WorldWideScience

Sample records for tetra 3-amino pheny1

  1. Benzothiazole Aniline Tetra(ethylene glycol) and 3-Amino-1,2,4-triazole Inhibit Neuroprotection against Amyloid Peptides by Catalase Overexpression in Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease, Familial British dementia, Familial Danish dementia, Type 2 diabetes mellitus, plus Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease are associated with amyloid fibril deposition and oxidative stress. The antioxidant enzyme catalase is a neuroprotective amyloid binding protein. Herein the effects of catalase overexpression in SH-SY5Y neuronal cells on the toxicity of amyloid-β (Aβ), amyloid-Bri (ABri), amyloid-Dan (ADan), amylin (IAPP), and prion protein (PrP) peptides were determined. Results showed catalase overexpression was neuroprotective against Aβ, ABri, ADan, IAPP, and PrP peptides. The catalase inhibitor 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (3-AT) and catalase-amyloid interaction inhibitor benzothiazole aniline tetra(ethylene glycol) (BTA-EG4) significantly enhanced neurotoxicity of amyloid peptides in catalase overexpressing neuronal cells. This suggests catalase neuroprotection involves breakdown of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) plus a direct binding interaction between catalase and the Aβ, ABri, ADan, IAPP, and PrP peptides. Kisspeptin 45–50 had additive neuroprotective actions against the Aβ peptide in catalase overexpressing cells. The effects of 3-AT had an intracellular site of action, while catalase-amyloid interactions had an extracellular component. These results suggest that the 3-AT and BTA-EG4 compounds may be able to inhibit endogenous catalase mediated neuroprotection. Use of BTA-EG4, or compounds that inhibit catalase binding to amyloid peptides, as potential therapeutics for Neurodegenerative diseases may therefore result in unwanted effects. PMID:23968537

  2. Benzothiazole aniline tetra(ethylene glycol) and 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole inhibit neuroprotection against amyloid peptides by catalase overexpression in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilumuri, Amrutha; Odell, Mark; Milton, Nathaniel G N

    2013-11-20

    Alzheimer's disease, Familial British dementia, Familial Danish dementia, Type 2 diabetes mellitus, plus Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease are associated with amyloid fibril deposition and oxidative stress. The antioxidant enzyme catalase is a neuroprotective amyloid binding protein. Herein the effects of catalase overexpression in SH-SY5Y neuronal cells on the toxicity of amyloid-β (Aβ), amyloid-Bri (ABri), amyloid-Dan (ADan), amylin (IAPP), and prion protein (PrP) peptides were determined. Results showed catalase overexpression was neuroprotective against Aβ, ABri, ADan, IAPP, and PrP peptides. The catalase inhibitor 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (3-AT) and catalase-amyloid interaction inhibitor benzothiazole aniline tetra(ethylene glycol) (BTA-EG4) significantly enhanced neurotoxicity of amyloid peptides in catalase overexpressing neuronal cells. This suggests catalase neuroprotection involves breakdown of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) plus a direct binding interaction between catalase and the Aβ, ABri, ADan, IAPP, and PrP peptides. Kisspeptin 45-50 had additive neuroprotective actions against the Aβ peptide in catalase overexpressing cells. The effects of 3-AT had an intracellular site of action, while catalase-amyloid interactions had an extracellular component. These results suggest that the 3-AT and BTA-EG4 compounds may be able to inhibit endogenous catalase mediated neuroprotection. Use of BTA-EG4, or compounds that inhibit catalase binding to amyloid peptides, as potential therapeutics for Neurodegenerative diseases may therefore result in unwanted effects.

  3. Solid-phase synthesis of 3-amino-2-pyrazolines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, John

    1998-01-01

    The development of a solid-phase synthesis of 3-amino-2-pyrazolines is described. Conjugate addition of hydrazines to alpha,beta-unsaturated nitriles followed by cyclization yields 3-amino-2-pyrazolines. Acylation or sulfonation of the free amino-group yields a 24 member library of 3-amino-2...

  4. Solid-phase synthesis of 3-amino-2-pyrazolines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngsø, Lars O.; Nielsen, John

    1998-01-01

    The development of a solid-phase synthesis of 3-amino-2-pyrazolines is described. Conjugate addition of hydrazines to α,β-unsaturated nitriles followed by cyclization yields 3-amino-2-pyrazolines. Acylation or sulfonation of the free amino-group yields a 24 member library of 3-amino-2- pyrazolines....

  5. Genetics Home Reference: tetra-amelia syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... absence of all four limbs. ("Tetra" is the Greek word for "four," and "amelia" refers to the ... PubMed Central Ohdo S, Sonoda T, Ohba K. Natural history and postmortem anatomy of a patient with tetra- ...

  6. Pyrolysis of the tetra pak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korkmaz, Ahmet; Yanik, Jale; Brebu, Mihai; Vasile, Cornelia

    2009-01-01

    This study deals with pyrolysis of tetra pak which is widely used as an aseptic beverage packaging material. Pyrolysis experiments were carried out under inert atmosphere in a batch reactor at different temperatures and by different pyrolysis modes (one- and two-step). The yields of char, liquid and gas were quantified. Pyrolysis liquids produced were collected as three separate phases; aqueous phase, tar and polyethylene wax. Characterization of wax and the determination of the total amount of phenols in aqueous phase were performed. Chemical compositions of gas and char products relevant to fuel applications were determined. Pure aluminum can be also recovered by pyrolysis.

  7. MIH based mobility for TETRA-LTE network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popovska Avramova, Andrijana

    2013-01-01

    TETRA is a digital trunked mobile radio standard, devel- oped to meet the needs of traditional Professional Mobile Radio user or-ganizations. As TETRA does not provide for broadband services, many companies are looking into integration of LTE and TETRA in order to provide support for real time...... multimedia services. Fast handover among these networks is paramount for mission critical applications. Therefore this paper explores the possibilities and advantages of using the Media Independent Handover, an IEEE standard, in improving the handover performance in a TETRA-LTE heterogeneous environment...

  8. MASS SPECTROMETRIC IDENTIFICATION OF AN AZOBENZENE DERIVATIVE PRODUCED BY SMECTITE-CATALYZED CONVERSION OF 3-AMINO-4-HYDROXPHENYLARSONIC ACID

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report here the first evidence of a possible mechanism for the formation of an azobenzene arsonic acid compound in the environment The compound was formed when 3-amino-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid (3-amino-HPAA) was added to aqueous suspensions of smectite clay The 3-amino-HPAA...

  9. Robustness of a TETRA base station receiver against intentional EMI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Beek, G.S.; Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Terrestrial trunked radio (TETRA) is a digital radio standard that was developed to meet the needs of professional mobile radio systems. TETRA is vulnerable to intentional electromagnetic interference (EMI) because of the wireless link. The EMI can easily be front door coupled to the base station

  10. An Efficient Green Synthesis of 3-Amino-1 H -chromenes Catalyzed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An Efficient Green Synthesis of 3-Amino-1 H -chromenes Catalyzed by ZnO Nanoparticles Thin-film. ... South African Journal of Chemistry ... The mild reaction conditions, reusability of the catalyst, easy work-up and high yields of products make the present protocol sustainable and advantageous compared to conventional ...

  11. Methods of using (1S,3S)-3-amino-4-difluoromethylenyl-1-cyclopentanoic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silverman, Richard B; Dewey, Stephen L; Miller, Steven

    2015-03-03

    (1S,3S)-3-amino-4-difluoromethylenyl-1-cyclopentanoic acid also known as CPP-115 or its pharmaceutically acceptable salts can be used to treat addiction and neurological disorders such as epilepsy without side effects such as visual field defects caused by vigabatrin (Sabril).

  12. Tetra-amelia and splenogonadal fusion in Roberts syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravel, T.J.L. de; Seftel, M.D.; Wright, C.A. [Univ. of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa)

    1997-01-20

    Roberts-SC phocomelia syndrome comprises limb deficiencies of variable severity, facial clefts, and other anomalies. Tetra-amelia may also be associated with facial clefts and similar anomalies. We report on a female infant with severe tetra-amelia, micrognathia, cleft palate, splenogonadal fusion, and premature centromere separation. We propose that this represents the severe expression of the Roberts-SC phocomelia syndrome. 18 refs., 6 figs.

  13. Terrestrial Trunked Radio (TETRA) exposure of neuronal in vitro networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Tim; Wölfel, Maximilian; Ciba, Manuel; Bochtler, Ulrich; Thielemann, Christiane

    2018-04-01

    Terrestrial Trunked Radio (TETRA) is a worldwide common mobile communication standard, used by authorities and organizations with security tasks. Previous studies reported on health effects of TETRA, with focus on the specific pulse frequency of 17.64Hz, which affects calcium efflux in neuronal cells. Likewise among others, it was reported that TETRA affects heart rate variability, neurophysiology and leads to headaches. In contrast, other studies conclude that TETRA does not affect calcium efflux of cells and has no effect on people's health. In the present study we examine whether TETRA short- and long-term exposure could affect the electrophysiology of neuronal in vitro networks. Experiments were performed with a carrier frequency of 395MHz, a pulse frequency of 17.64Hz and a differential quaternary phase-shift keying (π/4 DQPSK) modulation. Specific absorption rates (SAR) of 1.17W/kg and 2.21W/kg were applied. In conclusion, the present results do not indicate any effect of TETRA exposure on electrophysiology of neuronal in vitro networks, neither for short-term nor long-term exposure. This applies to the examined parameters spike rate, burst rate, burst duration and network synchrony. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Experimental and theoretical studies on electrochemical synthesis of poly(3-amino-1,2,4-triazole)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mert, Basak Dogru, E-mail: bdogru@cu.edu.tr [Cukurova University, Science and Letters Faculty, Chemistry Department, 01330 Balcal Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I , Adana (Turkey); Mert, M. Erman; Kardas, Guelfeza; Yaz Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I c Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I , Birguel [Cukurova University, Science and Letters Faculty, Chemistry Department, 01330 Balcal Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I , Adana (Turkey)

    2012-10-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The poly(3-amino-1,2,4-triazole) was electrochemically synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The homogeneous, colorful polymer has higher thermal and electrochemical stability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The correlation was observed between experimental and theoretical data. - Abstract: The electrochemical synthesis of poly(3-amino-1,2,4-triazole) (PATA) on the platinum (Pt) electrode was achieved in ammonium oxalate solution by cyclic voltammetry technique. The conductivity of film was measured with four probe technique, the surface morphology was monitored with atomic force microscopy (AFM) and characterization was achieved by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and UV-vis spectroscopy techniques. The thermal stability of polymer has also been investigated by the means of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The electrochemical stability of Pt/PATA was investigated in different buffer solutions. The quantum theoretical calculations employed and some parameters (dipole moment, E{sub HOMO}, E{sub LUMO}) were determined.

  15. SYNTHESIS OF TETRA-p-PROPENYLTETRAESTERCALIX[4]ARENE AND TETRA-p-PROPENYLTETRACARBOXYLICACIDCALIX[4]ARENE FROM p-t-BUTYLPHENOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triana Kusumaningsih

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A research has been conducted to synthesize tetra-p-propenyltetraestercalix[4]arene and tetra-p-propenyltetracarboxylicacidcalix[4] arene using p-t-butylphenol as a starting material. The synthesis was carried out in following stages, i.e (1 synthesis of p-t-butylcalix[4]arene from p-t-butylphenol, (2 debutylation of p-t-butylcalix[4]arene, (3 tetraallilation of 25,26,27,28-tetrahydroxycalix[4]arene with NaH and allilbromida in dry tetrahydrofuran, (4 Claissen rearrangement of 25,26,27,28-tetrapropenyloxycalix[4]arene, (5 esterification of tetra-p-propenyltetrahydroxycalix[4]arene, (6 hydrolisis of tetra-p-propenyltetraestercalix[4]arene. The all structures of products were observed by means of melting point, FTIR, and 1H-NMR spectrometers. Tetra-p-propenyltetraestercalix[4]arene compound was obtained as yellow liquid product in 55.08% yield. Tetra-p-propenyltetracarboxylicacidcalix[4]arene compound was obtained as white solid product with the melting point 135-137 °C at decomposed and in 70.05% yield.   Keywords: calix[4]arene, Claissen rearrangement, esterification, hydrolisis

  16. Tetra-kis(2,2'-bipyrid-ine)di-μ(3)-hydroxido-bis(μ-2-oxidobenzoato)tetra-copper(II) dinitrate tetra-hydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Miao; Gu, Chao; Mi, Huai-Feng; Hu, Tong-Liang

    2011-05-01

    The tetra-nuclear title complex, [Cu(4)(C(7)H(4)O(3))(2)(OH)(2)(C(10)H(8)N(2))(4)](NO(3))(2)·4H(2)O, has a crystallographically imposed centre of symmetry. The Cu(II) atoms display a distorted square-pyramidal coordination geometry and are linked by two μ(2)-phenolate O atoms from the salicylate ligands and two μ(3)-hydroxo groups, forming a Cu(4)O(4) core that adopts a 'stepped-cubane' geometry. In the crystal, the cations are linked by O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds to the nitrate anions, which are in turn connected via O-H⋯O inter-actions to centrosymmentric water tetra-mers.

  17. Synthesis and aggregation study of optically active tetra--[()-2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 122; Issue 6. Synthesis and aggregation study of optically active tetra--[()-2-octanyloxy]-substituted copper and nickel phthalocyanines. Fang-Di Cong Gui Gao Jian-Xin Li Guo-Qing Huang Zhen Wei Feng-Yang Yu Xi-Guang Du Ke-Zhi Xing. Full Papers Volume ...

  18. Simulations for the neutron detector TETRA with MCNP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Testov, D.; Kuznetsova, E.; Wilson, Jh.

    2013-01-01

    To study the nuclear structure of β-delayed neutron precursors at ALTO ISOL-facility at IPN (Orsay), the high efficiency 4π neutron detector TETRA with 3 He filled counters built at JINR (Dubna) was modified. The MCNP simulations to optimize the future configuration were necessary. The details of the calculations and the major results obtained are discussed

  19. [Chronic hepatic damage in acute promyelocytic leukemia patients treated with tetra-arsenic tetra-sulfide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xiao-ying; Jiang, Bin; Li, Guo-xuan; Lu, Dao-pei

    2006-04-01

    To investigate the chronic hepatic damage in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) patients long-term treated with tetra-arsonic tetra-sulfide (As(4)S(4)). The periodical liver biochemical examinations and ultrasonography results and hepatic fibrosis indicators (P III NP and type IV collagen) of patients were analysed. 106 APL patients treated with As(4)S(4), the median follow-up time was 36 months (6 - 72). The HCV(-) group includes 84 APL patients. During the first course the abnormal rate of the alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) was 16.7% and 14.5% (higher than the two times of the normal value), the ALT, AST, gamma-glyoxylate aminotransferase (GGT) levels during the first course were statistically higher than As4S4 treatment before (P 0.05). Other biochemical indicators such as ALP, LDH, TBIL, DBIL, TP, ALB, A/G, BUN, CRE, there were no significantly differences before and after As(4)S(4) treatment (P > 0.05). The HCV(+) group includes 22 APL patients, during the first course, the abnormal rate of the ALT, AST were 63.6% and 59.1%, but at the 2 year, more than 3 years there were no significantly differences compared with As(4)S(4) treatment before (P > 0.05). 42 APL patients were treated with As(4)S(4) more than 3 years, in 33 HCV(-) APL patients, two APL patients had splenomegaly, one APL patient's breadth of the portal vein was wider than 1.4 cm, 21 APL patients had fatty liver (63.6%). The hepatic fibrosis indicators of the 16 APL patients were all normal. In 9 HCV(+) APL patients, 4 APL patients had splenomegaly, 2 APL patients, breadth of portal vein were wider than 1.4 cm, 6 APL patients had fatty liver (66.7%). 6 patients were examined with the hepatic fibrosis indicators, 2 patients, were higher than the normal value. Long term As(4)S(4) treatment for APL patients had no obvious effects on hepatic function, no obvious hepatic fibrosis and portal hypertension signs at more than 3 years, excepting for the rate of fatty liver

  20. Mass spectrometric identification of an azobenzene derivative produced by smectite-catalyzed conversion of 3-amino-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wershaw, R L; Rutherford, D W; Rostad, C E; Garbarino, J R; Ferrer, Imma; Kennedy, K R; Momplaisir, Georges-Marie; Grange, Andrew

    2003-05-01

    The compound 3-amino-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid (3-amino-HPAA) reacts with smectite to form a soluble azobenzene arsonic acid compound. This reaction is of particular interest because it provides a possible mechanism for the formation of a new type of arsenic compound in natural water systems. 3-Amino-HPAA is a degradation product excreted by chickens that are fed rations amended with roxarsone. Roxarsone is used to control coccidial intestinal parasites in most of the broiler chickens grown in the United States. The structure of the azobenzene arsonic acid compound was first inferred from negative-ion and positive-ion low-resolution mass-spectrometric analyses of the supernatant of the smectite suspension. Elemental composition of the parent ion determined by high-resolution positive-ion mass spectrometric measurements was consistent with the proposed structure of the azobenzene arsonic acid compound.

  1. Mass spectrometric identification of an azobenzene derivative produced by smectite-catalyzed conversion of 3-amino-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wershaw, R. L.; Rutherford, D.W.; Rostad, C.E.; Garbarino, J.R.; Ferrer, I.; Kennedy, K.R.; Momplaisir, G.-M.; Grange, A.

    2003-01-01

    The compound 3-amino-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid (3-amino-HPAA) reacts with smectite to form a soluble azobenzene arsonic acid compound. This reaction is of particular interest because it provides a possible mechanism for the formation of a new type of arsenic compound in natural water systems. 3-Amino-HPAA is a degradation product excreted by chickens that are fed rations amended with roxarsone. Roxarsone is used to control coccidial intestinal parasites in most of the broiler chickens grown in the United States. The structure of the azobenzene arsonic acid compound was first inferred from negative-ion and positive-ion low-resolution mass-spectrometric analyses of the supernatant of the smectite suspension. Elemental composition of the parent ion determined by high-resolution positive-ion mass spectrometric measurements was consistent with the proposed structure of the azobenzene arsonic acid compound. Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  2. The Comparison of Propagation Model for Terrestrial Trunked Radio (TETRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayu Kartika R

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A system of digital radio Terrestrial Trunked Radio (TETRA is designed for communication which need specialility, better privacy, better quality of audio with speed transmission data and access capacity to the internet and telephone network. TETRA system of TMO and DMO operation mode which has wide coverage and reliable than the interference so that the TETRA planning needs a propagation model which corresponding with environment. Therefore, this research compare a pathloss value of calculation of propagation model such as Free Space Loss, Wickson, Bacon, CEPT SE21, Ericsson (9999, ITU-R SM 2028 and Okumura Hata based on the environment are clutter urban, sub urban dan rural. The calculation of pathloss provide that Bacon propagation model is an corresponding model for DMO operation mode with a frequency of 380 MHz, height handhelds 1.5 m and 2 m with pathloss value of 76.82 dB at a distance of 100 m and 113.63 dB at a distance of 1 km while the 400 MHz frequency pathloss value of 77.08 dB at a distance of 100 m and 113.6 dB at a distance of 1 km. The propagation model which corresponding to the TMO operation mode with a frequency of 400 MHz distance of 1 km, the transmitter antenna height (hb 30 m and receiver antenna height (hm 1.5 m is a model of Ericsson (9999 on urban clutter with pathloss value of 96.4 dB, the model ITU-R SM2028 in suburban clutter with a pathloss value of 101.13 dB, and the model ITU-R SM2028 on rural clutter with pathloss value of 83.59 dB. Keywords: TETRA, propagation model, urban, suburban, rural

  3. Peculiarities of hardware implementation of generalized cellular tetra automaton

    OpenAIRE

    Аноприенко, Александр Яковлевич; Федоров, Евгений Евгениевич; Иваница, Сергей Васильевич; Альрабаба, Хамза

    2015-01-01

    Cellular automata are widely used in many fields of knowledge for the study of variety of complex real processes: computer engineering and computer science, cryptography, mathematics, physics, chemistry, ecology, biology, medicine, epidemiology, geology, architecture, sociology, theory of neural networks. Thus, cellular automata (CA) and tetra automata are gaining relevance taking into account the hardware and software solutions.Also it is marked a trend towards an increase in the number of p...

  4. Terrestrial Gamma Flashes at Ground Level - TETRA-II Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleshinger, D. J.; Adams, C.; Al-Nussirat, S.; Bai, S.; Banadaki, Y.; Bitzer, P. M.; Cherry, M. L.; Hoffmann, J.; Khosravi, E.; Legault, M.; Orang, M.; Rodriguez, R.; Smith, D.; Trepanier, J. C.; Sunda-Meya, A.; Zimmer, N.

    2017-12-01

    The TGF and Energetic Thunderstorm Rooftop Array (TETRA-II) consists of an array of BGO scintillators to detect bursts of gamma rays from thunderstorms. TETRA-II will have approximately an order of magnitude greater sensitivity for individual flashes than TETRA-I, an original array of NaI scintillators at Louisiana State University that detected 37 millisecond-scale bursts of gamma rays from 2010-2015. The BGO scintillators increase the energy range of particles detected to 10 MeV and are placed in 20 detectors boxes, each with 1180 cm3 of BGO, at 4 separate locations: the campus of Louisiana State University in Baton Rouge, Louisiana; the campus of the University of Puerto Rico at Utuado, Puerto Rico; the Centro Nacional de Metrologia de Panama (CENAMEP) in Panama City, Panama; and the Severe Weather Institute and Radar & Lightning Laboratories in Huntsville, Alabama. The data are read out with 12 microsecond resolution by National Instruments PCIe 6351 high speed data acquisition cards, with timestamps determined from a 20 MHz clock and a GPS board recording a pulse per second. Details of the array and its instrumentation, along with an overview of initial results, will be presented.

  5. Co-culture engineering for microbial biosynthesis of 3-amino-benzoic acid in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haoran; Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    2016-07-01

    3-amino-benzoic acid (3AB) is an important building block molecule for production of a wide range of important compounds such as natural products with various biological activities. In the present study, we established a microbial biosynthetic system for de novo 3AB production from the simple substrate glucose. First, the active 3AB biosynthetic pathway was reconstituted in the bacterium Escherichia coli, which resulted in the production of 1.5 mg/L 3AB. In an effort to improve the production, an E. coli-E. coli co-culture system was engineered to modularize the biosynthetic pathway between an upstream strain and an downstream strain. Specifically, the upstream biosynthetic module was contained in a fixed E. coli strain, whereas a series of E. coli strains were engineered to accommodate the downstream biosynthetic module and screened for optimal production performance. The best co-culture system was found to improve 3AB production by 15 fold, compared to the mono-culture approach. Further engineering of the co-culture system resulted in biosynthesis of 48 mg/L 3AB. Our results demonstrate co-culture engineering can be a powerful new approach in the broad field of metabolic engineering. Copyright © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Impedance Spectroscopy and AC Conductivity Studies of Bulk 3-Amino-7-(dimethylamino)-2-methyl-hydrochloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shabaan, M. M.

    2018-02-01

    Impedance spectroscopy and alternating-current (AC) conductivity (σ AC) studies of bulk 3-amino-7-(dimethylamino)-2-methyl-hydrochloride (neutral red, NR) have been carried out over the temperature (T) range from 303 K to 383 K and frequency (f) range from 0.5 kHz to 5 MHz. Dielectric data were analyzed using the complex impedance (Z *) and complex electric modulus (M *) for bulk NR at various temperatures. The impedance loss peaks were found to shift towards high frequencies, indicating an increase in the relaxation time (τ 0) and loss in the material, with increasing temperature. For each temperature, a single depressed semicircle was observed at high frequencies, originating from the bulk transport, and a spike in the low-frequency region, resulting from the electrode effect. Fitting of these curves yielded an equivalent circuit containing a parallel combination of a resistance R and constant-phase element (CPE) Q. The carrier transport in bulk NR is governed by the correlated barrier hopping (CBH) mechanism, some parameters of which, such as the maximum barrier height (W M), charge density (N), and hopping distance (r), were determined as functions of both temperature and frequency. The frequency dependence of σ AC at different temperatures indicated that the conduction in bulk NR is a thermally activated process. The σ AC value at different frequencies increased linearly with temperature.

  7. 40 CFR 721.7270 - 1-propanaminium, 3-amino-, N,N,N-trimethyl-N-soya acyl derivs., chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-trimethyl-N-soya acyl derivs., chloride. 721.7270 Section 721.7270 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...-soya acyl derivs., chloride. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 1-propanaminium, 3-amino-, N,N,N-trimethyl-N-soya acyl derivs...

  8. Fluorescence properties of 3-amino phenylboronic acid and its interaction with glucose and ZnS:Cu quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kur-Kowalska, Karolina; Przybyt, Małgorzata; Ziółczyk, Paulina; Sowiński, Przemysław; Miller, Ewa

    2014-08-14

    Preliminary results of a study of the interaction between 3-amino phenylboronic acid and glucose or ZnS:Cu quantum dots are presented in this paper. ZnS:Cu quantum dots with mercaptopropionic acid as a capping agent were obtained and characterized. Quenching of 3-amino phenylboronic acid fluorescence was studied by steady-state and timeresolved measurements. For fluorescence quenching with glucose the results of steady-state measurements fulfill Stern-Volmer equation. The quenching constants are increasing with growing pH. The decay of fluorescence is monoexponential with lifetime about 8.4 ns, which does not depend on pH and glucose concentration indicating static quenching. The quenching constant can be interpreted as apparent equilibrium constant of estrification of boronic group with diol. Quantum dots are also quenching 3-amino phenylboronic acid fluorescence. Fluorescence lifetime, in this case, is slightly decreasing with increasing concentration of quantum dots. The quenching constants are increasing slightly with pH's growth. Quenching mechanism of 3-amino phenylboronic acid fluorescence by quantum dots needs further experiments to be fully explained. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Sex Reversal on Congo Tetra Fish (Micraleptus intterruptus Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harton Arfah

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTExperiment was performed to assess the effect of 17a-methyltestosterone (MT treatment on Congo tetra fish larvae.  To evaluate the optimal pattern of MT treatment, three different treatments were administrated.  Three months old larvae were submerged in three different doses of MT; 1, 2 and 4 mg/l.  These studies showed that the highest percentage of male fish was obtained by 4 mg/l MT treatment, 87,17%.  The 2 mg/l and 1 mg/l MT treatments obtained 77,53% and 69,86% male respectively, two times higher than control, 38,96%.  On the other hand, the 4 mg/l MT treatment also resulted the highest percentage of hermaphrodite fishes, 17,58%.  The highest survival rate was shown by 1 mg/l MT treatment, 62,77% and the lowest was shown by the 4 mg/l MT treatment, 47,20%.  The highest rate of fish length and weight was shown by the 4 mg/l MT treatment, 4,4 cm and 1,65 gram respectively.  These findings suggest that MT treatment offers an advantage in growth of  tetra Congo larvae. Key word :  Sex reversal, methyltestosterone, Congo tetra fish, Micraleptus intterruptus. ABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh perendaman larva di dalam larutan hormon 17a-metiltestosteron pada dosis 1, 2 dan 4 mg/l larutan.  Persentase tertinggi ikan jantan dihasilkan  oleh perlakuan 4 mg/l, yaitu 87,17%.  Perlakuan 2 mg/l dan 1 mg/l masing-masing menghasilkan 77,53% dan 69,86% sedangkan kontrol menghasilkan 38,96% jantan.  Efek lain dari perlakuan MT ini adalah hermafroditisme.  Perlakuan 4 mg/l menghasilkan persentase hermafrodit tertinggi yaitu 17,58%, sedangkan pada kontrol kelangsungan hidup tertinggi diperoleh pada perlakuan 1 mg/l (62,77% dan terendah pada perlakuan 4 mg/l (47,20%.  Hasil tersebut menunjukkan adanya pengaruh dosis hormon terhadap kelangsungan hidup ikan.  Pengukuran bobot dan panjang ikan pada setiap perlakuan menunjukkan nilai tertinggi dihasilkan oleh perlakuan 4 mg/l  yaitu 1,65 gram dan 4,40 cm.  Hal

  10. 40 CFR 721.3560 - Derivative of tetra-chloro-ethy-lene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Derivative of tetra-chloro-ethy-lene... Substances § 721.3560 Derivative of tetra-chloro-ethy-lene. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... described in paragraph (a)(2) of this section: Derivative of tetrachloroethylene, P-82-684. (2) The...

  11. Tetra-combined cogeneration system. Exergy and thermo economic evaluation; Sistema tetra combinado de cogeracao. Avaliacao exergetica e termoeconomica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arriola, Domingo Wilson Garagatti [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: wgarriol@usp.br; Oliveira Junior, Silvio de [Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas (IPT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: olivsilj@ipt.br

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents the description and the exergy and thermo economic evaluation of a new cogeneration system, called tetra-combined cogeneration system, that generates electricity and chilled water (for air conditioning purposes) and eventually steam. This system is composed of a gas turbine, a heat recovery steam generator, a condensation/extraction steam turbine and a hybrid absorption/steam ejection chiller. The exergy and thermo economic performance (exergy based costs of electricity, steam and chilled water production) of this system is compared with the performances of conventional cogeneration systems, pointing out the advantages and disadvantages of this new system. (author)

  12. Tetra-combined cogeneration system. Exergy and thermoeconomic evaluation; Sistema tetra combinado de cogeracao. Avaliacao exergetica e termoeconomica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arriola, Domingo Wilson Garagatti [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: wgarriol@usp.br; Oliveira Junior, Silvio de [Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas (IPT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: olivsilj@ipt.br

    2000-07-01

    The description and the exergy and thermo economic evaluation of a new cogeneration system, called tetra-combined cogeneration system, that generates electricity and chilled water (for air conditioning purposes) and eventually steam is presented. This system is composed of a gas turbine, a heat recovery steam generator, a condensation/extraction steam turbine and a hybrid absorption/steam ejection chiller.The exergy and thermo economic performance (exergy based costs of electricity, steam and chilled water production) of this system is compared with the performances of conventional cogeneration systems, pointing out the advantages and disadvantages of this new system. (author)

  13. ANALISA KUALITAS LAYANAN SISTEM KOMUNIKASI TETRA PADA KERETA API INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakhmadany Primananda

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Pada sistem komunikasi dan informasi yang ada pada Perusahaan Terbatas Kereta Api Indonesia (PT KAI Persero masih belum terintegrasi semua untuk saat ini. Sistem komunikasinya masih menggunakan sistem komunikasi analog seperti Very High Frequency (VHF dengan frekuensi 400 MHz dan microwave yang mempunyai frekuensi 2 GHz, dimana kedua frekuensi tersebut terjadi interferensi terhadap frekuensi komunikasi selular. Sistem komunikasi analog ini tidak memungkinkan untuk bisa terintegrasi dengan informasi yang diberikan, karena membutuhkan pengubahan secara digital. Pada penelitian ini dibahas mengenai topologi jaringan TETRA untuk area Daop 1 Jakarta dalam hal ini KRL Jabodetabek dan TETRA untuk area Daop 8 Surabaya dengan simulator OPNET modeler. Hasil uji coba QoS menunjukkan bahwa hasil pembagian trafik yang ada pada 4 slot TDMA masih kurang maksimal untuk mendekati 115,2 kbps dalam hal throughput karena penggunaan channel yang kurang. Untuk SNR sudah didapatkan hasil yang baik yaitu rata-rata di atas 30dB. Perbedaan topologi dan penempatan BTS pada komunikasi sangat berpengaruh terhadap hasil kualitas jaringan yang didapatkan.

  14. FACE RECOGNITION BASED ON LOCAL DERIVATIVE TETRA PATTERN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Geetha

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new face recognition algorithm called local derivative tetra pattern (LDTrP. The new technique LDTrP is used to alleviate the face recognition rate under real-time challenges. Local derivative pattern (LDP is a directional feature extraction method to encode directional pattern features based on local derivative variations. The nth -order LDP is proposed to encode the first (n-1th order local derivative direction variations. The LDP templates extract high-order local information by encoding various distinctive spatial relationships contained in a given local region. The local tetra pattern (LTrP encodes the relationship between the reference pixel and its neighbours by using the first-order derivatives in vertical and horizontal directions. LTrP extracts values which are based on the distribution of edges which are coded using four directions. The LDTrP combines the higher order directional feature from both LDP and LTrP. Experimental results on ORL and JAFFE database show that the performance of LDTrP is consistently better than LBP, LTP and LDP for face identification under various conditions. The performance of the proposed method is measured in terms of recognition rate.

  15. Synthesis of disodium-3-amino-1-hydroxypropane-1, 1-diphosphonate-1-/sup 14/C. (APD. 2Na)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnien, E.; Shaikh, M.; Suh, J.T.; Jones, H. (Revlon Health Care Group, Tuckahoe, New York (USA))

    1982-10-01

    Disodium-3-amino-1-hydroxy-1, 1-diphosphonate-1-/sup 14/C (APD 2Na), a powerful calcium binding agent and potential drug for the treatment of Paget's Disease was synthesized. The reaction was carried out by reacting ..beta..-alanine (1-/sup 14/C) with phosphorus acid and phosphorus trichloride in chlorobenzene. Treatment of the resultant APD with two equivalents of sodium hydroxide gave the title compound.

  16. 3-Amino-4-aminoximidofurazan derivatives: small molecules possessing antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, M C; Paul, S; Gupta, P; Tribedi, P; Sarkar, S; Manna, D; Bhattacharjee, S

    2016-04-01

    The therapeutic treatment of microbial infections involving biofilm becomes quite challenging because of its increasing antibiotic resistance capacities. Towards this direction, in the present study we have evaluated the antibiofilm property of synthesized 3-amino-4-aminoximidofurazan compounds having polyamine skeleton. These derivatives were synthesized by incorporating furazan and biguanide moieties. Different 3-amino-4-aminoximidofurazan derivatives (PI1-4) were synthesized via protic acid catalysis and subsequently characterized by (1) H NMR and (13) C NMR spectra, recorded at 400 and 100 MHz respectively. We have tested the antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities of these synthetic derivatives (PI1-4) against both Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The compounds so tested were also compared with standard antibiotics namely Tobramycin (Ps. aeruginosa) and Azithromycin (Staph. aureus) which were used as a positive control in all experimental sets. All these compounds (PI1-4) exhibited moderate to significant antimicrobial activities against both micro-organisms wherein compound PI3 showed maximum activity. Biofilm inhibition of both micro-organisms was then evaluated by crystal violet and safranin staining, estimation of biofilm total protein and microscopy methods using sub-MIC dose of these compounds. Results showed that all compounds executed anti biofilm activity against both Staph. aureus and Ps. aeruginosa wherein compound PI3 exhibited maximum activity. In relation with microbial biofilm inhibition, we have observed reduction in bacterial motility, proteolytic activity and secreted exo-polysaccharide (EPS) from both Staph. aureus and Ps. aeruginosa when they were grown in presence of these compounds. While addressing the issue of toxicity on host, we have observed that these molecules exhibited minimum level of R.B.C degradation. These findings establish the antibacterial and anti biofilm properties of 3-amino-4-aminoximidofurazan

  17. Tetra-ataxiometric Posturography in Patients with Migrainous Vertigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongun, Nedim; Atalay, Nilgun S; Degirmenci, Eylem; Sahin, Fusun; Bir, Levent Sinan

    2016-01-01

    Migraine is a common disorder characterized by headache attacks frequently accompanied by vestibular symptoms like dizziness, vertigo, and balance disorders. Clinical studies support a strong link between migraine and vertigo rather than between other headache types and vertigo or nonvertiginous dizziness. There is a lack of consensus regarding the pathophysiology of migrainous vertigo. Activation of central vestibular processing during migraine attacks and vasospasm-induced ischemia of the labyrinth are reported as the probable responsible mechanisms. Because vestibular examination alone does not provide enough information for diagnosis of migrainous vertigo, posturography systems which provide objective assessment of somatosensory, vestibular, and visual information would be very helpful to show concomitant involvement of the vestibular and somato-sensorial systems. There are few posturographic studies on patients with migraine but it seems that how balance is affected in patients with migraine and/or migrainous vertigo is still not clear. We want to investigate balance function in migraineurs with and without vertigo with a tetra-ataxiometric posturography system and our study is the first study in which tetra-ataxiometric static posturography was used to evaluate postural abnormalities in a well-defined population of patients with migrainous vertigo. To investigate balance functions in migraineurs with and without vertigo with a tetra-ataxiometric posturography system. Prospective, nonrandomized, controlled study. Pamukkale University Hospital, Neurology and Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation outpatient clinics. Sixteen patients with migrainous vertigo, 16 patients with migraine without aura and no vestibular symptoms, and 16 controls were included in the study. Computerized static posturography system was performed and statistical analyses of fall, Fourier, Stability, and Weight distribution indexes were performed. The tetra-ataxiometric posturography device

  18. SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTITUMOR ACTIVITY OF A Ca (II COORDINATION POLYMER BASED ON 3-AMINO-2-PYRAZINECARBOXYLIC ACID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XI-SHI TAI

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A new Ca(II coordination polymer has been obtained by reaction of Ca(ClO42·H2O with 3-amino-2-pyrazinecarboxylic acid in CH3CH2OH/H2O. It was characterized by IR, 1HNMR, thermal analysis and X-ray single crystal diffraction analysis. X-ray analysis reveals that each Ca(II center is seven-coordination with a N2O5 distorted pentagonal bipyramidal coordination environment. The Ca(II ions are linked through the O atoms of 3-amino-2-pyrazinecarboxylic acid ligands to form 1D chain structure. And then a 3D network structure is constructed by hydrogen bonds and π-π stacking. The antitumor activity of 3-amino-2-pyrazinecarboxylic acid ligand and its Ca(II coordination polymer against human intestinal adenocarcinoma HCT-8 cells, lung adenocarcinoma HCT-116 cells and human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells line have been investigated.

  19. Fabrication and characterization of functionalized surfaces with 3-amino propyltrimethoxysilane films for anti-infective therapy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grumezescu, Valentina; Andronescu, Ecaterina; Holban, Alina Maria; Socol, Gabriel; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Ficai, Anton; Lazar, Veronica; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen; Trusca, Roxana

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Thin coatings based on 3-amino propyltrimethoxysilane with anti-adherent properties. • PVC modified surfaces with improved resistance to microbial colonization. • Firstly report on antimicrobial properties of 3-amino propyltrimethoxysilane. - Abstract: The purpose of this study was the fabrication of functionalized anti-adherent surfaces based on the polyvinyl chloride (PVC) coated with 3-amino propyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS) by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) in order to improve the resistance of PVC based prosthetic devices to microbial colonization. Infrared microscopy (IRM) investigations of APTMS thin films proved the compositional homogeneity of the prepared thin film. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs revealed a granular morphology with microspheres harboring a diameter between 15 and 60 nm. The microbiological assays proved that MAPLE deposited APTMS films inhibited the adherence capacity and biofilm development of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus strains. Furthermore, this material proved to be highly biocompatible, allowing the normal growth and development of human endothelial cells. These traits highlight the fact that the fabricated APTMS thin films may be efficiently used for improving different surfaces of medical use, including prostheses and implantable devices

  20. Fabrication and characterization of functionalized surfaces with 3-amino propyltrimethoxysilane films for anti-infective therapy applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grumezescu, Valentina [Department of Science and Engineering of Oxide Materials and Nanomaterials, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, University Politehnica of Bucharest, 1–7 Polizu Street, 011061 Bucharest (Romania); Lasers Department, National Institute for Lasers, Plasma & Radiation Physics, P.O. Box MG-36, Magurele, Bucharest (Romania); Andronescu, Ecaterina [Lasers Department, National Institute for Lasers, Plasma & Radiation Physics, P.O. Box MG-36, Magurele, Bucharest (Romania); Holban, Alina Maria [Department of Science and Engineering of Oxide Materials and Nanomaterials, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, University Politehnica of Bucharest, 1–7 Polizu Street, 011061 Bucharest (Romania); Microbiology Immunology Department, Faculty of Biology, Research Institute of the University of Bucharest – ICUB, University of Bucharest, 1–3 Portocalelor Lane, Sector 5, 77206 Bucharest (Romania); Socol, Gabriel [Lasers Department, National Institute for Lasers, Plasma & Radiation Physics, P.O. Box MG-36, Magurele, Bucharest (Romania); Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai, E-mail: grumezescu@yahoo.com [Department of Science and Engineering of Oxide Materials and Nanomaterials, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, University Politehnica of Bucharest, 1–7 Polizu Street, 011061 Bucharest (Romania); Ficai, Anton [Department of Science and Engineering of Oxide Materials and Nanomaterials, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, University Politehnica of Bucharest, 1–7 Polizu Street, 011061 Bucharest (Romania); Lazar, Veronica; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen [Microbiology Immunology Department, Faculty of Biology, Research Institute of the University of Bucharest – ICUB, University of Bucharest, 1–3 Portocalelor Lane, Sector 5, 77206 Bucharest (Romania); Trusca, Roxana [S.C Metav-CD S.A., 31 Rosetti Str., 020015 Bucharest (Romania); and others

    2015-05-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Thin coatings based on 3-amino propyltrimethoxysilane with anti-adherent properties. • PVC modified surfaces with improved resistance to microbial colonization. • Firstly report on antimicrobial properties of 3-amino propyltrimethoxysilane. - Abstract: The purpose of this study was the fabrication of functionalized anti-adherent surfaces based on the polyvinyl chloride (PVC) coated with 3-amino propyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS) by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) in order to improve the resistance of PVC based prosthetic devices to microbial colonization. Infrared microscopy (IRM) investigations of APTMS thin films proved the compositional homogeneity of the prepared thin film. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs revealed a granular morphology with microspheres harboring a diameter between 15 and 60 nm. The microbiological assays proved that MAPLE deposited APTMS films inhibited the adherence capacity and biofilm development of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus strains. Furthermore, this material proved to be highly biocompatible, allowing the normal growth and development of human endothelial cells. These traits highlight the fact that the fabricated APTMS thin films may be efficiently used for improving different surfaces of medical use, including prostheses and implantable devices.

  1. MODELACIÓN DEL PROCESO DE RECUPERACIÓN PARCIAL DE ENVASES DE TETRA PAK MODELAÇÃO DO PROCESSO DE RECUPERAÇÃO PARCIAL DE EMBALAGENS TETRA PAK MODELING THE PARTIAL RECOVERY PROCESS OF TETRA PAK PACKAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JORGE MARIO OBANDO

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se estudian el patrón de consumo, las expectativas y satisfacción de la población de Medellín con los envases de Tetra Pak, el tratamiento que se les da cuando son descartados y la conducta que se seguiría, conociendo que el Tetra Pak es reciclable; luego, se modela el procedimiento para recuperar parcialmente esos desechos de Tetra Pak y comercializarlos como bienes intermedios, aptos para ser reintegrados dentro de diversos procesos productivos. Se estudian varias políticas de operación mediante un modelo de simulación de eventos discretos construido en Extend.No presente artigo se estudam o patrão de consumo, as expectativas e satisfação da população de M edellín com as embalagens Tetra Pak, o tratamento que se lhes dá quando são descartadas e a conduta que se seguiria, conhecendo que o Tetra Pak é reciclável; depois, se modela o procedimento para recuperar parcialmente esses resíduos de Tetra Pak e comercializá-los como bens intermédios, aptos para ser reintegrados dentro de diversos processos produtivos. Estudam-se várias políticas de operação mediante um modelo de simulação de eventos discretos construído em Extend.In this paper we study the consumption pattern, expectations and satisfaction of the population of Medellin with Tetra Pak packages, the treatment given to them now when they are discarded and the conduct to be followed, knowing that the Tetra Pak is recyclable, then the process to recover partially debris from Tetra Pak is modeled and marketed as intermediate goods, eligible to be reinstated within various production processes. Several operating policies through a discrete event simulation built in Extend are studied.

  2. The TETRA-II Experiment to Observe Terrestrial Gamma Flashes at Ground Level - Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, M. L.; Adams, C.; Al-Nussirat, S.; Bai, S.; Banadaki, Y.; Bitzer, P. M.; Hoffmann, J.; Khosravi, E.; Legault, M.; Orang, M.; Pleshinger, D. J.; Rodriguez, R.; Smith, D.; Trepanier, J. C.; Sunda-Meya, A.; Zimmer, N.

    2017-12-01

    An upgraded version of the TGF and Energetic Thunderstorm Rooftop Array (TETRA-II) consists of an array of BGO scintillators to detect bursts of gamma rays from thunderstorms at ground level in four separate locations: the campus of Louisiana State University in Baton Rouge, Louisiana; the campus of the University of Puerto Rico at Utuado, Puerto Rico; the Centro Nacional de Metrologia de Panama (CENAMEP) in Panama City, Panama; and the Severe Weather Institute and Radar & Lightning Laboratories in Huntsville, Alabama. The original TETRA-I array of NaI scintillators at Louisiana State University detected 37 millisecond-scale bursts of gamma rays at energies 50 keV-2 MeV associated with nearby (< 8 km) thunderstorms. TETRA-II began operation in May 2016 and now has approximately an order of magnitude greater sensitivity than TETRA-I. The ability to observe ground-level Terrestrial Gamma Flashes from close to the source allows a unique analysis of the storm cells producing these events. A brief description of the TETRA-I observations, a description of TETRA-II, and preliminary results of the first events observed by TETRA-II will be presented including frequency and time history of events, spectral information, and correlation with local radar and radio data.

  3. Tetra-radical and ionic S1/S0 conical intersections of cyclobutadiene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumita, Masato; Saito, Kazuya

    2010-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Ionic conical intersection (CI ionic ) and tetra-radical conical intersection (CI tetra ) between the S 1 state and S 0 state of cyclobutadiene have been located. While CI ionic is involved in the automerization, CI tetra is involved in not only the automerization but also the criss-cross reaction. - Abstract: We have located two conical intersections between the first singlet excited (S 1 ) and singlet ground (S 0 ) states of cyclobutadiene (CBD) using the complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) method. One is the ionic-structure S 1 /S 0 conical intersection (CI ionic ), which was located by carrying out a minimum-energy-path calculation from the Franck-Condon point of the HOMO to LUMO double-electron excited state, and the other is the tetra-radical S 1 /S 0 conical intersection (CI tetra ), which was located by exploring the S 1 /S 0 degeneracy space. While CI ionic is only involved in the automerization of CBD, CI tetra is involved in not only the automerization but also the criss-cross reaction. It is possible for one of the highest constrained compounds, tetrahedrane, to be produced if S 1 excited CBD undergoes a transition to the S 0 state via the tetra-radical S 1 /S 0 conical intersection. In this paper, we discuss the possibility that unsubstituted tetrahedrane can be produced by irradiating CBD.

  4. Evaluation of consumer satisfaction using the tetra-class model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerfeuille, Fabrice; Poubanne, Yannick; Vakrilova, Milena; Petrova, Guenka

    2008-09-01

    A number of studies have shown the importance of consumers' satisfaction toward pharmacy services. The measurement of patient satisfaction through different elements of services provided is challenging within the context of a dynamic economic environment. Patient satisfaction is the result of long-term established habits and expectations to the pharmacy as an institution. Few studies to date have attempted to discern whether these changes have led to increased patient satisfaction and loyalty, particularly within developing nations. The objective of this study was to evaluate the elements of the services provided in Bulgarian pharmacies and their contribution to consumer satisfaction using a tetra-class model. Three main hypotheses were tested in pharmacies to validate the model in the case of complex services. Additionally, the contribution of the different service elements to the clients' satisfaction was studied. The analysis was based on a survey of customers in central and district pharmacies in Sofia, Bulgaria. The data were analyzed through a correspondence analysis which was applied to the results of the 752 distributed questionnaires. It was observed that different dimensions of the pharmacies contribute uniquely to customer satisfaction, with consumer gender contributing greatly toward satisfaction, with type/location of pharmacy, consumer age, and educational degree also playing a part. The duration of time over which the consumers have been clients at a given pharmacy influences the subsequent service categorization. This research demonstrated that the tetra-class model is suitable for application in the pharmaceutical sector. The model results could be beneficial for both researchers and pharmacy managers.

  5. Theoretical approach of the catalytic hydrochlorination of the 3-amino-2H-1,2,4-triazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Baptiste Mensah

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to determine the sites of protonation of the molecule during the hydrochlorination of 3-amino-2H-1,2,4-triazole. The catalytic reaction was carried out on the site MoS3H3+ and on the site ZnCl2. On both catalysts, the reaction led to a selective protonation of the molecule on the same atom of nitrogen of the cycle. But the reaction is endothermic and exothermic on the MoS3H3+ and ZnCl2 catalytic sites, respectively. The calculation method used is Hartree-Fock (HF in the lanl2dz basis set.

  6. Reaproveitamento de resíduos de embalagens Tetra Pak-® em coberturas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen C. P. da Silva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa foi realizada com o objetivo de avaliar o reaproveitamento de embalagens Tetra Pak-® junto a telhas de fibrocimento e o uso de telhas recicladas à base de embalagens Tetra Pak-® no conforto térmico em modelos físicos em escala reduzida de instalações rurais. Para testar os diferentes materiais de cobertura, foram construídos seis modelos: telhas recicladas à base de embalagens Tetra Pak-®, telhas cerâmicas, telhas de fibrocimento, telhas de alumínio, telhas de fibrocimento com subcobertura de embalagens Tetra Pak-® com a face aluminizada voltada para cima e telhas de fibrocimento com forro de embalagens Tetra Pak-® com a face aluminizada voltada para cima. Os dados foram coletados no período de dezembro de 2012 a fevereiro de 2013, das 9 às 17 h, em intervalos de 20 min. É possível afirmar que as telhas recicladas apresentaram índices de conforto térmico com valores semelhantes aos apresentados por outros materiais de cobertura, como as telhas cerâmicas. O reaproveitamento das embalagens Tetra Pak-® como forro contribuiu para redução dos valores médios de índice de temperatura e umidade, índice de temperatura de globo e umidade e carga térmica de radiação.

  7. Cranial skeletogenesis and osteology of the redeye tetra Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, B E

    2013-01-01

    The skeletogenesis and osteology of the syncranium of the redeye tetra Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae is described. Skeletal development is rapid, with many elements of the chondrocranium and splanchnocranium well formed prior to the onset of ossification. The chondrocranium develops from an initial set of cartilaginous precursors, and continued elaboration proceeds from a series of processes which expand and converge to form the floor of the cranial vault, the otic capsule, the supraorbital bridge and the ethmoid region. Prodigious growth is observed for a number of splanchnocranial elements, including the Meckel's cartilage and the ceratohyal cartilage. Ossification occurs in overlapping phases with initial ossification of the jaws and neurocranial floor followed by the splanchnocranium, the supraorbital bridges and the ethmoid and cranial vault. Teeth are observed primarily on the premaxilla and dentary, while a single tooth is present on the maxilla. Particular cartilages, which had originally formed in the early larva, appear to degenerate and have no ossified representative in the adult syncranium. The cranial development for M. sanctaefilomenae is compared to those of other characiforms. © 2012 The Author. Journal of Fish Biology © 2012 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  8. A Cisplatin Derivative Tetra-Pt(bpy) as an Oncotherapeutic Agent for Targeting ALT Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiao-Hui; Nie, Xin; Fang, Yiming; Zhang, Zepeng; Xiao, Yingnan; Mao, Zongwan; Liu, Haiying; Ren, Jian; Wang, Feng; Xia, Lixin; Huang, Junjiu; Zhao, Yong

    2017-10-01

    In approximately 15% of human cancers, telomere length is maintained independently of telomerase by the homologous recombination (HR)-mediated alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) pathway. Whether the ALT pathway can be exploited for therapeutic treatment remains unknown. The purpose of this study is to develop oncotherapeutic agent to target ALT cancers. Surface plasmon resonance assay, antibody to G-quadruplex, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) were used to discover Tetra-Pt(bpy), a cisplatin derivative that specifically targets telomeric G-quadruplex. We used immunofluorescence, FISH, C-circle assay, and chromosome orientation FISH to evaluate the inhibitory effect of Tetra-Pt(bpy) on ALT activity in human ALT cancers. The shortening of telomere length induced by Tetra-Pt(bpy) was determined by telomere restriction fragment or Q-FISH. Cell destination after Tetra-Pt(bpy) treatment was determined by β-gal staining or apoptosis assay. Nude mice (n = 4 per group) were injected with U2OS cells to evaluate the effects of Tetra-Pt(bpy) on tumor growth. All statistical tests were two-sided. Tetra-Pt(bpy) inhibits the strand invasion/annealing step of telomeric homologous recombination by selectively converting telomeric ssDNA to a G-quadruplex. ALT-cells treated with Tetra-Pt(bpy) show fewer ALT-associated promyelocytic leukemia bodies (untreated: mean±SD = 5.9±0.2 vs treated: mean±SD = 3.1±0.1, P ALT-cell xenograft tumors in mice (untreated: mean±SD = 57.1±3.7 mm 3 vs treated: mean±SD = 19.0±3.2 mm 3 , P ALT cancer cells. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Synthesis of macrocyclic bifunctional chelating agents: 1,4,7 - tri(carboxy-methyl) - 10 - (2-amino-ethyl) - 1,4,7,10 - tetra-aza-cyclo-dodecane and 1,4,8 - tri(carboxy-methyl)- 11 - (2-amino-ethyl) - 1,4,8,11 - tetra-aza-cyclo-tetra-decane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, A.K. [Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences, Dept. of Radiopharmaceuticals, Delhi (India); Chatal, J.F. [Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale (INSERM U-463), Lab. d' Interactions Recepteurs Ligands en Immunocancerologie et immunopathologie, 44 - Nantes (France)

    2001-02-01

    The convenient, synthetically useful bifunctional chelating agents, 1,4,7 - tri(carboxy-methyl) - 10 - (2-amino-ethyl) - 1,4,7,10 - tetra-aza-cyclo-dodecane and 1,4,8 - tri(carboxy-methyl) - 11 - (2-amino-ethyl) - 1,4,8,11 - tetra-aza-cyclo-tetra-decane, were obtained by reaction of ethyl bromo-acetate with 1,4,7,10 - tetra-aza-cyclo-dodecane and 1,4,8,11 - tetra-aza-cyclo-tetra-decane, followed by reaction with N-(2-bromo-ethyl)phthalimide. This method is proven to be more efficient to prepare bifunctional chelating agents with aliphatic side arms in high yields, above 53%. (authors)

  10. Synthesis of macrocyclic bifunctional chelating agents: 1,4,7 - tri(carboxy-methyl) - 10 - (2-amino-ethyl) - 1,4,7,10 - tetra-aza-cyclo-dodecane and 1,4,8 - tri(carboxy-methyl)- 11 - (2-amino-ethyl) - 1,4,8,11 - tetra-aza-cyclo-tetra-decane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, A.K.; Chatal, J.F.

    2001-01-01

    The convenient, synthetically useful bifunctional chelating agents, 1,4,7 - tri(carboxy-methyl) - 10 - (2-amino-ethyl) - 1,4,7,10 - tetra-aza-cyclo-dodecane and 1,4,8 - tri(carboxy-methyl) - 11 - (2-amino-ethyl) - 1,4,8,11 - tetra-aza-cyclo-tetra-decane, were obtained by reaction of ethyl bromo-acetate with 1,4,7,10 - tetra-aza-cyclo-dodecane and 1,4,8,11 - tetra-aza-cyclo-tetra-decane, followed by reaction with N-(2-bromo-ethyl)phthalimide. This method is proven to be more efficient to prepare bifunctional chelating agents with aliphatic side arms in high yields, above 53%. (authors)

  11. Synthesis of Two Novel 3-Amino-5-[4-chloro-2-phenoxyphenyl]-4H-1,2,4-triazoles with Anticonvulsant Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Mahdavi, Mohammad; Akbarzadeh, Tahmineh; Sheibani, Vahid; Abbasi, Maryam; Firoozpour, Loghman; Tabatabai, Sayyed Abbas; Shafiee, Abbas; Foroumadi, Alireza

    2010-01-01

    Two novel 3-amino-5-(4-choloro-2-phenoxyphenyl)-4H-1,2,4-triazole derivatives were prepared and their anticonvulsant activity was measured by evaluation of the ability of these compounds to protect mice against convulsion induced by lethal doses of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ). Diazepam (Sigma) was considered as a positive control drug with anticonvulsant effect [ED50 = 1.2 (0.5-1.9) mg/Kg]. Amongst the compounds tested, compound 3, 3-amino-5- [4-chloro-2-(2-flurophenoxy)phenyl]-4H-1,2,4-triazole...

  12. Effect of catalase-specific inhibitor 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole on yeast peroxisomal catalase in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Mitsuyoshi; Kinoshita, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Tomoko; Kamasawa, Naomi; Osumi, Masako; Tanaka, Atsuo

    2003-02-14

    3-Amino-1,2,4-triazole (3-AT) is known as an inhibitor of catalase to whose active center it specifically and covalently binds. Subcellular fractionation and immunoelectronmicroscopic observation of the yeast Candida tropicalis revealed that, in 3-AT-treated cells in which the 3-AT was added to the n-alkane medium from the beginning of cultivation, catalase transported into peroxisomes was inactivated and was present as insoluble aggregated forms in the organelle. The aggregation of catalase in peroxisomes occurred only in these 3-AT-treated cells and not in cells in which 3-AT was added at the late exponential growth phase. Furthermore, 3-AT did not affect the transportation of catalase into peroxisomes. The appearance of aggregation only in cells to which 3-AT was added from the beginning of cultivation suggests that, in the process of catalase transportation into yeast peroxisomes, some conformational change may take place and that correct folding may be inhibited by the binding of 3-AT to the active center of catalase. Accordingly, 3-AT will be an interesting compound for investigation of the transport machinery of the peroxisomal tetrameric catalase.

  13. 3-Amino-1,2,4-triazole Limits the Oxidative Damage in UVA-Irradiated Dysplastic Keratinocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Tamara Nechifor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS generated by UVA irradiation affect the keratinocyte cell membrane, DNA, and proteins and may cause serious injury to the skin. Treating human dysplastic keratinocytes (DOK with 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (AMT, a common catalase inhibitor, induced a compensatory mechanism for the hydrogen peroxide detoxification, which included a rise in glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities. Here, we examined a possible role of AMT in protecting a human DOK cell line against UVA-induced damage. In DOK cells exposed to UVA irradiation, we observed a substantial decrease in antioxidant enzymatic activities, such as catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione-S-transferase and an increase in lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation levels. Treating DOK cells with AMT prior to UVA exposure enhanced the activities of glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione-S-transferase, relative to nontreated cells. The enhanced antioxidant activities were correlated with decreased protein oxidation levels. Based on these results, we suggest that AMT may protect dysplastic keratinocytes against the harmful effects of UVA radiation.

  14. Inhibition of Brass (80/20 by 5-Mercaptopentyl-3-Amino-1,2,4-Triazole in Neutral Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan А. Arkhipushkin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the adsorption of 5-mercaptopentyl-3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (MPATA on the corrosive behavior of brass (Cu80/Zn20 in neutral (pH 7.4 borate buffer solutions with and without 0.01 M NaCl was studied. Electrochemical methods show significant decrease of the anodic and cathodic currents on the polarization curves in the presence of MPATA. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS reveals MPATA adsorption on the brass surface from an inhibitor solution. After 17 h of exposure, a mixed complex [CuxZnyMPATAz] with a thickness of about 3–3.5 nm is formed on the surface. This nanolayer has sufficient protective ability to withstand corrosion tests in a salt fog chamber: after 5 days of testing, the samples remain glossy and less than 1% of the surface has been damaged. After corrosion tests in a salt fog chamber, the surface of unprotected samples is enriched with zinc, while at the surface of inhibitor-treated samples, the copper and zinc are present in practically equal contents.

  15. 2-{[2,8-Bis(trifluoromethylquinolin-4-yl](hydroxymethyl}piperidin-1-ium 3-amino-5-nitrobenzoate sesquihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus V. N. de Souza

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title salt solvate, C17H17F6N2O+·C7H5N2O4−·1.5H2O, comprises a piperidin-1-ium cation, a 3-amino-5-nitrobenzoate anion, and three fractionally occupied [i.e. 0.414 (3, 0.627 (6 and 0.459 (5] disordered water molecules of solvation. The cation has an L shape with a C—C—C—C torsion angle of −102.9 (3° for the atoms linking the quinolinyl group to the rest of the cation. In the anion, the carboxylate and nitro groups are essentially coplanar with the benzene ring [O—C—C—C torsion angle = 179.7 (2° and O—N—C—C torsion angle = −3.9 (3°]. In the crystal, extensive O—H...O, O—H...F and N—H...·O hydrogen bonding leads to the formation of a layer in the ab plane.

  16. Isolation of 3-amino-4-nitrobenzyl acetate: evidence of an undisclosed impurity in 5-amino-2-nitrobenzoic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon Quillian

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Yellow crystals of the title compound 3-amino-4-nitrobenzyl acetate, C9H10N2O4, were isolated from the reaction of acetic anhydride with (5-amino-2-nitrophenylmethanol, prepared from reduction of commerically available 5-amino-2-nitrobenzoic acid with borane–THF. The molecule is essentially planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.028 Å. The molecules are linked by intermolecular N—H...O hydrogen-bonding interactions between the carbonyl and amine groups, forming a zigzag chain along the b-axis direction lying in a plane parallel to (-102. The chains are stacked along the c axis by π–π interactions [centroid–centroid distances = 3.6240 (3 and 3.5855 (4 Å]. A strong intramolecular N—H...O hydrogen-bonding interaction is observed between the nitro group and the amine group [2.660 (2 Å].

  17. No Effect of TETRA Hand Portable Transmission Signals on Human Cognitive Function and Symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riddervold, Ingunn Skogstad; Kjærgaard, Søren K.; Pedersen, Gert F.

    2010-01-01

    . To investigate this, we conducted a controlled climate chamber study of possible changes in cognitive performance in healthy volunteers exposed to transmission signals from TETRA hand portables (TETRA handsets). The trial deployed a balanced, randomized, double-blinded cross-over design. Performance on different......Current radio frequency radiation exposure guidelines rest on well-established thermal effects. However, recent research into analogue and digital transmission fields at levels covered by the exposure guidelines has indicated possible detrimental effects on human cognitive performance...

  18. EQCM and XPS analysis of 1,2,4-triazole and 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole as copper corrosion inhibitors in chloride solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finšgar, Matjaž

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •3-Amino-1,2,4-triazole is a more effective inhibitor than 1,2,4-triazole. •Reasons for the differences in inhibition effectiveness are discussed. •1,2,4-Triazole surface layer growth is faster compared to 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole. •The 1,2,4-triazole surface layer on Cu is thicker compared to 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole. -- Abstract: In this study, the influence of the amino functional group in the 1,2,4-triazole at position C3 (the 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole compound), on the surface layer formation and surface chemistry of these two Cu corrosion inhibitors is explored. Special attention is devoted to the orientation of these two molecules and the way they bond to the Cu surface. With the aim of obtaining electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements, the article discusses why differences in the corrosion inhibition effectiveness of these two molecules exist. Moreover, the thicknesses of the inhibitor surface layers formed on the Cu are determined

  19. Effects of salinity and ethylenediamine tetra acetic acid (edta) on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the effects of the combined treatment of salinity and ethylenediamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA) on the germination of tomato seeds in Petri-dishes were compared to sole salinity. The treatments consisted of seven concentrations of sodium chloride (NaCL): 0 (control), 10, 50, 100, 250, 500 and 1000 mM.

  20. The Infrared Spectra of Diaqua Tetra-m - Formato Dichromium (II): A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The infrared spectrum of diaqua tetra- m - formato dichromium (II) complex has been obtained in the frequency range 4000 to 400cm-1. A normal coordinate treatment performed on the 1:1 model of the complex gives calculated frequencies in good agreement with the observed ones. In order to assign bands and to see the ...

  1. Decisive test of the ideal behavior of tetra-PEG gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horkay, Ferenc; Nishi, Kengo; Shibayama, Mitsuhiro

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this work is to investigate the thermodynamic and scattering behavior of tetra-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) gels. Complementary measurements, including osmotic swelling pressure, elastic modulus, and small angle neutron scattering (SANS), are reported for a series of tetra-PEG gels made from different molecular weight precursor chains at different concentrations. Analysis of the osmotic swelling pressure vs polymer volume fraction curves makes it possible to separate the elastic and mixing contributions of the network free energy. It is shown that in tetra-PEG gels these free energy components are additive. The elastic term varies with the one-third power of the polymer volume fraction and its numerical value is equal to the shear modulus obtained from independent mechanical measurements. The mixing pressure of the cross-linked polymer is slightly smaller than that of the corresponding solution of the uncross-linked polymer of infinite molecular weight but it exhibits similar dependence on the polymer concentration. The observed deviation between the osmotic mixing pressures of the gel and the solution can be attributed to the presence of small amount of structural inhomogeneities frozen-in by the cross-links. SANS reveals that the scattering response of tetra-PEG gel is mainly governed by the thermodynamic concentration fluctuations of the network, i.e., the contribution from static inhomogeneities to the SANS signal is small.

  2. Versatile RNA tetra-U helix linking motif as a toolkit for nucleic acid nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, My N; Brittany Johnson, M; Viard, Mathias; Satterwhite, Emily; Martins, Angelica N; Li, Zhihai; Marriott, Ian; Afonin, Kirill A; Khisamutdinov, Emil F

    2017-04-01

    RNA nanotechnology employs synthetically modified ribonucleic acid (RNA) to engineer highly stable nanostructures in one, two, and three dimensions for medical applications. Despite the tremendous advantages in RNA nanotechnology, unmodified RNA itself is fragile and prone to enzymatic degradation. In contrast to use traditionally modified RNA strands e.g. 2'-fluorine, 2'-amine, 2'-methyl, we studied the effect of RNA/DNA hybrid approach utilizing a computer-assisted RNA tetra-uracil (tetra-U) motif as a toolkit to address questions related to assembly efficiency, versatility, stability, and the production costs of hybrid RNA/DNA nanoparticles. The tetra-U RNA motif was implemented to construct four functional triangles using RNA, DNA and RNA/DNA mixtures, resulting in fine-tunable enzymatic and thermodynamic stabilities, immunostimulatory activity and RNAi capability. Moreover, the tetra-U toolkit has great potential in the fabrication of rectangular, pentagonal, and hexagonal NPs, representing the power of simplicity of RNA/DNA approach for RNA nanotechnology and nanomedicine community. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Kinetic stabilities of double, tetra- and hexarosette hydrogen-bonded assemblies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, L.J.; Neuteboom, Edda E.; Paraschiv, V.; Crego Calama, Mercedes; Timmerman, P.; Reinhoudt, David

    2002-01-01

    A study of the kinetic stabilities of hydrogen-bonded double, tetra-, and hexarosette assemblies, comprising 36, 72, and 108 hydrogen bonds, respectively, is described. The kinetic stabilities are measured using both chiral amplification and racemization experiments. The chiral amplification studies

  4. Mechanism of HERG potassium channel inhibition by tetra-n-octylammonium bromide and benzethonium chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Yan; Lin, Zuoxian [Key Laboratory of Regenerative Biology, Guangzhou Institute of Biomedicine and Health, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510530 (China); Xia, Menghang; Zheng, Wei [National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Li, Zhiyuan, E-mail: li_zhiyuan@gibh.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Regenerative Biology, Guangzhou Institute of Biomedicine and Health, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510530 (China)

    2013-03-01

    Tetra-n-octylammonium bromide and benzethonium chloride are synthetic quaternary ammonium salts that are widely used in hospitals and industries for the disinfection and surface treatment and as the preservative agent. Recently, the activities of HERG channel inhibition by these compounds have been found to have potential risks to induce the long QT syndrome and cardiac arrhythmia, although the mechanism of action is still elusive. This study was conducted to investigate the mechanism of HERG channel inhibition by these compounds by using whole-cell patch clamp experiments in a CHO cell line stably expressing HERG channels. Tetra-n-octylammonium bromide and benzethonium chloride exhibited concentration-dependent inhibitions of HERG channel currents with IC{sub 50} values of 4 nM and 17 nM, respectively, which were also voltage-dependent and use-dependent. Both compounds shifted the channel activation I–V curves in a hyperpolarized direction for 10–15 mV and accelerated channel activation and inactivation processes by 2-fold. In addition, tetra-n-octylammonium bromide shifted the inactivation I–V curve in a hyperpolarized direction for 24.4 mV and slowed the rate of channel deactivation by 2-fold, whereas benzethonium chloride did not. The results indicate that tetra-n-octylammonium bromide and benzethonium chloride are open-channel blockers that inhibit HERG channels in the voltage-dependent, use-dependent and state-dependent manners. - Highlights: ► Tetra-n-octylammonium and benzethonium are potent HERG channel inhibitors. ► Channel activation and inactivation processes are accelerated by the two compounds. ► Both compounds are the open-channel blockers to HERG channels. ► HERG channel inhibition by both compounds is use-, voltage- and state dependent. ► The in vivo risk of QT prolongation needs to be studied for the two compounds.

  5. Synthesis, Molecular Structure Optimization, and Cytotoxicity Assay of a Novel 2-Acetyl-3-amino-5-[(2-oxopropylsulfanyl]-4-cyanothiophene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahia N. Mabkhot

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A novel thiophene-containing compound, 2-acetyl-3-amino-5-[(2-oxopropylsulfanyl]-4-cyanothiophene (4 was synthesized by reaction of malononitrile with CS2 in the presence of K2CO3 under reflux in DMF and the subsequent reaction with chloroacetone followed by cyclization. This compound has been characterized by means of FT-IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and mass spectrometry as well as elemental analysis. In addition, the molecular structures of compound 4 was determined by X-ray crystallography. The geometry of the molecule is stabilized by an intramolecular interaction between N1–H1···O1 to form S6 graf set ring motif. In the crystal, molecules are linked via N1–H2···O1 and C7–H7A···N2 interactions to form a three-dimensional network. Molecular structure and other spectroscopic properties of compound 4 were calculated using DFT B3LYP/6-31G (d,p method. Results revealed a good agreement between the optimized geometric parameters and the observed X-ray structure. Furthermore, and by employing the natural bond orbital (NBO method, the intramolecular charge transfer (ICT interactions along with natural atomic charges at different sites, were calculated; results indicated strong n→π* ICT from LP(1N5→BD*(2C15-C16 (63.23 kcal/mol. In addition, the stabilization energy E(2 of the LP(2O3→ BD*(1N5-H6 ICT (6.63 kcal/mol indicated the presence of intramolecular N-H···OH bonding. Similarly, calculations of the electronic spectra of compound 4 using, TD-DFT revealed a good agreement with the experimental data. Finally, compound 4 was evaluated for its in vitro cytotoxic effect against PC-3 and HeLa cell lines, as an anticancer agent, and found to be nontoxic.

  6. Nanostructurization effects in PVP-stabilized tetra-arsenic tetra-sulfide As{sub 4}S{sub 4} nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shpotyuk, O., E-mail: olehshpotyuk@yahoo.com [Institute of Physics of Jan Dlugosz University in Czestochowa, 13/15, Al. Armii Krajowej, Czestochowa, 42200 (Poland); Vlokh Institute of Physical Optics, 23, Dragomanov Str., Lviv, 79005 (Ukraine); Scientific Research Company “Carat”, 202, Stryjska Str., 79031, Lviv (Ukraine); Bujňáková, Z.; Baláž, P. [Institute of Geotechnics of Slovak Academy of Sciences, 45, Watsonova Str., Košice, 04001 (Slovakia); Ingram, A. [Opole University of Technology, 75, Ozimska Str., Opole, 45370 (Poland); Demchenko, P. [Ivan Franko National University of Lviv, 1, Universytetska Str., 79000 Lviv (Ukraine); Kovalskiy, A. [Department of Physics & Astronomy, Austin Peay State University, Clarksville, TN, 37044 (United States); Vlcek, M. [Department of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Pardubice, 532 10, Pardubice (Czech Republic); Shpotyuk, Ya. [Ivan Franko National University of Lviv, 1, Universytetska Str., 79000 Lviv (Ukraine); Centre for Innovation and Transfer of Natural Sciences and Engineering Knowledge, 1, Pigonia Str., 35310, Rzeszow (Poland); Cebulski, J.; Dziedzic, A. [Centre for Innovation and Transfer of Natural Sciences and Engineering Knowledge, 1, Pigonia Str., 35310, Rzeszow (Poland)

    2017-01-15

    Nanostructurization in three types of tetra-arsenic tetra-sulfide As{sub 4}S{sub 4} polymorphs composed by (1) preferential β-As{sub 4}S{sub 4}, (2) realgar α-As{sub 4}S{sub 4} and (3) admixture of As{sub 4}S{sub 4} in the form of β-realgar, pararealgar and intermediate χ-phase subjected to mechanochemical ball milling in a water solution of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) are characterized with multiexperimental structure-sensitive probes. Void structure of pelletized As{sub 4}S{sub 4}-PVP nanocomposites is probed by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy complemented with atomic-sensitive techniques such as X-ray powder diffraction, Raman scattering and scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Appearance of arsenolite As{sub 2}O{sub 3} crystallites is character for all As{sub 4}S{sub 4} polymorphs affected by wet milling. Positron annihilation lifetime data considered in terms of substitution positron-positronium trapping confirm complicated nature of nanocomposites. Modified x3-x2-coupling decomposition algorithm developed in addition to unconstrained x3-term fitting procedure is applied to parameterize annihilation channels in these nanocomposites. Interfacial free-volume voids between neighboring nanoparticles in PVP environment are defined as most favorable trapping sites, they being rather loosely composed by As{sub 4}S{sub 4} crystallites in full respect to variety of crystallographic polymorphs used for milling. Detected annihilation channels are ascribed preferentially to intrinsic free-volume voids insensitive to trapping states at the surface of oxidized nanocomposites. - Highlights: • PVP-stabilized tetra-arsenic tetra-sulfide nanocomposites prepared by wet milling. • As{sub 4}S{sub 4}-PVP composites by complementary atomic-specific and deficient structure probes. • Surface oxidation due to crystalline arsenolite As{sub 2}O{sub 3} under wet milling. • Free-volume structure of PVP-stabilized As{sub 4}S{sub 4

  7. G4-Tetra DNA Duplex Induce Lung Cancer Cell Apoptosis in A549 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaobo; Zhao, YiZhuo; Lu, Hu; Fu, Cuiping; Li, Xiao; Jiang, Liyan; Li, Shanqun

    2016-10-01

    The specific DNA is typically impermeable to the plasma membrane due to its natural characters, but DNA tetra structures (DTNs) can be readily uptake by cells in the absence of transfection agents, providing a new strategy to deliver DNA drugs. In this research, the delivery efficiency of tetrahedral DNA nanostructures was measured on adenocarcinomic human alveolar basal epithelial (A549) cells via delivering AS1411 (G4). The DNA tetra-AS1411 complex was rapidly and abundantly uptake by A549 cells, and the induced apoptosis was enhanced. Furthermore, biodistribution in mouse proved the rapid clearance from non-targeted organs in vivo. This study improved the understanding of potential function in DNA-based drug delivery and proved that DTNs-AS1411 could be potentially useful for the treatment of lung cancer.

  8. Crystal structure and dynamic NMR studies of octaacetyl-tetra(propyl)calix[4]resorcinarene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velásquez-Silva, Astrid; Cortés, Brian; Rivera-Monroy, Zuly J.; Pérez-Redondo, Adrián; Maldonado, Mauricio

    2017-06-01

    The reaction between C-tetra(propyl)calix[4]resorcinarene (1) and acetic anhydride in pyridine results in the formation of octaacetyl-tetra(propyl)calix[4]resorcinarene (2). The structure was determined using FT-IR, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR. The dynamic 1H-NMR of acetylated resorcinarene was studied by means of variable temperature in a CDCl3 solution and revealed that two conformers are formed in the solution. Boat conformations for acetylated resorcinarene exhibited a rapid interconversion at low temperatures, and the activation barrier for the pseudorotation was determined (54.72 kJmol-1). The acetylated resorcinarene 2 was also characterized by an X-ray crystal structure determination. This analysis indicated a boat configuration for the macrocycle skeleton in the solid state. Csbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonding interactions were observed in the packing of compound.

  9. Thermodynamic Properties of Hydrogen + Tetra-n-Butyl Ammonium Bromide Semi-Clathrate Hydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunsuke Hashimoto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermodynamic stability and hydrogen occupancy on the hydrogen + tetra-n-butyl ammonium bromide semi-clathrate hydrate were investigated by means of Raman spectroscopic and phase equilibrium measurements under the three-phase equilibrium condition. The structure of mixed gas hydrates changes from tetragonal to another structure around 95 MPa and 292 K depending on surrounding hydrogen fugacity. The occupied amount of hydrogen in the semi-clathrate hydrate increases significantly associated with the structural transition. Tetra-n-butyl ammonium bromide semi-clathrate hydrates can absorb hydrogen molecules by a pressure-swing without destroying the hydrogen bonds of hydrate cages at 15 MPa or over.

  10. Extraction of aromatics from straight run naphtha reformate using tetra ethylene glycol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radwan, G.M. [U.A.E. Univ., Al-Ain (United Arab Emirates). Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering

    1997-04-01

    The phase equilibria for the extraction of aromatics from naphtha reformate (B.P.60-135 C) using tetraethylene glycol (TETRA) have been measured and predicted using the UNIFAC group contribution method. The interaction parameters of TETRA with different hydrocarbon groups present in the reformate such as CH{sub 2} (paraffinic CH{sub 2}), ACH (aromatic CH) and ACCH{sub 2} (aromatic CCH{sub 2}) have been experimentally determined using pure hydrocarbons which contain these groups and are partially miscible in the solvent. The extraction runs have been carried out at different temperatures solvent-to-feed ratios. Experimental results were compared favourably with these prediced from the UNIFAC method. (orig.)

  11. Crystal structure, conformational analysis, and molecular dynamics of tetra-0-methyl-(+)-catechin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank R. Fronczek; Richard W. Hemingway; G. Wayne McGraw; Jan P. Steynberg; Carin A. Helfer; Wayne L. Mattice

    1993-01-01

    The structure of tetra-O-methyl-(+)-catechin has been determined in the crystalline state. Two independent molecules, denoted structure A and structure B, exist in the unit cell. Crystals are triclinic, space group P1, a=4.8125(2) Ǻ, b=12.9148(8) Ǻ, c=13.8862(11) Ǻ, α=86.962(6)°, β=89.120(5)°, γ=...

  12. TetraMag: a compact magnetizing device based on eight rotating permanent magnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, M; Mertins, H-Ch; Tesch, M; Berges, O; Feilbach, Herbert; Schneider, C M

    2012-02-01

    In this paper we describe a novel magnetizing device based on eight rotatable permanent magnets arranged in a quadrupolar configuration, which is termed the TetraMag. TetraMag creates stable and homogeneous magnetic fields at the sample position with a resolution of 0.02 mT tunable between -570 mT and +570 mT. The field direction is continuously rotatable between 0° and 360° within the sample plane, while the field strength is maintained. A simplified mathematical description of TetraMag is developed leading to magnetic field calculations which are in good agreement with the experimental results. This versatile device avoids electrical energy dissipation, cooling mechanisms, and hysteresis effects known from classical electromagnets. It is ultrahigh vacuum compatible and it offers a completely free optical path over 180° for magneto-optical experiments. It is suitable for scattering experiments with synchrotron radiation and neutrons and may be employed in a large class of magnetization experiments.

  13. Minimization of Poisson’s ratio in anti-tetra-chiral two-phase structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idczak, E.; Strek, T.

    2017-10-01

    One of the most important goal of modern material science is designing structures which exhibit appropriate properties. These properties can be obtained by optimization methods which often use numerical calculations e.g. finite element method (FEM). This paper shows the results of topological optimization which is used to obtain the greatest possible negative Poisson’s ratio of the two-phase composite. The shape is anti-tetra-chiral two-dimensional unit cell of the whole lattice structure which has negative Poisson’s ratio when it is built of one solid material. Two phase used in optimization are two solid materials with positive Poisson’s ratio and Young’s modulus. Distribution of reinforcement hard material inside soft matrix material in anti-tetra-chiral domain influenced mechanical properties of structure. The calculations shows that the resultant structure has negative Poisson’s ratio even eight times smaller than homogenous anti-tetra chiral structure made of classic one material. In the analysis FEM is connected with algorithm Method of Moving Asymptote (MMA). The results of materials’ properties parameters are described and calculated by means of shape interpolation scheme – Solid Isotropic Material with Penalization (SIMP) method.

  14. Migration of ITX (Isopropyl Thioxantone from Tetra Pak Bricks into Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Jamnicki

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available At the beginning of September 2005, ITX, a photoinitiator used in uv cured ink, has been identified to have migrated from packaging to food products. Tetra Pak has identified the source of migration to be uv cured offset printing ink.The presence of ITX in food packed in Tetra Pak bricks is the result of the contamination of the inner polyethylene layer of the box walls. ITX can either migrate through the packaging material or it can reach the food by contact, for example, as a result of the print set-off phenomenon. Most likely, the transfer of ITX was due to the physical contact between the printed outer layer with the inner layer of the packaging, whereby the ink or ink substance transfers from the print to the reverse of the adjacent sheet.Tetra Pak has committed itself to move away from this technology immediately and to use alternative printing technologies to ensure that there is no or minimal migration of ITX or other substances from its packages.ITX is still not on the eu’s negative list of banned substances in food nor does the World Health Organization (WHO categorize it as being detrimental to human health. After an investigation in the health risks of ITX following the incident, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA concluded that the levels found in foods, “while undesirable, do not give cause for health concern.”

  15. Migration of itx (Isopropyl Thioxantone from Tetra Pak Bricks into Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Jamnicki

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available At the beginning of September 2005, itx, a photoinitiator used in uv cured ink, has been identified to have migrated from packaging to food products. Tetra Pak has identified the source of migration to be uv cured offset printing ink.The presence of itx in food packed in Tetra Pak bricks is the result of the contamination of the inner polyethylene layer of the box walls. itx can either migrate through the packaging material or it can reach the food by contact, for example, as a result of the print set-off phenomenon. Most likely, the transfer of itx was due to the physical contact between the printed outer layer with the inner layer of the packaging, whereby the ink or ink substance transfers from the print to the reverse of the adjacent sheet.Tetra Pak has committed itself to move away from this technology immediately and to use alternative printing technologies to ensure that there is no or minimal migration of itx or other substances from its packages.itx is still not on the eu’s negative list of banned substances in food nor does the World Health Organization (who categorize it as being detrimental to human health. After an investigation in the health risks of itx following the incident, the European Food Safety Authority (efsa concluded that the levels found in foods, “while undesirable, do not give cause for health concern.”

  16. Investigation of complexing of some rare earth elements with 1,2,3-benzotriazole and 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhrimenko, Z.M.; Panyushkin, V.T.; Akhrimenko, N.V.; Atamanchuk, T.A.

    1994-01-01

    Chloride complexes of certain rare earths with 1,2,3-benzotriazole (L 1 ) and 3-amino-1,2,4-triazol (L 2 ) of the composition LnCl 3 ·3L 1 (Ln=La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd) and LnCL 3 ·2H 2 O·2EtOH (Ln=La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gs, Tb, Ho, Er, Yb, Lu), were synthesized, their IR spectra (4000-200 cm -1 ) being studied. It is ascertained that rare earth complexes with L 1 are more stable as compared with L 2 complexes

  17. Influence of degree of methyl methacrylate polymerization on spectroscopic properties of ethyl 5-(4-aminophenyl)- and 5-(4-dimethylaminophenyl)-3-amino-2,4-dicyanobenzoate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Józefowicz, M.; Bajorek, A.; Pietrzak, M.; Jędrzejewska, B.; Heldt, J.R.; Heldt, J.

    2013-01-01

    The influence of degree of methyl methacrylate (MM) polymerization on the both emission modes (LE—locally excited and ICT—intramolecular charge transfer) of the fluorescence spectrum of ethyl 5-(4-aminophenyl)-3-amino-2,4-dicyanobenzoate (EAADCy) and ethyl 5-(4-dimethylaminophenyl)-3-amino-2,4-dicyanobenzoate (EDMAADCy) has been studied using steady-state and time-resolved spectroscopic technique. The purpose of these studies was to find a relationship between the changes in the spectroscopic characteristics (fluorescence intensity, wavelength of maximum intensity, fluorescence full-width at half maximum, emission anisotropy, fluorescence decay time) of the tested compounds and degree of monomer conversion into polymer. On the basis of the experimental results, it was shown that the ICT fluorescence full-width at half maximum for EDMAADCy shows a linear dependence on the time of MM polymerization. Our findings predestine the molecule EDMAADCy to be used as fluorescence probe for monitoring the polymerization process of MM. - Highlights: ► The fluorescence excitation and emission spectra in MM possess a complex nature. ► Fluorescence decay kinetics for different degrees of polymerization of MM were investigated. ► The ICT fluorescence FWHM for EDMAADCy shows a linear dependence on the time of polymerization. ► EDMAADCy can be used as fluorescence probe for monitoring the polymerization process of MM

  18. Computational and experimental investigations into the conformations of cyclic tetra-α/β-peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, Mark T; Oheix, Emmanuel; Peacock, Anna F A; Johnston, Roy L

    2013-07-11

    We present a combined computational and experimental study of the energy landscapes of cyclic tetra-α/β-peptides. We have performed discrete path sampling calculations on a series of cyclic tetra-α/β-peptides to obtain the relative free energies and barriers to interconversion of their conformers. The most stable conformers of cyclo-[(β-Ala-Gly)2] contain all-trans peptide groups. The relative energies of the cis isomers and the cis-trans barriers are lower than in acyclic peptides but not as low as in the highly strained cyclic α-peptides. For cyclic tetra-α/β-peptides containing a single proline residue, of the type cyclo-[β-Ala-Xaa-β-Ala-Pro], the energy landscapes show that the most stable isomers containing cis and trans β-Ala-Pro have similar free energies and are separated by barriers of approximately 15 kcal mol(-1). We show that the underlying energy landscapes of cyclo-[β-Ala-Lys-β-Ala-Pro] and cyclo-[β-Ala-Ala-β-Ala-Pro] are similar, allowing the substitution of the flexible side chain of Lys with Ala to reduce the computational demand of our calculations. However, the steric bulk of the Val side chain in cyclo-[β-Ala-Val-β-Ala-Pro] affects the conformations of the ring, leading to significant differences between its energy landscape and that of cyclo-[β-Ala-Ala-β-Ala-Pro]. We have synthesized the cyclic peptide cyclo-[β-Ala-Lys-β-Ala-Pro], and NMR spectroscopy shows the presence of conformers that interconvert slowly on the NMR time scale at temperatures up to 80 °C. Calculated circular dichroism (CD) spectra for the proposed major isomer of cyclo-[β-Ala-Ala-β-Ala-Pro] are in good agreement with the experimental spectra of cyclo-[β-Ala-Lys-β-Ala-Pro], suggesting that the Ala cyclic tetrapeptide is a viable model for the Lys analogue.

  19. Self-Oscillating Soft Switching Envelope Tracking Power Supply for Tetra2 Base Station

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyerby, Mikkel Christian Wendelboe; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a high-efficiency, high-bandwidth solution to implementing an envelope tracking power supply for the RF power amplifier (RFPA) in a Tetra2 base station. The solution is based on synchronous rectified buck topology, augmented with high-side switch zero-current switching (ZCS......) implemented with a series inductor and an external clamping power supply. Combined with advanced power stage components (die-size MOSFETs), a high-performance fixed-frequency self-oscillating (sliding mode) control strategy and a 4th-order output filter, this leads to a compact, effective and efficient...

  20. Electron spin resonance signal from a tetra-interstitial defect in silicon

    CERN Document Server

    Mchedlidze, T

    2003-01-01

    The Si-B3 electron spin resonance (ESR) signal from agglomerates of self-interstitials was detected for the first time in hydrogen-doped float-zone-grown silicon samples subjected to annealing after electron irradiation. Previously this signal had been detected only in neutron- or proton-irradiated silicon samples. The absence of obscuring ESR peaks for the investigated samples at applied measurement conditions allowed an investigation of the hyperfine structure of the Si-B3 spectra. The analysis supports assignment of a tetra-interstitial defect as the origin of the signal.

  1. Evaluation of possibilities of using tetra - pak waste as a material to plate production for construction industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Korniejenko

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Tetra-pak is a popular packing material, which is using as aseptic packaging of liquid food products, especially: fruit juice, beverages and milk. After single use a packing are throw out. Carton could not be reuse because the material has contact with food and must be aseptic. The paper describes the way of recycling tetra-pak waste in the world. It is focus on possibilities to optimize the mechanical properties of composite material and modifications of its property depending on the type and amount of added polyethylene and method of manufacture. Main physic-mechanical properties of plate made from tetra – pak waste are presented. This property can be interesting for the construction industry.

  2. Crystal structure of an unknown tetra­hydro­furan solvate of tetra­kis­(μ 3-cyanato-κ3 N:N:N)tetra­kis­[(triphenyl­phosphane-κP)­silver(I)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenzel, Peter; Schaarschmidt, Dieter; Jakob, Alexander; Lang, Heinrich

    2015-01-01

    In the title compound, [{[(C6H5)3P]Ag}4{NCO}4], a distorted Ag4N4-heterocubane core is set up by four AgI ions being coordinated by the N atoms of the cyanato anions in a μ 3-bridging mode. In addition, a tri­phenyl­phosphine ligand is datively bonded to each of the AgI ions. Intra­molecular Ag⋯Ag distances as short as 3.133 (9) Å suggest the presence of argentophilic (d 10⋯d 10) inter­actions. Five moderate-to-weak C—H⋯O hydrogen-bonding inter­actions are observed in the crystal structure, spanning a three-dimensional network. A region of electron density was treated with the SQUEEZE procedure in PLATON [Spek (2015). Acta Cryst. C71, 9–18] following unsuccessful attempts to model it as being part of disordered tetra­hydro­furan solvent mol­ecules. The given chemical formula and other crystal data do not take into account these solvent mol­ecules. PMID:26594421

  3. Four Zn(II)/Cd(II)-3-amino-1,2,4-triazolate frameworks constructed by in situ metal/ligand reactions: Structures and fluorescent properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zilu; Li Xiaoling; Liang Fupei

    2008-01-01

    Four Cd(II) and Zn(II) complexes with the in situ-generated ligand of 3-amino-1,2,4-triazolate (AmTAZ - ) were isolated from the solvothermal reactions of the corresponding Cd(II) or Zn(II) salts with 5-amino-1H-1,2,4-triazole-3-carboxylic acid (AmTAZAc). Their structures were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. [Zn(AmTAZ)(CH 3 COO)] (1) presents a two-dimensional framework constructed from Zn(II) ions and μ 3 -AmTAZ - ligands. A remarkable feature of [Zn 4 (AmTAZ) 4 (SO 4 )(OH)(C 2 O 4 ) 0.5 ].2H 2 O (2) is the construction of the building units of octagonal cylinders which interact with each other by sharing one face or overlapping, resulting in the formation of a three-dimensional framework with three kinds of 1D channels. [Cd(AmTAZ)Br] (3) crystallizes in a chiral space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 , giving a homochiral three-dimensional framework with two types of helical channels (left- and right-handed). Different from the others, the 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole molecules in [Cd(AmTAZH)SO 4 ] (4) behave as neutral μ 2 -2,4-bridges to connect the two-dimensional CdSO 4 sheets into a three-dimensional framework. Of all, 2 and 3 display different fluorescent properties probably due to different metal ions, coordination environments and structural topologies. - Graphical abstract: The solvothermal reactions of Cd(II) and Zn(II) salts bearing different anions with 5-amino-1H-1,2,4-triazole-3-carboxylic acid (AmTAZAc) produced four Cd(II) and Zn(II) MOFs with the in situ-generated 3-amino-1,2,4-triazolate (AmTAZ - ) ion as ligand, which display different structural topologies and fluorescent properties. Display Omitted

  4. Waste Cellulose from Tetra Pak Packages as Reinforcement of Cement Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Martínez-Barrera

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of the packaging industry has promoted indiscriminately the use of disposable packing as Tetra Pak, which after a very short useful life turns into garbage, helping to spoil the environment. One of the known processes that can be used for achievement of the compatibility between waste materials and the environment is the gamma radiation, which had proved to be a good tool for modification of physicochemical properties of materials. The aim of this work is to study the effects of waste cellulose from Tetra Pak packing and gamma radiation on the mechanical properties of cement concrete. Concrete specimens were elaborated with waste cellulose at concentrations of 3, 5, and 7 wt% and irradiated at 200, 250, and 300 kGy of gamma dose. The results show highest improvement on the mechanical properties for concrete with 3 wt% of waste cellulose and irradiated at 300 kGy; such improvements were related with the surface morphology of fracture zones of cement concrete observed by SEM microscopy.

  5. Intestinal and liver morphometry of the Yellow Tail Tetra (Astyanax altiparanae fed with oregano oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POLLYANNA M.F. FERREIRA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the effect of oregano oil on the intestinal and liver morphometry of yellow tail tetra, Astyanax altiparanae. Fish (1.46 ± 0.09 g were kept in a 60-L aquaria, at a stocking density of 0.5 fi sh L-1. Six diets containing varying amounts of oregano oil were evaluated (0.0; 0.5; 1.0; 1.5; 2.0 and 2.5 g of oregano oil kg-1. At the end of 90 days, the fi sh were euthanised. Four intestines and four livers were collected per treatment, which were fi xed in Bouin and embedded in resin. For height and width folds, the absorption surface area and thickness of the muscular layer a positive linear effect of oregano oil was observed. A decrescent linear effect on the total number of goblet cells was also observed. For the cytoplasmic percentage of hepatocytes and liver glycogen, a positive linear effect of oregano oil was observed. There was a decreasing linear effect on the percentage of nuclei in the hepatocytes and capillaries. Thus, the oregano essential oil promotes increased absorption areas, modulates the amount of goblet cells involved in protecting the intestinal mucosa and promotes cytoplasmic increase with greater deposition of liver glycogen in yellow tail tetra.

  6. Reaction of 3-Amino-1,2,4-Triazole with Diethyl Phosphite and Triethyl Orthoformate: Acid-Base Properties and Antiosteoporotic Activities of the Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrycja Miszczyk

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The reaction of diethyl phosphite with triethyl orthoformate and a primary amine followed by hydrolysis is presented, and the reaction was suitable for the preparation of (aminomethylenebisphosphonates. 3-Amino-1,2,4-triazole was chosen as an interesting substrate for this reaction because it possesses multiple groups that can serve as the amino component in the reaction—namely, the side-chain and triazole amines. This substrate readily forms 1,2,4-triazolyl-3-yl-aminomethylenebisphosphonic acid (compound 1 as a major product, along with N-ethylated bisphosphonates as side products. The in vitro antiproliferative effects of the synthesized aminomethylenebisphosphonic acids against J774E macrophages were determined. These compounds exhibit similar activity to zoledronic acid and higher activity than incadronic acid.

  7. Reaction of 3-Amino-1,2,4-Triazole with Diethyl Phosphite and Triethyl Orthoformate: Acid-Base Properties and Antiosteoporotic Activities of the Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miszczyk, Patrycja; Wieczorek, Dorota; Gałęzowska, Joanna; Dziuk, Błażej; Wietrzyk, Joanna; Chmielewska, Ewa

    2017-02-08

    The reaction of diethyl phosphite with triethyl orthoformate and a primary amine followed by hydrolysis is presented, and the reaction was suitable for the preparation of (aminomethylene)bisphosphonates. 3-Amino-1,2,4-triazole was chosen as an interesting substrate for this reaction because it possesses multiple groups that can serve as the amino component in the reaction-namely, the side-chain and triazole amines. This substrate readily forms 1,2,4-triazolyl-3-yl-aminomethylenebisphosphonic acid (compound 1 ) as a major product, along with N -ethylated bisphosphonates as side products. The in vitro antiproliferative effects of the synthesized aminomethylenebisphosphonic acids against J774E macrophages were determined. These compounds exhibit similar activity to zoledronic acid and higher activity than incadronic acid.

  8. 3-Amino 1,8-naphthalimide, a structural analog of the anti-cholera drug virstatin inhibits chemically-biased swimming and swarming motility in vibrios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongxia; Silva, Anisia J; Benitez, Jorge A

    2017-06-01

    A screen for inhibitors of Vibrio cholerae motility identified the compound 3-amino 1,8-naphthalimide (3-A18NI), a structural analog of the cholera drug virstatin. Similar to virstatin, 3-A18NI diminished cholera toxin production. In contrast, 3-A18NI impeded swimming and/or swarming motility of V. cholerae and V. parahemolyticus suggesting that it could target the chemotaxis pathway shared by the polar and lateral flagellar system of vibrios. 3-A18NI did not inhibit the expression of V. cholerae major flagellin FlaA or the assembly of its polar flagellum. Finally, 3-A18NI enhanced V. cholerae colonization mimicking the phenotype of chemotaxis mutants that exhibit counterclockwise-biased flagellum rotation. Copyright © 2017 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Corrosion protection ability of self-assembled monolayer of 3-amino-5-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole on copper electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajkumar, Ganesan; Sethuraman, Mathur Gopalakrishnan, E-mail: mgsethu@rediffmail.com

    2014-07-01

    The self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of 3-amino-5-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole (AMTa) was formed on a copper surface and characterized using cyclic voltammetry, Fourier Transform Infra-red spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Quantum chemical calculations suggested the stronger interaction between AMTa and copper. The protection ability of SAM has been evaluated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic polarization measurements. The formed monolayer showed significant protection ability in 1% NaCl medium. The enhanced corrosion protection ability could be due to the compact film structure which blocks the electron transfer from the solution to AMTa monolayer modified copper substrate. - Highlights: • Self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of AMTa has been achieved on copper surface. • Monolayer formed has been duly characterized. • SAM of AMTa has been shown to offer significant protection to copper in NaCl medium.

  10. 1-Benzoyl-3,6-diphenyl-1,4-dihydro-1,2,4,5-tetra-zine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feng; Yang, Zhen-Zhen; Chen, Xiao-Fang; Zheng, Wen-Xiu

    2010-09-30

    In the title compound, C(21)H(16)N(4)O, the central tetra-zine ring adopts an unsymmetrical boat conformation with the two N atoms as the bow and stern. The crystal packing is stabilized by inter-molecular N-H-O hydrogen bonds.

  11. 1-Benzoyl-3,6-diphenyl-1,4-dihydro-1,2,4,5-tetra­zine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feng; Yang, Zhen-Zhen; Chen, Xiao-Fang; Zheng, Wen-Xiu

    2010-01-01

    In the title compound, C21H16N4O, the central tetra­zine ring adopts an unsymmetrical boat conformation with the two N atoms as the bow and stern. The crystal packing is stabilized by inter­molecular N—H—O hydrogen bonds. PMID:21587635

  12. Meta-tetra(hydroxyphenyl)chlorin photodynamic therapy in early-stage squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Copper, Marcel P.; Tan, I. Bing; Oppelaar, Hugo; Ruevekamp, Marjan C.; Stewart, Fiona A.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a relatively new treatment modality for various types of cancer, including cancer of the head and neck. The advent of the second-generation photosensitizers such as meta-tetra(hydroxyphenyl)chlorin (mTHPC) (Foscan; Scotia Pharmaceuticals, Stirling, Scotland),

  13. Optimized Envelope Tracking Power Supply for Tetra2 Base Station RF Power Amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyerby, Mikkel Christian Wendelboe; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2008-01-01

    for locking the switching frequency to an external clock. High UFTPS efficiency (up to 95%), very low ripple (5mVpp) and a fast step response (10μs) are obtained from a single-phase buck converter with a 4th-order output filter. This ripple performance is demonstrated to be critical in the considered......An ultra-fast tracking power supply (UFTPS) for envelope tracking in a 50kHz 64-QAM Tetra2 base station power amplification system is demonstrated. A simple method for optimizing the step response of the PID+PD sliding-mode control system is presented and demonstrated, along with a PLL-based scheme...

  14. A Flow Cytometry Protocol to Estimate DNA Content in the Yellowtail Tetra Astyanax altiparanae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro L. P. Xavier

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The production of triploid yellowtail tetra Astyanax altiparanae is a key factor to obtain permanently sterile individuals by chromosome set manipulation. Flow cytometric analysis is the main tool for confirmation of the resultant triploids individuals, but very few protocols are specific for A. altiparanae species. The current study has developed a protocol to estimate DNA content in this species. Furthermore, a protocol for long-term storage of dorsal fins used for flow cytometry analysis was established. The combination of five solutions with three detergents (Nonidet P-40 Substitute, Tween 20, and Triton X-100 at 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4% concentration was evaluated. Using the best solution from this first experiment, the addition of trypsin (0.125, 0.25, and 0.5% and sucrose (74 mM and the effects of increased concentrations of the detergents at 0.6 and 1.2% concentration were also evaluated. After adjustment of the protocol for flow cytometry, preservation of somatic tissue or isolated nuclei was also evaluated by freezing (at −20°C and fixation in saturated NaCl solution, acetic methanol (1:3, ethanol, and formalin at 10% for 30 or 60 days of storage at 25°C. Flow cytometry analysis in yellowtail tetra species was optimized using the following conditions: lysis solution: 9.53 mM MgCl2.7H20; 47.67 mM KCl; 15 mM Tris; 74 mM sucrose, 0.6% Triton X-100, pH 8.0; staining solution: Dulbecco's PBS with DAPI 1 μg mL−1; preservation procedure: somatic cells (dorsal fin samples frozen at −20°C. Using this protocol, samples may be stored up to 60 days with good accuracy for flow cytometry analysis.

  15. Novel 3-Amino-6-chloro-7-(azol-2 or 5-yl-1,1-dioxo-1,4,2-benzodithiazine Derivatives with Anticancer Activity: Synthesis and QSAR Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Pogorzelska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A series of new 3-amino-6-chloro-7-(azol-2 or 5-yl-1,1-dioxo-1,4,2-benzodithiazine derivatives 5a–j have been synthesized and evaluated in vitro for their antiproliferative activity at the U.S. National Cancer Institute. The most active compound 5h showed significant cytotoxic effects against ovarian (OVCAR-3 and breast (MDA-MB-468 cancer (10% and 47% cancer cell death, respectively as well as a good selectivity toward prostate (DU-145, colon (SW-620 and renal (TK-10 cancer cell lines. To obtain a deeper insight into the structure-activity relationships of the new compounds 5a–j QSAR studies have been applied. Theoretical calculations allowed the identification of molecular descriptors belonging to the RDF (RDF055p and RDF145m in the MOLT-4 and UO-31 QSAR models, respectively and 3D-MorSE (Mor32m and Mor16e for MOLT-4 and UO-31 QSAR models descriptor classes. Based on these data, QSAR models with good robustness and predictive ability have been obtained.

  16. ATZ (3-amino-1,2,4-triazole injected into the fourth cerebral ventricle influences the Bezold-Jarisch reflex in conscious rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor E. Valenti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Many studies have investigated the importance of oxidative stress on the cardiovascular system. In this study we evaluated the effects of central catalase inhibition on cardiopulmonary reflex in conscious Wistar rats. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were implanted with a stainless steel guide cannula in the fourth cerebral ventricle. The femoral artery and vein were cannulated for mean arterial pressure and heart rate measurement and for drug infusion, respectively. After basal mean arterial pressure and heart rate recordings, the cardiopulmonary reflex was tested with a dose of phenylbiguanide (PBG, 8 μg/kg, bolus. Cardiopulmonary reflex was evaluated before and μl15 minutes after 1.0 μl 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (ATZ, 0.01g/100μl0.01 g/100 μl injection into the fourth cerebral ventricle. Vehicle treatment did not change cardiopulmonary reflex responses. RESULTS: Central ATZ significantly increased hypotensive responses without influencing the bradycardic reflex. CONCLUSION: ATZ injected into the fourth cerebral ventricle increases sympathetic inhibition but does not change the parasympathetic component of the cardiopulmonary reflex in conscious Wistar rats.

  17. Synthesis of certain fused pyrazoles derived from 2-methyl-3-amino-6-iodo-4(3 H) quinazolinone as possible insecticidal and radiosensitizing agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Hamide, S.G.; Ghorab, M.M.; Ali, G.M.

    1996-01-01

    The Verisimilar reaction on 3-amino-2-methyl-6-4-quinazolone (1) using P O Cl 3 /DMF afforded 3-formyl pyrazole derivative (2). The condensation products (3 a,b) were obtained via reaction of (2) with malononitrile or ethyl cyano acetate. Heating the condensation products (3 a,b) with acetyl derivatives in the presence of ammonium acetate yielded the corresponding cyano pyridines (9 a-e) and (10 a-e), respectively. Compounds (9 c) and (10 c) were obtained also from the interaction of the chalcone derivative (11) with malononitrile or ethyl cyano acetate. Condensation of (2) with semicarbazide hydrochloride, thio semicarbazide or aromatic amines gave the corresponding (12 a), (12 b) and (13 a-c), respectively. Compound (12 a) could be cyclized to (14) in acid medium. Interaction of compound (12 b) with chloro acetyl chloride gave (15). The Verisimilar reaction on Schiff bass (16) using P O Cl 3 /DMF gave the amino acrolein derivates (17), which was converted into 2-pyrazole derivative (18) and 2-isoxazolinyl derivative (19), respectively. The obtained compounds have been characterized on the basis of their IR, 'H-NMR and Mass spectral data and elemental analysis. Among the synthesized compounds only the formyl pyrazole derivative (2) and the azetidinylthioured derivative (15) showed a remarkable adulticidal activity. In addition the formyl pyrazole derivative (2) acted as a potent radiosensitizer. 2 figs., 3 tabs

  18. Synthesis, Characterization, and Antimicrobial Activity of a Novel Trisazo Dye from 3-Amino-4H-thieno[3,4-c][1]benzopyran-4-one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Tsemeugne

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A new trisazo dye has been synthesized by coupling the diazonium ion of 3-amino-4H thieno[3,4-c][1]benzopyran-4-one with 2-tert-butyl-4-methoxyphenol. The newly prepared trisazo dye was characterized by its physical, elemental, and spectroscopic data. 2D-NMR (COSY, HSQC, and HMBC techniques were used to secure the structural assignments. The new trisazo dye (compound 7 along with precursors 3, 4, and 6 was screened by microdilution susceptibility assay for antibacterial and antifungal activities towards eight bacterial strains and three yeasts selected on the basis of their relevance as human pathogens. The results showed that compound 7 (MIC = 2–128 μg/mL was the most active as compared with its precursors. The most resistant microorganisms were V. cholerae NB2 and V. cholerae SG24, whereas the most sensitive microorganism was C. neoformans. The overall results of this study indicated that compound 7 had the greatest potential value against both yeasts and multidrug-resistant bacteria, so further investigation is warranted.

  19. Synthesis, Characterization, and Antimicrobial Activity of a Novel Trisazo Dye from 3-Amino-4H-thieno[3,4-c][1]benzopyran-4-one.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsemeugne, Joseph; Sopbué Fondjo, Emmanuel; Tamokou, Jean-de-Dieu; Rohand, Taoufik; Ngongang, Arnaud Djintchui; Kuiate, Jules Roger; Sondengam, Beibam Luc

    2018-01-01

    A new trisazo dye has been synthesized by coupling the diazonium ion of 3-amino-4H thieno[3,4-c][1]benzopyran-4-one with 2- tert -butyl-4-methoxyphenol. The newly prepared trisazo dye was characterized by its physical, elemental, and spectroscopic data. 2D-NMR (COSY, HSQC, and HMBC) techniques were used to secure the structural assignments. The new trisazo dye (compound 7 ) along with precursors 3 , 4 , and 6 was screened by microdilution susceptibility assay for antibacterial and antifungal activities towards eight bacterial strains and three yeasts selected on the basis of their relevance as human pathogens. The results showed that compound 7 (MIC = 2-128  μ g/mL) was the most active as compared with its precursors. The most resistant microorganisms were V. cholerae NB2 and V. cholerae SG24, whereas the most sensitive microorganism was C. neoformans. The overall results of this study indicated that compound 7 had the greatest potential value against both yeasts and multidrug-resistant bacteria, so further investigation is warranted.

  20. Hydrogen detachment driven by a repulsive 1πσ* state - an electron localization function study of 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bil, Andrzej; Latajka, Zdzisław; Biczysko, Malgorzata

    2018-02-14

    Electron localization function analysis reveals the details of a charge induced hydrogen detachment mechanism of 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole, identified recently to be responsible for phototautomerization of the molecule. In this process vertical excitation to the 1 πσ* state is followed by the barrier-less migration of a H atom along the N-H bond toward the conical intersection with the S0 ground state. The most striking feature revealed for the 1 πσ* state is partial ejection of σ* electrons outside the molecule, even beyond the NH group, at the Franck-Condon point. Further gradual spatial localization of the electron around the proton moving along the N-H stretching coordinate gives a plausible explanation for the repulsive character of the 1 πσ* potential energy surface with the proton wading through the region of space where some negative charge is accumulated ('a virtual acceptor'), dragging some electron density. This mechanism resembles the one postulated for the hydrogen transfer from a donor molecule (D-H) to an acceptor one (A) in a class of vertically excited molecules with a preexisting inter- or intramolecular D-HA motif, even though the acceptor molecule is absent. The present analysis demonstrates also that the bond evolution and changes in the electron density along the excited state reaction path can be effectively studied with the use of an electron localization function.

  1. 3-Amino-1-phenyl-2-pyrazoline-5-ketone as a heterobifunctional chromogenic reagent to derivatize reducing glycans for subsequent online LC/MS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yu; Wang, Chengjian; Liu, Rendan; Jin, Wanjun; Wen, Yanan; Huang, Linjuan; Wang, Zhongfu

    2018-03-07

    Sensitive analysis of glycans by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry is significantly hampered by the lack of chromogenic or fluorescent groups on the glycan structures, as well as, their poor ionization properties. In the present, a heterobifunctional chromogenic reagent 3-amino-1-phenyl-2-pyrazoline-5-ketone (PAP) bearing amino and active methylene groups, which readily reacts with reducing glycans, was used for detection of the pre-column-labeled glycans via high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI-MS). The PAP derivatives with active methylene and amino groups were obtained via reductive amination in acidic medium and condensation of an active PAP methylene group with the reducing end of glycans in alkaline medium, respectively, and the PAP derivatives could be further functionalized, e.g., via glycan microarray preparation. The conditions for the two reaction modes were optimized, the HPLC separation method of PAP derivatives was investigated, and the PAP derivatives of some glycans derived from biological samples were obtained and analyzed by ESI-MS and LC-MS. Using this new reagent, reducing glycans can be selectively derivatized by different reaction mechanisms, having great importance for functional glycomics studies. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Formation, surface characterization, and electrocatalytic application of self-assembled monolayer films of tetra-substituted manganese, iron, and cobalt benzylthio phthalocyanine complexes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Akinbulu, IA

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Molecular thin films of manganese (SAM-2), iron (SAM-3), and cobalt (SAM-4) phthalocyanine complexes, non-peripherally tetra-substituted with benzylmercapto, were formed on polycrystalline gold disc electrode by selfassembly technique. Surface...

  3. Análise dos custos para a reciclagem das fibras de papel das embalagens Tetra Pak em Porto Alegre

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Batista Zortea

    2001-01-01

    Atualmente, tanto as empresas como as gestões públicas estão procurando uma forma de convívio sustentável. Dentro deste convívio nas cidades, a gestão dos resíduos sólidos, entre eles as embalagens Tetra Pak, começam a receber uma certa atenção quanto ao seu reaproveitamento e a sua reciclabilidade. Baseado na idéia de processos inovadores e de busca de soluções através da pesquisa, a Empresa Tetra Pak descobriu processos de reciclabilidade para suas as embalagens Longa Vida, oferecendo para ...

  4. (R)-(3-amino-2-fluoropropyl) phosphinic acid (AZD3355), a novel GABAB receptor agonist, inhibits transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation through a peripheral mode of action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, Anders; Antonsson, Madeleine; Holmberg, Ann Aurell

    2009-01-01

    recombinant human GABA transporters. AR-H061719 [(R/S)-(3-amino-2-fluoropropyl)phosphinic acid], (the racemate of AZD3355) inhibited the response of ferret mechanoreceptors to gastric distension, further supporting its peripheral site of action on TLESR. In summary, AZD3355 probably inhibits TLESR through...

  5. A novel fluorescence sensor based on covalent immobilization of 3-amino-9-ethylcarbazole by using silver nanoparticles as bridges and carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Shu-Zhen; Hu, Yan-Jun; Gong, Fu-Chun; Cao, Zhong; Xia, Jiao-Yun; Zhang, Ling

    2009-03-23

    A novel technique of covalent immobilization of indicator dyes in the preparation of fluorescence sensors is developed. Silver nanoparticles are used as bridges and carriers for anchoring indicator dyes. 3-amino-9-ethylcarbazole (AEC) was employed as an example of indicator dyes with terminal amino groups and covalently immobilized onto the outmost surface of a quartz glass slide. First, the glass slide was functionalized by (3-mercaptopropyl) trimethoxysilane (MPS) to form a thiol-terminated self-assembled monolayer, where silver nanoparticles were strongly bound to the surface through covalent bonding. Then, 16-mercaptohexadecanoic acid (MHDA) was self-assembled to bring carboxylic groups onto the surface of silver nanoparticles. A further activation by using 1-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-3-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) converted the carboxylic groups into succinimide esters. Finally, the active succinimide esters on the surface of silver nanoparticles were reacted with AEC. Thus, AEC was covalently bound to the glass slide and an AEC-immobilized sensor was obtained. The sensor exhibited very satisfactory reproducibility and reversibility, rapid response and no dye-leaching. Rutin can quench the fluorescence intensity of the sensor and be measured by using the sensor. The linear response of the sensor to rutin covers the range from 2.0 x 10(-6) to 1.5 x 10(-4) molL(-1) with a detection limit of 8.0 x 10(-7) molL(-1). The proposed technique may be feasible to the covalent immobilization of other dyes with primary amino groups.

  6. A 3D chiral metal-organic framework based on left-handed helices containing 3-amino-1 H-1,2,4-triazole ligand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Bing, E-mail: bliu_1203@163.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shaanxi University of Sciences and Technology, Xi’an, 710021 Shaanxi (China); Yang, Tian-Yi [The High School Affricated to Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an, 710061 Shaanxi (China); Feng, Hui-Jun; Zhang, Zong-Hui [Key Laboratory of Macromolecular Science of Shaanxi Province, School of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an, 710062 Shaanxi (China); Xu, Ling, E-mail: xuling@snnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Macromolecular Science of Shaanxi Province, School of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an, 710062 Shaanxi (China)

    2015-10-15

    A chiral metal-organic framework, [Cu(atr)(OH)]·0.5H{sub 2}O·0.5en (1) (Hatr=3-amino-1 H-1,2,4-triazole, en=ethylenediamine), was constructed via diffusion reaction of the achiral Hatr ligand and CuSO{sub 4} as starting materials. Compound 1 crystallizes in the chiral space group P3{sub 2}21 and features a porous metal-organic framework with 44.1% solvent-accessible volume fabricated by left-handed helices with a pitch height of l{sub p}=10.442 Å. Six helices gather around in a cycle forming a large honeycomb channel with a 6.58 Å inner diameter. Cu(II) center and atr{sup ‒} ligand regarded as 3-connected nodes, compound 1 can be simplified to a 3-c uninodal (4.12{sup 2}) (qtz-h) topological network. A gradual decreasing in the magnetic moment depending on temperature decreasing indicates an antiferromagnetic interaction in 1. The powder XRD confirms the bulk sample is a single crystal pure phase, and the thermogravimetric analysis shows the thermal stability of 1 is up to ca. 240 °C. - Highlights: • The present 3D chiral MOF is built from achiral Hatr ligand. • Six left-handed helices gather into a honeycomb channel in chiral sp P3{sub 2}21. • Compound 1 shows a 3-c uninodal (4.12{sup 2}) or qtz-h topological network. • Compound 1 indicates an antiferromagnetic interaction.

  7. 1,1'-(Butane-1,4-di-yl)diimidazole-3,3'-diium tetra-chloridozincate(II) dihydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ying-Hui; Shi, Ai-E; Su, Yu; Hou, Guang-Feng; Gao, Jin-Sheng

    2008-04-04

    In the title compound, (C(10)H(16)N(4))[ZnCl(4)]·2H(2)O, the cation lies abouton a center of inversion and the anion about a twofold rotation axis. The Zn(II) atom is four-coordinate in a tetra-hedral environment. The cations, anions and water mol-ecules are linked by N-H⋯O, N-H⋯Cl and O-H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds into a two-dimensional network.

  8. ANÁLISE DOS CUSTOS PARA A RECICLAGEM DAS FIBRAS DE PAPEL DAS EMBALAGENS TETRA PAK EM PORTO ALEGRE

    OpenAIRE

    Zortea, Rafael Batista

    2009-01-01

    Actually, the companies and the publics managements are looking for a kind of sustainable live. Into these sustainable live with cities, the waste solids management; for example, the beverage cartons are starting to receive a good attention about their reuse and reciclability. Based in the idea of innovations process and seeking of solutions through of the research, the Tetra Pak Company has discovered reciclability process for their beverage cartons, these process offer a technologic viabili...

  9. Bis{(E-3-[2-(hydroxyiminopropanamido]-2,2-dimethylpropan-1-aminium} bis[μ-(E-N-(3-amino-2,2-dimethylpropyl-2-(hydroxyiminopropanamido(2−]bis{[(E-N-(3-amino-2,2-dimethylpropyl-2-(hydroxyiminopropanamide]copper(II} bis((E-{3-[2-(hydroxyiminopropanamido]-2,2-dimethylpropyl}carbamate acetonitrile disolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrii I. Buvailo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The reaction between copper(II nitrate and (E-N-(3-amino-2,2-dimethylpropyl-2-(hydroxyiminopropanamide led to the formation of the dinuclear centrosymmetric copper(II title complex, (C8H18N3O22[Cu2(C8H15N3O22(C8H17N3O22](C9H16N3O42·2CH3CN, in which an inversion center is located at the midpoint of the Cu2 unit in the center of the neutral [Cu2(C8H15N3O22(C8H17N3O22] complex fragment. The Cu2+ ions are connected by two N—O bridging groups [Cu...Cu separation = 4.0608 (5 Å] while the CuII ions are five-coordinated in a square-pyramidal N4O coordination environment. The complex molecule co-crystallizes with two molecules of acetonitrile, two molecules of the protonated ligand (E-3-[2-(hydroxyiminopropanamido]-2,2-dimethylpropan-1-aminium and two negatively charged (E-{3-[2-(hydroxyiminopropanamido]-2,2-dimethylpropyl}carbamate anions, which were probably formed as a result of condensation between (E-N-(3-amino-2,2-dimethylpropyl-2-(hydroxyiminopropanamide and hydrogencarbonate anions. In the crystal, the complex fragment [Cu2(C8H15N3O22(C8H17N3O22] and the ion pair C8H18N3O2+.C9H16N3O4− are connected via an extended system of hydrogen bonds.

  10. Rhinusa Stephens: a taxonomic revision of the species belonging to the R. tetra and R. bipustulata groups (Coleoptera Curculionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Caldara

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The species of Rhinusa Stephens, 1829 (Curculionidae, Curculioninae, Mecinini belonging to the R. tetra and R. bipustulata groups are revised. Four of them from Middle East are new to science. The R. bipustulata group includes five species: R. bipustulata (Rossi, 1792; R. pelletieri sp. nov.; R. scrophulariae Caldara, 2009; R. algirica (Brisout de Barneville, 1862; R. emmrichi (Bajtenov, 1979, whereas the R. tetra group includes nine species: R. tetra (Fabricius, 1792; R. verbasci (Rosenschoeld, 1838; R. ensifer sp. nov.; R. moroderi (Reitter, 1906; R. weilli sp. nov.; R. comosa (Rosenschoeld, 1838; R. acifer sp. nov.; R asellus (Gravenhorst, 1807; R. tenuirostris (Stierlin, 1888. The following new synonym is proposed: Rhinusa bipustulata (Rossi, 1792 (= Gymnetron municipale Voss, 1960 syn. nov.. The neotype of Rhynchaenus asellus Gravenhorst, 1807 was designated. Moreover, the following lectotypes are designated: Cionus spilotus Germar, 1821; Gymnetron bipustulatum var. germari Faust, 1889; Gymnetron bodenheimeri Wagner, 1926; Gymnetron cylindrirostre Gyllenhal, 1838; Gymnetron nasutum Rosenschoeld, 1838; Gymnetron plagiatum Gyllenhal, 1838; Gymnetron polonicum Rosenschoeld, 1838; Gymnetron tenuirostre Stierlin, 1888. A key to the species, diagnoses of species groups, descriptions or redescriptions, notes on type specimens, synonymies, comparative notes, distribution, bionomics when available, photographs of habitus and drawings of rostra, terminalia and other useful characters for taxonomy are provided.

  11. An oxalate selective electrode based on modified PVC-membrane with tetra-butylammonium--Clinoptilolite nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoseini, Zohre; Nezamzadeh-Ejhieh, Alireza

    2016-03-01

    A modified PVC-membrane electrode with tetra-butylammonium bromide - Clinoptilolite nano-particles (TBA-NCP) showed good Nernstian slope (29.9±0.6 mV per decade of oxalate concentration) in concentration range of 3.1×10(-7)-8.3×10(-1) mol L(-1) with a detection limit of 1.5×10(-7) mol L(-1). The best performance was obtained with a membrane composition of 31.5% PVC, 62.5% DOP and 6% TBA-NCP in the temperature range of 20-35 °C and the pH range of 4-9. The fast response time and good reproducibility over a period of 3 months are other characteristics of the sensor. The proposed electrode was successfully used as an indicator electrode in titration of oxalate ions with CaCl2 solution. The proposed electrode was also used in direct potentiometric determination of oxalate in many real samples such as: mushroom, black and green tea, spinach and beet. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Estimation of normal chromium-51 ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid clearance in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepsz, A. (Dept. of Radioisotopes, Academic Hospital, VUB Brussels (Belgium) Dept. of Radioisotopes, Hopital Saint-Pierre, Brussels (Belgium)); Pintelon, H. (Dept. of Radioisotopes, Academic Hospital, VUB Brussels (Belgium)); Ham, H.R. (Dept. of Radioisotopes, Hopital Saint-Pierre, Brussels (Belgium))

    1994-01-01

    In order to estimate the normal range of chromium-51 ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) clearance in children, we selected a series of 256 patients with past or present urinary tract infection who showed, at the time of the clearance determination, normal technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scintigraphy and normal left to right DMSA relative uptake. The clearance was calculated by means of either the simplified second exponential method or the 120-min single blood sample; Chantler's correction was used in order to correct for having neglected the first exponential. There was a progressive increase in clearance from the first weeks of life (mean value around 1 month: 55 ml/min/1.73 m[sup 2]), with a plateau at around 18 months. Between 2 and 17 years of age, the clearance values remained constant, with a mean value of 114 ml/min/1.73 m[sup 2] (SD: 24 ml/min); this is similar to the level described for inulin clearance. No significant differences were observed between boys and girls, or between clearance values calculated with one or with two blood samples. Taking into account the hour of intravenous injection of the tracer, we did not observe any influence of the lunchtime meal on the distribution of the [sup 51]Cr-EDTA clearance values. (orig.)

  13. Comparative toxicity of tetra ethyl lead and lead oxide to earthworms, Eisenia fetida (Savigny)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkateswara Rao, J.; Kavitha, P.; Padmanabha Rao, A.

    2003-01-01

    Leaded gasoline contains tetra ethyl lead (TEL) as an antiknocking agent, which produces major amounts of lead oxide in automobile exhaust along with traces of TEL. To minimize the lead contamination, methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) is used as a substitute for producing unleaded gasoline. It has become increasingly apparent that young children are highly susceptible to the harmful effects of lead. Hence, a study was carried out to monitor lead toxicity in soil, using adult earthworms (Eisenia fetida, Savigny). Leaded gasoline (TEL) and lead oxide are 383- and 211-fold more toxic than unleaded gasoline (MTBE) in 7 days of exposure and 627- and 290-fold more toxic in 14 days, respectively. Results indicate that the presence of TEL in leaded gasoline and lead oxide has a significant effect on behavior, morphology, and histopathology of earthworms. Absorption of TEL into the tissues is comparatively less than that of lead oxide but toxic effects were severe. Rupture of the cuticle, extrusion of coelomic fluid and inflexible metameric segmentation were observed, causing desensitization of the posterior region leading to fragmentation in earthworms

  14. Photophysical properties of a novel axially substituted tetra-α-(pentyloxy) Titanium(IV) Phthalocyanine - Hematoxylin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yufeng; Lv, Huafei; Yu, Xinxin; Pan, Sujuan; Zhang, Tiantian; Huang, Yide; Wang, Yuhua; Xie, Shusen; Yang, Hongqin; Peng, Yiru

    2017-06-01

    Metal phthalocyanines (MPcs) are a very important class of widespread application compounds. They are not only used as dyes but also used as catalysts, data storage, electron charge carriers in photocopiers, photoconductors in chemical sensors, and photo-antenna devices in photosysthesis, photovoltaic cells. A particular application of Pcs is that it was used as a photosensitizers (PS) for treatment of certain cancer by photodynamic therapy of cancer and non-cancer diseases. However, the molecular aggregation of phthalocyanines, which is an intrinsic property of these large π-π conjugated systems, provides an efficient non-radioactive energy relaxation pathway, thereby shortening the excited state lifetimes, and reducing the photosensitizing and target efficiency. To overcome these problems, the introduction of axial ligands to phthalocyanine can prevent the formation of aggregation to some extend. In this paper, hematoxylin axially substituted tetra-α-(pentoxy) titanium (IV) phthalocyanine (TiPc(OC5H11)4-Hematoxylin) were characterized by elemental analysis, IR, 1H NMR, UV-Vis, fluorescence spectra. No obviously Q band change was observed after the hematoxylin was substituted at the peripheral position of substituted phthalocyanine ring. Because of the rigidity structure of the hematoxylin, the fluorescence intensity of hematoxylin peripheral substituted phthalocyanine decreased compared with free substituted phthalocyanines. The fluorescence lifetimes of axially substituted phthalocyanine was fitted to be 3.613 ns. This compound may be considered as a promising photosensitizer for PDT.

  15. A Tb–Zn tetra(4-sulfonatophenyl)porphyrin hybrid: Preparation, structure, photophysical and electrochemical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Wen-Tong; Hu, Rong-Hua; Wang, Yin-Feng; Zhang, Xian; Liu, Juan

    2014-01-01

    A terbium-zinc porphyrin, i.e. [TbZn(TPPS)H 3 O] n (1) (TPPS=tetra(4-sulfonatophenyl)porphyrin), has been obtained from a solvothermal reaction and structurally analyzed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Compound 1 is characteristic of a condensed three-dimensional (3-D) porous open framework with two types of infinite one-dimensional (1-D) chain-like structure. Compound 1 exhibits a void space of 215 Å 3 , which is 9.2% of the unit-cell volume. TG/DTA measurement reveals that the framework of compound 1 is thermally stable up to 336 °C. In order to reveal its photophysical and electrochemical properties, we investigated compound 1 in detail with UV–vis spectra, fluorescence, quantum yield, luminescence lifetime, and CV/DPV. - Graphical abstract: A terbium–zinc porphyrin [TbZn(TPPS)H 3 O] n has been obtained from a solvothermal reaction. It features a condensed 3-D porous open framework. It shows good thermal stability. - Highlights: • This paper reports a novel terbium–zinc porphyrin. • It features a novel condensed three-dimensional porous open framework. • The title compound is thermally stable up to 336 °C. • It is studied by UV–vis, fluorescence, quantum yield, lifetime, and CV/DPV

  16. Mol-ecular and crystal structure of gossypol tetra-methyl ether with an unknown solvate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honkeldieva, Muhabbat; Talipov, Samat; Mardanov, Rustam; Ibragimov, Bakhtiyar

    2015-02-01

    The title compound, C34H38O8 (systematic name: 5,5'-diisopropyl-2,2',3,3'-tetra-meth-oxy-7,7'-dimethyl-2H,2'H-8,8'-bi-[naphtho-[1,8-bc]furan]-4,4'-diol), has been obtained from a gossypol solution in a mixture of dimethyl sulfate and methanol. The mol-ecule is situated on a twofold rotation axis, so the asymmetric unit contains one half-mol-ecule. In the mol-ecule, the hy-droxy groups are involved in intra-molecular O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, and the two naphthyl fragments are inclined each to other by 83.8 (1)°. In the crystal, weak C-H⋯O and C-H⋯π inter-actions consolidate the packing, which exhibits channels with an approximate diameter of 6 Å extending along the c-axis direction. These channels are filled with highly disordered solvent mol-ecules, so their estimated scattering contribution was subtracted from the observed diffraction data using the SQUEEZE option in PLATON [Spek, A. L. (2015). Acta Cryst. C71, 9-18].

  17. Coordination-Enhanced Luminescence on Tetra-Phenylethylene-Based Supramolecular Assemblies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian-Qian Yan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Materials with aggregation-induced emission (AIE properties have received increased attention recently due to their potential applications in light-emitting devices, chemo/biosensors and biomedical diagnostics. In general, AIE requires the forced aggregation of the AIEgens induced by the poor solvent or close arrangement of AIEgens covalently attached to polymer chains. Here, we report two coordination-enhanced fluorescent supramolecular complexes featuring hierarchically restricted intramolecular motions via the self-assembly of tetraphenylethylene (TPE-based tetra-dentate (La and bidentate (Lb ligands and the cis-Pd(en(NO32 (en = ethylenediamine unit. While the free ligands are non-emissive in dilute solution and show typical AIE properties in both mixed solvent system and the solid state, the self-assembled complexes maintain their fluorescent nature in the solution state. In particular, the Pd4(La2 complex shows remarkable 6-fold fluorescent enhancement over La in dilute solution. We anticipate that these kinds of coordination-enhanced emissive supramolecules will find applications in biomedical sensing or labeling.

  18. [Tetra-saccharide glucose as a diagnostic biomarker for Pompe disease: a study with 35 patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobillo Lobato, Joaquín; Durán Parejo, Pilar; Tejero Díez, Pedro; Jiménez Jiménez, Luis M

    2013-08-04

    Pompe disease is a disorder originating from an acid alpha-glycosidase (AAG) enzyme deficiency. This disease produces an accumulation of lysosomal glycogen in different tissues, whereby the skeletal and heart muscles are especially involved. The established diagnosis is achieved through the identification of the AAG deficiency. There are also other secondary diagnostic biomarkers, such as tetra-saccharide glucose (Glc4), which shows high levels in the urine of these patients. In this study it is highlighted the usefulness of Glc4 as a diagnostic biomarker for Pompe disease in its different forms of presentation, using a high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (HPLC/UV) adapted to the study. A total of 75 individuals have been analyzed: 40 healthy controls and 35 patients diagnosed with Pompe disease. Twenty-four hour samples of urine were collected from all of the patients and their Glc4 levels were determined by means of HPLC/UV. The evaluation of the urinary Glc4 shows a high discrimination ability between healthy/sick individuals. In addition, the results obtained have allowed to establish the most appropriate level of decision or cut-off point for the identification of sick people. Glc4 urinary levels are found to be high in patients suffering from Pompe disease and even though increased levels are also found in other conditions, the existence of a AAG deficiency together with a compatible clinical symptoms, prove very helpful for a correct diagnosis of this serious disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  19. Modes of tetra(4-pyridyl)porphyrinatomanganese(III) ion intercalation inside natural clays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyoud, Ahed; Jondi, Waheed; Mansour, Waseem; Majeed Khan, M A; Hilal, Hikmat S

    2016-01-01

    Metalloporphyrin ions, with planar shape, have been known to intercalate horizontally and diagonally between montmorillonite layers. Perpendicular intercalation inside montmorillonite has not been reported earlier. This work aims at achieving perpendicular intercalation inside montmorillonite in natural clays. Possible intercalation inside other forms of natural clay will also be investigated. Natural clays were purified and characterized. The naked clay powder was then refluxed with tetra(4-pyridyl)porphyrinatomanganese(III) ion (MnTPyP(+)) solution in methanol with continuous stirring for different times. Electronic absorption spectra, atomic absorption spectra, Fourier Transform infrared spectra, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction were all used in clay characterization and in intercalation study. The natural clay involved different phases, namely montmorillonite, biotite, kaolinite, illite and traces of quartz. Montmorillonite clay allowed horizontal, diagonal and perpendicular intercalation of the metalloporphyrin ions. Biotite allowed only horizontal intercalation. The mode of intercalation was deduced by monitoring the clay inter-planar distance value change. Intercalation occurred inside both micro- and nano-size clay powders to different extents. The nano-powder (average size ~50 nm) showed uptake values up to 3.8 mg MnTPyP/g solid, whereas the micro-size powder (average size ~316 nm) exhibited lower uptake (2.4 mg MnTPyP/g solid). Non-expandable clay phases did not allow any intercalation. The intercalated MnTPyP(+) ions showed promising future supported catalyst applications. Depending on their phase, natural clays hosted metalloporphyrin ions. Montmorillonite can allow all three possible intercalation geometries, horizontal, diagonal and for the first time perpendicular. Biotite allows horizontal intercalation only. Non-expandable clays allow no intercalation. Graphical abstractMetalloporphyrin complexes can be intercalated into

  20. Tris(bis(trimethylsilyl)amido)uranium: Compounds with tri-, tetra-, and penta-valent uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, J.L.

    1988-04-01

    This trivalent uranium compound, serves as a precursor to new tri-, tetra-, and penta-valent uranium species. The geometry about the U atom is pyramidal. Lewis-base coordination compounds of U(N(SiMe/sub 3/)/sub 2/)/sub 3/ with a one-to-one- ratio of Lewis base to uranium were isolated with pyridine, 4-dimethylamino-pyridine, 2,6-Me/sub 2/-C/sub 6/H/sub 3/NC, and TPO. Two-to-one coordination compounds were obtained with t-butylnitrile and t-butylisocyanide. Compounds with more sterically demanding bases could not be isolated. The expected decrease in U-N(SiMe/sub 3/)/sub 2/ bond length with increase in oxidation state is not observed. Reaction of ClU(N(SiMe/sub 3/)/sub 2/)/sub 3/and Li(NH(p-tolyl)) yields the uranium (IV) dimer, U/sub 2/(N(SiMe/sub 3/)/sub 2/)/sub 4/(..mu..-N(p-tolyl))/sub 2/. Reaction with 2,4,6-triemethylaniline produces a dimer. Analogous substitution products could not be obtained with aniline or p-toluidine. t-Bu/sub 3/CO/sup /minus//, t-Bu/sub 2/CHO/sup /minus//, and t-Bu/sub 3/SiO/sup /minus// are used to synthesize new tetravalent, mononuclear uranium compounds. Reaction of ClU(tritox)/sub 3/ with alkyllithium reagents leads to isolation of RU(tritox)/sub 3/. The reaction of U(ditox)/sub 4/ with MeLi affords the addition product U(ditox)/sub 4/(Me)Li, whose crystal structure is described. Preparation of uranium silox compounds is reported. 97 refs., 26 figs., 39 tabs.

  1. Hydraulic tests with measuring and control plug for KNK II temperature transient experiments (TETRA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reimann, G.; Grossgarten, H.-D.; Heckert, K.

    1985-07-01

    For the temperature transient experiments (TETRA) at KNK II the sodium flow rate of a 19-pin test bundle integrated in an annular fuel element shall be reduced and the coolant temperature consequently increased with the help of a measuring and control plug. A valve will act as orificing device. It is designed in such a way that even in closed condition a remaining mass flow will be given, with which the aimed maximum coolant temperature of 750 deg. C will be reached at the outlet of the test bundle. With the nominal mass flow of the test bundle of 1.35 kg/s and a core pressure drop of 1.33 bar, for the test operation with maximum coolant outlet temperature a minimum mass flow of 0.76 kg/s and a test element pressure drop of 0.4 bar is calculated. The experimental plug has therefore to provide a pressure drop of 0.9 bar. During the hydraulic tests the pressure drop of the plug and the characteristic of the valve had to be determined. For this purpose a test line with the same inner dimensions and installations as the plug was established and a first series of experiments was performed in a water circuit. The experiments showed that most of the pressure drop was caused by the valve. It amounts to 0.5 bar with the minimum mass flow, i.e. the aimed pressure drop of 0.9 bar is not yet reached. Further tests will be performed with smaller ring gaps of the valve. In a second series of experiments the characteristics of four valves with different geometries have been determined

  2. Nanoparticles and Ethylene Diamine Tetra Acetic Acid on Growth Inhibition of Standard Strain of Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Haghighi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: In recent years, the incidence of opportunistic fungi has shown a marked increase. Infection caused by common pathogenic fungi is a significant health problem in immune compromised hosts. The present study evaluated antifungal activity of Titanum dioxide nanoparticles and Ethylene Diamine Tetra-acetic Acid against Candida albicans as self-cleaning agent by standard micro dilution test. Materials & Methods: The present study was conducted at the Medical University of Tarbiyat Modares in 2009. TiO2 nanoparticles were obtained through the hydrolysis of TiCl4 (Titanium tetrachloride. Size and type of these nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and X-Ray-Diffraction (XRD. Afterwards, the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC and Minimal Fungicide Concentration (MFC test for TiO2 and EDTA were performed. Results: Concentration of synthesised TiO2 was 7.03 mg/ml and 5.63 5.63 ×1020 particles/ml. Evaluation of morphology and diameter of the TiO2 nanoparticles with SEM showed that nanoparticles were spherical with diameter between 40-65 nm. MIC50 of 2.2, 1.24 and 0.125 µg/ml respectively. MIC90 and MFC of TiO2, EDTA and fluconazole were 3.51, 2.48 , 0.5 µg/ml and 4.06, 3.1 ,1 µg/ml respectively. Conclusion: In the present study, using of synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles with chemical method showed a suitable activity against Candida in comparison with Fluconazole. Thus it might represent a good candidates in elimination of Candida in medical from medical devices. Key Words:

  3. Tri- and tetra-nuclear polypyridyl ruthenium(II) complexes as antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorle, Anil K; Feterl, Marshall; Warner, Jeffrey M; Wallace, Lynne; Keene, F Richard; Collins, J Grant

    2014-11-28

    A series of inert tri- and tetra-nuclear polypyridylruthenium(II) complexes that are linked by the bis[4(4'-methyl-2,2'-bipyridyl)]-1,n-alkane ligand ("bb(n)" for n = 10, 12 and 16) have been synthesised and their potential as antimicrobial agents examined. Due to the modular nature of the synthesis of the oligonuclear complexes, it was possible to make both linear and non-linear tetranuclear ruthenium species. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the ruthenium(II) complexes were determined against four strains of bacteria--Gram positive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), and Gram negative Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa). In order to gain an understanding of the relative antimicrobial activities, the cellular uptake and water-octanol partition coefficients (log P) were determined for a selection of the ruthenium complexes. Although the trinuclear complexes were the most lipophilic based upon log P values and showed the greatest cellular uptake, the linear tetranuclear complexes were generally more active, with MIC values complexes were slightly more lipophilic and were taken up to a greater extent by the bacteria, they were consistently less active than their linear counterparts. Of particular note, the cellular accumulation of the oligonuclear ruthenium complexes was greater in the Gram negative strains compared to that in the Gram positive S. aureus and MRSA. The results demonstrate that the lower antimicrobial activity of polypyridylruthenium(II) complexes towards Gram negative bacteria, particularly P. aeruginosa, is not strongly correlated to the cellular accumulation but rather to a lower intrinsic ability to kill the Gram negative cells.

  4. Tris[bis(trimethylsilyl)amido]uranium: Compounds with tri-, tetra-, and penta-valent uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, J.L.

    1988-04-01

    This trivalent uranium compound, serves as a precursor to new tri-, tetra-, and penta-valent uranium species. The geometry about the U atom is pyramidal. Lewis-base coordination compounds of U[N(SiMe 3 ) 2 ] 3 with a one-to-one- ratio of Lewis base to uranium were isolated with pyridine, 4-dimethylamino-pyridine, 2,6-Me 2 -C 6 H 3 NC, and TPO. Two-to-one coordination compounds were obtained with t-butylnitrile and t-butylisocyanide. Compounds with more sterically demanding bases could not be isolated. The expected decrease in U-N(SiMe 3 ) 2 bond length with increase in oxidation state is not observed. Reaction of ClU[N(SiMe 3 ) 2 ] 3 and Li[NH(p-tolyl)] yields the uranium (IV) dimer, U 2 [N(SiMe 3 ) 2 ] 4 [μ-N(p-tolyl)] 2 . Reaction with 2,4,6-triemethylaniline produces a dimer. Analogous substitution products could not be obtained with aniline or p-toluidine. t-Bu 3 CO/sup /minus//, t-Bu 2 CHO/sup /minus//, and t-Bu 3 SiO/sup /minus// are used to synthesize new tetravalent, mononuclear uranium compounds. Reaction of ClU(tritox) 3 with alkyllithium reagents leads to isolation of RU(tritox) 3 . The reaction of U(ditox) 4 with MeLi affords the addition product U(ditox) 4 (Me)Li, whose crystal structure is described. Preparation of uranium silox compounds is reported. 97 refs., 26 figs., 39 tabs

  5. Stereoisomerism and muscarinic receptor agonists: Synthesis and effects of the stereoisomers of 3-[5-(3-amino-1,2,4-oxadizol)yl]-1-azabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pombo-Villar, E.; Wiederhold, K.-H.; Mengod, G.; Palacios, J.M.; Supavilai, P.; Boddeke, H.W.G.M.

    1992-01-01

    The preparation and the biological activities of the four stereoisomers of 3-[5-(3-amino-1,2,5-oxadiazol)yl]-1-azabicyclo [2.2.1]heptane are described. The most potent stereoisomer, 3a, has the 3R,4R configuration, and in vitro activities in (pD2(% efficacy): ileum 8.8 (87%), hippocampus 9.8 (116%)

  6. STEREOISOMERISM AND MUSCARINIC RECEPTOR AGONISTS - SYNTHESIS AND EFFECTS OF THE STEREOISOMERS OF 3-[5-(3-AMINO-1,2,4-OXADIAZOL)YL]-1-AZABICYCLO[2.2.1]HEPTANE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    POMBOVILLAR, E; WIEDERHOLD, KH; MENGOD, G; PALACIOS, JM; SUPAVILAI, P; BODDEKE, HWGM

    1992-01-01

    The preparation and the biological activities of the four stereoisomers of 3-[5-(3-amino-1,2,4-oxadiazol)yl]-1-azabicyclo [2.2.1]heptane are described. The most potent stereoisomer, 3a, has the 3R,4R configuration, and in vitro activities in (pD2(% efficacy): ileum 8.8 (87%), hippocampus 9.8 (116%)

  7. Selective adsorption in two porous triazolate-oxalate-bridged antiferromagnetic metal-azolate frameworks obtained via in situ decarboxylation of 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole-5-carboxylic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Juan-Juan; Xu, Xia; Jiang, Ning; Wu, Ya-Qin; Zhang, Xian-Ming

    2015-03-01

    Solvothermal reactions of metal salts, 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole-5-carboxylic acid (H2atzc) and ammonium oxalate in different temperature produced two metal azolate frameworks, namely, [Cu3(atzc)2(atz)(ox)]·1.5H2O (1) and [Co5(atz)4(ox)3(HCOO)2]·DMF (2) (H2atzc=3-amino-1,2,4-triazole-5-carboxylic acid, Hatz=3-amino-1,2,4-triazole, and ox=oxalate), in which the atzc precusor was in situ decarboxylated. Structural determination reveals that 1 contains [Cu3(atzc)2(atz)]2- layers of mixed μ4-atzc and μ3-atz ligands, which are pillared by ox2- groups to form a 3D porous framework. Compound 2 contains 2D layers with basic spindle-shaped decanuclear units, which extended by ox2- and formates to form 3D porous framework. Gas adsorption investigation revealed that two kinds of frameworks exhibited selective CO2 over N2 sorption. Moreover, activated 2 shows H2 storage capacity. Additionally, magnetic properties of both the compounds have been investigated.

  8. The survival and growth performance of juvenile cardinal tetra (Paracheirodon axelrodi with application of tropical almond (Terminalia catappa leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NURHIDAYAT

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Nurhidayat, Wardin L, Sitorus E. 2015. The survival and growth performance of juvenile cardinal tetra (Paracheirodon axelrodi with application of tropical almond (Terminalia catappa leaves. Nusantara Bioscience 8: 1-4. The proportional appearance of the length and the weight, and the color pattern are key factors of ornamental fishes. Modification of environment and application of food may be done to increase fish quality. The addition of active compound of tropical almond (Terminalia catappa leaves at certain doses can be done to increase survival rate and the growth of juvenile cardinal tetra (Paracheirodon axelrodi. This research used completely randomized design with four treatments and four replications. Therefore, there were 16 experimental units. The treatments were four doses of almond leaves: D0 (without almond leaves, D1 (0.5 g/L, D2 (1.5 g/L and D3 (2,5 g/L. Experimental fish used in this research was cardinal tetra. The result showed that 0.5 g/L and 1.5 g/L of almond leaves addition resulted in 100% survival rate. Those concentrations also increased the body length by 1.28 cm and increased the weight by 0.092 g. The best water parameters used during the research were: temperature of 25-29oC, dissolved oxygen of 6-6.6 ppm, pH of 6-6.5, alkalinity of 22.66-33.98 ppm, water hardness of 26.17-57.00 ppm, ammonia of 0.0052-0.0104 ppm, and nitrite of 0.0029-0.0696 ppm.

  9. A novel asymmetric chair-like hydroxyl-bridged tetra-copper compound: Synthesis, supramolecular structure and magnetic property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Feng; Du, Ke-Jie; Wang, Hong-Qing; Zhang, Xue-Li; Nie, Chang-Ming

    2017-06-01

    A new polynuclear Cu(II) compound, [Cu4(bpy)4(OH)4(H2O)(BTC)]NO3·8H2O (1), was prepared by self-assembly from the solution of copper(II) nitrate and two kinds of ligands, 2,2‧-bipyridine (bpy) and benzene-tricarboxylic acid (H3BTC). Single crystal structure analysis reveals that 1 features a rare asymmetric chair-like hydroxyl-bridged tetra-copper cluster: [Cu4(OH)4] core along with one H2O and one BTC3- occupied each terminal coordinated site. In addition, the magnetic property has been investigated.

  10. Synthesis and crystal structure of a homoleptic diruthenium complex containing tetra-2-pyridyl-1,4-pyrazine (tppz)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graf, Marion; Mayer, Peter; Boettcher, Hans-Christian [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Dept. Chemie

    2017-07-01

    Treatment of hydrated ruthenium(III) chloride with tetra-2-pyridyl-1,4-pyrazine (tppz) in refluxing ethoxyethanol afforded the homoleptic dinuclear complex [(tppz)Ru(μ-tppz)Ru(tppz)]{sup 4+} (1) besides small amounts of the species [Ru(tppz){sub 2}]{sup 2+}. The title complex 1 was obtained as purple crystals and characterized as its hexafluoridophosphate salt by NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and microanalyses. The molecular structure of 1(PF{sub 6}){sub 4} has been established by X-ray crystallography.

  11. Crystal structures of N 2,N 3,N 5,N 6-tetra­kis­(pyridin-2-ylmeth­yl)pyrazine-2,3,5,6-tetra­carboxamide and N 2,N 3,N 5,N 6-tetra­kis­(pyridin-4-ylmeth­yl)pyrazine-2,3,5,6-tetra­carboxamide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cati, Dilovan S.; Stoeckli-Evans, Helen

    2017-01-01

    The title compounds, C32H28N10O4· unknown solvent, (I), and C32H28N10O4, (II), are pyrazine-2,3,5,6-tetra­carboxamide derivatives. In (I), the substituents are (pyridin-2-ylmeth­yl)carboxamide, while in (II), the substituents are (pyridin-4-ylmeth­yl)carboxamide. Both compounds crystallize in the monoclinic space group P21/n, with Z′ = 1 for (I), and Z′ = 0.5 for (II). The whole mol­ecule of (II) is generated by inversion symmetry, the pyrazine ring being situated about a center of inversion. In (I), the four pyridine rings are inclined to the pyrazine ring by 83.9 (2), 82.16 (18), 82.73 (19) and 17.65 (19)°. This last dihedral angle involves a pyridine ring that is linked to the adjacent carboxamide O atom by an intra­molecular C—H⋯O hydrogen bond. In compound (II), the unique pyridine rings are inclined to the pyrazine ring by 33.3 (3) and 81.71 (10)°. There are two symmetrical intra­molecular C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds present in (II). In the crystal of (I), mol­ecules are linked by N—H⋯O and N—H⋯N hydrogen bonds, forming layers parallel to (10-1). The layers are linked by C—H⋯O and C—H⋯N hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional framework. In the crystal of (II), mol­ecules are linked by N—H⋯N hydrogen bonds, forming chains propagating along the [010] direction. The chains are linked by a weaker N—H⋯N hydrogen bond, forming layers parallel to the (101) plane, which are in turn linked by C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional structure. In the crystal of compound (I), a region of disordered electron density was treated with the SQUEEZE routine in PLATON [Spek (2015 ▸). Acta Cryst. C71, 9–18]. Their contribution was not taken into account during refinement. In compound (II), one of the pyridine rings is positionally disordered, and the refined occupancy ratio for the disordered Car—Car—Npy atoms is 0.58 (3):0.42 (3). PMID:28217363

  12. Design and dosimetric analysis of a 385 MHz TETRA head exposure system for use in human provocation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Gernot; Bolz, Thomas; Uberbacher, Richard; Escorihuela-Navarro, Ana; Bahr, Achim; Dorn, Hans; Sauter, Cornelia; Eggert, Torsten; Danker-Hopfe, Heidi

    2012-10-01

    A new head exposure system for double-blind provocation studies investigating possible effects of terrestrial trunked radio (TETRA)-like exposure (385 MHz) on central nervous processes was developed and dosimetrically analyzed. The exposure system allows localized exposure in the temporal brain, similar to the case of operating a TETRA handset at the ear. The system and antenna concept enables exposure during wake and sleep states while an electroencephalogram (EEG) is recorded. The dosimetric assessment and uncertainty analysis yield high efficiency of 14 W/kg per Watt of accepted antenna input power due to an optimized antenna directly worn on the subject's head. Beside sham exposure, high and low exposure at 6 and 1.5 W/kg (in terms of maxSAR10g in the head) were implemented. Double-blind control and monitoring of exposure is enabled by easy-to-use control software. Exposure uncertainty was rigorously evaluated using finite-difference time-domain (FDTD)-based computations, taking into account anatomical differences of the head, the physiological range of the dielectric tissue properties including effects of sweating on the antenna, possible influences of the EEG electrodes and cables, variations in antenna input reflection coefficients, and effects on the specific absorption rate (SAR) distribution due to unavoidable small variations in the antenna position. This analysis yielded a reasonable uncertainty of analysis. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. A study on chemical composition and detection of chemical adulteration in tetra pack milk samples commercially available in Multan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awan, Adeela; Naseer, Misbah; Iqbal, Aasfa; Ali, Muhammad; Iqbal, Rehana; Iqbal, Furhan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze and compare the chemical composition of 8 tetra pack milk samples, Olpers (S1), Haleeb (S2), Good milk (S3), Everyday (S4), Milk Pack (S5), Dairy Queen (S6), Dairy Umang (S7), Nurpur (S8) available in local markets and to detect the presence of various chemical adulterants in tetra pack milk samples in Southern Punjab (Pakistan). Density, pH, solid not fat, total solids, lactometer reading, specific gravity and fat contents were analyzed to determine the chemical composition of milk samples. Our results revealed that all the studied parameters had statistically non significant differences (P>0.05) except total fat in milk samples which was significantly different (P=0.03) among the 8 studied milk samples. Presence of a number of chemical adulterants, formalin, cane sugar, starch, glucose, ammonium sulphate, salt, pulverized soap, detergents, skim milk powder, benzoic acid, salicylic acid, borax, boric acid and alkalinity were also detected in milk samples following standard procedures. Results indicated that formalin, cane sugar, glucose, alkalinity and benzoic acid were present in all samples while salt test was positive only for Olper milk. All other studied adulterants were not detected in 8 milk samples under study. % fat was the only significantly different feature among the studied milk quality parameters with S8 containing lowest while S5 having the maximum % fat.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of novel 4-Tetra-4-Tolylsulfonyl ZnPc thin films for optoelectronic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Salah; Tazarki, Helmi; Souli, Mehdi; Guasch, Cathy; Jamoussi, Bassem; Kamoun, Najoua

    2017-11-01

    Novel 4-Tetra-4-Tolylsulfonyl:zinc phthalocyanine and simple zinc phthalocyanine were synthesized. Our materials were grown on glass substrates by spin coating technique. Thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electronic micrograph (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), spectrophotometer and Hall effect measurement. X-ray spectra reveal that 4-Tetra-4-Tolylsulfonyl:zinc phthalocyanine (4T4TS:ZnPc) and zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) thin films have a monoclinic crystalline structure in β phase. The surface properties and chemical composition were detailed using XPS measurement. SEM were used to investigate the surface morphology for 4T4TS:ZnPc and ZnPc thin films. Atomic force microscopy images have shown a decrease in surface roughness after substitution. Optical properties were investigated by measuring transmission and reflection spectra. Electrical properties were studied and the different electrical parameters was measured and compared on glass, silicon and tin dioxide substrates by Hall Effect technique. All obtained results indicate an improvement in physical properties of 4T4TS:ZnPc which allows used it in optoelectronic applications.

  15. ISOLAMENTO TÉRMICO DE RESIDÊNCIAS ATRAVÉS DA REUTILIZAÇÃO DE EMBALAGENS TETRA PAK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaquiel Salvi Fernandes

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A reciclagem está presente na atualidade, não apenas pelo aspecto econômico, mas também pela questão ambiental. Não faz sentido jogar junto com o lixo orgânico materiais que possam ser reaproveitados ou transformados. Neste contexto também se encontram as embalagens de leite e/ou suco longa vida (Tetra Pak®, amplamente utilizadas pela população. Tais embalagens têm baixo valor comercial, e sua reciclagem é difícil e de custo muito elevado. Este trabalho de extensão universitária reutilizou estas embalagens, montando painéis com as dimensões do forro de residências selecionadas na cidade de Videira-SC, com o intuito de isolá-las termicamente. As caixinhas Tetra Pak possuem uma face aluminizada, a qual impede que o calor seja transmitido para o interior (ou exterior no caso do inverno da residência pelo processo de radiação, refletindo mais de 95% do calor. Com esta característica a caixa de leite se mostra perfeita para exercer a função de manta térmica, como uma alternativa às mantas convencionais, com a vantagem de ser uma solução ecológica e barata. Após a instalação, as casas que antes não possuíam forro passaram a registrar temperaturas internas menores no verão e maiores no inverno, além da prevenção contra goteiras e respingos. As famílias atendidas expressaram unanimidade de opinião, mostrando-se muito satisfeitas com o ambiente após a instalação, relatando o aumento da temperatura em dias mais frios e sua diminuição em dias mais quentes. Palavras-chave: painéis térmicos, reutilização, embalagens longa vida, extensão universitária. Thermal isolation of residences through reuse of Tetra Pak packaging Abstract: Nowadays recycling is present not only in economic but also in environmental issues. It makes no sense mixing together with organic waste the materials that can be reused or processed. Milk and long life juice cartons (Tetra Pak®, widely used by the population, are also included

  16. EFICÁCIA DO “TETRA-TEST” COMO FERRAMENTA DE GESTÃO DA QUALIDADE DO LEITE CRU REFRIGERADO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Francisco Prata

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of a new management tool for screening refrigerated raw milk quality in a dairy industry is provided. Three hundred and seventy-four samples of raw milk from individual producers and 125 samples from bulk milk carriers from the same producers were analyzed. Producers’ samples underwent a fast tube reduction test, or Tetra-Test, to estimate total bacteriological charge and their predominant microbiota. Bulk milk samples underwent standard plate count (SPC as reference method. Tetra-test was effective in screening and assessing the microbiological quality of refrigerated raw milk, since 82.4% of samples with more than 106UFC/mL were readily detected (5 minutes to 2h. The test may be employed as a management tool either in screening or in interventions on the detected problem. In fact, its results provided complementary information on the characteristics of dominant microbiota. Most samples failed in compliance to IN 51 requirements. Further, 211 samples (56.4% showed high microbial charge and, consequently, poor quality raw milk. Psychrotrophic groups were not yet the main degrading factors of cooled raw milk, albeit present in 76.8% of samples.

  17. Tunable properties of novel tetra-functional fluorene-based benzoxazines from mixed amines: Synthesis, characterization and curing kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Tiantian [Polymer Materials Research Center, Key Laboratory of Superlight Material and Surface Technology of Ministry of Education, College of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 15001 (China); Wang, Jun, E-mail: wj6267@sina.com [Polymer Materials Research Center, Key Laboratory of Superlight Material and Surface Technology of Ministry of Education, College of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 15001 (China); Pan, Lan; Derradji, Mehdi; Ramdani, Noureddine [Polymer Materials Research Center, Key Laboratory of Superlight Material and Surface Technology of Ministry of Education, College of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 15001 (China); Liu, Wenbin, E-mail: wjlwb@163.com [Polymer Materials Research Center, Key Laboratory of Superlight Material and Surface Technology of Ministry of Education, College of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 15001 (China); Zhou, Haoran [Department of Polymer Materials and Engineering, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin University of Science and Technology, Harbin 150040 (China)

    2016-06-10

    Highlights: • Synthesis of tetra-functional fluorene-based benzoxazines with tunable properties. • Cure reaction could be successfully described with the autocatalytic model. • The benzoxazines show an excellent heat resistance with T{sub g} of 291–307 °C. • The benzoxazines exhibit good thermal stability with T{sub 5} over 340 °C. - Abstract: A series of tetra-functional fluorene-based benzoxazines containing both flexible linear aliphatic chain and rigid aromatic structure in their backbones were synthesized using mixed amines such as aniline and n-octylamine, 2,7-dihydroxy-9,9-bis-(4-hydroxyphenyl)fluorene (THPF) and paraformaldehyde as raw materials via Mannich reaction. The prepared benzoxazine monomers were identified by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 1}H NMR). In addition, the curing behavior, curing kinetics and rheological properties of these monomers as well as the thermal and mechanical properties of their cured resins were studied using a rheometer, differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA), and dynamic thermomechanical analyzer (DMA). The newly developed benzoxazines show good processibility, excellent thermal stability and high glass transition temperature (T{sub g}) values ranging from 291 to 307 °C. By varying the proportion of n-octylamine to aniline, the properties of these resins are tuned.

  18. Sensitivity of photoelectron diffraction to conformational changes of adsorbed molecules: Tetra-tert-butyl-azobenzene/Au(111

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Schuler

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Electron diffraction is a standard tool to investigate the atomic structure of surfaces, interfaces, and adsorbate systems. In particular, photoelectron diffraction is a promising candidate for real-time studies of structural dynamics combining the ultimate time resolution of optical pulses and the high scattering cross-sections for electrons. In view of future time-resolved experiments from molecular layers, we studied the sensitivity of photoelectron diffraction to conformational changes of only a small fraction of molecules in a monolayer adsorbed on a metallic substrate. 3,3′,5,5′-tetra-tert-butyl-azobenzene served as test case. This molecule can be switched between two isomers, trans and cis, by absorption of ultraviolet light. X-ray photoelectron diffraction patterns were recorded from tetra-tert-butyl-azobenzene/Au(111 in thermal equilibrium at room temperature and compared to patterns taken in the photostationary state obtained by exposing the surface to radiation from a high-intensity helium discharge lamp. Difference patterns were simulated by means of multiple-scattering calculations, which allowed us to determine the fraction of molecules that underwent isomerization.

  19. 7-(1,3-Dioxolan-2-ylmethyl)-1,3-di-methyl-2,6-dioxo-2,3,6,7-tetra-hydro-1H-purin-9-ium tetra-chloridoferrate(III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping Ping; Gong, Jiang; Ni, Shi-Feng

    2010-09-11

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, (C(11)H(15)N(4)O(4))[FeCl(4)], contains two independent protonated 7-(1,3-dioxolan-2-ylmeth-yl)-3,7-dihydro-1,3-dimethyl-1H-purine-2,6-dione (doxofyllinium) and two tetrahedral tetra-chlorido-ferrate(III) anions. In the doxofyllinium, two disordered methyl-ene C atoms are observed in each dioxolane ring with an occupancy ratio of 0.54 (4):0.46 (4). In the crystal, mol-ecules are connected by N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds and weak C-H⋯O and C-H⋯Cl inter-actions.

  20. The TETRA-II Experiment to Observe Terrestrial Gamma Flashes at Ground Level - Analysis of Nearby Thunderstorm Activity and Comparison with Lightning Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D.; Adams, C.; Cherry, M. L.; Al-Nussirat, S.; Bai, S.; Banadaki, Y.; Bitzer, P. M.; Hoffman, J.; Khosravi, E.; Legault, M.; Orang, M.; Pleshinger, D. J.; Rodriguez, R.; Trepanier, J. C.; Sunda-Meya, A.; Zimmer, N.

    2017-12-01

    Terrestrial gamma ray flashes (TGFs) are millisecond bursts of high-energy electrons propagated within the atmosphere. An upgraded version of the TGF and Energetic Thunderstorm Rooftop Array (TETRA-II) consists of an array of BGO scintillators to detect TGFs from thunderstorms at ground-level in four locations: the campus of Louisiana State University (LSU) in Baton Rouge, Louisiana; the campus of the University of Puerto Rico at Utuado, Puerto Rico, in conjunction with the already existing Puerto Rico Lightning Detection Network (PRLDN) of radio receivers; the Centro Nacional de Metrologia de Panama (CENAMEP) in Panama City, Panama; and the Severe Weather Institute and Radar & Lightning Laboratories in Huntsville, Alabama. The original TETRA-I array of NaI scintillators at LSU detected 37 millisecond-scale bursts of gamma-rays at energies of 50 keV-2 MeV associated with nearby (< 8 km) thunderstorms. TETRA-II began operation in May 2016 and now has approximately an order of magnitude greater sensitivity to individual events than TETRA-I. The ability to observe ground-level bursts from close to the source allows an analysis of the storm cells producing these events. An analysis of storms associated with TETRA II gamma-ray events is provided using NEXRAD Level II base-reflectivity scans to determine specific storm features before, during, and after the occurrence of each event. Louisiana events appear to occur within most major thunderstorm types, in particular as the cell is transitioning into the dissipating stage of evolution.

  1. Toward hypoxia-selective DNA-alkylating agents built by grafting nitrogen mustards onto the bioreductively activated, hypoxia-selective DNA-oxidizing agent 3-amino-1,2,4-benzotriazine 1,4-dioxide (tirapazamine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kevin M; Parsons, Zachary D; Barnes, Charles L; Gates, Kent S

    2014-08-15

    Tirapazamine (3-amino-1,2,4-benzotriazine 1,4-dioxide) is a heterocyclic di-N-oxide that undergoes enzymatic deoxygenation selectively in the oxygen-poor (hypoxic) cells found in solid tumors to generate a mono-N-oxide metabolite. This work explored the idea that the electronic changes resulting from the metabolic deoxygenation of tirapazamine analogues might be exploited to activate a DNA-alkylating species selectively in hypoxic tissue. Toward this end, tirapazamine analogues bearing nitrogen mustard units were prepared. In the case of the tirapazamine analogue 18a bearing a nitrogen mustard unit at the 6-position, it was found that removal of the 4-oxide from the parent di-N-oxide to generate the mono-N-oxide analogue 17a did indeed cause a substantial increase in reactivity of the mustard unit, as measured by hydrolysis rates and DNA-alkylation yields. Hammett sigma values were measured to quantitatively assess the magnitude of the electronic changes induced by metabolic deoxygenation of the 3-amino-1,2,4-benzotriazine 1,4-dioxide heterocycle. The results provide evidence that the 1,2,4-benzotiazine 1,4-dioxide unit can serve as an oxygen-sensing prodrug platform for the selective unmasking of bioactive agents in hypoxic cells.

  2. Spectroscopic analysis of the interaction between tetra-(p-sulfoazophenyl-4-aminosulfonyl-substituted aluminum (III phthalocyanines and serum albumins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqin Zheng

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The binding interaction between tetra-(p-sulfoazophenyl-4-aminosulfonyl-substituted aluminum (III phthalocyanine (AlPc, and two-serum albumins (bovine serum albumin (BSA and human serum albumin (HSA has been investigated. AlPc could quench the intrinsic fluorescence of BSA and HSA through a static quenching process. The primary and secondary binding sites of AlPc on BSA were domain I and III of BSA. The primary binding site of AlPc on HSA was domain I, and the secondary binding sites of AlPc on HSA were found at domains I and II. Our results suggest that AlPc readily interact with BSA and HSA implying that the amphiphilic substituents AlPc may contribute to their transportation in the blood.

  3. ISOLAMENTO TÉRMICO DE RESIDÊNCIAS ATRAVÉS DA REUTILIZAÇÃO DE EMBALAGENS TETRA PAK

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Jaquiel Salvi; Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia Catarinense - Câmpus Videira; Danielewicz, Ramona Jaqueline; Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia Catarinense - Câmpus Videira; Secco, Joice; Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia Catarinense - Câmpus Videira

    2014-01-01

    A reciclagem está presente na atualidade, não apenas pelo aspecto econômico, mas também pela questão ambiental. Não faz sentido jogar junto com o lixo orgânico materiais que possam ser reaproveitados ou transformados. Neste contexto também se encontram as embalagens de leite e/ou suco longa vida (Tetra Pak®), amplamente utilizadas pela população. Tais embalagens têm baixo valor comercial, e sua reciclagem é difícil e de custo muito elevado. Este trabalho de extensão universitária reutilizou e...

  4. Solvent Extraction of Thorium Using 5,11,17,23-Tetra[(2-ethyl acetoethoxyphenyl(azophenyl]calix[4]arene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quang Hieu Tran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A rapid, sensitive, and selective method for determination of thorium based on the complex with ortho-ester tetra-azophenylcalix[4]arene (TEAC was described. In the presence of pH of 4–6, TEAC-Th(IV complex is extracted from an acidic aqueous solution into chloroform layer. The absorbance intensity of complex was measured by UV-Vis spectrometer at 525 nm and the molar absorptivity was found to be 2.4 × 104. Beer’s law was obeyed in the range of 1.0 to 25 × 10−5 M thorium(IV. The effects of pH, TEAC concentration, and shaking time were also studied. The tolerance limits for several metal ions were calculated. The proposed method was applied to the determination of thorium in synthetic solution and in the monazite sand samples with good results.

  5. Determination of the water content in tetra-ammonium uranyl tricarbonate by the Karl Fischer reagent method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisti, C.; Grigoletto, T.

    1990-08-01

    Two methods are compared for the determination of water content in tetra-ammonium uranyl tricarbonate by the Karl Fischer reagent method. In the first method it is Known that the carbonate reacts stoichiometrically with the iodine content of the Karl Fischer reagent in the same way it reacts with the water (mole of apparent H 2 O per mole of carbonate is produced). In this case, the carbonate content in the sample is determined and a suitable correction is applied to take into account the apparent water results. In the second method it is performed an extraction of the moisture by adding methanol to the sample in an independent flask. After the decantation, an aliquot of the clear supernatant methanol is taken for the determination of water content by the Karl Fischer reagent method. (author) [pt

  6. Investigating copper toxicity in the tropical fish cardinal tetra (Paracheirodon axelrodi) in natural Amazonian waters: Measurements, modeling, and reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crémazy, Anne; Wood, Chris M; Smith, D Scott; Ferreira, Márcio S; Johannsson, Ora E; Giacomin, Marina; Val, Adalberto L

    2016-11-01

    Copper at high concentrations is an ionoregulatory toxicant in fish and its toxicity is known to be strongly modulated by the water chemistry. The toxicity of Cu to the tropical fish cardinal tetra (Paracheirodon axelrodi) was investigated in waters from two major rivers of the Amazon watershed: the Rio Negro (filtered Acute 96-h mortality, Cu bioaccumulation and net flux rates of Na + , Cl - , K + and total ammonia were determined in P. axelrodi exposed in each water. Copper speciation in each water was determined by two thermodynamic models and by potentiometry, and its toxicity was predicted based on the biotic ligand model (BLM) framework. Our results indicate that high Na + loss is the main mode of toxic action of Cu in P. axelrodi, in accordance with general theory. Cardinal tetra showed a particularly high ability to tolerate Cu and to maintain Na + balance, similar to the ability of this and other endemic Rio Negro species to tolerate low pH and ion-poor conditions. Cu toxicity was lower in Rio Negro than in the other two waters tested, and the free [Cu 2+ ] at the LC50, as determined by any of the three speciation methods tested, was approximately 10-fold higher. This variation could not be captured by a realistic set of BLM parameters. At least in part, this observation may be due to gill physiological alterations induced by the abundant dissolved organic matter of the Rio Negro. The implication of this observation is that, for metals risk assessment in tropical waters, similar to the Rio Negro, care must be used in applying BLM models developed using temperate DOC and temperate species. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. A novel tri-axis MEMS gyroscope with in-plane tetra-pendulum proof masses and enhanced sensitive springs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, M C; Jiao, J W; Yan, P L; Mi, B W; Qin, S

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a tri-axis MEMS gyroscope design with novel tetra-pendulum proof masses for X-, Y-axis and regular proof masses for Z-axis rate sensing, which are all coupled with and embedded in a conventional tuning fork driving frame. The four pendulum proof masses are suspended via the torsional springs to a common center anchor and can be driven to swing around the anchor via the tilted transforming springs as the driving frame is oscillated in an anti-phase mode. As an X-, Y-axis angular rate is applied, the tetra-pendulum proof masses will rotate around the torsional springs in pairs for X- and Y-axis differential sensing, respectively. In particular, we investigated the relationship between the tilting angle of the transforming spring and its transforming efficiency, i.e. the amplitude ratio of the pendulum's swing to the driving oscillation, which shows a straight impact on the sensitivity. By theoretical analysis and Ansys simulation, we achieved an optimal tilting angle of 22.5°, which extends along the angular bisector of the pendulum's and driving mass’ moving direction and demonstrates a significant increase in transforming efficiency by about 40%, compared with the trivial tilting angle of 45°. By employing an SOI-based bulk micromachining process, the prototype device with the optimal design of the transforming spring (type I) and that with the trivial design (type II) for reference have been successfully fabricated. As expected, the testing results indicate an increase of more than 20% in the X- and Y- sensitivities, which is mainly from the enhanced sensitive transforming springs. (paper)

  8. Bioactive surface modifications on inner walls of poly-tetra-fluoro-ethylene tubes using dielectric barrier discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Yong Ki; Park, Daewon; Kim, Hoonbae; Lee, Hyerim; Park, Heonyong; Kim, Hong Ja; Jung, Donggeun

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The surface modification of the inner walls of poly-tetra-fluoro-ethylene (PTFE) tubing was carried out to improve vascular grafts. • Focus was centered on the cell attachment of the inner wall of the PTFE by sequential processes of hydrogen plasma treatment, hydrocarbon deposition, and reactive plasma treatment using micro plasma discharge. - Abstract: Bioactive surface modification can be used in a variety of medical polymeric materials in the fields of biochips and biosensors, artificial membranes, and vascular grafts. In this study, the surface modification of the inner walls of poly-tetra-fluoro-ethylene (PTFE) tubing was carried out to improve vascular grafts, which are made of biocompatible material for the human body in the medical field. Focus was centered on the cell attachment of the inner wall of the PTFE by sequential processes of hydrogen plasma treatment, hydrocarbon deposition, and reactive plasma treatment on the PFTE surface using micro plasma discharge. Micro plasma was generated by a medium-frequency alternating current high-voltage generator. The preliminary modification of PTFE was conducted by a plasma of hydrogen and argon gases. The hydrocarbon thin film was deposited on modified PTFE with a mixture of acetylene and argon gases. The reactive plasma treatment using oxygen plasma was done to give biocompatible functionality to the inner wall surface. The hydrophobic surface of bare PTFE is made hydrophilic by the reactive plasma treatment due to the formation of carbonyl groups on the surface. The reactive treatment could lead to improved attachment of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) on the modified PTFE tubing. Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and water contact angle measurement were used for the analysis of the surface modification. The SMC-attached PTFE tube developed will be applicable to in vitro human vasculature

  9. Two Organic Cation Salts Containing Tetra(isothiocyanatecobaltate(II: Synthesis, Crystal Structures, Spectroscopic, Optical and Magnetic Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Zhang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Single crystals of two hybrid organic-inorganic molecular solids, benzyl pyridinium tetra(isothiocyanatecobalt ([BzPy]2[Co(NCS4] (1 and benzyl quinolinium tetra(isothiocyanatecobalt ([BzQl]2[Co(NCS4] (2, were grown using a slow evaporation growth technique at room temperature and their IR, UV-Vis, X-ray crystal structures, luminescence, and magnetism were reported. The crystal structural analysis revealed that two molecular solids crystallize in the monoclinic space group P21/c of 1 and P21/n of 2. The cations form a dimer through weak C–H···π/π···π interactions in 1 and 2, and the adjacent cation (containing N(6 atom in 2 forms a columnar structure through π···π weak interactions between the quinoline and benzene rings, while the anions in 1 form a layer structure via short S···Co interactions. The anions (A and cations (C are arranged alternatively into a column in the sequence of ···A–CC–A–CC–A··· for 1, while the two anions and cationic dimer in 2 form an alliance by the C–H···π, C–H···S and C–H···N hydrogen bonds. A weak S···π interaction was found in 1 and 2. The two molecular solids show a broad fluorescence emission around 400 nm in the solid state at room temperature, and weak antiferromagnetic coupling behavior when the temperature is lowered.

  10. Influence of pretreatment with 3-amino-1-hydroxypropylidene-1,1-bisphosphonate (APB) on organ uptake of {sup 211}At and {sup 125}I-labeled amidobisphosphonates in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murud, Kristin M.; Larsen, Roy H.; Bruland, Oeyvind S.; Hoff, Per E-mail: per.hoff@kjemi.uio.no

    1999-10-01

    To minimize nontarget organ uptake in animals receiving radiolabeled amidobisphosphonates, the influence of pretreatment with cold 3-amino-1-hydroxypropylidene-1,1-bisphosphonate (APB, pamidronate) was studied. Three groups of animals were given pure 3-[{sup 125}I]iodobenzamide-N-3-hydroxypropylidene-3,3-bisphosphonate (IBPB) and 3-[{sup 211}At]astatobenzamide-N-3-hydroxypropylidene-3,3-bisphosphonate (ABPB) (control); co-injection of APB and IBPB/ABPB; and 1 h preinjection of APB followed by IBPB/ABPB, respectively. A significant reduction of uptake in normal tissue was observed, whereas the bone uptake remained constant at 35-50%ID/g tissue. This study suggests that co- or preinjection of pamidronate may reduce the normal organ radiation doses when using these radiohalogenated bisphosphonates for endoradiotherapeutic procedures.

  11. 5,11,17,23-Tetra-tert-butyl-25,26,27,28-tetrapropynyloxy-2,8,14,20-tetrathiacalix[4]arene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-Gao Meng

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The title compound [systematic name: 5,11,17,23-tetra-tert-butyl-25,26,27,28-tetrapropynyloxy-2,8,14,20-tetrathiacalix[4]arene], C52H56O4S4, is an alkylated product bearing four propyne groups at the lower rim of a 5,11,17,23-tetra-tert-butyl-tetrathiacalix[4]arene. The molecule is located on a crystallographic twofold rotation axis, running through two S atoms and perpendicular to the long axis of the molecule. The four propyne groups, located in an alternate fashion above and below the mean plane of the four S atoms, are almost parallel to the calixarene long axis. The dihedral angle between the two crystallographically independent benzene rings is 86.77 (14°. Two tert-butyl groups are disordered over two positions with site occupancies of 0.59 (2 and 0.41 (2.

  12. Investigating copper toxicity in the tropical fish cardinal tetra (Paracheirodon axelrodi) in natural Amazonian waters: Measurements, modeling, and reality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crémazy, Anne, E-mail: acremazy@zoology.ubc.ca [Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Wood, Chris M. [Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Smith, D. Scott [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, ON N2L 3C5 (Canada); Ferreira, Márcio S. [Laboratory of Ecophysiology and Molecular Evolution, National Institute for Amazonian Research, Manaus, AM (Brazil); Johannsson, Ora E.; Giacomin, Marina [Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Val, Adalberto L. [Laboratory of Ecophysiology and Molecular Evolution, National Institute for Amazonian Research, Manaus, AM (Brazil)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Copper toxicity to a tropical fish varied greatly in different Amazonian waters. • The biotic ligand model could not capture this variability. • Possible physiological protection was offered by natural organic matter. • Care must be used in applying BLM to fish in tropical waters. - Abstract: Copper at high concentrations is an ionoregulatory toxicant in fish and its toxicity is known to be strongly modulated by the water chemistry. The toxicity of Cu to the tropical fish cardinal tetra (Paracheirodon axelrodi) was investigated in waters from two major rivers of the Amazon watershed: the Rio Negro (filtered <0.45 μm, pH 5.6, DOC = 8.4 mg L{sup −1}, Na = 33 μM, Ca = 8 μM) and the Rio Solimões (filtered <0.45 μm, pH 6.7, DOC = 2.8 mg L{sup −1}, Na = 185 μM, Ca = 340 μM), as well as in a natural “reference water” (groundwater) which was almost DOC-free (pH 6.0, DOC = 0.34 mg L{sup −1}, Na = 53 μM, Ca = 5 μM). Acute 96-h mortality, Cu bioaccumulation and net flux rates of Na{sup +}, Cl{sup −}, K{sup +} and total ammonia were determined in P. axelrodi exposed in each water. Copper speciation in each water was determined by two thermodynamic models and by potentiometry, and its toxicity was predicted based on the biotic ligand model (BLM) framework. Our results indicate that high Na{sup +} loss is the main mode of toxic action of Cu in P. axelrodi, in accordance with general theory. Cardinal tetra showed a particularly high ability to tolerate Cu and to maintain Na{sup +} balance, similar to the ability of this and other endemic Rio Negro species to tolerate low pH and ion-poor conditions. Cu toxicity was lower in Rio Negro than in the other two waters tested, and the free [Cu{sup 2+}] at the LC50, as determined by any of the three speciation methods tested, was approximately 10-fold higher. This variation could not be captured by a realistic set of BLM parameters. At least in part, this observation may be due to gill

  13. Versatile supramolecular reactivity of zinc-tetra(4-pyridylporphyrin in crystalline solids: Polymeric grids with zinc dichloride and hydrogen-bonded networks with mellitic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia Lipstman

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Crystal engineering studies confirm that the zinc-tetra(4-pyridylporphyrin building block reveals versatile supramolecular chemistry. In this work, it was found to be reactive in the assembly of both (a a 2D polymeric array by a unique combination of self-coordination and coordination through external zinc dichloride linkers and (b an extended heteromolecular hydrogen-bonded network with mellitic acid sustained by multiple connectivity between the component species.

  14. Unique effects of the chain lengths and anions of tetra-alkylammonium salts on quenching pyrene excimer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hyun-Sook; Zhao, Jing; Lei, Yu; Nieh, Mu-Ping

    2014-09-10

    Pyrene (Py) excimer, through its unique fluorescence quenching, exhibits high sensitivity and high selectivity in detecting specific electron-deficient molecules, providing a potential platform for sensing technology, optical switch, and probing hydrophobicity of molecular environment. In solution state, its quenching mechanism has been well-studied. However, there remain many unknown properties regarding the quenching mechanism of the solid-state Py excimer. In this paper, the effects of a series of tetra-alkylammonium salts (with a variety of chain lengths and anions) on Py excimer quenching are investigated to identify the controlling parameters of the fluorescence quenching in the binary system. Several experimental approaches including steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy, UV absorption, (13)C-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and time-dependent fluorescence decay are employed to seek for the fundamental understanding of the quenching mechanism. The result indicates a unique quenching effect of tetrabutylammonium cation on the pyrene excimer, and which is not observed in the other cations with different chain lengths (the same associated hexafluorophosphate anions). Meanwhile, hexafluorophosphate anion (in the presence of tetrabutylammonium) is able to effectively retain Py excimer fluorescence when the system is prepared by evaporating solvent at high temperature. It is also confirmed that dynamic quenching is involved in the process. Hydrophobic environment around Py molecules shows strong correlation with the formation of Py excimer. The knowledge obtained in this study provides the insights to how the interaction between salt and Py molecule affects the excimer fluorescence.

  15. Seventy-five-million-year-old tropical tetra-like fish from Canada tracks Cretaceous global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbrey, M. G.; Murray, A. M.; Wilson, M. V. H.; Brinkman, D. B.; Neuman, A. G.

    2009-01-01

    Newly discovered fossil fish material from the Cretaceous Dinosaur Park Formation of Alberta, Canada, documents the presence of a tropical fish in this northern area about 75 million years ago (Ma). The living relatives of this fossil fish, members of the Characiformes including the piranha and neon tetras, are restricted to tropical and subtropical regions, being limited in their distribution by colder temperatures. Although characiform fossils are known from Cretaceous through to Cenozoic deposits, none has been reported previously from North America. The modern distribution of characiforms in Mexico and southern Texas in the southernmost United States is believed to have been the result of a relatively recent colonization less than 12 Ma. The new Canadian fossils document the presence of these fish in North America in the Late Cretaceous, a time of significantly warmer global temperatures than now. Global cooling after this time apparently extirpated them from the northern areas and these fishes only survived in more southern climes. The lack of early Cenozoic characiform fossils in North America suggests that marine barriers prevented recolonization during warmer times, unlike in Europe where Eocene characiform fossils occur during times of global warmth. PMID:19675010

  16. Preparation of magnetic silica nanoparticle-supported iron tetra-carboxyl phthalocyanine catalyst and its photocatalytic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaolan; Zou, Jianli; Liu, Lihua; Zhang, Yong; Huang, Jiao

    2010-05-01

    Iron tetra-carboxyl phthalocyanine (TCFePc) was covalently immobilized to the surface of core-shell magnetite silica nanoparticles (NPs) as facilely separated supported catalyst, namely P-M SiO(2) NPs, for catalyzing the degradation of organic pollutants in aqueous solution under visible light irradiation. X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID), and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy were used to characterize the sample. The photocatalytic activity of P-M SiO(2) NPs was determined using rhodamine B (RhB) and methyl orange (MO) as the objective decomposition substances. The results revealed that the novel supported catalyst exhibited good catalytic activity over a wide pH range, and the degradation rate of RhB and MO is up to 90% during 120 min of reaction. Moreover, it is noteworthy that the catalyst can be easily separated using an external magnetic field and employed directly for the next round of reaction.

  17. Investigation of inorganic nonlinear optical potassium penta borate tetra hydrate (PPBTH) single crystals grown by slow evaporation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arivuselvi, R.; Babu, P. Ramesh

    2018-03-01

    Borates family crystals were plays vital role in the field of non linear optics (NLO) due to needs of wide range of applications. In this report, NLO crystals (potassium penta borate tetra hydrate (KB5H8O12) are grown by slow evaporation method at room temperature (28° C) and studied their physical properties. The harvested single crystals are transparent with the dimension of 12 × 10 × 6 mm3 and colourless. X-ray diffraction of single crystals reveals that the grown crystal belongs to orthorhombic system with non-centrosymmetric space group Pba2. All the absorbed functional groups are present in the order of inorganic compounds expect 1688 cm-1 because of water (Osbnd H sbnd O blending) molecule present in the pristine. Crystals show transparent in the entire visible region with 5.9 eV optical band gap and also it shows excellence in both second and third order nonlinear optical properties. Crystals can withstand upto 154 °C without any phase changes which is observed using thermal (TGA/DTA) analysis.

  18. Enantiomers of HA-966 (3-amino-1-hydroxypyrrolid-2-one) exhibit distinct central nervous system effects: (+)-HA-966 is a selective glycine/N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, but (-)-HA-966 is a potent gamma-butyrolactone-like sedative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, L.; Donald, A.E.; Foster, A.C.; Hutson, P.H.; Iversen, L.L.; Iversen, S.D.; Kemp, J.A.; Leeson, P.D.; Marshall, G.R.; Oles, R.J.; Priestley, T.; Thorn, L.; Tricklebank, M.D.; Vass, C.A.; Williams, B.J.

    1990-01-01

    The antagonist effect of ±-3-amino-1-hydroxypyrrolid-2-one (HA-966) at the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor occurs through a selective interaction with the glycine modulatory site within the receptor complex. When the enantiomers of ±-HA-966 were resolved, the (R)-(+)-enantiomer was found to be a selective glycine/NMDA receptor antagonist, a property that accounts for its anticonvulsant activity in vivo. In contrast, the (S)-(-)-enantiomer was only weakly active as an NMDA-receptor antagonist, but nevertheless it possessed a marked sedative and muscle relaxant action in vivo. In radioligand binding experiments, (+)-HA-966 inhibited strychnine-insensitive [ 3 H]glycine binding to rat cerebral cortex synaptic membranes with an IC 50 of 12.5 μM, whereas (-)-HA-966 had an IC 50 value of 339 μM. In mice, (+)-HA-966 antagonized sound and N-methyl-DL-aspartic acid (NMDLA)-induced seizures. The coadministration of D-serine dose-dependently antagonized the anticonvulsant effect of a submaximal dose of (+)-HA-966 against NMDLA-induced seizures. The sedative/ataxic effect of racemic HA-966 was mainly attributable to the (-)-enantiomer. It is suggested that, as in the case of the sedative γ-butyrolactone, disruption of striatal dopaminergic mechanisms may be responsible for this action

  19. Synthesis, characterization, and tyrosinase biomimetic catalytic activity of copper(II) complexes with schiff base ligands derived from α-diketones with 2-methyl-3-amino-(3 H)-quinazolin-4-one

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Abd El-Motaleb M.; Ibrahim, Mohamed M.; Shaban, Shaban Y.

    2011-12-01

    A template condensation of α-diketones (biacetyl, benzile and 2,3-pentanedione) with 2-methyl-3-amino-(3 H)-quinazolin-4-one (AMQ) in the presence of CuX 2 (X = Cl -, Br -, NO3- or ClO4-) resulted in the formation of tetradentate Schiff base copper(II) complexes of the type [CuLX]X and [CuL]X 2. Structural characterization of the complex species was achieved by several physicochemical methods, namely elemental analysis, electronic spectra, IR, ESR, molar conductivity, thermal analysis (TAG & DTG), and magnetic moment measurements. The stereochemistry, the nature of the metal chelates, and the catalytic reactivity are markedly dependent upon the type of counter anions and the ligand substituent within the carbonyl moiety. A square planar monomeric structure is proposed for the perchlorate, nitrate, and bromide complexes, in which the counter anions are loosely bonded to copper(II) ion. For the chloride complexes, the molar conductivities and the spectral data indicated that they have square-pyramidal environments around copper(II) center. The reported copper(II) complexes exhibit promising tyrosinase catalytic activity towards the hydroxylation of phenol followed by the aerobic oxidation of the resulting catechol. A linear correlation almost exists between the catalytic reactivity and the Lewis-acidity of the central copper(II) ion created by the donating properties of the parent ligand. The steric considerations could be accounted to clarify the difference in the catalytic activity of these functional models.

  20. Ecotoxicity of the insensitive munitions compound 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one (NTO) and its reduced metabolite 3-amino-1,2,4-triazol-5-one (ATO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeira, Camila L.; Field, Jim A.; Simonich, Michael T.; Tanguay, Robert L.; Chorover, Jon; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes

    2018-01-01

    The insensitive munitions compound 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one (NTO) was recently approved by the U.S. Army to replace cyclotrimethylene trinitramine (RDX) in conventional explosives. As its use becomes widespread, concern about the potential toxicity of NTO increases. NTO can undergo microbial reduction to 3-amino-1,2,4-triazol-5-one (ATO), which is recalcitrant in waterlogged soils. In this study, the acute toxicity of NTO and ATO towards various organisms, including microorganisms (i.e., methanogenic archaea, aerobic heterotrophs, and Aliivibrio fischeri (Microtox assay)), the microcrustacean Daphnia magna (ATO only), and zebrafish embryos (Danio rerio), was assessed. NTO was notably more inhibitory to methanogens than ATO (IC50=1.2 mM, >62.8 mM, respectively). NTO and ATO did not cause noteworthy inhibition on aerobic heterotrophs even at the highest concentrations tested (32.0 mM). High concentrations of both NTO and ATO were required to inhibit A. fischeri (IC20 = 19.2, 22.4 mM, respectively). D. magna was sensitive to ATO (LC50= 0.27 mM). Exposure of zebrafish embryos to NTO or ATO (750 µM) did not cause lethal or developmental effects (22 endpoints tested). However, both compounds led to swimming behavior abnormalities at low concentrations (7.5 µM). The results indicate that the reductive biotransformation of NTO could enhance or lower its toxicity according to the target organism. PMID:28992572

  1. 3-Amino-thieno[2,3-b]pyridines as microtubule-destabilising agents: Molecular modelling and biological evaluation in the sea urchin embryo and human cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eurtivong, Chatchakorn; Semenov, Victor; Semenova, Marina; Konyushkin, Leonid; Atamanenko, Olga; Reynisson, Jóhannes; Kiselyov, Alex

    2017-01-15

    A series of 3-amino-thieno[2,3-b]pyridines was prepared and tested in a phenotypic sea urchin embryo assay to identify potent and specific molecules that affect tubulin dynamics. The most active compounds featured a tricyclic core ring system with a fused cycloheptyl or cyclohexyl substituent and unsubstituted or alkyl-substituted phenyl moiety tethered via a carboxamide. Low nano-molar potency was observed in the sea urchin embryos for the most active compounds (1-5) suggestive of a microtubule-destabilising effect. The molecular modelling studies indicated that the tubulin colchicine site is inhibited, which often leads to microtubule-destabilisation in line with the sea urchin embryo results. Finally, the identified hits displayed a robust growth inhibition (GI 50 of 50-250nM) of multidrug-resistant melanoma MDA-MB-435 and breast MDA-MB-468 human cancer cell lines. This work demonstrates that for the thieno[2,3-b]pyridines the most effective mechanism of action is microtubule-destabilisation initiated by binding to the colchicine pocket. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The cellular uptake of meta-tetra(hydroxyphenyl)chlorin entrapped in organically modified silica nanoparticles is mediated by serum proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compagnin, Chiara; Baù, Luca; Mognato, Maddalena; Celotti, Lucia; Miotto, Giovanni; Arduini, Maria; Moret, Francesca; Fede, Caterina; Selvestrel, Francesco; Rio Echevarria, Iria M.; Mancin, Fabrizio; Reddi, Elena

    2009-08-01

    Nanosized objects made of various materials are gaining increasing attention as promising vehicles for the delivery of therapeutic and diagnostic agents for cancer. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) appears to offer a very attractive opportunity to implement drug delivery systems since no release of the sensitizer is needed to obtain the therapeutic effect and the design of the nanovehicle should be much easier. The aim of our study was to investigate the use of organic-modified silica nanoparticles (NPs) for the delivery of the second-generation photosensitizer meta-tetra(hydroxyphenyl)chlorin (mTHPC) to cancer cells in vitro. mTHPC was entrapped in NPs (~33 nm diameter) in a monomeric form which produced singlet oxygen with a high efficiency. In aqueous media with high salt concentrations, the NPs underwent aggregation and precipitation but their stability could be preserved in the presence of foetal bovine serum. The cellular uptake, localization and phototoxic activity of mTHPC was determined comparatively in human oesophageal cancer cells after its delivery by the NPs and the standard solvent ethanol/poly(ethylene glycol) 400/water (20:30:50, by vol). The NP formulation reduced the cellular uptake of mTHPC by about 50% in comparison to standard solvent while it did not affect the concentration-dependent photokilling activity of mTHPC and its intracellular localization. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer measurements, using NPs with mTHPC physically entrapped and a cyanine covalently linked, and ultracentrifugation experiments indicated that mTHPC is transferred from NPs to serum proteins when present in the medium. However, the coating of the NP surface with poly(ethylene glycol) largely prevented the transfer to proteins. In conclusion, mTHPC is rapidly transferred from the uncoated nanoparticles to the serum proteins and then internalized by the cells as a protein complex, irrespective of its modality of delivery.

  3. G-quadruplex and calf thymus DNA interaction of quaternized tetra and octa pyridyloxy substituted indium (III) phthalocyanines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bağda, Efkan; Bağda, Esra; Durmuş, Mahmut

    2017-10-01

    The interactions of small molecules with G-quadruplex and double stranded DNA are important due to their potential biological and medical usages. In the present paper, the interactions of indium (III) phthalocyanines (quaternized 2,3,9,10,16,17,23,24-octakis-[(3-pyridyloxy) phthalocyaninato] chloroindium(III): OInPc and quaternized 2(3),9(10),16(17),23(24)-tetrakis-[(3-pyridyloxy) phthalocyaninato] chloroindium(III): TInPc) with hybrid G-quadruplex (Tel 21) and parallel G-quadruplexes (nucleolin, KRAS, c-MYC, vegf) were studied. The interactions of these phthalocyanines with ctDNA were also investigated. These interactions were measured by different spectroscopic techniques such as UV-Vis, fluorescence and circular dichroism. The UV-Vis spectroscopic data treated with Benesi-Hildebrand equation and Benesi-Hildebrand constants (K BH ) were calculated. These constants were found higher for octa peripheral pyridyloxy substituted phthalocyanine, OInPc. Besides, UV-Vis analysis showed that the interaction of G-quadruplexes with tetra peripheral pyridyloxy substituted phthalocyanine derivative (TInPc) resulted in removal of central indium (III) atom from the cavity of phthalocyanine macrocycle. The UV-Vis melting studies as well as fluorescence replacement techniques were also employed for clarification of mechanism. The binding mode of molecules with ct DNA was also supported with viscosity measurements. From the results, the stabilization and destabilization of G-quadruplex depending on the concentration of the OInPc and TInPc showed that these two indium (III) phthalocyanines have the potential of both the elucidation role of G-quadruplexes in gene expression and the usage in cancer therapy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Estimation of chromium-51 ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid plasma clearance: A comparative assessment of simplified techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picciotto, G.; Cacace, G.; Mosso, R.; De Filippi, P.G.; Cesana, P.; Ropolo, R.

    1992-01-01

    Chromium-51 ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid ( 51 Cr-EDTA) total plasma clearance was evaluated using a multi-sample method (i.e. 12 blood samples) as the reference compared with several simplified methods which necessitated only one or few blood samples. The following 5 methods were evaluated: Terminal slope-intercept method with 3 blood samples, simplified method of Broechner-Mortensen and 3 single-sample methods (Constable, Christensen and Groth, Tauxe). Linear regression analysis was performed. Standard error of estimate, bias and imprecision of different methods were evaluated. For 51 Cr-EDTA total plasma clearance greater than 30 ml.min -1 , the results which most approximated the reference source were obtained by the Christensen and Groth method at a sampling time of 300 min (inaccuracy of 4.9%). For clearances between 10 and 30 ml.min -1 , single-sample methods failed to give reliable results. Terminal slope-intercept and Broechner-Mortensen methods were better, with inaccuracies of 17.7% and 16.9%, respectively. Although sampling times at 180, 240 and 300 min are time-consuming for patients, 51 Cr-EDTA total plasma clearance can be accurately calculated for values greater than 10 ml.min -1 using the Broechner-Mortensen method. In patients with clearance greater than 30 ml.min -1 , single-sample techniques provide a good alternative to the multi-sample method; the choice of the method to be used depends on the degree of accuracy required. (orig.)

  5. [Study on UV-Vis absorption spectra and fluorescence emission spectra of sixteen tetra-substituted metallophthalocyanine complexes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zi-yang; Huang, Jian-dong; Chen, Nai-sheng; Huang, Jin-ling

    2009-05-01

    The UV-Visible absorption spectra and the fluorescence emission spectra of sixteen tetra-substituted metallo-phthalocyanine complexes {R4 PcM, where R = 2-[4-(2-sulfonic ethyl) piperazin-1-] ethoxyl (SPEO--), 2-(piperidin-1-yl) ethoxyl (PEO--); substitution position at alpha-position and beta-position of phthalocyanine ring; M = Zn(II), Ni(II), Co(II) and Cu(II)} were measured. The influence of different central ion, substituted group and its position, as well as different solvent on the Q-band of phthalocyanine complex in its UV-Vis absorption spectra was investigated. The influence of different central ion, substituted group and its position on the fluorescence emission spectra was discussed. Some properties of the UV-Vis absorption spectra such as the maximum absorption wavelength (lamdamax ) of Q-band and its molar extinction coefficient (epsilon), and those of the fluorescence emission spectra such as fluorescence quantum yield (phiF), fluorescence lifetime (r) and excited state energy (Es) were studied. The results showed that the lamdamax of Qband of all complexes were located at 681-718 nm, which had a distinct red shift in contrast with unsubstituted metallophthalocyanines (669-671 nm). All complexes of R4 PcM possessed a very high molar extinction coefficient up to 10(5) L x mol(-1) x cm(-1). And the UV-Vis absorption spectra and the fluorescence emission spectra of all complexes exhibited mirror shape concurrently. Two beta-substituted zinc phthalocyanine complexes with formula beta-(SPEO)4PcZn and beta-(PEO)4PcZn possessed very high molar extinction coefficient, fluorescence quantum yield and fluorescence lifetime specially. Therefore, it is hoped that these two would be developing to be new photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy (PDT)and photodynamic diagnosis (PDD).

  6. Fluorescence and FTIR Spectra Analysis of Trans-A2B2-Substituted Di- and Tetra-Phenyl Porphyrins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal Andraud

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A series of asymmetrically substituted free-base di- and tetra-phenylporphyrins and the associated Zn-phenylporphyrins were synthesized and studied by X-ray diffraction, NMR, infrared, electronic absorption spectra, as well as fluorescence emission spectroscopy, along with theoretical simulations of the electronic and vibration structures. The synthesis selectively afforded trans-A2B2 porphyrins, without scrambling observed, where the AA and BB were taken as donor- and acceptor-substituted phenyl groups. The combined results point to similar properties to symmetrically substituted porphyrins reported in the literature. The differences in FTIR and fluorescence were analyzed by means of detailed density functional theory (DFT calculations. The X-ray diffraction analysis for single crystals of zinc-containing porphyrins revealed small deviations from planarity for the porphyrin core in perfect agreement with the DFT optimized structures. All calculated vibrational modes (2162 modes for all six compounds studied were found and fully characterized and assigned to the observed FTIR spectra. The most intense IR bands are discussed in connection with the generic similarity and differences of calculated normal modes. Absorption spectra of all compounds in the UV and visible regions show the typical ethio type feature of meso-tetraarylporphyrins with a very intense Soret band and weak Q bands of decreasing intensity. In diphenyl derivatives, the presence of only two phenyl rings causes a pronounced hypsochromic shift of all bands in the absorption spectra. Time-dependent DFT calculations revealed some peculiarities in the electronic excited states structure and connected them with vibronic bands in the absorption and fluorescence spectra from associated vibrational sublevels.

  7. Analysis of the muscarinic receptor subtype mediating inhibition of the neurogenic contractions in rabbit isolated vas deferens by a series of polymethylene tetra-amines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budriesi, R; Cacciaguerra, S; Di Toro, R; Bolognesi, M L; Chiarini, A; Minarini, A; Rosini, M; Spampinato, S; Tumiatti, V; Melchiorre, C

    2001-01-01

    The pharmacological characteristics of the presynaptic muscarinic receptor subtype, which mediates inhibition of the neurogenic contractions in the prostatic portion of rabbit vas deferens, have been investigated by using a series of polymethylene tetra-amines, which were selected for their ability to differentiate among muscarinic receptor subtypes. It was found that all tetra-amines antagonized McN-A-343-induced inhibition in electrically stimulated rabbit vas deferens in a competitive manner and with affinity values (pA2) ranging between 6.27±0.09 (spirotramine) and 8.51±0.02 (AM170). Competition radioligand binding studies, using native muscarinic receptors from rat tissues (M1, cortex; M2, heart; M3, submaxillary gland) or from NG 108-15 cells (M4) and human cloned muscarinic M1-M4 receptors expressed in CHO-K1 cells, were undertaken with the same tetra-amines employed in functional assays. All antagonists indicated a one-site fit. The affinity estimates (pKi) of tetra-amines calculated in binding assays using native receptors were similar to those obtained using cloned receptors. Among these compounds some displayed selectivity between muscarinic receptor subtypes, indicating that they may be valuable tools in receptor characterization. Spirotramine was selective for M1 receptors versus all other subtypes (pKi native: M1, 7.32±0.10; M2, 6.50±0.11; M3, 6.02±0.13; M4, 6.28±0.16; pKi cloned: M1, 7.69±0.08; M2, 6.22±0.14; M3, 6.11±0.16; 6.35±0.11) whereas CC8 is highly selective for M2 receptors versus the other subtypes (pKi native: M1, 7.50±0.04; M2, 9.01±0.12; M3, 6.70±0.08; M4, 7.56±0.04; pKi cloned: M1, 7.90±0.20; M2, 9.04±0.08; M3, 6.40±0.07; M4, 7.40±0.04). Furthermore, particularly relevant for this investigation were tetra-amines dipitramine and AM172 for their ability to significantly differentiate M1 and M4 receptors. The apparent affinity values (pA2) obtained for tetra-amines in functional studies using the prostatic portion of

  8. Silver(I) nitrate complexes of three tetra-kis-thio-ether-substituted pyrazine ligands: metal-organic chain, network and framework structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assoumatine, Tokouré; Stoeckli-Evans, Helen

    2017-03-01

    The reaction of the ligand 2,3,5,6-tetra-kis-[(methyl-sulfanyl)-meth-yl]pyrazine ( L1 ) with silver(I) nitrate led to {[Ag(C 12 H 20 N 2 S 4 )](NO 3 )} n , (I), catena -poly[[silver(I)- μ -2,3,5,6-tetra-kis-[(methyl-sulfan-yl)meth-yl]pyrazine] nitrate], a compound with a metal-organic chain structure. The asymmetric unit is composed of two half ligands, located about inversion centres, with one ligand coordinating to the silver atoms in a bis-tridentate manner and the other in a bis-bidentate manner. The charge on the metal atom is compensated for by a free nitrate anion. Hence, the silver atom has a fivefold S 3 N 2 coordination sphere. The reaction of the ligand 2,3,5,6-tetra-kis-[(phenyl-sulfanyl)-meth-yl]pyrazine ( L2 ) with silver(I) nitrate, led to [Ag 2 (NO 3 ) 2 (C 32 H 28 N 2 S 4 )] n , (II), poly[di- μ -nitrato-bis-{ μ -2,3,5,6-tetra-kis-[(phenyl-sulfan-yl)meth-yl]pyrazine}disilver], a compound with a metal-organic network structure. The asymmetric unit is composed of half a ligand, located about an inversion centre, that coordinates to the silver atoms in a bis-tridentate manner. The nitrate anion coordinates to the silver atom in a bidentate/monodentate manner, bridging the silver atoms, which therefore have a sixfold S 2 NO 3 coordination sphere. The reaction of the ligand 2,3,5,6-tetra-kis-[(pyridin-2-yl-sulfanyl)-meth-yl]pyrazine ( L3 ) with silver(I) nitrate led to [Ag 3 (NO 3 ) 3 (C 28 H 24 N 6 S 4 )] n , (III), poly[trinitrato{ μ 6 -2,3,5,6-tetra-kis[(pyri-din-2-ylsulfan-yl)meth-yl]pyrazine}-trisilver(I)], a compound with a metal-organic framework structure. The asymmetric unit is composed of half a ligand, located about an inversion centre, that coordinates to the silver atoms in a bis-tridentate manner. One pyridine N atom bridges the monomeric units, so forming a chain structure. Two nitrate O atoms also coordinate to this silver atom, hence it has a sixfold S 2 N 2 O 2 coordination sphere. The chains are linked via a second silver atom

  9. Are there evidences for the influence of GSM- and TETRA-electromagnetic fields on language comprehension in the human memory?; Laesst sich durch den Einfluss von kopfnah gepulsten Hochfrequenzfeldern des GSM- und TETRA-Mobilfunks ein Wirkungseffekt auf sprachverarbeitende Prozesse im Gedaechtnis nachweisen?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaul, G. [Bundesanstalt fuer Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin, Berlin (Germany); Stummvoll, B.; Beyer, R. [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Institut fuer Psychologie

    2004-07-01

    The experimental study using a double blind design examining the influences of the electromagnetic fields of GSM and TETRA mobile phones on the language comprehension in the human memory. 30 young men had to decide whether a given word was contained in a text they had read before. It will be demonstrated that GSM-radiation seemed to cause a quicker answer. In contrast the TETRA-radiation allowed reading - i.e. to understand - the text in a significant shorter time when the exposition came from the telephone situated on the right side of the head. Since these effects are very small, there is now evidence for a health risk. Both results point at a support of the mental processes at attention and memory. (orig.)

  10. Breaking the cycle: impact of sterically-tailored tetra(pyrazolyl)lutidines on the self-assembly of silver(I) complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Tyler J; Merkel, Andrew; Lindeman, Sergey V; Gardinier, James R

    2010-09-06

    A improved preparation of the pentadentate ligand alpha,alpha,alpha',alpha'-tetra(pyrazolyl)lutidine, pz(4)lut, and the syntheses of three new alkyl-substituted pyrazolyl derivatives pz(4')(4)lut (pz(4') = 4-methylpyrazolyl), pz*(4)lut (pz* = 3,5-dimethylpyrazolyl), and pz(DIP)(4)lut (pz(DIP) = 3,5-diisopropylpyrazolyl) are described. The silver(I) complexes of these ligands were studied to ascertain the impact of pyrazolyl substitution, if any, on their binding modes and on solubility issues. In the solid state, [Ag(pz(4)lut)](BF(4)) (1), [Ag(pz(4')(4)lut)](BF(4)) (2), and [Ag(pz*(4)lut)](BF(4)) (3) give cyclic dications as a result of two ligands sandwiching two silver centers where each ligand binds the metals through only pyrazolyl nitrogen donors. This cyclic motif is similar to those observed in the silver complexes of tetra(pyridyl)lutidine PY5-R derivatives (where the central pyridyl does not bind) and in related tetra(pyrazolyl)-m-xylene complexes. While suitable single crystals of [Ag(pz(DIP)(4)lut)](BF(4)) (4) could not be obtained, those of [Ag(pz(DIP)(4)lut)](OTf) (5) showed infinite polymeric chains secured via silver-bound mu-kappa(2)N(pz),kappa(2)N(pz)- ligands. The different binding mode of the latter ligand versus the former three is likely due to unfavorable steric interactions between the bulky iso-propyl (pyrazolyl) substituents and the central pyridyl rings of hypothetical cyclic architectures. The combined electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI(+)-MS), variable-temperature NMR (VT NMR), and diffusion pulsed field-gradient spin-echo (PFGSE) NMR data indicate that the solid state structures of each 1-5 are neither retained nor static in CD(3)CN, rather the cations are monomeric in solution.

  11. Novel Tri- and Tetra-substituted Pyrimido[4,5-d]pyridazines: Regiospecific Synthesis Catalyzed by Silica Supported Yttrium Trinitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karami, Bahador; Akrami, Sedigheh; Khodabakhshi, Saeed

    2013-01-01

    Novel tri- and tetra-substituted pyrimido[4,5-d]pyridazines-2(1H,3H,7H)-ones have been synthesized via the regiospecific condensation reaction of hydrazine derivatives with 5-acetyl-4-aryloyl-6-methyl-3,4-dihydro-pyrimidinones in the presence of SiO 2 -Y(NO 3 ) 3 as a green and recyclable catalyst under solvent-free conditions. All products were obtained in high yields and short reaction time. Employing this method is in accord with green chemistry principles

  12. [PdA (IPr*) (cinnamyl)Cl]: An efficient pre-catalyst for the preparation of tetra-ortho-substituted biaryls by Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling

    KAUST Repository

    Chartoire, Anthony

    2012-03-13

    The bigger the better: The new well-defined [Pd(IPr*)(cin)Cl] pre-catalyst is described (see scheme). This complex proves to be highly active in the Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling for the synthesis of tetra-ortho- substituted biaryls under mild conditions. IPr* is reported as the largest N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) to date for [Pd(NHC)(cin)Cl] complexes, explaining the high reactivity observed for this complex in this challenging transformation. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Novel tetra-peptide insertion in Gag-p6 ALIX-binding motif in HIV-1 subtype C associated with protease inhibitor failure in Indian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neogi, Ujjwal; Rao, Shwetha D; Bontell, Irene; Verheyen, Jens; Rao, Vasudev R; Gore, Sagar C; Soni, Neelesh; Shet, Anita; Schülter, Eugen; Ekstrand, Maria L; Wondwossen, Amogne; Kaiser, Rolf; Madhusudhan, Mallur S; Prasad, Vinayaka R; Sonnerborg, Anders

    2014-09-24

    A novel tetra-peptide insertion was identified in Gag-p6 ALIX-binding region, which appeared in protease inhibitor failure Indian HIV-1C sequences (odds ratio=17.1, P < 0.001) but was naturally present in half of untreated Ethiopian HIV-1C sequences. The insertion is predicted to restore ALIX-mediated virus release pathway, which is lacking in HIV-1C. The clinical importance of the insertion needs to be evaluated in HIV-1C dominating regions wherein the use of protease inhibitor drugs are being scaled up.

  14. Novel tetra-peptide insertion in Gag-p6 ALIX-binding motif in HIV-1 subtype C associated with protease inhibitor failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neogi, Ujjwal; RAO, Shwetha D; BONTELL, Irene; VERHEYEN, Jens; RAO, Vasudev R; GORE, Sagar C; SONI, Neelesh; SHET, Anita; SCHÜLTER, Eugen; EKSTRAND, Maria L.; WONDWOSSEN, Amogne; KAISER, Rolf; MADHUSUDHAN, Mallur S.; PRASAD, Vinayaka R; SONNERBORG, Anders

    2014-01-01

    A novel tetra-peptide insertion was identified in Gag-p6 ALIX-binding region which is appears in protease inhibitor (PI) failure Indian HIV-1C sequences (Odds Ratio 17.1, p<0.001) but naturally present in half of untreated Ethiopian sequences. The insertion will probably restore the ALIX mediated virus release pathway, which is lacking in HIV-1C. The clinical importance of such insertion need to be evaluated in HIV-1C dominating regions were PI-drugs are being scaled up as second line treatment options. PMID:25102091

  15. The food spectrum of the cardinal - tetra (Paracheirodon axelrodi, Characidae in its natural habitat Estratégias alimentares do cardinal-tetra (Paracheirodon axelrodi, Characidae em seu ambiente natural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilse Walker

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The cardinal tetra (Paracheirodon axelrodi is the most intensively commercialized ornamental fish from the Rio Negro Basin (Amazonas State, Brasil. Analysis of the stomach and gut contents of fish caught in their natural habitats show conclusively that the cardinal is essentially a predator, feeding on the mesofauna that adheres to submerged litter, roots and waterplants. Microcrustacea and chironomid larvae (Diptera were the most frequently ingested prey, while algae intake was relatively infrequent. It is argued that the relatively small size of the cardinals captured in their natural habitat is due to the annual migrations imposed by the inundation cycles, rather than to resource limitation, because it is known from earlier investigations of similar habitats, that these plant substrates are densely colonized by the aquatic mesofauna. Cardinals raised in captivity are larger and have higher rates of growth.O cardinal (Paracheirodon axelrodi é o peixe ornamental comercializado com maior intensidade na Bacia do Rio Negro (Estado do Amazonas, Brasil. Análise do conteúdo estomacal de peixes capturados nos seus habitats naturais mostra, que o cardinal é essencialmente um predador, alimentando-se da mesofauna que está colonizando a liteira submersa, arbustos submersos, raízes flutuantes e plantas aquáticas. As presas principais são microcrustáceos e larvas de quironomídeos (Chironomidae, Diptera, enquanto ingestão de algas é pouco freqüente. Considera-se que o tamanho relativamente pequeno de cardinais capturados nos ambientes naturais é devido as migrações anuais que acompanham os ciclos anuais de enchente e vazante, e não à falta de recursos; já que é conhecido de ambientes parecidos de outros rios da região, que estes substratos aquáticos são densamente colonizados pela mesofauna. Cardinais criados em cativeiros tem taxas de crescimento mais altas e são de tamanho maiores.

  16. Mechanism of Inactivation of γ-Aminobutyric Acid Aminotransferase by (1 S ,3 S )-3-Amino-4-difluoromethylene-1-cyclopentanoic Acid (CPP-115)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyunbeom [Department; Doud, Emma H. [Department; Department; Wu, Rui [Department; Sanishvili, Ruslan [X-ray; Juncosa, Jose I. [Department; Liu, Dali [Department; Kelleher, Neil L. [Department; Department; Silverman, Richard B. [Department; Department

    2015-02-10

    gamma-Aminobutyric acid aminotransferase (GABA-AT) is a pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme that degrades GABA, the principal inhibitory neurotransmitter in mammalian cells. When the concentration of GABA falls below a threshold level, convulsions can occur. Inhibition of GABA-AT raises GABA levels in the brain, which can terminate seizures as well as have potential therapeutic applications in treating other neurological disorders, including drug addiction. Among the analogues that we previously developed, (1S,3S)-3-amino-4-difluoromethylene-1-cyclopentanoic acid (CPP-115) showed 187 times greater potency than that of vigabatrin, a known inactivator of GABA-AT and approved drug (Sabril) for the treatment of infantile spasms and refractory adult epilepsy. Recently, CPP-115 was shown to have no adverse effects in a Phase I clinical trial. Here we report a novel inactivation mechanism for CPP-115, a mechanism-based inactivator that undergoes GABA-AT-catalyzed hydrolysis of the difluoromethylene group to a carboxylic acid with concomitant loss of two fluoride ions and coenzyme conversion to pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate (PMP). The partition ratio for CPP-115 with GABA-AT is about 2000, releasing cyclopentanone-2,4-dicarboxylate (22) and two other precursors of this compound (20 and 21). Time-dependent inactivation occurs by a conformational change induced by the formation of the aldimine of 4-aminocyclopentane-1,3-dicarboxylic acid and PMP (20), which disrupts an electrostatic interaction between Glu270 and Arg445 to form an electrostatic interaction between Arg445 and the newly formed carboxylate produced by hydrolysis of the difluoromethylene group in CPP-115, resulting in a noncovalent, tightly bound complex. This represents a novel mechanism for inactivation of GABA-AT and a new approach for the design of mechanism-based inactivators in general.

  17. A TIPS-TPDO-tetraCN-Based n-Type Organic Field-Effect Transistor with a Cross-linked PMMA Polymer Gate Dielectric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sungyeop; Albariqi, Mohammed; Gruntz, Guillaume; Al-Hathal, Thamer; Peinado, Alba; Garcia-Caurel, Enric; Nicolas, Yohann; Toupance, Thierry; Bonnassieux, Yvan; Horowitz, Gilles

    2016-06-15

    Recent improvement in the performance of the n-type organic semiconductors as well as thin gate dielectrics based on cross-linked polymers offers new opportunities to develop high-performance low-voltage n-type OFETs suitable for organic complementary circuits. Using TIPS-tetracyanotriphenodioxazine (TIPS-TPDO-tetraCN) and cross-linked poly(methyl methacrylate) (c-PMMA), respectively as n-type organic semiconductor and gate dielectric, linear regime field-effect mobility (1.8 ± 0.2) × 10(-2) cm(2) V(-1)s(-1), small spatial standard deviation of threshold voltage (∼0.1 V), and operating voltage less than 3 V are attainable with the same device structure and contact materials used commonly for p-type OFETs. Through comparative static and dynamic characterizations of c-PMMA and PMMA gate dielectrics, it is shown that both smaller thickness and larger relative permittivity of c-PMMA contributes to reduced operating voltage. Furthermore, negligible hysteresis brings evidence to small trap states in the semiconductor near gate dielectric of the n-type OFETs with c-PMMA. The use of TIPS-TPDO-tetraCN and c-PMMA is fully compatible with polyethylene terephthalate substrate, giving promise to various flexible applications.

  18. Renner-Teller effect in linear tetra-atomic molecules. I. Variational method including couplings between all degrees of freedom on six-dimensional potential energy surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutier, L.; Léonard, C.; Gatti, F.

    2009-04-01

    For electronically degenerate states of linear tetra-atomic molecules, a new method is developed for the variational treatment of the Renner-Teller and spin-orbit couplings. The approach takes into account all rotational and vibrational degrees of freedom, the dominant couplings between the corresponding angular momenta as well as the couplings with the electronic and electron spin angular momenta. The complete rovibrational kinetic energy operator is expressed in Jacobi coordinates, where the rovibrational angular momenta ĴN have been replaced by L̂ez-Ŝ and the spin-orbit coupling has been described by the perturbative term ASO×L̂ezṡŜz. Attention has been paid on the electronic wave functions, which require additional phase for linear tetra-atomic molecules. Our implemented rovibrational basis functions and the integration of the different parts of the total Hamiltonian operator are described. This new variational approach is tested on the electronic ground state X Π2u of HCCH+ for which new six-dimensional potential energy surfaces have been computed using the internally contracted multireference configuration interaction method and the cc-pV5Z basis set. The calculated rovibronic energies and their comparisons with previous theoretical and experimental works are presented in the next paper.

  19. Physical, mechanical and hydration kinetics of particleboards manufactured with woody biomass (Cupressus lusitanica, Gmelina arborea, Tectona grandis), agricultural resources, and Tetra Pak packages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, Róger; Camacho, Diego; Oporto, Gloria S; Soto, Roy F; Mata, Julio S

    2014-02-01

    Lignocellulosic wastes resulting from agricultural activities as well as Tetra Pak residues from urban centres can cause significant levels of pollution. A possible action to minimize this problem is to use them in the production of particleboards. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physical, mechanical, and hydration properties of particleboards manufactured with the mixture of woody biomass (Cupressus lusitanica, Gmelina arborea, and Tectona grandis) and either agricultural wastes [pineapple leaves (Ananas comosus) and palm residues (Elaeis guineensis)] or Tetra Pak residues (TP). The results show that the particleboards prepared with TP and woody biomass can reduce the swelling and water absorption in up to 40% and 50% compared with particleboards without TP. Also, these particleboards had increased flexure resistance and shear stress (up to 100%) compared with those without TP. On the contrary, particleboards prepared with pineapple leaves in combination with woody biomass showed the lowest mechanical properties, particularly for tensile strength, hardness, glue-line shear, and nail and screw evaluation.

  20. Genotyping Single Nucleotide Polymorphism C4685T in 14. Intron of Bovine CAPN1 Gene by Rapid Tetra-Primer ARMS-PCR Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Gábor

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP C4685T located in 14. intron of bovine CAPN1 gene have shown significant association with a higher lean share in valuable cuts for mutant genotype TT. The work was oriented to developed a sensitive single tube tetra-primer amplification refractory mutation system PCR (ARMS-PCR method for detection of C4685T polymorphism in CAPNI gene and analysis of genotype structure in population of 130 animals of Slovak Pinzgau cattle. The genomic DNA was isolated from samples of blood and hairs of cattle. Design of primers for ARMS-PCR was realized by using program Tetra-Primer ARMS-PCR. The presence of wild allele C and mutant allele T on agarose gel was detected by one control 439 bp fragment for both alleles and one specific fragment for each allele C - 204 bp and T - 290 bp. For the checking of correct genotyping was used PCR-RFLP method with restriction endonuclease BseGI. In the population of Slovak Pinzgau cattle we detected all genotypes. There were detected homozygote genotype CC with frequency 0.3308, heterozygote genotype CT with frequency 0.4 and homozygote genotype TT with frequency 0.2692. Frequency of alleles C and T for SNP C4685T of gene CAPN1 were 0.5308 and 0.4692.

  1. Contrôle judiciaire en droit français de la concurrence et régulation économique: obsevations après l'arrêt Commission contre Tetra Laval

    OpenAIRE

    Petit, Nicolas; RABEUX, L.

    2009-01-01

    The present article seeks to assess the degree of judicial scrutinity performed by French courts when reviewing decisions of National competition Authorities and National Regulatory Authorities in the aftermath of the seminal ruling handed down by the European Court of Justice in Commission v. Tetra Laval

  2. Application of an octa-anionic 5,10,15,20-tetra[3,5-(nido-carboranylmethyl)phenyl]porphyrin (H2OCP) as dual sensitizer for BNCT and PDT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The applications of the octa-anionic 5,10,15,20-tetra[3,5-(nidocarboranylmethyl) phenyl]porphyrin (H2OCP) as a boron delivery agent in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and a photosensitizer in photodynamic therapy (PDT) have been investigated. Using F98 Rat glioma cells, we evaluated the cytotox...

  3. Crystal structure and hydrogen bonding in the water-stabilized proton-transfer salt brucinium 4-amino­phenyl­arsonate tetra­hydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Graham; Wermuth, Urs D.

    2016-01-01

    In the structure of the brucinium salt of 4-amino­phenyl­arsonic acid (p-arsanilic acid), systematically 2,3-dimeth­oxy-10-oxostrychnidinium 4-amino­phenyl­ar­son­ate tetra­hydrate, (C23H27N2O4)[As(C6H7N)O2(OH)]·4H2O, the brucinium cations form the characteristic undulating and overlapping head-to-tail layered brucine substructures packed along [010]. The arsanilate anions and the water mol­ecules of solvation are accommodated between the layers and are linked to them through a primary cation N—H⋯O(anion) hydrogen bond, as well as through water O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds to brucinium and arsanilate ions as well as bridging water O-atom acceptors, giving an overall three-dimensional network structure. PMID:27308034

  4. Crystal structure and hydrogen bonding in the water-stabilized proton-transfer salt brucinium 4-amino-phenyl-arsonate tetra-hydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Graham; Wermuth, Urs D

    2016-05-01

    In the structure of the brucinium salt of 4-amino-phenyl-arsonic acid (p-arsanilic acid), systematically 2,3-dimeth-oxy-10-oxostrychnidinium 4-amino-phenyl-ar-son-ate tetra-hydrate, (C23H27N2O4)[As(C6H7N)O2(OH)]·4H2O, the brucinium cations form the characteristic undulating and overlapping head-to-tail layered brucine substructures packed along [010]. The arsanilate anions and the water mol-ecules of solvation are accommodated between the layers and are linked to them through a primary cation N-H⋯O(anion) hydrogen bond, as well as through water O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds to brucinium and arsanilate ions as well as bridging water O-atom acceptors, giving an overall three-dimensional network structure.

  5. Synthesis, Crystal Structure and Thermal Stability of 1D Linear Silver(I Coordination Polymers with 1,1,2,2-Tetra(pyrazol-1-ylethane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny Semitut

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Two new linear silver(I nitrate coordination polymers with bitopic ligand 1,1,2,2-tetra(pyrazol-1-ylethane were synthesized. Synthesized compounds were characterized by IR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, powder X-ray diffraction and thermal analysis. Silver coordination polymers demonstrated a yellow emission near 500 nm upon excitation at 360 nm. Crystal structures of coordination polymers were determined and structural peculiarities are discussed. In both of the structures, silver ions are connected via bridging ligand molecules to form polymeric chains with a five-atomic environment. The coordination environment of the central atom corresponds to a distorted trigonal bipyramid with two N atoms of different ligands in apical positions. The Ag–N bond distances vary in a wide range of 2.31–2.62 Å, giving strongly distorted metallacycles. Thermolysis of coordination polymers in reductive atmosphere (H2/He leads to the formation of silver nanoparticles with a narrow size distribution.

  6. Tetra- and octa-[4-(2-hydroxyethyl)phenoxy bearing novel metal-free and zinc(II) phthalocyanines: Synthesis, characterization and investigation of photophysicochemical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Köksoy, Baybars [Marmara University, Department of Chemistry, 34722 Kadıköy, Istanbul (Turkey); Durmuş, Mahmut [Gebze Technical University, Department of Chemistry, 41400 Gebze, Kocaeli (Turkey); Bulut, Mustafa, E-mail: mbulut@marmara.edu.tr [Marmara University, Department of Chemistry, 34722 Kadıköy, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2015-05-15

    In this study, four novel phthalonitriles (1–4) and their corresponding metal-free (5–8) and zinc(II) phthalocyanine derivatives (9–12) bearing 4-(hydroxyethyl)phenoxy groups were synthesized. These novel compounds were characterized by IR, elemental analyses, {sup 1}H-NMR, UV–vis, and MALDI-TOF spectral data. Furthermore, photophysical (fluorescence quantum yields and lifetimes) and photochemical properties (singlet oxygen generation and photodegradation quantum yields) of these phthalocyanines were investigated in dimethylsulfoxide. The studied zinc(II) phthalocyanines generated highly singlet oxygen which is very important for the photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cancer. The fluorescence quenching behaviour of the newly synthesized phthalocyanine compounds were also investigated using 1,4-benzoquinone. - Highlights: • Octa and tetra 4-(hydroxyethyl)phenoxy substituted metal-free and zinc(II) phthalocyanines. • Study of photophysicochemical properties of eight new phthalocyanines. • Highly singlet oxygen generation for novel zinc(II) phthalocyanine photosensitizers.

  7. Electrocatalytic Detection of Amitrole on the Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube – Iron (II tetra-aminophthalocyanine Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tebello Nyokong

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that iron(II tetra-aminophthalocyanine complex electropolymerized onto a multi-walled carbon nanotube-modified basal plane pyrolytic graphite electrode greatly enhanced the electrocatalytic detetion of amitrole (a toxic herbicide, resulting in a very low detection limit (0.5 nM and excellent sensitivity of 8.80±0.44 μA/nM, compared to any known work reported so far. The electrocatalytic detection of amitrole at this electrode occurred at less positive potential (~0.3 V vs Ag|ACl and also revealed a typical coupled chemical reaction. The mechanism for this response is proposed. The electrode gave satisfactory selectivity to amitrole in the presence of other potential interfering pesticides in aqueous solutions.

  8. In-silico screening and validation of high-affinity tetra-peptide inhibitor of Leishmania donovani O-acetyl serine sulfhydrylase (OASS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Vishnu; Vijayakumar, Saravanan; Sahoo, Ganesh Chandra; Chaudhery, Shailendra S; Das, Pradeep

    2018-02-07

    OASS is a specific enzyme that helps Leishmania parasite to survive the oxidative stress condition in human macrophages. SAT C-terminal peptides in several organisms, including Leishmania, were reported to inhibit or reduce the activity of OASS. Small peptide and small molecules mimicking the SAT C-terminal residues are designed and tested for the inhibition of OASS in different organisms. Hence, in this study, all the possible tetra-peptide combinations were designed and screened based on the docking ability with Leishmania donovani OASS (Ld-OASS). The top ranked peptides were further validated for the stability using 50 ns molecular dynamic simulation. In order to identify the better binding capability of the peptides, the top peptides complexed with Ld-OASS were also subjected to molecular dynamic simulation. The docking and simulation results favored the peptide EWSI to possess greater advantage than previously reported peptide (DWSI) in binding with Ld-OASS active site. Also, screening of non-peptide inhibitor of Asinex Biodesign library based on the shape similarity of EWSI and DWSI was performed. The top similar molecules of each peptides were docked on to Ld-OASS active site and subsequently simulated for 20 ns. The results suggested that the ligand that shares high shape similarity with EWSI possess better binding capability than the ligand that shares high shape similarity with DWSI. This study revealed that the tetra-peptide EWSI had marginal advantage over DWSI in binding with Ld-OASS, thereby providing basis for defining a pharmacophoric scaffold for the design of peptidomimetic inhibitors as well as non-peptide inhibitors of Ld-OASS.

  9. Synthesis and Spectroscopic Studies of Axially Ligated Zn(II5,10,15,20-meso-tetra(p-chlorophenylporphyrin with Oxygen and Nitrogen Donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gauri D. Bajju

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Reaction of 5,10,15,20-meso-tetra(p-chlorophenylporphyrin[H2(p-Clpp] with zinc(IIacetate(Zn(OAc2 and phenols results in the formation of corresponding axially ligated zinc(II-meso-tetra(p-chlorophenylporphyrin (X-Zn-t(p-ClPP (X = phenolates and pyridinates. The four-coordinated zinc porphyrin accepts one axial ligand in 1 : 1 molar ratio to form five-coordinated complex, which is purified by column chromatography and characterized by IR spectra, 1H NMR, electronic absorption spectra, elemental analysis, mass spectroscopy, and TGA/DTA studies. IR spectra confirms the appearance of Zn– at 500–400 cm−1, Zn– at 650–570 cm−1 and Zn–O at 650–350 cm−1. 1H NMR spectra show that the protons of the Phenolic ring axially attached to the central metal ion are merged with the protons of the tetraphenyl rings of the porphyrin moiety. Absorption spectra reveal that complexes are accompanied by blue shift (hypsochromic shift for phenolates and red shift (bathchromic shift for pyridinates in comparison with the basic Zporphyrin emission bands. Mass Spectra determine the m/z ratio. The percentage of each element is confirmed by elemental analysis. According to the thermal studies, the complexes have a higher thermal stability and the decomposition temperature of these complexes depends on the axial ligation. The invitro antifungal activity of the complexes synthesized above had been done by disc diffusion method against the pathogen “Fusarium spp.,” which shows that with the increase in the concentration of the complexes, the colony diameter decreases and hence percent inhibition increases.

  10. Spectrophotometric Determination of Cr(III and Pb(II Using Their Complexes with 5,11,17,23-Tetra[(2-ethyl acetoethoxyphenyl(azophenyl]calix[4]arene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Van Tan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available New complexes of 5,11,17,23-tetra[(2-ethyl acetoethoxyphenyl(azophenyl]calix[4]arene (TEAC with Pb(II and Cr(III were prepared in basic solution with a mixture of MeOH and H2O as solvent. The ratio of TEAC and metal ion in complexes was found to be 1 : 1 under investigated condition. The complex formation constants (based on Benesi-Hildebrand method for TEAC-Pb(II and TEAC-Cr(III were 4.03 × 104 and 1.2 × 104, respectively. Additionally, the molar extinction coefficients were 5 × 104 and 1.42 × 104 for TEAC-Pb(II and TEAC-Cr(III, respectively. The H-Point Standard Addition Method (HPSAM has been applied for simultaneous determination of complexes formation of Cr(III/Pb(II and TEAC with concentration from 2 : 1 to 1 : 20 (w/w. The proposed method was successfully utilized to invest lead and chromium contents in plating wastewater samples. The results for several analyzed samples were found to be in satisfied agreement with those acquired by using the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS technique.

  11. A picturesque binding of a Tetra-Gospel of 1631 from the gathering of theRussian National Library in Saint Petersburg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinchenko S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article via examples of Tetra-Gospel of 1631 from the gathering of the RNL bindings decoration state and characteristics research we have examined the short history of appearance of the unique type of bindings decoration, performed in the technique of temper and oil painting. Due to the decoration technique such bindings were called picturesque. The bindings with picturesque images originate from ancient Coptic bindings. For the first time they had appeared in the Eastern region of the Mediterranean basin and subsequently prevailed as a unique kind of binding industry both in Western and Central-Eastern Europe. The author has emphasized the characteristics and specifications of artistic bindings decoration in different countries. The particular attention is paid to the bindings, created on the territories of contemporary Ukraine and Poland. While examining the history of picturesque bindings existence in Europe,the author has made a passing mention of the state of the mentioned kind of bindings scientific research in the world historiography.

  12. Thermodynamic and kinetic verification of tetra-n-butyl ammonium nitrate (TBANO3) as a promoter for the clathrate process applicable to precombustion carbon dioxide capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Ponnivalavan; Yao, Minghuang; Datta, Stuti; Kumar, Rajnish; Linga, Praveen

    2014-03-18

    In this study, tetra-n-butyl ammonium nitrate (TBANO3) is evaluated as a promoter for precombustion capture of CO2 via hydrate formation. New hydrate phase equilibrium data for fuel gas (CO2/H2) mixture in presence of TBANO3 of various concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, and 3.7 mol % was determined and presented. Heat of hydrate dissociation was calculated using Clausius-Clapeyron equation and as the concentration of TBANO3 increases, the heat of hydrate dissociation also increases. Kinetic performance of TBANO3 as a promoter at different concentrations was evaluated at 6.0 MPa and 274.2 K. Based on induction time, gas uptake, separation factor, hydrate phase CO2 composition, and rate of hydrate growth, 1.0 mol % TBANO3 solution was found to be the optimum concentration at the experimental conditions of 6.0 MPa and 274.2 K for gas hydrate formation. A 93.0 mol % CO2 rich stream can be produced with a gas uptake of 0.0132 mol of gas/mol of water after one stage of hydrate formation in the presence of 1.0 mol % TBANO3 solution. Solubility measurements and microscopic images of kinetic measurements provide further insights to understand the reason for 1.0 mol % TBANO3 to be the optimum concentration.

  13. Matrix isolation spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulations for 2,7,12,17-tetra-tert-butylporphycene in argon and xenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyrychenko, Alexander; Gawinkowski, Sylwester; Urbańska, Natalia; Pietraszkiewicz, Marek; Waluk, Jacek

    2007-10-07

    Electronic absorption spectra of 2,7,12,17-tetra-tert-butylporphycene (TTPC) have been recorded in low-temperature argon and xenon matrices for various deposition conditions. In the region of the S(0)-S(1) electronic transition, the spectra of TTPC in argon reveal a rich site structure, characterized by a series of more than 30 absorption peaks. Studies of the temperature dependence of the electronic spectra in solid argon demonstrated remarkable spectral changes, resulting in the broadening of all bands with increasing temperature. These temperature-induced spectral changes are, to a large degree, reversible, so lowering of temperature is accompanied by the recovery of the original fine-line spectrum. The absorption spectra in xenon reveal broad bands, on which a rich pattern of lines becomes superimposed at low temperatures. Trapping site distribution and the structure of the microenvironment around the TTPC chromophore, embedded in argon and xenon hosts, have been analyzed using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The MD results show that the trapping of TTPC in rare-gas solids is influenced by favorable embedding of the bulky tert-butyl groups inside the matrix cage. The crucial role of the tert-butyl groups for the thermodynamics and kinetics of matrix deposition is demonstrated by comparing the results with those obtained for the parent, unsubstituted porphycene.

  14. Characterization and optimization of a chromatographic process based on ethylenediamine-N,N,N',N'-tetra(methylphosphonic) acid-modified zirconia particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Sabyasachi; Carr, Peter W; McNeff, Clayton V; Subramanian, Anu

    2003-06-25

    The primary objective of work was to characterize, optimize and model a chromatographic process based on ethylenediamine-N,N,N',N'-tetra(methylphosphonic) acid (EDTPA)-modified zirconia particles. Zirconia particles were produced by spray-drying colloidal zirconia. Zirconia spheres produced were further classified, calcined and modified with EDTPA to yield a solid-phase support for use in bio-chromatography (r_PEZ). Specifically, the ability of r_PEZ to selectively bind and enrich IgG, IgA, and IgM from biological fluids was evaluated and demonstrated. To better understand the force of interaction between the IgG and the r_PEZ, the equilibrium disassociation constant (K(d)) was determined by static binding isotherms, as a function of temperature and by frontal analysis at different linear velocities. The maximum static binding capacity (Q(max)) was found to be in the range 55-65 mg IgG per ml of beads, and unaffected by temperature. The maximum dynamic binding capacity (Q(x)) was found to be in the range 20-12 mg IgG per ml of beads. The adsorption rate constant (k(a)) was determined by a split-peak approach to be between 982 and 3242 l mol(-1) s(-1) depending on the linear velocity. The standard enthalpy and entropy values were estimated for this interaction of IgG with this novel support.

  15. Growth and characterization of tin sulphide thin films by chemical bath deposition using ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid as the complexing agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayasree, Y.; Chalapathi, U.; Sundara Raja, V., E-mail: sundararajav@rediffmail.com

    2013-06-30

    Tin sulphide (SnS), a promising, non-toxic and low-cost solar cell absorber layer, is grown using Chemical Bath Deposition technique at room temperature. The effects of concentration of ethlene diamine tetra-acetic acid, the complexing agent in the starting solution, as well as thioacetamide, the source of sulphur, on the growth of tin sulphide films are investigated to obtain single phase SnS films. The films deposited under optimized conditions are found to be near-stoichiometric, single phase SnS with orthorhombic structure. The lattice parameters are found to be a = 0.428 nm, b = 1.141 nm and c = 0.396 nm. The direct optical band gap of these films is found to be 1.55 eV. - Highlights: • Growth of SnS, a potential solar cell absorber layer, by chemical bath deposition • Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) as complexing agent for SnS film growth • Effect of EDTA concentration on the growth and properties of tin sulphide films • Effect of thioacetamide concentration on the growth and properties of films • X-ray diffraction and Raman Spectra studies for phase analysis.

  16. Electrochemical characterization of Si in tetra-methyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAH) and TMAH:Triton-X-100 solutions under white light effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Elizabeth M.; Cunnane, Vincent J.

    2002-03-01

    An experimental study of the electrochemical characteristics of the silicon/tetra-methyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAH) junction under dark and white light conditions are investigated for both n- and p-type Si. The presence of Triton-X-100 (TX100) in the TMAH solution under white light conditions is also studied. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and ex situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) are employed to study the white light effects on the etching characteristics of silicon in TMAH and TMAH:TX100. It was found that the passivation peak potential shifted significantly for both n- and p-type Si under white light conditions. The positions of the flatband potential for n- and p-type Si were predicted by CV under illumination. Finally, etch rate studies and preliminary surface roughness measurements were performed on p(100) Si in TMAH under both dark and white light conditions. These latter studies concluded that a reduction in the vertical surface roughness occurred in the presence of white light.

  17. Underlying theory of a model for the Renner-Teller effect in tetra-atomic molecules: X(2)Πu electronic state of C2H2(+).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perić, M; Jerosimić, S; Mitić, M; Milovanović, M; Ranković, R

    2015-05-07

    In the present study, we prove the plausibility of a simple model for the Renner-Teller effect in tetra-atomic molecules with linear equilibrium geometry by ab initio calculations of the electronic energy surfaces and non-adiabatic matrix elements for the X(2)Πu state of C2H2 (+). This phenomenon is considered as a combination of the usual Renner-Teller effect, appearing in triatomic species, and a kind of the Jahn-Teller effect, similar to the original one arising in highly symmetric molecules. Only four parameters (plus the spin-orbit constant, if the spin effects are taken into account), which can be extracted from ab initio calculations carried out at five appropriate (planar) molecular geometries, are sufficient for building up the Hamiltonian matrix whose diagonalization results in the complete low-energy (bending) vibronic spectrum. The main result of the present study is the proof that the diabatization scheme, hidden beneath the apparent simplicity of the model, can safely be carried out, at small-amplitude bending vibrations, without cumbersome computation of non-adiabatic matrix elements at large number of molecular geometries.

  18. Novel tetra-nucleotide microsatellite DNA markers for assessing the evolutionary genetics and demographics of Northern Snakehead (Channa argus) invading North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Timothy L.; Johnson, Robin L.

    2011-01-01

    We document the isolation and characterization of 19 tetra-nucleotide microsatellite DNA markers in northern snakehead (Channa argus) fish that recently colonized Meadow Lake, New York City, New York. These markers displayed moderate levels of allelic diversity (averaging 6.8 alleles/locus) and heterozygosity (averaging 74.2%). Demographic analyses suggested that the Meadow Lake collection has not achieved mutation-drift equilibrium. These results were consistent with instances of deviations from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium and the presence of some linkage disequilibrium. A comparison of individual pair-wise distances suggested the presence of multiple differentiated groups of related individuals. Results of all analyses are consistent with a pattern of multiple, recent introductions. The microsatellite markers developed for C. argus yielded sufficient genetic diversity to potentially: (1) delineate kinship; (2) elucidate fine-scale population structure; (3) define management (eradication) units; (4) estimate dispersal rates; (5) estimate population sizes; and (6) provide unique demographic perspectives of control or eradication effectiveness.

  19. The Melting Behavior and Thermal Stability of Green Poly(L-lactic acid) with N, N, N, N'-Tetra(benzoyl) Ethylene Diamine Tetraacetic Acid Dihydrazide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Y.; Qiang Xu, Q.; Ren, L.; Zhao, L.

    2015-01-01

    The thermal properties of green poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) with N, N, N, N'-tetra(benzoyl) ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid dihydrazide (NA) at different conditions were investigated. The melting behavior of PLLA/NA sample after isothermal crystallization at 100 degree C showed that the low-temperature melting peak shifted to high temperature with increasing of crystallization time. However, the high-temperature melting peak did not show any change. Meantime, the melting enthalpy of cold crystallization was higher than that of hot crystallization, and the difference between cold crystallization and hot crystallization increased from 0.31 J/g to 0.89 J/g with increasing of crystallization time. Heating or cooling rate affected the melting behavior of PLLA, the low-temperature and high-temperature melting peak shifted to low temperature with increasing of rate, and the ratio of melting peak area between low-temperature melting peak and high-temperature melting peak decreased. Thermal stability of PLLA/NA indicated that PLLA/NA only exhibited one decomposition stage as decomposition of PLLA. (author)

  20. Synthesis and crystal structure of tetra(quinolin-8-olatothorium ethanol solvate, Th(C9H6NO4*C2H5OH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger Kohlmann

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Metal quinolinolates (also known as oxinates have been widely used for gravimetric analysis and in recent days as materials for organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs. Recrystallisation of tetra(quinolin-8- olatothorium(IV (ThQ4 yielded yellow, translucent, prismatic crystals of the title compound, ThQ4*C2H5OH, the single-crystal structure of which is described. Only one crystallographically distinct molecule is found, all ligands are crystallographically inequivalent. Thorium is coordinated by four 8-hydroxyquinolinato with average Th-O distances of 233.3 pm and average Th-N distances of 272.4 pm, and one ethanol ligand with a Th-O distance 256.7 pm. O and N surroundings around thorium can be described by a tricapped trigonal prism. In contrast to quinolinates of the trivalent metals, ThQ4*C2H5OH does not fluoresce under UV irradiation, which is in accordance with the lack of π-π overlap in the crystal structure.

  1. Blue-light photoelectrochemical sensor based on nickel tetra-amined phthalocyanine-graphene oxide covalent compound for ultrasensitive detection of erythromycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jinyun; Huang, Qing; Zhuge, Wenfeng; Liu, Yuxia; Zhang, Cuizong; Yang, Wei; Xiang, Gang

    2018-05-30

    In this study, we developed a novel photoelectrochemical (PEC) sensor for the highly sensitive detection of erythromycin by functionalising graphene oxide (GO) with nickel tetra-amined phthalocyanine (NiTAPc) through covalent bonding, which resulted in the formation of NiTAPc-Gr. The fabricated sensor showed a higher PEC efficiency under blue light, exhibiting a peak wavelength of 456 nm, as compared to that of the monomer. Further, the NiTAPc-Gr/indium tin oxide (ITO) sensor exhibited a photocurrent that was 50-fold higher than that for a GO/ITO sensor under the same conditions. Under optimal conditions, the NiTAPc-Gr PEC sensor showed a linear response for erythromycin concentrations ranging from 0.40 to 120.00 μmol L -1 , with the minimum limit for detection being 0.08 μmol L -1 . Thus, the NiTAPc-Gr sensor exhibited superior performance and excellent PEC characteristics, high stability, and good reproducibility with respect to the sensing of erythromycin. Moreover, it is convenient to use, fast, small, and cheap to produce. Hence, it should find wide use in the analysis of erythromycin in real-world applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Crystal structure of 5,7,12,14-tetra-hydro-5,14:7,12-bis-([1,2]benzeno)-penta-cene-6,13-dione.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozari, Mohammad; Jasinski, Jerry P; Kaur, Manpreet; Addison, Anthony W; Arabi Shamsabadi, Ahmad; Soroush, Masoud

    2016-12-01

    The lattice of 5,7,12,14-tetra-hydro-5,14:7,12-bis-([1,2]benzeno)-penta-cene-6,13-dione, C 34 H 20 O 2 , at 173 K has triclinic ( P -1) symmetry and crystallizes with four independent half-mol-ecules in the asymmetric unit. Each mol-ecule is generated from a C 17 H 10 O substructure through an inversion center at the centroid of the central quinone ring, generating a wide H-shaped mol-ecule, with a dihedral angle between the mean planes of the terminal benzene rings in each of the two symmetry-related pairs over the four mol-ecules of 68.6 (1) ( A ), 65.5 (4) ( B ), 62.3 (9) ( C ), and 65.8 (8)° ( D ), an average of 65.6 (1)°. This compound has applications in gas-separation membranes constructed from polymers of intrinsic microporosity (PIM). The title compound is a product of a double Diels-Alder reaction between anthracene and p -benzo-quinone followed by de-hydrogenation. It has also been characterized by cyclic voltammetry and rotating disc electrode polarography, FT-IR, high resolution mass spectrometry, elemental analysis, and 1 H NMR.

  3. Unprecedented chemosensing behavior of novel tetra-substituted benzimidazole zinc(II) phthalocynine for selective detection of Bi3 + ion: Synthesis, characterization and ROS generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Azeem; Shah, Faheem; Khan, Imran; Anwar, Muhammad; Shah, Kiramat; Muhammad, Munira Taj; Ahmad, Farid

    2018-03-01

    In this work, synthesis of novel symmetrical 4-(2-bromo-4-(5-bromo-1H-benzo[d] imidazol-2-yl) phenoxy) tetra substituted zinc phthalocyanine has been reported. The novel benzimidazole zinc phthlocynine compound (3) has been characterized by MALDI-TOF MS, FT-IR, UV-vis, and 1H NMR spectroscopy. This new compound 3 displayed excellent selectivity towards Bi3 + ion in the presence of other competitive ions including Ca2 +, Cd2 +, Co2 + Cu2 +, Fe3 +, Hg2 +, Sn2 +, Mg2 +, Na+, Ni2 + and Pb2 + respectively. Upon addition of Bi3 + into the solution of compound 3 in DMSO, dramatic change was observed in the Q- and the B-bands in UV-visible spectra as a result of donor acceptor interactions. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were also studied using 2,7-dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCFH-DA) a fluorescent probe which is converted to highly fluorescent dichlorofluorescein (DCF) in the presence of ROS. This property of non-aggregating zinc phthalocyanine is promising as a photosensitizer in photodynamic therapy of cancer.

  4. Preclinical dosimetric estimation of [{sup 111}In] 5, 10, 15, 20-tetra phenyl porphyrin complex as a possible imaging/PDT agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fazaeli, Yousef; Shanehsazzadeh, Saeed; Feizi, Shahzad; Jalilian, Amirreza [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Lahooti, Afsaneh [Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering

    2016-08-01

    Recent studies show that porphyrin derivatives have interesting pharmacological and photodynamic properties and wide range of usage in photodynamic therapy treatment. This study describes the preparation, biodistribution and absorbed dose prediction of [{sup 111}In] labeled 5, 10, 15, 20-tetra phenyl porphyrin (TPP) in human organs, based on rats' biodistribution data. Five rats were sacrificed at each exact time intervals (2, 4 and 24 h post injection) and the percentage of injected dose per gram of each organ was measured by direct counting from rats data from 12 harvested organs. The Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) formulation was applied to extrapolate from rats to human and to project the absorbed radiation dose for various organs in humans. From rat data we estimated that injection of [{sup 111}In] TPP into the humans would result in an estimated effective absorbed dose of 0.09 mSv/MBq in the whole body. While the highest effective absorbed dose for {sup 111}In-TPP was in the heart wall (0.22 mSv), the organs that received the next highest doses were the Kidneys (0.06 mSv), thymus (0.04 mSv) and lungs (0.03 mSv). The skin dose will four times higher compare to the other {sup 111}In compounds, which was due to magnificent skin uptakes. According to the fast wash-out, tumor avidity and the short half-life, [{sup 111}In] can be a suitable candidate for labeling of photo dynamic therapy (PDT) agents as a tracer for accurate biological evaluation of other PDT agents such as Photofrin and its homologs.

  5. Schizosaccharomyces pombe MutSα and MutLα Maintain Stability of Tetra-Nucleotide Repeats and Msh3 of Hepta-Nucleotide Repeats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desirée Villahermosa

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Defective mismatch repair (MMR in humans is associated with colon cancer and instability of microsatellites, that is, DNA sequences with one or several nucleotides repeated. Key factors of eukaryotic MMR are the heterodimers MutSα (Msh2-Msh6, which recognizes base-base mismatches and unpaired nucleotides in DNA, and MutLα (Mlh1-Pms1, which facilitates downstream steps. In addition, MutSβ (Msh2-Msh3 recognizes DNA loops of various sizes, although our previous data and the data presented here suggest that Msh3 of Schizosaccharomyces pombe does not play a role in MMR. To test microsatellite stability in S. pombe and hence DNA loop repair, we have inserted tetra-, penta-, and hepta-nucleotide repeats in the ade6 gene and determined their Ade+ reversion rates and spectra in wild type and various mutants. Our data indicate that loops with four unpaired nucleotides in the nascent and the template strand are the upper limit of MutSα- and MutLα-mediated MMR in S. pombe. Stability of hepta-nucleotide repeats requires Msh3 and Exo1 in MMR-independent processes as well as the DNA repair proteins Rad50, Rad51, and Rad2FEN1. Most strikingly, mutation rates in the double mutants msh3 exo1 and msh3 rad51 were decreased when compared to respective single mutants, indicating that Msh3 prevents error prone processes carried out by Exo1 and Rad51. We conclude that Msh3 has no obvious function in MMR in S. pombe, but contributes to DNA repeat stability in MMR-independent processes.

  6. Efficient removal of cobalt(II) and strontium(II) metals from water using ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid functionalized graphene oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amer, Hany; Moustafa, Wafaa M. [Nuclar Fuel Cycle Department, Nuclear and Radiological Regulatory Authority (NRRA), Naser City, Cairo (Egypt); Farghali, Ahmed A.; El Rouby, Waleed M.A. [Materials Science and Nanotechnology Department, Faculty of Postgraduate Studies for Advanced Sciences (PASA), Beni-Suef University (Egypt); Khalil, Waleed F. [Nuclar Fuel Cycle Department, Nuclear and Radiological Regulatory Authority (NRRA), Naser City, Cairo (Egypt); Materials Science and Nanotechnology Department, Faculty of Postgraduate Studies for Advanced Sciences (PASA), Beni-Suef University (Egypt)

    2017-12-04

    Graphene oxide (GO) with high specific surface area was prepared and functionalized with ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA). The as-prepared GO and the functionalized one (GO-EDTA) were characterized using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Raman spectroscopy. The as-prepared and EDTA functionalized GO were applied as adsorbent to remove strontium(II) and cobalt(II) from water. The results indicated that the prepared materials are efficient adsorbents for strontium(II) and cobalt(II) removal. The adsorption of Co{sup II} and Sr{sup II} under effects of contact time, temperature, and pH was investigated It is concluded that the maximum adsorption capacities of GO for Co{sup II} and Sr{sup II} were about 168 and 140 mg.g{sup -1}, whereas of GO-EDTA the values were about 197 and 158 mg.g{sup -1}, respectively. It is indicated that pH 6 and temperature 40 C are the best condition for Co{sup II} and Sr{sup II} removal from water. The application of Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms indicated that Langmuir isotherm is best fit for Co{sup II} and Sr{sup II} equilibrium adsorption. Adsorption kinetics were studied by applying pseudo first-order, pseudo second-order, and intraparticle diffusion models on the experimental data. The results proved that pseudo second-order model is the best represented adsorption kinetics. Appling the intraparticle diffusion regressions on the experimental data indicated that intraparticle diffusion involved in adsorption process, which was not the only rate-controlling step. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Preliminary dosimetry of (166)Ho-propylene di-amino tetra (methy1enephosphonicacid) for human based on biodistribution data in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolghadri, Samaneh; Yousefnia, Hassan; Jalilian, Amir R; Shiri-Yekta, Zahra; Maragheh, Mohammad Ghannadi-

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, radionuclides with high β- particle energies such as (166)Ho are recommended for bone marrow ablation in patients with multiple myeloma. The addition of skeletal targeted radiotherapy to the patients can improve the response rate in phase I and II trials, with promising long-term survival data. In this work, the absorbed dose to each organ of human for (166)Ho-propylene di-amino tetra methy1enephosphonicacid (PDTMP) was evaluated based on biodistribution studies in rats and was compared with (166)Ho-tetraazacyclododecane tetramethylene-phosphonate (DOTMP) as the only clinically used Ho-166 bone marrow ablative agent. In this work, the accumulated activity in animals was extrapolated to the accumulated activity in humans by mass extrapolation method. The absorbed dose to each organ of human for (166)Ho-PDTMP was evaluated by medical internal radiation dose method. In this study, 166 Ho-PDTMP complex was prepared successfully using an in-house synthesized PDTMP ligand and (166)HoCl 3. Radiochemical purity of (166)Ho-PDTMP was checked by instant thin layer chromatography (>99%). The biodistribution of (166)Ho-PDTMP in wild-type rats was checked in animal tissues up to 48 h. All values were expressed as mean ± standard deviation, and the data were compared using Student's t-test. Statistical significance was defined as P < 0.05. The highest absorbed dose for this complex is observed in red marrow with 0.691 mSv/MBq. (166)Ho-PDTMP demonstrated a higher red marrow: Non target organ uptake ratio compared to (166)Ho-DOTMP. The results showed that 166 Ho-PDTMP has considerable characteristics compared to (166)Ho-DOTMP and therefore can be a good candidate for bone marrow ablation.

  8. A comparative study of different methods for the generation of tetra-n-butyl ammonium bromide clathrate hydrate slurry in a cold storage air-conditioning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, X.J.; Zhang, P.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Four kinds of TBAB CHS generation methods are experimentally investigated. ► Accession of CHS into supercooled solution can be helpful to the generation. ► Higher flow rate results in higher energy efficiency of CHS generation. - Abstract: A cold storage air-conditioning system using tetra-n-butyl ammonium bromide (TBAB) clathrate hydrate slurry (CHS) as cold storage medium was built to investigate the high-efficiency method of TBAB CHS generation. In the present study, four kinds of different TBAB CHS generation methods were experimentally investigated and compared, and these methods included continuously cooling, turning off refrigerator while crystals appearing, supercooling release and accession of TBAB CHS into supercooled TBAB aqueous solution. The results showed that continuously cooling would lead to severe adhesion of crystal to the heat exchanger wall, and supercooling release took place with a big stochastic characteristic, hence the first and third method were concluded not reliable. Both the second and fourth methods could maintain the temperature of heat exchanger wall at a relatively higher level, therefore the crystal adhesion to the heat exchanger wall would be reduced significantly, which led to higher coefficient of performance (COP). In addition, accession of TBAB CHS into TBAB supercooled solution could shorten the time of supercooling release, resulting in about 21.8–35.4% shorter generation time than other methods. Moreover, the influence of flow rate on the CHS generation process was investigated, and the results showed that higher flow rate generally resulted in higher system COP

  9. Facile synthesis of monodisperse polymer/SiO2/polymer/TiO2 tetra-layer microspheres and the corresponding double-walled hollow SiO2/TiO2 microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Han; Zhang, Xu; Yang, Xinlin

    2010-08-15

    Monodisperse tetra-layer poly(ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate-co-methacrylic acid) (P(EGDMA-co-MAA))/SiO(2)/P(EGDMA-co-MAA)/TiO(2) tetra-layer microspheres were facilely synthesized by the combination of the distillation precipitation polymerization for the preparation of P(EGDMA-co-MAA) layers and the controlled sol-gel hydrolysis of inorganic precursors for the formation of silica (SiO(2)) and titania (TiO(2)) layers. The thickness of the outer titania shell-layer was well-controlled via altering the feed of titanium tetrabutoxide (TBOT) during the sol-gel hydrolysis, while the size of polymeric layers were facilely controlled via a multi-step addition of ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) crosslinker and methacrylic acid (MAA) monomer during the polymerization. The corresponding double-walled hollow inorganic microspheres containing SiO(2) inner shell and TiO(2) outer shell with various thickness were obtained after the selective removal of P(EGDMA-co-MAA) components via the calcination of the tetra-layer polymer/SiO(2)/polymer/TiO(2) microspheres under 550 degrees C for 4 h in air. The structure and morphology of the resultant microspheres were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), X-ray photoelectron microscopy (XPS), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Further, the photocatalytic properties of the resultant double-walled hollow SiO(2)/TiO(2) microspheres were studied by photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange (MO) with ultraviolet (UV) irradiation of a 500 W high-pressure mercury lamp. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Crystal structures of fac-tri-carbonyl-chlorido-(6,6'-dihy-droxy-2,2'-bi-pyridine)-rhenium(I) tetra-hydro-furan monosolvate and fac-bromido-tricarbon-yl(6,6'-dihy-droxy-2,2'-bi-pyridine)-manganese(I) tetra-hydro-furan monosolvate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lense, Sheri; Piro, Nicholas A; Kassel, Scott W; Wildish, Andrew; Jeffery, Brent

    2016-08-01

    The structures of two facially coordinated Group VII metal complexes, fac-[ReCl(C10H8N2O2)(CO)3]·C4H8O (I·THF) and fac-[MnBr(C10H8N2O2)(CO)3]·C4H8O (II·THF), are reported. In both complexes, the metal ion is coordinated by three carbonyl ligands, a halide ligand, and a 6,6'-dihy-droxy-2,2'-bi-pyridine ligand in a distorted octa-hedral geometry. Both complexes co-crystallize with a non-coordinating tetra-hydro-furan (THF) solvent mol-ecule and exhibit inter-molecular but not intra-molecular hydrogen bonding. In both crystal structures, chains of complexes are formed due to inter-molecular hydrogen bonding between a hy-droxy group from the 6,6'-dihy-droxy-2,2'-bi-pyridine ligand and the halide ligand from a neighboring complex. The THF mol-ecule is hydrogen bonded to the remaining hy-droxy group.

  11. Photophysicochemical, calf thymus DNA binding and in vitro photocytotoxicity properties of tetra-morpholinoethoxy-substituted phthalocyanines and their water-soluble quaternized derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koçan, Halit; Kaya, Kerem; Özçeşmeci, İbrahim; Sesalan, B Şebnem; Göksel, Meltem; Durmuş, Mahmut; Burat, Ayfer Kalkan

    2017-12-01

    In this study, morpholinoethoxy-substituted metal-free (3), zinc(II) (4) and indium(III) (5) phthalocyanines were synthesized. These phthalocyanines were converted to their water-soluble quaternized derivatives (3Q-5Q) using excess methyl iodide as a quaternization agent. All these phthalocyanines (Pcs) were characterized by elemental analysis and different spectroscopic methods such as FT-IR, 1 H NMR, UV-Vis and mass spectrometry. The photophysical and photochemical properties such as fluorescence and generation of singlet oxygen were investigated for determination of these phthalocyanines as photosensitizers in photodynamic therapy (PDT) applications. The binding properties of quaternized phthalocyanines (3Q-5Q) to calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) were investigated by UV-Vis and fluorescence spectrophotometric methods. The quenching effect of all quaternized phthalocyanines on the fluorescence intensity of SYBR Green-DNA complex was determined. The mixtures of 3Q, 4Q or 5Q and DNA solutions were used to determine the change in T m of double helix DNA with thermal denaturation profile. In addition, thermodynamic parameters considering their aggregation in buffer solution, which shows the spontaneity of the reactions between DNA and quaternized Pcs were investigated. On the other hand, in vitro phototoxicity and cytotoxicity behavior of the quaternized water-soluble phthalocyanine photosensitizers (3Q-5Q) were tested against the cervical cancer cell line named HeLa for evaluation of their suitability for treatment of cancer by PDT method. Peripherally tetra-substituted neutral and quaternized metal-free and metallophthalocyanines (MPcs) (Zn, In) bearing morpholinoethoxy groups were prepared. The binding of quaternized compounds (3Q-5Q) to CT-DNA were examined using UV-Vis, fluorescence spectra, thermal denaturation profiles and K SV values. Besides, thermodynamic studies indicated that binding of 3Q-5Q to DNA was spontaneous. On the other hand, in vitro phototoxicity and

  12. Nickel toxicity to cardinal tetra (Paracheirodon axelrodi) differs seasonally and among the black, white and clear river waters of the Amazon basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Aleicia; Wood, Chris M; Smith, D Scott; Correia, Tiago Gabriel; Val, Adalberto L

    2017-10-15

    This study investigated the acute toxicity of nickel (Ni) to cardinal tetra (Paracheirodon axelrodi), within the three main water types of the Amazon basin: black (Rio Negro), white (Rio Solimões) and clear (Rio Tapajós) during the wet and dry season at pH 7 (representative of white and clear rivers) and pH 4 (representative of black waters). The influence of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) quality on Ni toxicity within the three waters was also explored via the use of DOC isolates. Differences in water chemistry, DOC quality and ion concentrations were shown between waters and between seasons. Toxicity of Ni was shown to vary between river waters, seasons, and pHs. Ni was significantly less toxic during the dry season at pH 4 in all three river waters; for example, black water during the wet season had an LC 50 of 9.72 mg Ni/L compared to 41.5 mg Ni/L during the dry season. At pH 7, contrasting effects in toxicity between seasons were shown between black and clear waters (black: wet = 28.9 mg/L, dry = 17.3 mg/L; clear: wet = 13.8 mg/L, dry = 24.1 mg/L). There were no significant differences in Ni toxicity for white waters at pH 7 (white: wet = 22.2 mg/L, dry = 21.8). Overall, Ni was shown to be more toxic at pH 7 than at pH 4 except in black water during the wet season. Toxicity of Ni at pH 4 was positively related to DOC concentration and amount of humic-like and fulvic-like DOC and negatively related to fluorescence index. Therefore, at pH 4, Ni is more toxic in waters containing more allochthonous DOC, consisting of higher amounts of humic-like and fulvic-like components. LC 50 values for the different DOC concentrates at the same DOC concentration of 4.5 mg/L (black: 26.8 mg/L; white: 73.3 mg/L; clear: 49.2) support the river water findings at pH 4 (Ni more toxic in presence of black DOC) indicating that DOC quality alone can influence Ni toxicity at this pH. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Synthesis and XRD, FT-IR vibrational, UV-vis, and nonlinear optical exploration of novel tetra substituted imidazole derivatives: A synergistic experimental-computational analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Muhammad Saeed; Khalid, Muhammad; Shaheen, Muhammad Ashraf; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz; Khan, Muhammad Usman; Braga, Ataualpa Albert Carmo; Shad, Hazoor Ahmad

    2018-04-01

    Heterocyclic compounds have potential applications in many fields of life. We synthesized novel tetra substituted imidazoles by four-component condensation of benzil, substituted aldehydes, substituted anilines and ammonium acetate as a source of ammonia and acetic acid as the solvent. Their chemical structures were resolved through X-ray crystallographic and spectroscopic (Fourier transform IR and UV-vis) techniques. In addition to experimental analysis, density functional theory (DFT) calculations at the B3LYP/6-311 + G(d,p) level were performed on 4-bromo-2-(1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-4,5-diphenyl-1H-imidazole-2-yl)phenol (1), 4-bromo-2-(1-(1-naphthalen-yl)-4,5-diphenyl-1H-imidazole-2-yl)phenol (2), and 2-(1-(2-chlorophenyl)-4,5-diphenyl-1-H-imidazole-2-yl)-6-methoxyphenol (3) to obtain the optimized geometry and spectroscopic (Fourier transform IR and UV-vis) and non-linear optical properties. Frontier molecular orbital analysis was performed at the Hartee-Fock/6-311+g(d,p) and DFT/B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) levels of theory. Natural bond orbital (NBO) and UV-vis spectral analyses were performed at the M06-2X/6-31+G(d,p) and time-dependent DFT/B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) levels, respectively. Overall, the DFT findings show good agreement with the experimental data. The hyper conjugative interaction network, which is responsible for the stability of compounds 1, 2 and 3 was explored by the NBO approach. The global reactivity parameters were explored with use of the energy of the frontier molecular orbitals. DFT calculations predict the first-order hyperpolarizabilities of compounds 1, 2 and 3 are 294.89 × 10-30, 219.45 × 10-30 and 146.77 × 10-30 esu, respectively. A two-state model was used to describe the non-linear optical properties of the compounds investigated.

  14. Properties of uncharged water-soluble tetra({omega}-methoxypolyethyleneoxy)phthalocyanine free base: Viable switching of the optical response by means of H{sub 3}O{sup +} ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mineo, Placido [Department of Chemistry, University of Catania and INSTM UdR of Catania, Viale Andrea Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy); Istituto per i Processi Chimico Fisici - CNR, Viale Ferdinando Stagno D' Alcontres, 37, 98158 Messina (Italy); Lupo, Fabio; Fragala, Ignazio; Scamporrino, Emilio [Department of Chemistry, University of Catania and INSTM UdR of Catania, Viale Andrea Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy); Gulino, Antonino, E-mail: agulino@unict.it [Department of Chemistry, University of Catania and INSTM UdR of Catania, Viale Andrea Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy)

    2012-02-15

    An uncharged water-soluble tetra ({omega}-methoxypolyethyleneoxy)phthalocyanine was characterized by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, UV-vis and luminescence measurements. The polyether substituents render water soluble this uncharged phthalocyanine. Relevant changes are observed in emission measurements upon protonation. The phthalocyanine free base and its protonated forms can be switched alternating H{sub 3}O{sup +} and OH{sup -} ions as inputs, being the intensity of the luminescence spectra the output. Binary codes 1 or 0 can be assigned to the high luminescent phthalocyanine free base state or to the low luminescent protonated state, respectively. The read-out procedure is fast and the system is reversible. In addition, the exploiting of the luminescent properties of the present water soluble phthalocyanine could be of relevance also for biological applications (photosensitizers for the photodynamic therapy). Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An uncharged water soluble tetra ({omega}-methoxypolyethyleneoxy)phthalocyanine was characterized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phthalocyanine protonation changes the luminescence output. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The system can be switched alternating H{sub 3}O{sup +} and OH{sup -} as inputs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The read-out procedure is fast and reversible. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Binary codes are assigned to the high and low luminescent states, respectively.

  15. 40 CFR 721.5700 - Pentanenitrile, 3-amino-.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...), (a)(5)(xiii), (a)(5)(xiv), and (a)(5)(xv) apply following submittal by the company, and written approval by the EPA, of the results of cartridge service life testing performance in accordance with...

  16. 2-[N-(3-Amino-4-nitrophenylcarboximidoyl]phenol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam Hossein Shahverdizadeh

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C13H11N3O3, is essentially planar (r.m.s. for the 19 non-H atoms = 0.031 Å, a conformation stabilized in part by intramolecular O—H...N and N—H...O hydrogen bonds. The configuration about the imine bond [1.2919 (12 Å] is E. The presence of N—H...O(nitro hydrogen bonds leads to the formation of supramolecular tapes in the crystal structure. These are connected into layers by π–π interactions [centroid–centroid distance = 3.6046 (6 Å] occurring between the hydroxy- and amino-substituted benzene rings.

  17. 3-Amino-N′-(2-oxoindolin-3-ylidenebenzohydrazide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rifat Ara Jamal

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C15H12N4O2, contains two substituted benzohydrazide and indole rings linked via a C=N double bond. The dihedral angle between the benzene ring and the indole ring system is 11.38 (10°. The molecular structure is stabilized by an intramolecular N—H...O hydrogen bond, forming a six-membered ring. The crystal structure is consolidated by intermolecular N—H...O and C—H...O interactions, which result in sheets.

  18. Efeitos tóxicos de surfactantes fitossanitários para o peixe mato grosso (Hyphessobrycon eques =Toxic effects of phytosanitary surfactants for jewel tetra (Hyphessobrycon eques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Patrícia Carraschi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Os surfactantes são moléculas anfipáticas que reduzem a tensão superficial da água e fazem parte dos componentes inertes das formulações de produtos fitossanitários. Assim, os objetivos deste trabalho foram: estimar a concentração letal (CL(I(50;96h; classificar e avaliar a qualidade da água durante os testes de toxicidade aguda dos surfactantes: Agral®, Aterbane® BR, Ag-Bem®, Energic®, Fixade® e Gotafix® para o peixe mato grosso (Hyphessobrycon eques; e os sinais de intoxicação nos animais. Para tanto, os peixes foram aclimatados por dez dias em sala de bioensaio. Os animais foram expostos aos surfactantes em DIC com três repetições. A CL(I(50;96h do surfactante Agral® foi 3,29 mg L-1; do Aterbane® BR, 8,21 mg L-1; do Energic®, 2,34 mg L-1; do Gotafix®, 4,37 mg L-1; do Fixade®, 3,38 mg L-1 e do Ag-Bem®, 34,95 mg L-1. As variáveis de qualidade da água não foram alteradas. Os peixes apresentaram aumento do batimento opercular após a exposição; 4 e 24h, perda da capacidade de arfagem; 48h, batimento opercular lento e 72 e 96h, recuperação. Os surfactantes Energic®, Agral®, Gotafix®, Aterbane® BR e Fixade® podem ser classificados como moderadamente tóxicos e o Ag-Bem® como pouco tóxico para H. eques e este organismo apresenta sinais de intoxicação semelhantes para todos os surfactantes.Surfactants are amphipatic molecules that reduce the surface tension of water and make up the inert components of pesticide formulations. Thus, the objectives of this study were: to estimate the lethal concentration (LC(I50;96h; classify and evaluate water quality during testing of the following surfactants: Agral®, Aterbane®BR,Ag-bem®, Energic®, Fixade® and Gotafix® for jewel tetra (Hyphessobrycon eques; and the signs of intoxication in the animals. For this, the fish were acclimated for ten days in the bioassay room. The animals were exposed to the surfactants in an entirely randomizeddesign with three

  19. Definição de layout de protótipo industrial para separação gravítica de embalagens Tetra Pak®

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Diana Rita Fernandes

    2013-01-01

    Dissertação de mestrado integrado em Engenharia Mecânica Na presente proposta de dissertação, e em colaboração com o CVR - Centro de Valorização de Resíduos estudou-se a valorização das embalagens da Tetra Pak®, também conhecidas por embalagens multicamada. O objetivo primordial desta foi analisar as particularidades mais relevantes de algumas embalagens, estudar a separação das frações constituintes usando a tecnologia por via húmida e a de valorização energética e desenvolver...

  20. Development of a tetra-primer ARMS-PCR for detecting the E198A SNP in the isotype-1 β-tubulin gene of Haemonchus contortus populations in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zongze, Zhang; Xin, Yang; Awais, Ali Ahmad; Weiqiang, Lei; Chunqun, Wang; Di, Wenda; Yanqin, Zhou; Junlong, Zhao; Rui, Fang; Min, Hu

    2018-03-15

    The tetra-primer ARMS-PCR is a rapid, simple and low cost method for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping and has been used to detect SNPs associated with diseases and drug resistance. E198A in the isotype-1 β-tubulin gene is one of the three SNPs associated with benzimidazole resistance in parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus. However, up to now, only PCR-RFLP method was used to test E198A in H. contortus. In the present study, we developed a tetra-primer ARMS-PCR to detect E198A in H. contortus and the accuracy of the results was compared with that of PCR-coupled sequencing. The results showed that optimization of PCR reaction system, especially the proportion of the amount of inner and outer primers, could achieve desirable amplification effect. Three different profiles displaying three distinct genotypes could be identified clearly and intuitively on the agarose gel where the samples with amplified PCR products containing two bands of 433 bp and 200 bp in size indicated susceptible homozygous (SS), those with PCR products containing two bands of 433 bp and 284 bp in length indicated resistant homozygous (RR) and the samples with amplified PCR products containing three bands of 433 bp, 284 bp and 200 bp in size indicated heterozygous (RS). The results showed that the established method can be successfully applied to the detection of E198A in H. contortus, which has high accuracy and is easy to perform. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Tetra- and penta-acylated lipid A structures of Porphyromonas gingivalis LPS differentially activate TLR4-mediated NF-κB signal transduction cascade and immuno-inflammatory response in human gingival fibroblasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanuja D K Herath

    Full Text Available Porphyromonas gingivalis is a major pathogen of periodontal disease that affects a majority of adults worldwide. Increasing evidence shows that periodontal disease is linked to various systemic diseases like diabetes and cardiovascular disease, by contributing to increased systemic levels of inflammation. Lipopolysaccharides (LPS, as a key virulent attribute of P. gingivalis, possesses significant amount of lipid A heterogeneity containing tetra- (LPS1435/1449 and penta-acylated (LPS1690 structures. Hitherto, the exact molecular mechanism of P. gingivalis LPS involved in periodontal pathogenesis remains unclear, due to limited understanding of the specific receptors and signaling pathways involved in LPS-host cell interactions.This study systematically investigated the effects of P. gingivalis LPS1435/1449 and LPS1690 on the expression of TLR2 and TLR4 signal transduction and the activation of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-8 in human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs. We found that LPS1435/1449 and LPS1690 differentially modulated TLR2 and TLR4 expression. NF-κB pathway was significantly activated by LPS1690 but not by LPS1435/1449. In addition, LPS1690 induced significant expression of NF-κB and p38 MPAK pathways-related genes, such as NFKBIA, NFKB1, IKBKB, MAP2K4 and MAPK8. Notably, the pro-inflammatory genes including GM-CSF, CXCL10, G-CSF, IL-6, IL-8 and CCL2 were significantly upregulated by LPS1690 while down-regulated by LPS1435/1449. Blocking assays confirmed that TLR4-mediated NF-κB signaling was vital in LPS1690-induced expression of IL-6 and IL-8 in HGFs.The present study suggests that the tetra- and penta-acylated lipid A structures of P. gingivalis LPS differentially activate TLR4-mediated NF-κB signaling pathway, and significantly modulate the expression of IL-6 and IL-8 in HGFs. The ability to alter the lipid A structure of LPS could be one of the strategies carried-out by P. gingivalis to evade innate host defense in

  2. β,β-Isomer of Open-Wells–Dawson Polyoxometalate Containing a Tetra-Iron(III Hydroxide Cluster: [{Fe4(H2O(OH5}(β,β-Si2W18O66]9−

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Matsunaga

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The β,β-isomer of open-Wells–Dawson polyoxometalate (POM containing a tetra-iron(III cluster, K9[{Fe4(H2O(OH5}(β,β-Si2W18O66]·17H2O (potassium salt of β,β-Fe4-open, was synthesized by reacting Na9H[A-β-SiW9O34]·23H2O with FeCl3·6H2O at pH 3, and characterized by X-ray crystallography, FTIR, elemental analysis, TG/DTA, UV–Vis, and cyclic voltammetry. X-ray crystallography revealed that the {Fe3+4(H2O(OH5}7+ cluster was included in the open pocket of the β,β-type open-Wells–Dawson polyanion [β,β-Si2W18O66]16− formed by the fusion of two trilacunary β-Keggin POMs, [A-β-SiW9O34]10−, via two W–O–W bonds. The β,β-open-Wells–Dawson polyanion corresponds to an open structure of the standard γ-Wells–Dawson POM. β,β-Fe4-open is the first example of the compound containing a geometrical isomer of α,α-open-Wells–Dawson structural POM.

  3. Influence of solution pH on the electron transport of the self-assembled nanoarrays of single-walled carbon nanotube-cobalt tetra-aminophthalocyanine on gold electrodes: Electrocatalytic detection of epinephrine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozoemena, Kenneth I. [Chemistry Department, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002 (South Africa)], E-mail: kenneth.ozoemena@up.ac.za; Nkosi, Dudu; Pillay, Jeseelan [Chemistry Department, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002 (South Africa)

    2008-02-15

    This paper provides first evidence of the impact of solution pH on the heterogeneous electron transfer rate constants of self-assembled films of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) and SWCNT integrated to cobalt(II)tetra-aminophthalocyanine (SWCNT-CoTAPc) by sequential self-assembly. Using cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, we proved that both SAMs exhibit notable differences in their response to different buffered solution pH, with and without the presence of redox probe, [Fe(CN){sub 6}]{sup 4-}/[Fe(CN){sub 6}]{sup 3-}. Surface pK{sub a} value for the Au-Cys-SWCNT-CoTAPc was estimated as ca. 7.8, compared to that of the Au-Cys-SWCNT of about 5.5. Interestingly, both redox-active SAMs gave similar analytical response for epinephrine, giving well-resolved square wave voltammograms, with linear concentration range up to 130 {mu}M, sensitivity of ca. 9.4 x 10{sup -3} AM{sup -1}, and limit of detection ca. 6 {mu}M. This analytical result implies that there is no detectable advantage of one of the SAMs over the other in the electrocatalytic detection of this neurotransmitter.

  4. Pseudo Jahn–Teller effect in distortion and restoration of planar configurations of tetra-heterocyclic 1,2-diazetes C{sub 2}N{sub 2}E{sub 4}, E = H, F, Cl, Br

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilkhani, Ali R. [Institute for Theoretical Chemistry, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Yazd Branch, Islamic Azad University, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Gorinchoy, Natalia N. [Institute of Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of Moldova, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of); Bersuker, Isaac B., E-mail: bersuker@cm.utexas.edu [Institute for Theoretical Chemistry, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Institute of Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of Moldova, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of)

    2015-10-16

    Highlights: • The pseudo Jahn–Teller mechanism of puckering of tetracyclic 1,2-diazetes is revealed. • Vibronic constants are extracted from ab initio calculations versus PJTE equations. • Methods of restoring the planar configuration by external perturbations are suggested. - Abstract: The pseudo Jahn–Teller effect (PJTE) is employed to explain the origin of the puckered structures of tetra-heterocyclic 1,2-diazetes, C{sub 2}N{sub 2}E{sub 4}, E = H, F, Cl, Br, and to reveal the conditions of restoration of their planar configuration. The high-symmetry C{sub 2v} planar configuration of all these compounds is unstable with respect to puckering, a{sub 2}-type distortions produced by the PJT coupling between their ground {sup 1}A{sub 1} and excited {sup 1}A{sub 2} electronic states. The PJTE coupling constants are estimated by fitting ab initio calculated energy profiles to the formulas of the vibronic coupling problem (A{sub 1} + A{sub 2}) ⊗ a{sub 2}. The conditions for the restoration of the planar configurations of the C{sub 2}N{sub 2}E{sub 4} cycles were revealed: the PJTE can be quenched by removing the outer two electrons, e.g. by producing a “triple-decker sandwich” structure with two electron acceptors on both sides of the neutral cycle.

  5. Development and Validation of a Fast and Homogeneous Cell-Based Fluorescence Screening Assay for Divalent Metal Transporter 1 (DMT1/SLC11A2) Using the FLIPR Tetra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalbetti, Nicolas; Simonin, Alexandre; Dalghi, Marianela G; Kovacs, Gergely; Hediger, Matthias A

    2014-07-01

    Divalent metal ion transporter 1 (DMT1) is a proton-coupled Fe(2+)transporter that is essential for iron uptake in enterocytes and for transferrin-associated endosomal iron transport in many other cell types. DMT1 dysfunction is associated with several diseases such as iron overload disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. The main objective of the present work is to develop and validate a fluorescence-based screening assay for DMT1 modulators. We found that Fe(2+)or Cd(2+)influx could be reliably monitored in calcium 5-loaded DMT1-expressing HEK293 cells using the FLIPR Tetra fluorescence microplate reader. DMT1-mediated metal transport shows saturation kinetics depending on the extracellular substrate concentration, with a K0.5value of 1.4 µM and 3.5 µM for Fe(2+)and Cd(2+), respectively. In addition, Cd(2+)was used as a substrate for DMT1, and we find a Kivalue of 2.1 µM for a compound (2-(3-carbamimidoylsulfanylmethyl-benzyl)-isothiourea) belonging to the benzylisothioureas family, which has been identified as a DMT1 inhibitor. The optimized screening method using this compound as a reference demonstrated a Z' factor of 0.51. In summary, we developed and validated a sensitive and reproducible cell-based fluorescence assay suitable for the identification of compounds that specifically modulate DMT1 transport activity. © 2014 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  6. One-dimensional ionic self-assembly in a fluorous solution: the structure of tetra-n-butylammonium tetrakis[3,5-bis(perfluorohexyl)phenyl]borate in perfluoromethylcyclohexane by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinson, Kenneth A; Bühlmann, Philippe; Allison, Thomas C

    2016-04-14

    Fluorous liquids are the least polarizable condensed phases known, and their nonpolar members form solutions with conditions the closest to being in vacuo. A soluble salt consisting of a large fluorophilic anion, tetrakis[3,5-bis(perfluorohexyl)phenyl]borate, and its counterion, tetra-n-butylammonium, dissolved in perfluoromethylcyclohexane produces ionic solutions with extremely low conductivity. These solutions were subjected to small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) to ascertain the solute structure. At concentrations of 9% mass fraction, the fluorophilic electrolyte forms straight, long (>160 Å) self-assembled structures that are, in essence, long, homogeneous cylinders. Molecular models were made assuming a requirement for electroneutrality on the shortest length scale possible. This shows a structure formed from a stack of alternating anions and cations, and the structures fit the experimental scattering well. At the lower concentration of 1%, the stacks of ion pairs are shorter and eventually break up to form solitary ion pairs in the solution. These characteristics suggest such conditions provide an interesting new way to form long, self-assembling ionic nanostructures with single-molecule diameters in free solution onto which various moieties could be attached.

  7. Effect of surface chemistries and characteristics of Ti6Al4V on the Ca and P adsorption and ion dissolution in Hank's ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, E; Lee, T M

    2002-07-01

    This study examined the influence of chemistries and surface characteristics of Ti6Al4V on the adsorption of Ca and P species and ion dissolution behavior of the material exposed in Hank's solution with 8.0 mM ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid at 37 degrees C. The variation of chemistries of the alloy and nano-surface characteristics (chemistries of nano-surface oxides, amphoteric OH group adsorbed on oxides, and oxide thickness) was effected by surface modification and three passivation methods (34% nitric acid passivation. 400 degrees C heated in air, and aged in 100 degrees C water). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy were used for surface analyses. The chemistries of nano-surface oxides in a range studied should not change the capability of Ca and P adsorption. Nor is the capability affected significantly by amphoteric OH group and oxide thickness. However, passivations influence the surface oxide thickness and the early stage ion dissolution rate of the alloy. The rate-limiting step of the rate can be best explained by metal-ion transport through the oxide film, rather than hydrolysis of the film. Variation of the chemistries of titanium alloy alters the electromotive force potential of the metal, thereby affecting the corrosion and ion dissolution rate.

  8. BRONZ KATKILI POLİ-TETRA-FLOR-ETİLEN (PTFE) KOMPOZİTLERİN PASLANMAZ ÇELİK MALZEMEYE KARŞI AŞINMA VE SÜRTÜNME DAVRANIŞLARI

    OpenAIRE

    Ünal, Hüseyin; Yetkin, Salih Hakan; Poyraz, Bayram

    2018-01-01

    Bu deneysel çalışmada, katkısızpoli-tetra-flor-etilen (PTFE) polimeri ile %25 bronz katkılı PTFE kompoziti ve%40 bronz katkılı PTFE kompozitlerin, kuru kayma şartları altında paslanmazçelik malzemeye karşı tribolojik performansları incelenmiştir. Tribolojiktestler, pim-disk aşınma cihazında ve oda sıcaklığında gerçekleştirilmiştir.Aşınma ve sürtünme testleri, 50N, 100N ve 150N yüklerde ve 1.0, 1.5 ve 2.0m/skayma hızlarında yapılmıştır. Aşınma test sonuçlarına göre, %40 bronz katkılıPTFE kompo...

  9. Crystal structure of bis-(4-nitro-aniline-κN (1))(5,10,15,20-tetra-phenyl-por-phy-rin-ato-κ(4) N)cobalt(III) chloride di-chloro-methane monosolvate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belghith, Yassine; Mansour, Anissa; Nasri, Habib

    2014-09-01

    The reaction of [Co(III)(TPP)Cl] (TPP is the dianion of 5,10,15,20-tetra-phenyl-porphyrin) with an excess of 4-nitro-aniline in di-chloro-methane leads to the title compound, [Co(III)(C44H28N4)(C6H6N2O2)2]Cl·CH2Cl2. The Co(III) ion lies on an inversion centre and is octa-hedrally coordinated by two N atoms of the NH2 groups of the two 4-nitro-aniline trans-axial ligands and four pyrrole N atoms of the porphyrin. The asymmetric unit contains one half of the [Co(III)(TPP)(4-nitro-aniline)2](+) ion complex, one chloride counter-ion (lying on a twofold rotation axis) and one half di-chloro-methane solvent mol-ecule, where the C atom lies on a twofold rotation axis. The average equatorial Co-N(pyrrole) distance (Co-Np) is 1.982 (2) Å and the axial Co-N(4-nitro-aniline) bond length is 2.006 (2) Å. The crystal packing is stabilized by an N-H⋯Cl hydrogen bond between the N atom of the amino group of the 4-nitro-aniline axial ligand and the chloride counter-ion. The supra-molecular architecture is further stabilized by weak C-H⋯π inter-actions.

  10. Formation and characterization of high surface area thermally stabilized titania/silica composite materials via hydrolysis of titanium(IV) tetra-isopropoxide in sols of spherical silica particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Kamal M S; Elsamahy, Ahmed A; Elanany, Mohamed S

    2002-05-15

    A direct synthetic route leading to titania particles dispersed on nonporous spherical silica particles has been investigated; 5, 10, and 20% (w/w) titania/silica sols mixtures were achieved via hydrolyzation of titanium tetra-isopropxide solution in the mother liquor of a freshly prepared sol of spherical silica particles (Stöber particles). Titania/silica materials were produced by subsequent drying and calcination of the xerogels so obtained for 3 h at 400 and 600 degrees C. The materials were investigated by means of thermal analyses (TGA and DSC), FT-IR, N(2) gas adsorption-desorption, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In spite of the low surface area (13.1 m(2)/g) of the pure spherical silica particles calcined at 400 degrees C, high surface area and mesoporous texture titania/silica materials were obtained (e.g., S(BET) ca. 293 m(2)/g for the 10% titania/silica calcined at 400 degrees C). Moreover, the materials were shown to be amorphous toward XRD up to 600 degrees C, while reasonable surface areas were preserved. It has been concluded that dispersion of titania particles onto the surface of the nonporous spherical silica particles increase their roughness, therefore leading to composite materials of less firm packing and mesoporosity.

  11. Study of the pO2-sensitivity of the dendrimeric and free forms of Pd-meso-tetra(4-carboxyphenyl)porphyrin, incorporated or not in chitosan-based nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak-Sliwinska, Patrycja; Käuper, Peter; van den Bergh, Hubert; Wagnières, Georges

    2011-01-01

    The concentration of oxygen and its rate of consumption are important factors in certain medical treatments, such as radiotherapy and photodynamic therapy (PDT). Measuring the tissue concentration of oxygen or its partial pressure (pO2) can be achieved by taking advantage of the oxygen-dependent luminescence lifetime of certain molecules, including metallo-porphyrin derivatives, due to the oxygen-dependent quenching of their triplet state. Unfortunately, most of these porphyrin derivatives are phototoxic due to the O(2)1delta produced in the pO2 measurement procedure. The aim of this work was to characterize new nanoparticle oxygen sensors, where the palladium-porhyrin molecule (Pd-meso-tetra(4-carboxyphenyl)porphyrin) or its dendrimer form, is incorporated into an oxygen permeable matrix of chitosan-based colloidal particles. It was hypothesized that the reactive O(2)1delta produced during the pO2 measurement would react inside the particle thus reducing its toxicity for the surrounding tissue, whereas the 3sigma ground state of O2, that is to be measured, would diffuse freely in the peptide. We observed that the incorporation of the porphyrin in the nanoparticles resulted in a reduction of the phosphorescence lifetime sensitivity to pO2 by about one order of magnitude. Our studies of these new sensors indicate that the oxygen concentration can be measured in aqueous solutions with a precision of +/- 20% for oxygen concentrations ranging between 0% and 25%.

  12. Novel Tetra-Primer ARMS-PCR Assays for Thiopurine Intolerance Susceptibility Mutations NUDT15 c.415C>T and TPMT c.719A>G (TPMT*3C in East Asians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Chun Ho

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Thiopurines are clinically useful in the management of diverse immunological and malignant conditions. Nevertheless, these purine analogues can cause lethal myelosuppression, which may be prevented by prospective testing for variants in the thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT and, in East Asians, Nudix hydrolase 15 (NUDT15 genes. Two single-tube, tetra-primer amplification refractory mutation system polymerase chain reaction (ARMS-PCR assays were developed to genotype the common loss-of-function variants NUDT15 c.415C>T (rs116855232 and TPMT*3C c.719A>G (rs1142345. In a group of 60 unselected patients, one and seven were found to be homozygous and heterozygous, respectively, for NUDT15 c.415C>T; one was found to be heterozygous for TPMT*3C c.719A>G. There was no non-specific amplification, and the genotypes were 100% concordant with Sanger sequencing. Limit-of-detection for both assays was below 1 ng of heterozygous template per reaction. Time- and cost-effective ARMS-PCR assays, suitable for genotyping East-Asian patients for thiopurine intolerance, were successfully developed and validated.

  13. Crystal structure of 5,7,12,14-tetra­hydro-5,14:7,12-bis­([1,2]benzeno)­penta­cene-6,13-dione1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozari, Mohammad; Jasinski, Jerry P.; Kaur, Manpreet; Addison, Anthony W.; Arabi Shamsabadi, Ahmad; Soroush, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    The lattice of 5,7,12,14-tetra­hydro-5,14:7,12-bis­([1,2]benzeno)­penta­cene-6,13-dione, C34H20O2, at 173 K has triclinic (P-1) symmetry and crystallizes with four independent half-mol­ecules in the asymmetric unit. Each mol­ecule is generated from a C17H10O substructure through an inversion center at the centroid of the central quinone ring, generating a wide H-shaped mol­ecule, with a dihedral angle between the mean planes of the terminal benzene rings in each of the two symmetry-related pairs over the four mol­ecules of 68.6 (1) (A), 65.5 (4) (B), 62.3 (9) (C), and 65.8 (8)° (D), an average of 65.6 (1)°. This compound has applications in gas-separation membranes constructed from polymers of intrinsic microporosity (PIM). The title compound is a product of a double Diels–Alder reaction between anthracene and p-benzo­quinone followed by de­hydrogenation. It has also been characterized by cyclic voltammetry and rotating disc electrode polarography, FT–IR, high resolution mass spectrometry, elemental analysis, and 1H NMR. PMID:27980819

  14. Formation of thin luminescent Eu3+-LB films by in situ coordination with 2,3,5,6-tetra(2′-pyridyl)pyrazine and 1-octadecanol in pure and mixed Langmuir monolayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fugisawa, Fernanda P.; Ramos, Ana P.; Sousa Filho, Paulo C. de; Serra, Osvaldo A.; Zaniquelli, Maria E.D.

    2012-01-01

    The in situ complexation between 2,3,5,6-tetra(2-pyridyl)pyrazine (tppz) molecules and europium ions at the air–liquid interface by means of mixed 1-octadecanol Langmuir films is reported. These films were transferred to solid supports by means of the Langmuir–Blodgett (LB) technique. The EDS maps attested the homogeneity of the LB films as well as the presence of the europium ions. The mixed alcohol/tppz LB film contained a larger amount of europium ions as compared to the pure octadecanol LB film. This work reports the production of a thin luminescent Eu 3+ film containing europium ions using only alcohol molecules as ligands—an unexpected result, since it is well known that there is an occurrence of non-radiative deactivation of excited europium by hydroxyl groups. Europium ion multiple binding sites were detected from lifetime decay measurements of these films in the presence of tppz molecules. - Highlights: ► In situ complexation of Eu (III) ions with 1-octadecanol and tppz. ► Formation of thin luminescent Eu(III)-LB films. ► EDS and luminescence studies attest to the presence of Eu(III) in the films. ► Eu(III) coordinates with both tppz and alcohol molecules at air/liquid interface. ► Relatively strong luminescence is observed in LB-films containing only Eu(III) and O–H oscillators.

  15. Effects of a central metal on the organization of 5,10,15,20-tetra-(p-chlorophenyl)-rare earth porphyrin hydroxyl compound at the air/water interface and in Langmuir-Blodgett films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoling; Xu, Weiqing; Itoh, Tamitake; Ikehata, Akifumi; Zhao, Bing; Li, Bofu; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2005-04-15

    Langmuir monolayers and Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films of 5,10,15,20-tetra-(p-chlorophenyl) terbium/gadolinium porphyrin hydroxyl compound (TbOH and GdOH) and their mixtures with stearic acid (SA) in a molar ratio of 1:1 were investigated by Brewster angle microscopy (BAM), ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis), and infrared (IR) spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). pi-A isotherms showed that well-defined Langmuir monolayers were formed at an air/water interface for the porphyrins and their mixture with SA. The BAM observations suggest that the pi-pi interaction between the GdOH molecules is stronger than that between the TbOH molecules. This result can be further confirmed by the AFM measurements. After the introduction of SA, the pi-pi interaction between the TbOH molecules is broken and thus two phases formed in the mixed LB film. However, it cannot break the stronger pi-pi interaction between the GdOH molecules. Therefore, no phase separation is observed in the GdOH/SA LB film. IR reflection-absorption (RA) spectra showed that the COOH groups of SA are partly converted to COO(-) groups, suggesting that there is an interaction between MOH and SA in the films. This interaction leads the benzene rings of TbOH to rotate toward parallel to the substrate and those of GdOH to rotate toward perpendicular to the substrate. All these results have demonstrated that the central metal ions have great effects on the organization and formation of the films.

  16. Autoregulatory Feedback Mechanism of P38MAPK/Caspase-8 in Photodynamic Therapy-Hydrophilic/Lipophilic Tetra-α-(4-carboxyphenoxy Phthalocyanine Zinc-Induced Apoptosis of Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Bel-7402 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Photodynamic therapy (PDT is a novel and promising antitumor treatment. Our previous study showed that hydrophilic/lipophilic tetra-α-(4-carboxyphenoxy phthalocyanine zinc- (TαPcZn- mediated PDT (TαPcZn-PDT inhibits the proliferation of human hepatocellular carcinoma Bel-7402 cells by triggering apoptosis and arresting cell cycle. However, mechanisms of TαPcZn-PDT-induced apoptosis of Bel-7402 cells have not been fully clarified. In the present study, therefore, effect of TαPcZn-PDT on apoptosis, P38MAPK, p-P38MAPK, Caspase-8, Caspase-3, Bcl-2, Bid, Cytochrome c, and mitochondria membrane potential in Bel-7402 cells without or with P38MAPK inhibitor SB203580 or Caspase-8 inhibitor Ac-IEFD-CHO was investigated by haematoxylin and eosin (HE staining assay, flow cytometry analysis of annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide (PI double staining cells and 5,5′,6,6′-tetrachloro-1,1′,3,3′-tetraethylbenzimidazolylcarbocyanine iodide (JC-1, and immunoblot assay. We found that TαPcZn-PDT resulted in apoptosis induction, activation of P38MAPK, Caspase-8, Caspase-3, and Bid, downregulation of Bcl-2, release of Cytochrome c from mitochondria, and disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential in TαPcZn-PDT-treated Bel-7402 cells. In contrast, SB203580 or Ac-IEFD-CHO attenuated induction of apoptosis, activation of P38MAPK, Caspase-8, Caspase-3, and Bid, downregulation of Bcl-2, release of Cytochrome c from mitochondria, and disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential in TαPcZn-PDT-treated Bel-7402 cells. Taken together, we conclude that Caspase-3, Bcl-2, Bid, and mitochondria are involved in autoregulatory feedback of P38MAPK/Caspase-8 during TαPcZn-PDT-induced apoptosis of Bel-7402 cells.

  17. Electrochemical properties of surface-confined films of single-walled carbon nanotubes functionalised with cobalt(II)tetra-aminophthalocyanine: Electrocatalysis of sulfhydryl degradation products of V-type nerve agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillay, Jeseelan; Ozoemena, Kenneth I.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes detailed comparative electrochemical and electrocatalytic behaviours of basal plane pyrolytic graphite electrodes (BPPGEs) modified with single-wall carbon nanotube (BPPGE-SWCNT) and SWCNTs functionalised with cobalt(II) tetra-aminophthalocyanine by physical (BPPGE-SWCNT-CoTAPc (mix) ), chemical (BPPGE-SWCNT-CoTAPc (cov) ) and electrochemical adsorption (BPPGE-SWCNT-CoTAPc (ads) ) processes. SWCNT improves both solution and surface electrochemistry of CoTAPc. Electrochemical kinetics of the SWCNT-CoTAPc modified BPPGE yielded different k s values, indicative of different rate-determining steps for the cathodic and anodic reactions. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analyses in the presence of [Fe(CN) 6 ] 3-/4- as a redox probe revealed that the SWCNT and SWCNT-CoTAPc (mix) films have comparable data in terms of solution resistance (R s ), electron transfer resistance (R et ), Warburg impedance (Z w ) and electron-transfer rate constant (k app ). Also, these surface-confined films showed comparable electrocatalytic responses towards the detection of V-type nerve agent sulfhydryl hydrolysis products, dimethylaminoethanethiol (DMAET) and diethylaminoethanethiol (DEAET). Using the BPPGE-SWCNT-CoTAPc (mix) , the estimated catalytic rate constants and diffusion coefficients were higher for DEAET than for the DMAET. Also, the detection limits of approximately 8.0 and 3.0 μM for DMAET and DEAET were obtained with sensitivities of 5.0 and 6.0 x 10 -2 A M -1 for DMAET and DEAET, respectively. BPPGE-SWCNT-CoTAPc showed better potential discrimination for detection of these sulfhydryl analytes than the BPPGE-SWCNT, the latter exhibited enhanced catalytic response for the sulfhydryls than the former

  18. The synergistic effect of Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4} and benzotriazole on the inhibition of copper corrosion in tetra-n-butylammonium bromide aerated aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, S.; Dong, J.; Guan, W.W.; Duan, J.M.; Jiang, R.Y. [Department of Applied Chemistry, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Feng, Z.P.; Song, W.J. [Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, CAS, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2012-11-15

    The effect of Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4} and the mixture of benzotriazole (BTA) and Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4} (SP) on the corrosion of copper in 17 wt% (0.534 mol/L) tetra-n-butylammonium bromide (TBAB) aerated aqueous solution has been investigated by means of weight-loss test, potentiodynamic polarization test, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray techniques. The experimental results showed that a dosage of Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4} stimulated the copper corrosion, and the corrosion rate increased with increasing Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4} concentration, whereas the mixture of BTA and Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4} could protect copper in aqueous TBAB solution. The inhibition action of the mixture of BTA and Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4} on the corrosion of copper is mainly due to the inhibition of the anodic process of corrosion. The inhibition efficiency of a mixture consisting of 2 g/L BTA and 1 g/L Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4} was about 96%. The mixture of BTA and Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4} inhibits the corrosion of copper better than BTA by itself, indicating that Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4} has a synergistic role with BTA on the corrosion inhibition of copper in TBAB aqueous solution. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. Formation of thin luminescent Eu{sup 3+}-LB films by in situ coordination with 2,3,5,6-tetra(2 Prime -pyridyl)pyrazine and 1-octadecanol in pure and mixed Langmuir monolayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fugisawa, Fernanda P. [Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, 14040-901 Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Ramos, Ana P., E-mail: anapr@ffclrp.usp.br [Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, 14040-901 Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Sousa Filho, Paulo C. de; Serra, Osvaldo A.; Zaniquelli, Maria E.D. [Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, 14040-901 Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2012-05-15

    The in situ complexation between 2,3,5,6-tetra(2-pyridyl)pyrazine (tppz) molecules and europium ions at the air-liquid interface by means of mixed 1-octadecanol Langmuir films is reported. These films were transferred to solid supports by means of the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique. The EDS maps attested the homogeneity of the LB films as well as the presence of the europium ions. The mixed alcohol/tppz LB film contained a larger amount of europium ions as compared to the pure octadecanol LB film. This work reports the production of a thin luminescent Eu{sup 3+} film containing europium ions using only alcohol molecules as ligands-an unexpected result, since it is well known that there is an occurrence of non-radiative deactivation of excited europium by hydroxyl groups. Europium ion multiple binding sites were detected from lifetime decay measurements of these films in the presence of tppz molecules. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In situ complexation of Eu (III) ions with 1-octadecanol and tppz. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Formation of thin luminescent Eu(III)-LB films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EDS and luminescence studies attest to the presence of Eu(III) in the films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Eu(III) coordinates with both tppz and alcohol molecules at air/liquid interface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Relatively strong luminescence is observed in LB-films containing only Eu(III) and O-H oscillators.

  20. (μ-3,4-Diacetyl­hexa-2,4-diene-2,5-diol­ato-κ4 O 2,O 3:O 4,O 5)bis­[aqua(1,10-phen­an­thro­line-κ2 N,N′)copper(II)] bis­(tetra­fluorid­oborate) monohydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovilla, Jorge A.; Hernández-Ortega, Simón; Valdés-Martínez, Jesús

    2009-01-01

    In the title compound, [Cu2(C10H12O4)(C12H8N2)2(H2O)2](BF4)2·H2O, the two Cu atoms are each chelated by the acetyl­acetonate unit of the 3,4-diacetyl­hexa-2,4-diene-2,5-diolate (tae) ligand. The Cu atoms are square-pyramidally penta­coordinated, with one bidentate 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) and the tae ligand basal and one water mol­ecule apical. The pyridyl rings of the phen ligands participate in π–π [centroid–centroid distance = 3.894 (3) Å] and C—H ⋯ π inter­actions, generating layers which are inter­connected through O—H⋯O and O—H⋯F hydrogen bonds between the water mol­ecules and the tetra­fluorido­borate anions. The F atoms of both tetra­fluorido­borate anions are each disordered over two positions of equal occupancy. PMID:21582322

  1. (μ-3,4-Diacetyl-hexa-2,4-diene-2,5-diol-ato-κO,O:O,O)bis-[aqua(1,10-phen-an-thro-line-κN,N')copper(II)] bis-(tetra-fluorid-oborate) monohydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovilla, Jorge A; Hernández-Ortega, Simón; Valdés-Martínez, Jesús

    2009-03-06

    In the title compound, [Cu(2)(C(10)H(12)O(4))(C(12)H(8)N(2))(2)(H(2)O)(2)](BF(4))(2)·H(2)O, the two Cu atoms are each chelated by the acetyl-acetonate unit of the 3,4-diacetyl-hexa-2,4-diene-2,5-diolate (tae) ligand. The Cu atoms are square-pyramidally penta-coordinated, with one bidentate 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) and the tae ligand basal and one water mol-ecule apical. The pyridyl rings of the phen ligands participate in π-π [centroid-centroid distance = 3.894 (3) Å] and C-H ⋯ π inter-actions, generating layers which are inter-connected through O-H⋯O and O-H⋯F hydrogen bonds between the water mol-ecules and the tetra-fluorido-borate anions. The F atoms of both tetra-fluorido-borate anions are each disordered over two positions of equal occupancy.

  2. Utzon(x) 2013 - Tetra Leaf

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    Among the possible ways to reconsider Utzon’s legacy, one can look at his strategies for variation and repetition in the light of the recent development of computer software, parametric modeling, computational techniques, digital fabrication and their application in architectural design and engin...... and engineering. During the two weeks of the Utzon(x) Summer School 2013, twenty-five Danish and international students have worked on creating the Tetraleaf project displayed in the Utzon Center court yard and unfolded as a working process in the exhibition space. Enjoy!...

  3. Tetra?ethyl?ammonium bicarbonate trihydrate

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Heping; Hou, Yimin; Yang, Yunxia

    2011-01-01

    In the title compound, C8H20N+·CHO3−·3H2O, the bicarbonate anion, which has a small mean deviation from the plane of 0.0014 Å, fully utilises its three O and one H atom to form various O—H...O hydrogen bonds with the three water molecules in the asymmetric unit, generating a hydrogen-bonded layer, which extends along (10overline{1}). The tetraethylammonium cations, as the guest species, are accommodated between every two neighboring lay...

  4. Tetra-O-methyl nordihydroguaiaretic acid (Terameprocol inhibits the NF-κB-dependent transcription of TNF-α and MCP-1/CCL2 genes by preventing RelA from binding its cognate sites on DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scholle Frank

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tetra-O-methyl nordihydroguaiaretic acid, also known as terameprocol (TMP, is a naturally occurring phenolic compound found in the resin of the creosote bush. We have shown previously that TMP will suppress production of certain inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and lipids from macrophages following stimulation with LPS or infection with H1N1 influenza virus. In this study our goal was to elucidate the mechanism underlying TMP-mediated suppression of cytokine and chemokine production. We focused our investigations on the response to LPS and the NF-κB protein RelA, a transcription factor whose activity is critical to LPS-responsiveness. Methods Reporter assays were performed with HEK293 cells overexpressing either TLR-3, -4, or -8 and a plasmid containing the luciferase gene under control of an NF-κB response element. Cells were then treated with LPS, poly(I:C, or resiquimod, and/or TMP, and lysates measured for luciferase activity. RAW 264.7 cells treated with LPS and/or TMP were used in ChIP and EMSA assays. For ChIP assays, chromatin was prepared and complexes precipitated with anti-NF-κB RelA Ab. Cross-links were reversed, DNA purified, and sequence abundance determined by Q-PCR. For EMSA assays, nuclear extracts were incubated with radiolabeled probes, analyzed by non-denaturing PAGE and visualized by autoradiography. RAW 264.7 cells treated with LPS and/or TMP were also used in fluorescence microscopy and western blot experiments. Translocation experiments were performed using a primary Ab to NF-κB RelA and a fluorescein-conjugated secondary Ab. Western blots were performed using Abs to IκB-α and phospho-IκB-α. Bands were visualized by chemiluminescence. Results In reporter assays with TLR-3, -4, and -8 over-expressing cells, TMP caused strong inhibition of NF-κB-dependent transcription. ChIP assays showed TMP caused virtually complete inhibition of RelA binding in vivo to promoters for the genes for TNF

  5. Comparative study of muscular tonus in spastic tetra paretic cerebral palsy in children with predominantly cortical and subcortical lesions in computerized tomography of the skull; Estudo comparativo do tono muscular na paralisia cerebral tetraparetica em criancas com lesoes predominantemente corticais ou subcorticais na tomografia computadorizada de cranio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwabe, Cristina [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas. Dept. de Neurologia; Piovesana, Ana Maria Sedrez Gonzaga [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Ambulatorio Multidisciplinar de Paralisia Cerebral e Neurologia Infantil

    2003-09-01

    The objective was to compare distribution and intensity of muscular tonus in spastic tetra paretic cerebral palsy (CP), correlating the clinical data with lesion location in the central nervous system. Twelve children aged two to four years old with predominantly cortical lesions (six children) and subcortical lesions (six children) were included. The tonus was analyzed in the upper (UULL) and lower limbs (LLLL) based on Durigon and Piemonte protocol. The result showed that there was no significant difference regarding tonus intensity and distribution in the UULL and LLLL in both groups. Comparing the upper and lower limbs of subjects in the same group, the LLLL presented more asymmetry and higher tonus intensity than the UULL. It was concluded that in this study children with CP as a result of predominantly cortical or subcortical lesions present a similar deficit in tonus modulation, causing a symmetric and homogeneous distribution of hypertonicity, which is predominant in the LLLL. (author)

  6. Solvent extraction of Ca2+, Ba2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, Pb2+, UO22+, Mn2+, Co2+ and Ni2+ into nitrobenzene using strontium dicarbol-lylcobaltate and tetra-tert-butyl p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene tetraacetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. MAKRLÍK

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The exchange extraction constants corresponding to the general equilibrium M2+(aq + SrL2+(nb D ML2+ (nb + Sr2+ (aq occurring in the two-phase water–nitrobenzene system (M2+ = Ca2+, Ba2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, Pb2+, UO22+, Mn2+, Co2+ or Ni2+; L = tetra-tert-butyl p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene tetraacetate; aq = aqueous phase; nb = nitrobenzene phase were evaluated from extraction experiments and -activity measurements. Furthermore, the stability constants of the ML2+ complexes in water saturated nitrobenzene were calculated; they were found to increase in the cation order Ba2+ < Mn2+ < Pb2+, Co2+ < Cu2+, Zn2+ < Cd2+, Ni2+ < UO22+ < Ca2+.

  7. Crystal structure of bis­(4-nitro­aniline-κN 1)(5,10,15,20-tetra­phenyl­por­phy­rin­ato-κ4 N)cobalt(III) chloride di­chloro­methane monosolvate

    OpenAIRE

    Belghith, Yassine; Mansour, Anissa; Nasri, Habib

    2014-01-01

    The reaction of [CoIII(TPP)Cl] (TPP is the dianion of 5,10,15,20-tetra­phenyl­porphyrin) with an excess of 4-nitro­aniline in di­chloro­methane leads to the title compound, [CoIII(C44H28N4)(C6H6N2O2)2]Cl·CH2Cl2. The CoIII ion lies on an inversion centre and is octa­hedrally coordinated by two N atoms of the NH2 groups of the two 4-nitro­aniline trans-axial ligands and four pyrrole N atoms of the porphyrin. The asymmetric unit contains one half of the [CoIII(TPP)(4-nitro­aniline)2]+ ion comple...

  8. Crystal structure of bis-[(acetato-κO)(imidazolidine-2-thione-κS)bis-(tri-phenyl-phosphane-κP)silver(I)] di-μ-imidazol-idine-2-thione-κ(4) S:S-bis-[(imidazol-id-ine-2-thione-κS)bis-(tri-phenyl-phosphane-κP)silver(I)] di-acetate aceto-nitrile disolvate tetra-hydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimthong-Roldán, Arunpatcha; Ratthiwan, Janejira; Lakmas, Sawanya; Wattanakanjana, Yupa

    2016-04-01

    In the title compound, [Ag2(C3H6N2S)4(C18H15P)2](C2H3O2)2·[Ag(C2H3O2)(C3H6N2S)(C18H15P)2]2·2C2H3N·4H2O, the Ag(I) ion in the mononuclear neutral complex exhibits a distorted tetra-hedral environment with coordination by two P atoms from tri-phenyl-phosphane (PPh3) ligands, one S atom of an imidazolidine-2-thione (etu) ligand and one O atom of an acetate anion. The binuclear cationic complex comprises two inversion-related [Ag(C3H6N2S)2(C18H15P)] units with Ag(I) ions bridged by two S atoms from etu ligands forming a four-membered Ag-S-Ag-S ring. Each Ag(I) ion is coordinated by a P atom of a PPh3 ligand, two S atoms of bridging etu ligands and the terminal S atom of an etu ligand in a distorted tetra-hedral environment. In the crystal, the mononuclear complex is linked to lattice water mol-ecules through O-H⋯O and N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming a chain along [100]. In addition, the binuclear complex mol-ecules are connected to acetate anions and lattice water mol-ecules via O-H⋯O, N-H⋯O and O-H⋯S hydrogen bonds, also along [100].

  9. An Efficient Green Synthesis of 3-Amino-1 H -chromenes Catalyzed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Chemistry. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 67 (2014) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  10. 3-Amino-1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl-9,10-dihydrophenanthrene-2,4-dicarbonitrile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah M. Asiri

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C24H19N3O2, the partially saturated ring adopts a distorted half-chair conformation with the methylene-C atom closest to the aminobenzene ring lying 0.664 (3 Å out of the plane defined by the five remaining atoms (r.m.s. deviation = 0.1429 Å. The dihedral angle [32.01 (10°] between the benzene rings on either side of this ring indicates a significant fold in this part of the molecule. The dimethoxy-substituted benzene ring is almost orthogonal to the benzene ring to which it is attached [dihedral angle = 72.03 (9°]. The molecule has been observed previously as the major component of a 1:19 co-crystal with 2-amino-4-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl-5,6-dihydrobenzo[ha]quinoline-3-carbonitrile [Asiri et al. (2011. Acta Cryst. E67, o2873–o2873]. Supramolecular chains with base vector [201] are formed in the crystal structure via N—H...O hydrogen bonds between the amino H atoms of one molecule interacting with the methoxy O atoms of a neighbouring molecule. The chains are linked into a three-dimensional architecture by C—H...π interactions.

  11. An Efficient Green Synthesis of 3-Amino-1H-chromenes Catalyzed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    Chromenes are a common structural motif in variety of natural and non-natural ... nanoparticles on a thin-film glass substrate by the mild hydro- ..... prepared ZnO NPs thin-film according mentioned in general procedure for entry 1 in Tables 2 and 3 (the thickness of ZnO film was 366 nm on both sides of the glass with.

  12. Azide- and Alkyne-Functionalised α- and β3-Amino Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sminia, T.J.; Pedersen, Daniel Sejer

    2012-01-01

    The synthesis and full characterisation of bifunctional β -amino acids that have side chains functionalised with terminal azides (S)-4 and (R)-4 or acetylenes 5 and 6 is reported for the first time. The building blocks incorporate a turn-inducing β -segment and a side chain that can...... be functionalised further, for example, through copper-catalysed Huisgen cycloaddition. Moreover, the corresponding α-amino acids 1 and 3 have been synthesised and characterised. All amino acid building blocks were of high optical purity as demonstrated by derivatisation and subsequent NMR analysis....

  13. A Simple Three-component Synthesis of 3-Amino-5-arylpyridazine-4 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    2012-12-26

    Dec 26, 2012 ... derivatives continue to attract attention due to their wide range of interesting biological activities.1 ... hydrate.16. Therefore, continuing our interest in the synthesis of pyri- dazine derivatives, we decided to ... reacted with malononitrile, leading to the formation of the product (4c). The spectral data of 4c ...

  14. Crystal structure of 3-amino-2-propylquinazolin-4(3H-one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamal A. El-Hiti

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the title molecule, C11H13N3O, the propyl group is almost perpendicular to the quinazolin-4(3H-one mean plane, making a dihedral angle of 88.98 (9°. In the crystal, molecules related by an inversion centre are paired via π–π overlap, indicated by the short distances of 3.616 (5 and 3.619 (5 Å between the centroids of the aromatic rings of neighbouring molecules. Intermolecular N—H...N and N—H...O hydrogen bonds form R66(30 rings and C(5 chains, respectively, generating a three-dimensional network. Weak C—H...O interactions are also observed.

  15. An Efficient Green Synthesis of 3-Amino-1H-chromenes Catalyzed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    Chromenes are a common structural motif in variety of natural and non-natural products.1,2 Their derivatives ... hyde, and malononitrile in the presence of an organic base, such as K2CO3,19 DABCO,20 basic ionic ... of annealed thin-films ZnO NPs are crystal- line with hexagonal wurtzite structure, and their XRD peaks.

  16. 3-Amino-1-phenyl-1H-benzo[f]chromene-2-carbonitrile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabry H. H. Younes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C20H14N2O, the phenyl ring is almost normal to the naphthalene ring system with a dihedral angle of 86.72 (9°. The 4H-pyran ring fused with the naphthalene ring system has a boat conformation. In the crystal, molecules are linked into a helical supramolecular chain along the b axis via N—H...N hydrogen bonds. The chains are consolidated into a three-dimensional architecture by C—H...π interactions.

  17. Crystal structure of an unknown solvate of bis­(tetra-n-butyl­ammonium) [N,N′-(4-tri­fluoro­methyl-1,2-phenyl­ene)bis­(oxamato)-κ4 O,N,N′,O′]nickelate(II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eya’ane Meva, François; Schaarschmidt, Dieter; Rüffer, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    In the title compound, [N(C4H9)4]2[Ni(C11H3F3N2O6)] or [N(n-Bu)4]2[Ni(topbo)] [n-Bu = n-butyl and topbo = 4-tri­fluoro­methyl-1,2-phenyl­enebis(oxamate)], the Ni2+ cation is coordinated by two deprotonated amido N atoms and two carboxyl­ate O atoms, setting up a slightly distorted square-planar coordination environment. The [Ni(topbo]2− anion lies on a twofold rotation axis. Due to an incompatibility with the point-group symmetry of the complete mol­ecule, orientational disorder of the CF3 group is observed. The tetra­hedral ammonium cations and the anion are linked by weak inter­molecular C—H⋯O and C—H⋯F hydrogen-bonding inter­actions into a three-dimensional network. A region of electron density was treated with the SQUEEZE procedure in PLATON [Spek (2015). Acta Cryst. C71, 9–18] following unsuccessful attempts to model it as plausible solvent mol­ecule(s). The given chemical formula and other crystal data do not take into account the unknown solvent mol­ecule. PMID:26090126

  18. Separation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans, non-ortho/mono/di/tri/tetra-ortho-polychlorinated biphenyls, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers groups of compounds prior to their determination with large volume injection gas chromatography-Quadrupole ion storage tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roszko, Marek; Szymczyk, Krystyna; Jędrzejczak, Renata

    2013-10-17

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are important environmental contaminants. Their maximum legally allowable levels in food and environment are in the low pg g(-1) range. Therefore some highly selective and sensitive analytical methods must be used to determine them. Prior to final determination by GC/MS the cleaned-up samples have to be split into some fractions in view of large differences in concentrations of various analytes and existence of numerous chromatographic co-elutions (which in any case cannot be fully avoided). The aim of this study was to: (i) develop a robust, time-saving analytical method to isolate, clean-up and fractionate PCBs, PBDEs and PCDD/Fs prior to their determination with gas chromatography/ion trap mass spectrometry; (ii) assess method performance using laboratory validation data and some certified reference materials; (iii) use the developed method to assess PCB/PBDE/PCDD/F levels in samples of commercially available food. A combination of alumina, florisil, modified silica gel and two carbon columns were used for sample cleanup and fractionation. Separate fractions containing dioxins/furans, PBDE, non-ortho, mono-ortho and di-/tri-/tetra-ortho PCBs were obtained. The method statistical parameters were compatible with 1883/2006 EC Regulation (80-120%, RSD below 15%). The method performance was successfully used to evaluation of some real life food samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A click chemistry approach to glycomimetics: Michael addition of 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-1-thio-beta-D-glucopyranose to 4-deoxy-1,2-O-isopropylidene-L-glycero-pent-4-enopyranos-3-ulose--a convenient route to novel 4-deoxy-(1-->5)-5-C-thiodisaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witczak, Zbigniew J; Lorchak, David; Nguyen, Nguyen

    2007-09-03

    The base catalyzed conjugate Michael addition of the 1-thiosugar, 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-beta-D-glucopyranose, 1, to a new highly reactive enone 4-deoxy-1,2-O-isopropylidene-L-glycero-pent-4-enopyranos-3-ulose, 2, proceeds steroselectively with formation of adduct 3 in 94% yield. Convenient stereoselective reduction of the C-3 keto function of 3 with L-Selectride followed by in situ acetylation produces thiodisaccharide 4 in good 82% yield. Cleavage of the 1,2-O-isopropylidene protecting group with p-toluenesulfonic acid in methanol, followed by de-O-acetylation, produced an inseparable anomeric mixture of methyl 4-deoxy-5-C-(beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-thio-alpha/beta-L-ribo-pyranoside 5 in 72% overall yield. This approach constitutes a new general two-step click chemistry route to the previously unknown class of 4-deoxy-(1-->5)-5-C-thiodisaccharides as stable and biologically important glycomimetics.

  20. Crystal structure of bis­(4-nitro­aniline-κN 1)(5,10,15,20-tetra­phenyl­por­phy­rin­ato-κ4 N)cobalt(III) chloride di­chloro­methane monosolvate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belghith, Yassine; Mansour, Anissa; Nasri, Habib

    2014-01-01

    The reaction of [CoIII(TPP)Cl] (TPP is the dianion of 5,10,15,20-tetra­phenyl­porphyrin) with an excess of 4-nitro­aniline in di­chloro­methane leads to the title compound, [CoIII(C44H28N4)(C6H6N2O2)2]Cl·CH2Cl2. The CoIII ion lies on an inversion centre and is octa­hedrally coordinated by two N atoms of the NH2 groups of the two 4-nitro­aniline trans-axial ligands and four pyrrole N atoms of the porphyrin. The asymmetric unit contains one half of the [CoIII(TPP)(4-nitro­aniline)2]+ ion complex, one chloride counter-ion (lying on a twofold rotation axis) and one half di­chloro­methane solvent mol­ecule, where the C atom lies on a twofold rotation axis. The average equatorial Co—N(pyrrole) distance (Co—Np) is 1.982 (2) Å and the axial Co—N(4-nitro­aniline) bond length is 2.006 (2) Å. The crystal packing is stabilized by an N—H⋯Cl hydrogen bond between the N atom of the amino group of the 4-nitro­aniline axial ligand and the chloride counter-ion. The supra­molecular architecture is further stabilized by weak C—H⋯π inter­actions. PMID:25309176

  1. Degradation of di-, tri-, tetra-, and pentachlorophenol mixtures in an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-06-07

    Jun 7, 2010 ... Chlorophenols are highly toxic xenobiotic compounds, normally found in the effluents of many industries. Due to the high toxicity of these compounds, it is difficult to treat effluent streams containing high concentrations of chlorophenols. The aim of this work is to demonstrate the capabilities of an aerobic ...

  2. Ethylene Diamine Tetra-Acetic Acid (EDTA) Induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thrombocytopenia caused by E.D.T.A can cause misdiagnosis of patients' illness and may lead to inappropriate treatment if the problem is not recognized. We present this case of a male patient with spuriously low platelet count caused by EDTA. It is a phenomenon that results in low platelet count recorded by ...

  3. Synthesis of Ethylene diamine tetra methylene phosphonic acid EDTMP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assaad, Th.

    2009-06-01

    Ethylenediamine tetramethylene phosphonic acid (EDTMP) is one of the most widely used ligands which forms stable complexes with various radionuclides all of which have shown high bone affinity and other favorable pharmacological characteristics in biodistribution studies. The EDTMP is very important precursor in the preparation of radiopharmaceutical kits which is used in the applications for bone diagnosis and therapy was synthesized in one step with Mannich type reaction. The obtained product was fully characterized by its multi-nuclear NMR and IR spectroscopy. The purity of the product was confirmed by HPLC. (author)

  4. Degradation of di-, tri-, tetra-, and pentachlorophenol mixtures in an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is shown that the system is capable of treating up to 600 mgL-1 of total chlorophenols with excellent reduction values, and biodegradation rates (BDRs) between 87 - 97%, and 34 - 157 mgL-1 day-1, respectively (total organic carbon, TOC degradations up to 80%). In the case of the 800 mgL-1, a strong inhibition due to the ...

  5. Electron Capture by Tetra- and di-Chlorobenzene Molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels Jørgen; Anisimov, O. A.; Lozouy, V. V.

    1985-01-01

    Experiments on inhibition and anti-inhibition of Ps formation and also on optical detection of ESR spectra in squalene solutions with 1,2,4,5-C6H2Cl4 and p-C6H4Cl2 have demonstrated the presence of short-lived molecular radical-anions (products of the spur electron capture by additives), their li...

  6. Degradation of di-, tri-, tetra-, and pentachlorophenol mixtures in an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-06-07

    Jun 7, 2010 ... Chlorophenols are highly toxic xenobiotic compounds, normally found in the effluents of many industries. Due to the high toxicity of these compounds, it is difficult to treat effluent streams containing high ... and paper, oil and petrochemical, synthetic plastics, pesticides, timber .... Some problems with the.

  7. Exergoeconomic optimization of tetra-combined trigeneration system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Burbano J.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Se pretende obtener configuraciones óptimas de sistemas de trig eneración para satisfacer demandas de electricidad y cargas tér micas de calentamiento y enfriamiento, evaluando el impacto de los costo s de producción de electricidad, vapor y agua fría. Un sistema de trigeneración produce electricidad, calor y enfriamiento usando esa electrici dad o calor disponible. Se hace énfasis en sistemas que usan re frigeración por absorción, incluyendo uno que usa refrigeración hibrida de abso rción eyectocompresión, llamado sistema tetracombinado de tri generación. La evaluación del desempeño de los sistemas se lleva a cabo med iante el análisis exergético y exergoeconómico de las alternati vas propuestas para determinar la eficiencia exergética y los costos exergétic os de la producción de las utili dades del sistema. Se usó el m étodo de Algoritmos Genéticos para la optimización de las plantas de trigeneración. La optimización muestra beneficios importantes en los costos e xergéticos de los productos por medio de la maximización de la eficiencia exergét ica de los diferentes sistemas.

  8. Segmented copolymers of uniform tetra-amide units and poly(phenylene oxide):3. Influence of tetra-amide content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijgsman, J.; Feijen, Jan; Gaymans, R.J.

    2004-01-01

    Copolymers of telechelic poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene ether) (PPE) segments and crystallisable T6T6T units (two-and-a-half repeating unit of nylon-6,T) of uniform length were synthesised. The influence of the T6T6T content (0–20 wt%), the purity of the telechelic PPE and uniformity of the T6T6T

  9. Evaluation of 1, 3, 6, 8-Pyrene Tetra Sulfonic Acid tetra sodium salt (PTSA) as an agricultural spray tracer dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability to measure spray deposition and movement with the use of tracer materials is a necessity for agricultural application research. Ideally, any tracer material used is highly soluble in the solution being sprayed, easily recoverable from both artificial and plant samples, stable in solutio...

  10. CCDC 1402056: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : pentakis(tetra-n-butylammonium) tetrakis(mu-oxalato)-dodecachloro-tetranitrosyl-tetra-ruthenium-yttrium

    KAUST Repository

    Kuhn, Paul-Steffen

    2015-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  11. Mechanism of the sulfurisation of phosphines and phosphites using 3-amino-1,2,4-dithiazole-5-thione (xanthane hydride)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hanusek, J.; Russell, M. A.; Laws, A. P.; Jansa, Petr; Atherton, J. H.; Fettes, K.; Page, M. I.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 3 (2007), s. 478-484 ISSN 1477-0520 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : phosphines * phosphites * sulfuration kinetics Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.167, year: 2007

  12. Synthesis of tripeptides containing heterocyclic α -amino acids by using heterospirocyclic 3-amino-2H-azirines

    OpenAIRE

    Strässler, Christoph; Linden, Anthony; Heimgartner, Heinz

    2018-01-01

    By using the ‘azirine/oxazolone method’, di- and tripeptides containing six-membered heterocyclic 4-amino-4-carboxylic acids with a piperidine, tetrahydropyran or tetrahydrothiopyran ring have been synthesized. It has been shown that the corresponding heterospirocyclic 3-(N-methyl-N-phenylamino)-2H-azirines are suitable synthons for these heterocyclic α-amino acids. As expected, the presence of these α,α-disubstituted α-amino acids stabilizes β-turn conformations in the prepared tripeptides o...

  13. A New Solid/Liquid Hypergolic System: 3-amino 1,2,4-triazine and Nitric Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    materials. These mixtures are useful in a variety of aviation applications such as space travel , where they are used to ignite rocket motors, or used as...motor, rocket , HAN 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT UU 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 26 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON...adducts as additives of liquid/gel hypergols and solid hybrid rocket motor fuels: property and performance predictions. Aberdeen Proving Ground (MD): Army

  14. Oxidation of 3-amino-1,2,3-triazoles to 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazoles by sodium perborate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolstyakov, V.V.; Pevzner, M.S.

    1997-01-01

    Practicability of sodium perborate application for oxidizing certain 3(5)-amino-1,2,4-triazoles into the revelant nitrocompounds has been studied. It is shown that the use of sodium perborate-glacial acetic acid mixture permits preparing 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazoles, however, stricter oxidation conditions are required (great excess of oxidant, higher temperature) than in case of benzene series compounds case of benzene series compounds

  15. Crystal structure of 3-amino-1-(4-hydroxyphenyl-1H-benzo[f]chromene-2-carbonitrile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Akkurt

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C20H14N2O2, the hydroxybenzene ring is almost perpendicular to the mean plane of the naphthalene ring system, making a dihedral angle of 85.56 (4°. The 4H-pyran ring fused with the naphthalene ring system has a flattened boat conformation. In the crystal, O—H...N and N—H...O hydrogen bonds link the molecules into a supramolecular layer in the bc plane; N—H...π interactions also contribute to this arrangement. The layers are linked by weak by C—H...π and π–π [inter-centroid separation = 3.8713 (7 Å] interactions.

  16. Efeitos tóxicos de surfactantes fitossanitários para o peixe mato grosso (Hyphessobrycon eques - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i2.6252 Toxic effects of phytosanitary surfactants for jewel tetra (Hyphessobrycon eques - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i2.6252

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson Antonio Pitelli

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Os surfactantes são moléculas anfipáticas que reduzem a tensão superficial da água e fazem parte dos componentes inertes das formulações de produtos fitossanitários. Assim, os objetivos deste trabalho foram: estimar a concentração letal (CL(I(50;96h; classificar e avaliar a qualidade da água durante os testes de toxicidade aguda dos surfactantes: Agral®, Aterbane® BR, Ag-Bem®, Energic®, Fixade® e Gotafix® para o peixe mato grosso (Hyphessobrycon eques; e os sinais de intoxicação nos animais. Para tanto, os peixes foram aclimatados por dez dias em sala de bioensaio. Os animais foram expostos aos surfactantes em DIC com três repetições. A CL(I(50;96h do surfactante Agral® foi 3,29 mg L-1; do Aterbane® BR, 8,21 mg L-1; do Energic®, 2,34 mg L-1; do Gotafix®, 4,37 mg L-1; do Fixade®, 3,38 mg L-1 e do Ag-Bem®, 34,95 mg L-1. As variáveis de qualidade da água não foram alteradas. Os peixes apresentaram aumento do batimento opercular após a exposição; 4 e 24h, perda da capacidade de arfagem; 48h, batimento opercular lento e 72 e 96h, recuperação. Os surfactantes Energic®, Agral®, Gotafix®, Aterbane® BR e Fixade® podem ser classificados como moderadamente tóxicos e o Ag-Bem® como pouco tóxico para H.eques e este organismo apresenta sinais de intoxicação semelhantes para todos os surfactantes.Surfactants are amphipatic molecules that reduce the surface tension of water and make up the inert components of pesticide formulations. Thus, the objectives of this study were: to estimate the lethal concentration (LC(I50;96h; classify and evaluate water quality during testing of the following surfactants: Agral®, Aterbane®BR, Ag-bem®, Energic®, Fixade® and Gotafix® for jewel tetra (Hyphessobrycon eques; and the signs of intoxication in the animals. For this, the fish were acclimated for ten days in the bioassay room. The animals were exposed to the surfactants in an entirely randomized design with three

  17. CCDC 1402057: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : pentakis(tetra-n-butylammonium) tetrakis(mu-oxalato)-dodecachloro-tetranitrosyl-ethanol-tetra-ruthenium-dysprosium sesquihydrate

    KAUST Repository

    Kuhn, Paul-Steffen

    2015-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  18. 40 CFR 721.10055 - 1-Propanaminium, 3-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-soya acyl derivs., inner salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-soya acyl derivs., inner salts. 721.10055 Section 721.10055 Protection of...-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-soya acyl derivs., inner salts. (a) Chemical substance and...-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-soya acyl derivs., inner salts (PMN P-03-46; CAS No. 136504-87-5) is subject to...

  19. A novel, three-component reaction to the synthesis of 3-amino-4-cyano-5-aryl-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxamides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mohammadi, B.; Khorrami, B.R.; Ghorbani, M.; Dušek, Michal

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 73, č. 52 (2017), s. 7291-7294 ISSN 0040-4020 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : amidopyrrole * multi-component reaction * water * malononitrile * hydroxylamine hydrochloride Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 2.651, year: 2016

  20. (1S, 3S)-3-amino-4-difluoromethylenyl-1-cyclopentanoic acid (CPP-115), a potent gamma-aminobutyric acid aminotransferase inactivator for the treatment of cocaine addiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pan, Yue; Gerasimov, Madina R; Kvist, Trine

    2012-01-01

    Vigabatrin, a GABA aminotransferase (GABA-AT) inactivator, is used to treat infantile spasms and refractory complex partial seizures and is in clinical trials to treat addiction. We evaluated a novel GABA-AT inactivator (CPP-115) and observed that it does not exhibit other GABAergic or off...... at 1/300-1/600th the dose of vigabatrin. It also blocks expression of cocaine-induced conditioned place preference at a dose 1/300th that of vigabatrin. Electroretinographic (ERG) responses in rats treated with CPP-115, at doses 20-40 times higher than those needed to treat addiction in rats, exhibited...... reductions in ERG responses, which were less than the reductions observed in rats treated with vigabatrin at the same dose needed to treat addiction in rats. In conclusion, CPP-115 can be administered at significantly lower doses than vigabatrin, which suggests a potential new treatment for addiction...

  1. A Three - Dimensional Channel Supramolecular Architecture Based on 3-Amino-2-(4-dimethylaminophenyldiazenyl)-1-phenylbut-2en-1-one and Aromatic Guests

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Macháček, V.; Bertolasi, V.; Šimůnek, P.; Svobodová, M.; Svoboda, Jan; Černošková, E.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 1 (2010), s. 85-91 ISSN 1528-7483 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : X-ray structure * host-guest inclusion * compounds Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 4.390, year: 2010

  2. 3-(3-amino-3-carboxypropyl)-5,6-Dihydrouridine is one of two novel post-transcriptional modifications in tRNALys(UUU) from Trypanosoma brucei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krog, Jesper Schak; Español, Yaiza; Giessing, Anders M B

    2011-01-01

    . Furthermore, the tRNA has to be investigated with single-nucleotide resolution in order to ensure complete mapping of all modifications. In the present work, we characterized tRNA(Lys) (UUU) from Trypanosoma brucei, and provide a complete overview of its post-transcriptional modifications. The first step...

  3. Advanced Colorimetry of Display Systems: Tetra-Chroma3 Display Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kaiser

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available High-fidelity color image reproduction is one of the key issues invisual telecommunication systems, for electronic commerce,telemedicine, digital museum and so on. All colorimetric standards ofdisplay systems are up to the present day trichromatic. But, from theshape of a horseshoe-area of all existing colors in the CIE xychromaticity diagram it follows that with three real reproductivelights, the stated area in the CIE xy chromaticity diagram cannot beoverlaid. The expansion of the color gamut of a display device ispossible in a few ways. In this paper, the way of increasing the numberof primaries is studied. The fourth cyan primary is added to threeconventional ones to enlarge the color gamut of reproduction towardscyans and yellow-oranges. The original method of color management forthis new display unit is introduced. In addition, the color gamut ofthe designed additive-based display is successfully compared with thecolor gamut of a modern subtractive-based system. A display with morethan three primary colors is called a multiprimary color display. Thevery advantageous property of such display is the possibility todisplay metameric colors.

  4. Biochemical effects of ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of ethylenediaminetetra-acetic acid (EDTA) on germination, length of stem, area of leaf, fresh weight, level of lipid per oxidation, alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, super oxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase in the roots of cadmium (Cd) treated maize (Zea mays L) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L) ...

  5. Disseminated infection due to Exophiala pisciphila in Cardinal tetra, Paracheirodon axelrodi

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řehulka, J.; Kolařík, Miroslav; Hubka, Vít

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 8 (2017), s. 1015-1024 ISSN 0140-7775 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : black yeasts * Cyprinus carpio * experimental infection Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 2.138, year: 2016

  6. Tetra(chlorido/iodido(1,10-phenanthrolineplatinum(IV hemi[di(chlorine/iodine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nam-Ho Kim

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound, [PtCl3.66I0.34(C12H8N2]·0.5(Cl0.13I1.87, contains a neutral PtIV complex and one half of a halogen molecule. The PtIV ion is six-coordinated in a distorted octahedral environment by two N atoms of the 1,10-phenanthroline ligand and Cl or I atoms. The refinement of the structure and the EDX analysis indicate that the compound is a solid solution in which there is some substitution of Cl for I and vice versa. The chemical formula of the pure state of the compound would have been [PtCl4(C12H8N2]·0.5I2. In the analysed crystal, two Cl atoms are partially (ca 25% and 9% replaced by I atoms, and the I2 molecule has a minor component modelled as ICl. As a result of the disorder, the different trans effects of the N and Cl/I atoms are not distinct. The complex displays intermolecular π–π interactions between the six-membered rings, with a centroid–centroid distance of 3.771 (4 Å. There are also weak intramolecular C—H...Cl hydrogen bonds.

  7. Biochemical effects of ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mamus

    2016-04-13

    Apr 13, 2016 ... The effects of ethylenediaminetetra-acetic acid (EDTA) on germination, length of stem, area of leaf, fresh weight, level of lipid per oxidation, alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, super oxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase in the roots of cadmium (Cd) treated maize (Zea mays L) and cowpea.

  8. Tetra(3,4-pyrido)porphyrazines Caught in the Cationic Cage: Toward Nanomolar Active Photosensitizers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Macháček, M.; Demuth, J.; Čermák, P.; Vavrečková, M.; Hrubá, L.; Jedličková, A.; Kubát, Pavel; Šimůnek, T.; Nováková, V.; Zimčík, P.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 20 (2016), s. 9443-9456 ISSN 0022-2623 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : TARGETED PHOTODYNAMIC THERAPY * SINGLET OXYGEN * PHOTOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 6.259, year: 2016

  9. Graphene oxide-modified nickel (II) tetra-aminophthalocyanine nanocomposites for high-power symmetric pseudocapacitor

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Makgopa, K

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available (subsp)) of 163 F g(sup-1) and maximum specific energy density (Esp) of 3.6 Wh kg-1, which are much higher than those of its individual precursors of NiTAPc (60 F g(sup-1) and 1.3 Wh kg(sup-1) and GO (15 F g(sup-1) and 0.3 Wh kg(sup-1)) at 0.1 A g(sup-1). The GO...

  10. Synthesis and properties of thermoplastic elastomers based on PTMO and tetra-amide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijgsman, J.; Husken, D.; Gaymans, R.J.

    2003-01-01

    Segmented copolymers based on T6T6T-dimethyl (two-and-a-half repeating unit of nylon-6,T) and PTMO or extended PTMO1000/DMT that are thermoplastic elastomers were made via polycondensation. The materials have a good solvent resistance, are melt-processable and transparent. The polymers all have a

  11. Tensile and elastic properties of thermoplastic elastomers based on PTMO and tetra-amide units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijgsman, J.; Gaymans, R.J.

    2004-01-01

    The tensile and elastic properties of melt spun threads of segmented copolymers based on T6T6T-dimethyl (5–16 wt%) and PTMO1000/DMT of different lengths (3000–10,000 g/mol) are very good. Stress–strain measurements show that extruded threads of these polymers have high fracture strains (>1000%) and

  12. Tetra-butyl-ammonium hydrogen phenyl-arsonate-phenyl-arsonic acid (1/1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reck, Lukas; Schmitt, Wolfgang

    2012-09-01

    The structure of the title salt adduct, (C(4)H(9))(4)N(+)·C(6)H(5)AsO(3)H(-)·C(6)H(5)AsO(3)H(2), features chains along the a axis comprising alternating hydrogen phenyl-arsonate anions and phenyl-arsonic acid mol-ecules linked by O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds.

  13. Self-Oscillating Soft Switching Envelope Tracking Power Supply for Tetra2 Base Station

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyerby, Mikkel Christian Wendelboe; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2007-01-01

    ) implemented with a series inductor and an external clamping power supply. Combined with advanced power stage components (die-size MOSFETs), a high-performance fixed-frequency self-oscillating (sliding mode) control strategy and a 4th-order output filter, this leads to a compact, effective and efficient...

  14. Tetra-μ3-methanolato-tetrakis[(2-formyl-6-methoxyphenolatomethanolnickel(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouassi Ayikoe

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The molecule of the title compound, [Ni4(CH3O4(C8H7O34(CH3OH4], has S4 symmetry. Each of the four NiII atoms occupies every other corner of a cube, with the alternate corners occupied by μ3-methanolate bridging groups linking to three NiII atoms. Each NiII atom is in an O6 octahedral coordination environment formed by three O atoms from three μ3-methanolate groups, one from methanol, and two others from a bidentate 2-formyl-6-methoxyphenolate ligand. The Ni—O bond distances range from 2.0020 (14 to 2.0938 (14 Å, the cis bond angles range from 81.74 (6 to 97.63°, and the trans bond angles range from 168.76 (5 to 175.22 (6°. There are bifurcated hydrogen-bonding interactions between the coordinated methanol OH groups and both the phenolic and methoxy O atoms of an adjoining 2-formyl-6-methoxyphenolate moiety. In addition, there are weak intermolecular C—H...O interactions involving the methoxy O atoms.

  15. Pseudothrombocytopenia: an immunologic study on platelet antibodies dependent on ethylene diamine tetra-acetate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pegels, J. G.; Bruynes, E. C.; Engelfriet, C. P.; von dem Borne, A. E.

    1982-01-01

    Antibodies specifically reacting with platelets only in the presence of EDTA, by the platelet immunofluorescence test, were found in the serum of 20 patients with pseudothrombocytopenia due to in vitro EDTA-dependent platelet agglutination. These antibodies reacted optimally at 0-4 degree C. In 19

  16. CCDC 1419754: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : octakis(mu2-2-phenylethanethiolato)-tetra-nickel

    KAUST Repository

    Joya, Khurram S.

    2016-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  17. Vapor Phase Synthesis of Zirconia Fine Particles from Zirconium tetra-tert-Butoxide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravec, Pavel; Smolík, Jiří; Keskinen, H.; Mäkelä, J.; Levdansky, V.V.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 4 (2007), s. 563-577 ISSN 1680-8584 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA104/02/1079; GA ČR GA104/07/1093; GA AV ČR KSK4050111 Grant - others:GA FASL(FI) 201808 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Source of funding: O - operačné programy Keywords : nanoparticle synthesis * tube flow reactor * mocvd Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  18. Tetrakis(2-amino-4-methylpyridinium cyclo-tetra-μ2-oxido-tetrakis[dioxidovanadate(V] tetrahydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Tabatabaee

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound, (C6H9N24[V4O12]·4H2O, contains half of a [V4O12]4− anion, two 2-amino-4-methylpyridinium, (2a4mpH+, cations and two water molecules. One water molecule is disordered over two sets of sites with equal occupancies and the H atoms for this molecule were not included in the refinement. The cation lies on an inversion center with four tetrahedral VO4 units each sharing two vertices, forming an eight-membered ring. In the crystal, the components are linked by intermolecular N—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming a one-dimensional network along [100]. Further stabilization is provided by weak intermolecular C—H...O hydrogen bonds. In addition, π–π stacking interactions with centroid–centroid distances of 3.5420 (18, 3.7577 (18 and 3.6311 (19 Å are observed.

  19. TETRA-COM: a comprehensive SPSS program for estimating the tetrachoric correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano; Ferrando, Pere J

    2012-12-01

    We provide an SPSS program that implements descriptive and inferential procedures for estimating tetrachoric correlations. These procedures have two main purposes: (1) bivariate estimation in contingency tables and (2) constructing a correlation matrix to be used as input for factor analysis (in particular, the SPSS FACTOR procedure). In both cases, the program computes accurate point estimates, as well as standard errors and confidence intervals that are correct for any population value. For purpose (1), the program computes the contingency table together with five other measures of association. For purpose (2), the program checks the positive definiteness of the matrix, and if it is found not to be Gramian, performs a nonlinear smoothing procedure at the user's request. The SPSS syntax, a short manual, and data files related to this article are available as supplemental materials from brm.psychonomic-journals.org/content/supplemental.

  20. Prolonged charge-separated states of starburst tetra(diphenylaminofluoreno)[60]fullerene adducts upon photoexcitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Khouly, Mohamed E; Anandakathir, Robinson; Ito, Osamu; Chiang, Long Y

    2007-08-02

    Construction of starburst C60(>DPAF-C9)4 pentads was coupled with the use of highly fluorescent diphenylaminofluorene-C9 (DPAF-C9) addends as donor components in conjunction with the fullerene acceptor during single-photon excitation processes. High quantum yields (PhiCS) of charge-separation processes in the range 0.83-0.90 for C60(>DPAF-C9)n (n = 1, 2, or 4) were obtained in the formation of C60*-(>DPAF*+-C9)(>DPAF-C9)n-1 transient states. The lifetime of the radical ion-pairs (tauRIP) was found to be 900 ns for starburst C60(>DPAF-C9)4 (3) samples, which is 6-fold longer than that of the linear analogue C60(>DPAF-C9) (1), with a ca. 2 times increase of the charge-separation rate (kCS) compared to that of 1. These data implied the important role of sterically hindered DPAF-C9 pendants arranged in a starburst-like environment that encapsulates the central C60 core on extending the tauRIP. We interpreted the phenomena by the occurrence of intramolecular migration or exchange of electron or positive charge among multiple DPAF-C9 pendants of C60*-(>DPAF*+-C9)(>DPAF-C9)n-1, which gives an increased rate in charge generation and delayed charge recombination.

  1. Driver response to the TetraStar Navigation Assistance System by age and sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-07-01

    This study is part of the evaluation of the FAST-TRAC operational test of an Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) in Michigan and is concerned with user perceptions and behaviors with Advanced Traveler Information Systems (ATIS). The use and perce...

  2. trans versus geminal electron delocalization in tetra- and diethynylethenes: a new method of analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruschi, Maurizio; Giuffreda, Maria Grazia; Lüthi, Hans Peter

    2002-09-16

    trans-Diethynylethene [(E)-hex-3-ene-1,5-diyne (1 a)], geminal-diethynylethene [3-ethynyl-but-3-ene-1-yne (1 b)], and tetraethynylethene [3,4-diethynyl-hex-3-ene-1,5-diyne (2)] are flexible molecular building blocks for pi-conjugated polymers with interesting electronic and photonic properties. The type of functionalization, the length of the polymer chain, and the choice of pi-conjugation pattern, play a crucial role in determining the properties of these compounds. To rationalize the impact of the different delocalization pathways in the various types of isomers (trans or geminal) on the molecular and electronic structure, a detailed theoretical investigation is presented. We develop a method based on the natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis of Weinhold, which allows one to correlate electron delocalization with molecular and electronic structure observables. The method reveals that the difference between trans (or through) and geminal (or cross) conjugation is not only due to the vertical pi conjugation, but also to the in-plane sigma hyperconjugation. The method is used to correlate the changes in molecular and electronic observables, such as the bond lengths or the absorption frequencies, with the electronic structure of the compounds under investigation. Moreover, this method allows us to predict how a certain substituent will affect the molecular structure and the electronic properties of a given backbone.

  3. Ordered assembly of octa- and tetra-metallic supramolecules on graphite [rapid communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, Dong-Lin; Shiu, Kom-Bei; Lin, Jong-Liang

    2004-01-01

    The layer structures of {[Ru 2(CO) 4(PMe 3) 2](μ-O 2CCO 2)} 4 and {[Ru 2(CO) 4(PMe 3) 2](μ-O 2CCH 2CO 2)} 2 on HOPG have been investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy. The STM image of the first compound shows an ordered array of equivalent, bright lobes which has a unit cell of 6.8 ± 0.2 × 6.8 ± 0.2 Å 2 with an included angle of 93 ± 2°. The STM image of the latter shows a unit cell of the same lengths, but with a different included angle of 70 ± 2°. From the comparisons between the STM image and the molecular structures, it strongly suggests that the bright lobes in the STM images are due to the [Ru 2(CO) 4(PMe 3) 2] units of both molecules and the PMe 3 groups pointing toward or away the HOPG surface. Based on the ordered away of the STM images, it is established that the layer structure of {[Ru 2(CO) 4(PMe 3) 2](μ-O 2CCO 2)} 4 on HOPG has a unit cell of 13.6 × 13.6 Å 2 with an included angle of 93° and that the {[Ru 2(CO) 4(PMe 3) 2](μ-O 2CCH 2CO 2)} 2 layer has a unit cell of 14.4 × 7.9 Å 2 with an included angle of 60°.

  4. Silicon-Containing Tri- and Tetra-Functional Cyanate Esters: Synthesis, Cure Kinetics, and Network Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Isothermal DSC Parameters of Cyanate Ester Monomers Monomer Central Atom  Purity HNon- iso curea (J/g) HNon- iso curea (kJ/eq.) TCure-Onset (°C...2 As-Synth. 873 ± 89e 112 ± 11e 224 ± 5 256 >340c ESR-255 / LECy C 3 / 2 As-Rec’d 852 ± 91e 110 ± 12e 290 ± 6 314 >340c a Non- iso cure refers to...0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000 35000 40000 45000 50000 100 200 300 400 Ta n de lta St iff ne ss (N /m ) Temperature (°C

  5. Tetra-μ-benzoato-bis[(3-methylquinolinecopper(II](Cu—Cu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngmee Kim

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, [Cu2(C7H5O24(C10H9N2], the paddle-wheel-type dinuclear complex molecule contains four bridging benzoate groups and two terminal 3-methylquinoline ligands. The asymmetric unit contains one and a half molecules with a total of three independent Cu atoms; there is an inversion center at the mid-point of the Cu...Cu bond in one molecule. The octahedral coordination of each Cu atom, with four O atoms in the equatorial plane, is completed by an N atom of a 3-methylquinoline ligand [Cu—N = 2.190 (4–2.203 (3 Å] and by another Cu atom [Cu...Cu = 2.667 (1 and 2.6703 (7 Å]. The Cu atoms are all ca 0.22 Å out of the plane of the four bonded O atoms.

  6. Tetra-cationic imidazoliumyl-substituted phosphorus-sulfur heterocycles from a cationic organophosphorus sulfide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Henne, F. D.; Watt, F. A.; Schwedtmann, K.; Hennersdorf, F.; Kokoschka, Malte; Weigand, J. J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 10 (2016), s. 2023-2026 ISSN 1359-7345 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : crystal structures * density * carbene Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 6.319, year: 2016 http://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlepdf/2016/cc/c5cc08182c

  7. Characterization of structural modifications induced by x radiation on poly-tetra-fluoroethylene (PTFE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takata, Neide H.

    1995-01-01

    This work deal mainly with the effect induced by X-ray radiation in PTFE as sheet and powder, and the characterization of unirradiated and irradiated samples. Several techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Raman scattering, infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) and electronic absorption spectroscopy were used to characterize the PTFE samples. The irradiation dose up to 640 kGy promoted a slight increase in the crystallinity degree of PTFE, which has been observed by X-ray diffraction, in DSC curves and in the PA spectra. For more than 640 kGy doses, the crystallinity degree remains constant. The increase in crystallinity can be attributed to the scissions of the chain in the amorphous region. (author). 87 refs., 18 figs., 3 tabs

  8. Tetra-aqua-bis(biuret-κO,O')yttrium(III) trichloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, William T A

    2008-04-02

    In the title compound, [Y(C(2)H(5)N(3)O(2))(2)(H(2)O)(4)]Cl(3), the Y(3+) ion (site symmetry 2) is bonded to eight O atoms (arising from two O,O'-bidentate biuret mol-ecules and four water mol-ecules) in a distorted square-anti-prismatic arrangement. A network of N-H⋯O, N-H⋯Cl and O-H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds help to establish the packing, leading to a three-dimensional network. One of the chloride ions has site symmetry 2.

  9. Tetra­aqua­bis(biuret-κ2 O,O′)yttrium(III) trichloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, William T. A.

    2008-01-01

    In the title compound, [Y(C2H5N3O2)2(H2O)4]Cl3, the Y3+ ion (site symmetry 2) is bonded to eight O atoms (arising from two O,O′-bidentate biuret mol­ecules and four water mol­ecules) in a distorted square-anti­prismatic arrangement. A network of N—H⋯O, N—H⋯Cl and O—H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds help to establish the packing, leading to a three-dimensional network. One of the chloride ions has site symmetry 2. PMID:21202174

  10. Tetra-aqua-bis(biuret-κO,O')gadolinium(III) trichloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, William T A

    2008-04-02

    In the title compound, [Gd(C(2)H(5)N(3)O(2))(2)(H(2)O)(4)]Cl(3), which is isostrucutural with its yttrium analogue, the Gd(3+) ion (site symmetry 2) is bonded to eight O atoms (arising from two O,O'-bidentate biuret mol-ecules and four water mol-ecules) in a distorted square-anti-prismatic arrangement. A network of N-H⋯O, N-H⋯Cl and O-H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds helps to establish the packing, leading to a three-dimensional network. One of the chloride ions has site symmetry 2.

  11. Tetra­aqua­bis(biuret-κ2 O,O′)gadolinium(III) trichloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, William T. A.

    2008-01-01

    In the title compound, [Gd(C2H5N3O2)2(H2O)4]Cl3, which is isostrucutural with its yttrium analogue, the Gd3+ ion (site symmetry 2) is bonded to eight O atoms (arising from two O,O′-bidentate biuret mol­ecules and four water mol­ecules) in a distorted square-anti­prismatic arrangement. A network of N—H⋯O, N—H⋯Cl and O—H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds helps to establish the packing, leading to a three-dimensional network. One of the chloride ions has site symmetry 2. PMID:21202175

  12. Tetra?aqua?bis?[2-(2-nitro?phen?yl)acetato-?O]cobalt(II)

    OpenAIRE

    Danish, Muhammad; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz; Iftikhar, Sana; Raza, Muhammad Asam; Ashfaq, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    The mol?ecule of the title compound, [Co(C8H6NO4)2(H2O)4], is centrosymmetric. It is a cobalt(II) complex, bearing two (2-nitro?phen?yl)acetate and four aqua ligands. The coordination around the CoII atom is distorted octa?hedral, defined by four O atoms of water mol?ecules in the equatorial plane and by two carboxyl?ate O atoms at axial positions. The dihedral angles between the benzene ring and the acetate and nitro groups are 61.90?(10) and 19.21?(11)?, respectively. The water mol?ecules f...

  13. Tetra-aqua-bis-[2-(2-nitro-phen-yl)acetato-κO]cobalt(II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danish, Muhammad; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz; Iftikhar, Sana; Raza, Muhammad Asam; Ashfaq, Muhammad

    2015-03-01

    The mol-ecule of the title compound, [Co(C8H6NO4)2(H2O)4], is centrosymmetric. It is a cobalt(II) complex, bearing two (2-nitro-phen-yl)acetate and four aqua ligands. The coordination around the Co(II) atom is distorted octa-hedral, defined by four O atoms of water mol-ecules in the equatorial plane and by two carboxyl-ate O atoms at axial positions. The dihedral angles between the benzene ring and the acetate and nitro groups are 61.90 (10) and 19.21 (11)°, respectively. The water mol-ecules form O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds with the nitro and carboxyl-ate groups, leading to a layered structural arrangement parallel to (001).

  14. CCDC 951636: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : bis(tetra-n-butylammonium) trichloro-(nitrosyl)-(oxalato)-ruthenium

    KAUST Repository

    Kuhn, Paul-Steffen

    2015-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  15. cis-Tetra­chloridobis(1H-imidazole-κN 3)platinum(IV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokach, Nadezhda A.; Kukushkin, Vadim Yu.; Izotova, Yulia A.; Usenko, Natalia I.; Haukka, Matti

    2012-01-01

    In the title complex, cis-[PtCl4(C3H4N2)2], the PtIV ion lies on a twofold rotation axis and is coordinated in a slightly distorted octa­hedral geometry. The dihedral angle between the imidazole rings is 69.9 (2)°. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked by N—H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional network. PMID:22590070

  16. Process development study on production of uranium metal from monazite sourced crude uranium tetra-fluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhury, S; Satpati, S.K.; Hareendran, K.N.; Roy, S.B.

    2014-01-01

    Development of an economic process for recovery, process flow sheet development, purification and further conversion to nuclear grade uranium metal from the crude UF 4 has been a technological challenge and the present paper, discusses the same.The developed flow-sheet is a combination of hydrometallurgical and pyrometallurgical processes. Crude UF 4 is converted to uranium di-oxide (UO 2 ) by chemical conversion route and UO 2 produced is made fluoride-free by repeated repulping, followed by solid liquid separation. Uranium di-oxide is then purified by two stages of dissolution and suitable solvent extraction methods to get uranium nitrate pure solution (UNPS). UNPS is then precipitated with air diluted ammonia in a leak tight stirred vessel under controlled operational conditions to obtain ammonium di-uranate (ADU). The ADU is then calcined and reduced to produce metal grade UO 2 followed by hydro-fluorination using anhydrous hydrofluoric acid to obtain metal grade UF 4 with ammonium oxalate insoluble (AOI) content of 4 is essential for critical upstream conversion process. Nuclear grade uranium metal ingot is finally produced by metallothermic reduction process at 650℃ in a closed vessel, called bomb reactor. In the process, metal-slag separation plays an important role for attaining metal purity as well as process yield. Technological as well economic feasibility of indigenously developed process for large scale production of uranium metal from the crude UF 4 has been established in Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), India

  17. Colloidal stability of iron oxide nanocrystals coated with a PEG-based tetra-catechol surfactant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondini, Sara; Drago, Carmelo; Ferretti, Anna M; Puglisi, Alessandra; Ponti, Alessandro

    2013-03-15

    Long-term colloidal stability of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) is an important goal that has not yet been fully achieved. To make an advance in our understanding of the colloidal stability of iron oxide NPs in aqueous media, we prepared NPs comprising a monodisperse (13 nm) iron oxide core coated with a PEG-based (PEG: polyethyleneglycol) surfactant. This consists of a methoxy-terminated PEG chain (MW = 5000 Da) bearing four catechol groups via a diethylenetriamine linker. The surfactant was grafted onto the nanocrystals by ligand exchange monitored by infrared spectroscopy. The colloidal stability of these nanoparticles was probed by monitoring the time evolution of the Z-average intensity-weighted radius R(h) and volume-weighted size distribution P(v) obtained from analysis of dynamic light scattering data. The nanoparticles showed no sign of aggregation for four months in deionized water at room temperature and also when subjected to thermal cycling between 25 and 75 °C. In 0.01 M PBS (phosphate buffered saline), aggregation (if any) is slow and partial; after 66 h, about 50% of NPs have not aggregated. Aggregation is more effective in 0.15 M NH(4)AcO buffer, where isolated particles are not observed after 66 h, and especially in acidic NH(4)AcO/AcOH buffer, where aggregation is complete within 1 h and precipitation is observed. The differing stability of the NPs in the above aqueous media is closely related to their ζ potential.

  18. Crystal structure of ethyl 3-amino-6-methyl-2-[(4-methyl-phen-yl)carbamo-yl]-4-[(E)-2-phenyl-ethen-yl]thieno[2,3-b]pyridine-5-carboxyl-ate monohydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mague, Joel T; Akkurt, Mehmet; Mohamed, Shaaban K; Bakhite, Etify A; Albayati, Mustafa R

    2016-03-01

    In the title mol-ecule, C27H25N3O3S·H2O, the dihedral angle between the planes of the thienyl ring and the pendant p-tolyl group is 39.25 (6)°, while that between the pyridine ring and the pendant phenyl ring is 44.37 (6)°. In addition, there is a slight twist in the bicyclic core, with a dihedral angle of 2.39 (4)° between the thienyl and pyridine rings. The conformation of the carbamoyl moiety is partially determined by an intra-molecular N-H⋯O hydrogen bond. In the crystal, complementary N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds form dimers which are then associated into chains parallel to the c axis through O-H⋯N hydrogen bonds involving the water mol-ecule of crystallization. Electron density associated with an additional solvent mol-ecule of partial occupancy and disordered about a twofold axis was removed with the SQUEEZE procedure in PLATON [Spek (2015 ▸). Acta Cryst. C71, 9-18]. The given chemical formula and other crystal data do not take into account the unknown solvent molecule(s).

  19. Coffee consumption protects human lymphocytes against oxidative and 3-amino-1-methyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole acetate (Trp-P-2) induced DNA-damage: Results of an experimental study with human volunteers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bichler, J.; Cavin, C.; Simic, T.; Chakraborty, A.; Ferk, F.; Hoelzl, C.; Schulte-Hermann, R.; Kundi, M.; Haidinger, G.; Angelis, Karel; Knasmüller, S.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 8 (2007), s. 1428-1436 ISSN 0278-6915 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : coffee * comet assay * DNA-damage Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.186, year: 2007

  20. Synthesis and structure determination of methyl (3S)- and (3R)-(trans-(3‧R,4‧R)-3-amino-1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-2-oxo-4-phenylazetidin-3-yl)-2,2-dimethyl-3-ferrocenylpropanoate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radolović, Katarina; Molčanov, Krešimir; Habuš, Ivan

    2010-03-01

    Lewis acid (ZnI 2) - promoted Mannich reaction of azetidin-2-one - tethered aldimine 3 with silylenol ether 4 in toluene at -20 °C afforded a diastereomeric mixture of β-amino acid esters 5 and 6 in ratio 65:35. Diastereomers 5 and 6 were chromatographically separated and their crystal structure determined in order to establish unambiguously both absolute and relative configurations at the stereogenic centers C11, C12, and C14. The final value of the freely refined Flack parameter of diastereomer 6, x = -0.003 (3), unambiguously indicates that all three centers have R configuration. According to the synthetic procedure, configurations on C12 and C14 of diastereomer 5 have the same R orientation as of diastereomer 6, therefore Friedel pairs for the structure of 5 were not measured. Furthermore, S configuration on C11 of diastereomer 5 was assigned in relation to R configuration at C12 and C14 stereogenic centers.

  1. Interaction of liposomal formulations of meta-tetra(hydroxyphenyl)chlorin (temoporfin) with serum proteins: protein binding and liposome destruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshetov, Vadzim; Zorin, Vladimir; Siupa, Agnieszka; D'Hallewin, Marie-Ange; Guillemin, François; Bezdetnaya, Lina

    2012-01-01

    mTHPC is a non polar photosensitizer used in photodynamic therapy. To improve its solubility and pharmacokinetic properties, liposomes were proposed as drug carriers. Binding of liposomal mTHPC to serum proteins and stability of drug carriers in serum are of major importance for PDT efficacy; however, neither was reported before. We studied drug binding to human serum proteins using size-exclusion chromatography. Liposomes destruction in human serum was measured by nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA). Inclusion of mTHPC into conventional (Foslip(®)) and PEGylated (Fospeg(®)) liposomes does not affect equilibrium serum protein binding compared with solvent-based mTHPC. At short incubation times the redistribution of mTHPC from Foslip(®) and Fospeg(®) proceeds by both drug release and liposomes destruction. At longer incubation times, the drug redistributes only by release. The release of mTHPC from PEGylated vesicles is delayed compared with conventional liposomes, alongside with greatly decreased liposomes destruction. Thus, for long-circulation times the pharmacokinetic behavior of Fospeg(®) could be influenced by a combination of protein- and liposome-bound drug. The study highlights the modes of interaction of photosensitizer-loaded nanovesicles in serum to predict optimal drug delivery and behavior in vivo in preclinical models, as well as the novel application of NTA to assess the destruction of liposomes. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Photochemistry and Photobiology © 2012 The American Society of Photobiology.

  2. 2-Hydr-oxy-1,6,7,8-tetra-meth-oxy-3-methyl-anthraquinone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Li-Cai; Zhao, Zhen-Gang; Yu, Shu-Juan

    2008-01-04

    The title compound, C(19)H(18)O(7), also known as chrysoobtusin, was isolated from Cassia tora L. (Leguminosae). The anthraquinone ring system is almost planar, the dihedral angle between the two benzene rings being 4.27 (4)°. The structure is stabilized by intra- and inter-molecular O-H⋯O and C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, and by weak π-π stacking inter-actions along the b axis, with a centroid-centroid distance between related benzene rings of 3.800 (4) Å.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of an iron complex bearing a cyclic tetra-N-heterocyclic carbene ligand: An artifical heme analogue?

    KAUST Repository

    Anneser, Markus R.

    2015-04-20

    An iron(II) complex with a cyclic tetradentate ligand containing four N-heterocyclic carbenes was synthesized and characterized by means of NMR and IR spectroscopies, as well as by single-crystal X-ray structure analysis. The iron center exhibits an octahedral coordination geometry with two acetonitrile ligands in axial positions, showing structural analogies with porphyrine-ligated iron complexes. The acetonitrile ligands can readily be substituted by other ligands, for instance, dimethyl sulfoxide, carbon monoxide, and nitric oxide. Cyclic voltammetry was used to examine the electronic properties of the synthesized compounds. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

  4. Tetra­butyl­ammonium hydrogen phenyl­arsonate–phenyl­arsonic acid (1/1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reck, Lukas; Schmitt, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    The structure of the title salt adduct, (C4H9)4N+·C6H5AsO3H−·C6H5AsO3H2, features chains along the a axis comprising alternating hydrogen phenyl­arsonate anions and phenyl­arsonic acid mol­ecules linked by O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds. PMID:22969495

  5. Tetra­butyl­ammonium hydrogen phenyl­arsonate–phenyl­arsonic acid (1/1)

    OpenAIRE

    Reck, Lukas; Schmitt, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    The structure of the title salt adduct, (C4H9)4N+·C6H5AsO3H−·C6H5AsO3H2, features chains along the a axis comprising alternating hydrogen phenylarsonate anions and phenylarsonic acid molecules linked by O—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  6. Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy activity of gallium tetra-(4-carboxyphenyl) porphyrin when conjugated to differently shaped platinum nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Managa, Muthumuni; Nyokong, Tebello

    2015-11-01

    This work reports on the conjugation of differently shaped Pt nanoparticles (PtNPs) with ClGa(III) 5,10,15,20-tetrakis-(4-carboxyphenyl) porphyrin (ClGaTCPP). The resulting conjugates were used for photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy against Staphylococcus aureus. The degree of photo-inactivation is dependent on concentration of the conjugates, light dose (fluence) and illumination time. The log reduction obtained for ClGaTCPP when conjugated to cubic PtNPs was 4.64 log (which indicate 99.99% of the bacteria have been killed), which is much higher than 3.94 log unit for ClGaTCPP-Hexagonal PtNPs and 3.31 log units for ClGaTCPP-Unshaped PtNPs. ClGaTCPP alone gave a log unit reduction of less than 3, showing the importance of conjugation to PtNPs.

  7. Kinetics of acid-induced degradation of tetra- and dihydrobiopterin in relation to their relevance as biomarkers of endothelial function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Alan; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2013-01-01

    The ratio of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH(4)) to its oxidized form dihydrobiopterin (BH(2)) has been suggested as an index of endothelial dysfunction. Consequently, much effort has been put into preserving the in vivo equilibrium between these labile analytes. ...... conducted using trichloroacetic acid (TCA)....

  8. Crystal structure of tetrakis(acetylacetonatodichloridodi-μ3-methanolato-tetra-μ2-methanolato-tetrairon(III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casseday P. Richers

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The title complex, [Fe4(C5H7O24(CH3O6Cl2] or [Fe4(acac4(μ2-OMe4(μ3-OMe2Cl2] (acac = acetylacetonate, crystallizes in the orthorhombic Pbca space group with one half of the molecule per asymmetric unit, the other half being completed by inversion symmetry. The core structure consists of a face-sharing double pseudo-cubane entity with two opposite corners missing. Weak C—H...Cl intermolecular interactions result in a two-dimensional layered structure parallel to the ac plane.

  9. Swim bladder mycosis in pretty tetra (Hemigrammus pulcher) caused by Exophiala pisciphila and Phaeophleospora hymenocallidicola, and experimental verification of pathogenicity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řehulka, J.; Kubátová, A.; Hubka, Vít

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 3 (2018), s. 487-500 ISSN 0140-7775 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : black yeasts * blood plasma amino acids * experimental infection Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 2.138, year: 2016

  10. Tetra-methyl substituted copper (II phthalocyanine as a hole injection enhancer in organic light-emitting diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Long Wang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We have enhanced hole injection and lifetime in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs by incorporating the isomeric metal phthalocyanine, CuMePc, as a hole injection enhancer. The OLED devices containing CuMePc as a hole injection layer (HIL exhibited higher luminous efficiency and operational lifetime than those using a CuPc layer and without a HIL. The effect of CuMePc thickness on device performance was investigated. Atomic force microscope (AFM studies revealed that the thin films were smooth and uniform because the mixture of CuMePc isomers depressed crystallization within the layer. This may have caused the observed enhanced hole injection, indicating that CuMePc is a promising HIL material for highly efficient OLEDs.

  11. Tetra­kis(quinolin-8-olato-κ2 N,O)hafnium(IV) toluene disolvate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viljoen, J. Augustinus; Visser, Hendrik G.; Roodt, Andreas; Steyn, Maryke

    2009-01-01

    In the title compound, [Hf(C9H6NO)4]·2C7H8, the hafnium metal centre is coordinated by four N,O-donating bidentate quinolin-8-olate ligands arranged to give a square-anti­prismatic coordination polyhedron with a slightly distorted dodeca­hedral geometry. The average Hf—O and Hf—N distances are 2.096 (3) and 2.398 (3) Å, respectively, and the average O—Hf—N bite angle is 70.99 (11)°. The crystal packing is controlled by π–π inter­actions between quinoline ligands of neighbouring mol­ecules and hydrogen-bonding inter­actions. The inter­planar distances vary between 3.138 (1) and 3.208 (2) Å, while the centroid–centroid distances range from 3.576 (1) to 4.074 (1) Å. PMID:21578562

  12. Tetra­kis(8-quinolinolato-κ2 N,O)hafnium(IV) dimethyl­formamide solvate monohydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viljoen, Johannes A.; Visser, Hendrik G.; Roodt, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    In the title compound, [Hf(C9H6NO)]·C3H7NO·H2O, the hafnium(IV) atom is coordinated by four 8-quinolinolate (Ox) ligands, forming a slightly distorted square-anti­prismatic coordination polyhedron. The crystal packing is controlled by O—H⋯O and C—H⋯O hydrogen-bonding inter­actions and π–π inter­actions between quinoline ligands of neighbouring mol­ecules. The inter­planar distances vary between 3.150 (1) and 3.251 (2) Å, while centroid–centroid distances vary from 3.589 (1) to 4.1531 (1) Å. PMID:21579072

  13. Tetra-, Penta- and Hexa-Coordinated Transition Metal Complexes Constructed from Coumarin-Containing N2O2 Ligand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Gao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Three newly designed complexes, [Cu(L]·CHCl3 (1, [Co(L(MeOH]·CHCl3 (2 and [{Ni(L(MeOH(PhCOO}2Ni] (3 a coumarin-containing Salamo-type chelating ligand (H2L have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, IR and UV-VIS spectra, and X-ray crystallography. Complex 1 includes one Cu(II atom, one completely deprotonated (L2− unit and one crystalling chloroform molecule, the Cu(II atom shows a square-planar geometry. Complex 2 includes one Co(II atom, one completely deprotonated (L2− unit, one coordinated methanol molecule and one crystalling chloroform molecule. The Co(II atom is a distorted trigonal-bipyramidal geometry. While complex 3 includes three Ni(II atoms, two completely deprotonated (L2− units, two benzoates and two coordinated methanol molecules. The complexes 1 and 2 are both possess three-dimensional supra-molecular structures by abundant noncovalent interactions. But, complex 3 formed a two-dimensional supra-molecular structure by intra-molecular hydrogen bonds. In addition, the antimicrobial and fluorescence properties of H2L and its complexes 1, 2 and 3 were also investigated.

  14. Nickel(II) tetra-aminophthalocyanine modified MWCNTs as potential nanocomposite materials for the development of supercapacitors

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chidembo, AT

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The supercapacitive properties of nickel(II) tetraaminophthalocyanine(NiTAPc)/multi-walled carbon nanotube(MWCNT) nanocomposite films have been interrogated for the first time and found to possess a maximum specific capacitance of 981 ± 57 F g-1...

  15. Tetra-heteroatom self-doped carbon nanosheets derived from silkworm excrement for high-performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Shuijin; Chen, Lianfu; Zhou, Wei; Deng, Peiqin; Liu, Yan; Fei, Linfeng; Lu, Wei; Xiao, Yanhe; Cheng, Baochang

    2018-03-01

    Carbon materials are deemed to be competitive candidate electrode materials for energy storage systems. It is still a great challenge to explore advanced carbon-based electrode materials for high-performance supercapacitors by a facile, economical and efficient method. In this work, N-, P-, S-, O-self-doped carbon nanosheets with high surface area and well-developed porosity are successfully prepared by pyrolysis carbonization and post KOH activation from silkworm excrement, a novel abundant, low-cost and eco-friendly agricultural waste. Thanks to their unique multi-heteroatom doping and porous structure, the obtained carbon materials exhibit high charge storage capacity with a specific capacitance of 401 F g-1 at a current density of 0.5 A g-1 in 6 M KOH and good cycling stability with a capacitance retention of 93.8% over 10000 cycles. A symmetric supercapacitor device using 1 M Na2SO4 aqueous solution as the electrolyte can deliver a specific capacitance of 41.7 F g-1 at a current density of 0.5 A g-1, and a high energy density of 23.17 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 500 W kg-1 with a wide voltage window of 2.0 V. This work develops a new strategy to produce favorable carbon-based electrode materials for supercapacitors with high electrochemical performances.

  16. Tetra- and hexavalent uranium forms bidentate-mononuclear complexes with particulate organic matter in a naturally uranium-enriched peatland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikutta, Christian; Langner, Peggy; Bargar, John R.

    2016-01-01

    % organic C, 4.1-58.6 g/kg Fe, and up to 335 mg/kg geogenic U. Uranium was found to be heterogeneously distributed at the micrometer scale and enriched as both U(IV) and U(VI) on fibrous and woody plant debris (48 ± 10% U(IV), x̅ ± σ, n = 22). Bulk U X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy...

  17. Complex distribution patterns of di-, tetra- and hexaploid cytotypes in the European high mountain plant Senecio carniolicus Willd. (Asteraceae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Suda, Jan; Weiß-Schneeweiss, H.; Tribsch, A.; Schneeweiss, G. M.; Trávníček, Pavel; Schönswetter, P.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 94, č. 8 (2007), s. 1391-1401 ISSN 0002-9122 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/06/0598 Grant - others:Austrian Science Fund(AT) FWFP13874-BIO; Austrian Science Fund(AT) T218-BIO Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Senecio carniolicus * cytotype mixture * DNA-ploidy Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.512, year: 2007

  18. The protective effect of Murraya koenigii leaves against carbon tetra chloride-induced hepatic damage in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brahma Naidu Parimi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of methanolic extract of Murraya koenigii (MMK leaves in attenuating the hepatic damage inflicted by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4, a potent oxidative stress inducer and a model hepatotoxicant. Methods: Rats were divided into six groups of five each: normal control group, CCl4 group, CCl 4+silymarin group, CCl4+MMK group (200 mg/kg body weight, CCl4+MMK group (300 mg/kg body weight and CCl4+MMK group (500 mg/kg body weight. Rats were intraperitoneally injected with 20% CCl4 in corn oil (1 mL/kg body weight and MMK was orally administered for 3 weeks. Levels of hepatic markers such as alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and total bilirubin were measured. Activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase were assayed and malondialdehyde content was measured. For histopathological examination, liver microtome sections were prepared and observed under light microscope. Results: Oral administration of MMK had significantly reduced the activities of aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin content in a dosedependent manner, which were elevated by CCl 4. However, CCl 4-induced rise in lipid peroxidation and drop in superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities were reversed by MMK administration. Further, the hepatoprotective activity of MMK was supported by histopathological examination of liver microtome sections. Conclusions: Our biochemical and histological studies demonstrate the potential antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of MMK and our results scientifically validate the often use of MMK leaves in food preparation and in Ayurvedic medicine in India and neighboring countries.

  19. From α-Bromomethylbutenolide to Fused Tri(Tetra) Cyclic Dihydrofurandiones through Barbier Reaction–Heck Arylation Sequence

    OpenAIRE

    Arbia Talbi; Anne Gaucher; Flavien Bourdreux; Jérôme Marrot; Mohamed L. Efrit; Hédi M’Rabet; Damien Prim

    2017-01-01

    A Barbier reaction–Heck arylation sequence from α-bromomethylbutenolide to fused tri and tetracyclic lactones has been developed. The first step involving a Barbier reaction enabled installing ortho-bromoaromatics in α-ylidene γ-lactones. The latter substrates were subjected to intramolecular Heck reaction conditions which selectively afforded 6,5,5 or 6,6,5 fused ring systems depending on the nature of the base employed.

  20. From α-Bromomethylbutenolide to Fused Tri(Tetra Cyclic Dihydrofurandiones through Barbier Reaction–Heck Arylation Sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arbia Talbi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A Barbier reaction–Heck arylation sequence from α-bromomethylbutenolide to fused tri and tetracyclic lactones has been developed. The first step involving a Barbier reaction enabled installing ortho-bromoaromatics in α-ylidene γ-lactones. The latter substrates were subjected to intramolecular Heck reaction conditions which selectively afforded 6,5,5 or 6,6,5 fused ring systems depending on the nature of the base employed.

  1. From α-Bromomethylbutenolide to Fused Tri(Tetra) Cyclic Dihydrofurandiones through Barbier Reaction-Heck Arylation Sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbi, Arbia; Gaucher, Anne; Bourdreux, Flavien; Marrot, Jérôme; Efrit, Mohamed L; M'Rabet, Hédi; Prim, Damien

    2017-12-08

    A Barbier reaction-Heck arylation sequence from α-bromomethylbutenolide to fused tri and tetracyclic lactones has been developed. The first step involving a Barbier reaction enabled installing ortho -bromoaromatics in α-ylidene γ-lactones. The latter substrates were subjected to intramolecular Heck reaction conditions which selectively afforded 6,5,5 or 6,6,5 fused ring systems depending on the nature of the base employed.

  2. Tetrakis(μ2-diphenylphosphinato-κ2O,O′tetra-μ3-oxido-tetraoxidohexamolybdenum(V

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Raquel Mota Merelo de Aguiar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The molecule of the title compound, [Mo4(μ2-C12H10OP24(μ3-O4O4], exhibits point group symmetry 2 with the twofold rotation axis passing through two opposite P atoms. Each MoV atom is bridged by three O atoms resulting in an Mo4O4 heterocubane core. In the crystal, weak C—H...O interactions may help to consolidate packing of the molecules.

  3. Theoretical investigations of the bulk modulus in the tetra-cubic transition of PbTiO3 material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan A. P. Ribeiro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Resulting from ion displacement in a solid under pressure, piezoelectricity is an electrical polarization that can be observed in perovskite-type electronic ceramics, such as PbTiO3, which present cubic and tetragonal symmetries at different pressures. The transition between these crystalline phases is determined theoretically through the bulk modulus from the relationship between material energy and volume. However, the change in the material molecular structure is responsible for the piezoelectric effect. In this study, density functional theory calculations using the Becke 3-Parameter-Lee-Yang-Parr hybrid functional were employed to investigate the structure and properties associated with the transition state of the tetragonal-cubic phase change in PbTiO3 material.

  4. Poly[[tetra-aqua-di-μ(4)-oxalato-μ(2)-oxalato-dineo-dymium(III)] dihydrate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Gao-Juan; Rong, Cheng; Li, Qing-Lu; Jiang, Wen-Jing

    2012-03-01

    The title compound, {[Nd(2)(C(2)O(4))(3)(H(2)O)(4)]·2H(2)O}(n), was synthesized hydro-thermally in the presence of bis-(carb-oxy-ethyl-germanium) sesquioxide. It is isostructural with the corresponding Pr compound [Yang et al. (2009). Acta Cryst. E65, m1152-m1153]. The Nd(3+) cation is nine-coordinated and its coordination polyhedron can be described as a distorted tricapped trigonal prism. Two Nd(3+) ions are connected by two O atoms from two oxalate ions to give a dinuclear Nd(2) unit. The unit is further linked to four others via four oxalate ions yielding a layerparallel to (0-11). The linkages between the layers by neighbouring oxalate anions lead to a three-dimensional framework with channels along the c axis. The coordinating and free water mol-ecules are located in the channels and make contact with each other and the host framework by weak O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds.

  5. Poly[[tetra­aqua­di-μ4-oxalato-μ2-oxalato-dineo­dymium(III)] dihydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Gao-Juan; Rong, Cheng; Li, Qing-lu; Jiang, Wen-Jing

    2012-01-01

    The title compound, {[Nd2(C2O4)3(H2O)4]·2H2O}n, was synthesized hydro­thermally in the presence of bis­(carb­oxy­ethyl­germanium) sesquioxide. It is isostructural with the corresponding Pr compound [Yang et al. (2009). Acta Cryst. E65, m1152–m1153]. The Nd3+ cation is nine-coordinated and its coordination polyhedron can be described as a distorted tricapped trigonal prism. Two Nd3+ ions are connected by two O atoms from two oxalate ions to give a dinuclear Nd2 unit. The unit is further linked to four others via four oxalate ions yielding a layerparallel to (0-11). The linkages between the layers by neighbouring oxalate anions lead to a three-dimensional framework with channels along the c axis. The coordinating and free water mol­ecules are located in the channels and make contact with each other and the host framework by weak O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds. PMID:22412435

  6. The functions Of LysM Proteins And Chitin Tetra-Saccarides Signaling Pathway in Zebrafish Embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laroche, Fabrice Jean Francois

    Chitin is an ancient organic bio-polymer, found in abundance on land and at sea. However, knowledge on chitin functions in animals is lacking. In his research project, Fabrice Laroche studied responses to chitin in zebrafish embryos, and he described chitin signalling pathways. Proteins related...... to chitin responses are increasingly being associated with human diseases. Recently, several lysin motif (LysM)-containing proteins were highlighted for their molecular affinity to chitin-like compounds. Addressing these matters, Fabrice Laroche identified zebrafish and human lysin motif-encoding genes...

  7. Mechanism of Surface Alkylation of a Gold Aerogel with Tetra-n-butylstannane-d(36): Identification of Byproducts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Benkovičová, Monika; Wen, D.; Plutnar, Jan; Čížková, Martina; Eychmüller, A.; Michl, Josef

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 10 (2017), s. 2339-2343 ISSN 1948-7185 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-02337S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : self-assembled monolayers Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry OBOR OECD: Organic chemistry Impact factor: 9.353, year: 2016

  8. Hepatoprotective and immunomodulatory properties of aqueous extract of Curcuma longa in carbon tetra chloride intoxicated Swiss albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Mahuya; Sharma, Gauri Dutta; Chakraborty, Biswajit

    2011-06-01

    To evaluate the hepatoprotective and immunotherapeutic effects of aqueous extract of turmeric rhizome in CCl4 intoxicated Swiss albino mice. First group of mice (n=5) received CCl4 treatment at a dose of 0.5 mL/kg bw (i.p.) for 7 days. Second group was fed orally the aqueous extract of turmeric at a dose of 50 mg/kg bw for 15 days. The third group was given both the turmeric extract (for 15 days, orally) and CCl4 (for last 7 days, i.p.). The fourth group was kept as a control. To study the liver function, the transaminase enzymes (SGOT and SGPT) and bilirubin level were measured in the serum of respective groups. For assaying the immunotherapeutic action of Curcuma longa (C. longa), non specific host response parameters like morphological alteration, phagocytosis, nitric oxide release, myeloperoxidase release and intracellular killing capacity of peritoneal macrophages were studied from the respective groups. The result of present study suggested that CCl4 administration increased the level of SGOT and SGPT and bilirubin level in serum. However, the aqueous extract of turmeric reduced the level of SGOT, SGPT and bilirubin in CCl4 intoxicated mice. Apart from damaging the liver system, CCl4 also reduced non specific host response parameters like morphological alteration, phagocytosis, nitric oxide release, myeloperoxidase release and intracellular killing capacity of peritoneal macrophages. Administration of aqueous extract of C. longa offered significant protection from these damaging actions of CCl4 on the non specific host response in the peritoneal macrophages of CCl4 intoxicated mice. In conclusion, the present study suggests that C. longa has immunotherapeutic properties along with its ability to ameliorate hepatotoxicity.

  9. Pyridinium tetra-kis-(1,1,1-trifluoro-pentane-2,4-dionato)dysprosate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Wang, Yuekui; Jia, Jie; Gao, Xiaoli; Su, Xiaoling

    2011-02-16

    In the anion of the title compound, (C(5)H(6)N)[Dy(C(5)H(4)F(3)O(2))(4)], the central metal ion, Dy(3+), is coordinated by four bidentate 1,1,1-trifluoro-pentane-2,4-dionate (TAA) ligands, forming an approximate square-anti-prismatic configuration. The pyridin-ium cation is connected to the complex ion by an N-H⋯O hydrogen bond and electrostatic inter-actions in the crystal. There are two kinds of disorder in the structure, one involving rotational disorder of a CF(3) group [occupancy ratio 0.560 (15):0.440 (15)] and the other involving an exchange between a CF(3) group and CH(3) group within a given bidentate ligand (occupancy ratio 0.64:0.36).

  10. Tetra­kis[bis­(pyridin-2-yl)amine-κN 2](nitrato-κO)silver(I)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parashchenko, Yuliia; Pavlishchuk, Anna; Bokach, Nadezhda A.; Haukka, Matti

    2014-01-01

    In the title complex, [Ag(NO3)(C10H9N3)4], the nitrate ligand is found to be disordered over two sets of positions, with occupancy factors of 0.473 (5) and 0.527 (5). The AgI ion is located in a square-pyramidal coordination environment formed by four N atoms from four bis­(pyridin-2-yl)amine ligands and one O atom from a nitrate ligand. Weak inter­actions between the AgI ions and the nitrate anions acting in a monodentate mode [Ag⋯O = 2.791 (13) and 2.816 (9) Å for the major component of the nitrate ligand, and 2.865 (8) and 2.837 (8) Å for the minor component] link the complex mol­ecules into a chain along [001]. N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds are observed. PMID:24764824

  11. CCDC 1049113: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : Tetra-n-butylammonium trans-tetrachlorido-bis(1H-imidazole)-osmium(iii)

    KAUST Repository

    Kuhn, Paul-Steffen

    2015-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  12. 3-Phenyl-6-(2-pyrid­yl)-1,2,4,5-tetra­zine

    OpenAIRE

    Chartrand, Daniel; Laverdière, François; Hanan, Garry

    2007-01-01

    The title compound, C13H9N5, is the first asymmetric diaryl-1,2,4,5-tetrazine to be crystallographically characterized. We have been interested in this motif for incorporation into supramolecular assemblies based on coordination chemistry. The solid state structure shows a centrosymmetric molecule, forcing a positional disorder of the terminal phenyl and pyridyl rings. The molecule is completely planar, unusual for aromatic rings with N atoms in adjacent ortho positions. The stacking observed...

  13. Structural and optical properties of p-quaterphenyl thin films and application in organic/inorganic photodiodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, A. A.; Saadeldin, M. M.; Soliman, H. S.; Gadallah, A.-S.; Sawaby, K.

    2016-12-01

    Para-quaterpheny1 (p-4pheny1) thin films were deposited by the thermal evaporation method on glass/quartz substrates for structural and optical investigations. The XRD of p-4phenyl thin films showed that the as-deposited films have a monoclinic structure. The surface morphology of p-4phenyl thin film was studied using scanning electron microscope. The absorption spectrum of p-4phenyl thin film recorded in the wavelength range 200-2500 nm. Photoluminescence measurements revealed two emission peaks at 435 and 444 nm using N2-laser (337.8 nm). The energy gap obtained from the absorption and photoluminescence data was found to be 2.87 and 2.74 eV respectively with Stokes shift value of 0.13 eV. The current-voltage characteristics of p-4phenyl/p-Si heterojunction have been recorded in the dark and under illumination of laser (337.8 nm). Responsivity, Detectivity, External quantum efficiency and Response speed of (Au/p-4pheny1/p-Si/Al) photodetector have been determined using different laser sources at -1 V bias.

  14. 2-Acetyl-amino-1,3,4,6-tetra-O-(tri-methyl-silyl)-2-de-oxy-α-d-gluco-pyran-ose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhao-Dong; Cui, Yan-Li; Mao, Jian-Wei

    2013-06-01

    The title compound, C20H47NO6Si4, was synthesized by per-O-tri-methyl-silylation of N-acetyl-d-glucosa-mine using chloro-tri-methyl-silane in the presence of hexa-methyl-disiloxane. The tri-methyl-silyl group and acetamido group are located on the same side of the pyran ring, showing an α-configuration glycoside. One of the tri-methyl-silyl groups is disordered over two orientations, with site-occupancy factors of 0.625 (9) and 0.375 (9). In the crystal, N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the mol-ecules into supra-molecular chains along the a-axis direction.

  15. 2-Hydr­oxy-1,6,7,8-tetra­meth­oxy-3-methyl­anthraquinone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Li-Cai; Zhao, Zhen-Gang; Yu, Shu-Juan

    2008-01-01

    The title compound, C19H18O7, also known as chrysoobtusin, was isolated from Cassia tora L. (Leguminosae). The anthraquinone ring system is almost planar, the dihedral angle between the two benzene rings being 4.27 (4)°. The structure is stabilized by intra- and inter­molecular O—H⋯O and C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, and by weak π–π stacking inter­actions along the b axis, with a centroid–centroid distance between related benzene rings of 3.800 (4) Å. PMID:21201403

  16. Synthesis and activity against HBV of novel Tetra-seconucleoside analogues of dyphlline having the acyclic chains of ACV and HBG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ashry, El Sayed H; Awad, Laila F; Rashed, Nagwa; Abdelrahman, Adel; Rasheed, Hana A

    2008-03-01

    Selective alkylation of dyphylline (1) with (2-acetoxyethoxy)methyl bromide (2a) or 4-acetoxybutyl bromide (2b) afforded 3'-O-[(acetoxyethoxy)methyl]dyphylline (3a) and 3'-O-(4-acetoxybutyl)-dyphylline (3b), respectively. A trans esterification process rather than alkylation of the dihydroxy-propyl side chain in 1 had taken place during the reaction with 2-p-toluoyloxy)ethyl chloride (5) to afford the respective 3'-toluoyloxy derivative 7 and not the anticipated 3'-O-[(p-toluoyloxy)ethyl]-dyphylline (6). Deacylation of 3a,b and 7 afforded 4a,b and 1, respectively. Viral screening of selected compounds against HBV has been investigated.

  17. Field Comparison and Morphological Characters of Guar (Cyamopsis TetraGonoloba L. Taub.) Genotypes under Agro-Climatic Conditions of Karachi, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafar, M.; Mehmood, T.; Baig, I.A.

    2016-01-01

    In present study, 12 guar genotypes were evaluated at Institute of Plant Introduction, Pakistan Agricultural Research Council, Karachi, Pakistan. Results revealed that the plant length was high in Acc. No.3 as compared to the other genotypes. Branches per plant were high in Acc. No. 8 as compared to Acc. Nos. 1-7 while, non-significant differences among Acc. Nos. 1, 3, 6 and 9. Moreover, results showed that high number of branches on Acc. Nos. 4, 10 and 11 as compared to Acc. Nos. 2 and 11 accessions, cluster/plant was high in Acc. No.3, 4, 5 and 6 genotypes as compared to Acc. Nos. 7, 10, 11 and 12 accessions whereas, non-significant difference was found in Acc. Nos. 1, 2, 8 and 9. However, pods/cluster was high in Acc. No. 8 as compared to all genotypes and pods length maximum (8.70, 7.88 and 7.86 cm) was high in Acc.No. 8, 9 and 3, respectively as compared to other accession numbers. The pods width was high in Acc. No. 8 as compared to other accessions. Whereas, Acc. No. 5, 9, 10 and Acc. No. 11 were high as compared to 1- 4, 6, 7 and 12 genotypes. The results indicated that the number of seeds per pods was high in Acc. No. 1, 2 and 4 as compared to rest of the accessions/genotypes.100-seed weight was high in Acc. No. 4 as compared to rest accessions/genotypes. The significant differences were observed among all treatments at 5% probability level. (author)

  18. An Energy-Efficient and Scalable Deep Learning/Inference Processor With Tetra-Parallel MIMD Architecture for Big Data Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seong-Wook; Park, Junyoung; Bong, Kyeongryeol; Shin, Dongjoo; Lee, Jinmook; Choi, Sungpill; Yoo, Hoi-Jun

    2015-12-01

    Deep Learning algorithm is widely used for various pattern recognition applications such as text recognition, object recognition and action recognition because of its best-in-class recognition accuracy compared to hand-crafted algorithm and shallow learning based algorithms. Long learning time caused by its complex structure, however, limits its usage only in high-cost servers or many-core GPU platforms so far. On the other hand, the demand on customized pattern recognition within personal devices will grow gradually as more deep learning applications will be developed. This paper presents a SoC implementation to enable deep learning applications to run with low cost platforms such as mobile or portable devices. Different from conventional works which have adopted massively-parallel architecture, this work adopts task-flexible architecture and exploits multiple parallelism to cover complex functions of convolutional deep belief network which is one of popular deep learning/inference algorithms. In this paper, we implement the most energy-efficient deep learning and inference processor for wearable system. The implemented 2.5 mm × 4.0 mm deep learning/inference processor is fabricated using 65 nm 8-metal CMOS technology for a battery-powered platform with real-time deep inference and deep learning operation. It consumes 185 mW average power, and 213.1 mW peak power at 200 MHz operating frequency and 1.2 V supply voltage. It achieves 411.3 GOPS peak performance and 1.93 TOPS/W energy efficiency, which is 2.07× higher than the state-of-the-art.

  19. Poly[[2-(3-pyridinio-1H,3H+-benzimidazolium] [μ4-oxido-di-μ3-oxido-tetra-μ2-oxido-hexaoxidotetramolybdenum(VI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Hua Chen

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The reaction of MoO3 with 2-(3-pyridylbenzoimidazole and water in the presence of MnSO4·5H2O at 453 K under hydrothermal conditions afforded the title compound, {(C12H11N2[Mo4O13]}n, in which infinite molybdenum oxide anionic chains are charge-balanced by diprotonated 2-(3-pyridylbenzoimidazole (H23-PBIM2+ cations. Eight [MoO6] octahedra are edge-shared, forming compact octamolybdate subunits which are connected through pairs of Mo—O—Mo bridges into extended one-dimensional arrays propagating along the a-axis direction. The asymmetric unit of the metal oxide chain contains one half of the octamolybdate unit, denoted [Mo4O13], the other half being generated by an inversion center. These molybdenum oxide chains are further connected through the 2-(3-pyridiniobenzoimidazolium cations into a three-dimensional network via N—H...O hydrogen bonds. In addition, neighbouring diprotonated cations are arranged in a head-to-tail fashion with a plane-to-plane separation of 3.63 (10 Å, indicating the existence of weak aromatic π–π stacking interactions.

  20. Tetra-μ-acetato-κ8O:O′-bis{[N-(4-methylphenylpyridin-2-amine-κN1]copper(II}(Cu—Cu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainal Abidin Fairuz

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The complete dinuclear molecule of the title complex, [Cu2(CH3COO4(C12H12N22], is generated by a centre of inversion. The CuII atoms are connected [Cu—Cu = 2.6329 (16 Å] and bridged by four acetate ligands. The distorted octahedral coordination geometry is completed by a terminal pyridine N atom. The amine H atom forms an intramolecular N—H...O hydrogen bond.

  1. CCDC 855130: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : catena-[(mu~16~-5,5',5'',5'''-(1,2,4,5-Benzenetetrakis(4-methoxyphenylazo)tetraisophthalato))-triaqua-dimethylformamide-tetra-copper

    KAUST Repository

    Eubank, J.F.

    2012-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  2. CCDC 855128: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : catena-[(mu~16~-5,5',5'',5'''-(1,2,4,5-Benzenetetramethoxy)tetraisophthalato)-tetraaqua-tetra-copper

    KAUST Repository

    Eubank, J.F.

    2012-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  3. Tetra-μ-acetato-κ8O:O′-bis[(2-amino-3,5-dichloropyridine-κN1copper(II](Cu—Cu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Chang Chang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The title binuclear Cu(II complex, [Cu2(CH3CO24(C5H4Cl2N22], is disposed about a crystallographic inversion center, located at the mid-point of the Cu—Cu connecting line. The Cu...Cu distance is 2.6600 (6 Å and each metal atom exhibits a Jahn–Teller-distorted octahedral geometry.

  4. Evaluation of methanogenic treatment of TMAH (tetra-methyl ammonium hydroxide) in a full-scale TFT-LCD wastewater treatment process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, T H; Whang, L M; Lei, C N; Chen, C F; Chiang, T Y; Lin, L B; Chen, H W; Liu, P W G; Cheng, S S

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated TMAH biodegradation under methanogenic conditions. Under methanogenic conditions, a sludge from a full-scale UASB treating TFT-LCD wastewater was able to degrade 2,000 mg/L of TMAH within 10 h and attained a specific degradation rate of 19.2 mgTMAH/gVSS-h. Furthermore, several chemicals including some surfactants, DMSO, and sulfate were examined for their potential inhibitory effects on TMAH biodegradation under methanogenic conditions. The results indicated that surfactant S1 (up to 2%) and DMSO (up to 1,000 mg/L) presented negligible inhibitory effects on TMAH degradation, while surfactant S2 (0.2-1%) might inhibit methanogenic reaction without any TMAH degradation for 3-5 h. At sulfate concentrations higher than 300 mg/L, a complete inhibition of methanogenic reaction and TMAH biodegradation was observed. Results from cloning and sequencing of archaeal 16S rRNA gene fragments showed that Methanosarcina barkeri and Methanosarcina mazei were the dominant methanogens in the UASB treating TMAH-containing TFT-LCD wastewater.

  5. Rapid detection and subtyping of European swine influenza viruses in porcine clinical samples by haemagglutinin- and neuraminidase-specific tetra- and triplex real-time RT-PCRs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henritzi, Dinah; Zhao, Na; Starick, Elke

    2016-01-01

    diagnostic methods which allow for cost-effective large-scale analysis. Methods New SIV haemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) subtype- and lineage-specific multiplex real-time RT-PCRs (RT-qPCR) have been developed and validated with reference virus isolates and clinical samples. Results A diagnostic...... algorithm is proposed for the combined detection in clinical samples and subtyping of SIV strains currently circulating in Europe that is based on a generic, M-gene-specific influenza A virus RT-qPCR. In a second step, positive samples are examined by tetraplex HA- and triplex NA-specific RT-qPCRs...... to differentiate the porcine subtypes H1, H3, N1 and N2. Within the HA subtype H1, lineages “av” (European avian-derived), “hu” (European human-derived) and “pdm” (human pandemic A/H1N1, 2009) are distinguished by RT-qPCRs, and within the NA subtype N1, lineage “pdm” is differentiated. An RT-PCR amplicon Sanger...

  6. Tetra- and mono-organotin reagents in palladium-mediated cross-coupling reactions for the labeling with carbon-11 of PET tracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourdier, T.; Huiban, M.; Sobrio, F.; Perrio, C.; Barre, E. [Groupe de Dev Methodol en Tomographie par Emission de Positons, UMR CEA 2E, Universite deCaen, Centre Cyceron, F-14070 Caen Cedex (France); Fouquet, A.; Huet, A. [Laboratoire de Chimie Organique et Organometallique, UMR CNRS 3802, Univ Bordeaux I, F-33405 Talence Cedex (France)

    2008-07-01

    The palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions between a (trimethylstannyl)arene and [{sup 11}C]methyl iodide (Stille reaction) or between an aryl halide and a [{sup 11}C]monomethyltin reagent issued from Lappert's stannylene, were developed for the synthesis of polyfunctional [{sup 11}C]methyl quinolines and quinoline-imides as potential tracers for positron emission tomography (PET). (authors)

  7. The 3,3,5,5[2H4]-4-methacrylamido-2,2,6,6-tetra([2H3]methyl)piperidin-1-yloxyl radical

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dušková, Jarmila; Labský, Jiří; Dušek, Michal; Hašek, Jindřich

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 2 (2006), o811-o813 ISSN 1600-5368 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET400500402 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505; CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : structure determination * spin label * x-ray diffraction Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 0.567, year: 2006

  8. Simultaneous determination of trace levels of ethylmercury and methylmercury in biological samples and vaccines using sodium tetra(n-propyl)borate as derivatizing agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibicar, Darija; Logar, Martina; Horvat, Nusa; Horvat, Milena [Jozef Stefan Institute, Department of Environmental Sciences, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Marn-Pernat, Andreja; Ponikvar, Rafael [University Medical Centre, Department of Nephrology, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2007-05-15

    Because of increasing awareness of the potential neurotoxicity of even low levels of organomercury compounds, analytical techniques are required for determination of low concentrations of ethylmercury (EtHg) and methylmercury (MeHg) in biological samples. An accurate and sensitive method has been developed for simultaneous determination of methylmercury and ethylmercury in vaccines and biological samples. MeHg and EtHg were isolated by acid leaching (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-KBr-CuSO{sub 4}), extraction of MeHg and EtHg bromides into an organic solvent (CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}), then back-extraction into Milli-Q water. MeHg and EtHg bromides were derivatized with sodium tetrapropylborate (NaBPr{sub 4}), collected at room temperature on Tenax, separated by isothermal gas chromatography (GC), pyrolysed, and detected by cold-vapour atomic fluorescence spectrometry (CV AFS). The repeatability of results from the method was approximately 5-10% for EtHg and 5-15% for MeHg. Detection limits achieved were 0.01 ng g{sup -1} for EtHg and MeHg in blood, saliva, and vaccines and 5 ng g{sup -1} for EtHg and MeHg in hair. The method presented has been shown to be suitable for determination of background levels of these contaminants in biological samples and can be used in studies related to the health effects of mercury and its species in man. This work illustrates the possibility of using hair and blood as potential biomarkers of exposure to thiomersal. (orig.)

  9. cyclo-Tetra-μ-malato-κ16O,O′,O′′:O′′′-tetrakis[bis(1H-benzimidazole-κN3cobalt(II] eicosahydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duan-Jun Xu

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, [Co4(C4H4O54(C7H6N28]·20H2O, consists of tetranuclear CoII complexes and disordered uncoordinated water molecules. The tetrameric complex molecule has overline{4} symmetry. While two benzimidazole molecules and a tridentate malate dianion coordinate a CoII ion, the carboxylate O atom from an adjacent malate dianion bridges the CoII ions to complete a distorted octahedral coordination geometry. The tridentate malate dianion chelates the CoII ion, and the chelate six- and five-membered rings show half-chair and envelope configurations, respectively. A face-to-face separation of 3.494 (9 Å between parallel benzimidazole ligands indicates the existence of π–π stacking between adjacent complexes. The crystal structure also involves N—H...O and O—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  10. Modular Synthesis of Heparin-Related Tetra-, Hexa- and Octasaccharides with Differential O-6 Protections: Programming for Regiodefined 6-O-Modifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Baráth

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Heparin and heparan sulphate (H/HS are important members of the glycosaminoglycan family of sugars that regulate a substantial number of biological processes. Such biological promiscuity is underpinned by hetereogeneity in their molecular structure. The degree of O-sulfation, particularly at the 6-position of constituent D-GlcN units, is believed to play a role in modulating the effects of such sequences. Synthetic chemistry is essential to be able to extend the diversity of HS-like fragments with defined molecular structure, and particularly to deconvolute the biological significance of modifications at O6. Here we report a synthetic approach to a small matrix of protected heparin-type oligosaccharides, containing orthogonal D-GlcN O-6 protecting groups at programmed positions along the chain, facilitating access towards programmed modifications at specific sites, relevant to sulfation or future mimetics.

  11. Unusual transport behaviour of actinide ions with a novel calix(4)arene-tetra-diglycolamide (C4DGA) extractant as the carrier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohapatra, P.K.; Iqbal, M.; Raut, D.R.; Huskens, Jurriaan; Verboom, Willem

    2012-01-01

    A calix[4]arene appended with four diglycolamide moieties containing n-octyl groups (C4DGA) was evaluated for the transport of actinide ions such as UO22+, Pu4+, Pu3+, and Am3+ from acidic feed solutions across PTFE flat sheet supported liquid membranes. The supported liquid membrane (SLM) studies

  12. Insights into Stability and Folding of GNRA and UNCG Tetra loops Revealed by Microsecond Molecular Dynamics and Well-Tempered Metadynamics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Haldar, Susanta; Kührová, P.; Banáš, P.; Spiwok, V.; Šponer, Jiří; Hobza, Pavel; Otyepka, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 8 (2015), s. 3866-3877 ISSN 1549-9618 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP208/12/1878; GA ČR GBP208/12/G016 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) ED2.1.00/03.0058; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0058; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0155; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1305 Program:ED Institutional support: RVO:61388963 ; RVO:68081707 Keywords : free energy landscape * di-GMP riboswitch * RNA hairpins Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 5.301, year: 2015

  13. Effect of Ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid and sodium hypochlorite solution conditioning on microtensile bond strength of one-step self-etch adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasraei, Shahin; Azarsina, Mohadese; Khamverdi, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Background: Attempts to improve bond strength of self-etch adhesives can enhance the durability of composite restorations. Aims: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of collagen and smear layer removal with sodium hypochlorite solution (NaOCl) and EDTA on micro-tensile bond strength (μTBS) of self-etch adhesives to dentin. Settings and Design: It was an in-vitro study. Materials and Methods: Seventy-two teeth were divided into eight groups and their crowns were ground perpendicular to their long axis to expose dentin. The teeth were polished with silicon-carbide papers. The groups were treated as follows: No conditioning, 0.5-M EDTA conditioning, 2.5% NaOCl conditioning, NaOCl + EDTA conditioning. The surfaces were rinsed and blot-dried. Clearfil S3 and I-Bond were applied according to manufacturers’ instructions and restored with Z100 composite. After 500 cycles of thermo-cycling between 5°C and 55°C, the samples were sectioned and tested for μTBS. Statistical Analysis: Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey-HSD test. Results: The highest μTBS was recorded with Clearfil S3 + NaOCl + EDTA, and the lowest was recorded with I-Bond without conditioning. μTBS in EDTA-and EDTA + NaOCl-treated groups was significantly higher than the control and NaOCl-conditioned groups. Conclusions: Application of EDTA or EDTA + NaOCl before one-step self-etch adhesives increased μTBS. PMID:23833459

  14. CCDC 782643: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : tetrakis(mu~2~-4,5-imidazoledicarboxylato)-tetrakis(1,2-propanediamine)-tetra-cobalt octacosahydrate

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Shuang

    2011-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  15. Tetra­aqua­bis­[2-(2-nitro­phen­yl)acetato-κO]cobalt(II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danish, Muhammad; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz; Iftikhar, Sana; Raza, Muhammad Asam; Ashfaq, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    The mol­ecule of the title compound, [Co(C8H6NO4)2(H2O)4], is centrosymmetric. It is a cobalt(II) complex, bearing two (2-nitro­phen­yl)acetate and four aqua ligands. The coordination around the CoII atom is distorted octa­hedral, defined by four O atoms of water mol­ecules in the equatorial plane and by two carboxyl­ate O atoms at axial positions. The dihedral angles between the benzene ring and the acetate and nitro groups are 61.90 (10) and 19.21 (11)°, respectively. The water mol­ecules form O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds with the nitro and carboxyl­ate groups, leading to a layered structural arrangement parallel to (001). PMID:25844208

  16. Effective treatment of liver metastases with photodynamic therapy, using the second-generation photosensitizer meta-tetra(hydroxyphenyl)chlorin (mTHPC), in a rat model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rovers, J. P.; Saarnak, A. E.; Molina, A.; Schuitmaker, J. J.; Sterenborg, H. J.; Terpstra, O. T.

    1999-01-01

    The only curative treatment for patients with liver metastases to date is surgery, but few patients are suitable candidates for hepatic resection. The majority of patients will have to rely on other treatment modalities for palliation. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) could be a selective, minimally

  17. Crystal structure of tetra-aquabis(1,3-dimethyl-2,6-dioxo-3,7-di-hydro-1H-purin-9-ido)magnesium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yabin; Lou, Benyong

    2015-03-01

    The title complex, [Mg(C7H7N4O2)2(H2O)4], lies across an inversion centre and the Mg(II) atom is coordinated in a slightly distorted octa-hedral environment by four aqua ligands in the equatorial sites and two 1,3-dimethyl-2,6-dioxo-3,7-di-hydro-1H-purin-9-ide ligands, through imidazole ring N atoms, in the axial sites. An intra-molecular O-H⋯O hydrogen bond forms an S(7) graph-set motif. In the crystal, O-H⋯O and O-H⋯N hydrogen bonds link complex mol-ecules forming a three-dimensional network incorporating R 4 (2)(8) and R 2 (2)(18) graph-set motifs.

  18. Crystal structure of tetra-aqua-bis-(1,3-dimethyl-2,6-dioxo-7H-purin-7-ido-κN7)cobalt(II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hamdani, Hicham; El Amane, Mohammed; Duhayon, Carine

    2017-09-01

    The title complex, [Co(C 7 H 7 N 4 O 2 ) 2 (H 2 O) 4 ], comprises mononuclear mol-ecules consisting of a Co II ion, two deprotonated theophylline ligands (systematic name: 1,3-dimethyl-7 H -purine-2,6-dione) and four coordinating water mol-ecules. The Co II atom lies on an inversion centre and has a slightly distorted octa-hedral coordination environment, with two N atoms of two trans -oriented theophylline ligands and the O atoms of four water mol-ecules. An intra-molecular hydrogen bond stabilizes this conformation. A three-dimensional supra-molecular network structure is formed by inter-molecular O-H⋯O and O-H⋯N hydrogen bonds.

  19. Evidence of mercury biomagnification in the food chain of the cardinal tetra Paracheirodon axelrodi (Osteichthyes: Characidae) in the Rio Negro, central Amazon, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, B G; Forsberg, B R; Thomé-Souza, M; Peleja, R; Moreira, M Z; Freitas, C E C

    2016-07-01

    In this study, nitrogen stable isotope (δ(15) N) and total mercury (THg) analyses were conducted on algae, submersed and emergent macrophytes, shrubs and trees, Macrobrachium sp. and Paracheirodon axelrodi collected in three streams that drain a large interfluvial region in the middle Rio Negro, Amazonas State, Brazil. Samples were collected during different hydrological periods over 12 months in lower stream reaches and their headwaters; the latter being characterized by shallow, open-canopy swamps. Additionally, δ(15) N values and mercury concentrations of Paracheirodon simulans and Cichla spp. from the middle Rio Negro were analysed to demonstrate THg biomagnification in the food web. The highest mercury levels of P. axelrodi were found in small individuals, which were collected principally in the low water period. The log10 THg-δ(15) N relationship of vascular plants and algae, Macrobrachium sp., Paracheirodon spp. and Cichla spp. showed significant mercury biomagnification among trophic levels, with regression slopes of 0·15 and 0·25 for the entire food web and heterotrophs-only food web, respectively. The mean ± s.d. THg concentrations for Macrobrachium sp., P. axelrodi, P. simulans and Cichla spp. were 63·6 ± 23·7, 104·5 ± 40·0, 112·3 ± 31·4 and 418·5 ± 188·1 ng g(-1) wet mass, respectively. Elevated levels of mercury found in Paracheirodon spp. and top predators such as Cichla spp. in a remote area far from anthropogenic inputs provide evidence that high mercury concentrations occur naturally in Rio Negro aquatic food webs. © 2016 Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  20. Effect of substituents on prediction of TLC retention of tetra-dentate Schiff bases and their Copper(II) and Nickel(II) complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevanović, Nikola R; Perušković, Danica S; Gašić, Uroš M; Antunović, Vesna R; Lolić, Aleksandar Đ; Baošić, Rada M

    2017-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to gain insights into structure-retention relationships and to propose the model to estimating their retention. Chromatographic investigation of series of 36 Schiff bases and their copper(II) and nickel(II) complexes was performed under both normal- and reverse-phase conditions. Chemical structures of the compounds were characterized by molecular descriptors which are calculated from the structure and related to the chromatographic retention parameters by multiple linear regression analysis. Effects of chelation on retention parameters of investigated compounds, under normal- and reverse-phase chromatographic conditions, were analyzed by principal component analysis, quantitative structure-retention relationship and quantitative structure-activity relationship models were developed on the basis of theoretical molecular descriptors, calculated exclusively from molecular structure, and parameters of retention and lipophilicity. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Biologically active, magnICON®-expressed EPO-Fc from stably transformed Nicotiana benthamiana plants presenting tetra-antennary N-glycan structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagels, Bieke; Van Damme, Els J M; Callewaert, Nico; Zabeau, Lennart; Tavernier, Jan; Delanghe, Joris R; Boets, Annemie; Castilho, Alexandra; Weterings, Koen

    2012-08-31

    In the past two decades plants have emerged as a valuable alternative for the production of pharmaceutical proteins. Since N-glycosylation influences functionality and stability of therapeutic proteins, the plant N-glycosylation pathway should be humanized. Here, we report the transient magnICON(®) expression of the erythropoietin fusion protein (EPO-Fc) in Nicotiana benthamiana plants that produce multi-antennary N-glycans without the plant-specific β1,2-xylose and α1,3-fucose residues in a stable manner (Nagels et al., 2011). The EPO-Fc fusion protein consists of EPO with a C-terminal-linked IgG-Fc domain and is used for pulmonary delivery of recombinant EPO to patients (Bitonti et al., 2004). Plant expressed EPO-Fc was quantified using a paramagnetic-particle chemiluminescent immunoassay and shown to be active in vitro via receptor binding experiments in HEK293T cells. Mass spectrometry-based N-glycan analysis confirmed the presence of multi-antennary N-glycans on plant-expressed EPO-Fc. The described research is the next step towards the development of a production platform for pharmaceutical proteins in plants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Tetra­ammine­(carbonato-κ2 O,O′)cobalt(III) nitrate: a powder X-ray diffraction study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bail, Armel

    2013-01-01

    Practical chemistry courses at universities very frequently propose the synthesis and characterization of [Co(CO3)(NH3)4]NO3, but this goal is never achieved since students only obtain the hemihydrated form. The anhydrous form can be prepared, however, and its structure is presented here. Similar to the hemihydrate form, the anhydrous phase contains the CoIII ion in an octahedral O2N4 coordination by a chelating carbonate group and four ammine ligands. The structure reveals an intricate array of N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds involving both the chelating and the non-chelating O atoms of the carbonate ligand as hydrogen-bond acceptors of the amine H atoms, which are also involved in hydrogen-bonding inter­actions with the nitrate O atoms. The structure of the anhydrous form is close to that of the hemihydrate phase, suggesting a probable topotactic reaction with relatively small rotations and translations of the [Co(CO3)(NH3)4]+ and NO3 − groups during the dehydration process, which produces an unusual volume increase of 4.3%. PMID:24046543

  3. Partitioning of tetra- and pentabromo diphenyl ether and benzo[a]pyrene among water and dissolved and particulate organic carbon along a salinity gradient in coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuivikko, Miika; Sorsa, Karoliina; Kukkonen, Jussi V K; Akkanen, Jarkko; Kotiaho, Tapio; Vähätalo, Anssi V

    2010-11-01

    This study assessed the partitioning of 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromo diphenyl ether (BDE-47), 2,2',4,4',5-pentabromo diphenyl ether (BDE-99) and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) among water, dissolved organic carbon (DOC: 4.93-8.72 mg/L), and particulate organic carbon (POC: 191-462 µg/L) along the salinity gradient (0-5.5‰) of the Baltic Sea off the coast of Finland. Equilibrium dialysis and two solid-phase extraction techniques using polyoxymethylene polymer (POM) were used to determine partitioning coefficients. Experiments using artificial coastal water (ACW) with Nordic fulvic (FAs) and humic acids (HAs) were used to assess the effect of salinity (0 and 5.5‰) on the DOC-water partitioning of the model compounds. All three compounds bound more (2.2-3.8-fold) to the HAs than to the FAs. Increasing salinity from 0 to 5.5‰ decreased sorption to dissolved humic substances in the ACW and Baltic Sea water samples. Along the salinity gradient, the sorption of compounds to organic material decreased when the salinity increased. Particulate organic matter sorbed model compounds per unit of carbon more than dissolved organic matter. Along the studied salinity gradient, the freely dissolved portion increased from 10 to 29% to 52 to 80% in the coastal water samples, mainly because of the increasing salinity and changes in DOC and quality of POC. © 2010 SETAC.

  4. Hybrid organic-inorganic crystal structure of 4-(di-methyl-amino)-pyridinium di-methyl-ammonium tetra-chlorido-lead(II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Cassidy A; Bateman, Gage; Cox, Jordan M; Benedict, Jason B

    2017-11-01

    The title compound, (C 2 H 8 N)(C 7 H 11 N 2 )[PbCl 4 ], is a hybrid organic-inorganic material. It crystallizes in the space group C 2/ c and contains one half of a mol-ecule of lead chloride, 4-(di-methyl-amino)-pyridinium, and di-methyl-ammonium in the asymmetric unit. The crystal structure exhibits chains of lead chloride capped by 4-(di-methyl-amino)-pyridinium and di-methyl-ammoium by hydrogen bonding. This creates a one-dimensional zipper-like structure down the a axis. The crystal structure is examined and compared to a similar structure containing lead chloride and di-methyl-benzene-1,4-diaminium.

  5. Radioprotective effect of extracts from plants indigenous to Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Kyoung Ah; Zhang, Rui; Chae, Sung Wook; Piao, Mei Jing; Shin, Tae Kyun; Lee, Nam Ho; Park, Jae Woo; Hyun, Jin Won

    2006-01-01

    We have screened the cytoprotective effect on γ-ray radiation induced oxidative stress from eighteen Korean plant extracts. Quercus salicina, Clerodendron trichotomum, Lamium amplexicaule, Lozote lancifolia and Malus baccata were found to scavenge 1,1-DiPheny1-2-PicrylHydrazy1 (DPPH) radical and intracellular Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS). As a result, extracts of these plants reduced cell death of Chinese hamster lung fibroblast (V79-4) cells induced by H 2 O 2 treatment. In addition, these extracts protected cell death of V79-4 cells damaged by γ-ray radiation. In addition, these extracts scavenged ROS generated by radiation. Taken together, the results suggest that Quercus salicina, Clerodendron trichotomum, Lamium amplexicaule, Lozote lancifolia and Malus baccata protect V79-4 cells against oxidative damage by radiation through scavenging ROS

  6. CCDC 877425: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : catena-((5,10,15,20-tetrakis(N-Methylpyridinium-4-yl)porphyrinato)-copper tetrakis(mu~5~-biphenyl-3,4',5-tricarboxylato)-tetrakis(mu~2~-chloro)-tetra-aqua-di-cadmium-tetra-copper)

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhenjie

    2012-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  7. Vulnerability of terrestrial-trunked radio to intelligent intentional electromagnetic interference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanuhardja, Ray R.; van de Beek, G.S.; Bentum, Marinus Jan; Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes

    2015-01-01

    The terrestrial-trunked radio (TETRA) specification is produced by the European Telecommunication Standards Institute for private mobile radio systems. We investigated the resilience of TETRA against intelligent intentional electromagnetic interference (IEMI) with low amplitude. Low power signals

  8. 2-Acetyl­amino-1,3,4,6-tetra-O-(tri­methyl­silyl)-2-de­oxy-α-d-gluco­pyran­ose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhao-Dong; Cui, Yan-Li; Mao, Jian-Wei

    2013-01-01

    The title compound, C20H47NO6Si4, was synthesized by per-O-tri­methyl­silylation of N-acetyl-d-glucosa­mine using chloro­tri­methyl­silane in the presence of hexa­methyl­disiloxane. The tri­methyl­silyl group and acetamido group are located on the same side of the pyran ring, showing an α-configuration glycoside. One of the tri­methyl­silyl groups is disordered over two orientations, with site-occupancy factors of 0.625 (9) and 0.375 (9). In the crystal, N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the mol­ecules into supra­molecular chains along the a-axis direction. PMID:23795087

  9. 4,4′,6,6′-Tetra-tert-butyl-2,2′-[1,3-diazinane-1,3-diylbis(methylene]diphenol 0.25-hydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manman Zhang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C34H54N2O2·0.25H2O, the organic molecule, a potential tetradentate ligand with a bulky phenolic donor, has overall mirror symmetry. A partially occupied water molecule of solvation is present in the lattice. The six-membered 1,3-diazinane ring displays a chair conformation. An intramolecular O—H...N hydrogen bond ocurs. In the crystal, molecules are linked by O—H...O interactions.

  10. Raman and DFT Study on N-H+…Cl- Hydrogen Bonding in 1,1,3,3-Tetra-Methylguanidinium Chloride forming an Ion-pair Molecule in the Vapor Phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.; Riisager, Anders; Fehrmann, Rasmus

    The chemistry of 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidinium ([TMGH]+) chloride, a low temperature (molten) ionic liquid, is discussed, based on its Raman spectra associated with ab initio molecular orbital DFT-type quantum mechanical calculations (with 6-311+G(d,p) basis sets) on “molecules” in isolated...... gaseous free states without any assumed symmetry. The calculations on the monomeric [TMGH]+ ion and the dimeric ion pair converged to give geometries near the established crystal structure of the [TMGH]Cl salt. This salt is known to contain dimeric ion pairs of the kind [TMGH]ClCl[TMGH](Fig.1...... that dimeric molecular ion pairs with four N-H+…Cl- hydrogen bonds seem to exist also in the solutions, and probably are responsible for the relatively high solubility of the “salt” in ethanol. The “salt” can be easily sublimed at about 200-230 oC. The Raman spectrum of the vapor at 225 ºC has a characteristic...

  11. CCDC 1009378: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : 2,4,8,10-tetra-t-butyl-6-(4-t-butylphenyl)-5,7-dihydroindolo[2,3-b]carbazole chloroform solvate

    KAUST Repository

    Luo, Ding

    2014-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  12. The titanium tris-anilide cation [Ti(N[(t)Bu]Ar)3](+) stabilized as its perfluoro-tetra-phenylborate salt: structural characterization and synthesis in connection with redox activity of 4,4'-bipyridine dititanium complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinney, Heather A; Clough, Christopher R; Cummins, Christopher C

    2015-04-21

    This work explores the reduction of 4,4'-bipyridine using two equivalents of the titanium(iii) complex Ti(N[(t)Bu]Ar)3 resulting in formation of a black, crystalline complex, (4,4'-bipy){Ti(N[(t)Bu]Ar)3}2, for which an X-ray structure determination is reported. The neutral, black, 4,4'-bipyridine-bridged bimetallic was found to be redox active, with mono- and di-anions being accessible electrochemically, and with the mono- and di-cations also being accessible chemically, and isolable, at least when using the weakly coordinating anion [B(C6F5)4](-) as the counter-ion. It proved possible to crystallize the salt [(4,4'-bipy){Ti(N[(t)Bu]Ar)3}2][B(C6F5)4]2 for a single-crystal X-ray structure investigation; in this instance it was revealed that the aromaticity of the 4,4'-bipyridine ligand, that had been disrupted upon reduction, had been regained. A rare cationic d(0) metal tris-amide complex, shown by X-ray crystallography to contain an intriguing pyramidal TiN3 core geometry, namely {Ti(N[(t)Bu]Ar)3}(+), could also be isolated when using [B(C6F5)4] as the essentially non-interacting counter-ion. This highly reactive cation should be considered as a potential intermediate in the plethora of reactions wherein Ti(N[(t)Bu]Ar)3 has been shown to effect the reduction of substrates including halogenated organic molecules, carbonyl compounds, organic nitriles, and metal complexes.

  13. Free tetra- and hexa-coordinated platinum-cyanide dianions, Pt(China){sub 4}{sup 2-} and Pt(China){sub 6}{sup 2-}: A combined photodetachment photoelectron spectroscopic and theoretical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Xuebin [Department of Physics, Washington State University, 2710 University Drive, Richland, WA 99354 (United States); Chemical Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, MS K8-88, P.O. Box 999, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Wang Yilei [Department of Chemistry and Key Laboratory of Organic Optoelectronics and Molecular Engineering of Ministry of Education, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Woo, Hin-Koon [Department of Physics, Washington State University, 2710 University Drive, Richland, WA 99354 (United States); Chemical Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, MS K8-88, P.O. Box 999, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Li Jun [Department of Chemistry and Key Laboratory of Organic Optoelectronics and Molecular Engineering of Ministry of Education, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)], E-mail: junli@tsinghua.edu.cn; Wu Guoshi [Department of Chemistry and Key Laboratory of Organic Optoelectronics and Molecular Engineering of Ministry of Education, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang Laisheng [Department of Physics, Washington State University, 2710 University Drive, Richland, WA 99354 (United States); Chemical Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, MS K8-88, P.O. Box 999, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)], E-mail: ls.wang@pnl.gov

    2006-10-26

    Two doubly charged transition metal complexes, Pt(China){sub 4}{sup 2-} and Pt(China){sub 6}{sup 2-} commonly found in the condensed phases, are produced as isolated species from solutions to the gas phase using electrospray ionization. Their stability and electronic structures are investigated by photodetachment photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The adiabatic electron detachment energies for the dianions to monoanions are measured to be 1.69 and 3.85eV for Pt(China){sub 4}{sup 2-} and Pt(China){sub 6}{sup 2-}, respectively. The magnitude of the repulsive Coulomb barrier is estimated to be {approx}2.5eV for Pt(China){sub 4}{sup 2-}, and {approx}1.7eV for Pt(China){sub 6}{sup 2-}. Well-resolved and distinct peaks are observed in the spectra, yielding rich electronic structure information for these complexes. DFT calculations including scalar relativistic and spin-orbit effects are carried out to determine the geometries and to interpret the observed spectral features. The calculations show that the frontier occupied molecular orbitals are largely metal-based for Pt(China){sub 4}{sup 2-} and ligand-based for Pt(China){sub 6}{sup 2-}, in contrast to the standard ligand field theory description.

  14. Free Tetra-and hexa-coordinated Platinum-Cyanide Dianions, PT(CN)4 2- and PT(CN)6 2-: A Combined Photodetachment Photoelectron Spectroscopic and Theoretical Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xue B.; Wang, Yi; Woo, Hin-koon; Li, Jun; Wu, Guo-shi; Wang, Lai S.

    2006-10-26

    Two doubly charged transition metal complexes, PTðCNÞ2_ 4 and PTðCNÞ2_ 6 commonly found in the condensed phases, are produced as isolated species from solutions to the gas phase using electrospray ionization. Their stability and electronic structures are investigated by photodetachment photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The adiabatic electron detachment energies for the dianions to monoanions are measured to be 1.69 and 3.85 eV for PTðCNÞ2_ 4 and PTðCNÞ2_ 6 , respectively. The magnitude of the repulsive Coulomb barrier is estimated to be _2.5 eV for PtðCNÞ2_ 4 , and _1.7 eV for PTðCNÞ2_ 6 . Well-resolved and distinct peaks are observed in the spectra, yielding rich electronic structure information for these complexes. DFT calculations including scalar relativistic and spin–orbit effects are carried out to determine the geometries and to interpret the observed spectral features. The calculations show that the frontier occupied molecular orbitals are largely metal-based for PTðCNÞ2_ 4 and ligand-based for PTðCNÞ2_ 6 , in contrast to the standard ligand field theory description.

  15. Syntheses, spectroscopic and thermal analyses of the hofmann-type metal(II tetra- cyanonickelate(II pyridazine complexes: {[M(pdzNi(CN4]∙H2O}n (M = Zn(II or Cd(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Karaağaç

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Two new Hofmann-type complexes in the form of {[M(pdzNi(CN4]·H2O}n [where pdz = pyridazine; M = Zn(II and M = Cd(II] have been synthesized as a powder and their structural properties have been characterized by vibrational (FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy, thermal and elemental analysis. The spectral and thermal analysis results suggest that these complexes are similar in structure to the Hofmann type complexes and their structures consist of polymeric layers of │M−Ni(CN4│∞ with the pdz bound to the metal (M atom. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/bcse.v29i3.9

  16. CCDC 824170: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : tetrakis(mu~2~-2,2'-(1H-Imidazole-4,5-diyl)bis(1,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrimidine))-tetrakis(nitrato-O,O')-tetra-nickel(ii) dimethylformamide solvate

    KAUST Repository

    Al Kordi, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  17. Acacia senegal and Prosopis chilensis-nodulating rhizobia Sinorhizobium arboris HAMBI 2361 and S. kostiense HAMBI 2362 produce tetra- and pentameric LCOs that are N-methylated, O-6-carbamoylated and partially sulfated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Petri; Soupas, Laura; Thomas-Oates, Jane; Lindström, Kristina

    2004-04-28

    Sinorhizobium arboris and S. kostiense are rhizobia that nodulate the tropical leguminous trees Acacia senegal and Prosopis chilensis. The lipochito-oligosaccharidic signalling molecules (LCOs) of S. arboris HAMBI 2361 and S. kostiense HAMBI 2362 were analyzed by mass spectrometry. The major LCOs produced by the strains were shown to be pentameric, acylated with common fatty acids, N-methylated, O-6-carbamoylated and partially sulfated, as are the LCOs characterized to date for other Acacia-nodulating rhizobia. Besides the major LCOs the two strains produced (i) tetrameric LCOs, (ii) LCOs acylated with fatty acids other than those commonly found, (iii) LCOs with only an acyl substituent and (iv) noncarbamoylated LCOs. Production of LCOs (i) to (iii) are novel among Acacia-nodulating rhizobia. The roles of the different structural characteristics of LCOs in the rhizobium-A. senegal symbiosis are discussed. Specific structural features of the LCOs are proposed to be important in the selection of effective nitrogen-fixing rhizobia by A. senegal.

  18. STRUCTURE OF (2,4-PENTANEDIONATO-O,O')-BIS(PHENYL 3,3',5,5'-TETRA-TERT-BUTYL-1,1'-BIPHENYL-2,2'-DIYL PHOSPHITE-P)RHODIUM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MEETSMA, A; JONGSMA, T; CHALLA, G; VANLEEUWEN, PWNM

    1993-01-01

    The crystal structure of the title compound has been determined. The square-planar coordination of the complex is tetrahedally distorted. The two phosphite ligands of the Rh complex are deformed as a result of steric interactions.

  19. Tetra-tert-Butyl-di-m-Hydroxo Digallium(III and 1,12-Diaza-3,4:9,10-Dibenzo-5,8-Dioxo-cyclo-Pentadecane. Structure and Isomers of the Coordination Compound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongsui Sun

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Tri-t-butylgallium has been reacted with the macrocycle 1,12-diaza-3,4:9,10-dibenzo-5,8-dioxocyclopentadecane which could be a potential ligand for gallium(III. A reaction product was analyzed and single crystal X-ray diffraction experiments showed that it consisted of the cyclic dimer of di-t-butylgallium-hydroxide hydrogen bonded to the macrocycle. Without a co-crystallized organic molecule di-t-butylgallium hydroxide crystallizes as a trimer. Density functional calculations have been used to predict the structures and the total energies for the monomer, dimer, trimer, and tetramer of dimethylgallium hydroxide in order to provide a basis for the understanding of oligomer population for the dimethylgallium hydroxides. Force field calculations are shown to be able to produce a similar strain energy difference for dimer, trimer, and tetramer forms of (CH32Ga(OH and this method can economically be used for larger alkyl groups. The force field computations show that the trimeric di-t-butyl gallium(III hydroxide is much more stable than the dimeric form which therefore must owe its existence to the association with the hydrogen-bonded macrocycle.

  20. CCDC 855129: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : catena-[(mu16-5,5',5'',5''',5'''',5'''''-(1,2,3,4,5,6-Benzenehexamethoxy)hexaisophthalato)-tetraaqua-tetra-copper tetrahydrate

    KAUST Repository

    Eubank, J.F.

    2012-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  1. Hydrate equilibrium data for the CO2 + N2 system with the use of tetra-n-butylammonium bromide (TBAB), cyclopentane (CP) and their mixture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tzirakis, Fragkiskos; Stringari, Paolo; von Solms, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Carbon Dioxide capture and sequestration (CCS) is nowadays an important area of research for decreasing CO2 emissions worldwide. Hydrates can become of great importance in the future as they form the basis for a new technology that can be used for CO2 capture from flue gases (hydrate crystallizat......Carbon Dioxide capture and sequestration (CCS) is nowadays an important area of research for decreasing CO2 emissions worldwide. Hydrates can become of great importance in the future as they form the basis for a new technology that can be used for CO2 capture from flue gases (hydrate...

  2. Double catalytic effect of (PhNH32CuCl4 in a novel, highly efficient synthesis of 2-oxo and thioxo-1,2,3,4-tetra-hydopyrimidines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Nenad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An innovative route for the construction of 2-oxo and thioxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidines was delineated through a multicomponent reaction under Biginelli conditions, starting from different aromatic aldehydes, β-ketoesters and urea or thiourea. Proper choice of copper complex (PhNH32CuCl4, as a novel homogeneous catalyst, enables facile, efficient, and inexpensive reaction under mild experimental conditions. Moreover, we present the first application of this complex salts in organic synthesis ever. The obtained products are of high purity, and can be easily isolated from the reaction mixture in good to excellent yields. Also, compared to the classical Biginelli reaction conditions, the present method has the advantages in higher yields and experimental and work-up simplicity. To illustrate the joint catalytic action of the Cu2+ and phenylammonium ions, two key steps of Biginelli reaction were examined using the M06 functional. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172011 i br. 172016

  3. Difference in the structures of alanine tri- and tetra-peptides with antiparallel β-sheet assessed by X-ray diffraction, solid-state NMR and chemical shift calculations by GIPAW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakura, Tetsuo; Yazawa, Koji; Horiguchi, Kumiko; Suzuki, Furitsu; Nishiyama, Yusuke; Nishimura, Katsuyuki; Kaji, Hironori

    2014-01-01

    Alanine oligomers provide a key structure for silk fibers from spider and wild silkworms.We report on structural analysis of L-alanyl-L-alanyl-L-alanyl-L-alanine (Ala)4 with anti-parallel (AP) β-structures using X-ray and solid-state NMR. All of the Ala residues in the (Ala)4 are in equivalent positions, whereas for alanine trimer (Ala)3 there are two alternative locations in a unit cell as reported previously (Fawcett and Camerman, Acta Cryst., 1975, 31, 658-665). (Ala)4 with AP β-structure is more stable than AP-(Ala)3 due to formation of the stronger hydrogen bonds. The intermolecular structure of (Ala)4 is also different from polyalanine fiber structure, indicating that the interchain arrangement of AP β-structure changes with increasing alanine sequencelength. Furthermore the precise (1)H positions, which are usually inaccesible by X-ray diffraction method, are determined by high resolution (1)H solid state NMR combined with the chemical shift calculations by the gauge-including projector augmented wave method. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Annulotrema (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae) from the gills of African tetras (Characiformes: Alestidae) in Lake Turkana, Kenya, with descriptions of four new species and a redescription of A. elongata Paperna and Thurston, 1969

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kičinjaová, M. L.; Blažek, Radim; Gelnar, M.; Řehulková, E.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 114, č. 11 (2015), s. 4107-4120 ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Dactylogyridae * Annulotrema alestesnursi * Annulotrema ansatum * Annulotrema besalis * Annulotrema bipatens * Annulotrema cucullatum * Annulotrema elongata * Annulotrema nili * Annulotrema pontile * Kenya * Alestidae * Alestes baremoze * Alestes dentex * Brycinus nurse * Hydrocynus forskahlii * genus Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.027, year: 2015

  5. Crystal structure of an unknown solvate of bis(tetra-n-butylammonium [N,N′-(4-trifluoromethyl-1,2-phenylenebis(oxamato-κ4O,N,N′,O′]nickelate(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Eya'ane Meva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, [N(C4H94]2[Ni(C11H3F3N2O6] or [N(n-Bu4]2[Ni(topbo] [n-Bu = n-butyl and topbo = 4-trifluoromethyl-1,2-phenylenebis(oxamate], the Ni2+ cation is coordinated by two deprotonated amido N atoms and two carboxylate O atoms, setting up a slightly distorted square-planar coordination environment. The [Ni(topbo]2− anion lies on a twofold rotation axis. Due to an incompatibility with the point-group symmetry of the complete molecule, orientational disorder of the CF3 group is observed. The tetrahedral ammonium cations and the anion are linked by weak intermolecular C—H...O and C—H...F hydrogen-bonding interactions into a three-dimensional network. A region of electron density was treated with the SQUEEZE procedure in PLATON [Spek (2015. Acta Cryst. C71, 9–18] following unsuccessful attempts to model it as plausible solvent molecule(s. The given chemical formula and other crystal data do not take into account the unknown solvent molecule.

  6. Outsmarted by nootropics? An investigation into the thermal degradation of modafinil, modafinic acid, adrafinil, CRL-40,940 and CRL-40,941 in the GC injector: formation of 1,1,2,2-tetraphenylethane and its tetra fluoro analog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Geraldine; Kavanagh, Pierce V; Talbot, Brian; O'Brien, John; Hessman, Gary; McLaughlin, Gavin; Twamley, Brendan; Brandt, Simon D

    2017-03-01

    2-[(Diphenylmethyl)sulfinyl]acetamide (modafinil) is commonly prescribed for the treatment of narcolepsy. Increasing popularity and off-label use as a cognitive enhancer has resulted in a reputation as an intelligence boosting 'wonder drug'. Common alternatives available from online shops and other retail outlets include 2-[(diphenylmethyl)sulfinyl]-N-hydroxyacetamide (adrafinil), 2-{[bis(4-fluorophenyl)methyl]sulfinyl}acetamide (CRL-40,940), 2-{[bis(4-fluorophenyl)methyl]sulfinyl}-N-hydroxyacetamide (CRL-40,941), and N-methyl-4,4-difluoro-modafinil (modafiendz), respectively. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is a common tool used in forensic and clinical analysis but there is a potential for inducing analysis-related ambiguities. This study reports on the thermal degradation of modafinil, modafinic acid, adrafinil, CRL-40,940, and CRL-40,941 due to exposure to the heated GC injection port dissolved in a variety of solvents. Key degradation products common to modafinil, modafinic acid, and adrafinil analysis included diphenylmethanol and 1,1,2,2-tetraphenylethane (TPE), the latter of which was verified by its synthesis and characterization by x-ray crystallography. The investigated compounds were also characterized by 1 H and 13 C NMR. Diphenylmethane and thiobenzophenone were also identified in some instances. TPE formation was suggested to involve the generation of a benzhydrylium ion and its reaction with the sulfoxide oxygen of the parent compound to give an oxysulfonium intermediate. Correspondingly, the fluorinated TPE analogue was formed during heat-induced degradation of modafiendz, CRL-40,940 and CRL-40,941, respectively. When a mixture of modafinil (non-fluorinated) and modafiendz (fluorinated) were subjected to GC analysis, 4,4'-(2,2-diphenylethane-1,1-diyl)bis(fluorobenzene) was detected as a third cross reaction product in addition to the two expected TPE analogues. These observations served as a reminder that the seemingly straightforward implementation of GC-MS analysis can lead to challenges during routine analysis. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Crystal Structure of N,N,N’,N’-tetra-[(3,5-dimethyl-1-pyrazolyl methyl]-para-phenylenediamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taibi Ben-Hadda

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, molecular formula C30H40N10, crystallizes and exhibits a cisoidal conformation around a central p-phenylenediamine ring suggesting that this bis-tripodal ligand is highly flexible and could be accommodated by many and original metal coordinations. All four five-membered pyrazole rings are identical. The molecule presents an inversion centre that coincides with the phenyl ring centre: pyrazole rings are two-by-two equivalent. The electrostatic spatial intramolecular repulsion between N4 and N5 is probably responsible for this general arrangement. These data emphasize the basic character of nitrogens N4 and N5.

  8. CCDC 878574: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : catena-(aqua-(4,4',4'',4'''-porphyrin-5,10,15,20-tetrayltetrakis(1-methylpyridinium))-cadmium tetrakis(mu~5~-biphenyl-3,4',5-tricarboxylato)-tetra-cadmium unknown solvate)

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhenjie

    2013-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  9. CCDC 782644: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : tetrakis(mu~2~-4,5-imidazoledicarboxylato)-tetrakis(1,2-propanediamine)-tetra-indium tri-potassium trinitrate acetonitrile solvate hydrate

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Shuang

    2011-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  10. CCDC 1009380: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : 2,6,10,14-tetra-t-butyl-8-(4-t-butylphenyl)-7,9-dihydrobenzo[g]benzo[4,5]indolo[2,3-b]carbazole toluene solvate

    KAUST Repository

    Luo, Ding

    2014-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  11. CCDC 1009379: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : 2,6,10,14-tetra-t-butyl-7,9-dihydrobenzo[g]benzo[4,5]indolo[2,3-b]carbazole

    KAUST Repository

    Luo, Ding

    2014-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  12. Crystal structure of tetra­aquabis(1,3-dimethyl-2,6-dioxo-3,7-di­hydro-1H-purin-9-ido)magnesium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yabin; Lou, Benyong

    2015-01-01

    The title complex, [Mg(C7H7N4O2)2(H2O)4], lies across an inversion centre and the MgII atom is coordinated in a slightly distorted octa­hedral environment by four aqua ligands in the equatorial sites and two 1,3-dimethyl-2,6-dioxo-3,7-di­hydro-1H-purin-9-ide ligands, through imidazole ring N atoms, in the axial sites. An intra­molecular O—H⋯O hydrogen bond forms an S(7) graph-set motif. In the crystal, O—H⋯O and O—H⋯N hydrogen bonds link complex mol­ecules forming a three-dimensional network incorporating R 4 2(8) and R 2 2(18) graph-set motifs. PMID:25844199

  13. Synthesis, Molecular Docking and Preliminary in-Vitro Cytotoxic Evaluation of Some Substituted Tetrahydro-naphthalene (2',3',4',6'-Tetra-O-Acetyl-β-D-Gluco/-Galactopyranosyl Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maha S. Al-Mutairi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A facile, convenient and high yielding synthesis of novel S-glycosides and N-glycosides incorporating 1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene and or 1,2-dihydropyridines moieties has been described. The aglycons 2, 4, and 7 were coupled with different activated halosugars in the presence of basic and acidic medium. The preliminary in-vitro cytotoxic evaluation revealed that compounds 3c, 3f, 5c and 7b show promising activity. A molecular docking study was performed against tyrosine kinase (TK (PDB code: 1t46 by Autodock Vina. The docking output was analyzed and some compounds have shown hydrogen bond (H-B formation with reasonable distances ranged from 2.06 A° to 3.06 A° with Thr 670 and Cys 673 residues found in the specified pocket. No hydrogen bond was observed with either Glu 640 nor Asp 810 residues, as was expected from pdbsum.

  14. Pyridinium bis­(pyridine-κN)tetra­kis­(thio­cyanato-κN)ferrate(III)–pyrazine-2-carbo­nitrile–pyridine (1/4/1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shylin, Sergii I.; Gural’skiy, Il’ya A.; Haukka, Matti; Golenya, Irina A.

    2013-01-01

    In the title compound, (C5H6N)[Fe(NCS)4(C5H5N)2]·4C5H3N3·C5H5N, the FeIII ion is located on an inversion centre and is six-coordinated by four N atoms of the thio­cyanate ligands and two pyridine N atoms in a trans arrangement, forming a slightly distorted octa­hedral geometry. A half-occupied H atom attached to a pyridinium cation forms an N—H⋯N hydrogen bond with a centrosymmetrically-related pyridine unit. Four pyrazine-2-carbo­nitrile mol­ecules crystallize per complex anion. In the crystal, π–π stacking inter­actions are present [centroid–centroid distances = 3.6220 (9), 3.6930 (9), 3.5532 (9), 3.5803 (9) and 3.5458 (8) Å]. PMID:23723782

  15. Calculation of the state-to-state S-matrix for tetra-atomic reactions with transition-state wave packets: H₂/D₂ + OH → H/D + H₂O/HOD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bin; Sun, Zhigang; Guo, Hua

    2014-10-21

    This work is concerned with the calculation of state-to-state S-matrix elements for four-atom reactions using a recently proposed method based on the quantum transition-state theory. In this approach, the S-matrix elements are computed from the thermal flux cross-correlation functions obtained in both the reactant and product arrangement channels. Since transition-state wave packets are propagated with only single arrangement channels, the bases/grids required are significantly smaller than those needed in state-to-state approaches based on a single set of scattering coordinates. Furthermore, the propagation of multiple transition-state wave packets can be carried out in parallel. This method is demonstrated for the H2/D2 + OH → H/D + H2O/HOD reactions (J = 0) and the reaction probabilities are in excellent agreement with benchmark results.

  16. A reactant-coordinate-based wave packet method for full-dimensional state-to-state quantum dynamics of tetra-atomic reactions: Application to both the abstraction and exchange channels in the H + H2O reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bin; Sun, Zhigang; Guo, Hua

    2016-02-14

    An efficient and accurate wave packet method is proposed for the calculation of the state-to-state S-matrix elements in bimolecular reactions involving four atoms. This approach propagates an initial state specific wave packet in reactant Jacobi coordinates. The projection in product channels is carried out on projection planes, which have one less degree of freedom, by transforming both the time-dependent wave packet and final product states into a set of intermediate coordinates. This reactant-coordinate-based method is more efficient than product-coordinate-based methods because it typically requires a smaller number of basis functions or grid points and allows the determination of S-matrix elements for multiple product channels from a single propagation. This method is demonstrated in calculating the (Jtot = 0) state-to-state S-matrix elements for both the abstraction and exchange channels of the H + H2O reaction.

  17. Tetra-μ-aqua-octaaquabis(μ-4-chloropyridine-2,6-dicarboxylatobis(4-chloropyridine-2,6-dicarboxylatotricobalt(IIdisodium(I bis[triaquabis(4-chloropyridine-2,6-dicarboxylatocobalt(II] hexahydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LaMaryet Moody

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, [Co3Na2(C7H2ClNO44(H2O12][Co(C7H2ClNO4(H2O3]2·6H2O, consists of a centrosymmetric dimer of [CoII(dipicCl2]2− complex dianions [dipicCl is 4-chloropyridine-2,6-dicarboxylate] bridged by an [Na2CoII(H2O12]4+ tetracationic cluster, two independent [Co(dipicCl(H2O3] complexes, and six water molecules of crystallization. The metals are all six-coordinate with distorted octahedral geometries. The [CoII(dipicCl(H2O3] complexes are neutral, with one tridentate ligand and three water molecules. The [CoII(dipicCl2]2− complexes each have two tridentate ligands. The [Na2CoII(H2O12]4+ cluster has a central CoII ion which is coordinated to six water molecules and lies on a crystallographic inversion center. Four of the water molecules bridge to two sodium ions, each of which have three other water molecules coordinated along with an O atom from the [CoII(dipicCl2]2− complex. In the crystal structure, the various units are linked by O—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional network. Two water molecules are disordered equally over two positions.

  18. CCDC 1029959: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : catena-[tris(triethylammonium) (mu-hydroxo)-bis(mu-1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylato)-bis(mu-5-carboxybenzene-1,3-dicarboxylato)-tetra-cobalt monohydrate

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Hai-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  19. 4,4′-[(2R*,3R*,4R*,5R*)-3,4-Dimethyl­tetra­hydro­furan-2,5-di­yl]diphenol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favela-Hernández, Juan Manuel de Jesús; Camacho-Corona, María del Rayo; Bernès, Sylvain; Flores-Alamo, Marcos

    2012-01-01

    The title mol­ecule, C18H20O3, is a furan­oid lignan extracted from the leaves of Larrea tridentata. The relative absolute configuration for the four chiral centers was established, showing that this compound is 4-epi-larreatricin, which has been previously reported in the literature. The mol­ecule displays noncrystallographic C 2 symmetry, with the methyl and phenol substituents alternating above and below the mean plane of the furan ring. The conformation of this ring is described by the pseudorotation phase angle P = 171.3° and the maximum out-of-plane pucker νm = 37.7°. These parameters indicate that the furan ring adopts the same conformation as the ribose residues in B-DNA. The packing is dominated by inter­molecular O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds. The phenol hy­droxy groups form chains in the [110] direction and these chains inter­act via O—H⋯O(furan) contacts. PMID:23125788

  20. Thermodynamic modeling of phase equilibria of semi-clathrate hydrates of CO2, CH4, or N2+tetra-n-butylammonium bromide aqueous solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eslamimanesh, Ali; Mohammadi, Amir H.; Richon, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    ) aqueous solution. For modeling the hydrate phase, the van der Waals–Platteeuw (vdW–P) solid solution theory is used, revised with two modifications for evaluations of Langmuir constants and vapor pressure of water in the empty hydrate lattice, in which these values are supposed to be a function of TBAB......, the Non-Random Two-Liquid (NRTL) activity model is used. To calculate the mean activity coefficients of the electrolyte portion, a correlation on the basis of existing osmotic coefficient and activity coefficient values is employed. It is shown that the presented model results are in acceptable agreement...

  1. 2,2′,5,5′-Tetra­methyl-1,1′-(hexane-1,6-di­yl)di-1H-pyrrole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Ana C.; Ramos Silva, Manuela; Monsanto, Paula V.; Matos Beja, Ana; Sobral, Abilio J. F. N.

    2009-01-01

    The mol­ecule of the title compound, C18H28N2, composed of two 2,5-dimethyl­pyrrole groups linked by a hexane chain, lies across a crystallographic inversion centre. The mean plane of the pyrrole ring is almost perpendicular to the mean plane of the central chain, making a dihedral angle of 89.09 (8)°. The crystal structure is stabilized by inter­molecular C—H⋯π inter­actions. PMID:21582868

  2. 6′-Methyl-1′,2′,3′,4′-tetra­hydro­spiro­cyclo­hexane-2′-quinazolin-4′-one

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Zhang; Shi, Daxin; Yanqiu, Fan; Wei, Xia; Li, Jiarong

    2009-01-01

    The title compound, C14H18N2O, was synthesized by the reaction of cyclo­hexa­none and 2-amino-5-methyl­benzonitrile. In the mol­ecule, the cyclo­hexane ring displays a chair conformation, whereas the 1,3-diaza­cyclo­hexane moiety of the bicyclic system has a sofa conformation with the spiro C atom displaced by 0.603 (2) Å from the rest of the atoms of the 1,3-diaza­cyclo­hexane ring [planar within 0.052 (2) Å]. Mol­ecules are linked into centrosymmetric dimers via N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds. PMID:21583911

  3. A copper(II) paddle-wheel structure of tranexamic acid: di-chloro-tetra-kis-[μ-4-(ammonio-meth-yl)cyclo-hexane-1-carboxyl-ato-O,O']dicopper(II) dichloride hexa-hydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altaf, Muhammad; Stoeckli-Evans, Helen

    2017-10-01

    Tranexamic acid [systematic name: trans -4-(amino-meth-yl)cyclo-hexane-1-carb-oxy-lic acid], is an anti-fibrinolytic amino acid that exists as a zwitterion [ trans -4-(ammonio-meth-yl)cyclo-hexane-1-carboxyl-ate] in the solid state. Its reaction with copper chloride leads to the formation of a compound with a copper(II) paddle-wheel structure that crystallizes as a hexa-hydrate, [Cu 2 Cl 2 (C 8 H 15 NO 2 ) 4 ] 2+ ·2Cl - ·6H 2 O. The asymmetric unit is composed of a copper(II) cation, two zwitterionic tranexamic acid units, a coordinating Cl - anion and a free Cl - anion, together with three water mol-ecules of crystallization. The whole structure is generated by inversion symmetry, with the Cu⋯Cu axle of the paddle-wheel dication being located about a center of symmetry. The cyclo-hexane rings of the zwitterionic tranexamic acid units have chair conformations. The carboxyl-ate groups that bridge the two copper(II) cations are inclined to one another by 88.4 (8)°. The copper(II) cation is ligated by four carboxyl-ate O atoms in the equatorial plane and by a Cl - ion in the axial position. Hence, it has a fivefold O 4 Cl coordination sphere with a perfect square-pyramidal geometry and a τ 5 index of zero. In the crystal, the paddle-wheel dications are linked by a series of N-H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds, involving the coordinating and free Cl - ions, forming a three-dimensional network. This network is strengthened by a series of N-H⋯O water , O water -H⋯Cl and O water -H⋯O hydrogen bonds.

  4. Crystal structure of poly[[di-μ3-acetato-tetra-aqua-bis-(μ2-cyclo-hexane-1,4-di-carboxyl-ato)dilanth-an-um(III)] dihydrate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drisya, R; Mol, U S Soumya; Chandran, P R Satheesh; Sithambaresan, M; Sudarsankumar, M R

    2017-12-01

    The title compound, {[La 2 (CH 3 COO) 2 (C 8 H 10 O 4 ) 2 (H 2 O) 4 ]·2H 2 O} n or [La 2 ( ac ) 2 ( e,a - cis -1,4-chdc) 2 (H 2 O) 4 ]·2H 2 O, where ac is acetate and 1,4-chdc is cyclo-hexane-1,4-di-carboxyl-ate anion, is a binuclear lanthanum(III) complex. Each metal atom is deca-coordinated by four O atoms from two distinct 1,4-chdc 2- ligands, four O atoms from three acetate groups and two O atoms from coordinated water mol-ecules to form a distorted bicapped square-anti-prismatic geometry. Two non-coordinated water mol-ecules are also present in the formula unit. The most remarkable feature of this compound is that it possesses a only cis conformation for cyclo-hexane-1,4-di-carb-oxy-lic acid, although the raw material consists of a mixture of cis and trans isomers. The μ 3 -η 2 :η 2 coordination mode of the bridging acetate group and the flexible di-carboxyl-ate fragments of 1,4-chdc 2- results in the formation of infinite two-dimensional lanthanide-carboxyl-ate layers within the crystal structure. The directionality of strong inter-molecular O-H⋯O and weak C-H⋯O inter-actions provides robustness to the layers, which leads to the construction of a three-dimensional supra-molecular network. The crystal studied was refined as a two-component twin.

  5. 78 FR 69049 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-18

    ...; request for comments. SUMMARY: NMFS has received an application from Tetra Tech EC, Inc. (Tetra Tech), on..., NMFS received an application from Excelerate Energy, L.P. (Excelerate) and Tetra Tech EC, Inc., on... Lateral facilities in Massachusetts Bay. They are: North Atlantic right whale, humpback whale, fin whale...

  6. Discovery of (1R,5S)-N-[3-Amino-1-(cyclobutylmethyl)-2,3-dioxopropyl]- 3-[2(S)-[[[(1,1-dimethylethyl)amino]carbonyl]amino]-3,3-dimethyl-1-oxobutyl]- 6,6-dimethyl-3-azabicyclo[3.1.0]hexan-2(S)-carboxamide (SCH 503034), a Selective, Potent, Orally Bioavailable Hepatitis C Virus NS3 Protease Inhibitor: A Potential Therapeutic Agent for the Treatment of Hepatitis C Infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkatraman, Srikanth; Bogen, Stephane L.; Arasappan, Ashok; Bennett, Frank; Chen, Kevin; Jao, Edwin; Liu, Yi-Tsung; Lovey, Raymond; Hendrata, Siska; Huang, Yuhua; Pan, Weidong; Parekh, Tejal; Pinto, Patrick; Popov, Veljko; Pike, Russel; Ruan, Sumei; Santhanam, Bama; Vibulbhan, Bancha; Wu, Wanli; Yang, Weiying; Kong, Jianshe; Liang, Xiang; Wong, Jesse; Liu, Rong; Butkiewicz, Nancy; Chase, Robert; Hart, Andrea; Agrawal, Sony; Ingravallo, Paul; Pichardo, John; Kong, Rong; Baroudy, Bahige; Malcolm, Bruce; Guo, Zhuyan; Prongay, Andrew; Madison, Vincent; Broske, Lisa; Cui, Xiaoming; Cheng, Kuo-Chi; Hsieh, Yunsheng; Brisson, Jean-Marc; Prelusky, Danial; Korfmacher, Walter; White, Ronald; Bogdanowich-Knipp, Susan; Pavlovsky, Anastasia; Bradley, Prudence; Saksena, Anil K.; Ganguly, Ashit; Piwinski, John; Girijavallabhan, Viyyoor; Njoroge, F. George (SPRI)

    2008-06-30

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is the major cause of chronic liver disease, leading to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, which affects more than 170 million people worldwide. Currently the only therapeutic regimens are subcutaneous interferon-{alpha} or polyethylene glycol (PEG)-interferon-{alpha} alone or in combination with oral ribavirin. Although combination therapy is reasonably successful with the majority of genotypes, its efficacy against the predominant genotype (genotype 1) is moderate at best, with only about 40% of the patients showing sustained virological response. Herein, the SAR leading to the discovery of 70 (SCH 503034), a novel, potent, selective, orally bioavailable NS3 protease inhibitor that has been advanced to clinical trials in human beings for the treatment of hepatitis C viral infections is described. X-ray structure of inhibitor 70 complexed with the NS3 protease and biological data are also discussed.

  7. A survey of the lone pair effect on the ring geometry of 1,2,4-triazoles and analogous 1,2,3-triazoles and imidazoles. The structures of 1-methyl-5-amino-3-methylthio-1,2,4-triazole, 1-phenyl-5-amino-3-methylthio-1,2,4-triazole and 1-(4-methylbenzyl)-3-amino-5-methylthio-1,2,4-triazole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kálmán, A.; Argay, Gy.

    1983-11-01

    The structures of the title compounds have been established by X-ray crystallography from diffractometer data. Crystals of the first ( I), C 4H 8N 4S, are monoclinic, space group P2 1/ c, with a = 8.166(2), b = 10.481(1), c = 8.585(1) Å, β = 109.33(2)°, Z = 4, D c = 1.381 g cm -3. Crystals of the second ( II), C 9H 10N 4S, are monoclinic, space group P2 1/ c, with a = 11.850(4), b = 7.898(1), c = 23.981 (6) Å, β = 117.23(2)°, Z = 8, D c = 1.373 g cm -3. Crystals of the third ( III), C 11H 14N 4S 1 are also monoclinic, space group P2 1/ c with a = 12.829(3), b = 8.348(1), c = 11.088(4) Å, β = 94.40(4)°, Z = 4, Dc = 1.314 g cm -3. The structures, determined by direct methods ( I, III) and Patterson synthesis ( II) were refined to R = 0.039 for 1070 reflections of I, R = 0.040 for 2792 reflections of II and R = 0.041 for 1900 reflections of III. The characteristic features of the planar five-membered rings are studied in comparison with the analogous 1,2,3-triazoles and imidazoles. It is shown that these planar rings exhibit only two patterns of the endocyclic bond angles induced dominantly by the number and relative position of the N-lone pairs. A similar effect of the double bonds (attached to C atoms) is also discussed.

  8. Full phosphorescent white-light organic light-emitting diodes with improved color stability and efficiency by fine tuning primary emission contributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hua, Wang, E-mail: wmsu2008@sinano.ac.cn, E-mail: wanghua001@tyut.edu.cn; Du, Xiaogang [Key Laboratory of Interface Science and Engineering in Advanced Materials, Taiyuan University of Technology, Ministry of Education, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Research Center of Advanced Materials Science and Technology, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Su, Wenming, E-mail: wmsu2008@sinano.ac.cn, E-mail: wanghua001@tyut.edu.cn; Zhang, Dongyu [Printable Electronics Research Centre, Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, CAS, suzhou 215123 (China); Lin, Wenjing [Key Laboratory of Interface Science and Engineering in Advanced Materials, Taiyuan University of Technology, Ministry of Education, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Research Center of Advanced Materials Science and Technology, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Printable Electronics Research Centre, Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, CAS, suzhou 215123 (China)

    2014-02-15

    In this paper, a novel type of white-light organic light emitting diode (OLED) with high color stability was reported, in which the yellow-light emission layer of (4,4{sup ′}-N,N{sup ′}-dicarbazole)biphenyl (CBP) : tris(2-phenylquinoline-C2,N{sup ′})iridium(III) (Ir(2-phq){sub 3}) was sandwiched by double blue-light emission layers of 1,1-bis-[(di-4-tolylamino)pheny1]cyclohexane (TAPC) : bis[4,6-(di-fluorophenyl)-pyridinato-N,C2{sup ′}]picolinate (FIrpic) and tris[3-(3-pyridyl)mesityl]borane (3TPYMB):FIrpic. And, it exhibited the maximum current efficiency of 33.1 cd/A, the turn-on voltage at about 3 V and the maximum luminance in excess of 20000 cd/m{sup 2}. More important, it realized very stable white-light emission, and its CIE(x, y) coordinates only shift from (0.34, 0.37) to (0.33, 0.37) as applied voltage increased from 5 V to 12 V. It is believed that the new scheme in emission layer of white-light OLED can fine tune the contribution of primary emission with applied voltage changed, resulting in high quality white-light OLED.

  9. Full phosphorescent white-light organic light-emitting diodes with improved color stability and efficiency by fine tuning primary emission contributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua, Wang; Du, Xiaogang; Su, Wenming; Zhang, Dongyu; Lin, Wenjing

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a novel type of white-light organic light emitting diode (OLED) with high color stability was reported, in which the yellow-light emission layer of (4,4 ′ -N,N ′ -dicarbazole)biphenyl (CBP) : tris(2-phenylquinoline-C2,N ′ )iridium(III) (Ir(2-phq) 3 ) was sandwiched by double blue-light emission layers of 1,1-bis-[(di-4-tolylamino)pheny1]cyclohexane (TAPC) : bis[4,6-(di-fluorophenyl)-pyridinato-N,C2 ′ ]picolinate (FIrpic) and tris[3-(3-pyridyl)mesityl]borane (3TPYMB):FIrpic. And, it exhibited the maximum current efficiency of 33.1 cd/A, the turn-on voltage at about 3 V and the maximum luminance in excess of 20000 cd/m 2 . More important, it realized very stable white-light emission, and its CIE(x, y) coordinates only shift from (0.34, 0.37) to (0.33, 0.37) as applied voltage increased from 5 V to 12 V. It is believed that the new scheme in emission layer of white-light OLED can fine tune the contribution of primary emission with applied voltage changed, resulting in high quality white-light OLED

  10. A White Queer Geek at School: Intersections of Whiteness and Queer Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma'ayan, Hadar Dubowsky

    2011-01-01

    Tetra is an "out" middle school student. She identifies as a "lesbian," a "tomboy," "butch," an "oddball," and a "geek." These identifications could place her as a marginalized and alienated student. However, Tetra was a successful student, both socially and academically. At her diverse…

  11. 2074-IJBCS-Article-Ahadji-Dabla Koffi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    2°C; 70-75% relative humidity), under 12L. (Light): 12D (Dark) photoperiod cycles. The larvae were fed with TetraMin® Baby Fish food (from Tetra, Avignon, France). .... Luna JS, Ferreira de Lima MR, Sant'Ana. AEG. 2007. Larvicidal activities against. Aedes aegypti of some Brazilian medicinal plants. Biores. Technol., 98:.

  12. 76 FR 43639 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-21

    ... application from Tetra Tech EC, Inc., on behalf of the Northeast Gateway[supreg] Energy Bridge TM L.P.... (Excelerate) and Tetra Tech EC, Inc., on behalf of Northeast Gateway for an authorization to take 13 species... Massachusetts Bay. They are: North Atlantic right whale, humpback whale, fin whale, minke whale, long-finned...

  13. Synthesis of 5-O-α- and -β-D-glucopyranosyl-D-glucofuranose and 5-O-α-D-glucopyranosyl-D-fructopyranose (leucrose)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Heeswijk, W.A.R. van; Wassenburg, F.R.

    1978-01-01

    Reaction of 1,2-O-cyclopentylidene-α-D-glucofuranurono-6,3-lactone (2) with 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-α-D-glucopyranosyl bromide (1) gave 1,2-O-cyclopentylidene- 5-O-(2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-α-D-glucopyranosyl)-α-D-glucofuranurono-6,3-lactone (3, 45%) and

  14. ERIESEARCH

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) is a hexadentate chelate compound with four negatively charged carboxylic acid groups and two amine groups. It can combine with virtually every metal ion in the periodic table. Sodium iron ethylene diamine tetra- acetate (NaFeEDTA) is one of many EDTA-chelated compounds.

  15. Evolutionary insights from suffix array-based genome sequence ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    2007-08-06

    Aug 6, 2007 ... particular tetra and higher peptides, indicative of a 'meaning' for tetra and higher n-grams. The toolkit has also been used to demonstrate the usefulness of identifying repeats in whole proteomes efficiently. As an example, 16 members of one COG, coded by the genome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis ...

  16. CCDC 878570: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : catena-(hemi-barium chloro-(4,4',4'',4'''-porphyrin-5,10,15,20-tetrayltetrakis(1-methylpyridinium))-cadmium tetrakis(mu~5~-biphenyl-3,4',5-tricarboxylato)-tetra-cadmium unknown solvate trihydrate)

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhenjie

    2013-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  17. CCDC 877423: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : catena-(Chloro-(5,10,15,20-tetrakis(N-methylpyridinium-4-yl)porphyrinato)-cadmium tetrakis(mu~5~-biphenyl-3,4',5-tricarboxylato)-tetrakis(mu~2~-chloro)-tetra-aqua-hexa-cadmium dimethylformamide solvate hydrate)

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhenjie

    2012-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  18. CCDC 1410364: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : catena-[tetrakis(mu-iodo)-bis(mu-1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane)-tetra-copper (mu-2,2'-(1,3-phenylene)bis(benzimidazol-1-yl))-di-copper N,N-dimethylformamide solvate

    KAUST Repository

    Luo, Xiaolong

    2016-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  19. CCDC 1410366: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : catena-[tetrakis(mu-iodo)-bis(mu-1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane)-tetra-copper (mu-2,2'-(1,3-phenylene)bis(benzimidazol-1-yl))-di-copper N,N-dimethylformamide solvate

    KAUST Repository

    Luo, Xiaolong

    2016-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  20. A large hetero-poly-tungsto-tetra-cerate (III) based on a new di-vacant lacunary derivative of the Wells - Dawson tungstophosphate anion; Un heteropolytungstotetracerate (III) de grande taille base sur un nouveau derive lacunaire divacant du tungstophosphate de type Wells-Dawson

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostuni, A.; Pope, M.T. [Georgetown Univ., Washington, DC (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    2000-03-01

    In the course of investigations of hetero-poly-tungstates of lanthanides and actinides as possible vehicles for the isolation and storage of nuclear wastes, we have discovered that the different coordination geometries demanded by these cations and the sites afforded by lacunary heteropolyanions generally lead to new, very large heteropolyanions with multiple subunits. In this work, a new heteropolyanion [Ce{sub 4}(OH){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 9}(P{sub 2}W{sub 16}O{sub 59}){sub 2}]{sup 14-} has been isolated as a potassium salt, in {approx} 40% yield, from a neutral solution formed by reaction of a suspension of K{sub 12}H{sub 2}P{sub 2}W{sub 12}O{sub 48}.24 H{sub 2}O in 1 M LiCl with Na{sub 2}WO{sub 4} and Ce(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}. Single crystal X-ray analysis of K{sub 12}H{sub 2}[Ce{sub 4}OH{sub 2}(P{sub 2}W{sub 16}O{sub 59}){sub 2}].48 H{sub 2}O (monoclinic, space group C{sub 2}, a = 28.198 0(2) angstroms, b = 12.205 80(10) angstroms, c = 23.238 00(10) angstroms, {alpha} = 114.879 0(10) deg; 17 164 independent reflections; R{sub 1}=0.057 6) reveals an anion of C{sub 2v} virtual symmetry in which four Ce{sup 3+} cations are sandwiched between two novel di-vacant lacunary derivatives of the Wells-Dawson anion, {alpha}-[P{sub 2}W{sub 18}O{sub 62}]{sup 6-}. The lacunary anions (of C{sub s} symmetry) have adjacent metal atom vacancies on both sides of the equator of the Wells-Dawson structure. The four cerium(III) centers (two 9- and two 10-coordinate) are linked by two {mu}{sub 3}-OH(Ce{sub 3}), one {mu} 2-H{sub 2}O(Ce{sub 2}) and four {mu}{sub 3}-O(W,Ce{sub 2}). The heteropolyanion is stable in aqueous solution and yields well resolved {sup 31}P ({delta}=+4.0 ppm) and {sup 183}W NMR spectra (8 lines of equal intensity, {delta}=+296 to - 188 ppm) that are consistent with the solid state structure. (authors)

  1. Crystal structure of bis­[tetra­kis­(tri­phenyl­phosphane-κP)silver(I)] (nitrilo­tri­acetato-κ4 N,O,O′,O′′)(tri­phenyl­phosphane-κP)argentate(I) with an unknown amount of methanol as solvate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Julian; Korb, Marcus; Lang, Heinrich

    2016-01-01

    The structure of the title compound, [Ag(C18H15P)4]2[Ag(C6H6NO6)(C18H15P)], exhibits trigonal (P-3) symmetry, with a C 3 axis through all three complex ions, resulting in an asymmetric unit that contains one third of the atoms present in the formula unit. The formula unit thus contains two of the cations, one anion and disordered mol­ecules of methanol as the packing solvent. Attempts to refine the solvent model were unsuccessful, indicating uninter­pretable disorder. Thus, the SQUEEZE procedure in PLATON [Spek (2015 ▸). Acta Cryst. C71, 9–18] was applied, accounting for 670 electrons per unit cell, representing approximately 18 mol­ecules of methanol in the formula unit. The stated crystal data for M r, μ etc do not take these into account. PMID:27006796

  2. Search for the existence of the tetra-neutron through the He{sup 8}(d,Li{sup 6})4n nuclear reaction; Recherche de l'existence eventuelle du tetraneutron via la reaction de transfert {sup 8}He(d, {sup 6}Li)4n

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rich, E

    2005-10-15

    The He{sup 8}(d,Li{sup 6})4n reaction is studied through reverse kinematics: a radioactive beam of He{sup 8} nuclei impinges on a CD{sub 2} target. The measurement of the energy spectrum and emission angle distribution of Li{sup 6} has allowed us to determine by applying kinematics laws the excitation energy spectrum of the 4 neutrons system released in the reaction. The first chapter recalls the main features of the nucleon-nucleon interaction and reviews recent experiments on multi-neutrons. The second chapter presents the experimental setting from the production of the He{sup 8} beam at GANIL to the detection system of the reaction products via the data acquisition system. The method of the missing mass gives the mass of the 4 neutron system. The third and fourth chapters deal with the calibration of the detection system, the missing mass method is applied to the following reactions: C{sup 12}(d,Li{sup 6})Be{sup 8}, C{sup 12}(d,t)C{sup 11} and C{sup 12}(d,He{sup 3})B{sup 11}. The last chapter presents the experimental results. The analysis of the excitation energy spectrum of the 4 neutron systems shows no evidence for the existence of a bound state. We get a maximal limit of 60 {mu}b for the production cross section of a bound state. Complementary results concerning the excitation energy spectra of the di-neutron and tri-neutron released in the reactions: He{sup 8}(d,Li{sup 8})2n and He{sup 8}(d,Li{sup 7})3n are also presented. (A.C.)

  3. CCDC 878573: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : catena-(sodium chloro-(4,4',4'',4'''-porphyrin-5,10,15,20-tetrayltetrakis(1-methylpyridinium))-cadmium tetrakis(mu~5~-biphenyl-3,4',5-tricarboxylato)-tetra-cadmium unknown solvate trihydrate)

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhenjie

    2013-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  4. CCDC 954550: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : catena-[(5,10,15,20-tetrakis(1-methylpyridinium-4-yl)porphyrinato)-methanol-aqua-copper bis(bis(mu6-biphenyl-3,4',5-tricarboxylato)-bis(mu3-methoxo)-dimethoxo-tetra-copper) unknown solvate

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhenjie

    2013-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  5. (μ-3-Acetyl-5-carboxyl­ato-4-methyl­pyrazolido-1:2κ4 N 2,O 3:N 1,O 5)-μ-chlorido-tetra­pyridine-1κ2 N,2κ2 N-chlorido-1κCl-dicopper(II) propan-2-ol solvate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinkin, Sergey; Penkova, Larisa; Pavlenko, Vadim A.; Haukka, Matti; Fritsky, Igor O.

    2009-01-01

    The title compound, [Cu2(C7H6N2O3)Cl2(C5H5N)4]·C3H8O, is a binuclear pyrazolate complex, in which the two CuII atoms have different coordination numbers and are connected by a bridging Cl atom. One CuII atom has a distorted square-pyramidal coordination environment formed by two pyridine N atoms, one bridging Cl atom and an N,O-chelating pyrazolate ligand. The other CuII atom adopts an octa­hedral geometry defined by two pyridine N atoms at the axial positions, two Cl atoms and the coordinated pyrazolate ligand in the equatorial plane. An O—H⋯O hydrogen bond connects the complex mol­ecules and propan-2-ol solvent mol­ecules into pairs. These pairs form columns along the a axis. PMID:21577764

  6. CCDC 1410365: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : catena-[tetrakis(mu-iodo)-bis(mu-1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane)-tetra-copper (mu-2,2'-(1,3-phenylene)bis(benzimidazol-1-yl))-di-copper N,N-dimethylformamide solvate

    KAUST Repository

    Luo, Xiaolong

    2016-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  7. Crystal structure of μ-oxido-1,1′κ2O:O-bis{tetra-μ-oxido-1:2κ2O:O;1:3κ2O:O;2:3κ4O:O-tris[1,2,3(η5-pentamethylcyclopentadienyl]-trianglo-trititanium(IV}

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Pérez-Redondo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The title polynuclear organometallic titanium(IV oxide, [{Ti3(η5-C5Me53(μ-O4}2(μ-O], exhibits two Ti3O4 cores bridged by an O atom located on a twofold axis. All metal centres present the typical three-legged piano-stool coordination environment, where one site is occupied by a pentamethylcyclopentadienyl ligand linked in an η5-coordination fashion, while three bridging O atoms fill the other three sites.

  8. Persistence of selected ammonium- and phosphonium-based ionic liquids in urban park soil microcosms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sydow, Mateusz; Szczepaniak, Zuzanna; Framski, Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge about biodegradability of ionic liquids (ILs) in terrestrial systems is limited. Here, using urban park soil microcosms spiked with either ammonium- or phosphonium-based ILs [didecyldimethylammonium 3-amino-1,2,4-triazolate, benzalkonium 3-amino-1,2,4-triazolate, trihexyl(tetradecyl)pho......Knowledge about biodegradability of ionic liquids (ILs) in terrestrial systems is limited. Here, using urban park soil microcosms spiked with either ammonium- or phosphonium-based ILs [didecyldimethylammonium 3-amino-1,2,4-triazolate, benzalkonium 3-amino-1,2,4-triazolate, trihexyl...

  9. SYNTHESIS AND CONFORMATION OF p-(AMINOBUTOXYCALIX[4]ARENE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firdaus Firdaus

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Derivatization of 5,11,17,23-tetra-t-butyl-25,26,27,28-tetrahydroxycalix[4]-arene to 5,11,17,23-tetra-amino-25,26,27,28-tetrabutoxycalix[4]arene compound via etherification, ipso nitration, and reduction reactions, respectively has been conducted. The etherification reaction was carried out by refluxed the mixture of 5,11,17,23-tetra-t-butyl-25,26,27,28-tetrahydroxy-calix[4]arene, 1-bromobutane, NaI, and NaH in solvent mixture of THF-DMF (10:1 v/v and nitrogen atmosphere for 4 hours to resulted 5,11,17,23-tetra-t-butyl-25,26,27,28-tetrabutoxycalix[4]-arene 84% in yield; ipso nitration reaction was carried out by stirred the mixture of 5,11,17,23-tetra-t-butyl-25,26,27,28-tetrabutoxycalix[4]arene and HNO3 100% in solvent mixture of dichloromethane-acetic acid glacial (1:1 v/v for 2 hours and than refluxed for 1 hour to resulted 5,11,17,23-tetra-nitro-25,26,27,28-tetra-butoxycalix[4]arene 50% in yield; and reduction reaction was carried out by refluxed the mixture of 5,11,17,23-tetra-nitro-25,26,27,28-tetrabutoxycalix[4]arene and SnCl2/HCl reductor in ethanol solvent for 6 hours to resulted 5,11,17,23-tetra-amino-25,26,27,28-tetrabutoxycalix[4]arene 67% in yield. In the etherification reaction, the conformation of calix[4]arene compound was converted from cone to partial cone; but in the followed reactions, i.e. nitration and reduction reactions, the conformation of calix[4]arene compounds were remain in partial cone.   Keywords: aminobutoxycalixarene, conformation, etherification, ipso nitration, reduction

  10. High Energy Density Materials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bomberger, David

    2003-01-01

    .... The reaction of nitrene equivalents such as organic azides, N-haloamines, N-acyl hydroxylamines N,O-diacyl hydroxylamines, and amides in the presence of lead tetra-acetate or phenyliodine diacetate...

  11. Three Dimensional Situational Awareness Sensor to Assist Descent and Landing of the Mars Lander Spacecraft, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In order to address NASA's needs identified in the RFP, TetraVue proposes the use of a unique, non GPS and non-observer position dependent 3D sensor system to...

  12. Pop / Lauri Tikerpe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tikerpe, Lauri

    2007-01-01

    Heliplaatidest: Laurent Garnier, Bugge Wesseltoft, Philippe Nadaud, Benjamin Rippert "Public Out Burst", Enthroned "Tetra Karcist", Bruce Springsteen with the Sessions Band "Live in Dublin", Tuxedomoon "Vapour Trails", Atreyu "Lead Sails Paper Anchor", Still Remains "The Serpent"

  13. Bulletin of Materials Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2) nanofibres are reported. These nanofibres were synthesized through electrospinning of polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) / titanium tetra isopropoxide. Calcination of the obtained amorphous PVP/TiO2 nanofibres resulted in nanofibres of TiO2 ...

  14. Genetics Home Reference: tetrasomy 18p

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The word "tetrasomy" is derived from "tetra," the Greek word for "four.") The extra genetic material from ... usually the mother. Most affected individuals have no history of the disorder in their family. However, rare ...

  15. Moltshanije jagnenka / Virkko Lepassalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lepassalu, Virkko, 1971-

    2006-01-01

    Ülevaade Erki Aaviku hiigelvõlgu põhjustanud tehingutest Peterburi firmaga Tetra Invest AS-i Werol Tehased juhatajana ja seostest Rahvaliidu ja põllumajandusministeeriumiga. Weroli erastamisprotsess

  16. Study of ammonium sulfates electric conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrynin, D.V.; Tulegulov, A.D.

    2006-01-01

    In the work results of research of ammonium sulfate electroconductivity are given. The influence effecting on ammonium sulfate conductivity is investigated. The various circuits of inclusion tetra ohmmeter are given. (author)

  17. CCDC 972511: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : 10,11,21,22-tetra-(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)-2,13-bis(3,5-di-t-butylphenyl)-2,14,16a,19b,21,22b-hexahydrodiphenanthro[1,10,9,8-cdefg:1,10,9,8-c'd'e'f'g']s-indaceno[2,1-a:6,5-a']dicarbazole

    KAUST Repository

    Das, Soumyajit

    2014-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  18. Dioxins and Nonortho PCBs in Breast Milk of Vietnamese Mothers Living in the Largest Hot Spot of Dioxin Contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghi, Tran Ngoc; Nishijo, Muneko; Manh, Ho Dung; Tai, Pham The; Van Luong, Hoang; Anh, Tran Hai; Thao, Pham Ngoc; Trung, Nguyen Viet; Waseda, Tomoo; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Kido, Teruhiko; Nishijo, Hisao

    2015-05-05

    Bien Hoa Air Base is the largest dioxin contamination hot spot in Vietnam. In 2012, we recruited 216 mothers who were living in 10 communities around Bien Hoa Air Base and had delivered newborns at a prefecture hospital, and we investigated recent exposure levels of dioxins and nonortho PCBs in their breast milk. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-tetraCDD) was present at 2.6 pg/g lipid in primiparae and 2.2 pg/g lipid in multiparae. Among multiparae and total subjects, significant high prevalence of 2,3,7,8-tetraCDD≥5 pg/g lipid and 2,3,7,8-tetraCDD contribution≥40% were observed in mothers living in the five communities closest to Bien Hoa Air Base. The TEQ for nonortho PCBs was 1.6 pg-TEQ/g lipid for primiparae, and this was even lower than that in the unsprayed area. The length of residency was a strong factor to increase dioxins, including 2,3,7,8-tetraCDD. Residency in the five communities with the highest exposure was a specific risk factor for increased 2,3,7,8-tetraCDD in breast milk. Food intake might contribute partly to the increased levels of dioxin congeners other than 2,3,7,8-tetraCDD in breast milk. These results suggest that Bien Hoa Air Base has led to elevated 2,3,7,8-tetraCDD levels in breast milk of mothers in nearby areas even in the recent years.

  19. The difference of saline and sterile water for tetracycline hydrochloride solvents in cementum demineralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinta Ferronika

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The root cementum demineralization is an important step in regenerative periodontal therapy to smear layer removal on the root surface. Smear layer on the root surface becomes a barrier of the new attachment between periodontal tissues with the root surface. The use of tetracycline capsules as root surface demineralizing agent cannot be applied directly on the root surface and solvents such as saline or sterile water are needed. Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine differences between sterile water and saline solvent for tetracycline HCl (tetra HCl as a cementum demineralization. Method: In this study the specimens were divided into three groups: a control, tetra HCl dissolved in saline, and tetra HCl dissolved in sterile water. Application using burnishing method for 3 minutes. Samples were dehydrated with ethanol series of 30% to 100%. Results of the root demineralization observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Statistical analysis was performed using the Kruskal-Wallis followed by a Mann-Whitney nonparametric test. Result: Upon statistical analysis showed that the sterile water as a solvent of tetra HCl is more effective in smear layer removal and collagen structure exposure in the cementum. Conclusion: Tetra HCl dissolved in sterile water was found to be the best root cementum demineralization agent.

  20. Improved synthesis of gastrodin, a bioactive component of a traditional Chinese medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yu-Wen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Highly practical synthesis of gastrodin has been developed using penta-O-acetyl-b-D-glucopyranose and p-cresol as glycosyl donor and glycosyl acceptor, respectively, in four steps with 58.1% overall yield. At the initial step, the penta-O-acetyl-b-D-glucopyranose was treated with p-cresol in the presence of BF3.Et2O as catalyst to generate 4-methylphenyl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-b-D-glucopyranoside in 76.3% yield. Furthermore, this product was subjected to radical bromination with NBS to provide 4-(bromomethyl phenyl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-b-D-glucopyranoside in 91% yield. Subsequently, reaction of 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-b-D-glucopyranoside with a solution of acetone and saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate led to 4-(hydroxylmethyl phenyl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-b-D-glucopyranoside in 93% yield. Finally, global deprotection of 4-(hydroxylmethyl phenyl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-b-D-glucopyranoside under Zemplen conditions furnished gastrodin in 90% yield. Compared to the previously reported methods, this protocol has advantages of operational simplicity, chromatography-free separation, high overall yield, inexpensive and common reagents as well as less waste pollutants, rendering it an alternative suitable for industrial production.

  1. A dose-response study in mice of a tetravalent vaccine candidate composed of domain III-capsid proteins from dengue viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés, Iris; Marcos, Ernesto; Suzarte, Edith; Pérez, Yusleidi; Brown, Enma; Lazo, Laura; Cobas, Karem; Yaugel, Melyssa; Rodríguez, Yadira; Gil, Lázaro; Guillén, Gerardo; Hermida, Lisset

    2017-08-01

    Tetra DIIIC is a subunit vaccine candidate based on domain III of the envelope protein and the capsid protein of the four serotypes of dengue virus. This vaccine preparation contains the DIIIC proteins aggregated with a specific immunostimulatory oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN 39M). Tetra DIIIC has already been shown to be immunogenic and protective in mice and monkeys. In this study, we evaluated the immunogenicity in mice of several formulations of Tetra DIIIC containing different amounts of the recombinant proteins. The Tetra DIIIC formulation induced a humoral immune response against the four DENV serotypes, even at the lowest dose assayed. In contrast, the highest level of cell-mediated immunity, measured as frequency of IFNγ-producing cells, was detected in animals immunized with the lowest dose. The protective capacity of the tetravalent formulations was assessed using the mouse model of dengue virus encephalitis. Upon challenge, vaccinated mice showed significantly reduced virus replication in all tested groups. This study provides new information about the functionality of Tetra DIIIC as a vaccine candidate and also supports the crucial role of cell-mediated immunity in protection against dengue virus.

  2. DNA Tetrahedron Delivery Enhances Doxorubicin-Induced Apoptosis of HT-29 Colon Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guiyu; Zhang, Zhiyong; Yang, Junen

    2017-08-01

    As a nano-sized drug carrier with the advantage of modifiability and proper biocompatibility, DNA tetrahedron (DNA tetra) delivery is hopeful to enhance the inhibitory efficiency of nontargeted anticancer drugs. In this investigation, doxorubicin (Dox) was assembled to a folic acid-modified DNA tetra via click chemistry to prepare a targeted antitumor agent. Cellular uptake efficiency was measured via fluorescent imaging. Cytotoxicity, inhibition efficiency, and corresponding mechanism on colon cancer cell line HT-29 were evaluated by MTT assay, cell proliferation curve, western blot, and flow cytometry. No cytotoxicity was induced by DNA tetra, but the cellular uptake ratio increased obviously resulting from the DNA tetra-facilitated penetration through cellular membrane. Accordingly, folic acid-DNA tetra-Dox markedly increased the antitumor efficiency with increased apoptosis levels. In details, 100 μM was the effective concentration and a 6-h incubation period was needed for apoptosis induction. In conclusion, nano-sized DNA tetrahedron was a safe and effective delivery system for Dox and correspondingly enhanced the anticancer efficiency.

  3. ROXARSONE AND TRANSFORMATION PRODUCTS IN CHICKEN MANURE: DETERMINATION BY CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS-INDUCTIVELY COUPLES PLASMA MASS SPECTROMERTY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The determination of the animal feed additive roxarsone (3-nitro-4- hydroxyphenylarsonic acid) and six of its possible transfonnation products (arsenite, arsenate, monomethylarsonate, dimethylarsinate, 3-amino-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid, and 4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid) in chi...

  4. 5'-Uridyl derivatives of N-glycosyl allophanic acid and biuret.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Marietta; Somsák, László

    2010-01-11

    (2',3'-O-Isopropylidene-5'-uridyl) 4-(2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-beta-d-glycopyranosyl)allophanates were obtained in the reactions of 2',3'-O-isopropylidene-uridine and O-peracetylated beta-d-gluco-, galacto- and xylopyranosylamines, and OCNCOCl. 2,3,4,6-Tetra-O-acetyl-beta-d-glucopyranosyl isocyanate and N-(2',3'-O-isopropylidene-5'-uridyl)urea gave 1-(2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-beta-d-glucopyranosyl)-5-(2',3'-O-isopropylidene-5'-uridyl)biuret. Deprotection of the beta-d-gluco configured allophanate and biuret was carried out by standard methods. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Synthesis and Characterization of Two Sulfonated Resorcinarenes: A New Example of a Linear Array of Sodium Centers and Macrocycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilma Sanabria

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Two sulfonated resorcinarenes were synthesized by reacting C-tetra(butyl resorcinarene or C-tetra(2-(methylthioethylresorcinarene with formaldehyde in the presence of sodium sulfite. Their structures were determined via FT-IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and mass spectrometry. Thermal gravimetric analyses of the derivatives were also carried out and revealed the presence of water molecules in the solid state. The sulfonated product of C-tetra(butylresorcinarene was characterized by an X-ray crystal structure determination. The asymmetric unit contains eight molecules of water and two of acetone, and analysis indicated that sulfonated resorcinarene prefers a cone configuration (rccc conformation in the solid state. In the crystal array, classical hydrogen bond interactions O-H···O and intermolecular contacts were observed. In the crystal packing, a linear array of capsules of sulfonated resorcinarenes was generated for a chain of sodium atoms and sulfonate groups.

  6. Effect of methyl substitution on optoelectronic properties of 1,3,6,8-tetraphenyl pyrenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Yanling

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Geometric structures of the ground states and excited states,frontier molecular orbitals,ionization potentials,electron affinities,reorganization energies,and absorption and emission spectra of three novel methyl-substituted 1,3,6,8-tetra-phenylpyrenes were studied theoretically by quantum-chemical methods,such as density functional theory (DFT.The results show that the position of methyl substituent on benzene ring has much effect on the optoelectronic properties of methyl-substituted 1,3,6,8-tetra-phenylpyrenes.Interestingly,the geometric structures and optoelectronic properties of the designed compound 1,3,6,8-tetra-p-tolylpyrene (TPPy are similar to those of 1,3,6,8-tetrakis(3,5-dimethylphenylpyrene (TDMPPy,which is worthy of being further researched.

  7. Molecular Sieving and Current Rectification Properties of Thin Organic Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceta, Yara; Bergamini, Jean-Francois; Lagrost, Corinne; Hapiot, Philippe; Leroux, Yann R

    2018-02-20

    For the purpose of preparing well-organized functional surfaces, carbon and gold substrates were modified using electroreduction of a tetrahedral-shape preorganized tetra-aryldiazonium salt, leading to the deposition of ultrathin organic films. Characterization of the modified surfaces has been performed using cyclic voltammetry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, infrared absorption spectroscopy, ellipsometry, atomic force microscopy, and contact angle measurements. The specific design of the tetra-aryldiazonium salts leads to an intrinsic structuring of the resulting organic films, allowing molecular sieving and current rectification properties toward redox probes in solution.

  8. Thermal energy storage material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leifer, Leslie

    1976-01-01

    A thermal energy storage material which is stable at atmospheric temperature and pressure and has a melting point higher than 32.degree.F. is prepared by dissolving a specific class of clathrate forming compounds, such as tetra n-propyl or tetra n-butyl ammonium fluoride, in water to form a substantially solid clathrate. The resultant thermal energy storage material is capable of absorbing heat from or releasing heat to a given region as it transforms between solid and liquid states in response to temperature changes in the region above and below its melting point.

  9. Self-Assembly of Fluorinated Sugar Amino Acid Derived α,γ-Cyclic Peptides into Transmembrane Anion Transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burade, Sachin S; Saha, Tanmoy; Bhuma, Naresh; Kumbhar, Navanath; Kotmale, Amol; Rajamohanan, Pattuparambil R; Gonnade, Rajesh G; Talukdar, Pinaki; Dhavale, Dilip D

    2017-11-03

    Syntheses of fluorinated sugar amino acid derived α,γ-cyclic tetra- and hexapeptides are reported. The IR, NMR, ESI-MS, CD, and molecular modeling studies of cyclic tetra- and hexapeptides showed C 2 and C 3 symmetric flat oval- and triangular-ring shaped β-strand conformations, respectively, which appear to self-assemble into nanotubes. The α,γ-cyclic hexapeptide (EC 50 = 2.14 μM) is found to be a more efficient ion transporter than α,γ-cyclic tetrapeptide (EC 50 = 14.75 μM). The anion selectivity and recognition of α,γ-cyclic hexapeptide with NO 3 - ion is investigated.

  10. Gamma-rays Associated with Nearby Thunderstorms at Ground Level

    OpenAIRE

    Ringuette, Rebecca; Cherry, Michael L.; Granger, Douglas; Guzik, T. Gregory; Stewart, Michael; Wefel, John P.

    2014-01-01

    The TGF and Energetic Thunderstorm Rooftop Array (TETRA) is an array of NaI scintillators located at rooftop level on the campus of Louisiana State University in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. From July 2010 through March 2014, TETRA has detected 28 millisecond-duration bursts of gamma-rays at energies 50 keV - 2 MeV associated with nearby (< 8 km) thunderstorms. The ability to observe ground-level Terrestrial Gamma Flashes from close to the source allows a unique analysis of the storm cells produci...

  11. An Improved Supplier Driven Packaging Design and Development Method for Supply Chain Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sohrabpour, Vahid; Oghazi, Pejvak; Olsson, Annika

    2016-01-01

    and satisfaction in interaction with the product and packaging system. It also proposes a supply chain focused packaging design and development method to better satisfy supply chain needs placed on packaging. An extensive literature review was conducted, and a Tetra Pak derived case study was developed....... The propositions were formulated and became the basis for improving Tetra Pak's existing packaging design and development method by better integrating supply chain needs. This was accomplished by using an expanded operational life cycle perspective that includes the entire supply chain. The resulting supply chain...

  12. Position-dependent deuterium isotope effect on photoisomerization of ammineaquarhodium(III) complexes: identification of the excited-state vibronic deactivation mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skibsted, L.H.

    1987-01-01

    cis to trans Photoisomerization quantum yields are increased by a factor of approximately two by deuteriation of co-ordinated water in tetra-amminediaquarhodium, but are almost insensitive to deuteriation of co-ordinated water in tetra-ammineaquachlororhodium and to deuteriation of co-ordinated ammonia in either complex; this identifies the dominating nonradiative deactivation mode (competing with the excited-state rearrangement) as a hydrogen-oxygen vibration in an excited-state intermediate of reduced co-ordination number. (author)

  13. Novel Polymers for High Efficiency Renewable and Portable Power Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-30

    load weights are due to the traditional chemical batteries in order to power the devices in a 24-hours period. For any flying objects in the air or...study. (a) meso-Tetra(4- carboxyphenyl)porphine (TCPP), (b) Chloro(protoporphyrinato)iron(III) (Hemin), (c) Protoporphyrin, (d) Zinc 2, 9, 16, 23... Zinc 2, 9, 16, 23-tetra-tert-butyl-29H, 31H-phthalocyanine (ZnPC), (e) cis-Bis(isothiocyanato)(2,2′- bipyridyl-4,4′-dicarboxylato)(4,4′-di-nonyl-2

  14. Ab-initio crystal structure analysis and refinement approaches of oligo p-benzamides based on electron diffraction data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelik, Tatiana E; van de Streek, Jacco; Kilbinger, Andreas F M; Brunklaus, Gunther; Kolb, Ute

    2012-04-01

    Ab-initio crystal structure analysis of organic materials from electron diffraction data is presented. The data were collected using the automated electron diffraction tomography (ADT) technique. The structure solution and refinement route is first validated on the basis of the known crystal structure of tri-p-benzamide. The same procedure is then applied to solve the previously unknown crystal structure of tetra-p-benzamide. In the crystal structure of tetra-p-benzamide, an unusual hydrogen-bonding scheme is realised; the hydrogen-bonding scheme is, however, in perfect agreement with solid-state NMR data.

  15. Scandium phosphates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mel'nikov, P.P.; Komissarova, L.N.

    1988-01-01

    The review deals with scandium phosphates known by now, including mono- and condensed phosphates (di-, tri-, tetra phosphates and more condensed forms). Phosphates with complex cation and anion parts are also considered. The methods of preparation, structural types, structure peculiarities, physicochemical characteristics are generalized and application fields of the compounds mentioned are indicated

  16. Vom work Book Journal 2011, 2010 4th Edition PDF

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Blood samples were taken into bijou bottles containing disodium ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (NaEDTA) as anticoagulant and. 2 examined haematologically on a pocH-100iV. Diff (Sysmex Animal health); the normal reference ranges for the haematological parameters have been derived from Radostits et al. (2000).

  17. Syntheses and solid state structures of zinc (II) complexes with Bi ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    BIAO) (1). However, complexes 1b, 2b and 3b were obtained by the treatment of ZnBr2 and neutral ligands ... Zinc(II); iminoacenathenone; penta- and tetra- coordinated; metallacycle; chelating ligands; ..... with a layer of light mineral oil and.

  18. Calix[4]arenes as Molecular Platforms for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Contrast Agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schehle, Daniel T.; Schatz, Juergen; Laurent, Sophie; Elst, Luce Vander; Muller, Robert N.; Stuart, Marc C. A.; Peters, Joop A.

    2009-01-01

    An amphiphilic conjugate 1 of a calix[4]arene with four Gd-DOTA chelates (DOTA=1,4,7,10-tetra(carboxymethyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane) was prepared and the properties relevant to its application as a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent were investigated by NMR, dynamic light

  19. Antimicrobial activity of the ethanol extract and fractions of the seeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-01-18

    Jan 18, 2008 ... Fitoterapia 65 3: 267-278. Okonji CO, Iwu MM (1988). Control of Schistosomiasis using Nigerian medicinal plants as molluscicides. Int. J. Crude drug Res. 26(4): 246-. 252. Russel AD, Fur JR (1977). Antibacteria activity of a new chloroxylenol prepration containing ethylenediamine tetra acetic acid. J. Appl.

  20. Analysis and occurrence of toxic planar PCBs, PCDDs and PCDFs in milk by use of carbosphere activated carbon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velde EG; Marsman JA; de Jong APJM; Hoogerbrugge R; Liem AKD

    1993-01-01

    A method is described for the determination of the toxicologically related planar PCB-congeners 3,3',4,4' -tetra, 3,3',4,4',5 -penta and 3,3',4,4',5,5' -hexachloro-biphenyl, based on the former Carbosphere methodology for the isomer-specific analysis of the

  1. Structure-driven CO2 selectivity and gas capacity of ionic clathrate hydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Hidenori; Yamaguchi, Tsutomu; Ozeki, Hiroyuki; Muromachi, Sanehiro

    2017-12-08

    Ionic clathrate hydrates can selectively capture small gas molecules such as CO 2 , N 2 , CH 4 and H 2 . We investigated CO 2  + N 2 mixed gas separation properties of ionic clathrate hydrates formed with tetra-n-butylammonium bromide (TBAB), tetra-n-butylammonium chloride (TBAC), tetra-n-butylphosphonium bromide (TBPB) and tetra-n-butylphosphonium chloride (TBPC). The results showed that CO 2 selectivity of TBAC hydrates was remarkably higher than those of the other hydrates despite less gas capacity of TBAC hydrates. The TBAB hydrates also showed irregularly high CO 2 selectivity at a low pressure. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopic analyses clarified that TBAC stably formed the tetragonal hydrate structure, and TBPB and TBPC formed the orthorhombic hydrate structure. The TBAB hydrates showed polymorphic phases which may consist of the both orthorhombic and tetragonal hydrate structures. These results showed that the tetragonal hydrate captured CO 2 more efficiently than the orthorhombic hydrate, while the orthorhombic hydrate has the largest gas capacity among the basic four structures of ionic clathrate hydrates. The present study suggests new potential for improving gas capacity and selectivity of ionic clathrate hydrates by choosing suitable ionic guest substances for guest gas components.

  2. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-19

    Nov 19, 2008 ... and its signalling pathway on plant regeneration. In this report Arabidopsis thaliana landsberg (wild type), ga1-3 (gibberellin biosynthesis deficiency mutant), gai (gibberellin insensitive mutant), penta mutant (lacking GA1, GAI, RGA, RGL1, RGL2) and tetra mutant (lacking GAI, RGA, RGL1, RGL2) were.

  3. Synthesis of a D-Glucopyranosyl Azide: Spectroscopic Evidence for Stereochemical Inversion in the S[subscript N]2 Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesoye, Olumuyiwa G.; Mills, Isaac N.; Temelkoff, David P.; Jackson, John A.; Norris, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Stereospecific S[subscript N]2 conversion of configurationally pure acetobromoglucose (2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl bromide) to the corresponding beta-D-glucopyranosyl azide is a useful exercise in the advanced organic undergraduate teaching laboratory. The procedure is safe and suitable for small-scale implementation, and firm…

  4. Ion transport in Au doped/undoped KDP crystals with KI/NaI as ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    8 : 2. Au+ doped crystals were grown by adding a definite volume of tetra-auro chloric acid solution to the mixture .... because ionic conductivity of alkali halides is lower than that of KDP crystals. Addition of higher concentration of alkali halides has resulted in lower σ. Present experimen- tal results are in line with the above ...

  5. trisubstituted imidazoles by using microwave irradiation under

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Shen M, Cai C and Yi W 2008 J. Fluorine Chem. 129. 541. 44. Kidwai M, Mothsra P, Bansal V, Somvanshi R K,. Ethayathulla A S, Dey S and Singh T P 2007 J. Mol. Catal. A: Chem. 265 177. 45. Khosropour A R 2008 Ultrason. Sonochem. 15 659. 46. Sharma S D, Hazarika P and Konwar D 2008 Tetra- hedron Lett. 49 2216.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of new meso-substituted ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    IR spectra were recorded on Megna IR spectrometer. (550 Nicolet). The NMR spectra were recorded on. Varian (mercury YH-300) of 300 MHz using tetra- methylsilane as internal standard. UV-Visible spec- tra were obtained on Shimadzu UV-spectrometer. (UV-1601) using chloroform. Fluorescence spectra were recorded ...

  7. Non-covalent synthesis of calix[4]arene-capped porphyrins in polar solvents via ionic interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fiammengo, R.; Timmerman, P.; Huskens, Jurriaan; Versluis, Kees; Heck, Albert J.R.; Reinhoudt, David

    2002-01-01

    Non-covalent synthesis of calix[4]arene capped porphyrins can be achieved in polar solvents (up to 45% molar fraction of water) via ionic interaction. Thus tetracationic meso-tetrakis(N-alkylpyridinium-3-yl) porphyrins 1a–d and tetra anionic 25,26,27,28-tetrakis(2-ethoxyethoxy)-calix[4]arene

  8. Revision of Corallinaceae (Corallinales, Rhodophyta): recognizing Dawsoniolithon gen. nov., Parvicellularium gen. nov. and Chamberlainoideae subfam. nov. containing Chamberlainium gen. nov. and Pneophyllum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caragnano, Annalisa; Foetisch, Alexandra; Maneveldt, Gavin W; Millet, Laurent; Liu, Li-Chia; Lin, Showe-Mei; Rodondi, Graziella; Payri, Claude E

    2018-03-25

    A multi-gene (SSU, LSU, psbA and COI) molecular phylogeny of the family Corallinaceae (excluding the subfamilies Lithophylloideae and Corallinoideae) showed a paraphyletic grouping of six monophyletic clades. Pneophyllum and Spongites were reassessed and recircumscribed using DNA sequence data integrated with morpho-anatomical comparisons of type material and recently collected specimens. We propose Chamberlainoideae subfam. nov., including the type genus Chamberlainium gen. nov., with C. tumidum comb. nov. as the generitype, and Pneophyllum. Chamberlainium is established to include several taxa previously ascribed to Spongites, the generitype of which currently resides in Neogoniolithoideae. Additionally we propose two new genera, Dawsoniolithon gen. nov. (Metagoniolithoideae), with D. conicum comb. nov. as the generitype and Parvicellularium gen. nov. (subfamily incertae sedis), with P. leonardi sp. nov. as the generitype. Chamberlainoideae has no diagnostic morpho-anatomical features that enable one to assign specimens to it without DNA sequence data, and it is the first subfamily to possess both Type 1 (Chamberlainium) and Type 2 (Pneophyllum) tetra/bisporangial conceptacle roof development. Two characters distinguish Chamberlainium from Spongites: tetra/biasporangial conceptacle chamber diameter (300 μm in Spongites) and tetra/bisporangial conceptacle roof thickness (8 cells in Spongites). Two characters also distinguish Pneophyllum from Dawsoniolithon: tetra/bisporangial conceptacle roof thickness (8 cells in Dawsoniolithon) and thallus construction (dimerous in Pneophyllum vs. monomerous in Dawsoniolithon). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Management of Munitions Constituents in Soil Using Alkaline Hydrolysis: A Guide for Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    biological treatment, and alkaline hydrolysis. Alkaline hydrolysis makes use of a well-known reactive pathway for explosive compounds. Engineering this...easily destroyed via a denitrification process if the need ever arose in the field. Two months after the bench-scale successes, Tetra Tech applied

  10. Facile assembly of light-driven molecular motors onto a solid surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Jiawen; Chen, Kuang-Yen; Carroll, Gregory T; Feringa, Ben L

    2014-01-01

    In order to improve the rotary motion of surface assembled light-driven molecular motors, tetra-acid-functionalized motors were bound to an amine-coated quartz surface without prior activation of the acid groups. In contrast to earlier bipodal motors, the tetravalent motor showed no significant

  11. Ultra-Fast Tracking Power Supply with 4th order Output Filter and Fixed-Frequency Hysteretic Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyerby, Mikkel Christian Wendelboe; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2008-01-01

    A practical solution is presented for the design of a non-isolated DC/DC power converter with very low output ripple voltage and very fast output voltage step response. The converter is intended for use as an envelope tracking power supply for an RFPA (Radio Frequency Power Amplifier) in a Tetra2...

  12. Three-step synthesis of l-ido-1-deoxynojirimycin derivatives by reductive amination in water, "borrowing hydrogen" under neat conditions and deprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Kai; Zhou, Gang; Nie, Huifang; Chen, Weiping

    2016-10-12

    In this communication, we describe a three-step synthesis of l-ido-1-deoxynojirimycin derivatives starting from readily available 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-benzyl-d-glucopyranose via Ir-catalyzed reductive amination in water, "borrowing hydrogen" under neat conditions, and Pd-catalyzed debenzylation.

  13. Effect of fortifying amaranth diets with amino acids, casein and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two feeding trials with broilers (1-31 days of age) were carried out to determine the effect of fortifying grain amaranth based diets with lysine, methionine, casein and ethylene diamine tetra acetate (EDTA) on broiler performance, amino acid availability, plasma amino acid concentrations and nitrogen and mineral retention.

  14. Thirty year monitoring of PCBs, organochlorine pesticides and tetrabromodiphenylether in eel from The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de J.; Dao, Q.T.; Leeuwen, van P.W.; Kotterman, M.J.J.; Schobben, J.H.M.

    2010-01-01

    Because of their excellent properties as a biomonitor, yellow eels (Anguilla anguilla) have been used for time-trend monitoring of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and tetrabrominated diphenylether (tetra-BDE). The program has now lasted for thirty years and has

  15. Malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    halofantrine, and quinine combined with tetra- cycline. When atovaquone-proguanil is used to treat vivax malaria , it should be followed by...1 Introduction Definition Malaria is an infectious disease caused by coccidian pro- tozoa of the genus Plasmodium, and transmitted by infected...female anopheline mosquitoes. Plasmodium sp infecting humans include Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium falci- parum, Plasmodium malariae , and Plasmodium ovale

  16. Ahmad T Reverse micellar synthesis and properties of nano ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Temperature effects on surface activity and applica- tion in oxidation of toluene derivatives of CTAB–SDS with KMnO4. 281. Tayebee R. Oxygenation of saturated and unsaturated hydrocar- bons with sodium periodate catalyzed by manga- nese(III) tetra-arylporphyrins, to study the axial ligation of imidazole. 429. Thakuria H.

  17. SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    bons with sodium periodate catalyzed by manga- nese(III) tetra-arylporphyrins, to study the axial ligation of imidazole. 429. Azomesogens. Mesogenic benzothiazole derivatives with methoxy substituents. 203. 1,3-Azoles. An unusual hydrogen addition of indolo-2,3-quino- dimethanes to dimethylindoles in the presence of 1 ...

  18. A novel surface micromachining process to fabricate AlN unimorph suspensions and its application for RF resonators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saravanan, S.; Saravanan, S.; Berenschot, Johan W.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2006-01-01

    A novel surface micromachining process is reported for aluminum nitride (AlN) thin films to fabricate piezoelectric unimorph suspension devices for micro actuator applications. Wet anisotropic etching of AlN thin film is used with a Cr metal mask layer in the microfabrication process. Tetra methyl

  19. Separate Location of Parental Chromosomes in Squashed Metaphases of Hybrid between Hordeum vulgare L. and Four Polyploid, Alien Species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J.; Linde-Laursen, Ib

    1984-01-01

    In 38 squashed, somatic metaphases of four hybrids between diploid Hordeum vulgare and two tetra-and two hexaploid alien species, each of the H. vulgare chromosomes was identifed, and differentiated from the chromosomes of the other parental species, by its Giemsa C-banding pattern. The H. vulgare...

  20. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of some Anthranilic Acid and 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJD

    In the present investigation a novel series of N-(phenyl) chalconyl anthranilic acids containing pyrazolines (4a–j), tetra- hydropyrimidines (4k–o), tetrahydrothiopyrimidines (4p–t) and 2-phenylquinazolin-4(3H)-ones containing pyrazolines (8a–f), isoxazolines (8g–l), tetrahydropyrimidines (8m–r) and ...