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Sample records for tetrachloroethylene

  1. Tetrachloroethylene exposure and bladder cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlaanderen, Jelle; Straif, Kurt; Ruder, Avima

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 2012, the International Agency for Research on Cancer classified tetrachloroethylene, used in the production of chemicals and the primary solvent used in dry cleaning, as "probably carcinogenic to humans" based on limited evidence of an increased risk of bladder cancer in dry...... cleaners. OBJECTIVES: We assessed the epidemiological evidence for the association between tetrachloroethylene exposure and bladder cancer from published studies estimating occupational exposure to tetrachloroethylene or in workers in the dry-cleaning industry. METHODS: Random-effects meta-analyses were...... carried out separately for occupational exposure to tetrachloroethylene and employment as a dry cleaner. We qualitatively summarized exposure-response data because of the limited number of studies available. RESULTS: The meta-relative risk (mRR) among tetrachloroethylene-exposed workers was 1.08 (95% CI...

  2. Decomposition of tetrachloroethylene by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakoda, T.; Hirota, K.; Hashimoto, S.

    1998-01-01

    Decomposition of tetrachloroethylene and other chloroethenes by ionizing radiation were examined to get information on treatment of industrial off-gas. Model gases, airs containing chloroethenes, were confined in batch reactors and irradiated with electron beam and gamma ray. The G-values of decomposition were larger in the order of tetrachloro- > trichloro- > trans-dichloro- > cis-dichloro- > monochloroethylene in electron beam irradiation and tetrachloro-, trichloro-, trans-dichloro- > cis-dichloro- > monochloroethylene in gamma ray irradiation. For tetrachloro-, trichloro- and trans-dichloroethylene, G-values of decomposition in EB irradiation increased with increase of chlorine atom in a molecule, while those in gamma ray irradiation were almost kept constant. The G-value of decomposition for tetrachloroethylene in EB irradiation was the largest of those for all chloroethenes. In order to examine the effect of the initial concentration on G-value of decomposition, airs containing 300 to 1,800 ppm of tetrachloroethylene were irradiated with electron beam and gamma ray. The G-values of decomposition in both irradiation increased with the initial concentration. Those in electron beam irradiation were two times larger than those in gamma ray irradiation

  3. Exposure to tetrachloroethylene in dry cleaning shops in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Tinnerberg, Håkan; Rylander, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Tetrachloroethylene is the dominant solvent used in dry cleaning worldwide and many workers are potentially exposed. We report here on results of 1296 measurements of tetrachloroethylene undertaken in Nordic dry cleaning shops 1947-2001.......Tetrachloroethylene is the dominant solvent used in dry cleaning worldwide and many workers are potentially exposed. We report here on results of 1296 measurements of tetrachloroethylene undertaken in Nordic dry cleaning shops 1947-2001....

  4. Reductive Dechlorination of Trichloroethylene and Tetrachloroethylene under Aerobic Conditions in a Sediment Column

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    Biodegradation of trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene under aerobic conditions was studied in a sediment column. Cumulative mass balances indicated 87 and 90% removal for trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene, respectively. These studies suggest the potential for simultaneous aerobic and anaerobic biotransformation processes under bulk aerobic conditions.

  5. Anaerobic degradation of tetrachloroethylene; Anaerober Abbau von Tetrachlorethylen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diekert, G [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Mikrobiologie; Scholz-Muramatsu, H [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Siedlungswasserbau

    1997-12-31

    Dehalospirillum multivorans, a tetrachloroethylene-dechlorinating bacterium, was isolated in activated sludge. This organism is able to grow on a defined medium with hydrogen and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) as its only energy source. The organism was characterised and the physiology of dechlorination was studied. In this process PCE is dechlorinated to cis-1,2-dichloroethene (DCE) via trichloroethene (TCE). A fluidized-bed reactor which reduces PCE to DCE at a high rate (15 nmol/min/mg of protein at 5 {mu}M PCE) was inoculated with the bacterium. Meanwhile a reactor inoculated with D. multivorans and a fully dechlorinating mixed culture has become available which catalyses the complete dechlorination of PCE to ethene at just as high rates. Tetrachloroethene dehalogenase was purified from D. multivorans (unpublished results) and characterised. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Aus Belebtschlamm wurde ein Tetrachlorethen-dechlorierendes Bakterium, Dehalospirillum multivorans, isoliert. Der Organismus waechst auf definiertem Medium mit Wasserstoff und Tetrachlorethen (PCE) als einziger Energiequelle. Der Organismus wurde charakterisiert und die Physiologie der Dechlorierung wurde untersucht. PCE wird dabei ueber Trichlorethen (TCE) bis zum cis-1,2-Dichlorethen (DCE) dechloriert. Mit diesem Bakterium wurde ein Wirbelschichtreaktor inokuliert, der mit hohen Raten (15 nmol/min/mg Protein bei 5 {mu}M PCE) PCE zu DCE reduziert. Inzwischen steht ein Reaktor zur Verfuegung, der mit D. multivorans und einer voellig dechlorierenden Mischkultur inokuliert wurde und der mit ebenso hohen Raten eine vollstaendige Dechlorierung von PCE bis zum Ethen katalysiert. Aus D. multivorans wurde die Tetrachlorethen-Dehalogenase gereinigt (unveroeffentlichte Ergebnisse) und charakterisiert. (orig./SR)

  6. Anaerobic degradation of tetrachloroethylene; Anaerober Abbau von Tetrachlorethylen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diekert, G. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Mikrobiologie; Scholz-Muramatsu, H. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Siedlungswasserbau

    1996-12-31

    Dehalospirillum multivorans, a tetrachloroethylene-dechlorinating bacterium, was isolated in activated sludge. This organism is able to grow on a defined medium with hydrogen and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) as its only energy source. The organism was characterised and the physiology of dechlorination was studied. In this process PCE is dechlorinated to cis-1,2-dichloroethene (DCE) via trichloroethene (TCE). A fluidized-bed reactor which reduces PCE to DCE at a high rate (15 nmol/min/mg of protein at 5 {mu}M PCE) was inoculated with the bacterium. Meanwhile a reactor inoculated with D. multivorans and a fully dechlorinating mixed culture has become available which catalyses the complete dechlorination of PCE to ethene at just as high rates. Tetrachloroethene dehalogenase was purified from D. multivorans (unpublished results) and characterised. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Aus Belebtschlamm wurde ein Tetrachlorethen-dechlorierendes Bakterium, Dehalospirillum multivorans, isoliert. Der Organismus waechst auf definiertem Medium mit Wasserstoff und Tetrachlorethen (PCE) als einziger Energiequelle. Der Organismus wurde charakterisiert und die Physiologie der Dechlorierung wurde untersucht. PCE wird dabei ueber Trichlorethen (TCE) bis zum cis-1,2-Dichlorethen (DCE) dechloriert. Mit diesem Bakterium wurde ein Wirbelschichtreaktor inokuliert, der mit hohen Raten (15 nmol/min/mg Protein bei 5 {mu}M PCE) PCE zu DCE reduziert. Inzwischen steht ein Reaktor zur Verfuegung, der mit D. multivorans und einer voellig dechlorierenden Mischkultur inokuliert wurde und der mit ebenso hohen Raten eine vollstaendige Dechlorierung von PCE bis zum Ethen katalysiert. Aus D. multivorans wurde die Tetrachlorethen-Dehalogenase gereinigt (unveroeffentlichte Ergebnisse) und charakterisiert. (orig./SR)

  7. Reductive dechlorination of trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene under aerobic conditions in a sediment column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enzien, M.V.; Picardal, F.; Hazen, T.

    1994-01-01

    This study investigated the bioremediation of chlorinated solvents in a sediment column. Biodegradation potentials of trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene during aerobic methanotrophic biostimulation were studied at the Savannah River Site. 30 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  8. Indoor tetrachloroethylene levels and determinants in Paris dwellings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roda, Célina; Kousignian, Isabelle; Ramond, Anna; Momas, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    There is growing public health concern about indoor air quality. Tetrachloroethylene (PERC), a chlorinated volatile organic compound widely used as a solvent in dry cleaning facilities, can be a residential indoor air pollutant. As part of an environmental investigation included in the PARIS (Pollution and asthma Risk: an Infant Study) birth cohort, this study firstly aimed to document domestic PERC levels, and then to identify the factors influencing these levels using standardized questionnaires about housing characteristics and living conditions. Air samples were collected in the child's bedroom over one week using passive devices when infants were 1, 6, 9, and 12 months. PERC was identified and quantified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. PERC annual domestic level was calculated by averaging seasonal levels. PERC was omnipresent indoors, annual levels ranged from 0.6 to 124.2 μg/m3. Multivariate linear and logistic regression models showed that proximity to dry cleaning facilities, do-it-yourself activities (e.g.: photographic development, silverware), presence of air vents, and building construction date (<1945) were responsible for higher domestic levels of PERC. This study, conducted in an urban context, provides helpful information on PERC contamination in dwellings, and identifies parameters influencing this contamination. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Radiation-induced degradation of trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene in drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehringer, P.; Proksch, E.; Szinovatz, W.

    1984-10-01

    The γ-radiation degradation of trace amounts (70-440 ppb) of trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene in drinking water has been investigated. The doses necessary to reduce the pollutant concentration to 1 ppb are in the order of 1kGy. (Author)

  10. DNA damage detected by the alkaline comet assay in the liver of mice after oral administration of tetrachloroethylene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cederberg, H.; Henriksson, J.; Binderup, Mona-Lise

    2010-01-01

    in hepatocytes, indicating that tetrachloroethylene induced DNA damage in the liver. No effect on DNA damage was observed in the kidney. The results are in agreement with carcinogenicity data in mice, in which tetrachloroethylene induced tumours in the liver but not in the kidney, and support that a genotoxic...... mode of action might be involved in liver carcinogenicity in mice. An alternative interpretation of the results conveyed by the Study director at the test facility, involving that tetrachloroethylene did not induce DNA damage in the liver and kidney of mice, is also presented and discussed....

  11. Biological reductive dechlorination of tetrachloroethylene and trichloroethylene to ethylene under methanogenic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedman, D.L.; Gossett, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    A biological process for remediation of groundwater contaminated with tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE) can only be applied if the transformation products are environmentally acceptable. Studies with enrichment cultures of PCE- and TCE-degrading microorganisms provide evidence that, under methanogenic conditions, mixed cultures are able to completely dechlorinate PCE and TCE to ethylene, a product which is environmentally acceptable. Radiotracer studies with [ 14 C]PCE indicated that [ 14 C]ethylene was the terminal product; significant conversion to 14 CO 2 or 14 CH 4 was not observed. The rate-limiting step in the pathway appeared to be conversion of vinyl chloride to ethylene. To sustain reductive dechlorination of PCE and TCE, it was necessary to supply an electron donor; methanol was the most effective, although hydrogen, formate, acetate, and glucose also served. Studies with the inhibitor 2-bromoethanesulfonate suggested that methanogens played a key role in the observed biotransformations of PCE and TCE

  12. Integrating address geocoding, land use regression, and spatiotemporal geostatistical estimation for groundwater tetrachloroethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messier, Kyle P; Akita, Yasuyuki; Serre, Marc L

    2012-03-06

    Geographic information systems (GIS) based techniques are cost-effective and efficient methods used by state agencies and epidemiology researchers for estimating concentration and exposure. However, budget limitations have made statewide assessments of contamination difficult, especially in groundwater media. Many studies have implemented address geocoding, land use regression, and geostatistics independently, but this is the first to examine the benefits of integrating these GIS techniques to address the need of statewide exposure assessments. A novel framework for concentration exposure is introduced that integrates address geocoding, land use regression (LUR), below detect data modeling, and Bayesian Maximum Entropy (BME). A LUR model was developed for tetrachloroethylene that accounts for point sources and flow direction. We then integrate the LUR model into the BME method as a mean trend while also modeling below detects data as a truncated Gaussian probability distribution function. We increase available PCE data 4.7 times from previously available databases through multistage geocoding. The LUR model shows significant influence of dry cleaners at short ranges. The integration of the LUR model as mean trend in BME results in a 7.5% decrease in cross validation mean square error compared to BME with a constant mean trend.

  13. Biotransformation of tetrachloroethylene to trichloroethylene, dichloroethylene, vinyl chloride, and carbon dioxide under methanogenic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, T.M.; McCarty, P.L.

    1985-01-01

    Tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE), common industrial solvents, are among the most frequent contaminants found in groundwater supplies. Due to the potential toxicity and carcinogenicity of chlorinated ethylenes, knowledge about their transformation potential is important in evaluating their environmental fate. The results of this study confirm that PCE can be transformed by reductive dehalogenation to TCE, dichloroethylene, and vinyl chloride (VC) under anaerobic conditions. In addition, [ 14 C]PCE was at least partially mineralized to CO 2 . Mineralization of 24% of the PCE occurred in a continuous-flow fixed-film methanogenic column with a liquid detention time of 4 days. TCE was the major intermediate formed, but traces of dichloroethylene isomers and VC were also found. In other column studies under a different set of methanogenic conditions, nearly quantitative conversion of PCE to VC was found. These studies clearly demonstrate that TCE and VC are major intermediates in PCE biotransformation under anaerobic conditions and suggest that the potential exists for the complete mineralization of PCE to CO 2 in soil and aquifer systems and in biological treatment processes

  14. Removal of tetrachloroethylene from fine-grained soils by electrokinetic processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steger, H.; Zorn, R.; Haus, R.; Czurda, K. [Dept. of Applied Geology, Karlsruhe Univ. (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the mobilization of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) by a bench scale experiment in a naturally contaminated, undisturbed soil core of a fine-grained valley deposit, which was taken on a factory site in Germany. In order to regard the physico-chemical properties of PCE the experiment was carried out in an especially developed laboratory cell. In the beginning of the bench scale test natural in situ temperature conditions of 9 C were simulated in the sample by using an external, infinitely variable cooling. After 6 days the cooling was switched off. During the cooling period the electroosmotic permeability was about 1.5-2 times lower than under laboratory conditions. After 3.5 displaced pore volumes almost all PCE was removed out of the soil. Furthermore, no significant degradation reaction of PCE to trichloroethylene (TCE), cis-1,2-dichloroethene, trans-1,2 dichloroethene and 1,1 dichloroethene took place. A variation in the mineralogical composition was determined, due to the production of hydronium ions and hydroxide ions by electrolyse reactions at the electrodes. At the anode region carbonate was dissolved and at the cathode region calcium and magnesium hydroxide precipitated. (orig.)

  15. Biological exposure assessment to tetrachloroethylene for workers in the dry cleaning industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley David L

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of conducting biological tetrachloroethylene (perchloroethylene, PCE exposure assessments of dry cleaning employees in conjunction with evaluation of possible PCE health effects. Methods Eighteen women from four dry cleaning facilities in southwestern Ohio were monitored in a pilot study of workers with PCE exposure. Personal breathing zone samples were collected from each employee on two consecutive work days. Biological monitoring included a single measurement of PCE in blood and multiple measurements of pre- and post-shift PCE in exhaled breath and trichloroacetic acid (TCA in urine. Results Post-shift PCE in exhaled breath gradually increased throughout the work week. Statistically significant correlations were observed among the exposure indices. Decreases in PCE in exhaled breath and TCA in urine were observed after two days without exposure to PCE. A mixed-effects model identified statistically significant associations between PCE in exhaled breath and airborne PCE time weighted average (TWA after adjusting for a random participant effect and fixed effects of time and body mass index. Conclusion Although comprehensive, our sampling strategy was challenging to implement due to fluctuating work schedules and the number (pre- and post-shift on three consecutive days and multiplicity (air, blood, exhaled breath, and urine of samples collected. PCE in blood is the preferred biological index to monitor exposures, but may make recruitment difficult. PCE TWA sampling is an appropriate surrogate, although more field intensive. Repeated measures of exposure and mixed-effects modeling may be required for future studies due to high within-subject variability. Workers should be monitored over a long enough period of time to allow the use of a lag term.

  16. Determination of tetrachloroethylene and other volatile halogenated organic compounds in oil wastes by headspace SPME GC-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabbri, D.; Bezzi, R.; Torri, C.; Galletti, P.; Tagliavini, E. [Bologna Univ., Ravenna (Italy). Lab. of Chemistry, C.I.R.S.A

    2007-09-15

    Oil wastes and slops are complex mixtures of hydrocarbons, which may contain a variety of contaminants including tetrachloroethylene (perchloroethylene, PCE) and other volatile halogenated organic compounds (VHOCs). The analytical determination of PCE at trace levels in petroleum-derived matrices is difficult to carry out in the presence of large amounts of hydrocarbon matrix components. In the following study, we demonstrate that headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) combined with GC-MS analysis can be applied for the rapid measurement of PCE concentration in oil samples. The HS-SPME method was developed using liquid paraffin as matrix matching reference material for external and internal calibration and optimisation of experimental parameters. The limit of quantitation was 0.05 mg kg{sup -1}, and linearity was established up to 25 mg kg{sup -1}. The HS-SPME method was extended to several VHOCs, including trichloroethylene (TCE) in different matrices and was applied to the quantitative analysis of PCE and TCE in real samples.

  17. To postpone the precipitation of manganese oxides in the degradation of tetrachloroethylene by controlling the permanganate concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weiwei; Qiu, Zhaofu; Zhao, Zhexuan; Lu, Shuguang; Sui, Qian; Gu, Xiaogang

    2017-01-01

    Controlled-release permanganate (CRP) is a relatively new technology used to treat contaminated groundwater. This study tested the encapsulation of permanganate using stearic acid to realize controlled-release properties. Batch experiments were conducted to investigate the performance of manganese oxides (MnO 2 ) in the reaction between CRP and the contaminant of interest: tetrachloroethylene (PCE). The results showed that higher ionic strengths (I = 0.1 mol/L) cause earlier precipitation of MnO 2 colloids. Using CRP to degrade PCE could decrease the amount of MnO 2 colloids produced and postpone precipitation compared to raw potassium permanganate (KMnO 4 ) under high ionic strength conditions by controlling the KMnO 4 concentration in the solution. The amount of MnO 2 colloids produced and the time of precipitation depended more on the CRP grain size than on the CRP mass ratio. Controlling the KMnO 4 concentration used in the reaction could control the formation of MnO 2 precipitates in the premise of guarantee the removal rate of PCE.

  18. Tetrachloroethylene Removal Rate from Aqueous Solutions by Pumice Doped with Copper: An Evaluation of the Effect of pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Almasi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Tetrachloroethylene (TCE is a chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbon, used in many industries. Effective and efficient treatment of industrial wastewater, containing TCE, is one of the environmental requirements. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of alkaline environments in TCE removal rate from aqueous solutions, using copper-doped pumice. This experimental study was performed, using granulated pumice stones with a mesh 4 (8.4 mm in alkaline conditions; the samples were coated with copper. Copper-doped pumice was prepared as a bed at doses of 1, 2, and 3 g/L; the study was performed at pH ranges of 3, 7, and 11. Based on the results, copper-doped pumice showed good efficacy in TCE removal; in addition, its performance increased in alkaline conditions. Therefore, use of this stone for the treatment of wastewater, containing TCE, is effective due to its availability and low cost. Besides, it can be considered a good option, given its high efficiency in the absorption process.

  19. Evaluation of the Webler-Brown model for estimating tetrachloroethylene exposure from vinyl-lined asbestos-cement pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heeren Timothy C

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background From May 1968 through March 1980, vinyl-lined asbestos-cement (VL/AC water distribution pipes were installed in New England to avoid taste and odor problems associated with asbestos-cement pipes. The vinyl resin was applied to the inner pipe surface in a solution of tetrachloroethylene (perchloroethylene, PCE. Substantial amounts of PCE remained in the liner and subsequently leached into public drinking water supplies. Methods Once aware of the leaching problem and prior to remediation (April-November 1980, Massachusetts regulators collected drinking water samples from VL/AC pipes to determine the extent and severity of the PCE contamination. This study compares newly obtained historical records of PCE concentrations in water samples (n = 88 with concentrations estimated using an exposure model employed in epidemiologic studies on the cancer risk associated with PCE-contaminated drinking water. The exposure model was developed by Webler and Brown to estimate the mass of PCE delivered to subjects' residences. Results The mean and median measured PCE concentrations in the water samples were 66 and 0.5 μg/L, respectively, and the range extended from non-detectable to 2432 μg/L. The model-generated concentration estimates and water sample concentrations were moderately correlated (Spearman rank correlation coefficient = 0.48, p Conclusion PCE concentration estimates generated using the Webler-Brown model were moderately correlated with measured water concentrations. The present analysis suggests that the exposure assessment process used in prior epidemiological studies could be improved with more accurate characterization of water flow. This study illustrates one method of validating an exposure model in an epidemiological study when historical measurements are not available.

  20. Synergistic effect of nano-sized mackinawite with cyano-cobalamin in cement slurries for reductive dechlorination of tetrachloroethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyung, Daeseung [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34141 (Korea, Republic of); Sihn, Youngho [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34141 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sangwoo [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34141 (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Sungjun [Department of Environmental Engineering, Konkuk University, 120 Neungdong-ro, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 05029 (Korea, Republic of); Amin, Muhammad Tahir; Alazba, Abdulrahman Ali [Alamoudi Water Chair, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Lee, Woojin, E-mail: woojin_lee@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34141 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-05

    Highlights: • Complete degradation of PCE was observed in nFeS-Cbl(III)-cement at pH 12. • PCE was completely degraded to non-chlorinated organic compounds by this system. • Co redox couple and Ca species in cement played a pivotal role for PCE reduction. • Increases in Cbl(III) concentration, cement ratio, and pH enhanced PCE degradation. • Efficiency of the system for PCE reduction was good even at high concentration of PCE. - Abstract: Experiments were conducted to investigate the reductive dechlorination of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) by nano-Mackinawite (nFeS) with cyano-cobalamin (Cbl(III)) in cement slurries. Almost complete degradation of PCE by nFeS-Cbl(III) was observed in cement slurries in 5 h and its degradation kinetics (k{sub obs-PCE} = 0.57 h{sup −1}) was 6-times faster than that of nFeS-Cbl(III) without the cement slurries. PCE was finally transformed to non-chlorinated organic compounds such as ethylene, acetylene, and C3-C4 hydrocarbons by nFeS-Cbl(III) in cement slurries. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and PCE degradation by cement components (SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and CaO) revealed that both the reduced Co species in Cbl(III) and the presence of Ca in cement played an important role for the enhanced reductive dechlorination of PCE. The increase in the concentration of Cbl(III) (0.005–0.1 mM), cement ratio (0.05–0.2), and suspension pH (11.5–13.5) accelerated the PCE degradation kinetics by providing more favorable environments for the production of reactive Ca species and reduction of Co species. We also observed that the degradation efficiency of PCE by nFeS-Cbl(III)-cement lasted even at high concentration of PCE. The experimental results obtained from this study could provide fundamental knowledge of redox interactions among nFeS, Cbl(III), and cement, which could significantly enhance reductive dechlorination of chlorinated organics in contaminated natural and engineered environments.

  1. Synergistic effect of nano-sized mackinawite with cyano-cobalamin in cement slurries for reductive dechlorination of tetrachloroethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyung, Daeseung; Sihn, Youngho; Kim, Sangwoo; Bae, Sungjun; Amin, Muhammad Tahir; Alazba, Abdulrahman Ali; Lee, Woojin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Complete degradation of PCE was observed in nFeS-Cbl(III)-cement at pH 12. • PCE was completely degraded to non-chlorinated organic compounds by this system. • Co redox couple and Ca species in cement played a pivotal role for PCE reduction. • Increases in Cbl(III) concentration, cement ratio, and pH enhanced PCE degradation. • Efficiency of the system for PCE reduction was good even at high concentration of PCE. - Abstract: Experiments were conducted to investigate the reductive dechlorination of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) by nano-Mackinawite (nFeS) with cyano-cobalamin (Cbl(III)) in cement slurries. Almost complete degradation of PCE by nFeS-Cbl(III) was observed in cement slurries in 5 h and its degradation kinetics (k_o_b_s_-_P_C_E = 0.57 h"−"1) was 6-times faster than that of nFeS-Cbl(III) without the cement slurries. PCE was finally transformed to non-chlorinated organic compounds such as ethylene, acetylene, and C3-C4 hydrocarbons by nFeS-Cbl(III) in cement slurries. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and PCE degradation by cement components (SiO_2, Al_2O_3, and CaO) revealed that both the reduced Co species in Cbl(III) and the presence of Ca in cement played an important role for the enhanced reductive dechlorination of PCE. The increase in the concentration of Cbl(III) (0.005–0.1 mM), cement ratio (0.05–0.2), and suspension pH (11.5–13.5) accelerated the PCE degradation kinetics by providing more favorable environments for the production of reactive Ca species and reduction of Co species. We also observed that the degradation efficiency of PCE by nFeS-Cbl(III)-cement lasted even at high concentration of PCE. The experimental results obtained from this study could provide fundamental knowledge of redox interactions among nFeS, Cbl(III), and cement, which could significantly enhance reductive dechlorination of chlorinated organics in contaminated natural and engineered environments.

  2. Distributions and sea-to-air fluxes of chloroform, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, chlorodibromomethane and bromoform in the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea during spring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Zhen; Yang, Gui-Peng; Lu, Xiao-Lan; Zhang, Hong-Hai

    2013-01-01

    Halocarbons including chloroform (CHCl 3 ), trichloroethylene (C 2 HCl 3 ), tetrachloroethylene (C 2 Cl 4 ), chlorodibromomethane (CHBr 2 Cl) and bromoform (CHBr 3 ) were measured in the Yellow Sea (YS) and the East China Sea (ECS) during spring 2011. The influences of chlorophyll a, salinity and nutrients on the distributions of these gases were examined. Elevated levels of these gases in the coastal waters were attributed to anthropogenic inputs and biological release by phytoplankton. The vertical distributions of these gases in the water column were controlled by different source strengths and water masses. Using atmospheric concentrations measured in spring 2012 and seawater concentrations obtained from this study, the sea-to-air fluxes of these gases were estimated. Our results showed that the emissions of C 2 HCl 3 , C 2 Cl 4, CHBr 2 Cl, and CHBr 3 from the study area could account for 16.5%, 10.5%, 14.6%, and 3.5% of global oceanic emissions, respectively, indicating that the coastal shelf may contribute significantly to the global oceanic emissions of these gases. -- Highlights: ► Distributions of the VHCs were studied in the YS and the ECS. ► Elevated levels of VHCs were related to terrestrial input from the Yangtze River. ► Biogenic production from diatoms was an important source of the VHCs. ► Shelf seas could significantly contribute to the global oceanic VHCs emission. -- The elevated levels of the volatile halocarbons in the coastal waters were attributed to anthropogenic inputs and biological release by phytoplankton (e.g., diatoms)

  3. Risk of breast cancer following exposure to tetrachloroethylene-contaminated drinking water in Cape Cod, Massachusetts: reanalysis of a case-control study using a modified exposure assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Webster Thomas F

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tetrachloroethylene (PCE is an important occupational chemical used in metal degreasing and drycleaning and a prevalent drinking water contaminant. Exposure often occurs with other chemicals but it occurred alone in a pattern that reduced the likelihood of confounding in a unique scenario on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. We previously found a small to moderate increased risk of breast cancer among women with the highest exposures using a simple exposure model. We have taken advantage of technical improvements in publically available software to incorporate a more sophisticated determination of water flow and direction to see if previous results were robust to more accurate exposure assessment. Methods The current analysis used PCE exposure estimates generated with the addition of water distribution modeling software (EPANET 2.0 to test model assumptions, compare exposure distributions to prior methods, and re-examine the risk of breast cancer. In addition, we applied data smoothing to examine nonlinear relationships between breast cancer and exposure. We also compared a set of measured PCE concentrations in water samples collected in 1980 to modeled estimates. Results Thirty-nine percent of individuals considered unexposed in prior epidemiological analyses were considered exposed using the current method, but mostly at low exposure levels. As a result, the exposure distribution was shifted downward resulting in a lower value for the 90th percentile, the definition of "high exposure" in prior analyses. The current analyses confirmed a modest increase in the risk of breast cancer for women with high PCE exposure levels defined by either the 90th percentile (adjusted ORs 1.0-1.5 for 0-19 year latency assumptions or smoothing analysis cut point (adjusted ORs 1.3-2.0 for 0-15 year latency assumptions. Current exposure estimates had a higher correlation with PCE concentrations in water samples (Spearman correlation coefficient = 0.65, p

  4. Simultaneous Transformation of Commingled Trichloroethylene, Tetrachloroethylene, and 1,4-Dioxane by a Microbially Driven Fenton Reaction in Batch Liquid Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekar, Ramanan; Taillefert, Martial

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Improper disposal of 1,4-dioxane and the chlorinated organic solvents trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (also known as perchloroethylene [PCE]) has resulted in widespread contamination of soil and groundwater. In the present study, a previously designed microbially driven Fenton reaction system was reconfigured to generate hydroxyl (HO˙) radicals for simultaneous transformation of source zone levels of single, binary, and ternary mixtures of TCE, PCE, and 1,4-dioxane. The reconfigured Fenton reaction system was driven by fed batch cultures of the Fe(III)-reducing facultative anaerobe Shewanella oneidensis amended with lactate, Fe(III), and contaminants and exposed to alternating anaerobic and aerobic conditions. To avoid contaminant loss due to volatility, the Fe(II)-generating, hydrogen peroxide-generating, and contaminant transformation phases of the microbially driven Fenton reaction system were separated. The reconfigured Fenton reaction system transformed TCE, PCE, and 1,4-dioxane either as single contaminants or as binary and ternary mixtures. In the presence of equimolar concentrations of PCE and TCE, the ratio of the experimentally derived rates of PCE and TCE transformation was nearly identical to the ratio of the corresponding HO˙ radical reaction rate constants. The reconfigured Fenton reaction system may be applied as an ex situ platform for simultaneous degradation of commingled TCE, PCE, and 1,4-dioxane and provides valuable information for future development of in situ remediation technologies. IMPORTANCE A microbially driven Fenton reaction system [driven by the Fe(III)-reducing facultative anaerobe S. oneidensis] was reconfigured to transform source zone levels of TCE, PCE, and 1,4-dioxane as single contaminants or as binary and ternary mixtures. The microbially driven Fenton reaction may thus be applied as an ex situ platform for simultaneous degradation of at least three (and potentially more) commingled contaminants

  5. Affinity for risky behaviors following prenatal and early childhood exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE-contaminated drinking water: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aschengrau Ann

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies of adults with acute and chronic solvent exposure have shown adverse effects on cognition, behavior and mood. No prior study has investigated the long-term impact of prenatal and early childhood exposure to the solvent tetrachloroethylene (PCE on the affinity for risky behaviors, defined as smoking, drinking or drug use as a teen or adult. Objectives This retrospective cohort study examined whether early life exposure to PCE-contaminated drinking water influenced the occurrence of cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and drug use among adults from Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Methods Eight hundred and thirty-one subjects with prenatal and early childhood PCE exposure and 547 unexposed subjects were studied. Participants completed questionnaires to gather information on risky behaviors as a teenager and young adult, demographic characteristics, other sources of solvent exposure, and residences from birth through 1990. PCE exposure was estimated using the U.S. EPA's water distribution system modeling software (EPANET that was modified to incorporate a leaching and transport model to estimate PCE exposures from pipe linings. Results Individuals who were highly exposed to PCE-contaminated drinking water during gestation and early childhood experienced 50-60% increases in the risk of using two or more major illicit drugs as a teenager or as an adult (Relative Risk (RR for teen use = 1.6, 95% CI: 1.2-2.2; and RR for adult use = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.2-1.9. Specific drugs for which increased risks were observed included crack/cocaine, psychedelics/hallucinogens, club/designer drugs, Ritalin without a prescription, and heroin (RRs:1.4-2.1. Thirty to 60% increases in the risk of certain smoking and drinking behaviors were also seen among highly exposed subjects. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that risky behaviors, particularly drug use, are more frequent among adults with high PCE exposure levels during gestation

  6. Long-term Neurotoxic Effects of Early-life Exposure to Tetrachloroethylene-contaminated Drinking Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschengrau, Ann; Janulewicz, Patricia A; White, Roberta F; Vieira, Veronica M; Gallagher, Lisa G; Getz, Kelly D; Webster, Thomas F; Ozonoff, David M

    2016-01-01

    Tetrachloroethene (PCE) is a common environmental and occupational contaminant and an acknowledged neurotoxicant. From 1968 through 1983, widespread contamination of public drinking water supplies with PCE occurred in the Cape Cod region of Massachusetts. The source of the contamination was a vinyl liner applied to the inner surface of water distribution pipes. A retrospective cohort study (the Cape Cod Health Study) was undertaken to examine possible health consequences of early-life exposure to PCE-contaminated drinking water. This review describes the study methods and findings regarding the effects of prenatal and childhood exposure on neurologic outcomes during early adulthood, including vision, neuropsychological functioning, brain structure, risky behaviors, and mental illness. The review also describes the strengths and challenges of conducting population-based epidemiologic research in this unique setting. Participants were identified by cross-matching birth certificates and water system data. Information on health outcomes and confounding variables was collected from self-administered surveys (n = 1689), neuropsychological tests (n = 63), vision examinations (n = 63), and magnetic resonance imaging (n = 42). Early-life exposure to PCE was estimated using a leaching and transport model. The data analysis compared the occurrence of each health outcome among individuals with prenatal and early childhood PCE exposure to unexposed individuals while considering the effect of confounding variables. The study found evidence that early-life exposure to PCE-contaminated drinking water has long-term neurotoxic effects. The strongest associations were seen with illicit drug use, bipolar disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Key strengths of the study were availability of historical data on affected water systems, a relatively high exposure prevalence and wide range of exposure levels, and little confounding. Challenges arose mainly from the historical nature of the exposure assessments. The Cape Cod Health Study demonstrates how scientists can take advantage of unique "natural experiments" to learn about the health effects of environmental pollution. This body of work has improved our understanding of the long-term health effects of early-life exposure to this common environmental contaminant and will help risk assessors and policymakers ensure that drinking water supplies in the United States are safe for vulnerable populations. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Characterization of Chloroethylene Dehalogenation by Cell Extracts of Desulfomonile tiedjei and Its Relationship to Chlorobenzoate Dehalogenation

    OpenAIRE

    Townsend, G. T.; Suflita, J. M.

    1996-01-01

    We characterized the reductive dehalogenation of tetrachloroethylene in cell extracts of Desulfomonile tiedjei and compared it with this organism's 3-chlorobenzoate dehalogenation activity. Tetrachloroethylene was sequentially dehalogenated to trichloro- and dichloroethylene; there was no evidence for dichloroethylene dehalogenation. Like the previously characterized 3-chlorobenzoate dehalogenation activity, tetrachloroethylene dehalogenation was heat sensitive, not oxygen labile, and increas...

  8. 76 FR 60777 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    ... that contained the remains of laboratory and production samples, distillation tars, and waste solvents..., chlorobenzene, ethylbenzene, xylene, o-dichlorobenzene, tetrachloroethylene, and trichloroethylene. The Site...

  9. Multiphase flow and enhanced biodegradation of dense non-aqueous phase liquids. Geologica Ultraiectina (303)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langevoort, M.

    2009-01-01

    Soil and groundwater pollution by chlorinated solvents, such as tetrachloroethylene (PCE) are common throughout the industrialized world. These so called DNAPLs pose environmental health risks and sites contaminated with DNAPLs often require remediation. One of the most effective and economically

  10. MICROEMULSION OF MIXED CHLORINATED SOLVENTS USING FOOD GRADE (EDIBLE) SURFACTANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ground water contamination frequently consists of mixed chlorinated solvents [e.g., tetrachloroethylene (PCE), trichloroethylene (TCE), and trans-1,2- dichloroethylene (DCE)]. In this research, mixtures of the food grade (edible) surfactants bis(2-ethylhexyl) sodium sulfosuccinat...

  11. IMPACT OF COSOLVENT FLUSHING ON SUBSURFACE MICROBIAL ECOLOGY AT THE FORMER SAGE'S DRY CLEANER SITE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Solvent Extraction Residual Biotreatment (SERB) technology was evaluated at the former Sage's Dry Cleaner site in Jacksonville, FL where an area of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) contamination was identified. The SERB technology is a treatment train approach to complete site rest...

  12. MULTIDISCIPLINARY APPROACH TO TOXICOLOGICAL SCREENING: I. SYSTEMIC TOXICITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The toxicity of 10 chemicals (carbaryl, carbon tetrachloride, chlordane, ethylhexylphthalate, dichloromethane, heptachlor, phenol, tetrachloroethylene, triadimefon, and trichloroethylene were examined in the liver, kidney, spleen, thymus, and adrenal of female F-344 rats. cute le...

  13. IN-PLACE REGENERATION OF SVE LOADED GAC USING FENTON'S REAGENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten out of the 25 most frequently detected groundwater contaminants at hazardous waste sites are chlorinated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) 1 . Trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) are among the top three 1 . Granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption is w...

  14. Characterization of Chloroethylene Dehalogenation by Cell Extracts of Desulfomonile tiedjei and Its Relationship to Chlorobenzoate Dehalogenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, G. T.; Suflita, J. M.

    1996-01-01

    We characterized the reductive dehalogenation of tetrachloroethylene in cell extracts of Desulfomonile tiedjei and compared it with this organism's 3-chlorobenzoate dehalogenation activity. Tetrachloroethylene was sequentially dehalogenated to trichloro- and dichloroethylene; there was no evidence for dichloroethylene dehalogenation. Like the previously characterized 3-chlorobenzoate dehalogenation activity, tetrachloroethylene dehalogenation was heat sensitive, not oxygen labile, and increased in proportion to the amount of protein in assay mixtures. In addition, both dehalogenation activities were dependent on hydrogen or formate as an electron donor and had an absolute requirement for either methyl viologen or triquat as an electron carrier in vitro. Both activities appear to be catalyzed by integral membrane proteins with similar solubilization characteristics. Dehalogenation of tetrachloroethylene was inhibited by 3-chlorobenzoate but not by the structural isomers 2- and 4-chlorobenzoate. The last two compounds are not substrates for D. tiedjei. These findings lead us to suggest that the dehalogenation of tetrachloroethylene in D. tiedjei is catalyzed by a dehalogenase previously thought to be specific for meta-halobenzoates. PMID:16535377

  15. Nonequilibrium capillarity effects in two?phase flow through porous media at different scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bottero, S.; Hassanizadeh, S.M.; Kleingeld, P.J.; Heimovaara, T.J.

    2011-01-01

    A series of primary drainage experiments was carried out in order to investigate nonequilibrium capillarity effects in two?phase flow through porous media. Experiments were performed with tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and water as immiscible fluids in a sand column 21 cm long. Four drainage experiments

  16. Nonequilibrium capillarity effects in two-phase flow through porous media at different scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bottero, S.; Hassanizadeh, S.M.; Kleingeld, P.J.; Heimovaara, T.J.

    2011-01-01

    A series of primary drainage experiments was carried out in order to investigate nonequilibrium capillarity effects in two-phase flow through porous media. Experiments were performed with tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and water as immiscible fluids in a sand column 21 cm long. Four drainage experiments

  17. Determination of adsorption isotherms of chlorinated hydrocarbons on halloysite adsorbent by inverse gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czech, K; Słomkiewicz, P M

    2013-05-03

    Inverse gas chromatographic methods of isotherm determination peak maximum (PM) and peak division (PD) were compared. These methods were applied to determine adsorption isotherms of dichloroethylene, trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene on acid-activated halloysite and adsorption enthalpy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Copper-mediated reductive dechlorination by green rust intercalated with dodecanoate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Lizhi; Yin, Zhou; Cooper, Nicola G.A.

    2018-01-01

    A layered FeII-FeIII hydroxide (green rust, GR) was intercalated with dodecanoate (known as GRC12) and then amended with CuII (GRC12(Cu)) before reaction with chloroform (CF), carbon tetrachloride (CT), trichloroethylene (TCE) or tetrachloroethylene (PCE). Reduction of CT by GRC12(Cu) was 37 times...

  19. Sorption of chlorinated solvents and degradation products on natural clayey tills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cong, Lu; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup; Zhang, Fengjun

    2011-01-01

    linear, but fitted by Freundlich isotherms slightly better over the entire concentration range. For chloroethylenes, tetrachloroethylene (PCE) was most strongly sorbed to the clayey till samples (Kd=0.84–2.45Lkg−1), followed by trichloroethylene (TCE, Kd=0.62–0.96Lkg−1), cis-dichloroethylene (cis-DCE, Kd...

  20. Phytoscreening for vinyl chloride in groundwater discharging to a stream

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Cecilie Bang; Rønde, Vinni Kampman; Trapp, Stefan

    2018-01-01

    and hence different uptake/loss scenarios. Vinyl chloride (VC) as well as cis-dichloroethylene (cis-DCE), trichloroethylene (TCE), and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) were detected in the trees, documenting that phytoscreening is a viable method to locate chlorinated ethene plumes, including VC, discharging...

  1. An anaerobic field injection experiment in a landfill leachate plume, Grindsted, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rügge, K.; Bjerg, P.L.; Pedersen, J.K.

    1999-01-01

    toluene and o-xylene, respectively. The rates for the chlorinated aliphatic compounds, tetrachloromethane, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, tetrachloroethylene, and trichloroethylene, were >0.7 d(-1), 0.0044-0.0054 d(-1), 0.0012-0.0038 d(-1), and 0.0003-0.001 d(-1), respectively. Long lag periods and slow...

  2. Degradation of halogenated aliphatic compounds by the ammonia- oxidizing bacterium Nitrosomonas europaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannelli, T; Logan, M; Arciero, D M; Hooper, A B

    1990-01-01

    Suspensions of Nitrosomonas europaea catalyzed the ammonia-stimulated aerobic transformation of the halogenated aliphatic compounds dichloromethane, dibromomethane, trichloromethane (chloroform), bromoethane, 1,2-dibromoethane (ethylene dibromide), 1,1,2-trichloroethane, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, monochloroethylene (vinyl chloride), gem-dichloroethylene, cis- and trans-dichloroethylene, cis-dibromoethylene, trichloroethylene, and 1,2,3-trichloropropane, Tetrachloromethane (carbon tetrachloride), tetrachloroethylene (perchloroethylene), and trans-dibromoethylene were not degraded. PMID:2339874

  3. H-Area Seepage Basins groundwater monitoring report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    During second quarter 1992, tritium, nitrate, nonvolatile beta, total alpha-emitting radium (radium-224 and radium-226), gross alpha, mercury, lead, tetrachloroethylene, arsenic, and cadmium exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) in groundwater samples from monitoring wells at the H-Area Seepage Basins (HASB) at the Savannah River Plant. This report gives the results of the analyses of groundwater from the H-Area Seepage Basin

  4. H-Area Seepage Basins groundwater monitoring report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, C.Y.

    1992-06-01

    During first quarter 1992, tritium, nitrate, nonvolatile beta, total alpha-emitting radium (radium-224 and radium-226), gross alpha, antimony, mercury, lead, tetrachloroethylene, arsenic, and cadmium exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) in groundwater samples from monitoring wells at the H-Area Seepage Basins (HASB) at the Savannah River Site. This report presents and discusses the groundwater monitoring results in the H-Area for first quarter 1992

  5. Bubble points of the binary mixtures formed by ethylbenzene with some chloroaliphatics and substituted benzenes at p = 94.7 kPa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vittal Prasad, T.E. [Properties Group, Chemical Engineering Laboratory, Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Hyderabad 500 007 (India); Srinivas, M.Y. [Swami Ramananda Tirtha Institute of Science and Technology, Nalgonda 508 001 (India); Prasad, D.H.L. [Properties Group, Chemical Engineering Laboratory, Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Hyderabad 500 007 (India)]. E-mail: dasika@iict.res.in

    2006-10-15

    Bubble points at a pressure of 94.7 kPa, over the entire composition range are measured for the binary mixtures formed by ethylbenzene with: 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, chlorobenzene, and nitrobenzene making use of a Swietoslawski type ebulliometer. The liquid phase composition versus temperature measurements are found to be well represented by the Wilson model.

  6. Environmental Assessment. Beddown of a C-5M Super Galaxy Formal Training Unit, Dover Air Force Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    operations and maintenance OSHA Occupational Safety and Health Administration Pb lead PCE tetrachloroethylene PM10 particulate matter measuring...Korea, Malaysia , Pakistan, or the Philippine Islands; and • Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islanders – A person having origins in any of the...near operating facilities. 3.9.1.1 Occupational Health and Safety The Occupational Safety and Health Administration ( OSHA ) program’s purpose is to

  7. Application of Advanced Sensor Technology to DoD Soil Vapor Intrusion Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Technical material contained in this report has been approved for public release. Mention of trade names or commercial products in this...found in a number of common household products (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry [ATSDR], 1997; Colorado Department of Public Health and...benzene, TCE, tetrachloroethylene (PCE), ethylbenzene and meta (m)-xylene, as well as several of their response patterns. a) b

  8. Synthesis and Application of Carbon–Iron Oxide Microspheres’ Black Pigments in Electrophoretic Displays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Xianwei

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Carbon–iron oxide microspheres’ black pigments (CIOMBs had been prepared via ultrasonic spray pyrolysis of aqueous solutions containing ferrous chloride and glucose. Due to the presence of carbon, CIOMBs not only exhibited remarkably acid resistance, but also could be well dispersed in both polar solvents and nonpolar solvent. Finally, dispersions of hollow CIOMBs in tetrachloroethylene had successfully been applied in electrophoretic displays.

  9. In situ air stripping using horizontal wells. Innovative technology summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    In-situ air stripping employs horizontal wells to inject or sparge air into the ground water and vacuum extract VOC'S from vadose zone soils. The horizontal wells provide better access to the subsurface contamination, and the air sparging eliminates the need for surface ground water treatment systems and treats the subsurface in-situ. A full-scale demonstration was conducted at the Savannah River Plant in an area polluted with trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene. Results are described

  10. Cancer in persons working in dry cleaning in the Nordic countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Andersen, Aage; Rylander, Lars; Tinnerberg, Håkan; Lindbohm, Marja-Liisa; Pukkala, Eero; Romundstad, Pål; Jensen, Per; Clausen, Lene Bjørk; Johansen, Kristina

    2006-02-01

    U.S. studies have reported an increased risk of esophageal and some other cancers in dry cleaners exposed to tetrachloroethylene. We investigated whether the U.S. findings could be reproduced in the Nordic countries using a series of case-control studies nested in cohorts of laundry and dry-cleaning workers identified from the 1970 censuses in Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and Finland. Dry-cleaning work in the Nordic countries during the period when tetrachloroethylene was the dominant solvent was not associated with an increased risk of esophageal cancer [rate ratio (RR) = 0.76; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.34-1.69], but our study was hampered by some unclassifiable cases. The risks of cancer of the gastric cardia, liver, pancreas, and kidney and non-Hodgkin lymphoma were not significantly increased. Assistants in dry-cleaning shops had a borderline significant excess risk of cervical cancer not found in women directly involved in dry cleaning. We found an excess risk of bladder cancer (RR = 1.44; 95% CI, 1.07-1.93) not associated with length of employment. The finding of no excess risk of esophageal cancer in Nordic dry cleaners differs from U.S. findings. Chance, differences in level of exposure to tetrachloroethylene, and confounding may explain the findings. The overall evidence on bladder cancer in dry cleaners is equivocal.

  11. Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facility groundwater monitoring report: Third quarter 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-12-01

    During third quarter 1993, samples from AMB groundwater monitoring wells at the Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facility were analyzed for certain heavy metals, indicator parameters, radionuclides, volatile organic compounds, and other constituents. Eight parameters exceeded standards during the quarter. As in previous quarters, tetrachloroethylene and trichloroethylene exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards; and aluminum, iron, lead, manganese, pH, and total organic halogens exceeded the Savannah River Site Flag 2 criteria in one or more of the wells. Groundwater flow direction and rate in the water-table unit were similar to previous quarters

  12. Test plan for in situ bioremediation demonstration of the Savannah River Integrated Demonstration Project DOE/OTD TTP No.: SR 0566-01. Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazen, T.C.

    1991-09-18

    This project is designed to demonstrate in situ bioremediation of groundwater and sediment contaminated with chlorinated solvents. Indigenous microorganisms will be simulated to degrade trichloroethylene (TCE), tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and their daughter products in situ by addition of nutrients to the contaminated zone. in situ biodegradation is a highly attractive technology for remediation because contaminants are destroyed, not simply moved to another location or immobilized, thus decreasing costs, risks, and time, while increasing efficiency and public and regulatory acceptability. Bioremediation has been found to be among the least costly technologies in applications where it will work.

  13. The Effect of Drycleaning Moisture on Fused Cloth Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-01

    03/86 MSDS:000190 1. INGREDIENTS: Tetrachloroethylene CAS# 000127-18-4 99-9* 2. PHYSICAL DATA: BOILING POINT: 250F (121.1C) VAP PRESS...13 mmHq @ 20C VAP DENSITY: 5.76 SOL. IN WATER: 0.015 g/lOOg 25C SP. GRAVITY: 1.619 © 25/25C APPEARANCE: Colorless liquid. ODOR: Not... aspirated (liquid enters the lung), may be rapidly absorbed through the lungs and result in injury to other body systems. INHALATION: Dizziness may

  14. Search for Neutrinos from the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Raymond Jr.

    1968-09-01

    A solar neutrino detection system has been built to observe the neutrino radiation from the sun. The detector uses 3,900,000 liters of tetrachloroethylene as the neutrino capturing medium. Argon is removed from the liquid by sweeping with helium gas, and counted in a small low level proportional counter. The recovery efficiency of the system was tested with Ar{sup 36} by the isotope dilution method, and also with Ar{sup 37} produced in the liquid by fast neutrons. These tests demonstrate that Ar{sup 37} produced in the liquid by neutrino capture can be removed with a 95 percent efficiency by the procedure used.

  15. Development and Optimization of Targeted Nanoscale Iron Delivery Methods for Treatment of NAPL Source Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    k3 ), kobs is the modeled reaction rate constant with headspace, KH is the dimensionless Henry’s law constant for the reactant (here, the value of...2 Lhr-1g-1, and k3 = 1.9 × 10-2 Lhr-1g-1. Expressed as surface area normalized rate coefficients the values of k1, k2 and k3 are 1.1 × 10-4 Lhr-1m-2...tetrachloroethylene-reductive dechlorination catalyzed by vitamin B. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 17(9), 1681-1688. Chiao, F.F., Currie, R.C

  16. Hazardous air pollutants; Yugai taiki osen busshitsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogata, A

    2000-02-14

    Hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) are chemical substances listed up since those have a fear of increasing carcinogenic danger even in a small quantity by a long-term exposure. In Europe and Japan, approximately 200 names of substances are known. Concretely, they are particulate substnaces such as floating dusts, gaseous inorganics such as fluorine compound and chroline gas, volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Among those, especially, 22 substances are cited as those that Japan tackles in priority. HAPs explained in this paper mean mostly VOCs such as benzene, tetrachloroethylene and trichloroethylene among those. (NEDO)

  17. Cancer in persons working in dry cleaning in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Andersen, Aage; Rylander, Lars

    2006-01-01

    -cleaning workers identified from the 1970 censuses in Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and Finland. Dry-cleaning work in the Nordic countries during the period when tetrachloroethylene was the dominant solvent was not associated with an increased risk of esophageal cancer [rate ratio (RR) = 0.76; 95% confidence interval...... not found in women directly involved in dry cleaning. We found an excess risk of bladder cancer (RR = 1.44; 95% CI, 1.07-1.93) not associated with length of employment. The finding of no excess risk of esophageal cancer in Nordic dry cleaners differs from U.S. findings. Chance, differences in level...

  18. GC-FTIR-MS analysis of volatile products in the radiolysis of nitrobenzene-carbon tetrachloride solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuruc, J.; Sahoo, M.K.; Kuran, P.

    1993-01-01

    A number of volatile products formed in the gamma-radiolysis of nitrobenzene-carbon tetrachlorine solution have been identified using a GC-FTIR-MS technique. The conditions for separation of the products have been described. HCL, COCl 2 chlorobenzene, chloro- and dichloronitrobenzene, isomeric di-, tri- and tetrachlorobenzene, hexachloroethane, tetrachloroethylene, α,α,α-trichloromethylbenzene, chloro-and dichloroisocyanatobenzene, and other chloroderivatives are among the important products formed. Ipso-substituion of the nitro group as well as hydrogen atom by chlorine atom and Cl 3 free radical is noticed. It is proposed that chloroisocyanatobenzene is formed as the result of interaction of dichlorocarbene and nitrobenzene. (orig.)

  19. Activity coefficients and excess Gibbs' free energy of some binary mixtures formed by p-cresol at 95.23 kPa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, T.E. Vittal [Properties Group, Chemical Engineering Laboratory, Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Hyderabad 500 007 (India); Venkanna, N. [Swamy Ramanandateertha Institute of Science and Technology, Hyderabad 508 004 (India); Kumar, Y. Naveen [Swamy Ramanandateertha Institute of Science and Technology, Hyderabad 508 004 (India); Ashok, K. [Swamy Ramanandateertha Institute of Science and Technology, Hyderabad 508 004 (India); Sirisha, N.M. [Swamy Ramanandateertha Institute of Science and Technology, Hyderabad 508 004 (India); Prasad, D.H.L. [Properties Group, Chemical Engineering Laboratory, Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Hyderabad 500 007 (India)]. E-mail: dasika@iict.res.in

    2007-07-15

    Bubble point temperatures at 95.23 kPa, over the entire composition range are measured for the binary mixtures formed by p-cresol with 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, and o- , m- , and p-xylenes, making use of a Swietoslawski-type ebulliometer. Liquid phase mole fraction (x {sub 1}) versus bubble point temperature (T) measurements are found to be well represented by the Wilson model. The optimum Wilson parameters are used to calculate the vapor phase composition, activity coefficients, and excess Gibbs free energy. The results are discussed.

  20. Health assessment for Newcastle Abandoned Container Site, Newcastle, Delaware, Region 3. CERCLIS No. DED058980442. Preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Newcastle Abandoned Container site is listed on the National Priorities List. On February 28, 1986, radioactive, corrosive, and toxic materials, and a large number of containers filled with unknown material, were inventoried, containerized, and removed. On-site contamination consists of polychlorinated biphenyls, trichloroethylene, creosote, chloroform, and di-n-butylphthalate in soil; and tetrachloroethylene, acetone, xylene, trichlorofluoromethane, trichloroethylene, and tris(betachloroisopropyl)phosphate in groundwater. The site is considered to be of potential public health concern because of the risk to human health caused by the possibility of exposure to hazardous substances via groundwater. The potential for contamination of the lower aquifer should be investigated

  1. Comparison of Sampling Probe and Thermal Desorber in Hazardous Air Pollutants on Site (HAPSITE) Extended Range (ER) for Analysis of Toxic Organic (TO)-15 Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    compounds in a bag To prepare 20 ppbv TO-15 compounds in a 5 L ALTEF polypropylene bag (Jensen Inert Products , Coral Springs, FL, USA), 100 mL was taken...Bromopentafluorobenzene (BPFB; an IS)  117  5.70 6,730,000 8,500,000 11,400,000 8,876,667 1,220,000  1,200,000 1,190,000 1,203,333 Ethylbenzene   91  5.91 136 1,960,000...Trichloroethane Toluene Methyl Butyl Ketone (2-Hexanone) Dibromochloromethane 12-Dibromoethane Tetrachloroethylene Chlorobenzene Ethylbenzene p/m

  2. United States Air Force Graduate Student Research Program for 1990. Program Technical Report. Volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-05

    v25, n3, p275. Parsons, F., P.R. Wood , and J. DeMarcos. "Transformations of tetrachloroethylene and trichloroethylene in microcosms and ground water...7 REFERENCES 1. Turbo Pascal: Reference Guide, Borland Int’l, 1989. 2. Turbo Pascal: User’s Guide, Borland Int’l, 1989. 3. Dale, Nell and Chip Weems...8217, -Psvcnr.atr .c at en:S, anc;an .ourr a :11 Behaviorai Scci ce, 1983, 15k1), pp. 43-5’. Schretlen, . J., The Jae of =sycno!o-; lca ; T--st to

  3. Summary and findings: Chapter A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslia, Morris L.; Suárez-Soto, René J.; Sautner, Jason B.; Anderson, Barbara A.; Jones, L. Elliott; Faye, Robert E.; Aral, Mustafa M.; Guan, Jiabao; Jang, Wonyong; Telci, Ilker T.; Grayman, Walter M.; Bove, Frank J.; Ruckart, Perri Z.; Moore, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) is conducting epidemiological studies to evaluate the potential for health effects from exposures to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in finished water supplied to family housing units at U.S. Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune, North Carolina (USMCB Camp Lejeune). The core period of interest for the epidemiological studies is 1968– 1985. VOCs of major interest to the epidemiological studies include tetrachloroethylene (PCE), trichloroethylene (TCE), trans-1,2-dichloroethylene (1,2-tDCE), vinyl chloride (VC), and benzene.

  4. Intermedia transfer factors for fifteen toxic pollutants released to air basins in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKone, T.E.; Daniels, J.I. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Chiao, F.F.; Hsieh, D.P.H. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1993-10-01

    This report provides a summary definition of the intermedia-transfer factors (ITFs). Methods are discussed for estimating these parameters in the absence of measured values, and the estimation errors inherent in these estimation methods are considered. A detailed summary is provided of measured and estimated ITF values for fifteen air contaminants. They include: 1,3 butadiene; cadmium; cellosolve; cellosolve acetate; chloroform; di-2-ethylhexylphthalate; 1,4-dioxame; hexachlorobenzene; inorganic arsenic; inorganic lead; nickel; tetrachloroethylene; toluene; toluene-2,4-diisocyanate; and 1,3-xylene. Recommendations are made regarding the expected value and variance in these values for use in exposure models.

  5. Nonaqueous chlorination of uranium metal in tributyl phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchikhin, E.P.; Kuznetsov, A.Yu.; Shatalov, V.V.; Vidanov, V.L.; Chekmarev, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Low-temperature (30-50 deg C) chlorination of uranium metal in the TBP-TCE-Cl 2 system (TCE = tetrachloroethylene) was studied. Dissolution of uranium in the dipolar aprotic solvent proceeds with formation of U(IV) compounds. The activation energy of this process is 31.24 kJ mol -1 , and relative reaction order with respect to Cl 2 is 2. The effect of TBP concentration on chlorination was examined. The chlorination rate sharply increases at a water content in the TBP-TCE system of 0.2- 0.6 vol % [ru

  6. Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) groundwater monitoring report. Fourth quarter 1992 and 1992 summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-01

    During fourth quarter 1992, nine constituents exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) in one or more groundwater samples from monitoring wells at the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) and adjacent facilities. As in previous quarters, tritium and trichloroethylene were the most widespread constituents. Fifty-seven (48%) of the 120 monitoring wells, contained elevated tritium activities, and 23 (19%) contained elevated trichloroethylene concentrations. Total alpha-emitting radium, tetrachloroethylene, chloroethene, cadmium, 1,1-dichloroethylene, lead, or nonvolatile beta levels exceeded standards in one or more wells. During 1992, elevated levels of 13 constituents were found in one or more of 80 of the 120 groundwater monitoring wells (67%) at the MWMF and adjacent facilities. Tritium and trichloroethylene exceeded their final PDWS more frequently and more consistently than did other constituents. Tritium activity exceeded its final PDWS m 67 wells and trichloroethylene was. elevated in 28 wells. Lead, tetrachloroethylene, total alpha-emitting radium, gross alpha, cadmium, chloroethene, 1,1-dichloroethylene 1,2-dichloroethane, mercury, or nitrate exceeded standards in one or more wells during the year. Nonvolatile beta exceeded its drinking water screening level in 3 wells during the year.

  7. Impacts of environmental conditions on the sorption of volatile organic compounds onto tire powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Dong I.; Nam, Kyongphile; Park, Jae W.; Khim, Jee H.; Kim, Yong K.; Kim, Jae Y.

    2008-01-01

    A series of batch tests were performed and the impacts of environmental conditions and phase change on the sorption of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were investigated. Benzene, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, and ethylbenzene were selected as target VOCs. Sorption of VOCs onto tire powder was well demonstrated by a linear-partitioning model. Water-tire partition coefficients of VOCs (not tested in this study) could be estimated using a logarithmic relationship between observed water-tire partition coefficients and octanol-water partition coefficients of the VOCs tested. The target VOCs did not seem to compete with other VOCs significantly when sorbed onto the tire powder for the range of concentrations tested. The influence of environmental conditions, such as pH and ionic strength also did not seem to be significant. Water-tire partition coefficients of benzene, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, and ethylbenzene decreased as the sorbent dosage increased. However, they showed stable values when the sorbent dosage was greater than 10 g/L. Air-tire partition coefficient could be extrapolated from Henry's law constants and water-tire partition coefficient of VOCs

  8. Solvent Vapour Detection with Cholesteric Liquid Crystals—Optical and Mass-Sensitive Evaluation of the Sensor Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Mujahid

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Cholesteric liquid crystals (CLCs are used as sensitive coatings for the detection of organic solvent vapours for both polar and non-polar substances. The incorporation of different analyte vapours in the CLC layers disturbs the pitch length which changes the optical properties, i.e., shifting the absorption band. The engulfing of CLCs around non-polar solvent vapours such as tetrahedrofuran (THF, chloroform and tetrachloroethylene is favoured in comparison to polar ones, i.e., methanol and ethanol. Increasing solvent vapour concentrations shift the absorbance maximumto smaller wavelengths, e.g., as observed for THF. Additionally, CLCs have been coated on acoustic devices such as the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM to measure the frequency shift of analyte samples at similar concentration levels. The mass effect for tetrachloroethylene was about six times higher than chloroform. Thus, optical response can be correlated with intercalation in accordance to mass detection. The mechanical stability was gained by combining CLCs with imprinted polymers. Therefore, pre-concentration of solvent vapours was performed leading to an additional selectivity.

  9. Organizing pneumonia and occupational and environmental risk factors: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobard, Stéphanie; Chaigne, Benjamin; Marchand-Adam, Sylvain; Lasfargues, Gérard; Diot, Elisabeth

    2017-11-01

    A single-center case-control study was carried out to investigate the relationship between occupational and environmental exposure and organizing pneumonia (OP). Thirty-seven cases of OP, including 25 cases of cryptogenic OP, and 111 controls were included. Occupational exposure was assessed retrospectively by an industrial hygienist and an occupational physician, through semi-quantitative estimates of exposure. An exposure score was calculated for each subject, based on probability, intensity, daily frequency, and duration of exposure for each period of employment. The final cumulative exposure score was obtained by summing exposure scores for all periods of employment. Significant associations with all-cause OP were observed for exposure to tetrachloroethylene (OR 13.33, CI 95% 1.44-123.5) and silica (OR 6.61, CI 95% 1.16-37.71). A significant association with cryptogenic OP was observed only for tetrachloroethylene (OR 31.6, CI 95% 1.64-610.8). No associations were found for environmental exposure. Despite its low statistical power, this work suggests that occupational risk factors could be involved in OP.

  10. Toxic Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs in the Atmospheric Environment: Regulatory Aspects and Monitoring in Japan and Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Tien Tsai

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the past decades, hazardous air pollutants (HAPs, so-called air toxics or toxic air pollutants, have been detected in the atmospheric air at low concentration levels, causing public concern about the adverse effect of long-term exposure to HAPs on human health. Most HAPs belong to volatile organic compounds (VOCs. More seriously, most of them are known carcinogens or probably carcinogenic to humans. The objectives of this paper were to report the regulatory aspects and environmental monitoring management of toxic VOCs designated by Japan and Korea under the Air Pollution Control Act, and the Clean Air Conservation Act, respectively. It can be found that the environmental quality standards and environmental monitoring of priority VOCs (i.e., benzene, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, and dichloromethane have been set and taken by the state and local governments of Japan since the early 2000, but not completely established in Korea. On the other hand, the significant progress in reducing the emissions of some toxic VOCs, including acrylonitrile, benzene, 1,3-butadiene, 1,2-dichloroethane, dichloromethane, chloroform, tetrachloroethylene, and trichloroethylene in Japan was also described as a case study in the brief report paper.

  11. Impacts of environmental conditions on the sorption of volatile organic compounds onto tire powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Dong I. [Division of R and D Planning and Management, Korea Institute of Environmental Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Kyongphile [School of Civil, Urban and Geosystem Engineering, College of Engineering, Seoul National University, Gwanak-Ku, 151-742 Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jae W. [Department of Civil Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Khim, Jee H. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong K. [School of Civil, Urban and Geosystem Engineering, College of Engineering, Seoul National University, Gwanak-Ku, 151-742 Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae Y. [School of Civil, Urban and Geosystem Engineering, College of Engineering, Seoul National University, Gwanak-Ku, 151-742 Seoul (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: jaeykim@snu.ac.kr

    2008-05-01

    A series of batch tests were performed and the impacts of environmental conditions and phase change on the sorption of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were investigated. Benzene, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, and ethylbenzene were selected as target VOCs. Sorption of VOCs onto tire powder was well demonstrated by a linear-partitioning model. Water-tire partition coefficients of VOCs (not tested in this study) could be estimated using a logarithmic relationship between observed water-tire partition coefficients and octanol-water partition coefficients of the VOCs tested. The target VOCs did not seem to compete with other VOCs significantly when sorbed onto the tire powder for the range of concentrations tested. The influence of environmental conditions, such as pH and ionic strength also did not seem to be significant. Water-tire partition coefficients of benzene, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, and ethylbenzene decreased as the sorbent dosage increased. However, they showed stable values when the sorbent dosage was greater than 10 g/L. Air-tire partition coefficient could be extrapolated from Henry's law constants and water-tire partition coefficient of VOCs.

  12. Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) groundwater monitoring report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    During fourth quarter 1992, nine constituents exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) in one or more groundwater samples from monitoring wells at the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) and adjacent facilities. As in previous quarters, tritium and trichloroethylene were the most widespread constituents. Fifty-seven (48%) of the 120 monitoring wells, contained elevated tritium activities, and 23 (19%) contained elevated trichloroethylene concentrations. Total alpha-emitting radium, tetrachloroethylene, chloroethene, cadmium, 1,1-dichloroethylene, lead, or nonvolatile beta levels exceeded standards in one or more wells. During 1992, elevated levels of 13 constituents were found in one or more of 80 of the 120 groundwater monitoring wells (67%) at the MWMF and adjacent facilities. Tritium and trichloroethylene exceeded their final PDWS more frequently and more consistently than did other constituents. Tritium activity exceeded its final PDWS m 67 wells and trichloroethylene was. elevated in 28 wells. Lead, tetrachloroethylene, total alpha-emitting radium, gross alpha, cadmium, chloroethene, 1,1-dichloroethylene 1,2-dichloroethane, mercury, or nitrate exceeded standards in one or more wells during the year. Nonvolatile beta exceeded its drinking water screening level in 3 wells during the year

  13. Potential for occupational and environmental exposure to ten carcinogens in Toronto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, P. [ToxProbe Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2002-03-01

    A study was conducted in which several contaminants were assessed for their toxicological properties, potencies and occupational and environmental exposures in the city of Toronto. The contaminants included 1,3-butadiene, asbestos, benzene, cadmium, chromium, dioxins, formaldehyde, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), tetrachloroethylene, and trichloroethylene. The International Agency for Research on Cancer, the United States Environmental Protection Agency, and Health Canada have classified 9 of the 10 substances as human carcinogens. Tetrachloroethylene was classified as a probable human carcinogen. It was noted that there is no level of exposure for these chemicals that is without some risk. The information on the levels of selected contaminants in the workplace were obtained from existing literature. The sectors with the highest number of potentially exposed workers to these contaminants include the textiles industry, footwear manufacturing, wood products manufacturing, rubber products manufacturing, non-metallic mineral products manufacturing, fabricated metal products manufacturing, construction, land transport, and household services. The report discussed sources of emissions, routes and pathways of exposures and environmental levels, including outdoor air levels water concentrations, soil concentrations, and food concentrations. The report does not estimate the actual risk to Toronto residents due to environmental exposure to these carcinogens because data are insufficient to conduct such an assessment. However, some previous studies have indicated that exposure from ambient and indoor air has the greatest impact on human health. It is recommended that the city of Toronto remain up to date on the regulatory status of these chemicals. refs., tabs., figs., appendices.

  14. Sanitary Landfill groundwater monitoring report. Fourth quarterly report and summary 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    Fifty-seven wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled quarterly to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Domestic Waste Permit DWP-087A and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program. Dichloromethane a common laboratory contaminant, and trichloroethylene were the most widespread constituents exceeding standards during 1993. Benzene, chlorobenzene, chloroethene 1,2 dichloroethane, 1,1-dichloroethylene, 1,2-dichloropropane, gross alpha, lindane, mercury, tetrachloroethylene, and tritium also exceeded standards in one or more wells. No groundwater contaminants were observed in wells screened in the lower section of Steed Pond Aquifer.

  15. Central key project `Biotechnology`. Supplementary report. 2nd project phase (3/95 through 12/95); Zentrales Schwerpunktprojekt Bioverfahrenstechnik. Ergaenzungsbericht 2. Foerderphase (3/95 bis 12/95)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The report describes the activities of the three sections of the key project `Biotechnology`: Biological systems, e.g. environmental biotechnology, enzyme reactions; protein engineering, fermentation problems of secondary metabolites, tetrachloroethylene degradation, stereoselective synthesis; process engineering, i.e. supercritical solvents, enzyme-catalysed reactions, bipolar membrane technology, membrane separation processes, anaerobic processes; information engineering, i.e. morphology recording, process control. Separate abstracts are available in this database for two articles of this report. (SR) [Deutsch] Dargestellt werden die Taetigkeiten der verschiedenen Arbeitsbereiche des Schwerpunktprojektes Biotechnologie. Es handelt sich hierbei um die drei Projektbereiche: Biologische Systeme unter anderem mit den Themen Umweltbiotechnologie, Enzymreaktionen, Protein-Engineering, Fermentationsprobleme bei sekundaeren Metaboliten, Tetrachlorethylen-Abbau, Stereoselektive Synthese; des weiteren der Projektbereich Verfahrenstechnik unter anderem mit den Themen Ueberkritische Loesungsmittel, Enzymkatalysierte Reaktionen, Bipolare Membrantechnik, Membrantrennverfahren, Anaerobprozesse; als letztes der Projektbereich Informationstechnik mit den Themen Morphologieerfassung, Prozessfuehrung. (SR)

  16. Vapor vacuum extraction treatability study at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herd, M.D.; Matthern, G.; Michael, D.L.; Spang, N.; Downs, W.; Weidner, J.; Cleary, P.

    1993-01-01

    During the 1960s and early 1970s, barreled mixed waste containing volatile organic compounds (VOCS) and radioactive waste was buried at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). Over time, some of the barrels have deteriorated allowing, VOC vapors to be released into the vadose zone. The primary VOC contaminates of concern are CCl 4 and trichloroethylene; however, chloroform, tetrachloroethylene, and 1,1,1-trichloroethane have also been detected. Vapor Vacuum Extraction (VVE) is one alternative being considered for remediation of the RWMC SDA vadose zone. A proposed pilot-scale treatability study (TS) will provide operation and maintenance costs for the design of the potential scale-up of the system

  17. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report. Fourth quarter 1994 and 1994 summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-02-01

    Eighty-nine wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled quarterly to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Domestic Waste Permit DWP-087A and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program. Dichloromethane, a common laboratory contaminant, and trichloroethylene were the most widespread constituents exceeding standards during 1994. Benzene, chloroethene (vinyl chloride), 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,1-dichloroethylene, 1,2-dichloropropane, gross alpha, mercury, nonvolatile beta, tetrachloroethylene, and tritium also exceeded standards in one or more wells. The groundwater flow direction in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill was to the southeast (universal transverse Mercator coordinates). The flow rate in this unit was approximately 140 ft/year during first and fourth quarters 1994

  18. Investigation of the behavior of VOCs in ground water across fine- and coarse-grained geological contacts using a medium-scale physical model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, F.; Chiarappa, M.L.

    1998-03-01

    One of the serious impediments to the remediation of ground water contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is that the VOCs are retarded with respect to the movement of the ground water. Although the processes that result in VOC retardation are poorly understood, we have developed a conceptual model that includes several retarding mechanisms. These include adsorption to inorganic surfaces, absorption to organic carbon, and diffusion into areas of immobile waters. This project was designed to evaluate the relative contributions of these mechanisms; by improving our understanding, we hope to inspire new remediation technologies or approaches. Our project consisted of a series of column experiments designed to measure the retardation, in different geological media, of four common ground water VOCs (chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethylene, and tetrachloroethylene) which have differing physical and chemical characteristics. It also included a series of diffusion parameters that constrain the model, we compared the data from these experiments to the output of a computational model.

  19. Measurements of diffuse emissions of halogenated hydrocarbons by high resolution FTIR remote sensing. Fernerkundungsmessungen zur interferometrischen Bestimmung der Emission halogenierter Kohlenwasserstoffe im Infraroten; Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bittner, H; Eisenmann, T

    1993-07-01

    Fenceline and perimeter monitoring of toxic volatile organic compounds in industrial areas is an important upcoming need for surveillance purposes. It demands for multicomponent analysis methods. These requirements will be fullfilled using the double pendulum interferometer together with the appropriate evaluation software, especially for mobile outdoor applications. The instrument based on the patented double pendulum principle has been developed within the frame of the project to the level of a pre-production model. With the developed instrument and software, measurement campaigns have been carried out at various facilities: At a fuel dump, at a chemical production, and at metal degreasing facilities. The following gases have been detected down to very low concentrations (low ppb levels): dichloromethane, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, benzene, toluene, methanol, ethyl acetate, alkenes, total hydrocarbons. The developed instrumentation as well as the results from various campaigns will be presented together with the data evaluation technique. The analytical methods and the possible sources of error will also be discussed. (orig.)

  20. Operations Support of Phase 2 Integrated Demonstration In Situ Bioremediation. Volume 1, Final report: Final report text data in tabular form, Disk 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazen, T.C. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1993-09-01

    This project was designed to demonstrate in situ bioremediation of ground water and sediment contaminated with chlorinated solvents. Indigenous microorganisms were stimulated to degrade trichlorethylene (TCE), tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and their daughter products in situ by addition of nutrients to the contaminated aquifer and adjacent vadose zone. The principle carbon/energy source nutrient used in this demonstration was methane (natural gas). In situ biodegradation is a highly attractive technology for remediation because contaminants are destroyed, not simply moved to another location or immobilized, thus decreasing costs, risks, and time, while increasing efficiency, safety, and public and regulatory acceptability. This report describes the preliminary results of the demonstration and provides conclusions only for those measures that the Bioremediation Technical Support Group felt were so overwhelmingly convincing that they do not require further analyses. Though this report is necessarily superficial it does intend to provide a basis for further evaluating the technology and for practitioners to immediately apply some parts of the technology.

  1. Tratamento de água subterrânea contaminada com compostos organoclorados usando ferro elementar e o reagente de Fenton Treatment of groundwater contaminated with chlorinated compounds using elemental iron and Fenton's reagent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Langbeck de Arruda

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The remediation of groundwater containing organochlorine compounds was evaluated using a reductive system with zero-valent iron, and the reductive process coupled with Fenton's reagent. The concentration of the individual target compounds reached up to 400 mg L-1 in the sample. Marked reductions in the chlorinated compounds were observed in the reductive process. The degradation followed pseudo-first-order kinetics in terms of the contaminant and was dependent on the sample contact time with the solid reducing agent. An oxidative test with Fenton's reagent, followed by the reductive assay, showed that tetrachloroethylene was further reduced up to three times the initial concentration. The destruction of chloroform, however, demands an additional treatment.

  2. Effect of gamma radiation dose and sensitizer on the physical properties of irradiated natural rubber latex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komgrit, R.; Thawat, C.; B, Tripob; Wirach, T.

    2009-07-01

    Full text: The vulcanization of natural rubber latex can be induced by gamma radiation, which enhances cross-linking within the rubber matrix. The purpose of this research is to investigate the effect of gamma radiation dose and sensitizers on the physical properties of irradiated natural rubber. Three sensitizers n-butyl acrylate (n-B A), tetrachloroethylene (C 2 Cl 4 ) and trichloromethane (CHCl 3 ) were mixed with natural rubber latex before irradiation with gamma ray dose varied from 14 to 22 kGy. Results showed that the mixture of three sensitizers with specific ratios effectively induced the cross-linking of natural rubber latex. The cross-linking ratio and improved physical properties increased with increasing gamma dose. Therefore, the mixture ratios of n-B A, C 2 Cl 4 and CHCl 3 have shown to be a critical parameter in the vulcanization of natural rubber latex by gamma radiation

  3. Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) groundwater monitoring report. First quarter 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    During first quarter 1993, eight constituents exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards in groundwater samples from downgradient monitoring wells at the Mixed Waste anagement Facility, the Old Burial Ground, the E-Area Vaults, and the proposed Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Disposal Vaults (HWMWDV). As in previous quarters, tritium and trichloroethylene were the most widespread constituents. Tetrachloroethylene, chloroethene, 1,1-dichloroethylene, gross alpha, lead, or nonvolatile beta levels also exceeded standards in one or more wells. The elevated constituents were found primarily in Aquifer Zone IIB{sub 2} (Water Table) and Aquifer Zone IIB{sub 1}, (Barnwell/McBean) wells. However, several Aquifer Unit IIA (Congaree) wells also contained elevated constituent levels. The groundwater flow directions and rates in the three hydrostratigraphic units were similar to previous quarters.

  4. Public health assessment for crossley farm/Hereford groundwater, Hereford township, Berks County, Pennsylvania, Region 3. CERCLIS No. PAD981740061. Preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The report describes an illegal waste disposal site in east central Pennsylvania and its effect on groundwater in the area surrounding the site. The Crossley Farm (Hereford Groundwater) site is in the Huffs Church community of Hereford Township, Berks County. Illegal waste disposal activities reportedly occurred at the site from the mid-1960's to mid-1970's. About 250 residents live hydrogeological downgradient of the site (within two miles) and another 200 live within one-half mile upgradient of the site. The Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Resources has collected groundwater samples in 1983 and the EPA has collected samples in 1986. The estimated exposures are to substances (trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene in particular) in groundwater at concentrations that with long-term exposure can cause adverse health effects to the population

  5. GC-FTIR-MS analysis of volatile radiolytic products in the radiolysis of nitroaniline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuruc, J.; Sahoo, M.K.; Kubinec, R.

    1993-01-01

    A good deal of products formed in the γ-radiolysis of isomeric nitroaniline solutions in carbon tetrachloride have been identified using GC-FTIR-MS technique. Tetrachloroethylene, chlorobenzene, hexachloroethane isomeric di-, tri- and tetrachlorobenzenes and chloroisocyanatobenzenes are among the important products formed in the radiolysis. Formation of dichlorobenzene is the result of ipso-substitution of both the nitro and aniline group by chlorine atom and the subsequent chloration of dichlorobenzene results in the formation of polychlorobenzenes. Chloroisocyanatobenzene is proposed to be the product arising from the interaction of dichlorocarbene and the nitro group of nitroaniline followed by chlorination of the resulting product, isocyanatobenzene. A 94% yield of undissolved 1,2-aminonitrobenzene chloride salt is obtained from the radiolysis of o-nitroaniline solution in carbon tetrachloride with a radiation yield of 1.83 molecules per 100 eV absorbed energy for an irradiation dose of 267 kGy. (author) 9 refs.; 3 figs.; 2 tabs

  6. Central key project `Biotechnology`. Supplementary report. 2nd project phase (3/95 through 12/95); Zentrales Schwerpunktprojekt Bioverfahrenstechnik. Ergaenzungsbericht 2. Foerderphase (3/95 bis 12/95)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The report describes the activities of the three sections of the key project `Biotechnology`: Biological systems, e.g. environmental biotechnology, enzyme reactions; protein engineering, fermentation problems of secondary metabolites, tetrachloroethylene degradation, stereoselective synthesis; process engineering, i.e. supercritical solvents, enzyme-catalysed reactions, bipolar membrane technology, membrane separation processes, anaerobic processes; information engineering, i.e. morphology recording, process control. Separate abstracts are available in this database for two articles of this report. (SR) [Deutsch] Dargestellt werden die Taetigkeiten der verschiedenen Arbeitsbereiche des Schwerpunktprojektes Biotechnologie. Es handelt sich hierbei um die drei Projektbereiche: Biologische Systeme unter anderem mit den Themen Umweltbiotechnologie, Enzymreaktionen, Protein-Engineering, Fermentationsprobleme bei sekundaeren Metaboliten, Tetrachlorethylen-Abbau, Stereoselektive Synthese; des weiteren der Projektbereich Verfahrenstechnik unter anderem mit den Themen Ueberkritische Loesungsmittel, Enzymkatalysierte Reaktionen, Bipolare Membrantechnik, Membrantrennverfahren, Anaerobprozesse; als letztes der Projektbereich Informationstechnik mit den Themen Morphologieerfassung, Prozessfuehrung. (SR)

  7. Applications of nanomaterials in environmental protection; Untersuchung des Einsatzes von Nanomaterialien im Umweltschutz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martens, Sonja; Eggers, Bernd; Evertz, Thorsten [Golder Associates GmbH, Celle (Germany)

    2010-06-15

    Following comprehensive research nanomaterials or products which were either still in a re-search/development status or are already available in the marketplace were identified for the water and air sectors. Based on life cycle assessments for two case studies, it was checked how the potential benefits and impacts on the environment for nanotechnology products or processes compare with those for conventional solutions. The first case study deals with the solar treatment of water contami-nated with tetrachloroethylene, comparing nanoscale titanium dioxide (photo-catalysis) and a photo-Fenton process. The second case study on air filtration compares a passenger car cabin-air filter with nanofibres and a conventional filter. (orig.)

  8. Effects of trace volatile organic compounds on methane oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiemchaisri Wilai

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of volatile organic compounds (VOCs on methane oxidation in landfill cover soils were examined. The batch experiments were conducted using single and mixed VOCs, such as, dichloromethane (DCM, trichloroethylene (TCE, tetrachloroethylene (PCE, and benzene. The results from all combinations showed a decrease in methane oxidation rate with increase in VOC concentrations. Moreover, inhibition effects of TCE and DCM were found higher than benzene and PCE. The reduction of methane oxidation by benzene and PCE could be attributed to the toxicity effect, whereas TCE and DCM were found to exhibit the competitive-inhibition effect. When the soil was mixed with DCM, no methane oxidation was found. Damage to the cell's internal membrane was found in a methanotrophic culture exposed to VOC gases which is the attachment site of a key enzyme needed for methane oxidation

  9. Estudios físico-químicos de miscelas de aceites vegetales. XV. Aplicación de las ecuaciones de Andrade y Krone a disoluciones de miristato de metilo y ciciohexano, hexano, tetracloroetileno o tricloroetileno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñoz Cueto, M. J.

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available Andrade and Krone equations, relating viscosity of liquids and temperature, are applied to solutions of organic compounds with different chemical structures, constituted by methyl mirystate and ciclohexane, hexane, tetrachloroethylene or trichloroethylene. Temperature range studied is 283-313 K. The results are compared with experimental data.

    Se aplican las ecuaciones de Andrade y Krone, que relacionan la viscosidad de los líquidos con la temperatura, a disoluciones de compuestos orgánicos de diferentes estructuras químicas formadas por miristato de metilo y ciciohexano, hexano, tetracloroetileno o tricloroetileno, en el intervalo de temperatura de 283 a 313 K, comparándose los resultados obtenidos con los experimentales.

  10. Characterization of nanocarbons (nanotubes and nanofibers) by Inverse Gas Chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DIaz, E [Department of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Technology, University of Oviedo, Julian ClaverIa s/n, 33006 Oviedo (Spain); Ordonez, S [Department of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Technology, University of Oviedo, Julian ClaverIa s/n, 33006 Oviedo (Spain); Vega, A [Department of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Technology, University of Oviedo, Julian ClaverIa s/n, 33006 Oviedo (Spain)

    2007-04-15

    The adsorption of different alkanes (linear and cyclic), aromatics and chlorohydrocarbons on non-microporous carbons-carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and carbon nanofibres (CNFs)- was studied in this work by inverse gas chromatography (IGC). Capacity of adsorption was derived from the isotherms of adsorption, whereas thermodynamic properties (enthalpy of adsorption, surface free energy characteristics) have been determined from chromatographic retention data. CNTs present the highest adsorption capacity. From surface free energy data, enthalpies of adsorption of polar compounds were divided into dispersive and specific contributions. The interactions of cyclic (benzene and cyclohexane) and chlorinated compounds (trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene and chloroform) with the surfaces are mainly dispersive over all the carbons tested, being CNTs the material with the highest dispersive contribution. Adsorption parameters were correlated with morphological and chemical properties of the materials.

  11. Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) groundwater monitoring report. Fourth quarter 1993 and 1993 summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, C.T.

    1994-03-01

    During fourth quarter 1993, 10 constituents exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards in groundwater samples from downgradient monitoring wells at the Mixed Waste Management Facility, the Old Burial Ground, the E-Area Vaults, and the proposed Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Disposal Vaults. As in previous quarters, tritium and trichloroethylene were the most widespread elevated constituents. Carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, chloroethane (vinyl chloride), 1,1-dichloroethylene, dichloromethane (methylene chloride), lead, mercury, or tetrachloroethylene also exceeded standards in one or more wells. Elevated constituents were found in numerous Aquifer Zone 2B{sub 2} (Water Table) and Aquifer Zone 2B{sub 1}, (Barnwell/McBean) wells and in two Aquifer Unit 2A (Congaree) wells. The groundwater flow direction and rates in the three hydrostratigraphic units were similar to those of previous quarters.

  12. Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) groundwater monitoring report: Third quarter 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    During third quarter 1993, eight constituents exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards in groundwater samples from downgradient monitoring wells at the Mixed Waste Management Facility, the Old Burial Ground, the E-Area Vaults, and the proposed Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Disposal Vaults. As in previous quarters, tritium and trichloroethylene were the most widespread constituents Chloroethene (vinyl chloride), 1,1-dichloroethylene, dichloromethane (methylene chloride), lead, mercury, or tetrachloroethylene also exceeded standards in one or more wells. The elevated constituents were found in Aquifer Zone IIB{sub 2} (Water Table) and Aquifer Zone IIB{sub 1} (Barnwell/McBean) wells. No elevated constituents were exhibited in Aquifer Unit IIA (Congaree) wells. The groundwater flow directions and rates in the three hydrostratigraphic units were similar to those of previous quarters.

  13. Mixed waste management facility groundwater monitoring report. Fourth quarter 1996 and 1996 summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-03-01

    During fourth quarter 1996, nine constituents exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) in groundwater samples from downgradient monitoring wells at the Mixed Waste Management Facility. No constituents exceeded final PDWS in samples from the upgradient monitoring wells. As in previous quarters, tritium and trichloroethylene were the most widespread elevated constituents. Carbon tetrachloride, chloroethene, chloroform, 1,1-dichloroethylene, dichloromethane, gross alpha, and tetrachloroethylene also exceeded final PDWS in one or more wells. Elevated constituents were found in numerous Aquifer Zone llB2 (Water Table) and Aquifer Zone llB1 (Barnwell/McBean) wells and in six Aquifer Unit IIA (Congaree) wells. The groundwater flow directions and rates in the three hydrostratigraphic units were similar to those of previous quarters

  14. Mixed waste management facility groundwater monitoring report. Fourth quarter 1995 and 1995 summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    During fourth quarter 1995, seven constituents exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) in groundwater samples from downgradient monitoring wells at the Mixed Waste Management Facility. No constituents exceeded final PDWS in samples from the upgradient monitoring wells. As in previous quarters, tritium and trichloroethylene were the most widespread elevated constituents. Chloroethene, gross alpha, lead, mercury, and tetrachloroethylene also exceeded final PDWS in one or more wells. Elevated constituents were found in numerous Aquifer Zone IIB 2 (Water Table) and Aquifer Zone IIB 1 (Barnwell/McBean) wells and in three Aquifer Unit IIA (Congaree) wells. The groundwater flow directions and rates in the three hydrostratigraphic units were similar to those of previous quarters

  15. Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) groundwater monitoring report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    During first quarter 1993, eight constituents exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards in groundwater samples from downgradient monitoring wells at the Mixed Waste anagement Facility, the Old Burial Ground, the E-Area Vaults, and the proposed Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Disposal Vaults (HWMWDV). As in previous quarters, tritium and trichloroethylene were the most widespread constituents. Tetrachloroethylene, chloroethene, 1,1-dichloroethylene, gross alpha, lead, or nonvolatile beta levels also exceeded standards in one or more wells. The elevated constituents were found primarily in Aquifer Zone IIB 2 (Water Table) and Aquifer Zone IIB 1 , (Barnwell/McBean) wells. However, several Aquifer Unit IIA (Congaree) wells also contained elevated constituent levels. The groundwater flow directions and rates in the three hydrostratigraphic units were similar to previous quarters

  16. Health assessment for Shpack Landfill, Attleboro/North, Massachusetts, Region 1. CERCLIS No. MAD980503973. Preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The Shpack Landfill site is on the National Priorities List (NPL). The landfill received both domestic and industrial waste, including inorganic and organic chemicals as well as radioactive waste. Ground water contains vinyl chloride, trichloroethylene, trans-1,2-dichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, chromium, barium, copper, nickel, manganese, arsenic, cadmium, lead, polychlorinated biphenyl-1260 (Aroclor-1260), radium-226, alpha particles and beta particles. Surface and subsurface soil samples contained radium-226, uranium-238, uranium-235, uranium-234, and visual evidence of metal plating waste sludges. The site is considered to be of potential health concern because of the risk to human health caused by the potential for exposure to hazardous substances via ingestion of contaminated soils at the site and future ingestion of contaminated domestic well water

  17. Quarterly sampling of the wetlands along the old F-Area effluent ditch: August 1994. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummins, C.L.; Dixon, K.L.

    1994-08-01

    In August 1994, well point water and near-surface water samples were collected to further characterize tritium and volatile organic compounds in the Wetlands along the old F-Area effluent ditch south of 643-E at the Savannah River Plant. Well point samples were collected from seven locations and near-surface water samples were collected at four locations. Results of the August 1994 sampling event further support findings that tritium and volatile organic compounds are outcropping in the Wetlands near the old F-area effluent ditch. Four analytes (1,2-dichloroethylene, trichloroethylene, tritium, and vinyl chloride) were detected at least once at concentrations above the primary Drinking Water Standards or the Maximum Contaminant Levels. Five analytes (the above chemicals plus tetrachloroethylene) were detected at least once in the near-surface water samples at concentrations greater than the method detection limit

  18. Recovery of plutonium and americium from chloride salt wastes by solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichley-Yinger, L.; Vandegrift, G.F.

    1987-01-01

    Plutonium and americium can be recovered from aqueous waste solutions containing a mixture of HCl and chloride salt wastes by the coupling of two solvent extraction systems: tributyl phosphate (TBP) in tetrachloroethylene (TCE) and octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) in TCE. In the flowsheet developed, the salt wastes are dissolved in HCl, the Pu(III) is oxidized to the IV state with NaClO 2 and recovered in the TBP-TCE cycle, and the Am is then removed from the resultant raffinate by the CMPO-TCE cycle. The consequences of the feed solution composition and extraction behavior of these species on the process flowsheet design, the Pu-product purity, and the decontamination of the aqueous raffinate from transuranic elements are discussed. 16 refs., 6 figs

  19. Monolithic optofluidic mode coupler for broadband thermo- and piezo-optical characterization of liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pumpe, Sebastian; Chemnitz, Mario; Kobelke, Jens; Schmidt, Markus A

    2017-09-18

    We present a monolithic fiber device that enables investigation of the thermo- and piezo-optical properties of liquids using straightforward broadband transmission measurements. The device is a directional mode coupler consisting of a multi-mode liquid core and a single-mode glass core with pronounced coupling resonances whose wavelength strongly depend on the operation temperature. We demonstrated the functionality and flexibility of our device for carbon disulfide, extending the current knowledge of the thermo-optic coefficient by 200 nm at 20 °C and uniquely for high temperatures. Moreover, our device allows measuring the piezo-optic coefficient of carbon disulfide, confirming results first obtained by Röntgen in 1891. Finally, we applied our approach to obtain the dispersion of the thermo-optic coefficients of benzene and tetrachloroethylene between 450 and 800 nm, whereas no data was available for the latter so far.

  20. Analysis and evaluation of VOC removal technologies demonstrated at Savannah River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chesnut, D.A.; Wagoner, J.; Nitao, J.J.; Boyd, S.; Shaffer, R.J.; Kansa, E.J.; Buscheck, T.A.; Pruess, K.; Falta, R.W.

    1993-09-01

    Volatile Organic Compounds, or VOCs, are ubiquitous subsurface contaminants at industrial as well as DOE sites. At the Savannah River Plant, the principles VOCs contaminating the subsurface below A-Area and M-Area are Trichloroethylene (C 2 HCl 3 , or TCE) and Tetrachloroethylene (C 2 Cl 4 , or PCE). These compounds were used extensively as degreasing solvents from 1952 until 1979, and the waste solvent which did not evaporate (on the order of 2x10 6 pounds) was discharged to a process sewer line leading to the M-Area Seepage Basin (Figure I.2). These compounds infiltrated into the soil and underlying sediments from leaks in the sewer line and elsewhere thereby contaminating the vadose zone between the surface and the water table as well as the aquifer

  1. Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facility groundwater monitoring report. First quarter 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    During first quarter 1995, samples from AMB groundwater monitoring wells at the Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facility (Met Lab HWMF) were analyzed for selected heavy metals, field measurements, radionuclides, volatile organic compounds, and other constituents. Six parameters exceeded standards during the quarter. As in previous quarters, tetrachloroethylene and trichloroethylene exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS). Total organic halogens exceeded its Savannah River Site (SRS) Flag 2 criterion during first quarter 1995 as in fourth quarter 1994. Aluminum, iron, and manganese, which were not analyzed for during fourth quarter 1994, exceeded the Flag 2 criteria in at least two wells each during first quarter 1995. Groundwater flow direction and rate in the M-Area Aquifer Zone were similar to previous quarters. Conditions affecting the determination of groundwater flow directions and rates in the Upper Lost Lake Aquifer Zone, Lower Lost Lake Aquifer Zone, and the Middle Sand Aquifer Zone of the Crouch Branch Confining Unit were also similar to previous quarters

  2. Sulfonate activation of the electrophilic reactivity of chlorine and alkyl hypochlorides by the insertion of sulfur trioxide at the C1-C1 and O-C1 bonds. Addition of chlorine chloro- and ethoxysulfate to olefins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zefirov, N.S.; Koz'min, A.S.; Sorokin, V.D.; Zhdankin, V.V.

    1986-01-01

    At low temperatures (-40 to -80 0 C) sulfur trioxide enters the chlorine molecule (with the formation of chlorine chlorosulfate) and the ethyl hypochlorite molecule (giving chlorine ethoxysulfate). Both new compounds are highly reactive electrophilic chlorinating reagents and add to ethylene, activated alkenes (1-hexene and cyclohexene), and deactivated olefins (methyl methacrylate, tri- and tetrachloroethylene) in methylene chloride solution at low temperatures. The addition of chlorine chlorosulfate leads to the formation of β-chloroalkyl chlorosulfates with yields of 24-85%, and the addition of chlorine ethoxysulfate leads to β-chloroalkyl ethylsulfates with yields of 65-85%. The reactions with unsymmetrical olefins lead to mixtures of the regioisomers with a preference for the products from addition according to the Markovnikov rule; the addition to cyclohexene is trans-stereospecific. The investigated processes represent a new simple approach to the production of sulfate-activated chlorinating reagents and extend the possibilities for functional substitution of olefins

  3. Survey of subsurface treatment technologies for environmental restoration sites at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGrath, Lucas K.; Ho, Clifford Kuofei; Wright, Jerome L.

    2003-08-01

    This report provides a survey of remediation and treatment technologies for contaminants of concern at environmental restoration (ER) sites at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico. The sites that were evaluated include the Tijeras Arroyo Groundwater, Technical Area V, and Canyons sites. The primary contaminants of concern at these sites include trichloroethylene (TCE), tetrachloroethylene (PCE), and nitrate in groundwater. Due to the low contaminant concentrations (close to regulatory limits) and significant depths to groundwater ({approx}500 feet) at these sites, few in-situ remediation technologies are applicable. The most applicable treatment technologies include monitored natural attenuation and enhanced bioremediation/denitrification to reduce the concentrations of TCE, PCE, and nitrate in the groundwater. Stripping technologies to remove chlorinated solvents and other volatile organic compounds from the vadose zone can also be implemented, if needed.

  4. Radiation- and photoinduced degradation of pollutants in water. A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Getoff, N.

    1991-01-01

    Absorption spectra and kinetics of the C radical 3 H 7 , n-C radical 4 H 9 , C 3 H 7 O radical 2 and n-C 4 H 9 O radical 2 transients are presented. Comparative studies on CH 2 Cl 2 , trans-1,2-dichloroethylene, trichloroethylene and tetra-chloroethylene in neutral aqueous solution with respect to their degradation under the influence of γ-rays and v.u.v.-light were performed. Based on the quantum energy (E = 6.71 eV hv for 184.9 nm) a ''photochemical'' G-value for Cl - was obtained which is about one order of magnitude higher than that resulting from γ-irradiation. This effect is based on the specific v.u.v.-light absorption by the substrates in addition to the photolysis of water. Probable reaction mechanisms for the radiation and photoinduced decomposition of the chlorinated hydrocarbons are presented. (author)

  5. The kinetics of the radiation-induced chain dechlorination of hexachloroethane in alcohols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawai, Takeshi; Ohara, Naoki; Shimokawa, Toshinari

    1978-01-01

    The kinetics of the radiation-induced dechlorination of hexachloroethane was investigated in deoxygenated alcohol solutions. The major products were hydrogen chloride, pentachloroethane, 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane, tetrachloroethylene, and aldehydes or acetone. No 1,1,1,2-tetrachloroethane was observed. The radiation-chemical yields of these products and the disappearance of hexachloroethane were quite high; these facts indicate that a chain reaction is involved in these processes. After the hexachloroethane had effectively dechlorinated down to tetrachloro compounds, there were no marked changes in the lower chlorinated compound upon continuous irradiation. Tetrachloroethane was formed via pentachloroethane, but tetrachloroethylene was produced by means of C 2 Cl 5 →C 2 Cl 4 + cl reaction and the yield was particularly high in methanol compared with the other alcohols. The chain length of the dechlorination from hexachloroethane to pentachloroethane and from pentachloroethane to tetrachloroethane increased in the order of 2-propanol>ethanol>methanol. The G(-C 2 Cl 6 ) and G(products) were proportional to (dose rate)sup(-1/2), and the ratio of G(C 2 HCl 5 ) to G(C 2 Cl 4 ) was a constant in each alcohol solution, regardless of the dose rate. The α-hydroxy alkyl radical is the chain carrier for the dechlorination reaction of hexachloroethane in alcohol solutions. The relative rates of the dechlorination were found to be 1, 3, and 14 for C*H 2 OH (*: radical), CH 3 C*HOH (*: radical), and (CH 3 ) 2 C*OH (*: radical), respectively. The order in the rate is in agreement with that of the redox potential of these radicals. The effect of the irradiation temperature on the products yields was also examined. (auth.)

  6. Quarterly sampling of the wetlands along the old F-Area effluent ditch: March 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, K.L.; Cummins, C.L.; Rogers, V.A.

    1994-05-01

    In March 1994, well point water and near surface water (bucket) samples were collected to further characterize tritium and volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the wetlands along the old F-Area effluent ditch south of 643-E (old burial ground). Groundwater flow paths suggest that compounds detected in water table wells around 643-E would migrate towards the old F-Area effluent ditch and Fourmile Branch. Recent analytical results from near surface water sampling in the wetlands that comprise the old F-Area effluent ditch have shown that tritium and small quantities of VOCs are outcropping in the area. Results of the March 1994 sampling event further support findings that tritium and volatile organic compounds originating from 643-E are outcropping in the wetlands near the old F-Area effluent ditch. Six different analytes were detected in the well points at least once at concentrations greater than the method detection limit: d 1,2-dichloroethylene, acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, tetrachloroethylene, trichloroethylene, and tritium. 1,2-dichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, trichloroethylene, and tritium were detected at levels above Primary Drinking Water Standards or Maximum Contaminant Levels list. Four analytes, 1,2-dichloroethylene, trichloroethylene, tritium, and vinyl chloride, were detected at least once at concentrations greater than the method detection limit and least once at concentrations above the PDWS or the MCL. Based on differences in tritium concentrations at each location, it was determined that the sampling devices intercepted different groundwater flow paths. This negated direct comparison of analytical results between devices. However, when VOC concentrations measured at each well point and bucket location were normalized, resulting well point and bucket VOC concentrations were comparable in most cases. These results suggest that volatilization losses of VOCs from the buckets were negligible

  7. Emissions from the Bena Landfill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, C.; Blake, D. R.; Hughes, S.

    2016-12-01

    In 2013, Americans generated 254 million tons of municipal solid waste (MSW). The gas generated from the decomposition of MSW is composed of approximately 50% methane, 50% carbon dioxide, and a small proportion of non-methane organic compounds (NMOCs). NMOCs constitute less than 1% of landfill emissions, but they can have a disproportionate environmental impact as they are highly reactive ozone precursors. During the 2016 Student Airborne Research Program (SARP), whole air samples were collected at the Bena landfill outside of Bakersfield, CA and throughout Bakersfield and analyzed using gas chromatography in order to quantify NMOC emissions. This area was determined to have elevated concentrations of benzene, trichloroethylene, and tetrachloroethylene, all of which are categorized by the EPA as hazardous to human health. Benzene was found to have a concentration of 145 ± 4 pptv, four times higher than the background levels in Bakersfield (36 ± 1 pptv). Trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene had concentrations of 18 ± 1 pptv and 31 ± 1 pptv which were 18 and 10 times greater than background concentrations, respectively. In addition, hydroxyl radical reactivity (ROH) was calculated to determine the potential for tropospheric ozone formation. The total ROH of the landfill was 7.5 ± 0.2 s-1 compared to total background ROH of 1.0 ± 0.1 s-1 . NMOCs only made up 0.6% of total emissions, but accounted for 67% of total ROH.These results can help to shape future landfill emission policies by highlighting the importance of NMOCs in addition to methane. More research is needed to investigate the ozone forming potential of these compounds at landfills across the country.

  8. Estudio de mezclas de disolventes orgánicos y trigliceridos de aceite de linaza o los ácidos grasos libres. II.- Aplicación a la viscosidad de las ecuaciones de Andrade, Krone, McAllister e Hildebrand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantell Serrano, C.

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available A regression study of Andrade, Krone, McAllister and Hildebrand equations with experimental data of viscosity of mixtures of triglycerides or free fatty acids and trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene and hexane was carried out. Temperature range studied was 278-313 K in steps of 5K.
    The results showed that the Hildebrand equation presents the best fit for all the viscosity data of the mixtures studied, tending towards a lineal or parabolic function of its parameters.
    Andrade and Krone equations presented acceptable fits for all mixtures studied except the fatty acids and hexane mixture. The McAllister equation was applicable only to mixtures with tetrachloroethylene.

    Se ha realizado el estudio de regresión de las ecuaciones de Andrade, Krone, McAllister e Hildebrand con datos experimentales de viscosidad de mezclas de triglicéridos o ácidos grasos libres con tricloroetileno, tetracloroetileno y hexano en el intervalo de temperaturas de 278 a 313 K cada 5 K.
    Los resultados obtenidos indican que el mejor ajuste de los datos experimentales de viscosidad lo presenta la ecuación de Hildebrand, buscándose una función lineal o parabólica con la fracción molar de sus dos parámetros.
    Las ecuaciones de Andrade y Krone presentan un ajuste aceptable para todas las mezclas estudiadas excepto para las de ácidos grasos en hexano y la ecuación de McAllister es únicamente aplicable a las mezclas con tetracloroetileno.

  9. Destruction and formation of organic micropollutants in incineration process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mascolo, G.; Bagnuolo, G.; Lotito, V.; Spinosa, L.; Mininni, G.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper are presented the results obtained from a lab-scale investigation carried out with a system for Thermal Diagnostic Studies (STDS) aimed to study the effect of some process variables during incineration. The study has been focused on (I) gas phase dioxins formation during precursors thermal degradation, (II) thermal degradation of toxic organic compounds, (III) products of incomplete combustion (PICs) formation during thermal degradation of urban sludge spiked with toxic organics, (IV) PICs formation during process failure modes, (V) polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) formation during urban sludge thermal degradation and (VI) influence of conditioning polymer on PICs emission during sludge incineration. The study about gas phase dioxins formation during precursors thermal degradation has been carried out with 2, 4, 6-trichloro- and 2, 4, 6 -tribromo-phenol that were thermal degraded at temperatures between 300 and 800 0 C in an air atmosphere. Both phenols showed the formation of the same tetra-halo-dioxin isomers that were further degraded at higher temperature. Furthermore, chlorine-containing dioxins showed higher thermal stability than bromine-containing dioxins. The study about thermal degradation of toxic organic compounds has been carried out with chlorobenzene, tetrachloroethylene and toluene that were thermal degraded at temperatures between 300 and 1000 0 C in an inert as well as air atmosphere. Results show that in all experimental conditions tetrachloroethylene and toluene are the most and less thermal stable compounds respectively. Also, all compounds are more thermal resistant during pyrolytic experiments and less thermal resistant when they are treated as a whole mixture. The study about PICs formation during thermal degradation of urban sludge spiked with toxic organics has been carried out by thermally degrading urban sludge alone or spiked with the above reported three organics at different conditions of temperature and oxygen

  10. Estudio de mezclas de disolventes orgánicos y triglicéridos de aceite de linaza o los ácidos grasos libres. I.- Volumen molar, refracción molar y viscosidad dinámica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantell Serrano, C.

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of molar volume, refraction index and dynamic viscosity in mixtures of fatty acids or triglycerides and trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene and hexane were realized. Temperature range studied was 278-313 K each 5 K. The relationship between molar volume and molar fraction show high correlation coefficient In fatty acids with trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene mixtures. On the other hand, hexane mixtures show little contractions of molar volume at low molar fractions. Triglyceride mixtures present important deviations with regard to the ideality of the molar volume. The adjusts obtained for the molar volume values versus temperature are acceptable, calculating the coefficients of thermal expansion of the studied mixtures. Equally, the adjust of the experimental results of viscosity for two prediction equations are studied: one of additive type and the other of parabolic type.

    Se han realizado medidas del volumen molar, índice de refracción y viscosidad dinámica en el intervalo de temperatura de 278 K a 313 K cada 5 K, a mezclas de ácidos grasos o triglicéridos con tricloroetileno, tetracloroetileno y hexano. Las mezclas de ácidos grasos con tricloroetileno y tetracloroetileno, presentan unos altos coeficientes de correlación para los valores del volumen molar frente a la fracción molar, mientras que las mezclas con hexano, a fracciones molares bajas, manifiestan una pequeña contracción del volumen molar. Las mezclas de triglicéridos presentan importantes desviaciones con respecto a la Idealidad del volumen molar. Los ajustes obtenidos para los valores del volumen molar frente a la temperatura son aceptables, determinándose los valores del coeficiente de dilatación volumétrica a presión constante de las mezclas estudiadas. Igualmente se ha estudiado el ajuste de los resultados experimentales de viscosidad a dos ecuaciones de predicción: una del tipo aditiva y otra del tipo parabólico.

  11. Air purification from TCE and PCE contamination in a hybrid bioreactors and biofilter integrated system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabernacka, Agnieszka; Zborowska, Ewa; Lebkowska, Maria; Borawski, Maciej

    2014-01-15

    A two-stage waste air treatment system, consisting of hybrid bioreactors (modified bioscrubbers) and a biofilter, was used to treat waste air containing chlorinated ethenes - trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE). The bioreactor was operated with loadings in the range 0.46-5.50gm(-3)h(-1) for TCE and 2.16-9.02gm(-3)h(-1) for PCE. The biofilter loadings were in the range 0.1-0.97gm(-3)h(-1) for TCE and 0.2-2.12gm(-3)h(-1) for PCE. Under low pollutant loadings, the efficiency of TCE elimination was 23-25% in the bioreactor and 54-70% in the biofilter. The efficiency of PCE elimination was 44-60% in the bioreactor and 50-75% in the biofilter. The best results for the bioreactor were observed one week after the pollutant loading was increased. However, the process did not stabilize. In the next seven days contaminant removal efficiency, enzymatic activity and biomass content were all diminished. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facility groundwater monitoring report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, C.Y.

    1993-03-01

    During fourth quarter 1992, samples from 18 groundwater monitoring wells of the AMB series at the Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facility were analyzed for certain heavy metals, indicator parameters, radionuclides, volatile organic compounds, and other constituents. Six parameters exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) and the Savannah River Site Flag 2 criteria during the quarter. The results for fourth quarter 1992 are fairly consistent with the rest of the year's data. Tetrachloroethylene exceeded the final PDWS in well AMB 4D only two of the four quarters; in the other three wells in which it was elevated, it was present at similar levels throughout the year. Trichloroethylene consistently exceeded its PDWS in wells AMB 4A, 4B, 4D, 5, and 7A during the year. Trichloroethylene was elevated in well AMB 6 only during third and fourth quarters and in well AMB 7 only during fourth quarter. Total alpha-emitting radium was above the final PDWS for total radium in well AMB 5 at similar levels throughout the year and exceeded the PDWS during one of the three quarters it was analyzed for (third quarter 1992) in well AMB 10B

  13. Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facility groundwater monitoring report. Third quarter, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    During third quarter 1994, samples from AMB groundwater monitoring wells at the Metallurgical Laboratory Hazardous Waste Management Facility (Met Lab HWMF) were analyzed for selected heavy metals, indicator parameters, radionuclides, volatile organic compounds, and other constituents. Eight parameters exceeded standards during the quarter. As in previous quarters, tetrachloroethylene and trichloroethylene exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS). Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate exceeded final PDWS in one well. Aluminum, iron, manganese, tin, and total organic halogens exceeded the Savannah River Site (SRS) Flag 2 criteria. Groundwater flow direction and rate in the M-Area Aquifer Zone were similar to previous quarters. Conditions affecting determination of groundwater flow directions and rates in the Upper Lost Lake Aquifer Zone, Lower Lost Lake Aquifer Zone, and the Middle Sand Aquifer Zone of the Crouch Branch Confining Unit were also similar to previous quarters. During second quarter 1994, SRS received South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control approval for constructing five point-of-compliance wells and two plume definition wells near the Met Lab HWMF. This project began in July 1994 and is complete; however, analytical data from these wells is not available yet

  14. FIELD SCREENING FOR HALOGENATED VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John F. Schabron; Joseph F. Rovani Jr.; Theresa M. Bomstad

    2002-06-01

    Western Research Institute (WRI) initiated exploratory work towards the development of new field screening methodology and a test kit to measure halogenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the field. Heated diode and corona discharge sensors are commonly used to detect leaks of refrigerants from air conditioners, freezers, and refrigerators. They are both selective to the presence of carbon-halogen bonds. Commercially available heated diode and corona discharge leak detectors were procured and evaluated for halogenated VOC response. The units were modified to provide a digital readout of signal related to VOC concentration. Sensor response was evaluated with carbon tetrachloride and tetrachloroethylene (perchloroethylene, PCE), which represent halogenated VOCs with and without double bonds. The response characteristics were determined for the VOCs directly in headspace in Tedlar bag containers. Quantitation limits in air were estimated. Potential interferences from volatile hydrocarbons, such as toluene and heptane, were evaluated. The effect of humidity was studied also. The performance of the new devices was evaluated in the laboratory by spiking soil samples and monitoring headspace for halogenated VOCs. A draft concept of the steps for a new analytical method was outlined. The results of the first year effort show that both devices show potential utility for future analytical method development work towards the goal of developing a portable test kit for screening halogenated VOCs in the field.

  15. Demonstration and evaluation of the pulsed ultraviolet-irradiation gas-treatment system, Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, J.; Wilkey, M.; Peters, R.; Tomczyk, N.; Friedlund, J.; Farber, P.

    1994-10-01

    Argonne National Laboratory was asked to demonstrate and evaluate a pulsed ultraviolet-irradiation system developed by Purus, Inc., at the Volatile Organic Compounds Non-Arid Integrated Demonstration at the Savannah River Site near aiken, South Carolina. The Purus system consists of four reactor chambers, each containing a xenon flash lamp. During the two weeks of testing, samples were taken and analyzed from the inlet and outlet sides of the Purus system. The contaminants of concern on the inlet were tetrachloroethylene (PCE), trichloroethylene (TCE), and 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA); the contaminants of concern on the outlet were PCE, TCE, TCA, carbon tetrachloride (CT), and chloroform. The evaluation of the Purus system included an examination of the reduction of both TCE and PCE and a search for any change in the concentrations. (Operating conditions included flow rates, ranging from 25 to 100 standard cubic feet per minute; inlet concentration of PCE, ranging from 360 to 10,700 parts per million volume; and flash lamp rates, ranging from 1 to 30 hertz.) The Purus system was quite efficient at reducing the concentrations of both PCE and TCE. The potential by-products, TCA, CT, and chloroform, showed no significant increases throughout the range of the various operating parameters. Overall, the Purus system appears to be a cost-efficient means of reducing the concentrations of PCE and TCE, while the removal of the initial photo-oxidation products and TCA is slower and needs further evaluation

  16. Biodegradation of chlorinated ethenes by a methane-utilizing mixed culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogel, M.M.; Taddeo, A.R.; Fogel, S.

    1986-01-01

    Chlorinated ethenes are toxic substances which are widely distributed groundwater contaminants and are persistent in the subsurface environment. Reports on the biodegradation of these compounds under anaerobic conditions which might occur naturally in groundwater show that these substances degrade very slowly, if at all. Previous attempts to degrade chlorinated ethenes aerobically have produced conflicting results. A mixed culture containing methane-utilizing bacteria was obtained by methane enrichment of a sediment sample. Biodegradation experiments carried out in sealed culture bottles with radioactively labeled trichloroethylene (TCE) showed that approximately half of the radioactive carbon had been converted to 14 CO 2 and bacterial biomass. In addition to TCE, vinyl chloride and vinylidene chloride could be degraded to products which are not volatile chlorinated substances and are therefore likely to be further degraded to CO 2 . Two other chlorinated ethenes, cis and trans-1,2-dichloroethylene, were shown to degrade to chlorinated products, which appeared to degrade further. A sixth chlorinated ethene, tetrachloroethylene, was not degraded by the methane-utilizing culture under these conditions. The biodegradation of TCE was inhibited by acetylene, a specific inhibitor of methane oxidation by methanotrophs. This observation supported the hypothesis that a methanotroph is responsible for the observed biodegradations

  17. Advances in Biodegradation of Multiple Volatile Organic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M.; Yoshikawa, M.

    2017-12-01

    Bioremediation of soil and groundwater containing multiple contaminants remains a challenge in environmental science and engineering because complete biodegradation of all components is necessary but very difficult to accomplish in practice. This presentation provides a brief overview on advances in biodegradation of multiple volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including chlorinated ethylenes, benzene, toluene and dichloromethane (DCM). Case studies on aerobic biodegradation of benzene, toluene and DCM, and integrated anaerobic-aerobic biodegradation of 7 contaminants, specifically, tetrachloroethylene (PCE), trichloroethylene (TCE), cis-dichloroethylene (cis-DCE), vinyl chloride (VC), DCM, benzene and toluene will be provided. Recent findings based on systematic laboratory experiments indicated that aerobic toluene degradation can be enhanced by co-existence of benzene. Propioniferax, not a known benzene, toluene and DCM degrader can be a key microorganism that involves in biodegradation when the three contaminants co-exist. Integrated anaerobic-aerobic biodegradation is capable of completely degrading the seven VOCs with initial concentrations less than 30 mg/L. Dehalococcoides sp., generally considered sensitive to oxygen, can survive aerobic conditions for at least 28 days, and can be activated during the subsequent anaerobic biodegradation. This presentation may provide a systematic information about biodegradation of multiple VOCs, and a scientific basis for the complete bioremediation of multiple contaminants in situ.

  18. Site characterization program at the radioactive waste management complex of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McElroy, D.L.; Rawson, S.A.; Hubbell, J.M.; Minkin, S.C.; Baca, R.G.; Vigil, M.J.; Bonzon, C.J.; Landon, J.L.; Laney, P.T.

    1989-07-01

    The Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) Site Characterization Program is a continuation of the Subsurface Investigation Program (SIP). The scope of the SIP has broadened in response to the results of past work that identified hazardous as well as radionuclide contaminants in the subsurface environment and in response to the need to meet regulatory requirements. Two deep boreholes were cored at the RWMC during FY-1988. Selected sediment samples were submitted for Appendix IX of 40 CFR Part 264 and radionuclide analyses. Detailed geologic logging of archived core was initiated. Stratigraphic studies of the unsaturated zone were conducted. Studies to determine hydrologic properties of sediments and basalts were conducted. Geochemical studies and analyses were initiated to evaluate contaminant and radionuclide speciation and migration in the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) geochemical environment. Analyses of interbed sediments in boreholes D15 and 8801D did not confirm the presence of radionuclide contamination in the 240-ft interbed. Analyses of subsurface air and groundwater samples identified five volatile organic compounds of concern: carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethylene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, chloroform, and tetrachloroethylene. 33 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Comparative evaluation of debris extruded apically by using, Protaper retreatment file, K3 file and H-file with solvent in endodontic retreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chetna Arora

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the apical extrusion of debris comparing 2 engine driven systems and hand instrumentation technique during root canal retreatment. Materials and Methods: Forty five human permanent mandibular premolars were prepared using the step-back technique, obturated with gutta-percha/zinc oxide eugenol sealer and cold lateral condensation technique. The teeth were divided into three groups: Group A: Protaper retreatment file, Group B: K3, file Group C: H-file with tetrachloroethylene. All the canals were irrigated with 20ml distilled water during instrumentation. Debris extruded along with the irrigating solution during retreatment procedure was carefully collected in preweighed Eppendorf tubes. The tubes were stored in an incubator for 5 days, placed in a desiccator and then re-weighed. Weight of dry debris was calculated by subtracting the weight of the tube before instrumentation and from the weight of the tube after instrumentation. Data was analyzed using Two Way ANOVA and Post Hoc test. Results : There was statistically significant difference in the apical extrusion of debris between hand instrumentation and protaper retreatment file and K3 file. The amount of extruded debris caused by protaper retreatment file and K3 file instrumentation technique was not statistically significant. All the three instrumentation techniques produced apically extruded debris and irrigant. Conclusion: The best way to minimize the extrusion of debris is by adapting crown down technique therefore the use of rotary technique (Protaper retreatment file, K3 file is recommended.

  20. Transformation rules and degradation of CAHs by Fentonlike oxidation in growth ring of water distribution network-A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, D.; Ma, W. C.; Jiang, X. Q.; Yuan, Y. X.; Yuan, Y.; Wang, Z. Q.; Fang, T. T.; Huang, W. Y.

    2017-08-01

    Chlorinated hydrocarbons are widely used as organic solvent and chemical raw materials. After treatment, water polluted with trichloroethylene (TCE)/tetrachloroethylene (PCE) can reach the water quality requirements, while water with trace amounts of TCE/PCE is still harmful to humans, which will cause cancers. Water distribution network is an extremely complicated system, in which adsorption, desorption, flocculation, movement, transformation and reduction will occur, leading to changes of TCE/PCE concentrations and products. Therefore, it is important to investigate the transformation rules of TCE/PCE in water distribution network. What’s more, growth-ring, including drinking water pipes deposits, can act as catalysts in Fenton-like reagent (H2O2). This review summarizes the status of transformation rules of CAHs in water distribution network. It also evaluates the effectiveness and fruit of CAHs degradation by Fenton-like reagent based on growth-ring. This review is important in solving the potential safety problems caused by TCE/PCE in water distribution network.

  1. Effect of biosurfactants on the aqueous solubility of PCE and TCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albino, John D; Nambi, Indumathi M

    2009-12-01

    The effect of biosurfactants on the solubility of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE) was studied in batch experiments pertaining to their use for solubilization and mobilization of such contaminants in surfactant enhanced aquifer remediation. Biosurfactants, rhamnolipid and surfactin used in solubility studies were synthesized in our laboratory by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MTCC 2297) and Bacillus subtilis (MTCC 2423), respectively. The efficiency of the biosurfactants in solubilizing the chlorinated solvents was compared to that of synthetic surfactants. The Weight Solubilization Ratio (WSR) values for solubilization of PCE and TCE by biosurfactants were very high compared to the values obtained for synthetic surfactants. Surfactin proved to be a better surfactant over rhamnolipid. The WSR of surfactin on solubilization of PCE and TCE were 3.83 and 12.5, respectively, whereas the values obtained for rhamnolipid were 2.06 and 8.36. The solubility of the chlorinated solvents by biosurfactants was considerably affected by the changes in pH. The aqueous solubility of PCE and TCE increased tremendously with decrease in pH. The solubility of biosurfactants was observed to decrease with the pH, favoring partitioning of surfactants into the chlorinated solvents in significant amounts at lower pH. The excessive accumulation of biosurfactants at the interface facilitated interfacial tension reductions resulting in higher solubility of the chlorinated solvents at pH less than 7.

  2. Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report, Fourth Quarter 1999 and 1999 Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chase, J.

    2000-01-01

    A maximum of thirty eight-wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill Area at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled quarterly to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Domestic Water Permit DWP-087A and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program. Iron (Total Recoverable), Chloroethene (Vinyl Chloride) and 1,1-Dichloroethane were the most widespread constituents exceeding the Final Primary Drinking Water Standards during 1999. Trichloroethylene, 1,1-Dichloroethylene, 1,2-Dichloroethane, 1,4-Dichlorobenzene, Aluminum (Total Recoverable), Benzene, cis-1,2-Dichloroethylene, Dichlorodifluoromethane, Dichloromethane (Methylene Chloride), Gross Alpha, Mercury (Total Recoverable), Nonvolatile Beta, Tetrachloroethylene, Total Organic Halogens, Trichlorofluoromethane, Tritium also exceeded standards in one or more wells. The groundwater flow direction in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill is to the southeast (universal transverse Mercator coordinates). The flow rate in this unit was approximately 144.175 ft/year during first quarter 1999 and 145.27 ft/year during fourth quarter 1999

  3. Bioremediation potential of toxics by manipulation of deep terrestrial subsurface ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phelps, T.J.

    1990-01-01

    Mixed physiological types of bacteria in consortia recovered from subsurface contaminated sediments degrade mixed organic wastes containing carbon-rich (benzene, xylene, toluene) and halogenated hydrocarbon substrates (chlorobenzene, trichloroethylene, dichloroethylenes, vinyl chloride) in column bioreactors when provided with oxygen and methane and/or propane substrates. In expanded bed bioreactors degradation proceeds to 99% completion for several organic and chlorocarbon contaminants (60% for tetrachloroethylene) to carbon dioxide on repeated cycles in 21 days with little loss of volatiles in the control bioreactor except for a 70% loss of vinyl chloride in the control. Biodegradation is most efficient when the microbial consortia is maintained in a suboptimal nutritional state which can be monitored by ratios of endogenous storage lipid (poly beta-hydroxy alkanoic acid, PHA) to total phospholipid ester-linked fatty acids (PLFA). Under the best conditions the efficiency of biodegradation was 50-65 moles substrate (propane or propane + methane)/mole of TEC degraded. The microbial communities showed a rich diversity of microbes based on PLFA biomarkers. The effects of adding methane and/or propane in inducing specific subsets of the microbial community can readily be detected in the PLFA biomarker. Despite the presence of carbon rich substrates (benzene, toluene, xylene) in the mixed wastes, no evidence of plugging of interstitial spaces by exopolysaccharide was detected

  4. Biotransformation of chlorinated aliphatic solvents in the presence of aromatic compounds under methanogenic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, L.N.; Grbic-Galic, D.

    1993-01-01

    Transformation of carbon tetrachloride (CT) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) was studied under methanogenic conditions, in the presence or absence of toluene, ethylbenzene, phenol, and benzoate. Microbial inoculate for the experiments were derived from three groundwater aquifers contaminated by jet fuel or creosote. CT and PCE were reductively dechlorinated in all the examined castes (CT to chloroform [CF]; PCE to trichloroethylene [TCE], trans-1,2-dichloroethylene [DCE], and vinyl chloride [VC]). In the aquifer microcosms, the electron donors used for the reductive transformations were most likely the unidentified organic compounds present on aquifer solids, or storage materials in microorganisms. Alternatively, molecular hydrogen from the anaerobic incubator atmosphere could have been used. The addition of benzoate caused a decrease in rates of dechlorination if benzoate was transformed. Phenol and ethylbenzene were not degraded and did not influence the transformation of CT or PCE. Toluene, in most of the studied cases, had no influence on reductive dechlorination of either CT or PCE. Only in microcosms derived from a JP-4 jet fuel-contaminated aquifer did the anaerobic degradation of toluene occur simultaneously with reductive dechlorination of PCE, suggesting that toluene might possibly have been used as an electron donor for reductive transformation of chlorinated solvents

  5. Site characterization program at the radioactive waste management complex of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McElroy, D.L.; Rawson, S.A.; Hubbell, J.M.; Minkin, S.C.; Baca, R.G.; Vigil, M.J.; Bonzon, C.J.; Landon, J.L.; Laney, P.T.

    1989-07-01

    The Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) Site Characterization Program is a continuation of the Subsurface Investigation Program (SIP). The scope of the SIP has broadened in response to the results of past work that identified hazardous as well as radionuclide contaminants in the subsurface environment and in response to the need to meet regulatory requirements. Two deep boreholes were cored at the RWMC during FY-1988. Selected sediment samples were submitted for Appendix IX of 40 CFR Part 264 and radionuclide analyses. Detailed geologic logging of archived core was initiated. Stratigraphic studies of the unsaturated zone were conducted. Studies to determine hydrologic properties of sediments and basalts were conducted. Geochemical studies and analyses were initiated to evaluate contaminant and radionuclide speciation and migration in the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) geochemical environment. Analyses of interbed sediments in boreholes D15 and 8801D did not confirm the presence of radionuclide contamination in the 240-ft interbed. Analyses of subsurface air and groundwater samples identified five volatile organic compounds of concern: carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethylene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, chloroform, and tetrachloroethylene. 33 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Pilot-Scale Demonstration of In-Situ Chemical Oxidation ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    A pilot-scale in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) demonstration, involving subsurface injections of sodium permanganate (NaMnO4), was performed at the US Marine Corp Recruit Depot (MCRD), site 45 (Parris Island (PI), SC). The ground water was originally contaminated with perchloroethylene (PCE) (also known as tetrachloroethylene), a chlorinated solvent used in dry cleaner operations. High resolution site characterization involved multiple iterations of soil core sampling and analysis. Nested micro-wells and conventional wells were also used to sample and analyze ground water for PCE and decomposition products (i.e., trichloroethyelene (TCE), dichloroethylene (c-DCE, t-DCE), and vinyl chloride (VC)), collectively referred to as chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOC). This characterization methodology was used to develop and refine the conceptual site model and the ISCO design, not only by identifying CVOC contamination but also by eliminating uncontaminated portions of the aquifer from further ISCO consideration. Direct-push injection was selected as the main method of NaMnO4 delivery due to its flexibility and low initial capital cost. Site impediments to ISCO activities in the source area involved subsurface utilities, including a high pressure water main, a high voltage power line, a communication line, and sanitary and stormwater sewer lines. Utility markings were used in conjunction with careful planning and judicious selection of injection locations. A

  7. A survey of indoor pollution by volatile organo halogen compounds in Katsushika, Tokyo, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amagai, T.; Olansandan; Matsushita, H. [University of Shizuoka, Shizuoka (Japan); Ono, M. [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Ibaraki (Japan); Nakai, S. [Yokohama National University, Yokohama (Japan); Tamura, K. [National Institute for Minamata Disease, Kumamoto (Japan); Maeda, K. [Tokyo Kasel University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    A survey of indoor and outdoor pollution by 10 volatile organo halogen compounds (VOHCs) was performed in Katsushika Ward, Tokyo, Japan. Thirteen houses in February and 30 houses in July were sampled. Four consecutive 24-hour samples were collected by passive sampling from living room, kitchen, bedroom, bathroom and outdoors in February and July 1995. Indoor concentrations of carbon tetrachloride and trichloroethylene were at nearly the same as outdoor concentrations; therefore, it was concluded that indoor pollution by these compounds was primarily due to penetration of outdoor pollutants. Indoor concentrations of some VOHCs were considerably higher than outdoor concentrations and they varied widely between households. The list included: p-dichlorobenzene, tetrachloroethylene and tri halomethanes, for which emission sources were insect repellents, dry-cleaned clothes, and tap water, showers and bathtub water, respectively. Indoor concentrations of these compounds were higher in reinforced concrete houses than in wooden houses or wooden houses with mortar walls. This suggests that airtightness of the rooms is responsible for high indoor VOHC concentrations. (author)

  8. Mechanism of alternating copolymerization of methyl methacrylate with styrene in the presence of diethylaluminum chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubov, V.P.; Lachinov, M.B.; Ignatova, E.V.; Georgiev, G.S.; Golubev, V.B.; Kabanov, V.A.

    1982-01-01

    A kinetic study of the propagation mechanism of the alternating copolymerization of styrene (St) with methyl methacrylate (MMA) in the presence of a complexing agent (diethylaluminum chloride, DEAC) in bulk and in tetrachloroethylene solutions at a molar ratio DEAC/MMA = 0.5 has been carried out. It has been shown that the copolymerization is a chain radical process characterized by a short active-center lifetime, bimolecular termination, and high rate of chain transfer to the complexed MMA. A kinetic scheme has been proposed for the propagation mechanism of alternating copolymerization in the presence of a complexing agent not requiring independent measurements of the equilibrium constant of complexation. It has been found that spontaneous and uv-initiated copolymerizations in the system have different mechanisms of initiation and a common mechanism of propagation. The propagation proceeds by addition of single monomers as well as donor-acceptor complexes of the comonomers to the propagation radicals, with the first mechanism being predominant. Inclusion of the monomers in the complex leads to an increase of the St reactivity and to a decrease of the MMA reactivity in propagation to the corresponding macroradicals in comparison with the reactivity of the free monomers. A number of kinetic and statistical parameters of the propagation reaction have been calculated

  9. Preliminary Engineering Report contaminated groundwater seeps 317/319/ENE area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    When the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Facility Investigation (RFI) in the 317/319/ENE Area of Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) was being completed, groundwater was discovered moving to the surface through a series of seeps. The seeps are located approximately 600 ft south of the ANL fence line in Waterfall Glen Forest Preserve. Samples of this water were collected and analyzed for selected parameters. Two of five seeps sampled were found to contain detectable levels of organic contaminants. Three chemical species were identified: chloroform (14-25 μg/L), carbon tetrachloride (56-340 μg/L), and tetrachloroethylene (3-6 μg/L). The other seeps did not contain detectable levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The water issuing from these two contaminated seeps flows into a narrow ravine, where it is visible as a trickle of water flowing through sand and gravel deposits on the floor of the ravine. Approximately 100-ft downstream of the seep area, the contaminated water is no longer visible, having drained back into the soil in the bed of the ravine. Figure 1 shows the location of the 317/319/ENE Area in relation to the ANL-E site and the Waterfall Glen Forest Preserve

  10. Aerated Systems of the Type RH-RCl-Ethanol-Thymolsulphonphthalein Stable Low-Level Chemical Dosimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dvornik, I.; Zec, U.; Anic, A.; Ranogajec, F. [Institute Ruder Boskovic, Zagreb, Yugoslavia (Croatia)

    1967-03-15

    The characteristic of dosimeters described in this paper is concerned with the very sensitive colorimetric method of dose evaluation giving a fair sensitivity with low G(HC1). In addition, the systems are thermally stable and simple to manufacture. With photocolorimetric or spectrophotometric evaluation of about 100 rad the dosimetric: error can be as low as 1 rad, or lower. The examined technique of visual colorimetric evaluation at the same dose level gives the combined error of 10-20 rad, and up to {+-} 5 or 10% at 500 rad. Owing to the practically unlimited shelf life of dosimeters and visual colorimeters, and to the very low production costs of both devices, such chemical dosimeters could be of special interest for massive use as personal gamma dosimeters for wide populations, or as dosimeters for gamma and fast neutron dosimetric topography of nuclear accidents. With tetrachloroethylene and iso-octane G(HC1) has been found constant (8.4) for temperatures of between -10 and +35 Degree-Sign C and for dose-rates of between 80 and 80 000 rad/h. The upper dose limit of colorimetric evaluation is about 2000 rad. With other components G(HC1) can be lower and the range extends to higher doses. The colorimetric properties of the systems RH-ethanol-thymolsulphonphthalein, as well as some of the most interesting features of the production procedure, are described. The radiation chemical aspects are discussed briefly. (author)

  11. Carcinogenic and mutagenic properties of chemicals in drinking water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bull, R J

    1985-12-01

    Isolated cases of careless handling of industrial and domestic waste has lead to a wide variety of dangerous chemicals being inadvertently introduced into drinking water. However, chemicals with established carcinogenic and mutagenic properties that occur with a high frequency and in multiple locations are limited in number. To date, the chief offenders have been chemicals of relatively low carcinogenic potency. Some of the more common chemicals are formed as by-products of disinfection. The latter process is generally regarded as essential to the production of a ''microbiologically safe'' drinking water. Consequently, any reductions in what may be a relatively small carcinogenic risk must be balanced against a potential for a higher frequency of waterborne infectious disease. The results of recent toxicological investigations will be reviewed to place the potential carcinogenic and mutagenic hazards frequently associated with drinking water into perspective. First, evidence for the carcinogenicity of certain volatile organic compounds such as trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene and carbon tetrachloride is considered. Second, the carcinogenic activity that can be ascribed to various by-products of chlorination is reviewed in some detail. Finally, recent evidence that other chemicals derived from the treatment and distribution of drinking water is highlighted as an area requiring move systematic attention. 72 references.

  12. Radiolytic degradation of chlorinated hydrocarbons in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Xing-Zheng; Yamamoto, Takeshi [Fukui Univ., Faculty of Engineering, Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, Fukui (Japan); Hatashita, Masanori [The Wakasa Wan Energy Research Center, Research Dept., Tsuruga, Fukui (Japan)

    2002-11-01

    Radiolytic degradation of chlorinated hydrocarbons (chloroform, trichloroethylene, and tetrachloroethylene) in water was carried out. Water solutions of the chlorinated hydrocarbons with different concentrations were irradiated with {gamma} rays. Concentrations of methane, ethane, CO, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and O{sub 2} after the irradiation were determined by gas chromatography. Concentration of chloride ion in the irradiated sample was determined by ion chromatography. Experimental results show that radiolytic degradation of the chlorinated hydrocarbon increased with the radiation dose. Methane, ethane, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and Cl{sup -} concentrations increased with the radiation dose and the sample concentration. On the other hand, O{sub 2} concentration decreased with the radiation dose and the sample concentration. When sample concentration was high, dissolved oxygen might be not enough for converting most of the C atoms in the sample into CO{sub 2}. This resulted in a low decomposition ratio. Addition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} as an oxygen resource could increase the decomposition ratio greatly. Furthermore, gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy was applied to identify some intermediates of the radiolytic dehalogenation. Radiolytic degradation mechanisms are also discussed. (author)

  13. Quenching of liquid scintillator fluorescence by chloroalkanes and chloroalkenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hariharan, Chithra; Mishra, A.K.

    2000-01-01

    The fluorescence quenching of 2,5-diphenyloxazole (PPO) by a series of chloroalkanes and chloroalkenes including carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, dichloroethane, tetrachloroethane, dichloroethylene, trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene was studied in toluene as solvent at room temperature. CCl 4 was found to be the most efficient quencher in the series. The quenching was found to be appreciable and a positive deviation from linearity was observed in the Stern-Volmer (SV) plots for all the quenchers in the concentration range studied. From the studies of effect of temperature, solvent viscosity and excitation wavelength dependence for the PPO-CCl 4 system, it was inferred that non-linearity is due to the presence of a minor static quenching component in an overall dynamic quenching. The static (K S ) and the dynamic (K D ) quenching constants were calculated from the modified SV equation using quadratic least square fits. Fluorescence quenching experiments with CCl 4 were done for four other scintillators (POPOP, α-NPO, BBO and PBBO). The mechanism of quenching was established to be via charge-transfer, with the direction of transfer being from the scintillators to the chloroalkanes and chloroalkenes

  14. Characterization and simulation of fate and transport of selected volatile organic compounds in the vicinities of the Hadnot Point Industrial Area and landfill: Chapter A Supplement 6 in Analyses and historical reconstruction of groundwater flow, contaminant fate and transport, and distribution of drinking water within the service areas of the Hadnot Point and Holcomb Boulevard Water Treatment Plants and vicinities, U.S. Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, L. Elliott; Suárez-Soto, René J.; Anderson, Barbara A.; Maslia, Morris L.

    2013-01-01

    This supplement of Chapter A (Supplement 6) describes the reconstruction (i.e. simulation) of historical concentrations of tetrachloroethylene (PCE), trichloroethylene (TCE), and benzene3 in production wells supplying water to the Hadnot Base (USMCB) Camp Lejeune, North Carolina (Figure S6.1). A fate and transport model (i.e., MT3DMS [Zheng and Wang 1999]) was used to simulate contaminant migration from source locations through the groundwater system and to estimate mean contaminant concentrations in water withdrawn from water-supply wells in the vicinity of the Hadnot Point Industrial Area (HPIA) and the Hadnot Point landfill (HPLF) area.4 The reconstructed contaminant concentrations were subsequently input into a flow-weighted, materials mass balance (mixing) model (Masters 1998) to estimate monthly mean concentrations of the contaminant in finished water 5 at the HPWTP (Maslia et al. 2013). The calibrated fate and transport models described herein were based on and used groundwater velocities derived from groundwater-flow models that are described in Suárez-Soto et al. (2013). Information data pertinent to historical operations of water-supply wells are described in Sautner et al. (2013) and Telci et al. (2013).

  15. Different behavioral effect dose–response profiles in mice exposed to two-carbon chlorinated hydrocarbons: Influence of structural and physical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umezu, Toyoshi; Shibata, Yasuyuki

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to clarify whether dose–response profiles of acute behavioral effects of 1,2-dichloroethane (DCE), 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCE), trichloroethylene (TRIC), and tetrachloroethylene (PERC) differ. A test battery involving 6 behavioral endpoints was applied to evaluate the effects of DCE, TCE, TRIC, and PERC in male ICR strain mice under the same experimental conditions. The behavioral effect dose–response profiles of these compounds differed. Regression analysis was used to evaluate the relationship between the dose–response profiles and structural and physical properties of the compounds. Dose–response profile differences correlated significantly with differences in specific structural and physical properties. These results suggest that differences in specific structural and physical properties of DCE, TCE, TRIC, and PERC are responsible for differences in behavioral effects that lead to a variety of dose–response profiles. - Highlights: • We examine effects of 4 chlorinated hydrocarbons on 6 behavioral endpoints in mice. • The behavioral effect dose–response profiles for the 4 compounds are different. • We utilize regression analysis to clarify probable causes of the different profiles. • The compound's physicochemical properties probably produce the different profiles

  16. Time series geophysical monitoring of permanganate injections and in situ chemical oxidation of PCE, OU1 area, Savage Superfund Site, Milford, NH, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harte, Philip T.; Smith, Thor E.; Williams, John H.; Degnan, James R.

    2012-01-01

    In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) treatment with sodium permanganate, an electrically conductive oxidant, provides a strong electrical signal for tracking of injectate transport using time series geophysical surveys including direct current (DC) resistivity and electromagnetic (EM) methods. Effective remediation is dependent upon placing the oxidant in close contact with the contaminated aquifer. Therefore, monitoring tools that provide enhanced tracking capability of the injectate offer considerable benefit to guide subsequent ISCO injections. Time-series geophysical surveys were performed at a superfund site in New Hampshire, USA over a one-year period to identify temporal changes in the bulk electrical conductivity of a tetrachloroethylene (PCE; also called tetrachloroethene) contaminated, glacially deposited aquifer due to the injection of sodium permanganate. The ISCO treatment involved a series of pulse injections of sodium permanganate from multiple injection wells within a contained area of the aquifer. After the initial injection, the permanganate was allowed to disperse under ambient groundwater velocities. Time series geophysical surveys identified the downward sinking and pooling of the sodium permanganate atop of the underlying till or bedrock surface caused by density-driven flow, and the limited horizontal spread of the sodium permanganate in the shallow parts of the aquifer during this injection period. When coupled with conventional monitoring, the surveys allowed for an assessment of ISCO treatment effectiveness in targeting the PCE plume and helped target areas for subsequent treatment.

  17. Time series geophysical monitoring of permanganate injections and in situ chemical oxidation of PCE, OU1 area, Savage Superfund Site, Milford, NH, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harte, Philip T; Smith, Thor E; Williams, John H; Degnan, James R

    2012-05-01

    In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) treatment with sodium permanganate, an electrically conductive oxidant, provides a strong electrical signal for tracking of injectate transport using time series geophysical surveys including direct current (DC) resistivity and electromagnetic (EM) methods. Effective remediation is dependent upon placing the oxidant in close contact with the contaminated aquifer. Therefore, monitoring tools that provide enhanced tracking capability of the injectate offer considerable benefit to guide subsequent ISCO injections. Time-series geophysical surveys were performed at a superfund site in New Hampshire, USA over a one-year period to identify temporal changes in the bulk electrical conductivity of a tetrachloroethylene (PCE; also called tetrachloroethene) contaminated, glacially deposited aquifer due to the injection of sodium permanganate. The ISCO treatment involved a series of pulse injections of sodium permanganate from multiple injection wells within a contained area of the aquifer. After the initial injection, the permanganate was allowed to disperse under ambient groundwater velocities. Time series geophysical surveys identified the downward sinking and pooling of the sodium permanganate atop of the underlying till or bedrock surface caused by density-driven flow, and the limited horizontal spread of the sodium permanganate in the shallow parts of the aquifer during this injection period. When coupled with conventional monitoring, the surveys allowed for an assessment of ISCO treatment effectiveness in targeting the PCE plume and helped target areas for subsequent treatment. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Electronically excited states of chloroethylenes: Experiment and DFT calculations in comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khvostenko, O.G.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • B3LYP/6-311 + G(d,p) calculations of chloroethylenes molecules were performed. • Calculations were correlated with experiment on the molecules ground and excited states. • The general pattern of electron structure of chloroethylenes was obtained. • Necessity of this data for chloroethylenes negative ions study was noted. - Abstract: B3LYP/6-311 + G(d,p) calculations of ground and electronically excited states of ethylene, chloroethylene, 1,1-dichloroethylene, 1,2-dichloroethylene-cis, 1,2-dichloroethylene-trans trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene molecules have been performed. Molecular orbitals images and orbital correlation diagram are given. The calculation results for chloroethylenes electronically excited states were compared with experimental data from the energy-loss spectra obtained and generally considered previously by C.F. Koerting, K.N. Walzl and A. Kupperman. Several new additional triplet and singlet transitions were pointed out in these spectra considering the calculation results. The finding of the additional transitions was supported by the UV absorption spectrum of trichloroethylene recorded in big cuvette (10 cm), where the first three triplet and two low-intensive forbidden singlet transitions were registered. The first triplet of this compound was recorded to be at the same energy as was found with the energy-loss spectroscopy

  19. Electronically excited states of chloroethylenes: Experiment and DFT calculations in comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khvostenko, O.G., E-mail: khv@mail.ru

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • B3LYP/6-311 + G(d,p) calculations of chloroethylenes molecules were performed. • Calculations were correlated with experiment on the molecules ground and excited states. • The general pattern of electron structure of chloroethylenes was obtained. • Necessity of this data for chloroethylenes negative ions study was noted. - Abstract: B3LYP/6-311 + G(d,p) calculations of ground and electronically excited states of ethylene, chloroethylene, 1,1-dichloroethylene, 1,2-dichloroethylene-cis, 1,2-dichloroethylene-trans trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene molecules have been performed. Molecular orbitals images and orbital correlation diagram are given. The calculation results for chloroethylenes electronically excited states were compared with experimental data from the energy-loss spectra obtained and generally considered previously by C.F. Koerting, K.N. Walzl and A. Kupperman. Several new additional triplet and singlet transitions were pointed out in these spectra considering the calculation results. The finding of the additional transitions was supported by the UV absorption spectrum of trichloroethylene recorded in big cuvette (10 cm), where the first three triplet and two low-intensive forbidden singlet transitions were registered. The first triplet of this compound was recorded to be at the same energy as was found with the energy-loss spectroscopy.

  20. Electronically excited negative ion resonant states in chloroethylenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khvostenko, O.G., E-mail: khv@mail.ru; Lukin, V.G.; Tuimedov, G.M.; Khatymova, L.Z.; Kinzyabulatov, R.R.; Tseplin, E.E.

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Several novel dissociative negative ion channels were revealed in chloroethylenes. • The electronically excited resonant states were recorded in all chloroethylenes under study. • The states were assigned to the inter-shell types, but not to the core-excited Feshbach one. - Abstract: The negative ion mass spectra of the resonant electron capture by molecules of 1,1-dichloroethylene, 1,2-dichloroethylene-cis, 1,2-dichloroethylene-trans, trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene have been recorded in the 0–12 eV range of the captured electron energy using static magnetic sector mass spectrometer modified for operation in the resonant electron capture regime. As a result, several novel low-intensive dissociation channels were revealed in the compounds under study. Additionally, the negative ion resonant states were recorded at approximately 3–12 eV, mostly for the first time. These resonant states were assigned to the electronically excited resonances of the inter-shell type by comparing their energies with those of the parent neutral molecules triplet and singlet electronically excited states known from the energy-loss spectra obtained by previous studies.

  1. Trichloroethylene (TCE) adsorption using sustainable organic mulch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei Zongsu [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Toledo, Mail Stop 307, 3031 Nitschke Hall, 2801 W. Bancroft St., Toledo, OH, 43606-3390 (United States); Seo, Youngwoo, E-mail: youngwoo.seo@utoledo.edu [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Toledo, Mail Stop 307, 3031 Nitschke Hall, 2801 W. Bancroft St., Toledo, OH, 43606-3390 (United States)

    2010-09-15

    Soluble substrates (electron donors) have been commonly injected into chlorinated solvent contaminated plume to stimulate reductive dechlorination. Recently, different types of organic mulches with economic advantages and sustainable benefits have received much attention as new supporting materials that can provide long term sources of electron donors for chlorinated solvent bioremediation in engineered biowall systems. However, sorption capacities of organic mulches for chlorinated solvents have not been studied yet. In this study, the physiochemical properties of organic mulches (pine, hardwood and cypress mulches) were measured and their adsorption capacity as a potential media was elucidated. Single, binary and quaternary isotherm tests were conducted with trichloroethylene (TCE), tetrachloroethylene (PCE), trans-dichloroethylene (trans-DCE) and cis-dichloroethylene (cis-DCE). Among the three tested mulches, pine mulch showed the highest sorption capacity for the majority of the tested chemicals in single isotherm test. In binary or quaternary isotherm tests, competition among chemicals appears to diminish the differences in Q{sub e} for tested mulches. However, pine mulch also showed higher adsorption capacity for most chemicals when compared to hardwood and cypress mulches in the two isotherm tests. Based upon physicochemical properties of the three mulches, higher sorption capacity of pine mulch over hardwood and cypress mulches appears to be attributed to a higher organic carbon content and the lower polarity.

  2. Landfill gas (LFG) processing via adsorption and alkanolamine absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaur, Ankur; Park, Jin-Won; Song, Ho-Jun; Park, Jong-Jin [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Yonsei University, 134 Shinchon-dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea); Maken, Sanjeev [Department of Chemistry, Deenbandhu Chhotu Ram University of Science and Technology, Murthal-131 039, Haryana (India)

    2010-06-15

    Landfill gas (LFG) was upgraded to pure methane using the adsorption and absorption processes. Different toxic compounds like aromatics and chlorinated compounds were removed using granular activated carbon. The activated carbon adsorbed toxic trace components in the following order: carbon tetrachloride > toluene > chloroform > xylene > ethylbenzene > benzene > trichloroethylene {approx} tetrachloroethylene. After removing all trace components, the gas was fed to absorption apparatus for the removal of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). Two alkanolamines, monoethanol amine (MEA) and diethanol amine (DEA) were used for the removal of CO{sub 2} from LFG. The maximum CO{sub 2} loading is obtained for 30 wt.% MEA which is around 2.9 mol L{sup -} {sup 1} of absorbent solution whereas for same concentration of DEA it is around 1.66 mol L {sup -} {sup 1} of solution. 30 wt% MEA displayed a higher absorption rate of around 6.64 x 10{sup -} {sup 5} mol L{sup -} {sup 1} min{sup -} {sup 1}. DEA displayed a higher desorption rate and a better cyclic capacity as compared to MEA. Methane obtained from this process can be further used in the natural gas network for city. (author)

  3. Time scales of DNAPL migration in sandy aquifers examined via numerical simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerhard, J.I.; Pang, T.; Kueper, B.H. [University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (United Kingdom). Inst. of Infrastructure & Environmental

    2007-03-15

    The time required for dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) to cease migrating following release to the subsurface is a valuable component of a site conceptual model. This study uses numerical simulation to investigate the migration of six different DNAPLs in sandy aquifers. The most influential parameters governing migration cessation time are the density and viscosity of the DNAPL and the mean hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer. Releases of between 1 and 40 drums of chlorinated solvent DNAPLs, characterized by relatively high density and low viscosity, require on the order of months to a few years to cease migrating in a heterogeneous medium sand aquifer having an average hydraulic conductivity of 7.4 x 10{sup -3} cm/s. In contrast to this, the release of 20 drums of coal tar {rho}{sub D} = 1061 kg/m{sup 3}, {mu}{sub D} = 0.161 Pa(.)s) requires more than 100 years to cease migrating in the same aquifer. Altering the mean hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer results in a proportional change in cessation times. Parameters that exhibit relatively little influence on migration time scales are the DNAPL-water interfacial tension, release volume, source capillary pressure, mean aquifer porosity, and ambient ground water hydraulic gradient. This study also demonstrates that low-density DNAPLs (e.g., coal tar) give rise to greater amounts of lateral spreading and greater amounts of pooling on capillary barriers than high-density DNAPLs such as trichloroethylene or tetrachloroethylene.

  4. Health assessment for E. I. Dupont Newport Plant Landfill, Newport, Delaware, Region 3. CERCLIS No. DED980555122. Preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The E.I. Dupont Newport Plant Landfill, a seven acre site located adjacent to the Dupont Pigment Plant in Newport, Delaware, was used to bury paint pigments (heavy metals and chlorinated solvents) and radioactive materials from 1902 to 1975. The site was closed in 1975, the surface covered, graded and vegetated, and groundwater monitoring wells installed on- and off-site. Heavy metals (cadmium, barium, lead, zinc), and chlorinated solvents (trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene) have been measured in groundwater on-site. Radiation levels appear to be close to background. The site is considered to be of potential public health concern because of the risk to human health caused by the possibility of exposure to hazardous substances via groundwater. More information is needed concerning levels of contamination in private wells and the Christina River, the direction of groundwater flow, the size and extent of the groundwater contamination plume, the location of the private wells and the public water supply wells, and the composition of the population down gradient of the site

  5. Inspection and monitoring plan, contaminated groundwater seeps 317/319/ENE Area, Argonne National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    During the course of completing the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI) in the 317/319/East-Northeast (ENE) Area of Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E), groundwater was discovered moving to the surface through a series of groundwater seeps. The seeps are located in a ravine approximately 600 ft south of the ANL-E fence line in Waterfall Glen Forest Preserve. Samples of the seep water were collected and analyzed for selected parameters. Two of the five seeps sampled were found to contain detectable levels of organic contaminants. Three chemical species were identified: chloroform (14--25 microg/L), carbon tetrachloride (56--340 microg/L), and tetrachloroethylene (3--6 microg/L). The other seeps did not contain detectable levels of volatile organics. The nature of the contaminants in the seeps will also be monitored on a regular basis. Samples of surface water flowing through the bottom of the ravine and groundwater emanating from the seeps will be collected and analyzed for chemical and radioactive constituents. The results of the routine sampling will be compared with the concentrations used in the risk assessment. If the concentrations exceed those used in the risk assessment, the risk calculations will be revised by using the higher numbers. This revised analysis will determine if additional actions are warranted

  6. Field monitoring of volatile organic compounds using passive air samplers in an industrial city in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, Kazunari; Ohura, Takeshi; Amagai, Takashi; Fusaya, Masahiro

    2008-01-01

    Highly portable, sensitive, and selective passive air samplers were used to investigate ambient volatile organic compound (VOC) levels at multiple sampling sites in an industrial city, Fuji, Japan. We determined the spatial distributions of 27 species of VOCs in three campaigns: Mar (cold season), May (warm season), and Nov (mild season) of 2004. In all campaigns, toluene (geometric mean concentration, 14.0 μg/m 3 ) was the most abundant VOC, followed by acetaldehyde (4.76 μg/m 3 ), and formaldehyde (2.58 μg/m 3 ). The spatial distributions for certain VOCs showed characteristic patterns: high concentrations of benzene and formaldehyde were typically found along major roads, whereas high concentrations of toluene and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) were usually found near factories. The spatial distribution of PCE observed was extremely consistent with the diffusion pattern calculated from Pollutant Release and Transfer Register data and meteorological data, indicated that passive air samplers are useful for determining the sources and distributions of ambient VOCs. - Passive air samplings with hood are useful for determining the identities, sources, and distributions of ambient VOC pollutants

  7. Sustainable in-well vapor stripping: A design, analytical model, and pilot study for groundwater remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Patrick T.; Ginn, Timothy R.

    2014-12-01

    A sustainable in-well vapor stripping system is designed as a cost-effective alternative for remediation of shallow chlorinated solvent groundwater plumes. A solar-powered air compressor is used to inject air bubbles into a monitoring well to strip volatile organic compounds from a liquid to vapor phase while simultaneously inducing groundwater circulation around the well screen. An analytical model of the remediation process is developed to estimate contaminant mass flow and removal rates. The model was calibrated based on a one-day pilot study conducted in an existing monitoring well at a former dry cleaning site. According to the model, induced groundwater circulation at the study site increased the contaminant mass flow rate into the well by approximately two orders of magnitude relative to ambient conditions. Modeled estimates for 5 h of pulsed air injection per day at the pilot study site indicated that the average effluent concentrations of dissolved tetrachloroethylene and trichloroethylene can be reduced by over 90% relative to the ambient concentrations. The results indicate that the system could be used cost-effectively as either a single- or multi-well point technology to substantially reduce the mass of dissolved chlorinated solvents in groundwater.

  8. Occupational exposure to rubber vulcanization products during repair of rubber conveyor belts in a brown coal mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gromiec, J.P.; Wesolowski, W.; Brzeznicki, S.; Wroblewska-Jakubowska, K.; Kucharska, M. [Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz (Poland)

    2002-12-01

    This study was carried out to identify chemical substances and measure their air concentrations in the repair shop of a brown coal mine in which damaged rubber conveyor belts were repaired. GC-MS and HPLC analysis of stationary air samples resulted in identification of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons to C{sub 12}, PAHs, alcohols, phenols, ketones, heterocyclic nitrogen and sulfur compounds. Quantitative evaluation of occupational exposure included determination of organic compound vapours collected on charcoal (GC-MSD), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (HPLC), N-nitrosoamines and other amines (GC-NPD) and DNPH derivatives of aldehydes (HPLC) in the breathing zone of workers representing all job titles. The concentrations of investigated compounds were very low. Carcinogenic substances: N-nitrosoamines, benzene, and PAHs were not present in workroom air in concentrations exceeding limits of detection of the analytical methods being applied; concentrations of methylisobutylketone, tetrachloroethylene, naphtha, aromatic hydrocarbons, phthalates and aldehydes were much lower than the respective occupational exposure limit values. The results indicate much lower exposure than that reported in the production of tyres and other fabricated rubber products.

  9. Pilot study investigating ambient air toxics emissions near a Canadian kraft pulp and paper facility in Pictou County, Nova Scotia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Emma; Guernsey, Judith R; Walker, Tony R; Kim, Jong Sung; Sherren, Kate; Andreou, Pantelis

    2017-09-01

    Air toxics are airborne pollutants known or suspected to cause cancer or other serious health effects, including certain volatile organic compounds (VOCs), prioritized by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). While several EPA-designated air toxics are monitored at a subset of Canadian National Air Pollution Surveillance (NAPS) sites, Canada has no specific "air toxics" control priorities. Although pulp and paper (P&P) mills are major industrial emitters of air pollutants, few studies quantified the spectrum of air quality exposures. Moreover, most NAPS monitoring sites are in urban centers; in contrast, rural NAPS sites are sparse with few exposure risk records. The objective of this pilot study was to investigate prioritized air toxic ambient VOC concentrations using NAPS hourly emissions data from a rural Pictou, Nova Scotia Kraft P&P town to document concentration levels, and to determine whether these concentrations correlated with wind direction at the NAPS site (located southwest of the mill). Publicly accessible Environment and Climate Change Canada data (VOC concentrations [Granton NAPS ID: 31201] and local meteorological conditions [Caribou Point]) were examined using temporal (2006-2013) and spatial analytic methods. Results revealed several VOCs (1,3-butadiene, benzene, and carbon tetrachloride) routinely exceeded EPA air toxics-associated cancer risk thresholds. 1,3-Butadiene and tetrachloroethylene were significantly higher (p towns and contribute to poor health in nearby communities.

  10. Mixed Waste Management Facility groundwater monitoring report: Third quarter 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    Currently, 125 wells monitor groundwater quality in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) at the Savannah River Site. Samples from the wells are analyzed for selected heavy metals, herbicides/pesticides, indicator parameters, radionuclides, volatile organic compounds, and other constituents. As in previous quarters, tritium and trichloroethylene were the most widespread elevated constituents during third quarter 1994. Sixty-four (51%) of the 125 monitoring wells contained elevated tritium activities. Trichloroethylene concentrations exceeded the final PDWS in 22 (18%) wells. Chloroethene, 1,1-dichloroethylene, and tetrachloroethylene, elevated in one or more wells during third quarter 1994, also occurred in elevated levels during second quarter 1994. These constituents generally were elevated in the same wells during both quarters. Gross alpha, which was elevated in only one well during second quarter 1994, was elevated again during third quarter. Mercury, which was elevated during first quarter 1994, was elevated again in one well. Dichloromethane was elevated in two wells for the first time in several quarters

  11. Gas-solid alkali destruction of volatile chlorocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foropoulos, J. Jr.

    1995-12-01

    Many chlorocarbons are environmental dangers and health hazards. The simplest perchlorinated hydrocarbon, carbon tetrachloride, is near the top of the list of hazardous compounds. Carbon tetrachloride was used as a cleaning fluid, solvent, and fire-extinguishing agent. The nuclear and defense complexes also employed great quantities of carbon tetrachloride and other chlorocarbons as cleaning and degreasing agents. Many sites nationwide have underground chlorocarbon contamination plumes. Bulk chlorocarbon inventories at many locations await treatment and disposal. Often the problem is compounded by the chlorocarbon being radioactively contaminated. Waste inventory and groundwater contamination problems exist for many other chlorocarbons, especially methylene chloride, chloroform, and tri- and tetrachloroethylene. In this work solid soda lime (a fused mixture of approximately 95% CaO and 5% NaOH in a coarse, granulated form) at 350 C to 400 C acts as the hydrolyzing degradation, and off-gas scrubbing medium. Within soda lime CO 2 and HCl from hydrolysis and degradation convert immediately to calcium and sodium chlorides and carbonates, with water vapor as a volatile byproduct

  12. Modeling human exposure to hazardous-waste sites: a question of completeness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniels, J.I.; McKone, T.E.

    1991-01-01

    In risk analysis, we use human-exposure assessments to translate contaminant sources into quantitative estimates of the amount of contaminant that comes in contact with human-environment boundaries, that is, the lungs, the gastrointestinal tract, and the skin surface of individuals within a specified population. An assessment of intake requires that we determine how much crosses these boundaries. Exposure assessments often rely implicitly in the assumption that exposure can be linked by simple parameters to ambient concentration in air, water, and soil. However, more realistic exposure models require that we abandon such simple assumptions. To link contaminant concentrations in water, air, or soil with potential human intakes, we constrict pathway-exposure factors (PEFs). For each PEF we combine information in environmental partitioning as well as human anatomy, physiology, and patterns into an algebraic term that converts concentrations of contaminants (in mg/L water, mg/m 3 air, and mg/kg soil) into a daily intake per unit body weight in mg/kg-d for a specific rout of exposure such as inhalation, ingestion, or dermal uptake. Using examples involving human exposure to either a radionuclide (tritium, 3 H) or a toxic organic chemical (tetrachloroethylene, PCE) in soil, water, and air, we illustrate the use of PEFs and consider the implications for risk assessment. (au)

  13. Radiation induced in-situ cationic polymerization of polystyrene organogel for selective absorption of cholorophenols from petrochemical wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghobashy, Mohamed M; Younis, Sherif A; Elhady, Mohamed A; Serp, Philippe

    2018-03-15

    A new in-situ cationic polymerization was performed to synthesize a cross-linked (91%) polystyrene (PS) organogel through tetrachloroethylene radiolysis assisted by 60 Co gamma rays. Hoernschemeyer diagram and swelling capacity test show a better selectivity of PS organogel to chlorinated molecules compared to ester, hydrocarbons and alcohols organic molecules by 80-184 folds. Response surface modeling (RSM) of CPs (2,4,6-trichlorophenol) sorption from artificial wastewater confirm superiority of PS organogel to absorb 1746 μmol CPs/g (∼345 mg CPs/g) at broad pH (4-10) and temperature (25-45 °C). Based on ANOVA statistic, simulated CPs absorption model onto PS organogel was successfully developed, with accuracy of prediction of R 2 ≈ R Adj 2 of 0.991-0.995 and lower coefficient of variation of 2.73% with F model of 611.4 at p 99%) by non-covalent and/or dispersive interaction mechanisms with a well-term reusability and good stability up to 5 cycles. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Predicting soil, water and air concentrations of environmental contaminants locally and regionally; multimedia transport and transformation models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKone, T.E.; Daniels, J.I.

    1991-01-01

    Environmental scientists recognize that the environment functions as a complex, interconnected system. A realistic risk-management strategy for many contaminants requires a comprehensive and integrated assessment of local and regional transport and transformation processes. In response to this need, we have developed multimedia models that simulate the movement and transformation of chemicals as they spread through air, water, biota, soils, sediments, surface water and ground water. Each component of the environment is treated as a homogeneous subsystem that can exchange water, nutrients, and chemical contaminants with other adjacent compartments. In this paper, we illustrate the use of multimedia models and measurements as tools for screening the potential risks of contaminants released to air and deposited onto soil and plants. The contaminant list includes the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE), the semi-volatile organic compound benzo(a)pyrene, and the radionuclides tritium and uranium-238. We examine how chemical properties effect both the ultimate route and quantity of human and ecosystem contact and identify sensitivities and uncertainties in the model results. We consider the advantages of multimedia models relative to environmental monitoring data. (au)

  15. Application of radiation to processing of raw water and waste water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Atsuhiko

    1988-01-01

    Some studies and its results on irradiation of water are outlined. Ten precursory substances for trihalomethane, humic acid, resorcinol, methylglyoxal, phloroglucinol, pyruvic acid, 4-methoxyphenol, hydroquinone, n,n-diethylaniline and p-quinone, are separately dissolved in refined water and irradiated with cobalt-60 and gamma rays. Data on the dose required to reduce the total organic carbon by 50 percent are tabulated. An investigation is made on the effects of irradiation on the separation of fumic acid in liquid chromatography. The four peaks originally found in the spectrum decrease in peak area while two new peaks appear as the dose increases. The average molecular weight shows a maximum, indicating that irradiation seems to cause crosslinking. Capillary gas chromatography is performed to determine the effects of irradiation on the odor of water. For trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene and trichloroethane (inital concentration 90 ppb), which represent the major 'high-tech contaminants', 7.5 x 10 2 rad is required to meet the regulations. A study on the sterilization effects of irradiation is also outlined. Further studies are required to develop a practical process that uses irradiation to decompose organic substances in heavily contaminated waste water. (Nogami, K.)

  16. Rush-hour aromatic and chlorinated hydrocarbons in selected subway stations of Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanli; Li, Chunlei; Wang, Xinming; Guo, Hai; Feng, Yanli; Chen, Jianmin

    2012-01-01

    Air samples were collected simultaneously at platform, mezzanine and outdoor in five typical stations of subway system in Shanghai, China using stainless steel canisters and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass selective detector (GC-MSD) after cryogenic preconcentration. Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX) at the platforms and mezzanines inside the stations averaged (10.3 +/- 2.1), (38.7 +/- 9.0), (19.4 +/- 10.1) and (30.0 +/- 11.1) microg/m3, respectively; while trichloroethylene (TrCE), tetrachloroethylene (TeCE) and para-dichlorobenzene (pDCB), vinyl chloride and carbon tetrachloride were the most abundant chlorinated hydrocarbons inside the stations with average levels of (3.6 +/- 1.3), (1.3 +/- 0.5), (4.1 +/- 1.1), (2.2 +/- 1.1) and (1.2 +/- 0.3) microg/m3, respectively. Mean levels of major aromatic and chlorinated hydrocarbons were higher indoor (platforms and mezzanines) than outdoor with average indoor/outdoor (I/O) ratios of 1.1-9.5, whereas no significant indoor/outdoor differences were found except for benzene and TrCE. The highly significant mutual correlations (p subway stations from indoor/outdoor air exchange and traffic emission should be their dominant source. TrCE and pDCB were mainly from indoor emission and TeCE might have both indoor emission sources and contribution from outdoor air, especially in the mezzanines.

  17. Tree Sampling as a Method to Assess Vapor Intrusion Potential at a Site Characterized by VOC-Contaminated Groundwater and Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jordan L; Limmer, Matthew A; Samaranayake, V A; Schumacher, John G; Burken, Joel G

    2017-09-19

    Vapor intrusion (VI) by volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the built environment presents a threat to human health. Traditional VI assessments are often time-, cost-, and labor-intensive; whereas traditional subsurface methods sample a relatively small volume in the subsurface and are difficult to collect within and near structures. Trees could provide a similar subsurface sample where roots act as the "sampler' and are already onsite. Regression models were developed to assess the relation between PCE concentrations in over 500 tree-core samples with PCE concentrations in over 50 groundwater and 1000 soil samples collected from a tetrachloroethylene- (PCE-) contaminated Superfund site and analyzed using gas chromatography. Results indicate that in planta concentrations are significantly and positively related to PCE concentrations in groundwater samples collected at depths less than 20 m (adjusted R 2 values greater than 0.80) and in soil samples (adjusted R 2 values greater than 0.90). Results indicate that a 30 cm diameter tree characterizes soil concentrations at depths less than 6 m over an area of 700-1600 m 2 , the volume of a typical basement. These findings indicate that tree sampling may be an appropriate method to detect contamination at shallow depths at sites with VI.

  18. In planta passive sampling devices for assessing subsurface chlorinated solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Mikhil K; Limmer, Matt A; Waltermire, Kendra; Morrison, Glenn C; Burken, Joel G

    2014-06-01

    Contaminant concentrations in trees have been used to delineate groundwater contaminant plumes (i.e., phytoscreening); however, variability in tree composition hinders accurate measurement of contaminant concentrations in planta, particularly for long-term monitoring. This study investigated in planta passive sampling devices (PSDs), termed solid phase samplers (SPSs) to be used as a surrogate tree core. Characteristics studied for five materials included material-air partitioning coefficients (Kma) for chlorinated solvents, sampler equilibration time and field suitability. The materials investigated were polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), low-density polyethylene (LDPE), linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE), polyoxymethylene (POM) and plasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Both PDMS and LLDPE samplers demonstrated high partitioning coefficients and diffusivities and were further tested in greenhouse experiments and field trials. While most of the materials could be used for passive sampling, the PDMS SPSs performed best as an in planta sampler. Such a sampler was able to accurately measure trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) concentrations while simultaneously incorporating simple operation and minimal impact to the surrounding property and environment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Different behavioral effect dose–response profiles in mice exposed to two-carbon chlorinated hydrocarbons: Influence of structural and physical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umezu, Toyoshi, E-mail: umechan2@nies.go.jp; Shibata, Yasuyuki, E-mail: yshibata@nies.go.jp

    2014-09-01

    The present study aimed to clarify whether dose–response profiles of acute behavioral effects of 1,2-dichloroethane (DCE), 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCE), trichloroethylene (TRIC), and tetrachloroethylene (PERC) differ. A test battery involving 6 behavioral endpoints was applied to evaluate the effects of DCE, TCE, TRIC, and PERC in male ICR strain mice under the same experimental conditions. The behavioral effect dose–response profiles of these compounds differed. Regression analysis was used to evaluate the relationship between the dose–response profiles and structural and physical properties of the compounds. Dose–response profile differences correlated significantly with differences in specific structural and physical properties. These results suggest that differences in specific structural and physical properties of DCE, TCE, TRIC, and PERC are responsible for differences in behavioral effects that lead to a variety of dose–response profiles. - Highlights: • We examine effects of 4 chlorinated hydrocarbons on 6 behavioral endpoints in mice. • The behavioral effect dose–response profiles for the 4 compounds are different. • We utilize regression analysis to clarify probable causes of the different profiles. • The compound's physicochemical properties probably produce the different profiles.

  20. Surface acoustic wave sensors/gas chromatography; and Low quality natural gas sulfur removal and recovery CNG Claus sulfur recovery process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klint, B.W.; Dale, P.R.; Stephenson, C.

    1997-12-01

    This topical report consists of the two titled projects. Surface Acoustic Wave/Gas Chromatography (SAW/GC) provides a cost-effective system for collecting real-time field screening data for characterization of vapor streams contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The Model 4100 can be used in a field screening mode to produce chromatograms in 10 seconds. This capability will allow a project manager to make immediate decisions and to avoid the long delays and high costs associated with analysis by off-site analytical laboratories. The Model 4100 is currently under evaluation by the California Environmental Protection Agency Technology Certification Program. Initial certification focuses upon the following organics: cis-dichloroethylene, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, trichlorethylene, tetrachloroethylene, tetrachloroethane, benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene, and o-xylene. In the second study the CNG Claus process is being evaluated for conversion and recovery of elemental sulfur from hydrogen sulfide, especially found in low quality natural gas. This report describes the design, construction and operation of a pilot scale plant built to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the integrated CNG Claus process.

  1. Groundwater contamination and community relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, K.

    2004-01-01

    Westinghouse Electric Company LLC ('Westinghouse') acquired a nuclear fuel processing plant at Hematite, Missouri ('Hematite', the 'Facility', or the 'Plant') in April 2000. The plant has subsequently been closed, and its operations have been relocated to a newer, larger facility. Westinghouse has announced plans to complete its clean-up, decommissioning, and License retirement in a safe, socially responsible, and environmentally sound manner as required by internal policies, as well as those of its parent company, British Nuclear Fuels plc. (BNFL). Preliminary investigations have revealed the presence of environmental contamination in various areas of the facility and grounds, including both radioactive contamination and various other substances related to the nuclear fuel processing operations. Most noteworthy among the areas of contamination are seven private drinking water wells up to 3 000 feet to the southeast, and one private drinking water well approximately 1 000 feet to the northeast, that have been found to contain tetra-chloro-ethylene ('PCE'), trichloroethylene ('TCE'), and other contaminants associated with their environmental degradation. Potential sources of this contamination include approximately 40 large unlined on-site burial pits and 2 evaporation ponds in which previous operators of the facility disposed of uranium contaminated wastes and a variety of other hazardous substances. This paper discusses Westinghouse's response to the discovery of drinking water contamination, and the significance of its community relations program within that response. (author)

  2. Tree sampling as a method to assess vapor intrusion potential at a site characterized by VOC-contaminated groundwater and soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jordan L.; Limmer, Matthew A.; Samaranayake, V. A.; Schumacher, John G.; Burken, Joel G.

    2017-01-01

    Vapor intrusion (VI) by volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the built environment presents a threat to human health. Traditional VI assessments are often time-, cost-, and labor-intensive; whereas traditional subsurface methods sample a relatively small volume in the subsurface and are difficult to collect within and near structures. Trees could provide a similar subsurface sample where roots act as the “sampler’ and are already onsite. Regression models were developed to assess the relation between PCE concentrations in over 500 tree-core samples with PCE concentrations in over 50 groundwater and 1000 soil samples collected from a tetrachloroethylene- (PCE-) contaminated Superfund site and analyzed using gas chromatography. Results indicate that in planta concentrations are significantly and positively related to PCE concentrations in groundwater samples collected at depths less than 20 m (adjusted R2 values greater than 0.80) and in soil samples (adjusted R2 values greater than 0.90). Results indicate that a 30 cm diameter tree characterizes soil concentrations at depths less than 6 m over an area of 700–1600 m2, the volume of a typical basement. These findings indicate that tree sampling may be an appropriate method to detect contamination at shallow depths at sites with VI.

  3. Quantitative produced water analysis using mobile 1H NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, Lisabeth; Fridjonsson, Einar O; May, Eric F; Stanwix, Paul L; Graham, Brendan F; Carroll, Matthew R J; Johns, Michael L; Kalli, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Measurement of oil contamination of produced water is required in the oil and gas industry to the (ppm) level prior to discharge in order to meet typical environmental legislative requirements. Here we present the use of compact, mobile 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, in combination with solid phase extraction (SPE), to meet this metrology need. The NMR hardware employed featured a sufficiently homogeneous magnetic field, such that chemical shift differences could be used to unambiguously differentiate, and hence quantitatively detect, the required oil and solvent NMR signals. A solvent system consisting of 1% v/v chloroform in tetrachloroethylene was deployed, this provided a comparable 1 H NMR signal intensity for the oil and the solvent (chloroform) and hence an internal reference 1 H signal from the chloroform resulting in the measurement being effectively self-calibrating. The measurement process was applied to water contaminated with hexane or crude oil over the range 1–30 ppm. The results were validated against known solubility limits as well as infrared analysis and gas chromatography. (paper)

  4. Development of an Inclined Plate Extractor-Separator for Immiscible Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Zahoor ul Hassan Rizvi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A new inclined plates extractor-separator is developed for operation with immiscible liquids in which extraction and separation is achieved in one unit contrary to mixer settlers. The inclined plates extractor-separator combines turbulent jets for contacting, and an inclined plate for separation of the two phases. The inclined plates extractor-separator does not have any moving part inside the vessel. This feature makes it free from the mechanical problems associated with conventional apparatus. The proposed inclined plates extractor-separator was operated in batch mode under various operating conditions to evaluate its performance on the basis of extraction efficiency. Water (light phase was used as solvent to extract ethyl acetate from a heavy phase pool of tetrachloroethylene and ethyl acetate. The ethyl acetate content was analysed using chromatography. A hydrodynamic study was carried out using high speed photography to understand the mechanisms occurring during mass transfer across the two phases. Furthermore, it was found that the proposed inclined plate extractor-separator reduces the overall operating time by 67% and consumes only 13% of the power in comparison to a mixer-settler. A hydraulic power consumption comparison with a mixer settler and a gullwing extractor-separator is also presented.

  5. Numerical examination of the factors controlling DNAPL migration through a single fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, D A; Kueper, B H

    2002-01-01

    The migration of five dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) through a single fracture in a clay aquitard was numerically simulated with the use of a compositional simulator. The effects of fracture aperture, fracture dip, matrix porosity, and matrix organic carbon content on the migration of chlorobenzene, 1,2-dichloroethylene, trichloroethylene, tetra-chloroethylene, and 1,2-dibromoethane were examined. Boundary conditions were chosen such that DNAPL entry into the system was allowed to vary according to the stresses applied. The aperture is the most important factor of those studied controlling the migration rate of DNAPL through a single fracture embedded in a clay matrix. Loss of mass to the matrix through diffusion does not significantly retard the migration rate of the DNAPL, particularly in larger aperture fractures (e.g., 50 microm). With time, the ratio of diffusive loss to the matrix to DNAPL flux into the fracture approaches an asymptotic value lower than unity. The implication is that matrix diffusion cannot arrest the migration of DNAPL in a single fracture. The complex relationships between density, viscosity, and solubility that, to some extent, govern the migration of DNAPL through these systems prevent accurate predictions without the use of numerical models. The contamination potential of the migrating DNAPL is significantly increased through the transfer of mass to the matrix. The occurrence of opposite concentration gradients within the matrix can cause dissolved phase contamination to exist in the system for more than 1000 years after the DNAPL has been completely removed from the fracture.

  6. Purification by bioremediation of soil and underground water contaminated by volatile organic chloride. Bioremediation gijutsu wo mochiiru kihatsusei yuki enso kagobutsu osen dojo chikasui no joka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagi, O; Uchiyama, H [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1993-08-01

    Taking up a case with trichloroethylene as an example, research is introduced on the purification which is made by utilizing bioremediation technology for the contaminated soil and underground water. That technology can be said to be a method in which the contaminated environment is remedied by utilizing the biological function. First, it is necessary to separate the microorganisms which decompose the trichloroethylene. Decomposing bacteria being searched in different places, discovered was a mixed cultivation system which decomposed the trichloroethylene, if aerobic and co-existent with methane. Upon repeating the separation, a new stock was found and named Methylocystis sp. M stock. That stock proliferates by taking methane and methanol which are the sole carbon source at temperatures below 37 centigrade. That stock decomposes 1, 1-dichloroethylene and chloroform as well as the trichloroethylene, but does not tetrachloroethylene and carbon tetrachloride. That stock was studied to be fixed and used as a bioreactor. Among different fixing bacteria, alginic acid gel gave a high efficiency in decomposing the trichloroethylene. 9 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Replacement Technologies for Precision Cleaning of Aerospace Hardware for Propellant Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeson, Harold; Kirsch, Mike; Hornung, Steven; Biesinger, Paul

    1997-01-01

    The NASA White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) is developing cleaning and verification processes to replace currently used chlorofluorocarbon-l13- (CFC-113-) based processes. The processes being evaluated include both aqueous- and solvent-based techniques. Replacement technologies are being investigated for aerospace hardware and for gauges and instrumentation. This paper includes the findings of investigations of aqueous cleaning and verification of aerospace hardware using known contaminants, such as hydraulic fluid and commonly used oils. The results correlate nonvolatile residue with CFC 113. The studies also include enhancements to aqueous sampling for organic and particulate contamination. Although aqueous alternatives have been identified for several processes, a need still exists for nonaqueous solvent cleaning, such as the cleaning and cleanliness verification of gauges used for oxygen service. The cleaning effectiveness of tetrachloroethylene (PCE), trichloroethylene (TCE), ethanol, hydrochlorofluorocarbon 225 (HCFC 225), HCFC 141b, HFE 7100(R), and Vertrel MCA(R) was evaluated using aerospace gauges and precision instruments and then compared to the cleaning effectiveness of CFC 113. Solvents considered for use in oxygen systems were also tested for oxygen compatibility using high-pressure oxygen autogenous ignition and liquid oxygen mechanical impact testing.

  8. Review of analytical results from the proposed agent disposal facility site, Aberdeen Proving Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brubaker, K.L.; Reed, L.L.; Myers, S.W.; Shepard, L.T.; Sydelko, T.G.

    1997-09-01

    Argonne National Laboratory reviewed the analytical results from 57 composite soil samples collected in the Bush River area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. A suite of 16 analytical tests involving 11 different SW-846 methods was used to detect a wide range of organic and inorganic contaminants. One method (BTEX) was considered redundant, and two {open_quotes}single-number{close_quotes} methods (TPH and TOX) were found to lack the required specificity to yield unambiguous results, especially in a preliminary investigation. Volatile analytes detected at the site include 1, 1,2,2-tetrachloroethane, trichloroethylene, and tetrachloroethylene, all of which probably represent residual site contamination from past activities. Other volatile analytes detected include toluene, tridecane, methylene chloride, and trichlorofluoromethane. These compounds are probably not associated with site contamination but likely represent cross-contamination or, in the case of tridecane, a naturally occurring material. Semivolatile analytes detected include three different phthalates and low part-per-billion amounts of the pesticide DDT and its degradation product DDE. The pesticide could represent residual site contamination from past activities, and the phthalates are likely due, in part, to cross-contamination during sample handling. A number of high-molecular-weight hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon derivatives were detected and were probably naturally occurring compounds. 4 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs.

  9. Predicting soil, water, and air concentrations of environmental contaminants locally and regionally: Multimedia transport and transformation models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKone, T.E.; Daniels, J.I.

    1991-10-01

    Environmental scientists recognize that the environment functions as a complex, interconnected system. A realistic risk-management strategy for many contaminants requires a comprehensive and integrated assessment of local and regional transport and transformation processes. In response to this need, we have developed multimedia models that simulate the movement and transformation of chemicals as they spread through air, water, biota, soils, sediments, surface water, and ground water. Each component of the environment is treated as a homogeneous subsystem that can exchange water, nutrients, and chemical contaminants with other adjacent compartments. In this paper, we illustrate the use of multimedia models and measurements as tools for screening the potential risks of contaminants released to air and deposited onto soil and plants. The contaminant list includes the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE), the semi-volatile organic compound benzo(a)pyrene, and the radionuclides tritium and uranium-238. We examine how chemical properties effect both the ultimate route and quantity of human and ecosystem contact and identify sensitivities and uncertainties in the model results

  10. The automated sample preparation system MixMaster for investigation of volatile organic compounds with mid-infrared evanescent wave spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, F; Karlowatz, M; Jakusch, M; Mizaikoff, B

    2003-04-01

    For efficient development assessment, and calibration of new chemical analyzers a large number of independently prepared samples of target analytes is necessary. Whereas mixing units for gas analysis are readily available, there is a lack of instrumentation for accurate preparation of liquid samples containing volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Manual preparation of liquid samples containing VOCs at trace concentration levels is a particularly challenging and time consuming task. Furthermore, regularly scheduled calibration of sensors and analyzer systems demands for computer controlled automated sample preparation systems. In this paper we present a novel liquid mixing device enabling extensive measurement series with focus on volatile organic compounds, facilitating analysis of water polluted by traces of volatile hydrocarbons. After discussing the mixing system and control software, first results obtained by coupling with an FT-IR spectrometer are reported. Properties of the mixing system are assessed by mid-infrared attenuated total reflection (ATR) spectroscopy of methanol-acetone mixtures and by investigation of multicomponent samples containing volatile hydrocarbons such as 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene and tetrachloroethylene. Obtained ATR spectra are evaluated by principal component regression (PCR) algorithms. It is demonstrated that the presented sample mixing device provides reliable multicomponent mixtures with sufficient accuracy and reproducibility at trace concentration levels.

  11. An investigation into the activation and deactivation of chlorinated hydrocarbons to genotoxins in metabolically competent human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, A T; Ellard, S; Parry, E M; Parry, J M

    1996-05-01

    We have investigated the induction of micronuclei by 15 chlorinated hydrocarbons in the cytochalasin B-blocked micronucleus assay utilizing genetically engineered cell lines. The human lymphoblastoid cell line AHH-1, with native cytochrome CYP1A1 activity, the MCL-5 cell line, which stably expresses cDNAs encoding human CYP1A2, 2A6, 3A4, 2E1 and microsomal epoxide hydrolase, and the h2E1 cell line, containing a cDNA for CYP2E1, were used in this study. We have demonstrated the induction of kinetochore-positive micronuclei by two chlorinated solvents, 2,3-dichlorobutane and 1,1, 2-trichloroethane, in the metabolically competent cell lines MCL-5 and h2E1. The MCL-5 and h2E1 cell lines have in addition shown the capacity to produce metabolites in the presence of methylene chloride, carbon tetrachloride, 1,2,3-trichloropropane, tetrachloroethylene, toluene and n-hexane, wich yield elevated micronucleus frequencies compared with the parental cell line AHH-1. Hexachloroethane failed to induce micronuclei in any of the cell lines and 1,2-dichloroethane and 1-chlorohexane induced micronuclei without the requirement for metabolic activation in all three cell lines. The MCL-5 cell line exhibited reduced micronucleus frequencies compared with the AHH-1 and h2E1 cell lines following exposure to 1,2-dichloroethylene, 1,3-dichloropropane, 1,1, 1-trichloroethane and 1,2,3-trichloropropane. The methodology used has shown the ability of metabolically competent cell lines expressing cDNAs encoding the cytochrome P450 isoenzymes to metabolize halogenated hydrocarbons to genotoxic species, including both clastogens and aneugens. The biotransformation of chemicals to aneugenic species has not previously been demonstrated.

  12. Bio-effect monitoring using a [(15)N]methacetin test as diagnostic tool to monitor remediation effects in an industrially polluted region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolle-Kampczyk, Ulrike Elisabeth; Rehwagen, Martina; Franck, Ulrich; Weiss, Holger; Krumbiegel, Peter; Herbarth, Olf

    2006-04-10

    The classical way to demonstrate the efficiency of remediation is measuring the reduction of toxic compounds in the environment. Nevertheless, more important is the risk reduction in human health. To determine changing health effects, exposure and bio-effects have to be monitored at time of and during remediation. Kindergarten children from a heavily polluted industrial (n=23) and a control area (n=12) were investigated. The region-specific outdoor and indoor exposure [27 volatile organic compounds (VOC), emphasis on tri- and tetrachloroethylene (TRI, TETRA)], the internal load [(trichloroacetic acid-TCA-as urine metabolites of TRI and TETRA and S-phenyl- and S-benzylmercapturic acid (SPMA and SBMA) as metabolites of benzene and toluene], and biological effect assessment ([(15)N]methacetin test-a non-invasive stable isotope test to determine the unspecific liver detoxification capacity of an individual) were measured twice a year during 2 years of remediation (1997/1998). It could be shown that in- and outdoor levels of TRI and TETRA decreased by 47% in the heavily polluted village, Greppin, while the levels remained much the same in the control village, Roitzsch. This trend was reflected in the decreasing elimination of TCA in the urine (41%) by the Greppin children, with no differences in the TCA elimination in Roitzsch probands. As the remediation efforts decreased the burden of exposure, the children's liver detoxification capacity improved as well. Combining different methods, such as exposure-effect (external and internal loads) and bio-effect monitoring, proved to be useful to assess remediation successes including the improvement in human health.

  13. Occupation and cancer in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, L; Bagga, S; Bevan, R; Brown, T P; Cherrie, J W; Holmes, P; Fortunato, L; Slack, R; Van Tongeren, M; Young, C; Hutchings, S J

    2010-04-27

    Prioritising control measures for occupationally related cancers should be evidence based. We estimated the current burden of cancer in Britain attributable to past occupational exposures for International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) group 1 (established) and 2A (probable) carcinogens. We calculated attributable fractions and numbers for cancer mortality and incidence using risk estimates from the literature and national data sources to estimate proportions exposed. 5.3% (8019) cancer deaths were attributable to occupation in 2005 (men, 8.2% (6362); women, 2.3% (1657)). Attributable incidence estimates are 13 679 (4.0%) cancer registrations (men, 10 063 (5.7%); women, 3616 (2.2%)). Occupational attributable fractions are over 2% for mesothelioma, sinonasal, lung, nasopharynx, breast, non-melanoma skin cancer, bladder, oesophagus, soft tissue sarcoma, larynx and stomach cancers. Asbestos, shift work, mineral oils, solar radiation, silica, diesel engine exhaust, coal tars and pitches, occupation as a painter or welder, dioxins, environmental tobacco smoke, radon, tetrachloroethylene, arsenic and strong inorganic mists each contribute 100 or more registrations. Industries and occupations with high cancer registrations include construction, metal working, personal and household services, mining, land transport, printing/publishing, retail/hotels/restaurants, public administration/defence, farming and several manufacturing sectors. 56% of cancer registrations in men are attributable to work in the construction industry (mainly mesotheliomas, lung, stomach, bladder and non-melanoma skin cancers) and 54% of cancer registrations in women are attributable to shift work (breast cancer). This project is the first to quantify in detail the burden of cancer and mortality due to occupation specifically for Britain. It highlights the impact of occupational exposures, together with the occupational circumstances and industrial areas where exposures to carcinogenic agents

  14. VOCs in Non-Arid Soils Integrated Demonstration: Technology summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    The Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in Non-Arid Soils Integrated Demonstration (ID) was initiated in 1989. Objectives for the ID were to test the integrated demonstration concept, demonstrate and evaluate innovative technologies/systems for the remediation of VOC contamination in soils and groundwater, and to transfer technologies and systems to internal and external customers for use in fullscale remediation programs. The demonstration brought together technologies from DOE laboratories, other government agencies, and industry for demonstration at a single test bed. The Savannah River Site was chosen as the location for this ID as the result of having soil and groundwater contaminated with VOCS. The primary contaminants, trichlorethylene and tetrachloroethylene, originated from an underground process sewer line servicing a metal fabrication facility at the M-Area. Some of the major technical accomplishments for the ID include the successful demonstration of the following: In situ air stripping coupled with horizontal wells to remediate sites through air injection and vacuum extraction; Crosshole geophysical tomography for mapping moisture content and lithologic properties of the contaminated media; In situ radio frequency and ohmic heating to increase mobility, of the contaminants, thereby speeding recovery and the remedial process; High-energy corona destruction of VOCs in the off-gas of vapor recovery wells; Application of a Brayton cycle heat pump to regenerate carbon adsorption media used to trap VOCs from the offgas of recovery wells; In situ permeable flow sensors and the colloidal borescope to determine groundwater flow; Chemical sensors to rapidly quantify chlorinated solvent contamination in the subsurface; In situ bioremediation through methane/nutrient injection to enhance degradation of contaminants by methanotrophic bateria

  15. Hydrogeologic Setting of A/M Area: Framework for Groundwater Transport. Book 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Pelt, R.; Lewis, S.E.; Aadland, R.K.

    1994-03-11

    This document includes a brief summary of the regional geology within a 200--mile radius of the A/M Area, a summary of stratigraphy and hydrostratigraphic nomenclature as it applies to the A/M Area, and a summary of stratigraphy and hydrostratigraphy specific to the A/M Area. Five different stratigraphic cross sections show site-specific geology of the Tertiary section of the Upper Atlantic Coastal Plain geologic province within the A/M Area. The Cretaceous section lacks detail because the deepest wells penetrate only the uppermost part of the Upper Cretaceous sediments. Most of the wells are confined to the Tertiary section. The A/M Area is located in the northwestern corner of the Savannah River Site (SRS). The area serves as a main administrative hub for the site. Between 1958 and 1985, approximately 2,000,000 pounds of volatile organic solvents (metal degreasers, primarily trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene) were routed to the M Area Settling Basin. Between 1954 and 1958, effluent also was discharged to Tim`s Branch via the A014 Outfall. In the main M Area Solvent Handling/Storage Area, a significant amount of leakage occurred from drums stored during this time period. Extensive quantities of solvents were transported, via the Process Sewer Line, to the M Area Settling Basin, and leaks occurred along this line as well. A smaller source area has been identified and is centered around the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) (now called the Savannah River Technology Center [SRTC]) Complex. All of these source areas are represented by solvent contamination in the groundwater system. (Abstract Truncated)

  16. Radiation dechlorination of PCE in aqueous solutions under various conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mucka, V.; Lizalova, B.; Pospisil, M.; Silber, R.; Polakova, D.

    2002-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Radiation technology of water purification from chlorinated compounds seems to be one of the promising method (Getoff, 1996), analogously as it was shown (Mueka et al., 2000) with radiation degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). A systematic study of dechlorination of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) in aqueous solutions (initial concentrations ranging from 9.2 x 10 -6 to 2.5 x 10 -4 mol dm -3 ), initiated by γ-rays of 60 Co or by accelerated electrons (EB, 4.5 MeV) in presence of various modifiers (atmospheric oxygen, N 2 O-oxide, HCO 3 - - and NO 3 - - ions as well as various pH-values), was the aim of this paper. The studies showed that both actual concentration c of PCE and radiation yield G(Cl - ) decreased rapidly with increasing dose up to the dose of 2 kGy and the degree of dechlorination raised sharply in this dose-interval. The dechlorination was slightly promoted by atmospheric oxygen. Similarly, a promotion effect was detected in the case of the PCE-solutions saturated, prior to their irradiation, with the N 2 O-oxide. On the other hand, a presence of NO 3 - - or HCO 3 - -ions in irradiated samples led to an inhibiting effect. The inhibiting effect increased markedly with increasing concentration of both at above-mentioned ions up to the concentration of about 100 mg dm -3 . A pronounced inhibition of γ-radiation dechlorination of PCE was observed in alkaline aqueous solutions. The results obtained in this paper support the idea that the radiation dechlorination of PCE in aqueous solutions proceeds via an oxidative mechanism in which the γ-irradiation was found to be more effective than the EB-irradiation

  17. Comparison of PCE and TCE disappearance in heated volatile organic analysis vials and flame-sealed ampules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanza, Jed; Pennell, Kurt D

    2008-02-01

    The rates of hydrolysis reported for tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE) at elevated temperatures range over two orders-of-magnitude, where some of the variability may be due to the presence of a gas phase. Recent studies suggest that volatile organic analysis (VOA) vials provide a low-cost and readily available zero headspace system for measuring aqueous-phase hydrolysis rates. This work involved measuring rates of PCE and TCE disappearance and the corresponding appearance of dechlorination products in water-filled VOA vials and flame-sealed ampules incubated at 21 and 55 degrees C for up to 95.5 days. While PCE and TCE concentrations readily decreased in the VOA vials to yield first-order half lives of 11.2 days for PCE and 21.1 days for TCE at 55 degrees C, concentrations of anticipated dechlorination products, including chloride, remained constant or were not detected. The rate of PCE disappearance was 34 times faster in VOA vials at 55 degrees C compared to values obtained with flame-sealed ampules containing PCE-contaminated water. In addition, the concentration of TCE increased slightly in flame-sealed ampules incubated at 55 degrees C, while a decrease in TCE levels was observed in the VOA vials. The observed losses of PCE and TCE in the VOA vials were attributed to diffusion and sorption in the septa, rather than to dechlorination. These findings demonstrate that VOA vials are not suitable for measuring rates of volatile organic compound hydrolysis at elevated temperatures.

  18. Impact of Front Range sources on reactive nitrogen concentrations and deposition in Rocky Mountain National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine B. Benedict

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Human influenced atmospheric reactive nitrogen (RN is impacting ecosystems in Rocky Mountain National Park (ROMO. Due to ROMO’s protected status as a Class 1 area, these changes are concerning, and improving our understanding of the contributions of different types of RN and their sources is important for reducing impacts in ROMO. In July–August 2014 the most comprehensive measurements (to date of RN were made in ROMO during the Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Éxperiment (FRAPPÉ. Measurements included peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN, C1–C5 alkyl nitrates, and high-time resolution NOx, NOy, and ammonia. A limited set of measurements was extended through October. Co-located measurements of a suite of volatile organic compounds provide information on source types impacting ROMO. Specifically, we use ethane as a tracer of oil and gas operations and tetrachloroethylene (C2Cl4 as an urban tracer to investigate their relationship with RN species and transport patterns. Results of this analysis suggest elevated RN concentrations are associated with emissions from oil and gas operations, which are frequently co-located with agricultural production and livestock feeding areas in the region, and from urban areas. There also are periods where RN at ROMO is impacted by long-range transport. We present an atmospheric RN budget and a nitrogen deposition budget with dry and wet components. Total deposition for the period (7/1–9/30 was estimated at 1.58 kg N/ha, with 87% from wet deposition during this period of above average precipitation. Ammonium wet deposition was the dominant contributor to total nitrogen deposition followed by nitrate wet deposition and total dry deposition. Ammonia was estimated to be the largest contributor to dry deposition followed by nitric acid and PAN (other species included alkyl nitrates, ammonium and nitrate. All three species are challenging to measure routinely, especially at high time resolution.

  19. Assessment of Exposure to VOCs among Pregnant Women in the National Children's Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Elizabeth Barksdale; Viet, Susan M; Wright, David J; Merrill, Lori S; Alwis, K Udeni; Blount, Benjamin C; Mortensen, Mary E; Moye, John; Dellarco, Michael

    2016-03-29

    Epidemiologic studies can measure exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using environmental samples, biomarkers, questionnaires, or observations. These different exposure assessment approaches each have advantages and disadvantages; thus, evaluating relationships is an important consideration. In the National Children's Vanguard Study from 2009 to 2010, participants completed questionnaires and data collectors observed VOC exposure sources and collected urine samples from 488 third trimester pregnant women at in-person study visits. From urine, we simultaneously quantified 28 VOC metabolites of exposure to acrolein, acrylamide, acrylonitrile, benzene, 1-bromopropane, 1,3-butadiene, carbon disulfide, crotonaldehyde, cyanide, N,N-dimethylformamide, ethylbenzene, ethylene oxide, propylene oxide, styrene, tetrachloroethylene, toluene, trichloroethylene, vinyl chloride, and xylene exposures using ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with an electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI/MSMS) method. Urinary thiocyanate was measured using an ion chromatography coupled with an electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry method (IC-ESI/MSMS). We modeled the relationship between urinary VOC metabolite concentrations and sources of VOC exposure. Sources of exposure were assessed by participant report via questionnaire (use of air fresheners, aerosols, paint or varnish, organic solvents, and passive/active smoking) and by observations by a trained data collector (presence of scented products in homes). We found several significant (p < 0.01) relationships between the urinary metabolites of VOCs and sources of VOC exposure. Smoking was positively associated with metabolites of the tobacco constituents acrolein, acrylamide, acrylonitrile, 1,3-butadiene, crotonaldehyde, cyanide, ethylene oxide, N,N-dimethylformamide, propylene oxide, styrene, and xylene. Study location was negatively associated with the toluene metabolite N

  20. Assessment of Exposure to VOCs among Pregnant Women in the National Children’s Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Elizabeth Barksdale; Viet, Susan M.; Wright, David J.; Merrill, Lori S.; Alwis, K. Udeni; Blount, Benjamin C.; Mortensen, Mary E.; Moye, John; Dellarco, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies can measure exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using environmental samples, biomarkers, questionnaires, or observations. These different exposure assessment approaches each have advantages and disadvantages; thus, evaluating relationships is an important consideration. In the National Children’s Vanguard Study from 2009 to 2010, participants completed questionnaires and data collectors observed VOC exposure sources and collected urine samples from 488 third trimester pregnant women at in-person study visits. From urine, we simultaneously quantified 28 VOC metabolites of exposure to acrolein, acrylamide, acrylonitrile, benzene, 1-bromopropane, 1,3-butadiene, carbon disulfide, crotonaldehyde, cyanide, N,N-dimethylformamide, ethylbenzene, ethylene oxide, propylene oxide, styrene, tetrachloroethylene, toluene, trichloroethylene, vinyl chloride, and xylene exposures using ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with an electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI/MSMS) method. Urinary thiocyanate was measured using an ion chromatography coupled with an electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry method (IC-ESI/MSMS). We modeled the relationship between urinary VOC metabolite concentrations and sources of VOC exposure. Sources of exposure were assessed by participant report via questionnaire (use of air fresheners, aerosols, paint or varnish, organic solvents, and passive/active smoking) and by observations by a trained data collector (presence of scented products in homes). We found several significant (p < 0.01) relationships between the urinary metabolites of VOCs and sources of VOC exposure. Smoking was positively associated with metabolites of the tobacco constituents acrolein, acrylamide, acrylonitrile, 1,3-butadiene, crotonaldehyde, cyanide, ethylene oxide, N,N-dimethylformamide, propylene oxide, styrene, and xylene. Study location was negatively associated with the toluene metabolite N

  1. Effects of NATO air-raids on human environment and health of the population of Serbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damjanov, V.; Vukicevic, A.; Grozdanov, J.

    2002-01-01

    The bombing targets of NATO forces were almost all larger towns in Serbia, and particularly the facilities of chemical and oil industry. The most severely attacked cities were Pancevo, Novi Sad, Belgrade, Nis, Kragujevac, Sombor, Krusevac, Bogutovac, Kraljevo, Smederevo, Bor, Prahovo, etc. Constantly and repeatedly attacked chemical and oil plants, in addition to direct destruction of the plants, produced divergent effects, such as emission of a variety of primary and secondary pollutants into the living environment (air, water, soil). The majority of these pollutants are documented to have not only the toxicological but also the potential carcinogenic, teratogenic and/or mutagenic effects. The activities of health service (preventive before all) included qualitative and, to a permissible extent, the quantitative measurements of the mineral oils, polychlorobiphenyls, polycyclic aromatic carbons, total carbons, phenol, 3-chloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene, benzene, toluene, xylene, ethylbenzene, styrene, phosgene, vinyl chloride monomer, 1 ,2-dichlor-oethane, dioxin, furan, toxic metals (lead, chromium, cadmium, nickel, arsenic, mercury) -first in air, then in water currents, soil, plants and animals. The peacetime networks for monitoring environmental pollution (air, water, foodstuffs) were not capable to follow up all changes that occurred during aggression. During bombing of the chemical and oil plants the health service did not register any significant increase of individuals (dwellers) presenting with accident-related signs and symptoms. The results of environmental quality obtained so far, indicate a need to follow up the subclinical and clinical manifestations of a long-term exposure of the population. However, the majority of substances that we were able to identify indicate the presence of environmental pollution which will persist for a long time in the years ahead and in concentrations which may eventually have toxicological, carcinogenic, mutagenic

  2. Piezo-resistivity electric cone penetration technology investigation of the M-basin at the Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina. Progress report, May 1, 1992--October 31, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowers, B.; Rossabi, J.; Shinn, J.D. II; Bratton, W.L.

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the results of a combined field and laboratory investigation program to: (1) delineate the geologic layering and (2) determine the location of a dense non-aqueous liquid-phase (DNAPL) contaminated plume beneath the M Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility at the Savannah River Plant. During April of 1991, DNAPLs were detected in monitoring well (MSB-3D), located adjacent to the capped M-Area Settling Basin. Solvents in the well consisted mainly of tetrachloroethylene and trichloroethylene, which are also the main solvents found in groundwater in the M Area. In permeable soils, DNAPLs move downward rapidly due to their high density and low viscosity as compared to water. Within the vadose zone, DNAPLs tend to be held by the less permeable clay and silts by capillary force. In the saturated zone, the downward movement is slowed by clays and silts and the DNAPL tends to pool on this layer, then spread laterally. The lateral movement continues until a permeable layer is encountered, which can be a sand lens, fracture or other high conductivity seam. The DNAPL then moves downward, until another low permeability layer is encountered. Applied Research Associates was contracted to conduct a program to: (1) field demonstrate the utility of Cone Penetration Technology to investigate DOE contaminant sites and, (2) conduct a laboratory and field program to evaluate the use of electric resistivity surveys to locate DNAPL contaminated soils. The field program was conducted in the M-Basin and laboratory tests were conducted on samples from the major stratigraphy units as identified in Eddy et. al. Cone Penetration Technology was selected to investigate the M-Basin as it: (1) is minimally invasive, (2) generates minimal waste, (3) is faster and less costly than drilling, (4) provides continuous, detailed in situ characterization data, (5) permits real-time data processing, and (6) can obtain soil, soil gas, and water samples without the need for a boring

  3. Characterisation and cleaning of biogas from sewage sludge for biomethane production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolini, Valerio; Petracchini, Francesco; Carnevale, Monica; Gallucci, Francesco; Perilli, Mattia; Esposito, Giulio; Segreto, Marco; Occulti, Leandro Galanti; Scaglione, Davide; Ianniello, Antonietta; Frattoni, Massimiliano

    2018-07-01

    This study investigates the conversion of sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) into biomethane for automotive fuel or grid injection. A prototype plant was monitored in Northern Italy, based on vacuum swing adsorption (VSA) on synthetic zeolite 13×: this biogas upgrading method is similar to pressure swing adsorption (PSA) and commonly used for other kinds of biomass. Measurements of biogas inlet, biomethane outlet and off-gas were performed including CH 4 , CO 2 , CO, H 2 , O 2 , N 2 , HCl, HF, NH 3 , H 2 S and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Critical levels were observed in the biogas for of H 2 S and HCl, whose concentrations were 1570 and 26.8 mg m -3 , respectively. On the other hand, the concentration of halogenated VOCs (including tetrachloroethylene and traces of perfluoroalkilated substances, PFAS) and mercaptans were relatively low. A simultaneous and reversible adsorption on 13× zeolite was achieved for H 2 S and CO 2 , and carbon filters played a minor role in desulfurisation. The presence of HCl is due to clarifying agents, and its removal is necessary in order to meet the required biomethane characteristics: an additional carbon-supported basic adsorbent was successfully used to remove this contaminant. This study also highlights the interference of CO 2 towards HCl if sampling is performed in compliance with the new EU standard for biomethane. High total volatile silicon (TVS) was confirmed in sewage sludge biogas, with a major contribution of siloxane D5: the suitability of this compound as an indicator of total siloxanes is discussed. Results demonstrate that volatile methyl siloxanes (VMS) do not represent a critical issue for the VSA upgrading methodology. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Adhesion of biodegradative anaerobic bacteria to solid surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schie, P.M. van; Fletcher, M.

    1999-11-01

    In order to exploit the ability of anaerobic bacteria to degrade certain contaminants for bioremediation of polluted subsurface environments, the authors need to understand the mechanisms by which such bacteria partition between aqueous and solid phases, as well as the environmental conditions that influence partitioning. They studied four strictly anaerobic bacteria, Desulfomonile tiedjei, Syntrophomonas wolfei, Syntrophobacter wolinii, and Desulfovibrio sp. strain G11, which theoretically together can constitute a tetrachloroethylene- and trichloroethylene-dechlorinating consortium. Adhesion of these organisms was evaluated by microscopic determination of the numbers of cells that attached to glass coverslips exposed to cell suspensions under anaerobic conditions. The authors studied the effects of the growth phase of the organisms on adhesion, as well as the influence of electrostatic and hydrophobic properties of the substratum. Results indicate that S. wolfei adheres in considerably higher numbers to glass surfaces than the other three organisms. Starvation greatly decreases adhesion of S. wolfei and Desulfovibrio sp. strain G11 but seems to have less of an effect on the adhesion of the other bacteria. The presence of Fe{sup 3+} on the substratum, which would be electropositive, significantly increased the adhesion of S. wolfei, whereas the presence of silicon hydrophobic groups decreased the numbers of attached cells of all species. Measurements of transport of cells through hydrophobic-interaction and electro-static-interaction columns indicated that all four species had negatively charged cell surfaces and that D. tiedjei and Desulfovibrio sp. strain G11 possessed some hydrophobic cell surface properties. These findings are an early step toward understanding the dynamic attachment of anaerobic bacteria in anoxic environments.

  5. The effect of fuel and chlorinated hydrocarbons on a vapor phase carbon adsorption system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, W.J.; Cheney, J.L.; Taggart, D.B.

    1995-01-01

    A soil vapor extraction (SVE) system installed at the South Tacoma Well 12A Superfund Site was designed to recover 1,2-dichloroethylene (DCE), trichloroethylene (TCE), tetrachloroethylene (PCE), and 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane (1,1,2,2-TCA) from the vadose zone. The basic system consisted of twenty-two extraction wells, three centrifugal blowers, and three carbon adsorbers. The carbon adsorbers were regenerated on site by steam stripping. The mixture of steam and stripped organics was condensed and then decanted to separate the water from the organic phase. The recovered water was air stripped to remove the dissolved organics prior to discharge to the city storm sewer. The recovered organic phase was then shipped off site for thermal destruction. Previous reports described operating difficulties with the decanter, and air strippers. Sampling and analyses were performed which identified the problem as the simultaneous recovery of unexpected fuel hydrocarbons in addition to the solvents. Recovery of fuels resulted in a light phase in the decanter in addition to the water and heavy solvent phases. This required redesign of the decanter to handle the third phase. The effectiveness of desorption of the carbon beds by steam stripping gradually decreased as the remediation progressed into the second year of operation. Samples were collected from the carbon beds to evaluate the effect of the fuel and chlorinated hydrocarbons on the activated carbon. This report describes the results of these analyses. The data indicated that both 1,1,2,2-TCA and fuel hydrocarbons in the C-9 to C-24 range remained in the carbon beds after steam regeneration in sufficient quantities to require replacing the carbon

  6. Biodesulfurization techniques: Application of selected microorganisms for organic sulfur removal from coals. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmore, B.B.

    1993-08-01

    As an alternative to post-combustion desulfurization of coal and pre-combustion desulfurization using physicochemical techniques, the microbial desulfurization of coal may be accomplished through the use of microbial cultures that, in an application of various microbial species, may remove both the pyritic and organic fractions of sulfur found in coal. Organisms have been isolated that readily depyritize coal but often at prohibitively low rates of desulfurization. Microbes have also been isolated that may potentially remove the organic-sulfur fraction present in coal (showing promise when acting on organic sulfur model compounds such as dibenzothiophene). The isolation and study of microorganisms demonstrating a potential for removing organic sulfur from coal has been undertaken in this project. Additionally, the organisms and mechanisms by which coal is microbially depyritized has been investigated. Three cultures were isolated that grew on dibenzothiophene (DBT), a model organic-sulfur compound, as the sole sulfur source. These cultures (UMX3, UMX9, and IGTS8) also grew on coal samples as the sole sulfur source. Numerous techniques for pretreating and ``cotreating`` coal for depyritization were also evaluated for the ability to improve the rate or extent of microbial depyritization. These include prewashing the coal with various solvents and adding surfactants to the culture broth. Using a bituminous coal containing 0.61% (w/w) pyrite washed with organic solvents at low slurry concentrations (2% w/v), the extent of depyritization was increased approximately 25% in two weeks as compared to controls. At slurry concentrations of 20% w/v, a tetrachloroethylene treatment of the coal followed by depyritization with Thiobacillus ferrooxidans increased both the rate and extent of depyritization by approximately 10%.

  7. Lifetime excess cancer risk due to carcinogens in food and beverages: Urban versus rural differences in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheasley, Roslyn; Keller, C Peter; Setton, Eleanor

    2017-09-14

    To explore differences in urban versus rural lifetime excess risk of cancer from five specific contaminants found in food and beverages. Probable contaminant intake is estimated using Monte Carlo simulations of contaminant concentrations in combination with dietary patterns. Contaminant concentrations for arsenic, benzene, lead, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and tetrachloroethylene (PERC) were derived from government dietary studies. The dietary patterns of 34 944 Canadians from 10 provinces were available from Health Canada's Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 2.2, Nutrition (2004). Associated lifetime excess cancer risk (LECR) was subsequently calculated from the results of the simulations. In the calculation of LECR from food and beverages for the five selected substances, two (lead and PERC) were shown to have excess risk below 10 per million; whereas for the remaining three (arsenic, benzene and PCBs), it was shown that at least 50% of the population were above 10 per million excess cancers. Arsenic residues, ingested via rice and rice cereal, registered the greatest disparity between urban and rural intake, with LECR per million levels well above 1000 per million at the upper bound. The majority of PCBs ingestion comes from meat, with values slightly higher for urban populations and LECR per million estimates between 50 and 400. Drinking water is the primary contributor of benzene intake in both urban and rural populations, with LECR per million estimates of 35 extra cancers in the top 1% of sampled population. Overall, there are few disparities between urban and rural lifetime excess cancer risk from contaminants found in food and beverages. Estimates could be improved with more complete Canadian dietary intake and concentration data in support of detailed exposure assessments in estimating LECR.

  8. Use of fugacity model to analyze temperature-dependent removal of micro-contaminants in sewage treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kelly; Zhang, Jianying; Zhang, Chunlong

    2011-08-01

    Effluents from sewage treatment plants (STPs) are known to contain residual micro-contaminants including endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) despite the utilization of various removal processes. Temperature alters the efficacy of removal processes; however, experimental measurements of EDC removal at various temperatures are limited. Extrapolation of EDC behavior over a wide temperature range is possible using available physicochemical property data followed by the correction of temperature dependency. A level II fugacity-based STP model was employed by inputting parameters obtained from the literature and estimated by the US EPA's Estimations Programs Interface (EPI) including EPI's BIOWIN for temperature-dependent biodegradation half-lives. EDC removals in a three-stage activated sludge system were modeled under various temperatures and hydraulic retention times (HRTs) for representative compounds of various properties. Sensitivity analysis indicates that temperature plays a significant role in the model outcomes. Increasing temperature considerably enhances the removal of β-estradiol, ethinyestradiol, bisphenol, phenol, and tetrachloroethylene, but not testosterone with the highest biodegradation rate. The shortcomings of BIOWIN were mitigated by the correction of highly temperature-dependent biodegradation rates using the Arrhenius equation. The model predicts well the effects of operating temperature and HRTs on the removal via volatilization, adsorption, and biodegradation. The model also reveals that an impractically long HRT is needed to achieve a high EDC removal. The STP model along with temperature corrections is able to provide some useful insight into the different patterns of STP performance, and useful operational considerations relevant to EDC removal at winter low temperatures. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Organic and inorganic composition and microbiology of produced waters from Pennsylvania shale gas wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akob, Denise M.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Dunlap, Darren S.; Rowan, Elisabeth L.; Lorah, Michelle M.

    2015-01-01

    Hydraulically fractured shales are becoming an increasingly important source of natural gas production in the United States. This process has been known to create up to 420 gallons of produced water (PW) per day, but the volume varies depending on the formation, and the characteristics of individual hydraulic fracture. PW from hydraulic fracturing of shales are comprised of injected fracturing fluids and natural formation waters in proportions that change over time. Across the state of Pennsylvania, shale gas production is booming; therefore, it is important to assess the variability in PW chemistry and microbiology across this geographical span. We quantified the inorganic and organic chemical composition and microbial communities in PW samples from 13 shale gas wells in north central Pennsylvania. Microbial abundance was generally low (66–9400 cells/mL). Non-volatile dissolved organic carbon (NVDOC) was high (7–31 mg/L) relative to typical shallow groundwater, and the presence of organic acid anions (e.g., acetate, formate, and pyruvate) indicated microbial activity. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were detected in four samples (∼1 to 11.7 μg/L): benzene and toluene in the Burket sample, toluene in two Marcellus samples, and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) in one Marcellus sample. VOCs can be either naturally occurring or from industrial activity, making the source of VOCs unclear. Despite the addition of biocides during hydraulic fracturing, H2S-producing, fermenting, and methanogenic bacteria were cultured from PW samples. The presence of culturable bacteria was not associated with salinity or location; although organic compound concentrations and time in production were correlated with microbial activity. Interestingly, we found that unlike the inorganic chemistry, PW organic chemistry and microbial viability were highly variable across the 13 wells sampled, which can have important implications for the reuse and handling of these fluids

  10. Determination of volatile organic hydrocarbons in water samples by solid-phase dynamic extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochmann, Maik A; Yuan, Xue; Schmidt, Torsten C

    2007-03-01

    In the present study a headspace solid-phase dynamic extraction method coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPDE-GC/MS) for the trace determination of volatile halogenated hydrocarbons and benzene from groundwater samples was developed and evaluated. As target compounds, benzene as well as 11 chlorinated and brominated hydrocarbons (vinyl chloride, dichloromethane, cis-1,2-dichloroethylene, trans-1,2-dichloroethylene, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, bromoform) of environmental and toxicological concern were included in this study. The analytes were extracted using a SPDE needle device, coated with a poly(dimethylsiloxane) with 10% embedded activated carbon phase (50-microm film thickness and 56-mm film length) and were analyzed by GC/MS in full-scan mode. Parameters that affect the extraction yield such as extraction and desorption temperature, salting-out, extraction and desorption flow rate, extraction volume and desorption volume, the number of extraction cycles, and the pre-desorption time have been evaluated and optimized. The linearity of the HS-SPDE-GC/MS method was established over several orders of magnitude. Method detection limits (MDLs) for the compounds investigated ranged between 12 ng/L for cis-dichloroethylene and trans-dichloroethylene and 870 ng/L for vinyl chloride. The method was thoroughly validated, and the precision at two concentration levels (0.1 mg/L and a concentration 5 times above the MDL) was between 3.1 and 16% for the analytes investigated. SPDE provides high sensitivity, short sample preparation and extraction times and a high sample throughput because of full automation. Finally, the applicability to real environmental samples is shown exemplarily for various groundwater samples from a former waste-oil recycling facility. Groundwater from the site showed a complex contamination with chlorinated volatile organic compounds and aromatic hydrocarbons.

  11. Matrix of occupational exposures to carcinogenic agents and pesticides in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaves, Jorge; Partanen, Timo; Wesseling, Catharina; Chaverri, Fabio; Monge, Patricia; Ruepert, Clemens; Guardado, Jorge; Aragon, Aurora; Kauppinen, Timo

    2004-01-01

    The European data system CAREX converts national numbers of workers in 55 sectors and estimated proportions of workers exposed to carcinogenic agents into numbers of workers exposed to each agent. CAREX is applied and modified in Costa Rica (TICAREX) for the first time outside Europe. 27 carcinogenic agents and 7 groups of pesticides were included. Numbers of exposed were estimated separately for men and women. The most frequent agents in the 1.3 million labor force of Costa Rica were solar radiation (333,000 workers); diesel engine emissions (278,000); paraquat and diquat (175,000); environmental tobacco smoke (71,000); chromium (VI) compounds (55,000); benzene (52,000); mancozeb, maneb and zineb (49,000); chlorothalonil (38,000); wood dust (32,000); silica dust (27,000); benomyl (19,000); lead and its inorganic compounds (19,000); tetrachloroethylene (18,000); and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (17,000). Owing to the different occupational distribution between the genders, formaldehyde, radon and methylene chloride were more frequent than pesticides, chromium (VI), wood dust, and silica dust in women. Agriculture, construction, personal and domestic services, land and water transport and allied services, pottery and similar industries, manufacture of wood products, mining, forestry, fishing, manufacture of electric products, and bars and restaurants were sectors with frequent exposures. Substantial reduction of occupational and environmental exposures to these agents would improve considerably public and occupational health. Reduction of occupational exposures is usually also followed by improvement of environmental quality. Monitoring of exposures and health of workers and the general public is essential in the control of environmental contamination and human exposures. This report presents details of the exposures matrix, which is the basis of TICAREX. (author) [es

  12. Assessment of Exposure to VOCs among Pregnant Women in the National Children’s Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Barksdale Boyle

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiologic studies can measure exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs using environmental samples, biomarkers, questionnaires, or observations. These different exposure assessment approaches each have advantages and disadvantages; thus, evaluating relationships is an important consideration. In the National Children’s Vanguard Study from 2009 to 2010, participants completed questionnaires and data collectors observed VOC exposure sources and collected urine samples from 488 third trimester pregnant women at in-person study visits. From urine, we simultaneously quantified 28 VOC metabolites of exposure to acrolein, acrylamide, acrylonitrile, benzene, 1-bromopropane, 1,3-butadiene, carbon disulfide, crotonaldehyde, cyanide, N,N-dimethylformamide, ethylbenzene, ethylene oxide, propylene oxide, styrene, tetrachloroethylene, toluene, trichloroethylene, vinyl chloride, and xylene exposures using ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with an electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI/MSMS method. Urinary thiocyanate was measured using an ion chromatography coupled with an electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry method (IC-ESI/MSMS. We modeled the relationship between urinary VOC metabolite concentrations and sources of VOC exposure. Sources of exposure were assessed by participant report via questionnaire (use of air fresheners, aerosols, paint or varnish, organic solvents, and passive/active smoking and by observations by a trained data collector (presence of scented products in homes. We found several significant (p < 0.01 relationships between the urinary metabolites of VOCs and sources of VOC exposure. Smoking was positively associated with metabolites of the tobacco constituents acrolein, acrylamide, acrylonitrile, 1,3-butadiene, crotonaldehyde, cyanide, ethylene oxide, N,N-dimethylformamide, propylene oxide, styrene, and xylene. Study location was negatively associated with the toluene metabolite

  13. Analysis of dechlorination kinetics of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons by Fe(II) in cement slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Bahngmi [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Wright State University, Dayton, OH 45435-0001 (United States)], E-mail: jung.bahngmi@gmail.com; Batchelor, Bill [Department of Civil Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-3136 (United States)

    2008-03-21

    Degradative solidification/stabilization with ferrous iron (DS/S-Fe(II)) has been found to be effective in degrading a number of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons including 1,1,1-trichloroethane (1,1,1-TCA), 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane (1,1,2,2-TeCA), tetrachloroethylene (PCE), trichloroethylene (TCE), 1,1-dichloroethylene (1,1-DCE), vinyl chloride (VC), carbon tetrachloride (CT) and chloroform (CF). Previous studies have characterized degradation kinetics in DS/S-Fe(II) systems as affected by Fe(II) dose, pH and initial target organic concentration. The goal of this study is to investigate the importance of various chemical properties on degradation kinetics of DS/S-Fe(II). This was accomplished by first measuring rate constants for degradation of 1,1,1-TCA, 1,1,2,2-TeCA and 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA) in individual batch experiments. Rate constants developed in these experiments and those obtained from the literature were related to thermodynamic parameters including one-electron reduction potential, two-electron reduction potential, bond dissociation energy and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energies. Degradation kinetics by Fe(II) in cement slurries were generally represented by a pseudo-first-order rate law. The results showed that the rate constants for chlorinated methanes (e.g. CT, CF) and chlorinated ethanes (e.g. 1,1,1-TCA) were higher than those for chlorinated ethylenes (e.g. PCE, TCE, 1,1-DCE and VC) under similar experimental conditions. The log of the pseudo-first-order rate constant (k) was found to correlate better with lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energies (E{sub LUMO}) (R{sup 2} = 0.874) than with other thermodynamic parameter descriptors.

  14. Risk assessment of exposure to volatile organic compounds in groundwater in Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan Chihhao [Department of Safety, Health, and Environmental Engineering, Mingchi University of Technology, Taipei County, Taiwan (China); Wang, G.-S. [Department of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, Y.-C. [Energy and Environment Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu County, Taiwan (China); Ko, C.-H. [School of Forest and Resources Conservation, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: chunhank@ntu.edu.tw

    2009-03-15

    The purpose of this study is to assess the risks from exposure to 14 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in selected groundwater sites in Taiwan. The study employs the multimedia environment pollutant assessment system (MEPAS) model to calculate the specific non-cancer and cancer risks at an exposure level of 1 {mu}g/L of each VOC for a variety of exposure pathways. The results show that the highest specific non-cancer risk is associated with water ingestion of vinyl chloride (VC) and that the highest specific cancer risk is associated with indoor breathing of VC. The three most important exposure pathways for risk assessment for both non-cancer and cancer risks are identified as water ingestion, dermal absorption when showering, and indoor breathing. Excess tetrachloroethylene (PCE), trichloroethylene (TCE), dichloroethylene (DCE), and VC are detected in the groundwater aquifers of one dump site and one factory. However, the study suggests that the pollutants in the contaminated groundwater aquifers do not travel extensively with groundwater flow and that the resulting VOC concentrations are below detectable levels for most of the sampled drinking-water treatment plants. Nevertheless, the non-cancer and cancer risks resulting from use of the contaminated groundwater are found to be hundred times higher than the general risk guidance values. To ensure safe groundwater utilisation, remediation initiatives for soil and groundwater are required. Finally, the study suggests that the current criteria for VOCs in drinking water might not be capable of ensuring public safety when groundwater is used as the primary water supply; more stringent quality criteria for drinking water are proposed for selected VOCs.

  15. Determination of volatile organic hydrocarbons in water samples by solid-phase dynamic extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jochmann, Maik A.; Schmidt, Torsten C. [Eberhard-Karls-Universitaet Tuebingen, Center for Applied Geoscience (ZAG), Tuebingen (Germany); Chair of Instrumental Analysis, University Duisburg-Essen, Duisburg (Germany); Yuan, Xue [Eberhard-Karls-Universitaet Tuebingen, Center for Applied Geoscience (ZAG), Tuebingen (Germany)

    2007-03-15

    In the present study a headspace solid-phase dynamic extraction method coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPDE-GC/MS) for the trace determination of volatile halogenated hydrocarbons and benzene from groundwater samples was developed and evaluated. As target compounds, benzene as well as 11 chlorinated and brominated hydrocarbons (vinyl chloride, dichloromethane, cis-1,2-dichloroethylene, trans-1,2-dichloroethylene, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, bromoform) of environmental and toxicological concern were included in this study. The analytes were extracted using a SPDE needle device, coated with a poly(dimethylsiloxane) with 10% embedded activated carbon phase (50-{mu}m film thickness and 56-mm film length) and were analyzed by GC/MS in full-scan mode. Parameters that affect the extraction yield such as extraction and desorption temperature, salting-out, extraction and desorption flow rate, extraction volume and desorption volume, the number of extraction cycles, and the pre-desorption time have been evaluated and optimized. The linearity of the HS-SPDE-GC/MS method was established over several orders of magnitude. Method detection limits (MDLs) for the compounds investigated ranged between 12 ng/L for cis-dichloroethylene and trans-dichloroethylene and 870 ng/L for vinyl chloride. The method was thoroughly validated, and the precision at two concentration levels (0.1 mg/L and a concentration 5 times above the MDL) was between 3.1 and 16% for the analytes investigated. SPDE provides high sensitivity, short sample preparation and extraction times and a high sample throughput because of full automation. Finally, the applicability to real environmental samples is shown exemplarily for various groundwater samples from a former waste-oil recycling facility. Groundwater from the site showed a complex contamination with chlorinated volatile organic compounds and aromatic hydrocarbons. (orig.)

  16. Two-dimensional exchange and nutation exchange nuclear quadrupole resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackowiak, M.; Sinyavsky, N.; Velikite, N.; Nikolaev, D.

    2002-01-01

    A theoretical treatment of the 2D exchange NQR pulse sequence is presented and applied to a quantitative study of exchange processes in molecular crystals. It takes into account the off-resonance irradiation, which critically influences the spin dynamics. The response to the three-pulse sequence of a system of spins I=3/2 in zero applied field, experiencing electric quadrupole couplings, is analysed. The mixing dynamics by exchange and the expected cross-peak intensities as a function of the frequency offset have been derived. The theory is illustrated by a study of the optimization procedure, which is of crucial importance for the detection of the cross- and diagonal-peaks in a 2D-exchange spectrum. The systems investigated are hexachloroethane and tetrachloroethylene. They show threefold and twofold reorientational jumps about the carbon-carbon axis, respectively. A new method of direct determination of rotational angles based on two-dimensional nutation exchange NQR spectroscopy is proposed. The method involves the detection of exchange processes through NQR nutation spectra recorded after the mixing interval. The response of a system of spins I=3/2 to the three-pulse sequence with increasing pulse widths is analyzed. It is shown that the 2D-nutation exchange NQR spectrum exhibits characteristic ridges, which manifest the motional mechanism in a model-independent fashion. The angles through which the molecule rotates can be read directly from elliptical ridges in the 2D spectrum, which are also sensitive to the asymmetry parameter of the electric field gradient tensor. (orig.)

  17. Systematic selection of off-gas treatment at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKillip, S.T.; Rehder, T.E.

    1992-01-01

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS), from 1958--1985, effluent waste from the reactor fuel and target rod fabrication area (M-Area) was discharged to a settling basin. In 1981, monitoring wells detected groundwater contamination, specifically trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene, in the immediate vicinity of the basin. Under the auspices of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) the M-Area contamination must be addressed by a corrective action program until the volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations reach Drinking Water Standards. This was initiated in 1985 with startup of a full-scale pump-and-treat air stripper system. Recently, remediation efforts have focused on vacuum extraction to treat vadose zone contamination not addressed by the original recovery wells, and additional pump-and-treat systems to achieve hydraulic control of the plume. Regulatory requirements allowed for discharge of VOCs to the atmosphere when the original remediation system was installed; however, 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act will eventually require treatment of VOC contaminated air prior to discharge. This has ramifications to systems currently being design, as well as the existing systems. In response to the 1990 Clean Air Act amendments, SRS initiated a study to assess commercially available off-gas treatment technologies. These included carbon adsorption, thermal incineration, catalytic oxidation, absorption, condensation, and UV/peroxide destruction, and xenon flashlamp. Criteria used to evaluate the technologies were the thirty (30) year life cycle cost, permitting considerations, and manpower requirements. The study concluded that catalytic oxidation provided the most desirable combination of these elements

  18. Evaluation of semi-generic PBTK modeling for emergency risk assessment after acute inhalation exposure to volatile hazardous chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olie, J Daniël N; Bessems, Jos G; Clewell, Harvey J; Meulenbelt, Jan; Hunault, Claudine C

    2015-08-01

    Physiologically Based Toxicokinetic Models (PBTK) may facilitate emergency risk assessment after chemical incidents with inhalation exposure, but they are rarely used due to their relative complexity and skill requirements. We aimed to tackle this problem by evaluating a semi-generic PBTK model built in MS Excel for nine chemicals that are widely-used and often released in a chemical incident. The semi-generic PBTK model was used to predict blood concentration-time curves using inhalation exposure scenarios from human volunteer studies, case reports and hypothetical exposures at Emergency Response Planning Guideline, Level 3 (ERPG-3) levels.(2) Predictions using this model were compared with measured blood concentrations from volunteer studies or case reports, as well as blood concentrations predicted by chemical-specific models. The performances of the semi-generic model were evaluated on biological rationale, accuracy, and ease of use and range of application. Our results indicate that the semi-generic model can be easily used to predict blood levels for eight out of nine parent chemicals (dichloromethane, benzene, xylene, styrene, toluene, isopropanol trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene). However, for methanol, 2-propanol and dichloromethane the semi-generic model could not cope with the endogenous production of methanol and of acetone (being a metabolite of 2-propanol) nor could it simulate the formation of HbCO, which is one of the toxic end-points of dichloromethane. The model is easy and intuitive to use by people who are not so familiar with toxicokinetic models. A semi-generic PBTK modeling approach can be used as a 'quick-and-dirty' method to get a crude estimate of the exposure dose. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Dechlorination of PCBs, CAHs, herbicides and pesticides neat and in soils at 25 degrees C using Na/NH3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, Charles U; He, Jinbao

    2002-05-03

    Na/NH3 reductions have been used to dehalogenate polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) and pesticides at diffusion controlled rates at room temperature in model compound studies in both dry NH3 and when water was added. The rate ratio of dechlorination (aliphatic and aromatic compounds) versus reaction of the solvated electron with water is very large, allowing wet soils or sludges to be remediated without an unreasonable consumption of sodium. Several soils, purposely contaminated with 1,1,1-trichloroethane, 1-chlorooctane and tetrachloroethylene, were remediated by slurring the soils in NH3 followed by addition of sodium. The consumption of sodium per mole of chlorine removed was examined as a function of both the hazardous substrate's concentration in the soil and the amount of water present. The Na consumption per Cl removed increases as the amount of water increases and as the substrate concentration in soil decreases. However, remediation was still readily accomplished from 5000 to 3000ppm to sub ppm levels of RCl in the presence of substantial amounts of water. PCB- and dioxin-contaminated oils were remediated with Na/NH3 as were PCB-contaminated soils and sludges from contaminated sites. Ca/NH3 treatments also successfully remediated PCB-contaminated clay, sandy and organic soils but laboratory studies demonstrated that Ca was less efficient than Na when substantial amounts of water were present. The advantages of solvated electron reductions using Na/NH3 include: (1) very rapid dehalogenation rates at ambient temperature, (2) soils (even clay soils) break down into particles and slurry nicely in NH3, (3) liquid ammonia handling technology is well known and (4) removal from soils, recovery and recycle of ammonia is easy due to its low boiling point. Finally, dechlorination is extremely fast even for the 'corner' chlorines in the substrate Mirex (structure in Eq. (5)).

  20. Detection of new VOC compounds with iCRDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, H.; Leen, J. B.; Gardner, A.; Gupta, M.; Baer, D. S.

    2015-12-01

    The instrument at Los Gatos Research (a member of ABB Inc.) which is based on incoherent cavity ringdown spectroscopy (iCRDS) that operates in the mid-infrared (bands from 860-1060 cm-1 or 970-1280 cm-1) is capable of detecting a broad range of VOCs, in situ, continuously and autonomously, for example, BTEX compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene), including differentiation of xylene isomers. Previously, we have demonstrated the measurement of trichloroethylene (TCE) in zero air with a precision of 0.17 ppb (1σ in 4 minutes), and the measurement of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) with a precision of 0.15 ppb (1σ in 4 minutes). Both of these measured precisions exceed the EPA's commercial building action limit, which for TCE is 0.92 ppb (5 µg/m3) and for PCE is 0.29 ppb (2 µg/m3). This ability has been fully demonstrated by the deployment of the instrument to the Superfund site at Moffett Naval Air Station in Mountain View, California where contaminated ground water results in vapor intrusion of TCE and PCE. For two weeks, the instrument operated continuously and autonomously, successfully measuring TCE and PCE concentrations in both the breathing zone and steam tunnel air, in excellent agreement with previous TO-15 data. In this poster, we present laboratory performance data targeting new toxic molecules with the same instrument. We have demonstrated the measurement of trichlorofluolomethane (Freon 11) in zero air with a precision of 1 ppb (3σ at 1075cm-1), and hexafluoropropene in zero air with a precision of about 0.3 ppb (3σ per spectrum). The iCRDS instrument has shown the ability to continuously and autonomously measure sub-ppb levels of toxic VOCs in the lab/field, offering an unprecedented picture of the short term dynamics associated with vapor intrusion and ground water pollution.

  1. Comparison of atmosphere/aquatic environment concentration ratio of volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons between temperate regions and Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoccolillo, Lelio; Amendola, Luca; Insogna, Susanna

    2009-09-01

    For the purpose of understanding the transport and deposition mechanisms and the air-water distribution of some volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons (VCHCs), their atmosphere/aquatic environment concentration ratio was evaluated. In addition, for the purpose of differentiating VCHC behaviour in a temperate climate from its behaviour in a polar climate, the atmosphere/aquatic environment concentration ratio evaluated in matrices from temperate zones was compared with the concentration ratio evaluated in Antarctic matrices. In order to perform air samplings also at rigid Antarctic temperatures, the sampling apparatus, consisting of a diaphragm pump and canisters, was suitably modified. Chloroform, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, tetrachloromethane, 1,1,2-trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene were measured in air, water and snow using specific techniques composed of a purpose-made cryofocusing-trap-injector (for air samples) and a modified purge-and-trap injector (for aqueous samples) coupled to a gas chromatograph with mass spectrometric detection operating in selected ion monitoring mode. The VCHCs were retrieved in all the investigated matrices, both Italian and Antarctic, with concentrations varying from tens to thousands of ng m(-3) in air and from digits to hundreds of ng kg(-1) in water and snow. The atmosphere/aquatic environment concentration ratios were always found to be lower than 1. In particular, the Italian air/water concentration ratios were smaller than the Antarctic ones, by reason of the higher atmospheric photochemical activity in temperate zones. On the other hand, the Antarctic air/snow concentration ratios proved to be largely in favour of snow with respect to the Italian ratios, thus corroborating the hypothesis of a more efficient VCHC deposition mechanism and accumulation on Antarctic snow.

  2. Phytoremediation of Soils Contaminated by Chlorinnated Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, C.; Sung, K.; Corapcioglu, M.

    2001-12-01

    In recent years, the possible use of deep rooted plants for phytoremediation of soil contaminants has been offered as a potential alternative for waste management, particularly for in situ remediation of large volumes of contaminated soils. Major objectives of this study are to evaluate the effectiveness of a warm season grass (Eastern Gamagrass) and a cool season prairie grass (Annual Ryegrass) in the phytoremediation of the soil contaminated with volatile organic compounds e.g., trichloroethylene (TCE), tetrachloroethylene (PCE), and 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA) and to determine the main mechanisms of target contaminant dissipation. The preliminary tests and laboratory scale tests were conducted to identify the main mechanisms for phytoremediation of the target contaminants, and to apply the technique in green house application under field conditions. The results of microcosm and bioreactor experiments showed that volatilization can be the dominant pathway of the target contaminant mass losses in soils. Toxicity tests, conducted in nutrient solution in the growth room, and in the greenhouse, showed that both Eastern gamagrass and Annual ryegrass could grow without harmful effects at up to 400 ppm each of all three contaminants together. Preliminary greenhouse experimentw were conducted with the 1.5 m long and 0.3 m diameter PVC columns. Soil gas concentrations monitored and microbial biomass in bulk and rhizosphere soil, root properties, and contaminant concentration in soil after 100 days were analyzed. The results showed that the soil gas concentration of contaminants has rapidly decreased especially in the upper soil and the contaminant concentraitons in soil were also significantly decreased to 0.024, 0.228, and 0.002 of C/Co for TCE, PCE and TCA, respectively. Significant plant effects were not found however showed contaminant loss through volatilization and plant contamination by air.

  3. Dissolution Coupled Biodegradation of Pce by Inducing In-Situ Biosurfactant Production Under Anaerobic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominic, J.; Nambi, I. M.

    2013-12-01

    Biosurfactants have proven to enhance the bioavailability and thereby elevate the rate of degradation of Light Non Aqueous Phase Liquids (LNAPLs) such as crude oil and petroleum derivatives. In spite of their superior characteristics, use of these biomolecules for remediation of Dense Non Aqueous Phase Liquids (DNAPLs) such as chlorinated solvents is still not clearly understood. In this present study, we have investigated the fate of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) by inducing in-situ biosurfactants production, a sustainable option which hypothesizes increase in bioavailability of LNAPLs. In order to understand the effect of biosurfactants on dissolution and biodegradation under the inducement of in-situ biosurfactant production, batch experiments were conducted in pure liquid media. The individual influence of each process such as biosurfactant production, dissolution of PCE and biodegradation of PCE were studied separately for getting insights on the synergistic effect of each process on the fate of PCE. Finally the dissolution coupled biodegradation of non aqueous phase PCE was studied in conditions where biosurfactant production was induced by nitrate limitation. The effect of biosurfactants was differentiated by repeating the same experiments were the biosurfactant production was retarded. The overall effect of in-situ biosurfactant production process was evaluated by use of a mathematical model. The process of microbial growth, biosurfactant production, dissolution and biodegradation of PCE were translated as ordinary differential equations. The modelling exercise was mainly performed to get insight on the combined effects of various processes that determine the concentration of PCE in its aqueous and non-aqueous phases. Model simulated profiles of PCE with the kinetic coefficients evaluated earlier from individual experiments were compared with parameters fitted for observations in experiments with dissolution coupled biodegradation process using optimization

  4. Determination of volatile organic compounds in water by headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry with triple quadrupole analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cervera, M.I.; Beltran, J.; Lopez, F.J.; Hernandez, F.

    2011-01-01

    ) lower than 20%. The developed method was applied to surface water and wastewater from a wastewater treatment plant and from a municipal solid-waste treatment plant. Several compounds, like chloroform, benzene, trichloroethylene, toluene, tetrachloroethylene, dibromochloromethane, xylenes and bromoform were detected and confirmed in all the samples analyzed.

  5. Determination of volatile organic compounds in water by headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry with triple quadrupole analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervera, M.I. [Research Institute for Pesticides and Water, University Jaume I, Avda. Sos Baynat, E-12071 Castellon (Spain); Beltran, J., E-mail: joaquim.beltran@uji.es [Research Institute for Pesticides and Water, University Jaume I, Avda. Sos Baynat, E-12071 Castellon (Spain); Lopez, F.J.; Hernandez, F. [Research Institute for Pesticides and Water, University Jaume I, Avda. Sos Baynat, E-12071 Castellon (Spain)

    2011-10-17

    relative standard deviations (RSDs) lower than 20%. The developed method was applied to surface water and wastewater from a wastewater treatment plant and from a municipal solid-waste treatment plant. Several compounds, like chloroform, benzene, trichloroethylene, toluene, tetrachloroethylene, dibromochloromethane, xylenes and bromoform were detected and confirmed in all the samples analyzed.

  6. Final report on CCM key comparison CCM.D-K2: Comparison of liquid density standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettin, Horst; Jacques, Claude; Zelenka, Zoltán; Fujii, Ken-ichi; Kuramoto, Naoki; Chang, Kyung-Ho; Lee, Yong Jae; Becerra, Luis Omar; Domostroeva, Natalia

    2013-01-01

    The results are presented of the key comparison CCM.D-K2 that covered the density measurements of four liquids: the density of water at 20 °C, of pentadecane at 15 °C, 20 °C, 40 °C and 60°C, of tetrachloroethlyene at 5 °C and 20 °C and of a viscous oil at 20 °C. Seven national metrology institutes measured the densities at atmospheric pressure by hydrostatic weighing of solid density standards in the time interval from 27 April 2004 to 28 June 2004. Since the participants were asked not to include components for a possible drift or inhomogeneity of the liquid in their uncertainty budget, these uncertainty contributions are investigated for the final evaluation of the data. For this purpose, results of stability and homogeneity measurements of the pilot laboratory are used. The participants decided not to include a possible drift of the liquid's density since no significant drift could be detected, and the influence of the drift and its uncertainty are negligible. Similarly, the inhomogeneity of the water and pentadecane samples is not significant and has no influence on the evaluation. Thus, it was neglected. Only the inhomogeneities of tetrachloroethylene and of the viscous oil were significant. Consequently, they were included in the evaluation. With one or two exceptions, the results show good agreement among the participants. Only in the case of water are the results clearly discrepant. The key comparison reference values were calculated by the weighted mean (taking into account a small correlation between two participants) in the case of consistent results. Otherwise the Procedure B of Cox was used. The expanded uncertainties of all reference densities are below 1 × 10-5 in relative terms. This satisfies the needs of all customers who wish to calibrate or check liquid density measuring instruments such as oscillation-type density meters. The comparison fully supports the calibration measurement capabilities table in the BIPM key comparison database

  7. Reconstructing Historical VOC Concentrations in Drinking Water for Epidemiological Studies at a U.S. Military Base: Summary of Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morris L. Maslia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A U.S. government health agency conducted epidemiological studies to evaluate whether exposures to drinking water contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOC at U.S. Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune, North Carolina, were associated with increased health risks to children and adults. These health studies required knowledge of contaminant concentrations in drinking water—at monthly intervals—delivered to family housing, barracks, and other facilities within the study area. Because concentration data were limited or unavailable during much of the period of contamination (1950s–1985, the historical reconstruction process was used to quantify estimates of monthly mean contaminant-specific concentrations. This paper integrates many efforts, reports, and papers into a synthesis of the overall approach to, and results from, a drinking-water historical reconstruction study. Results show that at the Tarawa Terrace water treatment plant (WTP reconstructed (simulated tetrachloroethylene (PCE concentrations reached a maximum monthly average value of 183 micrograms per liter (μg/L compared to a one-time maximum measured value of 215 μg/L and exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s current maximum contaminant level (MCL of 5 μg/L during the period November 1957–February 1987. At the Hadnot Point WTP, reconstructed trichloroethylene (TCE concentrations reached a maximum monthly average value of 783 μg/L compared to a one-time maximum measured value of 1400 μg/L during the period August 1953–December 1984. The Hadnot Point WTP also provided contaminated drinking water to the Holcomb Boulevard housing area continuously prior to June 1972, when the Holcomb Boulevard WTP came on line (maximum reconstructed TCE concentration of 32 μg/L and intermittently during the period June 1972–February 1985 (maximum reconstructed TCE concentration of 66 μg/L. Applying the historical reconstruction process to quantify contaminant

  8. Solvent exposure and malignant lymphoma: a population-based case-control study in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deeg Evelin

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims To analyze the relationship between exposure to chlorinated and aromatic organic solvents and malignant lymphoma in a multi-centre, population-based case-control study. Methods Male and female patients with malignant lymphoma (n = 710 between 18 and 80 years of age were prospectively recruited in six study regions in Germany (Ludwigshafen/Upper Palatinate, Heidelberg/Rhine-Neckar-County, Würzburg/Lower Frankonia, Hamburg, Bielefeld/Gütersloh, and Munich. For each newly recruited lymphoma case, a gender, region and age-matched (± 1 year of birth population control was drawn from the population registers. In a structured personal interview, we elicited a complete occupational history, including every occupational period that lasted at least one year. On the basis of job task-specific supplementary questionnaires, a trained occupational physician assessed the exposure to chlorinated hydrocarbons (trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, dichloromethane, carbon tetrachloride and aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, xylene, styrene. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated using conditional logistic regression analysis, adjusted for smoking (in pack years and alcohol consumption. To increase the statistical power, patients with specific lymphoma subentities were additionally compared with the entire control group using unconditional logistic regression analysis. Results We observed a statistically significant association between high exposure to chlorinated hydrocarbons and malignant lymphoma (Odds ratio = 2.1; 95% confidence interval 1.1–4.3. In the analysis of lymphoma subentities, a pronounced risk elevation was found for follicular lymphoma and marginal zone lymphoma. When specific substances were considered, the association between trichloroethylene and malignant lymphoma was of borderline statistical significance. Aromatic hydrocarbons were not significantly associated with the lymphoma diagnosis

  9. Induced Polarization with Electromagnetic Coupling: 3D Spectral Imaging Theory, EMSP Project No. 73836

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, F. Dale; Sogade, John

    2004-12-14

    This project was designed as a broad foundational study of spectral induced polarization (SIP) for characterization of contaminated sites. It encompassed laboratory studies of the effects of chemistry on induced polarization, development of 3D forward modeling and inversion codes, and investigations of inductive and capacitive coupling problems. In the laboratory part of the project a physico-chemical model developed in this project was used to invert laboratory IP spectra for the grain size and the effective grain size distribution of the sedimentary rocks as well as the formation factor, porosity, specific surface area, and the apparent fractal dimension. Furthermore, it was established that the IP response changed with the solution chemistry, the concentration of a given solution chemistry, valence of the constituent ions, and ionic radius. In the field part of the project, a 3D complex forward and inverse model was developed. It was used to process data acquired at two frequencies (1/16 Hz and 1/ 4Hz) in a cross-borehole configuration at the A-14 outfall area of the Savannah River Site (SRS) during March 2003 and June 2004. The chosen SRS site was contaminated with Tetrachloroethylene (TCE) and Trichloroethylene (PCE) that were disposed in this area for several decades till the 1980s. The imaginary conductivity produced from the inverted 2003 data correlated very well with the log10 (PCE) concentration derived from point sampling at 1 ft spacing in five ground-truth boreholes drilled after the data acquisition. The equivalent result for the 2004 data revealed that there were significant contaminant movements during the period March 2003 and June 2004, probably related to ground-truth activities and nearby remediation activities. Therefore SIP was successfully used to develop conceptual models of volume distributions of PCE/TCE contamination. In addition, the project developed non-polarizing electrodes that can be deployed in boreholes for years. A total of 28

  10. Effect of emplaced nZVI mass and groundwater velocity on PCE dechlorination and hydrogen evolution in water-saturated sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hye-Jin; Leitch, Megan; Naknakorn, Bhanuphong; Tilton, Robert D.; Lowry, Gregory V.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Reactivity of nZVI increased linearly with nZVI concentration above 10 g/L, but was non-linear below 10 g/L. • nZVI reactivity with PCE is more sensitive to solution redox potential than solution pH. • Mass transfer limits the reactivity of emplaced nZVI under typical groundwater flow velocity. • Lowering pH increases H_2 evolution from nZVI more than reactivity with PCE. • Design of nZVI remediation strategies should consider mass loading and flow velocity on performance and lifetime. - Abstract: The effect of nZVI mass loading and groundwater velocity on the tetrachloroethylene (PCE) dechlorination rate and the hydrogen evolution rate for poly(maleic acid-co-olefin) (MW = 12 K) coated nZVI was examined. In batch reactors, the PCE reaction rate constant (3.7 × 10"−"4 L hr"−"1 m"−"2) and hydrogen evolution rate constant (1.4 nanomol L hr"−"1 m"−"2) were independent of nZVI concentration above 10 g/L, but the PCE dechlorination rate decreased and the hydrogen evolution rate increased for nZVI concentration below 10 g/L. The nonlinearity between nZVI mass loading and PCE dechlorination and H_2 evolution was explained by differences in pH and E_h at each nZVI mass loading; PCE reactivity increased when solution E_h decreased, and the H_2 evolution rate increased with decreasing pH. Thus, nZVI mass loading of <5 g/L yields lower reactivity with PCE and lower efficiency of Fe° utilization than for higher nZVI mass loading. The PCE dechlorination rate increased with increasing pore-water velocity, suggesting that mass transfer limits the reaction at low porewater velocity. Overall, this work suggests that design of nZVI-based reactive barriers for groundwater treatment should consider the non-linear effects of both mass loading and flow velocity on performance and expected reactive lifetime.

  11. In-Situ Anaerobic Biosurfactant Production Process For Remediation Of DNAPL Contamination In Subsurface Aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albino, J. D.; Nambi, I. M.

    2009-12-01

    Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) and remediation of aquifers contaminated with hydrophobic contaminants require insitu production of biosurfactants for mobilization of entrapped hydrophobic liquids. Most of the biosurfactant producing microorganisms produce them under aerobic condition and hence surfactant production is limited in subsurface condition due to lack of oxygen. Currently bioremediation involves expensive air sparging or excavation followed by exsitu biodegradation. Use of microorganisms which can produce biosurfactants under anaerobic conditions can cost effectively expedite the process of insitu bioremediation or mobilization. In this work, the feasibility of anaerobic biosurfactant production in three mixed anaerobic cultures prepared from groundwater and soil contaminated with chlorinated compounds and municipal sewage sludge was investigated. The cultures were previously enriched under complete anaerobic conditions in the presence of Tetrachloroethylene (PCE) for more than a year before they were studied for biosurfactant production. Biosurfactant production under anaerobic conditions was simulated using two methods: i) induction of starvation in the microbial cultures and ii) addition of complex fermentable substrates. Positive result for biosurfactant production was not observed when the cultures were induced with starvation by adding PCE as blobs which served as the only terminal electron acceptor. However, slight reduction in interfacial tension was noticed which was caused by the adherence of microbes to water-PCE interface. Biosurfactant production was observed in all the three cultures when they were fed with complex fermentable substrates and surface tension of the liquid medium was lowered below 35 mN/m. Among the fermentable substrates tested, vegetable oil yielded highest amount of biosurfactant in all the cultures. Complete biodegradation of PCE to ethylene at a faster rate was also observed when vegetable oil was amended to the

  12. GE/NOMADICS IN-WELL MONITORING SYSTEM FOR VERTICAL PROFILING OF DNAPL CONTAMINANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald E. Shaffer; Radislav Potyralio; Joseph Salvo; Timothy Sivavec; Lloyd Salsman

    2003-04-01

    This report describes the Phase I effort to develop an Automated In Well Monitoring System (AIMS) for in situ detection of chlorinated volatile organic compounds such as trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) in groundwater. AIMS is composed of 3 primary components: (a) sensor probe, (b) instrument delivery system, and (c) communication/recharging station. The sensor probe utilizes an array of thickness shear mode (TSM) sensors coated with chemically-sensitive polymer films provides a low-cost, highly sensitive microsensor platform for detection and quantification. The instrument delivery system is used to position the sensor probe in 2 inch or larger groundwater monitoring wells. A communication/recharging station provides wireless battery recharging and communication to enable a fully automated system. A calibration curve for TCE in water was built using data collected in the laboratory. The detection limit of the sensor probe was 6.7 ppb ({micro}g/L) for TCE in water. A preliminary field test was conducted at a GE remediation location and a pilot field test was performed at the DOE Savannah River Site (SRS). The AIMS system was demonstrated in an uncontaminated (i.e., ''clean'') 2-inch well and in a 4-inch well containing 163.5 ppb of TCE. Repeat measurements at the two wells indicated excellent day-to-day reproducibility. Significant differences in the sensor responses were noted between the two types of wells but they did not closely match the laboratory calibration data. The robustness of the system presented numerous challenges for field work and limited the scope of the SRS pilot field test. However, the unique combination of trace detection (detection limits near the MCL, minimum concentration level) and size (operations in 2-inch or larger groundwater wells) is demonstration of the promise of this technology for long-term monitoring (LTM) applications or rapid site characterization. Using the lessons learned from the

  13. Simultaneous determination of bisphenol A and bisphenol B in beverages and powdered infant formula by dispersive liquid-liquid micro-extraction and heart-cutting multidimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, S C; Almeida, C; Mendes, E; Fernandes, J O

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish a reliable, cost-effective, fast and simple method to quantify simultaneously both bisphenol A (BPA) and bisphenol B (BPB) in liquid food matrixes such as canned beverages (soft drinks and beers) and powdered infant formula using dispersive liquid-liquid micro-extraction (DLLME) with in-situ derivatisation coupled with heart-cutting gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). For the optimisation of the DLLME procedure different amounts of various extractive and dispersive solvents as well as different amounts of the derivative reagent were compared for their effects on extraction efficiency and yields. The optimised procedure consisted of the injection of a mixture containing tetrachloroethylene (extractant), acetonitrile (dispersant) and acetic anhydride (derivatising reagent) directly into an aliquot of beverage samples or into an aqueous extract of powdered milk samples obtained after a pretreatment of the samples. Given the compatibility of the solvents used, and the low volumes involved, the procedure was easily associated with GC-MS end-point determination, which was accomplished by means of an accurate GC dual column (heart-cutting) technique. Careful optimisation of heart-cutting GC-MS conditions, namely pressure of front and auxiliary inlets, have resulted in a good analytical performance. The linearity of the matrix-matched calibration curves was acceptable, with coefficients of determination (r2) always higher than 0.99. Average recoveries of the BPA and BPB spiked at two concentration levels into beverages and powdered infant formula ranged from 68% to 114% and the relative standard deviation (RSD) was canned beverages were 5.0 and 2.0 ng l(-1) for BPA and BPB, respectively, whereas LOD in powdered infant formula were 60.0 and 30.0 ng l(-1), respectively. The limits of quantification (LOQ) in canned beverages were 10.0 and 7.0 ng l-1 for BPA and BPB, respectively, whereas LOQ in powdered infant formula were

  14. Effect of emplaced nZVI mass and groundwater velocity on PCE dechlorination and hydrogen evolution in water-saturated sand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hye-Jin [Civil & Environmental Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213-3890 (United States); Chemical Research Division, Environmental Health Research Department, National Institute of Environmental Research, Incheon 404-708 (Korea, Republic of); Leitch, Megan [Civil & Environmental Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213-3890 (United States); Center for Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213-3890 (United States); Naknakorn, Bhanuphong [Civil & Environmental Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213-3890 (United States); Tilton, Robert D. [Chemical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213-3890 (United States); Biomedical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213-3890 (United States); Center for Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213-3890 (United States); Lowry, Gregory V., E-mail: glowry@cmu.edu [Civil & Environmental Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213-3890 (United States); Chemical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213-3890 (United States); Center for Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213-3890 (United States)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Reactivity of nZVI increased linearly with nZVI concentration above 10 g/L, but was non-linear below 10 g/L. • nZVI reactivity with PCE is more sensitive to solution redox potential than solution pH. • Mass transfer limits the reactivity of emplaced nZVI under typical groundwater flow velocity. • Lowering pH increases H{sub 2} evolution from nZVI more than reactivity with PCE. • Design of nZVI remediation strategies should consider mass loading and flow velocity on performance and lifetime. - Abstract: The effect of nZVI mass loading and groundwater velocity on the tetrachloroethylene (PCE) dechlorination rate and the hydrogen evolution rate for poly(maleic acid-co-olefin) (MW = 12 K) coated nZVI was examined. In batch reactors, the PCE reaction rate constant (3.7 × 10{sup −4} L hr{sup −1} m{sup −2}) and hydrogen evolution rate constant (1.4 nanomol L hr{sup −1} m{sup −2}) were independent of nZVI concentration above 10 g/L, but the PCE dechlorination rate decreased and the hydrogen evolution rate increased for nZVI concentration below 10 g/L. The nonlinearity between nZVI mass loading and PCE dechlorination and H{sub 2} evolution was explained by differences in pH and E{sub h} at each nZVI mass loading; PCE reactivity increased when solution E{sub h} decreased, and the H{sub 2} evolution rate increased with decreasing pH. Thus, nZVI mass loading of <5 g/L yields lower reactivity with PCE and lower efficiency of Fe° utilization than for higher nZVI mass loading. The PCE dechlorination rate increased with increasing pore-water velocity, suggesting that mass transfer limits the reaction at low porewater velocity. Overall, this work suggests that design of nZVI-based reactive barriers for groundwater treatment should consider the non-linear effects of both mass loading and flow velocity on performance and expected reactive lifetime.

  15. Yield and quality of ground water from stratified-drift aquifers, Taunton River basin, Massachusetts : executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapham, Wayne W.; Olimpio, Julio C.

    1989-01-01

    locations revealed that 13 of the sample contained one or more of the following compounds: chloroform; carbon tetrachloride; dichloroethane; dichloroethylene; tetrachloroethylene; and, toluene. (Lantz-PTT)

  16. Study on decomposition and removal of organic pollutants in gases using electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakoda, Teruyuki

    2006-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOC) used as solvents and de-oil reagents have been emitted to the atmosphere and oxidized subsequently into toxic photochemical oxidants in the atmosphere. Reduction of the emission of VOC has been required under law and regulations for factories/plants at which huge amounts of VOC are used. The electron beam (EB) treatment is suitable for purification of high flow-rate ventilation air containing dilute VOC emitted from such factories/plants. The purification processes of such ventilation air have been developed based on the decomposition reactions and property changes of VOC. The results for chloro-ethylenes and aromatic hydrocarbons, which have been emitted with abundant quantities, are introduced in the present paper. Chloroethylenes, except for monochloroethylene, were oxidized into water-soluble primary products through chain reactions in EB irradiated humid air. The chain oxidation reactions of such chloro-ethylenes were initiated exclusively by a reaction with OH radicals, but electron-attachment dissociation under EB irradiation. Gas-phase termination reactions involved the bimolecular reaction of alkylperoxyl radicals for tri- and di-chloroethylenes, and the reaction of alkylperoxyl radicals and alkyl radicals beside such a bimolecular reaction for tetrachloroethylene. The deposition of the alkyl-peroxyl radicals on an irradiation vessel wall also terminated the chain oxidation reactions. The solid-phase termination reaction was negligible to the gas-phase termination reactions under irradiation with high-dose rate so that the oxidation of chloro-ethylenes was achieved with lower doses under high-dose rate irradiation like EB irradiation. The hydrolysis of the primary products combined with EB irradiation is prospective to be applied to the purification of chloroethylenes/air mixtures with lower doses. Under irradiation of aromatic hydrocarbons/air mixtures, toxic and oxidation-resistant particles with mean diameters of a few

  17. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Monterey Bay and Salinas Valley Basins, California, 2005 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    -nitrosodimethylamine, 1,2,3-trichloropropane, nitrate, radon-222, and coliform bacteria were detected at concentrations higher than health-based regulatory thresholds. Six constituents, including total dissolved solids, hexavalent chromium, iron, manganese, molybdenum, and sulfate were detected at concentrations above levels set for aesthetic concerns. One-third of the randomized wells sampled for the Monterey Bay and Salinas Valley GAMA study had at least a single detection of a VOC or gasoline additive. Twenty-eight of the 88 VOCs and gasoline additives investigated were found in ground-water samples; however, detected concentrations were one-third to one-sixty-thousandth of their respective regulatory thresholds. Compounds detected in 10 percent or more of the wells sampled include chloroform, a compound resulting from the chlorination of water, and tetrachloroethylene (PCE), a common solvent. Pesticides and pesticide degradates also were detected in one-third of the ground-water samples collected; however, detected concentrations were one-thirtieth to one-fourteen-thousandth of their respective regulatory thresholds. Ten of the 122 pesticides and pesticide degradates investigated were found in ground-water samples. Compounds detected in 10 percent or more of the wells sampled include the herbicide simazine, and the pesticide degradate deethylatrazine. Ground-water samples had a median total dissolved solids (TDS) concentration of 467 milligrams per liter (mg/L), and 16 of the 34 samples had TDS concentrations above the recommended secondary maximum contaminant level (SMCL-a threshold established for aesthetic qualities: taste, odor, and color) of 500 mg/L, while four samples had concentrations above the upper SMCL of 1,000 mg/L. Concentrations of nitrate plus nitrite ranged from 0.04 to 37.8 mg/L (as nitrogen), and two samples had concentrations above the health-based threshold for nitrate of 10 mg/L (as nitrogen). The median sulfate concentration

  18. Geohydrology and simulation of ground-water flow in the Red Clay Creek Basin, Chester County, Pennsylvania, and New Castle County, Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Karen L.; Reif, Andrew G.

    1993-01-01

    year were simulated by the model. Different combinations of ground-water supply and wastewater-disposal plans were simulated to assess their effects on the stream-aquifer system. Six of the simulations represent an increase in population of 14,283 and water use of 1.07 million gallons per day. One simulation represents an increase in population of 28,566 and water use of 2.14 million gallons per day. Reduction of average base flow is greatest for development plans with wastewater removed from the basin through sewers and is proportional to the amount of water removed from the basin. The development plan that had the least effect on water levels and base flow included on-lot wells and on-lot septic systems. Five organochlorine insecticides--lindane, DDT, dieldrin, heptachlor, and methoxychlor--were detected in ground water. Four organophosphorus insecticides--malathion, parathion, diazinon, and phorate--were detected in ground water. Four volatile organic compounds--benzene, toluene, tetrachloroethylene, and trichloroethylene--were detected in ground water. Phenol was detected at concentrations up to 8 micrograms per liter in water from 50 percent of 14 wells sampled. The concentration of dissolved nitrate in water from 18 percent of wells sampled exceeded 10 milligrams per liter as nitrogen; concentration of nitrate were as high as 19 milligrams per liter. PCB was detected in the bottom material of West Branch Red Clay Creek at Kennet Square at concentrations up to 5,600 micrograms per kilogram.

  19. Hydrogeologic investigation and simulation of ground-water flow in the Upper Floridan Aquifer of north-central Florida and southwestern Georgia and delineation of contributing areas for selected city of Tallahassee, Florida, water-supply wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J. Hal

    1996-01-01

    A 4-year investigation of the Upper Floridan aquifer and ground-water flow system in Leon County, Florida, and surrounding counties of north-central Florida and southwestern Georgia began in 1990. The purpose of the investigation was to describe the ground-water flow system and to delineate the contributing areas to selected City of Tallahassee, Florida, water-supply wells. The investigation was prompted by the detection of low levels of tetrachloroethylene in ground-water samples collected from several of the city's water-supply wells. Hydrologic data and previous studies indicate that; ground-water flow within the Upper Floridan aquifer can be considered steady-state; the Upper Floridan aquifer is a single water-bearing unit; recharge is from precipitation; and that discharge occurs as spring flow, leakage to rivers, leakage to the Gulf of Mexico, and pumpage. Measured transmissivities of the aquifer ranged from 1,300 ft2/d (feet squared per day) to 1,300,000 ft2/d. Steady-state ground-water flow in the Upper Floridan aquifer was simulated using a three-dimensional ground- water flow model. Transmissivities ranging from less than 5,000 ft2/d to greater than 11,000,000 ft2/d were required to calibrate to observed conditions. Recharge rates used in the model ranged from 18.0 inches per year in areas where the aquifer was unconfined to less than 2 inches per year in broad areas where the aquifer was confined. Contributing areas to five Tallahassee water-supply wells were simulated by particle- tracking techniques. Particles were seeded in model cells containing pumping wells then tracked backwards in time toward recharge areas. The contributing area for each well was simulated twice, once assuming a porosity of 25 percent and once assuming a porosity of 5 percent. A porosity of 25 percent is considered a reasonable average value for the Upper Floridan aquifer; the 5 percent porosity simulated the movement of ground-water through only solution-enhanced bedding plains

  20. Hydrogeologic Investigation, Water Chemistry Analysis, and Model Delineation of contributing Areas for City of Tallahassee Public-Supply Wells, Tallahassee, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J. Hal; Katz, Brian G.

    2007-01-01

    Ground water from the Upper Floridan aquifer is the sole source of water supply for Tallahassee, Florida, and the surrounding area. The City of Tallahassee (the City) currently operates 28 water-supply wells; 26 wells are distributed throughout the City and 2 are located in Woodville, Florida. Most of these wells yield an ample supply of potable water; however, water from several wells has low levels of tetrachloroethylene (PCE). The City removes the PCE from the water by passing it through granular-activated carbon units before distribution. To ensure that water-supply wells presently free of contamination remain clean, it is necessary to understand the ground-water flow system in sufficient detail to protect the contributing areas. Ground-water samples collected from four public-supply wells were analyzed for tritium (3H), chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). Using data for the CFC compounds, apparent ground-water ages ranged from 7 to 31 years. For SF6, the apparent ages tended to be about 5 to 10 years younger than those from CFCs. Apparent ages based on the tritium/tritiogenic helium-3 (3H/3Hetrit) method ranged from 26 to 33 years. The three dating methods indicate that the apparent age of ground water generally decreases from northern to southern Leon County. This southward trend of decreasing ages is consistent with increasing amounts of recharge that occur as ground water moves from north to south. The ground-water age data derived by geochemical and tracer analyses were used in combination with the flow model and particle tracking to determine an effective porosity for the Hawthorn clays and Upper Floridan aquifer. The effective porosities for the Upper Floridan aquifer that resulted in best model matches were averaged to produce an effective porosity of 7 percent, and the effective porosities for the Hawthorn clays that resulted in a match were averaged to produce an effective porosity of 22 percent. Probabilistic contributing areas

  1. Hanford Site Groundwater Monitoring for Fiscal Year 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartman, M.J. [and others

    1999-03-24

    This report presents the results of groundwater and vadose-zone monitoring and remediation for fiscal year (FY) 1998 on the Word Site, Washington. Soil-vapor extraction in the 200-West Area removed 777 kg of carbon tetrachloride in FY 1998, for a total of 75,490 kg removed since remediation began in 1992. Spectral gamma logging and evaluation of historical gross gamma logs near tank farms and liquid-disposal sites in the 200 Areas provided information on movement of contaminants in the vadose zone. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate groundwater-flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to evolving disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1997 and June 1998. The most widespread radiological contaminant plumes in groundwater were tritium and iodine-129. Concentrations of technetium-99, uranium, strontium-90, and carbon-14 also exceeded drinking water standards in smaller plumes. Plutonium and cesium-137 exceeded standards only near the 216-B-5 injection well. Derived concentration guide levels specified in U.S. Department of Energy Order 5400.5 were exceeded for tritium, uranium, strontium-90, and plutonium in small plumes or single wells. One well completed in the basalt-confined aquifer beneath the 200-East Area exceeded the drinking water standard for technetium-99. Nitrate is the most extensive chemical contaminant. Carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, chromium, cis-l, Z-dichloroethylene, fluoride, and trichloroethylene also were present in smaller areas at levels above their maximum contaminant levels. Cyanide concentrations were elevated in one area but were below the maximum contaminant level. Tetrachloroethylene exceeded its maximum contaminant level in several wells in the 300 Area for the first time since the 1980s. Metals such as aluminum, cadmium, iron, manganese, and nickel exceeded their maximum contaminant levels in filtered samples from numerous

  2. Water quality of the Mississippian carbonate aquifer in parts of middle Tennessee and northern Alabama, 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsbury, James A.; Shelton, John M.

    2002-01-01

    detected at generally low concentrations at about 81 percent of the sites sampled. Concentrations of trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, and 1,2-dichloropropane at three sites equalled or exceeded drinking-water maximum contaminant levels. The maximum concentration measured was 7.5 micrograms per liter of trichloroethylene. The presence of volatile organic compounds in the Mississippian carbonate aquifer was not related to hydrogeology, soil properties, or land use near the sites; although higher total volatile organic compound concentrations and greater numbers of compounds in samples generally were associated with a higher percentage of urban land use near a site. Chloroform was the most frequently detected compound, and correlation of low-level detections to the amount of wetlands near sites having these detections may indicate biogenic formation of chloroform.The relation between land use and water quality was stronger for constituents that are contributed to the environment systematically (fertilizer and pesticide applications), than those contributed inadvertently (leaking septic tanks or chemical spills or leaks). Land use and soils characterized in circular buffer areas near sites sampled in this karst aquifer explained some of the variation in nitrate concentration and presence of pesticides. Use of land use and soil data with greater detail than the large scale data used in this analysis and buffer areas based on well capacities and ground-water withdrawals might strengthen this type of analysis.

  3. Assessing the susceptibility to contamination of two aquifer systems used for public water supply in the Modesto and Fresno metropolitan areas, California, 2001 and 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Michael T.; Belitz, Kenneth; Johnson, Tyler D.

    2004-01-01

    solvents TCE and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) in Modesto. Chloroform, which is a by product of water disinfection and a constituent used in industrial processes since the 1920s, was the most frequently detected compound, whereas the gasoline oxygenate methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), which has been in widespread production and use only since the 1990s, was detected in only 2 percent of the samples. Downward migration of contaminants appears to be a viable pathway of contamination in the unconfined and semi-confined aquifers underlying the Fresno and Modesto study areas. Within the individual study areas, VOCs were detected more frequently and in greater numbers in shallower wells than in deeper wells. Additionally, VOCs were detected more frequently and in greater numbers in Modesto than in Fresno. Wells sampled in Modesto were significantly shallower than the wells sampled in Fresno; the other explanatory variables examined in this report were not significantly different between the two study areas. VOCs occurred more frequently in younger ground water (water recharged after 1952) than in older ground water (water recharged prior to 1952). Additionally, wells withdrawing younger ground water had a higher number of VOCs detected per well than did wells withdrawing older ground water. Younger ground water was at or near the land surface during a period when VOCs came into widespread production and use. Therefore, wells from which younger ground water is withdrawn may be more susceptible to contamination. Of the explanatory variables examined in this study, land use was the best predictor of aquifer susceptibility in the Fresno and Modesto study areas. VOCs were detected more frequently in wells located in heavily urbanized areas. The number of VOCs detected in ground water was positively correlated to the degree of urbanization. VOCs are produced and used primarily in urban land use settings; therefore, aquifers underlying urban areas may be more susceptible to

  4. Evaluation of volatile organic compounds in two Mojave Desert basins-Mojave River and Antelope Valley-in San Bernardino, Los Angeles, and Kern Counties, California, June-October 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Densmore, Jill N.; Belitz, Kenneth; Wright, Michael T.; Dawson, Barbara J.; Johnson, Tyler D.

    2005-01-01

    . Trihalomethanes (THMs) were detected less frequently in the Mojave River Basin samples than in the Antelope Valley Basin samples. The THMs that were detected in the Mojave River Basin were detected more frequently in the floodplain aquifer than in the regional aquifer and sewered subset. Solvents were detected more frequently in the Mojave River samples than in the Antelope Valley samples. In the Mojave River Basin samples, solvents were detected less frequently in the floodplain aquifer than in the regional aquifer and the sewered subset. Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) were not detected in either study area. Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) was detected in one sample from both the Mojave River and Antelope Valley Basins. The most frequently detected compound (detected in more than 10 percent of the wells) in the Mojave River Basin was chloroform. The two most frequently detected compounds in the Antelope Valley Basin were chloroform and tetrachloroethylene (PCE). In the Mojave River Basin, aquifer type and land use within 1,640 ft (500 m) of the well head were not statistically correlated with the number of VOCs detected, although VOCs were detected more frequently in the floodplain aquifer than in the regional aquifer and the sewered subset. Depth to the top of the perforations was an explanatory factor for the number of VOCs detected in the Mojave River Basin; the detection frequency was greater for shallow wells than for deep wells. In the Antelope Valley Basin, neither aquifer type, depth to the top of the perforations, nor land use within 1,640 ft of the well head were explanatory factors for the number of VOCs detected. Although aquifer type and depth to top of the perforations did explain the presence of tritium in the Mojave River Basin, land use within 1,640 ft of the well head was not a statistically significant explanatory factor for the presence of tritium in this basin. Aquifer type, depth to the top of the perfora

  5. Groundwater contamination and risk assessment of industrial complex in Busan Metropolitan City, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, S.-Y.; Ryu, S. M.; Cheong, J.-Y.; Woo, Y.-J.

    2003-04-01

    In Korea, the potential of groundwater contamination in urban areas is increasing by industrial and domestic waste waters, leakage from oil storage tanks and sewage drains, leachate from municipal landfill sites and so on. Nowadays, chlorinated organic compounds such as trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE), which are driving residential area as well as industrial area, are recognized as major hazardous contaminants. As well known, TCE is wisely used industrial activities such as degreasing, metal stripping, chemical manufacturing, pesticide production, coal gasification plants, creosote operation, and also used in automobile service centers, photo shops and laundries as cleaning solvent. Thus, groundwater protection in urban areas is important issue in Korea This study is to understand groundwater quality and contamination characteristics and to estimate risk assessment in Sasang industrial complex, Busan Metropolitan City. Busan Metropolitan City is located on southeastern coast of the Korean peninsula and is the second largest city in South Korea with a population of 3.8 millions. The geology of the study area is composed of andesite, andesitic tuff, biotite granite and alluvium (Kim et al., 1998). However, geology cannot be identified on the surface due to pavement and buildings. According to drill logs in the study area, the geologic section consists in landfill, fine sand, clay, gravelly clay, and biotite granite from the surface. Biotite granite appears 5.5- 6 m depth. Groundwater samples were collected at twenty sites in Sasang industrial complex. The groundwater samples are plotted on Piper's trilinear diagram, which indicates Ca-Cl2 type. The groundwater may be influenced by salt water because Sasang industrial complex is located near the mouse of Nakdong river that flows to the South Sea. The Ca-Cl2 water type may be partly influenced by anthropogenic contamination in the study area, since water type in granite area generally belongs Ca

  6. Hydrogeologic investigation of the Malvern TCE Superfund Site, Chester County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloto, Ronald A.

    1997-01-01

    The Malvern TCE Superfund Site, a former solvent recycling facility that now stores and sells solvents, consists of a plant and disposal area, which are approximately 1,900 ft (feet) apart. The site is underlain by an unconfined carbonate bedrock aquifer in which permeability has been enhanced in places by solution. Water levels respond quickly to precipitation and show a similar seasonal variation, response to precipitation, and range of fluctuation. The altitude of water levels in wells at the disposal area is nearly identical because of the small hydraulic gradient. A comparison of water-table maps for 1983, 1993, and 1994 shows that the general shape of the water table and hydraulic gradients in the area have remained the same through time and for different climatic conditions.The plant area is underlain by dolomite of the Elbrook Formation. The dolomite at the plant area does not yield as much water as the dolomite at the disposal area because it is less fractured, and wells penetrate few water-bearing fractures. Yields of nine wells at the plant area range from 1 to 200 gal/min (gallons per minute); the median yield is 6 gal/min. Specific capacities range from 0.08 to 2 (gal/min)/ft (gallons per minute per foot). Aquifer tests were conducted in two wells; median transmissivities estimated from the aquifer-test data ranged from 528 to 839 feet squared per day. Maximum concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOC's) in ground water at the plant area in 1996 were 53,900 ug/L (micrograms per liter) for trichloroethylene (TCE), 7,110 ug/L for tetrachloroethylene (PCE), and 17,700 ug/L for 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA).A ground-water divide is located between the plant area and the disposal area. Ground-water withdrawal for dewatering the Catanach quarry has caused a cone of depression in the water-table surface that reaches to the plant area. From the plant area, ground water flows 1.2 miles to the northeast and discharges to the Catanach quarry. The regional

  7. Chester County ground-water atlas, Chester County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludlow, Russell A.; Loper, Connie A.

    2004-01-01

    primarily were measured in water from Triassic sedimentary and carbonate rocks.Despite a sampling bias towards agricultural land use, only two samples indicated the presence of fecal coliforms.Samples analyzed for nutrients generally exhibited low concentrations, but about 11 percent of samples collected for nitrate exceeded the USEPA PMCL. Only one nitrite sample (less than 1 percent) exceeded the respective USEPA PMCL.Approximately 190 samples were collected for each of the three pesticides in this report: lindane, dieldrin, and diazinon. Sampling was biased towards agricultural, low-medium density residential, and wooded land uses. Approximately 95 percent of samples for each pesticide were below minimum reporting levels (MRL). Only lindane has a USEPA PMCL, and only one sample exceeded the standard. Results for dieldrin and diazinon were similar, except results for two diazinon samples where concentrations were 57.0 and 490 micrograms per liter (μg/L).Volatile organic compounds in this report were analyzed in water from 198 samples. Sampling was biased towards agricultural, low-medium density residential, and wooded land uses. Two percent of samples analyzed for trichloroethylene and less than 1 percent of samples analyzed for tetrachloroethylene exceeded their respective USEPA PMCLs (each 5.0 μg/L). No samples analyzed for 1,1,1-trichloroethane exceeded the USEPA PMCL (200 μg/L). No samples analyzed for methyl tert-butyl ether exceeded the USEPA Drinking Water Advisory (20μg/L).

  8. Changes in Groundwater Flow and Volatile Organic Compound Concentrations at the Fischer and Porter Superfund Site, Warminster Township, Bucks County, Pennsylvania, 1993-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloto, Ronald A.

    2010-01-01

    units into generalized units representing upward fining sedimentary cycles capped by a siltstone bed. These cycles were labeled units 1 through 8 and are called stratigraphic units in this report. Groundwater in the unweathered zone mainly moves through a network of interconnecting secondary openings--bedding-plane fractures and joints. Groundwater generally is unconfined in the shallower part of the aquifer and confined or semiconfined in the deeper part of the aquifer. The migration of VOCs from the Fischer and Porter Site source area is influenced by geologic and hydrologic controls. The hydrologic controls have changed with time. Stratigraphic units 2 and 3 crop out beneath the former Fischer and Porter plant. VOCs originating at the plant source area entered these stratigraphic units and moved downdip to the northwest. When the wells at and in the vicinity of the site were initially sampled in 1979-80, three public-supply wells (BK-366, BK-367, MG-946) and three industrial-supply wells (BK-368, BK-370, and BK-371) were pumping. Groundwater contaminated with VOCs flowed downdip and then northeast along strike toward well BK-366, downdip toward well BK-368, and downdip and then west along strike toward well MG-946. The long axis of the TCE plume is oriented about N. 18? W. in the direction of dip. In 1979-80, the leading edge of the plume was about 3,500 feet wide. With the cessation of pumping of the supply wells in 2004, the size of the plume has decreased. In 2007-09, the plume was approximately 2,000 feet long and 2,000 feet wide at the leading edge. On the western side of the site, TCE and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) appear to be moving downdip though stratigraphic unit 3. The downdip extent of TCE and PCE migration extended approximately 550 feet off-site to the northwest and 750 feet off-site to the north. TCE concentrations in water samples from wells at the western site boundary increased from 1996 to 2007. On the northern side of the site, TCE and P

  9. Reactive hydro- end chlorocarbons in the troposphere and lower stratosphere : sources, distributions, and chemical impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheeren, H. A.

    2003-09-01

    The work presented in this thesis focuses on measurements of chemical reactive C2 C7 non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) and C1 C2 chlorocarbons with atmospheric lifetimes of a few hours up to about a year. The group of reactive chlorocarbons includes the most abundant atmospheric species with large natural sources, which are chloromethane (CH3Cl), dichloromethane (CH2Cl2), and trichloromethane (CHCl3), and tetrachloroethylene (C2Cl4) with mainly anthropogenic sources. The NMHC and chlorocarbons are present at relatively low quantities in our atmosphere (10-12 10-9 mol mol-1 of air). Nevertheless, they play a key role in atmospheric photochemistry. For example, the oxidation of NMHC plays a dominant role in the formation of ozone in the troposphere, while the photolysis of chlorocarbons contributes to enhanced ozone depletion in the stratosphere. In spite of their important role, however, their global source and sinks budgets are still poorly understood. Hence, this study aims at improving our understanding of the sources, distribution, and chemical role of reactive NMHC and chlorocarbons in the troposphere and lower stratosphere. To meet this aim, a comprehensive data set of selected C2 C7 NMHC and chlorocarbons has been analyzed, derived from six aircraft measurement campaigns with two different jet aircrafts (the Dutch TUD/NLR Cessna Citation PH-LAB, and the German DLR Falcon) conducted between 1995 and 2001 (STREAM 1995 and 1997 and 1998, LBA-CLAIRE 1998, INDOEX 1999, MINOS 2001). The NMHC and chlorocarbons have been detected by gas-chromatography (GC-FID/ECD) in pre-concentrated whole air samples collected in stainless steel canister on-board the measurement aircrafts. The measurement locations include tropical (Maldives/Indian Ocean and Surinam), midlatitude (Western Europe and Canada) and polar regions (Lapland/northern Sweden) between the equator to about 70ºN, covering different seasons and pollution levels in the troposphere and lower stratosphere. Of

  10. Submarines, spacecraft and exhaled breath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleil, Joachim D; Hansel, Armin

    2012-03-01

    extend the underwater endurance to 2-3 weeks. These propulsion engineering changes also reduce periodic ventilation of the submarine's interior and thus put a greater burden on the various maintenance systems. We note that the spaceflight community has similar issues; their energy production mechanisms are essentially air independent in that they rely almost entirely on photovoltaic arrays for electricity generation, with only emergency back-up power from alcohol fuel cells. In response to prolonged underwater submarine AIP operations, months-long spaceflight operations onboard the ISS and planning for future years-long missions to Mars, there has been an increasing awareness that bio-monitoring is an important factor for assessing the health and awareness states of the crewmembers. SAMAP researchers have been proposing various air and bio-monitoring instruments and methods in response to these needs. One of the most promising new methodologies is the non-invasive monitoring of exhaled breath. So, what do the IABR and SAMAP communities have in common? Inhalation toxicology. We are both concerned with contamination from the environment, either as a direct health threat or as a confounder for diagnostic assessments. For example, the exhaled breath from subjects in a contaminated and enclosed artificial environment (submarine or spacecraft) can serve as a model system and a source of contamination for their peers in a cleaner environment. In a similar way, exhaled anaesthetics can serve as a source of contamination in hospital/clinical settings, or exhalation of occupational exposures to tetrachloroethylene can impact family members at home. Instrumentation development. Both communities have similar needs for better, more specific and more sensitive instruments. Certainly, the analytical instruments to be used onboard submarines and spacecraft have severe restrictions on energy use, physical size and ease of operation. The medical and clinical communities have similar long

  11. Risk Evaluation of the Use of Green Gas in Dutch greenhouses; Risico-evaluatie toepassing Groen Gas in de Nederlandse Glastuinbouw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dijk, C.J. [Plant Research International PRI, Wageningen (Netherlands); Dueck, Th.A. [Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw, Wageningen (Netherlands); Burgers, W. [Infomil, Den Haag (Netherlands)

    2009-01-15

    Green gas, or biogas originating from fermentation installations can contribute to the energy supply by replacing fossil fuels, and aims to replace natural gas by 50% in 2050. Currently, combined heat power engines (CHPs) in Dutch horticulture primarily burn natural gas. These engines supply electricity for artificial lighting and for the national electricity network, heat in greenhouses and flue gas for carbon dioxide (CO2) in order to stimulate crop growth and production. Dutch horticulture is viewed as an important partner for the utilization of biogas. In the event that biogas can indeed be utilized for CHPs in horticulture, directly or after being mixed into the natural gas network, then the resulting flue gas may also be used for supplemental CO2 in the greenhouses. The possible risks of using biogas in horticulture are illustrated in this study. Based on the composition requirements in the Dutch 'Aansluit- en Transportvoorwaarden Gas RNB' and the results of biogas analyses from various fermentation projects, a number of potentially phytotoxic gaseous components in biogas were identified. Their worst case concentrations in the greenhouse at the crop level was then estimated. The potential risks of these components for greenhouse crops were then determined on the basis of the relationship between their phytotoxicity and estimated concentration in the greenhouse. From an energy point of view, large-scale production of biogas can be used as fuel for combined heat power engines and furnaces in Dutch horticulture. If the resulting flue gases are also used as an extra CO2 source, the following components will form a potential risk to greenhouse crops: hydrogen fluoride, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and benzene. According to present insights, the components hydrogen sulphide, ammonia, methane, ethylene, toluene, xylene, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene and formaldehyde do not represent a potential risk to greenhouse crops. Insufficient

  12. Personal Exposure to Mixtures of Volatile Organic Compounds: Modeling and Further Analysis of the RIOPA Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterman, Stuart; Su, Feng-Chiao; Li, Shi; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Jia, Chunrong

    2015-01-01

    concentrations for most VOCs. In a different analysis focused on the sources inside the home and outside (but close to the home), it was assumed that 100% of VOCs from outside sources would penetrate the home. Outdoor VOC sources accounted for 5% (d-limonene) to 81% (carbon tetrachloride [CTC]) of the total exposure. Personal exposure and indoor measurements had similar determinants depending on the VOC. Gasoline-related VOCs (e.g., benzene and methyl tert-butyl ether [MTBE]) were associated with city, residences with attached garages, pumping gas, wind speed, and home air exchange rate (AER). Odorant and cleaning-related VOCs (e.g., 1,4-DCB and chloroform) also were associated with city, and a residence’s AER, size, and family members showering. Dry-cleaning and industry-related VOCs (e.g., tetrachloroethylene [or perchloroethylene, PERC] and trichloroethylene [TCE]) were associated with city, type of water supply to the home, and visits to the dry cleaner. These and other relationships were significant, they explained from 10% to 40% of the variance in the measurements, and are consistent with known emission sources and those reported in the literature. Outdoor concentrations of VOCs had only two determinants in common: city and wind speed. Overall, personal exposure was dominated by the home setting, although a large fraction of indoor VOC concentrations were due to outdoor sources. City of residence, personal activities, household characteristics, and meteorology were significant determinants. Concentrations in RIOPA were considerably lower than levels in the nationally representative NHANES for all VOCs except MTBE and 1,4-DCB. Differences between RIOPA and NHANES results can be explained by contrasts between the sampling designs and staging in the two studies, and by differences in the demographics, smoking, employment, occupations, and home locations. A portion of these differences are due to the nature of the convenience (RIOPA) and representative (NHANES) sampling

  13. An update of hydrologic conditions and distribution of selected constituents in water, eastern Snake River Plain aquifer and perched groundwater zones, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho, emphasis 2009–11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Linda C.; Bartholomay, Roy C.; Rattray, Gordon W.

    2013-01-01

    groundwater at the ATR Complex during 2011 ranged from 4 to 54 mg/L. In 2011, sulfate concentrations in water samples from 11 aquifer wells in the south-central part of the INL equaled or exceeded the background concentration of sulfate and ranged from 40 to 167 mg/L. The greater-than-background concentrations in water from these wells probably resulted from sulfate disposal at the ATR Complex infiltration ponds or the old INTEC percolation ponds. In 2011, sulfate concentrations in water samples from two wells near the RWMC were greater than background levels and could have resulted from well construction techniques and (or) waste disposal at the RWMC. The vertical distribution of sulfate concentrations in three wells near the southern boundary of the INL was generally consistent with depth, and ranged between 19 and 25 mg/L. The maximum dissolved sulfate concentration in shallow perched groundwater near the ATR Complex was 400 mg/L in well CWP 1 in April 2011. During 2009–11, the maximum concentration of dissolved sulfate in deep perched groundwater at the ATR Complex was 1,550 mg/L in a well located west of the chemical-waste pond. In 2011, concentrations of nitrate in water from most wells at and near the INTEC exceeded the regional background concentrations of 1 mg/L and ranged from 1.6 to 5.95 mg/L. Concentrations of nitrate in wells south of INTEC and farther away from the influence of disposal areas and the Big Lost River show a general decrease in nitrate concentrations through time. During 2009–11, water samples from 30 wells were collected and analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Six VOCs were detected. At least one and up to five VOCs were detected in water samples from 10 wells. The primary VOCs detected include carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, tetrachloroethylene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, and trichloroethylene. In 2011, concentrations for all VOCs were less than their respective MCL for drinking water, except carbon tetrachloride in water from two

  14. Personal exposure to mixtures of volatile organic compounds: modeling and further analysis of the RIOPA data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterman, Stuart; Su, Feng-Chiao; Li, Shi; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Jia, Chunrong

    2014-06-01

    different analysis focused on the sources inside the home and outside (but close to the home), it was assumed that 100% of VOCs from outside sources would penetrate the home. Outdoor VOC sources accounted for 5% (d-limonene) to 81% (carbon tetrachloride [CTC]) of the total exposure. Personal exposure and indoor measurements had similar determinants depending on the VOC. Gasoline-related VOCs (e.g., benzene and methyl tert-butyl ether [MTBE]) were associated with city, residences with attached garages, pumping gas, wind speed, and home air exchange rate (AER). Odorant and cleaning-related VOCs (e.g., 1,4-DCB and chloroform) also were associated with city, and a residence's AER, size, and family members showering. Dry-cleaning and industry-related VOCs (e.g., tetrachloroethylene [or perchloroethylene, PERC] and trichloroethylene [TCE]) were associated with city, type of water supply to the home, and visits to the dry cleaner. These and other relationships were significant, they explained from 10% to 40% of the variance in the measurements, and are consistent with known emission sources and those reported in the literature. Outdoor concentrations of VOCs had only two determinants in common: city and wind speed. Overall, personal exposure was dominated by the home setting, although a large fraction of indoor VOC concentrations were due to outdoor sources. City of residence, personal activities, household characteristics, and meteorology were significant determinants. Concentrations in RIOPA were considerably lower than levels in the nationally representative NHANES for all VOCs except MTBE and 1,4-DCB. Differences between RIOPA and NHANES results can be explained by contrasts between the sampling designs and staging in the two studies, and by differences in the demographics, smoking, employment, occupations, and home locations. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED)