchow, K.; Basta, J.

    2011-12-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is a widespread environmental problem with deleterious impacts on water quality in streams and watersheds. AMD is generated largely by the oxidation of metal sulfides (i.e. pyrite) by ferric iron. This abiotic reaction is catalyzed by conversion of ferrous to ferric iron by iron and sulfur oxidizing microorganisms. Biostimulation is currently being investigated as an attempt to inhibit the oxidation of pyrite and growth of iron oxidizing bacteria through addition of organic carbon. This may stimulate growth of indigenous communities of acidophilic heterotrophic bacteria to compete for oxygen. The goal of this research is to investigate a secondary mechanism associated with carbon addition: complexation of free Fe(III) by soluble microbial growth products (SMPs) produced by microorganisms growing in waste rock. Exploratory research at the laboratory scale examined the effect of soluble microbial products (SMPs) on the kinetics of oxidation of pure pyrite during shaker flask experiments. The results confirmed a decrease in the rate of pyrite oxidation that was dependent upon the concentration of SMPs in solution. We are using these data to verify results from a pyrite oxidation model that accounts for SMPs. This reactor model involves differential-algebraic equations incorporating total component mass balances and mass action laws for equilibrium reactions. Species concentrations determined in each time step are applied to abiotic pyrite oxidation rate expressions from the literature to determine the evolution of total component concentrations. The model was embedded in a parameter estimation algorithm to determine the reactive surface area of pyrite in an abiotic control experiment, yielding an optimized value of 0.0037 m2. The optimized model exhibited similar behavior to the experiment for this case; the root mean squared of residuals for Fe(III) was calculated to be 7.58 x 10-4 M, which is several orders of magnitude less than the actual

  6. Polylactic acid nanosheets in prevention of postoperative intestinal adhesion and their effects on bacterial propagation in an experimental model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinoki, A; Saito, A; Kinoshita, M; Yamamoto, J; Saitoh, D; Takeoka, S

    2016-05-01

    Ultrathin films (nanosheets) adhere tightly to organ surfaces but prevent adhesion to other organs. The antiadhesive effect of nanosheets and their effect on bacterial propagation were investigated in a murine intestinal adhesion model. Polylactic acid nanosheets (approximately 80 nm thick) were produced. Serosal defects were created by peeling off the intestinal serosa; these were left open or covered with nanosheets or Seprafilm® and the formation of intestinal adhesions was analysed. To examine bacterial propagation, a nanosheet or Seprafilm® was placed on intact murine jejunum followed by Escherichia coli inoculation at the site. Treatment both with nanosheets and with Seprafilm® reduced postoperative intestinal adhesion (mean adhesion score 0·67 for nanosheets, 0·43 for Seprafilm® and 2·87 for no antiadhesive treatment; P propagation in the peritoneal cavity, whereas Seprafilm®-treated mice showed bacterial propagation, leading to increased mortality. Nanosheets may be effective novel antiadhesive agents even in the presence of bacterial contamination. Surgical relevance Intra-abdominal adhesions following surgical contamination can trigger postoperative complications and lead to deterioration in long-term quality of life. However, currently there are no effective antiadhesion materials to prevent the formation of adhesions. Treatment with ultrathin nanosheets effectively reduced postoperative intestinal adhesion in an experimental mouse model, and did not affect bacterial propagation in the peritoneal cavity. These nanosheets are potent novel antiadhesive materials that potentially can be applied even in contaminated conditions. © 2016 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Does fish oil or folic acid prevent vascular changes in female progeny caused by maternal exposure to fluoxetine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashi, Carolina M; Matsumoto, Andressa K; Gameiro, Juliana G; Moura, Kawane F; Higachi, Luciana; Oliveira, Leticia C; Barbosa, Décio S; Moreira, Estefânia G; Ceravolo, Graziela S

    2016-05-01

    Fluoxetine (FLX) is an antidepressant worldwide prescribed throughout life stages, including pregnancy and breastfeeding. Out of pregnancy, the combination of FLX with fish oil (FO) and folic acid (FA) is carried to enhance the therapeutic activity and reduce the side effects of the antidepressant. During pregnancy, FO and FA have been used to promote fetal development, and reduce, in mother, the risk of gestational and post-pregnancy depression. To evaluate if maternal exposure during pregnancy and lactation to FLX associated with FO or FA would prevent the antidepressant side effects in aorta reactivity and nitric oxide metabolites (NOx) plasmatic levels. We also sought to understand, in female offspring, the vascular effects of intrauterine and lactation exposure to FO and FA monotherapy. Wistar rats were treated with water (control group), FLX (5mg/kg/day), FO (1.3g/kg/day), FA (3mg/kg/day), FLX+FO and FLX+FA, throughout pregnancy and lactation. On adulthood, in female offspring were evaluated the vascular reactivity to phenylephrine (Phe), the NOx and homocysteine (HCY) plasmatic levels. The developmental exposure to the associations of FO or FA with FLX did not correct the aortic hyporreactivity and increased NOx levels induced by intrauterine and lactation exposure to FLX. Also, isolated exposure to FO and FA did not interfere with Phe-induced aortic contraction and neither interferes with NOx and HCY plasmatic levels. The developmental exposure to FO and FA was safe for vascular function of female offspring but did not prevent the vascular effects of FLX-exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Preventing Excessive Blood Loss During Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy by Using Tranexamic Acid: A Double Blinded Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Siddiq

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL is most frequently performed procedure for renal stones 2 cm and larger. Perioperative hemorrhage being most common complication, warrants as important predicting factor of adverse outcomes. Prevention with inexpensive and safe drug like tranexamic acid (TA would ultimately turn out to be cornerstone for establishing future guidelines. Aim of this study is to evaluate whether TA is efficacious in preventing blood loss during PCNL. Materials and Methods: Ethical review board approval taken. Sample size calculation yielded 240 patients, comprising 120 in each group. Group A receiving TA and group B receiving placebo. Age, gender, body mass index (BMI, stone size, volume and location, preoperative blood count, creatinine, urine analysis, coagulation profile and necessary radiological investigations done. Randomization through lottery method. Both patient and investigator were blinded. Hemoglobin (Hb and hematocrit (Hct levels done at 24 hours postoperatively and fall in values recorded. Results: Both groups were equal in characteristics like age, gender, BMI, stone size, volume and location (p>0.05. Operative variables like calyx punctured, position of puncture and operative time were also found to be similar in both groups. Median change in Hb in placebo group was 1.6 interquartile range (IQR 4, while in TA group was 1.3 (IQR 7.8 (p=0.001. Similarly, median change in Hct level in placebo group was 3.6 (IQR 11.8 and in TA group was 2.4 (IQR 13 (p<0.001. Sixteen patients were transfused after surgery; 12 (75% belonged to placebo group while 4 (25% belonged to TA group (p=0.038. Hospital stay was not significantly different in both groups (p=0.177 with median of 4.0 and IQR of 0 in both groups. Conclusion: TA during PCNL reduces blood loss and minimizes blood transfusion rate.

  9. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the prevention of postoperative complications in colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie H

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Hai Xie,1 Yan-na Chang2 1Department of Emergency, The First Hospital of Lanzhou University, 2Department of Anesthesiology, Affiliated Hospital of Gansu University of Chinese Medicine, Lanzhou, People’s Republic of China Objective: To evaluate systematically the clinical efficacy of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs in the prevention of postoperative complications in colorectal cancer (CRC patients.Materials and methods: Published articles were identified by using search terms in online databases – PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library – up to March 2016. Only randomized controlled trials investigating the efficacy of omega-3 PUFAs in CRC were selected and analyzed through a meta-analysis. Subgroup, sensitivity, and inverted funnel-plot analyses were also conducted. Results: Eleven articles with 694 CRC patients were finally included. Compared with control, omega-3 PUFA-enriched enteral or parenteral nutrition during the perioperative period reduced infectious complications (risk ratio [RR] 0.63, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.47–0.86; P=0.004, tumor necrosis factor alpha (standard mean difference [SMD] -0.37, 95% CI -0.66 to -0.07; P=0.01, interleukin-6 (SMD -0.36, 95% CI -0.66 to -0.07; P=0.02, and hospital stay (MD -2.09, 95% CI -3.71 to -0.48; P=0.01. No significant difference was found in total complications, surgical site infection, or CD4+:CD8+ cell ratio. Conclusion: Short-term omega-3 PUFA administration was associated with reduced postoperative infectious complications, inflammatory cytokines, and hospital stay after CRC surgery. Due to heterogeneity and relatively small sample size, the optimal timing and route of administration deserve further study. Keywords: omega-3, fatty acids, fish oil, colorectal surgery, meta-analysis 

  10. mTORC1 is a target of nordihydroguaiaretic acid to prevent breast tumor growth in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Xu, Song; Lin, Jun; Yao, Guangyu; Han, Zelong; Liang, Bo; Zou, Zhenhong; Chen, Zhenguo; Song, Qiancheng; Dai, Yifan; Gao, Tianming; Liu, Anling; Bai, Xiaochun

    2012-11-01

    Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) is a natural phenolic compound isolated from the creosote bush Larrea divaricata, which has anti-tumor activities both in vitro and in vivo. Its analogs are in clinical development for use in refractory solid tumors. But the mechanisms underlying the anti-cancer effect of NDGA are not fully understood. In this study, we identified mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) as a target of NDGA both in cultured breast cancer cells and in xenograft models. NDGA effectively inhibited basal level of mTORC1 but not mTORC2 activity in breast cancer cell lines. NDGA also suppressed mTORC1 downstream signaling such as expression of cyclin D1, hypoxia-inducible factor-α and VEGF, and prevented proliferation in breast cancer cells. Although NDGA stimulated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/tuberous sclerosis complex 2 (TSC2) signaling, which negatively regulates mTORC1, AMPK and TSC2 deletion could not diminish the inhibition of mTORC1 by NDGA. Subsequent studies revealed that NDGA may also direct target mTORC1 complex because NDGA suppressed amino acids- and insulin-stimulated mTORC1 and acted like rapamycin to disrupt mTOR-Raptor interaction. Most importantly, NDGA repressed breast tumor growth and targeted mTORC1 and its downstream signaling in xenograft models. Together our data provide a novel mechanism for NDGA activity which could help explain its anti-cancer activity. Disruption of mTOR-Raptor complex and activation of AMPK/TSC signaling may contribute to inhibitory effects of NDGA against mTORC1. Our data also raise the possibility that NDGA, as an mTORC1 inhibitor, may have a broad spectrum of action on breast cancers.

  11. Bile acid binding resin prevents fat accumulation through intestinal microbiota in high-fat diet-induced obesity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusumoto, Yukie; Irie, Junichiro; Iwabu, Kaho; Tagawa, Hirotsune; Itoh, Arata; Kato, Mari; Kobayashi, Nana; Tanaka, Kumiko; Kikuchi, Rieko; Fujita, Masataka; Nakajima, Yuya; Morimoto, Kohkichi; Sugizaki, Taichi; Yamada, Satoru; Kawai, Toshihide; Watanabe, Mitsuhiro; Oike, Yuichi; Itoh, Hiroshi

    2017-06-01

    Bile acid binding resin (BAR) absorbs intestinal bile acids, and improves obesity and metabolic disorders, but the precise mechanism remains to be clarified. Recent findings reveal that obesity is associated with skewed intestinal microbiota. Thus, we investigated the effect of BAR on intestinal microbiota and the role of microbiota in the prevention of obesity in high-fat diet-induced obesity in mice. Male Balb/c mice were fed a low-fat diet (LFD), high-fat diet (HFD), or HFD with BAR (HFD+BAR), and then metabolic parameters, caecal microbiota, and metabolites were investigated. The same interventions were conducted in germ-free and antibiotic-treated mice. The frequency of Clostridium leptum subgroup was higher in both HFD-fed and HFD+BAR-fed mice than in LFD-fed mice. The frequency of Bacteroides-Prevotella group was lower in HFD-fed mice than in LFD-fed mice, but the frequency was higher in HFD+BAR-fed mice than in HFD-fed mice. Caecal propionate was lower in HFD-fed mice than in LFD-fed mice, and higher in HFD+BAR-fed mice than in HFD-fed mice. HFD+BAR-fed mice showed lower adiposity than HFD-fed mice, and the reduction was not observed in germ-free or antibiotic-treated mice. Colonized germ-free mice showed a reduction in adiposity by BAR administration. Energy expenditure was lower in HFD-fed mice and higher in HFD+BAR-fed mice, but the increments induced by administration of BAR were not observed in antibiotic-treated mice. Modulation of intestinal microbiota by BAR could be a novel therapeutic approach for obesity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Neural cell adhesion molecule-associated polysialic acid inhibits NR2B-containing N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors and prevents glutamate-induced cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Martin S L; Sims, Catrina; Parameshwaran, Kodeeswaran; Suppiramaniam, Vishnu; Schachner, Melitta; Dityatev, Alexander

    2006-11-17

    The neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) and its associated glycan polysialic acid play important roles in the development of the nervous system and N-methyl-D-aspartate(NMDA)receptor-dependent synaptic plasticity in the adult. Here, we investigated the influence of polysialic acid on NMDA receptor activity. We found that glutamate-elicited NMDA receptor currents in cultured hippocampal neurons were reduced by approximately 30% with the application of polysialic acid or polysialylated NCAM but not by the sialic acid monomer, chondroitin sulfate, or non-polysialylated NCAM. Polysialic acid inhibited NMDA receptor currents elicited by 3 microm glutamate but not by 30 microm glutamate, suggesting that polysialic acid acts as a competitive antagonist, possibly at the glutamate binding site. The polysialic acid induced effects were mimicked and fully occluded by the NR2B subunit specific antagonist, ifenprodil. Recordings from single synaptosomal NMDA receptors reconstituted in lipid bilayers revealed that polysialic acid reduced open probability but not the conductance of NR2B-containing NMDA receptors in a polysialic acid and glutamate concentration-dependent manner. The activity of single NR2B-lacking synaptosomal NMDA receptors was not affected by polysialic acid. Application of polysialic acid to hippocampal cultures reduced excitotoxic cell death induced by low micromolar concentration of glutamate via activation of NR2B-containing NMDA receptors, whereas enzymatic removal of polysialic acid resulted in increased cell death that occluded glutamate-induced excitotoxicity. These observations indicate that the cell adhesion molecule-associated glycan polysialic acid is able to prevent excitotoxicity via inhibition of NR2B subunit-containing NMDA receptors.

  13. Prevention of iron- and copper-mediated DNA damage by catecholamine and amino acid neurotransmitters, L-DOPA, and curcumin: metal binding as a general antioxidant mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Carla R; Angelé-Martínez, Carlos; Wilkes, Jenna A; Wang, Hsiao C; Battin, Erin E; Brumaghim, Julia L

    2012-06-07

    Concentrations of labile iron and copper are elevated in patients with neurological disorders, causing interest in metal-neurotransmitter interactions. Catecholamine (dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine) and amino acid (glycine, glutamate, and 4-aminobutyrate) neurotransmitters are antioxidants also known to bind metal ions. To investigate the role of metal binding as an antioxidant mechanism for these neurotransmitters, L-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA), and curcumin, their abilities to prevent iron- and copper-mediated DNA damage were quantified, cyclic voltammetry was used to determine the relationship between their redox potentials and DNA damage prevention, and UV-vis studies were conducted to determine iron and copper binding as well as iron oxidation rates. In contrast to amino acid neurotransmitters, catecholamine neurotransmitters, L-DOPA, and curcumin prevent significant iron-mediated DNA damage (IC(50) values of 3.2 to 18 μM) and are electrochemically active. However, glycine and glutamate are more effective at preventing copper-mediated DNA damage (IC(50) values of 35 and 12.9 μM, respectively) than L-DOPA, the only catecholamine to prevent this damage (IC(50) = 73 μM). This metal-mediated DNA damage prevention is directly related to the metal-binding behaviour of these compounds. When bound to iron or copper, the catecholamines, amino acids, and curcumin significantly shift iron oxidation potentials and stabilize Fe(3+) over Fe(2+) and Cu(2+) over Cu(+), a factor that may prevent metal redox cycling in vivo. These results highlight the disparate antioxidant activities of neurotransmitters, drugs, and supplements and highlight the importance of considering metal binding when identifying antioxidants to treat and prevent neurodegenerative disorders.

  14. A Diet Rich in Unsaturated Fatty Acids Prevents Progression Toward Heart Failure in a Rabbit Model of Pressure and Volume Overload

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Ruijter, Hester M.; Verkerk, Arie O.; Schumacher, Cees A.; Houten, Sander M.; Belterman, Charly N. W.; Baartscheer, Antonius; Brouwer, Ingeborg A.; van Bilsen, Marc; de Roos, Baukje; Coronel, Ruben

    2012-01-01

    Background-During heart failure (HF), cardiac metabolic substrate preference changes from fatty acid (FA) toward glucose oxidation. This change may cause progression toward heart failure. We hypothesize that a diet rich in FAs may prevent this process, and that dietary omega 3-FAs have an added

  15. Salvianolic acid B prevents bone loss in prednisone-treated rats through stimulation of osteogenesis and bone marrow angiogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liao Cui

    Full Text Available Glucocorticoid (GC induced osteoporosis (GIO is caused by the long-term use of GC for treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. The GC related disruption of bone marrow microcirculation and increased adipogenesis contribute to GIO development. However, neither currently available anti-osteoporosis agent is completely addressed to microcirculation and bone marrow adipogenesis. Salvianolic acid B (Sal B is a polyphenolic compound from a Chinese herbal medicine, Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of Sal B on osteoblast bone formation, angiogenesis and adipogenesis-associated GIO by performing marrow adipogenesis and microcirculation dilation and bone histomorphometry analyses. (1 In vivo study: Bone loss in GC treated rats was confirmed by significantly decreased BMD, bone strength, cancellous bone mass and architecture, osteoblast distribution, bone formation, marrow microvessel density and diameter along with down-regulation of marrow BMPs expression and increased adipogenesis. Daily treatment with Sal B (40 mg/kg/d for 12 weeks in GC male rats prevented GC-induced cancellous bone loss and increased adipogenesis while increasing cancellous bone formation rate with improved local microcirculation by capillary dilation. Treatment with Sal B at a higher dose (80 mg/kg/d not only prevented GC-induced osteopenia, but also increased cancellous bone mass and thickness, associated with increase of marrow BMPs expression, inhibited adipogenesis and further increased microvessel diameters. (2 In vitro study: In concentration from 10(-6 mol/L to 10(-7 mol/L, Sal B stimulated bone marrow stromal cell (MSC differentiation to osteoblast and increased osteoblast activities, decreased GC associated adipogenic differentiation by down-regulation of PPARγ mRNA expression, increased Runx2 mRNA expression without osteoblast inducement, and, furthermore, Sal B decreased Dickkopf-1 and increased β-catenin m

  16. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid (Fish Oil) Supplementation and the Prevention of Clinical Cardiovascular Disease: A Science Advisory From the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siscovick, David S; Barringer, Thomas A; Fretts, Amanda M; Wu, Jason H Y; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Costello, Rebecca B; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Jacobson, Terry A; Engler, Mary B; Alger, Heather M; Appel, Lawrence J; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2017-04-11

    Multiple randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have assessed the effects of supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid plus docosahexaenoic acid (omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, commonly called fish oils) on the occurrence of clinical cardiovascular diseases. Although the effects of supplementation for the primary prevention of clinical cardiovascular events in the general population have not been examined, RCTs have assessed the role of supplementation in secondary prevention among patients with diabetes mellitus and prediabetes, patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease, and those with prevalent coronary heart disease. In this scientific advisory, we take a clinical approach and focus on common indications for omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplements related to the prevention of clinical cardiovascular events. We limited the scope of our review to large RCTs of supplementation with major clinical cardiovascular disease end points; meta-analyses were considered secondarily. We discuss the features of available RCTs and provide the rationale for our recommendations. We then use existing American Heart Association criteria to assess the strength of the recommendation and the level of evidence. On the basis of our review of the cumulative evidence from RCTs designed to assess the effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation on clinical cardiovascular events, we update prior recommendations for patients with prevalent coronary heart disease, and we offer recommendations, when data are available, for patients with other clinical indications, including patients with diabetes mellitus and prediabetes and those with high risk of cardiovascular disease, stroke, heart failure, and atrial fibrillation. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Moderate water stress prevents the postharvest decline of ascorbic acid in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) but not in spinach beet (Beta vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogren, Lars M; Beacham, Andrew M; Reade, John P H; Monaghan, James M

    2016-07-01

    Babyleaf salads such as spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) and spinach beet (Beta vulgaris L. subsp. cicla var. cicla) are an important dietary source of antioxidants such as ascorbic acid (vitamin C). Such compounds may be important in disease prevention in consumers but the level of these compounds in leaves frequently declines after harvest. As such, methods to maintain antioxidant levels in fresh produce are being sought. Irrigation deficits were used to apply water stress to S. oleracea and B. vulgaris plants. This treatment prevented postharvest decline of leaf ascorbic acid content in S. oleracea but not in B. vulgaris. Ascorbic acid levels in leaves at harvest were unaffected by the treatment in both species compared to well-watered controls. We have shown that restricted irrigation provides a viable means to maintain leaf vitamin content after harvest in S. oleracea, an important finding for producers, retailers and consumers alike. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Omega-3 fatty acids regulate NLRP3 inflammasome activation and prevent behavior deficits after traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chao; Chao, Honglu; Li, Zheng; Xu, Xiupeng; Liu, Yinlong; Bao, Zhongyuan; Hou, Lijun; Liu, Yan; Wang, Xiaoming; You, Yongping; Liu, Ning; Ji, Jing

    2017-04-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids (ω-3 FAs) attenuate inflammation and improve neurological outcome in response to traumatic brain injury (TBI), but the specific anti-inflammatory mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Here we found that NLRP3 inflammasome and subsequent pro-inflammatory cytokines were activated in human brains after TBI. Rats treated with ω-3 FAs had significantly less TBI-induced caspase-1 cleavage and IL-1β secretion than those with vehicle. G protein-coupled receptor 40 (GPR40) was observed to be involved in this anti-inflammation. GW1100, a GPR40 inhibitor, eliminated the anti-inflammatory effect of ω-3 FAs after TBI. β-Arrestin-2 (ARRB2), a downstream scaffold protein of GPR40, was activated to inhibit inflammation via directly binding with NLRP3 in the ω-3 FAs treatment group. Interestingly, we also observed that ω-3 FAs prevented NLRP3 mitochondrial localization, which was reversed by GW1100. Furthermore, ω-3 FAs markedly ameliorated neuronal death and behavioral deficits after TBI, while GW1100 significantly suppressed this effect. Collectively, these data indicate that the GPR40-mediated pathway is involved in the inhibitory effects of ω-3 FAs on TBI-induced inflammation and ARRB2 is activated to interact with NLRP3. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Current Review of Genetically Modified Lactic Acid Bacteria for the Prevention and Treatment of Colitis Using Murine Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra de Moreno de LeBlanc

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD are disorders of the gastrointestinal tract characterized by recurrent inflammation that requires lifelong treatments. Probiotic microorganisms appear as an alternative for these patients; however, probiotic characteristics are strain dependent and each probiotic needs to be tested to understand the underlining mechanisms involved in their beneficial properties. Genetic modification of lactic acid bacteria (LAB was also described as a tool for new IBD treatments. The first part of this review shows different genetically modified LAB (GM-LAB described for IBD treatment since 2000. Then, the two principally studied strategies are discussed (i GM-LAB producing antioxidant enzymes and (ii GM-LAB producing the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Different delivery systems, including protein delivery and DNA delivery, will also be discussed. Studies show the efficacy of GM-LAB (using different expression systems for the prevention and treatment of IBD, highlighting the importance of the bacterial strain selection (with anti-inflammatory innate properties as a promising alternative. These microorganisms could be used in the near future for the development of therapeutic products with anti-inflammatory properties that can improve the quality of life of IBD patients.

  20. Clove extract functions as a natural fatty acid synthesis inhibitor and prevents obesity in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yiran; Gu, Zhennan; Wang, Yihe; Wang, Shunhe; Chen, Haiqin; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei; Chen, Yong Q

    2017-08-01

    Numerous medicinal plants have been reported to prevent various chronic diseases. In this study, we screened a new FASN inhibitor-alcohol extract of clove (AEC) using a fast microplate method developed in our laboratory. The major components of AEC were: eugenol (42.27%), acetyl eugenol (29.12%), caryophyllene (15.40%), and humulene (3.22%). Fatty acid synthase (FASN) is a key enzyme for de novo lipogenesis, and it has been suggested as a potential therapeutic target in cancer and obesity. We have tested the ability of AEC to inhibit FASN in mammalian cells and tissues. Furthermore, we found that AEC as a FASN inhibitor could inhibit the S-phase DNA replication of HepG2 cells and adipocyte differentiation of OP9 cells. AEC also limited the development of high fat diet (HFD) induced obesity. AEC supplementation significantly reduced body weight and abdominal adipose tissue weight, lowered lipid accumulation in the liver and epididymal adipose tissue compared with the HFD control group. The serum lipid profiles showed that AEC could regulate the content of total triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Collectively, our data suggest that FASN inhibitor AEC is a potential therapeutic agent for obesity.

  1. Iso-α-acids, Bitter Components of Beer, Prevent Inflammation and Cognitive Decline Induced in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ano, Yasuhisa; Dohata, Atsushi; Taniguchi, Yoshimasa; Hoshi, Ayaka; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Takashima, Akihiko; Nakayama, Hiroyuki

    2017-03-03

    Alongside the rapid growth in aging populations worldwide, prevention and therapy for age-related memory decline and dementia are in great demand to maintain a long, healthy life. Here we found that iso-α-acids, hop-derived bitter compounds in beer, enhance microglial phagocytosis and suppress inflammation via activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ. In normal mice, oral administration of iso-α-acids led to a significant increase both in CD11b and CD206 double-positive anti-inflammatory type microglia (p iso-α-acids resulted in a 21% reduction in amyloid β in the cerebral cortex as observed by immunohistochemical analysis, a significant reduction in inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β and chemokines including macrophage inflammatory protein-1α in the cerebral cortex (p iso-α-acid-fed mice were due to the induction of microglia to an anti-inflammatory phenotype. The present study is the first to report that amyloid β deposition and inflammation are suppressed in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease by a single component, iso-α-acids, via the regulation of microglial activation. The suppression of neuroinflammation and improvement in cognitive function suggests that iso-α-acids contained in beer may be useful for the prevention of dementia. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. A novel once daily microparticulate dosage form comprising lansoprazole to prevent nocturnal acid breakthrough in the case of gastro-esophageal reflux disease: preparation, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alai, Milind; Lin, Wen Jen

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to formulate and evaluate the lansoprazole (LPZ)-loaded microparticles to prevent nocturnal acid breakthrough in the case of gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD). The microparticulate delivery system was prepared by solvent evaporation method using Eudragit RS100 as a matrix polymer followed by enteric coated with Eudragit S100 and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose phthalate HP55 using spray drying method. The enteric coated microparticles were stable in gastric pH condition. In vivo pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies in male Wistar rats demonstrated that enteric coated microparticles sustained release of LPZ and promoted ulcer healing activity. In other words, the microparticulate dosage form provided effective drug concentration for a longer period as compared to conventional extended release dosage form, and showed sufficient anti-acid secretion activity to treat acid related disorders including the enrichment of nocturnal acid breakthrough event based on a once daily administration.

  3. A 7-day oral supplementation with branched-chain amino acids was ineffective to prevent muscle damage during a marathon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areces, Francisco; Salinero, Juan Jose; Abian-Vicen, Javier; González-Millán, Cristina; Gallo-Salazar, Cesar; Ruiz-Vicente, Diana; Lara, Beatriz; Del Coso, Juan

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a 7-day oral supplementation with branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) to prevent muscle damage during a marathon. Forty-six experienced runners were randomly divided into two groups, one with BCAA supplementation (n = 25, supplemented with 5 g day(-1) of powdered 1:0.5:0.5 leucine:isoleucine:valine, during the 7 days prior to the competition) and the other as a control group (n = 21, supplemented with an isocaloric placebo). Before the marathon race and within 3 min of finishing, leg muscle power was measured with a maximal countermovement jump and a urine sample was obtained. During the race, running pace was measured by means of a time-chip. Myoglobin concentration was determined in the urine samples as an indirect marker of muscle damage. A visual analog scale (0-10 points) was used to assess leg muscle pain during the race. In the BCAA group, the mean running pace during the marathon was similar to the control group (3.3 ± 0.4 vs. 3.3 ± 0.5 m s(-1), respectively, 0.98). The pre- to post-race reduction in muscle power was similar in both BCAA and control groups (-23.0 ± 16.1 vs. -17.3 ± 13.8 %, P = 0.13). Post-race urine myoglobin concentration was similar in both BCAA and control groups (5.4 ± 7.5 vs. 4.5 ± 8.6 μg mL(-1), P = 0.70). Finally, there were no differences between groups in the perceived muscle pain during the race (6 ± 1 vs. 5 ± 1 points, P = 0.80). A 7-day supplementation of BCAA (5 g day(-1)) did not increase the running performance during a marathon. Furthermore, BCAA supplementation was ineffective to prevent muscle power loss, muscle damage or perceived muscle pain during a marathon race.

  4. PPAR/RXR Regulation of Fatty Acid Metabolism and Fatty Acid -Hydroxylase (CYP4 Isozymes: Implications for Prevention of Lipotoxicity in Fatty Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P. Hardwick

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatty liver disease is a common lipid metabolism disorder influenced by the combination of individual genetic makeup, drug exposure, and life-style choices that are frequently associated with metabolic syndrome, which encompasses obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, and insulin resistant diabetes. Common to obesity related dyslipidemia is the excessive storage of hepatic fatty acids (steatosis, due to a decrease in mitochondria -oxidation with an increase in both peroxisomal -oxidation, and microsomal -oxidation of fatty acids through peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs. How steatosis increases PPAR activated gene expression of fatty acid transport proteins, peroxisomal and mitochondrial fatty acid -oxidation and -oxidation of fatty acids genes regardless of whether dietary fatty acids are polyunsaturated (PUFA, monounsaturated (MUFA, or saturated (SFA may be determined by the interplay of PPARs and HNF4 with the fatty acid transport proteins L-FABP and ACBP. In hepatic steatosis and steatohepatitis, the -oxidation cytochrome P450 CYP4A gene expression is increased even with reduced hepatic levels of PPAR. Although numerous studies have suggested the role ethanol-inducible CYP2E1 in contributing to increased oxidative stress, Cyp2e1-null mice still develop steatohepatitis with a dramatic increase in CYP4A gene expression. This strongly implies that CYP4A fatty acid -hydroxylase P450s may play an important role in the development of steatohepatitis. In this review and tutorial, we briefly describe how fatty acids are partitioned by fatty acid transport proteins to either anabolic or catabolic pathways regulated by PPARs, and we explore how medium-chain fatty acid (MCFA CYP4A and long-chain fatty acid (LCFA CYP4F -hydroxylase genes are regulated in fatty liver. We finally propose a hypothesis that increased CYP4A expression with a decrease in CYP4F genes may promote the progression of steatosis to

  5. Prevention of pancreatic fistula using polyethylene glycolic acid mesh reinforcement around pancreatojejunostomy: the propensity score-matched analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jae Seung; Han, Youngmin; Kim, Hongbeom; Kwon, Wooil; Kim, Sun-Whe; Jang, Jin-Young

    2017-03-01

    Several small-scale studies have shown that wrapping polyethylene glycolic acid (PGA) mesh around the anastomotic site reinforced pancreaticojejunostomy following pancreatoduodenectomy (PD) with favorable outcomes. This study investigated the efficacy of PGA mesh for reducing postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) and evaluated other risk factors for POPF. This study enrolled 464 consecutive patients who underwent PD performed by one surgeon between 2006 and 2015, including a PGA group of 281 patients (60.6%) and a control group of 183 patients (39.4%). All pancreatico-enteric anastomoses were performed using double-layered, duct-to-mucosa, end-to-side pancreaticojejunostomy. Mean patient age was 63.1 years. The rates of overall (27.0% vs. 37.2%, P = 0.024) and clinically relevant (Grades B, C; 13.9% vs. 24.0%, P = 0.006) POPF were significantly lower in the PGA than in the control group. Following propensity score matching, the rates of clinically relevant POPF (12.6% vs. 22.4%, P = 0.024) and complications (40.2% vs. 63.8%, P < 0.001) remained significantly lower in the PGA group. Multivariate analysis showed that non-pancreatic disease, greater blood loss, higher body mass index, and non-application of PGA mesh were significantly associated with the development of clinically relevant POPF. PGA mesh reinforcement of pancreaticojejunostomy may prevent POPF as well as reducing overall abdominal complications after PD. © 2017 Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery.

  6. S-adenosyl methionine prevents ASD like behaviors triggered by early postnatal valproic acid exposure in very young mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornoy, Asher; Weinstein-Fudim, Liza; Tfilin, Matanel; Ergaz, Zivanit; Yanai, Joseph; Szyf, Moshe; Turgeman, Gadi

    2018-01-14

    A common animal model of ASD is the one induced by valproic acid (VPA), inducing epigenetic changes and oxidative stress. We studied the possible preventive effect of the methyl donor for epigenetic enzymatic reactions, S-adenosine methionine (SAM), on ASD like behavioral changes and on redox potential in the brain and liver in this model. ICR albino mice were injected on postnatal day 4 with one dose of 300 mg/kg of VPA, with normal saline (controls) or with VPA and SAM that was given orally for 3 days at the dose of 30 mg/kg body weight. From day 50, we carried out neurobehavioral tests and assessment of the antioxidant status of the prefrontal cerebral cortex, liver assessing SOD and CAT activity, lipid peroxidation and the expression of antioxidant genes. Mice injected with VPA exhibited neurobehavioral deficits typical of ASD that were more prominent in males. Changes in the activity of SOD and CAT increased lipid peroxidation and changes in the expression of antioxidant genes were observed in the prefrontal cortex of VPA treated mice, more prominent in females, while ASD like behavior was more prominent in males. There were no changes in the redox potential of the liver. The co-administration of VPA and SAM alleviated most ASD like neurobehavioral symptoms and normalized the redox potential in the prefrontal cortex. Early postnatal VPA administration induces ASD like behavior that is more severe in males, while the redox status changes are more severe in females; SAM corrects both. VPA-induced ASD seems to result from epigenetic changes, while the redox status changes may be secondary. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. LA and ALA prevent glucose intolerance in obese male rats without reducing reactive lipid content, but cause tissue-specific changes in fatty acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matravadia, Sarthak; Zabielski, Piotr; Chabowski, Adrian; Mutch, David M; Holloway, Graham P

    2016-04-01

    While the cause of Type 2 diabetes remains poorly defined, the accumulation of reactive lipids within white adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and liver have been repeatedly implicated as underlying mechanisms. The ability of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) to prevent the development of insulin resistance has gained considerable interest in recent years; however, the mechanisms-of-action remain poorly described. Therefore, we determined the efficacy of diets supplemented with either linoleic acid (LA) or α-linolenic acid (ALA) in preventing insulin resistance and reactive lipid accumulation in key metabolic tissues of the obese Zucker rat. Obese Zucker rats displayed impaired glucose homeostasis and reduced n-3 and n-6 PUFA content in the liver and epididymal white adipose tissue (EWAT). After the 12-wk feeding intervention, both LA- and ALA-supplemented diets prevented whole body glucose and insulin intolerance; however, ALA had a more pronounced effect. These changes occurred in association with n-3 and n-6 accumulation in all tissues studied, albeit to different extents (EWAT > liver > muscle). Triacylglycerol (TAG), diacylglycerol (DAG), ceramide, and sphingolipid accumulation were not attenuated in obese animals supplemented with either LA or ALA, suggesting that preservation of glucose homeostasis occurred independent of changes in reactive lipid content. However, PUFA-supplemented diets differentially altered the fatty acid composition of TAGs, DAGs, and PLs in a tissue-specific manner, suggesting essential fatty acid metabolism differs between tissues. Together, our results indicate that remodeling of the fatty acid composition of various lipid fractions may contribute to the improved glucose tolerance observed in obese rats fed PUFA-supplemented diets. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Effects of omega-3 fatty acids in prevention of early preterm delivery: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Sumit; Wong, Min; Rogozinska, Ewelina; Thangaratinam, Shakila

    2016-03-01

    Preterm birth continues to be the one of the leading causes of infant deaths worldwide. There is a need for effective, easily available, safe and acceptable interventions to prevent preterm delivery, especially before 34 weeks of gestation. Omega-3 fatty acids such as EPA (eicosapentanoic acid) and DHA (docosahexanoic acid) are available as over the counter nutritional supplements, and are taken by women to improve pregnancy outcomes, without any clear recommendations. We undertook a systematic review to assess the effects of omega-3 fatty acids on early (omega-3 fatty acids on early preterm delivery. The risk of early preterm delivery was reduced by 58% (RR 0.42; 95% CI 0.27-0.66; I(2)=0%; p=0.0002) and any preterm delivery by 17% (RR 0.83; 95% CI 0.70-0.98; I(2)=0%; p=0.03) with the intervention. There was a significant increase in the mean gestational age by 1.95 weeks (95% CI 0.42-3.48 weeks; I(2)=0.47; p=0.01) and mean birth weight by 122.1g (95% CI 47.4-196.8; I(2)=0.84; p=0.001) in the intervention group compared to the controls. Subgroup analysis showed no significant differences in the effects between the groups according to the risk status, dose and timing of the intervention. Omega-3 fatty acids are effective in preventing early and any preterm delivery. The intervention is simple and easily available and has the potential to influence population based strategies in the prevention of preterm birth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Hyaluronic acid fluid agents for the prevention of adhesions after fertility-preserving gynecological surgery: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metwally, Mostafa; Gorvy, Dylan; Watson, Andrew; Li, Tin Chiu

    2007-05-01

    To investigate the role of hyaluronic acid-based fluid agents in the prevention of adhesions after fertility-preserving gynecological surgery. Meta-analysis. The authors searched the Cochrane Menstrual Disorders and Subfertility Group Specialized Register of Controlled Trials, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, and EMBASE for randomized controlled trials of hyaluronic acid fluid agents compared with no treatment or placebo. Women undergoing fertility-preserving gynecological surgery. Hyaluronic acid fluid agents. [1] Prevalence and change in adhesion severity at second-look laparoscopy and [2] live birth rate. Four studies were included in the meta-analysis. The use of hyaluronic acid agents was associated with a decrease in the prevalence of adhesions at second-look laparoscopy (odds ratio, 0.31; 95% confidence interval, 0.19 to 0.51) and a lesser chance of deterioration of preexisting adhesions (odds ratio, 0.28; 95% confidence interval, 0.12 to 0.66). There was, however, no evidence for improvement in the prevalence of adhesions (odds ratio, 1.55; 95% confidence interval, 0.82 to 2.92). There is evidence that hyaluronic acid agents may decrease the prevalence of adhesions and prevent the deterioration of preexisting adhesions. However, because of the limited number of studies available, this evidence should still be interpreted with caution.

  10. The dietary fatty acids of patients with coronary artery disease and controls in Curacao - Implications for primary and secondary prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, DAJ; vanderDijs, FPL; Leerink, CB; Steward, HN; Kroon, TAJ; Suverkropp, GHJ; Romer, JWP; vanDoormaal, JJ; Muskiet, FAJ

    Patients with coronary artery disease are advised to augment their dietary linoleic acid intakes at the expense of saturated fatty acids. We investigated whether the dietary linoleic acid intake of 57 patients with coronary artery disease (47 males, 10 females; ages 61 +/- 10 years) in Curacao is

  11. Clearance of fear memory from the hippocampus through neurogenesis by omega-3 fatty acids: a novel preventive strategy for posttraumatic stress disorder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsuoka Yutaka

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Not only has accidental injury been shown to account for a significant health burden on all populations, regardless of age, sex and geographic region, but patients with accidental injury frequently present with the psychiatric condition of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Prevention of accident-related PTSD thus represents a potentially important goal. Physicians in the field of psychosomatic medicine and critical care medicine have the opportunity to see injured patients in the immediate aftermath of an accident. This article first briefly reviews the prevalence and associated factors of accident-related PTSD, then focuses on a conceptual model of fear memory and proposes a new, rationally hypothesized translational preventive intervention for PTSD through promoting hippocampal neurogenesis by omega-3 fatty acid supplementation. The results of an open-label pilot trial of injured patients admitted to the intensive care unit suggest that omega-3 fatty acid supplementation immediately after accidental injury can reduce subsequent PTSD symptoms.

  12. Regulation of cell cycle transition and induction of apoptosis in HL-60 leukemia cells by lipoic acid: role in cancer prevention and therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Hsieh Tze-chen; Selvakumar Elangovan

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Lipoic acid (LA), a potent antioxidant, has been used as a dietary supplement to prevent and treat many diseases, including stroke, diabetes, neurodegenerative and hepatic disorders. Recently, potent anti-tumorigenic effects induced by LA were also reported and evident as assayed by suppression of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis in malignant cells. However, the mechanism by which LA elicits its chemopreventive effects remains unclear. Methods and Results Here...

  13. A cost minimisation analysis of olive oil versus hyperoxygenated fatty acid treatment for the prevention of pressure ulcers in primary health care: A randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupiañez-Pérez, Inmaculada; Morilla-Herrera, Juan Carlos; Kaknani-Uttumchanchandani, Shakira; Lupiañez-Perez, Yolanda; Cuevas-Fernandez-Gallego, Magdalena; Martin-Santos, Francisco; Caro-Bautista, Jorge; Morales-Asencio, Jose Miguel

    2017-09-18

    Pressure ulcers represent a major current health problem and cause an important economic impact on the health care system. Most studies on the prevention of pressure ulcers have been carried out in hospital contexts, with respect to the use of hyperoxygenated fatty acids, and to date no studies have specifically examined the use of olive oil-based treatments. To evaluate the cost of using extra virgin olive oil, rather than hyperoxygenated fatty acids, in the prevention of pressure ulcers among persons with impaired mobility and receiving home care. Cost minimisation analysis of the results obtained from a non-inferiority, triple-blind, parallel, multicentre, randomised clinical trial. Population attending primary health care centres in Andalusia (Spain). 831 immobilised patients at risk of suffering pressure ulcers. These persons were included in the study and randomly assigned as follows: 437 to the olive oil group and 394 to the hyperoxygenated fatty acid group. At the end of the follow-up period, the results obtained by the olive oil group were not inferior to those of the hyperoxygenated fatty acid group, and did not exceed the 10% delta limit. The total treatment cost for 16 weeks was €19,758 with hyperoxygenated fatty acids and €9,566 with olive oil. Overall, the olive oil treatment was €10,192 less costly. It has been concluded the non-inferiority of olive oil makes this product an effective alternative for the prevention of pressure ulcers in patients who are immobilised and in a domestic environment. This treatment enables considerable savings in direct costs. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2017 by the Wound Healing Society.

  14. Efficacy of hyaluronic acid - carboxymethyl cellulose membrane (Seprafilm®) and polylactic acid barrier film (Surgiwrap™) for the prevention of adhesions after thyroid surgery: an experimental model

    OpenAIRE

    ÇİPE, Gökhan; Köksal, Hakan Mustafa; YILDIRIM, Sadık; CELAYİR, Mustafa Fevzi; BAYKAN, Adil

    2011-01-01

    Adhesions occurring after initial surgery increase complications in secondary thyroid operations. Therefore use of anti-adhesive barriers may reduce complication rates of secondary thyroid operations. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of hyaluronic acid-carboxymethyl cellulose membrane (HA-CMC, Seprafilm®) and polylactic acid barrier film (PLA, Surgiwrap™) in reducing adhesions after thyroid surgery. Materials and methods: A randomized-controlled experimental animal m...

  15. Fetal growth, omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids, and progression of subclinical atherosclerosis: preventing fetal origins of disease? The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skilton, Michael R; Mikkilä, Vera; Würtz, Peter; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Sim, Kyra A; Soininen, Pasi; Kangas, Antti J; Viikari, Jorma S A; Juonala, Markus; Laitinen, Tomi; Lehtimäki, Terho; Taittonen, Leena; Kähönen, Mika; Celermajer, David S; Raitakari, Olli T

    2013-01-01

    Impaired fetal growth is independently associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events in adulthood. Prevention strategies that can be implemented during adulthood have not been identified. The objective was to determine whether habitual omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid intake is associated with the rate of increase of carotid intima-media thickness during adulthood in individuals with impaired fetal growth. This was a population-based, prospective cohort study of 1573 adults in Finland. Carotid intima-media thickness was assessed in 2001 (at ages 24-39 y) and in 2007. Participants were categorized as having had impaired fetal growth (term birth with birth weight Omega-3 fatty acid intake was assessed by using a food-frequency questionnaire and on the basis of serum fatty acid concentrations. In multivariable models, the 6-y progression of carotid intima-media thickness was inversely associated with dietary omega-3 fatty acids in those with impaired fetal growth (P = 0.04). Similarly, serum omega-3 fatty acid concentrations were inversely associated with the 6-y progression of carotid intima-media thickness in those with impaired fetal growth (P = 0.04) but were not noted in those with normal fetal growth (P = 0.94 and P = 0.26, respectively). Dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids is associated with a slower rate of increase in carotid intima-media thickness in those with impaired fetal growth.

  16. Pre-conceptional vitamin/folic acid supplementation 2007: the use of folic acid in combination with a multivitamin supplement for the prevention of neural tube defects and other congenital anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, R Douglas

    2007-12-01

    To provide information regarding the use of folic acid in combination with a multivitamin supplement for the prevention of neural tube defects and other congenital anomalies, so that physicians, midwives, nurses, and other health care workers can assist in the education of women in the pre-conception phase of their health care. OPTION: Supplementation with folic acid and vitamins is problematic, since 50% of pregnancies are unplanned, and women's health status may not be optimal when they conceive. Folic acid in combination with a multivitamin supplement has been associated with a decrease in specific birth defects. Medline, PubMed, and Cochrane Database were searched for relevant English language articles published between 1985 and 2007. The previous Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada (SOGC) Policy Statement of November 1993 and statements from the American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Canadian College of Medical Geneticists were also reviewed in developing this clinical practice guideline. The quality of evidence was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care. Promoting the use of folic acid and a multivitamin supplement among women of reproductive age will reduce the incidence of birth defects. The costs are those of daily vitamin supplementation and eating a healthy diet. 1. Women in the reproductive age group should be advised about the benefits of folic acid in addition to a multivitamin supplement during wellness visits (birth control renewal, Pap testing, yearly examination) especially if pregnancy is contemplated. (III-A) 2. Women should be advised to maintain a healthy diet, as recommended in Eating Well With Canada's Food Guide (Health Canada). Foods containing excellent to good sources of folic acid are fortified grains, spinach, lentils, chick peas, asparagus, broccoli, peas, Brussels sprouts, corn, and oranges. However, it is unlikely that diet alone can provide

  17. Low permeability to oxygen of a new barrier film prevents butyric acid bacteria spore formation in farm corn silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borreani, G; Tabacco, E

    2008-11-01

    The outgrowth of Clostridium spore-forming bacteria causes late blowing in cheeses. Recently, the role of air diffusion during storage and feed-out and the role of aerobic deterioration has been shown to indirectly favor butyric acid bacteria (BAB) growth and to determine the presence of high concentrations of BAB spores in farm tank milk. A new oxygen barrier (OB) film was tested and compared with conventional polyethylene (ST). The objective was to verify whether the OB film could prevent BAB spore formation in whole-crop corn silage during storage on 2 commercial farms with different potential silage spoilage risks. Two bunkers (farms 1 and 2) were divided into 2 parts along the length so that half the feed-out face would be covered with ST film and the other half with OB film. Plastic net bags with freshly chopped corn were buried in the upper layer and in the central part (CORE) of the bunkers. The silos were opened in summer and fed out at different removal rates (19 vs. 33 cm/d). Herbage at ensiling, silage at unloading, and silage after air exposure (6 and 15 d) were analyzed for pH, nitrate, BAB spores, yeasts, and molds. The BAB spores in herbages at ensiling were 2.84 log(10) most probable number (MPN)/g, with no differences between treatments or farms. Nitrate was below the detection limit on farm 1 and exceeded 2,300 mg/kg of fresh matter on farm 2. At unloading, the BAB spores in the ST silage on farm 1 were greater than 5 log(10) MPN/g, whereas in the CORE and the OB silages, they were approximately 2 log(10) MPN/g. The ST silage had the greatest pH (5.89), the greatest mold count (5.07 log(10) cfu/g), and the greatest difference between silage temperature and ambient temperature (dT(section-ambient)). On farm 2, the ST silage had the greatest concentration of BAB spores (2.19 log(10) MPN/g), the greatest pH (4.05), and the least nitrate concentration compared with the CORE and the OB silages. Pooled data on BAB spores collected from aerobically

  18. Gentamicin-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) microparticles for the prevention of maxillofacial and orthopedic implant infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, Claudia [Univ. Lille, 59000 Lille (France); INSERM U1008, Controlled Drug Delivery Systems and Biomaterials, 59000 Lille (France); Degoutin, Stephanie [Univ. Lille, 59000 Lille (France); UMET, Ingénierie des Systèmes Polymères, Université de Lille 1, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Chai, Feng [Univ. Lille, 59000 Lille (France); INSERM U1008, Controlled Drug Delivery Systems and Biomaterials, 59000 Lille (France); Raoul, Gwenael [Univ. Lille, 59000 Lille (France); INSERM U1008, Controlled Drug Delivery Systems and Biomaterials, 59000 Lille (France); Service Chirurgie Maxillo-Faciale, CHRU de Lille, 59000 Lille (France); Hornez, Jean-Chritophe [Laboratoire des Matériaux Céramiques et Procédés Associés (LMCPA), Université de Valenciennes, 59300 Valenciennes (France); Martel, Bernard [Univ. Lille, 59000 Lille (France); UMET, Ingénierie des Systèmes Polymères, Université de Lille 1, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Siepmann, Juergen [Univ. Lille, 59000 Lille (France); INSERM U1008, Controlled Drug Delivery Systems and Biomaterials, 59000 Lille (France); Ferri, Joel [Univ. Lille, 59000 Lille (France); INSERM U1008, Controlled Drug Delivery Systems and Biomaterials, 59000 Lille (France); Service Chirurgie Maxillo-Faciale, CHRU de Lille, 59000 Lille (France); Blanchemain, Nicolas, E-mail: nicolas.blanchemain@univ-lille2.fr [Univ. Lille, 59000 Lille (France); INSERM U1008, Controlled Drug Delivery Systems and Biomaterials, 59000 Lille (France)

    2016-07-01

    Trauma and orthopedic surgery can cause infections as any open surgical procedures. Such complications occur in only1 to 5% of the cases, but the treatment is rather complicated due to bacterial biofilm formation and limited drug access to the site of infection upon systemic administration. An interesting strategy to overcome this type of complications is to prevent bacterial proliferation and biofilm formation via the local and controlled release of antibiotic drugs from the implant itself. Obviously, the incorporation of the drug into the implant should not affect the latter's biological and mechanical properties. In this context, we optimized the preparation process for gentamicin-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microparticles, which can be incorporated in the macropores of calcium phosphate-based bone substitutes. Microparticles were prepared using a double emulsion solvent extraction/evaporation technique. The processing parameters were optimized in order to provide an average microparticle size of about 60 μm, allowing for incorporation inside the macropores (100 μm) of the hydroxyapatite scaffold. Gentamicin-loaded PLGA microparticles showed a sustained release for 25–30 days and a rapid antibacterial activity due to a burst effect, the extent of which was controlled by the initial loading of the microparticles. SEM pictures revealed a highly porous microparticle structure, which can help to reduce the micro environmental pH drop and autocatalytic effects. The biological evaluation showed the cytocompatibility and non-hemolytic property of the microparticles, and the antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus under the given conditions. - Highlights: • The optimization of microparticle preparation parameters allows to obtain a size compatible with the bone substitute porosity • PDL% has a direct impact on the burst effect, a control release of gentamicin was obtained • The incorporation of microparticles into the

  19. Ascorbic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascorbic acid is used to prevent and treat scurvy, a disease caused by a lack of vitamin C ... Ascorbic acid comes in extended-release (long-acting) capsules and tablets, lozenges, syrup, chewable tablets, and liquid drops ...

  20. Role of amino acids and vitamins in prevention of and rapid recovery from fatigue in the officers and soldiers at high altitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen HUANG

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To explore the role of amino acids and vitamins in the prevention of and recovery from the fatigue related to military operation in the officers and soldiers at high altitude. Methods  The participants were 100 officers and soldiers, whose Modified Fatigue Rating Scale (MFIS scores were >21 points. The participants were randomly divided into three groups: capsule, placebo, and granules. Amino acids capsule (8 kinds of essential amino acids and 11 kinds of vitamins were contained, placebo, or amino acid-fructose beverage was given to respective group for 14 days continuously. The 3000-m running performance of the officers and soldiers stationed on a plateau was measured on the first and 14th days. The maximal grip strength of the right hand, fist-making times per minute, and the height reaching by the hand after three-step run-up for the same candidate were observed before and after fatigue loading (3000-m running. The blood levels of lactic acid and urea nitrogen of the candidates were measured after fatigue loading on the first and the 14th days. Results  The 3000-m running performance of officers and soldiers in the capsule and granules groups on the 14th day were better than that of the first day (PP>0.05. The difference between the capsule and the granules groups in grip strength, fist-making times per minute, and hand reaching height on the 14th day were obviously lower than that on the first day (PP>0.05. The blood levels of lactic acid and urea nitrogen in the capsule and granules groups on the 14th day were lower than that on the first day (PP>0.05. Conclusions  Amino acids and vitamins preparations can obviously improve the military performance capacity of officers and soldiers stationed on the plateau. Similarly, they can effectively prevent the lowering of jumping ability and grip strength caused by military fatigue. Therefore, amino acids and vitamins preparations play an important role in the prevention of and rapid

  1. The Extract of Aster Koraiensis Prevents Retinal Pericyte Apoptosis in Diabetic Rats and Its Active Compound, Chlorogenic Acid Inhibits AGE Formation and AGE/RAGE Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junghyun Kim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Retinal capillary cell loss is a hallmark of early diabetic retinal changes. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs are believed to contribute to retinal microvascular cell loss in diabetic retinopathy. In this study, the protective effects of Aster koraiensis extract (AKE against damage to retinal vascular cells were investigated in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats. To examine this issue further, AGE accumulation, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS were investigated using retinal trypsin digests from streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. In the diabetic rats, TUNEL (Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP Nick End Labeling-positive retinal microvascular cells were markedly increased. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that AGEs were accumulated within the retinal microvascular cells, and this accumulation paralleled the activation of NF-κB and the expression of iNOS in the diabetic rats. However, AKE prevented retinal microvascular cell apoptosis through the inhibition of AGE accumulation and NF-κB activation. Moreover, to determine the active compounds of AKE, two major compounds, chlorogenic acid and 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, were tested in an in vitro assay. Among these compounds, chlorogenic acid significantly reduced AGE formation as well as AGE/RAGE (receptor for AGEs binding activity. These results suggest that AKE, particularly chlorogenic acid, is useful in inhibiting AGE accumulation in retinal vessels and exerts a preventive effect against the injuries of diabetic retinal vascular cells.

  2. Long Chain Fatty Acid Acylated Derivatives of Quercetin-3-O-Glucoside as Antioxidants to Prevent Lipid Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumudu N. Warnakulasuriya

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids have shown promise as natural plant-based antioxidants for protecting lipids from oxidation. It was hypothesized that their applications in lipophilic food systems can be further enhanced by esterification of flavonoids with fatty acids. Quercetin-3-O-glucoside (Q3G was esterified individually with six selected long chain fatty acids: stearic acid (STA, oleic acid (OLA, linoleic acid (LNA, α-linolenic acid (ALA, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and decosahexaenoic acid (DHA, using Candida antarctica B lipase as the biocatalyst. The antioxidant activity of esterified flavonoids was evaluated using lipid oxidation model systems of poly-unsaturated fatty acids-rich fish oil and human low density lipoprotein (LDL, in vitro. In the oil-in-water emulsion, Q3G esters exhibited 50% to 100% inhibition in primary oxidation and 30% to 75% inhibition in secondary oxidation. In bulk oil, Q3G esters did not provide considerable protection from lipid oxidation; however, Q3G demonstrated more than 50% inhibition in primary oxidation. EPA, DHA and ALA esters of Q3G showed significantly higher inhibition in Cu2+- and peroxyl radical-induced LDL oxidation in comparison to Q3G.

  3. Long Chain Fatty Acid Acylated Derivatives of Quercetin-3-O-Glucoside as Antioxidants to Prevent Lipid Oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnakulasuriya, Sumudu N.; Ziaullah; Rupasinghe, H.P. Vasantha

    2014-01-01

    Flavonoids have shown promise as natural plant-based antioxidants for protecting lipids from oxidation. It was hypothesized that their applications in lipophilic food systems can be further enhanced by esterification of flavonoids with fatty acids. Quercetin-3-O-glucoside (Q3G) was esterified individually with six selected long chain fatty acids: stearic acid (STA), oleic acid (OLA), linoleic acid (LNA), α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and decosahexaenoic acid (DHA), using Candida antarctica B lipase as the biocatalyst. The antioxidant activity of esterified flavonoids was evaluated using lipid oxidation model systems of poly-unsaturated fatty acids-rich fish oil and human low density lipoprotein (LDL), in vitro. In the oil-in-water emulsion, Q3G esters exhibited 50% to 100% inhibition in primary oxidation and 30% to 75% inhibition in secondary oxidation. In bulk oil, Q3G esters did not provide considerable protection from lipid oxidation; however, Q3G demonstrated more than 50% inhibition in primary oxidation. EPA, DHA and ALA esters of Q3G showed significantly higher inhibition in Cu2+- and peroxyl radical-induced LDL oxidation in comparison to Q3G. PMID:25384198

  4. Efficacy of various naturally occurring caffeic acid derivatives in preventing post-harvest protein losses in forages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Michael L; Zeller, Wayne E

    2013-01-01

    In red clover, oxidation of endogenous o-diphenols by polyphenol oxidase (PPO) inhibits post-harvest proteolyis. This system is transferable to alfalfa by providing PPO (via a transgene) and o-diphenol PPO substrates (via exogenous application). To exploit the PPO system for protein protection, it would be advantageous to produce PPO substrates in alfalfa, which lacks them. We assessed the extent of PPO-mediated proteolytic inhibition by phenolic compounds, especially those whose biosynthesis could be engineered into alfalfa. Tested compounds included o-diphenols (caffeic acid, phaselic acid, chlorogenic acid, clovamide) and monophenols (p-coumaric acid, p-coumaroyl-malic acid). In the presence of PPO, 2 mmol o-diphenol g⁻¹ protein reduced 24 h proteolysis 68-87% (P < 0.001) and as little as 0.25 mmol g⁻¹ protein still decreased 24 h proteolysis 43-60% (P < 0.001). At high concentrations, clovamide inhibited 24 h proteolysis 50% (P < 0.001) in the absence of PPO, likely due to non-PPO oxidation. Monophenol p-coumaric acid did not inhibit 24 h proteolyis, although high levels of its malate ester did exhibit PPO- and oxygen-independent inhibition (37%, P < 0.001). For PPO-mediated proteolytic inhibition, pathways for both phaselic acid and chlorogenic acid may be good targets for engineering into alfalfa. Clovamide may be useful for inhibiting proteolysis without PPO. Published 2012 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. The Peroxisomal Enzyme L-PBE Is Required to Prevent the Dietary Toxicity of Medium-Chain Fatty Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Ding

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Specific metabolic pathways are activated by different nutrients to adapt the organism to available resources. Although essential, these mechanisms are incompletely defined. Here, we report that medium-chain fatty acids contained in coconut oil, a major source of dietary fat, induce the liver ω-oxidation genes Cyp4a10 and Cyp4a14 to increase the production of dicarboxylic fatty acids. Furthermore, these activate all ω- and β-oxidation pathways through peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR α and PPARγ, an activation loop normally kept under control by dicarboxylic fatty acid degradation by the peroxisomal enzyme L-PBE. Indeed, L-pbe−/− mice fed coconut oil overaccumulate dicarboxylic fatty acids, which activate all fatty acid oxidation pathways and lead to liver inflammation, fibrosis, and death. Thus, the correct homeostasis of dicarboxylic fatty acids is a means to regulate the efficient utilization of ingested medium-chain fatty acids, and its deregulation exemplifies the intricate relationship between impaired metabolism and inflammation.

  6. Optimal conjugation of catechol group onto hyaluronic acid in coronary stent substrate coating for the prevention of restenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Lih

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Although endovascular stenting has been used as an interventional therapy to treat cardio- and cerebro-vascular diseases, it is associated with recurrent vascular diseases following stent thrombosis and in-stent restenosis. In this study, a metallic stent was coated with dopamine-conjugated hyaluronic acid with different ratios of catechol group to improve hemocompatibility and re-endothelialization. Especially, we were interested in how much amount of catechol group is appropriate for the above-mentioned purposes. Therefore, a series of dopamine-conjugated hyaluronic acid conjugates with different ratios of catechol group were synthesized via a carbodiimide coupling reaction. Dopamine-conjugated hyaluronic acid conjugates were characterized with 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and the amount of catechol group in dopamine-conjugated hyaluronic acid was measured by ultraviolet spectrometer. Co-Cr substrates were polished and coated with various dopamine-conjugated hyaluronic acid conjugates under pH 8.5. Dopamine-conjugated hyaluronic acid amounts on the substrate were quantified by micro-bicinchoninic acid assay. Surface characteristics of dopamine-conjugated hyaluronic-acid-coated Co-Cr were evaluated by water contact angle, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The hemocompatibility of the surface-modified substrates was assessed by protein adsorption and platelet adhesion tests. Adhesion and activation of platelets were confirmed with scanning electron microscopy and lactate dehydrogenase assay. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were cultured on the substrates, and the viability, adhesion, and proliferation were investigated through cell counting kit-8 assay and fluorescent images. Obtained results demonstrated that optimal amounts of catechol group (100 µmol in the dopamine-conjugated hyaluronic acid existed in terms of various properties such as hemocompatibility and

  7. Eicosapentaenoic acid free fatty acid prevents and suppresses colonic neoplasia in colitis-associated colorectal cancer acting on Notch signaling and gut microbiota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piazzi, G.; Argenio, D' G.; Prossomariti, A.; Lembo, V.; Mazzone, G.; Candela, M.; Biagi, E.; Brigidi, P.; Vitaglione, P.; Fogliano, V.; Angelo and others, D' L.

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases are associated with increased risk of developing colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC). Epidemiological data show that the consumption of ¿-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (¿-3 PUFAs) decreases the risk of sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC). Importantly, recent data have

  8. Dietary long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids prevent impaired social behaviour and normalize brain dopamine levels in food allergic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Theije, Caroline G M; van den Elsen, Lieke W J; Willemsen, Linette E M; Milosevic, Vanja; Korte-Bouws, Gerdien A H; Lopes da Silva, Sofia; Broersen, Laus M; Korte, S Mechiel; Olivier, Berend; Garssen, Johan; Kraneveld, Aletta D

    2015-03-01

    Allergy is suggested to exacerbate impaired behaviour in children with neurodevelopmental disorders. We have previously shown that food allergy impaired social behaviour in mice. Dietary fatty acid composition may affect both the immune and nervous system. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) on food allergy-induced impaired social behaviour and associated deficits in prefrontal dopamine (DA) in mice. Mice were fed either control or n-3 LCPUFA-enriched diet before and during sensitization with whey. Social behaviour, acute allergic skin response and serum immunoglobulins were assessed. Monoamine levels were measured in brain and intestine and fatty acid content in brain. N-3 LCPUFA prevented impaired social behaviour of allergic mice. Moreover, n-3 LCPUFA supplementation increased docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) incorporation into the brain and restored reduced levels of prefrontal DA and its metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, 3-methoxytyramine and homovanillic acid in allergic mice. In addition to these brain effects, n-3 LCPUFA supplementation reduced the allergic skin response and restored decreased intestinal levels of serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in allergic mice. N-3 LCPUFA may have beneficial effects on food allergy-induced deficits in social behaviour, either indirectly by reducing the allergic response and restoring intestinal 5-HT signalling, or directly by DHA incorporation into neuronal membranes, affecting the DA system. Therefore, it is of interest to further investigate the relevance of food allergy-enhanced impairments in social behaviour in humans and the potential benefits of dietary n-3 LCPUFA supplementation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Acetylsalicylic Acid Compared to Placebo in Treating High-Risk Patients With Subsolid Lung Nodules | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    This randomized phase II trial studies acetylsalicylic acid compared to placebo in treating high-risk patients with subsolid lung nodules. A nodule is a growth or lump that may be malignant (cancer) or benign (not cancer). Chemoprevention is the use of drugs to keep cancer from forming or coming back. The use of acetylsalicylic acid may keep cancer from forming in patients with subsolid lung nodules. |

  10. Vocal cord palsy after vincristine treatment in a child and the inefficacy of glutamic acid in the prevention of relapse: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farruggia Piero

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Vincristine is an antineoplastic drug with a well known efficacy for the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia and many solid tumors. No more than 20 pediatric patients with vincristine-induced vocal cord palsy have been reported, and to the best of our knowledge this is the first case where glutamic acid was administered with the aim of preventing a relapse of laryngeal dysfunction. Case presentation The larynx paralysis presented with hoarseness and stridor in a Caucasian 18-month-old girl and spontaneously resolved in about a month. In order to administer a subsequent full dose of vincristine, our patient received oral glutamic acid whose efficacy against vincristine neurological side effects has been previously reported. Conclusions Since in our patient the amino acid proved to be ineffective in the prevention of laryngeal paralysis relapse, we suggest that a dose reduction of vincristine should be preferred by oncologists as an initial approach after a case of drug-induced vocal cord palsy.

  11. Temporal and spatial variation in the status of acid rivers and potential prevention methods of AS soil-related leaching in peatland forestry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saarinen, T.

    2013-06-01

    maintenance drainage in peatland forestry on runoff water quality showed a clear risk of oxidation of sulphidic materials during dry summers. This can be prevented mainly by avoiding too deep drainage. Knowledge of the hydrochemical impacts of acidic load derived from AS soils and drained peatlands is necessary for land use planning and sustainable water management of river basins affected by these soils. (orig.)

  12. The Role of Probiotic Lactic Acid Bacteria and Bifidobacteria in the Prevention and Treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Other Related Diseases: A Systematic Review of Randomized Human Clinical Trials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Saez-Lara, Maria Jose; Gomez-Llorente, Carolina; Plaza-Diaz, Julio; Gil, Angel

    2015-01-01

    .... A number of fermented dairy products contain lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and bifidobacteria, some of which have been characterized as probiotics that can modify the gut microbiota and may be beneficial for the treatment and the prevention of IBD...

  13. Preventing AVF thrombosis: the rationale and design of the Omega-3 fatty acids (Fish Oils) and Aspirin in Vascular access OUtcomes in REnal Disease (FAVOURED) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irish, Ashley; Dogra, Gursharan; Mori, Trevor; Beller, Elaine; Heritier, Stephane; Hawley, Carmel; Kerr, Peter; Robertson, Amanda; Rosman, Johan; Paul-Brent, Peta-Anne; Starfield, Melissa; Polkinghorne, Kevan; Cass, Alan

    2009-01-21

    Haemodialysis (HD) is critically dependent on the availability of adequate access to the systemic circulation, ideally via a native arteriovenous fistula (AVF). The Primary failure rate of an AVF ranges between 20-54%, due to thrombosis or failure of maturation. There remains limited evidence for the use of anti-platelet agents and uncertainty as to choice of agent(s) for the prevention of AVF thrombosis. We present the study protocol for a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial examining whether the use of the anti-platelet agents, aspirin and omega-3 fatty acids, either alone or in combination, will effectively reduce the risk of early thrombosis in de novo AVF. The study population is adult patients with stage IV or V chronic kidney disease (CKD) currently on HD or where HD is planned to start within 6 months in whom a planned upper or lower arm AVF is to be the primary HD access. Using a factorial-design trial, patients will be randomised to aspirin or matching placebo, and also to omega-3 fatty acids or matching placebo, resulting in four treatment groups (aspirin placebo/omega-3 fatty acid placebo, aspirin/omega-3 fatty acid placebo, aspirin placebo/omega-3 fatty acid, aspirin/omega-3 fatty acid). Randomisation will be achieved using a dynamic balancing method over the two stratification factors of study site and upper versus lower arm AVF. The medication will be commenced pre-operatively and continued for 3 months post surgery. The primary outcome is patency of the AVF at three months after randomisation. Secondary outcome measures will include functional patency at six and twelve months, primary patency time, secondary (assisted) patency time, and adverse events, particularly bleeding. This multicentre Australian and New Zealand study has been designed to determine whether the outcome of surgery to create de novo AVF can be improved by the use of aspirin and/or omega-3 fatty acids. Recently a placebo-controlled trial has shown that

  14. Preventing AVF thrombosis: the rationale and design of the Omega-3 fatty acids (Fish Oils and Aspirin in Vascular access OUtcomes in REnal Disease (FAVOURED study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosman Johan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Haemodialysis (HD is critically dependent on the availability of adequate access to the systemic circulation, ideally via a native arteriovenous fistula (AVF. The Primary failure rate of an AVF ranges between 20–54%, due to thrombosis or failure of maturation. There remains limited evidence for the use of anti-platelet agents and uncertainty as to choice of agent(s for the prevention of AVF thrombosis. We present the study protocol for a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial examining whether the use of the anti-platelet agents, aspirin and omega-3 fatty acids, either alone or in combination, will effectively reduce the risk of early thrombosis in de novo AVF. Methods/Design The study population is adult patients with stage IV or V chronic kidney disease (CKD currently on HD or where HD is planned to start within 6 months in whom a planned upper or lower arm AVF is to be the primary HD access. Using a factorial-design trial, patients will be randomised to aspirin or matching placebo, and also to omega-3 fatty acids or matching placebo, resulting in four treatment groups (aspirin placebo/omega-3 fatty acid placebo, aspirin/omega-3 fatty acid placebo, aspirin placebo/omega-3 fatty acid, aspirin/omega-3 fatty acid. Randomisation will be achieved using a dynamic balancing method over the two stratification factors of study site and upper versus lower arm AVF. The medication will be commenced pre-operatively and continued for 3 months post surgery. The primary outcome is patency of the AVF at three months after randomisation. Secondary outcome measures will include functional patency at six and twelve months, primary patency time, secondary (assisted patency time, and adverse events, particularly bleeding. Discussion This multicentre Australian and New Zealand study has been designed to determine whether the outcome of surgery to create de novo AVF can be improved by the use of aspirin and/or omega-3 fatty

  15. Preventing false-negatives in the in vitro skin sensitization testing of acid anhydrides using interleukin-8 release assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Kazuto; Vo, Phuc Thi Hong; Yamamoto, Kenta; Kojima, Hajime; Itagaki, Hiroshi

    2017-08-01

    In vitro safety tests may be used as replacements for animal tests owing to their accuracy and high-throughput performance. However, several in vitro skin sensitization tests produce false-negative results such as acid anhydride. Here, we investigated the relationship between false-negative results of acid anhydride and its hydrolysis by aqueous vehicle. Differences in the pattern of hydrolysis for phthalic anhydride (PAH) due to addition of 1 drop of stock solution of PAH in liquid paraffin (LP) dispersion medium and PAH in DMSO were analyzed in a cell-free system. The results showed that use of LP dispersion medium stabilized the concentration of PAH in water over 5min by sustained-release, although almost all PAH converted to phthalic acid in water within 5min using DMSO. Additionally, treatment of THP-1 cells with PAH and phthalic acid using LP dispersion medium for 5min resulted in a 32-fold increase in IL-8 release for PAH as compared with that in the vehicle control. In contrast, for PAH using aqueous vehicle and phthalic acid using LP dispersion medium, there were no significant increases in IL-8 release. Similarly, using LP dispersion medium, trimellitic anhydride significantly increased IL-8 release was observed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Beyond the Role of Dietary Protein and Amino Acids in the Prevention of Diet-Induced Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzke, Klaus J.; Freudenberg, Anne; Klaus, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    High-protein diets have been shown to prevent the development of diet-induced obesity and can improve associated metabolic disorders in mice. Dietary leucine supplementation can partially mimic this effect. However, the molecular mechanisms triggering these preventive effects remain to be satisfactorily explained. Here we review studies showing a connection between high protein or total amino nitrogen intake and obligatory water intake. High amino nitrogen intake may possibly lower lipid storage, and prevent insulin resistance. Suggestions are made for further systematical studies to explore the relationship between water consumption, satiety, and energy expenditure. Moreover, these examinations should better distinguish between leucine-specific and unspecific effects. Research in this field can provide important information to justify dietary recommendations and strategies in promoting long-term weight loss and may help to reduce health problems associated with the comorbidities of obesity. PMID:24447927

  17. Esomeprazole for prevention and resolution of upper gastrointestinal symptoms in patients treated with low-dose acetylsalicylic acid for cardiovascular protection: the OBERON trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiman, James M; Herlitz, Johan; Veldhuyzen van Zanten, Sander J; Lanas, Angel; Agewall, Stefan; Nauclér, Emma C; Svedberg, Lars-Erik; Nagy, Péter

    2013-03-01

    Although low-dose acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) is recommended for prevention of cardiovascular events in at-risk patients, its long-term use can be associated with the risk of peptic ulcer and upper gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms that may impact treatment compliance. This prespecified secondary analysis of the OBERON study (NCT00441727) determined the efficacy of esomeprazole for prevention/resolution of low-dose ASA-associated upper GI symptoms. A post hoc analysis of predictors of symptom prevention/resolution was also conducted. Helicobacter pylori-negative patients taking low-dose ASA (75-325 mg) for cardiovascular protection who had ≥1 upper GI risk factor were eligible. The patients were randomized to once-daily esomeprazole 40 mg, 20 mg, or placebo, for 26 weeks; 2303 patients (mean age 67.6 years; 36% aged >70 years) were evaluable for upper GI symptoms. The proportion of patients with dyspeptic or reflux symptoms (self-reported Reflux Disease Questionnaire) was significantly lower (P esomeprazole versus in those treated with placebo. Treatment with esomeprazole (P 70 years (P esomeprazole is effective in preventing and resolving patient-reported upper GI symptoms in low-dose ASA users at increased GI risk.

  18. Prevention of neural tube defects by the fortification of flour with folic acid: a population-based retrospective study in Brazil/Prevention des anomalies du tube neural par l'enrichissement en acide folique des farines: etude retrospective en population au Bresil/La prevencion de los defectos del tubo neural mediante el enriquecimiento de la harina con acido folico: un estudio poblacional retrospectivo en Brasil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Santos, Leonor Maria Pacheco; Lecca, Roberto Carlos Reyes; Cortez-Escalante, Juan Jose; Sanchez, Mauro Niskier; Rodrigues, Humberto Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine if the fortification of wheat and maize flours with iron and folic acid--which became mandatory in Brazil from June 2004--is effective in the prevention of neural tube defects...

  19. Role of Omega-3 fatty acids in the etiology, treatment, and prevention of depression: Current status and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert K. McNamara

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the past three decades a body of translational evidence has implicated dietary deficiency in long-chain omega-3 (LCn-3 fatty acids, including eicosapenaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, in the pathophysiology and etiology of major depressive disorder (MDD. Cross-national and cross-sectional data suggest that greater habitual intake of preformed EPA + DHA is associated with reduced risk for developing depressive symptoms and syndromal MDD. Erythrocyte EPA and DHA composition is highly correlated with habitual fish or fish oil intake, and case-control studies have consistently observed lower erythrocyte EPA and/or DHA levels in patients with MDD. Low erythrocyte EPA + DHA composition may also be associated with increased risk for suicide and cardiovascular disease, two primary causes of excess premature mortality in MDD. While controversial, dietary EPA + DHA supplementation may have antidepressant properties and may augment the therapeutic efficacy of antidepressant medications. Neuroimaging and rodent neurodevelopmental studies further suggest that low LCn-3 fatty acid intake or biostatus can recapitulate central pathophysiological features associated with MDD. Prospective findings suggest that low LCn-3 fatty acid biostatus increases risk for depressive symptoms in part by augmenting pro-inflammatory responsivity. When taken collectively, these translational findings provide a strong empirical foundation in support of dietary LCn-3 fatty acid deficiency as a modifiable risk factor for MDD. This review provides an overview of this translational evidence and then discusses future directions including strategies to translate this evidence into routine clinical screening and treatment algorithms.

  20. Use of Tranexamic acid is a cost effective method in preventing blood loss during and after total knee replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umer Chaudhry Muhammad

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background & Purpose Allogenic blood transfusion in elective orthopaedic surgery is best avoided owing to its associated risks. Total knee replacement often requires blood transfusion, more so when bilateral surgery is performed. Many strategies are currently being employed to reduce the amount of peri-operative allogenic transfusions. Anti-fibrinolytic compounds such as aminocaproic acid and tranexamic acid have been used systemically in perioperative settings with promising results. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of tranexamic acid in reducing allogenic blood transfusion in total knee replacement surgery. Methodology This was a retrospective cohort study conducted on patients undergoing total knee replacement during the time period November 2005 to November 2008. Study population was 99 patients, of which 70 underwent unilateral and 29 bilateral knee replacement. Forty-seven patients with 62 (49.5% knees (group-I had received tranexamic acid (by surgeon preference while the remaining fifty-two patients with 66 (51.5% knees (group-II had did not received any tranexamic acid either pre- or post-operatively. Results The mean drop in the post-operative haemoglobin concentration in Group-II for unilateral and bilateral cases was 1.79 gm/dl and 2.21 gm/dl, with a mean post-operative drainage of 1828 ml (unilateral and 2695 ml (bilateral. In comparison, the mean drop in the post-op haemoglobin in Group-I was 1.49 gm/dl (unilateral and 1.94 gm/dl (bilateral, with a mean drainage of 826 ml (unilateral and 1288 ml (bilateral (p-value Interpretation Tranexamic acid is effective in reducing post-operative drainage and requirement of blood transfusion after knee replacement.

  1. A comprehensive evaluation of food fortification with folic acid for the primary prevention of neural tube defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lam Angeline

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Periconceptional use of vitamin supplements containing folic acid reduces the risk of a neural tube defect (NTD. In November 1998, food fortification with folic acid was mandated in Canada, as a public health strategy to increase the folic acid intake of all women of childbearing age. We undertook a comprehensive population based study in Newfoundland to assess the benefits and possible adverse effects of this intervention. Methods This study was carried out in women aged 19–44 years and in seniors from November 1997 to March 1998, and from November 2000 to March 2001. The evaluation was comprised of four components: I Determination of rates of NTDs; II Dietary assessment; III Blood analysis; IV Assessment of knowledge and use of folic acid supplements. Results The annual rates of NTDs in Newfoundland varied greatly between 1976 and 1997, with a mean rate of 3.40 per 1,000 births. There was no significant change in the average rates between 1991–93 and 1994–97 (relative risk [RR] 1.01, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.76–1.34. The rates of NTDs fell by 78% (95% CI 65%–86% after the implementation of folic acid fortification, from an average of 4.36 per 1,000 births during 1991–1997 to 0.96 per 1,000 births during 1998–2001 (RR 0.22, 95% CI 0.14–0.35. The average dietary intake of folic acid due to fortification was 70 μg/day in women aged 19–44 years and 74 μg/day in seniors. There were significant increases in serum and RBC folate levels for women and seniors after mandatory fortification. Among seniors, there were no significant changes in indices typical of vitamin B12 deficiencies, and no evidence of improved folate status masking haematological manifestations of vitamin B12 deficiency. The proportion of women aged 19–44 years taking a vitamin supplement containing folic acid increased from 17% to 28%. Conclusions Based on these findings, mandatory food fortification in Canada should continue at the

  2. Increasing palmitic acid intake enhances milk production and prevents glucose-stimulated fatty acid disappearance without modifying systemic glucose tolerance in mid-lactation dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, A T; Rico, J E; Sprenkle, N T; Lock, A L; McFadden, J W

    2016-11-01

    Feeding saturated fatty acids may enhance milk yield in part by decreasing insulin sensitivity and shifting glucose utilization toward the mammary gland. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of palmitic acid (C16:0) on milk production and insulin sensitivity in cows. Twenty multiparous mid-lactation Holstein cows were enrolled in a study consisting of a 5-d covariate, 49-d treatment, and 14-d posttreatment period. All cows received a common sorghum silage-based diet and were randomly assigned to a diet containing no supplemental fat (control; n=10; 138±45d in milk) or C16:0 at 4% of ration DM (PALM; 98% C16:0; n=10; 136±44d in milk). Blood and milk were collected at routine intervals. Intravenous glucose tolerance tests (300mg/kg of body weight) were performed at d -1, 24, and 49 relative to start of treatment. Data were analyzed as repeated measures using a mixed model with fixed effects of treatment and time, and milk yield served as a covariate. The PALM treatment increased milk yield by wk 7. Furthermore, PALM increased milk fat yield and energy-corrected milk at wk 3 and 7. Changes in milk production occurred in parallel with enhanced energy intake. Increased milk fat yield during PALM treatment was due to increased C16:0 and C16:1 incorporation; PALM had no effect on concentration of milk components, BW, or body condition score. Two weeks posttreatment, energy-corrected milk and milk fat yield remained elevated in PALM-fed cows whereas yields of milk were similar between treatments. Increased milk fat yield after PALM treatment was due to increased de novo lipogenesis and uptake of preformed fatty acids. The basal concentration of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) in plasma increased by d 4, 6, and 8 of PALM treatment, a response not observed thereafter. Although PALM supplementation did not modify insulin, glucose, or triacylglycerol levels in plasma, total cholesterol in plasma was elevated by wk 3. Estimated insulin sensitivity was lower during the

  3. A prospective, randomized, double-blinded single-site control study comparing blood loss prevention of tranexamic acid (TXA) to epsilon aminocaproic acid (EACA) for corrective spinal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Kushagra; Errico, Thomas J; Vaz, Kenneth M; Lonner, Baron S

    2010-04-06

    Multilevel spinal fusion surgery has typically been associated with significant blood loss. To limit both the need for transfusions and co-morbidities associated with blood loss, the use of anti-fibrinolytic agents has been proposed. While there is some literature comparing the effectiveness of tranexamic acid (TXA) to epsilon aminocaproic acid (EACA) in cardiac procedures, there is currently no literature directly comparing TXA to EACA in orthopedic surgery. Here we propose a prospective, randomized, double-blinded control study evaluating the effects of TXA, EACA, and placebo for treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), neuromuscular scoliosis (NMS), and adult deformity (AD) via corrective spinal surgery. Efficacy will be determined by intraoperative and postoperative blood loss. Other clinical outcomes that will be compared include transfusion rates, preoperative and postoperative hemodynamic values, and length of hospital stay after the procedure. The primary goal of the study is to determine perioperative blood loss as a measure of the efficacy of TXA, EACA, and placebo. Based on current literature and the mechanism by which the medications act, we hypothesize that TXA will be more effective at reducing blood loss than EACA or placebo and result in improved patient outcomes. ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT00958581.

  4. A prospective, randomized, double-blinded single-site control study comparing blood loss prevention of tranexamic acid (TXA to epsilon aminocaproic acid (EACA for corrective spinal surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaz Kenneth M

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multilevel spinal fusion surgery has typically been associated with significant blood loss. To limit both the need for transfusions and co-morbidities associated with blood loss, the use of anti-fibrinolytic agents has been proposed. While there is some literature comparing the effectiveness of tranexamic acid (TXA to epsilon aminocaproic acid (EACA in cardiac procedures, there is currently no literature directly comparing TXA to EACA in orthopedic surgery. Methods/Design Here we propose a prospective, randomized, double-blinded control study evaluating the effects of TXA, EACA, and placebo for treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS, neuromuscular scoliosis (NMS, and adult deformity (AD via corrective spinal surgery. Efficacy will be determined by intraoperative and postoperative blood loss. Other clinical outcomes that will be compared include transfusion rates, preoperative and postoperative hemodynamic values, and length of hospital stay after the procedure. Discussion The primary goal of the study is to determine perioperative blood loss as a measure of the efficacy of TXA, EACA, and placebo. Based on current literature and the mechanism by which the medications act, we hypothesize that TXA will be more effective at reducing blood loss than EACA or placebo and result in improved patient outcomes. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT00958581

  5. An omega-3 fatty acid-enriched diet prevents skeletal muscle lesions in a hamster model of dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiaccavento, Roberta; Carotenuto, Felicia; Vecchini, Alba; Binaglia, Luciano; Forte, Giancarlo; Capucci, Enrico; Maccari, Anna Maria; Minieri, Marilena; Di Nardo, Paolo

    2010-11-01

    Currently, despite well-known mutational causes, a universal treatment for neuromuscular disorders is still lacking, and current therapeutic efforts are mainly restricted to symptomatic treatments. In the present study, δ-sarcoglycan-null dystrophic hamsters were fed a diet enriched in flaxseed-derived ω3 α-linolenic fatty acid from weaning until death. α-linolenic fatty acid precluded the dystrophic degeneration of muscle morphology and function. In fact, in dystrophic animals fed flaxseed-derived α-linolenic fatty acid, the histological appearance of the muscular tissue was improved, the proliferation of interstitial cells was decreased, and the myogenic differentiation originated new myocytes to repair the injured muscle. In addition, muscle myofibers were larger and cell membrane integrity was preserved, as witnessed by the correct localization of α-, β-, and γ-sarcoglycans and α-dystroglycan. Furthermore, the cytoplasmic accumulation of both β-catenin and caveolin-3 was abolished in dystrophic hamster muscle fed α-linolenic fatty acid versus control animals fed standard diet, while α-myosin heavy chain was expressed at nearly physiological levels. These findings, obtained by dietary intervention only, introduce a novel concept that provides evidence that the modulation of the plasmalemma lipid profile could represent an efficacious strategy to ameliorate human muscular dystrophy.

  6. Pomegranate seed oil, a rich source of punicic acid, prevents diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance in mice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroegrijk, I.O.; Diepen, J.A. van; Berg, S.; Westbroek, I.; Keizer, H.; Gambelli, L.; Hontecillas, R.; Bassaganya-Riera, J.; Zondag, G.C.; Romijn, J.A.; Havekes, L.M.; Voshol, P.J.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pomegranate seed oil has been shown to protect against diet induced obesity and insulin resistance. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the metabolic effects of punicic acid on high fat diet induced obesity and insulin resistance. DESIGN: High-fat diet or high-fat diet with 1% Pomegranate seed

  7. Sialic acid on the neuronal glycocalyx prevents complement C1 binding and complement receptor-3-mediated removal by microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnartz, Bettina; Kopatz, Jens; Tenner, Andrea J; Neumann, Harald

    2012-01-18

    Microglial cells are professional phagocytes of the CNS responsible for clearance of unwanted structures. Neuronal processes are marked by complement C1 before they are removed in development or during disease processes. Target molecules involved in C1 binding and mechanisms of clearance are still unclear. Here we show that the terminal sugar residue sialic acid of the mouse neuronal glycocalyx determines complement C1 binding and microglial-mediated clearance function. Several early components of the classical complement cascade including C1q, C1r, C1s, and C3 were produced by cultured mouse microglia. The opsonin C1q was binding to neurites after enzymatic removal of sialic acid residues from the neuronal glycocalyx. Desialylated neurites, but not neurites with intact sialic acid caps, were cleared and taken up by cocultured microglial cells. The removal of the desialylated neurites was mediated via the complement receptor-3 (CR3; CD11b/CD18). Data demonstrate that mouse microglial cells via CR3 recognize and remove neuronal structures with an altered neuronal glycocalyx lacking terminal sialic acid.

  8. Quality control by trans-editing factor prevents global mistranslation of non-protein amino acid α-aminobutyrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacusmo, Jo Marie; Kuzmishin, Alexandra B; Cantara, William A; Goto, Yuki; Suga, Hiroaki; Musier-Forsyth, Karin

    2017-07-24

    Accuracy in protein biosynthesis is maintained through multiple pathways, with a critical checkpoint occurring at the tRNA aminoacylation step catalyzed by aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (ARSs). In addition to the editing functions inherent to some synthetases, single-domain trans-editing factors, which are structurally homologous to ARS editing domains, have evolved as alternative mechanisms to correct mistakes in aminoacyl-tRNA synthesis. To date, ARS-like trans-editing domains have been shown to act on specific tRNAs that are mischarged with genetically encoded amino acids. However, structurally related non-protein amino acids are ubiquitous in cells and threaten the proteome. Here, we show that a previously uncharacterized homolog of the bacterial prolyl-tRNA synthetase (ProRS) editing domain edits a known ProRS aminoacylation error, Ala-tRNAPro, but displays even more robust editing of tRNAs misaminoacylated with the non-protein amino acid α-aminobutyrate (2-aminobutyrate, Abu) in vitro and in vivo. Our results indicate that editing by trans-editing domains such as ProXp-x studied here may offer advantages to cells, especially under environmental conditions where concentrations of non-protein amino acids may challenge the substrate specificity of ARSs.

  9. Hyaluronic Acid Gel Injection to Prevent Thermal Injury of Adjacent Gastrointestinal Tract during Percutaneous Liver Radiofrequency Ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Takaaki, E-mail: hasegawat@clin.medic.mie-u.ac.jp; Takaki, Haruyuki; Miyagi, Hideki; Nakatsuka, Atsuhiro; Uraki, Junji; Yamanaka, Takashi; Fujimori, Masashi; Sakuma, Hajime; Yamakado, Koichiro [Mie University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Japan)

    2013-08-01

    This study evaluated the safety, feasibility, and clinical utility of hyaluronic acid gel injection to separate the gastrointestinal tract from the tumor during liver radiofrequency ablation (RFA). Eleven patients with liver tumors measuring 0.9-3.5 cm (mean {+-} standard deviation, 2.1 {+-} 0.8 cm) that were adjacent to the gastrointestinal tracts received RFA after the mixture of hyaluronic acid gel and contrast material (volume, 26.4 {+-} 14.5 mL; range, 10-60 mL) was injected between the tumor and the gastrointestinal tract under computed tomographic-fluoroscopic guidance. Each tumor was separated from the gastrointestinal tract by 1.0-1.5 cm (distance, 1.2 {+-} 0.2 cm) after injection of hyaluronic acid gel, and subsequent RFA was performed without any complications in all patients. Although tumor enhancement disappeared in all patients, local tumor progression was found in a patient (9.1 %, 1 of 11) during the follow-up of 5.5 {+-} 3.2 months (range, 0.4-9.9 months). In conclusion, hyaluronic acid gel injection is a safe and useful technique to avoid thermal injury of the adjacent gastrointestinal tract during liver RFA.

  10. Incubation at 25 °C prevents acid crash and enhances alcohol production in Clostridium carboxidivorans P7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramió-Pujol, Sara; Ganigué, Ramon; Bañeras, Lluís; Colprim, Jesús

    2015-09-01

    Incubation of carboxydotrophs at 37 °C provides optimal conditions for their growth. However, a fast accumulation of organic acids, specifically acetate, during the exponential growth phase may result in low alcohol production and substrate consumption due to a phenomenon known as "acid crash". The present work investigates growth and productivity of Clostridium carboxidivorans P7 at two incubation temperatures. At 37 °C the culture was not able to override the "acid crash", resulting in low ethanol titers (1.56 mM). On the other hand, lower metabolic rates at 25 °C enhanced ethanol and butanol production (32.1 and 14.5 mM, respectively). Moreover, at low temperatures, hexanol and caproic acid were also produced at significant concentrations, 8.21 and 9.02 mM respectively, among the highest values reported for P7. Our results demonstrate that production of biofuels with longer carbon chains molecules may be enhanced incubating syngas-fermenting acetogenic bacteria at sub-optimal temperatures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Dietary intervention with green dwarf banana flour (Musa sp AAA) prevents intestinal inflammation in a trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid model of rat colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarminio, Viviane; Fruet, Andrea C; Witaicenis, Aline; Rall, Vera L M; Di Stasi, Luiz C

    2012-03-01

    Dietary products are among the therapeutic approaches used to modify intestinal microflora and to promote protective effects during the intestinal inflammatory process. Because the banana plant is rich in resistant starch, which is used by colonic microbiota for the anaerobic production of the short-chain fatty acids that serve as a major fuel source for colonocytes: first, green dwarf banana flour produces protective effects on the intestinal inflammation acting as a prebiotic and, second, combination of this dietary supplementation with prednisolone presents synergistic effects. For this, we used the trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNBS) model of rat colitis. Our results revealed that the protective effect produced by a combination of 10% green dwarf banana flour with prednisolone was more pronounced than those promoted by a single administration of prednisolone or a diet containing 10% or 20% banana flour. This beneficial effect was associated with an improvement in the colonic oxidative status because the banana flour diet prevented the glutathione depletion and inhibited myeloperoxidase activity and lipid peroxidation. In addition, the intestinal anti-inflammatory activity was associated with an inhibition of alkaline phosphatase activity, a reduction in macroscopic and microscopic scores, and an extension of the lesions. In conclusion, the dietary use of the green dwarf banana flour constitutes an important dietary supplement and complementary medicine product to prevention and treatment of human inflammatory bowel disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Preventative Effects of Caffeic Acid Phenyl Ester on Cadmium Intoxication Induced Hematological and Blood Coagulation Disturbances and Hepatorenal Damage in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashour, Tariq Helal

    2014-01-01

    The preventative effect of caffeic acid phenyl ester (CAPE) against hematological, blood coagulation, and hepatorenal disturbances in cadmium (Cd) intoxication was investigated in rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into control group, Cd-group, and Cd + CAPE group. Cd intoxication was induced by intraperitoneal injection (i.p.) of CdCl2 (1 mg/kg/day) for 21 days, and CAPE was daily given (10 micromol/kg; i.p.) for also 21 days. The results showed that Cd intoxication impaired hepatorenal function and significantly prolonged prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time and decreased fibrinogen level, red blood cells and platelets counts, hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration. Interestingly, all these hematological, blood coagulation, and hepatorenal deteriorations of Cd toxicity were significantly prevented by CAPE. Additionally, CAPE significantly reversed the significant decreases in levels of total reduced glutathione and superoxide dismutase and increases in levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances that were observed in the sera and liver and kidney homogenates of Cd group. It is concluded that CAPE is a promising compound that can counteract the hematological and blood coagulation disturbances, oxidative stress, and hepatorenal damages in Cd intoxication. However, further studies are crucially needed to improve this treatment in patients. PMID:25006475

  13. Short-chain fatty acids and inulin, but not guar gum, prevent diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance through differential mechanisms in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitkunat, Karolin; Stuhlmann, Christin; Postel, Anna; Rumberger, Sandra; Fankhänel, Maria; Woting, Anni; Petzke, Klaus Jürgen; Gohlke, Sabrina; Schulz, Tim J; Blaut, Michael; Klaus, Susanne; Schumann, Sara

    2017-07-21

    The role of dietary fibre and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) in obesity development is controversially discussed. Here, we investigated how various types of dietary fibre and different SCFA ratios affect metabolic syndrome-related disorders. Male mice (B6) were fed high-fat diets supplemented with dietary fibres (either cellulose, inulin or guar gum) or different Ac:Pr ratios (high acetate (HAc) or propionate (HPr)) for 30 weeks. Body-fat gain and insulin resistance were greatly reduced by inulin, but not by guar gum, and completely prevented by SCFA supplementation. Only inulin and HAc increased body temperature, possibly by the induction of beige/browning markers in WAT. In addition, inulin and SCFA lowered hepatic triglycerides and improved insulin sensitivity. Both, inulin and HAc reduced hepatic fatty acid uptake, while only inulin enhanced mitochondrial capacity and only HAc suppressed lipogenesis in liver. Interestingly, HPr was accompanied by the induction of Nrg4 in BAT. Fermentable fibre supplementation increased the abundance of bifidobacteria; B. animalis was particularly stimulated by inulin and B. pseudolongum by guar gum. We conclude that in contrast to guar gum, inulin and SCFA prevent the onset of diet-induced weight gain and hepatic steatosis by different mechanisms on liver and adipose tissue metabolism.

  14. Hydroxy decenoic acid down regulates gtfB and gtfC expression and prevents Streptococcus mutans adherence to the cell surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Behnam; Ghaderi, Shahrooz; Rezapoor-Lactooyi, Alireza; Amiri, Niusha; Verdi, Javad; Shoae-Hassani, Alireza

    2012-07-28

    10-Hydroxy-2-decenoic acid, an unsaturated fatty acid is the most active and unique component to the royal jelly that has antimicrobial properties. Streptococcus mutans is associated with pathogenesis of oral cavity, gingivoperiodontal diseases and bacteremia following dental manipulations. In the oral cavity, S. mutans colonize the soft tissues including tongue, palate, and buccal mucosa. When considering the role of supragingival dental plaque in caries, the proportion of acid producing bacteria (particularly S. mutans), has direct relevance to the pathogenicity of the plaque. The genes that encode glucosyltransferases (gtfs) especially gtfB and gtfC are important in S. mutans colonization and pathogenesis. This study investigated the hydroxy-decenoic acid (HDA) effects on gtfB and gtfC expression and S. mutans adherence to cells surfaces. Streptococcus mutans was treated by different concentrations of HPLC purified HDA supplied by Iran Beekeeping and Veterinary Association. Real time RT-PCR and western blot assays were conducted to evaluate gtfB and gtfC genes transcription and translation before and after HDA treatment. The bacterial attachment to the cell surfaces was evaluated microscopically. 500 μg ml-1 of HDA inhibited gtfB and gtfC mRNA transcription and its expression. The same concentration of HDA decreased 60% the adherence of S. mutans to the surface of P19 cells. Hydroxy-decenoic acid prevents gtfB and gtfC expression efficiently in the bactericide sub-concentrations and it could effectively reduce S. mutans adherence to the cell surfaces. In the future, therapeutic approaches to affecting S. mutans could be selective and it's not necessary to put down the oral flora completely.

  15. Hydroxy decenoic acid down regulates gtfB and gtfC expression and prevents Streptococcus mutans adherence to the cell surfaces

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    Yousefi Behnam

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 10-Hydroxy-2-decenoic acid, an unsaturated fatty acid is the most active and unique component to the royal jelly that has antimicrobial properties. Streptococcus mutans is associated with pathogenesis of oral cavity, gingivoperiodontal diseases and bacteremia following dental manipulations. In the oral cavity, S. mutans colonize the soft tissues including tongue, palate, and buccal mucosa. When considering the role of supragingival dental plaque in caries, the proportion of acid producing bacteria (particularly S. mutans, has direct relevance to the pathogenicity of the plaque. The genes that encode glucosyltransferases (gtfs especially gtfB and gtfC are important in S. mutans colonization and pathogenesis. This study investigated the hydroxy-decenoic acid (HDA effects on gtfB and gtfC expression and S. mutans adherence to cells surfaces. Methods Streptococcus mutans was treated by different concentrations of HPLC purified HDA supplied by Iran Beekeeping and Veterinary Association. Real time RT-PCR and western blot assays were conducted to evaluate gtfB and gtfC genes transcription and translation before and after HDA treatment. The bacterial attachment to the cell surfaces was evaluated microscopically. Results 500 μg ml-1 of HDA inhibited gtfB and gtfC mRNA transcription and its expression. The same concentration of HDA decreased 60% the adherence of S. mutans to the surface of P19 cells. Conclusion Hydroxy-decenoic acid prevents gtfB and gtfC expression efficiently in the bactericide sub-concentrations and it could effectively reduce S. mutans adherence to the cell surfaces. In the future, therapeutic approaches to affecting S. mutans could be selective and it’s not necessary to put down the oral flora completely.

  16. Ursolic acid protects monocytes against metabolic stress-induced priming and dysfunction by preventing the induction of Nox4

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    Sarah L. Ullevig

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: UA protects THP-1 monocytes against dysfunction by suppressing metabolic stress-induced Nox4 expression, thereby preventing the Nox4-dependent dysregulation of redox-sensitive processes, including actin turnover and MAPK-signaling, two key processes that control monocyte migration and adhesion. This study provides a novel mechanism for the anti-inflammatory and athero- and renoprotective properties of UA and suggests that dysfunctional blood monocytes may be primary targets of UA and related compounds.

  17. Lipid profiling following intake of the omega 3 fatty acid DHA identifies the peroxidized metabolites F4-neuroprostanes as the best predictors of atherosclerosis prevention.

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    Cécile Gladine

    Full Text Available The anti-atherogenic effects of omega 3 fatty acids, namely eicosapentaenoic (EPA and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA are well recognized but the impact of dietary intake on bioactive lipid mediator profiles remains unclear. Such a profiling effort may offer novel targets for future studies into the mechanism of action of omega 3 fatty acids. The present study aimed to determine the impact of DHA supplementation on the profiles of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA oxygenated metabolites and to investigate their contribution to atherosclerosis prevention. A special emphasis was given to the non-enzymatic metabolites knowing the high susceptibility of DHA to free radical-mediated peroxidation and the increased oxidative stress associated with plaque formation. Atherosclerosis prone mice (LDLR(-/- received increasing doses of DHA (0, 0.1, 1 or 2% of energy during 20 weeks leading to a dose-dependent reduction of atherosclerosis (R(2 = 0.97, p = 0.02, triglyceridemia (R(2 = 0.97, p = 0.01 and cholesterolemia (R(2 = 0.96, p<0.01. Targeted lipidomic analyses revealed that both the profiles of EPA and DHA and their corresponding oxygenated metabolites were substantially modulated in plasma and liver. Notably, the hepatic level of F4-neuroprostanes, a specific class of DHA peroxidized metabolites, was strongly correlated with the hepatic DHA level. Moreover, unbiased statistical analysis including correlation analyses, hierarchical cluster and projection to latent structure discriminate analysis revealed that the hepatic level of F4-neuroprostanes was the variable most negatively correlated with the plaque extent (p<0.001 and along with plasma EPA-derived diols was an important mathematical positive predictor of atherosclerosis prevention. Thus, oxygenated n-3 PUFAs, and F4-neuroprostanes in particular, are potential biomarkers of DHA-associated atherosclerosis prevention. While these may contribute to the anti-atherogenic effects of DHA

  18. Lipid profiling following intake of the omega 3 fatty acid DHA identifies the peroxidized metabolites F4-neuroprostanes as the best predictors of atherosclerosis prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladine, Cécile; Newman, John W; Durand, Thierry; Pedersen, Theresa L; Galano, Jean-Marie; Demougeot, Céline; Berdeaux, Olivier; Pujos-Guillot, Estelle; Mazur, Andrzej; Comte, Blandine

    2014-01-01

    The anti-atherogenic effects of omega 3 fatty acids, namely eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA) are well recognized but the impact of dietary intake on bioactive lipid mediator profiles remains unclear. Such a profiling effort may offer novel targets for future studies into the mechanism of action of omega 3 fatty acids. The present study aimed to determine the impact of DHA supplementation on the profiles of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) oxygenated metabolites and to investigate their contribution to atherosclerosis prevention. A special emphasis was given to the non-enzymatic metabolites knowing the high susceptibility of DHA to free radical-mediated peroxidation and the increased oxidative stress associated with plaque formation. Atherosclerosis prone mice (LDLR(-/-)) received increasing doses of DHA (0, 0.1, 1 or 2% of energy) during 20 weeks leading to a dose-dependent reduction of atherosclerosis (R(2) = 0.97, p = 0.02), triglyceridemia (R(2) = 0.97, p = 0.01) and cholesterolemia (R(2) = 0.96, p<0.01). Targeted lipidomic analyses revealed that both the profiles of EPA and DHA and their corresponding oxygenated metabolites were substantially modulated in plasma and liver. Notably, the hepatic level of F4-neuroprostanes, a specific class of DHA peroxidized metabolites, was strongly correlated with the hepatic DHA level. Moreover, unbiased statistical analysis including correlation analyses, hierarchical cluster and projection to latent structure discriminate analysis revealed that the hepatic level of F4-neuroprostanes was the variable most negatively correlated with the plaque extent (p<0.001) and along with plasma EPA-derived diols was an important mathematical positive predictor of atherosclerosis prevention. Thus, oxygenated n-3 PUFAs, and F4-neuroprostanes in particular, are potential biomarkers of DHA-associated atherosclerosis prevention. While these may contribute to the anti-atherogenic effects of DHA

  19. The role of omega-3 fatty acids in increasing bone density to prevent relapse after orthodontic treatment

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    Irma Ariany Syam

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The new bone formed by application of orthodontic force has a lower mineralization, leading to reduced bone mineral density. Lack of bone density is a risk factor for relapse after orthodontic treatment. Some studies have reported that omega-3 have been shown to have a role to increase bone density. This literature study aims to assess the role of omega-3 in increasing bone density to prevent relapse after orthodontic treatment. Omega-3 consists of EPA and DHA. They can decrease the number of osteoclasts and increase the number of osteoblasts, leptin and IGF-1 levels. It can also reduce of IL-1α and TNF-α level in the blood, increasing the expression of OPN and ALP activity in alveolar bone. In vitro study, DHA can prevent osteoclast differentiation, inhibit the production of PGE2 and increase calcium absorption. Based on the study above, it can be concluded that omega-3 play a role to increase bone density in preventing relapse after orthodontic treatment.

  20. Effectiveness of Folic Acid Fortified Flour for Prevention of Neural Tube Defects in a High Risk Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haochen; De Steur, Hans; Chen, Gong; Zhang, Xiaotian; Pei, Lijun; Gellynck, Xavier; Zheng, Xiaoying

    2016-03-09

    Despite efforts to tackle folate deficiency and Neural Tube Defects (NTDs) through folic acid fortification, its implementation is still lacking where it is needed most, highlighting the need for studies that evaluate the effectiveness of folic acid fortified wheat flour in a poor, rural, high-risk, NTD region of China. One of the most affected regions, Shanxi Province, was selected as a case study. A community intervention was carried out in which 16,648 women of child-bearing age received fortified flour (eight villages) and a control group received ordinary flour (three villages). NTD birth prevalence and biological indicators were measured two years after program initiation at endline only. The effect on the NTD burden was calculated using the disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) method. In the intervention group, serum folate level was higher than in the control group. NTDs in the intervention group were 68.2% lower than in the control group (OR = 0.313, 95% CI = 0.207-0473, p < 0.001). In terms of DALYs, burden in intervention group was approximately 58.5% lower than in the control group. Flour fortification was associated with lower birth prevalence and burden of NTDs in economically developing regions with a high risk of NTDs. The positive findings confirm the potential of fortification when selecting an appropriate food vehicle and target region. As such, this study provides support for decision makers aiming for the implementation of (mandatory) folic acid fortification in China.

  1. Effectiveness of Folic Acid Fortified Flour for Prevention of Neural Tube Defects in a High Risk Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haochen Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite efforts to tackle folate deficiency and Neural Tube Defects (NTDs through folic acid fortification, its implementation is still lacking where it is needed most, highlighting the need for studies that evaluate the effectiveness of folic acid fortified wheat flour in a poor, rural, high-risk, NTD region of China. One of the most affected regions, Shanxi Province, was selected as a case study. A community intervention was carried out in which 16,648 women of child-bearing age received fortified flour (eight villages and a control group received ordinary flour (three villages. NTD birth prevalence and biological indicators were measured two years after program initiation at endline only. The effect on the NTD burden was calculated using the disability-adjusted life years (DALYs method. In the intervention group, serum folate level was higher than in the control group. NTDs in the intervention group were 68.2% lower than in the control group (OR = 0.313, 95% CI = 0.207–0473, p < 0.001. In terms of DALYs, burden in intervention group was approximately 58.5% lower than in the control group. Flour fortification was associated with lower birth prevalence and burden of NTDs in economically developing regions with a high risk of NTDs. The positive findings confirm the potential of fortification when selecting an appropriate food vehicle and target region. As such, this study provides support for decision makers aiming for the implementation of (mandatory folic acid fortification in China.

  2. Chitosan conduit combined with hyaluronic acid prevent sciatic nerve scar in a rat model of peripheral nerve crush injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Runxin; Liu, Huawei; Huang, Haitao; Bi, Wenting; Yan, Rongzeng; Tan, Xinying; Wen, Weisheng; Wang, Chao; Song, Wenling; Zhang, Yanhua; Zhang, Feng; Hu, Min

    2018-03-01

    In the present study, the effects of hyaluronic acid (HA) combined with chitosan conduit on peripheral nerve scarring and regeneration were investigated in a rat model of peripheral nerve crush injury. A total of 60 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly distributed into four groups (15 rats in each group), in which the nerve was either not treated (control group) or treated with chitosan conduit, hyaluronic acid, or chitosan conduit coupled with hyaluronic acid following clamp injury to the sciatic nerve. The surgical sites were evaluated by assessing the sciatic functional index, the degree of scar adhesions, the numbers of myelinated nerve fibers, the average diameter of myelinated nerve fibers and the myelin sheath thickness. Larger epineurial scar thickness was observed in the control groups compared with the treatment groups at 4, 8 and 12 weeks following surgery. There was no significant difference in scar adhesion among the four groups at 4 weeks following surgery. However, animals receiving chitosan coupled with HA demonstrated better neural recovery, as measured by reduced nerve adherence to surrounding tissues, less scar adhesion, increased number of axons, nerve fiber diameter and myelin thickness. In conclusion, the application of chitosan conduit combined with HA, to a certain extent, inhibited sciatic nerve extraneural scaring and adhesion, and promoted neural regeneration and recovery.

  3. Gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) prevents the induction of nicotinic receptor-regulated signaling by chronic ethanol in pancreatic cancer cells and normal duct epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Wadei, Mohammed H; Al-Wadei, Hussein A N; Schuller, Hildegard M

    2013-02-01

    Pancreatic cancer has a high mortality rate and alcoholism is a risk factor independent of smoking. We have shown that nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) regulate pancreatic ductal epithelia and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells in an autocrine fashion by stimulating their production of the stress neurotransmitters noradrenaline and adrenaline that signal through β-adrenergic receptors (β-AR). Our current study has investigated the modulation of this autocrine regulatory loop by chronic ethanol and explored the potential prevention of these effects by γ-amino butyric acid (GABA). Using MTT assays, cell migration assays, Western blotting, immunoassays, and gene knockdown of individual nAChRs in two PDAC cell lines and in immortalized human pancreatic duct epithelial cells, our data show that treatment for seven days with ethanol induced the protein expression and sensitivity of nAChRs α3, α5, and α7 resulting in increased production of noradrenaline and adrenaline, which drive proliferation and migration via cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent signaling downstream of β-ARs. Treatment with GABA prevented all of these responses to chronic ethanol, reducing cell proliferation and migration below base levels in untreated cells. Our findings suggest that alcoholism induces multiple cAMP-dependent PDAC stimulating signaling pathways by upregulating the protein expression and sensitivity of nAChRs that regulate stress neurotransmitter production. Moreover, our data identify GABA as a promising agent for the prevention of PDAC in individuals at risk due to chronic alcohol consumption.

  4. Gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) prevents the induction of nicotinic receptor-regulated signaling by chronic ethanol in pancreatic cancer cells and normal duct epithelia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Wadei, Mohammed H.; Al-Wadei, Hussein A.N.; Schuller, Hildegard M.

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer has a high mortality rate and alcoholism is a risk factor independent of smoking. We have shown that nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) regulate pancreatic ductal epithelia and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells in an autocrine fashion by stimulating their production of the stress neurotransmitters noradrenaline and adrenaline that signal through beta-adrenergic receptors (β-ARs). Our current study has investigated the modulation of this autocrine regulatory loop by chronic ethanol and explored the potential prevention of these effects by γ-amino butyric acid (GABA). Using MTT assays, cell migration assays, western blotting, immunoassays, and gene knockdown of individual nAChRs in two PDAC cell lines and in immortalized human pancreatic duct epithelial cells, our data show that treatment for seven days with ethanol induced the protein expression and sensitivity of nAChRs α3, α5 and α7 resulting in increased production of noradrenaline and adrenaline which drive proliferation and migration via cAMP-dependent signaling downstream of β-ARs. Treatment with GABA prevented all of these responses to chronic ethanol, reducing cell proliferation and migration below base levels in untreated cells. Our findings suggest that alcoholism induces multiple cAMP-dependent PDAC stimulating signaling pathways by up-regulating the protein expression and sensitivity of nAChRs that regulate stress neurotransmitter production. Moreover, our data identify GABA as a promising agent for the prevention of PDAC in individuals at risk due to chronic alcohol consumption. PMID:23213073

  5. Precision Nutrition and Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: A Case for Personalized Supplementation Approaches for the Prevention and Management of Human Diseases

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    Floyd H. Chilton

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dietary essential omega-6 (n-6 and omega-3 (n-3 18 carbon (18C- polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, linoleic acid (LA and α-linolenic acid (ALA, can be converted (utilizing desaturase and elongase enzymes encoded by FADS and ELOVL genes to biologically-active long chain (LC; >20-PUFAs by numerous cells and tissues. These n-6 and n-3 LC-PUFAs and their metabolites (ex, eicosanoids and endocannabinoids play critical signaling and structural roles in almost all physiologic and pathophysiologic processes. Methods: This review summarizes: (1 the biosynthesis, metabolism and roles of LC-PUFAs; (2 the potential impact of rapidly altering the intake of dietary LA and ALA; (3 the genetics and evolution of LC-PUFA biosynthesis; (4 Gene–diet interactions that may lead to excess levels of n-6 LC-PUFAs and deficiencies of n-3 LC-PUFAs; and (5 opportunities for precision nutrition approaches to personalize n-3 LC-PUFA supplementation for individuals and populations. Conclusions: The rapid nature of transitions in 18C-PUFA exposure together with the genetic variation in the LC-PUFA biosynthetic pathway found in different populations make mal-adaptations a likely outcome of our current nutritional environment. Understanding this genetic variation in the context of 18C-PUFA dietary exposure should enable the development of individualized n-3 LC-PUFA supplementation regimens to prevent and manage human disease.

  6. Precision Nutrition and Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: A Case for Personalized Supplementation Approaches for the Prevention and Management of Human Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilton, Floyd H.; Dutta, Rahul; Reynolds, Lindsay M.; Sergeant, Susan; Mathias, Rasika A.; Seeds, Michael C.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Dietary essential omega-6 (n-6) and omega-3 (n-3) 18 carbon (18C-) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), linoleic acid (LA) and α-linolenic acid (ALA), can be converted (utilizing desaturase and elongase enzymes encoded by FADS and ELOVL genes) to biologically-active long chain (LC; >20)-PUFAs by numerous cells and tissues. These n-6 and n-3 LC-PUFAs and their metabolites (ex, eicosanoids and endocannabinoids) play critical signaling and structural roles in almost all physiologic and pathophysiologic processes. Methods: This review summarizes: (1) the biosynthesis, metabolism and roles of LC-PUFAs; (2) the potential impact of rapidly altering the intake of dietary LA and ALA; (3) the genetics and evolution of LC-PUFA biosynthesis; (4) Gene–diet interactions that may lead to excess levels of n-6 LC-PUFAs and deficiencies of n-3 LC-PUFAs; and (5) opportunities for precision nutrition approaches to personalize n-3 LC-PUFA supplementation for individuals and populations. Conclusions: The rapid nature of transitions in 18C-PUFA exposure together with the genetic variation in the LC-PUFA biosynthetic pathway found in different populations make mal-adaptations a likely outcome of our current nutritional environment. Understanding this genetic variation in the context of 18C-PUFA dietary exposure should enable the development of individualized n-3 LC-PUFA supplementation regimens to prevent and manage human disease. PMID:29068398

  7. Precision Nutrition and Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: A Case for Personalized Supplementation Approaches for the Prevention and Management of Human Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilton, Floyd H; Dutta, Rahul; Reynolds, Lindsay M; Sergeant, Susan; Mathias, Rasika A; Seeds, Michael C

    2017-10-25

    Dietary essential omega-6 ( n -6) and omega-3 ( n -3) 18 carbon (18C-) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), linoleic acid (LA) and α-linolenic acid (ALA), can be converted (utilizing desaturase and elongase enzymes encoded by FADS and ELOVL genes) to biologically-active long chain (LC; >20)-PUFAs by numerous cells and tissues. These n -6 and n -3 LC-PUFAs and their metabolites (ex, eicosanoids and endocannabinoids) play critical signaling and structural roles in almost all physiologic and pathophysiologic processes. This review summarizes: (1) the biosynthesis, metabolism and roles of LC-PUFAs; (2) the potential impact of rapidly altering the intake of dietary LA and ALA; (3) the genetics and evolution of LC-PUFA biosynthesis; (4) Gene-diet interactions that may lead to excess levels of n -6 LC-PUFAs and deficiencies of n -3 LC-PUFAs; and (5) opportunities for precision nutrition approaches to personalize n -3 LC-PUFA supplementation for individuals and populations. The rapid nature of transitions in 18C-PUFA exposure together with the genetic variation in the LC-PUFA biosynthetic pathway found in different populations make mal-adaptations a likely outcome of our current nutritional environment. Understanding this genetic variation in the context of 18C-PUFA dietary exposure should enable the development of individualized n -3 LC-PUFA supplementation regimens to prevent and manage human disease.

  8. Topical Hyaluronic Acid vs. Standard of Care for the Prevention of Radiation Dermatitis After Adjuvant Radiotherapy for Breast Cancer: Single-Blind Randomized Phase III Clinical Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinnix, Chelsea; Perkins, George H.; Strom, Eric A.; Tereffe, Welela; Woodward, Wendy; Oh, Julia L.; Arriaga, Lisa [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Munsell, Mark F. [Department of Biostatistics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Kelly, Patrick; Hoffman, Karen E.; Smith, Benjamin D.; Buchholz, Thomas A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Yu, T. Kuan, E-mail: tkyu@houstonprecisioncc.com [Houston Precision Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: To determine the efficacy of an emulsion containing hyaluronic acid to reduce the development of {>=}Grade 2 radiation dermatitis after adjuvant breast radiation compared with best supportive care. Methods and Materials: Women with breast cancer who had undergone lumpectomy and were to receive whole-breast radiotherapy to 50 Gy with a 10- to 16-Gy surgical bed boost were enrolled in a prospective randomized trial to compare the effectiveness of a hyaluronic acid-based gel (RadiaPlex) and a petrolatum-based gel (Aquaphor) for preventing the development of dermatitis. Each patient was randomly assigned to use hyaluronic acid gel on the medial half or the lateral half of the irradiated breast and to use the control gel on the other half. Dermatitis was graded weekly according to the Common Terminology Criteria v3.0 by the treating physician, who was blinded as to which gel was used on which area of the breast. The primary endpoint was development of {>=}Grade 2 dermatitis. Results: The study closed early on the basis of a recommendation from the Data and Safety Monitoring Board after 74 of the planned 92 patients were enrolled. Breast skin treated with the hyaluronic acid gel developed a significantly higher rate of {>=}Grade 2 dermatitis than did skin treated with petrolatum gel: 61.5% (40/65) vs. 47.7% (31/65) (p = 0.027). Only 1ne patient developed Grade 3 dermatitis using either gel. A higher proportion of patients had worse dermatitis in the breast segment treated with hyaluronic acid gel than in that treated with petrolatum gel at the end of radiotherapy (42% vs. 14%, p = 0.003). Conclusion: We found no benefit from the use of a topical hyaluronic acid-based gel for reducing the development of {>=}Grade 2 dermatitis after adjuvant radiotherapy for breast cancer. Additional studies are needed to determine the efficacy of hyaluronic acid-based gel in controlling radiation dermatitis symptoms after they develop.

  9. Uric Acid Therapy Prevents Early Ischemic Stroke Progression: A Tertiary Analysis of the URICO-ICTUS Trial (Efficacy Study of Combined Treatment With Uric Acid and r-tPA in Acute Ischemic Stroke).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro, Sergio; Laredo, Carlos; Renú, Arturo; Llull, Laura; Rudilosso, Salvatore; Obach, Víctor; Urra, Xabier; Planas, Anna M; Chamorro, Ángel

    2016-11-01

    Identification of neuroprotective therapies in acute ischemic stroke is imperative. We report a predefined analysis of the URICO-ICTUS trial (Efficacy Study of Combined Treatment With Uric Acid and r-tPA in Acute Ischemic Stroke) assessing the efficacy of uric acid (UA) compared with placebo to prevent early ischemic worsening (EIW) and the relevance of collateral circulation. URICO-ICTUS was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2b trial where a total of 411 patients treated with alteplase within 4.5 hours of stroke onset were randomized (1:1) to receive UA 1000 mg (n=211) or placebo (n=200) before the end of alteplase infusion. EIW defined an increment ≥4 points in the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score within 72 hours of treatment in the absence of hemorrhage or recurrent stroke. Logistic regression models assessed the interaction between therapy and the collateral circulation in 112 patients who had a pretreatment computed tomographic angiography. EIW occurred in 2 of 149 (1%) patients with good outcome and 23 of 262 (9%) patients with poor outcome (χ 2 ; P=0.002). EIW occurred in 7 of 204 (3%) patients treated with UA and in 18 of 200 (9%) patients treated with placebo (χ 2 ; P=0.01). There was a significant interaction between the efficacy of UA to prevent EIW and collaterals (P=0.029), with lower incidence in patients with good collaterals treated with UA compared with placebo (2% versus 15%, respectively; P=0.048). UA therapy may prevent EIW after acute stroke in thrombolysed patients. Optimal access of UA to its molecular targets through appropriate collaterals may modify the magnitude of the neuroprotective effect. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00860366. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Effects of preventative application of metformin on bile acid metabolism in high fat-fed/streptozotocin-diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Lin; Qu, Zhiping; Chi, Jinfeng; Shi, Rui; Wang, Lulu; Hou, Lulu; Wang, Yan; Pang, Shuguang

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of metformin on bile acid in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In this study, we constructed a model of T2DM by a combination of high-fat diet (HFD) and low dose of streptozotocin (STZ) intraperitoneal injection. Blood samples by tail vein and eye angular vein were withdrawn before (time 0) and 30, 60, and 120 minutes after administration of glucose before STZ injection and once a week after diabetes induction, and were analyzed to evaluate the level of the fasting blood glucose and fasting insulin using glucometer. Triglyceride, low density lipoprotein cholesterin, high density lipoprotein cholesterin were detected by automatic biochemical analyzers. Total cholesterol and total bile acid (TBA) were analyzed using ELISA kits. Before STZ injection, the TBA level in HFD group was significantly higher relative to that in standard diet (SD) group and there was a moderate reduction of the TBA level in early intervention (EI) group 6 week after metformin administration comparing with that in HFD group but was still higher than that of SD group. However, after STZ injection, the TBA level was significantly higher in DM rats relative to that in normal control (NC) rats and the TBA level in late intervention (LI) (19.92 μmol/L) and EI rats (42.97 μmol/L) with metformin administration was significantly higher comparing with that in DM rats. The effects of metformin in plasma glucose and lipid metabolism might be associated with bile acid metabolism.

  11. All-trans retinoic acid stimulates gene expression of the cardioprotective natriuretic peptide system and prevents fibrosis and apoptosis in cardiomyocytes of obese ob/ob mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manolescu, Daniel-Constantin; Jankowski, Marek; Danalache, Bogdan A; Wang, Donghao; Broderick, Tom L; Chiasson, Jean-Louis; Gutkowska, Jolanta

    2014-10-01

    In hypertensive rodents, retinoic acid (RA) prevents adverse cardiac remodelling and improves myocardial infarction outcome, but its role in obesity-related changes of cardiac tissue are unclear. We hypothesized that all-trans RA (ATRA) treatment will improve the cardioprotective oxytocin-natriuretic peptides (OT-NP) system, preventing apoptosis and collagen accumulation in hearts of ob/ob mice, a mouse model of obesity and insulin resistance. Female 9-week-old B6.V-Lep/J ob/ob mice (n = 16) were divided into 2 groups: 1 group (n = 8) treated with 100 μg of ATRA dissolved in 100 μL of corn oil (vehicle) delivered daily (∼2 μg·g body weight(-1)·day(-1)) by stomach intubation for 16 days, and 1 group (n = 8) that received the vehicle alone. A group of nonobese littermate mice (n = 9) served as controls. Ob/ob mice exhibited obesity, hyperglycaemia, and downregulation of the cardiac OT-NP system, including the mRNA for the transcription factor GATA4, OT receptor and brain NP, and the protein expression for endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Hearts from ob/ob mice also demonstrated increased apoptosis and collagen accumulation. ATRA treatment induced weight loss and decreased adipocytes diameter in the visceral fat, thus reducing visceral obesity, which is associated with a high risk for cardiovascular disease. RA treatment was associated with a reduction in hyperglycemia and a normalization of the OT-NP system's expression in the hearts of ob/ob mice. Furthermore, ATRA treatment prevented apoptosis and collagen accumulation in hearts of ob/ob mice. The present study indicates that ATRA treatment was effective in restoring the cardioprotective OT-NP system and in preventing abnormal cardiac remodelling in the ob/ob mice.

  12. The prevention of radiation-induced DNA damage and apoptosis in human intestinal epithelial cells by salvianic acid A

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    Yanjun Zhang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The topic of radiation always provokes public debate, and the uses of radiation for therapeutic and other purposes have always been associated with some anxiety. Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge has been widely used for the treatment of various diseases including cerebrovascular diseases, coronary artery diseases, and myocardial infarction. Salvianolic acid A (SAA d (+-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl lactic acid is the principal effective, watersoluble constituent of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. In our present study, radiation-induced DNA damage and apoptosis in human intestinal epithelial cells (HIEC in the presence and absence of SAA were examined. We investigated the effects of SAA on ROS formation and the activity of enzymatic antioxidants (SOD, the lipid peroxidative index and the levels of non-enzymatic antioxidant (GSH. Finally, we investigated whether the reduction of radiation-induced cell death caused by SAA might be related to mitochondria-dependent apoptosis. Present findings indicate that SAA is a promising radioprotective agent with a strong antioxidant activity. SAA exerted its protective action on the proliferative activity of HIEC cells as evidenced by decreased cytotoxicity after exposure to γ-radiation. It is possible that SAA achieved its radioprotective action, at least in part, by enhancing DNA repair and the activity of antioxidant enzymes, by scavenging ROS and by inhibiting the mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathway.

  13. Mental health literacy, folic acid and vitamin B12, and physical activity for the prevention of depression in older adults: randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Janine G; Mackinnon, Andrew J; Batterham, Philip; Jorm, Anthony F; Hickie, Ian; McCarthy, Affrica; Fenech, Michael; Christensen, Helen

    2010-07-01

    Few randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have examined potential preventive agents in high-risk community populations. To determine whether a mental health literacy intervention, the promotion of physical activity, or folic acid plus vitamin B(12) reduce depression symptoms in community-dwelling older adults with elevated psychological distress. An RCT with a completely crossed 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design: (400 mcg/d folic acid + 100 mcg/d vitamin B(12) v. placebo)x(physical activity v. nutrition promotion control)x(mental health literacy v. pain information control). The initial target sample size was 2000; however, only 909 adults (60-74 years) met the study criteria. Interventions were delivered by mail with telephone calls. The main outcome was depressive symptoms on the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) at 6 weeks, 6, 12 and 24 months. The Clinicaltrials.gov registration number is NCT00214682. The drop-out rate was low (13.5%) from randomisation to 24-month assessment. Neither folic acid + B(12) (F(3,856) = 0.83, P = 0.476) nor physical activity (F(3,856) = 1.65, P = 0.177) reduced depressive symptoms at any time point. At 6 weeks, depressive symptoms were lower for the mental health literacy intervention compared with its control condition (t(895) = 2.04, P = 0.042). Mental health literacy had a transient effect on depressive symptoms. Other than this, none of the interventions significantly reduced symptoms relative to their comparator at 6 weeks or subsequently. Neither folic acid plus B(12) nor physical activity were effective in reducing depressive symptoms.

  14. Effectiveness of the addition of alkaline materials at surface coal mines in preventing or abating acid mine drainage--Part 1. Geochemical considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta, Charles A.; Brady, Keith; Smith, Michael W.; Beam, Richard L.

    1990-01-01

    The addition of alkaline materials to supplement deficient "neutralization potential" (NP) of mine spoil, and thus to prevent or abate acid mine drainage, has riot been successful at most surface coal mines in Pennsylvania. A basic problem may have been improper accounting for acid‐production potential and thus inadequate addition rates of calcium carbonate (CaCO3 ), calcium oxide (CaO) , or calcium hydroxide [ Ca (OH)2 ] at many mines. The commonly used acid‐base accounting method is based on the following overall reaction: FeS2 + 2 CaCO3 + 3.75 O2 + 1.5 H2O --> Fe(OH)3 + 2 SO4-2 + 2 Ca+2 +2 CO2(g),where the acidity from 1 mole of pyrite (FeS2) is neutralized by 2 moles of CaCO3 . This method presumes that gaseous carbon dioxide (CO2) will exsolve, and therefore may underestimate by up to a factor of 2 the quantity of CaCO3 required to neutralize the "maximum potential acidity" (MPA) in the mine spoil. This paper reviews some geochemical reactions involving FeS2 and various alkaline additives that support the argument that the acid‐base accounting method for computing MPA from overburden analyses should be revised. Considering the stoichiometry of the following overall reaction:FeS2 + 4 CaCO3 + 3.75 O2 + 3.5 H2O --> Fe(OH)3 + 2 SO4-1 + 4 Ca+2 + 4 HCO3-,4 moles of CaCO3 are required to neutralize the maximum potential acidity produced by the oxidation of 1 mole of FeS2 . Therefore, the multiplication factor for computing MPA from the overburden sulfur concentration, in weight percent, should be increased from 31.25 to 62.5.

  15. A randomized controlled trial of eicosapentaenoic acid and/or aspirin for colorectal adenoma prevention during colonoscopic surveillance in the NHS Bowel Cancer Screening Programme (The seAFOod Polyp Prevention Trial): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Mark A; Sandell, Anna C; Montgomery, Alan A; Logan, Richard F A; Clifford, Gayle M; Rees, Colin J; Loadman, Paul M; Whitham, Diane

    2013-07-29

    The naturally-occurring omega (ω)-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) reduces colorectal adenoma (polyp) number and size in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis. The safety profile and potential cardiovascular benefits associated with ω-3 PUFAs make EPA a strong candidate for colorectal cancer (CRC) chemoprevention, alone or in combination with aspirin, which itself has recognized anti-CRC activity. Colorectal adenoma number and size are recognized as biomarkers of future CRC risk and are established as surrogate end-points in CRC chemoprevention trials. The seAFOod Polyp Prevention Trial is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2×2 factorial 'efficacy' study, which will determine whether EPA prevents colorectal adenomas, either alone or in combination with aspirin. Participants are 55-73 year-old patients, who have been identified as 'high risk' (detection of ≥5 small adenomas or ≥3 adenomas with at least one being ≥10 mm in diameter) at screening colonoscopy in the English Bowel Cancer Screening Programme (BCSP). Exclusion criteria include the need for more than one repeat endoscopy within the three-month BCSP screening period, malignant change in an adenoma, regular use of aspirin or non-aspirin non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, regular use of fish oil supplements and concomitant warfarin or anti-platelet agent therapy. Patients are randomized to either EPA-free fatty acid 1 g twice daily or identical placebo AND aspirin 300 mg once daily or identical placebo, for approximately 12 months. The primary end-point is the number of participants with one or more adenomas detected at routine one-year BCSP surveillance colonoscopy. Secondary end-points include the number of adenomas (total and 'advanced') per patient, the location (left versus right colon) of colorectal adenomas and the number of participants re-classified as 'intermediate risk' for future surveillance. Exploratory end-points include levels of

  16. Ursolic Acid Inhibits Cigarette Smoke Extract-Induced Human Bronchial Epithelial Cell Injury and Prevents Development of Lung Cancer

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    Siming Yu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking is the main cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer. The present study was aimed to explore the chemopreventive effect of ursolic acid (UA on these diseases. In the CSE treated normal human bronchial epithelial cell model, UA alleviated cytotoxicity caused by CSE, recovered the intracellular redox balance, and relieved the stimulation of external deleterious factors as well. UA mitigated CSE-induced DNA damage through the Nrf2 (nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 pathway. Moreover, UA inhibited lung cancer development in the model established by A549 cells in nude mice in vivo. For the first time, our results indicate that UA could be developed as a potential lung cancer chemopreventive agent.

  17. Neutralization/prevention of acid rock drainage using mixtures of alkaline by-products and sulfidic mine wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alakangas, Lena; Andersson, Elin; Mueller, Seth

    2013-11-01

    Backfilling of open pit with sulfidic waste rock followed by inundation is a common method for reducing sulfide oxidation after mine closure. This approach can be complemented by mixing the waste rock with alkaline materials from pulp and steel mills to increase the system's neutralization potential. Leachates from 1 m3 tanks containing sulfide-rich (ca.30 wt %) waste rock formed under dry and water saturated conditions under laboratory conditions were characterized and compared to those formed from mixtures. The waste rock leachate produced an acidic leachate (pH9). The decrease of elemental concentration in the leachate was most pronounced for Pb and Zn, while Al and S were relatively high. Overall, the results obtained were promising and suggest that alkaline by-products could be useful additives for minimizing ARD formation.

  18. Isolation and characterization of lipoteichoic acid, a cell envelope component involved in preventing phage adsorption, from Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris SK110.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sijtsma, L; Wouters, J T; Hellingwerf, K J

    1990-01-01

    The cell envelope of the phage-resistant Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris SK110 differed from its phage-sensitive variant by the presence of a galactosyl-containing component. This component was present in material obtained from SK110 by a mild alkali treatment. In a similar fraction extracted from SK112, no galactosyl-containing components were detected. With respect to gel permeation chromatography and electrophoretic mobility, identical characteristics of the alkali-extracted material and purified lipoteichoic acid (LTA) were measured. Chemical analysis of the latter component showed the absence of galactose in LTA isolated from SK112, whereas it was present in LTA obtained from SK110. In this paper, we propose that galactosyl-containing LTA is involved in preventing phage adsorption to L. lactis subsp. cremoris SK110. Images PMID:2123864

  19. Prevention of Aerobic Spoilage of Maize Silage by a Genetically Modified Killer Yeast, Kluyveromyces lactis, Defective in the Ability To Grow on Lactic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamoto, H. K.; Hasebe, A.; Ohmomo, S.; Suto, E. G.; Muraki, M.; Iimura, Y.

    1999-01-01

    In this study, we propose a new process of adding a genetically modified killer yeast to improve the aerobic stability of silage. Previously constructed Kluyveromyces lactis killer strain PCK27, defective in growth on lactic acid due to disruption of the gene coding for phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, a key enzyme for gluconeogenesis, inhibited the growth of Pichia anomala inoculated as an aerobic spoilage yeast and prevented a rise in pH in a model of silage fermentation. This suppressive effect of PCK27 was not only due to growth competition but also due to the killer protein produced. From these results, we concluded that strain PCK27 can be used as an additive to prolong the aerobic stability of maize silage. In the laboratory-scale experiment of maize silage, the addition of a killer yeast changed the yeast flora and significantly reduced aerobic spoilage. PMID:10508111

  20. Active subfractions of Abelmoschus esculentus substantially prevent free fatty acid-induced β cell apoptosis via inhibiting dipeptidyl peptidase-4.

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    Chien-Ning Huang

    Full Text Available Lipotoxicity plays an important role in exacerbating type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and leads to apoptosis of β cells. Recently dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4 inhibitors have emerged as a useful tool in the treatment of T2DM. DPP-4 degrades type 1 glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1, and GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R signaling has been shown to protect β cells by modulating AMPK/mTOR, PI3K, and Bax. The anti-hyperglycemic effect of Abelmoschus esculentus (AE is well known, however its mucilage makes it difficult to further examine this effect. In our recent report, a sequence of extraction steps was used to obtain a series of subfractions from AE, each with its own composition and property. Among them F1 (rich in quercetin glucosides and pentacyclic triterpene ester and F2 (containing large amounts of carbohydrates and polysaccharides were found to be especially effective in attenuating DPP-4 signaling, and to have the potential to counter diabetic nephropathy. Hence, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether AE subfractions can prevent the palmitate-induced apoptosis of β cells, and the putative signals involved. We demonstrated that AE, and especially 1 μg/mL of F2, decreased palmitate-induced apoptosis analyzed by flow cytometry. The result of western blot revealed that palmitate-induced decrease in GLP-1R and increase in DPP-4 were restored by F1 and F2. The DPP-4 inhibitor linagliptin decreased the expression of caspase 3, suggesting that DPP-4 is critically involved in apoptotic signaling. Analysis of enzyme activity revealed that palmitate increased the activity of DPP4 nearly 2 folds, while F2 especially inhibited the activation. In addition, AMPK/mTOR, PI3K and mitochondrial pathways were regulated by AE, and this attenuated the palmitate-induced signaling cascades. In conclusion, AE is useful to prevent the exacerbation of β cell apoptosis, and it could potentially be used as adjuvant or nutraceutical therapy for diabetes.

  1. N-Acetylcysteine Prevents Spatial Memory Impairment Induced by Chronic Early Postnatal Glutaric Acid and Lipopolysaccharide in Rat Pups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Fernanda S.; Souza, Mauren A.; Magni, Danieli V.; Ferreira, Ana Paula O.; Mota, Bibiana C.; Cardoso, Andreia M.; Paim, Mariana; Xavier, Léder L.; Ferreira, Juliano; Schetinger, Maria Rosa C.; Da Costa, Jaderson C.; Royes, Luiz Fernando F.; Fighera, Michele R.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Glutaric aciduria type I (GA-I) is characterized by accumulation of glutaric acid (GA) and neurological symptoms, such as cognitive impairment. Although this disease is related to oxidative stress and inflammation, it is not known whether these processes facilitate the memory impairment. Our objective was to investigate the performance of rat pups chronically injected with GA and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in spatial memory test, antioxidant defenses, cytokines levels, Na+, K+-ATPase activity, and hippocampal volume. We also evaluated the effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on theses markers. Methods Rat pups were injected with GA (5umol g of body weight-1, subcutaneously; twice per day; from 5th to 28th day of life), and were supplemented with NAC (150mg/kg/day; intragastric gavage; for the same period). LPS (2mg/kg; E.coli 055 B5) or vehicle (saline 0.9%) was injected intraperitoneally, once per day, from 25th to 28th day of life. Oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers as well as hippocampal volume were assessed. Results GA caused spatial learning deficit in the Barnes maze and LPS potentiated this effect. GA and LPS increased TNF-α and IL-1β levels. The co-administration of these compounds potentiated the increase of IL-1β levels but not TNF-α levels in the hippocampus. GA and LPS increased TBARS (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance) content, reduced antioxidant defenses and inhibited Na+, K+-ATPase activity. GA and LPS co-administration did not have additive effect on oxidative stress markers and Na+, K+ pump. The hippocampal volume did not change after GA or LPS administration. NAC protected against impairment of spatial learning and increase of cytokines levels. NAC Also protected against inhibition of Na+,K+-ATPase activity and oxidative markers. Conclusions These results suggest that inflammatory and oxidative markers may underlie at least in part of the neuropathology of GA-I in this model. Thus, NAC could represent a possible

  2. N-acetylcysteine prevents spatial memory impairment induced by chronic early postnatal glutaric acid and lipopolysaccharide in rat pups.

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    Fernanda S Rodrigues

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Glutaric aciduria type I (GA-I is characterized by accumulation of glutaric acid (GA and neurological symptoms, such as cognitive impairment. Although this disease is related to oxidative stress and inflammation, it is not known whether these processes facilitate the memory impairment. Our objective was to investigate the performance of rat pups chronically injected with GA and lipopolysaccharide (LPS in spatial memory test, antioxidant defenses, cytokines levels, Na+, K+-ATPase activity, and hippocampal volume. We also evaluated the effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC on theses markers. METHODS: Rat pups were injected with GA (5 umol g of body weight-1, subcutaneously; twice per day; from 5th to 28th day of life, and were supplemented with NAC (150 mg/kg/day; intragastric gavage; for the same period. LPS (2 mg/kg; E.coli 055 B5 or vehicle (saline 0.9% was injected intraperitoneally, once per day, from 25th to 28th day of life. Oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers as well as hippocampal volume were assessed. RESULTS: GA caused spatial learning deficit in the Barnes maze and LPS potentiated this effect. GA and LPS increased TNF-α and IL-1β levels. The co-administration of these compounds potentiated the increase of IL-1β levels but not TNF-α levels in the hippocampus. GA and LPS increased TBARS (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance content, reduced antioxidant defenses and inhibited Na+, K+-ATPase activity. GA and LPS co-administration did not have additive effect on oxidative stress markers and Na+, K+ pump. The hippocampal volume did not change after GA or LPS administration. NAC protected against impairment of spatial learning and increase of cytokines levels. NAC Also protected against inhibition of Na+,K+-ATPase activity and oxidative markers. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that inflammatory and oxidative markers may underlie at least in part of the neuropathology of GA-I in this model. Thus, NAC could

  3. Pharmaceutical and nutraceutical approaches for preventing liver carcinogenesis: chemoprevention of hepatocellular carcinoma using acyclic retinoid and branched-chain amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Masahito; Shirakami, Yohei; Hanai, Tatsunori; Imai, Kenji; Suetsugu, Atsushi; Takai, Koji; Shiraki, Makoto; Moriwaki, Hisataka

    2014-01-01

    The poor prognosis for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is associated with its high rate of recurrence in the cirrhotic liver. Therefore, more effective strategies need to be urgently developed for the chemoprevention of this malignancy. The malfunction of retinoid X receptor α, a retinoid receptor, due to phosphorylation by Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase is closely associated with liver carcinogenesis and may be a promising target for HCC chemoprevention. Acyclic retinoid (ACR), a synthetic retinoid, can prevent HCC development by inhibiting retinoid X receptor α phosphorylation and improve the prognosis for this malignancy. Supplementation with branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), which are used to improve protein malnutrition in patients with liver cirrhosis, can also reduce the risk of HCC in obese cirrhotic patients. In experimental studies, both ACR and BCAA exert suppressive effects on HCC development and the growth of HCC cells. In particular, combined treatment with ACR and BCAA cooperatively inhibits the growth of HCC cells. Furthermore, ACR and BCAA inhibit liver tumorigenesis associated with obesity and diabetes, both of which are critical risk factors for HCC development. These findings suggest that pharmaceutical and nutraceutical approaches using ACR and BCAA may be promising strategies for preventing HCC and improving the prognosis of this malignancy. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Prevention and Management of Injection-Related Adverse Effects in Facial Aesthetics: Considerations for ATX-101 (Deoxycholic Acid Injection) Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagien, Steven; McChesney, Patricia; Subramanian, Meenakshi; Jones, Derek H

    2016-11-01

    ATX-101 (deoxycholic acid injection; Kythera Biopharmaceuticals, Inc. [an affiliate of Allergan plc, Dublin, Ireland]) was approved in 2015 in the United States (Kybella) and Canada (Belkyra) for submental fat reduction. As expected, injection-site reactions such as pain, swelling, and bruising, which were mostly mild or moderate and transient, were common adverse events (AEs) reported in clinical trials. An exploratory Phase 3b study investigating interventions for management of injection-site AEs associated with ATX-101 treatment was recently completed. Based on its results, literature review, and our clinical experiences, we have put forward considerations for management of AEs associated with ATX-101 treatment in clinical practice. Pretreatment with oral ibuprofen and/or acetaminophen an hour before treatment and preinjection with epinephrine-containing buffered lidocaine 15 minutes before treatment can help with management of pain and bruising. Cold application to the treated area before and immediately after the procedure may help to reduce pain (if local anesthetic preinjection is not performed) and swelling. Discontinuing medications/supplements that result in increased anticoagulant or antiplatelet activity 7 to 10 days before ATX-101 treatment, when possible, can reduce the risk of bruising. In summary, injection-site AEs associated with ATX-101 treatment can be effectively managed with commonly used interventions.

  5. SIRT1 prevents pulmonary thrombus formation induced by arachidonic acid via downregulation of PAF receptor expression in platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yun Hak; Bae, Jin Ung; Kim, In Suk; Chang, Chulhun L; Oh, Sae Ock; Kim, Chi Dae

    2016-12-01

    SIRT1, a class III histone deacetylase, is critically involved in cellular response to stress and modulates cardiovascular risk factors. However, its role in thrombus formation is largely unknown. Thus, this study investigated the effect of SIRT1 on pulmonary thrombus formation, and then identified its role in the modulation of platelet aggregation. In isolated human platelets, cell aggregation was increased by various platelet activators, such as platelet activating factor (PAF), arachidonic acid (AA), ADP, and thrombin. AA- and PAF-mediated platelet aggregations were suppressed by WEB2086, a PAF receptor (PAFR) antagonist. Pulmonary thrombus formation induced by PAF or AA was also attenuated by WEB2086, suggesting that PAFR plays a key role in AA-induced platelet aggregation. In platelets isolated from SIRT1-TG mice as well as in platelets treated with resveratrol or reSIRT1, PAFR expression was decreased, whereas this expressional downregulation by SIRT1 activators was inhibited in platelets treated with MG132 (a proteasome inhibitor) or NH 4 Cl (a lysosome inhibitor). Furthermore, platelet aggregation induced by AA was markedly attenuated by resveratrol and reSIRT1. Likewise, the increased pulmonary thrombus formation in mice treated with AA was also attenuated by SIRT1 activators. In line with these results, pulmonary thrombus formation was markedly attenuated in SIRT1-TG mice. Taken together, this study showed that SIRT1 downregulates PAFR expression on platelets via proteasomal and lysosomal pathways, and that this downregulation inhibits platelet aggregation in vitro and pulmonary thrombus formation in vivo.

  6. Glycyrrhizic acid pretreatment prevents sepsis-induced acute kidney injury via suppressing inflammation, apoptosis and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongyu; Liu, Zhenning; Shen, Haitao; Jin, Shuai; Zhang, Shun

    2016-06-15

    Glycyrrhizic acid (GA), an active ingredient in licorice, has multiple pharmacological activities. The aim of our study was to investigate the molecular mechanism involved in the protective effects of GA in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated rat mesangial cells (HBZY-1) and septic rats. Sepsis model was established by injection of 5mg/kg LPS in rats or incubation with 1μg/ml LPS for 24h in HBZY-1 cells. A variety of molecular biological experiments were carried out to assess the effects of GA on inflammation, apoptosis, and oxidative stress. First we found that GA alleviated sepsis-induced kidney injury in vivo. Furthermore, GA suppressed inflammatory response in vivo and in vitro. Additionally, GA inhibited cell apoptosis and the changes in expressions of apoptosis related proteins induced by LPS. Moreover, GA markedly inhibited oxidative stress induced by LPS via activation of ERK signaling pathway. Finally GA could inhibit the activation of NF-κ B induced by LPS. Our present study indicates that GA has a protective effect against sepsis-induced inflammatory response, apoptosis, and oxidative stress damage, which provides a molecular basis for a new medical treatment of septic acute kidney injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Prevention of neural tube defects by the fortification of flour with folic acid: a population-based retrospective study in Brazil.

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    Santos, Leonor Maria Pacheco; Lecca, Roberto Carlos Reyes; Cortez-Escalante, Juan Jose; Sanchez, Mauro Niskier; Rodrigues, Humberto Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    To determine if the fortification of wheat and maize flours with iron and folic acid - which became mandatory in Brazil from June 2004 - is effective in the prevention of neural tube defects. Using data from national information systems on births in central, south-eastern and southern Brazil, we determined the prevalence of neural tube defects among live births and stillbirths in a pre-fortification period - i.e. 2001-2004 - and in a post-fortification period - i.e. 2005-2014. We distinguished between anencephaly, encephalocele, meningocele, myelomeningocele and other forms of spina bifida. There were 8554 neural tube defects for 17,925,729 live births notified between 2001 and 2014. For the same period, 2673 neural tube defects were reported for 194,858 stillbirths. The overall prevalence of neural tube defects fell from 0.79 per 1000 pre-fortification to 0.55 per 1000 post-fortification (prevalence ratio, PR: 1.43; 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.38-1.50). For stillbirths, prevalence fell from 17.74 per 1000 stillbirths pre-fortification to 11.70 per 1000 stillbirths post-fortification. The corresponding values among live births were 0.57 and 0.44, respectively. The introduction of the mandatory fortification of flour with iron and folic acid in Brazil was followed by a significant reduction in the prevalence of neural tube defects in our study area.

  8. Folic acid prevents cardiac dysfunction and reduces myocardial fibrosis in a mouse model of high-fat diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Tang, Renqiao; Ouyang, Shengrong; Ma, Feifei; Liu, Zhuo; Wu, Jianxin

    2017-01-01

    Folic acid (FA) is an antioxidant that can reduce reactive oxygen species generation and can blunt cardiac dysfunction during ischemia. We hypothesized that FA supplementation prevents cardiac fibrosis and cardiac dysfunction induced by obesity. Six-week-old C57BL6/J mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD), normal diet (ND), or an HFD supplemented with folic acid (FAD) for 14 weeks. Cardiac function was measured using a transthoracic echocardiographic exam. Phenotypic analysis included measurements of body and heart weight, blood glucose and tissue homocysteine (Hcy) content, and heart oxidative stress status. HFD consumption elevated fasting blood glucose levels and caused obesity and heart enlargement. FA supplementation in HFD-fed mice resulted in reduced fasting blood glucose, heart weight, and heart tissue Hcy content. We also observed a significant cardiac systolic dysfunction when mice were subjected to HFD feeding as indicated by a reduction in the left ventricular ejection fraction and fractional shortening. However, FAD treatment improved cardiac function. FA supplementation protected against cardiac fibrosis induced by HFD. In addition, HFD increased malondialdehyde concentration of the heart tissue and reduced the levels of antioxidant enzyme, glutathione, and catalase. HFD consumption induced myocardial oxidant stress with amelioration by FA treatment. FA supplementation significantly lowers blood glucose levels and heart tissue Hcy content and reverses cardiac dysfunction induced by HFD in mice. These functional improvements of the heart may be mediated by the alleviation of oxidative stress and myocardial fibrosis.

  9. Rheology as a Tool to Predict the Release of Alpha-Lipoic Acid from Emulsions Used for the Prevention of Skin Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Vera Lucia Borges; Chiari-Andréo, Bruna Galdorfini; Marto, Joana Marques; Moraes, Jemima Daniela Dias; Leone, Beatriz Alves; Corrêa, Marcos Antonio; Ribeiro, Helena Margarida

    2015-01-01

    The availability of an active substance through the skin depends basically on two consecutive steps: the release of this substance from the vehicle and its subsequent permeation through the skin. Hence, studies on the specific properties of vehicles, such as their rheological behavior, are of great interest in the field of dermatological products. Recent studies have shown the influence of the rheological features of a vehicle on the release of drugs and active compounds from the formulation. In this context, the aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the rheological features of two different emulsion formulations on the release of alpha-lipoic acid. Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) was chosen for this study because of its antioxidant characteristics, which could be useful for the prevention of skin diseases and aging. The rheological and mechanical behavior and the in vitro release profile were assayed. The results showed that rheological features, such as viscosity, thixotropy, and compliance, strongly influenced the release of ALA from the emulsion and that the presence of a hydrophilic polymer in one of the emulsions was an important factor affecting the rheology and, therefore, the release of ALA.

  10. Rheology as a Tool to Predict the Release of Alpha-Lipoic Acid from Emulsions Used for the Prevention of Skin Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Vera Lucia Borges; Chiari-Andréo, Bruna Galdorfini; Marto, Joana Marques; Moraes, Jemima Daniela Dias; Leone, Beatriz Alves; Corrêa, Marcos Antonio; Ribeiro, Helena Margarida

    2015-01-01

    The availability of an active substance through the skin depends basically on two consecutive steps: the release of this substance from the vehicle and its subsequent permeation through the skin. Hence, studies on the specific properties of vehicles, such as their rheological behavior, are of great interest in the field of dermatological products. Recent studies have shown the influence of the rheological features of a vehicle on the release of drugs and active compounds from the formulation. In this context, the aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the rheological features of two different emulsion formulations on the release of alpha-lipoic acid. Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) was chosen for this study because of its antioxidant characteristics, which could be useful for the prevention of skin diseases and aging. The rheological and mechanical behavior and the in vitro release profile were assayed. The results showed that rheological features, such as viscosity, thixotropy, and compliance, strongly influenced the release of ALA from the emulsion and that the presence of a hydrophilic polymer in one of the emulsions was an important factor affecting the rheology and, therefore, the release of ALA. PMID:26788510

  11. Ursodeoxycholic acid and diets higher in fat prevent gallbladder stones during weight loss: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Caroline S; Gluud, Lise Lotte; Casper, Markus; Lammert, Frank

    2014-07-01

    The prevalence of gallstones is increasing in association with the obesity epidemic, but rapid weight loss also increases the risk of stone formation. We conducted a systematic review of the efficacy of strategies to prevent gallbladder stones in adults as they lose weight. Randomized controlled trials of nonsurgical strategies to prevent gallstones were identified by electronic and manual searches. Our final analysis included 13 trials, comprising 1836 participants undergoing weight loss through dieting (8 trials) or bariatric surgery (5 trials). The trials compared ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) or high-fat weight loss diets with control interventions. We performed random-effects meta-analyses and evaluated heterogeneity and bias with subgroup, sensitivity, regression, and sequential analysis. UDCA reduced the risk of ultrasound-verified gallstones compared with control interventions (risk ratio, 0.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.18-0.60; number needed to treat, 9). This effect was significantly larger in trials of diets alone (risk ratio, 0.17; 95% CI, 0.11-0.25) than in trials of patients who underwent bariatric surgery (risk ratio, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.21-0.83) (test for subgroup differences, P =.03). UDCA reduced the risk of cholecystectomy for symptomatic stones (risk ratio, 0.20; 95% CI, 0.07-0.53). Diets high in fat content also reduced gallstones, compared with those with low fat content (risk ratio, 0.09; 95% CI, 0.01-0.61). The meta-analyses were confirmed in trials with a low risk of bias but not in sequential analysis. No additional beneficial or harmful outcomes were identified. On the basis of a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials, during weight loss, UDCA and/or higher dietary fat content appear to prevent formation of gallstones. Copyright © 2014 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [Analysis of the fatty acid profile of vegetarian and non-vegetarian diet in the context of some diet-related diseases prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornek, Agata; Kucharska, Alicja; Kamela, Katarzyna

    Research increasingly provide evidence that vegetarian diet can have a positive impact on health. The aim of this study was to analyze the fatty acid profile of vegetarian and non-vegetarian diet and prove which of them is more optimal in the context of some diet-related diseases prevention. The study involved 83 women (47 vegetarians and 36 non-vegetarians). Estimates of the supply of individual fatty acids in the diet was based on analysis of 3-day dietary records (calculations in a computer program DIETA 5). Found: - in vegan diet significantly lower percentage of energy from SFA than in lactoovovegetarian diet and non-vegetarian diet (5,2% vs 11,2% i 11,9%), - in vegan and lactoovovegetarian diet - significantly higher percentage of energy from PUFA than in non-vegetarian diet (9,2% i 7,8% vs 5,0%), - in vegan and lactoovovegetarian diet - significantly higher percentage of energy from LA than in non-vegetarian diet (6,7% i 5,5% vs 3,9%), - in vegan and lactoovovegetarian diet - significantly higher percentage of energy from ALA than in non-vegetarian diet (1,3% i 1,2% vs. 0,8%) - in vegan and lactoovovegetarian diet - significantly lower intake of EPA+DHA than in non-vegetarian diet (0 mg i 15 mg vs 76 mg), - only 25% of non-vegetarian diets fulfilled recommendations on the content of EPA + DHA Conclusions: Vegetarian, particularly vegan, nutrition may promote good balancing of the fatty acids in the diet, except for the long chain polyunsaturated omega-3, which are also deficient in the case of conventional diet.

  13. Long-term effect of high dose omega-3 fatty acid supplementation for secondary prevention of cardiovascular outcomes: A meta-analysis of randomized, placebo controlled trials [corrected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casula, Manuela; Soranna, Davide; Catapano, Alberico L; Corrao, Giovanni

    2013-08-01

    Although omega-3 fatty acids have well documented properties which would reduce the cardiovascular (CV) disease risk, the evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) remains inconclusive. We performed a meta-analysis of the available RCTs for investigating the CV preventive effect of administrating at least 1 gram/day, and for at least 1 year, omega-3 fatty acid supplements to patients with existing CV disease. RCTs published up to March 2013 were searched from PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library. Two of us independently reviewed and selected eligible trials. Of 360 articles retrieved, 11 randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trials fulfilling inclusion criteria, overall involving 15,348 patients with a history of CV disease, were considered in the final analyses. No statistically significant association was observed for all-cause mortality (RR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.78 to 1.02) and stroke (RR, 1.31; 95% CI, 0.90 to 1.90). Conversely, statistically significant protective effects were observed for cardiac death (RR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.56 to 0.83), sudden death (RR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.52 to 0.87), and myocardial infarction (RR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.63 to 0.88). Overall, our results supply evidence that long-term effect of high dose omega-3 fatty acid supplementation may be beneficial for the onset of cardiac death, sudden death and myocardial infarction among patients with a history of cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Prevention of bone metastases in patients with high-risk nonmetastatic prostate cancer treated with zoledronic acid: efficacy and safety results of the Zometa European Study (ZEUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Manfred; Tammela, Teuvo; Cicalese, Virgilio; Gomez Veiga, Francisco; Delaere, Karl; Miller, Kurt; Tubaro, Andrea; Schulze, Matthias; Debruyne, Frans; Huland, Hartwig; Patel, Anup; Lecouvet, Frederic; Caris, Christien; Witjes, Wim

    2015-03-01

    Patients with high-risk localised prostate cancer (PCa) are at risk of developing bone metastases (BMs). Zoledronic acid (ZA) significantly reduces the incidence of skeletal complications in castration-resistant metastatic PCa versus placebo. To investigate ZA for the prevention of BMs in high-risk localised PCa. Randomised open-label multinational study with patients having at least one of the following: prostate-specific antigen ≥20 ng/ml, node-positive disease, or Gleason score 8-10. Standard PCa therapy alone or combined with 4mg ZA intravenously every 3 mo for ≤4 yr. BMs were assessed using locally evaluated bone-imaging procedures (BIPs), with subsequent blinded central review. Patients with BMs, time to BMs, overall survival, and adverse events were compared between treatment groups. A total of 1393 of 1433 randomised patients were used for intention-to-treat (ITT) efficacy analyses, with 1040 patients with BIP-BM outcome status at 4±0.5 yr. The local urologist/radiologist diagnosed BIP-BMs in 88 of 515 patients (17.1%) in the ZA group and 89 of 525 patients (17.0%) in the control group (chi-square test: p=0.95), with a difference between proportions of 0.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], -4.4 to 4.7) in favour of the control group. In the ITT population (n=1393), the Kaplan-Meier estimated proportion of BMs after a median follow-up of 4.8 yr was 14.7% in the ZA group versus 13.2% in the control group (log-rank: p=0.65). Low hot spot numbers on bone scans were confirmed as metastases with additional imaging. Central reviews of BIPs were possible only on a subset of patients. ZA administered every 3 mo was demonstrated to be ineffective for the prevention of BMs in high-risk localised PCa patients at 4 yr. Zoledronic acid administered every 3 mo was demonstrated to be ineffective for the prevention of bone metastases in high-risk nonmetastatic PCa patients at 4 yr. The ZEUS trial is registered in the Dutch trial register www.trialregister.nl and the

  15. Intraperitoneal Alpha-Lipoic Acid to prevent neural damage after crush injury to the rat sciatic nerve

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    Ozbag Davut

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Crush injury to the sciatic nerve causes oxidative stress. Alfa Lipoic acid (a-LA is a neuroprotective metabolic antioxidant. This study was designed to investigate the antioxidant effects of pretreatment with a-LA on the crush injury of rat sciatic nerve. Methods Forty rats were randomized into four groups. Group I and Group II received saline (2 ml, intraperitoneally and a-LA (100 mg/kg, 2 ml, intraperitoneally in the groups III and IV at the 24 and 1 hour prior to the crush injury. In groups II, III and IV, the left sciatic nerve was exposed and compressed for 60 seconds with a jeweler's forceps. In Group I (n = 10, the sciatic nerve was explored but not crushed. In all groups of rats, superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT activities, as well as malondialdehyde (MDA levels were measured in samples of sciatic nerve tissue. Results Compared to Group I, Group II had significantly decreased tissue SOD and CAT activities and elevated MDA levels indicating crush injury (p < 0.05. In the a-LA treatment groups (groups III and IV, tissue CAT and SOD activities were significantly increased and MDA levels significantly decreased at the first hour (p < 0.05 and on the 3rd day (p < 0.05. There was no significant difference between a-LA treatment groups (p > 0.05. Conclusion A-LA administered before crush injury of the sciatic nerve showed significant protective effects against crush injury by decreasing the oxidative stress. A-LA should be considered in the treatment of peripheral nerve injuries, but further studies are needed to explain the mechanism of its neuroprotective effects.

  16. Prevention of tri-nitrobenzene of sulfonic acid-induced colitis in chicken by using extract of Aloe vera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motamed Elsayed Mahmoud

    Full Text Available Aim: Aloe vera, species of succulent plant in the genus Aloe, has multiple clinical activities and used routinely to accelerate wound healing. The present study was designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of Aloe vera extracts (AVE in vitro and in vivo. Materials and Methods: The effect of crude AVE on inducible nitric oxide production by LPS/IFNg-stimulated cultured macrophages was evaluated. The therapeutic effect of administering crude Aloe vera extracts (100 mg/kg b.w. on the development of tri-nitrobenzene of sulfonic acid (TNBS-induced colitis (40 mg/kg b. w. in chicken was also investigated. Chicken is a valuable model for this purpose because it showed preference to bitter taste of Aloe vera. Diverse clinical pictures of the colitis including weight loss, diarrhea and histopathological changes were evaluated. Results: Nitrite production by LPS/IFNg-stimulated macrophages was maximally reduced by adding of AVE (100 μg/ml. This result suggests a direct inhibitory effect of AVE on the inflammatory cells. Chicks treated orally with AVE showed improvement of the histological signs with no inflammatory cell infiltrates and reduction of myeloperoxidase (MPO activities when compared with colitis control group. AVE pretreatment ameliorated significantly the clinical and histopathological severity of the TNBS-induced colitis; decreased body weight loss and diarrhea and increased survival. Conclusion: It was concluded that oral administration of AVE represents a valuable therapeutic approach for the treatment of colitis in chicken. [Vet. World 2012; 5(8.000: 469-476

  17. Conjugated linoleic acid prevents age-induced bone loss in mice by regulating both osteoblastogenesis and adipogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Guanlin; Wang, Huan; Dai, Jun; Li, Xiao; Guan, Ming; Gao, Shutao; Ding, Qing; Wang, Huaixi; Fang, Huang

    2017-08-26

    Osteoporosis (OP) can increase the risk of bone fracture and other complications, which is a major clinical problem. Previous researches have revealed that conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) can promote the bone formation. But the mechanisms are not clear. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that CLA acts on bone formation might be via mTOR Complex1 (mTORC 1) pathway by in vitro and vivo assays. We studied the effect of CLA mix on MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts differentiation into osteoblasts, and bone formation under osteoporotic conditions. At the same time, 3T3-L1 pre-adipocyte with the same CLA mix concentration gradient for 8 days with adipogenic differentiation medium. We found that Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) and osteocalcin (OCN) expressions of pre-osteoblasts were up-regulated. Moreover in presence of CLA, peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor γ(PPARγ) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBPα) were down-regulated. Osteoporosis mice bone parameters in the distal femoral meraphysis were significantly increased compared with placebo mice. Furthermore, the phosphor-S6 (P-S6) was suppressed and phosphor-AKT (P-AKT) was up-regulated. Consistently, CLA can stimulate differentiation of osteoblasts and inhibited pre-adipocytes differentiated into adipocytes via AKT/mTORC1 signal pathway. Overall CLA thus be a suitable candidate for the treatment of patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis and obesity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Cotton textiles modified with citric acid as efficient anti-bacterial agent for prevention of nosocomial infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischof Vukušić, Sandra; Flinčec Grgac, Sandra; Budimir, Ana; Kalenić, Smilja

    2011-01-01

    Aim To study the antimicrobial activity of citric acid (CA) and sodium hypophosphite monohydrate (SHP) against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, and to determine the influence of conventional and microwave thermal treatments on the effectiveness of antimicrobial treatment of cotton textiles. Method Textile material was impregnated with CA and SHP solution and thermally treated by either conventional or microwave drying/curing treatment. Antibacterial effectiveness was tested according to the ISO 20743:2009 standard, using absorption method. The surfaces were morphologically observed by scanning electron microscopy, while physical characteristics were determined by wrinkle recovery angles method (DIN 53 891), tensile strength (DIN 53 837), and whiteness degree method (AATCC 110-2000). Results Cotton fabric treated with CA and SHP showed significant antibacterial activity against MRSA (6.38 log10 treated by conventional drying and 6.46 log10 treated by microwave drying before washing, and 6.90 log10 and 7.86 log10, respectively, after 1 cycle of home domestic laundering washing [HDLW]). Antibacterial activity was also remarkable against S. aureus (4.25 log10 by conventional drying, 4.58 log10 by microwave drying) and against P. aeruginosa (1.93 log10 by conventional and 4.66 log10 by microwave drying). Antibacterial activity against P. aeruginosa was higher in samples subjected to microwave drying/curing than in those subjected to conventional drying/curing. As expected, antibacterial activity was reduced after 10 HDLW cycles but the compound was still effective. The surface of the untreated cotton polymer was smooth, while minor erosion stripes appeared on the surfaces treated with antimicrobial agent, and long and deep stripes were found on the surface of the washed sample. Conclusion CA can be used both for the disposable (non-durable) materials (gowns, masks, and cuffs for blood pressure measurement) and the materials that require durability to laundering

  19. L-theanine, a Component of Green Tea Prevents 3-Nitropropionic Acid (3-NP)-Induced Striatal Toxicity by Modulating Nitric Oxide Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamwal, Sumit; Kumar, Puneet

    2017-04-01

    L-theanine is unique amino acid which readily crosses blood brain barrier and possesses neuroprotective potential against neurodegenerative disorders including Huntington disease (HD). HD is characterized by selective loss of GABAergic medium spiny neurons. 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP) induces a spectrum of HD-like neuropathology in rat striatum and widely used as experimental tool to study HD. Therefore, the present study was intended to investigate the effect of L-theanine against 3-NP-induced striatal toxicity and to explore its possible mechanism. Rats were administered with 3-NP for 21 days. L-theanine was given once a day, 1 h prior to 3-NP treatment for 21 days and L-NAME (10 mg/kg, i.p.), NO inhibitor and L-arginine (50 mg/kg; i.p.), NO precursor were administered 1 h prior to L-theanine treatment. Body weight and behavioral observation were made on weekly basis. On the 22nd day, animals were sacrificed, and the striatum was isolated for biochemical (LPO, GSH, and nitrite), pro-inflammatory cytokines and neurochemical analysis. 3-NP treatment significantly altered body weight, locomotor activity, motor coordination, mitochondrial complex-II activity, oxidative defense, pro-inflammatory mediators, and striatal neurotransmitters level. L-theanine pre-treatment (25 and 50 mg/kg/day, p.o.) significantly prevented these alterations. In addition, concurrent treatment of L-NAME with L-theanine (25 mg/kg/day, p.o.) significantly enhanced protective effect of L-theanine (25 mg/kg/day, p.o.) whereas concurrent treatment of L-arginine with L-theanine (50 mg/kg/day, p.o.) significantly ameliorated the protective effect of L-theanine (50 mg/kg/day, p.o.). The neuroprotective potential of L-theanine involves inhibition of detrimental nitric oxide production and prevention of neurotransmitters alteration in the striatum.

  20. Chicoric acid prevents PDGF-BB-induced VSMC dedifferentiation, proliferation and migration by suppressing ROS/NFκB/mTOR/P70S6K signaling cascade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qing-Bo; Wan, Ming-Yu; Wang, Pei-Yao; Zhang, Chen-Xing; Xu, Dong-Yan; Liao, Xiang; Sun, Hai-Jian

    2018-04-01

    Phenotypic switch of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) is characterized by increased expressions of VSMC synthetic markers and decreased levels of VSMC contractile markers, which is an important step for VSMC proliferation and migration during the development and progression of cardiovascular diseases including atherosclerosis. Chicoric acid (CA) is identified to exert powerful cardiovascular protective effects. However, little is known about the effects of CA on VSMC biology. Herein, in cultured VSMCs, we showed that pretreatment with CA dose-dependently suppressed platelet-derived growth factor type BB (PDGF-BB)-induced VSMC phenotypic alteration, proliferation and migration. Mechanistically, PDGF-BB-treated VSMCs exhibited higher mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and P70S6K phosphorylation, which was attenuated by CA pretreatment, diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI), reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) and nuclear factor-κB (NFκB) inhibitor Bay117082. PDGF-BB-triggered ROS production and p65-NFκB activation were inhibited by CA. In addition, both NAC and DPI abolished PDGF-BB-evoked p65-NFκB nuclear translocation, phosphorylation and degradation of Inhibitor κBα (IκBα). Of note, blockade of ROS/NFκB/mTOR/P70S6K signaling cascade prevented PDGF-BB-evoked VSMC phenotypic transformation, proliferation and migration. CA treatment prevented intimal hyperplasia and vascular remodeling in rat models of carotid artery ligation in vivo. These results suggest that CA impedes PDGF-BB-induced VSMC phenotypic switching, proliferation, migration and neointima formation via inhibition of ROS/NFκB/mTOR/P70S6K signaling cascade. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A Randomized Clinical Trial of Preoperative Administration of Branched-Chain Amino Acids to Prevent Postoperative Ascites in Patients with Liver Resection for Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Yutaro; Hiroshima, Yukihiko; Matsuo, Kenichi; Kawaguchi, Daisuke; Murakami, Takashi; Yabushita, Yasuhiro; Endo, Itaru; Taguri, Masataka; Koda, Keiji; Tanaka, Kuniya

    2016-10-01

    Massive postoperative ascites remains a major threat that can lead to liver failure and other fatal complications, especially in patients with poor liver function. Branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) administration increases biosynthesis and secretion of albumin by hepatocytes and increases oncotic pressure by elevating blood albumin concentration, thereby decreasing peripheral edema, ascites, and pleural effusion. We randomly allocated consecutive patients undergoing major liver resection for hepatocellular carcinoma to either a group where oral BCAA administration was initiated 3 weeks before liver resection, or a non-BCAA group. The primary study endpoint was development of postoperative ascites. Overall, 39 patients were allocated to the BCAA group, while 38 were assigned to the non-BCAA group. No significant difference in the rate of refractory ascites, considered alone, was evident between the BCAA (5.1 %) and non-BCAA groups (13.2 %; p = 0.263). However, the occurrence of refractory ascites and/or pleural effusion was significantly less frequent in the BCAA group (5.1 %) than in the non-BCAA group (21.1 %; p = 0.047). Furthermore, the postoperative serum concentration of reduced-state albumin was greater immediately after liver resection in the BCAA group than in the non-BCAA group. Preoperative administration of BCAA did not significantly improve prevention of refractory ascites, but significant effectiveness in preventing ascites, pleural effusion, or both, as well as improving metabolism of albumin, was demonstrated [University Hospital Medical Information Network (UMIN) reference number 000004244].

  2. Bolivian Health Providers’ Attitudes Toward Alternative Technologies for Cervical Cancer Prevention: A Focus on Visual Inspection with Acetic Acid and Cryotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stormo, Analía Romina; Altamirano, Victor Conde; Pérez-Castells, Macarena; Espey, David; Padilla, Haydee; Panameño, Karen; Soria, Milton; Santos, Carlos; Saraiya, Mona; Luciani, Silvana

    2017-01-01

    Background Little is known about health providers’ attitudes toward visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) and cryotherapy in the prevention of cervical cancer, as most research in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) has examined attitudes of the general population. This study describes attitudes of Bolivian health professionals toward new technologies for cervical cancer prevention, focusing on VIA and cryotherapy. Methods Between February 2011 and March 2012, we surveyed 7 nurses and 35 physicians who participated in 5-day workshops on VIA and cryotherapy conducted in Bolivia. Multiple choice and open-ended questions were used to assess participants’ acceptability of these procedures and the feasibility of their implementation in the context of perceived barriers for the early detection of cervical cancer in this country. Results Most believed that cultural factors represent the main barrier for the early detection of cervical cancer (70%), although all stated that VIA and cryotherapy would be accepted by women, citing the advantages of VIA over cytology for this belief. Most also believed their colleagues would accept VIA and cryotherapy (71%) and that VIA should replace Pap testing (61%), reiterating the advantages of VIA for these beliefs. Those who believed the contrary expressed a general resistance to change associated with an already existing cytology program and national norms prioritizing Pap testing. Conclusions Most participants had favorable attitudes toward VIA and cryotherapy; however, a sizable minority cited challenges to their adoption by colleagues and believed VIA should not replace cytology. This report can inform the development of strategies to expand the use of alternative cervical cancer screening methods in LAC and Bolivia. PMID:22816515

  3. Epsilon-aminocaproic acid prevents high glucose and insulin induced-invasiveness in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, modulating the plasminogen activator system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viedma-Rodríguez, Rubí; Martínez-Hernández, María Guadalupe; Flores-López, Luis Antonio; Baiza-Gutman, Luis Arturo

    2018-01-01

    Obesity and type II diabetes mellitus have contributed to the increase of breast cancer incidence worldwide. High glucose concentration promotes the proliferation of metastatic cells, favoring the activation of the plasminogen/plasmin system, thus contributing to tumor progression. The efficient formation of plasmin is dependent on the binding of plasminogen to the cell surface. We studied the effect of ε-aminocaproic acid (EACA), an inhibitor of the binding of plasminogen to cell surface, on proliferation, migration, invasion, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and plasminogen activation system, in metastatic MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells grown in a high glucose microenvironment and treated with insulin. MDA-MB-231 cells were treated with EACA 12.5 mmol/L under high glucose 30 mmol/L (HG) and high glucose and insulin 80 nmol/L (HG-I) conditions, evaluating: cell population growth, % of viability, migratory, and invasive abilities, as well as the expression of uPA, its receptor (uPAR), and its inhibitor (PAI-1), by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot, MMP-2 and MMP-9 mRNAs were evaluated by RT-PCR. Markers of EMT were evaluated by Western blot. Additionally, the presence of active uPA was studied by gel zymography, using casein-plasminogen as substrates. EACA prevented the increase in cell population, migration and invasion induced by HG and insulin, which was associated with the inhibition of EMT and the attenuation of HG- and insulin-dependent expression of uPA, uPAR, PAI-1, MMP-2, MMP-9, α-enolase (ENO A), and HCAM. The interaction of plasminogen to the cell surface and plasmin formation are mediators of the prometastasic action of hyperglycemia and insulin, potentially, EACA can be employed in the prevention and as adjuvant treatment of breast tumorigenesis promoted by hyperglycemia and insulin.

  4. Retrospective evaluation of the effectiveness of epsilon aminocaproic acid for the prevention of postamputation bleeding in retired racing Greyhounds with appendicular bone tumors: 46 cases (2003-2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín, Liliana M; Iazbik, M Cristina; Zaldivar-Lopez, Sara; Lord, Linda K; Stingle, Nicole; Vilar, Paulo; Lara-Garcia, Ana; Alvarez, Francisco; Hosoya, Kenji; Nelson, Laura; Pozzi, Antonio; Cooper, Edward; McLoughlin, Mary A; Ball, Rebecca; Kisseberth, William C; London, Cheryl A; Dudley, Robert; Dyce, Jonathan; McMahon, Melanie; Lerche, Phillip; Bednarski, Richard; Couto, C Guillermo

    2012-06-01

    To determine the frequency of delayed postoperative bleeding in retired racing Greyhounds with appendicular bone tumors undergoing limb amputations. To identify if administration of epsilon-aminocaproic acid (EACA) was effective on the prevention of postoperative bleeding. Retrospective study from December 2003 to December 2008. Veterinary university teaching hospital. Forty-six retired racing Greyhounds (RRGs) diagnosed with primary appendicular bone tumors that underwent limb amputation were included in the study. None. Thirteen of 46 RRGs (28%) included in the study had delayed postoperative bleeding starting 48-72 h after surgery. Bleeding episodes included cutaneous, subcutaneous, and external bleeding that extended from the area of the surgical site that became widespread within hours, and that required administration of blood components. A paired t-test suggests that there was a significant decrease in PCV postoperatively for both dogs that bled and dogs that did not bleed (P < 0.0001). Forty of 46 RRGs (86%) received either fresh frozen plasma (FFP) or EACA or both, for the prevention of postoperative bleeding. A logistic regression model determined that dogs that did not receive EACA were 5.7 times more likely to bleed than dogs that did receive EACA, when controlling for whether or not they received FFP (95% CI: 1.02-32.15, P = 0.047). This retrospective study suggests that preemptive postoperative administration of EACA appears to be efficacious in decreasing the frequency of bleeding in RRGs undergoing limb amputation; however, a prospective study is warranted to corroborate its effectiveness. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2012.

  5. Ellagic acid inhibits PDGF-BB-induced vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and prevents atheroma formation in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Uma P; Kesavan, Rushendhiran; Ganugula, Raghu; Avaneesh, T; Kumar, Uday P; Reddy, G Bhanuprakash; Dixit, Madhulika

    2013-11-01

    Plant-derived polyphenolic compounds have beneficial health effects. In the present study, we determined the ability of ellagic acid (EA) to prevent platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB)-induced proliferation of primary cultures of rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMCs). We also determined the ability of EA to prevent atherosclerosis in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Proliferation of cells was measured via Alamar Blue assay and through propidium iodide-based cell cycle analysis in flow cytometer. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured via 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate and Amplex red methods. Expression of proliferation markers and activation of kinases were assessed by immunoblot analysis. Cotreatment of primary cultures of RASMCs with 25 μmol/L of EA significantly reduced PDGF-BB (20 ng/ml)-induced proliferation by blocking S-phase entry. EA effectively blocked PDGF receptor-β (PDGFR-β) tyrosine phosphorylation, generation of intracellular ROS and downstream activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2. It also blocked PDGF-BB-induced expression of cyclin D1. Computational molecular docking of EA with the PDGFR-β-PDGF-BB complex revealed two putative inhibitor binding sites which showed similar binding energies with the known PDGFR-β inhibitor AG1295. In diabetic rats, supplementation of diet with 2% EA significantly blocked diabetes-induced medial thickness, and lipid and collagen deposition in the arch of aorta. These were assessed through haematoxylin and eosin, Oil Red O and Masson's trichome staining, respectively. EA treatment also blocked cyclin D1 expression in medial smooth muscle cells in experimental animals. Thus, EA is effective in reducing atherosclerotic process by blocking proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. NAFLD and Atherosclerosis Are Prevented by a Natural Dietary Supplement Containing Curcumin, Silymarin, Guggul, Chlorogenic Acid and Inulin in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Antonella; Caldara, Gaetano-Felice; Nuzzo, Domenico; Baldassano, Sara; Picone, Pasquale; Rizzo, Manfredi; Mulè, Flavia; Di Carlo, Marta

    2017-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) confers an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. NAFDL is associated with atherogenic dyslipidemia, inflammation and renin-angiotensin system (RAS) imbalance, which in turn lead to atherosclerotic lesions. In the present study, the impact of a natural dietary supplement (NDS) containing Curcuma longa, silymarin, guggul, chlorogenic acid and inulin on NAFLD and atherosclerosis was evaluated, and the mechanism of action was examined. C57BL/6 mice were fed an HFD for 16 weeks; half of the mice were simultaneously treated with a daily oral administration (os) of the NDS. NAFLD and atherogenic lesions in aorta and carotid artery (histological analysis), hepatic expression of genes involved in the NAFLD (PCR array), hepatic angiotensinogen (AGT) and AT1R mRNA expression (real-time PCR) and plasma angiotensin (ANG)-II levels (ELISA) were evaluated. In the NDS group, steatosis, aortic lesions or carotid artery thickening was not observed. PCR array showed upregulation of some genes involved in lipid metabolism and anti-inflammatory activity (Cpt2, Ifng) and downregulation of some genes involved in pro-inflammatory response and in free fatty acid up-take (Fabp5, Socs3). Hepatic AGT, AT1R mRNA and ANG II plasma levels were significantly lower with respect to the untreated-group. Furthermore, NDS inhibited the dyslipidemia observed in the untreated animals. Altogether, these results suggest that NDS prevents NAFLD and atherogenesis by modulating the expression of different genes involved in NAFLD and avoiding RAS imbalance. PMID:28505074

  7. Weekly iron-folic acid supplementation with regular deworming is cost-effective in preventing anaemia in women of reproductive age in Vietnam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard J Casey

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To estimate the cost and cost-effectiveness of a project administering de-worming and weekly iron-folic acid supplementation to control anaemia in women of reproductive age in Yen Bai province, Vietnam. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Cost effectiveness was evaluated using data on programmatic costs based on two surveys in 2006 and 2009 and impact on anaemia and iron status collected in 2006, 2007, and 2008. Data on initial costs for training and educational materials were obtained from the records of the National Institute of Malariology, Parasitology and Entomology and the Yen Bai Malaria Control Program. Structured questionnaires for health workers at district, commune and village level were used to collect ongoing distribution and monitoring costs, and for participants to collect transport and loss of earnings costs. The cost per woman treated (defined as consuming at least 75% of the recommended intake was USD0.76 per annum. This estimate includes financial costs (for supplies, training, and costs of health care workers' time. Prevalence of anaemia fell from 38% at baseline, to 20% after 12 months. Thus, the cost-effectiveness of the project is assessed at USD 4.24 per anaemia case prevented per year. Based on estimated productivity gains for adult women, the benefit:cost ratio is 6.7∶1. Cost of the supplements and anthelminthics was 47% of the total, while costs of training, monitoring, and health workers' time accounted for 53%. CONCLUSION: The study shows that weekly iron-folic acid supplementation and regular de-worming is a low-cost and cost-effective intervention and would be appropriate for population-based introduction in settings with a high prevalence of anaemia and iron deficiency and low malaria infection rates.

  8. Vitamines en visvetzuren ter preventie van hart- en vaatziekten: Gezondmakers uit potjes en flesjes T2 = Health from jars and bottles. Vitamins and fish oil fatty acids for prevention of cardiovascular diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Severs, A.H.; Bouterse-van Haaren, M.R.T.

    2000-01-01

    A high dietary intake of antioxidants ascorbic acid, tocopherol and beta-carotene and 1 or 2 servings of fish per week is associated with a lower risk of coronary heart diseases, but the 'evidence' for a preventive effect still has not been produced. A raised homocysteine level can be lowered with

  9. ω-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids prevent pressure overload-induced ventricular dilation and decrease in mitochondrial enzymes despite no change in adiponectin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Shea Karen M

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pathological left ventricular (LV hypertrophy frequently progresses to dilated heart failure with suppressed mitochondrial oxidative capacity. Dietary marine ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFA up-regulate adiponectin and prevent LV dilation in rats subjected to pressure overload. This study 1 assessed the effects of ω-3 PUFA on LV dilation and down-regulation of mitochondrial enzymes in response to pressure overload; and 2 evaluated the role of adiponectin in mediating the effects of ω-3 PUFA in heart. Methods Wild type (WT and adiponectin-/- mice underwent transverse aortic constriction (TAC and were fed standard chow ± ω-3 PUFA for 6 weeks. At 6 weeks, echocardiography was performed to assess LV function, mice were terminated, and mitochondrial enzyme activities were evaluated. Results TAC induced similar pathological LV hypertrophy compared to sham mice in both strains on both diets. In WT mice TAC increased LV systolic and diastolic volumes and reduced mitochondrial enzyme activities, which were attenuated by ω-3 PUFA without increasing adiponectin. In contrast, adiponectin-/- mice displayed no increase in LV end diastolic and systolic volumes or decrease in mitochondrial enzymes with TAC, and did not respond to ω-3 PUFA. Conclusion These findings suggest ω-3 PUFA attenuates cardiac pathology in response to pressure overload independent of an elevation in adiponectin.

  10. Biocompatible cephalosporin-hydroxyapatite-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-coatings fabricated by MAPLE technique for the prevention of bone implant associated infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rădulescu, Dragoş [Bucharest University Hospital, Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Bucharest (Romania); Grumezescu, Valentina [Department of Science and Engineering of Oxide Materials and Nanomaterials, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, University Politehnica of Bucharest (Romania); Lasers Department, National Institute for Lasers, Plasma & Radiation Physics, Magurele, Bucharest (Romania); Andronescu, Ecaterina [Department of Science and Engineering of Oxide Materials and Nanomaterials, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, University Politehnica of Bucharest (Romania); Holban, Alina Maria [Department of Science and Engineering of Oxide Materials and Nanomaterials, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, University Politehnica of Bucharest (Romania); Microbiology Immunology Department, Faculty of Biology, University of Bucharest, 1–3 Portocalelor Lane, Sector 5, 77206 Bucharest (Romania); Research Institute of the University of Bucharest –ICUB, 91-95 Splaiul Independentei, 050095 Bucharest (Romania); Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai, E-mail: grumezescu@yahoo.com [Department of Science and Engineering of Oxide Materials and Nanomaterials, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, University Politehnica of Bucharest (Romania); Socol, Gabriel [Lasers Department, National Institute for Lasers, Plasma & Radiation Physics, Magurele, Bucharest (Romania); Oprea, Alexandra Elena [Department of Science and Engineering of Oxide Materials and Nanomaterials, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, University Politehnica of Bucharest (Romania); Rădulescu, Marius [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, University Politehnica of Bucharest, 1–7 Polizu Street, 011061 Bucharest (Romania); and others

    2016-06-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • HAp/PLGA thin coatings by Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation. • Anti-adherent coating on medical surfaces against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa colonization. • Coatings with potential applications in implant osseointegration. - Abstract: In this study we aimed to obtain functionalized thin films based on hydroxyapatite/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (HAp/PLGA) containing ceftriaxone/cefuroxime antibiotics (ATBs) deposited by Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) technique. The prepared thin films were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-Ray diffraction (XRD), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), and infra red (IR) analysis. HAp/PLGA/ATBs thin films sustained the growth of human osteoblasts, proving their good biocompatibility. The microscopic evaluation and the culture-based quantitative assay of the E. coli biofilm development showed that the thin films inhibited the initial step of microbial attachment as well as the subsequent colonization and biofilm development on the respective surfaces. This study demonstrates that MAPLE technique could represent an appealing technique for the fabrication of antibiotics-containing polymeric implant coatings. The bioevaluation results recommend this type of surfaces for the prevention of bone implant microbial contamination and for the enhanced stimulation of the implant osseointegration process.

  11. Docosahexaenoic acid and L-Carnitine prevent ATP loss in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells after exposure to silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Joey Wee-Shan; Ho, Christabel Fung-Yih; Ng, Yee-Kong; Ong, Wei-Yi

    2016-02-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are among the most commonly used nanomaterials, but thus far, little is known about ways to mitigate against potential toxic effects of exposure. In this study, we examined the potential effects of AgNPs on mitochondrial function and cellular ATP levels, and whether these could be prevented by treatment with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and L-carnitine (LC). Acute exposure of AgNPs for 1 h to SH-SY5Y cells resulted in decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, and decreased ATP and ADP levels, indicating mitochondrial damage and reduced production of ATP. Incubation of cells with DHA partially reduced, while treatment with LC and DHA completely abolished the AgNP induced decreases in ATP and ADP levels. This could be due to a LC-facilitated entry of DHA to mitochondria, for repair of damaged phospholipids. It is postulated that DHA and LC may be useful for treatment of accidental environmental exposure to AgNPs. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. A pentacyclic triterpene natural product, ursolic acid and its prodrug US597 inhibit targets within cell adhesion pathway and prevent cancer metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Liping; Chi, Ting; Tang, Qiao; Yang, Xiang; Ou, Minrui; Chen, Xiufen; Yu, Xiaobo; Chen, Jianzhong; Ho, Rodney J.Y.; Shao, Jingwei; Jia, Lee

    2015-01-01

    Here we showed that ursolic acid (UA), a pentacyclic triterpene natural product, and its novel prodrug derivative US597 suppressed cancer cells adhesion, invasion and migration. This effect was accompanied by inhibition of focal adhesion signaling pathway including alterations in ICAM-1, VCAM-1, E-selectin, P-selectin, integrin α6β1, FAK, Src, paxillin and PTEN. While oral administration of UA or US597 increases survival rate of melanoma lung metastasis in C57BL/6 mice, US597 treatment extend the survival rate above that of UA. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that US597 treatment regulates ICAM-1, a biomarker of metastasis. We did not detect side effects with US597 in mice such as weight loss, viscera tissues toxicity and blood cell abnormalities. Thus, UA and US597 are potential drug candidates for preventing cancer metastasis. Molecular and cellular study data suggest that UA and US597 modulate expression of cell adhesion molecules within focal adhesion signaling pathway leading to cancer cell motility. PMID:25823660

  13. Regular consumption of a silicic acid-rich water prevents aluminium-induced alterations of nitrergic neurons in mouse brain: histochemical and immunohistochemical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foglio, E; Buffoli, B; Exley, C; Rezzani, R; Rodella, L F

    2012-08-01

    Silicon is not generally considered an essential nutrient for mammals and, to date, whether it has a biological role or beneficial effects in humans is not known. The results of a number of studies suggest that dietary silicon supplementation might have a protective effect both for limiting aluminium absorption across the gut and for the removal of systemic aluminium via the urine, hence, preventing potential accumulation of aluminium in the brain. Since our previous studies demonstrated that aluminium exposure reduces the number of nitrergic neurons, the aim of the present study was to compare the distribution and the morphology of NO-containing neurons in brain cortex of mice exposed to aluminium sulphate dissolved in silicic acid-rich or poor drinking water to assess the potential protective role of silicon against aluminium toxicity in the brain. NADPH-d histochemistry and nNOS immunohistochemistry showed that high concentrations of silicon in drinking water were able to minimize the impairment of the function of nitrergic neurons induced by aluminium administration. We found that silicon protected against aluminium-induced damage to the nitrergic system: in particular, we demonstrated that silicon maintains the number of nitrergic neurons and their expression of nitrergic enzymes at physiological levels, even after a 12 and 15 month exposure to aluminium.

  14. Prevention of colonic fibrosis by Boswellia and Scutellaria extracts in rats with colitis induced by 2,4,5-trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latella, G; Sferra, R; Vetuschi, A; Zanninelli, G; D'Angelo, A; Catitti, V; Caprilli, R; Gaudio, E

    2008-06-01

    Currently, no effective preventive measures or medical therapies are available for intestinal fibrosis and, thus, surgery remains the only available strategy in the management of fibrostenotic enteropathies, especially Crohn's disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a combined therapy of anti-inflammatory Boswellia and antifibrotic Scutellaria extracts on the development of colonic fibrosis in rats. Chronic colonic inflammation-associated fibrosis was induced in rats by intracolonic administration of 2,4,5-trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS). Sixty-four healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to five groups: 8 controls, 14 TNBS, 14 TNBS orally treated with Boswellia extracts (50 mg kg(-1) day(-1)), 14 TNBS orally treated with Scutellaria extracts (150 mg kg(-1) day(-1)), and 14 TNBS orally treated with both Boswellia (50 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) and Scutellaria extracts (150 mg kg(-1) day(-1)). The colon was removed after 21 days of treatment and assessed by macroscopic, histological, morphometric and immunohistochemical analyses. For immunohistochemical analysis, alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA), collagen types I-III, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1), Smad3, Smad7 and CD3 antibodies were used. Combined oral administration of Boswellia and Scutellaria significantly improved the course and macroscopic findings of TNBS-induced chronic colitis assessed by disease activity index, colon weight, length, adhesions, strictures, dilatation, thickness, oedema, ulcerations and extension of damage. The histological severity of the colonic fibrosis was also notably improved by the treatment and associated with a significant reduction in the colonic expression of alpha-SMA, collagen I-III, CTGF, TGF-beta1, Smad3, and Smad7. These data demonstrate that the prophylactic administration of anti-inflammatory Boswellia and antifibrotic Scutellaria extracts is effective in preventing colonic fibrosis in

  15. Dietary intervention with narrow-leaved cattail rhizome flour (Typha angustifolia L. prevents intestinal inflammation in the trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid model of rat colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fruet Andréa

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD is a chronic inflammation of the intestinal epithelium that is driven by the intestinal immune system, oxidative stress and the loss of tolerance to the luminal microbiota. The use of dietary products containing ingredients such as fibres and carbohydrates and/or antioxidant compounds have been used as a therapeutic strategy for intestinal diseases because these products are considered effective in the modulation of the immune system and colonic microbiota. We investigated the beneficial effects of cattail rhizome flour (Typha angustifolia L. in the trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNBS model of rat colitis. In addition, we investigated the effects of cattail rhizome flour on the intestinal anti-inflammatory activity of prednisolone, which is a reference drug that is used for treatment of human IBD. Methods The present study included the preparation of flour from rhizomes of cattail (Typha angustifolia L.; an evaluation of the qualitative phytochemical profile of cattail rhizomes; an evaluation of the efficacy of cattail rhizome flour in TNBS-induced rat colitis; an evaluation of the synergistic effects of cattail rhizome flour on the intestinal anti-inflammatory activity of prednisolone; and macroscopic, clinical, biochemical, histopathological and microbiological studies to assess the healing effects of cattail rhizome flour and its synergistic effects in TNBS-induced rat colitis. The data were analysed by ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis and χ2 tests. Results We tested several concentrations of cattail rhizome flour and found that dietary supplementation with 10% cattail rhizome flour showed the best effects at reducing the extension of the lesion, the colon weight ratio, adherences to adjacent organs and diarrhoea. These effects were related to inhibition of myeloperoxidase (MPO and alkaline phosphatase (AP activities and an attenuation of glutathione (GSH depletion. The 10% cattail rhizome flour was

  16. Inhibition of VDAC1 prevents Ca²⁺-mediated oxidative stress and apoptosis induced by 5-aminolevulinic acid mediated sonodynamic therapy in THP-1 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haibo; Gao, Weiwei; Yang, Yang; Guo, Shuyuan; Wang, Huan; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Shuisheng; Zhou, Qi; Xu, Haobo; Yao, Jianting; Tian, Zhen; Li, Bicheng; Cao, Wenwu; Zhang, Zhiguo; Tian, Ye

    2014-12-01

    Ultrasound combined with endogenous protoporphyrin IX derived from 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA-SDT) is known to induce apoptosis in multiple cancer cells and macrophages. Persistent retention of macrophages in the plaque has been implicated in the pathophysiology and progression of atherosclerosis. Here we investigated the effects of inhibition of voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1) on ALA-SDT-induced THP-1 macrophages apoptosis. Cells were pre-treated with VDAC1 inhibitor 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS) disodium salt for 1 h or downregulated VDAC1 expression by small interfering RNA and exposed to ultrasound. Cell viability was assessed by MTT assay, and cell apoptosis along with necrosis was evaluated by Hoechst 33342/propidium iodide staining and flow cytometry. Levels of cytochrome c release was assessed by confocal microscope and Western blot. The levels of full length caspases, caspase activation, and VDAC isoforms were analyzed by Western blot. Intracellular reactive oxygen species generation, mitochondrial membrane permeability, and intracellular Ca(2+) [Ca(2+)]i levels were measured with fluorescent probes. We confirmed that the pharmacological inhibition of VDAC1 by DIDS notably prevented ALA-SDT-induced cell apoptosis in THP-1 macrophages. Additionally, DIDS significantly inhibited intracellular ROS generation and apoptotic biochemical changes such as inner mitochondrial membrane permeabilization, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome c release and activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9. Moreover, ALA-SDT elevated the [Ca(2+)]i levels and it was also notably reduced by DIDS. Furthermore, both of intracellular ROS generation and cell apoptosis were predominately inhibited by Ca(2+) chelating reagent BAPTA-AM. Intriguingly, ALA-treatment markedly augmented VDAC1 protein levels exclusively, and the downregulation of VDAC1 expression by specific siRNA also significantly abolished cell apoptosis. Altogether, these

  17. α-linolenic acid supplementation prevents exercise-induced improvements in white adipose tissue mitochondrial bioenergetics and whole-body glucose homeostasis in obese Zucker rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaco, Cynthia M F; Proudfoot, Ross; Miotto, Paula M; Herbst, Eric A F; MacPherson, Rebecca E K; Holloway, Graham P

    2018-02-01

    While the underlying mechanisms in the development of insulin resistance remain inconclusive, metabolic dysfunction in both white adipose tissue (WAT) and skeletal muscle have been implicated in the process. Therefore, we investigated the independent and combined effects of α-linolenic acid (ALA) supplementation and exercise training on whole-body glucose homeostasis and mitochondrial bioenergetics within the WAT and skeletal muscle of obese Zucker rats. We randomly assigned obese Zucker rats to receive a control diet alone or supplemented with ALA and to remain sedentary or undergo exercise training for 4 weeks (CON-Sed, ALA-Sed, CON-Ex and ALA-Ex groups). Whole-body glucose tolerance was determined in response to a glucose load. Mitochondrial content and bioenergetics were examined in skeletal muscle and epididymal WAT (eWAT). Insulin sensitivity and cellular stress were assessed by western blot. Exercise training independently improved whole-body glucose tolerance as well as insulin-induced signalling in muscle and WAT. However, the consumption of ALA during exercise training prevented exercise-mediated improvements in whole-body glucose tolerance. ALA consumption did not influence exercise-induced adaptations within skeletal muscle, insulin sensitivity and mitochondrial bioenergetics. In contrast, within eWAT, ALA supplementation attenuated insulin signalling, decreased mitochondrial respiration and increased the fraction of electron leak to reactive oxygen species (ROS). These findings indicate that, in an obese rodent model, consumption of ALA attenuates the favourable adaptive changes of exercise training within eWAT, which consequently impacts whole-body glucose homeostasis. The direct translation to humans, however, remains to be determined.

  18. Omega-3 fatty acids prevent LPS-induced passive avoidance learning and memory and CaMKII-α gene expression impairments in hippocampus of rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehkordi, Neda Gholamian; Noorbakhshnia, Maryam; Ghaedi, Kamran; Esmaeili, Abolghasem; Dabaghi, Mohammad

    2015-04-01

    Neuroinflammation is considered to be a major factor in several neurodegenerative diseases. Recently, the polyunsaturated fatty acid omega-3 has been shown to have anti-inflammatory effects and might play an effective role in improving memory impairment due to inflammation. In order to test this, we stimulated neuroinflammation in an animal model and induced memory dysfunction as measured by reduced retention of passive avoidance learning (PAL) and altered expression of CaMKII-α, a gene known to be crucial for memory formation. We then investigated whether treatment with dietary omega-3 prevents inflammation-induced memory dysfunction in this model. Male wistar rats (200-220 g) were fed either a control diet or a diet containing omega-3 (400mg/kg, po) for 1 month prior. Rats then received injection of either saline or LPS (500 μg/kg, ip) and were subjected to the PAL acquisition task. The retention test was performed 24h later, and animals were sacrificed immediately. Hippocampi were dissected and stored at -80°C. Finally, TNF-α levels and CaMKII-α gene expression were measured by ELISA and qRT-PCR, respectively. We found that LPS treatment significantly impaired PAL and memory, increased TNF-α levels and impaired CaMKII-α gene expression. In control and LPS-injected animals, pre-treatment with omega-3 improved performance on the PAL task and increased CAMKII-α gene expression. Taken together, these data suggest that dietary omega-3 may improve cognitive function and provide a potential therapy for memory impairment due to neuroinflammation. Copyright © 2014 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  19. Branched-chain amino acids prevent hepatic fibrosis and development of hepatocellular carcinoma in a non-alcoholic steatohepatitis mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takegoshi, Kai; Honda, Masao; Okada, Hikari; Takabatake, Riuta; Matsuzawa-Nagata, Naoto; Campbell, Jean S; Nishikawa, Masashi; Shimakami, Tetsuro; Shirasaki, Takayoshi; Sakai, Yoshio; Yamashita, Taro; Takamura, Toshinari; Tanaka, Takuji; Kaneko, Shuichi

    2017-03-14

    Oral supplementation with branched-chain amino acids (BCAA; leucine, isoleucine, and valine) in patients with liver cirrhosis potentially suppresses the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and improves event-free survival. However, the detailed mechanisms of BCAA action have not been fully elucidated. BCAA were administered to atherogenic and high-fat (Ath+HF) diet-induced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) model mice. Liver histology, tumor incidence, and gene expression profiles were evaluated. Ath+HF diet mice developed hepatic tumors at a high frequency at 68 weeks. BCAA supplementation significantly improved hepatic steatosis, inflammation, fibrosis, and tumors in Ath+HF mice at 68 weeks. GeneChip analysis demonstrated the significant resolution of pro-fibrotic gene expression by BCAA supplementation. The anti-fibrotic effect of BCAA was confirmed further using platelet-derived growth factor C transgenic mice, which develop hepatic fibrosis and tumors. In vitro, BCAA restored the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1-stimulated expression of pro-fibrotic genes in hepatic stellate cells (HSC). In hepatocytes, BCAA restored TGF-β1-induced apoptosis, lipogenesis, and Wnt/β-Catenin signaling, and inhibited the transformation of WB-F344 rat liver epithelial stem-like cells. BCAA repressed the promoter activity of TGFβ1R1 by inhibiting the expression of the transcription factor NFY and histone acetyltransferase p300. Interestingly, the inhibitory effect of BCAA on TGF-β1 signaling was mTORC1 activity-dependent, suggesting the presence of negative feedback regulation from mTORC1 to TGF-β1 signaling. Thus, BCAA induce an anti-fibrotic effect in HSC, prevent apoptosis in hepatocytes, and decrease the incidence of HCC; therefore, BCAA supplementation would be beneficial for patients with advanced liver fibrosis with a high risk of HCC.

  20. Role of ascorbic acid in the inhibition of polyphenol oxidase and the prevention of browning in different browning-sensitive Lactuca sativa var. capitata (L.) and Eruca sativa (Mill.) stored as fresh-cut produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi, Marco; Degl'Innocenti, Elena; Guglielminetti, Lorenzo; Guidi, Lucia

    2013-06-01

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and, to a minor extent, peroxidase (POD) represent the key enzymes involved in enzymatic browning, a negative process induced by cutting fresh-cut produce such as lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and rocket salad (Eruca sativa). Although ascorbic acid is frequently utilised as an anti-browning agent, its mechanism in the prevention of the browning phenomenon is not clearly understood. The activity of PPO and POD and their isoforms in lettuce (a high-browning and low-ascorbic acid species) and rocket salad (a low-browning and high-ascorbic species) was characterised. The kinetic parameters of PPO and in vitro ascorbic acid-PPO inhibition were also investigated. In rocket salad, PPO activity was much lower than that in lettuce and cutting induced an increase in PPO activity only in lettuce. Exogenous ascorbic acid (5 mmol L(-1)) reduced PPO activity by about 90% in lettuce. POD did not appear to be closely related to browning in lettuce. PPO is the main enzyme involved in the browning phenomenon; POD appears to play a minor role. The concentration of endogenous ascorbic acid in rocket salad was related to its low-browning sensitivity after cutting. In lettuce, the addition of ascorbic acid directly inhibited PPO activity. The results suggest that the high ascorbic acid content found in rocket salad plays an effective role in reducing PPO activity. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Zoledronic Acid Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoledronic acid (Reclast) is used to prevent or treat osteoporosis (condition in which the bones become thin and weak ... of life,' end of regular menstrual periods). Zoledronic acid (Reclast) is also used to treat osteoporosis in ...

  2. Preventing stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroke - prevention; CVA - prevention; Cerebral vascular accident - prevention; TIA - prevention; Transient ischemic attack - prevention ... something that increases your chance of having a stroke. You can't change some risk factors for ...

  3. Effects of dietary thia fatty acids on lipid composition, morphology and macrophage function of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjøen, Tor; Kleveland, Ellen Johanne; Moya-Falcón, Corina; Frøystad, Marianne K; Vegusdal, Anne; Hvattum, Erlend; Berge, Rolf K; Ruyter, Bente

    2007-09-01

    High lipid levels are being used in modern salmonid diets to promote rapid growth; however there is a limiting supply of the traditional fish oils as the fish farming industry expands. One way to utilize the lipid sources better, could be to find ways to stimulate fatty acid (FA) oxidation so that Atlantic salmon use more energy for muscle growth and less for storage in perivisceral adipose tissue. We have previously shown that dietary inclusion of the thia FA tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA) promoted hepatic beta-oxidation and reduced total body lipid levels. However, dietary TTA also had some negative effects, leading to accumulation of sulfone and sulfoxide metabolites of TTA in the kidney and increasing mortality rates, particularly at low water temperatures. Therefore we also wish to investigate the effects of TTA on kidney function at high and low temperatures, including some immune system parameters. The production of leukotriene B4 (LTB4) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) immunoreactive material from exogenously added arachidonic acid in isolated head kidney macrophages was affected by both diet and temperature. The phagocytic activity in these cells was reduced by DTA in the 12 degrees C group and there was significantly higher protein degradation in head kidney macrophages at 12 degrees C compared to 5 degrees C in all dietary groups. Interestingly, the incorporation of thia FAs in the kidney was higher at 5 degrees C (0.3% TTA and 0.6% DTA) than at 12 degrees C (0.1% TTA and 0.5% DTA). Additionally, there were lower levels of saturated FAs, while higher levels of polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs) in the kidney of TTA fed fish at 5 degrees C. We also observed temperature-independent tubular dilatation and a reduction in the density of melanomacrophages of the kidney in salmon fed TTA. Nevertheless, the mRNA expression of some immune-relevant genes in head kidney tissue was not affected by TTA-inclusion in salmon diets. In conclusion, it is clear that 0.6% TTA

  4. Supplementation with Phycocyanobilin, Citrulline, Taurine, and Supranutritional Doses of Folic Acid and Biotin—Potential for Preventing or Slowing the Progression of Diabetic Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark F. McCarty

    2017-03-01

    diabetic complications, high dose biotin has the potential to “pinch hit” for diminished NO by direct activation of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC. High-dose biotin also may aid glycemic control via modulatory effects on enzyme induction in hepatocytes and pancreatic beta cells. Taurine, which suppresses diabetic complications in rodents, has the potential to reverse the inactivating impact of oxidative stress on sGC by boosting synthesis of hydrogen sulfide. Hence, it is proposed that concurrent administration of PhyCB, citrulline, taurine, and supranutritional doses of folate and biotin may have considerable potential for prevention and control of diabetic complications. Such a regimen could also be complemented with antioxidants such as lipoic acid, N-acetylcysteine, and melatonin—that boost cellular expression of antioxidant enzymes and glutathione—as well as astaxanthin, zinc, and glycine. The development of appropriate functional foods might make it feasible for patients to use complex nutraceutical regimens of the sort suggested here.

  5. Blood pressure in 12-year-old children is associated with fatty acid composition of human milk: the prevention and incidence of asthma and mite allergy birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rossem, Lenie; Wijga, Alet H; de Jongste, Johan C; Koppelman, Gerard H; Oldenwening, Marieke; Postma, Dirkje S; Abrahamse-Berkeveld, Marieke; van de Heijning, Bert; Brunekreef, Bert; Smit, Henriëtte A

    2012-10-01

    Breastfed individuals have a lower blood pressure than formula-fed individuals. Supplementation with n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in adults is also associated with a lower blood pressure. We studied whether children receiving human milk with a relatively high content of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids have a lower blood pressure at age 12 years, and, if so, whether this association is explained by the n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids content in erythrocyte membranes at age 12 years. Within a 12-year follow-up of a population-based birth cohort, we compared blood pressure of 205 never-breastfed children and 109 children who had fatty acid composition of their mothers' breast milk measured during lactation. In addition, 973 children had information on erythrocyte fatty acid composition and blood pressure at age 12 years. Children who received human milk with an n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids content above the median (ie, 0.51 weight percentage) had a 4.79-mm Hg lower systolic (95% CI, -7.64 to -1.94) and a 2.47-mm Hg lower diastolic (95% CI, -4.45 to -0.49) blood pressure at age 12 years than never-breastfed children. N-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids levels in human milk below the median value and current n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid status were not associated with blood pressure at age 12 years. Thus, a relatively high content of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in human milk is associated with a lower blood pressure in children at age 12 years, a finding not explained by current n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids status.

  6. The VITamin D and OmegA-3 TriaL (VITAL): rationale and design of a large randomized controlled trial of vitamin D and marine omega-3 fatty acid supplements for the primary prevention of cancer and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manson, Joann E; Bassuk, Shari S; Lee, I-Min; Cook, Nancy R; Albert, Michelle A; Gordon, David; Zaharris, Elaine; Macfadyen, Jean G; Danielson, Eleanor; Lin, Jennifer; Zhang, Shumin M; Buring, Julie E

    2012-01-01

    Data from laboratory studies, observational research, and/or secondary prevention trials suggest that vitamin D and marine omega-3 fatty acids may reduce risk for cancer or cardiovascular disease (CVD), but primary prevention trials with adequate dosing in general populations (i.e., unselected for disease risk) are lacking. The ongoing VITamin D and OmegA-3 TriaL (VITAL) is a large randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2 x 2 factorial trial of vitamin D (in the form of vitamin D(3) [cholecalciferol], 2000 IU/day) and marine omega-3 fatty acid (Omacor fish oil, eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA]+docosahexaenoic acid [DHA], 1g/day) supplements in the primary prevention of cancer and CVD among a multi-ethnic population of 20,000 U.S. men aged ≥ 50 and women aged ≥ 55. The mean treatment period will be 5 years. Baseline blood samples will be collected in at least 16,000 participants, with follow-up blood collection in about 6000 participants. Yearly follow-up questionnaires will assess treatment compliance (plasma biomarker measures will also assess compliance in a random sample of participants), use of non-study drugs or supplements, occurrence of endpoints, and cancer and vascular risk factors. Self-reported endpoints will be confirmed by medical record review by physicians blinded to treatment assignment, and deaths will be ascertained through national registries and other sources. Ancillary studies will investigate whether these agents affect risk for diabetes and glucose intolerance; hypertension; cognitive decline; depression; osteoporosis and fracture; physical disability and falls; asthma and other respiratory diseases; infections; and rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, thyroid diseases, and other autoimmune disorders. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Status Enhances the Prevention of Cognitive Decline by B Vitamins in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oulhaj, Abderrahim; Jernerén, Fredrik; Refsum, Helga; Smith, A. David; de Jager, Celeste A.

    2016-01-01

    A randomized trial (VITACOG) in people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) found that B vitamin treatment to lower homocysteine slowed the rate of cognitive and clinical decline. We have used data from this trial to see whether baseline omega-3 fatty acid status interacts with the effects of B vitamin treatment. 266 participants with MCI aged ≥70 years were randomized to B vitamins (folic acid, vitamins B6 and B12) or placebo for 2 years. Baseline cognitive test performance, clinical dementia rating (CDR) scale, and plasma concentrations of total homocysteine, total docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids (omega-3 fatty acids) were measured. Final scores for verbal delayed recall, global cognition, and CDR sum-of-boxes were better in the B vitamin-treated group according to increasing baseline concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids, whereas scores in the placebo group were similar across these concentrations. Among those with good omega-3 status, 33% of those on B vitamin treatment had global CDR scores >0 compared with 59% among those on placebo. For all three outcome measures, higher concentrations of docosahexaenoic acid alone significantly enhanced the cognitive effects of B vitamins, while eicosapentaenoic acid appeared less effective. When omega-3 fatty acid concentrations are low, B vitamin treatment has no effect on cognitive decline in MCI, but when omega-3 levels are in the upper normal range, B vitamins interact to slow cognitive decline. A clinical trial of B vitamins combined with omega-3 fatty acids is needed to see whether it is possible to slow the conversion from MCI to AD. PMID:26757190

  8. Development of a potential probiotic yoghurt using selected anti-inflammatory lactic acid bacteria for prevention of colitis and carcinogenesis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Carmen, S; de Moreno de LeBlanc, A; LeBlanc, J G

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate the beneficial properties of a potentially probiotic yoghurt obtained by the fermentation of two selected anti-inflammatory bacterial strains using in vivo mouse models of intestinal inflammation and colon carcinogenesis. Yoghurt was administered to mice suffering chemically induced intestinal inflammation or colon carcinogenesis. It was shown that this novel yoghurt was able to prevent local inflammation in the intestines of mice through a regulation of the immune response, prevent macroscopic and histological damages, and prevent colon carcinogenesis through an anti-inflammatory response. The developed yoghurt showed in vivo anti-inflammatory properties by modulation of the host immune response for the prevention of colon inflammation and carcinogenesis. This new yoghurt could thus be considered a probiotic food and be useful as a complement to current treatment protocols for inflammatory bowel diseases and colon cancer, a first since there are no current functional foods specifically oriented for these patients. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. [Combined rapamycin eye drop in nanometer vector and poly (lactic acid) wafers of cyclosporine A effectively prevents high-risk corneal allograft rejection in rabbits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei; Sun, Hui-Min; Li, Xiao-Rong; Yuan, Xu-Bo; Wang, Yu-Qing; Zhang, Shu-Xian; Tian, En-Jiang; Yuan, Jia-Qin

    2009-06-01

    To evaluate the combined effect of topical rapamycin (RAPA) eye drop in nanometer vector and poly (lactic acid) (PLA) wafers of cyclosporine A (CsA) in the prevention of acute allograft rejection after rabbit corneal transplantation. Methods It was an experimental study. RAPA was incorporated into the nanometer particles and CsA was incorporated into PLA wafers. A was syngeneic control whose both donor and recipient are New Zealand rabbit. Gray donor corneas were implanted into the 102 recipients of New Zealand albino rabbits with corneal neovascularization who were randomly divided into B, C, D, E, F, G 6 groups to receive the different types of therapy: B was no therapy control; C was eye drop of nanometer vector but no RAPA twice a day, 28 days; D was PLA wafers in the anterior chamber of rabbit eyes but no drugs; E was 0.5% RAPA eye drop of nanometer vector twice a day, 28 days; F was PLA wafers of CsA in the anterior chamber of rabbit eyes; G was PLA wafers of CsA in the anterior chamber of rabbit eyes and 0.5% RAPA eye drop of nanometer vector eye drop twice a day for 28 days together. Postoperative evaluation included slit-lamp biomicroscopy, histopathology and immunohistology, Cytokines related with neovascularization and immunosuppression in the corneal tissue by RT-PCR. The graft survival was assessed by One-Way ANOVA and q test. Corneal allograft survival time: A (100.00 +/- 0.00), B (8.44 +/- 1.24), C (8.89 +/- 2.57), D (8.56 +/- 2.30), E (43.11 +/- 5.58), F (43.67 +/- 9.54), G (72.00 +/- 15.34) d. Group G led to a statistically significant prolongation of transplant survival and was superior than group E and F which was a statistical prolongation compared with group B, C and D (qGE = 11.42, qGF = 11.24, qEB = 13.64, qEC = 13.38, qED = 13.46, qFB = 13.82, qFC = 13.56, qFD = 13.64; P < 0.01). Immunohistopathologically, the grafts were subjected to an immune response contained a dense infiltrate of neutrophils, CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes in the group B

  10. Omega-3 Fatty Acids Supplementation in Children to Prevent Asthma: Is It Worthy?—A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Muley, Prasad; Shah, Monali; Muley, Arti

    2015-01-01

    .... All RCTs where infants or children who were given omega-3 fatty acid supplementation and which reported incidence of asthma and/or wheezing episodes as dichotomous outcomes were included in this review...

  11. Omega-3 Fatty Acids Supplementation in Children to Prevent Asthma: Is It Worthy?-A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Muley, Prasad; Shah, Monali; Muley, Arti

    2015-01-01

    .... All RCTs where infants or children who were given omega-3 fatty acid supplementation and which reported incidence of asthma and/or wheezing episodes as dichotomous outcomes were included in this review...

  12. Chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid are absorbed in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthof, M.R.; Hollman, P.C.H.; Katan, M.B.

    2001-01-01

    Chlorogenic acid, an ester of caffeic acid and quinic acid, is a major phenolic compound in coffee; daily intake in coffee drinkers is 0.5-1 g. Chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid are antioxidants in vitro and might therefore contribute to the prevention of cardiovascular disease. However, data on the

  13. Quercetin glycosides and chlorogenic acid in highbush blueberry leaf decoction prevent cataractogenesis in vivo and in vitro: Investigation of the effect on calpains, antioxidant and metal chelating properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferlemi, Anastasia-Varvara; Makri, Olga E; Mermigki, Penelope G; Lamari, Fotini N; Georgakopoulos, Constantinos D

    2016-04-01

    The present study investigates whether highbush blueberry leaf polyphenols prevent cataractogenesis and the underlying mechanisms. Chlorogenic acid, quercetin, rutin, isoquercetin and hyperoside were quantified in Vaccinium corymbosum leaf decoction (BBL) using HPLC-DAD. Wistar rats were injected subcutaneously with 20 μmol selenite (Na2SeO3)/kg body weight on postnatal (PN) day 10 (Se, n = 8-10/group) only or also intraperitoneally with 100 mg dry BBL/kg body weight on PN days 11 and 12 (SeBBL group, n = 10). Control group received only normal saline (C). Cataract evaluation revealed that BBL significantly prevented lens opacification. It, also, protected lens from selenite oxidative attack and prevented calpain activation, as well as protein loss and aggregation. In vitro studies showed that quercetin attenuated porcine lens turbidity caused by [Formula: see text] or Ca(2+) and interacted efficiently with those ions according to UV-Vis titration experiments. Finally, rutin, isoquercetin and hyperoside moderately inhibited pure human μ-calpain. Conclusively, blueberry leaf extract, a rich source of bioactive polyphenols, prevents cataractogenesis by their strong antioxidant, chelating properties and through direct/indirect inhibition of lens calpains. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Efficacy of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and feasibility of optimizing preventive strategies in patients at high cardiovascular risk: rationale, design and baseline characteristics of the Rischio and Prevenzione study, a large randomised trial in general practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The optimization of preventive strategies in patients at high risk of cardiovascular events and the evaluation of bottlenecks and limitations of transferring current guidelines to the real world of clinical practice are important limiting steps to cardiovascular prevention. Treatment with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids improves prognosis after myocardial infarction, but evidence of this benefit is lacking in patients at high cardiovascular risk, but without a history of myocardial infarction. Methods/design Patients were eligible if their general practitioner (GP considered them at high cardiovascular risk because of a cardiovascular disease other than myocardial infarction, or multiple risk factors (at least four major risk factors in non-diabetic patients and one in diabetics. Patients were randomly allocated to treatment with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (1 g daily or placebo in a double-blind study and followed up for five years by their GPs to assess the efficacy of the treatment in preventing cardiovascular mortality (including sudden death and hospitalization for cardiovascular reasons. The secondary, epidemiological, aim of the study is to assess whether it is feasible to adopt current guidelines in everyday clinical practice, with a view to optimizing all the available preventive strategies in people at high cardiovascular risk. A nation-wide network of 860 GPs admitted 12,513 patients to the study between February 2004 and March 2007. The mean age was 64 years and 62% were males. Diabetes mellitus plus one or more cardiovascular risk factors was the main inclusion criterion (47%. About 30% of patients were included because of a history of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, 21% for four or more risk factors, and less than 1% for other reasons. Discussion The Rischio and Prevenzione (R&P project provides a feasible model to test the efficacy of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid therapy in patients at high

  15. The acidic domain of the endothelial membrane protein GPIHBP1 stabilizes lipoprotein lipase activity by preventing unfolding of its catalytic domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mysling, Simon; Kristensen, Kristian Kølby; Larsson, Mikael

    2016-01-01

    GPIHBP1 is a glycolipid-anchored membrane protein of capillary endothelial cells that binds lipoprotein lipase (LPL) within the interstitial space and shuttles it to the capillary lumen. The LPL•GPIHBP1 complex is responsible for margination of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins along capillaries...... domains: (1) an intrinsically disordered acidic N-terminal domain; and (2) a folded C-terminal domain that tethers GPIHBP1 to the cell membrane by glycosylphosphatidylinositol. We demonstrate that these domains serve different roles in regulating the kinetics of LPL binding. Importantly, the acidic domain...

  16. An Increased Dietary Supply of Medium-Chain Fatty Acids during Early Weaning in Rodents Prevents Excessive Fat Accumulation in Adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Heijning, Bert J. M.; Oosting, Annemarie; Kegler, Diane; van der Beek, Eline M.

    2017-01-01

    Medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) are a directly and readily absorbed source of energy. Exposure early-in-life to increased MCFA levels might affect development and impact (lipid) metabolism later in life. We tested whether an increased MCFA intake early-in-life positively affects adult body

  17. Breast milk fatty acids and allergic disease in preschool children : The Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy birth cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijga, AH; van Houwelingen, AC; Kerkhof, M; Tabak, C; De Jongste, JC; Gerritsen, J; Boshuizen, H; Brunekreef, B; Smit, HA

    Background: Better understanding of the association between early life lipid intakes and the development of allergic diseases is needed. Objective: We prospectively studied breast milk content of n-6, n-3, and trans fatty acids in relation to allergic symptoms at the ages of 1 and 4 years. Methods:

  18. Dietary long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids prevent impaired social behaviour and normalize brain dopamine levels in food allergic mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Theije, Caroline G M; van den Elsen, Lieke W J; Willemsen, Linette E M; Milosevic, Vanja; Korte-Bouws, Gerdien A H; Lopes da Silva, Sofia; Broersen, Laus M; Korte, S Mechiel; Olivier, Berend; Garssen, Johan; Kraneveld, Aletta D

    2015-01-01

    Allergy is suggested to exacerbate impaired behaviour in children with neurodevelopmental disorders. We have previously shown that food allergy impaired social behaviour in mice. Dietary fatty acid composition may affect both the immune and nervous system. The aim of this study was to assess the

  19. Breast milk fatty acids and allergic disease in preschool children: the Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy birth cohort study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijga, Alet H; Houwelingen, Adriana C van; Kerkhof, Marjan; Tabak, Cora; Jongste, Johan C de; Gerritsen, Jorrit; Boshuizen, Hendriek C; Brunekreef, Bert; Smit, Henriëtte A

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Better understanding of the association between early life lipid intakes and the development of allergic diseases is needed. OBJECTIVE: We prospectively studied breast milk content of n-6, n-3, and trans fatty acids in relation to allergic symptoms at the ages of 1 and 4 years. METHODS:

  20. Effects of Folic Acid Therapy on the New-Onset Proteinuria in Chinese Hypertensive Patients: A Post Hoc Analysis of the Renal Substudy of CSPPT (China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Youbao; Liang, Min; Wang, Guobao; Wang, Binyan; He, Mingli; Tang, Genfu; Yin, Delu; Xu, Xin; Huo, Yong; Cui, Yimin; Hou, Fan Fan; Qin, Xianhui

    2017-08-01

    We aimed to test the hypothesis that treatment with enalapril and folic acid is more effective in preventing new-onset proteinuria than enalapril alone among hypertensive patients. This is a post hoc analysis of the renal substudy of the CSPPT (China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial). A total of 13 071 eligible participants without proteinuria were randomized to receive a double-blind daily treatment of a single tablet containing 10-mg enalapril and 0.8-mg folic acid (n=6511) or 10-mg enalapril alone (n=6560). The primary outcome was new-onset proteinuria, defined as a urine dipstick reading of ≥1+ at the exit visit. Secondary outcomes included a composite of the primary outcome and all-cause death and the annual rate of estimated glomerular filtration rate decline. After a median 4.4 years of treatment, the primary event occurred in 213 (3.9%) and 188 (3.5%) participants, respectively, in the enalapril and the enalapril-folic acid group (odds ratio, 0.90; 95% confidence interval, 0.74-1.11). However, among participants with diabetes mellitus at baseline, folic acid therapy resulted in a significant reduction in the risk for the primary event (3.7% in the enalapril-folic acid group versus 7.4% in the enalapril group; odds ratio, 0.48; 95% confidence interval, 0.29-0.81) and the composite event (odds ratio, 0.62; 95% confidence interval, 0.42-0.92) and a 55% slower annual rate of estimated glomerular filtration rate decline (0.5% versus 1.1% per year; P =0.002). Among those without diabetes mellitus at baseline, there were no between-group differences in all the outcomes. In conclusion, enalapril-folic acid therapy, compared with enalapril alone, significantly reduced the development of proteinuria in diabetic patients with hypertension. URL: http://www.ClinicalTrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00794885. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. Dengue Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Prevention Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir This photograph ... medications to treat a dengue infection. This makes prevention the most important step, and prevention means avoiding ...

  2. Use of dietary linoleic acid for secondary prevention of coronary heart disease and death: evaluation of recovered data from the Sydney Diet Heart Study and updated meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsden, Christopher E; Zamora, Daisy; Leelarthaepin, Boonseng; Majchrzak-Hong, Sharon F; Faurot, Keturah R; Suchindran, Chirayath M; Ringel, Amit; Davis, John M; Hibbeln, Joseph R

    2013-02-04

    To evaluate the effectiveness of replacing dietary saturated fat with omega 6 linoleic acid, for the secondary prevention of coronary heart disease and death. Evaluation of recovered data from the Sydney Diet Heart Study, a single blinded, parallel group, randomized controlled trial conducted in 1966-73; and an updated meta-analysis including these previously missing data. Ambulatory, coronary care clinic in Sydney, Australia. 458 men aged 30-59 years with a recent coronary event. Replacement of dietary saturated fats (from animal fats, common margarines, and shortenings) with omega 6 linoleic acid (from safflower oil and safflower oil polyunsaturated margarine). Controls received no specific dietary instruction or study foods. All non-dietary aspects were designed to be equivalent in both groups. All cause mortality (primary outcome), cardiovascular mortality, and mortality from coronary heart disease (secondary outcomes). We used an intention to treat, survival analysis approach to compare mortality outcomes by group. The intervention group (n=221) had higher rates of death than controls (n=237) (all cause 17.6% v 11.8%, hazard ratio 1.62 (95% confidence interval 1.00 to 2.64), P=0.05; cardiovascular disease 17.2% v 11.0%, 1.70 (1.03 to 2.80), P=0.04; coronary heart disease 16.3% v 10.1%, 1.74 (1.04 to 2.92), P=0.04). Inclusion of these recovered data in an updated meta-analysis of linoleic acid intervention trials showed non-significant trends toward increased risks of death from coronary heart disease (hazard ratio 1.33 (0.99 to 1.79); P=0.06) and cardiovascular disease (1.27 (0.98 to 1.65); P=0.07). Advice to substitute polyunsaturated fats for saturated fats is a key component of worldwide dietary guidelines for coronary heart disease risk reduction. However, clinical benefits of the most abundant polyunsaturated fatty acid, omega 6 linoleic acid, have not been established. In this cohort, substituting dietary linoleic acid in place of saturated fats

  3. Efficacy of amoxicillin and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid in the prevention of infection and dry socket after third molar extraction. A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteagoitia, M-I; Barbier, L; Santamaría, J; Santamaría, G; Ramos, E

    2016-07-01

    Prophylactic use of amoxicillin and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, although controversial, is common in routine clinical practice in third molar surgery. Our objective was to assess the efficacy of prophylactic amoxicillin with or without clavulanic acid in reducing the incidence of dry socket and/or infection after third molar extraction. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis consulting electronic databases and references in retrieved articles. We included double-blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical trials published up to June 2015 investigating the efficacy of amoxicillin with or without clavulanic acid on the incidence of the aforementioned conditions after third molar extraction. Relative risks (RRs) were estimated with a generic inverse-variance approach and a random effect model using Stata/IC 13 and Review Manager Version 5.2. Stratified analysis was performed by antibiotic type. We included 10 papers in the qualitative review and in the quantitative synthesis (1997 extractions: 1072 in experimental groups and 925 in controls, with 27 and 74 events of dry socket and/or infection, respectively). The overall RR was 0.350 (p<0.001; 95% CI 0.214 to 0.574). We found no evidence of heterogeneity (I2=0%, p=0.470). The number needed to treat was 18 (95% CI 13 to 29). Five studies reported adverse reactions (RR=1.188, 95% CI 0.658 to 2.146, p =0.567). The RRs were 0.563 for amoxicillin (95% CI 0.295 to 1.08, p=0.082) and 0.215 for amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (95% CI 0.117 to 0.395, p<0.001). Prophylactic use of amoxicillin does not significantly reduce the risk of infection and/or dry socket after third molar extraction. With amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, the risk decreases significantly. Nevertheless, considering the number needed to treat, low prevalence of infection, potential adverse reactions to antibiotics and lack of serious complications in placebo groups, the routine prescription of amoxicillin with or without clavulanic acid is not

  4. Fatty acid transport protein 4 (FATP4) prevents light-induced degeneration of cone and rod photoreceptors by inhibiting RPE65 isomerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Songhua; Lee, Jungsoo; Zhou, Yongdong; Gordon, William C; Hill, James M; Bazan, Nicolas G; Miner, Jeffrey H; Jin, Minghao

    2013-02-13

    Although rhodopsin is essential for sensing light for vision, it also mediates light-induced apoptosis of photoreceptors in mouse. RPE65, which catalyzes isomerization of all-trans retinyl fatty acid esters to 11-cis-retinol (11cROL) in the visual cycle, controls the rhodopsin regeneration rate and photoreceptor susceptibility to light-induced degeneration. Mutations in RPE65 have been linked to blindness in affected children. Despite such importance, the mechanism that regulates RPE65 function remains unclear. Through unbiased expression screening of a bovine retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cDNA library, we have identified elongation of very long-chain fatty acids-like 1 (ELOVL1) and fatty acid transport protein 4 (FATP4), which each have very long-chain fatty acid acyl-CoA synthetase (VLCFA-ACS) activity, as negative regulators of RPE65. We found that the VLCFA derivative lignoceroyl (C24:0)-CoA inhibited synthesis of 11cROL, whereas palmitoyl (C16:0)-CoA promoted synthesis of 11cROL. We further found that competition of FATP4 with RPE65 for the substrate of RPE65 was also involved in the mechanisms by which FATP4 inhibits synthesis of 11cROL. FATP4 was predominantly expressed in RPE, and the FATP4-deficient RPE showed significantly higher isomerase activity. Consistent with these results, the regeneration rate of 11-cis-retinaldehyde and the recovery rate for rod light sensitivity were faster in FATP4-deficient mice than wild-type mice. Moreover, FATP4-deficient mice displayed increased accumulation of the cytotoxic all-trans retinaldehyde and hypersusceptibility to light-induced photoreceptor degeneration. Our findings demonstrate that ELOVL1, FATP4, and their products comprise the regulatory elements of RPE65 and play important roles in protecting photoreceptors from degeneration induced by light damage.

  5. Curcumin delivery from poly(acrylic acid-co-methyl methacrylate) hollow microparticles prevents dopamine-induced toxicity in rat brain synaptosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoncheva, Krassimira; Kondeva-Burdina, Magdalena; Tzankova, Virginia; Petrov, Petar; Laouani, Mohamed; Halacheva, Silvia S

    2015-01-01

    The potential of poly(methyl methacrylate-co-acrylic acid) (PMMA-AA) copolymers to form hollow particles and their further formulation as curcumin delivery system have been explored. The particles were functionalized by crosslinking the acrylic acid groups via bis-amide formation with either cystamine (CYS) or 3,3'-dithiodipropionic acid dihydrazide (DTP) which simultaneously incorporated reversibility due to the presence of disulfide bonds within the crosslinker. Optical micrographs showed the formation of spherical hollow microparticles with a size ranging from 1 to 7 μm. Curcumin was loaded by incubation of its ethanol solution with aqueous dispersions of the cross-linked particles and subsequent evaporation of the ethanol. Higher loading was observed in the microparticles with higher content of hydrophobic PMMA units indicating its influence upon the loading of hydrophobic molecules such as curcumin. The in vitro release studies in a phosphate buffer showed no initial burst effect and sustained release of curcumin that correlated with the swelling of the particles under these conditions. The capacity of encapsulated and free curcumin to protect rat brain synaptosomes against dopamine-induced neurotoxicity was examined. The encapsulated curcumin showed greater protective effects in rat brain synaptosomes as measured by synaptosomal viability and increased intracellular levels of glutathione. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Screen-and-Treat Approach to Cervical Cancer Prevention Using Visual Inspection With Acetic Acid and Cryotherapy: Experiences, Perceptions, and Beliefs From Demonstration Projects in Peru, Uganda, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Proma; Winkler, Jennifer L.; Bartolini, Rosario M.; Penny, Mary E.; Huong, Trinh Thu; Nga, Le Thi; Kumakech, Edward; Mugisha, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is preventable but continues to cause the deaths of more than 270,000 women worldwide each year, most of them in developing countries where programs to detect and treat precancerous lesions are not affordable or available. Studies have demonstrated that screening by visual inspection of the cervix using acetic acid (VIA) is a simple, affordable, and sensitive test that can identify precancerous changes of the cervix so that treatment such as cryotherapy can be provided. Government partners implemented screening and treatment using VIA and cryotherapy at demonstration sites in Peru, Uganda, and Vietnam. Evaluations were conducted in the three countries to explore the barriers and facilitating factors for the use of services and for incorporation of screen-and-treat programs using VIA and cryotherapy into routine services. Results showed that use of VIA and cryotherapy in these settings is a feasible approach to providing cervical cancer prevention services. Activities that can help ensure successful programs include mobilizing and educating communities, organizing services to meet women's schedules and needs, and strengthening systems to track clients for follow-up. Sustainability also depends on having an adequate number of trained providers and reducing staff turnover. Although some challenges were found across all sites, others varied from country to country, suggesting that careful assessments before beginning new secondary prevention programs will optimize the probability of success. PMID:24217554

  7. Screen-and-treat approach to cervical cancer prevention using visual inspection with acetic acid and cryotherapy: experiences, perceptions, and beliefs from demonstration projects in Peru, Uganda, and Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Proma; Winkler, Jennifer L; Bartolini, Rosario M; Penny, Mary E; Huong, Trinh Thu; Nga, Le Thi; Kumakech, Edward; Mugisha, Emmanuel; Jeronimo, Jose

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is preventable but continues to cause the deaths of more than 270,000 women worldwide each year, most of them in developing countries where programs to detect and treat precancerous lesions are not affordable or available. Studies have demonstrated that screening by visual inspection of the cervix using acetic acid (VIA) is a simple, affordable, and sensitive test that can identify precancerous changes of the cervix so that treatment such as cryotherapy can be provided. Government partners implemented screening and treatment using VIA and cryotherapy at demonstration sites in Peru, Uganda, and Vietnam. Evaluations were conducted in the three countries to explore the barriers and facilitating factors for the use of services and for incorporation of screen-and-treat programs using VIA and cryotherapy into routine services. Results showed that use of VIA and cryotherapy in these settings is a feasible approach to providing cervical cancer prevention services. Activities that can help ensure successful programs include mobilizing and educating communities, organizing services to meet women's schedules and needs, and strengthening systems to track clients for follow-up. Sustainability also depends on having an adequate number of trained providers and reducing staff turnover. Although some challenges were found across all sites, others varied from country to country, suggesting that careful assessments before beginning new secondary prevention programs will optimize the probability of success.

  8. Short-chain fatty acids and inulin, but not guar gum, prevent diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance through differential mechanisms in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Weitkunat, Karolin; Stuhlmann, Christin; Postel, Anna; Rumberger, Sandra; Fankh?nel, Maria; Woting, Anni; Petzke, Klaus J?rgen; Gohlke, Sabrina; Schulz, Tim J.; Blaut, Michael; Klaus, Susanne; Schumann, Sara

    2017-01-01

    The role of dietary fibre and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) in obesity development is controversially discussed. Here, we investigated how various types of dietary fibre and different SCFA ratios affect metabolic syndrome-related disorders. Male mice (B6) were fed high-fat diets supplemented with dietary fibres (either cellulose, inulin or guar gum) or different Ac:Pr ratios (high acetate (HAc) or propionate (HPr)) for 30 weeks. Body-fat gain and insulin resistance were greatly reduced by in...

  9. Prevention of intracellular oxidation in yeast: the role of vitamin E analogue, Trolox (6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylkroman-2-carboxyl acid).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspor, P; Plesnicar, S; Gazdag, Z; Pesti, M; Miklavcic, M; Lah, B; Logar-Marinsek, R; Poljsak, B

    2005-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are not only generated in conditions of cellular stress but are also constitutively produced in most cell types by specific metabolic processes. This research focused on a potential antioxidant Trolox (model compound for alpha-tocopherol), with the aim to establish exact mechanisms of Trolox intracellular oxidation prevention on model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Measuring intracellular oxidation of Trolox-treated yeast cells revealed that Trolox decreased intracellular oxidation during normal metabolism. Trolox treatment decreased cyto- and geno-toxicity of treated yeast cells in MES buffer, lowered intracellular oxidation, decreased intracellular peroxides formation, and increased H(2)O(2) degradation and superoxide quenching yeast extract ability. This study suggests that Trolox treatment provides prevention against intracellular ROS formation. Trolox application as therapeutic agent against intracellular ROS formation would be worth considering. Additionally, results indicate that yeasts are good model organisms for studying intracellular oxidation and oxidative stress. The obtained results on yeast cells might be useful to direct further human-related search for the Trolox evaluation as a human supplement used for protecting cells against intracellular free radical formation.

  10. Short communication: Efficacy of glycolic acid-based and iodine-based postmilking barrier teat disinfectants for prevention of new intramammary infections in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lago, A; Bruno, D R; Lopez-Benavides, M; Leibowitz, S

    2016-09-01

    A positive-control, natural exposure noninferiority field study was conducted to test the efficacy of a novel glycolic acid-based postmilking barrier teat disinfectant compared with a commercial iodine-based postmilking barrier teat disinfectant (positive control). Cows from 2 pens from a California Central Valley dairy farm were dipped after milking either with the positive-control product (PC) or the experimental product (EX) over 12 wk. New intramammary infections (NIMI) were determined by biweekly sampling of all quarters of study cows and classified as a NIMI based on somatic cell count and milk bacteriological culture results. The mean quarter-level incidence risks during a 2 wk study period were 3.50% (EX) and 4.28% (PC). The majority of NIMI were caused by coagulase-negative staphylococci, followed by non-agalactiae streptococci. The study results indicated that EX was noninferior to PC, with a 17% relative efficacy (improvement) in reducing NIMI compared with the PC group. Also, quarter somatic cell count was not affected by the postmilking teat disinfectant used. Finally, the EX product was safe in terms of teat conditioning: teat condition scores were not different between study groups. The study concluded that the glycolic acid-based experimental post-dip barrier was noninferior to the control, and could be considered a safe and effective postmilking teat disinfectant. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. [The prevention of thrombus formation and the improvement of the blood rheological properties during operations with a microsurgical technic. I. The possibilities for using acelysin--an acetylsalicylic acid derivative].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vabishchevich, A V; Smirnova, L A; Roĭtman, E V; Shibaev, E Iu; Mikhaĭlova, O M; Svetlov, V A

    1999-01-01

    Changes in the blood clotting system and rheology were studied in 39 patients during reconstructive operations making use of microsurgical methods. Effects of various doses of water soluble acelysine, an acetylsalicylic acid preparations (DL-lysine acetylsalicylate and glycine) have been evaluated during surgery and the immediate postoperative period. Clinical and laboratory changes in blood coagulation were determined at different doses (1000, 500, and 250 mg). Even in low doses (3.94 +/- 0.25 mg/kg) acelysine ensured chronometric and structural hypocoagulation as early as 1 h after dosed infusion and throughout the entire intervention, preventing thrombosis of microvascular anastomoses. Administration of acelysine in doses higher than 250 mg is not recommended, because higher doses involve the risk of hypocoagulation complications.

  12. Poison Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Safety & Prevention Immunizations All Around At Home At Play On ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Poison Prevention Page Content Article Body Post the Poison Help ...

  13. Preconception Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation of Adult Male Mice with a History of Developmental TCDD (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin) Exposure Prevents Preterm Birth in Unexposed Female Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConaha, Melinda E.; Ding, Tianbing; Lucas, John A.; Arosh, Joe A.; Osteen, Kevin G.; Bruner-Tran, Kaylon L.

    2013-01-01

    We recently reported that adult male C57BL/6 mice exposed in utero to the environmental toxicant TCDD confer an increased risk of preterm birth (PTB) to unexposed females. Risk of PTB was coincident with decreased placental progesterone receptor (PR) mRNA expression and increased toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4) mRNA expression, suggesting toxicant exposure induced a heightened inflammatory response at the maternal-fetal interface. Since omega-3 fatty acids exhibit anti-inflammatory activity, herein, we provided TCDD-exposed males a fish oil-enriched diet prior to mating. Although PTB was common in control females mated to TCDD-exposed males on the standard diet, fish oil supplementation of TCDD-exposed males eliminated PTB in unexposed partners. We also determined the influence of preconception, paternal fish oil supplementation on the placental inflammatory response in late pregnancy (E18.5) by examining expression of PR and TLR-4 mRNA as well as expression of 15-hydroxy prostaglandin dehydrogenase (PGDH). PGDH catabolizes the inflammatory PGE2 to an inactive form; thus, reduced expression of this enzyme would promote tissue inflammation. Compared to control pregnancies, examination of E18.5 placentas arising from TCDD-exposed males on the standard diet revealed a significant increase in TLR-4 mRNA expression corresponding to a reduction in PR mRNA and PGDH protein expression. In contrast, fish oil supplementation of toxicant-exposed males led to normalization of placental expression of both PR and TLR-4 mRNA and a marked increase in PGDH expression. These studies suggest that a paternal preconception diet which includes omega-3 fatty acids prevents the toxicant-associated increase in the placental inflammatory response at late gestation, preventing PTB. PMID:21653731

  14. Prevention of peptic ulcers with esomeprazole in patients at risk of ulcer development treated with low-dose acetylsalicylic acid: a randomised, controlled trial (OBERON)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devereaux, P J; Herlitz, Johan; Katelaris, Peter H; Lanas, Angel; Veldhuyzen van Zanten, Sander; Nauclér, Emma; Svedberg, Lars-Erik

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine whether once-daily esomeprazole 40 mg or 20 mg compared with placebo reduces the incidence of peptic ulcers over 26 weeks of treatment in patients taking low-dose acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and who are at risk for ulcer development. Design Multinational, randomised, blinded, parallel-group, placebo-controlled trial. Setting Cardiology, primary care and gastroenterology centres (n=240). Patients Helicobacter pylori-negative patients taking daily low-dose ASA (75–325 mg), who fulfilled one or more of the following criteria: age ≥18 years with history of uncomplicated peptic ulcer; age ≥60 years with either stable coronary artery disease, upper gastrointestinal symptoms and five or more gastric/duodenal erosions, or low-dose ASA treatment initiated within 1 month of randomisation; or age ≥65 years. All patients were ulcer-free at study entry. Interventions Once-daily, blinded treatment with esomeprazole 40 mg, 20 mg or placebo for 26 weeks. Main outcome measures The primary end point was the occurrence of endoscopy-confirmed peptic ulcer over 26 weeks. Results A total of 2426 patients (52% men; mean age 68 years) were randomised. After 26 weeks, esomeprazole 40 mg and 20 mg significantly reduced the cumulative proportion of patients developing peptic ulcers; 1.5% of esomeprazole 40 mg and 1.1% of esomeprazole 20 mg recipients, compared with 7.4% of placebo recipients, developed peptic ulcers (both pEsomeprazole was generally well tolerated. Conclusions Acid-suppressive treatment with once-daily esomeprazole 40 mg or 20 mg reduces the occurrence of peptic ulcers in patients at risk for ulcer development who are taking low-dose ASA. Clinical trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00441727. PMID:21415072

  15. Preventing Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Susan Fordney

    The purpose of this paper is to provide the beginning counselor with an overview of prevention concepts. Prevention is a relatively new emphasis in community efforts to stem the rising costs of substance abuse and other high-risk behaviors. The paper discusses agent, host, and environmental prevention models and how they relate to causal theories…

  16. The role of probiotic lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria in the prevention and treatment of inflammatory bowel disease and other related diseases: a systematic review of randomized human clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saez-Lara, Maria Jose; Gomez-Llorente, Carolina; Plaza-Diaz, Julio; Gil, Angel

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which includes Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), is a chronic inflammation of the small intestine and colon caused by a dysregulated immune response to host intestinal microbiota in genetically susceptible subjects. A number of fermented dairy products contain lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and bifidobacteria, some of which have been characterized as probiotics that can modify the gut microbiota and may be beneficial for the treatment and the prevention of IBD. The objective of this review was to carry out a systematic search of LAB and bifidobacteria probiotics and IBD, using the PubMed and Scopus databases, defined by a specific equation using MeSH terms and limited to human clinical trials. The use of probiotics and/or synbiotics has positive effects in the treatment and maintenance of UC, whereas in CD clear effectiveness has only been shown for synbiotics. Furthermore, in other associated IBD pathologies, such as pouchitis and cholangitis, LAB and bifidobacteria probiotics can provide a benefit through the improvement of clinical symptoms. However, more studies are needed to understand their mechanisms of action and in this way to understand the effect of probiotics prior to their use as coadjuvants in the therapy and prevention of IBD conditions.

  17. The Role of Probiotic Lactic Acid Bacteria and Bifidobacteria in the Prevention and Treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Other Related Diseases: A Systematic Review of Randomized Human Clinical Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Jose Saez-Lara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, which includes Crohn’s disease (CD and ulcerative colitis (UC, is a chronic inflammation of the small intestine and colon caused by a dysregulated immune response to host intestinal microbiota in genetically susceptible subjects. A number of fermented dairy products contain lactic acid bacteria (LAB and bifidobacteria, some of which have been characterized as probiotics that can modify the gut microbiota and may be beneficial for the treatment and the prevention of IBD. The objective of this review was to carry out a systematic search of LAB and bifidobacteria probiotics and IBD, using the PubMed and Scopus databases, defined by a specific equation using MeSH terms and limited to human clinical trials. The use of probiotics and/or synbiotics has positive effects in the treatment and maintenance of UC, whereas in CD clear effectiveness has only been shown for synbiotics. Furthermore, in other associated IBD pathologies, such as pouchitis and cholangitis, LAB and bifidobacteria probiotics can provide a benefit through the improvement of clinical symptoms. However, more studies are needed to understand their mechanisms of action and in this way to understand the effect of probiotics prior to their use as coadjuvants in the therapy and prevention of IBD conditions.

  18. Ascorbic acid prevents loss of Dlk1-Dio3 imprinting and facilitates generation of all-iPS cell mice from terminally differentiated B cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadtfeld, Matthias; Apostolou, Effie; Ferrari, Francesco; Choi, Jiho; Walsh, Ryan M.; Chen, Taiping; Oi, Steen; Kim, Sang Yong; Bestor, Tim; Shioda, Toshi; Park, Peter J.; Hochedlinger, Konrad

    2012-01-01

    The generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) often results in aberrant epigenetic silencing of the imprinted Dlk1-Dio3 gene cluster, which compromises the cells’ ability to generate entirely iPSC-derived adult mice (“all-iPSC mice”). Here, we show that reprogramming in the presence of ascorbic acid attenuates hypermethylation of Dlk1-Dio3 by enabling a chromatin configuration that interferes with binding of the de novo DNA methyltransferase Dnmt3a. This allowed us to generate all-iPSC mice from mature B cells, which have thus far failed to support the development of exclusively iPSC-derived postnatal animals. Our data demonstrate that transcription factor-mediated reprogramming can endow a defined, terminally differentiated cell type with a developmental potential equivalent to that of embryonic stem cells. More generally, these findings indicate that culture conditions during cellular reprogramming can strongly influence the epigenetic and biological properties of resultant iPSCs. PMID:22387999

  19. Methylseleninic Acid Prevents Patulin-Induced Hepatotoxicity and Nephrotoxicity via the Inhibition of Oxidative Stress and Inactivation of p53 and MAPKs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaotong; Zhang, Enxiang; Yin, Shutao; Fan, Lihong; Hu, Hongbo

    2017-07-05

    Patulin is one of the common food-borne mycotoxins. Previous studies have demonstrated that patulin can cause diverse toxic effects in animals including hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. In the present study, we have addressed the protective effect of two forms of selenium compounds methylseleninic acid (MSeA) and sodium selenite on patulin-induced nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity using both in vitro and in vivo models. Results showed that MSeA at concentrations of 3-5 μM, not sodium selenite at the same concentrations, is capable of protecting against patulin-induced cytotoxicity in the cell culture model. Moreover, the hepatoprotective and nephroprotective effects of MSeA (2 mg/kg body weight, oral administration) on patulin-induced toxicity (10 mg/kg body weight, intraperitoneal injection) were also achieved in the animal model. A further mechanistic study revealed that the protective effect of MSeA on patulin-mediated toxicity is attributed to its ability to inhibit patulin-mediated ROS generation and inactivate p53 and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways. Our findings support a possible usefulness of MSeA as a novel detoxicant to mitigate the toxicities of patulin.

  20. Resveratrol prevents impairment in activation of retinoic acid receptors and MAP kinases in the embryos of a rodent model of diabetic embryopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Chandra K; Kumar, Ambrish; LaVoie, Holly A; DiPette, Donald J; Singh, Ugra S

    2012-09-01

    Diabetes induces impairments in gene expression during embryonic development that leads to premature and improper tissue specialization. Retinoic acid receptors (RARs and retinoid X receptor [RXRs]) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) play crucial roles during embryonic development, and their suppression or activation has been shown as a determinant of the fate of embryonic organogenesis. We studied the activation of RARs and MAPKs in embryonic day 12 (E12) in embryos of rats under normal, diabetic, and diabetic treated with resveratrol ([RSV]; 100 mg/kg body weight) conditions. We found downregulation of RARs and RXRs expressions as well as their DNA-binding activities in the embryos exhibiting developmental delays due to diabetes. Furthermore, the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 was decreased and phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) 1/2 and p38 was increased. Interestingly, embryos of diabetic rats treated with RSV showed normalized patterns of RARs, RXRs, neuronal markers, and ERK, JNK and p38 phosphorylation.

  1. Rilonacept for gout flare prevention in patients receiving uric acid-lowering therapy: results of RESURGE, a phase III, international safety study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundy, John S; Schumacher, H Ralph; Kivitz, Alan; Weinstein, Steven P; Wu, Richard; King-Davis, Shirletta; Evans, Robert R

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of once-weekly subcutaneous rilonacept 160 mg for prevention of gout flares in patients initiating or continuing urate-lowering therapy (ULT). This phase III study was conducted in the United States, South Africa, Europe, and Asia. Adults (n = 1315, 18-80 yrs) with gout, who were initiating or continuing ULT, were randomized to treatment with weekly subcutaneous injections of rilonacept 160 mg or placebo for 16 weeks followed by a 4-week safety followup. The primary endpoint was safety, assessed by adverse events (AE) and laboratory values. Efficacy was a secondary endpoint. Demographic and clinical characteristics were similar between treatments; predominantly male (87.8%), mean age 52.7 ± 11.3 years. Patients with ≥ 1 AE were 66.6% with rilonacept versus 59.1% placebo, with slightly more AE-related withdrawals with rilonacept (4.7% vs 3.0%) because of the greater incidence of injection site reactions (15.2% rilonacept, 3.3% placebo). Serious AE were similar in both groups, as were serious infections (0.9% placebo, 0.5% rilonacept); no tuberculosis or opportunistic infections occurred. Most common AE were headache, arthralgia, injection site erythema, accidental overdose, and pain in extremity. Of the 6 deaths, only 1 in the placebo group was considered treatment-related. At Week 16, rilonacept resulted in 70.3% fewer gout flares per patient (p gout flares (p gout flare days (p gout flares. Clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT00856206; EudraCT No. 2008-007784-16.

  2. A new lipophilic pro-vitamin C, tetra-isopalmitoyl ascorbic acid (VC-IP), prevents UV-induced skin pigmentation through its anti-oxidative properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, Yasunobu; Kaburagi, Satoko; Obayashi, Kei; Ujiie, Nobuyuki; Hashimoto, Satoru; Okano, Yuri; Masaki, Hitoshi; Ichihashi, Masamitsu; Sakurai, Hiromu

    2006-10-01

    Vitamin C, which is a strong anti-oxidant, plays an important role in maintaining physiological states. In dermatology, Vitamin C is used for treatment of various skin problems such as de-pigmentation of hyperpigmented spots. However, Vitamin C has limited stability and permeability, and development of a Vitamin C derivative with improved properties is needed. We evaluated the effect of a lipophilic Vitamin C derivative, tetra-isopalmitoyl ascorbic acid (VC-IP), on ultraviolet (UV)-induced skin pigmentation, to determine its potential as a more effective form of Vitamin C. The release of Vitamin C from VC-IP was examined using a reconstructed skin model following topical application of VC-IP. Anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities of VC-IP were tested in cultured human keratinocytes. Subsequently, clinical test was done to clarify the effect of VC-IP on UVB-induced skin pigmentation. VC-IP released Vitamin C in physiological conditions and worked as pro-Vitamin C. In subsequent experiments, we found that VC-IP suppressed the elevation of intracellular peroxide after UVB irradiation, and enhanced cellular tolerance against UVB and reactive oxygen species such as hydrogen peroxide and tert-butyl hydroperoxide. Furthermore, VC-IP reduced the production of interleukin-1alpha and prostaglandin E2 in UVB-irradiated keratinocytes and suppressed melanocyte proliferation in conditioned culture medium prepared from UVB-irradiated keratinocytes. Finally, in a clinical study, topical application of a 3% VC-IP cream for 3 weeks suppressed pigmentation after UVB irradiation. These results demonstrate that VC-IP is a precursor of Vitamin C, and effectively suppresses UVB-induced skin pigmentation, possibly through its anti-oxidative activity.

  3. Isoflavone and protein constituents of lactic acid-fermented soy milk combine to prevent dyslipidemia in rats fed a high cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Maki; Egusa, Shintaro; Fukuda, Mitsuru

    2014-12-10

    A high cholesterol diet induces dyslipidemia. This study investigated whether isoflavone aglycones in lactic acid-fermented soy milk (LFS) improve lipid metabolism in rats fed a high cholesterol diet. Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged seven weeks were fed an AIN-93G diet, a 1% cholesterol diet (a high cholesterol diet), a high-cholesterol diet containing 4% isoflavone extract of LFS (LFS extract diet), a high-cholesterol diet containing 19.4% ethanol-washed LFS (ethanol-washed LFS diet, isoflavone-poor diet), or a high cholesterol diet containing 23.2% intact LFS (intact LFS diet) for five weeks. The plasma total cholesterol (TC) level was increased in the rats fed the LFS extract diet compared with those fed the high cholesterol diet. The TC level was decreased by the intact LFS and ethanol-washed LFS diets. The cholesterol-lowering effect was stronger in the rats fed the intact LFS diet than those fed the ethanol-washed LFS diet. The plasma triglyceride (TG) level was unchanged in the rats fed the LFS extract diet, but it decreased in rats fed the intact LFS and ethanol-washed LFS diets. Although, compared with the high cholesterol diet, the LFS extract and ethanol-washed LFS diets did not reduce hepatic cholesterol and TG, both levels were remarkably lowered by the intact LFS diet. These results suggest that the improvement in lipid metabolism of rats fed a high-cholesterol diet containing LFS isoflavone aglycones is not due to an independent effect but due to a cooperative effect with soy protein.

  4. Isoflavone and Protein Constituents of Lactic Acid-Fermented Soy Milk Combine to Prevent Dyslipidemia in Rats Fed a High Cholesterol Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maki Kobayashi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A high cholesterol diet induces dyslipidemia. This study investigated whether isoflavone aglycones in lactic acid-fermented soy milk (LFS improve lipid metabolism in rats fed a high cholesterol diet. Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged seven weeks were fed an AIN-93G diet, a 1% cholesterol diet (a high cholesterol diet, a high-cholesterol diet containing 4% isoflavone extract of LFS (LFS extract diet, a high-cholesterol diet containing 19.4% ethanol-washed LFS (ethanol-washed LFS diet, isoflavone-poor diet, or a high cholesterol diet containing 23.2% intact LFS (intact LFS diet for five weeks. The plasma total cholesterol (TC level was increased in the rats fed the LFS extract diet compared with those fed the high cholesterol diet. The TC level was decreased by the intact LFS and ethanol-washed LFS diets. The cholesterol-lowering effect was stronger in the rats fed the intact LFS diet than those fed the ethanol-washed LFS diet. The plasma triglyceride (TG level was unchanged in the rats fed the LFS extract diet, but it decreased in rats fed the intact LFS and ethanol-washed LFS diets. Although, compared with the high cholesterol diet, the LFS extract and ethanol-washed LFS diets did not reduce hepatic cholesterol and TG, both levels were remarkably lowered by the intact LFS diet. These results suggest that the improvement in lipid metabolism of rats fed a high-cholesterol diet containing LFS isoflavone aglycones is not due to an independent effect but due to a cooperative effect with soy protein.

  5. An Increased Dietary Supply of Medium-Chain Fatty Acids during Early Weaning in Rodents Prevents Excessive Fat Accumulation in Adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bert J. M. van de Heijning

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA are a directly and readily absorbed source of energy. Exposure early-in-life to increased MCFA levels might affect development and impact (lipid metabolism later in life. We tested whether an increased MCFA intake early-in-life positively affects adult body composition and metabolic status when challenged by a western-style diet (WSD. Male offspring of C57Bl/6j mice and Wistar rats were fed a control diet (CTRL; 10 w% fat, 14% MCFA or a medium-chain triglycerides (MCT diet with 20% MCFA until postnatal (PN day 42, whereupon animals were fed a WSD (10 w% fat until PN day 98. Body composition was monitored by Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA. In rats, glucose homeostasis was assessed by glucose tolerance test (GTT and insulin tolerance test (ITT; in mice, the HOmeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR was calculated. At autopsy on PN day 98, plasma lipid profiles, glucose, insulin, and adipokines were measured; organs and fat pads were collected and the adipocyte size distribution was analysed. Milk analysis in mice showed that the maternal MCT diet was not translated into milk, and pups were thus only exposed to high MCT levels from early weaning onward: PN day 16 until 42. Mice exposed to MCT showed 28% less fat accumulation vs. CTRL during WSD. The average adipocyte cell size, fasting plasma triglycerides (TG, and leptin levels were reduced in MCT mice. In rats, no effects were found on the adult body composition, but the adipocyte cell size distribution shifted towards smaller adipocytes. Particularly mice showed positive effects on glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. Increased MCFA intake early-in-life protected against the detrimental effects of an obesogenic diet in adulthood.

  6. Acetylsalicylic acid regulates overexpressed small GTPase RhoA in vascular smooth muscle cells through prevention of new synthesis and enhancement of protein degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong-Bo; Fu, Zhi-Xuan; Ruan, Shu-Qin; Hu, Shen-Jiang; Li, Xia

    2012-04-01

    RhoA has been shown to play a major role in vascular processes and acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) is known to exert a cytoprotective effect via multiple mechanisms. In the present study, we aimed at investigating the effect of aspirin on RhoA expression under a stress state in rat VSMCs (vascular smooth muscle cells) and the underlying mechanisms. The expression of iNOS (inducible nitric oxide synthase) and iNOS activity as well as NO concentration was significantly promoted by LPS (lipopolysaccharide) accompanying the elevation of RhoA expression, which was blocked by the addition of the iNOS inhibitor L-NIL [L-N6-(1-iminoethyl)lysine dihydrochloride]. Aspirin (30 μM) significantly attenuated the elevation of RhoA, while indomethacin and salicylate had no similar effect. The sGC (soluble guanylate cyclase) inhibitor ODQ (1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one) showed the same effect as aspirin in down-regulating RhoA but was reversed by the addition of the cGMP analogue 8-Br-PET-cGMP (β-phenyl-1,N2-ethano-8-bromoguanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphorothioate). 8-Br-PET-cGMP solely enhanced the RhoA expression that was abrogated by preincubation with aspirin. Degradation analysis indicated that aspirin enhanced the protein degradation rate of RhoA and GDP-bound RhoA seemed to be more susceptible to aspirin-enhanced degradation compared with the GTP-bound form. Our results indicate that aspirin attenuates the LPS-induced overexpression of RhoA both by inhibiting new synthesis and accelerating protein degradation, which may help elucidate the multiple beneficial effects of aspirin.

  7. Lignosulfonic acid exhibits broadly anti-HIV-1 activity--potential as a microbicide candidate for the prevention of HIV-1 sexual transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Qiu

    Full Text Available Some secondary metabolites from plants show to have potent inhibitory activities against microbial pathogens, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, herpes simplex virus (HSV, Treponema pallidum, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, etc. Here we report that lignosulfonic acid (LSA, a polymeric lignin derivative, exhibits potent and broad activity against HIV-1 isolates of diverse subtypes including two North America strains and a number of Chinese clinical isolates values ranging from 21.4 to 633 nM. Distinct from other polyanions, LSA functions as an entry inhibitor with multiple targets on viral gp120 as well as on host receptor CD4 and co-receptors CCR5/CXCR4. LSA blocks viral entry as determined by time-of-drug addiction and cell-cell fusion assays. Moreover, LSA inhibits CD4-gp120 interaction by blocking the binding of antibodies specific for CD4-binding sites (CD4bs and for the V3 loop of gp120. Similarly, LSA interacts with CCR5 and CXCR4 via its inhibition of specific anti-CCR5 and anti-CXCR4 antibodies, respectively. Interestingly, the combination of LSA with AZT and Nevirapine exhibits synergism in viral inhibition. For the purpose of microbicide development, LSA displays low in vitro cytotoxicity to human genital tract epithelial cells, does not stimulate NF-κB activation and has no significant up-regulation of IL-1α/β and IL-8 as compared with N-9. Lastly, LSA shows no adverse effect on the epithelial integrity and the junctional protein expression. Taken together, our findings suggest that LSA can be a potential candidate for tropical microbicide.

  8. L-theanine prevent quinolinic acid induced motor deficit and striatal neurotoxicity: Reduction in oxido-nitrosative stress and restoration of striatal neurotransmitters level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamwal, Sumit; Singh, Shamsher; Gill, Jaskamal Singh; Kumar, Puneet

    2017-09-15

    L-theanine has been documented to possess anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective potential in various animal models of neurological disorders. The present study was anticipated to investigate the effect of L-theanine against quinolinic acid induced motor deficits, oxido-nitrosative stress, neuro-inflammation and neurotransmitters alteration in rats. Rats were stereotaxically injected QA (200nmol/2µl saline; intrastriatal); bilaterally on 0 day and L-theanine (25 & 50mg/kg; p.o.) was administered for 21 days starting from day 1 of QA injection. Either, L-NAME (10mg/kg; i.p.), a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor and L-arginine (50mg/kg; i.p.), a nitric oxide synthase precursor were administered with L-theanine in respective groups. Behavioral observations were evaluated on weekly basis using rota-rod, grip strength, narrow beam walking and open field test. QA treatment induces significant alteration in body weight, motor coordination, oxidative defense, pro-inflammatory cytokines and striatal neurotransmitters level. L-theanine treatment alone, at both the tested doses, significantly attenuated QA induced alterations. In addition, treatment of L-theanine with L-NAME significantly enhances the protective effect of L-theanine whereas treatment of L-theanine with L-arginine significantly ameliorated the protective effect of L-theanine. The protective effect of L-theanine is attributed to its anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and modulatory effect on nitric oxide pathway and neurotransmitters level in striatum. This suggests use of L-theanine in the clinical settings of HD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Prevention of infectious tick-borne diseases in humans: Comparative studies of the repellency of different dodecanoic acid-formulations against Ixodes ricinus ticks (Acari: Ixodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dautel Hans

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ticks of the species Ixodes ricinus are the main vectors of Lyme Borreliosis and Tick-borne Encephalitis – two rapidly emerging diseases in Europe. Repellents provide a practical means of protection against tick bites and can therefore minimize the transmission of tick-borne diseases. We developed and tested seven different dodecanoic acid (DDA-formulations for their efficacy in repelling host-seeking nymphs of I. ricinus by laboratory screening. The ultimately selected formulation was then used for comparative investigations of commercially available tick repellents in humans. Methods Laboratory screening tests were performed using the Moving-object (MO bioassay. All test formulations contained 10% of the naturally occurring active substance DDA and differed only in terms of the quantitative and qualitative composition of inactive ingredients and fragrances. The test procedure used in the human bioassays is a modification of an assay described by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and recommended for regulatory affairs. Repellency was computed using the equation: R = 100 - NR/N × 100, where NR is the number of non-repelled ticks, and N is the respective number of control ticks. All investigations were conducted in a controlled laboratory environment offering standardized test conditions. Results All test formulations strongly repelled nymphs of I. ricinus (100-81% protection as shown by the MO-bioassay. The majority of ticks dropped off the treated surface of the heated rotating drum that served as the attractant (1 mg/cm2 repellent applied. The 10% DDA-based formulation, that produced the best results in laboratory screening, was as effective as the coconut oil-based reference product. The mean protection time of both preparations was generally similar and averaged 8 hours. Repellency investigations in humans showed that the most effective 10% DDA-based formulation (~1.67 mg/cm2 applied strongly avoided the

  10. A Single Amino Acid Substitution Prevents Recognition of a Dominant Human Aquaporin-4 Determinant in the Context of HLA-DRB1*03:01 by a Murine TCR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamine Arellano

    Full Text Available Aquaporin 4 (AQP4 is considered a putative autoantigen in patients with Neuromyelitis optica (NMO, an autoinflammatory disorder of the central nervous system (CNS. HLA haplotype analyses of patients with NMO suggest a positive association with HLA-DRB1* 03:01. We previously showed that the human (h AQP4 peptide 281-300 is the dominant immunogenic determinant of hAQP4 in the context of HLA-DRB1*03:01. This immunogenic peptide stimulates a strong Th1 and Th17 immune response. AQP4281-300-specific encephalitogenic CD4+ T cells should initiate CNS inflammation that results in a clinical phenotype in HLA-DRB1*03:01 transgenic mice.Controlled study with humanized experimental animals. HLA-DRB1*03:01 transgenic mice were immunized with hAQP4281-300, or whole-length hAQP4 protein emulsified in complete Freund's adjuvant. Humoral immune responses to both antigens were assessed longitudinally. In vivo T cell frequencies were assessed by tetramer staining. Mice were followed clinically, and the anterior visual pathway was tested by pupillometry. CNS tissue was examined histologically post-mortem. Flow cytometry was utilized for MHC binding assays and to immunophenotype T cells, and T cell frequencies were determined by ELISpot assay.Immunization with hAQP4281-300 resulted in an in vivo expansion of antigen-specific CD4+ T cells, and an immunoglobulin isotype switch. HLA-DRB1*03:01 TG mice actively immunized with hAQP4281-300, or with whole-length hAQP4 protein were resistant to developing a neurological disease that resembles NMO. Experimental mice show no histological evidence of CNS inflammation, nor change in pupillary responses. Subsequent analysis reveals that a single amino acid substitution from aspartic acid in hAQP4 to glutamic acid in murine (mAQP4 at position 290 prevents the recognition of hAQP4281-300 by the murine T cell receptor (TCR.Induction of a CNS inflammatory autoimmune disorder by active immunization of HLA-DRB1*03:01 TG mice with

  11. A Single Amino Acid Substitution Prevents Recognition of a Dominant Human Aquaporin-4 Determinant in the Context of HLA-DRB1*03:01 by a Murine TCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano, Benjamine; Hussain, Rehana; Miller-Little, William A; Herndon, Emily; Lambracht-Washington, Doris; Eagar, Todd N; Lewis, Robert; Healey, Don; Vernino, Steven; Greenberg, Benjamin M; Stüve, Olaf

    2016-01-01

    Aquaporin 4 (AQP4) is considered a putative autoantigen in patients with Neuromyelitis optica (NMO), an autoinflammatory disorder of the central nervous system (CNS). HLA haplotype analyses of patients with NMO suggest a positive association with HLA-DRB1* 03:01. We previously showed that the human (h) AQP4 peptide 281-300 is the dominant immunogenic determinant of hAQP4 in the context of HLA-DRB1*03:01. This immunogenic peptide stimulates a strong Th1 and Th17 immune response. AQP4281-300-specific encephalitogenic CD4+ T cells should initiate CNS inflammation that results in a clinical phenotype in HLA-DRB1*03:01 transgenic mice. Controlled study with humanized experimental animals. HLA-DRB1*03:01 transgenic mice were immunized with hAQP4281-300, or whole-length hAQP4 protein emulsified in complete Freund's adjuvant. Humoral immune responses to both antigens were assessed longitudinally. In vivo T cell frequencies were assessed by tetramer staining. Mice were followed clinically, and the anterior visual pathway was tested by pupillometry. CNS tissue was examined histologically post-mortem. Flow cytometry was utilized for MHC binding assays and to immunophenotype T cells, and T cell frequencies were determined by ELISpot assay. Immunization with hAQP4281-300 resulted in an in vivo expansion of antigen-specific CD4+ T cells, and an immunoglobulin isotype switch. HLA-DRB1*03:01 TG mice actively immunized with hAQP4281-300, or with whole-length hAQP4 protein were resistant to developing a neurological disease that resembles NMO. Experimental mice show no histological evidence of CNS inflammation, nor change in pupillary responses. Subsequent analysis reveals that a single amino acid substitution from aspartic acid in hAQP4 to glutamic acid in murine (m)AQP4 at position 290 prevents the recognition of hAQP4281-300 by the murine T cell receptor (TCR). Induction of a CNS inflammatory autoimmune disorder by active immunization of HLA-DRB1*03:01 TG mice with human hAQP4281

  12. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Therapy Postural Training Traction Watchful Waiting and Education Injection Treatments for Spinal Pain Epidural Steroid Injections Lumbar Zygapophysical (Facet) Joint Injections PREVENTION Lifestyle Choices ...

  13. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Steroid Injections Lumbar Zygapophysical (Facet) Joint Injections PREVENTION Lifestyle Choices 10 Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen ...

  14. Efectividad de los ácidos grasos hiperoxigenados en la prevención de las úlceras vasculares: Una revisión sistemática Hyperoxygenated fatty acid effectiveness in the prevention of the vascular ulcers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Vives Sánchez

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: conocer la eficacia de los ácidos grasos hiperoxigenados (AGHO en la prevención de las úlceras vasculares. Determinar el nivel de evidencia existente sobre el uso de ácidos grasos hiperoxigenados en la prevención de las úlceras vasculares. Material y método: se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica en la The Cochrane Library, The Joanna Briggs Institute, PubMed-Medline y CUIDEN. Para su evaluación se han seguido las recomendaciones del sistema GRADE para la valoraciún de la evidencia y la fuerza de las recomendaciones. Resultados: en The Cochrane Library y en The Joanna Briggs Institute no aparece ningún documento que haga referencia a los AGHO. En el resto de bases de datos encontramos estudios observacionales que hacen referencia a las úlceras vasculares y AGHO. Conclusiones: aun no disponiendo de ensayos clínicos que evidencien su uso, se han venido utilizando durante los últimos años, con resultados satisfactorios, en el cuidado de la piel de las personas con alteraciones vasculares en los miembros inferiores. De acuerdo con la clasificación GRADE, todos los estudios arrojan una calidad de evidencia baja, por lo cual estimamos necesario la puesta en marcha de investigaciones que aporten mayor evidencia científica.Objectives: to determine the effectiveness of hyper-oxygenated fatty acids in the prevention of vascular ulcers. Determine the level of existing evidence the use of hyper-oxygenated fatty acids in the prevention of vascular ulcers. Material and Method: we performed a literature search of Cochrane Library, The Joanna Briggs Institute, PubMed, Medline and CUIDEN. For the evaluation, have followed the recommendations of the GRADE system for assessing evidence and strength of recommendations. Results: The Cochrane Library and The Joanna Briggs Institute does not see any document referring to AGHO. In all other databases are observational studies that relate to vascular ulcers and AGHO. Conclusions: although

  15. Fundamentos del ácido fólico en la prevención primaria farmacológica de defectos congénitos Foundations of folic acid in the primary pharmacological prevention of congential defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Lardoeyt Ferrer

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available El ácido fólico fue descubierto en 1945 por los laboratorios Lederle, y desde entonces existe una gran variedad de derivados de esta vitamina, que se agrupan bajo el nombre común de folatos. Es en la APS donde se promueve la salud de la mujer y de su futura descendencia a través de la consulta de riesgo preconcepcional. Una de las acciones promotoras de la salud más importante de la asistencia preconcepcional, es la prevención de los defectos congénitos en la descendencia a través de la suplementación periconcepcional con folatos. El déficit de ácido fólico puede deberse tanto a factores genéticos como ambientales. Con el objetivo de incrementar los conocimientos de los profesionales de la salud que laboran en la atención médica a la mujer en edad reproductiva, se realizó una revisión del tema, en la que se tratan los fundamentos científicos que demuestran la importancia del uso de esta vitamina en la prevención de problemas congénitos como los defectos del tubo neural (DTN, síndrome de Down y de otras anomalías asociadas al déficit de este compuesto vitamínico.Folic acid was discovered in 1945 by Lederle laboratories and since then, there is a great variety of derivates of this vitamin that are grouped under the name of folates. It is in PHC where the health of woman and of her future off-spring is promoted through the office of preconceptional risk. One of the most important health promoting actions of preconceptional assistance is the prevention of the congenital defects in the off-spring by the periconceptional supplementation with folates. The deficit of folic acid may be caused by genetical and environmental factors. In order to increase the knowledge of the health professionals giving medical attention to women at gestational age, a review of this topic was made and the scientific foundations showing the importance of the use of this vitamin in the prevention of congenital defects, such as the neural tube defects

  16. Preventative Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliorino, James

    Boards of education must be convinced that spending money up front for preventive maintenance will, in the long run, save districts' tax dollars. A good program of preventive maintenance can minimize disruption of service; reduce repair costs, energy consumption, and overtime; improve labor productivity and system equipment reliability; handle…

  17. Biomarkers for the activation of calcium metabolism in dairy cows: elevation of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity by lowering dietary cation-anion difference is associated with the prevention of milk fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosaki, Naotoshi; Yamato, Osamu; Sato, Jun; Naito, Yoshihisa; Mori, Fuminobu; Imoto, Seiichi; Maede, Yoshimitsu

    2007-03-01

    In our previous study, it was demonstrated that the administration of anion salts, which slightly lower the dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD), in the prepartum period is safe and effective for preventing milk fever in multiparous cows. In the present study, several biomarkers, which might show activation of Ca metabolism, were analyzed using stored samples in the previous study to investigate the mechanism of the preventive effect on milk fever by lowering DCAD. Changes in bone-specific alkaline phosphatase activity, osteocalcin and insulin-like growth factor I concentrations in serum were almost the same among the three groups of multiparous cows with or without the oral administration of anion salts, while the levels of these serum biomarkers in the group of primiparous cows (heifer group) were much higher compared with those in the three multiparous groups throughout the experimental period. Urinary deoxypyridinoline excretion was not a useful biomarker for dairy cows because it hardly changed during the peripartum period in all groups. However, serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity, which is known as a biomarker of osteoclast activity, was well associated with the administration of anion salts lowering DCAD because among the three multiparous groups, only the group of multiparous cows fed the anion salts (anion group) showed an increased level, which rose to the level in the heifer group, and was markedly higher than those in the other control groups of multiparous cows. The increased activity of serum TRAP in the anion group suggested that Ca in the plasma pool was mobilized smoothly from bone-bound Ca via mature osteoclasts at parturition, which might be due to prior activation under mild acidosis induced by slightly lowering DCAD. Therefore, TRAP was the best biomarker to monitor the activation of Ca metabolism in dairy cows fed anion salts.

  18. Preventive effects of butyric acid, nicotinamide, calcium glucarate alone or in combination during the 7, 12-dimethylbenz (a) anthracene induced mouse skin tumorigenesis via modulation of K-Ras-PI3K-AKTpathway and associated micro RNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Prakash; Sahay, Satya; Pandey, Manuraj; Qadri, Syed S Y H; Gupta, Krishna P

    2016-02-01

    Skin cancer is among the most common cancers worldwide and identifiable molecular changes for early and late stage of skin tumorigenesis can suggest the better targets for its control. In this study, we investigated the status of K-Ras-PI3K-AKTpathway followed by NF-κB, cyclin D1, MMP-9 and regulatory micro RNA during 7, 12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) induced mouse skin tumorigenesis and its prevention by butyric acid (BA), nicotinamide (NA) and calcium glucarate (CAG), individually or in combination with respect to time. DMBA upregulated the K-Ras, PI3K, Akt, NF-κB, cyclin D1 and MMP-9, but downregulated the PTEN in a time dependent manner. DMBA also reduced the levels of micoRNA let-7a but induced the levels of miR-21 and miR-20a as a function of time. BA, NA and CAG were found to prevent DMBA induced changes, but they were most effective when used together in a combination. Reduced let-7a and miR-211 were correlated with the overexpression of K-Ras and MMP-9. Overexpression of miR-21 and miR-20a was correlated with the down regulation of PTEN and overexpression of Cyclin D1. Collectively, the enhanced chemopreventive potential of natural compound in combination via regulation of K-Ras-PI3K-AKTpathway along with regulatory micro RNAs provide a newer and effective mean for cancer management. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Orally Administered Combination of Hyaluronic Acid, Chondroitin Sulfate, Curcumin, and Quercetin in the Prevention of Postcoital Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections: Analysis of 98 Women in Reproductive Age After 6 Months of Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavi, Michele Carlo; Porpora, Maria Grazia; Vena, Flaminia; Prata, Giovanni; Sciuga, Valentina; D'Oria, Ottavia; Di Tucci, Chiara; Savone, Delia; Aleksa, Natalia; Giannini, Andrea; Nusiner, Maria Paola; Zullo, Marzio Angelo; Muzii, Ludovico; Benedetti Panici, Pierluigi

    2018-01-31

    The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy of orally administered combination of hyaluronic acid (HA), chondroitin sulfate (CS), curcumin, and quercetin for the prevention of postcoital recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI) in reproductive age women. Ninety-eight consecutive patients in reproductive age affected by UTI were considered for the study. All 98 patients received a combination of HA, CS, curcumin, and quercetin two tablets per diem for the first month and one tablet every day for the next 5 months. We investigate recurrence of UTI with the Urinary Tract Infection Symptoms Assessment and the Pelvic Pain and Urinary Urgency Frequency. The quality of life and sexual function were valued using 36-Item Short Form Survey, Female Sexual Function Index, and the Female Sexual Distress Scale questionnaires. The same investigations were performed at the first visit and after 6 months of treatment. The symptoms associated with UTI significantly decreased after 6 months of treatment, in particular dysuria episodes diminished and number of voiding decreased (P < 0.0001). During the treatment period, only seven patients (7.1%) experienced a UTI recurrence, confirmed by positive urine culture with bacteriuria of greater than 10 colony forming units/mL. The Pelvic Pain and Urinary Urgency Frequency, Female Sexual Function Index, Female Sexual Distress Scale, and 36-Item Short Form Survey showed a statistically significant improvement after 6 months. Oral administration of a combination of HA, CS, curcumin, and quercetin is a valid and well-tolerated nonantibiotic treatment for prevention of postcoital UTI in reproductive age women.

  20. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification using self-avoiding molecular recognition systems and antarctic thermal sensitive uracil-DNA-glycosylase for detection of nucleic acid with prevention of carryover contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Liu, Dongxin; Deng, Jianping; Wang, Yan; Xu, Jianguo; Ye, Changyun

    2017-12-15

    Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is the most popular technique to amplify nucleic acid sequence without the use of temperature cycling. However, LAMP is often confounded by false-positive results, arising from interactions between (hetero-dimer) or within (self-dimerization) primers, off-target hybrids and carryover contaminants. Here, we devised a new LAMP technique that is self-avoiding molecular recognition system (SAMRS) components and antarctic thermal sensitive uracil-DNA-glycosylase (AUDG) enzyme-assisted, termed AUDG-SAMRS-LAMP. Incorporating SAMRS components into 3'-ends of LAMP primers can improve assay's specificity, which completely prevents the non-specific amplification yielding from off-target hybrids and undesired interactions between or within primers. Adding AUDG into reaction mixtures can effectively eliminate the false-positive results arising from carryover contamination, thus the genuine positive reactions are generated from the amplification of target templates. Furthermore, AUDG-SAMRS-LAMP results are confirmed using a new analysis strategy, which is developed for detecting LAMP amplicons by lateral flow biosensor (LFB). Only a single labeled primer is required in the analysis system, thus the false positive results arising from hybridization (the labeled primer and probe, or between two labeled primers) are avoided. Hence, the SAMRS components, AUDG and LFB convert traditional LAMP from a technique suited for the research laboratory into one that has practical value in the field of diagnosis. Human Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by infection with members of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC), which are detected by the AUDG-SAMRS-LAMP technique to demonstrate the availability of target analysis. The proof-of-concept method can be reconfigured to detect various nucleic acids by redesigning the specific primers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Cluster-randomized non-inferiority trial to compare supplement consumption and adherence to different dosing regimens for antenatal calcium and iron-folic acid supplementation to prevent preeclampsia and anaemia: rationale and design of the Micronutrient Initiative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moshood O. Omotayo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: To prevent pre-eclampsia in populations with insufficient dietary calcium (Ca intake, the World Health Organisation (WHO recommends routine Ca supplementation during antenatal care (ANC. WHO guidelines suggest a complex dosing regimen, requiring as many as 5 pill-taking events per day when combined with iron and folic acid (IFA supplements. Poor adherence may undermine public health effectiveness, so simpler regimens may be preferable. This trial will compare the effect of the WHO-recommended (higher-dose regimen vs. a simpler, lower-dose regimen on supplement consumption and pill-taking behaviours in Kenyan ANC clients. Design and methods: This is a parallel, non-inferiority, cluster-randomized trial; we examined 16 primary care health facilities in Kenya, 1047 pregnant women between 16-30 weeks gestational age. Higher-dose regimen: 1.5 g elemental calcium in 3 separate doses (500 mg Ca/pill and IFA (60 mg Fe + 400 μg folic acid taken with evening dose. Lower-dose regimen: 1.0 g calcium in 2 separate doses (500 mg Ca/pill with IFA taken as above. Measurements: Primary outcome is Ca pills consumed per day, measured by pill counts. Secondary outcomes include IFA pills consumed per day, client knowledge, motivation, social support, and satisfaction, measured at 4 to 10 weeks post-enrolment. Statistical analyses: Unit of randomization is the health-care facility; unit of analysis is individual client. Intent-to-treat analysis will be implemented with multi-level models to account for clustering. Expected public health impact: If pregnant women prescribed lower doses of Ca ingest as many pills as women prescribed the WHO-recommended regimen, developing a lower-dose recommendation for antenatal Ca and IFA supplementation programs could save resources.

  2. Supplementation with antioxidant-rich extra virgin olive oil prevents hepatic oxidative stress and reduction of desaturation capacity in mice fed a high-fat diet: Effects on fatty acid composition in liver and extrahepatic tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincón-Cervera, Miguel Angel; Valenzuela, Rodrigo; Hernandez-Rodas, María Catalina; Marambio, Macarena; Espinosa, Alejandra; Mayer, Susana; Romero, Nalda; Barrera M Sc, Cynthia; Valenzuela, Alfonso; Videla, Luis A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of dietary supplementation with extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) in mice on the reduction of desaturase and antioxidant enzymatic activities in liver, concomitantly with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) profiles in liver and extrahepatic tissues induced by a high-fat diet (HFD). Male mice C57 BL/6 J were fed with a control diet (CD; 10% fat, 20% protein, 70% carbohydrates) or an HFD (60% fat, 20% protein, 20% carbohydrates) for 12 wk. Animals were supplemented with 100 mg/d EVOO with different antioxidant contents (EVOO I, II, and III). After the intervention, blood and several tissues were analyzed. Dietary supplementation with EVOO with the highest antioxidant content and antioxidant capacity (EVOO III) significantly reduced fat accumulation in liver and the plasmatic metabolic alterations caused by HFD and produced a normalization of oxidative stress-related parameters, desaturase activities, and LCPUFA content in tissues. Data suggest that dietary supplementation with EVOO III may prevent oxidative stress and reduction of biosynthesis and accretion of ω-3 LCPUFA in the liver of HFD-fed mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A novel co-drug of aspirin and ursolic acid interrupts adhesion, invasion and migration of cancer cells to vascular endothelium via regulating EMT and EGFR-mediated signaling pathways: multiple targets for cancer metastasis prevention and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qiao; Liu, Yajun; Li, Tao; Yang, Xiang; Zheng, Guirong; Chen, Hongning; Jia, Lee; Shao, Jingwei

    2016-11-08

    Metastasis currently remains the predominant cause of breast carcinoma treatment failure. The effective targeting of metastasis-related-pathways in cancer holds promise for a new generation of therapeutics. In this study, we developed an novel Asp-UA conjugate, which was composed of classical "old drug" aspirin and low toxicity natural product ursolic acid for targeting breast cancer metastasis. Our results showed that Asp-UA could attenuate the adhesion, migration and invasion of breast cancer MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells in a more safe and effective manner in vitro. Molecular and cellular study demonstrated that Asp-UA significantly down-regulated the expression of cell adhesion and invasion molecules including integrin α6β1, CD44 ,MMP-2, MMP-9, COX-2, EGFR and ERK proteins, and up-regulated the epithelial markers "E-cadherin" and "β-catenin", and PTEN proteins. Furthermore, Asp-UA (80 mg/kg) reduced lung metastasis in a 4T1 murine breast cancer metastasis model more efficiently, which was associated with a decrease in the expression of CD44. More importantly, we did not detect side effects with Asp-UA in mice such as weight loss and main viscera tissues toxicity. Overall, our research suggested that co-drug Asp-UA possessed potential metastasis chemoprevention abilities via influencing EMT and EGFR-mediated pathways and could be a more promising drug candidate for the prevention and/or treatment of breast cancer metastasis.

  4. Novelty in hypertension in children and adolescents: focus on hypertension during the first year of life, use and interpretation of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, role of physical activity in prevention and treatment, simple carbohydrates and uric acid as risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strambi, Mirella; Giussani, Marco; Ambruzzi, Maria Amalia; Brambilla, Paolo; Corrado, Ciro; Giordano, Ugo; Maffeis, Claudio; Maringhin, Silvio; Matteucci, Maria Chiara; Menghetti, Ettore; Salice, Patrizia; Schena, Federico; Strisciuglio, Pietro; Valerio, Giuliana; Viazzi, Francesca; Virdis, Raffaele; Genovesi, Simonetta

    2016-07-16

    The present article intends to provide an update of the article "Focus on prevention, diagnosis and treatment of hypertension in children and adolescents" published in 2013 (Spagnolo et al., Ital J Pediatr 39:20, 2013) in this journal. This revision is justified by the fact that during the last years there have been several new scientific contributions to the problem of hypertension in pediatric age and during adolescence. Nevertheless, for what regards some aspects of the previous article, the newly acquired information did not require substantial changes to what was already published, both from a cultural and from a clinical point of view. We felt, however, the necessity to rewrite and/or to extend other parts in the light of the most recent scientific publications. More specifically, we updated and extended the chapters on the diagnosis and management of hypertension in newborns and unweaned babies, on the use and interpretation of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, and on the usefulness of and indications for physical activity. Furthermore, we added an entirely new section on the role that simple carbohydrates (fructose in particular) and uric acid may play in the pathogenesis of hypertension in pediatric age.

  5. Efficacy and safety of non-suture dural closure using a novel dural substitute consisting of polyglycolic acid felt and fibrin glue to prevent cerebrospinal fluid leakage-A non-controlled, open-label, multicenter clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terasaka, Shunsuke; Taoka, Toshiaki; Kuroda, Satoshi; Mikuni, Nobutaka; Nishi, Toru; Nakase, Hiroyuki; Fujii, Yukihiko; Hayashi, Yasuhiko; Murata, Jun-Ichi; Kikuta, Ken-Ichiro; Kuroiwa, Toshihiko; Shimokawa, Sachie; Houkin, Kiyohiro

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of non-suture dural closure using a novel dural substitute (GM111) consisting of polyglycolic acid felt with a fibrin-glue-coated area commensurate in size with the dural defect. This was a non-controlled, open-label, multicenter clinical trial. The efficacy evaluation endpoints were (1) GM111's intra-operative capability to close dural defects and (2) prevention of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage and subcutaneous CSF retention throughout the postoperative period (evaluated by diagnostic imaging). Patients meeting the following three preoperative and two intra-operative selection criteria were enrolled: (1) between 12 and dura is surmised to be defective and in need of reconstruction; (3) informed written consent was obtained from the patient; (4) the surgical wound is class 1; and (5) the size of duraplasty is ≥0.2 cm(2) to water infusion, etc., in all patients. CSF leakage and subcutaneous CSF retention throughout the postoperative period were found in four patients. Adverse events for which a causal relationship with GM111 could not be ruled out occurred in 8.8% of the patients. There were no instances of postoperative infection due to GM111. GM111 showed good closure capability and safety when used for non-suture dural closure.

  6. The exacerbating roles of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP) in the development of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis and the preventive effects of tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) against pulmonary fibrosis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yuta; Ishitsuka, Yoichi; Hayasaka, Marina; Yamada, Yusei; Miyata, Keishi; Endo, Motoyoshi; Kondo, Yuki; Moriuchi, Hiroshi; Irikura, Mitsuru; Tanaka, Ken-ichiro; Mizushima, Tohru; Oike, Yuichi; Irie, Tetsumi

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP), an important transcription factor that regulates the inflammatory reaction during the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response, in the development of pulmonary fibrosis induced by bleomycin (BLM) in mice. An intratracheal injection of BLM transiently increased the expression of CHOP mRNA and protein in an early phase (days 1 and 3) in mice lungs. BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis was significantly attenuated in Chop gene deficient (Chop KO) mice, compared with wild-type (WT) mice. Furthermore, the inflammatory reactions evaluated by protein concentration, the total number of leucocytes and neutrophils in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), the mRNA expression of interleukin 1b and caspase 11, and the apoptotic cell death were suppressed in Chop KO mice compared with those in WT mice. In addition, administration of tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), a pharmacological agent that can inhibit CHOP expression, inhibited the BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis and inflammation, and the increase in Chop mRNA expression in WT mice in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that the ER stress-induced transcription factor, CHOP, at least in part, plays an important role in the development of BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice, and that the inhibition of CHOP expression by a pharmacological agent, such as TUDCA, may be a promising strategy for the prevention of pulmonary fibrosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Eficacia de los ácidos grasos hiperoxigenados en la prevención de las úlceras por presión Hyperoxygenated fatty acid effectiveness in the prevention of the pressure ulcers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonso López Escribano

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Conocer la eficacia de los ácidos grasos hiperoxigenados en la prevención de las úlceras por presión. Determinar el nivel de evidencia del uso de los ácidos grasos hiperoxigenados en la prevención de las úlceras por presión. Material y método: Se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica en Cochrane library, The Joanna Briggs Institute, Pubmedmedline y Cuiden, siendo solamente seleccionados ensayos clínicos. Para su evaluación se han seguido las recomendaciones del Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASPe junto al sistema GRADE para la valoración de la calidad de la evidencia y la fuerza de las recomendaciones. Resultados: En the Cochrane Library no aparece ningún documento, mientras que en The Joanna Briggs Institute aparece un bestpractice donde no se hace ninguna referencia a los AGHO. En el resto de bases encontramos 2 ensayos clínicos aleatorizados, que cumplían los criterios CASPe. En el estudio de Gallart, et al. sobre una muestra de 192 pacientes se observó una incidencia de UPP del 19% en el grupo intervención frente al 35% del grupo placebo (p Objectives: To know the scientific evidence about hyperoxygenated fatty acid effectiveness in the prevention of the pressure ulcers and to evaluate, through the bibliography consulted, their clinical effectiveness. Material and method: There was made a compilation of information in the Cochrane library, The Joanna Briggs Institute, Pubmed-medline and Cuiden. There were only selected clinical trials, for which evaluation it has been followed the recommendations of Critical Apraisal Skill Program together with GRADE system in order to value the quality of the evidence and the strength of the recommendation. Results: No documents have been found in the Cochrane library, whereas in The Joanna Briggs Institute has been found a bestpractice where there is no reference to the hyperoxygenated fatty acid. In the rest of the databases just two randomised clinical trials that

  8. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physical Therapy Postural Training Traction Watchful Waiting and Education Injection Treatments for Spinal Pain Epidural Steroid Injections Lumbar Zygapophysical (Facet) Joint Injections PREVENTION Lifestyle Choices 10 Tips for a Healthy Back ...

  9. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Exercise Strength Training for the Elderly Other Back Pack Safety Pregnancy and Back Pain Preventing Osteoporosis Back ... in very slightly. Hold a ball directly in front of you. Keep your abdominal muscles tight and ...

  10. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A SPECIALIST Prevention Strengthening Exercise Committee Exercise Committee Core Strengthening Many popular forms of exercise focus on ... acute pain, you should stop doing it. Transverse Core Strengthening This strengthens the muscles that cross from ...

  11. Preventive analgesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Jørgen B; Kehlet, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    This paper will discuss the concepts of pre-emptive and preventive analgesia in acute and persistent postsurgical pain, based on the most recent experimental and clinical literature, with a special focus on injury-induced central sensitization and the development from acute to chronic pain. Recent...... findings: The nature of central sensitization during acute and chronic postsurgical pain share common features, and there may be interactions between acute and persistent postoperative pain. The term ‘pre-emptive analgesia’ should be abandoned and replaced by the term ‘preventive analgesia’. Recent studies...... of preventive analgesia for persistent postoperative pain are promising. However, clinicians must be aware of the demands for improved design of their clinical studies in order to get more conclusive answers regarding the different avenues for intervention. Summary: The concept of preventive analgesia is still...

  12. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 10 Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen Your Core! Stretching/Flexibility ... Pain Preventing Osteoporosis Back Pain Basics Book RESOURCES Patient Information Feature Articles Patient Q&A Success Stories ...

  13. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen Your Core! Stretching/Flexibility Aerobic ... Strength Training for the Elderly Other Back Pack Safety Pregnancy and Back Pain Preventing Osteoporosis Back Pain ...

  14. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Changes Hydrotherapy Manual Therapy Physical Therapy Postural Training Traction Watchful Waiting and Education Injection Treatments for Spinal Pain Epidural Steroid Injections Lumbar Zygapophysical (Facet) Joint Injections PREVENTION Lifestyle Choices 10 ...

  15. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Education Injection Treatments for Spinal Pain Epidural Steroid Injections Lumbar Zygapophysical (Facet) Joint Injections PREVENTION Lifestyle ... Z Spine Specialists Videos 9 for Spine Epidural Steroid Injections Exercise: The Backbone of Spine Treatment Spondylolisthesis ...

  16. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Low Back Pain Chronic Low Back Pain SI Joint Pain Other Scoliosis Back Pain and Emotional Distress ... Spinal Pain Epidural Steroid Injections Lumbar Zygapophysical (Facet) Joint Injections PREVENTION Lifestyle Choices 10 Tips for a ...

  17. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Strengthen Your Core! Stretching/Flexibility Aerobic Exercise Cervical Exercise Strength Training for the Elderly Other Back Pack Safety Pregnancy and Back Pain Preventing Osteoporosis Back Pain Basics ...

  18. Salmonella Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... indirect contact between reptiles (turtles, iguanas, other lizards, snakes) and infants or immunocompromised persons. Don't work ... help prevent salmonellosis caused by contaminated foods. Better education of food industry workers in basic food safety ...

  19. HIV Prevention

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-01

    Dr. Kevin Fenton, Director of CDC’s National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, talks about steps people can take to protect their health from HIV.  Created: 2/1/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 2/1/2012.

  20. Erythrocyte stearidonic acid and other n-3 fatty acids and CHD in the Physicians’ Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intake of marine-based n-3 fatty acids (EPA, docosapentaenoic acid and DHA) is recommended to prevent CHD. Stearidonic acid (SDA), a plant-based n-3 fatty acid, is a precursor of EPA and may be more readily converted to EPA than a-linolenic acid (ALA). While transgenic soyabeans might supply SDA at ...

  1. Calcium prevents retinoic acid-induced disruption of the spectrin-based cytoskeleton in keratinocytes through the Src/PI3K-p85α/AKT/PKCδ/β-adducin pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Kong-Nan; Masci, Paul P; Chen, Jiezhong; Lavin, Martin F

    2013-09-01

    We have previously reported that spectrin increases dramatically in amount and is assembled into the cytoskeleton in differentiating keratinocytes both in vitro and in vivo (Zhao et al., PLoS ONE 6 (12) (2011) e28267). We demonstrate here that extracellular calcium (Ca2+) enhances differentiation of keratinocytes and that this is associated with increased spectrin expression and formation of a spectrin-based cytoskeleton. While Retinoic acid (RA) also enhanced keratinocyte differentiation, it abrogated the spectrin-based cytoskeleton in keratinocytes. Furthermore, RA substantially inhibited expression of both Src and PI3K-p85α and consequently the amounts of specific phosphorylation of both of these proteins. RA also enhanced AKT expression and dramatically induced phosphorylation of AKT((Thr308)), accompanied by phosphorylation of both PKCδ((Thr505)) and β-adducin((Ser662)) and upregulated cyclin D2 and down-regulated cyclin B1. On the other hand, Ca2+ overcame the inhibitory effects of RA on expression of Src, PI3K-p85α and cyclin B1 by maintaining high levels of phosphorylation of both Src((Tyr527)) and PI3K-p85α and preventing phosphorylation of AKT((Thr308)), PKCδ((Thr505)) and β-adducin((Ser662)). These data highlight the importance of Ca2+ in both spectrin expression and the organizational integrity of the spectrin-based cytoskeleton in differentiating keratinocytes and assist in elucidating the signalling pathways involved. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Multinational, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, prospective study of esomeprazole in the prevention of recurrent peptic ulcer in low-dose acetylsalicylic acid users: the LAVENDER study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugano, Kentaro; Choi, Myung-Gyu; Lin, Jaw-Town; Goto, Shinya; Okada, Yasushi; Kinoshita, Yoshikazu; Miwa, Hiroto; Chiang, Chern-En; Chiba, Tsutomu; Hori, Masatsugu; Fukushima, Yasushi; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Chang, Chi-Yang; Date, Masataka

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate if esomeprazole prevents recurrent peptic ulcer in adult patients with a history of peptic ulcer receiving low-dose acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, aspirin) for cardiovascular protection in East Asia. In this prospective, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted in Japan, Korea and Taiwan, eligible patients receiving low-dose ASA for cardiovascular protection (81-324 mg/day) were randomised to esomeprazole 20 mg/day or placebo for ≤72 weeks. All patients received concomitant mucosal protection (gefarnate 100 mg/day). The primary endpoint was time to ulcer recurrence (Kaplan-Meier analysis). Efficacy findings are presented up to week 48, as per a planned interim analysis within the study protocol. A total of 364 patients (79.9% men; mean age, 67.1 years) comprised the full analysis set (esomeprazole, n=182; placebo, n=182). There was a statistically significant difference in the time to ulcer recurrence between esomeprazole and placebo (HR 0.09; 96.65% CI 0.02 to 0.41; pesomeprazole) and 89.0% (placebo). The high estimated ulcer-free rate for esomeprazole was maintained through to week 48 (98.3% vs. 81.2% of placebo-treated patients). No factors, other than female gender, reduced time to ulcer recurrence in addition to the effect of esomeprazole (pesomeprazole was generally well tolerated. Daily esomeprazole 20 mg is efficacious and well tolerated in reducing the recurrence of peptic ulcer in East-Asian patients with a history of ulcers who are taking low-dose ASA for cardiovascular protection. NCT01069939. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. Prevent Pneumonia

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-08-06

    CDC’s Matthew Westercamp explains what pneumonia is, its symptoms, and how to prevent it.  Created: 8/6/2015 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Division of Bacterial Diseases (DBD), Respiratory Diseases Branch (RDB).   Date Released: 8/6/2015.

  4. Bullying Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Patrice

    2016-01-01

    The focus of the milestone project is to focus on bridging the gap of bullying and classroom instruction methods. There has to be a defined expectations and level of accountability that has to be defined when supporting and implementing a plan linked to bullying prevention. All individuals involved in the student's learning have to be aware of…

  5. HIV Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abroad Treatment Basic Statistics Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Collapse All Is abstinence the only 100% effective HIV prevention option? Yes. Abstinence means not having oral, ...

  6. [Prevention of preeclampsia - review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlk, R; Matěcha, J; Drochýtek, V

    2015-06-01

    Preeclampsia is a serious condition that affects about five percent of pregnant women. The disorder itself or related complications are responsible for a significant percentage of maternal and fetal morbidity, even in developed countries. Although our understanding of etiology is still limited, the possibility of detecting and evaluating certain angiogenic factors by the end of the first trimester gives food for thought about prospects for preeclampsia prevention. Secondary prevention is currently based mostly on the effort to pharmacologically affect the spiral artery transformation and development of the abnormal placental microcirculation which lead to clinical symptoms of preeclampsia. The preventive treatment options are narrow. Greatest effect was noted with acetylsalicylic acid medication in the at-risk population. The dose of 75-150 mg per day is considered optimal. The treatment should start before the 16th gestational week; later initiation of therapy is associated with considerably smaller effect. The incidence of the early-onset preeclampsia (preventive treatment affects the late-onset preeclampsia only minimally. Calcium supplementation is effective only in women with low calcium intake. Question for the future as well as subject of several studies is a clinical significance of low molecular weight heparin and sildenafil.

  7. Folic Acid: Data and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood folate levels and are less likely to consume foods fortified with folic acid. [ Read article ] Are ... Disease Control and Prevention Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs Funding ...

  8. Toothpaste prevents debonded brackets on erosive enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Érico Luiz Damasceno; Pinto, Shelon Cristina Souza; Borges, Alvaro Henrique; Tonetto, Mateus Rodrigues; Ellwood, Roger Phillip; Pretty, Ian; Bandéca, Matheus Coelho

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of high fluoride dentifrice on the bond strength of brackets after erosive challenge. Eighty-four enamel specimens were divided into seven groups (n = 12): WN (distilled water/no acid challenge), W3C (distilled water/3 cycles of acid challenge), and W6C (distilled water/6 cycles of acid challenge) were not submitted to dentifrice treatment. Groups RF3C (regular fluoride dentifrice/3 cycles of acid challenge) and RF6C (regular fluoride dentifrice/6 cycles of acid challenge) were treated with dentifrices containing 1450 μg F(-)/g and HF3C (high fluoride dentifrice/3 cycles of acid challenge) and HF6C (high fluoride dentifrice/6 cycles of acid challenge) were with 5000 μg F(-)/g. Acid challenges were performed for seven days. After bond strength test, there was no significant difference among groups submitted to 3 cycles of acid challenge (P > 0.05). Statistically significant difference was found between the regular and high fluoride dentifrices after 6 cycles of acid challenge (<0.05). Similar areas of adhesive remaining were found among control groups and among groups W6C, RF3C, RF6C, HF3C, and HF6C. The high fluoride dentifrice was able to prevent the reduction of bond strength values of brackets submitted to acid challenge. the high fluoride toothpaste prevents debonded brackets on erosive enamel.

  9. Toothpaste Prevents Debonded Brackets on Erosive Enamel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érico Luiz Damasceno Barros

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of high fluoride dentifrice on the bond strength of brackets after erosive challenge. Eighty-four enamel specimens were divided into seven groups (n=12: WN (distilled water/no acid challenge, W3C (distilled water/3 cycles of acid challenge, and W6C (distilled water/6 cycles of acid challenge were not submitted to dentifrice treatment. Groups RF3C (regular fluoride dentifrice/3 cycles of acid challenge and RF6C (regular fluoride dentifrice/6 cycles of acid challenge were treated with dentifrices containing 1450 μg F−/g and HF3C (high fluoride dentifrice/3 cycles of acid challenge and HF6C (high fluoride dentifrice/6 cycles of acid challenge were with 5000 μg F−/g. Acid challenges were performed for seven days. After bond strength test, there was no significant difference among groups submitted to 3 cycles of acid challenge (P>0.05. Statistically significant difference was found between the regular and high fluoride dentifrices after 6 cycles of acid challenge (<0.05. Similar areas of adhesive remaining were found among control groups and among groups W6C, RF3C, RF6C, HF3C, and HF6C. The high fluoride dentifrice was able to prevent the reduction of bond strength values of brackets submitted to acid challenge. Clinical relevance: the high fluoride toothpaste prevents debonded brackets on erosive enamel.

  10. FOOD ALLERGY PREVENTION IN INFANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.G. Makarova

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with new data about food tolerance induction among the children, belonging to the high risk groups disposed to atopy. Authors show the role of gut microflora in formation of child immune system, effect of breast feeding on activation of local immune response, growth stimulation of bifid bacteria and lactic acid bacilli. The present work gives the randomized research findings, which confirm the effectiveness of prolonged breast feeding, use of highly or partially hydrolyzed mixtures and timely introduction of supplemental feeding in food allergy prevention.Key words: prevention, food allergy, children, breast feeding, hypo allergic mixtures, milk protein hydrolysates, supplemental feeding, gut microflora, probiotics.

  11. Challenges in enriching milk fat with polyunsaturated fatty acids

    OpenAIRE

    Lanier, Jennifer S; Corl, Benjamin A

    2015-01-01

    Milk fatty acid composition is determined by several factors including diet. The milk fatty acid profile of dairy cows is low in polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially those of the n-3 series. Efforts to change and influence fatty acid profile with longer chain polyunsaturated fatty acids have proven challenging. Several barriers prevent easy transfer of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids to milk fat including rumen biohydrogenation and fatty acid esterification. The potential for cellular ...

  12. Polio and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Photo Collections Videos Polio Today → Polio + Prevention Polio + Prevention Polio and prevention Polio is a crippling and ... a child for life. Learn more about polio + prevention The Virus The Vaccines The Communities Related resources ...

  13. Trans Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Ellin

    1997-09-01

    Fats and their various fatty acid components seem to be a perennial concern of nutritionists and persons concerned with healthful diets. Advice on the consumption of saturated, polyunsaturated, monounsaturated, and total fat bombards us from magazines and newspapers. One of the newer players in this field is the group of trans fatty acids found predominantly in partially hydrogenated fats such as margarines and cooking fats. The controversy concerning dietary trans fatty acids was recently addressed in an American Heart Association (AHA) science advisory (1) and in a position paper from the American Society of Clinical Nutrition/American Institute of Nutrition (ASCN/AIN) (2). Both reports emphasize that the best preventive strategy for reducing risk for cardiovascular disease and some types of cancer is a reduction in total and saturated fats in the diet, but a reduction in the intake of trans fatty acids was also recommended. Although the actual health effects of trans fatty acids remain uncertain, experimental evidence indicates that consumption of trans fatty acids adversely affects serum lipid levels. Since elevated levels of serum cholesterol and triacylglycerols are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, it follows that intake of trans fatty acids should be minimized.

  14. Acid mucopolysaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003368.htm Acid mucopolysaccharides To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Acid mucopolysaccharides is a test that measures the amount ...

  15. Mefenamic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mefenamic acid is used to relieve mild to moderate pain, including menstrual pain (pain that happens before or during a menstrual period). Mefenamic acid is in a class of medications called NSAIDs. ...

  16. Obeticholic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeticholic acid is used alone or in combination with ursodiol (Actigall, Urso) to treat primary biliary cholangitis (PBC; a ... were not treated successfully with ursodiol alone. Obeticholic acid is in a class of medications called farnesoid ...

  17. Ethacrynic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethacrynic acid, a 'water pill,' is used to treat swelling and fluid retention caused by various medical problems. It ... Ethacrynic acid comes as a tablet to take by mouth. It is usually taken once or twice a day ...

  18. Amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002222.htm Amino acids To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Amino acids are organic compounds that combine to form proteins . ...

  19. The Effects of Diet Calcium, Protein and Acidity on Calcium Retention in the Rat, Particularly as Related to the Inner and Outer Surfaces of Tubular Bone: A Possible Model for the Treatment or Prevention of Osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-10-01

    any rise in kidney Ca con- C p centration (130). Hyperparathyroidism , however, has not been clearly es- tablished during Mg deficiency In rats based on...REPORT DOCUMEN14O4N PAGE i.~ l K11 .I-" I 1 1 k Protein and Acidity arn Calcium Retention in the /4(itM./liuISSLRTA1 ION Rat , Particularly as Related...Calcium, Protein and Acidity on Calcium Retention in the Rat , Particularly as Related to the Inner and Outer Surfaces of Tubular Bone: A Possible Model for

  20. Treament and prevention of anemia with ferrous sulfate plus folic acid in children attending daycare centers in Goiânia, Goiás State, Brazil: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Claret Costa Monteiro Hadler; Dirce Maria Sigulem; Maria de Fátima Costa Alves; Vinícius Montenegro Torres

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of anemia and the therapeutic and prophylactic response to ferrous sulfate and folic acid. A double-blind, randomized, controlled clinical trial was conducted with 196 children 6 to 24 months of age enrolled in municipal daycare centers in Goiânia, Goiás State, Brazil. The children were assigned to two treatment groups that received a daily dose (5 times a week) of either 4.2mg/kg/day of ferrous sulfate + folic acid (50µg) or 4.2mg/kg/d...

  1. Effects of paracetamol, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, acetylsalicylic acid, and opioids on bone mineral density and risk of fracture: results of the Danish Osteoporosis Prevention Study (DOPS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Peter; Hermann, P; Jensen, J-E B

    2012-01-01

    Pain medication has been associated with fractures. We found higher weight in paracetamol and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) users and lower vitamin D levels in opioid and acetylsalicylic acid users. None of the pain medications influenced bone mineral density or loss. NSAID were a...

  2. Silicic acid in drinking water prevents age-related alterations in the endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation modulating eNOS and AQP1 expression in experimental mice: an immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffoli, Barbara; Foglio, Eleonora; Borsani, Elisa; Exley, Christopher; Rezzani, Rita; Rodella, Luigi Fabrizio

    2013-06-01

    The maintenance of endothelial integrity is of great importance in coping with age-related vascular alterations. Endothelium-derived nitric oxide is one of the various vasoactive substances able to regulate vascular tone and homeostasis, and whose decrease is known to be related with senescence in endothelial cells. There are reports on the efficacy of silicon, especially as silicic acid, in protecting vascular integrity during age-related vascular diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of supplementation of silicic acid in drinking water in the maintenance of vascular health in a mouse model of early physiological aging. In particular, we evaluated the relationship between Si supplementation and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression, taking into account also the aquaporin-1 (AQP-1) isoform that, as recently reported, seems to be involved in nitric oxide transport across cell membranes. Our results showed that silicic acid supplementation increased both eNOS and AQP-1 expression, suggesting that silicic acid modulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and aquaporin-1 could represent a potential strategy against age-related vascular senescence. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Oral cleft prevention program (OCPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wehby George L

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oral clefts are one of the most common birth defects with significant medical, psychosocial, and economic ramifications. Oral clefts have a complex etiology with genetic and environmental risk factors. There are suggestive results for decreased risks of cleft occurrence and recurrence with folic acid supplements taken at preconception and during pregnancy with a stronger evidence for higher than lower doses in preventing recurrence. Yet previous studies have suffered from considerable design limitations particularly non-randomization into treatment. There is also well-documented effectiveness for folic acid in preventing neural tube defect occurrence at 0.4 mg and recurrence with 4 mg. Given the substantial burden of clefting on the individual and the family and the supportive data for the effectiveness of folic acid supplementation as well as its low cost, a randomized clinical trial of the effectiveness of high versus low dose folic acid for prevention of cleft recurrence is warranted. Methods/design This study will assess the effect of 4 mg and 0.4 mg doses of folic acid, taken on a daily basis during preconception and up to 3 months of pregnancy by women who are at risk of having a child with nonsyndromic cleft lip with/without palate (NSCL/P, on the recurrence of NSCL/P. The total sample will include about 6,000 women (that either have NSCL/P or that have at least one child with NSCL/P randomly assigned to the 4 mg and the 0.4 mg folic acid study groups. The study will also compare the recurrence rates of NSCL/P in the total sample of subjects, as well as the two study groups (4mg, 0.4 mg to that of a historical control group. The study has been approved by IRBs (ethics committees of all involved sites. Results will be disseminated through publications and presentations at scientific meetings. Discussion The costs related to oral clefts are high, including long term psychological and socio-economic effects. This study

  4. Fatty acids - trans fatty acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    The data supporting a negative effect of dietary trans fatty acids on cardiovascular disease risk is consistent. The primary dietary sources of trans fatty acids include partially hydrogenated fat and rudiment fat. The adverse effect of trans fatty acids on plasma lipoprotein profiles is consisten...

  5. Poison prevention: engineering in primary prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Steven Matthew

    2012-03-01

    Over the past 50 years we have seen improvements in outcomes of poisonings in the United States. I intend to discuss the approaches to prevention. I review various primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention strategies in relationship to poison prevention. We have made strong efforts in some ways, but our efforts in primary prevention have often been less than maximal. We propose requiring lockable medicine cabinets and lockable storage cabinets for dangerous substances.

  6. Antihyaluronidase action of ellagic acid effectively prevents polyspermy as a result of suppression of the acrosome reaction induced by sperm-zona interaction during in vitro fertilization of porcine oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokeshi, Isao; Yoshimoto, Teppei; Muto, Norio; Nakamura, Satoshi; Ashizawa, Koji; Nakada, Tadashi; Tatemoto, Hideki

    2007-08-01

    The present study was conducted to examine the effects of three tannin relatives (tannic acid, TA; gallic acid, GA; and ellagic acid, EA) on antihyaluronidase and reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging activity, in vitro fertilization (IVF) parameters, and the acrosome reaction (AR) induced by sperm-zona interaction. Among the three tannin relatives, TA and EA showed the strongest potency for blocking the hyaluronidase activity of boar sperm, with concentration-dependent inhibition over the range of 2-10 microg/ml. In contrast, ROSs were effectively scavenged by TA and GA, but not EA. When cumulus-free oocytes were inseminated in IVF medium containing 5 microg/ml of the tannin relatives, polyspermy was significantly reduced by TA and EA (32 and 29%, respectively) compared with oocytes treated with or without GA (51 and 69%, respectively) under conditions that maintained a high sperm penetration rate (Ppolyspermy by suppression of AR functionality induced by sperm-zona interaction and that hyaluronidase intervention is therefore required during porcine IVF.

  7. Ibotenic acid and thioibotenic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermit, Mette B; Greenwood, Jeremy R; Nielsen, Birgitte

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we have determined and compared the pharmacological profiles of ibotenic acid and its isothiazole analogue thioibotenic acid at native rat ionotropic glutamate (iGlu) receptors and at recombinant rat metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors expressed in mammalian cell lines....... Thioibotenic acid has a distinct pharmacological profile at group III mGlu receptors compared with the closely structurally related ibotenic acid; the former is a potent (low microm) agonist, whereas the latter is inactive. By comparing the conformational energy profiles of ibotenic and thioibotenic acid...... with the conformations preferred by the ligands upon docking to mGlu1 and models of the other mGlu subtypes, we propose that unlike other subtypes, group III mGlu receptor binding sites require a ligand conformation at an energy level which is prohibitively expensive for ibotenic acid, but not for thioibotenic acid...

  8. Risk Factors and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Factors & Prevention Back to Patient Resources Risk Factors & Prevention Even people who look healthy and free of ... as possible. Share: The Normal Heart Risk Factors & Prevention Heart Diseases & Disorders Substances & Heart Rhythm Disorders Symptoms & ...

  9. Prevent Back Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevent Back Pain Print This Topic En español Prevent Back Pain Browse Sections The Basics Overview Am ... at Risk? 3 of 5 sections Take Action: Prevent Injuries Focus on good posture. Good posture can ...

  10. Prevent Bite Wounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Prevent Bite Wounds Page Content Article Body Each year, ... bite Swollen glands that occur above the bite Prevention of Bites and Infections To prevent bites and ...

  11. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stomach Cancer Prevention Stomach Cancer Screening Research Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? Go ... has stayed about the same since 2005. Stomach (gastric) cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells ...

  12. Okadaic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E Michael; Hansen, Gert H; Severinsen, Mai C K

    2014-01-01

    Okadaic acid (OA) is a polyether fatty acid produced by marine dinoflagellates and the causative agent of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning. The effect of OA on apical endocytosis in the small intestine was studied in organ cultured porcine mucosal explants. Within 0.5-1 h of culture, the toxin caused...... in acidic organelles, implying a different toxic mechanism of action. We propose that rapid induction of LBs, an indicator of phospholipidosis, should be included in the future toxicity profile of OA....

  13. Effects of volatile fatty acids in biohydrogen effluent on biohythane production from palm oil mill effluent under thermophilic condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chonticha Mamimin

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: Preventing the high concentration of butyric acid, and propionic acid in the hydrogenic effluent could enhance methane production in two-stage anaerobic digestion for biohythane production.

  14. Dehydroeburicoic Acid from Antrodia camphorata Prevents the Diabetic and Dyslipidemic State via Modulation of Glucose Transporter 4, Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor α Expression and AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Phosphorylation in High-Fat-Fed Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueh-Hsiung Kuo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the potential effects of dehydroeburicoic acid (TT, a triterpenoid compound from Antrodia camphorata, in vitro and examined the effects and mechanisms of TT on glucose and lipid homeostasis in high-fat-diet (HFD-fed mice. The in vitro study examined the effects of a MeOH crude extract (CruE of A. camphorata and Antcin K (AnK; the main constituent of fruiting body of this mushroom on membrane glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4 and phospho-Akt in C2C12 myoblasts cells. The in vitro study demonstrated that treatment with CruE, AnK and TT increased the membrane levels of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4 and phospho-Akt at different concentrations. The animal experiments were performed for 12 weeks. Diabetic mice were randomly divided into six groups after 8 weeks of HFD-induction and treated with daily oral gavage doses of TT (at three dose levels, fenofibrate (Feno (at 0.25 g/kg body weight, metformin (Metf (at 0.3 g/kg body weight or vehicle for another 4 weeks while on an HFD diet. HFD-fed mice exhibited increased blood glucose levels. TT treatment dramatically lowered blood glucose levels by 34.2%~43.4%, which was comparable to the antidiabetic agent-Metf (36.5%. TT-treated mice reduced the HFD-induced hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperinsulinemia, hyperleptinemia, and hypercholesterolemia. Membrane levels of GLUT4 were significantly higher in CruE-treated groups in vitro. Skeletal muscle membrane levels of GLUT4 were significantly higher in TT-treated mice. These groups of mice also displayed lower mRNA levels of glucose-6-phosphatase (G6 Pase, an inhibitor of hepatic glucose production. The combination of these agents produced a net hypoglycemic effect in TT-treated mice. TT treatment enhanced the expressions of hepatic and skeletal muscle AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK phosphorylation in mice. TT-treated mice exhibited enhanced expression of hepatic fatty acid oxidation enzymes, including peroxisome proliferator

  15. Anti-inflammatory effect of unsaturated fatty acids and Ergosta-7,22-dien-3-ol from Marthasterias glacialis: prevention of CHOP-mediated ER-stress and NF-κB activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Pereira

    Full Text Available There has been increasing awareness to the potential interest of drug discovery from marine natural products to treat several pathological conditions, including inflammation. In this work we describe the anti-inflammatory activity of several compounds present in the echinoderm Marthasterias glacialis (spiny sea-star, using the inflammatory model RAW 264.7 cells challenged with LPS. Lipidomic profiling of the organism revealed two major classes of compounds: fatty acids and sterols. Among these, the predominant compounds cis 11-eicosenoic and cis 11,14 eicosadienoic acids and the unsaturated sterol ergosta-7,22-dien-3-ol were evaluated. The mechanism of action of the compounds was distinct as they modulated different levels of the inflammation pathway. Classical inflammatory markers, such as COX-2, iNOS, IL-6 and NF-κB, were evaluated. We also studied the contribution of the CHOP pathway-mediated ER-stress to the inflammatory process. Overall, the sterol ergosta-7,22-dien-3-ol was the most active compound, however maximum activity was obtained when all compounds were tested in combination, thus suggesting a potentially synergistic activity of both classes of metabolites. This work establishes the echinoderm M. glacialis as an interesting source of anti-inflammatory molecules.

  16. Engineering robust lactic acid bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bron, P.A.; Bokhorst-van de Veen, van H.; Wels, M.; Kleerebezem, M.

    2011-01-01

    For centuries, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been industrially exploited as starter cultures in the fermentation of foods and feeds for their spoilage-preventing and flavor-enhancing characteristics. More recently, the health-promoting effects of LAB on the consumer have been widely acknowledged,

  17. Folic Acid Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... programs 2-6 . Folic acid also prevents a type of anemia called megaloblastic anemia . Some vitamins (such as vitamin ... another B vitamin – vitamin B12 – can develop a type of anemia called pernicious anemia, and eventually they might have ...

  18. [Primary and secondary prevention of erectile dysfunction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminsky, A; Sperling, H; Popken, G

    2011-10-01

    Erectile dysfunction has an incidence of up to 75% in men aged 80, thus making primary prevention really important. Aetiologically multiple reasons are responsible for erectile dysfunction; therefore, recommendations for primary prevention contain different parts. The first one is to maintain a healthy arterial system and prevent atherosclerosis. Besides that diabetes, neurogenic disturbances or mental distress should be avoided. Physical activity, balanced nutrition, nonsmoking, unsaturated fatty acids and moderate alcohol consumption are preventive. Regular erections cause oxygenation of the cavernous body and prevent fibrosis which could lead to an insufficient occlusion of the cavernous veins. If the patient already suffers from coronary heart disease or diabetes, blood pressure, pulse, blood lipids and blood sugar should be as normal as possible. Erectile dysfunction might be the primary symptom of coronary heart disease; therefore, consideration should be given to a cardiac examination in the diagnostic setting.

  19. Insulin in diabetes prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramiya, V K; Maclaren, N K

    1997-01-01

    Insulin-dependent diabetes (IDD) is a chronic immune-endocrine disease in which there is a progressive destruction of insulin-secreting pancreatic beta cells, caused primarily by autoreactive T cells. Many islet cell proteins including insulin, glutamic acid decarboxylase, and tyrosine phosphatase antigens (IA-2) are targeted by the autoimmune responses in IDD patients. Since its discovery 75 years ago, insulin has been the major player in the clinical management of hyperglycaemia in these patients. The morbidity and mortality associated with IDD derives mainly from the complications of the disease. However, routine insulin injections seldom achieve a consistent, near-normal glucose level, where multiple daily doses of the hormone involve considerable restrictions to a normal lifestyle. In terms of economics, the management of diabetes is expensive, and in the USA diabetes alone accounts for one seventh of the healthcare budget. These clinical, lifestyle and economic issues emphasize the need to investigate alternative preventative measures in IDD treatment. Recent reports suggest a pivotal role for insulin in various aspects of the immune system. In this study, insulin and B-chain were used to modulate autoimmune responses in non-obese diabetic mice, findings which have therapeutic implications in man.

  20. Nutrition and cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetè, S; Nicoletti, M; Saggini, A; Maccauro, G; Rosati, M; Conti, F; Cianchetti, E; Tripodi, D; Toniato, E; Fulcheri, M; Salini, V; Caraffa, A; Antinolfi, P; Frydas, S; Pandolfi, F; Conti, P; Potalivo, G; Theoharides, T C

    2012-01-01

    Cancer cells invade surrounding tissues and metastasize to distant sites. Diet high in fat is a strong link to, and perhaps causes, a high incidence of tumours. Trans-fatty acid might impair the function and it could be involved in the development of cancer. Cholesterol is also strongly suspected to be involved in the development of tumours, therefore it is important for everyone to eat well, especially for people with cancer to prevent the body tissues from breaking down and helping to rebuild the normal tissue that may have been affected by the treatments. Factors secreted by adipocytes and macrophages such as TNF-alpha and other inflammatory proteins are involved in inflammation in cancer. In addition, MCSF which up-regulates adipocyte tissue is also important for the stimulation of fat cell proliferation and is expressed by human adipocytes. Many cytokines, such as IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, IL-32, IL-33 and MCP-1, are biomarkers for cancer and chronic diseases along with transcription factors NFκB and AP-1; these last two factors are important bioactive substances on the molecular mechanism of the control of genes which in turn affect cellular metabolism. In this paper we revisit the interrelationship between cancer and metabolism.

  1. The combination of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and extra virgin olive oil increases mitochondrial and body metabolism and prevents CLA-associated insulin resistance and liver hypertrophy in C57Bl/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraldi, Flávia G; Vicentini, Tatiane M; Teodoro, Bruno G; Dalalio, Felipe M; Dechandt, Carlos R P; Prado, Ieda M R; Curti, Carlos; Cardoso, Fernanda C; Uyemura, Sergio A; Alberici, Luciane C

    2016-02-01

    Clinical conditions associated with obesity can be improved by daily intake of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) or extra virgin olive oil (EVOO). Here we investigated whether dietary supplementation with CLA and EVOO, either alone or in combination, changes body metabolism associated with mitochondrial energetics. Male C57Bl/6 mice were divided into one of four groups: CLA (1:1 cis-9, trans-11:trans-10, cis-12; 18:2 isomers), EVOO, CLA plus EVOO or control (linoleic acid). Each mouse received 3 g/kg body weight of the stated oil by gavage on alternating days for 60 days. Dietary supplementation with CLA, alone or in combination with EVOO: (a) reduced the white adipose tissue gain; (b) increased body VO2 consumption, VCO2 production and energy expenditure; (c) elevated uncoupling protein (UCP)-2 expression and UCP activity in isolated liver mitochondria. This organelle, when energized with NAD(+)-linked substrates, produced high amounts of H2O2 without inducing oxidative damage. Dietary supplementation with EVOO alone did not change any metabolic parameter, but supplementation with CLA itself promoted insulin resistance and elevated weight, lipid content and acetyl-CoA carboxylase-1 expression in liver. Interestingly, the in vivo antioxidant therapy with N-acetylcysteine abolished the CLA-induced rise of body metabolism and liver UCP expression and activity, while the in vitro antioxidant treatment with catalase mitigated the CLA-dependent UCP-2 expression in hepatocytes; these findings suggest the participation of an oxidative-dependent pathway. Therefore, this study clarifies the mechanisms by which CLA induces liver UCP expression and activity, and demonstrates for the first time the beneficial effects of combined CLA and EVOO supplementation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The proteosome inhibitor MG132 attenuates Retinoic Acid Receptor trans-activation and enhances trans-repression of Nuclear Factor κB. Potential relevance to chemo-preventive interventions with retinoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosier Randy N

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB is a pro-malignant transcription factor with reciprocal effects on pro-metastatic and anti-metastatic gene expression. Interestingly, NFκB blockade results in the reciprocal induction of retinoic acid receptors (RARs. Given the established property of RARs as negative regulators of malignant progression, we postulated that reciprocal interactions between NFκB and RARs constitute a signaling module in metastatic gene expression and malignant progression. Using Line 1 tumor cells as a model for signal regulation of metastatic gene expression, we investigated the reciprocal interactions between NFκB and RARs in response to the pan-RAR agonist, all-trans retinoic acid (at-RA and the pan-RAR antagonist, AGN193109. Results At-RA [0.1–1 μM] dose-dependently activated RAR and coordinately trans-repressed NFκB, while AGN193109 [1–10 μM] dose-dependently antagonized the effects of at-RA. At-RA and AGN193109 reciprocally regulate pro-metastatic matrix metalloprotease 9 (MMP 9 and its endogenous inhibitor, the tissue inhibitor of metalloprotease 1 (TIMP 1, in a manner consistent with the putative roles of NFκB and RAR in malignant progression. Activation of RAR concurs with its ubiquitination and proteosomal degradation. Accordingly, the proteosome inhibitor, MG132 [5 μM], blocked RAR degradation, quelled RAR trans-activation and enhanced RAR trans-repression of NFκB. Conclusion We conclude that reciprocal interactions between NFκB and RARs constitute a signaling module in metastatic gene expression and malignant progression and propose that the dissociative effect of proteosome inhibitors could be harnessed towards enhancing the anticancer activity of retinoids.

  3. RS4-type resistant starch prevents high-fat diet-induced obesity via increased hepatic fatty acid oxidation and decreased postprandial GIP in C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimotoyodome, Akira; Suzuki, Junko; Fukuoka, Daisuke; Tokimitsu, Ichiro; Hase, Tadashi

    2010-03-01

    Chemically modified starches (CMS) are RS4-type resistant starch, which shows a reduced availability, as well as high-amylose corn starch (HACS, RS2 type), compared with the corresponding unmodified starch. Previous studies have shown that RS4 increases fecal excretion of bile acids and reduces zinc and iron absorption in rats. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary RS4 supplementation on the development of diet-induced obesity in mice. Weight- and age-matched male C57BL/6J mice were fed for 24 wk on a high-fat diet containing unmodified starch, hydroxypropylated distarch phosphate (RS4), or HACS (RS2). Those fed the RS4 diet had significantly lower body weight and visceral fat weight than those fed either unmodified starch or the RS2 diet. Those fed the RS4 diet for 4 wk had a significantly higher hepatic fatty acid oxidation capacity and related gene expression and lower blood insulin than those fed either unmodified starch or the RS2 diet. Indirect calorimetry showed that the RS4 group exhibited higher energy expenditure and fat utilization compared with the RS2 group. When gavaged with fat (trioleate), RS4 stimulated a lower postprandial glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP; incretin) response than RS2. Higher blood GIP levels induced by chronic GIP administration reduced fat utilization in high-fat diet-fed mice. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with RS4-type resistant starch attenuates high-fat diet-induced obesity more effectively than RS2 in C57BL/6J mice, which may be attributable to lower postprandial GIP and increased fat catabolism in the liver.

  4. Associação da deficiência de ácido fólico com alterações patológicas e estratégias para sua prevenção: uma visão crítica Association between folic acid deficiency and disease and prevention strategies: a critical view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Kimi Uehara

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A deficiência de ácido fólico está associada às doenças crônicas não-transmissíveis, complicações na gestação e doenças neurodegenerativas. Objetivou-se discutir o papel do ácido fólico na prevenção de doenças, os aspectos epidemiológicos de sua deficiência, fortificação dos alimentos e suplementação medicamentosa. Realizou-se levantamento bibliográfico, consultando as bases de dados para a obtenção dos artigos completos: MedLine, SciELO, PubMed, Highwire Press e Science Direct. Foram selecionados estudos realizados com seres humanos publicados entre 2004 e 2010. O ácido fólico é importante para as reações de metilação do ácido desoxirribonucléico, prevenção da hiper-homocisteinemia e atua como antioxidante. A deficiência dessa vitamina é descrita em adolescentes, mulheres em idade fértil, gestantes e em idosos. Seu alcance pela dieta é difícil, sendo necessária a inclusão de alimentos fortificados ou suplementos. É importante avaliar o estado nutricional de ácido fólico dos indivíduos antes e após a adoção dessas estratégias, de modo a gerar subsídios para ela-boração de medidas governamentais mais adequadas e eficazes. Destacamos ainda a necessidade da reeducação nutricional para a população brasileira a fim de aumentar o consumo de alimentos fontes de ácido fólico.Folic acid deficiency is associated with non-communicable chronic diseases, pregnancy-associated complications and neurodegenerative diseases. The objective of this paper was to discuss the role of folic acid in disease prevention, the epidemiological aspects of its deficiency and food fortification and supplementation. Articles were searched in the following databases: MedLine, SciELO, PubMed, Highwire Press and Science Direct. Only original studies with humans published between 2004 and 2010 were included. Folic acid is important for DNA methylation and prevention of hyperhomocysteinemia. It also presents antioxidant

  5. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: adverse effects and their prevention.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonkeman, Harald Erwin; van de Laar, Mart A F J

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To discuss nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), their history, development, mode of action, toxicities, strategies for the prevention of toxicity, and future developments. - Methods: Medline search for articles published up to 2007, using the keywords acetylsalicylic acid,

  6. Valproic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and spinal cord and can also cause lower intelligence in babies exposed to valproic acid before birth. ... all of the prescription and nonprescription (over-the-counter) medicines you are taking, as well as any ...

  7. Carnosic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birtić, Simona; Dussort, Pierre; Pierre, François-Xavier; Bily, Antoine C; Roller, Marc

    2015-07-01

    Carnosic acid (salvin), which possesses antioxidative and antimicrobial properties, is increasingly exploited within the food, nutritional health and cosmetics industries. Since its first extraction from a Salvia species (∼70 years ago) and its identification (∼50 years ago), numerous articles and patents (∼400) have been published on specific food and medicinal applications of Rosmarinus and Salvia plant extracts abundant in carnosic acid. In contrast, relevant biochemical, physiological or molecular studies in planta have remained rare. In this overview, recent advances in understanding of carnosic acid distribution, biosynthesis, accumulation and role in planta, and its applications are summarised. We also discuss the deficiencies in our understanding of the relevant biochemical proces