Sample records for tetracaine

  1. The effects of tetracaine on charge movement in fast twitch rat skeletal muscle fibres. (United States)

    Hollingworth, S; Marshall, M W; Robson, E


    1. The effects of tetracaine, a local anaesthetic that inhibits muscle contraction, on membrane potential and intramembrane charge movements were investigated in fast twitch rat muscle fibres (extensor digitorum longus). 2. The resting membrane potentials of surface fibres from muscles bathed in isotonic Ringer solution containing 2 mM-tetracaine were well maintained, but higher concentrations of tetracaine caused a time-dependent fall of potential. Muscle fibres bathed in hypertonic solutions containing 2 mM-tetracaine were rapidly depolarized. In both isotonic and hypertonic solutions, the depolarizing effect of tetracaine could not be reversed. 3. Charge movement measurements were made using the middle-of-the-fibre voltage clamp technique. The voltage dependence of charge movements measured in cold isotonic solutions was well fitted by a Boltzmann distribution (Q(V) = Qmax/(1 + exp(-(V-V)/k] where Qmax = 37.3 +/- 2.8 nC muF-1, V = -17.9 +/- 1.2 mV and k = 12.6 +/- 0.8 mV (n = 6, 2 degrees C; means +/- S.E. of means). Similar values were obtained when 2 mM-tetracaine was added to the isotonic bathing fluid (Qmax = 40.6 +/- 2.3 nC microF-1, V = -14.1 +/- 1.3 mV, k = 15.3 +/- 0.8 mV; n = 8, 2 degrees C). 4. Charge movements measured around mechanical threshold in muscle fibres bathed in hypertonic solutions were reduced when 2 mM-tetracaine was added to the bathing fluid. The tetracaine-sensitive component of charge was well fitted with an unconstrained Boltzmann distribution which gave: Qmax = 7.5 nC microF-1, V = -46.5 mV, k = 5.5 mV. The e-fold rise of the foot of the curve was 9.3 mV.

  2. Effects of tetracaine on voltage-activated calcium sparks in frog intact skeletal muscle fibers. (United States)

    Hollingworth, Stephen; Chandler, W Knox; Baylor, Stephen M


    The properties of Ca(2+) sparks in frog intact skeletal muscle fibers depolarized with 13 mM [K(+)] Ringer's are well described by a computational model with a Ca(2+) source flux of amplitude 2.5 pA (units of current) and duration 4.6 ms (18 degrees C; Model 2 of Baylor et al., 2002). This result, in combination with the values of single-channel Ca(2+) current reported for ryanodine receptors (RyRs) in bilayers under physiological ion conditions, 0.5 pA (Kettlun et al., 2003) to 2 pA (Tinker et al., 1993), suggests that 1-5 RyR Ca(2+) release channels open during a voltage-activated Ca(2+) spark in an intact fiber. To distinguish between one and greater than one channel per spark, sparks were measured in 8 mM [K(+)] Ringer's in the absence and presence of tetracaine, an inhibitor of RyR channel openings in bilayers. The most prominent effect of 75-100 microM tetracaine was an approximately sixfold reduction in spark frequency. The remaining sparks showed significant reductions in the mean values of peak amplitude, decay time constant, full duration at half maximum (FDHM), full width at half maximum (FWHM), and mass, but not in the mean value of rise time. Spark properties in tetracaine were simulated with an updated spark model that differed in minor ways from our previous model. The simulations show that (a) the properties of sparks in tetracaine are those expected if tetracaine reduces the number of active RyR Ca(2+) channels per spark, and (b) the single-channel Ca(2+) current of an RyR channel is normal voltage-activated sparks (i.e., in the absence of tetracaine) are produced by two or more active RyR Ca(2+) channels. The question of how the activation of multiple RyRs is coordinated is discussed.

  3. Tetracaine – selective electrodes with polymer membranes and their application in pharmaceutical formulation control

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    Ahmed Khudhair Hassan


    Full Text Available The construction and electrochemical response characteristics of poly(vinyl chloride (PVC membrane electrodes for tetracaine hydrochloride (TCH are described. The sensing membranes incorporating ion-association complexes of tetracaine cation with phosphotungstic acid (PTA or phosphomolybdic acid (PMA or Sodium tetraphenyl borate (NaTPB as electroactive materials and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBPH or tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP as a plasticizer in PVC matrixes were evaluated. The results obtained show the electrodes based on PTA or PMA as electroactive compounds and DBPH as plasticizer with a fast, stable and near-Nernstian response over a wide concentration range (1 × 10−5–5 × 10−2 M, with cationic slopes of 55.02 and 52.05 mV decade−1 over a pH range of (2.5–6.5. The electrodes show good discrimination of tetracaine from several inorganic cations and sugars. The electrodes were successfully applied for the determination of tetracaine in pharmaceutical formulations.

  4. Reinforcement of spinal anesthesia by epidural injection of saline: a comparison of hyperbaric and isobaric tetracaine. (United States)

    Yamazaki, Y; Mimura, M; Hazama, K; Namiki, A


    An epidural injection of saline was reported to extend spinal anesthesia because of a volume effect. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the baricity of spinal local anesthetics upon the extension of spinal anesthesia by epidural injection of saline. Forty patients undergoing elective lower-limb surgery were randomly allocated to four groups of 10 patients each. Group A received no epidural injection after the spinal administration of hyperbaric tetracaine (dissolved in 10% glucose). Group B received an epidural injection of 8 ml of physiological saline 20 min after spinal hyperbaric tetracaine. Group C received no epidural injection after spinal isobaric tetracaine (dissolved in physiological saline). Group D received an epidural injection of 8 ml of saline 20 min after spinal isobaric tetracaine. The level of analgesia was examined by the pinprick method at 5-min intervals. The levels of analgesia 20 min after spinal anesthesia were significantly higher in hyperbaric groups than in isobaric groups [T5 (T2-L2) vs. T7 (T3-12)]. After epidural injection of saline, the levels of analgesia in groups B and D were significantly higher than in groups A and C. The segmental increases after epidural saline injection were 2 (0-3) in group B and 2 (1-7) in group D. Sensation in the sacral area remained 20 min after spinal block in one patient in group D; however, it disappeared after epidural saline injection. In this study, 8 ml of epidural saline extended spinal analgesia. However, there was no difference between the augmenting effect in isobaric and hyperbaric spinal anesthesia. We conclude that the reinforcement of spinal anesthesia by epidural injection of saline is not affected by the baricity of the spinal anesthetic solution used.

  5. Effects of tetracaine on insulin release and calcium handling by rat pancreatic islets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel El Motal, S.M.A.; Pian-Smith, M.C.M.; Sharp, G.W.G.


    The effects of tetracaine on insulin release and 45 Ca 2+ handling by rat pancreatic islets have been studied under basal, glucose-stimulated, and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX)-stimulated conditions. Islets were isolated by the use of collagenase and used either directly (freshly isolated islets) or after a period under tissue culture conditions. Tetracaine was found to stimulate insulin release under basal conditions, to inhibit glucose-stimulated insulin release, and to potentiate insulin release stimulated by IBMX. In studies on the mechanisms underlying these effects, tetracaine was found to decrease glucose-stimulated net retention of 45 Ca 2+ (by an action to block the voltage-dependent Ca channels) and to mobilize Ca 2+ from intracellular stores. These two actions form the basis for the inhibition of glucose-stimulated insulin release, which depends heavily on Ca 2+ entry via the voltage-dependent channels and the synergism with IBMX to potentiate release. No inhibition of IBMX-stimulated release occurs because IBMX does not use the voltage-dependent channels to raise intracellular Ca 2+

  6. Interactions of the local anesthetic tetracaine with membranes containing phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol: a 2H NMR study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auger, M.; Jarrell, H.C.; Smith, I.C.P.


    The interactions of local anesthetic tetracaine with multilamellar dispersions of 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) and cholesterol have been investigated by deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance of specifically deuteriated tetracaines, DMPC and cholesterol. Experiments were performed at pH 5.5, when the anesthetic is primarily charged, and at pH 9.5, when it is primarily uncharged. The partition coefficients of the anesthetic in the membrane have been measured at both pH values for phosphatidylcholine bilayers with and without cholesterol. The higher partition coefficients obtained at pH 9.5 reflect the hydrophobic interactions between the uncharged form of the anesthetic and the hydrocarbon region of the bilayer. The lower partition coefficients for the DMPC/cholesterol system at both pH values suggest that cholesterol, which increases the order of the lipid chains, decreases the solubility of tetracaine into the bilayer. For phosphatidylcholine bilayers, it has been proposed that the charged tetracaine at low pH is located mostly at the phospholipid headgroup level while the uncharged tetracaine intercalates more deeply into the bilayer. The present study suggests that the location of tetracaine in the cholesterol-containing system is different from that in pure phosphatidylcholine bilayers: the anesthetic sits higher in the membrane. An increase in temperature results in a deeper penetration of the anesthetic into the bilayer. Moreover, the incorporation of the anesthetic into DMPC bilayers with or without cholesterol results in a reduction of the lipid order parameters both in the plateau and in the tail regions of the acyl chains, this effect being greater with the charged form of the anesthetic

  7. Oxidation of Tetracaine Hydrochloride by Chloramine-B in Acid Medium: Kinetic Modeling

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    Jayachamarajapura Pranesh Shubha


    Full Text Available Tetracaine hydrochloride (TCH is one of the potent local anaesthetics. A kinetic study of oxidation of tetracaine hydrochloride by sodium N-chlorobenzenesulfonamide (chloramine-B or CAB has been carried in HClO4 medium at 303 K. The rate shows first-order dependence on [CAB]o, shows fractional–order dependence on [substrate]o, and is self-governing on acid concentration. Decrease of dielectric constant of the medium, by adding methanol, increased the rate. Variation of ionic strength and addition of benzenesulfonamide or NaCl have no significant effect on the rate. The reaction was studied at different temperatures and the activation parameters have been evaluated. The stoichiometry of the reaction was found to be 1 : 5 and the oxidation products were identified by spectral analysis. The conjugate free acid C6H5SO2NHCl of CAB is postulated as the reactive oxidizing species. The observed results have been explained by plausible mechanism and the related rate law has been deduced.

  8. Differential sensitivity to perchlorate and caffeine of tetracaine-resistant Ca2+ release in frog skeletal muscle. (United States)

    Píriz, Nazira; Brum, Gustavo; Pizarro, Gonzalo


    In voltage clamped frog skeletal muscle fibres 0.2 mM tetracaine strongly suppresses Ca(2+) release. After this treatment Ca(2+) release flux lacks its characteristic initial peak and the remaining steady component is strongly reduced when compared with the control condition. We studied the effect of two agonists of Ca(2+) release on these tetracaine treated fibres. 8 mM ClO(4)(-) added after tetracaine potentiated release flux from 0.11 +/- 0.03 mM s(-1) to 0.34 +/- 0.07 mM s(-1) (n = 6) although without recovery of the peak at any test voltage. The voltage dependence of the increased release was shifted towards more negative potentials (approximately -10 mV). The effects of ClO(4)(-) on charge movement under these conditions showed the previously described characteristic changes consisting in a left shift of its voltage dependence (approximately -9 mV) together with a slower kinetics, both at the ON and OFF transients. Caffeine at 0.5 mM in the presence of the same concentration of tetracaine failed to potentiate release flux independently of the test voltage applied. When the cut ends of the fibre were exposed to a 10 mM BAPTA intracellular solution, in the absence of tetracaine, the peak was progressively abolished. Under these conditions caffeine potentiated release restoring the peak (from 0.63 +/- 0.12 mM s(-1) to 1.82 +/- 0.23 mM s(-1)) with no effect on charge movement. Taken together the present results suggest that tetracaine is blocking a Ca(2+) sensitive component of release flux. It is speculated that the suppressed release includes a component that is dependent on Ca(2+) and mainly mediated by the activation of the beta ryanodine receptors (the RyR3 equivalent isoform). These receptors are located parajunctionally in the frog and are not interacting with the dihydropyridine receptor.

  9. Spinal Anesthesia with Isobaric Tetracaine in Patients with Previous Lumbar Spinal Surgery (United States)

    Kim, Soo Hwan; Jeon, Dong-Hyuk; Chang, Chul Ho; Lee, Sung-Jin


    Purpose Previous lumbar spinal surgery (PLSS) is not currently considered as a contraindication for regional anesthesia. However, there are still problems that make spinal anesthesia more difficult with a possibility of worsening the patient's back pain. Spinal anesthesia using combined spinal-epidural anesthesia (CSEA) in elderly patients with or without PLSS was investigated and the anesthetic characteristics, success rates, and possible complications were evaluated. Materials and Methods Fifty patients without PLSS (Control group) and 45 patients with PLSS (PLSS group) who were scheduled for total knee arthroplasty were studied prospectively. A CSEA was performed with patients in the left lateral position, and 10 mg of 0.5% isobaric tetracaine was injected through a 27 G spinal needle. An epidural catheter was then inserted for patient controlled analgesia. Successful spinal anesthesia was defined as adequate sensory block level more than T12. The number of skin punctures and the onset time were recorded, and maximal sensory block level (MSBL), time to 2-segment regression, success rate and complications were observed. Results The success rate of CSEA in Control group and PLSS group was 98.0%, and 93.3%, respectively. The median MSBL in PLSS group was higher than Control group [T4 (T2-L1) vs. T6 (T3-T12)] (p < 0.001). There was a significant difference in the number of patients who required ephedrine for the treatment of hypotension in PLSS group (p = 0.028). Conclusion The success rate of CSEA in patients with PLSS was 93.3%, and patients experienced no significant neurological complications. The MSBL can be higher in PLSS group than Control group. PMID:19430559

  10. Exponential Decay Metrics of Topical Tetracaine Hydrochloride Administration Describe Corneal Anesthesia Properties Mechanistically. (United States)

    Ethington, Jason; Goldmeier, David; Gaynes, Bruce I


    To identify pharmacodynamic (PD) and pharmacokinetic (PK) metrics that aid in mechanistic understanding of dosage considerations for prolonged corneal anesthesia. A rabbit model using 0.5% tetracaine hydrochloride was used to induce corneal anesthesia in conjunction with Cochet-Bonnet anesthesiometry. Metrics were derived describing PD-PK parameters of the time-dependent domain of recovery in corneal sensitivity. Curve fitting used a 1-phase exponential dissociation paradigm assuming a 1-compartment PK model. Derivation of metrics including half-life and mean ligand residence time, tau (τ), was predicted by nonlinear regression. Bioavailability was determined by area under the curve of the dose-response relationship with varying drop volumes. Maximal corneal anesthesia maintained a plateau with a recovery inflection at the approximate time of predicted corneal drug half-life. PDs of recovery of corneal anesthesia were consistent with a first-order drug elimination rate. The mean ligand residence time (tau, τ) was 41.7 minutes, and half-life was 28.89 minutes. The mean estimated corneal elimination rate constant (ke) was 0.02402 minute. Duration of corneal anesthesia ranged from 55 to 58 minutes. There was no difference in time domain PD area under the curve between drop volumes. Use of a small drop volume of a topical anesthetic (as low as 11 μL) is bioequivalent to conventional drop size and seems to optimize dosing regiments with a little effect on ke. Prolongation of corneal anesthesia may therefore be best achieved with administration of small drop volumes at time intervals corresponding to the half-life of drug decay from the corneal compartment.

  11. Tetracaine oral gel in patients treated with radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer: Final results of a phase II study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alterio, Daniela; Jereczek-Fossa, Barbara Alicja; Zuccotti, Gabriele Fulvio Phar; Leon, Maria Elena; Omodeo Sale, Emanuela Phar; Pasetti, Marcella; Modena, Tiziana Phar; Perugini, Paola; Mariani, Luigi; Orecchia, Roberto


    Purpose: We performed a phase II study to assess feasibility, pain relief, and toxicity of a tetracaine-based oral gel in the treatment of radiotherapy (RT)-induced mucositis. Methods and Materials: Fifty patients treated with RT for head-and-neck cancer with clinical evidence of acute oral mucositis of grade ≥2 were scheduled to receive the tetracaine gel. A questionnaire evaluating the effect of the gel was given to all subjects. Results: In 38 patients (79.2%), a reduction in oral cavity pain was reported. Thirty-four patients (82.9%) reported no side effect. Seventy-one percent of patients had no difficulties in gel application. Unpleasant taste of the gel and interference with food taste were noticed in 5 (12%) and 16 patients (39%), respectively. Planned RT course was interrupted less frequently in patients who reported benefit from gel application than in patients who did not (p = 0.014). None of the patients who experienced pain relief needed a nasogastric tube, opposite to the patients who did not report any benefit from gel application (p = 0.001). Conclusion: Tetracaine oral gel administration seemed feasible and safe while reducing RT-induced mucositis-related oral pain in a sizeable proportion of treated head-and-neck cancer patients. A trial designed to compare efficacy of this gel vs. standard treatment is warranted

  12. How effective is tetracaine 4% gel, before a peripherally inserted central catheter, in reducing procedural pain in infants: a randomized double-blind placebo controlled trial [ISRCTN75884221

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    Blanchard Colline


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Procedural pain relief is sub-optimal in infants, especially small and vulnerable ones. Tetracaine gel 4% (Ametop®, Smith-Nephew provides pain relief in children and larger infants, but its efficacy in smaller infants and for peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC remains uncertain. The objective of this trial was to assess the safety and efficacy of tetracaine gel on the pain response of very low birth weight (VLBW infants during insertion of a PICC. Methods Medically stable infants greater than or equal to 24 weeks gestation, requiring a non-urgent PICC, were included. Following randomization and double blinding, 1.1 g of tetracaine or placebo was applied to the skin for 30 minutes. The PICC was inserted according to a standard protocol. Pain was assessed using the Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP. A 3-point change in the pain score was considered clinically significant, leading to a sample size of 54 infants, with 90% statistical power. Local skin reactions and immediate adverse cardiorespiratory events were noted. The primary outcome, PIPP score at 1 minute, was analysed using an independent Student's t-test. Results Fifty-four infants were included, 27 +/- 2 weeks gestation, 916 +/- 292 grams and 6.5 +/- 3.2 days of age. Baseline characteristics were similar between groups. The mean PIPP score in the first minute was 10.88 in the treatment group as compared to 11.74 in the placebo group (difference 0.86, 95% CI -1.86, 3.58. Median duration of crying in non-intubated infants was 181 seconds in the tetracaine group compared to 68 seconds in the placebo group (difference -78, 95% CI -539, 117. Local skin erythema was observed transiently in 4 infants (3 in the treatment and 1 in the placebo group. No serious harms were observed. Conclusion Tetracaine 4% when applied for 30 minutes was not beneficial in decreasing procedural pain associated with a PICC in very small infants.

  13. Comparison of lidocaine/tetracaine cream and lidocaine/prilocaine cream for local anaesthesia during laser treatment of acne keloidalis nuchae and tattoo removal: Results of two randomized controlled trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Greveling (Karin); E.P. Prens (Errol); ten Bosch, N.; M.B.A. van Doorn (Martijn)


    textabstractBackground: Pain is a common adverse effect of dermatological laser procedures. Currently, no standard topical anaesthetic cream exists for deeper dermal laser procedures. Objectives: To compare the efficacy of lidocaine/tetracaine cream and lidocaine/prilocaine cream in reducing

  14. Thermodynamic studies of drug–α-cyclodextrin interactions in water at 298.15 K: Procaine hydrochloride/lidocaine hydrochloride/tetracaine hydrochloride/ranitidine hydrochloride + α-cyclodextrin + H2O systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaikh, Vasim R.; Terdale, Santosh S.; Hundiwale, Dilip G.; Patil, Kesharsingh J.


    Graphical abstract: The encapsulation of guest tetracaine hydrochloride TC·HCl (C 15 H 24 N 2 O 2 ·HCl), in α-cyclodextrin cavities in aqueous solutions at 298.15 K. -- Highlights: • The osmotic coefficient measurements are reported for PC·HCl/LC·HCl/TC·HCl/RT·HCl + 0.1 m α-CD + water at 298.15 K. • The concentration variation of mean activity coefficients of drug molecules in water–α-CD solutions has been studied. • The transfer Gibbs free energies have been calculated using the activity data. • Pair and triplet interaction parameters and equilibrium constant (log K) values are also estimated. • The results are discussed with emphasis on host–guest interaction concepts. -- Abstract: The osmotic coefficient measurements have been carried out for ternary aqueous solutions containing a fixed concentration of α-cyclodextrin (α-CD) of ∼0.1 mol · kg −1 and varying the concentrations (∼0.012 to ∼0.21 mol · kg −1 ) of drugs Procaine hydrochloride (PC·HCl), Lidocaine hydrochloride (LC·HCl), Tetracaine hydrochloride (TC·HCl) and Ranitidine hydrochloride (RT·HCl) at 298.15 K using vapour pressure osmometry. The water activities for each ternary system were measured and used to obtain the activity coefficients of α-cyclodextrin (α-CD) and drugs following the methodology developed by Robinson and Stokes for isopiestic measurements. The transfer Gibbs free energies of electrolyte (or drug) from water to an aqueous nonelectrolyte (α-CD) solutions (ΔG tr E ) and that of nonelectrolyte (α-CD) from water to an aqueous electrolyte (or drug) solutions (ΔG tr N ) have been calculated using the activity data. These were further used for the estimation of pair and triplet interaction parameters. By applying the method based on the application of the McMillan–Mayer theory of virial coefficients to transfer free energy data, the salting constant (k s ) values have been estimated at 298.15 K. The equilibrium constant (log K) values for the

  15. 英脱利匹特对布比卡因、罗哌卡因,丁卡因心脏抑制家兔模型救治情况比较%Effects of Intralipid on trealment of a rabbit model with cardiac depression induced by bupivacaine , ropivacaine and tetracaine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓霞; 郎中兵; 陈楠; 徐昆


    Objective:To investigate the effects of Intralipid on treatment of a rabbit model with cardiac depression induced by bupivacaine , ropivacaine and tetracaine. Methods : New Zealand White rabbits ( n = 21 ) were randomly divided into three groups which are group BF ( n = 7, treated with bupivacaine plus Intralipid), group RF(n = 7, treated with ropivacaine plus Intralipid ) and group DF( n = 7, treated with tetracaine plus Intralipid). Local anesthetics were injected via rabbit's auricular vein, and MAP decreased to 60% of the basic value were served as evidence of successful establishment of cardiac depression models. Then, an IV bolus of Intralipid (1 ml/kg) was given in each group, followed by continuous infusion(0.5ml/kg/min) for 10 minutes. The treatment was suecess when MAP increased to 80% of the basic value. And respectively recorded the basic HR and MAP, the doses of each local anesthetics which induced cardiac depression, the time of poisoning, the time of successful treatment and the treatment success rate. Results:There was no significant difference in basic HR and MAP among the three groups. The doses of each local anesthetics which induced cardiac depression was significantly high in group RF as compared with those in group BF and group DF. The time of poisoning was significantly long in group RF as compared with those in group BF and group DF. The time of succesful treatment in group BF was significantly long as compared with those in group RF. The treatment success rate was high in group RF as compared with group BF and group DF. Conclusions:Ropivacaine had less cardiac toxicity than bupivacaine and tetracaine. Bupivacaine and tetracainthe almost had corresponding cardiac toxicity. Intralipid has rivalry effect on cardiac toxicity induced by bupivacaine, ropivacaine and tetracaine.%目的:探讨英脱利匹特分别对布比卡因、罗哌卡因、丁骨因心脏抑制家兔模型救治情况。方法:21只家

  16. 21 CFR 524.1484k - Neomycin sulfate, prednisolone, tetracaine, and squalane topical-otic suspension. (United States)


    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS OPHTHALMIC AND... in dogs and cats for treating acute otitis externa and as adjunctive therapy in management of chronic otitis externa. The product may also be used for treating moist dermatitis in dogs. (3) Limitations...

  17. 21 CFR 524.1484f - Neomycin sulfate, prednisolone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride eardrops. (United States)


    ..., to a lesser degree, chronic otitis externa in dogs and cats. It is indicated as treatment or adjunctive therapy of certain ear conditions in dogs and cats caused by or associated with neomycin... hypersensitivity or allergy. If such signs are noted, therapy should be stopped.1 (3) Federal law restricts this...

  18. 21 CFR 524.1484c - Neomycin sulfate, isoflupredone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ointment. (United States)


    ... therapy in the horse, cat, and dog. It may also be used following amputation of dewclaws, tails and claws...) Conditions of use. (1) It is used in treating such conditions as acute otitis externa in dogs and to a lesser degree, chronic otitis externa in dogs. It also is effective in treating anal gland infections and moist...

  19. Degree and duration of corneal anesthesia after topical application of 0.4% oxybuprocaine hydrochloride ophthalmic solution in ophthalmically normal dogs. (United States)

    Douet, Jean-Yves; Michel, Julien; Regnier, Alain


    To assess the anesthetic efficacy and local tolerance of topically applied 0.4% oxybuprocaine ophthalmic solution to in dogs and compare its effects with those of 1% tetracaine solution. 34 ophthalmically normal Beagles. Dogs were assigned to 2 groups, and baseline corneal touch threshold (CTT) was measured bilaterally with a Cochet-Bonnet aesthesiometer. Dogs of group 1 (n = 22) received a single drop of 0.4% oxybuprocaine ophthalmic solution in one eye and saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (control treatment) in the contralateral eye. Dogs of group 2 (n = 12) received a single drop of 0.4% oxybuprocaine ophthalmic solution in one eye and 1% tetracaine ophthalmic solution in the contralateral eye. The CTT of each eye was measured 1 and 5 minutes after topical application and then at 5-minute intervals until 75 minutes after topical application. CTT changes over time differed significantly between oxybuprocaine-treated and control eyes. After instillation of oxybuprocaine, maximal corneal anesthesia (CTT = 0) was achieved within 1 minute, and CTT was significantly decreased from 1 to 45 minutes, compared with the baseline value. No significant difference in onset, depth, and duration of corneal anesthesia was found between oxybuprocaine-treated and tetracaine-treated eyes. Conjunctival hyperemia and chemosis were detected more frequently in tetracaine-treated eyes than in oxybuprocaine-treated eyes. Topical application of oxybuprocaine and tetracaine similarly reduced corneal sensitivity in dogs, but oxybuprocaine was less irritating to the conjunctiva than was tetracaine.

  20. The influence of non polar and polar molecules in mouse motile cells membranes and pure lipid bilayers.

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    Francisco J Sierra-Valdez

    Full Text Available We report an experimental study of mouse sperm motility that shows chief aspects characteristic of neurons: the anesthetic (produced by tetracaine and excitatory (produced by either caffeine or calcium effects and their antagonic action. While tetracaine inhibits sperm motility and caffeine has an excitatory action, the combination of these two substances balance the effects, producing a motility quite similar to that of control cells. We also study the effects of these agents (anesthetic and excitatory on the melting points of pure lipid liposomes constituted by 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC and dipalmitoyl phosphatidic acid (DPPA. Tetracaine induces a large fluidization of the membrane, shifting the liposomes melting transition temperature to much lower values. The effect of caffeine is null, but its addition to tetracaine-doped liposomes greatly screen the fluidization effect. A high calcium concentration stiffens pure lipid membranes and strongly reduces the effect of tetracaine. Molecular Dynamics Simulations are performed to further understand our experimental findings at the molecular level. We find a strong correlation between the effect of antagonic molecules that could explain how the mechanical properties suitable for normal cell functioning are affected and recovered.

  1. The use of compound topical anesthetics: a review. (United States)

    Kravitz, Neal D


    The author reviewed the history of, federal regulations regarding, risks of and adverse drug reactions of five compound topical anesthetics: tetracaine, adrenaline/epinephrine and cocaine (TAC); lidocaine, adrenaline/epinephrine and tetracaine (LET); lidocaine, tetracaine and phenylephrine (TAC 20 percent Alternate); lidocaine, prilocaine and tetracaine (Profound); and lidocaine, prilocaine, tetracaine and phenylephrine with thickeners (Profound PET). The author reviewed clinical trials, case reports, descriptive articles, and U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations and recent public advisory warnings regarding the federal approval of and risks associated with the use of compound topical anesthetics. Compound topical anesthetics are neither FDA-regulated nor -unregulated. Some compounding pharmacies bypass the new FDA drug approval process, which is based on reliable scientific data and ensures that a marketed drug is safe, effective, properly manufactured and accurately labeled. Two deaths have been attributed to the lay use of compound topical anesthetics. In response, the FDA has announced the strengthening of its efforts against unapproved drug products. Compound topical anesthetics may be an effective alternative to local infiltration for some minimally invasive dental procedures; however, legitimate concerns exist in regard to their safety. Until they become federally regulated, compound topical anesthetics remain unapproved drug products whose benefits may not outweigh their risks for dental patients.

  2. Relationship between Central Corneal Thickness, Vitreous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eye health and also aid in developing strategies to help early diagnoses and management of ... of disease, determining the effec veness of medical .... air-dry. A drop of topical anaesthe c (Tetracaine HCl. 0.1%) was ins lled in subject's eye.

  3. Helping to alleviate pain for children having venepuncture.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gilboy, Siobhan


    This article reviews the literature on venepuncture and children. The evidence on the use of topical agents namely tetracaine (amethocaine) gel and lidocaine\\/prilocaine cream is discussed, along with the use and benefits of distraction techniques and parental presence to make this an easier procedure for the child, their families and the nurse.

  4. Skin Bioengineering: Noninvasive Transdermal Monitoring (United States)


    chloroquine , promazine, tetracaine and metoclopramide) were administered iontophoretically (figure 6). Then, the anodal extraction of PGE2 from the site of... analogue of human colour this apparent thermo-optical response of the perception. Unlike the classical NIR approach skin can also provide an

  5. Topical anesthesia

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    Mritunjay Kumar


    Full Text Available Topical anesthetics are being widely used in numerous medical and surgical sub-specialties such as anesthesia, ophthalmology, otorhinolaryngology, dentistry, urology, and aesthetic surgery. They cause superficial loss of pain sensation after direct application. Their delivery and effectiveness can be enhanced by using free bases; by increasing the drug concentration, lowering the melting point; by using physical and chemical permeation enhancers and lipid delivery vesicles. Various topical anesthetic agents available for use are eutectic mixture of local anesthetics, ELA-max, lidocaine, epinephrine, tetracaine, bupivanor, 4% tetracaine, benzocaine, proparacaine, Betacaine-LA, topicaine, lidoderm, S-caine patch™ and local anesthetic peel. While using them, careful attention must be paid to their pharmacology, area and duration of application, age and weight of the patients and possible side-effects.

  6. Effect of some radiosensitising drugs on human erythrocyte membrane - - spin label study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, K P [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Biology and Agriculture Div.


    Electron spin resonance and spin label techniques have been employed to study the effects of local anaesthetic drugs, procaine and tetracaine, on human erythrocyte membrane. Both the drugs altered the protein and lipid arrangements in the membrane and these changes were reversible. Procaine had greater effect on the labels attached to proteins while tetracaine fluidized interior of lipid bilayer to a greater extent. The differential effects of these drugs on the protein and lipid labels have been interpreted in terms of their relative penetrability in the membrane. Present results have explained that radiation induced enhanced killing of cells in the presence of these drugs might be due to the alterations in membrane, particularly proteins both structural and enzymatic. In addition, these results indicate a possible relationship between drug-induced structural changes in membrane and their anaesthetic potency.

  7. Local anesthetics inhibit induction of ornithine decarboxylase by the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate.


    Yuspa, S H; Lichti, U; Ben, T


    The induction of ornithine decarboxylase (L-ornithine carboxy-lyase, EC activity in mouse epidermal cells in vivo and in vitro occurs rapidly after exposure to the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA). This induction has characteristics of a cell surface receptor-mediated process. Local anesthetics modify a variety of cellular responses mediated by membrane receptors. When cultured mouse epidermal cells were exposed to the local anesthetics lidocaine, tetracaine...

  8. Differential effects of airway anesthesia on ozone-induced pulmonary responses in human subjects. (United States)

    Schelegle, E S; Eldridge, M W; Cross, C E; Walby, W F; Adams, W C


    We examined the effect of tetracaine aerosol inhalation, a local anesthetic, on lung volume decrements, rapid shallow breathing, and subjective symptoms of breathing discomfort induced by the acute inhalation of 0.30 ppm ozone for 65 min in 22 ozone-sensitive healthy human subjects. After 50 min of ozone inhalation FEV(1) was reduced 24%, breathing frequency was increased 40%, tidal volume was decreased 31%, and total subjective symptom score was increased (71.2, compared with 3.8 for filtered air exposure). Inhalation of tetracaine aerosol resulted in marked reductions in ozone-induced subjective symptoms of throat tickle and/or irritation (92.1%), cough (78.5%), shortness of breath (72.5%), and pain on deep inspiration (69.4%). In contrast, inhalation of tetracaine aerosol (mass median aerodynamic diameter of 3.52 microm with a geometric standard deviation of 1.92) resulted in only minor and inconsistent rectification of FEV(1) decrements (5.0%) and breathing frequency (-3.8%) that was not significantly different from that produced by saline aerosol alone (FEV(1), 5.1% and breathing frequency, -2.7%). Our data are consistent with afferent endings located within the large conducting airways of the tracheobronchial tree being primarily responsible for ozone-induced subjective symptoms and provides strong evidence that ozone-induced inhibition of maximal inspiratory effort is not dependent on conscious sensations of inspiratory discomfort.

  9. [A case of emergency surgery in a patient with bronchial asthma under continuous spinal anesthesia]. (United States)

    Noda, Keiichi; Ryo, Kenshu; Nakamoto, Ai


    A 78-year-old male, observed for bronchial asthma, underwent two emergency operations within eight days. The first operation was performed under general anesthesia with tracheal intubation. Anesthesia was maintained by sevoflurane-oxygen and continuous infusion of propofol in combination with epidural injection of lidocaine. During the operation, respiratory sound was almost clear. But wheezing occurred as he awoke after discontinuation of the anesthetics. He needed ventilatory support for three days for status asthmatics. The second operation was performed under continuous spinal anesthesia using hypobaric tetracaine and hyperbaric bupivacaine. No ventilatory support was necessary after the operation and he was discharged uneventfully.

  10. Challenges Encountered Using Ophthalmic Anesthetics in Space Medicine (United States)

    Bayuse, T.; Law, J.; Alexander, D.; Moynihan, S.; LeBlanc, C.; Langford, K.; Magalhaes, L.


    On orbit, ophthalmic anesthetics are used for tonometry and off-nominal corneal examinations. Proparacaine has been flown traditionally. However, the manufacturers recently changed its storage requirements from room temperature storage to refrigerated storage to preserve stability and prolong the shelf-life. Since refrigeration on orbit is not readily available and there were stability concerns about flying proparacaine unrefrigerated, tetracaine was selected as an alternative ophthalmic anesthetic in 2013. We will discuss the challenges encountered flying and using these anesthetics on the International Space Station.

  11. Intra-membrane molecular interactions of K+ channel proteins :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moczydlowski, Edward G.


    Ion channel proteins regulate complex patterns of cellular electrical activity and ionic signaling. Certain K+ channels play an important role in immunological biodefense mechanisms of adaptive and innate immunity. Most ion channel proteins are oligomeric complexes with the conductive pore located at the central subunit interface. The long-term activity of many K+ channel proteins is dependent on the concentration of extracellular K+; however, the mechanism is unclear. Thus, this project focused on mechanisms underlying structural stability of tetrameric K+ channels. Using KcsA of Streptomyces lividans as a model K+ channel of known structure, the molecular basis of tetramer stability was investigated by: 1. Bioinformatic analysis of the tetramer interface. 2. Effect of two local anesthetics (lidocaine, tetracaine) on tetramer stability. 3. Molecular simulation of drug docking to the ion conduction pore. The results provide new insights regarding the structural stability of K+ channels and its possible role in cell physiology.

  12. Intracellular Ca(2+) release from endoplasmic reticulum regulates slow wave currents and pacemaker activity of interstitial cells of Cajal. (United States)

    Zhu, Mei Hong; Sung, Tae Sik; O'Driscoll, Kate; Koh, Sang Don; Sanders, Kenton M


    Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) provide pacemaker activity in gastrointestinal muscles that underlies segmental and peristaltic contractions. ICC generate electrical slow waves that are due to large-amplitude inward currents resulting from anoctamin 1 (ANO1) channels, which are Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels. We investigated the hypothesis that the Ca(2+) responsible for the stochastic activation of ANO1 channels during spontaneous transient inward currents (STICs) and synchronized activation of ANO1 channels during slow wave currents comes from intracellular Ca(2+) stores. ICC, obtained from the small intestine of Kit(+/copGFP) mice, were studied under voltage and current clamp to determine the effects of blocking Ca(2+) uptake into stores and release of Ca(2+) via inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3)-dependent and ryanodine-sensitive channels. Cyclocpiazonic acid, thapsigargin, 2-APB, and xestospongin C inhibited STICs and slow wave currents. Ryanodine and tetracaine also inhibited STICs and slow wave currents. Store-active compounds had no direct effects on ANO1 channels expressed in human embryonic kidney-293 cells. Under current clamp, store-active drugs caused significant depolarization of ICC and reduced spontaneous transient depolarizations (STDs). After block of ryanodine receptors with ryanodine and tetracaine, repolarization did not restore STDs. ANO1 expressed in ICC has limited access to cytoplasmic Ca(2+) concentration, suggesting that pacemaker activity depends on Ca(2+) dynamics in restricted microdomains. Our data from studies of isolated ICC differ somewhat from studies on intact muscles and suggest that release of Ca(2+) from both IP3 and ryanodine receptors is important in generating pacemaker activity in ICC. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Intracellular Ca2+ release from endoplasmic reticulum regulates slow wave currents and pacemaker activity of interstitial cells of Cajal (United States)

    Zhu, Mei Hong; Sung, Tae Sik; O'Driscoll, Kate; Koh, Sang Don


    Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) provide pacemaker activity in gastrointestinal muscles that underlies segmental and peristaltic contractions. ICC generate electrical slow waves that are due to large-amplitude inward currents resulting from anoctamin 1 (ANO1) channels, which are Ca2+-activated Cl− channels. We investigated the hypothesis that the Ca2+ responsible for the stochastic activation of ANO1 channels during spontaneous transient inward currents (STICs) and synchronized activation of ANO1 channels during slow wave currents comes from intracellular Ca2+ stores. ICC, obtained from the small intestine of Kit+/copGFP mice, were studied under voltage and current clamp to determine the effects of blocking Ca2+ uptake into stores and release of Ca2+ via inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3)-dependent and ryanodine-sensitive channels. Cyclocpiazonic acid, thapsigargin, 2-APB, and xestospongin C inhibited STICs and slow wave currents. Ryanodine and tetracaine also inhibited STICs and slow wave currents. Store-active compounds had no direct effects on ANO1 channels expressed in human embryonic kidney-293 cells. Under current clamp, store-active drugs caused significant depolarization of ICC and reduced spontaneous transient depolarizations (STDs). After block of ryanodine receptors with ryanodine and tetracaine, repolarization did not restore STDs. ANO1 expressed in ICC has limited access to cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration, suggesting that pacemaker activity depends on Ca2+ dynamics in restricted microdomains. Our data from studies of isolated ICC differ somewhat from studies on intact muscles and suggest that release of Ca2+ from both IP3 and ryanodine receptors is important in generating pacemaker activity in ICC. PMID:25631870

  14. Biophysical and Pharmacological Characterization of Nav1.9 Voltage Dependent Sodium Channels Stably Expressed in HEK-293 Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhixin Lin

    Full Text Available The voltage dependent sodium channel Nav1.9, is expressed preferentially in peripheral sensory neurons and has been linked to human genetic pain disorders, which makes it target of interest for the development of new pain therapeutics. However, characterization of Nav1.9 pharmacology has been limited due in part to the historical difficulty of functionally expressing recombinant channels. Here we report the successful generation and characterization of human, mouse and rat Nav1.9 stably expressed in human HEK-293 cells. These cells exhibit slowly activating and inactivating inward sodium channel currents that have characteristics of native Nav1.9. Optimal functional expression was achieved by coexpression of Nav1.9 with β1/β2 subunits. While recombinantly expressed Nav1.9 was found to be sensitive to sodium channel inhibitors TC-N 1752 and tetracaine, potency was up to 100-fold less than reported for other Nav channel subtypes despite evidence to support an interaction with the canonical local anesthetic (LA binding region on Domain 4 S6. Nav1.9 Domain 2 S6 pore domain contains a unique lysine residue (K799 which is predicted to be spatially near the local anesthetic interaction site. Mutation of this residue to the consensus asparagine (K799N resulted in an increase in potency for tetracaine, but a decrease for TC-N 1752, suggesting that this residue can influence interaction of inhibitors with the Nav1.9 pore. In summary, we have shown that stable functional expression of Nav1.9 in the widely used HEK-293 cells is possible, which opens up opportunities to better understand channel properties and may potentially aid identification of novel Nav1.9 based pharmacotherapies.

  15. Evaluation of frequency-doubled Q-switched Nd: YAG laser in the treatment of freckle%倍频Q开关掺钕钇铝石榴石激光治疗雀斑疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗迪青; 张武军; 刘隽华; 张海燕; 何定阳


    目的 评估倍频Q开关掺钕钇铝石榴石激光治疗雀斑的疗效.方法 总结2004年10月至2007年8月间治疗的47例雀斑患者的资料及治疗后外涂丁卡因凝胶的效果.结果 治疗后6个月,47例患者中,治愈38例(80.9%),显效8例(17.0%),有效1例(2.1%),总有效率100%.1年后治愈率为100%.治疗后3个月时有15例(31.9%)出现色素沉着,但于9个月内全部消退.治疗后外涂丁卡因凝胶的起效时间为20~70 8,达到最大镇痛效果的时间为2~5 min,可以减轻疼痛70%~100%.结论 倍频Q开关Nd:YAG激光治疗雀斑有疗效好、不良反应少的优点.但可出现可逆性炎症后色素沉着.治疗后使用丁卡因凝胶,有较好的止痛效果.%Objective To evaluate the effects of Q-switched Nd: YAG laser in the treatment of freckle. Methods Fourty-seven cases treated by Q-switched Nd: YAG laser between October 2004 to August. 2007 were analyzed. The effects of post-laser treatment of tetracaine gel were evaluated. Results Of 47 cases, 38 were cured (80.9%), 8 were notablely improved (17.0%) and 1 was improved 6 months after treatment. The total efficient rate was 100%. All of them were cured 1 year after treatment. 15 cases had a postinflammatory hyperpigmentation 3 months after the laser treatment which disappeared in 9 months. Furthermore, when the tetracaine gel was used after the laser treatment, the onset time was 20 to 70 seconds, the time of the maxial decreased-pain was 2 to 5 minutes and the maximal decreased-pain was 70%~100%. Conclusions Frequency-doubled Q-switched Nd: YAG laser is an effective tool to treat freckles without any adverse effects. But some of the patients will have a reversible postin-flammatory hyperpigmentation. Tetracaine gel has a rapid and good effects on laser-induced pain when used immedi-ately after laser procedure.

  16. Signaling pathway underlying the octopaminergic modulation of myogenic contraction in the cricket lateral oviduct. (United States)

    Tamashiro, Hirotake; Yoshino, Masami


    Octopamine (OA), a biogenic monoamine, is a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator in invertebrates. Here, we report the effect of OA on the spontaneous rhythmic contractions (SRCs) of the lateral oviduct of the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus and the possible signaling pathway involved. Application of OA increased both the frequency and amplitude of SRCs in a dose-dependent manner. The effect of OA was inhibited by subsequent application of the OA receptor antagonist epinastine, indicating that the action of OA is mediated by OA receptor. To investigate the predominant signaling pathway underlying the action of OA, we first examined a possible involvement of the cAMP/cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathway. Application of the membrane-permeable cAMP analog 8-Br-cAMP had little effect on SRCs and the effect of OA was not influenced by subsequent application of the PKA inhibitor H89, indicating that the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway is not the predominant pathway in the action of OA. Next, we examined a possible involvement of the second messenger inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate in the action of OA. The effect of OA on SRCs was inhibited by subsequent application of the phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor U73122, indicating that the PLC pathway is involved in the action of OA. The OA-induced increase in the frequency of SRCs was inhibited by pretreatment of the cell with the ryanodine receptor antagonist tetracaine but was not significantly affected by the IP3 receptor antagonist 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB). On the other hand, the OA-induced increase in the amplitude of SRCs was inhibited by pretreatment of the cells with 2-APB but was not significantly affected by tetracaine. Taken together, these results suggest that the OA-induced excitatory effect on SRCs is mediated by the PLC signaling pathway: Ca2+ release from IP3 receptors may contribute to the modulation of the amplitude of SRCs, whereas Ca2+ release from ryanodine

  17. Biphasic decay of the Ca transient results from increased sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca leak (United States)

    Sankaranarayanan, Rajiv; Li, Yatong; Greensmith, David J.; Eisner, David A.


    Key points Ca leak from the sarcoplasmic reticulum through the ryanodine receptor (RyR) reduces the amplitude of the Ca transient and slows its rate of decay.In the presence of β‐adrenergic stimulation, RyR‐mediated Ca leak produces a biphasic decay of the Ca transient with a fast early phase and a slow late phase.Two forms of Ca leak have been studied, Ca‐sensitising (induced by caffeine) and non‐sensitising (induced by ryanodine) and both induce biphasic decay of the Ca transient.Only Ca‐sensitising leak can be reversed by traditional RyR inhibitors such as tetracaine.Ca leak can also induce Ca waves. At low levels of leak, waves occur. As leak is increased, first biphasic decay and then slowed monophasic decay is seen. The level of leak has major effects on the shape of the Ca transient. Abstract In heart failure, a reduction in Ca transient amplitude and contractile dysfunction can by caused by Ca leak through the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca channel (ryanodine receptor, RyR) and/or decreased activity of the SR Ca ATPase (SERCA). We have characterised the effects of two forms of Ca leak (Ca‐sensitising and non‐sensitising) on calcium cycling and compared with those of SERCA inhibition. We measured [Ca2+]i with fluo‐3 in voltage‐clamped rat ventricular myocytes. Increasing SR leak with either caffeine (to sensitise the RyR to Ca activation) or ryanodine (non‐sensitising) had similar effects to SERCA inhibition: decreased systolic [Ca2+]i, increased diastolic [Ca2+]i and slowed decay. However, in the presence of isoproterenol, leak produced a biphasic decay of the Ca transient in the majority of cells while SERCA inhibition produced monophasic decay. Tetracaine reversed the effects of caffeine but not of ryanodine. When caffeine (1 mmol l−1) was added to a cell which displayed Ca waves, the wave frequency initially increased before waves disappeared and biphasic decay developed. Eventually (at higher caffeine concentrations), the

  18. Characterization of a high affinity cocaine binding site in rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calligaro, D.; Eldefrawi, M.


    Binding of [ 3 H]cocaine to synaptic membranes from whole rat brain was reversible and saturable. Nonlinear regression analysis of binding isotherms indicated two binding affinities: one with k/sub d/ = 16 nM, B/sub max/ = 0.65 pmoles/mg protein and the other with K/sub d/ = 660 nM, B/sub max/ = 5.1 pmoles/mg protein. The high-affinity binding of [ 3 H]cocaine was sensitive to the actions of trypsin and chymotrypsin but not carboxypeptidase, and was eliminated by exposure of the membranes to 95 0 C for 5 min. Specific binding at 2 nM was higher at pH 8.8 than at pH 7.0. Binding of [ 3 H]cocaine (15 nM) was inhibited by increasing concentrations of Na + ions. Several cocaine analogues, neurotransmitter uptake inhibitors and local anesthetics displaced specific [ 3 H]cocaine binding at 2 nM with various potencies. The cocaine analogue (-)-norcocaine was the most potent (IC 50 = 10 nM), while the local anesthetic tetracaine was the least potent in inhibiting [ 3 H]cocaine binding. Several biogenic amine uptake inhibitors, including tricyclic antidepressants and phencyclidine, had IC 50 values below μM concentrations

  19. Mechanisms underlying odorant-induced and spontaneous calcium signals in olfactory receptor neurons of spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus. (United States)

    Tadesse, Tizeta; Derby, Charles D; Schmidt, Manfred


    We determined if a newly developed antennule slice preparation allows studying chemosensory properties of spiny lobster olfactory receptor neurons under in situ conditions with Ca(2+) imaging. We show that chemical stimuli reach the dendrites of olfactory receptor neurons but not their somata, and that odorant-induced Ca(2+) signals in the somata are sufficiently stable over time to allow stimulation with a substantial number of odorants. Pharmacological manipulations served to elucidate the source of odorant-induced Ca(2+) transients and spontaneous Ca(2+) oscillations in the somata of olfactory receptor neurons. Both Ca(2+) signals are primarily mediated by an influx of extracellular Ca(2+) through voltage-activated Ca(2+) channels that can be blocked by CoCl2 and the L-type Ca(2+) channel blocker verapamil. Intracellular Ca(2+) stores contribute little to odorant-induced Ca(2+) transients and spontaneous Ca(2+) oscillations. The odorant-induced Ca(2+) transients as well as the spontaneous Ca(2+) oscillations depend on action potentials mediated by Na(+) channels that are largely TTX-insensitive but blocked by the local anesthetics tetracaine and lidocaine. Collectively, these results corroborate the conclusion that odorant-induced Ca(2+) transients and spontaneous Ca(2+) oscillations in the somata of olfactory receptor neurons closely reflect action potential activity associated with odorant-induced phasic-tonic responses and spontaneous bursting, respectively. Therefore, both types of Ca(2+) signals represent experimentally accessible proxies of spiking.

  20. Anesthetic keratopathy presenting as bilateral Mooren-like ulcers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khakshoor H


    Full Text Available Hamid Khakshoor,1 Majid Moshirfar,2 Rachel G Simpson,3 Hamid Gharaee,1 Amir H Vejdani,1 Steven M Christiansen,2 Jason N Edmonds,2 Nicholas L Behunin21Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Department of Ophthalmology, Mashad, Iran; 2John A Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, 3The University of Arizona College of Medicine, Phoenix, AZ, USAAbstract: This observational case report describes the development of bilateral Mooren-like ulcers in a patient with anesthetic keratopathy. A 42-year-old man with a recent history of minor eye trauma and pain self-treated with tetracaine eye drops presented with complaints of acutely worsening vision and severe pain bilaterally. His visual acuity at presentation was limited to hand motion. Slit-lamp examination revealed bilateral epithelial defects at the center of the cornea, and an area of stromal infiltration and thinning with an undermining leading edge resembling a Mooren's ulcer in both eyes. Corneal haze and hypopyon were visible. Anesthetic use was halted immediately and the patient was started on prednisolone and mycophenolate mofetil (Cellcept®, after which visual acuity gradually improved and pain decreased. Despite improvement of symptoms, residual epithelial defects remained, and the patient was ultimately treated with keratoplasty for recovery of vision. We suggest that anesthetic keratopathy should be included in the differential diagnosis for any patient presenting with ring-shaped stromal infiltrates or nonhealing epithelial defects.Keywords: anesthetic abuse, corneal damage, corneal ulceration

  1. Interaction of charged amphiphilic drugs with phosphatidylcholine vesicles studied by NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, L.E.G.


    Small unilamellar vesicles from egg phosphatidylcholine in NaCl solutions were exposed to some amphiphilic pharmaca. The aromatic drugs (chlorpromazine, dibucaine, tetracaine, imipramine and propranolol) were in their cationic form of the amines. By 1 H- and 31 P-NMR the membrane signals were observed. In particular, the N-methyl choline proton signals were followed upon drug addition. The intrinsic chemical shift difference (0.02 ppm) between the inner (upfield) and outer choline signals was influenced by the drug concentration. Packing properties of the lipid head groups and ring current shift probably contributed. At very high drug concentration, the vesicles are destroyed. A transformation into a micellar state with a high sample viscosity took place in a narrow concentration range of drug. The anion effects of Cl - were studied from the 35 Cl-NMR linewidth at 9.8 and 39.1 MHz. A continuous increase in the signal linewidth followed upon drug addition to the vesicles. Only chlorpromazine produced a broadening in the absence of vesicles (NaCl blank). The linewidth reflected a critical micelle concentration of this drug around 7 mM in 0.1 M NaCl. The 35 Cl-NMR experiments demonstrated the existence of an anionic counterion effect. This phenomenon should be accounted for when quantitatively analysing drug-membrane interactions in electrostatic terms. (Auth.)

  2. [Spread of spinal anesthesia with 3 different hyperbaric solutions used in Japan]. (United States)

    Masuda, R; Yokoyama, K; Inoue, T


    We studied the spread of spinal anesthesia with 3 different hyperbaric solutions commercially available in Japan. Percamin-S [0.3% dibucaine in 5% hyperbaric saline] (P), Neo-Percamin.S [0.24% dibucaine with 0.12% T-caine in 9.5% glucose] (N) and 0.5% Tetcaine [tetracaine] in 10% glucose (T) were studied. Two ml of each solution was administered intrathecally using a 25 gauge Quincke needle. Patients (n = 90) were allocated to one of 9 groups receiving 2 ml of P, N or T at L 2-3, L 3-4 or L 4-5 interspace. Both N and T produced significantly higher spread of analgesia than P at any of L 3-4 and L 4-5 interspaces. P and N have the same specific gravity, even though significant differences were found in spread of segmental analgesia. Local anesthesic agents and solvent solutions themselves are considered to influence the spread of spinal anesthesia as the specific gravity of hyperbaric solution does.

  3. Glaucoma Surgery in Pregnancy: A Case Series and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Razeghinejad


    Full Text Available Glaucoma management in pregnant patients is a real challenge, especially when the glaucoma is not controlled with medications. We report the results of 6 incisional glaucoma surgeries for the management of medically uncontrolled glaucoma patients during pregnancy. This retrospective, case series was conducted on the 6 eyes of 3pregnant patients with uncontrolled glaucoma using maximum tolerable medications. Details of the glaucoma surgical management of these patients as well as their postoperative care and pregnancy and clinical outcomes on longitudinal follow-up are discussed. All 3 patients had juvenile open-angle glaucoma and were on various anti-glaucoma medications, including oral acetazolamide. The first case described underwent trabeculectomy without antimetabolites in both eyes because of uncontrolled intraocular pressure with topical medications. The surgery was done with topical lidocaine jelly and subconjunctival lidocaine during the second and third trimesters. The second patient had an Ahmed valve implantation in both eyes during the second and third trimesters because of uncontrolled IOP with topical medications and no response to selective laser trabeculoplasty. Surgery was done with topical tetracaine and subconjunctival and sub-Tenon’s lidocaine. The third case had a Baerveldt valve implantation under general anesthesia in the second trimester. In selected pregnant glaucoma patients with medically uncontrolled intraocular pressure threatening vision, incisional surgery may lead to good outcomes for the patient with no risk for the fetus.

  4. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry detection of the quaternary ammonium compound mebezonium as an active ingredient in t61. (United States)

    Kirschbaum, Katrin M; Grellner, Wolfgang; Rochholz, Gertrud; Musshoff, Frank; Madea, Burkhard


    Quaternary ammonium compounds pose an analytical challenge. Mebezonium, a muscle-relaxing agent contained in veterinary euthanasia solution T61, was analyzed in body fluids, organs, and injection sites of a veterinarian by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) method. Additionally, embutramide and tetracaine, which are two other active ingredients contained in T61, methadone, xylazine, and analgesics were detected by LC-MS-MS and high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection methods. For detection of mebezonium a solid-phase extraction (SPE) combined with ionpairing reagent heptafluorobutyric acid was developed. Separation was achieved on Phenomenex Synergi Hydro RP C(18) column combined with ammonium formate buffer and acetonitrile (pH 3.5). To enrich other drugs, liquid-liquid extraction procedures were used. Most of these drugs were separated on a Restek Allure PFP Propyl column using the mentioned mobile phase. Mebezonium and embutramide were detected in femoral vein serum in concentrations of 10.9 and 2.0 mg/L, respectively. The concentration of xylazine and methadone in serum was 2.0 and 0.4 mg/L, respectively. The LC-MS-MS method with SPE combined with an ion-pairing reagent allowed the quantitation of mebezonium. Methadone was detected in toxic concentrations and was, in combination with xylazine and T61, considered to be the cause of death.

  5. Topical anaesthesia in children: reducing the need for specialty referral.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, Gabrielle


    OBJECTIVE: The management of wounds in children is stressful, not only for the child, but also for parents and staff. In our Emergency Department (ED), we currently do not have a paediatric sedation policy, and thus children requiring suturing, not amenable to distraction and infiltrative anaesthesia, are referred to specialty teams for general anaesthesia. We proposed that the introduction of a topical anaesthetic gel (lidocaine, adrenaline, tetracaine - LAT) might help to reduce the number of referrals, by allowing the ED staff to perform the procedures, in combination with nonpharmacological approaches. METHODS: We carried out a retrospective review of ED records of all children aged 14 years or less attending with wounds, over an 8-month period, from 01 May 2007 to 31 January 2008. RESULTS: Two hundred and one (50.6%) patients presented before the introduction of LAT gel, whereas 196 (49.3%) patients presented afterwards. A total of 39 (19.4%) patients were referred for specialty review pre-LAT, whereas only 19 (9.7%) patients were referred in the LAT group. Of these, 31 (15.4%) pre-LAT and 15 (7.7%) LAT group required general anaesthesia. There is a significant difference between these two groups, using Fischer\\'s exact test, P=0.018. CONCLUSION: We have found that the introduction of topical anaesthetic gel in ED has significantly reduced the number of children with wounds referred to specialty teams for general anaesthesia. This has important implications for patient safety and hospital resources.

  6. Hydrogen-1 NMR relaxation time studies in membrane: anesthetic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, L.M.A.; Fraceto, L.; Paula, E. de; Franzoni, L.; Spisni, A.


    The study of local anesthetics'(LA) interaction with model phospholipid membranes is justified by the direct correlation between anesthetic's hydrophobicity and its potency/toxicity. By the same reason, uncharged LA species seems to play a crucial role in anesthesia. Most clinically used LA are small amphiphilics with a protonated amine group (pKa around 8). Although both charged (protonated) and uncharged forms can coexist at physiological pH, it has been shown (Lee, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 514:95, 1978; Screier et al. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 769:231, 1984) that the real anesthetic pka can be down-shifted, due to differential partition into membranes, increasing the ratio of uncharged species at pH 7.4. We have measured 1 H-NMR longitudinal relaxation times (T 1 ) for phospholipid and three local anesthetics (tetracaine, lidocaine, benzocaine), in sonicated vesicles at a 3:1 molar ratio. All the LA protons have shown smaller T 1 in this system than in isotropic phases, reflecting LA immobilization caused by insertion in the membrane. T 1 values for the lipid protons in the presence of LA were analyzed, in an attempt to identify specific LA:lipid contact regions. (author)

  7. Estudo clínico e histológico das pálpebras e conjuntiva hígidas submetidas ao tratamento tópico com soluções anestésicas em coelhos Clinical and histological evaluation of healthy eyelid and conjunctiva subject to local treatment with anesthetic solutions in rabbits

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    A.V.C. Amaral


    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se as apresentações comerciais de colírios anestésicos aplicados em 63 coelhos da raça Nova Zelândia, distribuídos em três grupos (G1, G2 e G3 de 21 animais cada e que receberam instilação de uma gota em cada olho seis vezes ao dia. Os animais do G1 foram tratados com colírio de cloridrato de proparacaína a 0,5%; os do G2, com colírio de cloridrato de tetracaína a 1% associado à fenilefrina a 0,1%; e os do G3, com solução fisiológica. Cada grupo foi subdividido em três subgrupos com sete animais cada, os quais foram tratados por três, sete e 15 dias. No final de cada tratamento, dois animais de cada subgrupo foram sacrificados para exame histológico de fragmentos retirados da conjuntiva, da terceira pálpebra e das pálpebras. Observou-se, ao exame clínico, episclerite em graus diversos em 100% dos animais do G1, no terceiro, sétimo e 15º dia, e em apenas 17,8% nos do G2, nestes mesmos dias. Ao exame microscópico, observaram-se aumento do número de células califormes, proliferação de folículos linfoides, aumento do número de eosinófilos e aumento do espaço intersticial nas pálpebras dos animais do G1. Pôde-se concluir que o colírio de tetracaína a 1% associado à fenilefrina a 0,1% promoveu maior toxicidade à conjuntiva ocular e às pálpebras de coelhos quando comparado ao colírio de proparacaína a 0,5%.This work aimed to evaluate commercial presentations of anesthetic eye drops in sixty three New Zealand rabbits which were separated equally in three groups (G1, G2 and G3. The G1 group was treated with 0.5% proparacaine chloridrate eye drop, G2 group with 1% tetracaine chloridrate associated with 0.1% phenylephrine eye drop and G3 group with 0.9% physiologic solution eye drop. All of them received one drop in each eye six times a day. Each group was subdivided into three subgroups (seven rabbits, which are treated for 3, 7 and 15 days. At the end of each treatment, two animals in each subgroup

  8. Development of novel encapsulated formulations using albumin-chitosan as a polymer matrix for ocular drug delivery (United States)

    Addo, Richard Tettey

    Designing formulations for ophthalmic drug delivery is one of the most challenging endeavors facing the pharmaceutical scientist due to the unique anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry of the eye. Current treatment protocols for administration of drugs in eye diseases are primarily solution formulations, gels or ointments. However, these modes of delivery have several drawbacks such as short duration of exposure, need for repeated administrations and non-specific toxicity. We hypothesize that development of ocular drugs in microparticles will overcome the deficiencies of the current modalities of treatment. We based the hypothesis on the preliminary studies conducted with encapsulated tetracaine, an anesthetic used for surgical purposes and atropine, a medication used for several ophthalmic indications including mydriatic and cycloplegic effects. However, atropine is well absorbed into the systemic circulation and has been reported to exert severe systemic side effects after ocular administration (Hoefnagel D. 1961, Morton H. G. 1939 and Lang J. C. 1995) and may lead to serious side effects including death in extreme cases with pediatric use. Based on these observations, the focus of this dissertation is to formulate microparticulate drug carrier for treatment of various conditions of the eye. Purpose: To prepare, characterize, study the in vitro and in vivo interaction of albumin-chitosan microparticles (BSA-CSN MS), a novel particulate drug carrier for ocular drug delivery. Method: Microparticle formulations were prepared by method of spray drying. The percentage drug loading and efficiency were assessed using USP (I) dissolution apparatus. Using Malvern Zeta-Sizer, we determined size and surface charge of the fabrication. Surface morphology of the microparticles was examined using Scanning Electron Microscopy. Microparticles were characterized in terms of thermal properties using Differential Scanning Calorimetry. Human corneal epithelial cells (HCET-1) were

  9. The European Society of Regional Anaesthesia and Pain Therapy/American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine Recommendations on Local Anesthetics and Adjuvants Dosage in Pediatric Regional Anesthesia. (United States)

    Suresh, Santhanam; Ecoffey, Claude; Bosenberg, Adrian; Lonnqvist, Per-Anne; de Oliveira, Gildasio S; de Leon Casasola, Oscar; de Andrés, José; Ivani, Giorgio


    Dosage of local anesthetics (LAs) used for regional anesthesia in children is not well determined. In order to evaluate and come to a consensus regarding some of these controversial topics, The European Society of Regional Anaesthesia and Pain Therapy (ESRA) and the American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine (ASRA) developed a Joint Committee Practice Advisory on Local Anesthetics and Adjuvants Dosage in Pediatric Regional Anesthesia. Representatives from both ASRA and ESRA composed the joint committee practice advisory. Evidence-based recommendations were based on a systematic search of the literature. In cases where no literature was available, expert opinion was elicited. Spinal anesthesia with bupivacaine can be performed with a dose of 1 mg/kg for newborn and/or infant and a dose of 0.5 mg/kg in older children (>1 year of age). Tetracaine 0.5% is recommended for spinal anesthesia (dose, 0.07-0.13 mL/kg). Ultrasound-guided upper-extremity peripheral nerve blocks (eg, axillary, infraclavicular, interscalene, supraclavicular) in children can be performed successfully and safely using a recommended LA dose of bupivacaine or ropivacaine of 0.5 to 1.5 mg/kg. Dexmedetomidine can be used as an adjunct to prolong the duration of peripheral nerve blocks in children. High-level evidence is not yet available to guide dosage of LA used in regional blocks in children. The ASRA/ESRA recommendations intend to provide guidance in order to reduce the large variability of LA dosage currently observed in clinical practice.

  10. Lack of effect of spinal anesthesia on drug metabolism

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    Whelan, E.; Wood, A.J.; Shay, S.; Wood, M.


    The effect of spinal anesthesia on drug disposition was determined in six dogs with chronically implanted vascular catheters using propranolol as a model compound. On the first study day, 40 mg of unlabeled propranolol and 200 microCi of [3H]propranolol were injected into the portal and femoral veins respectively. Arterial blood samples were taken for 4 hr for measurement of plasma concentrations of labeled and unlabeled propranolol by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and of [3H]propranolol by liquid scintillation counting of the HPLC eluant corresponding to each propranolol peak. Twenty-four hr later, spinal anesthesia was induced with tetracaine (mean dose 20.7 +/- 0.6 mg) with low sacral to midthoracic levels and the propranolol infusions and sampling were then repeated. Spinal anesthesia had no significant effect on either the intrinsic clearance of propranolol (2.01 +/- 0.75 L/min before and 1.9 +/- 0.7 L/min during spinal anesthesia), or on mean hepatic plasma flow (2.01 +/- 0.5 L/min before and 1.93 +/- 0.5 L/min during spinal anesthesia). The systemic clearance and elimination half-life of propranolol were also unchanged by spinal anesthesia (0.9 +/- 0.23 L/min on the first day, 0.7 +/- 0.1 L/min during spinal anesthesia; and 101 +/- 21 min on the first day, 115 +/- 16 min during spinal anesthesia, respectively). The volume of distribution (Vd) of propranolol was similarly unaffected by spinal anesthesia

  11. Comparison of hypobaric, hyperbaric, and isobaric solutions of bupivacaine during continuous spinal anesthesia. (United States)

    Van Gessel, E F; Forster, A; Schweizer, A; Gamulin, Z


    This study was designed to compare the anesthetic properties of hypobaric bupivacaine with those of isobaric and hyperbaric solutions when administered in the supine position in an elderly population undergoing hip surgery using continuous spinal anesthesia. Plain bupivacaine (0.5%) was mixed with equal volumes of 10% dextrose (hyperbaric), 0.9% NaCl (isobaric), or distilled water (hypobaric) to obtain 0.25% solutions. In a double-blind fashion, all patients received 3 mL (7.5 mg) of their particular solution injected through the spinal catheter in the horizontal supine position. The sensory level obtained in the hyperbaric group (median, T4; range, T3-L3) was significantly higher than in both the isobaric (median, T11; range, T6-L1) and hypobaric (median, L1; range, T4-L3) groups. A motor blockade of grade 2 or 3 was obtained in 14 of 15 and 12 of 15 patients in, respectively, the hyperbaric and isobaric groups, but only in 8 of 15 patients in the hypobaric group. After the initial injection of 3 mL (7.5 mg), a sensory level of T10 and a motor blockade of grade 2 or 3 was obtained in 14 of 15, 5 of 15, and 3 of 15 patients in the hyperbaric, isobaric, and hypobaric groups, respectively. All remaining patients received 1 or 2 additional milliliters (2.5-5 mg) and achieved these required anesthetic conditions, except for one patient in the hyperbaric group and eight patients in the hypobaric group in whom anesthesia was achieved with hyperbaric tetracaine. The decrease in mean arterial pressure was significantly more severe in the hyperbaric (30%) than in either the isobaric (18%) or hypobaric (14%) groups.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Dual effect of local anesthetics on the function of excitable rod outer segment disk membrane

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    Mashimo, T.; Abe, K.; Yoshiya, I.


    The effects of local anesthetics and a divalent cation, Ca2+, on the function of rhodopsin were estimated from the measurements of light-induced proton uptake. The light-induced proton uptake by rhodopsin in the rod outer segment disk membrane was enhanced at lower pH (4) but depressed at higher pHs (6 to 8) by the tertiary amine local anesthetics lidocaine, bupivacaine, tetracaine, and dibucaine. The order of local anesthetic-induced depression of the proton uptake followed that of their clinical anesthetic potencies. The depression of the proton uptake versus the concentration of the uncharged form of local anesthetic nearly describes the same curve for small and large dose of added anesthetic. Furthermore, a neutral local anesthetic, benzocaine, depressed the proton uptake at all pHs between 4 and 7. These results indicate that the depression of the proton uptake is due to the effect of only the uncharged form. It is hypothesized that the uncharged form of local anesthetics interacts hydrophobically with the rhodopsin in the disk membrane. The dual effect of local anesthetics on the proton uptake, on the other hand, suggests that the activation of the function of rhodopsin may be caused by the charged form. There was no significant change in the light-induced proton uptake by rhodopsin when 1 mM of Ca2+ was introduced into the disk membrane at varying pHs in the absence or presence of local anesthetics. This fact indicates that Ca2+ ion does not influence the diprotonating process of metarhodopsin; neither does it interfere with the local anesthetic-induced changes in the rhodopsin molecule.

  13. Cell shape changes induced by cationic anesthetics (United States)


    The effects of local anesthetics on cultivated macrophages were studied in living preparations and recorded in still pictures and time-lapse cine-micrographs. Exposure to 12mM lidocaine or 1.5 mM tetracaine resulted in rounding in 10-15 min. Rounding was characterized by cell contraction, marked increase in retraction fibrils, withdrawal of cell processes, and, in late stages, pulsation-like activity and zeiosis. Cells showed appreciable membrane activity as they rounded. Respreading was complete within 15 min of perfusion in drug-free medium and entailed a marked increase in surface motility over control periods. As many as eight successive cycles of rounding and spreading were obtained with lidocaine without evidence of cell damage. The effects of anesthetics were similar to those observed with EDTA, but ethylene- glycol-bis(beta-aminoethylether)-N, N'-tetraacetic acid-Mg was ineffective. Rounding was also induced by benzocaine, an anesthetic nearly uncharged at pH 7.0. Quaternary (nondischargeable) compounds were of low activity, presumably because they are slow permeants. Lidocaine induced rounding at 10 degrees C and above but was less effective at 5 degrees C and ineffective at 0 degrees C. Rounding by the anesthetic was also obtained in media depleted or Na or enriched with 10 mM Ca or Mg. The latter finding, together with the failure of tetrodotoxin to induce rounding, suggests that the anesthetic effect is unrelated to inhibition of sodium conductance. It is possible that the drugs influence divalent ion fluxes or some component of the contractile cells' machinery, but a metabolic target of action cannot yet be excluded. PMID:814194

  14. Comparative efficacy and patient preference of topical anaesthetics in dermatological laser treatments and skin microneedling

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    Yi Zhen Chiang


    Full Text Available Background: Topical anaesthetics are effective for patients undergoing superficial dermatological and laser procedures. Our objective was to compare the efficacy and patient preference of three commonly used topical anaesthetics: (2.5% lidocaine/2.5% prilocaine cream (EMLA ® , 4% tetracaine gel (Ametop TM and 4% liposomal lidocaine gel (LMX4 ® in patients undergoing laser procedures and skin microneedling. Settings and Design: This was a prospective, double-blind study of patients undergoing laser and skin microneedling procedures at a laser unit in a tertiary referral dermatology centre. Materials and Methods: All 29 patients had three topical anaesthetics applied under occlusion for 1 hour prior to the procedure, at different treatment sites within the same anatomical zone. A self-assessment numerical pain rating scale was given to each patient to rate the pain during the procedure and each patient was asked to specify their preferred choice of topical anaesthetic at the end of the procedure. Statistical Analysis: Parametric data (mean pain scores and frequency of topical anaesthetic agent of choice were compared using the paired samples t-test. A P-value of ≤0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results and Conclusions: Patients reported a mean (±SD; 95% confidence interval pain score of 5 (±2.58; 3.66-6.46 with Ametop TM , 4.38 (±2.53; 2.64-4.89 with EMLA ® and 3.91 (±1.95; 2.65-4.76 with LMX4 ® . There was no statistically significant difference in pain scores between the different topical anaesthetics. The majority of patients preferred LMX4 ® as their choice of topical anaesthetic for dermatological laser and skin microneedling procedures.

  15. Systematization, distribution and territory of the caudal cerebral artery on the brain's surface of the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo

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    Amarílis Díaz de Carvalho


    Full Text Available Thirty Meleagris gallopavo heads with their neck segments were used. Animals were contained and euthanized with the association of mebezonium iodide, embutramide and tetracaine hydrochloride (T 61, Intervet by intravenous injection. The arterial system was rinsed with cold saline solution (15°C, with 5000IU heparin and filled with red-colored latex. The samples were fixed in 20% formaldehyde for seven days. The brains were removed with a segment of cervical spinal cord and after, the dura-mater was removed and the arteries dissected. The cerebral carotid arteries, after the intercarotid anastomosis, were projected around the hypophysis, until they reached the tuber cinereum and divided into their terminal branches, the caudal branch and the rostral branch. The rostral branch was projected rostrolateralwards and gave off, in sequence, two collateral branches, the caudal cerebral and the middle cerebral arteries and the terminal branch was as cerebroethmoidal artery. The caudal cerebral artery of one antimere formed the interhemispheric artery, which gave off dorsal hemispheric branches to the convex surface of both antimeres. Its dorsal tectal mesencephalic branch, of only one antimere, originated the dorsal cerebellar artery. In the interior of the cerebral transverse fissure, after the origin of the dorsal tectal mesencephalic artery, the caudal cerebral artery emitted occipital hemispheric branches, pineal branches and medial hemispheric branches, on both antimeres. The caudal cerebral artery's territory comprehended the entire surface of the dorsal hemioptic lobe, the rostral surface of the cerebellum, the diencephalic structures, the caudal pole and the medial surface of the cerebral hemisphere and in the convex surface, the sagittal eminence except for its most rostral third. Due to the asymmetry found in the caudal cerebral arteries' ramifications, the models were classified into three types and their respective subtypes.

  16. New procedure to synthesize silver nanoparticles and their interaction with local anesthetics

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    Mocanu A


    Full Text Available Aurora Mocanu,1 Roxana Diana Pasca,1 Gheorghe Tomoaia,2 Corina Garbo,1 Petre T Frangopol,1 Ossi Horovitz,1 Maria Tomoaia-Cotisel11Chemical Engineering Department, Babes-Bolyai University, 2Orthopedic Department, Iuliu Hatieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca, RomaniaAbstract: Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs were prepared in aqueous colloid dispersions by the reduction of Ag+ with glucose in alkaline medium. Tetraethyl orthosilicate and l-asparagine were added as stabilizers of NPs. The AgNPs were characterized, and their interaction with three local anesthetics (procaine, dibucaine, or tetracaine was investigated. Optical spectra show the characteristic absorption band of AgNPs, due to surface plasmon resonance. Modifications in the position and shape of this band reflect the self-assembly of metal NPs mediated by anesthetic molecules and the progress in time of the aggregation process. Zeta-potential measuring was applied in order to characterize the electrostatic stability of the NPs. The size and shape of the AgNPs, as well as the features of the assemblies formed by their association in the presence of anesthetics, were evidenced by transmission electron microscopy images. Atomic force microscopy images showed the characteristics of the films of AgNPs deposited on glass support. The effect of the anesthetics could be described in terms of electrostatic forces between the negatively charged AgNPs and the anesthetic molecules, existing also in their cationic form at the working pH. But also hydrophobic and hydrogen bonding interactions between the coated nanoparticles and anesthetics molecular species should be considered.Keywords: self-assembled nanostructures, UV-vis spectra, TEM, AFM, zeta potential

  17. Duodenal activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase induces vagal afferent firing and lowers glucose production in rats. (United States)

    Rasmussen, Brittany A; Breen, Danna M; Luo, Ping; Cheung, Grace W C; Yang, Clair S; Sun, Biying; Kokorovic, Andrea; Rong, Weifang; Lam, Tony K T


    The duodenum senses nutrients to maintain energy and glucose homeostasis, but little is known about the signaling and neuronal mechanisms involved. We tested whether duodenal activation of adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) is sufficient and necessary for cholecystokinin (CCK) signaling to trigger vagal afferent firing and regulate glucose production. In rats, we selectively activated duodenal PKA and evaluated changes in glucose kinetics during the pancreatic (basal insulin) pancreatic clamps and vagal afferent firing. The requirement of duodenal PKA signaling in glucose regulation was evaluated by inhibiting duodenal activation of PKA in the presence of infusion of the intraduodenal PKA agonist (Sp-cAMPS) or CCK1 receptor agonist (CCK-8). We also assessed the involvement of a neuronal network and the metabolic impact of duodenal PKA activation in rats placed on high-fat diets. Intraduodenal infusion of Sp-cAMPS activated duodenal PKA and lowered glucose production, in association with increased vagal afferent firing in control rats. The metabolic and neuronal effects of duodenal Sp-cAMPS were negated by coinfusion with either the PKA inhibitor H89 or Rp-CAMPS. The metabolic effect was also negated by coinfusion with tetracaine, molecular and pharmacologic inhibition of NR1-containing N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors within the dorsal vagal complex, or hepatic vagotomy in rats. Inhibition of duodenal PKA blocked the ability of duodenal CCK-8 to reduce glucose production in control rats, whereas duodenal Sp-cAMPS bypassed duodenal CCK resistance and activated duodenal PKA and lowered glucose production in rats on high-fat diets. We identified a neural glucoregulatory function of duodenal PKA signaling. Copyright © 2012 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Venom ophthalmia caused by venoms of spitting elapid and other snakes: Report of ten cases with review of epidemiology, clinical features, pathophysiology and management. (United States)

    Chu, Edward R; Weinstein, Scott A; White, Julian; Warrell, David A


    Venom ophthalmia caused by venoms of spitting elapid and other snakes: report of ten cases with review of epidemiology, clinical features, pathophysiology and management. Chu, ER, Weinstein, SA, White, J and Warrell, DA. Toxicon XX:xxx-xxx. We present ten cases of ocular injury following instillation into the eye of snake venoms or toxins by spitting elapids and other snakes. The natural history of spitting elapids and the toxinology of their venoms are reviewed together with the medical effects and management of venom ophthalmia in humans and domestic animals including both direct and allergic effects of venoms. Although the clinical features and management of envenoming following bites by spitting elapids (genera Naja and Hemachatus) are well documented, these snakes are also capable of "spraying" venom towards the eyes of predators, a defensive strategy that causes painful and potentially blinding ocular envenoming (venom ophthalmia). Little attention has been given to the detailed clinical description, clinical evolution and efficacy of treatment of venom ophthalmia and no clear management guidelines have been formulated. Knowledge of the pathophysiology of ocular envenoming is based largely on animal studies and a limited body of clinical information. A few cases of ocular exposure to venoms from crotaline viperids have also been described. Venom ophthalmia often presents with pain, hyperemia, blepharitis, blepharospasm and corneal erosions. Delay or lack of treatment may result in corneal opacity, hypopyon and/or blindness. When venom is "spat" into the eye, cranial nerve VII may be affected by local spread of venom but systemic envenoming has not been documented in human patients. Management of venom ophthalmia consists of: 1) urgent decontamination by copious irrigation 2) analgesia by vasoconstrictors with weak mydriatic activity (e.g. epinephrine) and limited topical administration of local anesthetics (e.g. tetracaine) 3) exclusion of corneal abrasions

  19. The Comparison of the Influence of Thiopental and Propofol on Intraocular Pressure during Induction of Anesthesia in Intubated Patients under Cataracct Surgery

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    Reza Sahraei


    Full Text Available The prevention of the increase of intraocular pressure and the further decrease of it during eye surgery has an impressive effect on the success of surgery. Some of the phases of the induction of anesthesia like laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation result in the increase of intraocular pressure and its consequences are dangerous for penetrating injuries of eyeball. The goal of this research is the comparison of the changes of intraocular pressure during the induction of anesthesia in completely same conditions by using thiopental and propofol and also the careful investigation of their influences on intraocular pressure in order to select the medicine that effectively decrease the intraocular pressure and prevent the increase of it after laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation. In this research, 88 patients were selected and they were randomly divided into 2 groups. In the beginning of the patients' anesthesia, both groups were preoxygenated and they simultaneously receive initial dose of atracurium (0/5 mg/kg and then initial dose of fentanyl (1-2 µg/Kg. After prescription of fentanyl, the induction of anesthesia in the first group was done withthiopental (4 mg/kg and in the second group with propofol (2/5 mg/kg and after that, atracurium intubation (0/7 mg/kg was prescribed. Intraocular pressure is measured in two phases before induction of anesthesia (with tetracaine eyedrop and 3 minutes after intubation (with schiotz tonometer and 3±0/75 degree of accuracy and by a person who is not aware of the kind of anesthesia. The patients are replicated in 2 experimental and control groups in terms of age and gender. The results of independent t-test show that there is no significant difference between 2 groups of thiopental and propofol in terms of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart beat and eye pressure before the induction of anesthesia (p-value>0,05. The results of independent t-test show that there is a significant difference between2

  20. Involvement of plasma membrane Ca2+ channels, IP3 receptors, and ryanodine receptors in the generation of spontaneous rhythmic contractions of the cricket lateral oviduct. (United States)

    Tamashiro, Hirotake; Yoshino, Masami


    In the present study, the isolated cricket (Gryllus bimaculatus) lateral oviduct exhibited spontaneous rhythmic contractions (SRCs) with a frequency of 0.29±0.009 Hz (n=43) and an amplitude of 14.6±1.25 mg (n=29). SRCs completely disappeared following removal of extracellular Ca2+ using a solution containing 5mM EGTA. Application of the non-specific Ca2+ channel blockers Co2+, Ni2+, and Cd2+ also decreased both the frequency and amplitude of SRCs in dose-dependent manners, suggesting that Ca2+ entry through plasma membrane Ca2+ channels is essential for the generation of SRCs. Application of ryanodine (30 μM), which depletes intracellular Ca2+ by locking ryanodine receptor (RyR)-Ca2+ channels in an open state, gradually reduced the frequency and amplitude of SRCs. A RyR antagonist, tetracaine, reduced both the frequency and amplitude of SRCs, whereas a RyR activator, caffeine, increased the frequency of SRCs with a subsequent increase in basal tonus, indicating that RyRs are essential for generating SRCs. To further investigate the involvement of phospholipase C (PLC) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) in SRCs, we examined the effect of a PLC inhibitor, U73122, and an IP3R antagonist, 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB), on SRCs. Separately, U73122 (10 μM) and 2-APB (30-50 μM) both significantly reduced the amplitude of SRCs with little effect on their frequency, further indicating that the PLC/IP3R signaling pathway is fundamental to the modulation of the amplitude of SRCs. A hypotonic-induced increase in the frequency and amplitude of SRCs and a hypertonic-induced decrease in the frequency and amplitude of SRCs indicated that mechanical stretch of the lateral oviduct is involved in the generation of SRCs. The sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-pump ATPase inhibitors thapsigargin and cyclopiazonic acid impaired or suppressed the relaxation phase of SRCs. Taken together, the present results indicate that Ca2+ influx through plasma membrane Ca2


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    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Dental implants are prosthetic devices that are inserted into the thickness of the bone of the maxilla for osseointegration using a screw system. They are increasingly used for both functional and aesthetic reasons. As in any medical or surgical procedure, there are some typical risks and possible sequelae that must be explained and prevented. However, sometimes not-associated-with-implantation rare complications that can cause great morbidity and decrease in the quality of life of the implant recipient can occur. A case of an unusual complication is reported,MATERIAL AND METHODS: A 65-year-old woman presented with a permanent mainly right-sided bilateral nasal obstruction with frequent watery rhinorrhea and headache with retro-orbital and infraorbital irradiation refractory to broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment, corticosteroids and analgesics that she associated with a dental implant two weeks before. . Sinusitis or implant-related complication were ruled out by the dentist and her Primary Care Physician, and therefore she was referred to otorhinolaryngological assessment after radiological study with maxillary sinuses free of disease. The physical examination demostrated inferior obstructive hypertrophic turbinates from the anterior third and thick clear rhinorrhea. After topic tetracaine with adrenaline ,retraction of the turbinates revealed a screw that after breaking the floor of the right nostril entered the thickness of the inferior turbinate. In the left nostril, soil procidence is identified with turbinal contact. An orthopantomography demonstrated the findings described above, highlighting also how the implant was inserted into the skeleton of the inferior turbinate. The sympthoms resolved after removal of the implant. Topical oxymetazoline and corticosteroids provided little relief meanwhile. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: The functional objectives sought with dental implants can be compromised by complications such as the

  2. β-Adrenergic induced SR Ca2+ leak is mediated by an Epac-NOS pathway. (United States)

    Pereira, Laëtitia; Bare, Dan J; Galice, Samuel; Shannon, Thomas R; Bers, Donald M


    Cardiac β-adrenergic receptors (β-AR) and Ca 2+ -Calmodulin dependent protein kinase (CaMKII) regulate both physiological and pathophysiological Ca 2+ signaling. Elevated diastolic Ca 2+ leak from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) contributes to contractile dysfunction in heart failure and to arrhythmogenesis. β-AR activation is known to increase SR Ca 2+ leak via CaMKII-dependent phosphorylation of the ryanodine receptor. Two independent and reportedly parallel pathways have been implicated in this β-AR-CaMKII cascade, one involving exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac2) and another involving nitric oxide synthase 1 (NOS1). Here we tested whether Epac and NOS function in a single series pathway to increase β-AR induced and CaMKII-dependent SR Ca 2+ leak. Leak was measured as both Ca 2+ spark frequency and tetracaine-induced shifts in SR Ca 2+ , in mouse and rabbit ventricular myocytes. Direct Epac activation by 8-CPT (8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-2'-O-methyl-cAMP) mimicked β-AR-induced SR Ca 2+ leak, and both were blocked by NOS inhibition. The same was true for myocyte CaMKII activation (assessed via a FRET-based reporter) and ryanodine receptor phosphorylation. Inhibitor and phosphorylation studies also implicated phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and protein kinase B (Akt) downstream of Epac and above NOS activation in this pathway. We conclude that these two independently characterized parallel pathways function mainly via a single series arrangement (β-AR-cAMP-Epac-PI3K-Akt-NOS1-CaMKII) to mediate increased SR Ca 2+ leak. Thus, for β-AR activation the cAMP-PKA branch effects inotropy and lusitropy (by effects on Ca 2+ current and SR Ca 2+ -ATPase), this cAMP-Epac-NOS pathway increases pathological diastolic SR Ca 2+ leak. This pathway distinction may allow novel SR Ca 2+ leak therapeutic targeting in treatment of arrhythmias in heart failure that spare the inotropic and lusitropic effects of the PKA branch. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All

  3. Anestesia subaracnóidea em crianças Anestesia subaracnóidea en niños Spinal anesthesia in children

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    Norma Sueli Pinheiro Módolo


    . Contents: Spinal anesthesia in children is being used since the early 20th century, but was overlooked for many years due to the introduction of inhalational anesthetics and neuromuscular blockers. It regained popularity in 1979. Its positive effects in pediatric anesthesia are cardiovascular stability in children up to 8 years of age, satisfactory analgesia and muscle relaxation. Most popular pediatric anesthetics are tetracaine and bupivacaine in doses adjusted to body weight, but this technique is limited by a relatively short duration of anesthesia. Surgical procedures cannot last more than 90 min and there is no satisfactory postoperative pain control. Complications are the same for adult patients and include post-dural puncture headache and transient radicular irritation. Indications are: lower abdomen, genitalia, perineal region, lower limbs and, in some cases, even thoracic surgeries. It is particularly attractive for pre-term neonates at higher risk for postoperative apnea after general anesthesia. Conclusions: Spinal anesthesia in children is a relatively safe technique with few complications and may be considered an alternative for general anesthesia, especially for pre-term neonates at risk for postoperative respiratory complications.