Sample records for tethys israel taphonomic

  1. Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evron, Y.


    Israel's ambiguous posture gradually emerged, although Israel, according to all international accounts, continued to pursue the development of a nuclear weapon option. The evolution of Israeli policy on this issue constitutes the main focus of this paper. Beginning with a detailed account of the strategic and political context, the initial Israeli decisions to develop a nuclear infrastructure are examined. Next, Israel's decision to adopt an ambiguous stance, the various features of the current threshold posture and the reasons for Israel's restraint will respect to nuclear weapon development are explored. The role played by the nuclear dimension in the Arab-Israeli conflict and in the Middle east peace process constitutes a third area to be discussed. The paper then examines the intended and actual functions of Israel's threshold posture, before concluding with an analysis of some of the implications for arms control

  2. Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinberg, G.M.


    In the area of nuclear weapons and the development of the potential capability as a nuclear supplier, as in many other issues, Israel stands out as a highly unusual, and indeed unique, case. In contrast to most other states considered in this paper such as Argentina, Brazil, and South Korea, Israel does not have an active civil nuclear energy industry. Despite some meager efforts in this direction, Israel does not operate large civil nuclear power reactors, and no Israeli firms produce commercial nuclear fuel cycle components of significance. Thus, many of the commercial and political factors that contribute to the emergence of second-tier suppliers are not salient in the Israeli case. Israel's status as a potential second tier nuclear supplier is based on its own nuclear weapons program and capability. Israeli scientists and engineers have clearly developed the technical infrastructure and facilities to design, produce, test, and deploy nuclear weapons and appropriate delivery vehicles

  3. Israel. (United States)


    A summary description of Israel's populzation, history, government, geography, economy, and foreign relations is provided. Israel's population of 4.1 million (1983) is composed of migrants and descendants of migrants from more than 100 different countries. 83% of the population is Jewish, and the remaining 17% is mostly Arab. The literacy rate is 88% among Jews and 48% among Arabs. Life expectancy is 72.1 for males and 75.7 for females, and the infant mortality rate is 14.1/1000. The state of Israel was created in response to the Zionist's desire to establish a homeland in Palestine for the world's Jewish population. With the help of the British government and the League of Nations, Jews began immigrating to Palestine in the 1920s. During the 1930s and 1940s, Jewish migration to Israel increased markedly, and in 1947 the UN adopted a plan to divide Palestine into a Jewish state and an Arab state, despite resistance from the Arab community. In 1948, Israel offically proclaimed its existence, and hostilities between the Israelis and Arabs broke out immediately. The ensuing years were characterized by sporadic conflict between Israel, Arab countries 2nd the Palestinians. The conflict between these groups continues into the present, despite many international attempts to promote peace in the region. The country has a parliamentary democratic form of government. It is governed by an elected unicameral legislature, the Knesset; a president, elected by the Knesset; a prime minister, selected by the president to represent the major party in the Knesset; and a coalition cabinet, which must be approved by the Knesset. The country has a market economy, but the government exerts considerable control over the economy, including price control. The country is straddled by a high trade deficit, heavey defense expeditures, inflation, and the high cost of absorbing a large number of immigrants. Despite these problems, as well as a lack of natural resources, Israel has a well

  4. The Alpine loop of the tethys zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemmelen, R.W. van

    The Alpine loop in Europe results from semi-autochthonous crustal movements which are restricted to the mobile Tethys zone. Its evolution cannot be explained by a uniform northward drift and push of the African continent; it has to be sought, in the first place, in geodynamic processes occurring in

  5. Thermodynamic resolution of periosteal reaction and taphonomic change. (United States)

    Rothschild, B M; Rothschild, C


    New bone formation (e.g., periosteal reaction) is one component of bone and joint disease diagnosis. Its application in the archeologic record has been compromised by lack of standardization. An objective technique for validating observations seems especially valuable when visual examination of a single data set results in widely disparate perspectives. Such discrepancies as to presence or absence of periosteal reaction are amenable to objective analysis. Bone, as any other form of matter, has a variety of properties. Some are characterized by weight or volume and are referred to as colligative. Some are related to its intrinsic nature, independent of mass. The latter are referred to as non-colligative. Non-colligative properties of matter provide an opportunity to assess structure, independent of quantity. Study of one such property, entropy, revealed that taphonomic changes can confidently be distinguished from bone surface reaction. Contrasted with the homogeneous entropy of normal bone, the loss of surface bone inherent in taphonomy results in reduced entropy. Contrasted with the homogenous patterns of normal bone, specific non-homogenous patterns allow periosteal reaction to be recognized, independent of variety of periosteal reaction or its origin. Thermographic approach allows observational techniques to be independently validated. Such validation allows for greater facility in interobserver archeologic site sample comparisons.

  6. Youth Aliyah in Israel. (United States)

    Amir, Eli


    Describes Youth Aliyah, department of Jewish Agency for Israel, which began in 1933 to rescue Jewish children from Nazi Germany, bring them to Israel, and place them in kibbutzim. Notes that, since its inception, Youth Aliyah has taken in Holocaust survivors and has taken active role in helping young immigrants to Israel in need of education and…

  7. A Comparative Taphonomic Analysis of 24 Trophy Skulls from Modern Forensic Cases. (United States)

    Yucha, Josephine M; Pokines, James T; Bartelink, Eric J


    Cranial remains retained from fallen enemies are commonly referred to as "trophy skulls," and many such crania were acquired as souvenirs by U.S. servicemembers during WWII and the Vietnam conflict. These remains increasingly have become the subject of forensic anthropological analysis as their possessors, typically veterans or their relatives, try to discard or repatriate them. The present research uses a qualitative analytical approach to review 24 cases of reported trophy skulls (14 previously unpublished cases and 10 from the literature) to determine which perimortem and postmortem characteristics are most useful for generating a taphonomic profile. Overall, the taphonomic signature of trophy remains includes traits relating to acquisition and preparation, ornamental display, and subsequent curation. Contextual evidence and the biological profile also are considered when determining the possible origin of human cranial remains as a trophy skull. Thorough taphonomic analysis will aid in identifying these types of remains as trophy skulls. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  8. Analyzing taphonomic deformation of ankylosaur skulls using retrodeformation and finite element analysis. (United States)

    Arbour, Victoria M; Currie, Philip J


    Taphonomic deformation can make the interpretation of vertebrate fossil morphology difficult. The effects of taphonomic deformation are investigated in two ankylosaurid dinosaur taxa, Euoplocephalus tutus (to investigate effects on our understanding of intraspecific variation) and Minotaurasaurus ramachandrani (to investigate the validity of this genus). The ratio of orbit maximum rostrocaudal length to perpendicular height is used as a strain ellipse, which can be used to determine if ankylosaur skull fossils have been dorsoventrally compacted during fossilization and diagenesis. The software program Geomagic is used to retrodeform three-dimensional (3D) digital models of the ankylosaur skulls. The effects of sediment compaction are modeled using finite element analysis, and the resulting strain distributions are compared with the retrodeformed models as a test of the retrodeformation method. Taphonomic deformation can account for a large amount of intraspecific variation in Euoplocephalus, but finite element analysis and retrodeformation of Minotaurasaurus shows that many of its diagnostic features are unlikely to result from deformation.

  9. Analyzing taphonomic deformation of ankylosaur skulls using retrodeformation and finite element analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria M Arbour

    Full Text Available Taphonomic deformation can make the interpretation of vertebrate fossil morphology difficult. The effects of taphonomic deformation are investigated in two ankylosaurid dinosaur taxa, Euoplocephalus tutus (to investigate effects on our understanding of intraspecific variation and Minotaurasaurus ramachandrani (to investigate the validity of this genus. The ratio of orbit maximum rostrocaudal length to perpendicular height is used as a strain ellipse, which can be used to determine if ankylosaur skull fossils have been dorsoventrally compacted during fossilization and diagenesis. The software program Geomagic is used to retrodeform three-dimensional (3D digital models of the ankylosaur skulls. The effects of sediment compaction are modeled using finite element analysis, and the resulting strain distributions are compared with the retrodeformed models as a test of the retrodeformation method. Taphonomic deformation can account for a large amount of intraspecific variation in Euoplocephalus, but finite element analysis and retrodeformation of Minotaurasaurus shows that many of its diagnostic features are unlikely to result from deformation.

  10. Diagnostic guide enabling distinction between taphonomic stains and enamel hypomineralisation in an archaeological context. (United States)

    Garot, Elsa; Couture-Veschambre, Christine; Manton, David; Rodriguez, Vincent; Lefrais, Yannick; Rouas, Patrick


    Molar Incisor Hypomineralisation (MIH) is a structural anomaly that affects the quality of tooth enamel and has important consequences for oral health. The developmentally hypomineralised enamel has normal thickness and can range in colour from white to yellow or brown with or without surface breakdown. The possibility of finding MIH in 'ancient populations' could downplay several current aetiological hypotheses (e.g., dioxin derivatives, bisphenols, antibiotics) without excluding the possible multifactorial aspect of the anomaly. In an archaeological context, chemical elements contained in the burial ground can stain teeth yellow or brown and therefore might create a taphonomic bias. The purpose of the present study is to test a proposed diagnostic guide enabling determination of the pathological or taphonomic cause of enamel discolouration and defects that resemble MIH present on 'ancient teeth'. Two sample groups including MIH discoloration (n=12 teeth) from living patients, taphonomic discoloration (n=9 teeth) and unknown discoloration (n=2 teeth) from medieval specimens were tested. Three non-destructive methods-Raman spectroscopy, X-ray micro-computed tomography and X-ray fluorescence were utilised. Hypomineralised enamel has decreased mineral density (pstaining in archaeological teeth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrică ȘTEFAN


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is the economic promotion of tourism circuit between Romania (Bucharest and Israel (Tel Aviv and Jerusalem, unique and blessed area in the world because here was born the Lord Jesus Christ and also our religion: Christianity. It wants also presenting significant sights in Israel which, financially, would be visited at very competitive rates for Romanian tourists, making, in this way, important discounts.

  12. Taphonomic and paleoecological change in the large mammal sequence from Boomplaas Cave, western Cape, South Africa. (United States)

    Faith, J Tyler


    Excavations conducted by H.J. Deacon in the 1970s at Boomplaas Cave (BPA) uncovered a stratified sequence of Middle Stone Age (MSA) and Later Stone Age (LSA) deposits spanning the last >65,000 years. This study provides the first comprehensive and integrated taphonomic and paleoecological analysis of the BPA large mammals, with a focus on its implications for understanding human adaptations and environmental changes in southern Africa's Cape Floristic Region (CFR), an area that features prominently in understanding modern human origins. Taphonomic data indicate a complex history of human, carnivore, and raptor accumulation of the large mammal assemblage. The anthropogenic signal is largely absent from the bottom of the sequence (>65,000 years ago), intermediate in MSA and LSA assemblages from ~50,000 to 20,000 years ago, and strong in LSA deposits post-dating the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). When viewed in the broader CFR context, the inferred occupation history of BPA is consistent with the hypothesis that both MSA and LSA human populations were concentrated on the submerged coastline from ~60,000 to ~20,000 years ago. Intensive occupation following the LGM parallels an apparent increase in regional population densities, which may have been driven in part by rising sea levels. The BPA ungulate assemblage is characterized by the rise and decline of a taxonomically diverse grazing community, which peaks during the LGM. These changes are not correlated with taphonomic shifts, meaning that they are likely driven by environmental factors, namely the expansion and contraction of grassland habitats. Changes in ungulate diversity indicate that effective precipitation was highest during the LGM, corresponding with an intensified winter rainfall system. This is consistent with recent arguments that the LGM in this region may not have been extremely harsh and arid. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. O Lobby de Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Mearsheimer


    Full Text Available O cerne da política dos Estados Unidos no Oriente Médio deriva das atividades do "Lobby de Israel", que conseguiu desviá-la para longe do interesse nacional e convencer os americanos de que os interesses dos Estados Unidos e os de Israel são idênticos. O artigo sustenta que estratégias comuns ou imperativos morais inarredáveis não são explicações suficientes para explicar o notável nível de apoio material e diplomático fornecido pelos Estados Unidos.The thrust of US Middle Eastern policy derives from the activities of the "Israel Lobby", which has managed to divert it as far from what the national interest would suggest, convincing Americans that US interests and those of Israel are identical. The article states that neither shared strategic interests nor compelling moral imperatives can account for the remarkable level of material and diplomatic support provided to Israel by US government.

  14. Las fronteras de Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arie M. Kacowicz


    Full Text Available En el presente artículo haré una breve reseña histórica de la evolución de las fronteras (inconclusas del Estado de Israel entre 1948 y 2007. En primer lugar, presento un modelo teórico sobre el desarrollo y la evolución de las fronteras, tanto por la vía pacífi ca como por la bélica. En segundo lugar, hago una reseña histórica de la evolución de las fronteras de Israel desde su independencia hasta el presente. El artículo también hace referencia detallada a los problemas pendientes con respecto a las negociaciones entre Israel y los palestinos.

  15. White-tailed Deer as a Taphonomic Agent: Photographic Evidence of White-tailed Deer Gnawing on Human Bone. (United States)

    Meckel, Lauren A; McDaneld, Chloe P; Wescott, Daniel J


    Ungulate gnawing on bone has been reported in the taphonomic and zooarchaeological literature, but there are no known reports of ungulates altering human remains. Herein, we report on the first known photographic evidence of deer gnawing human remains. As described in nonhuman scavenging literature, forking of the bone characterizes the taphonomic effect of deer gnawing in this case, which is distinct from the effect caused by other scavengers. This type of osteophagia during the winter season is consistent with previously documented behavior of deer gnawing on nonhuman bone, possibly to obtain minerals absent in their diet. In this study, we briefly discuss the distinguishing features of ungulate gnawing, the reasons for this behavior, and possible confusion with other common types of scavenging and modification. This report contributes to taphonomic literature covering the range of animal interactions with human skeletal remains. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  16. Inclusive Education in Israel


    O. V. Mayzel


    To get acquainted with the practice of inclusive education in mainstream schools, with professionals who work with special children, to visit the specialist centers to share experiences - all of this was part of an internship program «Early Childhood Education for Children with Special Needs», held in Israel (April 8 -02 May 2013) this year. The country has been selected for an internship, because the practice of inclusive education has been used for over 20 years in Israel. Moreover, a lot ...

  17. Preliminary application of Structure from Motion and GIS to document decomposition and taphonomic processes. (United States)

    Carlton, Connor D; Mitchell, Samantha; Lewis, Patrick


    Over the past decade, Structure from Motion (SfM) has increasingly been used as a means of digital preservation and for documenting archaeological excavations, architecture, and cultural material. However, few studies have tapped the potential of using SfM to document and analyze taphonomic processes affecting burials for forensic sciences purposes. This project utilizes SfM models to elucidate specific post-depositional events that affected a series of three human cadavers deposited at the South East Texas Applied Forensic Science Facility (STAFS). The aim of this research was to test the ability for untrained researchers to employ spatial software and photogrammetry for data collection purposes. For a series of three months a single lens reflex (SLR) camera was used to capture a series of overlapping images at periodic stages in the decomposition process of each cadaver. These images are processed through photogrammetric software that creates a 3D model that can be measured, manipulated, and viewed. This project used photogrammetric and geospatial software to map changes in decomposition and movement of the body from original deposition points. Project results indicate SfM and GIS as a useful tool for documenting decomposition and taphonomic processes. Results indicate photogrammetry is an efficient, relatively simple, and affordable tool for the documentation of decomposition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Israel: health and beyond. (United States)

    Skorecki, Karl; Horton, Richard


    The principle that global human identity and dignity supersede other values is a broadly accepted conviction that guides practice and policies in the realm of human health in most of the world. An assessment of the level of success that Israel has achieved in health, in the face of formidable challenges, including rapid population growth, diverse and often divided ethnic affiliations, and existential security threats, leads us to propose that extension of this principle of global human identity and dignity, together with the objective of a decent society, as overriding values beyond health to other domains of human endeavour within Israel and in its relations with neighbouring peoples, represents an entirely achievable imperative. The result will be to further advance Israel's aspiration to serve as a model for societal decency with wide international acceptance and engagement. We have identified several determinants of Israel's advancement in health, including: articulation of a clear vision, national purpose, and long-term commitment that seeks to take the health of its citizens seriously; a multi-ethnic population that brings diversity and energy to national progress; a political democracy, which is characterised by robust debate and discussion about the nation's future; national legislation governing cardinal health-care processes; cultural and religious histories that respect and revere scholarship, learning, research, and charitable donation; an expanding economy, with recent but increasing appreciation of the economic, social, and political underpinnings of health and health inequalities; a strong base of international support from the Diaspora Jewish community; and a strong desire for acceptance by the international community in key arenas, especially science and health. As a result, despite the fewer than seven decades since its establishment, Israel has achieved important milestones in health. Nevertheless, this trajectory of achievement is threatened by

  19. [Complementary medicine in Israel]. (United States)

    Frenkel, Moshe; Gamus, Dorit


    Over the past two decades there has been an increase in the use and popularity of complementary medicine in Israel. Currently, there are over 100 complementary medicine clinics in the public health sector supported by the four health funds and most hospitals in Israel. The number of visits to those clinics reaches close to 3 million visits annually. This reflects an extensive system of care that Israelis utilize in addition to the conventional heaLthcare system. However, the communication between the two systems is still Limited and the education of complementary medicine providers is not regulated by the Ministry of Health. Concurrently, there are a growing number of physicians who expand the knowledge on these therapies and actually integrate them in patients' care. This issue describes experiences and knowledge related to the integration of complementary medicine in the Israeli healthcare system and provides additional research data in support of further integration of complementary medicine within conventional healthcare.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Abdurakhmanov


    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of the work is to analyze the geographic relationships of the family Tenebrionidae, which should be the basis of faunogenesis of the Tethys region of Palaearctic. Methods. The work is based on the material collected by the authors in the various regions of the Caucasus, the south of the European part of Russia, Kazakhstan and North Africa during 50 years (from 1961 to 2016, as well as the extensive literature data. We used the cluster analysis based on the Jaccard similarity coefficient which considers the positive coincidences for analysis the Tethys region tenebrionid faunas. Invasive species are not included in the analysis. Results. Extensive review of the history of study of Western Palaearctic Tenebrionidae from the mid-19th Century to the present day is given. The main directions of contemporary research are marked. Four hundred three genera of darkling beetles are distributed in the Tethys region including dendrophilous groups with tropical origin,  transpalaearctic  and  cosmopolitan  species,  that  represent  63%  of  all  known  Palaearctic  tenebrionid  genera (640 genera. Three quarters of them (304 genera or 75% combining 5674 species include mainly xerophilous genera that are not found outside the region or presented only by very small number of species in the neighboring territories. Evidences of a common historical development of tenebrionid fauna appear in the 24 common widespread Tethys genera, which may be slightly spread beyond the boundaries, but have a very high diversity of species and infrageneric (probably a center of the origin diversity within the Tethys region. The significant part (61% of common Tethys genera, the high diversity of large Palaearctic genera of Tenebrionidae in the western and eastern parts of Tethys region, as well as the presence of complex of supralittoral relics of marine paleobassins (Western Tethys and Eastern Paratethys from the genus Ectromopsis, indicates a single

  1. Assessing the Control of Preservational Environment on Taphonomic and Ecological Patterns in an Oligocene Mammal Fauna from Badlands National Park, South Dakota. (United States)

    Wilson, Paige K; Moore, Jason R


    Comparisons of paleofaunas from different facies are often hampered by the uncertainty in the variation of taphonomic processes biasing the paleoecological parameters of interest. By examining the taphonomic patterns exhibited by different facies in the same stratigraphic interval and area, it is possible to quantify this variation, and assess inter-facies comparability. The fossil assemblages preserved in Badlands National Park (BNP), South Dakota, have long been a rich source for mammalian faunas of the White River Group. To investigate the influence of the variation of taphonomic bias with lithology whilst controlling for the influence of changes in patterns of taphonomic modification with time, taphonomic and paleoecological data were collected from four mammal-dominated fossil assemblages (two siltstone hosted and two sandstone hosted) from a narrow stratigraphic interval within the Oligocene Poleslide Member of the Brule Formation, in the Palmer Creek Unit of BNP. Previous work in the region confirmed that the two major lithologies represent primarily aeolian- and primarily fluvial-dominated depositional environments, respectively. A suite of quantifiable taphonomic and ecological variables was recorded for each of the more than 800 vertebrate specimens studied here (857 specimens were studied in the field, 9 specimens were collected and are reposited at BNP). Distinctly different patterns of taphonomic biasing were observed between the aeolian and fluvial samples, albeit with some variability between all four sites. Fluvial samples were more heavily weathered and abraded, but also contained fewer large taxa and fewer tooth-bearing elements. No quantifiable paleofaunal differences in generic richness or evenness were observed between the respective facies. This suggests that while large vertebrate taxonomic composition in the region did vary with paleodepositional environment, there is no evidence of confounding variation in faunal structure, and therefore

  2. "Israel Is Meant for Me": Kindergarteners' Conceptions of Israel (United States)

    Zakai, Sivan


    What is Israel in the minds and hearts of young American Jewish children? Through interviews and photo and music elicitation exercises, this research uncovers how day school kindergarten students conceive of Israel. This study, part of an ongoing longitudinal project, shows how 5- and 6-year-old children are able to form a multilayered conception…

  3. Thallium poisoning in Israel. (United States)

    Atsmon, J; Taliansky, E; Landau, M; Neufeld, M Y


    We report the first case of thallium poisoning in Israel in almost 30 years. A 40-year-old man was apparently poisoned by a business associate when, on several occasions, he unknowingly drank an alcoholic beverage containing the toxic substance. Delayed admission and recurrent thallium ingestion resulted in both acute and chronic symptoms being present concomitantly. Conventional treatment modalities (Prussian blue and forced diuresis) were employed. The patient survived, although neurological sequelae ensued. The problems encountered in diagnosis and treatment of this relatively uncommon entity are discussed.

  4. Solar energy in Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zvirin, Y.; Zamkow, S.


    The state of Israel has been a pioneer in the solar energy development and utilization since it was founded. In the 50's solar domestic home heaters became commercially available. At the same time research work has been started in different areas of solar energy, which led to more advanced solar systems for additional applications. The presentation includes some details of commercial utilization of solar energy and a brief description of the main Research and Development projects in industry, universities and research institutes. (authors)

  5. Tethys – A Python Package for Spatial and Temporal Downscaling of Global Water Withdrawals"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xinya; Vernon, Christopher R.; Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Link, Robert P.; Huang, Zhongwei; Liu, Lu; Feng, Leyang


    Downscaling of water withdrawals from regional/national to local scale is a fundamental step and also a common problem when integrating large scale economic and integrated assessment models with high-resolution detailed sectoral models. Tethys, an open-access software written in Python, is developed with statistical downscaling algorithms, to spatially and temporally downscale water withdrawal data to a finer scale. The spatial resolution will be downscaled from region/basin scale to grid (0.5 geographic degree) scale and the temporal resolution will be downscaled from year to month. Tethys is used to produce monthly global gridded water withdrawal products based on estimates from the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM).

  6. Tethys – A Python Package for Spatial and Temporal Downscaling of Global Water Withdrawals


    Li, Xinya; Vernon, Chris R.; Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Link, Robert P.; Huang, Zhongwei; Liu, Lu; Feng, Leyang


    Downscaling of water withdrawals from regional/national to local scale is a fundamental step and also a common problem when integrating large scale economic and integrated assessment models with high-resolution detailed sectoral models. Tethys, an open-access software written in Python, is developed with statistical downscaling algorithms, to spatially and temporally downscale water withdrawal data to a finer scale. The spatial resolution will be downscaled from region/basin scale to grid (0....

  7. Impact crater relaxation on Dione and Tethys and relation to past heat flow (United States)

    White, Oliver L.; Schenk, Paul M.; Bellagamba, Anthony W.; Grimm, Ashley M.; Dombard, Andrew J.; Bray, Veronica J.


    Relating relaxation of impact crater topography to past heat flow through the crusts of icy satellites is a technique that has been applied to satellites around Jupiter and Saturn. We use global digital elevation models of the surfaces of Dione and Tethys generated from Cassini data to obtain crater depth/diameter (d/D) data. Relaxation is found to affect craters down to smaller diameters on these satellites compared to Rhea. We perform relaxation simulations in order to assess the heat flow necessary to relax craters on Dione and Tethys to their present morphologies. Heat flows exceeding 60 mW m-2 are required to relax several craters on both satellites, and relaxation appears to be subject to geographical controls. On Dione, we define a 'relaxation dichotomy' that separates the more relaxed craters in sparsely cratered plains from the less relaxed craters in heavily cratered terrain. The configuration of this dichotomy resembles that of the structural-geological dichotomy on Enceladus, implying that a similar resonance-induced tidal heating mechanism concentrated in the southern hemisphere may have affected both satellites. Defining geographical distribution of relaxation on Tethys is hindered by the presence of the young Odysseus impact and its associated ejecta.

  8. Chronological, taphonomical, and paleoenvironmental aspects of a Late Pleistocene mammalian fauna from Guanambi, Bahia, Brazil (United States)

    Scherer, Carolina Saldanha; Pales, Letícia Francielle Moreira; Rosa, Mariane; Silva, Samara de Almeida da


    Bahia state is widely known for the presence of fossiliferous deposits of Late Pleistocene - early Holocene. Although most studies in the state have been carried out on cave environments, studies concerning natural tank deposits have been expanded in the last few years, particularly in other states of Northeast Brazil. Therefore, the present work aims to study two new natural tanks: "Lagoa das Abelhas" and "Lagoa do Rancho", in Guanambi municipality, south-central Bahia, Brazil. The identified taxa include representatives of Xenarthra (Eremotherium laurillardi, cf. Glossotherium sp., Pachyarmatherium brasiliense, Glyptodontinae, Propraopus sulcatus, Pampatherium humboldti, and Holmesina paulacoutoi), Notoungulata (Toxodontidae), Proboscidea, Perissodactyla (Tapirus terrestris and Equus (Amerhippus) neogaeus), and Cetartiodactyla (Camelidae). The taphonomic analysis allowed the fossiliferous deposit from Lagoa das Abelhas to be classified as an ex situ assemblage, while the Lagoa do Rancho deposit was interpreted as a peripheral assemblage. Based on its paleofaunal composition, the landscape of the Guanambi region would have comprised open areas with pastures and patches with arboreal elements. The 14C radiocarbon dating results point to ages of 22,230 ± 55 years for the Lagoa das Abelhas and 16,020 ± 40 years for the Lagoa do Rancho tanks, indicating that the Guanambi paleofauna lived during the Last Glacial Maximum, in a drier phase of the Late Pleistocene.

  9. Israel Science Foundation | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Israel Science Foundation. Israel Science Foundation. Joint Canada-Israel Health Research Program. The Joint Canada-Israel Health Research Program is a 7-year, CA$35M Canadian-Israeli effort that draws on the unique scientific strengths of both countries and facilitates networking opportunities.

  10. Taphonomic analysis in lacustrine environments: Two different contexts for Triassic lake paleofloras from Western Gondwana (Argentina) (United States)

    Mancuso, Adriana Cecilia


    During the earliest Triassic several rift basins developed along the western margin of Gondwana associated with the pre-breakup of Pangea. They were filled by exclusively non-marine sediments including alluvial, fluvial, and lacustrine deposits. In the Ischigualasto-Villa Unión Basin, the lacustrine-deltaic succession is placed in the Los Rastros Formation and consists of several coarsening-upward cycles of black shale, siltstone, and sandstone. The paleontologic content of the succession includes abundant floral remains (related to the Dicroidium-type flora), invertebrates (conchostracans, insects), and vertebrates (fishes, a temnospondyl amphibian, ichnites). At the Cerro Puntudo area in the Cuyana Basin, the lacustrine succession forms the upper part of the Cerro Puntudo Formation and consists of limestone, stromatolitic limestone, mudstone, sandstone, and tuff. The paleontologic content includes scarce floral remains and rhizoliths; invertebrates are represented exclusively by traces (associated with ichnofacies of Skolithos and Scoyenia), and vertebrates by a fragment of the pelvic girdle of a basal arcosaur. The taphonomic analysis performed in the two Triassic lacustrine successions allows recognition of two different taphonomic histories for the plant remains. The Los Rastros lake preserved both autochthonous (originated in the littoral zone) and allochthonous (originated in the upstream fluvial system) elements. The offshore lacustrine area was dominated by autochthonous well-preserved elements and allochthonous plant debris and wood, which formed time-averaged accumulations. The delta deposits are characterized by allochthonous elements with varied preservational conditions, usually showing evidence of mechanical degradation and accumulation within a short time. Autochthonous and allochthonous material were preserved in the Los Rastros Lake by means of anoxic conditions in the offshore lacustrine area and high sedimentation rates in the delta. In

  11. Energy 93, energy in Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shilo, D.; Bar Mashiah, D.; Er-El, J.


    For the first time this report includes a chapter entitles 'energy and peace'. Following is an overview of israel's energy economy and some principal initiatives in its various sectors during 1992/93 period. 46 figs, 13 tabs

  12. Conflict between Israel and Hamas (United States)


    in the Gaza Strip without his father. Poverty and hunger forced him to work at an early age to support his seven member family. At the age of...Building on despair and poverty . ― Ephraim Sneh, Head of the Civil Administration in the West Bank 1985-1987 The current situation between Israel...attempt to portray the fighting against Israel as a victory. Thousands were killed, tens of thousands are homeless , and the Israeli siege continues

  13. Tethys: A Platform for Water Resources Modeling and Decision Support Apps (United States)

    Nelson, J.; Swain, N. R.


    The interactive nature of web applications or "web apps" makes it an excellent medium for conveying complex scientific concepts to lay audiences and creating decision support tools that harness cutting edge modeling techniques. However, the technical expertise required to develop web apps represents a barrier for would-be developers. This barrier can be characterized by the following hurdles that developers must overcome: (1) identify, select, and install software that meet the spatial and computational capabilities commonly required for water resources modeling; (2) orchestrate the use of multiple free and open source (FOSS) projects and navigate their differing application programming interfaces; (3) learn the multi-language programming skills required for modern web development; and (4) develop a web-secure and fully featured web portal to host the app. Tethys Platform has been developed to lower the technical barrier and minimize the initial development investment that prohibits many scientists and engineers from making use of the web app medium. It includes (1) a suite of FOSS that address the unique data and computational needs common to water resources web app development, (2) a Python software development kit that streamlines development, and (3) a customizable web portal that is used to deploy the completed web apps. Tethys synthesizes several software projects including PostGIS, 52°North WPS, GeoServer, Google Maps™, OpenLayers, and Highcharts. It has been used to develop a broad array of web apps for water resources modeling and decision support for several projects including CI-WATER, HydroShare, and the National Flood Interoperability Experiment. The presentation will include live demos of some of the apps that have been developed using Tethys to demonstrate its capabilities.

  14. The Early Toarcian oceanic anoxic event: Paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic change across the Alpine Tethys (Switzerland) (United States)

    Fantasia, Alicia; Föllmi, Karl B.; Adatte, Thierry; Spangenberg, Jorge E.; Montero-Serrano, Jean-Carlos


    Paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic change associated with the Toarcian oceanic anoxic event (T-OAE) was evaluated in five successions located in Switzerland. They represent different paleogeographic settings across the Alpine Tethys: the northern shelf (Gipf, Riniken and Rietheim), the Sub-Briançonnais basin (Creux de l'Ours), and the Lombardian basin (Breggia). The multi-proxy approach chosen (whole-rock and clay mineralogy, phosphorus, major and trace elements) shows that local environmental conditions modulated the response to the T-OAE across the Alpine Tethys. On the northern shelf and in the Sub-Briançonnais basin, high kaolinite contents and detrital proxies (detrital index, Ti, Zr, Si) in the T-OAE interval suggest a change towards a warmer and more humid climate coupled with an increase in the chemical weathering rates. In contrast, low kaolinite content in the Lombardian basin is likely related to a more arid climate along the southern Tethys margin and/or to a deeper and more distal setting. Redox-sensitive trace-element (V, Mo, Cu, Ni) enrichments in the T-OAE intervals reveal that dysoxic to anoxic conditions developed on the northern shelf, whereas reducing conditions were less severe in the Sub-Briançonnais basin. In the Lombardian basin well-oxygenated bottom water conditions prevailed. Phosphorus (P) speciation analysis was performed at Riniken and Creux de l'Ours. This is the first report of P speciation data for T-OAE sections, clearly suggesting that high P contents during this time interval are mainly linked to the presence of an authigenic phases and fish remains. The development of oxygen-depleted conditions during the T-OAE seems to have promoted the release of the organic-bound P back into the water column, thereby further sustaining primary productivity in a positive feedback loop.

  15. TethysCluster: A comprehensive approach for harnessing cloud resources for hydrologic modeling (United States)

    Nelson, J.; Jones, N.; Ames, D. P.


    Advances in water resources modeling are improving the information that can be supplied to support decisions affecting the safety and sustainability of society. However, as water resources models become more sophisticated and data-intensive they require more computational power to run. Purchasing and maintaining the computing facilities needed to support certain modeling tasks has been cost-prohibitive for many organizations. With the advent of the cloud, the computing resources needed to address this challenge are now available and cost-effective, yet there still remains a significant technical barrier to leverage these resources. This barrier inhibits many decision makers and even trained engineers from taking advantage of the best science and tools available. Here we present the Python tools TethysCluster and CondorPy, that have been developed to lower the barrier to model computation in the cloud by providing (1) programmatic access to dynamically scalable computing resources, (2) a batch scheduling system to queue and dispatch the jobs to the computing resources, (3) data management for job inputs and outputs, and (4) the ability to dynamically create, submit, and monitor computing jobs. These Python tools leverage the open source, computing-resource management, and job management software, HTCondor, to offer a flexible and scalable distributed-computing environment. While TethysCluster and CondorPy can be used independently to provision computing resources and perform large modeling tasks, they have also been integrated into Tethys Platform, a development platform for water resources web apps, to enable computing support for modeling workflows and decision-support systems deployed as web apps.

  16. CERN and Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    Israel (along with the US, Japan, Canada, the Russian Federation and India) is one of the CERN non- Member State nations targeted for substantial future participation in CERN's experimental programme, in particular for the LHC proton collider to be built in the 27-kilometre LEP tunnel and which was formally approved by CERN Council in December (January/February, page 1). In keeping with their illustrious scientific traditions, Israeli experimental physicists have collaborated in experiments at many of the world's major high energy Laboratories - Brookhaven, Fermilab and SLAC in the US, and in Europe, DESY, Hamburg, as well as CERN. However CERN, as the geographically closest major Laboratory (as well as the largest), plays a special role for Israeli scientists. At CERN, the advent of preparations in the early 1980s for the experimental programme at the LEP electron-positron collider was the signal for Israeli researchers to mount a concerted effort and contribute to one of the experiments - Opal - at a level comparable to that of major nations. This allowed Israeli teams to participate fully in the planning and construction phase of this branch of Big Science. Underlining this commitment, and to coordinate the various national agencies involved in this aspect of Big Science, in 1983 the Israel Commission for High Energy Physics (ICHEP) was formed. It is currently chaired by David Horn of Tel Aviv. The initial ICHEP/CERN contract established the official CERN/lsrael link under which, in the short-term, teams from three major research centres - the Weizmann Institute, Tel- Aviv University, and Haifa's Technion - contributed to Opal, as the flagship experiment, while providing a framework for longer-term collaboration. (At CERN, Israeli physicists also participate in the NA45 heavy ion experiment and the NA47 Spin Muon Collaboration - SMC.) Opal groups some 320 scientists from 32 research centres in eight countries, and includes a 21-strong Israeli

  17. Tethys: A Platform for Water Resources Modeling and Decision Support Apps (United States)

    Swain, N. R.; Christensen, S. D.; Jones, N.; Nelson, E. J.


    Cloud-based applications or apps are a promising medium through which water resources models and data can be conveyed in a user-friendly environment—making them more accessible to decision-makers and stakeholders. In the context of this work, a water resources web app is a web application that exposes limited modeling functionality for a scenario exploration activity in a structured workflow (e.g.: land use change runoff analysis, snowmelt runoff prediction, and flood potential analysis). The technical expertise required to develop water resources web apps can be a barrier to many potential developers of water resources apps. One challenge that developers face is in providing spatial storage, analysis, and visualization for the spatial data that is inherent to water resources models. The software projects that provide this functionality are non-standard to web development and there are a large number of free and open source software (FOSS) projects to choose from. In addition, it is often required to synthesize several software projects to provide all of the needed functionality. Another challenge for the developer will be orchestrating the use of several software components. Consequently, the initial software development investment required to deploy an effective water resources cloud-based application can be substantial. The Tethys Platform has been developed to lower the technical barrier and minimize the initial development investment that prohibits many scientists and engineers from making use of the web app medium. Tethys synthesizes several software projects including PostGIS for spatial storage, 52°North WPS for spatial analysis, GeoServer for spatial publishing, Google Earth™, Google Maps™ and OpenLayers for spatial visualization, and Highcharts for plotting tabular data. The software selection came after a literature review of software projects being used to create existing earth sciences web apps. All of the software is linked via a Python


    Dollberg, Shaul


    The practice of neonatology in Israel debuted in the 1970s as local enterprises by individual hospitals that needed to provide sick and preterm newly born infants with up-to-date and effective care. Descriptions of research and advances in humane and gentle treatment during neonatal care for preterm infants and their families, as well as prevention of neonatal infections, follow-up of preterm infants and care of full-term infants are presented in this issue. The Israel National Very Low Birth Weight (VLBW) Infant database provides an excellent source of knowledge, which has led to multiple scientific publications. Recent international comparisons of the outcome of preterm VLBW infants, made possible by this unique database in Israel, has provided the neonatal community and the Ministry of Health with insights as to the differences in prognosis between Israel and other countries, especially among extremely low birth weight infants. At the border of viability, mortality in Israelis significantly higher than that reported in other countries and proactive steps undertaken to examine these differences and prompt correctional action should be pursued. The Israel Ministry of Health started positive initiatives and should ensure that their steps are implemented at the preterm infant's bedside.

  19. Cassiopidae gastropods, influence of Tethys Sea of the Romualdo Formation (Aptian-Albian), Araripe Basin, Brazil (United States)

    Pereira, Priscilla Albuquerque; Cassab, Rita de Cassia Tardin; Barreto, Alcina Magnólia Franca


    The Cassiopidae family belongs to a group of gastropods of the Tethyan Realm, whose origin and dispersion are related a transgression of the Tethys Sea during the Early Cretaceous. The Romualdo Formation in the Araripe Basin, located in Northeast Brazil, presents fossil assemblages with echinoids, bivalves and cassiopid gastropods, indicating a marine sedimentation at the top of the formation. This research reveals three new species of this fauna: Gymnentome (Craginia) beurleni sp. nov., 'Pseudomesalia' ('Pseudomesalia') mennessieri sp. nov and 'Pseudomesalia' ('Pseudomesalia') santanensis sp. nov. We also review two other species: Craginia araripensisBeurlen, 1964 and Gymnentome romualdoiBeurlen, 1964, which we reclassify taxonomically as Paraglauconia (Diglauconia) araripensis and Gymnentome (Gymnentome) romualdoi, respectively; Paraglauconia (Diglauconia) lyrica Maury, 1936 and Gymnentome (Gymnentome) carregozica Maury, 1936 were the first recorded species in the Araripe Basin. The occurrence of these cassiopid gastropod fauna in other basins, such as Sergipe, Potiguar and Parnaíba, indicate the influence of waters coming from the north through the Tethys Sea in the Aptian-Albian and in the marginal continental basins of the Brazilian Northeast.

  20. Taphonomic analysis of the hominin remains from Swabian Jura and their implications for the mortuary practices during the Upper Paleolithic (United States)

    Sala, Nohemi; Conard, Nicholas


    The symbolic behavior of human beings usually is manifested in different ways such as figurative art, musical traditions, spoken language or complex funerary behavior. The Paleolithic sites of the Swabian Jura contain a rich archaeological record including the oldest evidence of musical instruments and figurative art which indicates complex cognitive abilities of the Paleolithic Homo sapiens that colonized Europe. Nevertheless, there is no evidence for burials in the Swabian caves during the Paleolithic. This raises questions regarding the kind of mortuary practices that existed in this region during the Paleolithic. In this paper, we address these questions from a taphonomic perspective by analyzing the hominin remains recovered in caves of the Swabian Jura. Whatever the funerary behavior was during the Early and Middle Upper Paleolithic, we have no evidence to document these practices. The Magdalenian hominin remains from Brillenhöhle, however, display anthropic modifications that have been hotly debated in the past. Our taphonomic analysis indicates that the assemblage displays traces of butchery similar to those recorded in the faunal remains. In addition to the cut marks, we have documented intentional breakage and human tooth marks, suggesting that the consumption of human corpses took place during the Magdalenian at Brillenhöhle. Similar anthropic modifications have also been documented in Magdalenian horizon at Hohle Fels. This suggests that the cannibalism practices during the Magdalenian were more common than previously expected during the Magdalenian in the Swabian Jura.

  1. Sport and Physical Education in Israel. (United States)

    Aharoni, Heziah


    Despite its small population, challenged economy, and rapid political development, Israel has been able to grow and achieve in sport and physical education. Israel's unique system fosters children gifted in sports, elite athletes, and persons with disabilities. Research and planning sport and physical education facilities are central to Israel's…

  2. Israel: Background and U.S. Relations (United States)


    Zakaria GPS , November 20, 2011. 33 “Israel and Iran: Closer to take-off,” Economist, February 11, 2012. 34 For a scenario proposing that Israel...Occupying Power shall not deport or transfer parts of its own civilian population into the territory it occupies.” Israel insists that the West Bank

  3. Civic and Citizenship Education in Israel. (United States)

    Lemish, Peter


    States that in Israel, civic education successes enable civic myths--"Israel is a Jewish, democratic state" and "Israelis are Jews"--to be vibrant, gestalt worlds of meaning for Jewish Israelis, and sites of resistance for ultra-orthodox Jewish as well as Palestinian citizens of Israel. Analyzes the role of these myths. (BT)

  4. From Peri-Tethys to Paratethys : Basin restriction and anoxia in central Eurasia linked to volcanic belts in Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Boon, Annique


    From the Alps in western Europe to the great steppes of Kazakhstan, the former Paratethys Sea once covered a vast area of our planet, of which the Black Sea, Caspian Sea and Aral lake are today’s remnants. The Paratethys formed as the Tethys ocean gradually closed, and was known as ‘Peri-Tethys’

  5. From Tethys to Eastern Paratethys: Oligocene depositional environments, paleoecology and paleobiogeography of the Thrace Basin (NW Turkey) (United States)

    Islamoğlu, Yeşim; Harzhauser, Mathias; Gross, Martin; Jiménez-Moreno, Gonzalo; Coric, Stjepan; Kroh, Andreas; Rögl, Fred; van der Made, Jan


    The Oligocene depositional history of the Thrace Basin documents a unique paleogeographic position at a junction between the Western Tethys and the Eastern Paratethys. As part of the Tethys, shallow marine carbonate platforms prevailed during the Eocene. Subsequently, a three-staged process of isolation started with the Oligocene. During the Early Rupelian, the Thrace Basin was still part of the Western Tethys, indicated by typical Western Tethyan marine assemblages. The isolation from the Tethys during the Early Oligocene is reflected by oolite formation and endemic Eastern Paratethyan faunas of the Solenovian stage. The third phase reflects an increasing continentalisation of the Thrace Basin with widespread coastal swamps during the Late Solenovian. The mollusc assemblages are predominated by mangrove dwelling taxa and the mangrove plant Avicennia is recorded in the pollen spectra. The final continentalisation is indicated by the replacement of the coastal swamps by pure freshwater swamps and fluvial plains during the Late Oligocene (mammal zone MP 26). This paleogeographic affiliation of the Thrace Basin with the Eastern Paratethys after ~32 Ma contrasts all currently used reconstructions which treat the basin as embayment of the Eastern Mediterranean basin.

  6. Water ice and sub-micron ice particles on Tethys and Mimas (United States)

    Scipioni, Francesca; Nordheim, Tom; Clark, Roger Nelson; D'Aversa, Emiliano; Cruikshank, Dale P.; Tosi, Federico; Schenk, Paul M.; Combe, Jean-Philippe; Dalle Ore, Cristina M.


    IntroductionWe present our ongoing work, mapping the variation of the main water ice absorption bands, and the distribution of the sub-micron particles, across Mimas and Tethys’ surfaces using Cassini-VIMS cubes acquired in the IR range (0.8-5.1 μm). We present our results in the form of maps of variation of selected spectral indicators (depth of absorption bands, reflectance peak height, spectral slopes).Data analysisVIMS acquires hyperspectral data in the 0.3-5.1 μm spectral range. We selected VIMS cubes of Tethys and Mimas in the IR range (0.8-5.1 μm). For all pixels in the selected cubes, we measured the band depths for water-ice absorptions at 1.25, 1.5 and 2.02 μm and the height of the 3.6 μm reflection peak. Moreover, we considered the spectral indictors for particles smaller than 1 µm [1]: (i) the 2 µm absorption band is asymmetric and (ii) it has the minimum shifted to longer λ (iii) the band depth ratio 1.5/2.0 µm decreases; (iv) the reflection peak at 2.6 µm decreases; (v) the Fresnel reflection peak is suppressed; (vi) the 5 µm reflectance is decreased relative to the 3.6 µm peak. To characterize the global variation of water-ice band depths, and of sub-micron particles spectral indicators, across Mimas and Tethys, we sampled the two satellites’ surfacees with a 1°x1° fixed-resolution grid and then averaged the band depths and peak values inside each square cell.3. ResultsFor both moons we find that large geologic features, such as the Odysseus and Herschel impact basins, do not correlate with water ice’s abundance variation. For Tethys, we found a quite uniform surface on both hemispheres. The only deviation from this pattern shows up on the trailing hemisphere, where we notice two north-oriented, dark areas around 225° and 315°. For Mimas, the leading and trailing hemispheres appear to be quite similar in water ice abundance, the trailing portion having water ice absorption bands lightly more suppressed than the leading side

  7. The solar energy in Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocquet, L.


    The solar energy is an important characteristic of Israel, listed in its history and its development. This document presents the solar energy applications in the country in many domains: the solar energy for residential houses, the applications in the agricultural and industrial sectors and the research and development programs. (A.L.B.)

  8. Educational Technology Policy in Israel (United States)

    Slakmon, Benzi


    The study examines Israel's educational technology policy in light of the coming-of-age of ICT. The study shows the ways it has been developing, and identifies two major shifts which have occurred in recent years: the introduction of the national educational cloud, and the enabling of the "bring your own device" (BYOD) policy. The way…

  9. Israel’s Technology Sector (United States)


    51 Security Applications of Nanotech: The Bionic Hornet and Other Microrobots ............. 56 DNA Computing with Possible Medical Applications...82 Table 14. Israel’s Participation in Major Multilateral Arms Control Agreements and small arms . In exchange for a high level of U.S. military support, Israel is obliged to buy the major part of its military equipment from the

  10. Near-infrared (0.8-4.0 m) spectroscopy of mimas, enceladus, tethys, and rhea (United States)

    Emery, J.P.; Burr, D.M.; Cruikshank, D.P.; Brown, R.H.; Dalton, J.B.


    Spectral measurements from the ground in the time leading up to the Cassini mission at Saturn provide important context for the interpretation of the forthcoming spacecraft data. Whereas ground-based observations cannot begin to approach the spatial scales Cassini will achieve, they do possess the benefits of better spectral resolution, a broader possible time baseline, and unique veiewing geometries not obtained by spacecraft (i.e., opposition). In this spirit, we present recent NIR reflectance spectra of four icy satellites of Saturn measured with the SpeX instrument at the IRTF. These measurements cover the range 0.8-4.0 m of both the leading and trailing sides of Tethys and the leading side of Rhea. The L-band region (2.8-4.0 m) offers new opportunities for searches of minor components on these objects. Additionally, these data include 0.8-2.5 m spectra of both the leading and trailing sides of Mimas and of the (mostly) trailing side of Enceladus. The spectrum of Enceladus shows activity near 2.25 m that we interpret as a possible signature of NH3 ice. The presence of ammonia in the Saturn system is not unexpected, and may help explain the apparent recent geologic activity of Enceladus. Analysis of leading/trailing differences inH2O band depths, spectral slopes, and albedo imply a separate regime of surface modification for Mimas and Enceladus than for the more distant icy satellites (Tethys, Dione, Rhea). Aside from the potential NH3 on Enceladus, no other minor constituents are detected in these icy surfaces.

  11. Is a 'one size fits all' taphonomic model appropriate for the Mazon Creek Lagerstätte? (United States)

    Clements, Thomas; Purnell, Mark; Gabbott, Sarah


    The Late Carboniferous Mazon Creek Lagerstätte (Illinois, USA) is a world renowned fossil deposit with a huge diversity of preserved flora and fauna. It is widely considered to represent the most complete Late Carboniferous river delta ecosystem because researchers have identified that the deposit preserves organisms from multiple habitats including coastal swamps, brackish lagoons and oceanic environments. Often these fossils have exquisite soft tissue preservation yielding far more information that the 'normal' skeletal fossil record, while some soft bodied animals, such as the notorious Tully Monster (Tullimonstrum gregarium), are only known from this locality. However, constraining a 'one-size fits all' taphonomic model for the Mazon Creek is difficult because of our poor understanding of sideritic concretionary formation or preservation (i.e. the presence of large numbers of unfossiliferous concretions), the large geographical area, the influences of fresh, brackish and saline waters during burial and the subsequent complicated diagenetic processes. To determine the preservational pathways of Mazon Creek fossils, we have compiled data of the mode of preservation of morphological characters for all major groups of fossil organisms found in this Lagerstätte. This data can be used to test for variance in mode of preservation between taxa and also between specific tissue types. Furthermore, experimental decay data is used to constrain the impact of decay prior to fossilisation. Our analysis indicates that there are variations in preservation potential of specific characters shared by taxa. Modes of preservation, however, seem to be consistent across the majority of taxa dependant on locality. This quantitative approach is being utilised as part of a larger ongoing investigation which combines taphonomy with geochemical analysis of siderite concretions from across the vast geographical area of the Mazon Creek. Together this approach will allow us to elucidate the

  12. the Arab boycott of Israel: economic political warfare against Israel.


    Gilat, Eliyau Zeev


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis examines the effectiveness of the Arab Boycott of Israel from an economic and a political perspective. This study covers the Arab boycott from 1946 until 1990. It demonstrates that economically and politically, the Arab boycott had three distinct phases. The first of these was the period from the declaration of the Arab boycott in 1946 until the 1973 War. The second phase took place between the 1973 War...

  13. Explaining the United States-Israel Relationship (United States)


    because an extremely close U.S.-Israeli relationship exists.44 The George H.W. Bush administration responded to the new post-Cold War reality in three...States’ close relationship with Israel helped to achieve the groundbreaking Egypt-Israel peace agreement and led Egypt into the American sphere of...UNITED STATES-ISRAEL RELATIONSHIP by Kira N. Waxer June 2013 Thesis Advisor: James Russell Second Reader: Tristan Mabry THIS PAGE

  14. Species diversity of hypogeous ascomycetes in Israel. (United States)

    Barseghyan, Gayane S; Wasser, Solomon P


    We conducted a species diversity study of the hypogeous Ascomycetes of Israel. The hypogeous Ascomycetes in Israel include members of the families Pyronemataceae, Pezizaceae, and Tuberaceae, which are represented by seven species: Hydnocystis piligera, Terfezia arenaria, T. claveryi, T. oligosperma, Tirmania africana, Tuber asa, and T. nitidum; only T. asa is new to Israeli mycobiota. Synonymy, locations, collection data, general distribution, distribution in Israel, descriptions, a key to identification, illustrations, and taxonomic remarks are provided.

  15. Area Handbook Series: Israel: A Country Study (United States)


    equipment. Among Israel’s clients were communist states ( China and Romania), Mus- lim states (Morocco, Turkey, Indonesia, and Malaysia ), and so- called...Handbook for Israel. IV. Series: DA Pam 550-25. DS126.5.1772 1990 90-6119 CIP - DTA P 5 L)-- ’:• ............. Headquarters, Department of the Army...there has been a tacit relationship between Israel and the People’s Republic of China in such fields as com- merce, technical and agricultural programs

  16. Response of early Paleogene nannofossils to periodically increased nutrient availability in the NE Peri-Tethys (United States)

    Shcherbinina, Ekaterina


    During the early Paleogene, three episodes of widespread throughout NE Peri-Tethys accumulation of sediments rich in TOC mark periodical occurrence of dramatically increased productivity caused by enhanced nutrient supply from the land. Two of these episodes (at the Paleocene/Eocene boundary and late early Eocene) took place under warm climate conditions, while third one (late middle Eocene) occurred during significant cooling, but all they where characterized by drastic turnovers in nannofossil assemblages. Earliest short episode of TOC-rich sediment accumulation coherent to negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE) corresponds to Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) (NP9/NP10 boundary) and displays significant decrease in nannofossil abundance and major turnover in nannofossil assemblages involving wide occurrence of Rhomboaster spp. and asymmetric Discoaster anartios and D. araneus and dramatic shift in the ratio of the main taxa. Pre-PETM assemblages contain Coccolithus, Toweius, Fasciculithus, and Discoaster in nearly equal amount with minor Chiasmolithus and Sphenolithus concentrations. At the PETM onset, Chiasmolithus become removed, Coccolithus and Sphenolithus distinctly reduce, while Discoaster, Toweius and, in minor extend, Fasciculithus increase in relative abundance. Zygrhablithus bijugatus which is believed to be oligotrophic species is absolutely absent in PETM sediments. Late early Eocene succession (NP12-NP13 zones) of NE Peri-Tethys includes a series of TOC-rich interlayers also characterized by negative δ13C and δ18O excursions and marked by similar reorganization of nannofossil assemblages when Chiasmolithus decline, Coccolithus, Sphenolithus and Zygrhablithus bijugatus decrease in abundance, while Discoaster and Toweius show remarkable bloom. In the late middle Eocene, a transition from relatively warm water oxic conditions (Keresta Fm., CP13≈ NP15) to cooler anoxic environment and TOC-rich sediment accumulation (Kuma Fm., CP14≈NP16-NP17

  17. Israel: Background and Relations with the United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Migdalovitz, Carol


    ... its neighbors. Armed conflict has marked every decade of Israel's existence. Despite its unstable regional environment, Israel has developed a vibrant parliamentary democracy, albeit with relatively fragile governments...

  18. Israel: Background and Relations with the United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Migdalovitz, Carol


    ... its neighbors. Armed conflict has marked every decade of Israel's existence. Despite its unstable regional environment, Israel has developed a vibrant parliamentary democracy, albeit with relatively fragile governments...

  19. Israel: Background and Relations with the United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Migdalovitz, Carol


    ... its neighbors. Armed conflict has marked every decade of Israel's existence. Despite its unstable regional environment, Israel has developed a vibrant parliamentary democracy, albeit with relatively fragile governments...

  20. Israel debates raising commitment to CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Watzman, H


    Israel's science ministry is debating whether to apply for full membership of CERN since the 1992 agreement allowing Israel observer status is about to expire. Israeli physicists are pushing for full membership for political as well as scientific reasons (1 page).

  1. Israel Geological Society, annual meeting 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amit, R.; Arkin, Y.; Hirsch, F.


    The document is a compilation of papers presented during the annual meeting of Israel Geological Society. The document is related with geological and environmental survey of Israel. It discusses the technology and instruments used to carry out such studies. Main emphasis is given to seismology, geochemical analysis of water, water pollution and geophysical survey of rocks

  2. Biomarkers and taphonomic processes in fresh and fossil biosignatures from Hot Spring silica deposits in El Tatio Chile, as a Mars Analogue (United States)

    Carrizo, D.; Sánchez-García, L.; Parro, V.; Cady, S. L.; Cabrol, N. A.


    Biomarkers characterization and taphonomic process of recent and fossil biosignatures in extreme environments with analogies to Mars is essential to understanding how life could develop and survive in this conditions. Siliceous sinter deposits on Mars where similar to those found in the hydrothermal hot springs and geysers from El Tatio, Chile. Organic preservation have been shown in this study. Many different labile functional groups (i.e., carboxylic acids, alcohols, aldehydes, etc.) were found in both "age" samples. A shift in congener pattern for the different lipids families were found and discuss. This results give insight in taphonomic processes actin in this extreme environment, which could be used as a baseline in Mars exploration.

  3. Israel Seminar 1985-86

    CERN Document Server

    Milman, Vitali


    These are the proceedings of the Israel Seminar on the Geometric Aspects of Functional Analysis (GAFA) which was held between October 1985 and June 1986. The main emphasis of the seminar was on the study of the geometry of Banach spaces and in particular the study of convex sets in and infinite-dimensional spaces. The greater part of the volume is made up of original research papers; a few of the papers are expository in nature. Together, they reflect the wide scope of the problems studied at present in the framework of the geometry of Banach spaces.

  4. [The history of plastic surgery in Israel]. (United States)

    Wiser, Itay; Scheflan, Michael; Heller, Lior


    The medical institutions in the country have advanced together with the development of the state of Israel. Plastic surgery, which has progressed significantly during the 20th century, has also grown rapidly in the new state. The arrival of Jewish plastic surgeons from all over the world with the knowledge and experience gained in their countries of origin, as well as the need for reconstructive surgical treatment for many combat injured soldiers, also contributed to the development of plastic surgery. This review tells the story of plastic surgery in Israel, since its foundation until nowadays. This article reviews the work of the founders of plastic surgery in Israel, indicating significant milestones in its development, and clinical and scientific contribution to the international plastic surgery profession. Moreover, the article describes the current condition of the field of plastic surgery in Israel and presents the trends and the future challenges facing the next generation of plastic surgery in Israel.

  5. Parasitic gastropod bioerosion trace fossil on Cenomanian oysters from Le Mans, France and its ichnologic and taphonomic context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérard Breton


    Full Text Available We describe and name Loxolenichnus stellatocinctus Breton and Wisshak igen. et isp. nov., a bioerosion trace fossil on an Upper Cenomanian oyster from Le Mans (France. This trace is attributed here to a parasitic gastropod. The characteristics of this ichnospecies are a combination of one or several, vertical or oblique, complete penetrations, and an asymmetrical attachment etching (fixichnion with a diagnostic set of stellate grooves increasingly distinct towards the margin of the trace. By including two former Oichnus ichnospecies, Loxolenichnus halo comb. nov. and Loxolenichnus taddei comb. nov., Oichnus, is now constrained to pure predation traces (praedichnia. The numerous oysters collected from the Marnes à Pycnodonte biauriculata Formation show associated epibionts and encrusters as well as borers and scrapers. Encrusters comprise 24 taxa while bioerosion trace fossils comprise 17 ichnotaxa ranging from very rare (< 0.1% to quite abundant (81%. The taphonomic history leading to an ex-situ condensation of these oysters is complex. Both the Gnathichnus and Entobia ichnofacies are represented on the shellgrounds, presumably alternatingly.

  6. Paleoecological and taphonomic implications of insect-damaged pleistocene vertebrate remains from Rancho La Brea, southern California. (United States)

    Holden, Anna R; Harris, John M; Timm, Robert M


    The La Brea Tar Pits, the world's richest and most important Late Pleistocene fossil locality, offers unsurpassed insights into southern California's past environments. Recent studies at Rancho La Brea document that insects serve as sensitive and valuable paleoecological and taphonomic indicators. Of the thousands of fossil bird and mammal bones recovered from the Tar Pits, insect trace damage is thus far almost exclusively confined to the foot bones of large herbivores, especially bison, camel, and horse species. Our laboratory experiments with dermestid and tenebrionid beetles establish that the larvae of both consume bone, producing different characteristic feeding traces and providing the first documentation that tenebrionids consume bone. The presence of carcass-exploiting insects in the Rancho La Brea biota provides insight into the taphonomy of the asphaltic bone masses and the environmental conditions under which they accumulated. The succession of dermestids, tenebrionids, and indeterminate traces on many of the foot elements, combined with the climate restrictions and life cycles of these insects, indicate that carcasses could remain unsubmerged for at least 17-20 weeks, thus providing the most reliable estimate to date. Attribution of these traces also suggests that the asphaltic fossils only accumulated during warmer intervals of the Late Pleistocene. Forensic studies need to reevaluate the role of tenebrionids in carcass decomposition and other additional insects that modify bone.

  7. Paleoecological and taphonomic implications of insect-damaged pleistocene vertebrate remains from Rancho La Brea, southern California.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna R Holden

    Full Text Available The La Brea Tar Pits, the world's richest and most important Late Pleistocene fossil locality, offers unsurpassed insights into southern California's past environments. Recent studies at Rancho La Brea document that insects serve as sensitive and valuable paleoecological and taphonomic indicators. Of the thousands of fossil bird and mammal bones recovered from the Tar Pits, insect trace damage is thus far almost exclusively confined to the foot bones of large herbivores, especially bison, camel, and horse species. Our laboratory experiments with dermestid and tenebrionid beetles establish that the larvae of both consume bone, producing different characteristic feeding traces and providing the first documentation that tenebrionids consume bone. The presence of carcass-exploiting insects in the Rancho La Brea biota provides insight into the taphonomy of the asphaltic bone masses and the environmental conditions under which they accumulated. The succession of dermestids, tenebrionids, and indeterminate traces on many of the foot elements, combined with the climate restrictions and life cycles of these insects, indicate that carcasses could remain unsubmerged for at least 17-20 weeks, thus providing the most reliable estimate to date. Attribution of these traces also suggests that the asphaltic fossils only accumulated during warmer intervals of the Late Pleistocene. Forensic studies need to reevaluate the role of tenebrionids in carcass decomposition and other additional insects that modify bone.

  8. movimientos de paz en Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar Groves


    Full Text Available La vuelta a la violencia en Oriente Medio en octubre de 2000 causó una crisis sin precedentes en el sector que apoyaba la paz dentro de la sociedad israelí. Sin embargo, precisamente en esta coyuntura surgió una nueva iniciativa llamada Taayush. En este artículo se analiza el marco de la relación dialéctica entre las acciones colectivas y la forja de una identidad colectiva para entender mejor cómo este nuevo actor social se convirtió rápidamente en un elemento destacado dentro del bando pro paz israelí. Además, basándose en el caso de Taayush, la autora sugiere que en situaciones de crisis de identidad colectiva el surgimiento de otra nueva que ofrezca más garantías para hacer frente a la nueva situación puede, a largo plazo, constituir la clave para la recuperación de la identidad colectiva previa de la que ha surgido.

  9. Jurassic carbonate microfacies, sea-level changes and the Toarcian anoxic event in the Tethys Himalaya (South Tibet) (United States)

    Han, Zhong; Hu, Xiumian; Garzanti, Eduardo


    Detailed microfacies analysis of carbonate rocks from the Tingri and Nyalam areas of South Tibet allowed us to reconstruct the evolution of sedimentary environments during the Early to Middle Jurassic. Based on texture, sedimentary structure, grain composition and fossil content of about 500 thin sections, 17 microfacies overall were identified, and three evolutionary stages were defined. Stage 1 (Rhaetian?-lower Sinemurian Zhamure Formation) was characterized by siliciclastic and mixed siliciclastic-carbonate sedimentation on a barrier shore environment, stage 2 (upper Sinemurian-Pliensbachian Pupuga Formation) by high-energy grainstones with rich benthic faunas thriving on a carbonate platform, and stage 3 (Toarcian-lower Bajocian Nieniexiongla Formation) by low-energy mudstones intercalated with frequent storm layers on a carbonate ramp. Besides, Carbon isotope analyses (δ13Ccarb and δ13Corg) were performed on the late Pliensbachian-early Toarcian interval, and the organic matter recorded a pronounced stepped negative excursion -4.5‰ corresponding to characteristics of the early Toarcian oceanic anoxic event globally, which began just below the stage 2-stage 3 facies shifting boundary. The comparison between the Tethys Himalaya (South Tibet) and the tropical/subtropical zones of the Western Tethys and Panthalassa was carried out to discuss the factors controlling sedimentary evolution. The change from stage 1 to stage 2 was possibly induced by sea-level rise, when the Tibetan Tethys Himalaya was located at tropical/subtropical latitudes in suitable climatic and ecological conditions for carbonate sedimentation. The abrupt change from stage 2 to stage 3 is interpreted as a consequence of the early Toarcian oceanic anoxic event, accompanied by obvious carbon-isotope negative excursion and sea-level rise. The failed recovery from the carbonate crisis in the early Bajocian, with continuing deposition on a low-energy carbonate ramp, is ascribed to the tectonic

  10. The spread of marine anoxia on the northern Tethys margin during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (United States)

    Dickson, Alexander J.; Rees-Owen, Rhian L.; März, Christian; Coe, Angela L.; Cohen, Anthony S.; Pancost, Richard D.; Taylor, Kyle; Shcherbinina, Ekaterina


    Records of the paleoenvironmental changes that occurred during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) are preserved in sedimentary rocks along the margins of the former Tethys Ocean and Peri-Tethys. This paper presents new geochemical data that constrain paleoproductivity, sediment delivery, and seawater redox conditions, from three sites that were located in the Peri-Tethys region. Trace and major element, iron speciation, and biomarker data indicate that water column anoxia was established during episodes when inputs of land-derived higher plant organic carbon and highly weathered detrital clays and silts became relatively higher. Anoxic conditions are likely to have been initially caused by two primary processes: (i) oxygen consumption by high rates of marine productivity, initially stimulated by the rapid delivery of terrestrially derived organic matter and nutrients, and (ii) phosphorus regeneration from seafloor sediments. The role of the latter process requires further investigation before its influence on the spread of deoxygenated seawater during the PETM can be properly discerned. Other oxygen-forcing processes, such as temperature/salinity-driven water column stratification and/or methane oxidation, are considered to have been relatively less important in the study region. Organic carbon enrichments occur only during the initial stages of the PETM as defined by the negative carbon isotope excursions at each site. The lack of observed terminal stage organic carbon enrichment does not support a link between PETM climate recovery and the sequestration of excess atmospheric CO2 as organic carbon in this region; such a feedback may, however, have been important in the early stages of the PETM.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Five, 3-8 cm-thick calcarenitic turbiditic beds belonging to overbank deposits in the marginal sector of Marnoso-arenacea Basin, close to the intrabasinal high of Verghereto (Romagna, Northern Apennines, Upper Miocene, exhibit a well preserved ichnofossil-lagerstätte.The lagerstätte is composed by 43 ichnotaxa: 31 of them are preserved as casts at the sole of turbidites (background hypichnia (group a, while 12 of them occur at the top (post-turbidite epichnia and within (endichnia (group b. The ichnodensity reaches its maximum at the top of the turbiditic beds. Background hypichnia (group a is represented by graphoglyptids and non-graphoglyptid resting traces (background ichnofauna, with three-dimensional networks and shafts, meander systems, radiate, plug-shaped or stellatae structures forming clusters and unbranched systems of strings. Many taphonomic features suggest a fluting induced by bottom currents; graphoglyptids should have colonised the substrate after the action of these currents being not destroyed or fluted. All hypichnial structures are perfectly preserved by the turbidite casting and in this phase also endichnial burrows could develop. Post-turbidite epichnia (group b concern vagile feeding burrows that developed horizontal patterns in a post-turbiditic regime, during the suspension phase of fine material; they were probably produced by organisms transported by suspension flows. Here, the very high ichnodensity suggests a competition among burrowers under stable currents with occurrence of vagile opportunistic organisms immediately followed by others that produced radiate spreite structures.   SHORT NOTE

  12. Occupational radiation protection legislation in Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadmor, J.; Schlesinger, T.; Lemesch, C.


    Various governmental agencies, including the Ministry of Health, the Ministry of Labor and the Israel AEC are responsible for the control of the use of radioactive materials and medical X-ray machines in Israel. Present legislation deals mainly with the legal aspects of the purchase, transport and possession of radioactive materials and the purchase and operation of medical X-ray machines. No legislation refers explicitly to the protection of the worker from ionizing (and non-ionizing) radiation. A special group of experts appointed by the Minister of Labor recently worked out a comprehensive draft law concerning all legal aspects of occupational radiation protection in Israel. Among the main chapters of the draft are: general radiation protection principles, national radiation protection standards, medical supervision of radiation workers, personal monitoring requirements. The present situation with regard to radiation hazard control in Israel and details of the proposed radiation protection law is discussed. (Author)

  13. Israel and an Emerging World Order (United States)


    research/projects/china-global-investment- tracker -interactive-map 20 China and the Middle East: Hearing before the U.S.-China Economic and Security...and expanded trade ties with Israel in water management and solar energy.211 With state populations that exceed tracker -interactive-map Hussain, Mushtaq. “India-Israel Relations: Towards ‘Strategic

  14. Israel: Strategic Asset or Strategic Liability? (United States)


    Syria in the 1970s was substantial, calling into question the validity of Israel as a strategic asset. 39 was no longer the case as of 1991. The Gulf...US-Israel/MOUs.html. 114 Guermantes E. Lailari, Homa : Israel’s National Missile Defense Strategy (Maxwell Air Force Base, AL: Air Command and Staff...University of California Press, 2000. Lailari, Guermantes E. Homa : Israel’s National Missile Defense Strategy. Maxwell Air Force Base, AL: Air Command

  15. Facies analysis and paleoenvironmental reconstruction of Upper Cretaceous sequences in the eastern Para-Tethys Basin, NW Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omidvar, M.; Safari, A.; Vaziri-Moghaddam, H.; Ghalavand, H.


    Upper Cretaceous mixed carbonate-siliciclastic sequences are among the most important targets for hydrocarbon exploration in the Moghan area, located in the eastern Para-Tethys Basin. Despite of their significance, little is known about their facies characteristics and depositional environments. Detailed facies analysis and paleoenvironmental reconstruction of these sequences have been carried out in eight surface sections. Accordingly, four siliciclastic facies, eight carbonate facies and one volcanic facies have been recognized. Detailed facies descriptions and interpretations, together with the results of facies frequency analysis, standard facies models and Upper Cretaceous depositional models of Para-Tethys Basin, have been integrated and a non-rimmed carbonate platform is presented. This platform was affected by siliciclastic influx, in the form of coastal fan delta and submarine fans in the shallow- to deep-marine parts, respectively. This model is interpreted to be shallower in the central and northeastern parts of the Moghan area. Toward the southeast and southwest, this shallow platform turns into deep marine settings along steep slopes without remarkable marginal barriers. (Author)

  16. Sea-level changes in the Lopingian (late Permian) of the northwestern Tethys and their effects on the terrestrial palaeoenvironments, biota and fossil preservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kustatscher, Evelyn; Bernardi, Massimo; Petti, Fabio Massimo; Franz, Matthias; van Konijnenburg-van Cittert, Johanna H.A.; Kerp, Hans

    The Lopingian is characterised by an aridisation trend and substantial sea-level changes. Hence, the fossil record of this time interval is strongly affected by ecological and taphonomic factors inherent to these long-term processes. Integrated sedimentological and palaeontological studies in the

  17. Taphonomic analysis on fossil remains from the Ciota Ciara Cave (Piedmont, Italy) and new evidence of cave bear and Wolf exploitation with simple quartz flakes by neanderthal




    DOI: ND URL: Filiació URV: SI Inclòs a la memòria: SI The Ciota Ciara cave is located in the karst area of Monte Fenera (Borgosesia - VC) and, with the Ciotarun cave, it is the only Middle Palaeolithic site in Piedmont where the presence of Homo neanderthalensis has been confirmed by discoveries of human remains. Preliminary taphonomic and archaeozoological studies have been performed on a portion of the palaeontologic...

  18. Foraminiferal-based paleobiogeographic reconstructions in the Carboniferous of Iran and its implications for the Neo-Tethys opening time: a synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arefifard, S.


    The biogeographic distribution of foraminifers and their belonging to either the southern or northern margins of the Paleo-Tethys are used here for paleogeographic reconstructions of Iran during the Carboniferous. Lower Carboniferous foraminiferal assemblages from northern and central Iran show a cosmopolitan character and affinities to both the southern and northern borders of the Paleo-Tethys. Hence, in the Early Carboniferous Iran occupied an intermediate southern latitude position, forming part of Gondwana. This conclusion is consistent with the Late Ordovician to Early Carboniferous drift history of Iran based on paleomagnetic data. In the Late Carboniferous, the foraminiferal affinities of northern and central Iran with the northern part of Paleo-Tethys suggest that Iran separated from Gondwana and moved northwards to a lower latitude. This separation is also evidenced by the Upper Carboniferous coal-bearing sandstones of the Sardar Formation and sandstones with high degree of chemical weathering, which would indicate warm and humid conditions. Considering the composition of foraminiferal fauna along with the evidence of magmatic activities in northwest Iran, it can be inferred that the commencement of the Neo-Tethys opening and continental break-up in Iran occurred sometime in the Late Carboniferous, which contradicts the previous claims that the separation of Iran from Gondwana occurred in Permian and/or Triassic times.

  19. Foraminiferal-based paleobiogeographic reconstructions in the Carboniferous of Iran and its implications for the Neo-Tethys opening time: a synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arefifard, S.


    The biogeographic distribution of foraminifers and their belonging to either the southern or northern margins of the Paleo-Tethys are used here for paleogeographic reconstructions of Iran during the Carboniferous. Lower Carboniferous foraminiferal assemblages from northern and central Iran show a cosmopolitan character and affinities to both the southern and northern borders of the Paleo-Tethys. Hence, in the Early Carboniferous Iran occupied an intermediate southern latitude position, forming part of Gondwana. This conclusion is consistent with the Late Ordovician to Early Carboniferous drift history of Iran based on paleomagnetic data. In the Late Carboniferous, the foraminiferal affinities of northern and central Iran with the northern part of Paleo-Tethys suggest that Iran separated from Gondwana and moved northwards to a lower latitude. This separation is also evidenced by the Upper Carboniferous coal-bearing sandstones of the Sardar Formation and sandstones with high degree of chemical weathering, which would indicate warm and humid conditions. Considering the composition of foraminiferal fauna along with the evidence of magmatic activities in northwest Iran, it can be inferred that the commencement of the Neo-Tethys opening and continental break-up in Iran occurred sometime in the Late Carboniferous, which contradicts the previous claims that the separation of Iran from Gondwana occurred in Permian and/or Triassic times.

  20. Transactions of the nuclear societies of Israel joint meeting 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The 18 th convention of the Israel nuclear societies transactions book contains presentations in the following topics: reactor physics, health physics, radiation protection, nuclear medicine and general reviews about the status of nuclear energy in Israel

  1. The Small Mammal Sequence from the c. 76 - 72 ka Still Bay Levels at Blombos Cave, South Africa - Taphonomic and Palaeoecological Implications for Human Behaviour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turid Hillestad Nel

    Full Text Available The Still Bay, c. 76-72 ka, a prominent techno-tradition during the Middle Stone Age of southern Africa, has yielded innovative technologies, symbolic material culture, and shows evidence of expansion of hunting techniques and subsistence strategies. In this paper we present the results of the first systematic, taphonomic and palaeoenvironmental study of micromammals from the Still Bay levels at Blombos Cave. Our taphonomic analysis indicates that the micromammals were accumulated by avian predators occupying the cave. Post-depositional processes affecting the micromammal assemblage include organic waste decomposition and conditions associated with a limestone cave environment. The palaeoenvironmental reconstruction shows that Marine Isotope Stage (MIS 5a at Blombos Cave had diverse micromammal communities occupying a variety of habitats and with rainfall pattern equal to present. The transition from MIS 5a to 4 is indicated by less diverse micromammal assemblages, increase in grassland and scrub vegetation, shifts in seasonal precipitation, and a decline in shrubs associated with fynbos. The onset of the glacial conditions associated with MIS 4 is visible in the micromammal assemblage. However humans occupying Blombos Cave during this c. 5 ka period showed an ability to cope with changing environmental conditions and were able to adapt and utilise a variety of available resources.

  2. Ecomorphological and taphonomic gradients in clypeasteroid-dominated echinoid assemblages along a mixed siliciclastic-carbonate shelf from the early Miocene of northern Sardinia, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Mancosu


    Full Text Available Clypeasteroid echinoids are widespread and abundant within Miocene sedimentary sequences of the Mediterranean area within both siliciclastic and carbonate deposits. Herein, three clypeasteroid-dominated echinoid assemblages from the mixed siliciclastic-carbonate succession of the Mores Formation (lower Miocene cropping out within the Porto Torres Basin (northern Sardinia are described. These assemblages were compared to previously described clypeasteroid-bearing deposits from the Miocene of northern Sardinia with the purpose of investigating their palaeoecology and taphonomy along a shelf gradient. These goals are accomplished by various methods including (i logging sedimentary facies, (ii analysing the functional morphology of sea urchin skeletons, (iii comparing the relative abundance of taxa and taphonomic features, and (iv studying associated fauna, flora, and trace fossils. The clypeasteroid-bearing deposits differ greatly with respect to echinoid diversity, accompanying fauna and flora, sedimentological signatures, and taphonomic features. They also show variations in depositional environments and the mechanism of formation of the deposits. Three different shelf settings are distinguished: littoral, inner sublittoral, and outer sublittoral environments. Furthermore, an ecomorphological gradient along the shelf is recognized with respect to echinoid taxa and their morphologies. This gradient ranges from shallow water to a moderately deep shelf and is interpreted with respect to both abiotic and biotic factors as well as the taphonomy of the echinoid tests.

  3. The Small Mammal Sequence from the c. 76 - 72 ka Still Bay Levels at Blombos Cave, South Africa - Taphonomic and Palaeoecological Implications for Human Behaviour. (United States)

    Nel, Turid Hillestad; Henshilwood, Christopher Stuart


    The Still Bay, c. 76-72 ka, a prominent techno-tradition during the Middle Stone Age of southern Africa, has yielded innovative technologies, symbolic material culture, and shows evidence of expansion of hunting techniques and subsistence strategies. In this paper we present the results of the first systematic, taphonomic and palaeoenvironmental study of micromammals from the Still Bay levels at Blombos Cave. Our taphonomic analysis indicates that the micromammals were accumulated by avian predators occupying the cave. Post-depositional processes affecting the micromammal assemblage include organic waste decomposition and conditions associated with a limestone cave environment. The palaeoenvironmental reconstruction shows that Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5a at Blombos Cave had diverse micromammal communities occupying a variety of habitats and with rainfall pattern equal to present. The transition from MIS 5a to 4 is indicated by less diverse micromammal assemblages, increase in grassland and scrub vegetation, shifts in seasonal precipitation, and a decline in shrubs associated with fynbos. The onset of the glacial conditions associated with MIS 4 is visible in the micromammal assemblage. However humans occupying Blombos Cave during this c. 5 ka period showed an ability to cope with changing environmental conditions and were able to adapt and utilise a variety of available resources.

  4. Diversity and taphonomic gradients from shoreface to deep water: Case studies based on sea urchin assemblages from the Miocene of Sardinia (United States)

    Nebelsick, James; Mancosu, Andrea


    Echinoid faunas from Miocene sediments from Sardinia allow diversity to be correlated to variations in depositional environments as well as taphonomic pathways. Taxonomic richness and preservation potentials vary among both carbonate and siliciclastic dominated shelf environments. Studies include detailed investigation of stratigraphy, sedimentology, palaeontology and taphonomy in both the field and in the laboratory. Environmental Interpretations are based on composition and diversity of taxa, functional morphological interpretation of life habits as well as taphonomic signatures. These investigations have revealed: 1) various mass accumulations of clypeasteroid echinoids ranging from autochthonous assemblages to multiple in situ reworked accumulations in shore face environments, 2) the distribution of morphotypes of the common genus Clypeaster, 3) echinoid assemblages dominated by both irregular and regular echinoids in siliciclastic and carbonate shelf environments, 4) spatangoid assemblages in heavily bioturbated coarse sands, and 5) monotypic shell beds of well-preserved regular echinoids and spatangoid from deeper siliciclastic environments. Variations in the diversity of echinoid taxa are correlated to biotic and abiotic ecological factors in specific depositional environments. Preservation potentials vary highly as determined by ambient environmental conditions and skeletal architectures. A synthesis of faunal diversities and preservation potentials along shelf gradient ranging from shoreface to deep water is presented.

  5. [Epidemiology of Hansen's disease in Israel]. (United States)

    Seidenbaum, M; Slater, P E; Ever-Hadani, P; Costin, C; Leviatan, A


    There are currently 200 patients with Hansen's disease in Israel who are being followed by the Hansen's Disease Government Hospital and the Ministry of Health (prevalence 4.4/100,000). Most of them immigrated from countries where the disease is endemic. Dermatological findings dominated the initial clinical picture, although 5% of patients are asymptomatic contacts of known cases. Age at onset of disease was less than 20 years in 1/4 of the cases. The incidence in Israel is falling: 0.4/100,000 in 1985-89 compared to 3.6/100,000 in 1950-54. Neurologic and dermatologic findings in an immigrant of any age originating from countries where Hansen's disease is endemic, should prompt appropriate diagnostic evaluation, even years after immigration to Israel. Contacts of known cases of Hansen's disease should be aggressively screened, even if asymptomatic.

  6. Energy plight compels ingenuity in Israel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardin, D.J.


    The second in a series of invited papers on energy in foreign countries describes Israel's energy program in terms of its political and military position in the Arab oil-producing world. As a holdover of British colonialism, Israel uses expensive oil imports as its primary fuel, making the country dependent on imports of 95% of primary fuels compared to the US's 20%. A review of Israeli history since independence parallels the development of the nation's energy philosophy and policy as a lesson in meeting adversity with a positive attitude. Israel is using its technological flexibility and business ingenuity to stockpile oil, encourage solar energy use and conservation, plan for coal substitution, and explore the possibilities of hydro, nuclear, oil shale, peat, and other options. (DCK)

  7. Israel's position on non-proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marom, R.


    Israel maintained that the complex international system and worldwide political tension created a situation in which comprehensive plans of disarmament could not produce any positive result. The deadlock in the field of general and complete disarmament has brought Israel to the realization that one possible way to alleviate the stalemate could be progress by stages through partial measures of disarmament. Israel's position on non-proliferation indicates that the establishment of a nuclear-weapon-free-zone (NWFZ), as it relates to the Middle-East, could serve as a credible alternative to the unilateral adherence to the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapon (NPT) and an effective measure of non-proliferation in the region. (Author)

  8. Tortoises as a dietary supplement: A view from the Middle Pleistocene site of Qesem Cave, Israel (United States)

    Blasco, Ruth; Rosell, Jordi; Smith, Krister T.; Maul, Lutz Christian; Sañudo, Pablo; Barkai, Ran; Gopher, Avi


    Dietary reconstructions can offer an improved perspective on human capacities of adaptation to the environment. New methodological approaches and analytical techniques have led to a theoretical framework for understanding how human groups used and adapted to their local environment. Faunal remains provide an important potential source of dietary information and allow study of behavioural variation and its evolutionary significance. Interest in determining how hominids filled the gaps in large prey availability with small game or what role small game played in pre-Upper Palaeolithic societies is an area of active research. Some of this work has focused on tortoises because they represent an important combination of edible and non-edible resources that are easy to collect if available. The exploitation of these slow-moving animals features prominently in prey choice models because the low handling costs of these reptiles make up for their small body size. Here, we present new taphonomic data from two tortoise assemblages extracted from the lower sequence of the Middle Pleistocene site of Qesem Cave, Israel (420-300 ka), with the aim of assessing the socio-economic factors that may have led to the inclusion of this type of resource in the human diets. We show that hominid damage on large tortoise specimens from Qesem Cave is not unusual and that evidence such as cut marks, percussion marks and consistent patterns of burning suggests established sequences of processing, including cooking in the shell, defleshing, and direct percussion to access the visceral content. These matters make it possible not only to assess the potential role of tortoises as prey, but also to evaluate collecting behaviour in the resource acquisition systems and eco-social strategies at the Acheulo-Yabrudian Cultural Complex (AYCC) in the southern Levant.

  9. Spirituality in Teacher Training at an Islamic College in Israel (United States)

    Erdreich, Lauren


    This article looks at an Islamic teacher training college in Israel in an attempt to understand how religious revival shapes women's understandings of being Muslim women professionals in Israel. The college grew out of Islamic revival in Israel; its teacher training program reflects the sensibilities that Islamic revival hopes to foster in women…

  10. op weg na 'n komprehensiewe geskiedenis van Ou-Israel

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    wee religieuse redes. Hierdie groep mense (gewoonlik gelowige Chris- tene en Jdde) glo dat die volk Israel deur God uitverkies is en dat God dus in 'n besondere sin in Ou-Israel se geskiedenis gewerk het en hom daarin geopenbaar het. Deur Ou-Israel se geskiedenis te bestudeer kom mens meer van God se openbaring ...

  11. The Beta Israel: Return to the source? | Zegeye | Africa Insight

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Even after more than two decades, over 70 000 Ethiopian Jews - the Beta Israel - have still not been fully accepted in Israel, in danger of becoming an ethnically defined 'under-class'. The potential of Beta Israel contributions to both Israeli and Ethiopian society should be recognised. Africa Insight Vol.34(1) 2004: 69-75 ...

  12. Israel: a crise próxima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter DEMANT


    Full Text Available Apesar de êxitos indisputáveis, o Estado de Israel enfrenta problemas estruturais decorrentes do conflito com o mundo árabe. O texto analisa cinco vulnerabilidades subestimadas: (1 demografia: o crescimento dos ultraortodoxos e dos árabes israelenses, ambos antissionistas, que arrisca tornar minoria os judeus sionistas; (2 estratégia: novas formas de resistência usadas pelos árabes, tanto militares, como os mísseis, quanto pacíficas, como a resistência não violenta, estão progressivamente se tornando contraproducentes à ocupação israelense de territórios inimigos; (3 regional: a Primavera Árabe, apesar dos fracassos, é uma etapa na democratização e modernização das sociedades árabes que acabará erodindo a vantagem qualitativa-educacional israelense; (4 internacional: Israel depende, militar e economicamente, do apoio ocidental, mas, movidos por seus próprios desenvolvimentos demográficos e culturais, os europeus se mostram cada vez mais indiferentes ou hostis a Israel; e até nos EUA, último reduto de simpatia pró-israelense, a identificação com o Estado judaico pode se tornar mais frágil; (5 mundo judaico: devido à orientação cada vez mais particularista de Israel, há, em vez de legitimação recíproca, ameaça de alienação entre as diásporas judaicas e Israel. O artigo conclui que, a termo, as custas políticas, militares e socioculturais que a beligerância permanente impõe a Israel podem constituir um risco existencial para este país. Eventualmente, os dilemas podem se tornar perigosos para sua sobrevivência como Estado judaico.

  13. Porphyry copper assessment of the Tethys region of western and southern Asia: Chapter V in Global mineral resource assessment (United States)

    Zürcher, Lukas; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Mars, John C.; Ludington, Stephen; Zientek, Michael L.; Dunlap, Pamela; Wallis, John C.; Drew, Lawrence J.; Sutphin, David M.; Berger, Byron R.; Herrington, Richard J.; Billa, Mario; Kuşcu, Ilkay; Moon, Charles J.; Richards, Jeremy P.; Zientek, Michael L.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Johnson, Kathleen M.


    A probabilistic mineral resource assessment of undiscovered resources in porphyry copper deposits in the Tethys region of western and southern Asia was carried out as part of a global mineral resource assessment led by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The purpose of the study was to delineate geographic areas as permissive tracts for the occurrence of porphyry copper deposits at a scale of 1:1,000,000 and to provide probabilistic estimates of amounts of copper likely to be contained in undiscovered porphyry copper deposits in those tracts. The team did the assessment using the USGS three-part form of mineral resource assessment, which is based on (1) mineral deposit and grade-tonnage models constructed from known deposits as analogs for undiscovered deposits, (2) delineation of permissive tracts based on geoscientific information, and (3) estimation of numbers of undiscovered deposits.

  14. A thermonuclear fusion power program for Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, Bruce


    Although lacking in financial and physical resources, Israel has a large base of scientific and technological talent that can be organized for the purpose of producing commercial fusion power reactors, thus allowing Israel to attain energy independence and acquiring a monetary inflow through royalties and reactor export. The limited partnership would be suitable for financing a significant portion of the project. Economic feasibility can be estimated through the use of one or more of the approaches supplied by the calculus of variations, cardinal utility theory, catastrophe theory, and noncooperative game theory. (author)

  15. Kinematics of Late Cretaceous subduction initiation in the Neo-Tethys Ocean reconstructed from ophiolites of Turkey, Cyprus, and Syria (United States)

    Maffione, Marco; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.; de Gelder, Giovanni I. N. O.; van der Goes, Freek C.; Morris, Antony


    Formation of new subduction zones represents one of the cornerstones of plate tectonics, yet both the kinematics and geodynamics governing this process remain enigmatic. A major subduction initiation event occurred in the Late Cretaceous, within the Neo-Tethys Ocean between Gondwana and Eurasia. Suprasubduction zone ophiolites (i.e., emerged fragments of ancient oceanic lithosphere formed at suprasubduction spreading centers) were generated during this subduction event and are today distributed in the eastern Mediterranean region along three E-W trending ophiolitic belts. Several models have been proposed to explain the formation of these ophiolites and the evolution of the associated intra-Neo-Tethyan subduction zone. Here we present new paleospreading directions from six Upper Cretaceous ophiolites of Turkey, Cyprus, and Syria, calculated by using new and published paleomagnetic data from sheeted dyke complexes. Our results show that NNE-SSW subduction zones were formed within the Neo-Tethys during the Late Cretaceous, which we propose were part of a major step-shaped subduction system composed of NNE-SSW and WNW-ESE segments. We infer that this subduction system developed within old (Triassic?) lithosphere, along fracture zones and perpendicular weakness zones, since the Neo-Tethyan spreading ridge formed during Gondwana fragmentation would have already been subducted at the Pontides subduction zone by the Late Cretaceous. Our new results provide an alternative kinematic model of Cretaceous Neo-Tethyan subduction initiation and call for future research on the mechanisms of subduction inception within old (and cold) lithosphere and the formation of metamorphic soles below suprasubduction zone ophiolites in the absence of nearby spreading ridges.

  16. An Extensible, Modular Architecture Coupling HydroShare and Tethys Platform to Deploy Water Science Web Apps (United States)

    Nelson, J.; Ames, D. P.; Jones, N.; Tarboton, D. G.; Li, Z.; Qiao, X.; Crawley, S.


    As water resources data continue to move to the web in the form of well-defined, open access, machine readable web services provided by government, academic, and private institutions, there is increased opportunity to move additional parts of the water science workflow to the web (e.g. analysis, modeling, decision support, and collaboration.) Creating such web-based functionality can be extremely time-consuming and resource-intensive and can lead the erstwhile water scientist down a veritable cyberinfrastructure rabbit hole, through an unintended tunnel of transformation to become a Cyber-Wonderland software engineer. We posit that such transformations were never the intention of the research programs that fund earth science cyberinfrastructure, nor is it in the best interest of water researchers to spend exorbitant effort developing and deploying such technologies. This presentation will introduce a relatively simple and ready-to-use water science web app environment funded by the National Science Foundation that couples the new HydroShare data publishing system with the Tethys Platform web app development toolkit. The coupled system has already been shown to greatly lower the barrier to deploying of web based visualization and analysis tools for the CUAHSI Water Data Center and for the National Weather Service's National Water Model. The design and implementation of the developed web app architecture will be presented together key examples of existing apps created using this system. In each of the cases presented, water resources students with basic programming skills were able to develop and deploy highly functional web apps in a relatively short period of time (days to weeks) - allowing the focus to remain on water science rather on cyberinfrastructure. This presentation is accompanied by an open invitation for new collaborations that use the HydroShare-Tethys web app environment.

  17. Marble in Israel : A. Shadmon. Ministry of Development, State of Israel, Jerusalem, 1965, 56 pp., 36 fig., 2 tables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manten, A.A.

    The booklet Marble in Israel is announced to be the first in a series of reports on the mineral building commodities of Israel, which series will summarize the information available on the subject at the Quarries Section of the Israel Geological Survey and the Office of the Controller of Mines.

  18. Syn-depositional alteration of coral reef framework through bioerosion, encrustation and cementation: Taphonomic signatures of reef accretion and reef depositional events (United States)

    Perry, C. T.; Hepburn, L. J.


    The development of coral reef framework and the preservational character of both in-situ and rubble coral is strongly influenced by a range of physical, chemical and biologically-mediated taphonomic processes. These operate at, or just below, the reef framework-water interface and can be defined as having either a constructive or destructive effect upon primary reef framework (i.e., coral) constituents. Constructional activities add additional calcium carbonate to the primary framework structure via secondary framework growth and early cementation. Destructive processes, which remove or degrade primary (and secondary) framework carbonate, are associated with the effects of either physical (mainly storm) disturbance or biological erosion (termed bioerosion). Key bioeroding groups include the grazing fish and echinoid groups, as well as the activities of an array of infaunal borers. These include specific groups of sponges, bivalves and worms (termed macroborers), as well as cyanobacteria, chlorophytes, rhodophytes and fungi (termed microborers). The relative importance of each process and the rates at which they operate vary spatially across individual reef systems. In addition, many of these processes leave distinctive signatures on, or in, the coral framework. In some cases (e.g., calcareous encrusters) these are the skeletons of the organisms themselves, whilst in other cases the organism may leave behind a trace of their activity (e.g., macro- and microborers). These represent useful palaeoenvironmental tools, firstly because they often have good preservation potential and, secondly because the range and extent of many of the individual species, groups and processes involved exhibit reasonably well-constrained environment and/or depth-related distributions. As a result these taphonomically important organisms or processes can be used to delineate between reef environments in core or outcrop, and to aid the interpretation of reef depositional processes and

  19. Situation Report [--Fiji, Indonesia, Israel, and Philippines]. (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    This is a series of four situation reports prepared by the International Planned Parenthood Federation for informational and consultative purposes. The countries reported on are Fiji, Indonesia, Israel, and the Philippines. Some of the latest statistical figures for each country are listed. They are area, population and growth rate, birth, death,…

  20. Israel Moiseevich Gelfand (1913–2009)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 16; Issue 2. Israel Moiseevich Gelfand (1913–2009). V S Sunder. General Article Volume 16 Issue 2 February 2011 pp 165-179. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: Keywords.

  1. Israel: Background and U.S. Relations (United States)


    Unemployment rate 5.8% (2013 est.) Population below poverty line 21% (2012 est.) Inflation rate 1.7% (2013 est.) Defense spending as % of GDP... Argentina , Canada, Chile, China, India, Indonesia, Pakistan, Russia, Thailand, Ukraine, (continued...) Israel: Background and U.S. Relations

  2. Israel, CERN’s new Member State

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer


    On Wednesday, 15 January 2014, the official Israeli Flag-raising Ceremony took place to mark the accession of Israel to Membership of CERN, bringing the Organization’s number of Member States to 21.     For more information, click here.

  3. Past and Present Child Care in Israel. (United States)

    Corn, Sandra L.

    Providing an historical and current account of Israel's early childhood care and educational system, this report depicts a state-supported system that has emphasized, through both home and classroom techniques, early intervention for the Jewish disadvantaged and handicapped child and family. Focusing on the goals, methods, and realities of child…

  4. Primo Levi, Giorgio Pressburger e Israele

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speelman, R.M.


    Primo Levi, ebreo non religioso, ha sentito ciò nonostante un forte legame emotivo con lo Stato di Israele, che ha cercato di difendere nella crisi degli anni ’60, ma poi ha criticato negli anni ’70 e maggiormente negli anni della campagna ‘Pace in Israele’ e anni successivi. Infatti, tra il 1982 e

  5. Combining histology, stable isotope analysis and ZooMS collagen fingerprinting to investigate the taphonomic history and dietary behaviour of extinct giant tortoises from the Mare aux Songes deposit on Mauritius

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluis, L.G.; Hollund, H.I.; Buckley, M.; de Louw, P.G.B.; Rijsdijk, K.F.; Kars, H.


    Taphonomic research of bones can provide additional insight into a site's formation and development, the burial environment and ongoing post-mortem processes. A total of 30 tortoise (Cylindraspis) femur bone samples from the Mare aux Songes site (Mauritius) were studied histologically, assessing

  6. Another window to the subsistence of Middle Pleistocene hominins in Europe: A taphonomic study of Cuesta de la Bajada (Teruel, Spain) (United States)

    Domínguez-Rodrigo, Manuel; Barba, Rebeca; Soto, Enrique; Sesé, Carmen; Santonja, Manuel; Pérez-González, Alfredo; Yravedra, José; Galán, Ana Belén


    Cuesta de la Bajada is a Middle Pleistocene site (MIS 8-9) in which some of the earliest evidence of Middle Paleolithic stone tool tradition is documented. The small format tool assemblage, dominated by simple flakes and scrapers, is associated to abundant remains of equids and cervids, in which both percussion and cut marks are well represented. The anatomical distribution of these bone surface modifications indicate primary access to fleshed carcasses by hominins. Hunting is further supported by the analysis of age profiles, in which prime adults are predominant both in equids and cervids. The taphonomic analysis of the site adds more information to human predatory behaviors as documented in other Middle Pleistocene sites and is one of the best examples of hunting documented in the Middle Pleistocene European archaeological record.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The Early Pleistocene sedimentary succession of the Dandiero (Buia Basin (Danakil Depression, Eritrea has preserved a rich paleontological, paleoanthropological, and archeological record circa one million years old. Fieldwork undertaken between 1995 and 2003 led to the collection of fossil vertebrate remains now stored at the National Museum of Eritrea. Bones were recovered in different localities of the Dandiero Basin, where abundant archaeological and paleontological remains outcrop from the eroded sediments. The faunal collection of 436 animal bones from the Buia Basin, mostly derived from Uadi Aalad area, have undergone taphonomic analysis. Even though bone surfaces are poorly preserved due to abrasion, our work demonstrates carcass exploitation. Some specimens, mostly representing Hippopotamus gorgops and medium- to large-sized bovids, show traces of butchering left by stone tools. We also document, as far as we know for the first time, a single case of butchering involving a femur of a crocodile.   

  8. Facies and depositional environments for the coquinas of the Morro do Chaves Formation, Sergipe-Alagoas Basin, defined by taphonomic and compositional criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Tavares

    Full Text Available Lacustrine carbonate rocks form important hydrocarbon accumulations along the Brazilian continental margin, some of which are contained in oil fields in which coquinas are one of the main reservoirs (viz. Campos Basin. The complexity and heterogeneity of these deposits make them a challenge in terms of reservoir description. For the necessary classification and paleoenvironmental interpretation of the coquinas, it is essential to evaluate many aspects including biological (such as carbonate productivity, sedimentological (energy regime in the depositional environment, transport of bioclasts, terrigenous supply, taphonomic (fragmentation of shells, abrasion and diagenetic processes. The facies analysis applied in this study is considered a more appropriate classification approach to understand these coquinas, since it is more flexible and comprehensive than the existing classifications for carbonate rocks. The material investigated here consists of rock samples of the coquinas from the Atol Quarry of the Morro do Chaves Formation (Barremian/Aptian, Sergipe-Alagoas Basin. These rocks that crop out in the Atol quarry complex can be considered as a case study for similar coquinas reservoirs found in the Brazilian continental margin basins. Six sedimentary facies were described, using the main taphonomic (fragmentation of shells and compositional (presence of micrite and siliciclastic matrix features as a diagnostic criteria. Two carbonate facies, two mixed carbonate-siliciclastic facies and two siliciclastic facies (mudstones were identified. From the facies succession, combined with a review of the literature on the subject, the following depositional paleoenvironments were defined: high-energy lake platform, lacustrine delta in a high-energy lake platform and lake-centre. In this paper, a new facies model for the studied coquinas succession is proposed.

  9. [Ethiopia in Israel--an ethnopharmacological study of Ethiopian immigrants in Israel]. (United States)

    Danino, Dikla; Amar, Zohar


    There is a large Ethiopian community in Israel which preserves its unique culture and customs. Many of the members of this community still use traditional methods of healing, such as blood-letting, burns, tattooing, amulets, healing water, incense and various medicinal herbs that are prescribed based on the diagnosis of the disease. This study deals with documenting the use of the medicinal drugs implemented by the Ethiopian community in Israel, which is a rapidly vanishing world. The study is based on interviews with hundreds of informants, among them traditional healers, and it surveyed some fifty shops which sell Ethiopian medicinal drugs and spices. The survey brought to light a list of medical materials which are found in the Ethiopian markets in Israel including 89 kinds of plants (some 85%); 6 different minerals (some 6%); 5 types of animals (some 4.5%); and 5 substances of various origins (some 4.5%). Most of the drugs are imported from Ethiopia to Israel, since they are endemic. There are also other medicinal drugs that are gathered in the field in Israel or brought through personal import; in total, our estimate is that there are approximately 150 different kinds of medicinal drugs in use in Israel. This is a relatively small number when compared to the inventory of drugs in the land of origin, Ethiopia. The decline in the use of traditional drugs, due to limited availability and processes of modernization in the Ethiopian community in Israel, heightens the importance of a study that documents this unique culture. The study is also of assistance to the modern medical authorities in order to better understand and become more familiar with the Ethiopian community and with its needs and special practices, in terms of both prevention and treatment.

  10. Bridging the Faraoni and Selli oceanic anoxic events: late Hauterivian to early Aptian dysaerobic to anaerobic phases in the Tethys (United States)

    Föllmi, K. B.; Bôle, M.; Jammet, N.; Froidevaux, P.; Godet, A.; Bodin, S.; Adatte, T.; Matera, V.; Fleitmann, D.; Spangenberg, J. E.


    A detailed geochemical analysis was performed on the upper part of the Maiolica Formation in the Breggia (southern Switzerland) and Capriolo sections (northern Italy). The analysed sediments consist of well-bedded, partly siliceous, pelagic carbonate, which lodges numerous thin, dark and organic-rich layers. Stable-isotope, phosphorus, organic-carbon and a suite of redox-sensitive trace-element contents (RSTE: Mo, U, Co, V and As) were measured. The RSTE pattern and Corg:Ptot ratios indicate that most organic-rich layers were deposited under dysaerobic rather than anaerobic conditions and that latter conditions were likely restricted to short intervals in the latest Hauterivian, the early Barremian and the pre-Selli early Aptian. Correlations are both possible with organic-rich intervals in central Italy (the Gorgo a Cerbara section) and the Boreal Lower Saxony Basin, as well as with the facies and drowning pattern in the Helvetic segment of the northern Tethyan carbonate platform. Our data and correlations suggest that the latest Hauterivian witnessed the progressive installation of dysaerobic conditions in the Tethys, which went along with the onset in sediment condensation, phosphogenesis and platform drowning on the northern Tethyan margin, and which culminated in the Faraoni anoxic episode. This episode is followed by further episodes of dysaerobic conditions in the Tethys and the Lower Saxony Basin, which became more frequent and progressively stronger in the late early Barremian. Platform drowning persisted and did not halt before the latest early Barremian. The late Barremian witnessed diminishing frequencies and intensities in dysaerobic conditions, which went along with the progressive installation of the Urgonian carbonate platform. Near the Barremian-Aptian boundary, the increasing density in dysaerobic episodes in the Tethyan and Lower Saxony Basins is paralleled by a change towards heterozoan carbonate production on the northern Tethyan shelf. The

  11. Bridging the Faraoni and Selli oceanic anoxic events: late Hauterivian to early Aptian dysaerobic to anaerobic phases in the Tethys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. B. Föllmi


    Full Text Available A detailed geochemical analysis was performed on the upper part of the Maiolica Formation in the Breggia (southern Switzerland and Capriolo sections (northern Italy. The analysed sediments consist of well-bedded, partly siliceous, pelagic carbonate, which lodges numerous thin, dark and organic-rich layers. Stable-isotope, phosphorus, organic-carbon and a suite of redox-sensitive trace-element contents (RSTE: Mo, U, Co, V and As were measured. The RSTE pattern and Corg:Ptot ratios indicate that most organic-rich layers were deposited under dysaerobic rather than anaerobic conditions and that latter conditions were likely restricted to short intervals in the latest Hauterivian, the early Barremian and the pre-Selli early Aptian.

    Correlations are both possible with organic-rich intervals in central Italy (the Gorgo a Cerbara section and the Boreal Lower Saxony Basin, as well as with the facies and drowning pattern in the Helvetic segment of the northern Tethyan carbonate platform. Our data and correlations suggest that the latest Hauterivian witnessed the progressive installation of dysaerobic conditions in the Tethys, which went along with the onset in sediment condensation, phosphogenesis and platform drowning on the northern Tethyan margin, and which culminated in the Faraoni anoxic episode. This episode is followed by further episodes of dysaerobic conditions in the Tethys and the Lower Saxony Basin, which became more frequent and progressively stronger in the late early Barremian. Platform drowning persisted and did not halt before the latest early Barremian. The late Barremian witnessed diminishing frequencies and intensities in dysaerobic conditions, which went along with the progressive installation of the Urgonian carbonate platform. Near the Barremian-Aptian boundary, the increasing density in dysaerobic episodes in the Tethyan and Lower Saxony Basins is paralleled by a change towards heterozoan carbonate

  12. Origin of the Eastern Mediterranean: Neo-Tethys Rifting Along a Cryptic Cadomian Suture with Afro-Arabia (United States)

    Avigad, D.; Abbo, A.; Gerdes, A.


    The East Mediterranean is a land-locked basin, a remnant of Neo-Tethys. It was formed in the Permo-Triassic as a result of the drift of the Tauride block from the Afro-Arabian margin of Gondwana. Herein we show that rather than being a genuine Afro-Arabia crustal fragment, the Tauride block is underlain by a Late Neoproterozoic Cadomian basement, which differs significantly from the Neoproterozoic "Pan-African" basement of NE Africa from which it was detached. Resembling other Cadomian terranes of Western Europe, the Tauride basement is chiefly a greywacke succession deposited in a mid to late Ediacaran back-arc basin formed on the periphery of Afro-Arabia, above the southward subducting proto-Tethys. The back-arc region was deformed and metamorphosed to various degrees and intruded by latest Ediacaran-Cambrian granites and volcanics during the Cadomian orogeny. Unlike the protracted (ca .300 m.y.) Neoproterozoic crustal evolution recorded in Afro-Arabia, the Cadomian basement of the Taurides evolved briefly, over ca. 50 m.y. We show that the entire cycle of sedimentation, metamorphism and magmatism in the Tauribe basement took place in the late Ediacaran-Cambrian and lagged after Neoproterozoic Pan-African orogeny and igneous activity in Afro-Arabia. The Cadomian orogeny had accreted the Taurides, and adjoining peri-Gandwana Cadomian terranes, with an already-consolidated Afro-Arabian continent. Permo-Triassic rifting of the East Mediterranean occurred close to the transition between these two domains. Rifting has thus been inherited from, and superimposed on late Ediacaran structures formed in front of the current Afro-Arabia margin of Gondwana during Cadomian orogeny. The boundary between the Cadomian edifice and the Pan-African crust of Afro-Arabia appears to lie nowadays on the southern margin of the Mediterranean, extending from Morocco in the west to Arabia in the east. Hence, the continental margin of the East Mediterranean, including in the Levant basin

  13. Israel: Background and U.S. Relations (United States)


    vol. 67, no. 2, spring 2013. Following elections, the task of forming a government is given by Israel’s president to the Knesset member he/she...2014. Israeli observers have raised concerns that a military strike might not be feasible against the Arak reactor after it goes “ hot ” because of...html. 150 CRS Report RL33222, U.S. Foreign Aid to Israel, by Jeremy M. Sharp. 151 The other 12 are Algeria , Argentina, Canada, Chile, China, India

  14. Commercial and Industrial Cyber Espionage in Israel


    Shahar Argaman; Gabi Siboni


    Cyberspace is especially suited to the theft of business information and to espionage. The accessibility of information, along with the ability to remain anonymous and cover one’s tracks, allows various entities to engage in the theft of valuable information, an act that can cause major damage. Israel, rich in advanced technology and a leader in innovation-based industries that rely on unique intellectual property, is a prime target for cyber theft and commercial cyber attacks. This article e...

  15. Two contrasting modes of continental break-up associated with the formation of the Paleo- and Neo-Tethys in Iran: Implications for petrological and geodynamic evolution at a regional scale (United States)

    Saccani, Emilio; Marroni, Michele; Pandolfi, Luca; Allahyari, Khalil; Azimzadeh, Zohreh


    In Iran, two partial ophiolitic sequences, which are broadly classifiable as "Continental Margin Ophiolite" (CMO), record the tectono-magmatic processes that occur during the continental break-up preceding oceanic basin formation. They are represented by: (1) the Early Carboniferous Misho Mafic Complex (NW Iran) and (2) the Triassic sequences in the Kermanshah ophiolite (Zagros Belt) that are associated with the formation of the Paleo- and Neo-Tethys, respectively. Both CMO sequences consist of gabbros, sheeted dykes and basaltic lavas. Moreover, the Kermanshah CMO also includes exhumed sub-continental mantle lherzolites. Both sequences include rocks showing variable incompatible element enrichments, ranging from N-MORB to E-MORB, P-MORB and alkaline basalt compositions and are interpreted to have formed from partial melting a depleted MORB-type mantle source (DMM) metasomatized by variable proportions of plume-type, enriched components. Nonetheless, geological evidence and petrogenetic modeling suggest that the continental break-up of the Paleo- and Neo-Tethys occurred in two quite different ways. The initial rift-drift tectonics of the Paleo-Tethys was triggered by a mantle plume activity and was strongly affected by plume-related magmatism and associated lithospheric weakening at a regional scale. This conclusion is consistent with the models proposed for the Paleo-Tethys margins in central-eastern Asia. In contrast, the initial rift-drift tectonics of the Neo-Tethys was characterized by a type of rifted margin, which is intermediate between the amagmatic type (Ligurian Tethys type) and the magmatic, plume-influenced type. Indeed, likewise the Ligurian Tethys, rifting occurred through passive (possibly, asymmetric) extension, which led to the exhumation of the sub-continental mantle. Meanwhile, high Sm/Yb rocks formed at the continent-ocean transition zone by partial melting of a DMM source locally bearing sub-continental garnet-pyroxenite relics. However, in

  16. Electro-optics and lasers in Israel (United States)

    Van Zwaren, Joesph


    With over 3,000 scientists, engineers, and technicians spread out in some 86 companies, and in 10 universities and research institutes, all within less than a 2 hour drive from one another, Israel has no doubt one of the largest concentrations of researchers and skilled manpower in electro-optics and lasers in the world. This report presents an up-to-date picture of the field in Israel, covering the industry, academia and education. The recent wave of Russian immigration is bringing thousands of scientists and tens of thousands of engineers and is expected to make an impact on the field of electro-optics and lasers. A million immigrants from Russia are expected to come between 1990 and 1995. There were 3,700 scientists and 2,800 engineers among the first 200,000 Soviet immigrants. As most of this qualified manpower can not be expected to be absorbed by the existing industry, the Israeli government is actively encouraging local and foreign investors and local and multinational companies to help develop new and expanded high-tech enterprises in Israel. The Ministry of Industry and Trade has embarked upon a broad ranged program for industrial growth and immigrant absorption with the goal of doubling technology-based exports in the next four years. The Ministry of Science and Technology has started a program supporting R&D projects at the different universities for immigrant scientists with the goal of capitalizing on the talents of the newcomers to strengthen academia.

  17. Pediatric allergy and immunology in Israel. (United States)

    Geller-Bernstein, Carmi; Etzioni, Amos


    After the geographic and sociodemographic settings as well as the health care in Israel are briefly described, the scope of pediatric allergy and immunology in Israel is presented. This includes specific disorders commonly encountered, the environment that induces symptoms, the specialists who treat them, and the common challenges of patients, parents, doctors, and allied health personnel who collaborate to manage the maladies and patient care. Allergies usually affect some overall 15-20% of the pediatric population. The main allergens are inhaled, ingested, or injected (insects stings). Generally, the incidence of the various allergens affecting children in Israel, is similar to other parts of the Western world. Owing to the high consanguinity rate in the Israeli population, the prevalence of the various immunodeficiency conditions (in the adaptive as well as the innate system) is higher than that reported worldwide. Pediatric allergists/immunologists also treat autoimmune disorders affecting the pediatric group. Pediatric allergy and clinical immunology are not separate specialties. The 25 specialists who treat children with allergic/immunologic diseases have undergone a basic training in Pediatrics. They also received an additional 2-yr training in allergy and clinical immunology and then have to pass the board examinations. They work mainly in pediatric allergy units, in several hospitals that are affiliated to the five medical schools in the country. Aside from clinical work, most of the centers are also heavily involved in clinical and basic research in allergy and immunology. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Die oorsprong van Israel volgens resente navorsing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. van der Westhuizen


    Full Text Available A debate regarding the origin of Israel gave rise to much controversy which developed during the twenties. This debate saw an upsurge of interest during the sixties and seventies. Researchers identified themselves with three schools of thought. In this article negative as well as positive elements in the various schools are focused on. Consensus has been reached by researchers that the greatest obstacle in the way of the reconstruction of Israel's early history is the lack of verifiable sources. This study has looked for a new key, i.e. the creation of a broad scenario of the life in Canaan during the transition of the Late Bronze Age to the Iron Age 1. If such a scenario could be reconstructed as correctly as possible, it would be possible to establish the conditions of Israel’s origins. This study intends to play an elucidating role, illustrating the ways in which the people of Canaan lived and worked in the Late Bronze Age and Iron Age, for it was under these circumstances that Israel had its origins.

  19. Poisoning in Israel: annual report of the Israel Poison Information Center, 2012. (United States)

    Bentur, Yedidia; Lurie, Yael; Cahana, Alfred; Kovler, Nona; Bloom-Krasik, Anna; Gurevych, Bella; Klein-Schwartz, Wendy


    The Israel National Poison Information Center (IPIC), Rambam Health Care Campus, provides 24 hour telephone consultations in clinical toxicology as well as drug and teratogen information. It participates in research, teaching and regulatory activities, and also provides laboratory services. To report data on the epidemiology of poisonings and poison exposures in Israel. We made computerized queries and descriptive analyses of the medical records database of the IPIC during 2012. A total of 31,519 poison exposure cases were recorded, a 157.6% increase compared with 1995. Children Poison exposures and poisonings have increased significantly and have contributed substantially to morbidity and mortality in Israel. The IPIC database is a valuable national resource for the collection and monitoring of poisoning exposure cases. It can be used as a real-time surveillance system for the benefit of public health. It is recommended that reporting to the IPIC become mandatory and its activities be adequately supported by national resources.

  20. Detrital zircon provenance analysis in the Zagros Orogen, SW Iran: implications for the amalgamation history of the Neo-Tethys (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiyong; Xiao, Wenjiao; Majidifard, Mahmoud Reza; Zhu, Rixiang; Wan, Bo; Ao, Songjian; Chen, Ling; Rezaeian, Mahnaz; Esmaeili, Rasoul


    The Zagros Orogen developed as a result of Arabia-Eurasia collision. New in situ detrital zircon U-Pb and Hf isotopic analyses from a Cenozoic sedimentary sequence in SW Iran are used to unravel the amalgamation history of Neo-Tethys. Data indicate that: (1) Paleocene and Eocene strata (58 and 45 Ma, respectively) were sourced from obducted ophiolite and Triassic volcanics, (2) Lower Miocene ( 18 Ma) strata indicate mixed provenance from obducted ophiolite and Iranian magmatic rocks, (3) Mid to Upper Miocene sediments ( 14 to 11.2 Ma) were mainly sourced from Sanandaj-Sirjan zone granitoids to the north, and (4) Lower Pliocene ( 5 Ma) sediments mainly show Arabian age characteristics, with a minor Eurasian affinity component. Two hypotheses are outlined to highlight the key events: Hypothesis A, previously published by several workers, suggests that the sequence studied lay on the Arabia passive margin and that initial collision occurred prior to 18 Ma; Hypothesis B, modified from the Makran model, which is here preferred, suggests that Paleogene to Upper Miocene sediments were sourced from the northern Neo-Tethyan accretionary complex or Eurasia, and carry no input from Arabia, whereas the Lower Pliocene sample shows a mixed provenance from both Arabia and Eurasia, suggesting that collision occurred between 11.2 and 5 Ma.

  1. Foraminiferal biostratigraphy of Upper Cretaceous (Campanian - Maastrichtian) sequences in the Peri-Tethys basin; Moghan area, NW Iran (United States)

    Omidvar, Mahboobeh; Safari, Amrollah; Vaziri-Moghaddam, Hossain; Ghalavand, Hormoz


    The Upper Cretaceous sediments in the Moghan area, NW Iran, contain diverse planktonic and benthic foraminifera, with a total of 33 genera and 53 species (17 genera and 38 species of planktonic foraminifera and 16 genera and 15 species from benthic foraminifera), which led to the identification of six biozones spanning the middle Campanian to late Maastrichtian. A detailed paleontological study and biostratigraphic zonation of these sequences has been carried out in four surface sections. This study shows that there are two different facies in the Moghan area, based on the faunal content. A deep open marine condition exists in the Molok, Selenchai and Nasirkandi sections. In these sections, Upper Cretaceous sequences have diverse planktonic foraminiferal species including the Globotruncana ventricosa (middle to late Campanian), Globotruncanella havanensis (late Campanian), Globotruncana aegyptiaca (latest Campanian), Gansserina gansseri (latest Campanian to early Maastrichtian), Contusotruncana contusa- Racemiguembelina fructicosa (early to late Maastrichtian) and Abathomphalus mayaroensis (late Maastrichtian) zones. This deep open marine setting grades laterally into shallower marine condition dominated by large benthic foraminifera such as Orbitoides media, Orbitoides gruenbachensis, Orbitoides cf. apiculata, Lepidorbitoides minor, Pseudosiderolites sp., Siderolites praecalcitrapoides, Siderolites aff. calcitrapoides and Siderolites calcitrapoides. This facies is mainly recorded in the Hovay section. A detailed biostratigraphic zonation scheme is presented for the studied sections and correlated with the results of other studies in the Tethyan realm. This is the first biozonation scheme for Upper Cretaceous sequences of the Moghan area that can be used as a basis for ongoing studies in this area and other parts of Tethys basin.

  2. Die moederskoot van Israel: 'n Teologiese besinning oor die nuwe navorsingsresultate met betrekking tot die totstandkoming van Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. C. Bezuidenhout


    Full Text Available The womb of Israel:  Tbeological reflections  on recent  research results concerning the origin of Israel. Recent research concerning the origin of Israel has the potential to cause theological disorientation. The birth of Israel and its religion  was unpretentious and not as unique as it may appear in the  Biblical accounts. It is necessary to analyse and evaluate these results and to integrate it into a theological perspective. These results can induce theological benefits if it is perceived in the right perspective.

  3. New data towards the development of a comprehensive taphonomic framework for the Late Jurassic Cleveland-Lloyd Dinosaur Quarry, Central Utah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph E. Peterson


    Full Text Available The Cleveland-Lloyd Dinosaur Quarry (CLDQ is the densest deposit of Jurassic theropod dinosaurs discovered to date. Unlike typical Jurassic bone deposits, it is dominated by the presence of Allosaurus fragilis. Since excavation began in the 1920s, numerous hypotheses have been put forward to explain the taphonomy of CLDQ, including a predator trap, a drought assemblage, and a poison spring. In an effort to reconcile the various interpretations of the quarry and reach a consensus on the depositional history of CLDQ, new data is required to develop a robust taphonomic framework congruent with all available data. Here we present two new data sets that aid in the development of such a robust taphonomic framework for CLDQ. First, x-ray fluorescence of CLDQ sediments indicate elevated barite and sulfide minerals relative to other sediments from the Morrison Formation in the region, suggesting an ephemeral environment dominated by periods of hypereutrophic conditions during bone accumulation. Second, the degree of abrasion and hydraulic equivalency of small bone fragments dispersed throughout the matrix were analyzed from CLDQ. Results of these analyses suggest that bone fragments are autochthonous or parautochthonous and are derived from bones deposited in the assemblage rather than transported. The variability in abrasion exhibited by the fragments is most parsimoniously explained by local periodic re-working and re-deposition during seasonal fluctuations throughout the duration of the quarry assemblage. Collectively, these data support previous interpretations that the CLDQ represents an attritional assemblage in a poorly-drained overbank deposit where vertebrate remains were introduced post-mortem to an ephemeral pond during flood conditions. Furthermore, while the elevated heavy metals detected at the Cleveland-Lloyd Dinosaur Quarry are not likely the primary driver for the accumulation of carcasses, they are likely the result of multiple sources

  4. New data towards the development of a comprehensive taphonomic framework for the Late Jurassic Cleveland-Lloyd Dinosaur Quarry, Central Utah (United States)

    Warnock, Jonathan P.; Eberhart, Shawn L.; Clawson, Steven R.; Noto, Christopher R.


    The Cleveland-Lloyd Dinosaur Quarry (CLDQ) is the densest deposit of Jurassic theropod dinosaurs discovered to date. Unlike typical Jurassic bone deposits, it is dominated by the presence of Allosaurus fragilis. Since excavation began in the 1920s, numerous hypotheses have been put forward to explain the taphonomy of CLDQ, including a predator trap, a drought assemblage, and a poison spring. In an effort to reconcile the various interpretations of the quarry and reach a consensus on the depositional history of CLDQ, new data is required to develop a robust taphonomic framework congruent with all available data. Here we present two new data sets that aid in the development of such a robust taphonomic framework for CLDQ. First, x-ray fluorescence of CLDQ sediments indicate elevated barite and sulfide minerals relative to other sediments from the Morrison Formation in the region, suggesting an ephemeral environment dominated by periods of hypereutrophic conditions during bone accumulation. Second, the degree of abrasion and hydraulic equivalency of small bone fragments dispersed throughout the matrix were analyzed from CLDQ. Results of these analyses suggest that bone fragments are autochthonous or parautochthonous and are derived from bones deposited in the assemblage rather than transported. The variability in abrasion exhibited by the fragments is most parsimoniously explained by local periodic re-working and re-deposition during seasonal fluctuations throughout the duration of the quarry assemblage. Collectively, these data support previous interpretations that the CLDQ represents an attritional assemblage in a poorly-drained overbank deposit where vertebrate remains were introduced post-mortem to an ephemeral pond during flood conditions. Furthermore, while the elevated heavy metals detected at the Cleveland-Lloyd Dinosaur Quarry are not likely the primary driver for the accumulation of carcasses, they are likely the result of multiple sources; some metals may be

  5. Freshwater mussel shells as environmental chronicles: Geochemical and taphonomic signatures of mercury-related extirpations in the North Fork Holston River, Virginia (United States)

    Brown, M.E.; Kowalewski, M.; Neves, R.J.; Cherry, D.S.; Schreiber, M.E.


    This study utilized freshwater mussel shells to assess mercury (Hg) contamination in the North Fork Holston River that extirpated (caused local extinctions of) a diverse mussel fauna. Shells (n = 366) were collected from five sites situated upstream (two sites), just below (one site), and downstream (two sites) of the town of Saltville, Virginia, where Hg was used to produce chlorine and caustic soda from 1950 to 1972. Shell samples were used to test the (1) utility of geochemical signatures of shells for assessing the spatial variation in Hg levels in the river relative to the contamination source and (2) value of taphonomy (postmortem shell alteration) for distinguishing sites that differ in extirpation histories. Geochemical signatures of 40 shells, analyzed using atomic absorption spectroscopy, indicated a strong longitudinal pattern. All shells from the two upstream sites had low Hg concentrations (<5-31 ??g/kg), shells directly below Saltville had variable, but dramatically higher concentrations (23-4637 ??g/kg), and shells from the two downstream sites displayed intermediate Hg levels (<5-115 ??g/kg) that declined with distance from Saltville. Two pre-industrial shells, collected at Saltville in 1917, yielded very low Hg estimates (5-6 ??g/kg). Hg signatures were consistent among mussel species, suggesting that Hg concentrations were invariant to species type; most likely, highly variable Hg levels, both across sites and through time, overwhelmed any interspecific differences in Hg acquisition. Also, a notable postmortem incorporation of Hg in mussel shells seemed unlikely, as the Hg content was not correlated with shell taphonomy (r = 0.18; p = 0.28). The taphonomic analysis (n = 366) showed that the degree of shell alteration reliably distinguished sites with different extirpation histories. At Saltville, where live mussels have been absent for at least 30 years, shells were most heavily altered and fragmented. Conversely, fresh-looking shells abounded

  6. The solar energy in Israel; L'energie solaire en Israel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bocquet, L


    The solar energy is an important characteristic of Israel, listed in its history and its development. This document presents the solar energy applications in the country in many domains: the solar energy for residential houses, the applications in the agricultural and industrial sectors and the research and development programs. (A.L.B.)

  7. Stagnation and Storage of Strongly Depleted Melts in Slow-Ultraslow Spreading Oceans: Evidence from the Ligurian Tethys (United States)

    Piccardo, Giovanni; Guarnieri, Luisa; Padovano, Matteo


    Our studies of Alpine-Apennine ophiolite massifs (i.e., Lanzo, Voltri, Ligurides, Corsica) show that the Jurassic Ligurian Tethys oceanic basin was a slow-ultraslow spreading basin, characterized by the exposures on the seafloor of mantle peridotites with extreme compositional variability. The large majority of these peridotites are made of depleted spinel harzburgites and plagioclase peridotites. The former are interpreted as reactive peridotites formed by the reactive percolation of under-saturated, strongly trace element depleted asthenospheric melts migrated by porous flow through the mantle lithosphere. The latter are considered as refertilized peridotites formed by peridotite impregnation by percolated silica-saturated, strongly trace element depleted melts. Strongly depleted melts were produced as low-degrees, single melt increments by near fractional melting of the passively upwelling asthenosphere during the rifting stage of the basin. They escaped single melt increment aggregation, migrated isolated through the mantle lithosphere by reactive porous or channeled flow before oceanic opening, and were transformed into silica-saturated derivative liquids that underwent entrapment and stagnation in the shallow mantle lithosphere forming plagioclase-enriched peridotites. Widespread small bodies of strongly depleted gabbro-norites testify for the local coalescence of these derivative liquids. These melts never reached the surface (i.e., the hidden magmatism), since lavas with their composition have never been found in the basin. Subsequently, aggregated MORB melts upwelled within replacive dunite channels (as evidenced by composition of magmatic clinopyroxenes in dunites), intruded at shallow levels as olivine gabbro bodies and extruded as basaltic lavas, to form the crustal rocks of the oceanic lithosphere (i.e., the oceanic magmatism). Km-scale bodies of MORB olivine gabbros were intruded into the plagioclase-enriched peridotites, which were formed in the

  8. Recent trends in human brucellosis in Israel. (United States)

    Anis, Emilia; Leventhal, Alex; Grotto, Itamar; Gandacu, Dan; Warshavsky, Bruce; Shimshony, Arnon; Israeli, Avi


    The majority of human brucellosis cases in Israel are caused by the ingestion of unpasteurized dairy foods produced from unlicensed family-owned flocks whose products are sold door-to-door at low prices. Exposure to infected farm animals is another major cause of infection. To determine, by examining recent incidence data and brucellosis control programs, whether a reduction in the incidence of human brucellosis in Israel can be sustained. Case information is reported to the Health Ministry and national data are compiled and analyzed by the Division of Epidemiology. The current study focuses on data from 1998 through 2009 and discusses several of the major prevention and health education programs that have been implemented. An incidence decline of almost 70% during the period 1998-2002 was followed by a return to previously existing levels, although the incidence has remained consistently lower than in past decades. The disease is mostly limited to certain sectors of the rural Arab population. In 2009 the incidence rate per 100,000 population was 7.0 among Arabs compared with 0.2 among Jews. Between 1998 and 2009, 63% of cases were from the Beer Sheva and Acre health districts, which together comprise 15.5% of the Israeli population. Control programs--including efforts to combat brucellosis in animals and to discourage the sale of unpasteurized homemade dairy products--have met with partial success. Without routine vaccination of all family-owned flocks, more effective restraints on the market for unpasteurized dairy foods and improved regional cooperation, human brucellosis will continue to be a contained, but persistent, health problem in Israel due to cultural behavior, socioeconomic factors, and the regional political environment.

  9. Human Rights Education in Israel: Four Types of Good Citizenship (United States)

    Agbaria, Ayman K.; Katz-Pade, Revital


    This article examines the involvement of civil society organizations in human rights education (HRE) in Israel. Focussing on the educational programs of the Association for Civil Rights in Israel (ACRI), as a qualitative instrumental case study, this article examines the conceptions of good citizenship embedded in these programs. Specifically, the…

  10. Educational Travel to Israel in the Era of Globalization (United States)

    Ezrachi, Elan


    Travel to Israel has been a central feature of Jewish and Zionist education yet it is time for this educational travel to be examined in the context of current cultural trends of travel and transnational experiences. The Jewish educational community has not yet internalized the impact of global trends on the field of travel to Israel from a…

  11. Prioritizing Gender among Palestinians in Israel : Establishing a ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Because there is little reliable information about Palestinian women in Israel, advocacy for improved policy is weak. There has also been no sustained and comprehensive study of Palestinian women's experience in Israel in its historical and social context. There has also been no attempt to consider Palestinian women in ...

  12. How Distorted Thinking Influence Arab Children Academic Achievement in Israel? (United States)

    Gith, Emad


    The purpose of the current study was to examine the relation between the parents Cognitive Distortion and Arab children academic achievements in Israel. 52 fifth grade Arab Children and their parents from Israel were participated. The results indicated that parent's cognitive distortion related negatively to children academic achievements; there…

  13. Water-mass evolution during the Cenomanian and Turonian from the proto-Tethys and Western Interior Seaway. (United States)

    Eldrett, James; Dodsworth, Paul; Bergman, Steven


    The Cenomanian and Turonian Stages were characterized by sustained global greenhouse climate conditions, emplacement of several Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs), oceanic anoxic events (OAE), and major global perturbations in the carbon cycle. Here we present detailed palynological and geochemical data from cores located along a North-South transect from the Western Interior Seaway (WIS) to the western proto-Tethys (Demerara Rise). Our integrated dataset demonstrates the northward flow of an anoxic Tethyan water-mass into the WIS during the early-middle Cenomanian; followed by a major re-organisation during the latest Cenomanian- Turonian as a full connection with the Arctic- Boreal water-mass was established during peak transgression, resulting in the de-stratification of the water column and improved oxygenation throughout the WIS and as far south as the Demerara Rise. These data suggest that the recorded decline in redox-sensitive trace metals reflect a genuine ventilation event and not a reduction in the trace metal global inventories. These long term trends in water-mass evolution are tentatively linked to third order eustatic transgression-regression cycles driven by regional tectonic and/or mantle plume-lithosphere dynamics associated with the emplacement of LIPs during this time. On shorter timescales (4th, 5th order) there is no evidence for global eustacy in the Greenhouse Cenomanian - Turonian with most of the bed-scale variations controlled by Milankovitch-driven variations in marine carbonate, siliceous, organic matter productivities and orbital influences on ocean-atmosphere-climate dynamics.

  14. The Pushtashan juvenile suprasubduction zone assemblage of Kurdistan (northeastern Iraq: A Cretaceous (Cenomanian Neo-Tethys missing link

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabah A. Ismail


    Full Text Available The Pushtashan suprasubduction zone assemblage of volcanic rocks, gabbros, norites and peridotites occurs in the Zagros suture zone, Kurdistan region, northeastern Iraq. Volcanic rocks are dominant in the assemblage and consist mainly of basalt and basaltic andesite flows with interlayered red shale and limestone horizons. Earlier lavas tend to be MORB-like, whereas later lavas display island arc tholeiite to boninitic geochemical characteristics. Tholeiitic gabbros intrude the norites and display fractionation trends typical of crystallisation under low-pressure conditions, whereas the norites display calc-alkaline traits, suggesting their source included mantle metasomatised by fluids released from subducted oceanic crust. Enrichment of Rb, Ba, Sr, Th and the presence of negative Nb anomalies indicate generation in a suprasubduction zone setting. Trondhjemite and granodiorite intrusions are present in the volcanic rocks, gabbros and norites. SHRIMP U-Pb dating of magmatic zircons from a granodiorite yields a mean 206Pb/238U age of 96.0 ± 2.0 Ma (Cenomanian. The initial ɛHf value for the zircons show a narrow range from +12.8 to +15.6, with a weighted mean of +13.90 ± 0.96. This initial value is within error of model depleted mantle at 96 Ma or slightly below that, in the field of arc rocks with minimal contamination by older continental crust. The compositional bimodality of the Pushtashan suprasubduction sequence suggests seafloor spreading during the initiation of subduction, with a lava stratigraphy from early-erupted MORB transitioning into calc-alkaline lavas and finally by 96 Ma intrusion of granodioritic and trondhjemitic bodies with juvenile crustal isotopic signatures. The results confirm another Cretaceous arc remnant preserved as an allochthon within the Iraqi segment of the Cenozoic Zagros suture zone. Implications for the closure of Neo-Tethys are discussed.

  15. Myxosporean infections in cultured tilapias in Israel. (United States)

    Landsberg, J H


    Five new species of myxosporean parasite are described from cultured tilapias in Israel. These are: Myxosoma sarigi, Myxosoma equatorialis, Myxobolus israelensis, Myxobolus agolus, and Myxobolus galilaeus. The first four were found in hybrids of Oreochromis aureus X Oreochromis niloticus while Myxobolus galilaeus was found in Sarotherodon galilaeus. In addition, M. sarigi, M. israelensis, and Myxobolus sp. were also found in S. galilaeus. In the light of the present study, the taxonomy of myxosporean infections in tilapias is modified. Mature spores may localize in the melano-macrophage centers of the spleen and kidney where they may eventually be destroyed. No cases of mortality have so far been associated with these parasites.

  16. Checklist of the spiders (Araneae) of Israel. (United States)

    Zonstein, Sergei; Marusik, Yuri M


    This checklist records 631 spider species and subspecies belonging to 49 families in Israel. Species distributions are given in both generalised (by main geographic areas of the country) and detailed (by localities) form. Twenty-seven records are considered as doubtful and another ten are based on misidentifications. A historical survey is provided. Each record is presented in its original combination. The list is dominated by members of the families Gnaphosidae and Salticidae (20.0% and 17.1% of total species, respectively). The level of regional endemism exceeds 37.0%.

  17. The demand for electricity in Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beenstock, M.; Goldin, E.; Nabot, D.


    Quarterly data for Israel are used to compare and contrast three dynamic econometric methodologies for estimating the demand for electricity by households and industrial companies. These are the Dynamic Regression Model and two approaches to cointegration (OLS and Maximum Likelihood). Since we find evidence of seasonal unit roots in the data we also test for seasonal cointegration. We find that the scale elasticities are similar in all three approaches but the OLS price elasticities are considerably lower. Moreover, OLS suggests non-cointegration. The paper concludes by stochastically simulating the DRMs to calculate upside-risk in electricity demand. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  18. Energy partnership: Israel and the Persian Gulf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahgat, G.


    In early 2003, American troops toppled the regime of Saddam Hussein in Iraq. Few weeks later, President Bush introduced his vision to solve the Arab-Israeli conflict in what is known as the ''road map''. These interrelated developments confirm the connection between the two Middle-Eastern sub-systems-the Persian Gulf and the Levant and provide an opportunity to achieve a comprehensive peace. Regional economic cooperation is seen as the sine qua non of a durable peace. This study examines the potential for an energy partnership between the Persian Gulf hydrocarbon producers and Israel. (author)

  19. Energy partnership: Israel and the Persian Gulf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahgat, G.


    In the early 2003, American troops toppled the regime of Saddam Hussein in Iraq. Few weeks later, President Bush introduced his vision to solve the Arab-Israeli conflict in what is known as the 'road map'. These interrelated developments confirm the connection between the two Middle-Eastern sub-systems--the Persian Gulf and the Levant and provide an opportunity to achieve a comprehensive peace. Regional economic cooperation is seen as the sine qua non of a durable peace. This study examines the potential for an energy partnership between the Persian Gulf hydrocarbon producers and Israel

  20. Israel Atomic Energy Commission 1997 Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The 1997 Annual Report is published in a special year for Israel, marking the 50th anniversary of its independece and statehood. From its inception, and the election of a distinguished scientist as its first president, Israel has regarded science and technology as a central pillar for future AEC development and a lever for improved quality of life of its people. The Israel Atomic Energy Commission, which will be celebrating its own anniversary in a few years, has made a modest but significant contribution to the establishment and growth of the technological infrastructure of the country. The first article in this Annual Report focuses attention on yet another aspect of our continuing investigation of the basic properties of technologically interesting and important materials, presented in our 1994 and 1996 Annual Reports. The current entry describes an application of the nuclear Time Differential Perturbed Angular Correlation technique to the study of the structure and properties of metal-hydrogen compounds, of potential interest within the framework of future, environmentally attractive hydrogen-burning energy systems, and in fusion power reactors. The second article also relates to some basic aspects of nuclear fusion. A theoretical study of the behavior and properties of laser-generated hot plasmas resulted in the proposal of a new confinement scheme, in which a plasma generated by circularly polarized laser light is confined in a miniature magnetic bottle created by magnetic fields induced in the plasma by the same light. The paper discusses the conditions under which such confinement and ensuing energy gain may be achieved. Measurements of actual axial magnetic fields generated in plasma by intense circularly polarized laser light are also reported. The third report describes one of our ongoing efforts to improve and streamline the techniques and procedures used in medical applications of radioisotopes. Replacement of the customary )311 solutions for

  1. Criminal Mediation for Minors in Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isack Kandel


    Full Text Available Mediation was introduced in Canada in 1974 in order to handle a crime of robbery and vandalization committed by adolescents. After mediation, these adolescents agreed to apologize to each of their victims and pay restitution. Several countries (Canada, England, Finland, and the U.S. have now made this opportunity available in the cases of young offenders. This review describes the process in the south of Israel. We find this method very powerful, but further studies are needed. Due to resource problems, it will not become mainstream in the near future.

  2. Israel: a crise próxima




    Apesar de êxitos indisputáveis, o Estado de Israel enfrenta problemas estruturais decorrentes do conflito com o mundo árabe. O texto analisa cinco vulnerabilidades subestimadas: (1) demografia: o crescimento dos ultraortodoxos e dos árabes israelenses, ambos antissionistas, que arrisca tornar minoria os judeus sionistas; (2) estratégia: novas formas de resistência usadas pelos árabes, tanto militares, como os mísseis, quanto pacíficas, como a resistência não violenta, estão progressivamente s...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The Ciota Ciara cave is located in the karst area of Monte Fenera (Borgosesia - VC and, with the Ciotarun cave, it is the only Middle Palaeolithic site in Piedmont where the presence of Homo neanderthalensis has been confirmed by discoveries of human remains. Preliminary taphonomic and archaeozoological studies have been performed on a portion of the palaeontological remains from the Stratigraphic Unit 14 (1144 bones. The studies confirmed the presence of cut-marks on Ursus spelaeus and Canis lupus, made by lithic instruments. The position of the cut marks on the bones can be related to skinning and butchery. An experimental butchery has been performed to test the efficiency of the tools made by local quartz during slaughtering activities. The archaeozoological analysis of the faunal remains of S.U. 14, identified cut-marks with weak peculiarities, probably due to the use of quartz tools. The analysis of the experimental collection allowed distinguishing between cut-marks made by quartz tools from those made by flint tools. A preliminary experimentation, conducted on more than 50 different cut-marks made with flakes of three different raw materials (vein quartz, quartzite and flint, allow us to hypothesize that it is possible to distinguish cut-marks made with unretouched flakes of different raw materials.

  4. Hyperinflation in Brazil, Israel, and Nicaragua revisited (United States)

    Szybisz, Martín A.; Szybisz, Leszek


    The aim of the present work is to address the description of hyperinflation regimens in economy. The spirals of hyperinflation developed in Brazil, Israel, and Nicaragua are revisited. This new analysis of data indicates that the episodes occurred in Brazil and Nicaragua can be understood within the frame of the model available in the literature, which is based on a nonlinear feedback (NLF) characterized by an exponent β > 0. In the NLF model the accumulated consumer price index carries a finite time singularity of the type 1 /(tc - t) (1 - β) / β determining a critical time tc at which the economy would crash. It is shown that in the case of Brazil the entire episode cannot be described with a unique set of parameters because the time series was strongly affected by a change of policy. This fact gives support to the ;so called; Lucas critique, who stated that model's parameters usually change once policy changes. On the other hand, such a model is not able to provide any tc in the case of the weaker hyperinflation occurred in Israel. It is shown that in this case the fit of data yields β → 0. This limit leads to the linear feedback formulation which does not predict any tc. An extension for the NLF model is suggested.

  5. [The beginnings of orthopedic surgery in Israel]. (United States)

    Tauber, Chanan


    In early mandatory Israel, orthopedics was mainly conservative, The first modern orthopedic surgeon was Ernst Spira from Czechoslovakia who established an orthopedic service at the Beilinson Hospital in Petah Tikva and left in 1948 to establish the Orthopedic Department and the Rehabilitation Center in Tel Hashomer, which treated the War of Independence casualties including amputees and victims of spinal cord injuries. A second orthopedic department was opened in Tel Hashomer by Shmuel Weissman who left in 1961 to open the Orthopedic Department at the Ichilov hospital in Tel Aviv. Shmuel Weissman became the first Chairman of Orthopedic Surgery at the Tel Aviv University medical school. In 1955, Myer Makin opened a modern orthopedic department in the Hadassah Hospital in Jerusalem and the Alyn Hospital for crippled children. In 1951, Assaf Harofeh Hospital opened the Department of Orthopedic Surgery headed by Anatol Axer who specialized in the treatment and rehabilitation of polio patients. The majority of the second generation of orthopedic department directors was trained by these four surgeons. Major developments in the 1960s and 1970s were the introduction of the AO system revolutionizing fracture treatment from conservative to operative treatment, the advent of total hip and knee replacements, Harrington instrumentation in spinal surgery and arthroscopy were major advances in orthopedic patient care brought to Israel by the aforementioned second generation of orthopedic surgeons. Hand surgery became an independent subspecialty of orthopedics and was lead by the internationally renowned hand surgeon, Isidore Kessler.

  6. Neospora caninum in crows from Israel. (United States)

    Salant, H; Mazuz, M L; Savitsky, I; Nasereddin, A; Blinder, E; Baneth, G


    A cross-sectional Neospora caninum seroprevalence study was performed on free ranging crows (Corvus cornix, Corvus monedula and Corvus splendens) from Israel in order to assess their exposure to this pathogen and evaluate their role as potential hosts or as sentinels of infection. Using the modified agglutination test (MAT) with a cutoff titer of 1:100, 30 out of 183 crows (16.4%) were found to be N. caninum seropositive. Positive results were validated and confirmed by the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). There was 100% agreement between tests when cut-off titers of 1:50 and 1:100 were applied for the IFAT and MAT, respectively. PCR analysis of brain extracts from all crows resulted in the detection of N. caninum DNA for the first time in crows belonging to two species, C. cornix and C. monedula. The high N. caninum seroprevalence in crows suggests that widespread exposure to infection with N. caninum exists especially in central and northern Israel and that crows may act as suitable markers for disease prevalence in the areas in which they are found. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Global Culture in Practice. A Look at Children and Adolescents in Denmark, France and Israel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stald, Gitte Bang; Lemish, Dafna; Drotner, Kirsten


    Childern,young people,adolescents,media,globalisation,global culture,Denmark,France,Israel,national culture,television,transnational fiction preferences,hybrid culture,music,new mediaIsrael,......Childern,young people,adolescents,media,globalisation,global culture,Denmark,France,Israel,national culture,television,transnational fiction preferences,hybrid culture,music,new mediaIsrael,...

  8. Spatio-temporal synchrony of influenza in cities across Israel: the "Israel is one city" hypothesis. (United States)

    Barnea, Oren; Huppert, Amit; Katriel, Guy; Stone, Lewi


    We analysed an 11-year dataset (1998-2009) of Influenza-Like Illness (ILI) that was based on surveillance of ∽23% of Israel's population. We examined whether the level of synchrony of ILI epidemics in Israel's 12 largest cities is high enough to view Israel as a single epidemiological unit. Two methods were developed to assess the synchrony: (1) City-specific attack rates were fitted to a simple model in order to estimate the temporal differences in attack rates and spatial differences in reporting rates of ILI. The model showed good fit to the data (R2  =  0.76) and revealed considerable differences in reporting rates of ILI in different cities (up to a factor of 2.2). (2) A statistical test was developed to examine the null hypothesis (H0) that ILI incidence curves in two cities are essentially identical, and was tested using ILI data. Upon examining all possible pairs of incidence curves, 77.4% of pairs were found not to be different (H0 was not rejected). It was concluded that all cities generally have the same attack rate and follow the same epidemic curve each season, although the attack rate changes from season to season, providing strong support for the "Israel is one city" hypothesis. The cities which were the most out of synchronization were Bnei Brak, Beersheba and Haifa, the latter two being geographically remote from all other cities in the dataset and the former geographically very close to several other cities but socially separate due to being populated almost exclusively by ultra-orthodox Jews. Further evidence of assortative mixing of the ultra-orthodox population can be found in the 2001-2002 season, when ultra-orthodox cities and neighborhoods showed distinctly different incidence curves compared to the general population.

  9. Variability in climate and productivity during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum in the western Tethys (Forada section) (United States)

    Giusberti, L.; Boscolo Galazzo, F.; Thomas, E.


    The Forada section (northeastern Italy) provides a continuous, expanded deep-sea record of the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) in the central-western Tethys. We combine a new, high-resolution, benthic foraminiferal assemblage record with published calcareous plankton, mineralogical and biomarker data to document climatic and environmental changes across the PETM, highlighting the benthic foraminiferal extinction event (BEE). The onset of the PETM, occurring ˜ 30 kyr after a precursor event, is marked by a thin, black, barren clay layer, possibly representing a brief pulse of anoxia and carbonate dissolution. The BEE occurred within the 10 cm interval including this layer. During the first 3.5 kyr of the PETM, several agglutinated recolonizing taxa show rapid species turnover, indicating a highly unstable, CaCO3-corrosive environment. Calcareous taxa reappeared after this interval, and the next ˜9 kyr were characterized by rapid alternation of peaks in abundance of various calcareous and agglutinated recolonizers. These observations suggest that synergistic stressors, including deepwater CaCO3 corrosiveness, low oxygenation, and high environmental instability caused the extinction. Combined faunal and biomarker data (BIT index, higher plant n-alkane average chain length) and the high abundance of the mineral chlorite suggest that erosion and weathering increased strongly at the onset of the PETM, due to an overall wet climate with invigorated hydrological cycle, which led to storm flood events carrying massive sediment discharge into the Belluno Basin. This interval was followed by the core of the PETM, characterized by four precessionally paced cycles in CaCO3 %, hematite %, δ13C, abundant occurrence of opportunistic benthic foraminiferal taxa, and calcareous nannofossil and planktonic foraminiferal taxa typical of high-productivity environments, radiolarians, and lower δDn-alkanes. We interpret these cycles as reflecting alternation between an overall

  10. Benthic foraminifera at the Paleocene/Eocene thermal maximum in the western Tethys (Forada section): variability in climate and productivity (United States)

    Giusberti, L.; Boscolo Galazzo, F.; Thomas, E.


    The Forada section (northeastern Italy) provides a continuous, expanded deep-sea record of the Paleocene/Eocene thermal maximum (PETM) in the central-western Tethys. We combine a new, high resolution, benthic foraminiferal assemblage record with published calcareous plankton, mineralogical and biomarker data to document climatic and environmental changes across the PETM, highlighting the benthic foraminiferal extinction event (BEE). The onset of the PETM, occurring ~ 30 kyr after a precursor event, is marked by a thin, black, barren clay layer, possibly representing a brief pulse of anoxia and carbonate dissolution. The BEE occurred within the 10 cm interval including this layer. During the first 3.5 kyr of the PETM several agglutinated recolonizing taxa show rapid species turnover, indicating a highly unstable, CaCO3-corrosive environment. Calcareous taxa reappeared after this interval, and the next ~ 9 kyr were characterized by rapid alternation of peaks in abundance of various calcareous and agglutinant recolonizers. These observations suggest that synergistic stressors including deep water CaCO3-corrosiveness, low oxygenation, and high environmental instability caused the extinction. Combined faunal and biomarker data (BIT index, higher plant n-alkane average chain length) and the high abundance of the mineral chlorite suggest that erosion and weathering increased strongly at the onset of the PETM, due to an overall wet climate with invigorated hydrological cycle, which led to storm flood-events carrying massive sediment discharge into the Belluno Basin. This interval was followed by the core of the PETM, characterized by four precessionally paced cycles in CaCO3%, hematite%, δ13C, abundant occurrence of opportunistic benthic foraminiferal taxa, as well as calcareous nannofossil and planktonic foraminiferal taxa typical of high productivity environments, radiolarians, and lower δDn-alkanes. We interpret these cycles as reflecting alternation between an

  11. Group Psychotherapy in Israel: History and Main Trends. (United States)

    Raufman, Ravit; Nesher, Ronit; Weinberg, Haim


    In Israel, the sense of belonging carries special meaning for historical and contemporary reasons. Since its establishment, Israel, with a background of centuries of persecution of the Jews, has been subjected to a consistent threat of war and terror that makes it a traumatized society. On the one hand, this intensifies social cohesiveness, especially in times of war. Yet many of the threats pose existential, political, and ideological dilemmas. The trauma of the Holocaust coupled with the continuous existence of wars enhanced the development of special kinds of groups. No wonder group therapy in Israel flourishes, perhaps more than in any other Western country (Nuttman-Shwartz & Weinberg, 2002).

  12. A Short Profile of Hypnotherapy Licensure in Israel. (United States)

    Binyaminy, Binyamin; Haas, Eric J


    In Israel, only physicians, dentists, and psychologists who complete an accredited licensing process may practice hypnosis. This study examines the characteristics of hypnotherapists compared to nonhypnotherapists in the same discipline. All hypnotherapists in Israel were compared to nonhypnotherapist health professionals. There are more subspecialists among hypnotists, and the most common specialties were psychiatry, pediatric dentistry, and clinical psychology. These findings imply self-sorting of hypnotists as a result of the regulation in Israel. Licensure of hypnotherapists could be useful in other countries by comprehensive follow-up of all licensed hypnotists and by improving public and health professional perceptions of the field and its relevance to clinical practice.

  13. The Nabidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) of Israel and the Sinai Peninsula. (United States)

    Novoselsky, T; Freidberg, A; Dorchin, N; Meltzer, N; Kerzhner, I


    A long-term taxonomic and faunistic survey of the family Nabidae from Israel and the Sinai (Egypt) was conducted based primarily on material housed in the National Collection of Insects at Tel Aviv University, Israel (TAUI). A key is provided to all species and information is given for each, species including its distribution, previous records from the study area and life history details if available. Eleven species are recorded; Nabis (Nabis) pseudoferus orientarius Remane and Nabis (Halonabis) sareptanus Dohrn are new records to the fauna of the study area. Phorticus velutinus velutinus Puton is expected to occur in Israel based on its current circummediterranean distribution.

  14. Taphonomic and paleoenvironmental considerations for the concentrations of macroinvertibrate fossils in the Romualdo Member, Santana Formation, Late Aptian - Early Albian, Araripe Basin, Araripina, NE, Brazil (United States)

    Prado, Ludmila Alves Cadeira Do; Pereira, Priscilla Albuquerque; Sales, Alexandre Magno Feitosa; Barreto, Alcina Magnólia Franca


    Benthic macroinvertebrate fossils can be seen towards to the top of the Romualdo Member of the Santana Formation, in the Araripe Basin, Northeast Brazil, and can provide paleoenvironmental and paleobiogeographical information regarding the Cretaceous marine transgression which reached the interior basins in Northeast Brazil. We analyse taphonomic characteristics of macroinvertebrate concentrations of two outcrops (Torrinha and Torre Grande) within the municipality Araripina, Pernambuco, in order to enhance our understanding of the Cretaceous paleoenvironment in the western portion of the Araripe Basin. At the outcrop Torrinha, proximal tempestitic taphofacies were identified. These predominantly consist of ceritid, cassiopid, and later, naticid gastropods as well as undetermined bivalves. Given this lack of variability it can be deduced that there were no significant paleoenvironmental changes during the successive stages tempestitic sedimentation. In the Torre Grande outcrop distal to proximal tempestitic taphofacies were identified from the base to the top respectively pointing to a decrease in paleodepth. Asides from the macroinvertebrates present in Torrinha, there are also echinoids - unequivocal evidence for marine conditions. These occurrences appear to be restricted to Romualdo Member outcrops in the Araripina municipality (the Southeast portion of the Araripe Basin) confirming a previously published hypothesis suggesting that the Cretaceous marine transgression originated from the neighbouring Parnaíba Basin to the west. This study identified marine molluscs of a similar age to those in the Romualdo Member's equivalent rock units in the Parnaíba and Sergipe-Alagoas (SE-AL) basins suggesting a marine connection between these basins and the Araripe Basin during the Early Cretaceous.

  15. Burn injuries and adolescents in Israel. (United States)

    Morad, Mohammed; Hemmo-Lotem, Michal; Kandel, Isack; Hyam, Eytan; Merrick, Joav


    Burn injury is a public health concern often associated with individual pain, emotional stress, prolonged hospitalizations, permanent disfigurement and family stress. In this paper we studied the avaliable data on burn injury among adolescents in Israel through a Medline search and found three relevant studies with data on this population. The incidence rate of burn injury was 0.46 per 1,000 children aged 5-14 years for Jews and 0.91 for Bedouin. Most of the burn injury in this age group was caused by hot liquids, followed by fire and chemical burns for both Jews and Bedouin, but electical burns occurred more often in Bedouins. Mortality was very low for the adolescent group. Prevention programs in schools since the 1980s have been found effective, but the public health focus should now be geared towards groups at risk.

  16. Spa treatment of Chernobyl liquidators in Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godovich, A.; Chernovskij, A.; Lyass, F.; Shapiro, I.; Kratov, Eh.; Markarov, G.


    This paper presents the first experience gained in the use of the unique climate and spa of the Dead Sea for the treatment and rehabilitation of the Chernobyl liquidators at clinic near the city of Arad. Ninety-six patients were treated in Israel, in 40 of these radiation was the etiological factor of the disease: consequences of acute and chronic radiation disease, the astheno-neurotic syndrome, discirculatory encephalopathy, subatrophic laryngopharyngitis, and obstructive bronchitis. Eighty-eight patients had direct indications for treatment at the Dad Sea; locomotory, respiratory, and skin diseases. The course of treatment included the Dad Sea baths, mud applications, sun baths, climatotherapy, physiotherapy, massage, bioenergy therapy, inhalations, moisturizing creams, etc. An appreciable improvement with resolution of the principal symptoms was attained in 82% of patients, in 13% improvement with a significant abatement of the symptoms was achieved, whereas in 5% no apparent results were seen

  17. O universo da cor de Israel Pedrosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Lemgruber


    Full Text Available Neste novo livro, Israel Pedrosa atualiza sua teoria sobre a cor apresentada em Da cor à cor inexistente, da Editora Leo Christiano, uma referência para designers e artistas visuais há décadas (sua 7ª edição é de 1999. Em seu novo trabalho, Pedrosa fala da natureza física das cores, da visão do artista plástico em lidar com o cromatismo-com um vôo histórico sobre a história da representação pictórica-e da fisiologia da percepção visual, sem deixar de pensar a questão estética que envolve o tema.

  18. Israel Atomic Energy Commission 1996 Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Selecting the research efforts to be highlighted in the Israel Atomic Energy Commission's Annual Report from the large body and broad spectrum of ongoing work is not an easy task. The extensive bibliography of published results attached to the report attests to the scope of this difficulty. Of the many worthwhile projects, four were chosen to represent best the current trends in the continuing R and D program at the research centers of the Israel Atomic Energy Commission. One of these trends is the growing cooperation with private industry, in an attempt to gear our R and D programs to respond to market demands. Another feature, noted already several years ago, is the extensive collaboration of our scientists and engineers with colleagues at other institutions, in Israel and abroad. some of the work reported is part of evolving international industrial cooperation projects, illustrating both these trends. Following a trend common to many nuclear research centers around the world, a substantial part of our research effort is non-nuclear in nature. This is illustrated in the first article, which deals with advances in the application of non-linear optics in diverse fields of science and technology. These include state-of-the-art solid-state lasers, rapid modulation of light signals, development and generation of tunable sources of coherent light, optical data storage and the microscopic probing of biological and inorganic samples. The present work reports on a range of R and D, from the fundamentals of non-linear optical materials to proof-of-principle demonstrations of non-linear subwavelength resolution microscopy, to fabrication of prototype commercial tunable laser systems The second report considers the microstrain characteristics in some alloys using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The research utilizes XRD line broadening effects to study the characteristics of alloys from especially prepared surfaces. These characteristics include the homogeneity of alloying

  19. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The geology of Israel is relatively simple. Most of the country is underlain by sedimentary rocks of Secondary and Tertiary age. As far as the IAEA is aware no systematic exploration has been done for conventional type uranium deposits. Israel has no uranium deposits, and no high or low-grade uranium ores. However, there are uranium 'sources' which are mainly phosphate rock.Proven phosphate reserves in Israel are estimated at about 220 million tons in five different locations. The average uranium concentration is between 100 and 170 ppm. This makes the uranium content in the proven phosphate reserves of Israel to be about 25,000 tons. Together with the possibility of additional discoveries and on the assumption that the economic conditions for the production of both phosphate and uranium become favourable the Speculative Potential is placed in the 10,000 to 50,000 tonnes uranium category. (author)

  20. Suletud utoopia? / Israel Shahak ; tõlk. Lauri Pilter

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Shahak, Israel


    Juutide ja mittejuutide ebavõrdsused Iisraelis. Artiklis on juttu ka Iisraeli kui "juudi riigi" õigusest. Lisatud tõlkija kommentaar. Tõlke allikas: Israel Shahak. Jewish History, Jewish Religion: The Weight of Three Thousand Years. London, 1994

  1. The United States and Israel, from alliance to symbiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferran Izquierdo Brichs


    Full Text Available The relationship between Israel and the United States has been evolving from that of an alliance during the Cold War to a symbiosis nowadays. American policy toward the Middle East is marked by its interest in oil, to which its growing relationship with Israelhas gradually been added. However, although for a long time the interests it shared with Saudi Arabia and other Arab countries moderated its policy and balanced its support of Israel somewhat, in the last few years its alliance with Israel has come to dominate Washington’s strategy. This is reflected in its invasion of Iraq and its tensions with Arab countries. The reason for this evolution must be sought, primarily, in the influence that Israel and pro-Zionist lobbies have gained in the domestic policy of the United States.

  2. Modern status of fishery sectors of Israel (review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. Oziransky


    Full Text Available Purpose. The State of Israel is one of the world leaders in the development of modern technologies, particularly in fisheries industry. E.g., 30 fish farms annually provide production of over 18,000 tons of fish, with an average yield of more than 8 tons per hectare. The fish equipment manufactured in this country is supplied to the Asia, Africa, Europe, South and North America countries, Australia. Israelis' specialists and companies design, build and implement engineering and technological support of fish-breeding enterprises in the EU, China, Nigeria, Georgia, Russia, Belarus, etc. The ongoing shortage of water in the country has spurred innovation in water conservation techniques, and a substantial agricultural modernization, drip irrigation. Israel is also at the technological forefront of desalination and water recycling. The Sorek desalination plant is the largest seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO desalination facility in the world. As of 2015, more than 50 percent of water for Israeli households, agriculture and industry is artificially produced. The country hosts an annual Water Technology and Environmental Control Exhibition & Conference (WATEC that attracts thousands of people from all over the world. In 2011, Israel's water technology industry was worth around $2 billion a year with annual exports of products and services of dozens of millions of dollars. Due to innovations in reverse osmosis technology, Israel is set to become a net exporter of water in the incoming years. At the same time, publications in Ukraine about the aquaculture branch of Israel concern mainly statistical information, or are devoted to individual ichthyopathological problems, genetic studies, etc. It does not allow analyzing a comprehensive development in this industry of Israel. Thus, the compilation and analysis of existing information is a relevant issue. This article expands the awareness of specialists on the specifics of fisheries industry, marine and

  3. Lagrangian formulation of relativistic Israel-Stewart hydrodynamics (United States)

    Montenegro, David; Torrieri, Giorgio


    We rederive relativistic hydrodynamics as a Lagrangian effective theory using the doubled coordinates technique, allowing us to include dissipative terms. We include Navier-Stokes shear and bulk terms, as well as Israel-Stewart relaxation time terms, within this formalism. We show how the inclusion of shear dissipation forces the inclusion of the Israel-Stewart term into the theory, thereby providing an additional justification for the form of this term.

  4. Discrimination of Seismic Sources Using Israel Seismic Network. (United States)


    Research and Geophysics P.O. Box 2286 Holon 58122, ISRAEL July 1996 19 10 0 Scientific Report No. 1 APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED...Research and Geophysics P.O.B. 2286, Holon 58122 555/53/96(4) ISRAEL 9. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSORING...Seismic Network (RDSN) efficiently as a multichannel, spatially distributed system for discrimination of low magnitude events (mb < 2.5). In this study

  5. Shared decision-making in Israel: status, barriers, and recommendations


    Miron-Shatz, Talya; Golan, Ofra; Brezis, Mayer; Siegal, Gil; Doniger, Glen M


    Abstract Shared decision making (SDM) - involving patients in decisions relevant to their health - has been increasingly influential in medical thought and practice around the world. This paper reviews the current status of SDM in Israel, including efforts to promote SDM in the legislation and healthcare system, its influence in medical training and the national health plans, and funding for SDM-related research. Published studies of SDM in Israel are also reviewed. Although informed consent ...

  6. Israel: Background and U.S. Relations in Brief (United States)


    terms of the deal and punish any Iranian breaches. U.S.-Israel Security Cooperation General Issues Significant U.S.-Israel security cooperation...sentence in prison , while possibly facing further convictions.” “Israel’s prime minister: The law looms larger,” Economist, July 16, 2016: 54 Mazal...focus on linking rewards or punishments in specific Palestinian West Bank communities to the extent attackers come from those communities. 57 As a

  7. An Innocent Politics?: Investigating Family Photography in Modern Israel


    Pasternak, Gil


    I delivered this invited talk as part of the lecture series Writing Photography, hosted at The Photographers’ Gallery, London. In this talk I discussed the politics of family photography through imagery taken in Israel. Looking at collections of family photographs that have been used both in the domestic and the public spheres, I explored the interrelationship between the politically contested circumstances in Israel, and the various ways that family photography enters the political realm....

  8. The Pragmatic Entente: Turkey’s Growing Relations With Israel. (United States)


    Operation Reliant Mermaid , a joint search and rescue exercise, was conducted in January 1998 and involved not only Turkey and Israel but also the United...Turkey raised its recognition of Israel from "de facto" to "de jure." This made little practical difference, but it did symbolize Ankara’s...Israeli naval exercise Reliant Mermaid in January 1998. Additionally, Jordan has also defended Turkish and Israeli claims that their relations do

  9. Acanthamoeba keratitis: study of the 5-year incidence in Israel. (United States)

    Graffi, Shmuel; Peretz, Avi; Jabaly, Haneen; Koiefman, Anna; Naftali, Modi


    Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) is not a notifiable disease in Israel, so there are no accurate incidence rates for this condition in Israel. The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence of AK in Israel for the years 2008-2012. We distributed a survey questionnaire to laboratory managers in Israel. The laboratories were affiliated to medical institutes that either provided ophthalmology services or served community ophthalmology clinics. Our questionnaire requested survey respondents to provide information regarding the methods used to diagnose AK, and the number of positive and negative cultures for Acanthamoebae species performed for each of the years from 2008 to 2012. Six laboratories used non-nutrient agar with Escherichia coli as the culture medium, one used calcofluor-white staining with fluorescent microscopy, and two used PCR for diagnosing AK. Twenty-three AK cases were identified, to give an estimated incidence of 1/1 668 552. AK is mostly attributable to the use of contact lenses. As contact lenses are popular in Israel, we expected a higher incidence rate. A lower than expected incidence rate may indicate insufficient awareness of AK in Israel.

  10. Sea-level changes in the Lopingian (late Permian) of the northwestern Tethys and their effects on the terrestrial palaeoenvironments, biota and fossil preservation (United States)

    Kustatscher, Evelyn; Bernardi, Massimo; Petti, Fabio Massimo; Franz, Matthias; van Konijnenburg-van Cittert, Johanna H. A.; Kerp, Hans


    The Lopingian is characterised by an aridisation trend and substantial sea-level changes. Hence, the fossil record of this time interval is strongly affected by ecological and taphonomic factors inherent to these long-term processes. Integrated sedimentological and palaeontological studies in the Bletterbach Gorge (Dolomites, N-Italy) allow discrimination between biological signals and preservational bias, shedding light on the effect of sea-level changes on the preservation potential of terrestrial associations of plant remains and tetrapod footprints. Flora A, composed of more humid elements with larger leaf/shoot fragments, appears close to a sea-level highstand and is interpreted as a (par-)autochthonous assemblage of an intrazonal riparian vegetation. Flora B, dominated by xerophytic elements documented by smaller fragments, corresponds to an allochthonous assemblage of an azonal vegetation preserved in floodplain fines of a progradational fluvial plain associated with a sea-level lowstand. The distribution of vertebrate footprints mirrors that of the plant-bearing horizons and their abundance and morphological diversity strongly increases in correspondence with marine transgressions. This could be related to a more diverse fauna (more complex food-web related to more humid conditions) or more favourable taphonomic conditions. However, the most diversified fauna, recorded during the early phases of the regressive phase, is in our interpretation best explained by the rapid burial of footprints due to the increasing energy. Our study provides an explanation for the change in distribution and preservation of plant and animal fossils in the Bletterbach section and shows how the fossil content of continental successions is deeply influenced by sea-level changes.

  11. Bryozoa from the Mediterranean coast of Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The impact of global warming on the composition of marine biotas is increasing, underscoring the need for better baseline information on the species currently present in given areas. Little is known about the bryozoan fauna of Israel; the most recent publication concerning species from the Mediterranean coast was based on samples collected in the 1960s and 1970s. Since that time, not only have the species present in this region changed, but so too has our understanding of bryozoan taxonomy. Here we use samples collected during the last decade to identify 47 bryozoan species, of which 15 are first records for the Levantine basin. These include one new genus and species (Crenulatella levantinensis gen. et. sp. nov., two new species (Licornia vieirai sp. nov. and Trematooecia mikeli sp. nov., and two species that may be new but for which available material is inadequate for formal description (Reteporella sp. and Thalamoporella sp.. In addition, Conopeum ponticum is recorded for the first time from the Mediterranean Sea. Non-indigenous species make up almost one-quarter of the 47 species identified. All of the non-indigenous species are native to tropical and subtropical regions, implying a change of the Levant bryozoan biota from a temperate to a more tropical state, probably related to both higher temperature and salinity and to the opening of the Suez Canal connecting the Red Sea and the Eastern Mediterranean.

  12. Spring Bird Migration Phenology in Eilat, Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reuven Yosef


    Full Text Available Analysis of the mean date of first captures and median arrival dates of spring migration for 34 species of birds at Eilat, Israel, revealed that the earlier a species migrates through Eilat, the greater is the inter-annual variation in the total time of its passage. Birds arrive during spring migration in Eilat in four structured and independent waves. The annual fluctuation in the initial arrival dates (initial capture dates and median dates (median date of all captures, not including recaptures, did not depend on the length of the migratory route. This implies that migrants crossing the Sahara desert depart from their winter quarters on different Julian days in different years. We suggest that negative correlations between the median date of the spring migration of early and late migrants depends upon the easterly (Hamsin wind period. Moreover, we believe that the phenology of all birds during spring migration in Eilat is possibly also determined by external factors such as weather conditions on the African continent or global climatic processes in the Northern hemisphere. Orphean Warblers (Sylvia hortensis show a strong positive correlation (rs=-0.502 of initial capture date with calendar years, whereas other species such as Barred Warbler (S. nisoria; rs = -0.391 and Spotted Flycatcher (Muscicapa striata; rs = -0.398 display an insignificant trend. The Dead Sea Sparrow (Passer moabiticus and Red-Backed Shrike (Lanius collurio are positively correlated regarding initial arrival date and medians of spring migration.

  13. Einstein before Israel Zionist icon or iconoclast?

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenkranz, Ze’ev


    Albert Einstein was initially skeptical and even disdainful of the Zionist movement, yet he affiliated himself with this controversial political ideology and today is widely seen as an outspoken advocate for a modern Jewish homeland in Palestine. What enticed this renowned scientist and humanitarian, who repeatedly condemned nationalism of all forms, to radically change his views? Was he in fact a Zionist? Einstein Before Israel traces Einstein's involvement with Zionism from his initial contacts with the movement at the end of World War I to his emigration from Germany in 1933 in the wake of Hitler's rise to power. Drawing on a wealth of rare archival evidence--much of it never before published--this book offers the most nuanced picture yet of Einstein's complex and sometimes stormy relationship with Jewish nationalism. Ze'ev Rosenkranz sheds new light on Einstein's encounters with prominent Zionist leaders, and reveals exactly what Einstein did and didn't like about Zionist beliefs, objectives, and methods...

  14. Radiation Exposure to Concrete in Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haquin, G.; Kovler, K.; Yungrais, G. Z.; Lavi, N.


    Most building materials of terrestrial origin contain small amounts of radionuclides of natural origin, mainly from the Uranium (238U) and Thorium (232Th) decay chains and the radioactive isotope of potassium, 40K. The external radiation exposure is caused by gamma emitting radionuclides, which in the uranium series mainly belong to the decay chain segment starting with Radium (226Ra). The internal (by inhalation) radiation exposure is due to Radon (222Rn), and its short lived decay products, exhaled from building materials into the room air. Due to economical and environmental reasons there is an increased tendency to use industrial by-products containing relatively high concentrations of radionuclides of natural origin in the building material industry. Fly ash (FA), produced as by-product in the combustion of coal, is extensively used in Israel since mid eighties of the last century in concrete and as an additive to cement . The increase of 226Ra activity concentration, the mineralogical characteristics of the FA and of the concrete may influence on the radon exhalation rate and consequently on the radon exposure of the public. The recently published Israeli Standard 5098 (IS 5098) 'Content of natural radioactive elements in building products' limits the content of natural radionuclides as well as the radon emanation from concrete. This paper presents a compilation of three studies conducted at Soreq Nuclear Research Centre (SNRC), Technion, NRG and Environmental Lab BGU (ELBGU) to investigate and quantify the influence of FA addition in concrete

  15. Stratigraphic and paleogeographic correlation between the Tethys and the Atlantic realms across the Cretaceous-Paleogene transition: Tunisia, Spain and France (United States)

    Gallala, N.; Zaghbib-Turki, D.; Turki, M. M.; Arenillas, I.; Arz, J. A.; Molina, E.


    Based on the high resolution biostratigraphical analysis, the El Kef (K/Pg boundary stratotype section and GSSP point) and Ellès sections (Tunisia) and the Agost and Caravaca sections (Betic cordillera, Spain), located at Tethyan realms, are showing a complete section in its Cretaceous-Paleogene transition interval may be compared with their neighbors in the Atlantic realm (Bidart section, SW France). At the Tethys realm, all the biozones and subzones are easily recognized by their biomarkers. Even the uppermost Maastrichtian is developed and indicated by P. hantkeninoides. This biomarker is absent at the Atlantic section of middle latitude: (Bidart, SW France). This later are characterized by P. hariaensis biomarker which have larger paleogeographic extension, it is why we have choose to consider this late species as indicator of the uppermost Cretaceous subzone at Atlantic realm and the P. hantkeninoides as indicator of Tethys realm. At El Kef section, the G. cretacea biozone spans 55 cm. It is more expanded than at Agost (12,5 cm), Caravaca (15 cm) relative to the Tethys realm, and to Bidart (10 cm) relative to Atlantic realm but it is nearly expanded than at Ellès section in Tunisia (66 cm). In spite of the reduced G. cretacea biozone expansion at El Kef K/Pg boundary stratotype and the auxiliary sections, Caravaca and Agost sections (Spain), like as elsewhere, at the Bidart (France) and the Ellès section (Tunisia), the Pv. longiapertura FAD is observed at the upper part of the relevant biozone. At the El Kef section the Pv. eugubina zone spans 5.7 m, it is largely expanded than at Caravaca and Agost sections spanning respectively (42 cm and 65 cm), it is also more expanded than at Bidart section (SW France) spanning 107 cm. But it is approximately equivalent than Elles (5.8 m). This zone is subdivided into Pv. sabina and E. simplicissima subzones. The deposition thickness of the zones and subzones are less expanded than at El Kef and Elles sections. This

  16. Hydrography and biogeochemistry dedicated to the Mediterranean BGC-Argo network during a cruise with RV Tethys 2 in May 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Taillandier


    Full Text Available We report on data from an oceanographic cruise, covering western, central and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, on the French research vessel Tethys 2 in May 2015. This cruise was fully dedicated to the maintenance and the metrological verification of a biogeochemical observing system based on a fleet of BGC-Argo floats. During the cruise, a comprehensive data set of parameters sensed by the autonomous network was collected. The measurements include ocean currents, seawater salinity and temperature, and concentrations of inorganic nutrients, dissolved oxygen and chlorophyll pigments. The analytical protocols and data processing methods are detailed, together with a first assessment of the calibration state for all the sensors deployed during the cruise. Data collected at stations are available at and data collected along the ship track are available at

  17. Petrogenesis of the Pulang porphyry complex, southwestern China: Implications for porphyry copper metallogenesis and subduction of the Paleo-Tethys Oceanic lithosphere (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Dong, Guo-Chen; Zhao, Guo-Chun; Han, Yi-Gui; Li, Yong-Ping


    The Pulang complex is located in the southern segment of the Yidun Arc in the Sanjiang Tethys belt, southwestern China. It is composed of quartz diorite, quartz monzonite and granodiorite porphyries, and hosts the super-large Pulang deposit. This study presents new U-Pb geochronological, major-trace elemental and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic data to constrain the petrogenesis of the Pulang complex and to evaluate its significances for porphyric mineralization and tectonic evolution of the Paleo-Tethys Ocean. The zircon U-Pb dating yields ages ranging from 208 Ma to 214 Ma. Geochemically, the Pulang complex has high Sr and MgO contents, and high Sr/Y and La/Yb ratios, but low Yb and Y contents, displaying adakitic affinities. However, it has moderate Sr/Y and La/Yb ratios, and high Rb contents (32 to 202 ppm). The Pulang samples plot into the transitional field between adakites and normal arc rocks, differing from typical adakites. It is attributed to the assimilation of 10-15% crustal components. The zircon εHf(t) (-4.6 to -2.5), whole-rock (87Sr/86Sr)i (0.7052 to 0.7102), εNd(t) (-0.62 to 2.12) values and adakitic affinities suggest that the Pulang complex was derived from a basaltic slab-melt source and reacted with peridotite during ascending through an enriched asthenospheric mantle wedge. The basaltic slab-melts likely resulted from the westward subduction of the Ganzi-Litang oceanic plate (a branch of the Paleo-Tethys). As far as the metallogenesis concerned, three factors in mineralization are proposed in this paper. The country rock, quartz diorite porphyry, has higher Cu contents than the mantle (average 30 ppm), suggesting that ore-forming magma was derived from a Cu-enriched source, which is a crucial contribution to the late mineralization to form the super-large Pulang deposit. In addition, the barren quartz diorite, granodiorite, and ore-bearing quartz monzonite porphyries are all characterized by high oxygen fugacity, which is another important factor for the

  18. New institutionalization as a rebound phenomenon? The case of Israel. (United States)

    Abramowitz, Moshe; Grinshpoon, Alexander; Priebe, Stefan; Ponizovsky, Alexander M


    To explore whether the history of significant deinstitutionalization in Western European countries since the 1950s, and in Israel more recently, may have led to the establishment of new alternative institutions as a "rebound" phenomenon. Data on service provision in Israel are analyzed and compared with published data from Europe. We considered five commonly used indicators of mental health services to reflect trends in institutionalization in psychiatric hospitals, the forensic system and supported housing. In Israel, there has been a substantial increase in placement in supported housing (by 307%), psychiatric treatments in the prison population (by 61%), and a reduction of psychiatric hospital beds (by 42%) between 1991/2 and 2002/3. The changes are consistent with trends observed during the same decade in European countries with a different history of psychiatric institutionalization. However, increases in involuntary admissions in Israel, England, the Netherlands and Germany have not been shared by Spain, Italy and Sweden. The appearance of possible new forms of institutionalization also occurs in Israel and appears not to depend on a history of large asylums and deinstitutionalization since 1950s. Thus, it cannot be explained as a mere "rebound" phenomenon, and may be influenced by other societal factors that are shared by various European countries..

  19. Improvements in Monitoring the CTBT in the Middle East by the Israel Seismic Network

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gitterman, Yefim


    The Israel Seismic Network (ISN), operated by the Geophysical Institute of Israel, is continuously monitoring the seismicity of the Middle East, and in that capacity provides crucial information to the International Monitoring System (IMS...

  20. Management of saline soils in Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawitz, E.


    The main soil salinity problem in Israel is the danger of gradual salinization as a result of excessively efficient water management. Aquifer management is aimed at preventing flow of groundwater into the ocean, causing a creeping salinization at a rate of about 2 ppm per year. Successful efforts to improve irrigation efficiency brought with them the danger of salt accumulation in the soil. A ten-year monitoring programme carried out by the Irrigation Extension Service at 250 sampling sites showed that appreciable salt accumulation indeed occurred during the rainless irrigation season. However, where annual rainfall is more than about 350 mm this salt accumulation is adequately leached out of the root zone by the winter rains. Soil salinity in the autumn is typically two to three times that in the spring, a level which does not affect yields adversely. In the drier regions of the country long-term increasing soil salinity has been observed, and leaching is required. This is generally accomplished during the pre-irrigation given in the spring, whose size is determined by the rainfall amount of the preceding winter. The increasing need to utilize brackish groundwater and recycled sewage effluent requires special measures, which have so far been successful. In particular, drip irrigation with its high average soil-water potential regime and partial wetting of the soil volume has achieved high yields under adverse conditions. However, the long-term trend of water-quality deterioration is unavoidable under present conditions, and will eventually necessitate either major changes in agricultural patterns or the provision of desalinated water for dilution of the irrigation water. (author)

  1. Thirty-five years of assisted reproductive technologies in Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daphna Birenbaum-Carmeli


    Full Text Available Israel is known as a pronatalist country. Whether due to the Biblical commandment to ‘be fruitful and multiply’ or the traumas of the Holocaust and perennial wars, reproduction is a central life goal for most Israelis. Israeli women bear substantially more children than their counterparts in industrialized countries and view child-rearing as a key life accomplishment. These personal world-view and real-life individual quests take place in a context of equally pronatalist state policies and religious openness to assisted reproductive technologies. In this paper, I outline 35 years of assisted reproductive technologies in Israel by tracing a principal axis in the development of three major technologies of assisted reproduction: the proliferation of IVF-ICSI; the globalization of gamete donation; and the privatization of surrogacy. The paper is based on a policy analysis as well as various studies of assisted reproductive technologies, conducted in Israel over this period.

  2. Gun utopias? Firearm access and ownership in Israel and Switzerland. (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Janet E


    The 2011 attempted assassination of a US representative renewed the national gun control debate. Gun advocates claim mass-casualty events are mitigated and deterred with three policies: (a) permissive gun laws, (b) widespread gun ownership, (c) and encouragement of armed civilians who can intercept shooters. They cite Switzerland and Israel as exemplars. We evaluate these claims with analysis of International Crime Victimization Survey (ICVS) data and translation of laws and original source material. Swiss and Israeli laws limit firearm ownership and require permit renewal one to four times annually. ICVS analysis finds the United States has more firearms per capita and per household than either country. Switzerland and Israel curtail off-duty soldiers' firearm access to prevent firearm deaths. Suicide among soldiers decreased by 40 per cent after the Israeli army's 2006 reforms. Compared with the United States, Switzerland and Israel have lower gun ownership and stricter gun laws, and their policies discourage personal gun ownership.

  3. Information Systems in Israel : A Study Visit to Six Universities


    Nilsson, Anders G.


    Sometimes we hear that Israel is one of the countries in the front-line when utilizing Information Technology (IT) for better support of existing business processes as well as to enable new and innovative business concepts in organisations. We have still a rather limited knowledge here in Sweden about the Israelian way for working with the academic disci­pline of Information Systems on a university level. This was my background for making a study visit to Israel during three months from the b...

  4. Haim Yacobi, Israel and Africa: A Genealogy of Moral Geography


    Levin, Ayala


    Haim Yacobi’s Israel and Africa: A Genealogy of Moral Geography boldly outlines the significant role the African continent has played in Israel’s political and cultural self-fashioning. Like its Middle Eastern setting, Africa’s geographic proximity and the web of ties this proximity entails are denied in the Israeli society, all the while the continent is produced as Israel’s “other.” Through its relationships with Africa, the author argues, Israel constitutes itself as Western, modern, enlig...

  5. The energy sector in Israel: The renewable energies place

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The energy production, in Israel, is not sufficient to satisfy the country needs, that is perpetually growing. Today 96% of the energy consumption is imported, essentially with petroleum and coal. To reduce this energy dependence, the government encourages the scientific researches and innovations in the field of clean and renewable energies. The paper presents political and economical aspects of the management and the exploitation of the following energy resources, developed in Israel: fossil fuels with oil shales; solar energy; biomass; wind energy; geothermal energy and hydraulic energy. (A.L.B.)

  6. New data to the earthworm fauna of Israel (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szederjesi, T.


    Full Text Available Elaborating several smaller earthworm samples collected in different parts of Israel resulted in recording 20 earthworm species including Bimastos parvus (Eisen, 1874 a North American peregrine which represents new record for the country. Three other species; Dendrobaena nevoi Csuzdi & Pavlíček, 1999, Healyella jordanis (Csuzdi & Pavlíček, 1999and Perelia shamsi Csuzdi & Pavlíček, 2005 were first recorded after their original descriptions. The present list of lumbricidearthworms recorded for Israel is raised to 28.

  7. A worrying increase in the incidence of mesothelioma in Israel. (United States)

    Ariad, S; Barchana, M; Yukelson, A; Geffen, D B


    Exposure to asbestos is the main established cause of mesothelioma; the incidence of this tumor is thus often interpreted as an index of past exposure. Asbestos has been widely used in Israel in industry and building, exposing certain population groups to the risk of developing mesothelioma. To analyze the incidence of mesothelioma in Israel during the years 1960-96, and to project its trend for the following years. We conducted a population-based study of the incidence of mesothelioma reported to the Israel Cancer Registry during 1960-96. Time trends were analyzed from data on the annual import of asbestos to Israel, which may indicate the magnitude of past exposure. Based on these findings, trends in the incidence of mesothelioma in Israel were projected for the subsequent years. A total of 327 cases of mesothelioma were reported to the Israel Cancer Registry during the study period. The incidence in Jews was higher than in Arabs (age-standardized incidence rate 2.64 vs. 1.35 per million/year, respectively). Among the Jewish population, Israeli-born males and males born in Europe and America showed the highest incidence (ASR 4.23 and 4.15 per million/year, respectively). Israeli-born males were 20 years younger than Jewish males born elsewhere. The incidence was twice as high among males than females and increased sevenfold from its nadir (1.17 per million/year) in 1978-80 to its peak (8.5 per million/year) in 1993-96. During a similar period the incidence among females increased from 0.33 to 2.56 per million/year. The incidence in both sexes does not appear to level off. The large wave of immigration from the former Soviet Union that began in 1989 only partly accounts for the increased incidence in 1993-96. The time trend in the incidence of mesothelioma in both sexes parallels the use of asbestos in Israel, which peaked in the years 1976-78. The incidence of mesothelioma in Israel has increased sharply in recent years, unrelated to a wave of immigration from

  8. The Effects of the Shortage of Judges in Israel


    Limor Zer-Gutman


    In Israel the shortage of judges that has worsened over the years has led to a serious deterioration in the operation of Israel's judicial system. The article is ascertaining the intensity of the shortage by using international comparisons and comparing the rate of growth in the number of judges with the rate of growth of the general population. The article further describes the three main areas affected by the shortage. The first area is the judicial system itself where the shortage is the p...

  9. Wars and Suicides in Israel, 1948–2006 (United States)

    Oron (Ostre), Israel


    This paper reports the characteristics of suicides which occurred during the existential and the non-existential wars in Israel. It provides a first approximation of whether the suicide patterns in each war are consistent with the findings of Morselli and Durkheim, and whether their theoretical interpretations can serve as a preliminary guideline to explaining the Israeli case, which is characterized by short periods of war, social integration during some of the non-existential wars, and a sharp rise in post-war male suicide rates following all of the existential wars. Implications for further studies on the subject in Israel and elsewhere are discussed. PMID:22754482

  10. Wars and suicides in Israel, 1948-2006. (United States)

    Oron Ostre, Israel


    This paper reports the characteristics of suicides which occurred during the existential and the non-existential wars in Israel. It provides a first approximation of whether the suicide patterns in each war are consistent with the findings of Morselli and Durkheim, and whether their theoretical interpretations can serve as a preliminary guideline to explaining the Israeli case, which is characterized by short periods of war, social integration during some of the non-existential wars, and a sharp rise in post-war male suicide rates following all of the existential wars. Implications for further studies on the subject in Israel and elsewhere are discussed.

  11. The Modern Anti-Semitism Israel Model: An empirical relationship between modern anti-Semitism and opposition to Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florette Cohen


    Full Text Available The current paper reviews our program of research that has examined some of the causes and consequences of anti-Semitism in which a new theoretical model of anti-Semitism is presented and tested in six experiments. The model proposes that mortality salience increases anti-Semitism and that anti-Semitism often manifests as hostility towards Israel. In accord with predictions, results show that existential fears lead to higher anti-Semitism and reduced support for Israel. Collectively, these results may serve as a preliminary contribution to explaining the continuation of anti-Semitism.

  12. APROXIMACIÓN TAFONÓMICA EN LOS DEPÓSITOS HUMANOS DEL SITIO ARQUEOLÓGICO CANÍMAR ABAJO, MATANZAS, CUBA (Taphonomic approach on the human deposits of the Canímar Abajo archaeological site, Matanzas, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Díaz-Franco


    Full Text Available Se destaca la importancia de la interpretación tafonómica en el sitio Canímar Abajo, Matanzas, Cuba; mediante el análisis de las causas de la preservación diferencial de los depósitos humanos exhumados durante las campañas realizadas entre los años 2004 al 2007. Se identifican tres grandes momentos de utilización del sitio, observables en la estratigrafía, de los cuales dos son etapas sepulcrales y la otra de procesamiento de alimentos. Atendiendo al efecto macroscópico de los procesos diagenéticos pre y posenterramiento, durante la etapa bioestratinómica y fosildiagenética, se identifican los principales mecanismos de alteración tafonómica en las entidades y elementos registrados en dichos momentos como son: la biodegradación, relleno sedimentario, bioerosión, disolución, distorsión tafonómica, cremación, desarticulación y dispersión. Se explica en qué consiste cada uno mostrando la acción de los factores intrínsecos y extrínsecos (naturales y/o antrópicos sobre los enterramientos.We offer information about the importance of the taphonomic analysis in the "Canímar Abajo" site, Matanzas, Cuba; by analyzing the causes of differential preservation of human deposits exhumed during the campaigns from 2004 to 2007. Three main moments of use of the site were identified, observable in the stratigraphy, two of wich are stages of burial and other food processing. The diagenetic post and pre-burial processes were identified through the macroscopic effects on the entities and elements recovered. The main taphonomic alteration mechanisms were identified like biodegradation, sediment filling, bioerosion, sedimentary refilling, taphonomic distortion, cremation, disarticulation and dispersal. It explains what each showing the action of intrinsic and extrinsic factors (natural and/or human on the burials.

  13. Petrogenesis of late Paleozoic-to-early Mesozoic granitoids and metagabbroic rocks of the Tengchong Block, SW China: implications for the evolution of the eastern Paleo-Tethys (United States)

    Zhu, Ren-Zhi; Lai, Shao-Cong; Qin, Jiang-Feng; Zhao, Shao-Wei


    This paper presents precise zircon U-Pb, bulk-rock geochemical, and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic data for metagabbro, quartz diorite, and granite units within the Tengchong Block of SW China, which forms the southeastern extension of the Himalayan orogeny and the southwestern section of the Sanjiang orogenic belt, a key region for furthering our understanding of the evolution of the eastern Paleo-Tethys. These data reveal four groups of zircon U-Pb ages that range from the late Paleozoic to the early Mesozoic, including a 263.6 ± 3.6 Ma quartz diorite, a 218.5 ± 5.4 Ma two-mica granite, a 205.7 ± 3.1 Ma metagabbroic unit, and a 195.5 ± 2.2 Ma biotite granite. The quartz diorite in this area contains low concentrations of SiO2 (60.71-64.32 wt%), is sodium-rich, and is metaluminous, indicating formation from magmas generated by a mixed source of metamafic rocks with a significant metapelitic sedimentary material within lower arc crust. The two-mica granites contain high concentrations of SiO2 (73.2-74.3 wt%), are strongly peraluminous, and have evolved Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions, all of which are indicative of a crustal source, most probably from the partial melting of felsic pelite and metagreywacke/psammite material. The metagabbros contain low concentrations of SiO2 (50.17-50.96 wt%), are sodium-rich, contain high concentrations of Fe2O3T (9.79-10.06 wt%) and CaO (6.88-7.12 wt%), and are significantly enriched in the Sr (869-894 ppm) and LREE (198.14-464.60 ppm), indicative of derivation from magmas generated by a metasomatized mantle wedge modified by the sedimentary-derived component. The biotite granites are weakly peraluminous and formed from magmas generated by melting of metasedimentary sources dominated by metagreywacke/psammite material. Combining the petrology and geochemistry of these units with the regional geology of the Indosinian orogenic belt provides evidence for two stages of magmatism: an initial stage that generated magmas during partial melting of


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Abdurakhmanov


    Full Text Available Aim. The aim is to conduct a comparative analysis of the composition of the terrestrial fauna of the Tethys desert-steppe region of the Palearctic.Materials and methods. The work was based on the materials collected in different republics and regions of the Caucasus and the south of the European part of Russia during 50 years (from 1961 to 2016 which are kept in various domestic and foreign institutions. Catalogs on the studied model groups were also used to conduct the research. In making the dendrograms, a cluster analysis based on the Jaccard coefficient was used.Results. A detailed analysis was carried out by model groups of the animals of the Eastern and Western Thethys complexes of the desert-steppe region of the Palearctic. Comparative analysis has shown that a significant number of species and genera of the discussed territories is characterized by an exceptionally high ratio of endemic species and superspecies taxa. Indicators of endemism in model groups fluctuate depending on the population's ability to resettle. High endemism of faunas of darkling beetles, ground beetles, click beetles and land snails in the Eastern Tethys complex was noted.Conclusion. The Caucasus (in a new interpretation is characterized by a high percentage of endemism for the studied model groups. A large number of the common Tethys genera and species in all model groups attests to their fundamental role in the overall composition of the biota against the background of powerful autochthonous centers of species-formation and, most importantly, the formation and functioning of the Palaearctic desert-steppe belt as the Tethys ocean reduced. 

  15. Female Supervisors of Arab School Education in Israel (United States)

    Arar, Khalid Husny


    This paper discusses the characteristics of women discipline supervisors in the Arab education system in Israel, through their professional development to their attainment of senior supervisory posts. It examines how they attain supervision posts and perform various managerial functions in what is considered a male role, in a patriarchal society,…

  16. Prevalence of Hepatitis E Virus Antibodies, Israel, 2009?2010


    Mor, Orna; Bassal, Ravit; Michaeli, Michal; Wax, Marina; Ram, Daniela; Cohen-Ezra, Oranit; Cohen, Dani; Mendelson, Ella; Ben-Ari, Ziv; Shohat, Tamy


    We investigated prevalence of hepatitis E virus in a sample of the population of Israel. The overall seroprevalence of antibodies to the virus was 10.6% (95% CI 8.4%?13.0%); age-adjusted prevalence was 7.6%. Seropositivity was associated with age, Arab ethnicity, low socioeconomic status, and birth in Africa, Asia, or the former Soviet Union.

  17. Rubella in Israel after the MMR vaccine: elimination or containment? (United States)

    Anis, Emilia; Grotto, Itamar; Moerman, Larisa; Kaliner, Ehud; Warshavsky, Bruce; Slater, Paul E; Lev, Boaz


    Since 1996, after the full institution of the two-dose measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMR) regimen in Israel, rubella incidence has declined dramatically and has remained extremely low. Cyclical outbreaks ended; the two brief outbreaks that did occur were quickly contained; and epidemiological data indicate that the disease is practically absent from the country. But similar steep declines in the incidence of measles and mumps, the two other MMR-preventable diseases, were followed by major outbreaks in 2007 and 2010. Epidemiological analyses show that undervaccination of subgroups within the Jewish ultra-orthodox population, both in Israel and abroad, and virus importation into Israel, continue to be risk factors for all three MMR-preventable diseases. Israel's public health system, therefore, should focus on a policy of containment: improve MMR coverage among undervaccinated subgroups and assure that virus importation is no longer a risk. Then the goal of rubella elimination will become feasible. We discuss how the Israeli experience may contribute to the World Health Organization Initiative to eliminate simultaneously measles and rubella.

  18. Israel, Schools, and Arab Conflict in the Middle East. (United States)

    Parker, Franklin

    This paper examines how Israel's educational system attempts to deal with major social, geographic, religious, economic, and political problems. Problems are presented in two main categories--internal and external. Internal problems include high immigration levels, religious and cultural differences among various Jewish sects and between Jews and…

  19. Arab Political Participation and the Future of Democracy in Israel ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Nevertheless, recent years have seen a decrease in Palestinian participation in Israeli democratic institutions, such as voting in parliamentary elections. Recent times have also seen increasing tension between Israel's Arab and Jewish communities. This grant will allow MADA Al-Carmel (the Arab Center for Applied Social ...

  20. Joint Canada-Israel Health Research Program | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Immunology research can also tackle some of the major health challenges low and middle-income countries face, such as HIV/AIDS, cancer, vaccine development, and infectious diseases. To that end, the Joint Canada-Israel Health Research Program is supporting six projects led by world-class teams that were selected ...

  1. Las migraciones recientes en Israel: medidas e impacto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Berthomiére


    Full Text Available Este artículo es una contribución al conocimiento de las migraciones nacidas de la desintegración del bloque comunista. Desde 1989, más de 650.000 judíos han marchado de la ex-Unión Soviética para ir a Israel. Así, ese Estado se convierte en uno de los países del mundo que sufrió más intensamente los efectos de ese acontecimiento geográfico de mayor importancia. En esta contribución intentamos presentar, a través de algunos resultados de nuestro trabajo, las características de esta migración y contestar a las preguntas inherentes a tales problemáticas: ¿cómo Israel gestiona esa migración?, ¿cúales son sus efectos sobre un espacio tan atormentado y debatido?… Insistiremos también sobre los lazos establecidos entre Israel y la ex-URSS con la ayuda de las redes de migrantes. En conclusión, intentaremos situar ese movimiento en el nuevo contexto de migraciones en el cual vemos la integración progresiva de Israel en el sistema migratorio europeo con la entrada de trabajadores extranjeros y la presencia de una población en situación ilegal.

  2. Seroprevalence of Rhodococcus equi in horses in Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Tirosh-Levy


    Full Text Available Rhodococcus equi is a common cause of pneumonia in foals and has extensive clinical, economic and possibly zoonotic consequences. This bacterium survives well in the environment and may be considered as normal flora of adult horses. Certain strains of this bacterium are extremely virulent in foals, and early identification and intervention is crucial for prognosis. Rhodococcus equi is endemic in many parts of the world and occasionally isolated in Israel. This study was designed to evaluate R. equi seroprevalence in adult horses in Israel to indirectly indicate the potential level of exposure of susceptible foals. Sera were collected from 144 horses during spring 2011 and from 293 horses during fall 2014, and the presence of antibodies against virulent R. equi was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Equine seroprevalence of R. equi was found to be 7.6% in 2011 and 5.1% in 2014. Only one farm had seropositive horses in 2011, whereas several farms had seropositive horses in 2014. No significant risk factors for seropositivity were found. Rhodococcus equi appears to be endemic in Israel. This is the first survey of R. equi in Israel that provides information on the epidemiology of this important bacterium.

  3. Arab Parents' Involvement in School Reform in Israel (United States)

    Arar, Khalid; Abu-Asbah, Khaled; Nasra, Muhammed Abu


    Current research indicates that parental involvement positively influences children's academic success. This study investigates parental involvement in the Arab education system in Israel, highlighting involvement in the New Horizon reform. We interviewed school principals and parent committee chairpersons from 15 Arab schools. The study confirmed…

  4. Education for Multiculturalism among Arab Youth in Israel (United States)

    Abu Asbah, Khaled


    Education for multiculturalism, founded on liberal-democratic values, is a frequent topic of educational discourse that has not been ignored by Muslim Arab schools in Israel. In general, Arab society is undergoing change processes, in transition from a traditional to a modern society; traditional values are challenged, engendering social crises.…

  5. Teacher Education for Classroom Management in Israel: Structures and Orientations (United States)

    Ben-Peretz, Miriam; Eilam, Billie; Landler-Pardo, Gabi


    In our paper, we examine how classroom management is taught in teacher education in Israel. Three questions are addressed: (1) What is the structure of programs for classroom management (site, timing, duration, number of courses, mandatory/optional)? (2) How is classroom management conceived (technical/pedagogical, individual/systemic)? (3) Does…

  6. "Hello pacifist" War Resisters in Israel's First Decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella Simoni


    Full Text Available This paper discusses the history, organization, networks and political outlook of the state of Israel’s first conscientious objectors (COs in the 1950s, and the consequences they confronted, individually and as a group. Despite it being a very unlikely period for the foundation of such a movement, a small branch of ‘War Resisters’ International’ (WRI, 1921 was established in Israel in 1947. This paper discusses what can the attitudes towards COs tell of the early history of the State of Israel, especially at a time when conscientious objection was not recognized as a right almost anywhere. The history of the first Israeli COs breaks a number of assumptions, albeit contradictory ones: on the one hand it strengthens the image of Israel as a militaristic country; on the other, it shows that institutions were in Israel more tolerant towards COs than other countries; it shows that COs were the supporters of an non ethnically homogenous society and, most of all, that, even in a decade such as the 1950s, a different and deep voice was trying to make itself heard. This paper is based on primary sources from the WRI archives and on the correspondence that Israeli COs entertained with WRI in the 1950s.

  7. Israel's nuclear posture: a cost-benefit analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nupur, Vyoma


    Security has always been a paramount and constant theme in the Israeli mind set. This paper traces the historical evolution of the country's nuclear posture and the acquisition of a nuclear capability in the backdrop of this concern. A further attempt has been made to analyse the principal characteristics of Israel's nuclear position and the events and issues that shaped it. (author)

  8. Death and Dying Anxiety among Elderly Arab Muslims in Israel (United States)

    Azaiza, Faisal; Ron, Pnina; Shoham, Meyrav; Gigini, Ibrahim


    Death and dying anxiety were examined among elderly Arab Muslims in Israel. A total of 145 people aged 60 and over were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire. Nursing home residents reported higher death anxiety than others; women and uneducated participants reported greater levels of fear of death and dying than others. There were no…

  9. Ambulatory and Hospital-based Quality Improvement Methods in Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nava Blum


    Full Text Available This review article compares ambulatory and hospital-based quality improvement methods in Israel. Data were collected from: reports of the National Program for Quality Indicators in community, the National Program for Quality Indicators in Hospitals, and from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD Reviews of Health Care Quality.

  10. Arab Women Principals' Empowerment and Leadership in Israel (United States)

    Shapira, Tamar; Arar, Khalid; Azaiza, Faisal


    Purpose: This paper's purpose is to tell the life-stories of four women who succeeded in forging paths to senior positions as principals in Arab schools in Israel and to describe the personal, professional and sociopolitical contexts of their principalship. Design/methodology/approach: This is part of a larger research effort that explored the…

  11. The beautiful infant and Israel's salvation | Loader | HTS Teologiese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article concludes that the motif of Moses' beauty is part of a relatively infrequent but nevertheless well-established constellation. It is submitted that this finding contributes to a reappraisal of the idea that the motif of beauty has no place in Israel's texts of deliverance and an investigation of the contrary hypothesis is called ...

  12. Parental Participation Fees in School Expenses in Israel (United States)

    Shaked, Haim


    Purpose: Many countries throughout the world provide all children with free education. However, sometimes there are user charges in publically funded schools worldwide. The purpose of this paper is to explore parental participation fees in school expenses in Israel, depicting the current situation and analyzing its implications.…

  13. The Israel Physical Society 1997 Annual Meeting. Program and abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The book of program and abstracts of the 43rd meeting of the Israel physical society presents abstracts of presentations in various field of physics. Follow is the list of these fields. Astrophysics, condensed matter, laser and quantum optics, nuclear physics, particle and fields, physics in biology, physics in industry, plasma and space physics, statistical physics and nonlinear dynamics

  14. PALESTINA DAN ISRAEL: Sejarah, Konflik dan Masa Depan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misri A. Muchsin


    Full Text Available Palestine and Israel: History, Conflict and the Future. At the beginning Palestine was a part of Daulah Islamiyah under the Turki Usmani, but because this area was dominated by England in 1917, then about 48 percent of it was annexed by Jews, Palestine with the Muslim majority became not independent. This writing aims at exploring the struggle Muslim-Palestine toward Jews-Israel. For this purpose, the use of historical analysis and library research approaches in collecting data were used. The findings from this research are that Zionist Israel dominated Palestine because of being supported by its main allies: America, English and France while Palestine struggle alone because the surrounding Islamic countries had ever wanted to help in 1968 but they were lost in a six-day war. Therefore, Egypt, Syria and Jordan and Palestine released a part of their area. Lately Palestine becomes worse and if the Jews constitution proposed by Benyamin Netayahu to the Israel Parliament, Palestine and Arab Islam will be strongly insisted.

  15. Can the IDP label be used in Israel/Palestine?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Abou Samra


    Full Text Available Identifying IDPs in Israel and in the OPT – on the basis ofthe definition provided by the Guiding Principles on InternalDisplacement1 – is difficult. UNRWA considers all thosewho lost their homes in 1948 as refugees, yet the GuidingPrinciples define IDPs as those who have fled their homes butwho have not crossed an internationally recognised border.

  16. Israel's Gender Equality Policy in Education: Revolution or Containment? (United States)

    Eden, Devorah


    Examines Israel's policy of gender equality in education, discussing: social and economic forces that created the demand for equality; political processes for implementing the policy; and policy content. Data from interviews and document reviews indicate that the policy was devised to address concerns of high-tech industries and women,…

  17. School-Based Management: Arab Education System in Israel (United States)

    Arar, Khalid; Abu-Romi, Amal


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the issue of school-based management (SBM) in elementary schools in the Arab education system in Israel, comparing schools experienced in SBM, schools beginning to use SBM and schools that do not use SBM. Design/methodology/approach: A quantitative research used a structured questionnaire to…

  18. Health Policy for Persons with Intellectual Disability: Experiences from Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilana Halperin


    Full Text Available Intellectual disability (ID is a life-long disability characterized by impaired cognitive and adaptive skills. Over the past few decades, a shift has occurred in the conceptualization and treatment of people with ID and research in health policy and health-care delivery has become increasingly global with a notable disparity between the developed and developing world. This review presents a literature overview of global health policy for ID with the intent to focus specifically on the policy and treatment within Israel. The methodology involved sites visits to care centers, discussions with stakeholders in health policy, and a literature review. We believe that Israel is in a unique position between a developed and developing culture. In particular, the distinct problems faced by the Arab and Bedouin community in terms of ID must be formally accounted for in Israel's future policies. Research from the developing world would be instructive to this end. The global approach in this presentation led to certain policy recommendations that take into account the uniqueness of Israel's position from a social, economic, religious, and demographic perspective. It is the hope that this paper will lead to an increased awareness of the challenges faced by persons with ID and their providers in all sectors of Israeli society and that the necessary policy recommendations will ultimately be adopted.

  19. Israel’s Interests and Options in Syria (United States)


    expand Israel’s presence in the Golan by building additional housing, promoting tourism , and investing in infrastructure and industry.38 Thus, the...less hospitable to Iranian forces and prox- ies. Whether undertaken by Israel or by international aid organiza- tions, the provision of humanitarian

  20. Israel Physical Society 44. annual meeting. Program and abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    During the 1998 Annual Conference of the Israel Physical Society, various chapters were treated in parallel sessions: Physics teaching, Condensed matter, Lasers and Quantum Optics, Atomic and Nuclear physics, Particles and Fields, Statistical physics and nonlinear dynamics, Physics in industry, Plasma physics and computational physics

  1. 77 FR 21748 - Oil and Gas Trade Mission to Israel (United States)


    ... large natural gas reserves off its coast. In accordance with the OECD's Green Growth Declaration of 2009, the Government of Israel formed a Green Growth Round Table to bring about regulatory, budgetary and... hotel rooms. Conditions for Participation An applicant must submit a completed and signed mission...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    langstelling en liefde die gebeurtenisse in Palestina sedert die beëindiging van die Britse mandaat in 1948 gevolg het. As dit nog nodig mag wees, kan sy boek oor Jerusalem2 as bewys daarvan strek. Maar selfs die groot ste mate van geesdrif vir die jonge staat in die ou land mag ons tog nie daartoe verlei om Israel met ...

  3. Overlapping Rivalries : The two Germanys, Israel and the Cold War

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vita, L.


    The case of early German-Israeli relations offers unique insight into the dynamics of the German Cold War. As this article shows, the two Germanys were ideologically and geopolitically antithetical, but vis-a-vis the question of relations with Israel East and West German representatives faced a

  4. Arab Political Participation and the Future of Democracy in Israel ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Arab Political Participation and the Future of Democracy in Israel : Increasing Political Efficacy and Influencing Democratic Change ... role in politics is becoming increasingly important, especially in terms of shaping Israeli democracy and identity, and influencing Israeli-Palestinian relations and regional political dynamics.

  5. Changing Attitudes of High School Students in Israel toward Homosexuality (United States)

    Eick, Uri; Rubinstein, Tanya; Hertz, Shai; Slater, Aylon


    Hoshen, the Hebrew acronym for "Education & Change", is a nonprofit, nationwide education and information center for the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community in Israel. The main educational method Hoshen uses is the personal story told by volunteers. The present study aimed to examine whether this activity,…

  6. Origin of the Bashierxi monzogranite, Qiman Tagh, East Kunlun Orogen, NW China: A magmatic response to the evolution of the Proto-Tethys Ocean (United States)

    Zheng, Zhen; Chen, Yan-Jing; Deng, Xiao-Hua; Yue, Su-Wei; Chen, Hong-Jin; Wang, Qing-Fei


    The Qiman Tagh of the East Kunlun Orogen, NW China, lies within the Tethysides and hosts a large W-Sn belt associated with the Bashierxi monzogranite. To constrain the origin of the granitic magmatism and its relationship with W-Sn mineralization and the tectonic evolution of the East Kunlun Orogen and the Tethys, we present zircon U-Pb ages and Hf isotopic data, and whole-rock compositional and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic data of the Bashierxi monzogranite. The granite comprises quartz, K-feldspar, plagioclase, and minor muscovite, tourmaline, biotite, and garnet. It contains high concentrations of SiO2, K2O, and Al2O3, and low concentrations of TiO2 and MgO, indicating a peraluminous high-K calc-alkaline affinity. The rocks are enriched in Rb, U, Pb, and light rare earth elements, and relatively depleted in Eu, Ba, Nb, Sr, P, and Ti, and are classified as S-type granites. Twenty zircon grains yield a weighted mean 238U/206Pb age of 432 ± 2.6 Ma (mean square weighted deviation = 1.3), indicating the occurrence of a middle Silurian magmatic event in the region. Magmatic zircons yield εHf(t) values of -6.7 to 0.7 and corresponding two-stage Hf model ages of 1663-1250 Ma, suggesting that the granite was derived from Mesoproterozoic crust, as also indicated by 207Pb/206Pb ages of 1621-1609 Ma obtained from inherited zircon cores. The inherited zircon cores yield εHf(t) values of 8.3-9.6, which indicate the generation of juvenile crust in the late Paleoproterozoic. Samples of the Bashierxi granite yield high initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios and radiogenic Pb concentrations, and negative εNd(t) values. Isotopic data from the Bashierxi granite indicate that it was derived from partial melting of ancient (early Paleozoic to Mesoproterozoic) sediments, possibly representing recycled Proterozoic juvenile crust. Middle Silurian granitic magmatism resulted from continental collision following closure of the Proto-Tethys Ocean. The Qiman Tagh represents a Caledonian orogenic belt containing

  7. Bridging the Faraoni and Selli oceanic anoxic events: short and repetitive dys- and anaerobic episodes during the late Hauterivian to early Aptian in the central Tethys (United States)

    Föllmi, K. B.; Bôle, M.; Jammet, N.; Froidevaux, P.; Godet, A.; Bodin, S.; Adatte, T.; Matera, V.; Fleitmann, D.; Spangenberg, J. E.


    A detailed stratigraphical and geochemical analysis was performed on the upper part of the Maiolica Formation outcropping in the Breggia (southern Switzerland) and Capriolo sections (northern Italy). In these localities, the Maiolica Formation consists of well-bedded, partly siliceous, pelagic, micritic carbonate, which lodges numerous thin, dark and organic-rich layers. Stable-isotope, phosphorus, organic-carbon and a suite of redox-sensitive trace-metal contents (RSTE: Mo, U, Co, V and As) were measured. Higher densities of organic-rich layers were identified in the uppermost Hauterivian, lower Barremian and the Barremian-Aptian boundary intervals, whereas the upper Barremian interval and the interval immediately following the Barremian-Aptian boundary interval are characterized by lower densities of organic-rich layers. TOC contents, RSTE pattern and Corg:Ptot ratios indicate that most layers were deposited under dysaerobic rather than anaerobic conditions and that latter conditions were likely restricted to short intervals in the latest Hauterivian, the early Barremian and the pre-Selli early Aptian. Correlations are possible with organic-rich intervals in central Italy (the Gorgo a Cerbara section) and the Boreal northwest German Basin, and with the facies and drowning pattern in the evolution of the Helvetic segment of the northern Tethyan carbonate platform. Our data and correlations suggest that the latest Hauterivian witnessed the progressive installation of dysaerobic conditions in the Tethys, which went along with the onset in sediment condensation, phosphogenesis and platform drowning on the northern Tethyan margin, and which culminated in the Faraoni anoxic episode. This brief episode is followed by further episodes of dysaerobic conditions in the Tethys and the northwest German Basin, which became more frequent and progressively stronger in the late early Barremian. Platform drowning persisted and did not halt before the latest early Barremian. The

  8. Early Neogene foreland of the Zagros, implications for the initial closure of the Neo-Tethys and kinematics of crustal shortening (United States)

    Pirouz, Mortaza; Avouac, Jean-Philippe; Hassanzadeh, Jamshid; Kirschvink, Joseph L.; Bahroudi, Abbas


    We study the transition from passive margin to foreland basin sedimentation now exposed in the High Zagros belt to provide chronological constraints on the initial stage of Arabia-Eurasia collision and closure of the Neo-Tethys. We performed magnetostratigraphy and strontium isotope stratigraphy along two sections near the Zagros suture which expose the oldest preserved foreland deposits: the Shalamzar section in the west and the Dehmoord section in the east. The top of the passive margin Asmari formation has an age of 28-29 Ma in the High Zagros and is overlain by foreland deposits with a major basal unconformity representing 7 Myr of hiatus. The base of the foreland deposits has an age of 21.5 Ma at Dehmoord and ca. 26 Ma at Shalamzar. The sedimentation rate increased from 30 m/Myr in the passive margin to 247 m/Myr in the foreland. Combined with available age constraints across the Zagros, our results show that the unconformity is diachronous and records the southwestward migration of the flexural bulge within the Arabian plate at an average rate of 24 ± 2 mm/yr over the last 27 Ma. The time evolution of sediment accumulation in the Zagros foreland follows the prediction from a flexural model, as the foreland is thrust beneath the orogenic wedge and loaded by the wedge and basin fill. We detect the onset of forebulge formation within the Asmari Formation around 25 Ma. We conclude that closure of the Neo-Tethys formed the Zagros collisional wedge at 27 ± 2 Ma. Hence, the Arabia-Eurasia collision was probably not the main driver of global cooling which started near the Eocene-Oligocene boundary (ca. 33.7 Ma). We estimate 650 km of forebulge migration since the onset of the collision which consists of 350 km of shortening across the orogen, and 300 km of widening of the wedge and increasing flexural rigidity of Arabia. We conclude the average rate of shortening across the Zagros to be ca. 13 mm/yr over the last 27 Myr; a value comparable to the modern rate

  9. Promoting Justices: Media Coverage of Judicial Nominations in Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryna Bogoch


    Full Text Available This paper compares the framing of the coverage of judicial appointments in Israel in 2008 in two newspapers with nomination news from preceding years and to the patterns of press coverage in the U.S. A content analysis of 101 Supreme Court nomination articles indicated that unlike the political frame of American coverage, the press in Israel preserves its ostensible commitment to the professionalism of judges while linking the Supreme Court to political maneuvering in the selection of candidates. These findings are discussed within the context of the media's role in constructing judicial nominations as a debate about the role of the Supreme Court in Israeli society. Este artículo compara el marco de la cobertura de los nombramientos judiciales en Israel en 2008 en dos periódicos, con noticias de nombramientos de años anteriores y en los Estados Unidos, con los patrones de cobertura de prensa en los EE.UU. Un análisis de contenido de 101 artículos de nombramientos de la Corte Suprema indicó que, a diferencia del marco político de la cobertura de América, la prensa en Israel consierva su aparente compromiso con la profesionalidad de los jueces, a pesar de que relaciona la Corte Suprema con maniobras políticas en la selección de candidatos. Estos resultados se discuten en el contexto del papel de los medios de comunicación en la construcción de los nombramientos judiciales como un debate sobre el papel de la Corte Suprema en la sociedad israelí. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN:

  10. The Second Demographic Transition in Israel: One for All?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgenia Bystrov


    Full Text Available This article explores family behaviours and attitudes in Israel over the last decades through the lens of the Second Demographic Transition (SDT. Israel is divided by religious affiliation, the level of religiosity, ethnic origin and timing of immigration. Although fertility transition to replacement level among certain societal groups has been previously shown, the question of how the transition unfolds in other domains remains open. The goal of this paper is to highlight the diversity of marital and fertility transitions and non-transitions among various groups of this heterogeneous society, and to compare Israel's transitions to European ones. The data sources which are used are cross-national large scale surveys, national representative surveys, and Population Register data. The data were disaggregated by religion, religiousness and ethnic origin. Emancipative value change, postponement of marriage, alternative living arrangements and a growing variety of fertility regimes were analyzed. A full range of pre-transitional, transitional, and post-transitional elements was found among the groups. Such sign of the SDT as growing childlessness was not found, and the spread of other features as unmarried cohabitation and non-marital childbearing was found limited. Population composition effects were isolated. It was found that the level of religiosity and the country of origin are important factors which differentiate family behaviours and attitudes. The connection between value orientation of the groups within Israel and their family behaviours is discussed. The socio-structural and institutional constraints that might impede further progression of the Second Demographic Transition in Israel are also discussed. Further research directions are suggested.

  11. A Tour of Modern and Historic Egypt and Israel. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad Program, 2000 (Egypt and Israel). (United States)

    Holdren, Greg

    This curriculum unit supplement for middle school and secondary teachers helps students in grades 5-12 explore Egypt and Israel, in both ancient and modern contexts. The unit supplement begins with student objectives, such as practicing map and research skills and reviewing summary information concerning historic and current interests. It provides…

  12. An Experience Guide: Egypt and Israel 2000. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad Program, 2000 (Egypt and Israel). (United States)

    Feijoo, Laura

    This "experience guide," developed by a teacher who traveled in the region, aims to provide information on the culture, history, society, geography, and political aspects of Egypt and Israel. Intended for teachers, the guide can enhance lessons in world history. Each segment summarizes a topic and provides questions designed to encourage…

  13. Hydrography and biogeochemistry dedicated to the Mediterranean BGC-Argo network during a cruise with RV Tethys 2 in May 2015 (United States)

    Taillandier, Vincent; Wagener, Thibaut; D'Ortenzio, Fabrizio; Mayot, Nicolas; Legoff, Hervé; Ras, Joséphine; Coppola, Laurent; Pasqueron de Fommervault, Orens; Schmechtig, Catherine; Diamond, Emilie; Bittig, Henry; Lefevre, Dominique; Leymarie, Edouard; Poteau, Antoine; Prieur, Louis


    We report on data from an oceanographic cruise, covering western, central and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, on the French research vessel Tethys 2 in May 2015. This cruise was fully dedicated to the maintenance and the metrological verification of a biogeochemical observing system based on a fleet of BGC-Argo floats. During the cruise, a comprehensive data set of parameters sensed by the autonomous network was collected. The measurements include ocean currents, seawater salinity and temperature, and concentrations of inorganic nutrients, dissolved oxygen and chlorophyll pigments. The analytical protocols and data processing methods are detailed, together with a first assessment of the calibration state for all the sensors deployed during the cruise. Data collected at stations are available at" target="_blank"> and data collected along the ship track are available at" target="_blank">

  14. Water Resources of Israel: Trackrecord of the Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolai S. Orlovsky


    Full Text Available Israel is a country in the Near East consisting for 95% of the arid regions in which 60% of the territory are covered by the Negev Desert. Therefore, the water resources are scant here and formed mostly by atmospheric precipitations. In the period from 1989 to 2005 the average precipitations were 6 billion cu. m, of which 60–70% were evaporated soon after rainfalls, at least 5% run down by rivers into the sea (mostly in winter and the remaining 25% of precipitations infiltrated into soil from where the greater part of water got into the sea with ground waters. In Israel there are two groups of water resources: surface and underground. Israel is not rich in surface waters. The natural reservoir of surface fresh water is the Kinneret Lake in the northeast of the country. It gets water from the Jordan River and its tributaries. The average annual amount of available water of this lake is around 370 million cu. m, which accounts for one-third of the country’s water needs and still higher share of the drinking water needs. The greater part of fresh waters (37% of water supply of Israel as of 2011 in this country is supplied from ground water sources. Owing to insufficiency of available natural resources, unevenness of precipitations by years and seasons and with the growth of the population and economic development the issues of provision with the quality drinking water of the population as well as agriculture and industry, rehabilitation of natural environment cause permanently growing concern. In view of the water shortage untiring efforts have been taken to improve the irrigation efficiency and to reduce water use by improving the efficacy of irrigation techniques and application of advanced system management approaches. Among the water saving technologies applied in Israel there are: drop irrigation, advanced filtration, up to date methods of water leak detection from networks, rainwater collection and processing systems. At the same time

  15. Archaeological Geophysics in Israel: Past, Present and Future (United States)

    Eppelbaum, L. V.


    Israel is a country with diverse and rapidly changeable environments where is localized a giant number of archaeological objects of various age, origin and size. The archaeological remains occur in a complex (multi-layered and variable) geological-archaeological media. It is obvious that direct archaeological excavations cannot be employed at all localized and supposed sites taking into account the financial, organizational, ecological and other reasons. Therefore, for delineation of buried archaeological objects, determination their physical-geometrical characteristics and classification, different geophysical methods are widely applied. The number of employed geophysical methodologies is constantly increasing and now Israeli territory may be considered as a peculiar polygon for various geophysical methods testing. The geophysical investigations at archaeological sites in Israel could be tentatively divided on three stages: (1) past [- 1990] (e.g., Batey, 1987; Ben-Menahem, 1979; Dolphin, 1981; Ginzburg and Levanon, 1977; Karcz et al., 1977; Karcz and Kafri, 1978; Tanzi et al., 1983; Shalem, 1949; Willis, 1928), (2) present [1991 - 2008] (e.g., Bauman et al., 2005; Ben-Dor et al., 1999; Ben-Yosef et al., 2008; Berkovitch et al., 2000; Borradaile, 2003; Boyce et al., 2004; Bruins et al., 2003; Daniels et al., 2003; Ellenblum et al., 1998; Eppelbaum, 1999, 2000a, 2000b, 2005, 2007a, 2007b, 2008b; Eppelbaum and Ben-Avraham, 2002; Eppelbaum and Itkis, 2000, 2001; 2003, 2009; Eppelbaum et al., 2000a, 2000b, 2001a, 2001b, 2003a, 2003b, 2004a, 2004b; 2005, 2006a, 2006b, 2006c, 2006d, 2007, 2009a, 2009b; Ezersky et al., 2000; Frumkin et al., 2003; Itkis and Eppelbaum, 1998; Itkis, 2003; Itkis et al., 2002, 2003, 2008; Jol et al., 2003, 2008; Kamai and Hatzor, 2007; Khesin et al., 1996; Korjenkov and Mazor, 1999; Laukin et al., 2001; McDermott et al., 1993; Marco, 2008; Marco et al., 2003; Nahas et al., 2006; Neishtadt et al., 2006; Nur and Ron, 1997; Paparo, 1991; Porat

  16. Digging Into Israel: The Sophisticated Tunneling Network of Hamas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole J. Watkins


    Full Text Available By the end of Operation Protective Edge in August 2014, the Israel Defense Force (IDF claimed to have discovered and destroyed more than 30 tunnels spanning from beneath Gaza into Israeli territory. Hamas officials have praised these tunnels as an innovative approach to fighting an asymmetric war with a far more conventionally powerful Israel. The purpose of this case study is to examine the complexity of Hamas’ vast tunneling network by assessing the motivations behind the group’s decision to construct the network, to identify the factors that enabled Hamas to engage in such a complex engineering task, and to assess the level of effectiveness of the tunnel network both strategically and tactically against the IDF.

  17. Resurgence of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Israel, 2001–2012 (United States)

    Gandacu, Dan; Anis, Emilia; Karakis, Isabella; Warshavsky, Bruce; Slater, Paul; Grotto, Itamar


    Cutaneous leishmaniasis has long been endemic in Israel. After a 15-year period of moderate illness rates, reported incidence increased from 0.4 cases per 100,000 population in 2001 to 4.4 cases per 100,000 population in 2012, and the disease emerged in areas where its presence had previously been minimal. We analyzed all cases reported to the national surveillance system and found that outbreak patterns revealed an expansion of Leishmania major infections over large areas in the southern part of the country and the occurrence of spatially focused L. tropica outbreaks in the northern part of the country. Outbreaks often followed new construction in populated areas. Further study of factors affecting the transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis is needed in Israel, as well as the development of effective methods to control the disease, an increase in awareness among health care professionals, and intensive public education regarding control measures in areas of known leishmaniasis foci. PMID:25271882

  18. Examining hypnosis legislation: a survey of the practice in Israel. (United States)

    Aviv, Alex; Dalia, Gilboa; Gaby, Golan; Kobi, Peleg


    Hypnosis as a therapeutic technique bears potential risks when carried out inexpertly. Because of this, Israel was the first to legislate hypnosis. This study examines the current state of clinical hypnosis practice in Israel. A questionnaire was sent to 470 licensed hypnotists and 1250 unlicensed professionals; 478 (25.7%) of the 1720 potential respondents returned the questionnaires. Of these, 249 (51.8%) were licensed hypnotists, and 232 (48.2%) were unlicensed. Of the unlicensed professionals, 45% reported practicing hypnosis; 50% of them practice hypnosis with adolescents and 41.2% with children. Many of them practice hypnosis in public clinics (71.6%). Of the licensed professionals, 94.4% reported practicing hypnosis in the course of their clinical work. The authors conclude that great number of unlicensed hypnotists carry on clinical practice of hypnosis and suggest steps to increase the efficiency of the law as part of a regulatory system.

  19. Community-based urgent care in Israel and worldwide. (United States)

    Zimmerman, Deena R


    Intermittent treatment of acute lower acuity situations has come to be defined as urgent rather than emergent care. The location of urgent care delivery has been shifting from exclusively hospital or office settings to other community locales. To review the concept of urgent care and the new models of health care delivery in the niche between hospitals and primary care. To highlight the roles of urgent care in Israel and compare these roles with those in other countries. Narrative review of the literature. The new models of community based urgent care include 1) the urgent care center; 2) the retail or convenience clinic, 3) the free standing emergency center, and 4) the walk-in clinic. These models fall on a continuum of comprehensiveness. They offer care at a lower cost than hospital-based emergency departments and greater temporal convenience than primary care physicians. However, their impact on emergency department utilization and overcrowding or primary care physician overload is unclear.Israel has integrated its urgent care centers into its national health system by encouraging the use of urgent care centers and by requiring all health insurance funds to reimburse patients who use these centers. This integration is similar to the approach in England; however, the type of service is different in that the service in England is provided by nurses. It is different from most other countries where urgent care facilities are primarily private ventures. Community-based acute care facilities are becoming a part of the medical landscape in a number of countries. Still, they remain primarily on the fringe of organized medicine. Despite the important role of community-based acute care facilities in Israel, no nationwide study has been done in two decades. Health policy planning in Israel necessitates further study of urgent care use and its clinical outcomes.

  20. Community-based urgent care in Israel and worldwide


    Zimmerman, Deena R


    Background Intermittent treatment of acute lower acuity situations has come to be defined as urgent rather than emergent care. The location of urgent care delivery has been shifting from exclusively hospital or office settings to other community locales. Aims To review the concept of urgent care and the new models of health care delivery in the niche between hospitals and primary care. To highlight the roles of urgent care in Israel and compare these roles with those in other countries. Metho...

  1. Shared decision-making in Israel: status, barriers, and recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miron-Shatz Talya


    Full Text Available Abstract Shared decision making (SDM - involving patients in decisions relevant to their health - has been increasingly influential in medical thought and practice around the world. This paper reviews the current status of SDM in Israel, including efforts to promote SDM in the legislation and healthcare system, its influence in medical training and the national health plans, and funding for SDM-related research. Published studies of SDM in Israel are also reviewed. Although informed consent and patients' right to information are regulated by Israeli law, little provision is made for SDM. Further, there are few organized programs to promote SDM among medical professionals or the public, and governmental support of SDM-related research is minimal. Nonetheless, patients have begun to influence litigation in both formal and informal capacities, medical schools have begun to incorporate courses for improving physician-patient communication into their curricula, and the largest national health plan has initiated a plan to increase public awareness. A review of the limited research literature suggests that although patients and physicians express a desire for greater patient involvement, they often have reservations about its implementation. Research also suggests that despite the positive effects of SDM, such an approach may only infrequently be applied in actual clinical practice. In conclusion, though not actively promoting SDM at present, Israel's universal coverage and small number of health plans make rapid, widespread advances in SDM feasible. Israeli policymakers should thus be encouraged to nurture burgeoning initiatives and set plausible milestones. Comparing the status of SDM in Israel with that in other countries may stimulate further advancement.

  2. Gun utopias? Firearm access and ownership in Israel and Switzerland


    Rosenbaum, Janet


    The 2011 attempted assassination of a US representative renewed the national gun control debate. Gun advocates claim that mass-casualty events are mitigated and deterred with three policies: (1) permissive gun laws, (2) widespread gun ownership, (3) encouragement of armed civilians who can intercept shooters, and cite Switzerland and Israel as exemplars. We evaluate these claims with analysis of International Crime Victimization Survey (ICVS) data and translation of laws and original source m...

  3. Israel: Background and U.S. Relations in Brief (United States)


    other members of the international Quartet 10 (European Union, Russia , the U.N. Secretary-General) released a report saying, among other things, that...throughout the relationship , U.S. and Israeli policies have diverged on some important issues. Significant differences regarding regional issues...Prime Minister Binyamin Netanyahu have discussed ways “to advance and strengthen the U.S.- Israel special relationship , and security and stability in

  4. Israel 1983: A Bout of Unpleasant Monetarist Arithmetic


    Sargent, Thomas J; Zeira, Joseph


    From 1970 to 1985, Israel experienced high inflation. It rose in three jumps to new plateaus and eventually exceeded 400% per annum. This paper claims that anticipated monetary and fiscal effects of a massive government bailout of owners of fallen bank shares caused the last big jump in inflation that occurred in October 1983. Bank shares had just collapsed after a scandal in which it was revealed that banks had long manipulated their share prices. The government promised to reimburse innocen...

  5. Hamas and Israel: Conflicting Strategies of Group-Based Politics (United States)


    deterrence, as well as evolution in the Islamist movements’ planning and operations. As well, the Palestinian-Israeli conflict bears similarities to a...xii camps, and 3,166,781 live outside of camps),13 prisoners, water , and the claim of Jerusalem as a capital. Many Arabs believe that Israel never...the Israeli black market, but was stung by Israeli collaborators. Those involved were caught, 23 tortured by Israelis, and revealed the network up to

  6. On some relations involving the use of energy in Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonino, T.


    The economic development of Israel was studied quantitatively, correlating the gross national product with the energy used, the number of employed persons, and the capital stock. A production function in the form of that of Cobb-Douglass was found, which describes the GNP in terms of these three factors with a very high accuracy. The development of electricity consumption is also examined and correlated to demographic and economic developments. (author)

  7. Factors That Affect the Feeling of Happiness in Israel


    Muhammad Atif NAWAZ; Noreen AFZAL; Kiran SHEHZADI


    In this paper, we analyzed the answers to questionnaires distributed among 140 people in Israel and identified the main factors that have an affect over feeling of happiness?. We estimated an econometric equation with happiness as the dependent variable. Our findings show that feeling of happiness? among women is mainly affected by satisfaction from marital status; a variable that also has a large effect on males? sense of happiness. Among men, the most important factor is satisfaction during...

  8. Anti-Semitism and criticism of Israel: Methodology and results of the ASCI survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilhelm Kempf


    Full Text Available Building upon psychological conflict theory, on the one hand, and item-response models, on the other, the present paper develops an integrated methodology that aims at differentiating the various ways of criticizing Israel. An application of this methodology to the Anti-Semitism and Criticism of Israel (ASCI survey found two ways of criticizing Israel resulting from two different and antipodal processes. (1 Anti-Semitic criticism of Israel is generally laden with prejudice and shares not only anti-Semitic, anti-Zionist and anti-Israeli, but also anti-Palestinian resentments as well. (2 Non-anti-Semitic criticism of Israel is motivated by pacifism and human rights commitment and rejects any form of anti-Semitic, anti-Zionist, anti-Israeli or anti-Palestinian resentment. However, even critics of Israel who were not originally motivated by anti-Semitism are also in danger of developing anti-Semitic prejudices.

  9. Covert Diplomacy Between Israel and Egypt During Nasser Rule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ido Yahel


    Full Text Available The history of Egypt and Israel consists of four wars and hundreds of border incidents that have taken the lives of tens of thousands of people. It seems that only the rise to power of a leader in the stature of Anwar Sadat could put an end to this bloody circle, because the previous president, Gamal Abdel Nasser, was not willing to hold any kind of political contact with Israel. But Nasser’s reign involved constant political contact between Egypt and Israel, most of whom remain confidential. This article attempts to examine whether any of these contacts were likely to succeed and yield a peace treaty between the two countries, an agreement that could have prevented three wars and saved the lives of so many people on both sides. It will do so by examining these contacts, their characteristics, and the reasons for their failure, while dividing them into three periods: the 1948 war to the 1956 war, the 1956 war to the 1967 war, and the 1967 war to the death of Nasser in 1970.

  10. Trauma and identification of victims of suicidal terrorism in Israel. (United States)

    Hiss, J; Kahana, T


    The postmortem examination and identification procedures performed by medical and law enforcement personnel involved in mass disaster management in Israel are reported. The Israel National Police, the Israel Defense Forces, and the L. Greenberg Institute of Forensic Medicine's experts examined 171 victims who died in 21 incidents of suicidal terrorism. The trauma sustained by the victims and perpetrators of suicidal bombings included complete body disruption and explosive, flying missile, and blast injuries. The modus operandi of the perpetrators, reconstructed from the distribution and type of injury of the victims, is discussed. Fifty-five victims perished in open space bombings and 91 inside buses. All perpetrators of these bombings died at the time of the incident regardless of their location. Identification of the victims was achieved using fingerprints, dental records, medical intervention signs, anatomic variation, genetic profile, and personal recognition. Prompt identification of the perpetrators allowed speedy apprehension of the accomplices and prevention of similar attacks. Collaboration between the different forensic, military, and law enforcement teams increased the efficiency of disaster management efforts.

  11. Early awareness and alert systems for medical technologies in Israel. (United States)

    Tal, Orna; Hakak, Nina


    Throughout the world, decision makers face the need to plan on the basis of uncertainty. Prospective updates on future trends of medical technology usage are tools to improve national health status. In Israel, this challenge is met by several steps taken to promote insight into the realm of emerging technologies. Israel's unique horizon strategy refers to three time spans: the immediate to short-term (for the coming year) updating the National List of Health Services (NLHS) and quarterly scanning; the medium-term (3 years to a decade) revitalizing hospital devices and infrastructure; and long-term planning (over a decade), such as the "Health Israel 2020 Project". A description of the Israeli setup of different time spans and tiers. The matrix of players, loci, interests, population groups, and incentives creates a complex situation and the Ministry of Health has to regulate the different suppliers and tiers of insurance (obligatory, supplementary, and private), balancing need, equity, and cost containment in preparing for future health care. However, preparedness is not a sterile laboratory and is pervaded by numerous dilemmas and the search for adequate evidence for new less mature technologies is an on-going challenge. Bridging the forecasting chasm for the future requires analyzing needs, reinforcing evidence and seeing "around the corner" when synergizing between all the "actors" in the national arena. Expert consultation and international cooperation with similar horizon organizations can assist in paving the way for more successful planning efforts for future medical technology implementation.

  12. Newborn Screening for Severe Combined Immunodeficiency in Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erez Rechavi


    Full Text Available Newborn screening (NBS programs for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID, the most severe type of primary immunodeficiency, are being implemented in more and more countries with every passing year. Since October 2015, SCID screening via T cell receptor excision circle (TREC quantification in dried blood spots (DBS has been part of the Israeli NBS program. As an NBS program in its infancy, SCID screening is still evolving, making gathering input from the various programs crucial for compiling an ideal screening algorithm. The relatively high rate of consanguineous marriages in Israel, especially among non-Jews, correlates with an increased incidence of SCID. The Israeli algorithm uses a commercial kit and consists of a two-Guthrie card confirmation system prior to referral to a national immunology center. Preliminary data from the first year and a half of SCID screening in Israel has identified a surprisingly high prevalence of DNA cross-link repair protein 1c (DCLRE1C; ARTEMIS mutations as the cause of SCID in Israel. The clinically unbiased nature of SCID screening helps unearth mild/leaky SCID phenotypes, resulting in a better understanding of true SCID prevalence and etiology.

  13. Surveillance of X-ray machines in Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donagi, A.; Hai, J.; Kuszpet, M.


    A nationwide surveillance of X-ray machines is carried out in Israel by the Research Institute for Environmental Health, Ministry of Health. At present, diagnostic X-ray machines are surveyed at least once every two years, while dental machines are surveyed once every five years. The investigated parameters include measurement of output, scattered radiation, X-ray-light-field alignment, HVL, inherent filtration, structural shielding, etc. In order to compare X-ray techniques used in different hospitals in Israel, the NEXT (Nationwide Evaluation of X-ray Trends) program, which was developed by the BRH (Bureau of Radiological Health, USPHS) was utilized. On the basis of the findings of this project, necessary correction steps were taken in order to reduce the radiation doses to both personnel and patients. Further activities of the Institute include the estimation of doses delivered to pregnant women who were irradiated during the gestation period. This information is sent to a professional committee, which decides whether or not to perform an abortion. Recently, the new recommendations of ICRP 26 (International Commission on Radiological Protection) were implemented in Israel. Therefore, at present doses over 150 mR/month are reported to the Institute by the Soreq Personal Dosimetry Service, and the causes of this exposure are investigated. (author)

  14. Tourism and Terror: a Case Study: Israel 1948-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik H. Cohen


    Full Text Available Israel is a popular tourist destination which has by afflicted by varying levels of terrorism against civilians over the course of its history. A longitudinal analysis of data pertaining to tourism and terrorism is undertaken to examine how terrorism affects patterns of tourism. It is found that on the macro-level, tourism to Israel continues to grow although it experiences periodic declines corresponding with times of high terrorist activity. National and religious subpopulations of tourists react differently terrorism at the destination. Overall, Jews are proportionally more likely than non-Jews to continue to visit Israel during times of conflict, but this varies among Diaspora communities. Moreover, among US Jewish tourist, the strongly religious populations represented a greater percentage of visitors during years of high terrorism. This preliminary analysis explores how internal structural features of the Jewish community (such as Jewish educational settings and family ties to Israelis, external factors of the home country (such as anti-Semitism or the economic situation and national and cultural value orientation affect tourism patterns. The impact of these factors on tourism deserves continued research.

  15. Snoezelen or Controlled Multisensory Stimulation. Treatment Aspects from Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joav Merrick


    Full Text Available In Israel today, with a total population of over 6 million persons, the Division for Mental Retardation (DMR provides services to 23,000 persons with intellectual disability (ID. Of the 23,000, residential services are provided to more than 6,000 in close to 60 residential centers, another 2,000 are provided residential care in hostels or group homes in the community in about 50 locations, while the rest are served with day-care kindergarten, day-treatment centers, sheltered workshops, or integrated care in the community. The first Snoezelen room (controlled multisensory stimulation in the DMR was established at the Bnei Zion residential care center in 1995. The Snoezelen method is now used in Israel in more than 30 residential care centers and 3 community settings. Since the year 2000, a physiotherapist has been employed in order to supervise the treatment and development of the method nationally. Professional staff meetings take place every 4 months. A certification course has been established on a national basis for individuals from different professions (occupational therapists, physiotherapists, teachers, music therapists, nurses, speech therapists, or caregivers. Snoezelen has proved to be an important instrument and a powerful therapeutic tool among the various treatment modules employed in Israel for persons with ID. This paper presents the concept illustrated with two case stories.

  16. The Informing Needs of Procurement Officers in Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahel Giat


    Full Text Available Aim/Purpose: To develop and introduce a questionnaire that investigates the informing needs, information-seeking behavior, and supplier selection of procurement officers in Israel. The questionnaire’s internal consistency reliability is given. Additionally, we describe the demographic description of the procurement officers in Israel. Background: Procurement science is an important field that affects firms’ profits in the private sector and is significant to growth, innovation, sustainability, and welfare in the public sector. There is little research about the informing needs of procurement officers in general and particularly in Israel. Methodology: A quantitative questionnaire that is sent to all the procurement officers in Israel’s procuring association. Contribution: The questionnaire that is developed in this paper may be used by other researchers and practitioners to evaluate the information needs of procurement officers. Findings: The typical procurement officer is male, with a bachelor degree and is digitally proficient. Recommendations for Practitioners: The procuring side can use the questionnaire to develop better tools for obtaining information efficiently. The supplying side can use this knowledge to improve its exposure to potential customers and address its customer’s needs better. Recommendation for Researchers: The questionnaire can address theoretical questions such as how digital literacy affects the procuring process and provide empirical findings about active research areas such as supplier selection and information-seeking behavior. Future Research: Future research will examine the relationship between the various variables and demographic features to understand why specific information needs and information-seeking behaviors arise.

  17. El "régimen dual" en Israel desde 1967

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lev Grinberg


    Full Text Available Este artículo aborda el establecimiento del peculiar régimen de dominación dual de Israel desde 1967, argumentando que la estructura de este régimen convierte a las élites militares en un actor político crucial. El régimen dual se basa en la separación geográfi ca entre dos regímenes diferentes de control y legitimación. Argumentaré aquí que la guerra de 1967 fue un parteaguas histórico, ya que acarreó un desdibujamiento de las fronteras israelíes y la llegada de un régimen dual que legitima la división del poder político entre las élites militares y civiles que gobiernan Israel-Palestina. Mi objetivo es mostrar las contradicciones inherentes de este régimen dual de “ocupación democrática” y así arrojar luz sobre la dinámica de los espacios políticos de acuerdo a la población ocupada: su apertura, por reconocimiento y negociación, y su cancelación, por el uso de la violencia.

  18. A revised subduction inception model to explain the Late Cretaceous, doubly vergent orogen in the pre-collisional western Tethys: evidences from the Northern Apennine (United States)

    Meneghini, Francesca; Marroni, Michele; Pandolfi, Luca


    Orogenic processes are widely demonstrated to be strongly controlled by inherited structures. The paleogeography of the converging margins, and the tectonic processes responsible for their configuration, will influence the location of subduction initiation, the distribution of deformation between upper and lower plate, the shape of the accretionary prism and of the subsequent orogeny, through controlling the development of single or doubly-vergent orogens, and, as a corollary, the modality of exhumation of metamorphosed units. The "alpine age" collisional belts of the Mediterranean area are characterized by tangled architectures derived from the overlapping of several deformation events related to a multiphase, long history that comprises not only the collision of continental margins, but that can be regarded as an heritage of both the rifting-related configuration of the continental margins, and the subduction-related structures. The Northern Apennines is a segment of these collisional belts that originated by the Late Cretaceous-Middle Eocene closure of the northern branch of the western Tethys, and the subsequent Late Eocene-Early Oligocene continental collision between the Europe and Adria plates. Due to a different configuration of the paired Adria and Europe continental margins, inherited from a rifting phase dominated by asymmetric, simple-shear kinematics, the Northern Apennines expose a complex groups of units, referred to as Ligurian Units, that record the incorporation into the subduction factory of either fragments of the Ligure-Piemontese oceanic domain (i.e. Internal Ligurian Units), and various portions of the thinned Adria margin (i.e. External Ligurian Units), describable as an Ocean-Continent Transition Zone (OCTZ). The structural relationships between these groups of Units are crucial for the definition of the pre-collisional evolution of the belt and have been the subject of big debates in the literature, together with the location and

  19. Mayer Kangri metamorphic complexes in Central Qiangtang (Tibet, western China): implications for the Triassic-early Jurassic tectonics associated with the Paleo-Tethys Ocean (United States)

    Wang, Yixuan; Liang, Xiao; Wang, Genhou; Yuan, Guoli; Bons, Paul D.


    The Mesozoic orogeny in Central Qiangtang Metamorphic Belt, northern Tibet, provides important insights into the geological evolution of the Paleo-Tethys Ocean. However, the Triassic-early Jurassic tectonics, particularly those associated with the continental collisionstage, remains poorly constrained. Here we present results from geological mapping, structural analysis, P-T data, and Ar-Ar geochronology of the Mayer Kangri metamorphic complex. Our data reveal an E-W-trending, 2 km wide dome-like structure associated with four successive tectonic events during the Middle Triassic and Early Jurassic. Field observations indicate that amphibolite and phengite schist complexes in this complex are separated from the overlying lower greenschist mélange by normal faulting with an evident dextral shearing component. Open antiform-like S2 foliation of the footwall phengite schist truncates the approximately north-dipping structures of the overlying mélange. Microtextures and mineral chemistry of amphibole reveal three stages of growth: Geothermobarometric estimates yield temperatures and pressures of 524 °C and 0.88 GPa for pargasite cores, 386 °C and 0.34 GPa for actinolite mantles, and 404 °C and 0.76 GPa for winchite rims. Peak blueschist metamorphism in the phengite schist occurred at 0.7-1.1 GPa and 400 °C. Our Ar-Ar dating of amphibole reveals rim-ward decreasing in age bands, including 242.4-241.2 Ma, ≥202.6-196.8, and 192.9-189.8 Ma. The results provide evidence for four distinct phases of Mesozoic tectonic evolution in Central Qiangtang: (1) northward oceanic subduction beneath North Qiangtang ( 244-220 Ma); (2) syn-collisional slab-break off (223-202 Ma); (3) early collisional extension driven by buoyant extrusion flow from depth ( 202.6-197 Ma); and (4) post-collision contraction and reburial (195.6-188.7 Ma).

  20. An early bird from Gondwana: Paleomagnetism of Lower Permian lavas from northern Qiangtang (Tibet) and the geography of the Paleo-Tethys (United States)

    Song, Peiping; Ding, Lin; Li, Zhenyu; Lippert, Peter C.; Yue, Yahui


    The origin of the northern Qiangtang block and its Late Paleozoic-Early Mesozoic drift history remain controversial, largely because paleomagnetic constraints from pre-Mesozoic units are sparse and of poor quality. In this paper, we provide a robust and well-dated paleomagnetic pole from the Lower Permian Kaixinling Group lavas on the northern Qiangtang block. This pole suggests that the northern Qiangtang block had a paleolatitude of 21.9 ± 4.7 °S at ca. 296.9 ± 1.9 Ma. These are the first volcanic-based paleomagnetic results from pre-Mesozoic rocks of the Qiangtang block that appear to average secular variation accurately enough to yield a well-determined paleolatitude estimate. This new pole corroborates the hypothesis, first noted on the basis of less rigorous paleomagnetic data, the presence of diamictites, detrital zircon provenance records, and faunal assemblages, that the northern Qiangtang block rifted away from Gondwana prior to the Permian. Previous studies have documented that the northern Qiangtang block accreted to the Tarim-North China continent by Norian time. We calculate a total northward drift of ca. 7000 km over ca. 100 myr, which corresponds to an average south-north plate velocities of ∼7.0 cm/yr. Our results do not support the conclusion that northern Qiangtang has a Laurasian affinity, nor that the central Qiangtang metamorphic belt is an in situ Paleo-Tethys suture. Our analysis, however, does not preclude paleogeographies that interpret the central Qiangtang metamorphic belt as an intra-Qiangtang suture that developed at southernly latitudes outboard of the Gondwanan margin. We emphasize that rigorous paleomagnetic data from Carboniferous units of northern Qiangtang and especially upper Paleozoic units from southern Qiangtang can test and further refine these paleogeographic interpretations.

  1. Crossing new bridges: the process of adaptation and psychological distress of Russian immigrants in Israel. (United States)

    Baider, L; Ever-Hadani, P; DeNour, A K


    Between the end of 1989 and June 1992, 380,152 Russian Jews left the former Soviet Union for Israel, swelling Israel's Jewish population by nearly 10%. Absorbing great waves of immigrants was not new to Israel. Since its establishment in 1948 and the enactment of its Law of Return, large population groups from dozens of different ethnic and cultural backgrounds had immigrated into the country. In 1992 Israel's Jewish population totaled 4,242,500. Of that number, 360,949 had been born in Asian countries, 458,009 in Africa, 1,252,131 in Europe, and 184,317 in America and Oceana.

  2. Spatio-Temporal Synchrony of Influenza in Cities across Israel: The “Israel Is One City” Hypothesis (United States)

    Barnea, Oren; Huppert, Amit; Katriel, Guy; Stone, Lewi


    We analysed an 11-year dataset (1998–2009) of Influenza-Like Illness (ILI) that was based on surveillance of ∽23% of Israel's population. We examined whether the level of synchrony of ILI epidemics in Israel's 12 largest cities is high enough to view Israel as a single epidemiological unit. Two methods were developed to assess the synchrony: (1) City-specific attack rates were fitted to a simple model in order to estimate the temporal differences in attack rates and spatial differences in reporting rates of ILI. The model showed good fit to the data (R2  =  0.76) and revealed considerable differences in reporting rates of ILI in different cities (up to a factor of 2.2). (2) A statistical test was developed to examine the null hypothesis (H0) that ILI incidence curves in two cities are essentially identical, and was tested using ILI data. Upon examining all possible pairs of incidence curves, 77.4% of pairs were found not to be different (H0 was not rejected). It was concluded that all cities generally have the same attack rate and follow the same epidemic curve each season, although the attack rate changes from season to season, providing strong support for the “Israel is one city” hypothesis. The cities which were the most out of synchronization were Bnei Brak, Beersheba and Haifa, the latter two being geographically remote from all other cities in the dataset and the former geographically very close to several other cities but socially separate due to being populated almost exclusively by ultra-orthodox Jews. Further evidence of assortative mixing of the ultra-orthodox population can be found in the 2001–2002 season, when ultra-orthodox cities and neighborhoods showed distinctly different incidence curves compared to the general population. PMID:24622820

  3. The Effects of the Shortage of Judges in Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limor Zer-Gutman


    Full Text Available In Israel the shortage of judges that has worsened over the years has led to a serious deterioration in the operation of Israel's judicial system. The article is ascertaining the intensity of the shortage by using international comparisons and comparing the rate of growth in the number of judges with the rate of growth of the general population. The article further describes the three main areas affected by the shortage. The first area is the judicial system itself where the shortage is the primary determinant of the delay and what the public often perceives as procrastination plaguing Israeli courts. Second area affected is due process- the shortage has led, in tandem with other factors, to inefficiency in the judicial system, compelling it, most prominently in the last decade or so, to be "innovative," that is, introduce procedures devoid of any legal footing. Third area affected are judges themselves. En Israel, la escasez de jueces, que se ha agravado con los años, ha provocado un grave deterioro de la operatividad del sistema judicial israelí. Este artículo corrobora la intensidad de esa escasez utilizando comparaciones internacionales y estableciendo un parangón entre el ritmo en el aumento del número de jueces y el ritmo del crecimiento de la población. Además, el artículo describe las tres áreas principales afectadas por la escasez. La primera es el propio sistema judicial, ya que la escasez es el determinante principal del retraso judicial y de lo que el público a menudo percibe como la procrastinación que invade los juzgados israelíes. La segunda área es el proceso legal debido –la escasez, junto con otros factores, ha provocado la ineficiencia del sistema judicial, empujándolo, sobre todo en la última década, a ser cada vez más "innovador", esto es, a introducir procedimientos carentes de base jurídica alguna. La tercera área afectada son los propios jueces. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: https

  4. Nuclear war between Israel and Iran: lethality beyond the pale (United States)


    Background The proliferation of nuclear technology in the politically volatile Middle East greatly increases the likelihood of a catastrophic nuclear war. It is widely accepted, while not openly declared, that Israel has nuclear weapons, and that Iran has enriched enough nuclear material to build them. The medical consequences of a nuclear exchange between Iran and Israel in the near future are envisioned, with a focus on the distribution of casualties in urban environments. Methods Model estimates of nuclear war casualties employed ESRI's ArcGIS 9.3, blast and prompt radiation were calculated using the Defense Nuclear Agency's WE program, and fallout radiation was calculated using the Defense Threat Reduction Agency's (DTRA's) Hazard Prediction and Assessment Capability (HPAC) V404SP4, as well as custom GIS and database software applications. Further development for thermal burn casualties was based on Brode, as modified by Binninger, to calculate thermal fluence. ESRI ArcGISTM programs were used to calculate affected populations from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's LandScanTM 2007 Global Population Dataset for areas affected by thermal, blast and radiation data. Results Trauma, thermal burn, and radiation casualties were thus estimated on a geographic basis for three Israeli and eighteen Iranian cities. Nuclear weapon detonations in the densely populated cities of Iran and Israel will result in an unprecedented millions of numbers of dead, with millions of injured suffering without adequate medical care, a broad base of lingering mental health issues, a devastating loss of municipal infrastructure, long-term disruption of economic, educational, and other essential social activity, and a breakdown in law and order. Conclusions This will cause a very limited medical response initially for survivors in Iran and Israel. Strategic use of surviving medical response and collaboration with international relief could be expedited by the predicted casualty

  5. Maternal and child health in Israel: building lives. (United States)

    Rubin, Lisa; Belmaker, Ilana; Somekh, Eli; Urkin, Jacob; Rudolf, Mary; Honovich, Mira; Bilenko, Natalya; Grossman, Zachi


    Israel is home to a child-oriented society that values strong family ties, universal child benefits, and free education for all children from 3 years of age to school grade 12. Alongside the universal health-care services that are guaranteed by the National Health Insurance Law and strong, community-based primary and preventive care services, these values have resulted in good maternal and child health. In 2015, infant and maternal mortality (3·1 deaths per 1000 livebirths and 2·0 deaths per 100 000 livebirths, respectively) were lower than the mean infant and maternal mortality of countries within the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Israel has already exceeded the developed regions' Sustainable Development Goal 2030 targets for maternal mortality, neonatal mortality, and mortality in children younger than 5 years in all population groups. Yet these accomplishments are marred by Israel's high prevalence of child poverty (more than 30%), particularly among Arabs (63%) and ultra-Orthodox Jews (67%). Although infant mortality has improved in all subpopulations since Israel was founded in 1948, infant mortality among Arabs is still more than twice as high as among Jews. To address these disparities in health, the Israeli Ministry of Health has created a special division and has funded an intervention programme to reduce the infant mortality among Bedouin Arabs. Other interventions include targeted and culturally appropriate health-care programmes and services for communities with a high number of at-risk children and young adults, dental health service for all children up to 15 years, and improved collaboration between health, education, and welfare services. The challenges faced by the Israeli health-care system include a growing trend towards medicalisation of prenatal care, ensuring staff are trained to treat developmental, behavioural, and psychosocial issues in children and their families, securing sustainable funding for health

  6. Petrology and geochemistry of mafic magmatic rocks from the Sarve-Abad ophiolites (Kurdistan region, Iran): Evidence for interaction between MORB-type asthenosphere and OIB-type components in the southern Neo-Tethys Ocean (United States)

    Saccani, Emilio; Allahyari, Khalil; Rahimzadeh, Bahman


    The Sarve-Abad (Sawlava) ophiolites crop out in the Main Zagros Thrust Zone and represent remnants of the Mesozoic southern Neo-Tethys Ocean that was located between the Arabian shield and Sanandaj-Sirjan continental block. They consist of several incomplete ophiolitic sequences including gabbroic bodies, a dyke complex, and pillow lava sequences. These rocks generally range from sub-alkaline to transitional character. Mineral chemistry and whole-rock geochemistry indicate that they have compositions akin to enriched-type mid-ocean ridge basalts (E-MORB) and plume-type MORB (P-MORB). Nonetheless, the different depletion degrees in heavy rare earth elements (HREE), which can be observed in both E-MORB like and P-MORB like rocks enable two main basic chemical types of rocks to be distinguished as Type-I and Type-II. Type-I rocks are strongly depleted in HREE (YbN 9.0). Petrogenetic modeling shows that Type-I rocks originated from 7 to 16% polybaric partial melting of a MORB-type mantle source, which was significantly enriched by plume-type components. These rocks resulted from the mixing of variable fractions of melts generated in garnet-facies and the spinel-facies mantle. In contrast, Type-II rocks originated from 5 to 8% partial melting in the spinel-facies of a MORB-type source, which was moderately enriched by plume-type components. A possible tectono-magmatic model for the generation of the southern Neo-Tethys oceanic crust implies that the continental rift and subsequent oceanic spreading were associated with uprising of MORB-type asthenospheric mantle featuring plume-type component influences decreasing from deep to shallow mantle levels. These deep plume-type components were most likely inherited from Carboniferous mantle plume activity that was associated with the opening of Paleo-Tethys in the same area.

  7. 2 October 2013 - Israel Ambassador to the United Nations Office and other International Organizations at Geneva E. Manor on the occasion of the inauguration of the "Israel at CERN" Industrial Exhibition with CERN Director-General R. Heuer.

    CERN Multimedia

    Anna Pantelia


    2 October 2013 - Israel Ambassador to the United Nations Office and other International Organizations at Geneva E. Manor on the occasion of the inauguration of the "Israel at CERN" Industrial Exhibition with CERN Director-General R. Heuer.

  8. Clinical neuropsychology in Israel: history, training, practice and future challenges. (United States)

    Vakil, Eli; Hoofien, Dan


    This is an invited paper for a special issue on international perspectives on training and practice in clinical neuropsychology. We provide a review of the status of clinical neuropsychology in Israel, including the history of neuropsychological, educational, and accreditation requirements to become a clinical neuropsychologist and to practice clinical neuropsychology. The information is based primarily on the personal knowledge of the authors who have been practicing clinical neuropsychology for over three decades and hold various administrative and academic positions in this field. Second, we conducted three ad hoc surveys among clinical and rehabilitation psychologists; heads of academic programs for rehabilitation and neuropsychology; and heads of accredited service providers. Third, we present a literature review of publications by clinical neuropsychologists in Israel. Most of the clinical neuropsychologists are graduates of either rehabilitation or clinical training programs. The vast majority of neuropsychologists are affiliated with rehabilitation psychology. The training programs (2-3 years of graduate school) provide solid therapeutic and diagnostic skills to the students. Seventy-five percent of the participants in this survey are employed at least part-time by public or state-funded institutions. Israeli neuropsychologists are heavily involved in case management, including vocational counseling, and rehabilitation psychotherapy. Conclusions and future goals: Although clinical neuropsychologists in Israel are well educated and valued by all health professionals, there are still several challenges that must be addressed in order to further advance the field and the profession. These included the need for Hebrew-language standardized and normalized neuropsychological tests and the application of evidence-based interventions in neuropsychological rehabilitation.

  9. Eating disorders and disordered eating in Israel: an updated review. (United States)

    Latzer, Yael; Witztum, Eliezer; Stein, Daniel


    Israel presents a unique opportunity to study the role of socio-cultural parameters in the development of mental disturbances because of the exceptional diversity of the Israeli society. In the present review, we aimed to analyse the current state of disordered eating in Israel by means of an extensive literature review. The following are the main findings of our review: The frequency of maladaptive eating among female and male Israeli Jewish adolescents is higher in comparison to many other Westernized countries. Among different Jewish sub-populations, Kibbutz women have been found until recently to show higher rates of disordered eating in comparison to other Israeli samples. Recent studies show no such difference between Kibbutz members and the general Israeli population. No clear-cut findings emerge with respect to the influence of immigration and degree of Jewish religious affiliation on the occurrence of disordered eating. In contrast, disordered eating is less prevalent in Israeli-Arabs compared with Israeli-Jews. Moreover, diverse Israeli-Arab groups show different rates of disordered eating. We discuss the high rate of disordered eating in Israeli youth in light of Israel being a culture in transition that is constantly exposed to the risk of terrorism. The changes in the rates of disordered eating in the Kibbutzim are discussed in light of the dramatic societal changes occurring in these communities within a relatively brief period of time. The low rates of disordered eating in Israeli-Arabs reflect the traditional non-Westernized characteristics of their society, whereas the differences between diverse Arab sub-populations depend upon the degree of exposure to Westernized influences and the presence of conflicts between modern and traditional values. (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  10. Evaluation of Propane Combustion Traps for the Collection of Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli) in Southern Israel (United States)


    Bionomics of phlebotomine sandflies at a peacekeeping duty site in the north of Sinai, Egypt. Acta Trop. 101: 106-114. Hoel, D.F., D.L. Kline, J.A...for sandflies . Ann. Trop. Med. Parasit. 42: 407-412. Orni, E. and E. Efrat. 1980. Geography of Israel. 4th ed. Israel University Press, Jerusalem

  11. Recruiting Arab Fathers in a Center for Children at Risk in Israel (United States)

    Buchbinder, Eli; Jammal-Abboud, Romain


    Arab society in Israel is positioned between the traditional, collective values of Arab culture and the more prevalent Western individualistic values of the Israeli society at large. This poses a challenge for the welfare services in Israel, especially in the case of Arab clients, who tend to receive and interpret the social workers' messages as…

  12. A Critical Look at Psychological Testing in Israel and Comparisons with Its European Neighbors (United States)

    Fine, Saul


    While psychological tests are used extensively in Israel, the current controls over testing practices in Israel deserve some attention. Specifically, unlike in some European countries and the United States, (a) no specific certifications are offered to Israeli psychologists in the area of testing; (b) Israeli psychologists are not obligated to…

  13. Peace Education in Israel: An Educational Goal in the Test of Reality (United States)

    Vered, Soli


    Peace education is considered a necessary element in establishing the social conditions required for promoting peace-making between rival parties. As such, it constitutes one of Israel's state education goals, and would therefore be expected to have a significant place in Israel's educational policy in general and in response to peace moves that…

  14. Learning Disabilities: Current Policy and Directions for Community Involvement among the Arab Community in Israel (United States)

    Jabareen-Taha, Samaher; Taha, Haitham


    This article seeks to identify and review the basic characteristics of learning disability which are specifically mentioned in the literature. In addition, the article intends to conduct a brief analysis on learning disability policy in Israel and the differentiation problems at the level of awareness among the Arab society in Israel. Despite the…

  15. Vision, Curriculum, and Pedagogical Content Knowledge in the Preparation of Israel Educators (United States)

    Backenroth, Ofra; Sinclair, Alex


    In this article we explore how we as teacher educators translate a new vision of Israel education into curricular practice in the preparation of emerging Jewish educators. Using a practitioner inquiry mode of research, we reflect on our existential vision of Israel education and its translation into practice as creators and directors of a semester…

  16. Multiculturalità ottomana e scrittori italiani da Saul Israel a Miro Silvera e Daniel Fishman

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speelman, R.M.


    Dall’ex Impero Ottomano, società multiculturale per eccellenza, della quale facevano parte fra l’altro Grecia e Bulgaria, Siria, Egitto, Libia e Israele, provengono molti ebrei scrittori in lingua italiana. Esaminiamo tre di essi: Saul Israel, scienziato nato a Selanik (Salonicco) e autore di un

  17. Assessing the Impact of Ongoing National Terror: Social Workers in Israel (United States)

    Ron, Pnina; Shamai, Michal


    The main goal of this study was to explore the connections between social workers' personal and professional exposure to national terror in Israel and their professional and personal distress experienced due to ongoing terror attacks. Data were collected from 406 social workers from Israel who worked in agencies that provide help to victims of…

  18. Enabling Bi-Literacy Patterns in Ethiopian Immigrant Families in Israel: A Socio-Educational Challenge (United States)

    Stavans, Anat


    This paper explores the role that languages and literacy practices play in Ethiopian immigrant families transposed to Israel as part of Israel's family language policy, by examining parental perspectives on their respective L1 and L2 usages, in both parents' and children's lives, as well as by examining the home literacy provisions supporting…

  19. Alcohol use and abuse among Ethiopian immigrants in Israel: a review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper attempts to cover the current state of alcohol use among immigrants from Ethiopia in Israel and to suggest recommendation for future activities. In addition, as a background, it attempts to describe the Ethiopian immigration to Israel and its problems, as well as some background characteristics of alcohol use in ...

  20. Neo-Liberalism and Practices of Selection in Arab Education in Israel: Between Control and Empowerment (United States)

    Pinson, Halleli; Agbaria, Ayman K.


    Similar to other national contexts, in Israel since the 1980s we have witnessed the emergence of neo-liberal policies in education. However, very little attention has been given to the ways in which they affect the school level and even less attention has been given to the impact of these policy changes on Arab schools in Israel. This article…

  1. 48 CFR 652.225-70 - Arab League Boycott of Israel. (United States)


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Arab League Boycott of... League Boycott of Israel. As prescribed in 625.7002(a), insert the following provision: Arab League Boycott of Israel (AUG 1999) (a) Definitions. As used in this provision: Foreign person means any person...

  2. 48 CFR 252.225-7031 - Secondary Arab boycott of Israel. (United States)


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Secondary Arab boycott of... of Provisions And Clauses 252.225-7031 Secondary Arab boycott of Israel. As prescribed in 225.7605, use the following provision: Secondary Arab Boycott of Israel (JUN 2005) (a) Definitions. As used in...

  3. Low Seroprevalence of Leishmania infantum and Toxoplasma gondii in the Horse Population in Israel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aharonson-Raz, Karin; Baneth, Gad; Lopes, Ana Patrícia; Brancal, Hugo; Schallig, Henk; Cardoso, Luís; Steinman, Amir


    A cross-sectional investigation was done on the seroprevalence of Leishmania infantum and Toxoplasma gondii infection among apparently healthy horses in Israel. This survey included 383 horses distributed in 22 farms throughout Israel during the years 2011-2013. Serum samples were tested for the

  4. Book of Program and Abstracts of the 45th Annual Meeting of the Israel Physical Society and the Second Conference of the Israel Plasma Science and Technology Association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This is the book of abstracts of the 45th annual meeting of the Israel Physical Society. Some of the subjects are: condensed matter; atomic and nuclear physics; quantum mechanics; particles and fields; quantum optics and plasma physics

  5. Israel: Background and U.S. Relations in Brief (United States)


    released a statement reiterating their opposition to settlement construction and expansion, and further specifying concerns with regard to “the retroactive...flagrant violation under international law” and a “major obstacle” to a two-state solution and a “just, lasting and comprehensive peace.”  Reiterates the...Moving the US embassy to Jerusalem,” Economist, December 24, 2016. 61 Martin Indyk, “The Jerusalem-first option,” New York Times, January 6, 2017. Israel

  6. Hyperemesis gravidarum in northern Israel: a retrospective epidemiological study. (United States)

    Konikoff, Tom; Avraham, Tehila; Ophir, Ella; Bornstein, Jacob


    Hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) is characterized by severe intractable nausea and vomiting in pregnancy leading to electrolyte imbalance, ketonuria, and weight loss. The cause is unknown. This study sought to investigate the prevalence and characteristics of HG in the Western Galilee in two ethnic populations and to estimate its economic burden. Data on ethnicity, age, gestational age, number of pregnancies, and length of hospitalization were collected from the medical files of all women with HG admitted to the Galilee Medical Center in 2010-2013. Findings were compared between Arabs and Jews. Prevalence was assessed relative to total number of births. Economic burden was assessed by cost of hospitalization and work days lost. The cohort included 184 women, 124 Arabic (67.4 %) and 60 Jewish (32.6 %). There were 13,630 births at the medical center during the study period, for a calculated prevalence of HG of 1.2 %. There was no difference in the relative proportions of Arabs and Jews between the cohort and the total women giving birth at our center. Mean patient age was 27.2 years, gestational age 9.3 weeks, parity 2.35. Mean age was significantly higher in the Jewish group. There were no significant between-group differences in the other clinical parameters. Mean number of hospitalization days was 2.24 days, and of additional rest days prescribed, 4.62. The calculated annual cost of HG was 452,943.42 NIS (120,144.14 USD), crudely extrapolated to a nationwide cost of 15-20 million NIS (5,300,000 USD). The prevalence and characteristics of HG are similar in the Arabic and Jewish populations of northern Israel. Mean gestational age at admission for HG was lower in our study than earlier ones, probably owing to the universal health care provided by law in Israel. HG prevalence was twice that reported previously in southern Israel but still within the range observed in other world regions. The socioeconomic differences between Arabs and Jews in the Galilee are smaller

  7. Israel's Quadrant: Weeping, Laughing, and the Measures of the Stars (United States)

    Locci, A. A.


    In the Jewish culture of the Middle Ages, the astral bodies were constantly given a special attention. They were deeply admired in religious poetry, and studied and observed in scientific and technical works. In an elegy of an anonymous poet of the 11th century, which is usually read in the celebrations of the 9th day of Ab, constellations and stars share the grief for the destruction of the temple of Jerusalem. Like the Israel Tribes, all constellations are said to weep; Pleiades and Orion are said to darken their face, the Scales turn asymmetrical, the pan of death overrides the pan of life; Scorpio is scared and trembles, Sagittarius turns his face back. Jacob ben Machir ibn Tibbon, born in Marseille in 1236, was physician, mathematician, and astronomer. He translated Euclides' Elements, the Treatise of the Armillar Sphere by Qusta ibn Luqa, the Treatise on the Astrolabe by abu al-Kasim Ahmad ibn al Saffar, and works of Ptolemy, Averroes, and Aristoteles. His most important work is the short treatise Rova' Israel ("Israel's Quadrant") which he later translated in Latin with the help of Armengaud from Blaise. In the first chapter, he discusses the Sun risings, the days of the month, the place of the Sun in the sky, and the lunar motion. In the second chapter, he discusses the relations between sunrise and sunset, between moonrise and moonset, and between solar year and lunar month. In the following chapters, he illustrates a technical device which he had developed and which he designates "Israel's Quadrant". This instrument could be used both for the sky and for the Earth, since it allowed to survey and measure the elevation of the stars, the elevation of terrestrial reliefs, and terrestrial horizontal distances. The quadrant is flat, and its area is that of a quarter of a circumference. This instrument was very versatile, it also allowed to calculate hours and time, and this favoured its exceptional diffusion. Thus, its name, "quadrant", was transferred to the

  8. 76 FR 41858 - Petition Under Section 302 on the U.S.-Israel Free Trade Agreement; Decision Not To Initiate... (United States)


    ... respect to alleged conduct of the Government of Israel during the negotiation in the 1980s of the U.S... section 302 of the Trade Act alleging that in 1984, during the negotiation of the U.S.-Israel FTA, the Government of Israel misappropriated business confidential information provided to USTR and the U.S...

  9. Hanna David`s Book: The Gifted Arab Child In Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre KOMEK


    Full Text Available In this article, it was examined Hanna David’s Book: The Gifted Arab Child in Israel. The book focuses on Arab gifted children living in Israel. In Israel three Arab groups are living: Muslim, Christian and Druze. This book contains 7 sections. First Section: A Brief History of Education of Arabs In The State of Israel, Second Section: Characteristics of the Arab Gifted Child in Israel, Third Section: Education of the Arab Gifted Child, Fourth Section: Enrichment Programs for the Gifted in the Arab Sector, Fifth section: Description of Various Kinds of Enrichment Program for the Arab Sector, Sixth section: A Minority within a Minority: Gifted Students in the Christian, Druze and Bedouin Sectors, Seventh Section: The talented Arab Girl: Between Tradition and Modernism. In this book, author gives some suggestions to reveal potential of Arab girls. Some of them are; family support, financial aid etc.

  10. Structural and sedimentary evidence from the northern margin of the Tauride platform in south central Turkey used to test alternative models of Tethys during Early Mesozoic time (United States)

    Mackintosh, Peter W.; Robertson, Alastair H. F.


    Critical to reconstruction of the Tethys ocean is the nature and significance of a reported latest Triassic "Cimmerian" tectonic event in the Tauride Mountains of south central Turkey. In one published model, a "Cimmerian" continental fragment, including the Tauride platform rifted from the northern margin of Gondwana and collided with a Eurasian-derived "Anatolide" continental fragment during Late Triassic time, causing orogenic deformation of the Tauride continental platform. In a second published model, southward subduction of a Palaeotethyan ocean opened a back-arc basin associated with rift-related uplift of the Tauride platform during Early Triassic time. The Tauride platform remained as a north-facing passive margin from the Mid-Late Triassic to Late Cretaceous without further deformation. In a third published model, a continental fragment rifted from a Tauride-Anatolide platform in the south, opening a small ocean basin (Ankara-İzmir ocean) to the north by Mid-Late Triassic time. Late Triassic deformation and uplift of the Tauride platform possibly resulted from far-field stress transmission from the Cimmerian orogeny that affected the Eurasian margin. In an additional model, a Tauride-Anatolide continent experienced a rift-related evolution, culminating in a pulse of extension-related uplift during the latest Triassic, followed by seafloor spreading to the north. The models are tested using evidence from relatively autochthonous Tauride units (Geyik Dağ; Sultan Dağ) and over-riding thrust sheets (Hadim (Aladağ) nappe; Bolkar nappe). Geological mapping of critical areas and related structural evidence show that most of the deformation in the area can be related to Late Cretaceous and Early Cenozoic (Alpine) emplacement of the Tauride nappes, although Late Triassic compressional deformation is likely at one locality. Sedimentary evidence from the Çayır Formation, a widespread ~ latest Triassic-earliest Jurassic clastic sequence shows that it

  11. Corrigendum to "Decadal to millennial variations in water column parameters in pelagic marine environments of the Western Tethys (Carpathian realm) during Middle-Late Jurassic - Evidence from the radiolarian record" [Glob. Planet. Chang. 162 (2018) 148-162 (United States)

    Bąk, Marta; Bąk, Krzysztof; Michalik, Mariola


    The authors regret (Abstract. The causal link between changes in Middle-Late Jurassic radiolarian habitat group abundances, microfacies and water column conditions in the Western Tethys was studied based on the examination of siliceous limestones and cherts from the Tatra Mountains, Central Western Carpathians. Deposition occurred on a morphological high with incised pelagic sedimentation within a tropical zone. High-resolution quantitative analyses of millimetre-thick microlaminae show changes in microfacies constituents that most likely record the fluxes of nutrients and biological activity in superficial waters. Variability of radiolarian assemblages that are classified to represent (i) upwelling and (ii) stratified water taxa suggest successive changes in water conditions that fluctuated between periods of upwelling and periods of formation of a thick, stratified, warm superficial layer above a deep thermocline during middle Bajocian-late Oxfordian time. Such variations would be strongly influenced by ocean-atmosphere global circulation patterns, which are caused by pressure gradients and are the result of Walker circulation along the equatorial part of the Tethys and the Panthalassa Ocean, including the duration of El Niño-like and La Niña-like cycles, which affect sea surface temperature trends on decadal scales. The fluctuations in radiolarian assemblages in the sediments indicate that long-term palaeoceanographic changes occurred on multi-decadal to centennial-scales during the Bajocian, but lengthened in duration to millennial-scale during the Bathonian through the Oxfordian.)

  12. Immigrant and native-born female heroin addicts in Israel. (United States)

    Isralowitz, Richard; Bar Hamburger, Rachel


    There are an estimated 25,000 heroin addicts in Israel and nearly one out of every five is a woman. Also, about one fourth of the addict population immigrated to Israel from the former Soviet Union (mostly from Russia and the Ukraine) since 1989. In this study, native born and immigrant female addicts were interviewed to develop an understanding of their background characteristics, patterns of drug use, and attitudes based on group status. Results show that the two groups of women are similar in many respects; however, differences do exist. Russian-speaking women tend to be better educated and have a greater concern about their personal health and maintaining custody of their children. Additionally, immigrant women are more inclined to use heroin and other substances while receiving treatment and are more likely to have a father who abuses alcohol. Discussion is given to the study findings as well as issues relevant to the formation of policy regarding services to female addicts in the country.

  13. Yad L'hakhlama (Reach to Recovery) in Israel. (United States)

    Mardor, L


    "Yad L'hakhlama" (YL), initiated in 1967 as part of the Israel Cancer Association, is a national rehabilitation service for patients suffering from breast cancer. In Israel, about 1,000 new cases of breast cancer are diagnosed yearly and about 900 of the patients undergo mastectomy. YL reaches some 97% of these women. The office and central administration in Tel Aviv supervise the chapters in various cities. Eighty volunteers work in 26 hospitals throughout the country. Local and national card indexes of mastectomy patients are kept so that follow-up may be done by phone, through the mail or by additional counseling in the office. Assistance is given to the needy when necessary. YL keeps in contact with American and European manufacturers regarding prostheses and recommends imports to commercial agents for local supply. Fitters are selected and approved by YL, which also provides a temporary prosthetic device and a manual listing available accessories to all mastectomy patients. Lectures and information for professional and medical staff and students are given throughout the year. Some of the specific problems that YL handles are: 1) encouraging the acknowledgement and acceptance of the word "cancer" in certain hospitals and oncological centers, 2) overcoming the myths and superstition surrounding cancer; 3) improving doctor-patient relationships; and 4) recurrence of disease among the volunteers.

  14. Assessing the options for a competitive electricity market in Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tishler, A.; Newman, J.; Spekterman, I.; Woo, C.K.


    In July 2006, the Israeli government affirmed its 2003 decision to reform the Israeli electricity industry, currently dominated by the Israel Electric Corporation (IEC), a government-owned vertically integrated electric utility. The reform calls for the deregulation and privatization of the generation and customer service segments of the industry, leaving transmission and distribution (T and D) regulated to provide open access to all end-users. This paper projects the performance of the post-reform market structure for the period 2007-2030 relative to that of the status quo. The post-reform generation market's prices are determined according to the Cournot conjecture. To mitigate excessive price volatility and surges, the generation market also includes a firm that is contracted to make peak electricity sales to customers at a pre-determined price, only when the competitive price exceeds the pre-determined level. Our results show (a) the post-reform retail prices for end-users will exceed those under the status quo; (b) the post-reform profits may not be sufficient to keep firms operating combined cycle generation units financially viable; and (c) the net benefit from deregulating the electricity sector in Israel will most likely be negative. (author)

  15. School Lunch Programs in Israel, Past and Present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endevelt, Ronit


    Full Text Available The first lunch programs in Palestine were the “soup kitchens,” which were established in Jerusalem before the First World War to feed the poor. Then, in 1923, Henrietta Szold launched a lunch initiative in schools in order to supply basic nutrition to students. As the children at most of the schools prepared the meals themselves with local products, they also learned good, low-cost eating habits and the appropriate use of domestic goods and had educational goals as well. These educational goals were in line with Zionist ideology. School lunch programs lasted through the early years of the nation of Israel, albeit without official governmental support, but they came to an end amid the rising prosperity of the early 1970s. In 2004, in response to the alarming results of a food security survey conducted by the Ministry of Health, the Knesset passed a law establishing a new school lunch program on a trial basis. This article reviews the history of lunch programs in Israel, highlighting both their achievements and their limitations, in order to establish a framework for judging the success of the current school lunch policy.

  16. Intimate Partner Jealousy and Femicide Among Former Ethiopians in Israel. (United States)

    Edelstein, Arnon


    Ethiopian immigrant women in Israel are overrepresented as victims of femicide; they are killed at more than 16 times the rate of the general population. This article suggests integrating current theoretical and empirical models to explain Ethiopian femicide, and stresses that considering psychological or sociocultural explanations as risk factors alone is not enough to understand this phenomenon. We distinguish between risk factors and triggers for femicide against Ethiopian women. While sociocultural and even psychological changes are risk factors for femicide, one, two, or three main triggers may activate such potential risk factors, such as the woman's willingness (WW) to leave the intimate relationship, sexual jealousy (SJ), and formal complaints against the abusive partner. The first two triggers are jealousy oriented. To analyze this phenomenon in Israel, we examined all court decisions on intimate partner homicide (IPH) from 1990 to 2010. After reading former studies on IPH and identifying important variables that could explain the phenomenon, we first catalogued the data in every decision and verdict according to main independent variables mentioned in the literature. The study population consists of first-generation immigrants, N = 194: native Israelis (47%), new immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU; 31%), and Ethiopians (16%). Our analysis of court decisions reveals that triggers containing jealousy components are responsible for 83% of femicide cases committed by Ethiopian men, in comparison with native Israelis (77%) and immigrant Russian men (66%) who murdered their intimate partners. In addition, there is a significant correlation among motive (jealousy), method of killing (stabbing), and "overkilling" (excessive force).

  17. Suicide in Judaism with a Special Emphasis on Modern Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliezer Witztum


    Full Text Available Judaism considers the duty of preserving life as a paramount injunction. Specific injunctions against suicide appear in the Bible, Talmud, and thereafter. Nevertheless, Jewish tradition emphasizes that one should let himself be killed rather than violate cardinal rules of Jewish law. Mitigating circumstances are found for the six deaths by suicide mentioned in the Bible, for example to account for one's sins, or avoid shameful death. Heroic suicide is praised throughout the Jewish history, from the suicide of Samson and the collective suicide in Masada, to the collective readiness of Jews in Medieval times and during the Holocaust to kill themselves rather than succumb to their enemies. Suicide rates for Jews are lower than those of Protestants and Catholics. Similarly, suicide rates in Israel are lower in comparison to Europe and North America, although being higher than those in most Moslem Asian and North African countries. This low rate of suicide is found in Jewish Israelis of all ages, including in adolescents. Elevated suicidal risk may be found in specific sub-populations, including male Israeli soldiers, immigrants from the former USSR and Ethiopia, in particular adolescent immigrants from the former USSR, elderly Holocaust survivors, and young Israel-Arab women. The meaning of these findings is discussed according to different socio-cultural perspectives.

  18. Analysis of Israel's Foreign Policy Concerning Iraqi's Kurdistan (2003-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Latifi


    Full Text Available Analysis of the Israel's Foreign Policy is one of the important issues concerned by the researchers of the international and regional affairs. Israel's Foreign Policy in years 2003-2015 has witnessed a lot of events. In these years, transformation of the Iraq's internal structures including the fall of the Baath Regime in Iraq and appearance of the terroristic group of Dashi (ISIS in this country has provided new opportunities and challenges for the Israel's Foreign Policy. In this regard, establishment of a republic system in Iraq and the reinforcement of the Kurdish streams, specially during the current transformations and the increasing desires for the independence in Iraqi's Kurdistan, have paved the way for Israel to intensify its activities in the region. In this regard, the current study has approach the issue of Israel's Foreign Policy concerning Iraqi's Kurdistan during the years 2003-2015 with a descriptive analytic method. The achieved results show that the political reasons (alliance of the periphery and development of the strategic depth in closeness to Iran, economic (accessing the energy and mineral resources in Iraqi's Kurdistan, the importance of the Kurdistan's hydro-politic resources for Israel and the Israel's economical influence from the Nile to the Euphrates, military-security (presence in the strategic environment of Iran and the external threats in the Middle East, creation of an environmental crisis un the Kurdish region of the Middle East, weakening the Iraqi's central government and disintegration of this country, Israel's security-intelligence expansion, acquiring a strategic territory and getting out of isolation and the resolving the its legitimacy crisis, controlling the currents of thought in this region, all have been influential in thein Israel's Foreign Policy Concerning Iraqi's Kurdistan.

  19. A new integrated tectonic model for the Mesozoic-Early Cenozoic subduction, spreading, accretion and collision history of Tethys adjacent to the southern margin of Eurasia (NE Turkey) (United States)

    Robertson, Alastair; Parlak, Osman; Ustaömer, Timur; Taslı, Kemal; İnan, Nurdan; Dumitrica, Paulian; Karaoǧlan, Fatih


    Cretaceous age for the E Pontide ophiolites, with important implications for alternative tectonic hypotheses. The two-subduction-zone hypothesis is supported by sedimentological and structural studies of the volcanic-sedimentary melange and of the sedimentary thrust sheets within the suture zone. Geochemical studies of oceanic basaltic rocks in the melange and also new biostratigraphic dating of radiolarites and calcareous microfossils within pelagic and redeposited deep-sea/slope sediments add to the picture. Taken together, the evidence suggests the former existence of both an oceanic and a continental margin subduction complex that are now amalgamated within the suture zone. We propose the following tectonic hypothesis: Fragments of oceanic basaltic lithologies and their deep-sea sedimentary cover accreted to form a Jurassic-Cretaceous intra-oceanic subduction complex. Terrigenous and arc-derived volcaniclastic gravity flows and pelagic carbonates accumulated in a continental margin forearc basin, mainly during the Cretaceous. Subduction melange was first emplaced over the distal Eurasian margin during the Late Cretaceous owing to thickening of the accretionary prism. During suturing, the continental margin forearc basin was emplaced southwards over the oceanic-derived accretionary wedge. The Eurasian continental margin was imbricated and thrust northwards as collision proceeded. Final closure of the adjacent Tethys took place prior to late Middle Eocene. This was followed by marine transgression and the accumulation of non-marine to shallow-marine sediments, including Nummulitic limestones. Regional correlations suggest that the double subduction zone hypothesis, notably involving Jurassic intra-oceanic spreading, is applicable to >1000 km of the Eurasian margin, specifically the Lesser Caucasus and possibly also the Central Pontides.

  20. Benthic foraminiferal response to the Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum in the South Atlantic (ODP Site 1263) and central-western Tethys (Alano section, NE Italy): a comparison. (United States)

    Boscolo Galazzo, Flavia; Thomas, Ellen; Giusberti, Luca


    During the Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum (MECO; ~40 Ma), one of the major short-term Cenozoic climatic perturbations, the cooling trend of the middle Eocene was interrupted by transient (~500 Kyr) global warming of upper and deep ocean waters (Bohaty et al., 2009). MECO represents a large climatic disruption, but its paleoenvironmental changes and effects on biota are poorly constrained. To provide insight into the effects of MECO and their regional variability on deep-sea biota, we present benthic foraminiferal data from lower-bathyal ODP Site 1263 (SE Atlantic), and compare these with the record from the middle-bathyal Alano section, located closer to the continental margin in the central-western Tethys (NE Italy; Boscolo Galazzo et al., 2013). The record of MECO at Site 1263 is continuous and not affected by CaCO3 dissolution, allowing study of the nature and causes of benthic foraminiferal change in a pelagic setting remote from the continents. The MECO did not induce a severe species turnover of benthic foraminiferal assemblages at Site 1263, but warming was paralleled by a marked decrease in benthic foraminiferal accumulation rates (BFAR). The decrease in BFAR combined with benthic assemblage changes indicates a decrease in supply of food to the sea floor, thus increased oligotrophy. Comparison of benthic foraminiferal data and surface-to-bottom δ13C gradients at Site 1263, indicates that increased stratification and declining surface primary productivity were not the principal cause of the decrease in food flux to the sea floor. We argue that warming may have been mainly responsible for the reduction of the flux of organic matter to the sea floor, increasing the metabolic rates of pelagic consumers more than those of primary producers and leading to increased remineralization of organic matter in the water column. In addition, sea-floor warming would increase metabolic rates of benthic foraminifera and their food requirements, reducing the effective food

  1. Solutions of conformal Israel-Stewart relativistic viscous fluid dynamics (United States)

    Marrochio, Hugo; Noronha, Jorge; Denicol, Gabriel S.; Luzum, Matthew; Jeon, Sangyong; Gale, Charles


    We use symmetry arguments developed by Gubser to construct the first radially expanding explicit solutions of the Israel-Stewart formulation of hydrodynamics. Along with a general semi-analytical solution, an exact analytical solution is given which is valid in the cold plasma limit where viscous effects from shear viscosity and the relaxation time coefficient are important. The radially expanding solutions presented in this paper can be used as nontrivial checks of numerical algorithms employed in hydrodynamic simulations of the quark-gluon plasma formed in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions. We show this explicitly by comparing such analytic and semi-analytic solutions with the corresponding numerical solutions obtained using the music viscous hydrodynamics simulation code.

  2. Poverty perceptions of social workers and physicians in Israel. (United States)

    Monnickendam, Menachem


    This qualitative study comparing poverty perceptions of social workers (SWs) and primary care physicians (PCPs) employed in Israel's public services found that both attributed the poverty of their own clients to similar causes--individualistic, structural, fate, and policy--but differed in most of their perspectives and moral imperatives. The PCPs tended to be more angry, skeptical, and accusatory than the SWs, who were more forbearing and accepting. Both believed that those in a position to work should, but only PCPs held that they should work for any salary. With respect to policy, PCPs looked at the macro, SWs at the micro. The findings suggest that it might be more fruitful to keep inter-professional discussions on the poor and poverty pragmatic, rather than theoretical and principled.

  3. [The organization of Jewish dentists in pre-Israel Palestine]. (United States)

    Keren-Kratz, M


    scientific publications. At the same time dentists published articles in the daily press in which they educated the public on dental hygiene and on modern dental techniques. This momentum was halted in the early 1940s as result of WWII and the Holocaust, but was quick to resume immediately thereafter. 1944 saw the publication of a professional dental Journal, which this issue is a continuation of. By the time the state of Israel was established in 1948, it had more than 900 active dentists, most of them organized in the Israel Dental Association. The only element which was still required to bridge the gap between the dentists in Israel and those in the rest of the modern world was an academic dental school. After more than 20 years in making, the school was opened in 1953 in Jerusalem. From that time on, Israel's dentistry enjoys a worldwide reputation and its dental school graduates teach and lecture in universities and in many dental forums around the globe.

  4. Lichens as environmental biomonitors in Israel: Two decades of research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garty, J.


    The present paper describes a series of studies dealing with lichens as environmental biomonitors in Israel in the years 1974-1997. In the first years of research we focused on a tolerant epilithic crustose species, Caloplaca aurantia in an attempt to classify locations according to their level of contamination by airborne heavy metals accumulated in the lichen. Later on our studies centered around the epiphytic fruticose lichen Ramalina duriaei which is rather sensitive to air pollution. This lichen has the capability to absorb and accumulate remarkable amounts of airborne mineral elements but undergoes physiological deterioration by their impact. The presence of airborne pollutants leads to a degradation of cell membranes and chlorophyll, a decrease of ATP content and an increase of stress-ethylene formation. Suggested by the compilation of data available upon two decades of research, we proposed the application of an element enrichment factor (EEF) to distinguish between polluted and unpolluted sites. (author)

  5. Radiocarbon chronology of Manot Cave, Israel and Upper Paleolithic dispersals. (United States)

    Alex, Bridget; Barzilai, Omry; Hershkovitz, Israel; Marder, Ofer; Berna, Francesco; Caracuta, Valentina; Abulafia, Talia; Davis, Lauren; Goder-Goldberger, Mae; Lavi, Ron; Mintz, Eugenia; Regev, Lior; Bar-Yosef Mayer, Daniella; Tejero, José-Miguel; Yeshurun, Reuven; Ayalon, Avner; Bar-Matthews, Mira; Yasur, Gal; Frumkin, Amos; Latimer, Bruce; Hans, Mark G; Boaretto, Elisabetta


    The timing of archeological industries in the Levant is central for understanding the spread of modern humans with Upper Paleolithic traditions. We report a high-resolution radiocarbon chronology for Early Upper Paleolithic industries (Early Ahmarian and Levantine Aurignacian) from the newly excavated site of Manot Cave, Israel. The dates confirm that the Early Ahmarian industry was present by 46,000 calibrated years before the present (cal BP), and the Levantine Aurignacian occurred at least between 38,000 and 34,000 cal BP. This timing is consistent with proposed migrations or technological diffusions between the Near East and Europe. Specifically, the Ahmarian could have led to the development of the Protoaurignacian in Europe, and the Aurignacian in Europe could have spread back to the Near East as the Levantine Aurignacian.

  6. Selective IgA deficiency in children in Israel. (United States)

    Shkalim, Vered; Monselize, Yehudit; Segal, Nirit; Zan-Bar, Israel; Hoffer, Vered; Garty, Ben Zion


    IgA deficiency is the most common human primary immune-deficiency. We evaluated the clinical and immunological characteristics of selective IgA deficiency in children in Israel. The study group included 63 children diagnosed with IgA deficiency from 1987 to 2005. Mean follow-up time per child was 10.6 years. Average age at diagnosis was 10.5 years. In one child, the IgA deficiency was transient. Infectious diseases, mainly recurrent pneumonia and ear infection, were common and occurred in 25 patients (39.7%). Allergic diseases were documented in 20 (31.7%) of our patients. Thirteen children (20.6%) had autoimmune diseases. Malignancies were diagnosed in three children (4.8%), an association that has not been reported in previous series. IgA deficiency appears to be a risk factor for infections, allergic diseases, autoimmune conditions, and malignancy.

  7. Free data access: the experience of the Israel Meteorological Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avner Furshpan


    Full Text Available This paper illustrates the benefits of changing from a commercial to an open access to climate data policy in the Israel Meteorological Service (IMS. The former commercial policy failed to provide expected economical revenues and notably increased the work time devoted to the management of the commercial structure and involved processes. At the same time, many companies and institutions tended to use data freely available in the Internet in spite of their worse quality or resolution in order to avoid the fees required to obtain data provided by the IMS. Changing to a free access to these data now allows an optimum use of climatic information and a significant reduction of bureaucratic tasks, freeing resources for research and development of new products.

  8. Innovation in the development of plasma propulsion devices in Israel (United States)

    Lev, Dan R.


    In this paper we review plasma propulsion development approach which focuses on innovation. We then bring the example of the state of Israel in general, and Rafael in particular, and show how it has adopted an innovative approach to develop a low power Hall thruster and a low current cathode. To present one special test-case of innovation we elaborate upon the development process of a heaterless hollow cathode that was developed at Rafael. In particular, by presenting the cathode characterization and wear test results we demonstrate that the heaterless cathode developed has a sufficiently wide operational range and may operate continuously for 1,500 hours without any measurable degradation in performance.

  9. Multiple primary malignant neoplasms in breast cancer patients in Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenker, J.G.; Levinsky, R.; Ohel, G.


    The data of an epidemiologic study of multiple primary malignant neoplasms in breast cancer patients in Israel are presented. During the 18-year period of the study 12,302 cases of breast carcinoma were diagnosed, and, of these, 984 patients (8%) had multiple primary malignant tumors. Forty-seven of these patients developed two multiple primary cancers. A significantly higher than expected incidence of second primary cancers occurred at the following five sites: the opposite breast, salivary glands, uterine corpus, ovary, and thyroid. Cancers of the stomach and gallbladder were fewer than expected. Treatment of the breast cancer by irradiation was associated with an increased risk of subsequent cancers of lung and hematopoietic system. The prognosis was mainly influenced by the site and malignancy of the second primary cancer. The incidence of multiple primary malignancies justifies a high level of alertness to this possibility in the follow-up of breast cancer patients

  10. "Signs of honor" among Russian inmates in Israel's prisons. (United States)

    Shoham, Efrat


    The unique nature of Israeli society as an immigrant society has also affected the prison population in Israel. This article focuses on a social and cultural phenomenon that particularly characterizes the prisoners of Russian origin, the phenomenon of tattoos. Using postmodernist theories, the article examines the function of the tattoo among Russian prisoners and the role it plays in constructing the criminal self-identity of these inmates in Israeli prisons. The tattoos observed during 2005-2006 among the Russian prisoners in four major Israeli prisons reflect the values of the Russian criminal subculture from which they evolved and were imported. This subculture is characterized by a hierarchical class structure and manifestations of machismo, domination, defiance, rebellion, and open antagonism against the Establishment and its representatives.

  11. Medical navigation in Israel: description, advantages and ethical considerations. (United States)

    Jotkowitz, Alan


    Throughout history religious figures have been intimately involved in caring for the sick. Not only have they prayed for the welfare of the sick and arranged for their care but in many instances provided medical care as well. With the advent of scientific medicine, the responsibility for medical care was transferred to trained physicians. A new phenomenon has recently emerged in Israel that has threatened this 'division of labor' between physicians and rabbis, namely, the establishment of medical navigation organizations. Medical navigation can improve access to highly specialized care and help build trust between doctors and patients. However, this system is accompanied by numerous ethical and professional difficulties. For example, it is not clear how referrals are made and to what extent the system should be regulated. The phenomenon needs to be further studied to determine its prevalence in Israeli society as well as its impact on the practice of medicine from the perspective of both physicians and patients.

  12. Gender and disordered eating of adolescents in Israel. (United States)

    Katz, Bracha


    Studies from recent decades indicate that the ideal of thinness can be discerned in a growing dissatisfaction with weight and an increase of the prevalence of disordered eating at an earlier age of onset. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of disordered eating (above the cutoff point of 30 on the EAT-40) among a normal population of school students in Israel. The study sample was composed of Israeli (Jewish) adolescents in grades 7 to 12 from four schools. Of 326 students approached (181 females and 142 males), 323 completed the self-report EAT-40 and a structured questionnaire that provided socio-demographic and other information. 41.5% of adolescents were not satisfied with their weight and 45.3% want to lose weight. A third of the sample engages in dieting behavior frequently; 6.1% of the adolescents have pathologic EAT-40 scores, with about three times as many girls as boys exhibiting disordered eating; 8.2% of the girls and 2.8% of the males show disordered eating (Ø=0.115, p times more with pathologic EAT scores than those who are satisfied with their weight (Ø=0.220; p times more pathologic EAT scores among adolescents who wish to lose weight than among those who do not wish to reduce their weight (Ø=0.237; p EAT scores were found among adolescents from different ethnic backgrounds or levels of religious observance. The prevalence of disordered eating among adolescents in Israel is higher than other countries in general, and among males in particular. There is a need for increased efforts to detect adolescents at risk for developing eating disorders, with the assistance of clinical tools. In addition an educational policy for disordered eating prevention should be instituted.

  13. [The new national program for tuberculosis elimination in Israel]. (United States)

    Chemtob, Daniel; Leventhal, Alex; Berlowitz, Yitzhak; Weiler-Ravell, Daniel


    The rise in the incidence of TB in Israel, mostly due to immigration from endemic areas, led to the establishment of a new TB control program which follows the guidelines of the World Health Organization (WHO). Reorganization of the TB infrastructure was enabled by specific legislative, administrative and budgetary measures initiated by the Ministry of Health (MOH) in conjunction with the Sick Funds. To present the theoretical and practical aspects of this new program to the physicians of Israel. The essence of this program is the use of directly observed therapy (DOT) for all patients together with centralization of TB care in nine national centers, closely supervised by the MOH. This centralization allows a critical mass of patients to be seen in each clinic, thus enabling the labor-intensive task of modern TB treatment, including the supervision and/or the administration of DOT, to be performed in a cost-effective manner. Day to day treatment is conducted by general community clinics and supervised by District Health Offices. Hospitalization, a relatively rare necessity in the new program, is available in two dedicated centers with modern isolation facilities. Centralized laboratory services provide timely susceptibility testing. Billing is simplified according to disease categories, using a global assessment of costs negotiated with the Sick Funds. Management and quality control of the program are carried out on an ongoing basis by the Department of TB and AIDS at the MOH. In the first two years that have elapsed since the inception of the program, almost 93% of cases have documented evidence of completion of treatment (under DOT), compared to 54% (without any treatment supervision) before the program came into effect.

  14. The meaning of community rehabilitation for schizophrenia patients in Israel. (United States)

    Mazor, Uri; Doron, Israel


    In the year 2000, a law was passed in Israel, known as the Law for Community Rehabilitation of the Mentally Disabled. The Community Rehabilitation Law was intended to provide a "package of services" that will allow people who suffer from mental illness and were hospitalized, to return to their community. This research, by using qualitative research methods, tried to understand and explore the meaning of rehabilitation and return to the community under the new legislative setting from the viewpoint and experiences of the participants themselves. Fifteen schizophrenic patients were interviewed in this research. All the participants were institutionalized in the past and released for rehabilitation in the community under Israel's new act. The data were collected after all interviews were recorded and analyzed. The qualitative data analysis exposed a continuous process of four conceptual categories: (1) Viewing institutionalization as transformation from the "normal" to the "abnormal"; (2) Viewing institutionalization as a process moving from the "abnormal" back to the "normal"; (3) Viewing the return to the community as "re-birth"; and finally, (4) Viewing community-based rehabilitation as reality, which enables normality alongside mental illness. This research presents a theoretical model that provides the meanings and experiences of the participants as a continuity, in which the whole process of moving from the community to the institution and back to the community is represented as one continuous process integrated in each other. Within this continuing process, the community-based rehabilitation legislation serves as a key component, well-integrated within the whole continuum that allows people with mental illness to return to "normality" within the community.

  15. Poisonous animal bites in the Israel Defense Forces. (United States)

    Haviv, J; Huerta, M; Shpilberg, O; Klement, E; Ash, N; Grotto, I


    Soldiers in field units of the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) are susceptible to injury by various poisonous animals during training and operations. Bites and envenomations by animals such as snakes, scorpions, and spiders can be painful and debilitating, and at times life-threatening. We have examined the extent of exposure of IDF soldiers to snake and arthropod bites and the morbidity resulting from these encounters. All reports of IDF soldiers who sought medical attention for snake or arthropod bites between the years 1993-1997 were reviewed at the IDF Medical Corps Headquarters. Monthly distribution of cases was noted for all years, and geographic distribution was studied for all 1997 cases. Over the period 1993-1997 there was a yearly rate of 32-52 physician visits per 100,000 soldiers due to snakebites (mean 43.6/100,000), and 1370-1729 physician visits per 100,000 soldiers due to arthropod bites (mean 1478/100,000). There is a clear overall increase in snake and arthropod bites during the spring and summer months, with a peak in snakebites in May and in arthropod bites in August. 58% of all snakebites in Israel were reported in the central region, with 33% occurring in the south, and 9% in the north of the country. No fatalities due to envenomations have been reported in the IDF in recent years. Poisonous animal species pose a significant threat to the soldiers of the IDF. Overall, envenomation is a common and widespread problem that has significant impact on the military medical system, especially during the spring and summer months. It is possible through institution of proper preventive measures to decrease the exposure of IDF personnel to this environmental hazard.

  16. Lynch Syndrome in high risk Ashkenazi Jews in Israel. (United States)

    Goldberg, Yael; Kedar, Inbal; Kariiv, Revital; Halpern, Naama; Plesser, Morasha; Hubert, Ayala; Kaduri, Luna; Sagi, Michal; Lerer, Israela; Abeliovich, Dvorah; Hamburger, Tamar; Nissan, Aviram; Goldshmidt, Hanoch; Solar, Irit; Geva, Ravit; Strul, Hana; Rosner, Guy; Baris, Hagit; Levi, Zohar; Peretz, Tamar


    Lynch Syndrome is caused by mutations in DNA mismatch repair genes. Diagnosis is not always trivial and may be costly. Information regarding incidence, genotype-phenotype correlation, spectrum of mutations and genes involved in specific populations facilitate the diagnostic process and contribute to clinical work-up. To report gene distribution, mutations detected and co-occurrence of related syndromes in a cohort of Ashkenazi Jews in Israel. Patients were identified in dedicated high risk clinics in 3 medical centers in Israel. Diagnostic process followed a multi-step scheme. It included testing for founder mutations, tumor testing, gene sequencing and MLPA. Lynch Syndrome was defined either by positive mutation testing, or by clinical criteria and positive tumor analysis. We report a cohort of 75 Ashkenazi families suspected of Lynch Syndrome. Mutations were identified in 51/75 (68%) families: 38 in MSH2, 9 in MSH6, and 4 in MLH1. 37/51 (73%) of these families carried one of the 3 'Ashkenazi' founder mutations in MSH2 or MSH6. Each of the other 14 families carried a private mutation. 3 (6%) were large deletions. Only 20/51 (39%) families were Amsterdam Criteria positive; 42 (82%) were positive for the Bethesda guidelines and 9 (18%) did not fulfill any Lynch Syndrome criteria. We report C-MMRD and co-occurrence of BRCA and Lynch Syndrome in our cohort. Mutation spectra and gene distribution among Ashkenazi Jews are unique. Three founder Lynch Syndrome mutations are found in 73% families with known mutations. Among the three, MSH2 and MSH6 are the most common. These features affect the phenotype, the diagnostic process, risk estimation, and genetic counseling.

  17. The Scyphomedusae of the Mediterranean coast of Israel, including two Lessepsian migrants new to the Mediterranean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galil, B.S.; Spanier, E.; Ferguson, W.W.


    Seven species of Scyphomedusae are reported from the Mediterranean coast of Israel. Two of these, Rhopilema nomadica spec. nov. and Phyllorhiza punctata von Lendenfeld, 1884, are Lessepsian migrants new to the Mediterranean.

  18. Marketing or strategy? Defining the best approach to expand the anesthesiology workforce in Israel. (United States)

    Lewis, Michael C; Grant, Gilbert J


    There is a chronic shortage of anesthesiologists in Israel. The study by Cohen et al. suggests that a marketing campaign may be one method of addressing this shortage. This commentary argues for a more comprehensive strategy based on the US experience. This would not only involve marketing as suggested by Cohen et al. but would also involve a fundamental change in the Israel anesthesia care model, as well as providing substantial financial incentives to young physicians. We believe that a combination of these approaches will help to alleviate the shortage of anesthesia providers in Israel. Creating a new class of physician extenders, namely, anesthesiologist assistants, would also provide an employment pathway for the skilled medical technicians trained by the Israel Defense Forces, and other non-physicians with an interest in anesthesiology.

  19. Germany's Relations With Israel: Background and Implications for German Middle East Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Belkin, Paul


    .... Since 1949, successive German governments have placed this support at the forefront of their Middle East policy and today, Germany, along with the United States, is widely considered one of Israel's closest allies...

  20. 4. International symposium on analysis and detection of explosives, Jerusalem (Israel)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    From all the presentations given at the 4. International Symposium on Analysis and Detection of Explosives (September 7-10, 1992, Jerusalem, Israel), three were considered in INIS scope and separately indexed

  1. Iisrael paneb ise piirid paika, kui vaja / Yitzhak ben Israel ; interv. Sten A. Hankewitz

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Israel, Yitzhak ben


    Iisraeli partei Kadima kandidaat parlamendivalimistel Yitzhak ben Israel selgitab, milline on programm, kui peaministriks saab Ehud Olmert. Tema sõnul Hamas ilmselt ei nõustu Teekaardi-nimelise rahuplaaniga

  2. Origin of the mafic microgranular enclaves (MMEs) and their host granitoids from the Tagong pluton in Songpan-Ganze terrane: An igneous response to the closure of the Paleo-Tethys ocean (United States)

    Chen, Qiong; Sun, Min; Zhao, Guochun; Yang, Fengli; Long, Xiaoping; Li, Jianhua; Wang, Jun; Yu, Yang


    The Songpan-Ganze terrane is mainly composed of a Triassic sedimentary sequence and late Triassic-Jurassic igneous rocks. A large number of plutons were emplaced as a result of tectono-magmatic activity related to the late stages of Paleo-Tethys ocean closure and ensuing collision. Granitoids and their hosted mafic enclaves can provide important constraints on the crust-mantle interaction and continental crustal growth. Mesozoic magmatism of Songpan-Ganze remains enigmatic with regard to their magma generation and geodynamic evolution. The Tagong pluton (209 Ma), in the eastern part of the Songpan-Ganze terrane, consists mainly of monzogranite and granodiorite with abundant coeval mafic microgranular enclaves (MMEs) (ca. 208-209 Ma). The pluton comprises I-type granitoid that possesses intermediate to acidic compositions (SiO2 = 61.6-65.8 wt.%), high potassium (K2O = 3.2-4.1 wt.%), and high Mg# (51-54). They are also characterized by arc-type enrichment of LREEs and LILEs, depletion of HFSEs (e.g. Nb, Ta, Ti) and moderate Eu depletions (Eu/Eu* = 0.46-0.63). Their evolved zircon Hf and whole-rock Nd isotopic compositions indicate that their precursor magmas were likely generated by melting of old lower continental crust. Comparatively, the MMEs have lower SiO2 (53.4-58.2 wt.%), higher Mg# (54-67) and show covariation of major and trace elements, coupled with field and petrographic observations, such as the disequilibrium textures of plagioclase and amphibole, indicating that the MMEs and host granitoids were originated from different magma sources but underwent mafic-felsic magma mixing process. Geochemical and isotopic data further suggest that the precursor magma of the MMEs was formed in the continental arc setting, mainly derived from an ancient metasomatized lithospheric mantle wedge. The Triassic granitoids from the Songpan-Ganze terrane show remarkable temporal-spatial-petrogenetic affinities to the counterparts of subduction zones in the Yidun and Kunlun arc

  3. A revolution in Israel: Natural gas discoveries change the energy situation; Une revolution en Israel: des decouvertes de gaz naturel modifient la situation energetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meritet, S. [Universite Paris-Dauphine, CGEMP, 75 - Paris (France)


    Recent discoveries of large sources of gas off the coast are expected to make Israel an energy-independent county and even a possible gas exporter. Even if the new resource estimates are correct, a number of factors still raise doubts about the viability of exports. This paper focuses on the Israel's possible energy policy choices with the natural gas discoveries. After the presentation of the current energy situation, the new energy resources are analysed along with the uncertainties around them and the new regulatory framework. The economic consequences of these new resources are then analyzed in terms of exporting strategies and electricity generation prospects. Even more than other countries, Israel's energy policy is centered on security of supply through diversification of sources and suppliers. (author)

  4. A critical and comparative review of the prevention of drug and alcohol abuse in Israel. (United States)

    Barnea, Z


    The article reviews the various programs and intervention strategies of substance abuse prevention in Israel. It concentrates mainly on the stages of primary and secondary prevention among youth. School-based prevention programs, those designated for detached youth as well as community-based programs, are presented and analyzed. The prevention efforts in Israel are also compared to those in other Western countries. The discussion includes recommendations for future developments in this domain.

  5. Divorce and immigration: the social integration of immigrant divorcees in Israel. (United States)

    Damian, N


    This paper attempts to supply information on what motivated some 7000 Jewish divorcees to leave their countries of origin in the last decade and settle in Israel. The study also examines the differences in social integration of immigrant divorcees who came to Israel from different political systems--authoritarian or democratic regimes. Finally, the study examines the extent to which immigrant divorcees, who generally arrive in Israel with children, are to be considered as a "high risk" social group requiring special attention and particular aid. Of the 287,487 immigrants aged 15 years and over who arrived in Israel between 1970-1980, 53.7% were women (sex ratio: 860 males per 1000 females), and 3.6% were divorced. The findings indicate that there are significant differences between divorcees from Anglophone and Eastern European countries in their motivation for immigrating to Israel. The former decide to immigrate primarily for individual reasons--generally after divorce--expecting that immigration will increase chances of remarriage. In contrast, those who came from Eastern Europe are motivated by political, economic, and ideological reasons; the issue of immigration often sparks the divorce crisis. Divorcees from Anglophone countries are less socially isolated, more likely to meet veteran Israelis, and more satisfied with their life in Israel. Eastern European divorcees usually restrict their social contact to encounters with other immigrants from their country of origin, are less satisfied with their life in Israel, and feel themselves more isolated and frustrated. Despite the difficulties encountered by this group, it was found that there are no marked differences between divorcees and married immigrant women in social integration. In Israel, immigrant divorcees cannot be considered as a "high risk" social group.

  6. Gamblers Anonymous in Israel: a participant observation study of a self-help group. (United States)

    Cromer, G


    This participant observation study of the first Gamblers Anonymous group in Israel is designed to show (1) the ways in which the group helps it members rehabilitate themselves, (2) the three stages through which they must go in order to ensure success, and (3) the reason why some participants fail to do so. The article concludes with a number of observations concerning the extent of gambling in Israel and the different ways that should be developed for dealing with the problem.

  7. Israelologie: ’n Bybels-teologiese perspektief oor Israel se verlede, hede en toekoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob J. Scholtz


    Full Text Available Israelology: A Biblical-theological perspective of the past, present and future of Israel. Israelology, the study of Israel, is necessary for any theological system. In the past, God made unconditional covenants and other promises to Abraham and his descendants through Jacob. Not all Jews appropriate these blessings from God in faith. There has always been, however, a faithful remnant in Israel who believed the revelation and promises of God. Despite idolatry and repeated failure, even the unpardonable sin, God is faithful and has not cast away – not even temporarily – his people whom He foreknew. During the Church Age, the Jewish remnant is not only part of the Church but also of the nation of Israel. New Testament revelation does not cancel, change, transcend, spiritualise, or idealise unconditional and still-unfulfilled promises of God to Israel. The term ‘the seed of Abraham’ has multiple senses, and the fact that it can refer to the spiritual descendants of Abraham of non-Jewish descent does not change or cancel the promises that God made to the believing Jewish descendants of Abraham. Because God is faithful, Israel has a future. The present worldwide regathering of Jews to their homeland is happening in preparation for the judgement of the Tribulation Period. Christ will not return to the earth, however, until a future Jewish generation repent and call on the Lord. Then, a second worldwide regathering of faithful Jews to Israel will take place, this time for the blessings of the messianic kingdom. During the Millennium, God will fulfil all outstanding covenant promises and prophecies, and in the same realm where both the first Adam and seventy nations once failed, the Last Adam will successfully rule over Israel and the nations to the glory of God. Israelology, the doctrine of Israel’s past, present and future, is the missing link in Biblical and Systematic Theology.

  8. Trends in Coronary Revascularization and Ischemic Heart Disease?Related Mortality in Israel


    Blumenfeld, Orit; Na'amnih, Wasef; Shapira?Daniels, Ayelet; Lotan, Chaim; Shohat, Tamy; Shapira, Oz M.


    Background We investigated national trends in volume and outcomes of percutaneous coronary angioplasty (PCI), coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), and ischemic heart disease?related mortality in Israel. Methods and Results Using International Classification of Diseases 9th and 10th revision codes, we linked 5 Israeli national databases, including the Israel Center for Disease Control National PCI and CABG Registries, the Ministry of Health Hospitalization Report, the Center of Bureau of St...

  9. Population genetics of Leishmania infantum in Israel and the Palestinian Authority through microsatellite analysis. (United States)

    Amro, Ahmad; Schönian, Gabriele; Al-Sharabati, Mohamed Barakat; Azmi, Kifaya; Nasereddin, Abedelmajeed; Abdeen, Ziad; Schnur, Lionel F; Baneth, Gad; Jaffe, Charles L; Kuhls, Katrin


    Multilocus microsatellite typing (MLMT) was used to investigate the genetic variation among 44 Israeli and Palestinian strains of L. infantum isolated from infected dogs and human cases to determine their population structure and to compare them with strains isolated from different European countries. Most of the Israeli and Palestinian strains had their own individual MLMT profiles; a few shared the same profile. A Bayesian model-based approach and phylogenetic reconstructions based on genetic distances inferred two main populations that were significantly different from the European strains: population A, containing 16 strains from places in the West Bank and 11 strains from central Israel;and population B, containing 7 strains from northern Israel, 9 from central Israel, and one Palestinian strain from the Jenin District.Geographically distributed sub-populations were detected within population B. These results demonstrate similar disease dynamics in Israel and the Palestinian Authority. The re-emergence of VL in the case of population A is more likely owing to increased dog and human contact with sylvatic cycles of parasitic infection rather than to recent introduction from the older foci of northern Israel. The latter scenario could be true for population B found in few foci of Central Israel. (c) 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. The tiger beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Cicindelinae) of Israel and adjacent lands. (United States)

    Matalin, Andrey V; Chikatunov, Vladimir I


    Based on field studies, museums collections and literature sources, the current knowledge of the tiger beetle fauna of Israel and adjacent lands is presented. In Israel eight species occur, one of them with two subspecies, while in the Sinai Peninsula nine species of tiger beetles are now known. In the combined regions seven genera from two tribes were found. The Rift Valley with six cicindelids species is the most specious region of Israel. Cylindera contorta valdenbergi and Cicindela javeti azari have localized distributions and should be considered regional endemics. A similarity analysis of the tiger beetles faunas of different regions of Israel and the Sinai Peninsula reveal two clusters of species. The first includes the Great Rift Valley and most parts of the Sinai Peninsula, and the second incorporates most regions of Israel together with Central Sinai Foothills. Five distinct adult phenological groups of tiger beetles can be distinguished in these two clusters: active all-year (three species), spring-fall (five species), summer (two species), spring-summer (one species) and spring (one species). The likely origins of the tiger beetle fauna of this area are presented. An annotated list and illustrated identification key of the Cicindelinae of Israel and adjacent lands are provided.

  11. Lo inevitable sucedió. El laborismo israelí, la Internacional Socialista y el conflicto árabe-israelí


    Amado Castro, Víctor Manuel


    Aquest article aborda quina va ser la posició de la Internacional Socialista davant el conflicte arabo-israelià, i com va adoptant-se i reformulant al llarg del temps transcorregut entre 1947 i 1983. Aquest organisme internacional va donar suportpolíticament al Partit Laborista d’Israel, entès que aquest era el representant del sionisme socialista i de l’estat d’Israel, d’una manera total i acrítica fins a un moment determinat. Aquest suport, en ser el laborisme israelià l’únic representant d...

  12. [Audit of general hospitals and private surgical clinics in Israel]. (United States)

    Freund, Ruth; Dor, Michael; Lotan, Yoram; Haver, Eitan


    Supervision and inspection of medical facilities are among the responsibilities of the Ministry of Health (MOH) anchored in the "Public Health Act 1940". In order to implement the law, the General Medical Division of the MOH began the process of auditing hospitals and private surgical clinics prior to considering the reissue of their license. The audit aimed to implement the law, activate supervision on general hospitals and private surgical clinics, provide feed-back to the audited institution and upgrade quality assurance, regulate medical activities according to the activities elaborated in the license and recommend the license renewal. Prior to the audits, 20 areas of activity were chosen for inspection. For each activity a check list was developed as a tool for inspection. Each area was inspected during a 4-5 hour visit by a MOH expert, accompanied by the local service manager in the institution under inspection. A comprehensive report, summarizing the findings was sent to the medical institute, requesting correction in those areas where improvements were needed. Recommendation for license renewal was sent to the Director of Licensing Division Ministry of Health. Between June 2003 and July 2006, 91 structured audits took place. A total of 47 general hospitals and 24 private surgical clinics were visited at least once. Most general hospitals were found abiding, functioning according to the required standards and eligible for license renewal. Licenses of institutions that complied with the standards determined by the audit teams, were renewed. Two private hospitals in central Israel, that were given an overall poor evaluation, were issued with a temporary license and subsequently re-audited 4 times over the next two years. Generally, the standards in private surgical clinics were lower than those found in general public hospitals. In one clinic the license was not renewed, and in another an order was issued to cease surgical procedures requiring general

  13. [Basic research during residency in Israel: is change needed?]. (United States)

    Fishbain, Dana; Shoenfeld, Yehuda; Ashkenazi, Shai


    A six-month research period is a mandatory part of the residency training program in most basic specialties in Israel and is named: the "basic science period". This is the only period in an Israeli physician's medical career which is dedicated strictly to research, accentuating the importance of medical research to the quality of training and level of medicine in Israel. From another point of view, one may argue that in an era of shortage of physicians on the one hand and the dizzying rate of growth in medical knowledge on the other hand, every moment spent training in residency is precious, therefore, making the decision of whether to dedicate six months for research becomes ever more relevant. This question is currently raised for discussion once again by the Scientific Council of the Israeli Medical Association. The Scientific Council lately issued a call for comments sent to all Israeli physicians, asking their opinion on several key questions regarding basic science research. Learning the public's opinion will serve as a background for discussion. A total of 380 physicians responded to the call and specified their standpoint on the subject, among them heads of departments, units and clinics, senior physicians and residents. The findings pointed to strong support in maintaining the research period as part of residency training due to its importance to medical training and medicine, although half the respondents supported the use of various alternative formats for research together with the existing format. Those alternative format suggestions will be thoroughly reviewed. A smaller group of respondents supported allowing residents a choice between two tracks--with or without a research period, and only a few were in favor of canceling the research requirement altogether. The writers maintain that the "basic science period" of research during residency training is vital and its contribution to the high level of specialists and high level of medicine requires its

  14. Seawater desalination and serum magnesium concentrations in Israel. (United States)

    Koren, Gideon; Shlezinger, Meital; Katz, Rachel; Shalev, Varda; Amitai, Yona


    With increasing shortage of fresh water globally, more countries are consuming desalinated seawater (DSW). In Israel >50% of drinking water is now derived from DSW. Desalination removes magnesium, and hypomagnesaemia has been associated with increased cardiac morbidity and mortality. Presently the impact of consuming DSW on body magnesium status has not been established. We quantified changes in serum magnesium in a large population based study (n = 66,764), before and after desalination in regions consuming DSW and in regions where DSW has not been used. In the communities that switched to DSW in 2013, the mean serum magnesium was 2.065 ± 0.19 mg/dl before desalination and fell to 2.057 ± 0.19 mg/dl thereafter (p < 0.0001). In these communities 1.62% of subjects exhibited serum magnesium concentrations ≤1.6 mg/dl between 2010 and 2013. This proportion increased by 24% between 2010-2013 and 2015-2016 to 2.01% (p = 0.0019). In contrast, no such changes were recorded in the communities that did not consume DSW. Due to the emerging evidence of increased cardiac morbidity and mortality associated with hypomagnesaemia, it is vital to consider re-introduction of magnesium to DSW.

  15. Tsunamis induced by submarine slumpings off the coast of Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Striem, H.; Miloh, T.


    The historical description of tsunamis or seismic sea waves at the coast of Israel is related. It is found that such an event was followed more often by a sea recession than by a shore flooding. A quantitative evaluation based on data of actual submarine scars, which may have been caused by slumpings on the continental slope, is carried out. It was found that the slumping of a mass 6 km long, 2 km wide and about 50 m deep would cause the formation of a shock-induced solitary wave of about 10 m in height at the edge of the continental slope. The accompanying draw-down of the sea level at the coast would last about 1/2 - 1.5 hours and lay the sea floor bare for a distance of about 1/2 - 1.5 km in agreement with some of the historical descriptions. Though possibly occurring only once or twice in a millenium, earthquake-induced slumpings may constitute a danger to nuclear power plants. (B.G.)

  16. Knowledge and attitudes toward human cloning in Israel. (United States)

    Barnoy, Sivia; Ehrenfeld, Malka; Sharon, Rina; Tabak, Nili


    The success of mammal cloning in 1997 has brought the issue of human cloning into public discussion. Human cloning has several aspects and potential applications for use in both reproductive and non-reproductive matters. The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and attitudes toward human cloning in Israel. Data from 120 respondents (68 health professionals and 52 non-health professionals), all Jewish, Hebrew speaking with at least 15 years of education each, were collected using two questionnaires that dealt with knowledge and attitudes toward human cloning. Results showed that although health professionals had significantly more knowledge that non-health professionals, all respondents had poor knowledge about cloning. No difference in attitudes was found between the groups. Most respondents opposed human cloning, but more positive attitudes toward non-reproductive cloning were found. The results are discussed in the context of the deficit model. The findings indicate a need to provide information about human cloning to allow people to form their attitudes based on factual knowledge.

  17. [Characteristics and perceptions of physician managers in Israel]. (United States)

    Tabenkin, H; Tamir, A; Epstein, L; Shvartzman, P


    In a survey of 120 physician managers (PM) of the Israel Ministry of Health and the General Sick Fund (Kupat Holim), demographic and managerial characteristics and perceptions of what is important for effective performance were studied. Medical directors of hospitals, districts and Kupat Holim clinics were included. The majority of the respondents had some training in medical management. 33% are family physicians, 15% are internists, 33% have degrees in public health, 17% are board certified in medical management, and 8% are pediatricians. None of the district and hospital medical directors of the General Sick Fund is a woman, but 40% of medical directors in Ministry of Health districts are women. More than 50% of PMs are not satisfied with the dualistic management that exists mainly in the General Sick Fund. 42% of the respondents stated that 8 or more years after residency is the most appropriate time to assume managerial roles. The average score of those who chose medical management from the point of view of job satisfaction was 7.4 +/- 2.3, but the rated satisfaction from performance as a PM in the health care system today is 4.2 +/- 2.6 (on a 1-10 scale). The most important managerial characteristics perceived by the respondents were credibility, ability to communicate and delegate, and leadership.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Alef


    Full Text Available The vast amount of archaeological data and information that is systematically accumulated in the Israel Antiquities Authority database, has not yet been transformed into a tool for heritage management, i.e. accessible knowledge of the sites' cultural significance and risk assessment that is needed to support wise decision making regarding its future. As a response, a pilot project for developing an inventory for the archaeological heritage management was launched. A basic ESRI ArcGIS Online system was developed as a prototype, following the categories recommended in international standards for documentation. Five field surveys implementing the GIS system were conducted to examine different aspects and workflows: ancient synagogues in the Galilee, sites at risk, mosaics in Tel Shiqmona, the ancient settlement of Huqoq and sites included in The National Master Plan for Forests and Afforestation. The pilot project revealed the main gaps in knowledge and the critical faults in the working procedures. In spite of the systems' technological limitations, the results were convincing enough to promote a multidisciplinary discussion about the need for integration of significance and risk assessment in the working processes of the organization.

  19. Towards AN Inventory for Archaeological Heritage Management in Israel (United States)

    Alef, Y.


    The vast amount of archaeological data and information that is systematically accumulated in the Israel Antiquities Authority database, has not yet been transformed into a tool for heritage management, i.e. accessible knowledge of the sites' cultural significance and risk assessment that is needed to support wise decision making regarding its future. As a response, a pilot project for developing an inventory for the archaeological heritage management was launched. A basic ESRI ArcGIS Online system was developed as a prototype, following the categories recommended in international standards for documentation. Five field surveys implementing the GIS system were conducted to examine different aspects and workflows: ancient synagogues in the Galilee, sites at risk, mosaics in Tel Shiqmona, the ancient settlement of Huqoq and sites included in The National Master Plan for Forests and Afforestation. The pilot project revealed the main gaps in knowledge and the critical faults in the working procedures. In spite of the systems' technological limitations, the results were convincing enough to promote a multidisciplinary discussion about the need for integration of significance and risk assessment in the working processes of the organization.

  20. The Emergence of a Cosmopolitan Tel Aviv: New Dynamics of Migrations in Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Berthomière


    Full Text Available During the 90’s, Israel and the Palestinians were unable to reach a Peace agreement and this unsuccessful period led to the production of a new Israeli ethnoscape. With increased Israeli border closures (within the pre-1967 limits to Palestinian workers, the Israeli government had to authorize the entrance of foreign workers from Eastern Europe (Romania, Poland but also from Asia (Thailand, the Philippines. These new “faces” of Israel aroused fears concerning their “settlement” and gradually caused a debate, which underlined the social cleavages of Israel. This debate took on more importance as immigrants from West Africa and South America (pushed to Israel by the globalisation were added to this – first – group of non-Jewish immigrants. These regular and irregular immigrations raised the question about the Jewish identity of the State and at the same time have drawn the limits of an Israeli cosmopolitanism. Using the example of Israel, the aim of this paper is to contribute to knowledge about the forms of emergence of “new cosmopolitanisms” and to critique a concept elaborated to describe the tension existing between national discourse and globalisation.

  1. Mycetoma (Madura Foot) in Israel: Recent Cases and a Systematic Review of the Literature. (United States)

    Bitan, Ohad; Wiener-Well, Yonit; Segal, Rina; Schwartz, Eli


    AbstractMycetoma is a chronic soft tissue infection caused by fungal or bacterial pathogens, and is endemic in tropical and subtropical regions. Cases in developed countries outside the mycetoma belt are rare and usually imported by immigrants. Sporadic cases have been reported in Israel. Unpublished cases in the participating medical centers are reported. In addition, a systematic review of the literature was performed. All published mycetoma cases diagnosed in Israel were included with relevant variables collected. Twenty-one cases of mycetoma were diagnosed in Israel between 1942 and 2015, including four unpublished cases and 17 published cases. The mean age at diagnosis was 42 years (range 23-73), and 16 of the patients were male. The foot was the primary involved organ. Fifteen patients were immigrants from Yemen, Ethiopia, and Sudan. Five cases were autochthonous. One case was travel related. Among patients who developed symptoms after immigration, the mean time from exposure to symptom onset was 5.6 years (range 1-10 years). The mean time from symptom onset to diagnosis was 6.6 years (range 0.2-35 years). The autochthonous cases demonstrate that Israel is endemic of mycetoma. The immigrant population represents two distinct waves of immigration to Israel in the past century. Two unpublished cases of Ethiopian immigrants are the first reported cases of mycetoma acquired in Ethiopia. The diagnostic and therapeutic challenges along with the epidemiological data emphasize the need of raising the awareness of physicians to this devastating condition even in developed countries.

  2. Objective analysis of surface wind regimes over Israel using self-organizing maps (United States)

    Berkovic, Sigalit


    The surface wind across Israel is studied using the method of Self Organizing maps (SOMs). Emphasis is made on identifying the characteristic diurnal patterns at the synoptic hours during the winter months. The investigation is made by analyzing surface wind measurements from 53 Israel Meteorological Service (IMS) stations during 2006-2012. The relation between surface wind patterns and synoptic variables (temperature, specific humidity, geopotential height and synoptic wind) is obtained from calculation of averages of these variables according to the surface wind SOMs classification. The synoptic data is derived from ECMWF ERA40 data. Under winter lows the flow over Israel is westerly with high steadiness (>0.8) and intensity (4-10 m/s). Under winter highs the flow over northern Israel is easterly with high steadiness (>0.8) and intensity. Wind intensity is proportional to the pressure gradient. Under transitional pressure gradients, the flow is determined by the local topography and the diurnal heating, its steadiness is relatively low and its intensity weakens. The wind regimes are in agreement with previous subjective and semi-objective classification studies of surface flow under the frequent synoptic classes. The ability to reconstruct subjective knowledge by an objective algorithm is crucial for future statistical climatological analysis and applications over Israel.

  3. Trends in the Epidemiology of Campylobacteriosis in Israel (1999-2012). (United States)

    Bassal, Ravit; Lerner, Larisa; Valinsky, Lea; Agmon, Vered; Peled, Nehama; Block, Colin; Keller, Nati; Keness, Yoram; Taran, Diana; Shainberg, Bracha; Ken-Dror, Shifra; Treygerman, Orit; Rouach, Tsvi; Lowenthal, Shulamit; Shohat, Tamar; Cohen, Daniel


    The objective of this study was to examine the recent trends in the epidemiology of campylobacteriosis in Israel. A Sentinel Laboratory-Based Surveillance Network for Bacterial Enteric Diseases was established in Israel by the Israel Center for Disease Control (ICDC). This network generated data on subjects from whom Campylobacter spp. was isolated in community and hospital laboratories. Further characterization of the isolates was done at the Campylobacter National Reference Laboratory. Data from these two sources were integrated and analyzed at the ICDC. Between 1999 and 2012, 40,978 Campylobacter stool isolates were reported to the ICDC by the sentinel laboratories. The incidence rate of campylobacteriosis increased from 65.7 per 100,000 in 1999 to 101.7 per 100,000 in 2012. This increase resulted from a significant rise in the incidence of campylobacteriosis in the Jewish population which, since 2009, surpassed the consistent higher incidence of the disease in Israeli Arabs. The peak morbidity in Israel consistently occurred in late spring, with a risk excess in males compared with females, in younger age groups and earlier in the life span among Arabs than among Jews and others. These results suggest that further analytical studies should be carried out to identify risk factors responsible for the increased incidence of campylobacteriosis and better direct prevention and control of the disease in Israel.

  4. Brucellosis Outbreak in Children and Adults in Two Areas in Israel (United States)

    Megged, Orli; Chazan, Bibiana; Ganem, Atef; Ayoub, Abeer; Yanovskay, Anna; Sakran, Waheeb; Miron, Dan; Dror-Cohen, Ahuva; Kennes, Yoram; Berdenstein, Svetlana; Glikman, Daniel


    Two parallel outbreaks of Brucella melitensis infection occurred in 2014 in two geographical areas in Israel. In two medical centers in northern Israel and one medical center in Jerusalem, 102 patients (58 children, 47 adults) were diagnosed with brucellosis. Most patients (N = 76, 72%) were Muslim Arabs, 28 (27%) were Druze, and one was Jewish. The source of infection was often traced to cheese from the Palestinian Authority. Biovar-1 was evident in 98% in northern Israel but only in 42% in Jerusalem. Most common manifestations were fever (82%) and osteoarticular symptoms (49%). The major differences between the geographic areas were ethnicity and duration until diagnosis. Compared with adults, children had higher rates of hospitalization (93% versus 64%, P = 0.001), osteoarticular symptoms (60% versus 36%, P = 0.05), elevated alanine aminotransferase (12% versus 0%, P = 0.01), and lower C-reactive protein (2.28 ± 2.08 versus 5.57 ± 6.3l mg/dL, P = 0.001). Two unrelated brucellosis outbreaks occurred in 2014 in two different geographic areas of Israel and were limited to sections of the Arab and Druze populations. Most of the demographic and clinical aspects of patients were not affected by geographic variability. Clinical and laboratory differences were found between children and adults emphasizing the nonuniformity of the disease in different age groups. Effective control of unpasteurized dairy foods, health education programs, and improved regional cooperation are required to control brucellosis in Israel. PMID:27114301

  5. Israel wildfires: future trends, impacts and mitigation strategies (United States)

    Wittenberg, Lea


    Forest fires in the Euro-Mediterranean region burn about 450,000 ha each year. In Israel, the frequency and extent of wildfires have been steadily increasing over the past decades, culminating in several large and costly fires in 2010, 2012 and 2016. The extensive development of forest areas since the 1950's and the accumulation of fuel in the forests, has led to increased occurrences of high intensity fires. Land-use changes and human population growth are the most prevailing and common determinant of wildfire occurrence and impacts. Climate extremes, possibly already a sign of regional climate change, are another frequent determinant of increasing wildfire risk. Therefore, the combination of extreme dry spells, high fuel loads and increased anthropogenic pressure on the open spaces result in an overall amplified wildfire risk. These fires not only cause loss of life and damage to properties but also carry serious environmental repercussions. Combustion of standing vegetation and the leaf litter leave the soil bare and vulnerable to runoff and erosion, thereby increasing risks of flooding. Today, all of Israel's open spaces, forests, natural parks, major metropolitan centers, towns and villages are embedded within the wildland urban interface (WUI). Typically, wildfires near or in the WUI occur on uplands and runoff generated from the burned area poses flooding risks in urban and agricultural zones located downstream. Post-fire management aims at reducing associated hazards as collapsing trees and erosion risk. Often the time interval between a major fire and the definition of priority sites is in the order of days-to-weeks since administrative procedures, financial estimates and implementation of post-fire salvage logging operations require time. Defining the magnitude of the burn scar and estimating its potential impact on runoff and erosion must therefore be done quickly. A post-fire burn severity, runoff and erosion model is a useful tool in estimating

  6. Economic effects of interventions to reduce obesity in Israel. (United States)

    Ginsberg, Gary M; Rosenberg, Elliot


    Obesity is a major risk factor for many diseases. The paper calculates the economic impact and the cost per Quality-Adjusted Life Year (QALY) resulting from the adoption of eight interventions comprising the clinical and part of the community components of the National Prevention and Health Promotion Program (NPHPP) of the Israeli Ministry of Health (MOH) which represents the obesity control implementation arm of the MOH Healthy Israel 2020 Initiative. Health care costs per person were calculated by body mass index (BMI) by applying Israeli cost data to aggregated results from international studies. These were applied to BMI changes from eight intervention programmes in order to calculate reductions in direct treatment costs. Indirect cost savings were also estimated as were additional costs due to increased longevity of program participants. Data on costs and QALYs gained from Israeli and International dietary interventions were combined to provide cost-utility estimates of an intervention program to reduce obesity in Israel over a range of recidivism rates. On average, persons who were overweight (25 ≤ BMI costs that were 12.2% above the average health care costs of persons with normal or sub-normal weight to height ratios (BMI costs rose to 31.4% and 73.0% for obese and severely obese persons, respectively.For overweight (25 ≤ BMI costs per person for the interventions (including the screening overhead) ranged from 35 NIS for a community intervention to 860 NIS, reflecting the intensity of the clinical setting intervention and the unit costs of the professionals carrying out the intervention [e.g., dietician]. Expected average BMI decreases ranged from 0.05 to 0.90. Higher intervention costs and larger BMI decreases characterized the two clinical lifestyle interventions for the severely obese (BMI ≥ 40).A program directed at the entire Israeli population aged 20 and over, using a variety of eight different interventions would cost 2.07 billion NIS overall

  7. Survey of intravitreal injection techniques among retina specialists in Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segal O


    Full Text Available Ori Segal,1,2 Yael Segal-Trivitz,1,3 Arie Y Nemet,1,2 Noa Geffen,1,2 Ronit Nesher,1,2 Michael Mimouni4 1Department of Ophthalmology, Meir Medical Center, Kfar Saba, 2The Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, 3Department of Psychiatry, Geha Psychiatric Hospital, Petah Tikva, 4Department of Ophthalmology, Rambam Health Care Campus, Haifa, Israel Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe antivascular endothelial growth factor intravitreal injection techniques of retinal specialists in order to establish a cornerstone for future practice guidelines. Methods: All members of the Israeli Retina Society were contacted by email to complete an anonymous, 19-question, Internet-based survey regarding their intravitreal injection techniques. Results: Overall, 66% (52/79 completed the survey. Most (98% do not instruct patients to discontinue anticoagulant therapy and 92% prescribe treatment for patients in the waiting room. Three quarters wear sterile gloves and prepare the patient in the supine position. A majority (71% use sterile surgical draping. All respondents apply topical analgesics and a majority (69% measure the distance from the limbus to the injection site. A minority (21% displace the conjunctiva prior to injection. A majority of the survey participants use a 30-gauge needle and the most common quadrant for injection is superotemporal (33%. Less than half routinely assess postinjection optic nerve perfusion (44%. A majority (92% apply prophylactic antibiotics immediately after the injection. Conclusion: The majority of retina specialists perform intravitreal injections similarly. However, a relatively large minority performs this procedure differently. Due to the extremely low percentage of complications, it seems as though such differences do not increase the risk. However, more evidence-based medicine, a cornerstone for practice guidelines, is required in order to identify the intravitreal injection techniques

  8. 20 year long term air quality trends in Israel (United States)

    Luria, M.


    The Israeli air monitoring network was established in the mid 1990's with dozens of measuring sites near most populated areas. During these past 20 years the Israel economy has increased significantly. The population grew by 30%, energy consumption and power generation by more than 40% and the number of motor vehicles increased by nearly 50%. Most of the fossil energy is consumed by the electric power industry that has changed immensely during this period. Until the early 2000's the vast majority of the electricity was generated from coal and heavy oil. However, during the last ten years natural gas has gradually becomes the major source for power generation and for most of the heavy industry. In the present study we examined the impact of these economic trends on the major criteria air pollution parameters; O3, NOx, SO2 and PM10. The analyses was based on the long term trend of median value (50th percentile) and the 90th percentile. The results revealed that SO2 levels throughout the country decreased to very low levels, with the 90th percentile near the detection limit. The levels of PM10, that are relatively high compare with other global regions, did not show any trend during the 20 year period. This is consistent with the fact that most particulate matter results from long range transport of dust from the surrounding deserts. The long term trend of NOx indicates a gradual and steady increase at most measuring sites, which is consistent with the increase of fossil fuel consumption. The increase in NOx levels is most likely the cause for the significant increase in O3 levels found at most sites in a few of them to levels that are considered as an environmental hazard.

  9. Emergency preparedness and response in Israel during the Gulf War. (United States)

    Barach, P; Rivkind, A; Israeli, A; Berdugo, M; Richter, E D


    We examined the effect of the emergency response on medical and public health problems during the 1991 Gulf War in Israel. On the first day of the conflict, the number of deaths from suffocation, asphyxiation, aspiration, myocardial infarction, cardiac arrest, and cerebrovascular accident increased abruptly, as did the number of sudden deaths associated with the use of tight-fitting masks with filters in sealed rooms. Much of the excess risk for death from cardiorespiratory complications during the first alert may have been a consequence of its duration (140 minutes). Mass evacuation and concrete buildings are believed to have kept the death toll from trauma down, and mask use may have protected against facial and upper-airway injuries. Falls and hip fractures, airway irritation from exposure to bleach, carbon monoxide intoxication from open kerosene heaters in sealed rooms, and self-injection with atropine syringes were also noted. A measles epidemic and increased death rates from automobile crashes were other preventable causes of death. Protection against biological warfare was limited to surveillance of trends for pneumonia and gastroenteritis. Emergency planners failed to anticipate the need for better mask fit, hands-on training in the use of masks, and special guidelines for older persons to prevent deaths from suffocation and other cardiovascular-respiratory problems in the first minutes of use. If masks are to be distributed as a protection against chemical warfare, a simpler model including the use of shrouds for whole-body skin protection might help avoid cardiorespiratory complications. Public health problems not adequately dealt with in the predisaster period are apt to emerge with greater severity during a crisis.

  10. Perang Enam Hari Arab Israel 1967 Menerusi Perspektif Teori Realisme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Realism approach has dominated the studies of world politics and international relations since the last of the World War II and until the start of the Cold War era. The focus of this study is to look into the factors that ignited the war other than identifying the policies or actions taken by the countries involved in the war. The question that arises lies in the extent to which the approach is able to explain the factors and actions taken by the leaders, to the point that it led to the 1967 war, and how this war can serve as guidance for our understanding of the Realism Theory. The objective of this study is to unravel the chains of events that had become the background of the 1967 Arab-Israeli War by concentrating on the root causes of the war and the policies of the countries involved, other than offering justification for the Realism Theory by looking closely into the characteristics, assumptions, and concepts under this approach. The methodology of this work employs document analysis and historical studies to obtain complete data. The analysis was carried out by applying the Arab-Israeli war events to the Realism Theory to prove that there is an association between the causes of the war and the theory through the analysis unit, key assumptions and substantial concepts contained in the Realism approach. The unit of analysis, which places the countries as the main actor in the international system, can be seen through the main role of Egypt, Jordan, Syria and Israel throughout the period of war. Concepts such as power, power balance, national interests, national sovereignty and self-help are also associated with the causes behind this war through a series of facts that have manifested themselves in the event

  11. A community based study of failure to thrive in Israel. (United States)

    Wilensky, D S; Ginsberg, G; Altman, M; Tulchinsky, T H; Ben Yishay, F; Auerbach, J


    OBJECTIVE: To examine the characteristics of infants suffering from failure to thrive in a community based cohort in Israel and to ascertain the effect of failure to thrive on their cognitive development. METHODS: By review of records maintained at maternal and child health clinics in Jerusalem and the two of Beit Shemesh, epidemiological data were obtained at age 15 months on a cohort of all babies born in 1991. For each case of failure to thrive, a matched control was selected from the same maternal and child health clinic. At age 20 months, cognitive development was measured, and at 25 months a home visit was carried out to assess maternal psychiatric status by questionnaire, and the HOME assessment was performed to assess the home environment. RESULTS: 3.9% of infants were found to have fallen below the third centile in weight for at least three months during the first year of life. Infants with failure to thrive did not differ from the general population in terms of obstetric or neonatal complications, birth order, or parents' ethnic origin, age, or years of education. The infants with failure to thrive did have lower birthweights and marginally smaller head circumferences at birth. Developmental assessment at 20 months of age showed a DQ of 99.7 v 107.2 in the matched controls, with 11.5% having a DQ below 80, as opposed to only 4.6% of the controls. No differences were found in maternal psychiatric problems as measured by a self report questionnaire. There were, however, significant differences in subscales of the HOME scale. CONCLUSIONS: (1) Infants who suffered from failure to thrive had some physiological predispositions that put them at risk; (2) failure to thrive may be an early marker of families providing suboptimal developmental stimulation. PMID:8869197

  12. Biostratigraphy and assemblage evolution in Planktic Foraminifera across the Cretaceous-Paleogene transition in low latitude, northern and southern Tethys realm: El Kef GSSP, Elles (Tunisia) and Agost, Caravaca (Betic Cordillera, Spain) (United States)

    Gallala, N.; Zaghbib-Turki, D.; Turki, M. M.; Arenillas, I.; Arz, J. A.; Molina, E.


    The detailed planktic foraminiferal biostratigraphic and quantitative study from the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) transition interval of the most expanded and continuous sections located in Spanish (Agost, Caravaca) and Tunisian sections (El Kef and Ellès), allows us to establish the zonation and subzonation of this interval and to distinguish four Acme-stages across the K/Pg transition interval of these low latitude sections. The uppermost Maastrichtian in Tunisian and Spanish sections, is characterized by standard planktic foraminiferal zones: Abathomphalus mayaroensis subdivided into Plummerita hantkeninoides Subzones. This index species is absent at middle and high-latitude twice in Atlantic and Antarctic oceans. Consequently, this species is considered to be restricted to the tropical and subtropical deep seawater. The lower Danian is characterized by Guembelitria cretacea, Parvularugoglobigerina eugubina, and Parasubbotina pseudobulloides biozones. The Guembelitria cretacea Zone was subdivided into the Hedbergella holmdelensis and Parvularugoglobigerina longiapertura Subzones; the Parvularugoglobigerina eugubina Zone into the Parvularugoglobigerina sabina and Eoglobigerina simplicissima Subzones; and the Parasubbotina pseudobulloides Zone into the Eoglobigerina trivialis and Subbotina triloculinoides Subzones. These zones and subzones are less expanded at the Caravaca and Agost sections than in Tunisian sections: El Kef (Global Stratotype Section and Point for the K/Pg) and Ellès, but it is sufficiently expanded to analyze correctly the planktic foraminiferal assemblage evolution across the K-Pg transition. Across this transition, at the Tethys area, we have identified four Acme-stages: Acme-stage 0: is typical of the upper Maastrichtian interval is dominated by cosmopolitan species dwelling surface and intermediate seawater. Acme-stage 1: is typical of the G. cretacea Zone and is dominated by Guembelitria species belonging to "Cretaceous survivors" species

  13. Teachers' Perceptions of School Principals' Leadership Styles and Parental Involvement--The Case of the Arab Education System in Israel (United States)

    Arar, Khalid; Abramovitz, Ruth; Daod, Saeda; Awad, Yasir; Khalil, Mahmood


    This study deals with teachers' perceptions of principals' leadership style as it affects parental involvement (PI) in the special context of the Arab education system in Israel. Contemporary perceptions of education within the Western individualist society, including in the majority society in Israel, regard the full spectrum of PI, ranging from…

  14. Attitudes towards Bilingual Arab-Hebrew Education in Israel: A Comparative Study of Jewish and Arab Adults (United States)

    Azaiza, Faisal; Hertz-Lazarowitz, Rachel; Shoham, Meyrav; Amara, Muhammad; Mor-Sommerfeld, Aura; 'Ali, Nohad


    This study examines attitudes towards bilingual Jewish-Arab education among Jewish and Arab adults in Israel. The sample consisted of 1014 respondents who participated in a national phone survey in late 2006. Results indicate that Arabs are significantly more supportive of bilingual education in Israel than Jews. Positive attitudes regarding the…

  15. Proceedings of the 21 conference of the nuclear societies in Israel. Final program and book of summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    On the occasion of the 50 anniversary of the Israel Atomic Energy Commission, there was held the 21 conference of the Nuclear Societies in Israel. The presentations addressed various aspects in the fields of nuclear industry, radiation protection and nuclear medicine

  16. Sources, composition and spatial distribution of marine debris along the Mediterranean coast of Israel. (United States)

    Pasternak, Galia; Zviely, Dov; Ribic, Christine A; Ariel, Asaf; Spanier, Ehud


    Marine debris (litter) is a complex problem that affects human activities and the marine environment worldwide. The Clean Coast Program in Israel has had some success in keeping most of the coasts clean most of the time, but without understanding the mechanisms of accumulation of marine debris on the coasts of Israel. In 2012, we initiated a study to characterize the types of marine debris, its origins and spatial distribution. Nineteen surveys were done from June 2012 to March 2015 on eight beaches that spanned the coast of Israel. Average debris density was 12.1 items per 100m 2 and 90% of the items were plastic. The top debris categories were food wrappers and disposables, plastic bags and cigarette butts. However, there was variation in the top debris categories among the beaches indicating that a flexible approach with multiple options will be important when addressing the marine debris problem. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Nutritional deficiencies in the pediatric age group in a multicultural developed country, Israel. (United States)

    Haimi, Motti; Lerner, Aaron


    Nutrient deficiencies are prevalent worldwide. Diseases and morbid conditions have been described to result from nutritional deficiencies. It is essential to address nutrient deficiencies as these may lead to chronic long-term health problems such as rickets, iron deficiency anemia, goiter, obesity, coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, stroke, cancer and osteoporosis. In the present review we surveyed the extent and severity of nutritional deficiencies in Israel through a selective and comprehensive Medline review of previous reports and studies performed during the last 40 years. Israeli populations have multiple nutritional deficiencies, including iron, calcium, zinc, folic acid, and vitamins B12, C, D and E, spanning all age groups, several minorities, and specific regions. In Israel, some of the nutrients are mandatorily implemented and many of them are implemented voluntarily by local industries. We suggest ways to prevent and treat the nutritional deficiencies, as a step to promote food fortification in Israel.

  18. Israel and Iran's Nuclear Program: Groundless Obsession or Genuine Concern?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menashri, David


    The combination of radical ideology, as espoused by Iran's leadership, and weapons of mass destruction (WMD) is the root cause of Israeli concerns. Iran's attitude towards Israel seems to be rooted in a deep sense of religious mission, identification with the Palestinian problem, opposition to Israel and to its policies. For Islamic Iran, Judaism is a religion, not a nationality, and therefore Jews do not have the right to a state, certainly not in the Middle East. Moreover Iran supports Islamic groups as Hezbollah and Hamas. In this context Israel should view the Iranian nuclear program as the problem of the world, but the international community is not doing what it is supposed to do to solve the problem

  19. On the verge of shared decision making in Israel: Overview and future directions. (United States)

    Karnieli-Miller, Orit; Miron-Shatz, Talya; Siegal, Gil; Zisman-Ilani, Yaara


    Israel has a universal-national healthcare system and a progressive health policy legislation which, together, provide its residents with high-level healthcare services and either free or highly subsidized coverage without any pre-existing conditions. However, it is surprising that shared decision making (SDM) practices and policy are not an integral part of Israel's healthcare system. The purpose of this overview is to describe the gap between the organizational-infrastructure compatibility of Israel's universal healthcare policy and the efforts needed to advance SDM as part of routine healthcare practice. Review of recent research and education initiatives will be described as well as recommendations for policy and clinical practice. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  20. How to effectively compensate a victim of terrorism: Comparison of Serbian and Israel solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrvić-Petrović Nataša


    Full Text Available Two models of victim compensation: through civil litigation and through administrative public funds are explored in this article in order to compare their effectiveness. Two legislations are compared: Serbian and Israel. A special legal basis for compensation from the State is foreseen in Serbian legislation. A natural person may claim compensation for the complete damage caused, in case of death, bodily injury or destruction of property. However, such claims are rarely charged. In Israel, limited amounts are paid from the public funds to victims of hostile actions in case of death, bodily injury or property damage. Israel also compensates companies for material damages on the property that is located in areas with a high risk from terrorism. This solution is considered to be more efficient, because it protects victims’ interests more effectively.

  1. Conflict and Care: Israeli Healthcare Providers and Syrian Patients and Caregivers in Israel. (United States)

    Young, Savannah S; Lewis, Denise C; Gilbey, Peter; Eisenman, Arie; Schuster, Richard; Seponski, Desiree M


    Israel has provided immediate healthcare to Syrian children, civilians and fighters since early 2013 despite being in an official state of war with Syria since 1973. We present qualitative findings from a larger mixed-methods phenomenological study to understand how the geopolitical and social history of Israel and Syria influences healthcare providers and Syrian patient caregivers in northern Israel. Theories of humanization and cognitive dissonance guided this study and frame the beliefs and experiences of healthcare providers who treated wounded Syrians in Israeli hospitals. Findings indicate healthcare providers and Syrian caregivers adjusted their beliefs to allow for positive healthcare experiences. Qualitative analysis revealed two major themes: supportive and hindering systemic elements contributing to the healthcare provider-patient-caregiver relationship. Internal psychological developments, contextual factors, and relational processes influenced humanization of the other within the relationship. This study illuminates unique ethical and humanitarian demands relevant for healthcare workers and those with whom they interact.

  2. "That was the beginning": The professionalization and Americanization of dentistry in pre-state Israel. (United States)

    Katvan, Eyal


    The history of dental practice in Israel dates back to 1953, with the establishment of the Faculty of Dentistry at the Hebrew University. This article will discuss the early roots of American involvement in Israeli dentistry: beginning with the late Ottoman period in Palestine, through the British Mandate, the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948, and the institution of the Faculty of Dentistry at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. It will introduce the central characters who promoted the professionalization process of dentistry in Israel--a process made possible by the 'Americanization' of the field: importing American knowledge and practice. Moreover, this article will demonstrate that although the majority of dentists and dental practitioners arrived in Palestine from Russia and from Germany, the main professional influence was American.


    Siegal, Gil; Glick, Shimon; Offer-Stark, Irit; Steinberg, Avraham


    Force feeding of fasting hunger-striking prisoners is the subject of considerable controversy in Israel and elsewhere, posing a direct conflict between two basic ethical values: that of human life and respect for autonomy. The Israel Medical Association, as well as the World Medical Association, has taken the position that force feeding of such prisoners is an act of torture and is therefore unethical. However this paper presents an opposing view, which recently became the law in Israel, that, whereas the rights of prisoners to decree a hunger strike as a form of protest should be respected, if the prolongation of the strike reaches a stage of clear and present danger to the life and health of a prisoner, the saving of the prisoner's life must take precedence over considerations of autonomy. The paper present the steps that should be taken, including extensive and empathic efforts to persuade the prisoner to end his/her fast; gaining the approval of a hospital's ethics committee; and gaining the approval of a district court judge; the feeding is to be carried out in the most humane and sensitive manner as befitting a lifesaving procedure for any patient. This position is consistent with Israel's Basic Law: Human Dignity and Liberty, Israel's Patient Rights Law, Israel's "Do not stand idly by your fellow man's blood" Law, with several Israeli court decisions and in keeping with the dominant Israeli culture. Finally, instructions for physicians who object to such measures are discussed, ascertaining the freedom of conscience as well as preserving the life of the hunger-strikers.

  4. Interpreting EU–Israel relations: a contextual analysis of the EU’s Special Privileged Partnership proposal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Bruno Oliveira


    This article analyses the background, content and implications of the EU proposal for ‘Special Privileged Partnership’ status to be granted to Israel and the future state of Palestine in the event of a successful conclusion to the peace process. It employs a sociological institutionalist perspect......This article analyses the background, content and implications of the EU proposal for ‘Special Privileged Partnership’ status to be granted to Israel and the future state of Palestine in the event of a successful conclusion to the peace process. It employs a sociological institutionalist...... perspective to assess the diplomatic manoeuvring in the broader context of EU–Israel relations. The analysis offers an identification and categorization of the constitutive components of the EU–Israel relationship into formal and social elements. It argues that differences in threat perception, Israel...

  5. Managing U.S. Military Technology and Arms Release Policy to Israel (United States)


    New York Times, 12 October 1993, gst /fullpage.html?res=9F0CE5DB163BF931A25753C1A965958260 and Jeremy M. Sharp, U.S...Trade Key Players 24 2 AU/ACSC/HAHN/AY09 Notes 1 Ravinder Pal Singh, Arms Procurement Decision Making Volume I: China, India , Israel, Japan, South...China, India , Israel, Japan, South Korea and Thailand (Oxford University Press, 1998), 95, 4

  6. Genetic Analysis of Israel Acute Paralysis Virus: Distinct Clusters Are Circulating in the United States▿ (United States)

    Palacios, G.; Hui, J.; Quan, P. L.; Kalkstein, A.; Honkavuori, K. S.; Bussetti, A. V.; Conlan, S.; Evans, J.; Chen, Y. P.; vanEngelsdorp, D.; Efrat, H.; Pettis, J.; Cox-Foster, D.; Holmes, E. C.; Briese, T.; Lipkin, W. I.


    Israel acute paralysis virus (IAPV) is associated with colony collapse disorder of honey bees. Nonetheless, its role in the pathogenesis of the disorder and its geographic distribution are unclear. Here, we report phylogenetic analysis of IAPV obtained from bees in the United States, Canada, Australia, and Israel and the establishment of diagnostic real-time PCR assays for IAPV detection. Our data indicate the existence of at least three distinct IAPV lineages, two of them circulating in the United States. Analysis of representatives from each proposed lineage suggested the possibility of recombination events and revealed differences in coding sequences that may have implications for virulence. PMID:18434396

  7. A propósito da história de Israel de M. A. Beek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Cesar Mota


    Full Text Available (primeiro parágrafo do texto O Professor M. A. Beek, da Universidade de Amsterdã, publicou em 1957 um pequeno, mais excelente livro, sobre a história do Israel bíblico, com o título Geschiedenis van Israel. Seis anos depois, em tradução de Arnold J. Pomerans, a obra surge em língua inglesa, da qual o Sr. Jorge E. M. Fortes a verteu para o vernáculo para a Editora Zahar que a trouxe a lume em 1967.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In recent years detailed sedimentological and biostratigraphical investigations have revealed Anisian terrestrial sediments in three sections of the Bükk Mountains. In the northern part of the mountains fluviatile sediments were recognised while in the southern part lake deposits were observed. Based on the stratigraphical position and microfacies analyses of the resedimented grains, two terrestrial events can be reconstructed. The age of the younger is late Pelsonian-early Illyrian?. This can be correlated with the Richthofen Conglomerate in the Dolomites. The age of the older terrestrial event could not be established exactly but it must have happened either in the Pelsonian or in the Aegean-Bithynian; consequently it may correlate either with the Voltago or with the Piz de Peres Conglomerate in the Dolomites. The terrestrial sediments in the Bükk Mountains are parts of a volcano-sedimentary succession, which is characteristic of the updoming part of a rifting area. Terrestrial sediments in the southern part of the mountains represent the deepest part of the half-grabens, which originated during the course of the rifting. The present paper gives an overview of the Anisian-Lower Ladinian terrestrial sediments in the Southern Alps-Dinarides and considers their formation during the Triassic rifting of the Vardar-Meliata branch of the Neo-Tethys

  9. Israel Marine Bio-geographic Database (ISRAMAR-BIO) (United States)

    Greengrass, Eyal; Krivenko, Yevgeniya; Ozer, Tal; Ben Yosef, Dafna; Tom, Moshe; Gertman, Isaac


    The knowledge of the space/time variations of species is the basis for any ecological investigations. While historical observations containing integral concentrations of biological parameters (chlorophyll, abundance, biomass…) are organized partly in ISRAMAR Cast Database, the taxon-specific data collected in Israel has not been sufficiently organized. This has been hindered by the lack of standards, variability of methods and complexity of biological data formalization. The ISRAMAR-BIO DB was developed to store various types of historical and future available information related to marine species observations and related metadata. Currently the DB allows to store biological data acquired by the following sampling devices such as: van veer grab, box corer, sampling bottles, nets (plankton, trawls and fish), quadrates, and cameras. The DB's logical unit is information regarding a specimen (taxa name, barcode, image), related attributes (abundance, size, age, contaminants…), habitat description, sampling device and method, time and space of sampling, responsible organization and scientist, source of information (cruise, project and publication). The following standardization of specimen and attributes naming were implemented: Taxonomy according to World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS: Habitat description according to Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standards (CMECS: Parameter name; Unit; Device name; Developmental stage; Institution name; Country name; Marine region according to SeaDataNet Vocabularies ( This system supports two types of data submission procedures, which support the above stated data structure. The first is a downloadable excel file with drop-down fields based on the ISRAMAR-BIO vocabularies. The file is filled and uploaded online by the data contributor. Alternatively, the same dataset can be assembled by

  10. Intergenerational Transmission of Parenting Style among Jewish and Arab Mothers in Israel (United States)

    Pasternak, Rachel


    Parental modeling of behavior has long been considered a major socialization process for children. In this piece, the author explores how parenting behavior is passed from one generation to the next, focusing on parenting styles among Jewish and Muslim mothers in Israel. The results indicate that young mothers tend to reproduce their parents'…

  11. School Climate and the Experience of LGBT Students: A Comparison of the United States and Israel (United States)

    Pizmony-Levy, Oren; Kosciw, Joseph G.


    This article examines the school experience of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) students in the United States and Israel. Through comparison of the sociocultural and edu-cational contexts, the authors assess whether school experience of LGBT students differs or operates similarly across countries. The authors use data from the…

  12. Emotional Expression at Different Managerial Career Stages: Female Principals in Arab Schools in Israel (United States)

    Arar, Khalid


    This paper examines emotional expression experienced by female principals in the Arab school system in Israel over their managerial careers--role-related emotions that they choose to express or repress before others. I employed narrative methodology, interviewing nine female principals from the Arab school system to investigate expression of…

  13. Caring Mentoring for Academic Literacy: A Case Study of a Teacher Education College in Israel (United States)

    Wolffensperger, Yochie


    This article describes aspects of research relating to the influences of mentoring on the teaching and learning of academic literacy conducted at the College Centre for Academic Literacy (WAL) at a teacher education college in Israel. This multiple case study, based on the principles of grounded theory, describes five cases. Data were collected…

  14. School Violence in Bedouin Schools in Israel: A Re-Examination (United States)

    Elbedour, Salman; ElBassiouny, Amanda; Bart, William M.; Elbedour, Hammad


    Students in Bedouin schools in Israel completed a survey in which they indicated how frequent abusive teacher behaviors occurred in their classrooms; responses indicated that abusive teacher behaviors occur often. Female students tended to register higher levels of punitive teacher behaviors than male students and secondary school students tended…

  15. Self-medication with antibiotics by a population in northern Israel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raz, R; Edelstein, H; Grigoryan, L; Haaijer-Ruskamp, FM


    Background: The current study is part of a larger study - Self-Medication with Antibiotics and Resistance Levels in Europe (SAR project) - coordinated by the University of Groningen in the Netherlands and run in 19 European countries and Israel. Objectives: To estimate self-medication with

  16. First report of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne marylandi on Turfgrasses in Israel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oka, Y.; Karssen, G.; Mor, M.


    In a turfgrass nursery in Arava, Israel, a population of root-knot nematodes was isolated from poorly growing Zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica Steud.) with symptoms of foliar chlorosis and roots with very small, smooth galls and protruding egg masses. The isolated population (genus Meloidogyne) included

  17. A palynological study of the Acheulian site of Gesher Benot Ya'aqov, Israel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zeist, Willem; Bottema, Sytze

    The results are discussed of the palynological (pollen-analytical) examination of a sediment section in the Hula Valley of northern Israel, with evidence of Acheulian occupation dated to 700,000-800,000 B.P. In general there is a fair agreement between the palynological data and the wood remains

  18. O Lobby de Israel e o primeiro ano da administração Obama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza Rodrigues Mateo


    Full Text Available No contexto dos argumentos desenvolvidos por Stephen Walt e John Mearsheimer sobre o Lobby de Israel, analisamos discursos, reuniões de governo e, principalmente, as reações dos pensadores neo-realistas quanto às pressões pró-israelenses na gestão Obama.

  19. Genetic analysis of Israel Acute Paralysis Virus: distinct clusters are circulating into the United States. (United States)

    Israel acute paralysis virus (IAPV) is associated with colony collapse disorder of honey bees. Nonetheless, its role in the pathogenesis of the disorder and its geographic distribution are unclear. Here, we report phylogenetic analysis of IAPV obtained from bees in the United States, Canada, Austral...

  20. Marketing Informal Education Institutions in Israel: The Centrality of Customers' Active Involvement in Service Development (United States)

    Oplatka, Izhar


    The current paper outlines a unique marketing perspective that prevails in some informal education institutions in Israel parallel with "traditional modes of marketing", such as promotion, public relations and the like. Based on a case study research in five community centres, a service development based on active participation of the…

  1. Pattern Recognition and Classification of Fatal Traffic Accidents in Israel A Neural Network Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Gitelman, Victoria; Bekhor, Shlomo


    This article provides a broad picture of fatal traffic accidents in Israel to answer an increasing need of addressing compelling problems, designing preventive measures, and targeting specific population groups with the objective of reducing the number of traffic fatalities. The analysis focuses ...

  2. Classroom Management and Teachers' Coping Strategies: Inside Classrooms in Australia, China and Israel (United States)

    Romi, Shlomo; Lewis, Ramon; Roache, Joel


    This paper discusses the degree to which recently reported relationships between the classroom management techniques and coping styles of Australian teachers apply in two other national settings: China and Israel. Little is known about which teacher characteristics relate to their approach to classroom management, although researchers in Australia…

  3. Posterior uveal malignant melanoma: temporal stability and ethnic variation in rates in Israel. (United States)

    Iscovich, J; Abdulrazik, M; Pe'Er, J


    In a population-based study of posterior uveal malignant melanoma (755 incidence cases), the authors found a stabilized incidence in Israel from 1961-1996. Overall, Jewish immigrants to Israel had a relative rate (RR) of 2.2 [95% confidence interval [1.5-2.6] as compared to the reference population (Israeli-born Jews with Israel-born parents, i.e. third generation). Whereas individuals born in Eastern Europe or the Americas experienced the highest age adjusted incidence rates per million [for example; from 1972-1996, 8.3 for those from Poland, 8.2 from Romania, 6.4 from the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, 7.6 from the Americas], the lowest incidence rates were observed among immigrants from Algeria-Morocco-Tunisia (rate of 2.8), Iraq (1.7), Iran (3.2). Jews born in Israel exhibited incidence patterns similar to those individuals from the place of their parent's birth; high rates were observed among individuals born of American- or European-born parents (rate of 7.2), and low rates among offspring of parents who migrated from Africa or Asia (2.6). A low incidence was found among Israeli-born Arabs (2.6 in men, and 2.0 in women). The stable differences in incidence rates, according to populations of Jews, and the persistence of these variations within the descendants of these populations suggest that underlying susceptibility states are related to an individual's origin.

  4. When Shortage Coexists with Surplus of Teachers: The Case of Arab Teachers in Israel (United States)

    Agbaria, Ayman K.; Pinson, Halleli


    This article explores the nexus between pre-service teacher education polices and the supply and demand of minority teachers. It problematizes the recent reports on teacher shortages in Israel, which tend to focus on the shortage of Jewish teachers while dealing with the surplus of Arab teachers only tangentially. Specifically, this article…

  5. School Principals' Perceptions of Teacher Evaluation in the Arab Education System in Israel (United States)

    Abu-Hussain, Jamal; Essawi, Mohammad


    The objective of this research is to examine how principals of Arab schools view the evaluation of teachers and to determine whether and to what extent their perceptions of teacher evaluation differ. The Arab educational system in Israel is an integral part of the general educational system. For the most part it is run by Jewish administrators.…

  6. Leading a Quiet Revolution: Women High School Principals in Traditional Arab Society in Israel (United States)

    Arar, Khalid; Shapira, Tamar


    This article investigates why very few Arab women persevere to become principals in Arab high schools in Israel. It identifies these trailblazers' distinguishing characteristics through the narratives of two Arab women, high school principals, tracing their transition from teaching to management, describing the intertwining of their personal and…

  7. Patterns of Intellectual Ability in Jewish and Arab Children in Israel: II. Urban Matched Samples (United States)

    Lieblich, Amia; And Others


    Arab and Jewish children living in a city in northern Israel were matched as closely as possible for school grade, age and SES, and tested on the Wechsler Preschool Primary Scale of Intelligence. Results indicated little if any difference between Jewish and Arab children in level or pattern of the intellectual abilities as elicited by the WPPSI…

  8. 27. Conference of the Nuclear Societies in Israel. Program and Papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The file contains the presentations of the 27 annual conference of the nuclear societies in Israel. The subjects of the conference are: aspects of nuclear energy and nuclear technology, applications of radioisotopes and radiation, radiation measurements, issues in radiation protection and radiation in medicine, the consequences of the Fukushima accident. During the conference awards will be given for outstanding student works

  9. Immigration and the Interplay among Citizenship, Identity and Career: The Case of Ethiopian Immigration to Israel (United States)

    Flum, Hanoch; Cinamon, Rachel Gali


    Migration is a common phenomenon of the globalization era. In this article we explore the interplay of three foundational concepts in the migration experiences of Ethiopian Jewish immigrants in Israel: citizenship, identity and career. Through our analysis we examine the multiple layers of being an immigrant citizen. Following immigration, as…

  10. A Comparative Study of Work Centrality, Job Rewards and Satisfaction: Occupational Groups in Israel (United States)

    Mannheim, Bilha


    The study develops and measures a concept of Work-Role Centrality, mainly from a cognitive perspective, and examines by means of questionnaire data its distribution in a representative sample of 778 males participating in the labor force in Israel. (Author)

  11. Call for proposals for the Joint Canada-Israel Health Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    23 nov. 2017 ... Call for proposals for the Joint Canada-Israel Health Research Program 2018 competition ... developmental neurobiology; neuro-immunology; neuroendocrinology; regenerative medicine in brain disease; cellular and molecular basis of cognition; modeling brain function; imaging of neural processes ...

  12. Water pollution control legislation in Israel: understanding implementation processes from an actor-centered approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hophmayer Tokich, Sharon


    In the State of Israel, advanced legislation for the management of scarce water resources, including legislation to prevent water pollution, were put in place in the early stages of the State’s formation. Despite that, on-going uncontrolled pollution has deteriorated the quality of water sources for

  13. Bi-Lingual Newspaper as an Expression of a Fake Multicultural Educational Policy in Israel (United States)

    Baratz, Lea; Reingold, Roni; Abuhatzira, Hannah


    The current paper analyzes a unique educational text that may be used to follow the educational policy of the State of Israel towards the community of Jewish immigrants from Ethiopia. The text which was analyzed was a bi-lingual newspaper called "Nugget News" which is published under the sponsorship of the Israeli Ministry of Education,…

  14. Environmental vulnerability in public perceptions and attitudes : The case of Israel's urban centers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drori, Israel

    Objective. This article investigates how urban environmental vulnerability to hazards reflects in the perceptions and attitudes of the public in three major cities in Israel: Jerusalem, Tel Aviv, and Haifa. Our central argument is that the differences between the residents' perceptions and attitudes

  15. "Whose Responsibility Is It?": The Third Sector and the Educational System in Israel (United States)

    Eden, Devorah


    This study aims to explore the relationships between the third sector and the educational system in Israel in light of their current increasing involvement with one another. This was investigated along four stages of the policy process ranging from initial agenda-setting to final implementation. The stage of policy these relationships reached was…

  16. Body mass index and overweight in adolescents in 13 European countries, Israel, and the United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lissau, Inge; Overpeck, Mary D; Ruan, W June


    in 1997-1998 by means of identical data collection methods. SETTING: Austria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Flemish Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Lithuania, Ireland, Israel, Portugal, Slovakia, Sweden, and the United States. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 29 242 boys and girls, aged 13 and 15 years...... were found in the United States, Ireland, Greece, and Portugal....

  17. Trends in Children's Disclosure of Abuse in Israel: A National Study (United States)

    Hershkowitz, Irit; Horowitz, Dvora; Lamb, Michael E.


    Objective: To identify characteristics of suspected child abuse victims that are associated with disclosure and nondisclosure during formal investigations. Methodology: The database included all suspected cases of physical and sexual abuse investigated in the state of Israel between 1998 and 2002. All investigative interviews were conducted using…

  18. Guest-Host Encounters in Diaspora-Heritage Tourism: The Taglit-Birthright Israel Mifgash (Encounter) (United States)

    Sasson, Theodore; Mittelberg, David; Hecht, Shahar; Saxe, Leonard


    More than 300,000 diaspora Jewish young adults and tens of thousands of their Israeli peers have participated in structured, cross-cultural encounters--"mifgashim"--in the context of an experiential education program known as Taglit-Birthright Israel. Drawing on field observations, interviews, and surveys, the formal and informal…

  19. Global Argonauts: Returnees and Diaspora as Sources of Innovation in China and Israel (United States)

    Welch, Anthony; Hao, Jie


    The paper focuses on returnees and knowledge diaspora as important sources for human resources development, identifying push and pull factors that also contribute significantly to innovation. For both China and Israel, their high-skilled diaspora are a major policy priority: each has a substantial, high-skilled diaspora and policies and programmes…

  20. Mr Nissim Dahan, MK, Minister of Health, Israel, at the ATLAS exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud


    Photo 01: L. to r.:Dr Jim Allaby, Dr Peter Jenni, Prof. Bracha Regev, Chief Scientist, Ministry of Health, Mr Nissim Dahan, MK, Minister of Health, Dr Boaz Lev, Director General, Ministry of Health, Dr Hans F. Hoffmann and Dr Georges Mikenberg. Photo 02: Mr Nissim Dahan, MK, Minister of Health, Israel, signing the Guest Book.

  1. Technical and Vocational Education and Training and the Labour Market in Israel (United States)

    Eisenberg, Eli


    The aim of this report is to contribute to a better understanding of the current status of technical and vocational education and training (TVET) for human resources development (HRD) and the labour market in Israel. It describes the role and involvement of the various sectors in HRD and identifies the barriers, challenges, priorities, initiatives…

  2. Mass Communications in Israel: A Bibliography of Articles, Pamphlets, and Books Written in English. (United States)

    Gotliffe, Harvey

    This bibliography on mass communications in Israel contains articles, pamphlets, and books written in English covering the areas of advertising, Arab mass communications, broadcast authority, censorship, culture and communication, film, press and propaganda, publishing writers, radio, commercial and educational television, and the theatre arts.…

  3. Historical Perspectives on Diaspora Homeland Tourism: "Israel Experience" Education in the 1950s and 1960s (United States)

    Kelner, Shaul


    Homeland tourism is a powerful medium of diasporic education. Yet, efforts to understand the enterprise are hampered by neglect of the field's history. This article contributes to the historiography of diaspora homeland tourism by examining the emergence of American Jewish educational tours of Israel in the 1950s and 1960s. Archival research and…

  4. Clinical Characteristics of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Israel: Impact of Ethnic and Social Diversities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Mahajnah


    Full Text Available Despite the increased global prevalence and recognition of autistic spectrum disorder (ASD, it is still scarcely reported in the Arab world. Though Israel has a higher prevalence of ASD, a previous national survey of patients diagnosed between 1972 and 2004, demonstrated that 98% of them were of Jewish ancestry. The disproportional low number of Arab children with ASD in Israel is unclear but may reflect lower awareness and cultural bias. In the present study we collected clinical and demographic characteristics of 200 children with ASD from Arab and Jewish sectors in Israel that were evaluated in two child development centers. We compared the incidence and the medical comorbidity of autism between these two ethnics groups. The medical and psychiatric comorbidity profile in these children was similar to the worldwide published studies. In the present study the prevalence of autism in the Arab sector in Israel was similar to that of the Jewish sector. The Arab patients presented with more severe autistic manifestations and higher incidence of mental retardation, familial members with autism, and consanguinity (P<0.05, while in the Jewish sector milder forms (such as Asperger syndrome and PDD-NOS were more frequent. This discrepancy might be explained by both genetic and cultural factors.

  5. Explaining the Frequency of Alcohol Consumption in a Conflict Zone: Jews and Palestinians in Israel (United States)

    Massey, Zohar; Chartier, Karen G.; Stebbins, Mary B.; Canetti, Daphna; Hobfoll, Stevan E.; Hall, Brian J.; Shuval, Kerem


    Experiencing stress and exposure to terrorism may have an adverse effect on health risk behaviors. Few studies have examined alcohol use among adults living in Israel under chronic, stressful terrorism-related conditions. In this study, we examined the relationships of demographics, past stressful events, and terrorism exposure to the frequency of alcohol use and the mediating roles of depressive and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. We used three waves of data from a 2007–2008 nationally representative sample of Jewish and Palestinian adults in Israel. We assessed the number of past stressful events, in addition to direct and indirect exposure to terrorism. Results indicated that past stressful events and exposure to terrorism were not directly associated with alcohol use, but were indirectly associated and mediated by depressive and PTSD symptomology. Mental health symptoms were differentially associated with alcohol use. More frequent drinking was mediated by higher levels of depression, including for women and Palestinians; however, PTSD symptom severity was related to less frequent drinking. Mental health may play a prominent role in the frequency of alcohol use among adults exposed to terrorism in Israel. Alcohol use, as a coping mechanism, may differ by demographic characteristics (gender and ethnicity) and psychological symptomology for adults living in a conflict zone in Israel. PMID:25777746

  6. An annotated checklist of Dolichopodidae (Diptera of Israel and adjacent territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Ya. Grichanov


    Full Text Available The first checklist of the Dolichopodidae of Israel and adjacent territories (Golan Heights and West Bank is presented. A total of 108 species belonging to 34 genera are listed alphabetically. The references, type locality and general distribution are provided for each species.

  7. Sacralized Citizenship: Women Making Known Selves in an Islamic Teachers' College in Israel (United States)

    Erdreich, Lauren


    Based on ethnographic fieldwork in an Islamic teachers' college in Israel and interviews with women lecturers, this article explores how the women combine education and religion to create a revitalized self and sense of belonging despite lived experiences of structural racial, national, and gender inequalities. The women's experience is understood…

  8. Increased Incidence of Campylobacter spp. Infection and High Rates among Children, Israel (United States)

    Lerner, Larisa; Valinsky, Lea; Moran-Gilad, Jacob; Nissan, Israel; Agmon, Vered; Peretz, Chava


    During 1999–2010, the annual incidence of Campylobacter spp. infection in Israel increased from 31.04 to 90.99 cases/100,000 population, a yearly increase of 10.24%. Children 26-fold higher than for the 30–<50 age group. PMID:24188185

  9. Oor die metodiek van ’n holistiese geskiedenis van Oud-Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. H. Scheffler


    Full Text Available On the methodology of a holistic history of ancient Israel In this article certain issues relating to the concept ‘holistic historiography’ are clarified. Thereafter follows a reflection on methodology that would be appropriate for holistic historiography, involving the critical use of biblical and extra-biblical sources, Syro-Palestinian archaeology, historical geography, sociology, psychology and secondary literature.

  10. Risk Groups in Exposure to Terror: The Case of Israel's Citizens (United States)

    Feniger, Yariv; Yuchtman-Yaar, Ephraim


    This research addresses a largely ignored question in the study of terror: who are its likely victims? An answer was sought through analysis of comprehensive data on civilian victims of terror in Israel from 1993 through 2003. The chances of being killed in seemingly random terror attacks were found unequally distributed in Israeli society, but…

  11. Personality Traits of Minority Arab Teachers in the Arab Educational System in Israel (United States)

    Abu Hussain, Jamal; Abu Hussain, Nadia


    The present research examined the personality traits prevalent among Arab teachers as a minority in the Arab educational system in Israel. Personality traits has much significance in the prediction of human behavior in various situations. Personality traits affect a person's behavior. Usually personality traits do not change, and they are…

  12. Inter-Municipal Cooperation For Wastewater Treatment: Case studies from Israel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hophmayer Tokich, Sharon; Kliot, Nurit


    Since the beginning of the 1990s, local authorities in Israel have been engaged in promoting advanced Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) projects throughout the country, resulting in the “wastewater treatment revolution” of the 1990s. These achievements are extremely important in the water-scarce

  13. The Evolution of National Wastewater Management Regimes : The Case of Israel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hophmayer Tokich, Sharon


    In the state of Israel wastewater management (WWM), the legal responsibility of municipalities, was neglected for decades, resulting in pollution of the scarce water resources and the environment. This trend was reversed during the 1990s. This paper analyses the evolution process of the national WWM

  14. Trends in the incidence and causes of severe visual impairment and blindness in children from Israel. (United States)

    Mezer, Eedy; Chetrit, Angela; Kalter-Leibovici, Ofra; Kinori, Michael; Ben-Zion, Itay; Wygnanski-Jaffe, Tamara


    To describe trends in the incidence and causes of legal childhood blindness in Israel, one of the few countries worldwide that maintain a national registry of the blind. We performed a historical cohort study of annual reports of the National Registry of the Blind (NRB) between 1999 and 2013. All data regarding demographic information, year of registration and cause of blindness of children 0-18 years of age registered for blind certification were obtained from the annual reports of the NRB. Causes of legal blindness analyzed were optic atrophy, retinitis pigmentosa, retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), albinism, other retinal disorders, cataract, and glaucoma. The main outcome measure was the incidence of new cases of certified legal blindness. The incidence of newly registered legally blind children in Israel almost halved from 7.7 per 100,000 in 1999 to 3.1 per 100,000 in 2013. The decline was mainly attributable to a decreased incidence of blindness resulting from retinitis pigmentosa and ROP. The incidence of registered cases due to cerebral visual impairment increased. During the past decade the incidence of severe childhood visual impairment and blindness declined in Israel. A continuous decline in consanguineous marriages among the Jewish and Arab populations in Israel may have contributed to the decrease in the rate of vision loss due to retinitis pigmentosa in children. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Schools and Votes: Primary Education Provision and Electoral Support for the Shas Party in Israel. (United States)

    Schiffman, Eitan

    This paper presents the foundation of an exploratory study about the effects of primary school education provision by the ultra-orthodox Shas party on electoral support for the party in Israel. Specifically, the research explores the question of whether and to what extent religious organizations that provide services for their clients are able to…

  16. The team Israel and Pakistan working for the Atlas collaboration together for a family picture.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice


    It's a small world; at least you might think so after a visit to Building 180. Inside, about 30 engineers and physicists weld, measure and hammer away. They hail from Pakistan, Israel, Japan, China, Russia and the United States and they work toward one common goal: the completion of the ATLAS muon chamber endcaps

  17. Integration and assimilation of Moroccan immigrants in Israel and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oudenhoven, J.P.; Eisses, Annemieke

    The purpose of this study,vas to examine the consequences of integration and assimilation of Jewish Moroccans in Israel and Islamic Moroccans in The Netherlands as well as the reactions of the majority group to these immigrants. On the basis of social identity theory and the similarity-attraction

  18. 78 FR 25692 - Notice of Decision To Authorize the Importation of Fresh Barhi Dates From Israel (United States)


    ... prevent plant pests from being introduced into and spread within the United States. Section 319.56-4 of... authorize the importation into the United States of fresh dates of the cultivar Barhi from Israel. Based on the findings of a pest risk analysis, which we made available to the public for review and comment...

  19. Steps towards 3D cadastre and ISO 19152 (LADM) in Israel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Felus, Y.; Barzani, S.; Caine, A.; Blumkine, N.; Van Oosterom, P.J.M.


    This paper contains the results of the 3D Cadastre and LADM (Land Administration Domain Model) investigations in context of possible future renewal of the Cadastral database at the Survey of Israel. The two topics of 3D Cadastres and LADM are highly related and therefore this paper covers both

  20. Work Alienation, Patterns of Substance Use and Country of Origin among Male Hospitality Workers in Israel (United States)

    Isralowitz, Richard; Reznik, Alexander; Belhassen, Yaniv


    This prospective study examined the relationship between work alienation, country of origin and substance use among male hospitality workers in Israel. Results show work alienation more prevalent among Former Soviet Union origin males and those workers who binge drink and use cannabis (i.e., marijuana and/or hashish). Given the paucity of…

  1. Research in English Language Teaching and Learning in Israel (2004-2009) (United States)

    Aronin, Larissa; Spolsky, Bernard


    The goal of this article is to make research on English language teaching and learning published locally in Israel more widely available. Given that so many Israeli researchers are internationally trained and maintain wide connections, it necessarily omits much important work that appears in European and US journals. It focuses on shorter studies,…

  2. The dynamics of limited breaking out : The case of the Arab manufacturing businesses in Israel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drori, Israel; Lerner, Miri


    This paper investigates the dynamics of breaking out in the Arab manufacturing business sector in Israel. Based on an ethnographic study and in-depth interviews, this paper develops a threetier model delineating those characteristics that shape the entrepreneurs' response to structural constraints

  3. Changing Familial Roles for Immigrant Adolescents from the Former Soviet Union to Israel (United States)

    Kosner, Anna; Roer-Strier, Dorit; Kurman, Jenny


    This article examines how young immigrants to Israel from the former Soviet Union during their adolescence perceive and cope with the resulting changes in their family roles. Data collected via interviews and focus groups from adolescents and young adults ("N" = 34) revealed six distinct roles: language broker, family navigator,…

  4. Hospital ethics committees in Israel: structure, function and heterogeneity in the setting of statutory ethics committees


    Wenger, N; Golan, O; Shalev, C; Glick, S


    Objectives: Hospital ethics committees increasingly affect medical care worldwide, yet there has been little evaluation of these bodies. Israel has the distinction of having ethics committees legally required by a Patients' Rights Act. We studied the development of ethics committees in this legal environment.

  5. Microgeographic Genome Size Differentiation of the Carob Tree, Ceratonia siliqua, at ‘Evolution Canyon’, Israel




    • Background and Aims We tested whether the local differences in genome size recorded earlier in the wild barley, Hordeum spontaneum, at ‘Evolution Canyon’, Mount Carmel, Israel, can also be found in other organisms. As a model species for our test we chose the evergreen carob tree, Ceratonia siliqua.

  6. Integrated management of early and late blights of potatoes in Israel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potatoes are grown in Israel in two growing seasons, autumn and spring. Two foliar diseases, early blight (Alternaria solani) and late blight (Phytophthora infestans) threaten the crop and if not managed properly, may induce substantial yield losses. Concepts for the integration of genotype resistance, age-related resistance ...

  7. Detergents and bleaches are sources of chromium contact dermatitis in Israel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingber, A; Gammelgaard, Bente; David, M


    Total chromium levels were determined in 38 detergents and 12 bleaches on the market in Israel (45 locally produced, 5 imported). The samples were analyzed by Zeeman-corrected graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Chromium levels were higher than 5 ppm in 28 (56%) of the 50 products...

  8. The Arab Community in Israel Coping with Intellectual and Developmental Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isack Kandel


    Full Text Available The Arab family in Israel is still embedded in the traditional society with extended family support systems, but we see a population in transition influenced by the surrounding society. This paper looks at the different religious attitudes toward the exceptional people in our society (i.e., the family reaction to a child born with intellectual or developmental disability, reviews recent studies on the Arab and Bedouin families in Israel, and presents data on the Arab population in residential care centers.Today, out of 57 residential care centers in Israel for persons with intellectual disability, 13 (22.8% are providing service to the non-Jewish population. The Arab population constitutes 12–13% of the total residential care population, lower than the 19–20% in the total population. In residential care, the Arab population is characterized by younger children with severe and profound intellectual disability. The informal family support system is still a very important factor in the Arab family in Israel, a fact that we believe should be strengthened by implementing the British and Danish model of nurse home visitation.

  9. Community Resilience and the Impact of Stress: Adult Response to Israel's Withdrawal from Lebanon (United States)

    Kimhi, Shaul; Shamai, Michal


    Against the background of the Israeli withdrawal from Lebanon, we investigated the relationship between perceived community resilience and the effect of stress and life satisfaction. The research sample included 741 adults, aged 18-85. The participants were divided into four groups, three of which live close to the Israel-Lebanon border and were…

  10. Political Graffiti on the West Bank Wall in Israel/Palestine (United States)

    Olberg, Steven T.


    Great strife has plagued the Middle East for decades. Israel and the Occupied Territories of the West Bank of Palestine' have been battling over the land they both claim as holy. Regional threats of war loom and increasingly violent rhetoric has been exchanged regarding the claims to holy sites, land, olives, water, and other natural resources in…

  11. The Effect of the Arab Boycott on Israel : The Automobile Market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fershtman, C.; Gandal, N.


    Recent progress towards a comprehensive peace in the Middle East has led to a relaxation of the enforcement of the Arab economic boycott of Israel.This in turn has led to the entry of all the major Japanese and Korean automobile manufacturers into the Israeli market.In this paper, we examine the

  12. Parental Perceptions of Children's Literacy and Bilingualism: The Case of Ethiopian Immigrants in Israel (United States)

    Stavans, Anat; Olshtain, Elite; Goldzweig, Gil


    The present study describes factors affecting the home and school literacy patterns in the Ethiopian immigrant community in Israel. Parents were asked to complete a questionnaire evaluating their child's development, literacy, schooling, and language proficiency (L1 and L2). The results indicate that while non-Ethiopian and Ethiopian parents seek…

  13. Labor Conflict on the National Stage: Metaphoric Lenses in Israel's Teachers' Strike (United States)

    Shenkar, Miriam; Shenkar, Oded


    Teachers often embed their labor demands within a broader context to claim high moral ground and build community support. We analyze a recent teachers' strike in Israel, looking at how the strike played out in a country where the challenges of globalization collided with a socialist legacy in the face of an existential threat. The analysis reveals…

  14. School Health Promotion Policies and Adolescent Risk Behaviors in Israel: A Multilevel Analysis (United States)

    Tesler, Riki; Harel-Fisch, Yossi; Baron-Epel, Orna


    Background: Health promotion policies targeting risk-taking behaviors are being implemented across schools in Israel. This study identified the most effective components of these policies influencing cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption among adolescents. Methods: Logistic hierarchical linear model (HLM) analysis of data for 5279 students in…

  15. Improving access to essential health care services: The case of Israel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.P.M.M. van de Ven (Wynand)


    textabstractIn a recent article in this journal Simon-Tuval, Horev and Kaplan argue that in order to improve the protection of consumers there might be a need to impose a threshold on the medical loss ratio (MLR) for voluntary health insurance (VHI) in Israel [1]. Their argument is that VHI in

  16. Operative Treatment of Hepatic Hydatid Cysts: A Single Center Experience in Israel, a Nonendemic Country (United States)

    Maoz, Daniel; Greif, Franklin; Chen, Jacob


    Background. Hydatid cyst disease is a zoonosis caused by Echinococcus genera. The disease is endemic to certain rural areas in the world. Operative treatment is the main component in curing hydatid cysts of the liver. Objective. Describing the unique characteristics of the hydatid cyst patients in Israel, a nonendemic country. Methods. Data was collected form 29 patients treated operatively in Rabin Medical Center from 1994 to 2007. Results. The study included 18 females and 11 males with an average age of 54.9 years. Fifty-two% of the patients immigrated as children from Arab countries to Israel, 21% were Arab-Israelis leaving in the north and center of Israel, and 24% immigrated from the former Communist Bloc. Pericystectomy was performed in 20/29, and cyst unroofing was performed in 9/29. Hydatid cysts average size was 10.7 cm, and the cysts were located in the right or left or involved both lobes in 62%, 28%, and 10% of the lesions, respectively. Postoperative mortality occurred in one case, and severe morbidity occurred in 4 patients. Conclusions. Hydatid cyst disease in Israel is uncommon and is mostly seen in distinct 3 demographic groups. Despite the relatively low patient volume, good results in terms of morbidity, mortality, and recurrence were achieved. PMID:24175100

  17. "We Don't Need Another Hero:" Heroes and Role Models in Germany and Israel (United States)

    Yair, Gad; Girsh, Yaron; Alayan, Samira; Hues, Henning; Or, Elad


    This study provides insights about attitudes toward heroes and role models in Germany and Israel. We expected German and Israeli school textbooks and teachers to provide varying renditions for the traumatic effects of World War II and the Holocaust, and for students to express different attitudes about the role of heroes in their lives. In…

  18. Vulnerability to Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder among Battered Women in Israel. (United States)

    Arzy, Ronit; Amir, Marianne; Kotler, Moshe

    The increasing prevalence of domestic violence in Israel has engendered a critical need to identify and treat battered women. This paper looks at Posttraumatic Stress disorder (PTSD) and considers its predictors among battered women. The research sample was comprised of a sample of 91 battered women between the ages of 20 and 60 who applied to the…

  19. Spatial distribution of West Nile virus in humans and mosquitoes in Israel, 2000–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaniv Lustig


    Full Text Available Objectives: Israel has a long history of West Nile virus (WNV morbidity, and the rate of detection of WNV in mosquitoes has been high since 2000. The aim of this study was to integrate several WNV datasets in order to gain an insight into the geographical distribution of WNV in Israel. Methods: Three choropleth maps were generated showing WNV human morbidity, WNV prevalence in mosquitoes, and the results of a nationwide serological survey, based on the division of Israel into 15 sub-districts. Results: The maps show a high endemicity of WNV in Israel. In respect to the morbidity map, the population residing in the central part of the country and in Arava Region is at higher risk of developing the disease than the population of the rest of Israel. Interestingly, high prevalence rates of both WNV serology and WNV-infected mosquitoes were detected in Arava Region, but lower prevalence rates were detected in most areas of the coastal region, suggesting that other factors might also be important in the development of symptomatic WNV infections. Conclusions: These results underline the high prevalence of WNV in Israel and point to specific risk areas for WNV infections across the country. Keywords: West Nile virus, Prevalence, Mosquitoes, WNV infection, Spatial distribution, Israel

  20. “New Periphery” as a Factor For Strengthening The Positions of Israel in The Middle East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury I. Kostenko


    Full Text Available Since its establishment the State of Israel has sought alliances with non-Arab and non- Muslim countries and minorities in the Middle East, as well as Arab states geographically distant from the Arab-Israel conflict. The article presents and explains this regional orientation. It examines Israel's strategy of outflanking. The "periphery doctrine" was a grand strategy, meant to attain the major political-security goal of countering Arab hostility through relations with alternative regional powers and potential allies. This periphery strategy had been internalized to some extent in Israel's strategic thinking and it began to reappear after 2010, following a new era of Arab revolution. The rise of political Islam in Egypt, Turkey, Gaza and southern Lebanon coupled with the Islamic regime in Iran, has generated concern in Israel that it is again being surrounded by a ring of hostile states - in this case, Islamists rather than Arab nationalists. The article analyzes Israel's strategic thinking about the Middle East region. It looks at the importance of the "new periphery strategy" for Israeli efforts to advance the Arab-Israel peace process, and its potential role as the Arab Spring brings about greater Islamization of the Arab Middle East. Israeli strategic planners are talking of "spheres of containment" wherein countries like Cyprus, Greece, Azerbaijan, and Ethiopia constitute a kind of new periphery.

  1. Psycho-social reactions of Palestinian families in Israel and the West Bank following war-related losses. (United States)

    Abu-Baker, Khwala


    to identify psycho-social reactions of Palestinian families to personal losses during the Second Intifada in the West Bank and the Second Lebanese war in Israel. Narratives were collected from support group participants in the west Bank and in individual and family therapy in Israel. the narratives were qualitatively analyzed to identify themes relating to psycho-social reactions to war losses. themes emerging from the west Bank support groups' narratives mostly mirrored those gathered in the therapy sessions in Israel. In both sites, bereaved families exhibited similar psycho-social reactions to war-related losses. Both groups coped with loss collectively and in congruence with their common ethno-cultural background. Also, religious beliefs provided explanations. the loss experiences were ongoing and accumulative for participants in the west Bank, while in Israel it was mostly a single event. Both studies referred solely to war-related losses. the relationships of each population group with the State of Israel shaped their political, national and personal reactions to the loss. Families of "shahids/martyrs" in the west Bank gained socio-political respect, while in Israel, Arab citizens suffering war-related losses did not receive the same political respect from Israeli society, but were awarded sympathy by their communities. In Israel the situation is further complicated since the State is both the enemy and provider of material support, comfort and rescue.

  2. Convergence and conflict with the ‘National Interest’: Why Israel abandoned its climate policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaels, Lucy; Tal, Alon


    This article describes how Israel abandoned its climate policy through the prism of the country's evolving energy profile, most importantly the 2009 discovery of huge natural gas reserves in Israel's Mediterranean exclusive zone. The article outlines five phases of Israeli political engagement with climate change from 1992 until 2013 when the National GHG Emissions Reduction Plan was defunded. Israel was motivated to develop its climate policy by international norms: OECD membership and the 2009 UN Summit in Copenhagen. Although the eventual Plan may not have significantly reduced Israel’s emissions, it contained immediate cost-effective, energy efficiency measures. Despite rhetorical support for renewable energy, in practice, most Israeli leaders consistently perceive ensuring supply of fossil fuels as the best means to achieve energy security. The gas finds thus effectively ended a potentially significant switch towards renewable energy production. The development of commercially competitive Israeli renewable energy technology may change this prevailing economic calculus alongside renewed international and domestic leadership and a resolution of the region's conflicts. Although Israel's political circumstances are idiosyncratic, the dynamics shaping its climate policy reflect wider trends such as competing economic priorities and failure to consider long term energy security. - Highlights: • In 2013 Israel defunded its climate policy despite cost and efficiency savings. • Initially climate policy converged with national interests: ‘climate bandwagoning’. • Deepwater natural gas finds in Israeli waters ended renewable energy ambitions. • Advocates failed to securitise ‘climate change’ which would have raised its profile. • Policy failure reflects both national idiosyncrasies and wider international trends.

  3. West Nile fever in Israel: the reemergence of an endemic disease. (United States)

    Anis, Emilia; Grotto, Itamar; Mendelson, Ella; Bin, Hanna; Orshan, Laor; Gandacu, Dan; Warshavsky, Bruce; Shinar, Eilat; Slater, Paul E; Lev, Boaz


    As a crossroads for bird migration between Africa and Eurasia and with its long history of human infection, Israel has been a major focus of attention during the continuing global spread of West Nile fever (WNF). This article reviews the background and reemergence of WNF in Israel; the recent epidemiology of WNF among Israelis; and the disease-control strategies being used to combat the disease. Employing the comprehensive base of case data that are reported to the Ministry of Health, an epidemiological record was constructed that details the incidence and distribution of WNF cases in Israel in recent years. After decades of small, intermittent outbreaks, nearly 1400 cases of WNF were reported in Israel between 2000 and 2012. Incidence was consistently highest in the coastal cities, among elderly patients, and in the late summer months and early autumn. A broad range of control measures to prevent human infection has been implemented, and attention has been given to issues such as the protection of the national blood bank and the occurrence of long-term sequelae. The reemergence of WNF in Israel is likely the result of a combination of factors including past immunity to the virus among the human population, a marked increase in awareness of WNF among physicians, and more frequent requests for the laboratory testing of suspected cases. In the absence of effective vaccine to protect humans from WNF, the best disease-control strategies include intensive vector-control measures, the continued development of techniques to forecast outbreaks, and effective public education programs that are targeted toward the high-risk elderly population. Copyright © 2013 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Characterization of Theileria equi genotypes in horses in Israel, the Palestinian Authority and Jordan. (United States)

    Ketter-Ratzon, Dafna; Tirosh-Levy, Sharon; Nachum-Biala, Yaarit; Saar, Tal; Qura'n, Lara; Zivotofsky, Doni; Abdeen, Ziad; Baneth, Gad; Steinman, Amir


    Equine theileriosis caused by Theileria equi is endemic in the Middle East, where it causes a severe disease as well as widespread subclinical infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diversity of T. equi genotypes in Israel and the neighboring Palestinian Authority and Jordan. Blood samples from 355 horses from Israel, the Palestinian Authority and Jordan were tested for the prevalence of T. equi DNA. Two hundred and fourteen (60%) were found positive for T. equi infection by PCR. Of those, the 18S rRNA (1458bp) and the EMA-1 (745bp) genes of T. equi were sequenced from 15 horse samples that represent Israel's geographical distribution together with four samples from the Palestinian Authority and two from Jordan. The results were used for genotype characterization and phylogenetic analysis of T. equi in the equine population in Israel and its surroundings. Three 18S rRNA genotype clades were found in Israel (A, C and D) with clade D being the most prevalent and included all four isolates from the PA. In contrast, the EMA-1 gene showed little diversity with all sequences clustering in the same clade apart from one Jordanian sequence. Results suggest that although the Israeli horse population is small and relatively confined geographically, it is probable that the genetic variability, which was found among Israeli horses, is a result of introduction of horses from other countries. It also suggests that the EMA-1 gene is probably not a good target for the evaluation of variance in T. equi populations. Characterization of the different genotypes prevalent in a certain region is important in order to map out the intra-species sequence heterogeneity of the parasite, which is needed in order to develop new diagnostic tools and vaccines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Apartheid in the Holy Land: Theological reflections on the Israel and/or Palestine situation from a South African perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry Pillay


    Full Text Available I first attempt to draw a comparison between the Israel-Palestine conflict and the South African experience of apartheid. Drawing on other established sources and personal experience, I conclude that, while there may be some differences between the two contexts, in essence, the similar experiences of colonialisation and racialisation makes the apartheid comparison compellingly relevant. I then proceed to theologically explore the themes of justice and reconciliation and what it may mean in the context of Israel-Palestine whilst extracting from the South African experience. The article also offers some reflections on the role of the Church in addressing the Israel-Palestine conflict.

  6. The Pliocene Yafo Formation in Israel: Hydrogeologically inert or active? (United States)

    Avisar, D.; Rosenthal, E.; Shulman, H.; Zilberbrand, M.; Flexer, A.; Kronfeld, J.; Ben Avraham, Z.; Fleischer, L.

    For several decades the ``Saqiye beds'' (later renamed Yafo Formation) underlying the Coastal Plain aquifer (Kurkar Group) aquifer of Israel, were regarded as an extremely thick, tectonically undisturbed, and absolutely impervious aquiclude. Following intensive groundwater exploitation from the overlying Kurkar Group aquifer, brackish and saline waters were locally encountered in the lower parts of this aquifer and always at the contact with the underlying Yafo Formation aquiclude. The present study revealed that this aquiclude is not a uniform and impervious rock unit, but rather an alternation of pervious and impervious strata within the Yafo Formation containing highly pressured fluids of different - mostly high - salinities. The permeable beds are at an angular unconformity and in direct contact with the overlying Kurkar Group aquifer. The Yafo Formation and the underlying and overlying rock units are dislocated by numerous fault systems, which facilitate accessibility of brines into the Kurkar Group aquifer. The mobilization of the saline fluids and their injection into the Kurkar Group aquifer could be due either to diffusion of saline fluids occurring in the permeable horizons of the Petah Tiqva Member through the clays of the Yafo Formation or to their upconing following intensive pumping in the Coastal Plain aquifer. It could have also been caused by up-dip movement of saline water as the result of overpressure generated by major accumulation of gas in the permeable horizons. Another possible mechanism could be hydraulic contact with pressurized brines up-flowing along fault zones from deep-seated Jurassic or Cretaceous reservoirs. The squeezing of saline interstitial water from the clays of the Yafo Formation into the overlying Kurkar Group aquifer, is of secondary importance for groundwater salinization (its input is comparable with salt input from rain). Depuis longtemps, les «couches de Saqiye», nommées maintenant formation de Yafo, constituant le

  7. Greenhouse Gas emissions reporting in Israel: Means to manage energy use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayalon, Ofira; Lev-On, Miriam; Lev-On, Perry; Goldrath, Tal


    Highlights: • We describe and analyze the Israeli GHG Protocol and the GHG Emissions Calculation Tool developed for companies in Israel. • The analysis was conducted for the ‘Pilot Phase’ (2010) and for the first two full years of reporting (2011 and 2012). • We highlight the changes in fuel mix that influence direct emissions from power generation. • We conclude that the Israeli GHG registry is building capacity in both reporting entities and government ministries. • The experience gained in this registry implementation, may serve as an excellent experience for other countries. - Abstract: The subject of publicly disclosing Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions by companies and organizations is gaining momentum and a variety of so called ‘GHG Registries’ have been developed in countries around the globe, while specific requirements are being adjusted to local circumstances and needs. Different GHG Registries are currently operating worldwide, either as mandatory or as voluntary programs. Israel launched a voluntary initiative in 2010 known as the Israel GHG Reporting and Registering System. The Israel GHG Reporting Protocol was prepared by the Ministry of Environmental Protection and the Energy and Environment cluster at the Samuel Neaman Institute, in cooperation with a wide range of stakeholders, including other governmental ministries, industry and local government representatives as well as non-governmental organizations. The Israel GHG Protocol is largely based on the World Resources Institute/World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WRI/WBCSD) corporate accounting standard and ISO 14064. While the decision to join the GHG registry in Israel is currently voluntary, once an organization has joined the registry it commits to calculate and report GHG emissions according to the registry’s protocol and methodology guidance to allow for consistency in the reported data and for accurate comparison of the results. The Israeli program is

  8. Work, family, support, and depression: employed mothers in Israel, Korea, and the United States. (United States)

    O'Brien, Karen M; Ganginis Del Pino, Heather V; Yoo, Sung-Kyung; Cinamon, Rachel Gali; Han, Young-Joo


    Our research revealed differences in work-family constructs for employed mothers in 3 countries, Israel (N = 105), Korea (N = 298), and the United States (N = 305). Although levels of work-family conflict were comparable, the Korean women had the lowest levels of work-family enrichment compared with the Israeli and American mothers. Moreover, Korean women reported the most depression and the least support from both spouses and employers. Spousal support mediated the relationship between work-family conflict and depression for employed mothers in Israel, Korea, and the United States. As hypothesized by conservation of resources theory (Hobfoll, 1989, 1998, 2001), threat of resource loss (operationalized as work-family conflict) was related to depression more strongly than was resource gain (i.e., work-family enrichment). PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Habaneros and shwarma: Jewish Mexicans in Israel as a transnational community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulette Kershenovich Schuster


    Full Text Available Food is the cultural expression of society food as a marker of class, ethnic, and religious identity. What happens when the location changes? Does food continue to play such an important role or do other cultural nodes take over? Do layers of traditions, adaptation and cultural blends emerge? This seems to be the case with third and fourth generation Mexican Jews who have moved to Israel. Not only have they brought their spiritual and cultural connections from Mexico, their birth country; they have also brought the food experiences of their great-grandparents and grandparents who were they themselves immigrants. Jewish Mexicans have transplanted their sense of community to Israel and in doing so they have also brought overlooked cultural interactions and unique food experiences. Are these simply by-products of religious and migration patterns? Or are there other elements that have affected this cultural hybridity?

  10. Redescription of Clinostomum phalacrocoracis metacercariae (Digenea: Clinostomidae in cichlids from Lake Kinneret, Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caffara Monica


    Full Text Available Clinostomidae are digeneans characterized by a complex taxonomic history, continuously under revision based on both morphological and molecular analysis. Among the 14 species considered valid so far Clinostomum phalacrocoracis has been well described only at the adult stage, whereas the morphology of the metacercarial stage has been reported only once. During a parasitological survey carried out on 262 wild cichlids sampled from Lake Kinneret (Israel metacercariae referable to C. phalacrocoracis were found in 18 fingerlings. In this study, we report this clinostomid species for the first time in wild fish from Israel describing the metacercarial stage of Clinostomum phalacrocoracis, coupling its morphological description with molecular analysis carried out on ITS rDNA and COI mtDNA sequences.

  11. Between universal feminism and particular nationalism: politics, religion and gender (in)equality in Israel. (United States)

    Halperin-Kaddari, Ruth; Yadgar, Yaacov


    This article argues that one of the many "idiosyncrasies" of the Israeli case, namely Israel's continuing, violent conflict with its Arab neighbours, is of highly influential relevance to the issue of gender relations. Viewed by many Israeli Jews as a struggle for the very existence of the Jewish state, the Arab-Israeli conflict has overshadowed most other civil and social issues, rendering them "secondary" to the primary concern of securing the safe existence of the state. This has pushed such pressing issues as gender equality and women's rights aside, thus allowing for the perpetuation of discriminatory, sometimes rather repressive treatment of women in Israel. The most blatant expression of this is the turning of the struggle for civil marriage and divorce into a non-issue. Following a short introduction of the relevant political context, we discuss women's positivist and legal status, then conclude with an analysis of the women's movement, highlighting the emergence of religious feminism.

  12. Differences in lung function among school children in communities in Israel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peled, R.; Bibi, H.; Pope, C.A.; Nir, P.; Shiachi, R.; Scharff, S. [Barzilai Medical Centre, Ashqelon (Israel). Dept. Epidemiology


    Differences in lung functions of school-age children who lived near two power plants in the Ashkelon district of Israel were studied. Lung-function tests were performed, and the American Thoracic Society questionnaire was administered in three study periods during the following years: (1) 1990, (2) 1994, and (3) 1997. Measurements of air pollutants (i.e., sulfur dioxide, nitric oxides, ozone) were also taken during these periods. The authors controlled for age, sex, height, weight, parents' education and smoking status, and being born out of Israel, and, consequently, substantial differences in lung function across the different communities and study periods were demonstrated in the study area. No robust association with air pollution was demonstrated. The cause of these differences in the respiratory health of children remains unknown.

  13. Adapted Traditions: The Case of Traditional Palestinian Women Healers in Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariela Popper-Giveon


    Full Text Available This article examines transformations in the roles and treatment practices of traditional Palestinian women healers in Israel. Comparing narratives of women healers residing in Jewish-Arab mixed cities in central Israel with those of their counterparts in the Bedouin community of the Negev reveals that traditional healing has not disappeared as a result of modernization but rather has transformed. Urban women healers are abandoning treatment of physical problems in favor of addressing life hardships; they distance themselves from problems whose cause and treatment are considered natural and prefer those perceived as derived from supernatural causes and treated through supernatural, magical and religious means. Despite these transformations, traditional Palestinian women healers appear as agents of preservation and conservatism, a role that imbues them with a central position in their community. Hence, their place is currently secured and expected to remain so as processes of modernization and acculturation increase in intensity. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0902119

  14. Battling Against Interfaith Relations in Israel: Religion, Therapy, and Social Services. (United States)

    Hakak, Yohai


    One of the less studied aspects of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict is its demography. On the Jewish side, active steps are taken by the state to encourage Jewish immigration and Jewish births and discourage Jewish assimilation. As part of these efforts, the "problematic relationships" between Arab men and Jewish women from low socioeconomic background have become a high agenda item in public discussions in Israel during the last decade. I will examine here how the diagnostic category "girls at risk" and a therapeutic intervention employed by social services dealing with these couples helps maintaining the delicate balance between Jewish and democratic values. I will analyze these practices as a solution to a structural problem of the Jewish enclave in Israel. © 2015 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  15. José Lins do Rego: um guia brasileiro de Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauber Pereira Quintão


    Full Text Available Este artigo procura analisar, de forma crítica, o livro de José Lins do Rego, Roteiro de Israel, 1955. Busca-­se destacar duas facetas suplementares: a de um olhar poético e a de uma preocupação ético-política lançados pelo escritor sobre a construção do novo Estado de Israel. Observa-­se também uma relação entre os signos da modernidade e das histórias arcaica judaicas. Para isso, usa-­se o conceito de palimpsesto, de Gerard Genette, e de flâneur, de Walter Benjamim.

  16. Threatened or Threatening? How Ideology Shapes Asylum Seekers' Immigration Policy Attitudes in Israel and Australia. (United States)

    Canetti, Daphna; Snider, Keren L G; Pedersen, Anne; Hall, Brian J


    Can different political ideologies explain policy preferences regarding asylum seekers? We focus on attitudes regarding governmental policy towards out-group members and suggest that perceptions of threat help to shape these policy attitudes. Study 1 compared public opinion regarding asylum policy in Israel ( N = 137) and Australia ( N = 138), two countries with restrictive asylum policies and who host a large number of asylum seekers; Study 2, a longitudinal study, was conducted during two different time periods in Israel-before and during the Gaza conflict. Results of both studies showed that threat perceptions of out-group members drive the relationship between conservative political ideologies and support for exclusionary asylum policies among citizens. Perceptions of threat held by members of the host country (the in-group) towards asylum seekers (the out-group) may influence policy formation. The effect of these out-groups threats needs to be critically weighed when considering Israeli and Australian policies towards asylum seekers.

  17. Exploring the Continental Margin of Israel: “Telepresence” at Work (United States)

    Coleman, Dwight F.; Austin, James A., Jr.; Ben-Avraham, Zvi; Ballard, Robert D.


    A multidisciplinary team of American and Israeli scientists conducted ocean exploration with a “telepresence” component offshore Israel in September 2010 on board the new E/V Nautilus, which is a reincarnation of the former East German R/V Alexander von Humboldt. This was the first comprehensive geological and biological exploration of the Israel continental margin using deep submergence vehicle systems. Diverse seafloor environments in water depths between 500 and 1300 meters were sampled and imaged using two remotely operated vehicle (ROV) systems, Hercules and Argus. The ROV dives within three areas (Figure 1) investigated high-priority acoustic targets representing geological, biological, or archaeological features as identified by the onboard scientific team. During the dives, biological and geological samples and more than 100 kilometers of high-resolution side-scan sonar data were collected.

  18. The Arabic Language in Israel: official language, mother tongue, foreign language. Teaching, dissemination and competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letizzia Lombezzi


    All this proves the need to intentionally teach colloquial Arabic and assign to it priority for being ‘the language in use‘, which detains a strongest communicative power. The Israeli education system remains based on the acquisition of skills in standard Arabic only. It is proved that standard Arabic it is not enough for developing the necessary competence in our students, in Israel as well as in Europe.

  19. Validation study of the Questionnaire of Educational and Learning Capital (QELC) in Israel


    Nurit Paz-Baruch


    The Actiotope Model of Giftedness regards giftedness as a product of the interaction between the individual and the environment. The aim of this study is to evaluate the validity of the Question-naire of Educational and Learning Capital (QELC) on 187 primary school students from Israel and to examine whether the educational and learning capitals of the students are associated with general intelligence and academic achievement. In the study correlations were found between social, infrastructur...

  20. Black Musics, African Lives, and the National Imagination in Modern Israel


    Hankins, Sarah Elizabeth


    “Black Musics, African Lives, and the National Imagination in Modern Israel,” explores the forms and functions of African and Afro-diasporic musics amidst heated public debate around ethnic identity and national membership. Focusing on musical-political activity among Ethiopian Israeli citizens, Sudanese and Eritrean refugees, and West African labor migrants in Tel Aviv, I examine how diverse types of musicking, from nightclub DJing and live performance to church services and protest concert...

  1. Assessment of the Effectiveness of the Israel River Ice Control Structure, Lancaster, NH (United States)


    Engineers completed an ice control structure (ICS) located about 0.5 miles upstream from the center of town. The 9-ft-high concrete-capped gabion ...though the average slope in the reach through Lancaster is about 0.0083 (Provan and Lorber, Inc. 2003). Where the Israel River flows into the Connecticut...forces of the ice. This usually results from increases in flow caused by rapid snowmelt often accompanied by rain. The rising stage lifts the ice

  2. Detection, Location and Discrimination of Seismic Events by the Seismic Network of Israel, (United States)


    Seismology Division, The Institute for Petroleum Research and Geophysics, Holon , Israel. Contract No. F19628-95-K-0006 Sponsored by DOE ABSTRACT The Israeli...Since 1984, data acquisition has been based on computerized systems . At present, the ISN consists of 36 short period stations distributed Holon . There, the data are digitized (50 samples per second) and checked for event detection. Triggered events are routinely analyzed, yielding a

  3. Making the case for directed organ donation to registered donors in Israel


    Siegal, Gil


    Background The number of deceased donor organ donations in Israel is lower than average when compared to other Western World countries. To address the organ gap, the 2008 Organ Transplantation Law provides new interventions, including important incentives to donors (and their families). The most notable of these was granting priority to registered donors (i.e., people on the waiting list who signed a donor card). The current study presents the normative arguments as well as the first document...

  4. Cluster sustainability in peripheral regions: A case study on Israel's and Finland's biotechnology industries


    Breznitz, Shiri M.; Tahvanainen, Antti-Jussi


    Even with globalization, industrial clusters are maintaining their importance in todays economy. With the decomposition of production we find that clusters are becoming focused on specific industries and stages of production. This paper analyzes two peripheral western countries, Finland and Israel, which saw success in their ICT clusters and wanted to duplicate this success building on their knowledge in the life science industry to create biotechnology clusters. This paper focuses on two inn...

  5. Empirical Analysis of High-Inflation Episodes in Argentina, Brazil, and Israel


    Peter J. Montiel


    Although accommodative policies and widespread indexation may account for the persistence of high inflation, they cannot explain changes in the inflation rate. The causes of such changes for the high-inflation episodes immediately preceding the recent "heterodox" attempts at stabilization in Argentina, Brazil, and Israel are examined by computing historical decompositions of these episodes based on vector autoregressions, distinguishing between the "fiscal" and "balance of payments" views of ...

  6. The dangers of prejudice reduction interventions: empirical evidence from encounters between Jews and Arabs in Israel. (United States)

    Maoz, Ifat


    This commentary focuses on Dixon et al.'s discussion on the dangers of employing prejudice-reduction interventions that seek to promote intergroup harmony in historically unequal societies. Specifically, it illustrates these dangers by discussing my work in Israel (now mentioned in Dixon et al.'s note 6) on the processes and practices through which reconciliation-aimed encounters between Jews and Arabs mitigate sociopolitical change.

  7. The first conference of the Israel materials union. Program and abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The Israel materials union is the union of the Israeli societies dealing with materials sciences and engineering. The presentations in the conference can be classified in accordance with the sessions headings as follows: thin films, tribology, electronic devices, crystal growing, future structural materials, chemistry, physics of condensed matter, metallurgy, surface coating and protection and vacuum. Main interesting materials are alloys, superconducting materials, composites, and glasses

  8. Generalized Israel junction conditions for a Gauss-Bonnet brane world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, Stephen C.


    In spacetimes of dimension greater than four it is natural to consider higher order (in R) corrections to the Einstein equations. In this paper generalized Israel junction conditions for a membrane in such a theory are derived. This is achieved by generalizing the Gibbons-Hawking boundary term. The junction conditions are applied to simple brane world models, and are compared to the many contradictory results in the literature

  9. [The challenges and opportunities of implementing outsourcing in private and public hospitals in Israel]. (United States)

    Rahimi, Benny; Mizrahi, Ronit; Magnezi, Racheli


    Outsourcing is a method that enables an organization to focus on its expertise by transferring its other services to professionals who can fulfill them. In recent years, research has repeatedly shown that health services use a variety of outsourcing companies. To describe the experience acquired using outsourcing in public and private hospitals in Israel, and to present the factors, budgetary parameters, opportunities and problems affecting outsourcing. The questionnaire was sent to 36 hospitals in Israel, constituting 88.2% of all hospitals in Israel--private, public, H.M.O ("Clalit") and governmental. The response to the questionnaire reached 97.2% and revealed the following: 94% of the hospitals use outsourcing services in the following fields: security, cleaning, Laundry service, cafeterias, and I.T.; 42% of the hospitals assign 0-5% of their annual budget for outsourcing contracts. Private hospitals use more outsourcing services than public hospitals. The factors driving outsourcing are: cost restrictions (82.8%), operational flexibility (77%), and focus on the core business (74.2%). The potential advantages of outsourcing are: improvement in services 180.5%), customer satisfaction (72.2%), and cost reduction (69.4%). Difficulties affecting outsourcing are: dependence on external resources (83.3%] and internal organizational resistance (69.4%). The results of the outsourcing are lower costs, reduced number of personnel by 1-10% and high level of satisfaction. It seems that in recent years outsourcing is being used in hospitals and is central to the areas of infrastructure and logistics, as well as legal and medical services. Using outsourcing in hospitals provides opportunities for improved customer satisfaction, better focus for the hospital on its core activities and cost reduction. HospitaLs that succeed in synergetically integrating the external and the internal service providers will flourish. INNOVATION/VALUE: This research exposes, for the first time

  10. Literature review of type 2 diabetes mellitus among minority Muslim populations in Israel (United States)

    Treister-Goltzman, Yulia; Peleg, Roni


    This review surveys the literature published on the characteristics and implications of pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) for the Arab and Bedouin populations of Israel. T2DM is a global health problem. The rapid rise in its prevalence in the Arab and Bedouin populations in Israel is responsible for their lower life expectancy compared to Israeli Jews. The increased prevalence of T2DM corresponds to increased rates of obesity in these populations. A major risk group is adult Arab women aged 55-64 years. In this group obesity reaches 70%. There are several genetic and nutritional explanations for this increase. We found high hospitalization rates for micro and macrovascular complications among diabetic patients of Arab and Bedouin origin. Despite the high prevalence of diabetes and its negative health implications, there is evidence that care and counseling relating to nutrition, physical activity and self-examination of the feet are unsatisfactory. Economic difficulties are frequently cited as the reason for inadequate medical care. Other proposed reasons include faith in traditional therapy and misconceptions about drugs and their side effects. In Israel, the quality indicators program is based on one of the world’s leading information systems and deals with the management of chronic diseases such as diabetes. The program’s baseline data pointed to health inequality between minority populations and the general population in several areas, including monitoring and control of diabetes. Based on these data, a pilot intervention program was planned, aimed at minority populations. This program led to a decrease in inequality and served as the basis for a broader, more comprehensive intervention that has entered the implementation stage. Interventions that were shown to be effective in other Arabic countries may serve as models for diabetes management in the Arab and Bedouin populations in Israel. PMID:25685290

  11. Waste minimization promotes biophysical treatment of complex petrochemical wastes in Israel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebel, A. [Invirotreat International Ltd., Fulleron, CA (United States); Raveh, A. [Raveh Ecology Ltd., Haifa (Israel)


    This work describes a full-scale waste treatment system which was put into operation in a petrochemical manufacturing plant in Israel for the purpose of detoxifying its complex organic waste stream. The treatment plant design incorporates an innovative waste management approach to accommodate the limited space allocated for the facility. Initial performance data indicate a high efficient inorganic waste reduction. 4 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Personality Variables, Job Embeddedness and Job Outcome: A study in Jerusalem, Israel


    Edais, Shehab N.


    This thesis develops and tests a conceptual model that examines job embeddedness as a full mediator of the effects of polychronicity and self-efficacy on service-oriented organizational citizenship behaviors. Data were collected from full-time frontline hotel employees in Israel for testing these relationships. Such data were collected with a time lag of two weeks . The results demonstrated that high level of polychronicity and self-efficacy for frontline employees enhanced their job embed...

  13. Structural Changes in the Middle East Stock Markets: The case of Israel and Arab Countries


    Marashdeh, Hazem; Wilson, E.J.


    This paper tests for structural changes in the price indices of four stock markets in the Middle East region, namely, Egypt, Turkey Jordan, Morocco and Israel. The Innovational Outlier (IO) model and Additive Outlier (AO) model indicate that all variables show evidence of non-stationarity, I(1), even with structural change. Moreover, the coefficients for all dummy variables such as intercept, slope and time of the break are found to be significant and all have the right signs. The endogenousl...

  14. Trends in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder drugs consumption, Israel, 2005-2012. (United States)

    Ponizovsky, Alexander M; Marom, Eli; Fitoussi, Israel


    The aim of this study was to describe trends in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) drugs consumption in Israel (Ritalin, Concerta, Daytrana, Vyvanse, Focalin, and Adderall) over the 8 years, 2005-2012, and to explore explanations for changes in amounts and patterns of the utilization. Data for the period from 2005 to 2012 were extracted from the database maintained by the Israel Ministry of Health's Pharmaceutical Administration. The data were converted into a defined daily dose (DDD) per 1000 inhabitants per day. Consumption of all ADHD drugs covered by Israel's national health care system doubled over the study period, from 4.02 DDD/1000 inhabitants/day in 2005 to 9.92 DDD/1000 inhabitants/day in 2012. This rise was largely due to a fivefold increase in Concerta consumption (from 0.46 DDD/1000 inhabitants/day in 2005 to 2.28 DDD/1000 inhabitants/day in 2012) and a threefold increase in Ritalin consumption (from 1.43 DDD/1000 inhabitants/day in 2005 to 4.84 DDD/1000 inhabitants/day in 2012). Adderall (amphetamine mixed salts) consumption rose by 30% for the same period. A substantial trend was noted for increased utilization of high-dose formulations together with proportional decline in low-dose consumption. In the same period, cost of the medications has been reduced an average by 20-25%. There has been a drastic rise in ADHD drugs consumption in Israel over 2005-2012. This has been associated with substantial reduction in cost and changes in the pattern of prescribing that characterized by increased prescription of high-dose long-acting preparations of ADHD drugs and decreased prescription of their low-dose, short-acting formulations. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Developing competitive advantage through startups and venture capital in emerging markets: A view from Israel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Maune


    Full Text Available This article presents an examination of the emergence and co-evolution of startups and venture capital that led to the transformation of Israel into a Start-Up and Innovation Nation since its inception in 1948. Throughout, the co-evolution of startups and venture capital was considered a critical linkage between venture capital emergence and startup intensive cluster. The article also examined the three phased evolutionary model of 1969 to 2000. A discursive approach of related relevant literature was used. The study found out that the co-evolution of startups and venture capital, policy targeting and a network of a number of other factors as will be discussed in the three phased evolutionary model were critical to the emergence and change of the Israeli high-technology industry into a high-technology startup intensive industry. Israel has become the second largest world market for venture capital with more than 240 venture capitals since 1992. Israel has also become the lead in research and development attracting more than 270 multinational companies with more than 250 establishing research centers and employing over 108 000 in the country. The study also found that Israel leads other nations in per capita startups, engineers, scientists and technicians. This article will be critical for policy formulation and implementation especially in Emerging Markets. This article may lead to a shift in strategy in many emerging countries. This article will also help expand the academic knowledge by filling the existing gaps within the body of knowledge. Therefore, the article has academic, economic and policy value.

  16. 26. Conference of the Nuclear Societies in Israel, Program and Papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The Cd contains the presentations of the 26 annual conference of the nuclear societies in Israel. The subjects of the Conference are aspects of nuclear energy and nuclear technology, applications of radioisotopes and radiation, radiation measurements, issues in radiation protection and radiation in medicine. The consequences of the Fukushima accident are due to be between the main issues. During the conference awards will be given for outstanding student works

  17. The Effect of the Arab Boycott on Israel: The Automobile Market


    Chaim Fershtman; Neil Gandal


    Recent progress towards a comprehensive peace in the Middle East has led to a relaxation of the enforcement of the Arab economic boycott of Israel. This in turn has led to the entry of all the major Japanese and Korean automobile manufacturers into the Israeli market. In this paper, we examine the effect of the Arab economic boycott on this market. Using recent advances in estimating discrete-choice models of product differentiation, we estimate that had the boycott continued, the welfare los...

  18. The Advantage of Using International Multimodel Ensemble for Seasonal Precipitation Forecast over Israel


    Amir Givati; Mashor Housh; Yoav Levi; Dror Paz; Itzhak Carmona; Emily Becker


    This study analyzes the results of monthly and seasonal precipitation forecasting from seven different global climate forecast models for major basins in Israel within October–April 1982–2010. The six National Multimodel Ensemble (NMME) models and the ECMWF seasonal model were used to calculate an International Multimodel Ensemble (IMME). The study presents the performance of both monthly and seasonal predictions of precipitation accumulated over three months, with respect to different lead t...

  19. Radiation and health: International Conference. Ber Sheva, Israel, November 3-7, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsyb, A.F.; Kondrashova, T.V.


    Main problems being discussed at the International Conference Radiation and Health held in Ber Sheva, Israel, in November 3-7, 1996. Three basic trends in the reports topics are marked: modern data on radiobiological researches, epidemiological characteristics of the delayed radiation effects, analysis of psychosocial phenomena of the post-Chernobyl period. Problems of the first 10 years following the Chernobyl accident were the head topic of the conference

  20. [Tuberculosis and AIDS in labor migrants in Israel--are we really facing a new challenge?]. (United States)

    Mor, Zohar; Grotto, Itamar; Leventhal, Alex


    Israel has absorbed labor migrants (LM), mostly originating from developing countries endemic for tuberculosis and AIDS. This trend has increased in the last 4 years, and included LM from the horn of Arica. Public opinion towards LM is ambivalent and is based on incomplete data and prejudice. Those who support LM deportation emphasize the burden of infectious diseases (ID) and raise concerns regarding possible exposure of Israeli citizens. This article will elucidate the process of data monitoring and the risk of ID transmission to the citizens of the hosting country. Of all individuals infected with tuberculosis and AIDS in Israel, 13% and 17% respectively are LM. LM are screened prior to arrival or upon incarceration in Israel Female LM are advised to perform an HIV test during their pregnancy. As a consequence of the active screening, more LM are diagnosed than Israelis, who are not routinely tested. The risk of ID transmission to the citizens of the hosting country is Limited, as M. tuberculosis is transmitted only to close (mainly domestic) contacts and HIV is mainly transmitted during sexual contact. These intimate contacts are rare between LM and Israelis. The Israeli Ministry of Health operates services for LM and supports treatment for tuberculosis patients and for pregnant HIV-infected females. Nevertheless, the unique medical needs of LM should be addressed and health authorities should appropriate a health infrastructure to support LM. Early detection of infectious diseases will lead to correct treatment and will reduce the risk of ID transmission in the community.

  1. Demographic aspects of Paget's disease of bone in the Negev of southern Israel. (United States)

    Magen, H; Liel, Y; Bearman, J E; Lowenthal, M N


    In a mainly retrospective but partly prospective survey of the period 1968-1993 in southern Israel, 61 cases of Paget's disease of bone were identified. Fifty six percent were of non-Afro-Asian origin and 44% originated from Afro-Asia, which is approximately the inverse of the ratio in the local general population. The largest single groups from non-Afro-Asia and Afro-Asia originated, from Romania and Tunisia, respectively, and Australia and Argentina were also disproportionately prominent as countries of origin. Israel itself was the origin of few patients. All the patients were Jews except for one Bedouin Arab, which is far different from the distribution of Bedouins and Jews in both the surveyed area and the hospital population. The differences between these groups numerically and against the background local population may well have been statistically significant had the circumstances enabled greater randomness in the collection of the data analyzed. It is surmised that in southern Israel the prevalence of Paget's disease of bone is about 1%, similar to that in southern Europe.

  2. Intentions of Muslim Arab women in Israel to attend prenatal classes. (United States)

    Ben Natan, Merav; Ashkenazi, Maayan; Masarwe, Safaa


    Prenatal education has many benefits to both mother and child. In Israel, prenatal classes are offered to pregnant women in their third trimester from all cultures and sectors. However, Israeli Muslim Arab women often do not attend these classes. To explore factors influencing the intention of Muslim Arab women in Israel to attend prenatal classes, using the Theory of Planned Behavior. The study was a cross-sectional quantitative correlational design. A convenience sample consisting of 200 Arab Muslim women completed a questionnaire based on the literature review and the theoretical model. The research findings indicate that women's intention to attend prenatal classes increases with more positive beliefs and attitudes toward prenatal education, greater subjective social pressure to attend classes, and with higher perceived control of attending such classes. The higher a woman's age and level of education, the greater her intention to attend classes. This study shows that the spouse is the most significant factor influencing women's decisions on this matter. In order to raise the intentions of Muslim Arab women in Israel to attend prenatal classes, policy makers must design programs to increase the awareness of prenatal education among both women and men in the Muslim Arab sector, emphasizing its benefits for mothers, infants, and families as a whole. Classes should reflect the uniqueness of Israeli Muslim Arab culture and combine traditional and modern outlooks. Copyright © 2015 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Impact of future urbanization on a hot summer: a case study of Israel (United States)

    Kaplan, Shai; Georgescu, Matei; Alfasi, Nurit; Kloog, Itai


    Israel's population is projected to increase significantly through the middle of the current century, requiring further expansion of the built environment to accommodate additional inhabitants and accompanying urban infrastructure. This study examines the climatic impacts of future urban expansion through simulated near-surface temperature and energy flux components associated with built environment growth. The Weather Research and Forecasting model was used to simulate present day extreme summertime conditions, at 1-km resolution, utilizing contemporary urban representation. To determine impacts associated with the physical growth of the urban environment, sensitivity simulations, also at 1-km resolution, incorporating projected changes in urban areas for Israel-based national development plans, were performed. Spatially and diurnally averaged at the national scale, projected urbanization is shown to increase summertime temperatures 0.4-0.8 °C, with greater temperature rise in northern compared to southern parts of the country. Across the diurnal cycle, urban impacts on near-surface warming are minimal during daytime hours, but exceed 3 °C across many urban locales during nighttime hours. The results presented here demonstrate the spatio-temporal impact of future urban expansion in Israel on temperature. The magnitude of these changes highlight the need for strategically designed regional and national planning to alleviate potentially deleterious climatic impacts associated with the physical growth of the built environment.

  4. Place oriented ecological footprint analysis. The case of Israel's grain supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kissinger, Meidad; Gottlieb, Dan


    In today's world, any nation's ecological footprint is spread all over the globe. Still, most footprint studies are not yet sensitive to the specific locations on which the footprint falls and to the unique production characteristics of each supporting region. In recent years some studies have acknowledged the need to quantify the 'real land' footprints and particularly the share of the footprint embodied in trade. Our goal is to analyse the ecological footprint of grain-based consumption in the state of Israel during the last two decades. We present a detailed, place oriented calculation procedure of Israel's grain footprint on specific locations around the world. We document modes of production, major energy inputs in specific sources of supply, the energy required for shipping from each source, and the CO 2 emissions from those operations. Our research reveals that most of Israel's grain footprint falls on North America followed by the Black Sea region. It also shows that while the overall consumption of grain products has increased throughout the research period, the size of the footprint has been dropping in recent years as a consequence of changing sources of supply and grain composition. Finally, we discuss some of the implications of the method presented here for future footprint calculations and environmental resource management. (author)

  5. Prevalence and risk factors for foot and mouth disease infection in cattle in Israel. (United States)

    Elnekave, Ehud; van Maanen, Kees; Shilo, Hila; Gelman, Boris; Storm, Nick; Abed El Khaliq, Mohamad; Sharir, Beni; Berke, Olaf; Klement, Eyal


    Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease with major economic consequences. In Israel, FMD epidemics recur almost every year and mostly affect cattle. The highest number of outbreaks occurs among beef cattle farms, followed by feedlot farms and dairy farms. We performed several cross-sectional serological studies in Israel during 2006-2014, aimed to reveal if the virus is endemic among cattle and to determine the sero-prevalence of antibodies directed against non-structural proteins (NSP) of FMD virus. Additionally we aimed to determine the risk factors for such sero-positivity. A risk based sampling was performed and the presence of anti-NSP antibodies was estimated using the PrioCHECK(®) ELISA kit. Beef cattle showed the highest sero-prevalence (13.2%, CI95%=10.8-15.8%). Higher FMD sero-prevalence in beef cattle sampled in 2014 was associated with previous FMD outbreaks in the farm and with age (adult cows versus calves (pvaccination and stringent control measures that were applied during outbreaks such as emergency vaccination and strict quarantine. Early detection of FMD outbreaks among grazing beef herds as well as the implementation of control measures among these farms are therefore the methods of choice to prevent future outbreaks in Israel. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Sense of meaning as a predictor of burnout in emergency physicians in Israel: a national survey. (United States)

    Ben-Itzhak, Shulamit; Dvash, Jonathan; Maor, Maya; Rosenberg, Noa; Halpern, Pinchas


    Burnout is common in physicians and particularly acute in emergency physicians. Physician burnout may adversely affect physicians' lives and the quality of care they provide, but much remains unknown about its main contributing factors. The present study evaluated burnout rates and contributing factors in emergency physicians in Israel, specifically focusing on the role of a sense of meaning, which has received little attention in the literature concerning burnout in emergency physicians. A multicenter study, involving a convenience sample of physicians working full-time in the emergency departments of 16 general hospitals in Israel, was conducted. Questionnaires were used to assess burnout, demographic characteristics, professional stress, emotional distress, satisfaction, and quality of professional life, and open-ended questions were used to evaluate subjective perception of job satisfaction. Seventy physicians completed the questionnaires; 71.4% reported significant burnout levels in at least one of the burnout measures, while 82% also reported medium or high levels of competency. Burnout levels were associated with work-life balance, work satisfaction, social support, depressive symptoms, stress, and preoccupying thoughts. Regression analysis yielded two significant factors associated with burnout: worry and a sense of existential meaning derived from work. In addition, 61%, 51%, and 17% of participants exhibited high emotional exhaustion, high depersonalization, and a low sense of personal accomplishment, respectively. These results indicate a high burnout rate in emergency physicians in Israel and highlight relevant positive and negative factors including the importance of addressing existential meaning in designing specific intervention programs to counter burnout.

  7. Expanding Canadian Medicare to include a national pharmaceutical benefit while controlling expenditures: possible lessons from Israel. (United States)

    Rosen, Bruce


    In Canada, there is an ongoing debate about whether to expand Medicare to include a national pharmaceutical benefit on a universal basis. The potential health benefits are understood to be significant, but there are ongoing concerns about affordability. In Israel, the National Health Insurance benefits package includes a comprehensive pharmaceutical benefit. Nonetheless, per capita pharmaceutical spending is well below that of Canada and the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development average. This paper highlights seven strategies that Israel has employed to constrain pharmaceutical spending: (1) prioritizing new technologies, subject to a global budget constraint; (2) using regulations and market power to secure fair and reasonable prices; (3) establishing an efficient pharmaceutical distribution system; (4) promoting effective prescribing behavior; (5) avoiding artificial inflation of consumer demand; (6) striking an appropriate balance between respect for IP rights, access and cost containment; and (7) developing a shared societal understanding about the value and limits of pharmaceutical spending. Some of these strategies are already in place in some parts of Canada. Others could be introduced into Canada, and might contribute to the affordability of a national pharmaceutical benefit, but substantial adaptation would be needed. For example, in Israel the health maintenance organizations (HMOs) play a central role in promoting effective prescribing behavior, whereas in HMO-free Canada other mechanisms are needed to advance this important goal.

  8. "It's Every Family's Dream": Choice of a Medical Career Among the Arab Minority in Israel. (United States)

    Popper-Giveon, Ariela; Keshet, Yael


    Application to medical studies and the choice of medicine as a career are influenced by many factors, some internal (academic ability, intellectual curiosity, interests) and some external (parental pressure, peer pressure, teacher and school expectations). Ethnicity plays a role in motivational orientation and belonging to an ethnic minority group may influence both internal and external motives and priorities in choosing medicine as a career. In this article, we present a qualitative study of the motives that impel Arab physicians in Israel to choose a medical career. As a theoretical framework, we apply self-determination theory (SDT) (Ryan and Deci in Am Psychol 55:68-78, 2000), consisting of three principal categories situated along a continuum: Amotivation, extrinsic motivation and intrinsic motivation. We show that extrinsic motivation is dominant among Arab physicians in Israel, demonstrating specifically the unique political context and cultural characteristics of Arab society in Israel. These findings, and the attention to the unique motivations of people from different ethnic minority groups who choose medical career, may increase the number of physicians from minority groups, a step known to decrease health gaps in multi-cultural contexts.

  9. Newspaper advertising by health maintenance organizations during the reform of healthcare services in Israel. (United States)

    Reuveni, H; Shvarts, S; Meyer, J; Elhayany, A; Greenberg, D


    On 1 January 1995 a new mandatory National Health Insurance Law was enacted in Israel. The new law fostered competition among the four major Israeli healthcare providers (HMOs or sick funds) already operating in the market due to the possibility that an unlimited number of patients and the relative budget share would shift among the HMOs. This led them to launch advertising campaigns to attract new members. To examine newspaper advertising activities during the early stages of healthcare market reform in Israel. Advertising efforts were reviewed during a study period of 24 months (July 1994 to June 1996). Advertisements were analyzed in terms of marketing strategy, costs and quality of information. During the study period 412 newspaper advertisements were collected. The total advertising costs by all HMOs was approximately US$4 million in 1996 prices. Differences were found in marketing strategy, relative advertising costs, contents and priorities among the HMOs. The content of HMOs' newspaper advertising was consistent with their marketing strategy. The messages met the criteria of persuasive advertising in that they cultivated interest in the HMOs but did not provide meaningful information about them. Future developments in this area should include consensus guidelines for advertising activities of HMOs in Israel, instruction concerning the content of messages, and standardization of criteria to report on HMO performance.

  10. Los límites del paradigma estratégico israelí

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillem Colom


    Full Text Available Este artículo repasa la evolución del paradigma estratégico israelí desde la creación del Estado de Israel en 1948 hasta la guerra de verano de 2006, un conflicto cuyo desenlace no sólo puso de manifiesto la erosión del modelo de ciudadano-soldado vigente hasta la fecha, la inadecuación de los tradicionales planteamientos estratégicos al nuevo entorno regional, o las carencias operativas de unas fuerzas armadas orientadas al mantenimiento de la supremacía militar convencional hebrea en Oriente Medio; sino también reveló el nuevo rostro de la guerra. Todos estos elementos están comportando una redefinición de la política de seguridad y defensa israelí para adaptarla a la nueva situación estratégica de la región.

  11. Work satisfaction, quality of life, and leisure time of neonatology fellows and senior neonatologists in Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moshe Michael


    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To examine work satisfaction, quality of life, and leisure time of neonatology fellows and senior neonatologists in Israel. Methods A validated questionnaire was delivered during the second half of 2008 to all the neonatology fellows and senior neonatologists in Israel. Descriptive analysis, parametric Student’s t-test, and aparametric Mann Whitney and χ2 tests were conducted. Results Of 114 practicing neonatologists in that period in Israel (including both seniors and fellows, 112 (98.25% participated in the study. The majority of neonatologists were male (53.2%, married (91.7%, 40–60 years old (69.7%, and studied in Israeli medical schools (62.0%. Most did their pediatric residencies and fellowships in Israel (97.2% and 75.7%, respectively. The average number of night/on-call shifts of fellows and senior neonatologists was 8.8 per month (SD ± 3.425 and the number of active on-call shifts was 4.04 (SD ± 3.194. The satisfaction level of neonatologists in Israeli medical centers with patient care, self-reward, work relations, and quality of life was high, but their satisfaction level with workload, income and prestige, and leisure time was low. The general index of work satisfaction and the general index of indices were both high in relation to the mid-range values. The majority of neonatologists stated that they would choose to practice medicine again. Most of them would encourage medical students to choose the same specialty they had chosen. Only a few neonatologists were contemplating changing their choice of specialty. Most neonatologists want to continue practicing medicine; however, a significant number will not recommend that their children do so. Conclusions The satisfaction level of neonatologists in Israel is high, mainly due to satisfaction with their work. High satisfaction levels promise high quality patient care, as well as high satisfaction levels of patients and their families. However

  12. Petrology of the shoshonitic Çambaşı pluton in NE Turkey and implications for the closure of the Neo-Tethys Ocean: Insights from geochemistry, geochronology and Sr-Nd isotopes (United States)

    Özdamar, Şenel; Roden, Michael F.; Billor, Mehmet Z.


    the northern branch of Neo-Tethys Ocean in Lutetian time on the northern margin of Gondwanaland.

  13. Measurements of the atmospheric concentration of radon in Israel and assessment of its impact on the health of the population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margaliot, M.


    We have developed a new method for the examination of the SSNTD foil, which utilizes laser scanning of the foil. The examination consists of examining the scattering pattern of the laser beam in the various regions of the SSNTD foil. This method (patented - US Pat 5,117,120 of 05-26-1992) enables fast and reliable reading of large numbers of SSNTD foils. An apparatus built according to this method was applied to sampling radon measurements conducted in the various regions of Israel, within the framework of the present work. The results of these measurements indicate that the average radon level to which Israel population is exposed is approximately 40 Bq/m3. The resulting equivalent radiation dose was calculated. From that, the health hazard to the population was derived, using the updated risk coefficients, which link radon exposure to increased morbidity and mortality from lung cancer. It was concluded that about 80 cases of death from lung cancer per year, out of an annual total of about 750 in Israel, can be attributed to radon It was also found that the radon level distribution in dwellings in Israel can be described best by the log-normal distribution. The tools developed in this work, combined with the actual experience with large-scale radon measurements, serve as a basis for a future full-scale radon survey in Israel. (authors) 11 tabs., 35 figs., 96 refs

  14. ‘Die pen is magtiger as die swaard’: Oor skrifgeletterdheid, skrifgeleerdes en Israel se Tweede Tempeltydperk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerda de Villiers


    Full Text Available ‘The pen is mightier than the sword’: Literacy and scribes in Israel during the Second Temple period. This article is divided in two parts. Part one examines scribal education and scribes in the ancient Near East and Israel. Although no real evidence exists for scribal schools and education in Israel, it is argued that some form of institutionalised training must have taken place in order to produce literary texts of such a high quality as are found in the Hebrew Bible. Comparative material from Mesopotamia serves to trace the education of scribes in general. Part two focuses on the Second Temple period in ancient Israel. Ezra the scribe emerges as a typical scribe from that era. Post-exilic Israel was grappling with its identity, and sought guidance from ַ[as was written in the Torah]. However, it appears that there were different interpretations of the written Law during this period. Scribes of the Ezra circle advocated a radical policy of exclusivity on the basis of what was written in the Law; others who wrote the texts of Trito-Isaiah and Ruth pleaded for a more inclusive attitude towards foreigners. The conclusion is that the battle was fought not with the sword, but with the pen, therefore: ‘The pen is mightier than the sword.’

  15. ‘Die pen is magtiger as die swaard’: Oor skrifgeletterdheid, skrifgeleerdes en Israel se Tweede Tempeltydperk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerda de Villiers


    Full Text Available ‘The pen is mightier than the sword’: Literacy and scribes in Israel during the Second Temple period. This article is divided in two parts. Part one examines scribal education and scribes in the ancient Near East and Israel. Although no real evidence exists for scribal schools and education in Israel, it is argued that some form of institutionalised training must have taken place in order to produce literary texts of such a high quality as are found in the Hebrew Bible. Comparative material from Mesopotamia serves to trace the education of scribes in general. Part two focuses on the Second Temple period in ancient Israel. Ezra the scribe emerges as a typical scribe from that era. Post-exilic Israel was grappling with its identity, and sought guidance from ַ [as was written in the Torah]. However, it appears that there were different interpretations of the written Law during this period. Scribes of the Ezra circle advocated a radical policy of exclusivity on the basis of what was written in the Law; others who wrote the texts of Trito-Isaiah and Ruth pleaded for a more inclusive attitude towards foreigners. The conclusion is that the battle was fought not with the sword, but with the pen, therefore: ‘The pen is mightier than the sword.’

  16. Integrated bio-chemostratigraphy of Late Cretaceous organic-rich marine sediments in Israel (United States)

    Mizrahi, Nitzan; Harlavan, Yehudit; Abramovich, Sigal; Ashckenazi-Polivoda, Sarit


    The Late Cretaceous was a time of great climatic and paleocanographic changes that had major impact on the global marine ecosystems. The timing of these events must be accurately determined based on a reliable chronostratigraphic framework that can be readily applied in various environmental settings. The Late Cretaceous planktic foraminiferal biostratigraphic zonation is mainly based on tropical-subtropical species that are typically found in normal pelagic settings. However, during this time, unique conditions of high water column productivity and oxygen deficiency prevailed throughout the Levant region, including Israel, causing a partial to total exclusion of some of these species. Consequently, establishing age framework based on biostratigraphic correlation of the Levant region is a challenging task, emphasizing the need to apply additional method to advance the regional chronostratigraphy. Among these, is chemostratigraphy based on the 87Sr/86Sr ratio in of the carbonate tests of foraminifera, which is now widely used for stratigraphic correlation. The main objective of the present research was to improve the chronostratigraphic resolution for the Upper Cretaceous organic-rich sequence in Israel. This was accomplished by integrating detailed correlation of planktic and benthic foraminiferal bioevents, with 87Sr/86Sr ratio, correlated to the global 87Sr/86Sr ratio curve. This integration provides a new and much improved chronostratigraphic framework of the Late Cretaceous strata of Israel and the entire Levant region. It allows to integrate sections with poorly preserved or lack of the common biomarkers, define for the biozone. In general this should yield the best age control for economically valuable stratigraphic units (e.g., oil shale) deposited during this time. The biozonation of the studied sections, RE-2 and RE-6 from the Negev basins (southern Israel), spans from the Late Santonian Dicarinella asymetrica Zone to the middle Maastrichtian Abathomphalus

  17. One flag, two rallies: Mechanisms of public opinion in Israel during the 2014 Gaza war. (United States)

    Feinstein, Yuval


    In Israel, public reaction to the 2014 Gaza war included massive support for the military operation and a sharp increase in the popularity of Prime Minister Netanyahu. To understand what caused these "rally-round-the-flag" (RRTF) effects, panel data were collected from a representative sample of the Jewish majority in Israel during and after the war. The article integrate empirical and theoretical arguments from public opinion studies, and from social and political psychology, to contextualize and guide the analysis. The results reveal that perceived threat to collective security produced two simultaneous rally outcomes through distinct processes: First, increased identification with the ethno-national Jewish group led to a rally behind Israel's prime minister. Second, anger toward Hamas and sentiment of national superiority, which was activated by increased ethno-national identification, produced a rally behind the military operation. In addition to explaining its specific empirical case, this study makes three broader contributions. First, it extends the investigation of the RRTF phenomenon in wartime beyond the popularity of the head of the state (the focus of most previous studies) by also examining levels of support for the use of military power. Second, it reveals some of the mechanisms through which distinct elements of popular nationalism mediate the relationship between war events and heterogeneous rally effects. Third, this study shows that the mechanisms that have been detected in studies of individual attitudes and behavior in small groups under conditions of perceived threat or competition can help explain the behavior of these individuals as members of larger, imagined national communities during war. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Nutritional assessment of Ethiopian Beta-Israel children: a cross-sectional survey. (United States)

    Asres, Getahun; Eidelman, Arthur I


    Malnutrition is a public health problem of significant importance in developing countries. The main aim of this survey is to assess the nutritional status of children of the Beta-Israel community in Gondar, Ethiopia, with special emphasis on the anthropometric growth patterns of infants under 5 years of age. This is a descriptive cross-sectional survey of 794 preschool children of the Beta-Israel community. The survey comprised socioeconomic and demographic data, evaluation of anthropometric measurements, and clinical evaluation of children for nutrition-related health problems. The clinical variables included assessments for vitamin A, iodine, and iron deficiencies. Underweight, stunting, and wasting were seen in 14.6%, 37.2%, and 4.5% of the children, respectively. Moreover, severe underweight, severe stunting, and severe wasting were seen in 2.9%, 14.8%, and 0.5% of the children, respectively. Malnutrition affected 41.4% of all the children, with those 12-23 months old suffering the most (66.7%). Multivariate analysis noted that smaller family size and younger age were related to higher occurrence of malnutrition among children. An overall rate of stunting of 37.2% exceeds the urban average rate for Ethiopia (29.8%). All the children had been breastfed at least for some time, and among those older than 6 months, 46.8% were exclusively breastfed for 6 months. Of the infants, 82.9% were breastfed for over 2 years. No correlation existed with pattern or duration of breastfeeding and degree of malnutrition in infants over 6 months. The urban Beta-Israel Jewish pediatric population in Gondar, Ethiopia suffers from a high rate of malnutrition manifested primarily by stunting (height for age), reflecting a state of chronic malnutrition after 6 months of life secondary to inadequate sources of complementary feeds for the breastfeeding infant.

  19. Clinical and Phenotypic Differences in Inflammatory Bowel Disease Among Arab and Jewish Children in Israel. (United States)

    Rinawi, Firas; Assa, Amit; Bashir, Husam; Peleg, Sarit; Shamir, Raanan


    Data on inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) phenotypes among the Arab population in Israel or in the neighboring Arab countries is scarce. We aimed to assess differences in disease phenotype among Arab and Jewish children living in Israel. We performed a retrospective chart review of pediatric IBD cases, which were diagnosed at the Schneider Children's Medical Center and Ha'Emek Medical Center in Israel between 2000 and 2014. Demographic, clinical, and phenotypic variables were compared between Arabs and Jews from Eastern (Sephardic) and Western (Ashkenazi) origin. Seventy-one Arab children with IBD were compared with 165 Ashkenazi and 158 Sephardic Jewish children. Age and gender did not differ between groups. Sephardic and Ashkenazi Jewish Crohn's disease (CD) patients had significantly more stenotic behavior (24 and 26 vs. 5%, p = 0.03) and less fistulzing perianal disease (15 and 11 vs. 31%, p = 0.014) compared with Arab patients. Arab children with ulcerative colitis (UC) had more severe disease at diagnosis compared to Sephardic and Ashkenazi Jews reflected by higher Pediatric UC Activity Index (45 vs. 35 and 35, respectively, p = 0.03). Arab patients had significantly lower proportion of anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies positivity (in CD) and perinuclear anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies positivity (in UC) than both Sephardic and Ashkenazi Jewish children (23 vs. 53 and 65%, p = 0.002 and 35 vs. 60 and 75%, respectively, p = 0.002). Arab and Jewish children with IBD differ in disease characteristics and severity. Whether genetic or environmental factors are the cause for these differences is yet to be determined.

  20. Radiometric maps of Israel - Partial contribution to the understanding of potential radon emanations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vulkan, U.; Shirav, M.


    An airborne radiometric survey over parts of Israel was carried out in 1981. The system was comprised from 10 Nal 4 inch x 4 inch x 16 inch detectors, arranged in 4,4 and 2 sensors, with total volume of 1560 inch 3 , and one 4 inch x 4 inch x 16 inch uplooking Nal detector. Flight nominal height was 400 feet. It was found that the Mount Scopus Group (of Senonian origin) is the main source for high uranium - phosphorite rocks of this group contain up to 150 ppm U. Comparing the eU radiometric map with a map of potential radon emanation from rock units, reveals a fair correlation - high radon emanation usually follow the distribution of the Mount Scopus Group in Israel. The correlation between the two maps is excellent over arid terrain where soil cover is missing, whereas over semi-arid - humid areas (western and northern Israel), where soil and cultivation covers are developed, the eU levels over Mount Scopus Group's outcrops are much lower due to absorption of the radiation, and do not depict the full radon potential. Detailed mapping of radon hazards usually exhibit poor correlation between airborne eU data and direct pore radon measurements, even in arid terrain. This phenomenon is attributed to the fact that a radon ''source rock'' (e.g. phosphorite) could be covered with a few up to some tenths of meters of uranium-barren rock. About 0.5 meter cover is enough to absorb all radiation, causing very low airborne eU readings, while the radon free way in this rock is about 10 meters, yielding high pore radon levels when directly measured