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Sample records for tetanus toxoid immunization

  1. Missed opportunity of tetanus toxoid immunization among pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study attempted to assess the presence of missed opportunity for tetanus toxoid immunization using a Community and Family Survey (CFS) data collected in the five densely populated zones of the SNNPR. The study established the existence of a true missed opportunity for tetanus toxoid immunization among ...

  2. The immune response of horses to tetanus toxoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, B C; Knoetze, P C

    1979-12-01

    An intramuscular injection of 8-16 Lf tetanus toxoid in water-in-oil emulsion protected adult horses against tetanus for at least 128 weeks. A booster dose of 8 Lf toxoid in aqueous solution protected them for a further period of at least 3 1/2 years. Colostral immunity protected foals for at least 10 weeks. An intramuscular injection of 8 Lf toxoid in water-in-oil emulsion given to foals from immune dams when they were 10-18 weeks old did not elicit any antibody response. They did respond, however, to a booster injection of 8 Lf toxoid in aqueous solution given 12 weeks after the first dose. New-born foals were shown to be inherently unable to respond to an injection of tetanus toxoid.

  3. Tetanus toxoid immunization coverage among mothers of below one ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results showed that with card/history criterion, 109 (55.6%) women received first dose of tetanus toxoid (TT), 80 (40.8%) received second dose and 22 ... Reasons advanced for failure to be immunized included lack of information accounting for 65.85%, lack of motivation was 20.4% and 13.8% as environmental factors.

  4. Tetanus toxoid antibody level in asymptomatic Plasmodium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was designed to investigate if the presence of asymptomatic malaria parasiteamia in pregnant women will compromise their ability to respond to full dose of tetanus toxoid immunization during their antenatal clinic visits. Hence, 90 apparently healthy pregnant women who had completed the tetanus toxoid ...

  5. Dynamic changes of horse serum T-globulin immunization with snake venoms, tetanus and diphtheria toxoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H F; Lee, J D; Lee, Y C

    1979-12-01

    In course of immunizing horses with snake venoms, tetanus and diphtheria toxoids, a new serum component, T-globulin, was formed and migrated between the beta- and gamma-globulins. The T-globulin content was parallel with the antibody titre after the middle course of immunization. There were many components in snake antivenin and T-globulin was composed of most of those components. The components of diphtheria T-globulin were the same as those of crude antitoxin and tetanus T-globulin except one precipitin.

  6. Immune responses of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) to commercial tetanus toxoid vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, William A; Wiedner, Ellen; Isaza, Ramiro; Townsend, Hugh G G; Boleslawski, Maria; Lunn, D P

    2010-02-15

    Although captive elephants are commonly vaccinated annually against tetanus using commercially available tetanus toxoid vaccines marketed for use in horses and livestock, no data exists to prove that tetanus toxoid vaccination produces measurable antibody titers in elephants. An ELISA test was created to measure antibody responses to tetanus toxoid vaccinations in 22 Asian elephants ranging in age from 24 to 56 years (mean age 39 years) over a 7-month period. All animals had been previously vaccinated with tetanus toxoid vaccine, with the last booster administered 4 years before the start of the study. The great majority of elephants had titers prior to booster vaccination, and following revaccination all elephants demonstrated anamnestic increases in titers, indicating that this species does respond to tetanus vaccination. Surprisingly older animals mounted a significantly higher response to revaccination than did younger animals. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Tetanus Toxoid Vaccination Coverage And Differential Between ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Government commitment and support from a range of partnerships have led to a massive increase in tetanus toxoid immunization coverage among women of childbearing age, ensuring that both mothers and babies are protected against tetanus infection in. Bangladesh. In order to control and eliminate the ...

  8. Immunostimulatory effect of tetanus toxoid loaded chitosan nanoparticles following microneedles assisted immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddhapura, Krupa; Harde, Harshad; Jain, Sanyog

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated potential of tetanus toxoid loaded chitosan nanoparticles (TT-Ch-NPs) following bare topical and microneedles assisted immunization. The TT-Ch-NPs were prepared by ionotropic gelation method using poly(sodium-4-styrene sulfonate) (PSS) as crosslinking agent which exhibited ~208 nm size and ~99% entrapment efficiency. The manufacturing process did not have any detrimental effect on integrity and conformation of antigen. The in vitro analysis demonstrated higher skin penetration following microneedles assisted immunization. In vivo immunization studies exhibited that TT-Ch-NPs delivered through microneedles induced comparable IgG and IgG1 titer, yet higher IgG2a titer than commercial TT vaccine. Similarly, microneedles assisted administration of TT-Ch-NPs generated higher Th1 cytokines, albeit no significant alteration in Th2 cytokines levels than commercial TT vaccine. In conclusion, microneedles assisted administration of TT-Ch-NPs especially via hollow microneedles (HMN) could be considered as best preferred route for immunization due to induction of more balanced Th1/Th2 biased immune response. From the Clinical Editor: The use of skin as a route for vaccination has been a clinically important topic for some time. In this article, the authors investigated the efficacy of both solid microneedles and hollow microneedles as methods for topical delivery of tetanus toixoid. The positive finding in the experiments could provide a better method for vaccination in the clinical setting in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Impaired cellular immune response to tetanus toxoid but not to cytomegalovirus in effectively HAART-treated HIV-infected children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsina, Laia; Noguera-Julian, Antoni; Fortuny, Clàudia

    2013-05-07

    Despite of highly active antiretroviral therapy, the response to vaccines in HIV-infected children is poor and short-lived, probably due to a defect in cellular immune responses. We compared the cellular immune response (assessed in terms of IFN-γ production) to tetanus toxoid and to cytomegalovirus in a series of 13 HIV-perinatally-infected children and adolescents with optimal immunovirological response to first line antiretroviral therapy, implemented during chronic infection. A stronger cellular response to cytomegalovirus (11 out of 13 patients) was observed, as compared to tetanus toxoid (1 out of 13; p=0.003). These results suggest that the repeated exposition to CMV, as opposed to the past exposition to TT, is able to maintain an effective antigen-specific immune response in stable HIV-infected pediatric patients and strengthen current recommendations on immunization practices in these children. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. 9 CFR 113.114 - Tetanus Toxoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Inactivated Bacterial Products § 113.114 Tetanus Toxoid. Tetanus Toxoid shall be produced from a culture of Clostridium...

  11. Quantitative estimation of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids. 4. Toxoids as international reference materials defining Lf-units for diphtheria and tetanus toxoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyng, J

    1990-01-01

    The Lf-unit, which is used in the control of diphtheria and tetanus toxoid production and in some countries also to follow immunization of horses for production of antitoxins, has hitherto been defined by means of antitoxin preparations. A diphtheria toxoid and a tetanus toxoid preparation, both freeze-dried, were examined in an international collaborative study for their suitability to serve as reference reagents in the flocculation tests and for defining the Lf-units. It was shown that flocculation tests using the reference toxoids are very reproducible and reliable and the WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization established: the toxoid called DIFT as the International Reference Reagent of Diphtheria Toxoid for Flocculation Test with a defined content of 900 Lf-units of diphtheria toxoid per ampoule; and the toxoid called TEFT as the International Reference Reagent of Tetanus Toxoid for Flocculation Test with a defined content of 1000 Lf-units of diphtheria toxoid per ampoule.

  12. Aging and the Immune Response to Tetanus Toxoid: Diminished Frequency and Level of Cellular Immune Reactivity to Antigenic Stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Schatz, Desmond; Ellis, Tamir; Ottendorfer, Eric; Jodoin, Eric; Barrett, Douglas; Atkinson, Mark

    1998-01-01

    The period of efficacious immune reactivity afforded by tetanus immunization and the need for continuing some forms of tetanus vaccination programs have been the subjects of recent debates. Our studies demonstrate that the level of antitetanus immunity based on immunological memory (i.e., cellular immune responsiveness) varies dramatically as a function of age, with older individuals constituting a population which is increasingly susceptible to tetanus infection.

  13. Restoration of anti-tetanus toxoid responses in patients initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy with or without a boost immunization: an INITIO substudy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, C T; Goodall, R L; Samri, A; Autran, B; Kelleher, A D; Poli, G; Pantaleo, G; Gotch, F M; Imami, N

    2008-05-01

    INITIO is an open-labelled randomized trial evaluating first-line therapeutic strategies for human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection. In an immunology substudy a tetanus toxoid booster (TTB) immunization was planned for 24 weeks after initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). All patients had received tetanus toxoid immunization in childhood. Generation of proliferative responses to tetanus toxoid was compared in two groups of patients, those receiving a protease inhibitor (PI)-sparing regimen (n = 21) and those receiving a PI-containing (n = 54) regimen. Fifty-two participants received a TTB immunization [PI-sparing (n = 15), PI-containing (n = 37)] and 23 participants did not [PI-sparing (n = 6) or PI-containing (n = 17)]. Cellular responses to tetanus antigen were monitored by lymphoproliferation at time of immunization and every 24 weeks to week 156. Proportions with a positive response (defined as stimulation index > or = 3 and Delta counts per minute > or = 3000) were compared at weeks 96 and 156. All analyses were intent-to-treat. Fifty-two participants had a TTB immunization at median 25 weeks; 23 patients did not. At weeks 96 and 156 there was no evidence of a difference in tetanus-specific responses, between those with or without TTB immunization (P = 0.2, P = 0.4). There was no difference in the proportion with response between those with PI-sparing or PI-containing regimens at both time-points (P = 0.8, P = 0.7). The proliferative response to tetanus toxoid was unaffected by initial HAART regimen. Anti-tetanus responses appear to reconstitute eventually in most patients over 156 weeks when treated successfully with HAART, irrespective of whether or not a TTB immunization has been administered.

  14. Predictors of Low Uptake of Prenatal Tetanus Toxoid, Reduced Diphtheria Toxoid, and Acellular Pertussis Immunization in Privately Insured Women in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Anne M; Layton, J Bradley; Li, Dongmei; Hudgens, Michael G; Boggess, Kim A; McGrath, Leah J; Weber, David J; Becker-Dreps, Sylvia

    2017-04-01

    To examine the uptake of prenatal tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) immunization among pregnant women in the United States. Using MarketScan data, we conducted a historical cohort study among pregnant women with employer-based commercial insurance in the United States who delivered between January 1, 2010, and December 31, 2014. We examined temporal trends of uptake, predictors of uptake, and timing of Tdap immunization. Among 1,222,384 eligible pregnancies in 1,147,711 women, receipt of prenatal Tdap immunization increased from 0.0% of women who delivered in January 2010 to 9.8% who delivered in October 2012 (the date of the recommendation by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices for Tdap during every pregnancy) to 44.4% who delivered in December 2014. Among women who received Tdap during pregnancy, the majority were immunized between 27 weeks and 36 6/7 weeks of gestation per the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommendation. In multivariable analyses among women who delivered between November 2012 and December 2014, rates of prenatal Tdap immunization were lower for women younger than 25 years of age (eg, 20-24 compared with 30-34 years rate ratio [RR] 0.83, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.85-0.88), with other children (eg, three compared with zero children: RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.84-0.88), residing in the South compared with the Midwest (RR 0.81, 95% CI 0.80-0.82), or with emergency department visits in early pregnancy (RR 0.93, 95% CI 0.92-0.95). The proportion of pregnant women who received prenatal Tdap increased with increasing gestational age at birth. By the end of 2014, fewer than half of pregnant women in the United States were receiving prenatal Tdap immunization. Implementation and dissemination strategies are needed to increase Tdap coverage among pregnant women, especially those who are young, have other children, or reside in the South.

  15. Effect of Spirulina (Arthrospira) supplementation on the immune response to tetanus toxoid vaccination in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Wan-Loy; Quynh, Le Van; Radhakrishnan, Ammu Kutty

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether Spirulina (Arthrospira) supplementation could enhance the immune response to tetanus toxoid (TT) vaccine in a mouse model. Vaccination of TT was performed on day 7 and 21 in mice fed daily with Spirulina (50 and 150 mg/kg body weight). Both Spirulina supplementation and TT vaccination did not significantly affect body weight gain of the mice. Supplementation of Spirulina significantly enhanced IgG level (p = .01) after the first but not after the second TT vaccination. The anti-TT IgG levels of the groups that received low dose and high dose of Spirulina were not significantly different. Spirulina supplementation did not show significant effects on in vitro splenocyte proliferation and cytokine (IFN-γ and IL-4) production induced by Con A and TT. This study showed that Spirulina supplementation could enhance primary immune response in terms of antibody production, but not secondary immune response following TT vaccination in a mouse model.

  16. [In vitro immunization for the production of antibodies to tetanus toxin and toxoid. 1. Systems for the detection of in vitro synthetized specific immunoglobulins. Strategies of test development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiessig, S T; Jahn, S; Porstmann, T; von Baehr, R

    1987-01-01

    By means of semipurified tetanus toxin for solid phase coating in an enzyme immunoassay (ELISA) for detection of specific IgG and IgM antibodies a detection limit of 0.02 IU per litre was achieved. The addition of serum from animals like horses or goats as inert protein to the dilution medium was omitted to prevent a displacement of human antibodies by antitetanus antibodies present in the animals sera. The specificity of the ELISA was demonstrated by inhibition experiments with soluble antigen and in an ELISA for detection of anti-tetanus toxin antibodies from mice immunized with the toxoid from the different purification steps.

  17. Comparative Immunogenicity of the Tetanus Toxoid and Recombinant Tetanus Vaccines in Mice, Rats, and Cynomolgus Monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Yu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Tetanus is caused by the tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT and is one of the most dreaded diseases especially in the developing countries. The current vaccine against tetanus is based on an inactivated tetanus toxin, which is effective but has many drawbacks. In our previous study, we developed a recombinant tetanus vaccine based on protein TeNT-Hc, with clear advantages over the toxoid vaccine in terms of production, characterization, and homogeneity. In this study, the titers, growth extinction, and persistence of specific antibodies induced by the two types of vaccine in mice, rats, and cynomolgus monkeys were compared. The booster vaccination efficacy of the two types of vaccines at different time points and protection mechanism in animals were also compared. The recombinant tetanus vaccine induced persistent and better antibody titers and strengthened the immunity compared with the commercially available toxoid vaccine in animals. Our results provide a theoretical basis for the development of a safe and effective recombinant tetanus vaccine to enhance the immunity of adolescents and adults as a substitute for the current toxoid vaccine.

  18. Preventing tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis among adults: use of tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid and acellular pertussis vaccine recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) and recommendation of ACIP, supported by the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC), for use of Tdap among health-care personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretsinger, Katrina; Broder, Karen R; Cortese, Margaret M; Joyce, M Patricia; Ortega-Sanchez, Ismael; Lee, Grace M; Tiwari, Tejpratap; Cohn, Amanda C; Slade, Barbara A; Iskander, John K; Mijalski, Christina M; Brown, Kristin H; Murphy, Trudy V

    2006-12-15

    On June 10, 2005, a tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid and acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap) formulated for use in adults and adolescents was licensed in the United States for persons aged 11-64 years (ADACEL, manufactured by sanofi pasteur, Toronto, Ontario, Canada). Prelicensure studies demonstrated safety and efficacy, inferred through immunogenicity, against tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis when Tdap was administered as a single booster dose to adults. To reduce pertussis morbidity among adults and maintain the standard of care for tetanus and diphtheria prevention and to reduce the transmission of pertussis to infants and in health-care settings, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends that: 1) adults aged 19-64 years should receive a single dose of Tdap to replace tetanus and diphtheria toxoids vaccine (Td) for booster immunization against tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis if they received their last dose of Td >or=10 years earlier and they have not previously received Tdap; 2) intervals shorter than 10 years since the last Td may be used for booster protection against pertussis; 3) adults who have or who anticipate having close contact with an infant aged Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC). This statement 1) reviews pertussis, tetanus and diphtheria vaccination policy in the United States; 2) describes the clinical features and epidemiology of pertussis among adults; 3) summarizes the immunogenicity, efficacy, and safety data of Tdap; and 4) presents recommendations for the use of Tdap among adults aged 19-64 years.

  19. Cellular and humoral immune responses to a tetanus toxoid booster in perinatally HIV-1-infected children and adolescents receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, Natascha; Deville, Jaime G; Nielsen, Karin A; Ank, Bonnie; Wei, Lian S; Sim, Myung Shin; Wolinsky, Steven M; Bryson, Yvonne J

    2007-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infected children treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) may develop a significant reduction of plasma viremia associated with an increase in CD4+ T-cell counts. Functional capacity of this reconstituted immune system in response to recall antigens is important to maintain protective immunity to vaccine-preventable diseases. We therefore determined cellular and humoral immune responses to tetanus toxoid (TT) booster in perinatally HIV-1-infected children and adolescents receiving HAART. Immune responses were prospectively evaluated pre- and post-tetanus booster using lymphocyte proliferation assay (LPA) stimulation index (SI > or = 3.0) and tetanus antibody (TAb > or = 0.15) in 15 patients. The median interval from primary tetanus immunization series was 6 years (range 2-12 years). We compared patients by their virological response to HAART (complete responders, CR, n=7; incomplete responders, ICR, n=8). There were no significant differences in median age 12.6 years (CR: 12.9; ICR: 10.6) or median CD4 T-cell pre-booster (CR: 35%/819; ICR: 26%/429) between groups. Tetanus LPA responses were observed in one patient prior to booster and in seven patients post-booster. In contrast, 38% of patients had protective TAb pre-booster, but 92% developed protective TAb post-booster. All of the CR and 5/6 ICR patients developed protective TAb. HIV-1-infected children and adolescents had modest LPA responses to tetanus following booster, similar to HIV-1-infected adults. However, the majority of patients developed protective TAb levels after booster and maintained the response. Shorter intervals may need to be considered for TT immunization boosters in HIV-1-infected pediatric patients, as only 38% had protective TAb at baseline.

  20. Updated recommendations for use of tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine in adults aged 65 years and older - Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    Since 2005, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) has recommended a tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine booster dose for all adolescents aged 11 through 18 years (preferred at 11 through 12 years) and for those adults aged 19 through 64 years who have not yet received a dose. In October 2010, despite the lack of an approved Tdap vaccine for adults aged 65 years and older, ACIP recommended that unvaccinated adults aged 65 years and older be vaccinated with Tdap if in close contact with an infant, and that other adults aged 65 years and older may receive Tdap. In July 2011, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved expanding the age indication for Boostrix (GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium) to aged 65 years and older. In February 2012, ACIP recommended Tdap for all adults aged 65 years and older. This recommendation supersedes previous Tdap recommendations regarding adults aged 65 years and older.

  1. Antigen-specific antibody response in juvenile-onset SLE patients following routine immunization with tetanus toxoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashef, Sara; Ghazizadeh, Farid; Derakhshan, Ali; Farjadian, Shirin; Alyasin, Soheila

    2008-09-01

    Infection is now the most common cause of morbidity in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). There is lack of information regarding the specific antibody formation in response to vaccines in young SLE patients. To determine the efficacy of anti-tetanus antibody response in young patients with SLE. Forty SLE patients with mean age of 14.1 years (range: 7-21) and 60 age and sex matched normal controls were enrolled in this study over a period of one year. Diagnosis was made according to the ACR criteria and disease activity was determined based on SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI). All patients and controls had received the complete schedule of tetanus vaccinations consisting of three primary doses and two boosters by the age of six. Serum immunoglobulins and anti-tetanus antibody titers were determined by Nephelometry and ELISA. Anti-tetanus antibody levels greater than 0.1 IU/ml have been suggested as protective. In all of the patients and controls anti-tetanus antibody titer was > 0.1 IU/ml. IgG, IgA, and IgM levels were in the normal range for their age. Mean disease activity score was 4.9 (range: 0-16). There was no association between SLEDAI score and anti-tetanus antibody response. School age onset and immunosuppressive therapy does not seem to interfere with development of consistent immunity to tetanus vaccine in young SLE patients.

  2. Tetanus toxoid vaccine: elimination of neonatal tetanus in selected states of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Ramesh; Khanna, Pardeep

    2012-10-01

    Tetanus is caused by a neurotoxin produced by Clostridium tetani (C. tetani), a spore-forming bacterium. Infection begins when tetanus spores are introduced into damaged tissue. Tetanus is characterized by muscle rigidity and painful muscle spasms caused by tetanus toxin's blockade of inhibitory neurons that normally oppose and modulate the action of excitatory motor neurons. Maternal and neonatal tetanus (MNT) are caused by unhygienic methods of delivery, abortion, or umbilical-cord care. Maternal and neonatal tetanus are both forms of generalized tetanus and have similar clinical courses. About 90% of neonates with tetanus develop symptoms in the first 3-14 d of life, mostly on days 6-8, distinguishing neonatal tetanus from other causes of neonatal mortality which typically occur during the first two days of life. Overall case fatality rates for patients admitted to the hospital with neonatal tetanus in developing countries are 8-50%, while the fatality rate can be as high as 100% without hospital care. Tetanus toxoid (TT) vaccination of pregnant women to prevent neonatal tetanus was included in WHO's Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) a few years after its inception in 1974. In 2000, WHO, UNICEF, and UNFPA formed a partnership to relaunch efforts toward this goal, adding the elimination of maternal tetanus as a program objective, and setting a new target date of 2005. By February 2007, 40 countries had implemented tetanus vaccination campaigns in high-risk areas, targeting more than 94 million women, and protecting more than 70 million subjects with at least two doses of TT. In 2011, 653 NT cases were reported in India compared with 9313 in 1990. As of February 2012, 25 countries and 15 States and Union Territories of India, all of Ethiopia except Somaliland, and almost 29 of 34 provinces in Indonesia have been validated to have eliminated MNT.

  3. Augmentation of humoral and cellular immunity in response to Tetanus and Diphtheria toxoids by supercritical carbon dioxide extracts of Hippophae rhamnoides L. leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayashankar, Bindhya; Singh, Divya; Tanwar, Himanshi; Mishra, K P; Murthy, Swetha; Chanda, Sudipta; Mishra, Jigni; Tulswani, R; Misra, K; Singh, S B; Ganju, Lilly

    2017-03-01

    Hippophae rhamnoides L. commonly known as Seabuckthorn (SBT), a wild shrub of family Elaegnacea, has extensively used for treating various ailments like skin diseases, jaundice, asthma, lung troubles. SBT leaves have been reported to possess several pharmacological properties including immunomodulatory, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and tissue regeneration etc. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the adjuvant property of supercritical carbon dioxide extracts (SCEs 300ET and 350ET) of SBT leaves in balb/c mice immunized with Tetanus and Diphtheria toxoids. The dynamic changes in the immune response were measured in terms of humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. We have seen the effect of SCEs on immunoglobulin subtypes and secondary immune response generation. In addition, the effect of SCEs on antigen specific cellular immunity was evaluated. Our results show that SCEs 300ET and 350ET significantly enhanced antibody titers in response to both TT and DT antigens. The secondary immune response generated was significantly increased in case of TT immunized animals. SCEs also enhanced cytokine levels (IFN-γ, IL-4, TNF-α and IL-1β) and increased lymphoproliferation. Besides, both SCEs did not show any toxic effects. Therefore, the study suggests that SCEs are safe and have potent immunostimulatory activity and hence, seems to be a promising balanced Th1 and Th2 directing immunological adjuvant for various veterinary as well as human vaccines. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. [Cost of tetanus toxoid injection using a jet-injector (Imule) in collective immunization in Senegal: comparison with injection using a syringe and resterilizable needle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlumberger, M; Châtelet, I P; Lafarge, H; Genêt, A; Gaye, A B; Monnereau, A; Sanou, C; Diawara, L; Gueye, Y; Lang, J

    1999-01-01

    Needle-less jet injectors were developed by the US army after World War II. Their principal use, however, has been in the administration of lyophilized vaccines from multidose vials to at-risk populations in developing countries. In 1983, a hepatitis B epidemic occurred among customers of a beauty clinic in California (USA) following the use of jet-injectors, demonstrating a clear risk of cross-contamination associated with this technique. As a result, the WHO and Unicef stopped recommending jet-injectors for collective immunizations in developing countries. To eliminate the risk of contamination, Pasteur Mérieux Sérums et Vaccins (now Aventis Pasteur) developed, in 1990, jet-injectors for use with single-use vaccine cartridges. These injectors were tested for tetanus toxoid, DTP, influenza, hepatitis A and typhoid Vi vaccination. The immunogenic reaction was as strong and the injection as well tolerated as for injections using a standard needle and syringe. The additional cost of the Imule technique was evaluated in a district-wide (127,000 inhabitants) tetanus toxoid immunization program at Velingara, Senegal in 1993. The total cost was estimated to be 1.51 FF (76 F CSA, 0.32 US dollars) for one dose of tetanus vaccine given by needle and syringe and 2.41 FF (121 F CSA, 0.56 US dollars) for one dose given by Imule. Thus, the additional cost of injection by ImuleTM was 0.90 FF (45 F CSA, 0.21 US dollars). The cost of cross infection in sub-Saharan Africa has been estimated to be 2.37 FF (118 F CSA, 0.55 US dollars) per injection if injection practices are not supervised. Therefore, the Imule technique may be considered to be cost-effective. However, the technique is still not completely reliable, as shown by the total breakdown of four jet injectors during this vaccination session. Lyophilized vaccines have also not been tested in the field. Vaccinators prefer Imule, training is easy and immunization can be carried out on a day-to-day basis with no vaccine

  5. The Peptide Vaccine Combined with Prior Immunization of a Conventional Diphtheria-Tetanus Toxoid Vaccine Induced Amyloid β Binding Antibodies on Cynomolgus Monkeys and Guinea Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Yano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The reduction of brain amyloid beta (Aβ peptides by anti-Aβ antibodies is one of the possible therapies for Alzheimer’s disease. We previously reported that the Aβ peptide vaccine including the T-cell epitope of diphtheria-tetanus combined toxoid (DT induced anti-Aβ antibodies, and the prior immunization with conventional DT vaccine enhanced the immunogenicity of the peptide. Cynomolgus monkeys were given the peptide vaccine subcutaneously in combination with the prior DT vaccination. Vaccination with a similar regimen was also performed on guinea pigs. The peptide vaccine induced anti-Aβ antibodies in cynomolgus monkeys and guinea pigs without chemical adjuvants, and excessive immune responses were not observed. Those antibodies could preferentially recognize Aβ40, and Aβ42 compared to Aβ fibrils. The levels of serum anti-Aβ antibodies and plasma Aβ peptides increased in both animals and decreased the brain Aβ40 level of guinea pigs. The peptide vaccine could induce a similar binding profile of anti-Aβ antibodies in cynomolgus monkeys and guinea pigs. The peptide vaccination could be expected to reduce the brain Aβ peptides and their toxic effects via clearance of Aβ peptides by generated antibodies.

  6. Schistosoma mansoni Infection Can Jeopardize the Duration of Protective Levels of Antibody Responses to Immunizations against Hepatitis B and Tetanus Toxoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riner, Diana K; Ndombi, Eric M; Carter, Jennifer M; Omondi, Amos; Kittur, Nupur; Kavere, Emmy; Korir, Harrison K; Flaherty, Briana; Karanja, Diana; Colley, Daniel G

    2016-12-01

    Schistosomiasis is a disease of major public health importance in sub-Saharan Africa. Immunoregulation begins early in schistosome infection and is characterized by hyporesponsiveness to parasite and bystander antigens, suggesting that a schistosome infection at the time of immunization could negatively impact the induction of protective vaccine responses. This study examined whether having a Schistosoma mansoni infection at the time of immunization with hepatitis B and tetanus toxoid (TT) vaccines impacts an individual's ability to achieve and maintain protective antibody levels against hepatitis B surface antigen or TT. Adults were recruited from Kisumu Polytechnic College in Western Kenya. At enrollment, participants were screened for schistosomiasis and soil transmitted helminths (STHs) and assigned to groups based on helminth status. The vaccines were then administered and helminth infections treated a week after the first hepatitis B boost. Over an 8 month period, 3 blood specimens were obtained for the evaluation of humoral and cytokine responses to the vaccine antigens and for immunophenotyping. 146 individuals were available for final analysis and 26% were S. mansoni positive (Sm+). Schistosomiasis did not impede the generation of initial minimum protective antibody levels to either hepatitis B or TT vaccines. However, median hepatitis B surface antibody levels were significantly lower in the Sm+ group after the first boost and remained lower, but not significantly lower, following praziquantel (PZQ) treatment and final boost. In addition, 8 months following TT boost and 7 months following PZQ treatment, Sm+ individuals were more likely to have anti-TT antibody levels fall below levels considered optimal for long term protection. IL-5 levels in response to in vitro TT stimulation of whole blood were significantly higher in the Sm+ group at the 8 month time period as well. Individuals with schistosomiasis at the start the immunizations were capable of

  7. Schistosoma mansoni Infection Can Jeopardize the Duration of Protective Levels of Antibody Responses to Immunizations against Hepatitis B and Tetanus Toxoid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana K Riner

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is a disease of major public health importance in sub-Saharan Africa. Immunoregulation begins early in schistosome infection and is characterized by hyporesponsiveness to parasite and bystander antigens, suggesting that a schistosome infection at the time of immunization could negatively impact the induction of protective vaccine responses. This study examined whether having a Schistosoma mansoni infection at the time of immunization with hepatitis B and tetanus toxoid (TT vaccines impacts an individual's ability to achieve and maintain protective antibody levels against hepatitis B surface antigen or TT.Adults were recruited from Kisumu Polytechnic College in Western Kenya. At enrollment, participants were screened for schistosomiasis and soil transmitted helminths (STHs and assigned to groups based on helminth status. The vaccines were then administered and helminth infections treated a week after the first hepatitis B boost. Over an 8 month period, 3 blood specimens were obtained for the evaluation of humoral and cytokine responses to the vaccine antigens and for immunophenotyping.146 individuals were available for final analysis and 26% were S. mansoni positive (Sm+. Schistosomiasis did not impede the generation of initial minimum protective antibody levels to either hepatitis B or TT vaccines. However, median hepatitis B surface antibody levels were significantly lower in the Sm+ group after the first boost and remained lower, but not significantly lower, following praziquantel (PZQ treatment and final boost. In addition, 8 months following TT boost and 7 months following PZQ treatment, Sm+ individuals were more likely to have anti-TT antibody levels fall below levels considered optimal for long term protection. IL-5 levels in response to in vitro TT stimulation of whole blood were significantly higher in the Sm+ group at the 8 month time period as well.Individuals with schistosomiasis at the start the immunizations were

  8. Tetanus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1Balogun, O., lOlagbaju, O. »Nigerian Institute of Medical Research, РЫВ 2013, Taba, Lagos, Nigeria ... A retrospective survey of tetanus toxoid immunization coverage was conducted among 196 mothers of children less than one year of age in a .... is high and shows that there is poor knowledge of immunization and its ...

  9. Tetanus toxoid vaccination coverage and differential between urban and rural areas of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mosiur

    2009-04-01

    Government commitment and support from a range of partnerships have led to a massive increase in tetanus toxoid immunization coverage among women of childbearing age, ensuring that both mothers and babies are protected against tetanus infection in Bangladesh. In order to control and eliminate the vaccine preventable diseases it is important to know the vaccination coverage. The major objective of this study is to determine the complete vaccination rate and the predictors that influence vaccination of mothers during pregnancy and to see whether there is any gap lies between the women of urban and rural areas regarding the tetanus toxoid injection receiving. This study utilizes the data extracted from Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey 2004 (BDHS).To meets the objectives this study considers bivariate and multivariate analysis. The study represents that 88 per cent urban mothers and 84 per cent rural mothers receive tetanus toxoid injection during their pregnancy period. Logistic regression model is adjusted by wealth index, mother's age at last birth, education, husband's occupation, ever using contraception, fertility preference, wanted last child, having permission to go to hospital/health center, telling about pregnancy complications and mass media exposure for receiving TT injection. All these explanatory variables come out to be as significant determinants of receiving TT injection for all mothers as well as for rural mothers in Bangladesh. On the other hand ever using contraception, wanted last child, telling about pregnancy complications, mass media exposure and wealth index are the significant determinants of receiving TT injection for mothers of urban area.

  10. [Determination of tetanus toxin and toxoid by ELISA using monoclonal antibodies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkin, M A; Sviridov, V V; Perelygina, O V

    2004-01-01

    The procedure of obtaining monoclonal antibodies TT-1, TT-2, and TT-3 against tetanus toxin/toxoid is described. It is shown that both commercial DTP vaccine and tetanus toxoid conjugated with a low-molecular-weight hapten can be used an immunogens. Monoclonal antibodies TT-1 and TT-2 neutralized tetanus toxin in vivo. The monoclonal antibodies obtained were used to design and compare several schemes of quantitative determination of tetanus toxoid and toxin by ELISA. A more sensitive competitive ELISA allowed detecting as much as 0.01 EC/ml toxoid and 50 LD50/ml toxin.

  11. Specific IgE and IgG4 immune responses to tetanus and diphtheria toxoid in atopic and nonatopic children during the first two years of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dannemann, A.; van Ree, R.; Kulig, M.; Bergmann, R. L.; Bauer, P.; Forster, J.; Guggenmoos-Holzmann, I.; Aalberse, R. C.; Wahn, U.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In order to investigate, whether atopic and nonatopic children show differences in their specific IgE and IgG4 immune responses to tetanus (T) and diphtheria (D) antigens, we studied 538 children who had been followed from birth on and from whom records had been kept of all

  12. Seroprevalence of tetanus toxoid antibody and booster vaccination efficacy in Japanese travelers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Yasutaka; Yamamoto, Akihiko; Komiya, Takako; Takeshita, Nozomi; Takahashi, Motohide

    2014-01-01

    Tetanus can be prevented by vaccination, which is especially important for overseas travelers. However, despite booster vaccination every 10 years being recommended, most Japanese adults do not receive it in the absence of physical injury or overseas travel. We aimed to investigate the level of protective immunity against tetanus among Japanese travelers, which may provide valuable information for formulating booster vaccination recommendations. 113 Japanese travelers given tetanus toxoid were recruited. The collected samples included paired samples prior to and 3-5 weeks after receiving the booster vaccination. Travelers who did not return and those lacking sample collection at the second visit were excluded. Finally, 96 paired blood samples were collected. History of immunization against tetanus, including DPT and DT vaccines, was determined from interviews or immunization records. The pre-vaccination geometric mean titer for the 96 participants was 1.07 IU/mL; 76% had a protective antitoxin level (>0.1 IU/mL), and 50% had a long-term protective antitoxin level (>1.0 IU/mL). Most participants 50 years of age had protective immunity. Among the 23 participants without protective antitoxin levels (50 years of age. Although the tetanus antitoxin level decreases with age, booster vaccination helped to achieve an adequate protective antitoxin levels in Japanese travelers tetanus especially in those >50 years old need to obtain protective immunity against tetanus according to a basic immunization schedule to prevent tetanus in travelers and residents of Japan. Copyright © 2013 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and the Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Diversity of the antibody response to tetanus toxoid: comparison of hybridoma library to phage display library.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Sorouri

    Full Text Available Monoclonal antibodies are important tools in research and since the 1990s have been an important therapeutic class targeting a wide variety of diseases. Earlier methods of mAb production relied exclusively on the lengthy process of making hybridomas. The advent of phage display technology introduced an alternative approach for mAb production. A potential concern with this approach is its complete dependence on an in vitro selection process, which may result in selection of V(H-V(L pairs normally eliminated during the in vivo selection process. The diversity of V(H-V(L pairs selected from phage display libraries relative to an endogenous response is unknown. To address these questions, we constructed a panel of hybridomas and a phage display library using the spleen of a single tetanus toxoid-immunized mouse and compared the diversity of the immune response generated using each technique. Surprisingly, the tetanus toxoid-specific antibodies produced by the hybridoma library exhibited a higher degree of V(H-V(L genetic diversity than their phage display-derived counterparts. Furthermore, the overlap among the V-genes from each library was very limited. Consistent with the notion that accumulation of many small DNA changes lead to increased antigen specificity and affinity, the phage clones displayed substantial micro-heterogeneity. Contrary to previous reports, we found that antigen specificity against tetanus toxoid is encoded by both V(κ and V(H genes. Finally, the phage-derived tetanus-specific clones had a lower binding affinity than the hybridomas, a phenomenon thought to be the result of random pairing of the V-genes.

  14. Tetanus antibody titers and duration of immunity to clinical tetanus infections in free-ranging rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Matthew J; Berard, John D; Rawlins, Richard G; Bercovitch, Fred B; Gerald, Melissa S; Laudenslager, Mark L; Gonzalez-Martinez, Janis

    2006-07-01

    Prior to 1985 tetanus was a major cause of mortality in the free-ranging colony of rhesus monkeys on Cayo Santiago, accounting for almost a quarter of annual deaths. In 1985 and 1986 all animals (except infants) received primary and booster doses, respectively, of tetanus toxoid. In subsequent years primary immunizations were given to all yearlings, and boosters were administered to all 2-year-old animals during the annual capture of the colony. The main objectives of the tetanus immunization program were to reduce the pain and suffering caused by tetanus infections and to decrease mortality in the colony. Other objectives were to evaluate the efficacy of the two-dose tetanus toxoid immunization protocol and to determine whether additional boosters might be required to provide adequate long-term protection against tetanus infections. The immediate effect of the mass immunization program was the elimination of clinical tetanus infections in the population and a 42.2% reduction in the overall mortality rate. Since the immunization program began, no cases of tetanus have been observed in the colony, except in two unimmunized infants, and it has not been necessary to give tertiary injections of tetanus toxoid to maintain protection against infection. A sample collected in 2004 of the original cohort of monkeys immunized in 1985 and 1986 showed that 93.3% (14/15) had protective tetanus antibody titers (>0.01 IU/ml) at the ages of 20-23 years, which is close to the life expectancy of the Cayo Santiago rhesus macaques. Two intramuscular doses of tetanus toxoid provided long-term, if not lifelong, protection against tetanus for rhesus monkeys living in a tropical clime where tetanus is enzootic and the risk of infection is great. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Equine peripheral blood mononuclear cells proliferate in response to tetanus toxoid antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvie, J; Little, S; Foster, A P; Cunningham, F M; Hamblin, A

    1998-01-01

    It has been reported that equine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNs) do not proliferate in response to tetanus toxoid (TT) (Frayne and Stokes 1995, Research in Veterinary Science 59, 79-81). Here we demonstrate that lymphocyte proliferation responses to TT, which are characteristic of a recall antigen, may be achieved under certain culture conditions. Given that TT vaccination is routinely applied to many horses, TT is a suitable antigen for the investigation of cellular immune responses by peripheral blood mononuclear cells in the horse.

  16. Baseline immunity to diphtheria and immunologic response after booster vaccination with reduced diphtheria and tetanus toxoid vaccine in Thai health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiboonchutikul, Surasak; Manosuthi, Weerawat; Sangsajja, Chariya; Thientong, Varaporn; Likanonsakul, Sirirat; Srisopha, Somkid; Termvises, Patamavadee; Rujitip, Jitlada; Loiusirirotchanakul, Suda; Puthavathana, Pilaipan

    2014-07-01

    A prospective study to evaluate immune status against diphtheria and immunologic response after tetanus-diphtheria (Td) booster vaccination was conducted in 250 Thai health care workers (HCWs). A protective antibody was found in 89.2% of the HCWs (95% confidence interval [CI], 83.3%-91.5%) before receipt of the Td booster vaccination, compared with 97.2% (95% CI, 95.1%-99.3%) after receipt of the first dose of booster (P diphtheria increased from 0.39 IU/mL (95% CI, 0.35-0.44 IU/mL) before the Td booster vaccination to 1.20 IU/mL (95% CI, 1.12-1.29 IU/mL) after the vaccination (P diphtheria, which still circulates in Thailand. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Human T lymphotropic virus type II infection and humoral responses to pneumococcal polysaccharide and tetanus toxoid vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Gary A; Janoff, Edward N; Cheng, Hui; Devita, Deborah; Fasching, Claudine; McCulloch, Charles E; Murphy, Edward L

    2005-04-15

    Infection with human T lymphotropic virus type II (HTLV-II) has been linked to an increased incidence of bacterial pneumonia. To determine whether HTLV-II infection is associated with impaired humoral immune responses, we immunized a cohort of HTLV-II-infected subjects and matched uninfected control subjects with 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide and tetanus toxoid vaccines. The pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine elicited comparable and significant increases in concentrations of IgG against all 5 serotypes tested at 1 and 6 months after immunization in both groups. The avidity and opsonophagocytic functions of the anticapsular IgG were similar. The concentrations of tetanus toxoid-specific IgG also increased comparably and significantly over time in both groups. Thus, HTLV-II-infected persons develop robust humoral responses to potentially protective polysaccharide and protein vaccines.

  18. Detection of tetanus toxoid-specific memory T cells in equine lymph nodes but not in peripheral blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frayne, J; Stokes, C R

    1995-07-01

    The use of tetanus toxoid as a recall antigen to investigate equine immune responses would be, in theory, a useful and cost-effective model in vitro. However, by using various regimens for culturing peripheral blood mononuclear cells from horses previously immunised with toxoid no proliferative response to the antigen was obtained in vitro, whereas lymph node mononuclear cells from the same animals proliferated significantly in response to it. The lack of response by the peripheral blood mononuclear cells was not due to the presence of a suppressive factor but to a lack of recognition of the antigen by the T cells of the peripheral blood.

  19. Stabilization of tetanus toxoid encapsulated in PLGA microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wenlei; Schwendeman, Steven P

    2008-01-01

    Delivery of vaccine antigens from controlled-release poly(lactic/glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres is a novel approach to reduce the number of antigen doses required for protection against infection. A major impediment to developing single-shot vaccines is encapsulated antigen instability during months of exposure to physiological conditions. For example, efforts to control neonatal tetanus in developing countries with a single-dose TT vaccine based on PLGA microspheres have been plagued by poor stability of the 150 kDa formaldehyde-detoxified protein antigen, tetanus toxoid (TT), in the polymer. We examined the denatured states of PLGA-encapsulated TT, revealing two primary TT instability mechanisms: (1) protein aggregation mediated by formaldehyde and (2) acid-induced protein unfolding and epitope damage. Further, we systematically identified excipients, which can efficiently inhibit TT aggregation and retain TT antigenicity under simulated deleterious conditions, i.e., elevated temperature and humidity. By employing these novel additives in the PLGA system, we report the slow and continuous release of high doses of TT for one month with retained antigen stability during bioerosion of PLGA.

  20. Potential protective immunogenicity of tetanus toxoid, diphtheria toxoid and Cross Reacting Material 197 (CRM197) when used as carrier proteins in glycoconjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bröker, Michael

    2016-03-03

    When tetanus toxoid (TT), diphtheria toxoid (DT) or Cross Reacting Material 197 (CRM197), a non-toxic diphtheria toxin mutant protein, are used as carrier proteins in glycoconjugate vaccines, these carriers induce a protein specific antibody response as measured by in vitro assays. Here, it was evaluated whether or not glycoconjugates based on TT, DT or CRM197 can induce a protective immune response as measured by potency tests according to the European Pharmacopoeia. It could be shown, that the conjugate carriers TT and DT can induce a protective immune response against a lethal challenge by toxins in animals, while glycoconjugates based on CRM197 failed to induce a protective immune response. Opportunities for new applications of glycoconjugates are discussed.

  1. Antibody response to Haemophilus influenzae type b capsular polysaccharide conjugated to tetanus toxoid in preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Kim; Gyhrs, A; Lausen, B

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the antibody response to a Haemophilus influenzae type b capsular polysaccharide (HibCP) tetanus toxoid (TT) conjugate vaccine (HibCP-TT) in preterm infants. SUBJECTS: Thirty-five healthy preterm infants with gestational ages (GA) from 27 to 36 weeks and birth weights from...

  2. Meningococcal Conjugate and Tetanus Toxoid, Reduced Diphtheria Toxoid and Acellular Pertussis Vaccination Among HIV-infected Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setse, Rosanna W; Siberry, George K; Moss, William J; Wheeling, John; Bohannon, Beverly A; Dominguez, Kenneth L

    2016-05-01

    The meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MCV4) and the tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid and acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap) were first recommended for adolescents in the US in 2005. The goal of our study was to determine MCV4 and Tdap vaccines coverage among perinatally and behaviorally HIV-infected adolescents in 2006 and to compare coverage estimates in our study population to similarly aged healthy youth in 2006. Longitudinal Epidemiologic Study to Gain Insight into HIV/AIDS in Children and Youth (LEGACY) is a retrospective cohort study of HIV-infected youth in 22 HIV specialty clinics across the US. Among LEGACY participants ≥11 years of age in 2006, we conducted a cross-sectional analysis to determine MCV4, Tdap and MCV4/Tdap vaccine coverage. We compared vaccine coverage among our study population to coverage among similarly aged youth in the 2006 National Immunization Survey for Teens (NIS-Teen Survey). Multivariable mixed effects logistic regression modeling was used to examine associations between MCV4/Tdap vaccination and mode of HIV transmission. MCV4 and Tdap coverage rates among 326 eligible participants were 31.6% and 28.8%, respectively. Among adolescents 13-17 years of age, MCV4 and Tdap coverage was significantly higher among HIV-infected youth than among youth in the 2006 NIS-Teen Survey (P infected youth were significantly more likely to have received MCV4/Tdap vaccination compared with their behaviorally infected counterparts (adjusted odds ratio: 5.1; 95% confidence interval: 2.0, 12.7). HIV-infected youth with CD4 cell counts of 200-499 cells/μL were more likely to have had MCV4/Tdap vaccination compared with those with CD4 counts ≥500 cells/μL (adjusted odds ratio: 2.2; 95% confidence interval: 1.2, 4.3). Participants with plasma HIV RNA viral loads of >400 copies/mL were significantly less likely to have received MCV4/Tdap vaccination (P infected youth was suboptimal but higher than for healthy adolescents in the 2006 NIS

  3. Tetanus toxoid vaccine: Elimination of neonatal tetanus in selected states of India

    OpenAIRE

    Verma, Ramesh; Khanna, Pardeep

    2012-01-01

    Tetanus is caused by a neurotoxin produced by Clostridium tetani (C. tetani), a spore-forming bacterium. Infection begins when tetanus spores are introduced into damaged tissue. Tetanus is characterized by muscle rigidity and painful muscle spasms caused by tetanus toxin’s blockade of inhibitory neurons that normally oppose and modulate the action of excitatory motor neurons. Maternal and neonatal tetanus (MNT) are caused by unhygienic methods of delivery, abortion, or umbilical-cord care. Ma...

  4. Quantitation of the protein content of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids by the Biuret method during production of combined vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastaw, K P; Jhamb, S S; Kumar, A

    1995-03-01

    The protein content of 15 batches of diphtheria toxoid and 12 batches of tetanus toxoid was measured by Biuret method and was compared to the values obtained by the Kjeldahl method. Statistical analysis did not show any difference between the two methods. The Biuret method, is specific, easy to carry out and takes less time for protein estimation of purified toxoids during production of combined vaccines.

  5. Primary vaccination of adults with reduced antigen-content diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis or dTpa-inactivated poliovirus vaccines compared to diphtheria-tetanus-toxoid vaccines.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theeten, H.; Rumke, H.C.; Hoppener, F.J.; Vilatimo, R.; Narejos, S.; Damme, P. van; Hoet, B.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate immunogenicity and reactogenicity of primary vaccination with reduced-antigen-content diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (dTpa) or dTpa-inactivated poliovirus (dTpa-IPV) vaccine compared to diphtheria-tetanus-toxoid vaccines (Td) in adults > or = 40 years of age without

  6. [Evaluation of an immunochromatographic dipstick test for the assessment of tetanus immunity in horses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recknagel, Stephan; Snyder, Alice; Blanke, Annemarie; Uhlig, Albrecht; Brüser, Benjamin; Schusser, Gerald Fritz

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of tetanus immunity in equine patients is crucial in cases of injuries, elective surgeries, or when effective vaccination protocols are to be designed. The Fassisi® TetaCheck is a stall-side rapid test which was developed to address these issues. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate its performance parameters. To this end, the qualitative test results obtained by two blinded observers were compared to tetanus toxoid antibody levels from 99 serum samples, measured with a double antigen ELISA. Additionally the colour intensities of the test window were quantified using a camera and photo editing software. Assuming that the protective level of tetanus toxoid antibodies is ≥ 0.1 IE/ml, the tetanus quick stick (TQS) showed a sensitivity of 83.6% and a specificity of 100%. almost perfect (K = 0.88). Exchanging the observer did not affect the interpretation of theTQS (K = 0.80; K = 0.84). The definition of five distinct colour intensities of the "test window" enabled a clear differentiation of unprotected individuals from those with a protective immunity. There was a linear relationship between the objectively measured colour intensities and the tetanus toxoid antibody concentration (r2 = 0.74). The TQS thus proved to be a robust and reliable test in the stall-side assessment of tetanus immunity in horses. Its implementation in equine daily practice can help to avoid unnecessary immunizations in adult horses and therefore minimize vaccination side effects.

  7. Synergy between lysosomotropic amines and cyclosporin A on human T cell responses to an exogenous protein antigen, tetanus toxoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, K R; Nelson, D; Bader, S

    1996-09-01

    Previously, it has been shown that the lysosomotropic amine, chloroquine, is effective in the prevention of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) using murine models. Because chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine suppress MHC class II antigen presentation, their mechanism of action is different to other immune suppressant drugs (cyclosporin A) currently used to control GVHD. It is possible that the use of cyclosporin A and chloroquine in combination may have an additive or synergistic effect on T cell responses to antigens presented in the context of MHC class II. We investigated the effects of chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine in combination with cyclosporin A on human T cell responses in vitro to tetanus toxoid, an exogenous protein antigen dependent on MHC class II presentation for proliferative responses. We demonstrate that similar levels of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine suppress human T cell responses to tetanus toxoid and that the use of either agent in combination with cyclosporin A results in synergistic suppression. Evaluation for a direct effect by the lysosomotropic amines on T cells, in the absence of antigen presenting cells, revealed that there was inhibition of T cell responses but only at high concentrations. No significant decrease or increase was seen in surface MHC II or invariant chain expression or in cytoplasmic invariant chain after exposure to chloroquine. Thus, lysosomotropic amines in combination with cyclosporin A are synergistic in suppression of T cell proliferation. Use of these agents in combination with cyclosporin A may improve control of graft-versus-host disease.

  8. Increased levels of specific leukocyte- and platelet-derived substances during normal anti-tetanus antibody synthesis in patients with inactive Crohn disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Mortensen, T; Holten-Andersen, M

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Crohn disease is considered a consequence of inappropriate upregulation of immune reactions evoked by the intestinal microflora or luminal antigens. Since the intestinal mucosa is continuously exposed to tetanus toxoid we studied the antibody response to tetanus toxoid booster...

  9. Immunity to Diphtheria and Tetanus in HIV-Infected Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Volokha

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Backgrоund. HIV infected patients are at risk for vaccine-preventable infections such as tetanus and diphtheria. It is important to know about the protection of HIV-infected children from these infections, as there is a risk even after complete immunization. The protective immunity after vaccination against diphtheria and tetanus is measured by the antibodies level against these pathogens. The aim of this study was to evaluate the persistence of immunity to tetanus and diphtheria toxoid in HIV-infected children. Materials and methods. The protective immunity against diphtheria and tetanus was studied in children with HIV infection in the Kyiv City AIDS Center. Immunization rate was evaluated in 142 HIV-infected children. Serum samples were obtained in 59 HIV-infected children (study group vaccinated against diphtheria and tetanus toxoid during routine check-ups. The results of anti-tetanus and anti-diphtheria antibodies were compared with the data of 17 children without HIV (the control group. The mean age of HIV-infected patients was 9.2 years old (range from 1.6 to 15.5 years old. Most children (38/59, 64.4 % had mild clinical manifestations of HIV infection (I and II clinical stage of the disease. 89.8 % (53/59 of children of the group received antiretroviral therapy. The level of CD4+ T-lymphocytes within age norms was in 88.2 % of children receiving ART. Results. The research revealed lower vaccination coverage of HIV-infected children against diphtheria and tetanus (63.3 % than in the general population. Only 19.7 % (28/142 of HIV-infected children were fully vaccinated according to the National schedule against these bacterial infections. A large proportion of children with HIV infection (79.3 % vaccinated against these pathogens does not have protective levels of antibodies against diphtheria. The protective level of antibodies against tetanus was absent in 28.8 % of vaccinated HIV-positive children. Mean level of tetanus

  10. Serological evaluation of protective immunity against tetanus in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    client's age, socio-economic status and number of tetanus toxoid injections received during antenatal visits were obtained using structured questionnaire method. Blood samples were collected and analysed for serum and anti-tetanus antibodies as well as the total protein content. The titre values obtained were statistically ...

  11. Tetanus immunity in 50 Years of Age and Older Persons in Kashan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Razaghi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Ojectives: Tetanus is a neurologic disorder which occurs as sporadic cases in people with incomplete vaccination course.The most tetanus patients are people over 60 years of age.It is a important disease in elderly patients because of risk of severe forms and high rate of morbidity and mortality This study was conducted to evaluate tetanus immunity in 50 years of age and older people in kashan-Iran. Methods & Materials: This cross-sectional survey was conducted on 180 randomly selected adults, 50 years of age and older who visited Booali laboratory for check up examination in kashan -Iran in 2008.After taking consent form standard questionnaires consisting demographic data and history of vaccination were filled and 5cc blood taken from selected persons and tetanus toxoid-specific antibody were measured by ELISA method .Results were analyzed by SPSS and presented by descriptive statistics. Results: Sixty five per cent of adults 50 years of age and olderhad no protective levels of tetanus antitoxin (60 years, 6(7% had protective antitoxin levels IU/mL 0.1-1, and 5(5.8% had protective antitoxin levels  IU/mL≥1. Male gender and prior receipt of toxoid booster(s wereassociated with protective tetanus immunity. Tetanus antitoxin levels declined with age. Conclusion: It appears that most 50 years of age and older adults do not have protective levels of tetanus antitoxin because of inadequate vaccination coverage. There is a need to improve the immunity levels of this age group.

  12. Immunity to tetanus and diphtheria in rural Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurtzhals, J A; Kjeldsen, K; Hey, A S

    1997-01-01

    To assess the effect of the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) in rural Africa, blood samples were collected in two Kenyan sublocations. Serum antibodies against tetanus toxoid were measured in 155 individuals 1-70 years of age. Titers greater than the protective level of 0.01 IU/ml were found...... in the two populations, whereas protection in fertile women was significantly lower in the population living a long distance from a health center. Diphtheria anti-toxin was measured in the samples from one sublocation, and 70 of 84 individuals (83%) had antibody levels greater than the protective level....... Furthermore, diphtheria transmission still appears to take place, underscoring the importance of diphtheria vaccination of travelers to rural Africa....

  13. Your Child's Immunizations: Diphtheria, Tetanus & Pertussis Vaccine (DTaP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... English Español Your Child's Immunizations: Diphtheria, Tetanus & Pertussis Vaccine (DTaP) KidsHealth / For Parents / Your Child's Immunizations: Diphtheria, Tetanus & Pertussis Vaccine (DTaP) Print The ...

  14. Maternal tetanus toxoid vaccination and neonatal mortality in rural north India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Singh

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Preventable neonatal mortality due to tetanus infection remains common. We aimed to examine antenatal vaccination impact in a context of continuing high neonatal mortality in rural northern India. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using the third round of the Indian National Family Health Survey (NFHS 2005-06, mortality of most recent singleton births was analysed in discrete-time logistic model with maternal tetanus vaccination, together with antenatal care utilisation and supplementation with iron and folic acid. 59% of mothers reported receiving antenatal care, 48% reported receiving iron and folic acid supplementation and 68% reported receiving two or more doses of tetanus toxoid (TT vaccination. The odds of all-cause neonatal death were reduced following one or more antenatal dose of TT with odds ratios (OR of 0.46 (95% CI 0.26 to 0.78 after one dose and 0.45 (95% CI 0.31 to 0.66 after two or more doses. Reported utilisation of antenatal care and iron-folic acid supplementation did not influence neonatal mortality. In the statistical model, 16% (95% CI 5% to 27% of neonatal deaths could be attributed to a lack of at least two doses of TT vaccination during pregnancy, representing an estimated 78,632 neonatal deaths in absolute terms. CONCLUSIONS: Substantial gains in newborn survival could be achieved in rural North India through increased coverage of antenatal TT vaccination. The apparent substantial protective effect of a single antenatal dose of TT requires further study. It may reflect greater population vaccination coverage and indicates that health programming should prioritise universal antenatal coverage with at least one dose.

  15. Maternal tetanus toxoid vaccination and neonatal mortality in rural north India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Abhishek; Pallikadavath, Saseendran; Ogollah, Reuben; Stones, William

    2012-01-01

    Preventable neonatal mortality due to tetanus infection remains common. We aimed to examine antenatal vaccination impact in a context of continuing high neonatal mortality in rural northern India. Using the third round of the Indian National Family Health Survey (NFHS) 2005-06, mortality of most recent singleton births was analysed in discrete-time logistic model with maternal tetanus vaccination, together with antenatal care utilisation and supplementation with iron and folic acid. 59% of mothers reported receiving antenatal care, 48% reported receiving iron and folic acid supplementation and 68% reported receiving two or more doses of tetanus toxoid (TT) vaccination. The odds of all-cause neonatal death were reduced following one or more antenatal dose of TT with odds ratios (OR) of 0.46 (95% CI 0.26 to 0.78) after one dose and 0.45 (95% CI 0.31 to 0.66) after two or more doses. Reported utilisation of antenatal care and iron-folic acid supplementation did not influence neonatal mortality. In the statistical model, 16% (95% CI 5% to 27%) of neonatal deaths could be attributed to a lack of at least two doses of TT vaccination during pregnancy, representing an estimated 78,632 neonatal deaths in absolute terms. Substantial gains in newborn survival could be achieved in rural North India through increased coverage of antenatal TT vaccination. The apparent substantial protective effect of a single antenatal dose of TT requires further study. It may reflect greater population vaccination coverage and indicates that health programming should prioritise universal antenatal coverage with at least one dose.

  16. Tetanus, Diphtheria, Pertussis (Tdap) Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adacel® (as a combination product containing Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids, Acellular Pertussis Vaccine) ... Boostrix® (as a combination product containing Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids, Acellular Pertussis Vaccine)

  17. Long-term effects of tetanus toxoid inoculation on the demography and life expectancy of the Cayo Santiago rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Matthew J; Hernández Pacheco, Raisa; Rawlins, Richard G; Ruiz-Lambrides, Angelina; Delgado, Diana L; Sabat, Alberto M

    2015-02-01

    Tetanus was a major cause of mortality in the free-ranging population of rhesus monkeys on Cayo Santiago prior to 1985 when the entire colony was given its first dose of tetanus toxoid. The immediate reduction in mortality that followed tetanus toxoid inoculation (TTI) has been documented, but the long-term demographic effects of eliminating tetanus infections have not. This study uses the Cayo Santiago demographic database to construct comparative life tables 12 years before, and 12 years after, TTI. Life tables and matrix projection models are used to test for differences in: (i) survival among all individuals as well as among social groups, (ii) long-term fitness of the population, (iii) age distribution, (iv) reproductive value, and (v) life expectancy. A retrospective life table response experiment (LTRE) was performed to determine which life cycle transition contributed most to observed changes in long-term fitness of the population post-TTI. Elimination of clinical tetanus infections through mass inoculation improved the health and well-being of the monkeys. It also profoundly affected the population by increasing survivorship and long-term fitness, decreasing the differences in survival rates among social groups, shifting the population's age distribution towards older individuals, and increasing reproductive value and life expectancy. These findings are significant because they demonstrate the long-term effects of eradicating a major cause of mortality at a single point in time on survival, reproduction, and overall demography of a naturalistic population of primates. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Tetanus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1Nigerian Institute of Medical Research, FEB 2013, Yaba, Lagos, Nigeria. 2College of Medicine, University of Lagos, ... tetanus vaccine is one major means of These records indicated low coverage of controlling neonatal tetanus (NT). .... indicates poor knowledge of the mothers about immunization. This must have been.

  19. Tetanus immunity in construction workers in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapisarda, V; Bracci, M; Nunnari, G; Ferrante, M; Ledda, C

    2014-04-01

    Tetanus is a serious vaccine-preventable disease that remains a significant health risk in certain occupations. Since 2006, Italy has reported the highest number of cases in Europe. Some professions, such as construction workers, are more exposed to tetanus. To evaluate tetanus immunity status and associated factors in construction workers in Italy. A cross-sectional study of construction workers attending for periodic occupational health surveillance at one site in Italy between September 2011 and January 2013. Serum tetanus antitoxin levels were measured and analysed according to demographic and clinical variables. All 5275 workers attending for health surveillance between September 2011 and January 2013 agreed to participate. Protective tetanus antitoxin levels (>0.1 IU/ml) were found in 4116 workers (78%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis suggested that the following risk factors were significantly associated with inadequate immunization status: older age (age >58 years, odds ratio [OR] 1.78, 95% confidence intervals [CIs] 1.76-1.84), poor education (no formal education: OR 3.74, 95% CI: 3.69-3.78), unskilled work tasks (OR 2.71, 95% CI: 2.67-2.77) and country of origin (Egypt: OR 1.72, 95% CI: 1.67-1.77; Morocco: OR 1.69, 95% CI: 1.62-1.76). In this study, a significant proportion of construction workers in Italy were not adequately immunized against tetanus, as required by Italian law. Occupational health professionals should promote and implement vaccination campaigns, especially among migrant workers, for public health and legal reasons.

  20. Tetanus and diphtheria immunity among term and preterm infant-mother pairs in Turkey, a country where maternal and neonatal tetanus have recently been eliminated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erener-Ercan, Tugba; Aslan, Mustafa; Vural, Mehmet; Erginoz, Ethem; Kocazeybek, Bekir; Ercan, Gokmen; Turkgeldi, Lale Wetherilt; Perk, Yildiz

    2015-03-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the anti-tetanus and anti-diphtheria antibody titres and the placental transfer of these antibodies in a group of vaccinated and unvaccinated mothers and their term or preterm offsprings. Anti-tetanus and anti-diphtheria toxoid IgG antibodies were measured quantitatively by ELISA in 91 infant-mother pairs. Protective concentrations of anti-tetanus and anti-diphtheria were found in 58.3 and 50% of mothers in the unvaccinated group and 94.5 and 85.5% of the mothers in the vaccinated group. Protective concentrations were found in 63.9 and 50% of cord samples, respectively, in the unvaccinated group and in 96.4 and 85.5% of cord samples, respectively, in the vaccinated group (p = 0.0001). There were no differences in the maternal and cord geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) of anti-toxoid antibodies between those who received two doses or one dose of Td. The GMCs of maternal and cord anti-tetanus and anti-diphtheria were statistically similar between preterm and term groups. Placental transfer ratios (TR) for anti-tetanus and anti-diphtheria were 175 and 150%, respectively, in the preterm group and 213 and 178%, respectively, in the term group. There was a strong correlation between maternal and cord anti-toxoid antibody levels. Maternal vaccination was the only predictor of having protective concentrations of anti-toxoid antibodies in cord blood. Vaccinating pregnant women with at least one dose of Td would confer protection for both the term and preterm infant-mother pairs. Therefore, health personnel caring for pregnant women have the responsibility to emphasize the importance of Td vaccination to avoid missed immunization opportunities.

  1. Recurrent generalized tetanus: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhaji, M A; Mustapha, M G; Ashir, G M; Akuhwa, R T; Bello, M A; Farouk, A G

    2011-04-01

    We describe recurrent generalized tetanus in a four-year-old unimmunized boy following recurrent suppurative otitis media (SOM) within an 11-month period. There are not many published reports on recurrent tetanus. We highlight the importance of both primary immunizations and the need for active immunization before discharge as the infection does not confer a lifelong immunity. The usefulness of booster doses of tetanus toxoid and missed opportunities for immunization are emphasized.

  2. Characterization of an enterobacterial common antigen (ECA) epitope recognized by anti-ECA-tetanus toxoid conjugate serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugowski, C; Romanowska, E

    1991-01-15

    The antigenic reactivity of both native and chemically modified enterobacterial common antigen (ECA) with anti-ECA-tetanus toxoid (TT) conjugate serum was investigated. The results obtained suggest that reduction of the carboxyl group of the mannosaminuronic acid component of ECA diminishes, but does not destroy its antigenic reactivity. Each of the sugar components were found to contribute to its reactivity with anti-ECA-TT conjugate serum, indicating that the trisaccharide repeating unit represents the ECA epitope. A nonasaccharide (trimer of the ECA repeating unit) inhibited antibody binding better than the hexasaccharide dimer, a finding which suggests that oligosaccharide conformation also makes a contribution to its inhibitory activity.

  3. A glycoconjugate of Haemophilus influenzae Type b capsular polysaccharide with tetanus toxoid protein: hydrodynamic properties mainly influenced by the carbohydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhameed, Ali Saber; Adams, Gary G.; Morris, Gordon A.; Almutairi, Fahad M.; Duvivier, Pierre; Conrath, Karel; Harding, Stephen E.

    2016-01-01

    Three important physical properties which may affect the performance of glycoconjugate vaccines against serious disease are molar mass (molecular weight), heterogeneity (polydispersity), and conformational flexibility in solution. The dilute solution behaviour of native and activated capsular polyribosylribitol (PRP) polysaccharides extracted from Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), and the corresponding glycoconjugate made by conjugating this with the tetanus toxoid (TT) protein have been characterized and compared using a combination of sedimentation equilibrium and sedimentation velocity in the analytical ultracentrifuge with viscometry. The weight average molar mass of the activated material was considerably reduced (Mw ~ 0.24 × 106 g.mol−1) compared to the native (Mw ~ 1.2 × 106 g.mol−1). Conjugation with the TT protein yielded large polydisperse structures (of Mw ~ 7.4 × 106 g.mol−1), but which retained the high degree of flexibility of the native and activated polysaccharide, with frictional ratio, intrinsic viscosity, sedimentation conformation zoning behaviour and persistence length all commensurate with highly flexible coil behaviour and unlike the previously characterised tetanus toxoid protein (slightly extended and hydrodynamically compact structure with an aspect ratio of ~3). This non-protein like behaviour clearly indicates that it is the carbohydrate component which mainly influences the physical behaviour of the glycoconjugate in solution. PMID:26915577

  4. Suplementación con selenio en vaquillas: Efecto sobre la respuesta inmune a las vacunas Brucella abortus cepa RB51 y toxoide tetánico Selenium suplementation in heifers: Effect on the immune response to Brucella abortus strain RB51 and tetanus toxoid vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    V Leyán; D Pesutic; G Schurig; F Wittwer; P A Contreras; J Kruze

    2005-01-01

    El trabajo tiene por objetivo evaluar el efecto de una suplementación con selenio (Se) sobre la respuesta inmune a las vacunas Toxoide tetánico y Brucella abortus cepa RB51 en vaquillas con un adecuado balance metabólico de selenio (GSH-Px >130 U/g Hb). Para ello se empelaron 32 vaquillas Friesian de 18 a 24 meses de edad, asignadas al azar a dos grupos de 16 animales; uno suplementado (Se-S) el día 0 con una dosis de selenato de bario (1 mg Se/kg, s.c.), permaneciendo el otro como control no...

  5. Acute necrotizing encephalopathy secondary to diphtheria, tetanus toxoid and whole-cell pertussis vaccination: diffusion-weighted imaging and proton MR spectroscopy findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aydin, Hale; Ozgul, Esra; Agildere, Ahmet Muhtesem [Baskent University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Ankara (Turkey)

    2010-07-15

    We present a previously healthy 6-month-old boy who was admitted to our hospital with lethargy, hypotonia and focal clonic seizures 6 days following diptheria, tetanus toxoid and whole-cell pertussis vaccination. A diagnosis of acute necrotising encephalopathy was made with the aid of MRI, including diffusion-weighted imaging and proton MR spectroscopy. (orig.)

  6. Human Immune Response to Botulinum Pentavalent (ABCDE) Toxoid, Determined by a Neutralization Test and by an ELISA

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-04

    difficult to ascertain from such assays. A good correlation between neutralizing activity and ELISA titer has been demonstrated for antibody to tetanus toxoid...15). Eighty serum samples, ranging from < 0.01 to >100 IU/ml, were assayed by both techniques. The ELISA used plates coated with tetanus toxoid... horses (3). The ELISA overcomes many of the disadvantages of the neutralization test: it does not require experimental animals, the test can be

  7. Tetanus Booster -A missed opportunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Gupta

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Tetanus a known childhood killer is an entirely preventable disease with tetanus toxoid (TT. Most of the research today is on neonatal tetanus owing to its high case fatality rate. Though the reported mortality with tetanus is lower in older age groups, the management of tetanus is still a challenge in resource constraint settings of developing countries like India. On this background the present study was designed to know the status of tetanus immunization among school going age group children. This was an OPD based survey targeting school going children (age of 5 to 18 years attending Pediatric out-patient department (OPD of a tertiary care teaching hospital. It was observed that out of 636, 299 (47% children were vaccinated for diphtheria, pertusis and tetanus (DPT booster at 5 years of age. Out of 374 children eligible for TT (10 to 16 years only 37 (9.8 % were immunized with TT at age 10 years. Out of 44 children at age of 16 years only 6 (13.6% were immunized. Though there are strategies to immunize school going children under routine immunization programme, official records documented that the immunization coverage for TT was 68% in school going age group. Majority of (80% the cases of tetanus were in non-neonatal age group (mainly school going group in Madhya Pradesh, India. Based on these observations it can be concluded that the tetanus immunization coverage among children of school going age was poor in the given setting.  Tetanus is an acute, spastic paralytic illness historically called lockjaw that is caused by the neurotoxin produced by Clostridium tetani. Tetanus occurs worldwide and is endemic in approximately 90 developing countries. Tetanus is an entirely preventable disease with active immunization with tetanus toxoid. A serum antibody titer of ≥0.01 U/mL is considered protective. [1] In India, according to National immunization schedule, active immunization against tetanus is done with administration of tetanus toxoid as

  8. Immunogenicity of MenACWY-CRM in Korean Military Recruits: Influence of Tetanus-Diphtheria Toxoid Vaccination on the Vaccine Response to MenACWY-CRM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Han Wool; Park, In Ho; You, Sooseong; Yu, Hee Tae; Oh, In Soo; Sung, Pil Soo; Shin, Eui Cheol; Kim, Kyung Hyo

    2016-11-01

    The quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-CRM) has been introduced for military recruits in Korea since 2012. This study was performed to evaluate the immunogenicity of MenACWY-CRM in Korean military recruits. In addition, the influence of tetanus-diphtheria toxoids (Td) vaccination on the vaccine response to MenACWY-CRM was analyzed. A total of 75 military recruits were enrolled. Among them, 18 received a dose of MenACWY-CRM only (group 1), and 57 received Td three days before MenACWY-CRM immunization (group 2). The immunogenicity of MenACWY-CRM was compared between the two groups. The serum bactericidal activity with baby rabbit complement was measured before and three weeks after immunization against serogroups A, C, W-135, and Y. The geometric mean titers (GMTs) against four serogroups were significantly increased in both groups after immunization. Compared to group 2, group 1 exhibited significantly higher vaccine responses in several aspects: post-immune GMTs against serogroup A and C, seroresponse rates against serogroup A, and a fold increases of titers against serogroup A, C, and Y. MenACWY-CRM was immunogenic against all vaccine-serogroups in Korean military recruits. Vaccine response to MenACWY-CRM was influenced by Td administered three days earlier.

  9. Do unsafe tetanus toxoid injections play a significant role in the transmission of HIV/AIDS? Evidence from seven African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Walque, D

    2008-04-01

    Although sexual transmission is generally considered to be the main factor driving the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Africa, recent studies have claimed that iatrogenic transmission should be considered as an important source of HIV infection. In particular, receipt of tetanus toxoid injections during pregnancy has been reported to be associated with HIV infection in Kenya. The objective of this paper is to assess the robustness of this association among women in nationally representative HIV surveys in seven African countries. The association between prophylactic tetanus toxoid injections during pregnancy and HIV infection was analysed, using individual-level data from women who gave birth in the past five years. These data are from the nationally representative Demographic and Health Surveys, which included HIV testing in seven African countries: Burkina Faso 2003 (N = 2424), Cameroon 2004 (N = 2600), Ethiopia 2005 (N = 2886), Ghana 2003 (N = 2560), Kenya 2003 (N = 1617), Lesotho 2004 (N = 1278) and Senegal 2005 (N = 2126). Once the odds ratios (OR) were adjusted for five-year age groups and for ethnic, urban and regional indicators, the association between prophylactic tetanus toxoid injections during pregnancy and HIV infection was never statistically significant in any of the seven countries. Only in Cameroon was there an association between previous tetanus toxoid injection and HIV positivity but it became weaker (OR 1.53, 95% CI 0.91 to 2.57) once urban location and ethnic group were adjusted for. Although the risk of HIV infection through unsafe injections and healthcare should not be ignored and should be reduced, it does not seem that there is, at present and in the seven countries studied, strong evidence supporting the claim that unsafe tetanus toxoid injections are a major factor driving the HIV epidemic.

  10. Assessment of tetanus immunity status by tetanus quick stick and anamnesis: a prospective double blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsi, G B; Modini, C; Principe, M A; Di Muzio, M; Moriconi, A; Amato, M G; Calderale, S M

    2015-01-01

    In patients with wounds admitted to Emergency Departments (ED) acquiring tetanus vaccination history by interview is very unreliable. Protected patients may receive unnecessary prophylaxis and unprotected nothing. Aim of the study was to evaluate tetanus immunity status comparing the traditional anamnestic method with the Tetanus Quick Stick (TQS), a rapid immunochromatographic test. A double-blind prospective study was carried out in the ED of the 1,000 bed teaching hospital Umberto I in Rome. Adult patients (≥18) with wounds attending at the ED were randomly included. Tetanus immunity status was evaluated by healthcare workers (HCWs) comparing the TQS test with the anamnesis. TQS test was performed by a trained HCW and afterwards the anamnesis about tetanus immunity status was collected by another HCW unaware of the TQS result. Also cost analysis was carried out. Overall 400 patients (242 males and 158 females) were included, mean age was 46.7 ± 20.2 years (median 44 range 18 - 109), 304 (76.0%) were italians and 96 foreigners (24.0%). Overall, 209 (52.2%) resulted TQS +, and protective immunity level was associated to lower mean age (40.1 ± 16.8 vs 53.8 ± 21,1; pimmunity is inversely related to age, for immunity prevalence among adult patients attending our ED is about 50% and is mainly influenced by class age. TQS use allowed to reduce drastically inappropriate tetanus vaccine and immunoglobulins booster treatment. Also TQS use reduced costs.

  11. Diphtheria, Tetanus, and Pertussis (DTaP) Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Certiva® (as a combination product containing Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids, Acellular Pertussis Vaccine) ... Daptacel® (as a combination product containing Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids, Acellular Pertussis Vaccine)

  12. Protective Effect of Vitamin D3 and Gp63 Conjugated with Tetanus Toxoid on Outcome of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Lesions in Balb/C Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Soudi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: GP63 is a major surface protease of Leishmania promastigotes that plays an important role in its virulance. As GP63 on its own can not develop an effective protection against leishmaniasis, the goal of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of GP63 conjugated with tetanus toxoid (TT and Vitamin D3 in susceptible BALB/c mice against cutaneous leishmaniasis. Methods: This study was a basic-applied experimental study performed in Tarbiat Modarres University from September 2002 to April 2005. Cloned virulant Leishmania (L. major [MRHO / IR / 75 / ER] strain was cultured and 5109 cells were harvested. GP63 Molecule was purified and conjugated with TT and conjugated molecule was used for immunization of 8 groups of female BALB/c mice. Results: Results showed that the group of mice receiving conjugated molecule with Vitamin D3 had significant differences from other groups regarding lesion progression (P0.05. The culture of spleen cells showed that the disease did not become systemic in this group. Conclusion: Conjugation of GP63 with TT strengthens cell immunity and its use along with vitamin D3 provokes macrophages activity. This basis can be used for production of an appropriate preparation for protection against Leishmaniasis.

  13. Cephalic Tetanus in an Immunized Teenager: An Unusual Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felter, Robert A; Zinns, Lauren E

    2015-07-01

    Tetanus is a rare disease in developed countries but is prevalent worldwide. It has significant morbidity and mortality. The causative agent Clostridium tetani is ubiquitous in nature. In the United States, approximately 50 to 100 cases are reported per year but rarely in immunocompetent, fully immunized patients. Of the four types of tetanus (generalized, neonatal, cephalic, and localized), cephalic is the least common. We present a case of cephalic tetanus in a 14-year-old boy who completed his primary immunizations with a video of his physical examination findings.

  14. Paediatric otogenic tetanus: an evidence of poor immunization in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunkeyede, Segun Ayodeji; Daniel, Adekunle; Ogundoyin, Omowonuola

    2017-01-01

    Suppurative otitis media is a common childhood infection that predisposes to otogenic tetanus. Tetanus is a vaccine preventable disease that is associated with high cost of care and mortality. This study highlights reasons for otogenic tetanus in Nigerian children and way of reducing the menace. This is a 5-year retrospective review of all patients managed for otogenic tetanus in at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University College Hospital, Ibadan. The data collected include demographic, clinical presentations, tetanus immunisation history, and duration of hospital admission, and management- outcome. There were 23 patients comprising of 13(56.5 %) males and 10 (43.5%) females, male to female ratio was 1.3:1. The age ranged between 11 months and12 years (mean age 3.4 years ± 2.1). All the patients presented with discharging ear, trismus and spasms. The onset of symptoms prior hospital presentation ranged between 2 - 11 days (mean 3.0 days ± 1.3). Only 12(52.1%) patients had complete childhood tetanus immunisation, 6(26.1) % had no tetanus immunisation and no other childhood immunisation, while 5(21.7%) had partial tetanus immunisation. The discharging ears were managed by self-medication and other harmful health practices. The hospital admission ranged from 20 days - 41days (average of 23days) and there were 3(13.0 %) death. Tetanus immunization was not received because of; non- availability of the vaccine at health centers, lack of health facility in communities, fear of complications from immunization, poor awareness of the immunization programme. Tetanus, an immunisable disease, is still a major problem in Nigeria.

  15. Diphtheria, Tetanus, Pertussis: Ask the Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... licensed for use in the United States. Does tetanus toxoid contain horse serum? Tetanus toxoid has never contained horse serum or protein. Equine tetanus antitoxin (horse derived) was the only product available for the ...

  16. Nitrogen-gas bubbling during the cultivation of Clostridium tetani produces a higher yield of tetanus toxin for the preparation of its toxoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, M M; Abeiro, H D; Bernagozzi, J A; Basualdo, J A

    1997-01-01

    We investigated the effect of exposing cultures of Clostridium tetani to nitrogen (N2) gas on the recovery of tetanus toxin to be processed for the preparation of its toxoid. N2 was bubbled through nine 10-liter cultures during the growth of the bacteria, while nine parallel control incubations were maintained without bubbling. We found that treatment of the C. tetani anaerobes with an inert gas in this manner during cultivation produced a highly significant increase in the yield of tetanus toxin from them in comparison with the standard procedure.

  17. Meningococcal serogroups A, C, W-135, and Y tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine: a new conjugate vaccine against invasive meningococcal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedari CP

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Carine P Hedari,* Rima W Khinkarly,* Ghassan S Dbaibo Center for Infectious Diseases Research, Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut, Lebanon *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Invasive meningococcal disease is a serious infection that occurs worldwide. It is caused by Neisseria meningitidis, of which six serogroups (A, B, C, W-135, X, and Y are responsible for most infections. The case fatality rate of meningococcal disease remains high and can lead to significant sequelae. Vaccination remains the best strategy to prevent meningococcal disease. Polysaccharide vaccines were initially introduced in the late 1960s but their limitations (poor immunogenicity in infants and toddlers and hyporesponsiveness after repeated doses have led to the development and use of meningococcal conjugate vaccines, which overcome these limitations. Two quadrivalent conjugated meningococcal vaccines – MenACWY-DT (Menactra® and MenACWY-CRM197 (Menveo® – using diphtheria toxoid or a mutant protein, respectively, as carrier proteins have already been licensed in the US. Recently, a quadrivalent meningococcal vaccine conjugated to tetanus toxoid (MenACWY-TT; Nimenrix® was approved for use in Europe in 2012. The immunogenicity of MenACWY-TT, its reactogenicity and safety profile, as well as its coadministration with other vaccines are discussed in this review. Clinical trials showed that MenACWY-TT was immunogenic in children above the age of 12 months, adolescents, and adults, and has an acceptable reactogenicity and safety profile. Its coadministration with several other vaccines that are commonly used in children, adolescents, and adults did not affect the immunogenicity of MenACWY-TT or the coadministered vaccine, nor did it affect its reactogenicity and safety. Other studies are now ongoing in order to determine the immunogenicity

  18. Meningococcal serogroups A, C, W-135, and Y tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine: a new conjugate vaccine against invasive meningococcal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedari, Carine P; Khinkarly, Rima W; Dbaibo, Ghassan S

    2014-01-01

    Invasive meningococcal disease is a serious infection that occurs worldwide. It is caused by Neisseria meningitidis, of which six serogroups (A, B, C, W-135, X, and Y) are responsible for most infections. The case fatality rate of meningococcal disease remains high and can lead to significant sequelae. Vaccination remains the best strategy to prevent meningococcal disease. Polysaccharide vaccines were initially introduced in the late 1960s but their limitations (poor immunogenicity in infants and toddlers and hyporesponsiveness after repeated doses) have led to the development and use of meningococcal conjugate vaccines, which overcome these limitations. Two quadrivalent conjugated meningococcal vaccines - MenACWY-DT (Menactra(®)) and MenACWY-CRM197 (Menveo(®)) - using diphtheria toxoid or a mutant protein, respectively, as carrier proteins have already been licensed in the US. Recently, a quadrivalent meningococcal vaccine conjugated to tetanus toxoid (MenACWY-TT; Nimenrix(®)) was approved for use in Europe in 2012. The immunogenicity of MenACWY-TT, its reactogenicity and safety profile, as well as its coadministration with other vaccines are discussed in this review. Clinical trials showed that MenACWY-TT was immunogenic in children above the age of 12 months, adolescents, and adults, and has an acceptable reactogenicity and safety profile. Its coadministration with several other vaccines that are commonly used in children, adolescents, and adults did not affect the immunogenicity of MenACWY-TT or the coadministered vaccine, nor did it affect its reactogenicity and safety. Other studies are now ongoing in order to determine the immunogenicity, reactogenicity, and safety of MenACWY-TT in infants from the age of 6 weeks.

  19. Tetanus antibody levels among adolescent girls in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brabin, L.; Fazio-Tirrozzo, G.; Shahid, S.; Agbaje, O.; Maxwell, S.; Broadhead, R.; Briggs, N.; Brabin, B.

    2000-01-01

    Neonatal and maternal tetanus infections remain an important cause of death in many countries. Few studies have reported tetanus toxoid antibody levels of adolescent girls. As part of the Expanded Programme on Immunization most girls receive up to 3 injections in early childhood, and many

  20. Experimental vaccination of pigs with an Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 5b capsular polysaccharide tetanus toxoid conjugate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Lars Ole; Jacobsen, M.J.; Nielsen, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    The protective efficacy of an Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 5b capsular polysaccharide-tetanus toroid conjugate (Ap5bCP-TT) against homologous challenge of pigs was investigated. Four pigs were non-vaccinated controls (group A), 4 pigs were injected with adjuvant without antigen (group B......) and 8 pigs were vaccinated with Ap5bCP-TT and adjuvant (group 0). Pigs vaccinated with Ap5bCP-TT developed antibody responses to the capsular polysaccharide from A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5b (Ap5bCP). After challenge, all pigs in groups A and B had severe clinical signs of disease and were euthanized...

  1. Non-protective immunity against tetanus in primiparous women and newborns at birth in rural and urban settings in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orimadegun, Adebola Emmanuel; Orimadegun, Bose Etaniamhe; Bamgboye, Elijah Afolabi

    2017-01-01

    Nigeria remains among the few countries that are yet to achieve eradication of neonatal tetanus in the world despite the availability of an effective vaccine. This study investigated immunity against tetanus in primiparous mothers and neonates at birth, and identified associated factors. This cross-sectional study involved consecutive selection of 244 primiparous mother-neonate pairs (119 from rural areas, 125 from urban areas, 137 male neonates and 107 female neonates) delivered at primary healthcare facilities in Ibadan, Nigeria. Socio-demographic characteristics, obstetric history, immunisation and birthweight were obtained from mothers by interview. A validated immunochromatographic rapid diagnostic test kit was used to test for immunity against tetanus. Positive and negative results were interpreted as protective immunity against tetanus (PIaT) and non-protective immunity against tetanus (NPIaT), respectively. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, Chi-square and logistic regression at p = 0.05. The mean age of mothers was 27.9±3.4 years (range: 20-33) and median birthweight was 2700g (range: 1760-3300). Of the 244 mothers, 198 (81.1%) received at least two doses of tetanus toxoid injection during pregnancy and prevalence of NPIaT and PIaT was 28.7% and 71.3%, respectively. The prevalence of PIaT was significantly higher among mothers in urban areas (n= 96; 80.7%) than rural (n=78; 62.4%), p<0.001.The prevalence of NPIaT among neonates was 36.5% (n= 89). Predictors of NPIaT among neonates were residence in rural LGA (OR = 2.22; 95% CI = 1.23-3.99) and maternal tetanus immunisation <2 doses (OR = 11.68; 95% CI = 4.05-21.75). Lack of protective immunity against tetanus among neonates of primiparous women in Ibadan is prevalent and a more conscientious enforcement of routine tetanus prevention practices is needed.

  2. Tetanus, Diphtheria (Td) Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decavac® (as a combination product containing Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids) ... Tenivac® (as a combination product containing Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids) ... Why get vaccinated?Tetanus and diphtheria are very serious diseases. They ... United States today, but people who do become infected often have severe ...

  3. Humoral immunity 10 years after booster immunization with an adolescent and adult formulation combined tetanus, diphtheria, and 5-component acellular pertussis vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomovici, A; Barreto, L; Zickler, P; Meekison, W; Noya, F; Voloshen, T; Lavigne, P

    2012-03-30

    Persistence of antibodies after a single dose of Tdap vaccine (tetanus, diphtheria, and 5-component acellular pertussis vaccine) was evaluated in a follow-up study of adolescents (N=324) and adults (N=644) who had received Tdap in earlier clinical trials. Outcome measures were seroprotection (tetanus and diphtheria) or seropositivity (pertussis) and geometric mean concentrations. Humoral immune responses to all antigens were robust 1 month after initial immunization, decreased at subsequent measurements, but continued to exceed pre-immunization levels 1, 3, 5, and 10 years later. Protective levels of diphtheria and tetanus antitoxin persisted in 99.3% of adolescents 10 years after a booster dose of Tdap. Seropositivity to 1 or more pertussis antigens also persisted in most adolescents for 10 years. Although tetanus antitoxin responses were similar in adults to those observed in adolescents, diphtheria antitoxin titers were lower, reflecting the fact that a smaller proportion of adults had received diphtheria toxoid in the previous 10 years compared to adolescents. These data will contribute to the selection of the optimal interval for repeat doses of Tdap. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Immunity against tetanus infection, risk factors for non-protection and validation of a rapid immunotest kit among hospitalised children in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adebola Emmanuel Orimadegun

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Seroepidemiological studies of tetanus in Africans have focused mainly on adults especially pregnant women and data on children are scarcely reported. We investigated the seroprevalence of protective immunity level, determined risk factors for non-protection against tetanus and evaluated the performance of Tetanos Quick Stick® (TQS among hospitalised children aged 1 to 9 years in Nigeria. Blood IgG antibody levels to tetanus was determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA in the laboratory and TQS (an immunochromatogrphic test at the bedside for 304 children admitted into emergency unit of a tertiary hospital in Ibadan Nigeria. Demographic information and vaccination history were also collected. TQS results were compared with anti-tetanus antibody measured by ELISA using seroprotection cut-off of 0.1 IU/ml. Seroprevalence of protective level of immunity against tetanus using ELISA and TQS methods was 44.7% and 45.4% respectively. Protective level of immunity increased as age increases. Of the seven potential factors assessed, male gender and being second or more position among mother’s children were independent predictors of non-protective level of immunity. Absence of history of recent tetanus toxoid injection was significantly associated with non-protective level of immunity in univariate analysis but not logistic regression model. The agreement between the ELISA and the TQS results was good with a k coefficient of 0.931. TQS sensitivity was, 95.7%, specificity 97.6%, positive predictive value 98.0% and negative predictive values 96.0%. This study showed that lack of protective immunity against tetanus is common; few demographic characteristics correctly predict non-protection and IgG antibody levels to tetanus was accurately detected by TQS.

  5. Immunity Against Tetanus Infection, Risk Factors for Non-Protection, and Validation of a Rapid Immunotest Kit among Hospitalized Children in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orimadegun, Adebola Emmanuel; Orimadegun, Bose Etaniamhe; Adepoju, Akinlolu Adedayo

    2013-01-01

    Seroepidemiological studies of tetanus in Africans have focused mainly on adults especially pregnant women and data on children are scarcely reported. We investigated the seroprevalence of protective immunity level, determined risk factors for non-protection against tetanus, and evaluated the performance of Tetanos Quick Stick(®) (TQS) among hospitalized children aged 1-9 years in Nigeria. Blood IgG antibody levels to tetanus was determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in the laboratory and TQS (an immunochromatographic test) at the bedside for 304 children admitted into emergency unit of a tertiary hospital in Ibadan, Nigeria. Demographic information and vaccination history were also collected. TQS results were compared with anti-tetanus antibody measured by ELISA using seroprotection cut-off of 0.1 IU/ml. Seroprevalence of protective level of immunity against tetanus using ELISA and TQS methods was 44.7 and 45.4% respectively. Protective level of immunity increased as age increases. Of the seven potential factors assessed, male gender and being second or more position among mother's children were independent predictors of non-protective level of immunity. Absence of history of recent tetanus toxoid injection was significantly associated with non-protective level of immunity in univariate analysis but not logistic regression model. The agreement between the ELISA and the TQS results was good with a k coefficient of 0.931. TQS sensitivity was 95.7%, specificity 97.6%, positive predictive value 98.0%, and negative predictive values 96.0%. This study showed that lack of protective immunity against tetanus is common; few demographic characteristics correctly predict non-protection and IgG antibody levels to tetanus was accurately detected by TQS.

  6. Tetanus and diphtheria immunity in refugees in Europe in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonka, Alexandra; Behrens, Georg M N; Stange, Marcus; Dopfer, Christian; Grote, Ulrike; Hansen, Gesine; Schmidt, Reinhold Ernst; Happle, Christine

    2017-04-01

    Current political crises in the Middle East and economic discrepancies led millions of people to leave their home countries and to flee to Western Europe. This development raises unexpected challenges for receiving health care systems. Although pan-European initiatives strive for updated and optimized vaccination strategies, little data on immunity against vaccine-preventable diseases in the current refugee population exist. We quantified serum IgG against tetanus and diphtheria (TD) in n = 678 refugees currently seeking shelter in six German refugee centers. Reflecting current migration statistics in Europe, the median age within the cohort was 26 years, with only 23.9 % of female subjects. Insufficient IgG levels without long-term protection against tetanus were found in 56.3 % of all refugees. 76.1 % of refugees had no long-term protection against diphtheria. 47.7 % of subjects needed immediate vaccination against tetanus, and 47.7 % against diphtheria. For both diseases, an age-dependent decline in protective immunity occurred. We observed a considerably low rate of tetanus-protected refugees, and the frequency of diphtheria-immune refugees was far from sufficient to provide herd immunity. These findings strongly support recent intentions to implement and enforce stringent guidelines for refugee vaccination in the current crisis.

  7. Evaluation of TLR agonists as potential mucosal adjuvants for HIV gp140 and tetanus toxoid in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Buffa

    Full Text Available In the present study we investigate the impact of a range of TLR ligands and chitosan as potential adjuvants for different routes of mucosal immunisation (sublingual (SL, intranasal (IN, intravaginal (IVag and a parenteral route (subcutaneous (SC in the murine model. We assess their ability to enhance antibody responses to HIV-1 CN54gp140 (gp140 and Tetanus toxoid (TT in systemic and vaginal compartments. A number of trends were observed by route of administration. For non-adjuvanted antigen, SC>SL>IN immunisation with respect to systemic IgG responses, where endpoint titres were greater for TT than for gp140. In general, co-administration with adjuvants increased specific IgG responses where IN = SC>SL, while in the vaginal compartment IN>SL>SC for specific IgA. In contrast, for systemic and mucosal IgA responses to antigen alone SL>IN = SC. A number of adjuvants increased specific systemic IgA responses where in general IN>SL>SC immunisation, while for mucosal responses IN = SL>SC. In contrast, direct intravaginal immunisation failed to induce any detectable systemic or mucosal responses to gp140 even in the presence of adjuvant. However, significant systemic IgG responses to TT were induced by intravaginal immunisation with or without adjuvant, and detectable mucosal responses IgG and IgA were observed when TT was administered with FSL-1 or Poly I∶C. Interestingly some TLRs displayed differential activity dependent upon the route of administration. MPLA (TLR4 suppressed systemic responses to SL immunisation while enhancing responses to IN or SC immunisation. CpG B enhanced SL and IN responses, while having little or no impact on SC immunisation. These data demonstrate important route, antigen and adjuvant effects that need to be considered in the design of mucosal vaccine strategies.

  8. Models for assessing the effect of toxicants on immunocompetence in mice. II. Effect of cyclophosphamide on the antibody responses to type III pneumococcal polysaccharide and tetanus toxoid in BALB/c female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speirs, R S; Benson, R W; Knowles, B J; Roberts, D

    1978-01-01

    A mixture of antigens was used to detect alterations in immunocompetence. Type III pneumococcal polysaccharide (S3) and tetanus toxoid (TT) stimulate different cellular components, and can therefore be used to assess different compartments of the immune mechanism. Cyclophosphamide (CP), a known immunosuppressant, had a potent effect upon the antibody responses to both S3 and tetanus toxoid. All doses of CP administered within 2 days of priming with S3 resulted in a dose-related immunosuppressive action which persisted even after reinjection of S3. 300 mg/kg of CP given up to 14 days prior to or following primary immunization resulted in a marked suppression of antibodies to S3. Doses of S3 which were partially tolerogenic were made even more so by injections of CP. The effect persisted over a 96 day experimental period. CP also suppressed the formation a memory cells necessary for induction of a secondary-type IgG response to TT. The time of injection for maximum suppression was days 10 to 14 after priming. Therefore, the suppression must involve cellular mechanisms different from those responsible for S3 antibody suppression. In addition, there was a difference in the degree and persistence of the suppressive effect, since the suppressed animals were able to mount an immune response to subsequent injections of TT. Double injections of a high dose (300 mg/kg) of CP 4 weeks after priming completely suppressed the acquired immunity to both S3 and TT. Low and moderate doses of CP appeared to induce a mild augmentation of S3 antibody response when given 4 weeks after priming. However, an immunosuppressive effect occurred if the primed animals were reinjected with S3 or challenged with TT within a period of 2 days prior to or after receiving the CP treatment. Doses of CP, injected prior to challenge and resulting in suppressed tetanus antitoxin production, elevated the titers of specific IgE antibody. This class of antibody is associated with adverse hypersensitivity

  9. Modification of T-cell antigenic properties of tetanus toxoid by SDS-PAGE separation. Implications for T-cell blotting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, C B; Theander, T G

    1997-01-01

    Using Tetanus Toxoid (TT) as a model antigen the T-cell Blotting method was evaluated. Peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cultures were stimulated by blotted nitrocellulose-bound TT or soluble TT. SDS-Poly-Acrylamide-Gel-Electrophoresis separated TT only induced proliferation in 20% of the ......Using Tetanus Toxoid (TT) as a model antigen the T-cell Blotting method was evaluated. Peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cultures were stimulated by blotted nitrocellulose-bound TT or soluble TT. SDS-Poly-Acrylamide-Gel-Electrophoresis separated TT only induced proliferation in 20......% of the PBMC cultures whereas proliferation was induced in 79% of the same cultures offered similar treated TT (except for the PAGE separation). When T-cell blotting was performed with TT separated in a SDS-agarose matrix, proliferation was induced in 80% of donors responding to soluble TT. The results show...... that SDS-PAGE alters the ability of TT to induce T-cell proliferation, possibly due to unpolymerized acrylamide binding to proteins during SDS-PAGE. The use of SDS-PAGE T-cell blotting in the screening for T-cell antigens must therefore be reconsidered. We suggest the use of SDS-Agarose Gel Electrophoresis...

  10. Prevalence and socio-demographic factors associated with non-protective immunity against tetanus among high school adolescents girls in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orimadegun, Adebola E; Adepoju, Akinlolu A; Akinyinka, Olusegun O

    2014-03-17

    The low uptake of tetanus vaccine and its resultant high burden of tetanus in Nigeria suggest the need to improve routine and booster vaccination in children and adolescents. However, epidemiological evidence for vaccination in the adolescent age group needed for effective strategy and policy formulation is lacking. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of protective immunity against tetanus and to identify risk factors for non-protective immunity among schooling adolescents. Using a three-stage sampling technique, 851 female adolescents were randomly selected from secondary schools in Ibadan, Nigeria. A pre-tested questionnaire was used to obtain data on demographic and socio-economic characteristics and history of tetanus vaccination. An immuno-chromatographic rapid test kit, "Tetanos Quick Stick" was used to test specific anti-tetanus antibody protective level in venous blood samples. Descriptive statistics, Chi-square and logistic regression analyses were done with level of significance set at p = 0.05. Mean age of participants was 14.3 ± 1.9 years. Seroprevalence of protective immunity against tetanus was 38.1% and it significantly decreased with increasing age. More adolescents in public (65.4%) than private (44.7%) schools had non-protective level of immunity. A significantly increasing trend in the risk of non-protective immunity was observed with decreasing level of mothers' education. Also, the Odds of non-protective level of immunity was significantly higher in public than private schools (OR = 2.14; 95% CI =1.39, 3.20) but lower among adolescents who had history of recent tetanus toxoid injection than those who did not (OR = 0.11 95% CI = 0.09, 0.22). However, no significant association was found between protective immunity against tetanus and parents' marital status as well as family size. Protective immunity against tetanus among female adolescents was poor, more so in public schools and those who had not received

  11. Inclusion of a universal tetanus toxoid CD4(+) T cell epitope P2 significantly enhanced the immunogenicity of recombinant rotavirus ΔVP8* subunit parenteral vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xiaobo; Wen, Ke; Cao, Dianjun; Li, Guohua; Jones, Ronald W; Li, Jianping; Szu, Shousun; Hoshino, Yasutaka; Yuan, Lijuan

    2014-07-31

    Currently available live oral rotavirus vaccines, Rotarix(®) and RotaTeq(®), are highly efficacious in developed countries. However, the immunogenicity and efficacy of such vaccines in some developing countries are low. We reported previously that bacterially-expressed rotavirus ΔVP8* subunit vaccine candidates with P[8], P[4] or P[6] specificity elicited high-titer virus neutralizing antibodies in animals immunized intramuscularly. Of note was the finding that antibodies induced with the P[8]ΔVP8* vaccine neutralized both homotypic P[8] and heterotypic P[4] rotavirus strains to high titer. To further improve its vaccine potential, a tetanus toxoid universal CD4(+) T cell epitope P2 was introduced into P[8] or P[6]ΔVP8* construct. The resulting recombinant fusion proteins expressed in Escherichia coli were of high solubility and were produced with high yield. Two doses (10 or 20 μg/dose) of the P2-P[8]ΔVP8* vaccine or P2-P[6]ΔVP8* vaccine with aluminum phosphate adjuvant elicited significantly higher geometric mean homologous neutralizing antibody titers than the vaccines without P2 in intramuscularly immunized guinea pigs. Interestingly, high levels of neutralizing antibody responses induced in guinea pigs with 3 doses of the P2-P[8]ΔVP8* vaccine persisted for at least 6 months. Furthermore, in the gnotobiotic piglet challenge study, three intramuscular doses (50 μg/dose) of the P2-P[8]ΔVP8* vaccine with aluminum phosphate adjuvant significantly delayed the onset of diarrhea and significantly reduced the duration of diarrhea and the cumulative diarrhea score after oral challenge with virulent human rotavirus Wa (G1P[8]) strain. The P2-P[8]ΔVP8* vaccine induced serum virus neutralizing antibody and VP4-specific IgG antibody production prechallenge, and primed the pigs for higher antibody and intestinal and systemic virus-specific IFN-γ producing CD4(+) T cell responses postchallenge. These two subunit vaccines could be used at a minimum singly or

  12. Cephalic Tetanus: case report of a rare complication of orbito-ocular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    He was treated vigorously with anti-tetanus serum, intravenous diazepam and fluids, intravenous metronidazole and other parenteral broad- spectrum antibiotics. He was also actively immunized with tetanus toxoid injections. Results: He made a slow but remarkable recovery after about five weeks (38 days) with minimal ...

  13. Influence of maternal antibodies on active pertussis toxoid immunization of neonatal mice and piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polewicz, Monika; Gracia, Aleksandra; Buchanan, Rachelle; Strom, Stacy; Halperin, Scott A; Potter, Andrew A; Babiuk, Lorne A; Gerdts, Volker

    2011-10-13

    Whooping cough caused by infection with Bordetella pertussis, is a serious illness in infants and young children. Mortality due to whooping cough is being reported in infants too young to be immunized as well as those who have not completed their series of vaccinations. One of the major factors that interferes with successful active immunization in early life is the presence of maternal antibodies (MatAbs). Using the mouse and pig models, we evaluated the effect of maternal antibodies on active immunization with pertussis toxoid (PTd) and explored strategies to overcome this interference. Our results indicate that passively transferred maternal antibodies interfered with active immunization using pertussis toxoid. The level of passively transferred antibodies directly correlated with the level of interference observed. However, this interference could be overcome by using a second booster immunization or by co-formulating the toxoid with novel adjuvants. These results support the need for novel vaccine formulations that are optimized for the neonate and that can be used not only to modulate the inherently biased neonatal immune system but also to prime the response in the presence of passively transferred maternal antibodies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Immunity to tetanus and diphtheria in the UK in 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Karen S; White, Joanne M; Andrews, Nick J; Borrow, Ray; Stanford, Elaine; Newton, Emma; Pebody, Richard G

    2012-11-19

    This study aimed to estimate the immunity of the UK population to tetanus and diphtheria, including the potential impact of new glycoconjugatate vaccines, and the addition of diphtheria to the school leaver booster in 1994. Residual sera (n=2697) collected in England in 2009/10 were selected from 18 age groups and tested for tetanus and diphtheria antibody. Results were standardised by testing a panel of sera (n=150) to enable comparison with a previously (1996) published serosurvey. Data were then standardised to the UK population. In 2009, 83% of the UK population were protected (≥0.1 IU/mL) against tetanus compared to 76% in 1996 (p=0.079), and 75% had at least basic protection against diphtheria (≥0.01 IU/mL) in 2009 compared to 60% in 1996 (pdiphtheria. Higher diphtheria immunity was observed in those aged 16-34 years in 2009 compared to 1996 (geometric mean concentration [GMC] 0.15 IU/mL vs. 0.03 IU/mL, pdiphtheria in 2009 were 29% susceptible), 45-69 years (>20% susceptible) and 70+ years (>32% susceptible). Low immunity was observed in those aged 10-11 years (>19% susceptible), between the scheduled preschool and school leaver booster administration. The current schedule appears to induce protective levels; increases in the proportions protected/GMCs were observed for the ages receiving vaccinations according to UK policy. Glycoconjugate vaccines appear to have increased immunity, in particular for diphtheria, in preschool age groups. Diphtheria immunity in teenagers and young adults has increased as a result of the addition of diphtheria to the school leaver booster. However, currently older adults remain susceptible, without any further opportunities for immunisations planned according to the present schedule. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A case of tetanus infection in an adult with a protective tetanus antibody level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollman, Kristan E; Acquisto, Nicole M; Bodkin, Ryan P

    2014-04-01

    Tetanus is a bacterial infection caused by Clostridium tetani and most commonly presents as trismus or other muscle spasms. Despite the development of the tetanus toxoid vaccine, tetanus infection has not been eradicated. Additionally, while there are hypothesized protective levels of tetanus antibody, tetanus infection may still occur in properly vaccinated individuals. We report the case of a 31-year-old male that presented to the emergency department (ED) with a 2-day history of neck and jaw pain. He reports puncturing his hand with a rusty nail 10 days prior. His reported vaccination history was that he received his last booster vaccination 13 years prior to presentation. In the ED, tetanus vaccine, tetanus immune globulin, and metronidazole were administered. His symptoms improved over the next 2 days and resolved at day 6. Despite his presentation of tetanus infection and rule out of other causes for his symptoms, his tetanus antibody level was reported at 8.4 U/mL, which is considered to be protective.A tetanus antibody level that is adequate for protective immunity should not preclude a patient from treatment of tetanus infection. This case demonstrates that a thorough history, physical exam, and rule out of other causes should guide treatment when there is concern for a tetanus infection.

  16. Active Immunization Of Rabbit With Gamma Irradiated Cobra (Naja haje) Venom Toxoid

    OpenAIRE

    Esmat A. Shaban

    2005-01-01

    Cobra (Naja haje) venom detoxified by gamma radiation (15KGy or 25KGy) was used as toxoid for active immunization of rabbits following a short schedule ( on day 0, 7,21) of immunization with complete Freund's adjuvant. Effective neutralization of venom toxin by immune sera of rabbits was observed. The presence of antibody in the immune sera was detected by immuno-diffusion test. The non-irradiated and the two dose levels gamma irradiated Naja haje venom, against the antivenin antibody produce...

  17. Use of a tetanus toxoid marker to allow differentiation of infected from vaccinated poultry without affecting the efficacy of a H5N1 avian influenza virus vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James-Berry, C M; Middleton, D; Mansfield, J P; Fenwick, S G; Ellis, T M

    2010-10-30

    Tetanus toxoid (TT) was assessed as a positive marker for avian influenza (AI) virus vaccination in chickens, in a vaccination and challenge study. Chickens were vaccinated twice with inactivated AI H5N2 virus vaccine, and then challenged three weeks later with highly pathogenic AI H5N1 virus. Vaccinated chickens were compared with other groups that were either sham-vaccinated or vaccinated with virus with the TT marker. All sham-vaccinated chickens died by 36 hours postinfection, whereas all vaccinated chickens, with or without the TT marker, were protected from morbidity and mortality following exposure to the challenge virus. Serological testing for H5-specific antibodies identified anamnestic responses to H5 in some of the vaccinated birds, indicating active virus infection.

  18. Tetanus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... face, together with difficulty swallowing and stiffness or pain in muscles in the neck, shoulder, or back. The muscle spasms can be severe and can quickly spread to muscles of the abdomen, upper arms, and thighs. The symptoms of tetanus usually appear anywhere from 3 to ...

  19. Tiff over anti-tetanus vaccine now erupted into battle. International / Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-07-24

    Anti-abortionists in the Philippines have generated widespread fears in the country that tetanus toxoid used in the anti-tetanus vaccine campaign contains trace amounts of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) to induce abortion. The World Health Organization (WHO) notes that this widespread, unfounded fear has already resulted in a 45% drop in tetanus toxoid coverage during national immunization days in 1995 compared to 1994. Since up to 5 million women were not immunized in 1995, 300-400 more babies will contract tetanus and die in the year to come. Pro-life Philippines is ostensibly the creator and supporter of these newly-generated fears about tetanus toxoid. The mass hysteria is, however, most likely part of a church-led campaign against the government's population policies and the popularity of former Health Secretary Juan Flavier. Millions of Filipino women have for years received anti-tetanus vaccines to prevent tetanus in both mothers and their newborn children. Tetanus remains a problem for newborns in the Philippines where local midwives often use unsanitary knives to sever the umbilical cord at birth. Since the immunization drive was stepped up in 1990, the number of babies affected by tetanus has fallen from more than 25 per day in the mid-1980s to four currently. The vaccine currently supplied by UNICEF has been used for more than 50 years in many countries and is one of the basics in immunization. The Department of Health notes no unusual increase in abortions since 1990, the year the anti-tetanus drive was accelerated. Prior to 1990, anti-tetanus vaccination had been going on in the Philippines since 1983. Even WHO assurances that tetanus toxoid contains no abortifacients have failed to allay public fear. It is unfortunate that the people and groups behind this misinformation campaign have done so much damage to a decidedly beneficial and needed health program.

  20. Antibody response to the Haemophilus influenzae type b-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine in healthy and infection-prone individuals with IgG3 subclass deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn-Zoric, M; Ulanova, M; Friman, V; Björkander, J; Oxelius, V A; Lucas, A; Hanson, L A

    2004-09-01

    Searching for a possible explanation for the phenotypic heterogeneity in IgG3 deficiency, we studied the antibody response to a polysaccharide and a protein antigen in IgG3-deficient (IgG3d) adults after vaccination with Haemophilus influenzae type b capsular polysaccharide (Hib CP) conjugated to tetanus toxoid. Distribution of isotypes, idiotypes, clonotypes, and Gm allotypes were compared. All the vaccinated individuals, irrespective of the level of IgG3 and proneness to infections, developed protective levels of anti-Hib CP. Significantly lower prevaccination levels of IgG2 (p infection-prone compared to the healthy IgG3d individuals and/or controls. Seventy percent of the IgG3d patients and none of the controls had the low responding Gm(ga-n/ga-n) genotype, while the majority of the controls had the alternative Gm(bfn/bfn) genotype. The conjugate ACT-HIB vaccine efficiently overcomes the IgG3 subclass deficiency state and the genetic predisposition for lower responsiveness, providing protection against Hib and tetanus infections. The proneness to infection in some IgG3d individuals may relate to their low prevaccination antibody levels.

  1. INVISIBLE MURDERER: NEONATAL TETANUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonca SONMEZ

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal tetanus (NNT has been secondary in the whole world in the death list of diseases which can be protected by the help of vaccine. It’s an important community health problem in the less-developed countries in which pre-birth care services are limited, assisting a mother at childbirth by uneducated people in dirty atmosphere and the immunity against tetanus is not enough. Studies have shown that minor part of the cases have been expressed in most of the countries. Because of that NNT have been called as “silent/invisible murderer”. In Turkey, in the year of 2003 it has been seen 15 cases, and 12 of them have been resulted in death. The methods which will be applied to carry out the elimination of NNT are; the vaccination of pregnant women with at least two doses tetanus toxoid and providing clean birth conditions for all of the pregnant women. However, in Turkey the proportion of the women who have two doses of tetanus vaccine is 41%. To eliminate NNT in our country, all the pregnant women must be attained, the ones who are attained must be presented with qualified pre-birth care service which also includes tetanus immunity and the births must be carried out under healty conditions. As smallpox and polio eradication, NNT elimination will also be accomplished by self-sacrificing works of personnel in primary health care. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2006; 5(3.000: 229-233

  2. Increased levels of specific leukocyte- and platelet-derived substances during normal anti-tetanus antibody synthesis in patients with inactive Crohn disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Mortensen, T; Holten-Andersen, M

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Crohn disease is considered a consequence of inappropriate upregulation of immune reactions evoked by the intestinal microflora or luminal antigens. Since the intestinal mucosa is continuously exposed to tetanus toxoid we studied the antibody response to tetanus toxoid booster...... immunization in patients with Crohn disease and the subsequent release of various inflammatory mediators and growth factors in blood. METHODS: Ten patients with inactive disease and no concurrent medication and 12 age-and gender-matched healthy volunteers with anti-tetanus antibody levels less than 0.1 IU....../ml were inoculated with 1 ml (6 Lf units) of tetanus toxoid vaccine. The anti-tetanus antibody levels were determined in serum obtained before inoculation and after 7, 14 and 28 days, respectively. C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), histamine...

  3. Reduced-antigen, combined diphtheria, tetanus and acellular pertussis vaccine, adsorbed (Boostrix®): a review of its properties and use as a single-dose booster immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Paul L

    2012-09-10

    Reduced-antigen, combined diphtheria, tetanus and three-component acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap; Boostrix®) is indicated for booster vaccination against diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis in individuals from age four years onwards in Europe and from age 10 years onwards in the US. Compared with infant formulations used for primary vaccination, Tdap contains reduced quantities (10-50%) of all toxoids and antigens, which are adsorbed to either ≤0.39 mg/dose (US licensed formulation) or 0.5 mg/dose (rest-of-world formulation) of aluminium adjuvant. The reduced antigen content is designed to avoid the increasing reactogenicity historically seen with the fourth and fifth doses of infant vaccine. This article reviews the immunogenicity, protective efficacy and reactogenicity of Tdap booster administered to children, adolescents and adults, including those aged ≥65 years. In clinical trials, a single booster dose of Tdap induced seroprotective levels of antibodies to diphtheria and tetanus toxoids in virtually all children and adolescents, and in a high proportion of adults and elderly individuals at approximately 1 month post-vaccination irrespective of their vaccination history. In all age groups, seropositivity rates for antibodies against pertussis antigens were ≥90% (including in unvaccinated adolescents), and booster response rates were high. Tdap was safely co-administered with other common vaccines without significantly affecting the immune responses. The immunogenicity and reactogenicity profiles of booster doses of Tdap were generally similar to those of infant diphtheria-tetanus-whole-cell pertussis vaccine and infant diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine in children aged 4-6 years, and infant diphtheria-tetanus vaccine in older children. In adolescents and adults, the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of Tdap were generally similar to those of reduced-antigen diphtheria-tetanus vaccine, reduced-antigen diphtheria-tetanus

  4. Comparisons of the effect of naturally acquired maternal pertussis antibodies and antenatal vaccination induced maternal tetanus antibodies on infant's antibody secreting lymphocyte responses and circulating plasma antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this study was to explore the effects of trans-placental tetanus toxoid (TT) and pertussis (PT) antibodies on an infant's response to vaccination in the context of antenatal immunization with tetanus but not with pertussis. 38 mothers received a single dose of TT vaccine during pregnancy...

  5. [State of immunity to diphtheria and tetanus in women in early postpartum period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savis'ko, A A; Kostinov, M P; Kharseeva, G G; Labushkina, A V; Alutina, É L

    2011-01-01

    Study of anti-diphtheria and anti-tetanus immunity in women in early postpartum period depending on age. Women in early postpartum period (n =139) with unknown vaccine anamnesis aged 17 to 44 years and under the supervision of Rostov-on-Don maternity hospital No. 2 were examined for the evaluation of the anti-diphtheria and anti-tetanus immunity state. All the women had high level of protection form these infections. The level of anti-tetanus immunity intensity in the examined was higher than anti-diphtheria. Monitoring of anti-diphtheria and anti-tetanus immunity in women of childbearing age is necessary to resolve the issue of vaccine administration in this group. High level of maternal immunity intensity will allow to form a sufficient protection from infectious agents in neonates.

  6. Managing tetanus.

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    Parker, Janet

    2006-07-01

    Tetanus is an acute disease caused by the toxin released by the anaerobic gram-positive bacillus, Clostridium tetani. It usually follows a recognised injury and is usually fatal ( Dietz et al 1996 ) The word tetanus comes from the Greek 'tetanos', which is derived from the term for 'to stretch'. German bacteriologist Arthur Nicolaier discovered C tetani in 1885 and, four years later, Robert Koch obtained the bacillus in pure culture ( Mylonakis 2004 ). Tetanus toxoid was not developed however until 1924 by Pierre Descombey ( Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2005 ).

  7. Induction of potential protective immunity against enterotoxemia in calves by single or multiple recombinant Clostridium perfringens toxoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhigang; De, Yanyan; Chang, Jitao; Wang, Fang; Yu, Li

    2014-11-01

    Cattle enterotoxemia caused by Clostridium perfringens toxins is a noncontagious, sporadic, and fatal disease characterized by sudden death. Strategies for controlling and preventing cattle enterotoxemia are based on systematic vaccination of herds with toxoids. Because the process of producing conventional clostridial vaccines is dangerous, expensive, and time-consuming, the prospect of recombinant toxoid vaccines against diseases caused by C. perfringens toxins is promising. In this study, nontoxic recombinant toxoids derived from α-, β- and ε-toxins of C. perfringens, namely, rCPA247-370 , rCPB and rEtxHP, respectively, were expressed in Escherichia coli. High levels of specific IgG antibodies and neutralizing antibodies against the toxins were detected in sera from calves vaccinated with either a single recombinant toxoid or a mixed cocktail of all three recombinant toxoids, indicating the potential of these recombinant toxoids to provide calves with protective immunity against enterotoxemia caused by C. perfringens. © 2014 The Societies and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  8. A novel, helminth-derived immunostimulant enhances human recall responses to hepatitis C virus and tetanus toxoid and is dependent on CD56+ cells for its action.

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    MacDonald, A J; Libri, N A; Lustigman, S; Barker, S J; Whelan, M A; Semper, A E; Rosenberg, W M

    2008-05-01

    We have described previously an immunostimulant derived from Onchocerca volvulus, the helminth parasite that causes onchocerciasis. Recombinant O. volvulus activation-associated secreted protein-1 (rOv-ASP-1) was a potent adjuvant for antibody and cellular responses to protein, polypeptide and small peptide antigens. Our aims were to determine whether rOv-ASP-1 is immunostimulatory for human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and, if so, whether it could augment cellular responses against human pathogen antigens in vitro. Cytokines from rOv-ASP-1-stimulated human PBMC were measured by a fluorescence activated cell sorter-based multiplex assay. Recall responses of normal healthy donor (NHD) and chronic hepatitis C virus (c-HCV)-infected patient PBMC to tetanus toxoid (TT) or HCV core (HCVco) antigen, respectively, were measured by interferon-gamma enzyme-linked immunospot assays. Interferon-gamma was the predominant cytokine induced by rOv-ASP-1. 77.3% of NHD anti-TT and 88.9% of c-HCV anti-HCVco responses were enhanced by rOv-ASP-1. The immunostimulant effect was dependent upon contact between CD56+ and CD56- fractions of PBMC. We have described a helminth-derived protein that can act as an immunostimulant for human recall responses in vitro to TT and, perhaps more importantly, HCV antigens in patients with chronic HCV infection. Our longer-term goal would be to boost anti-viral responses in chronic infections such as HCV.

  9. The continuing problem of tetanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percy, A S; Kukora, J S

    1985-04-01

    Thirty-eight instances of tetanus were treated during a recent 20 year period at the University of Mississippi and Jackson Veterans Administration Medical Centers. One patient had received a single prior dose of tetanus toxoid and the remainder had never received tetanus toxoid. Sixteen patients sought medical care for their tetanus wound prior to the onset of clinical tetanus, but none received specific antitetanus prophylaxis. The majority of tetanus wounds were located on lower extremities and often were chronic vascular ulcers. The over-all mortality was 37 per cent and survival rate was not affected by patient age, duration, location or severity of the tetanus wound or presence of associated diseases. Aggressive surgical treatment of the tetanus wound was associated with decreased mortality for uncertain reasons. Although low mortality from tetanus is possible with improved intensive care technology, the disease should be virtually preventable by the provision of proper tetanus prophylaxis to all patients at risk.

  10. Proteção do recém-nascido contra o tétano pela imunização ativa da gestante com antitoxina tetânica: estudo original de 1953 Protection of newborn infants against tetanus by active immunization of the pregnant women with tetanus antitoxin: the 1953 original study

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    Augusto Gomes Mattos

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar, em cobaias prenhes e em gestantes, a produção de antitoxina tetânica induzida pela aplicação da anatoxina tetânica e estudar a sua passagem para o recém-nascido. MÉTODOS: Na primeira fase, em estudo experimental, cobaias prenhes foram vacinadas com duas doses de toxóide tetânico em um intervalo de 15 dias, seguida da dosagem de anticorpos na cobaia imunizada, na prole ao nascer e 15 dias após o nascimento. Outro grupo de animais previamente vacinado recebeu uma dose de reforço 30 dias antes do parto, medindo-se o nível de anticorpos na cobaia e na prole. Na segunda fase, em ensaio clínico, as gestantes humanas foram vacinadas com três injeções de anatoxina tetânica, com um intervalo de 30 dias, em qualquer período da gravidez, medindo-se, a seguir, a antitoxina tetânica. Nos recém-nascidos, os anticorpos foram medidos ao nascer e aos 15 dias de vida. RESULTADOS: O título de antitoxina no sangue da prole de cobaias vacinadas com anatoxina tetânica foi elevado ao nascimento e aos 15 dias de vida. A dose de reforço provocou elevação do título basal. Nas gestantes, a aplicação de três doses de toxóide antitetânico conferiu imunidade a 95% dos recém-nascidos estudados. Os recém-nascidos de mães vacinadas apresentaram títulos elevados de antitoxina que persistiram por mais de 15 dias de vida. CONCLUSÕES: A vacinação durante a gestação foi acompanhada de títulos protetores de antitoxina contra o tétano tanto nos filhotes de cobaias quanto nos recém-nascidos humanos.OBJECTIVE: To measure, in pregnant guinea pigs and women, the production of tetanus antitoxin, induced by vaccination with tetanus toxin, and to study the transmission of these antibodies to the offspring. METHODS: In an experimental design, pregnant guinea pigs were vaccinated with two doses of tetanus toxoid with a 15-day interval followed by determination of antibodies in the immunized guinea pig, in the offspring at birth

  11. Neonatal Tetanus Immunity in Nigeria: The Effect of HIV Infection on Serum Levels and Transplacental Transfer of Antibodies

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    Muhammad Faruk Bashir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Tetanus toxoid immunisation of pregnant mother has remained the most effective strategy in eliminating neonatal tetanus. Impaired production and/or transplacental transfer of antibodies may affect the effectiveness of this strategy. We studied the effect of maternal HIV infection on serum levels and transplacental transfer of anti-tetanus antibodies. Methods. A total of 162 mother-baby paired serum samples were taken and analysed for anti-tetanus antibody levels using ELISA. Maternal HIV status was also determined by double ELISA technique. Maternal TT vaccination status was also documented. Results. Thirty-eight (23.5% mothers and 41 (25.3% babies were seronegative, out of whom 8 mothers were HIV positive and 9 babies were HIV exposed. HIV infected mothers and HIV exposed infants were, respectively, 16.27 times (OR = 16.27, 95% CI = 3.28 to 80.61 and 33.75 times (OR = 33.75, 95% CI = 4.12 to 276.40 more likely to be seronegative for anti-tetanus antibody. Similarly, HIV positive mother-newborn pairs were 7.46 times more likely to have a poor transplacental transfer of tetanus antibodies (OR = 7.46, 95% CI = 1.96 to 28.41. Conclusions. Maternal HIV infection is associated with impaired maternofoetal transfer of anti-tetanus antibodies and seronegativity among mothers and their newborns. Hence, this may hinder efforts to eliminate neonatal tetanus.

  12. Atypical tetanus in a completely immunized 14-year-old boy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Kai; Ringe, Hannelore; Dorner, Brigitte G; Diers, Alexander; Uhlenberg, Birgit; Müller, Dominik; Varnholt, Verena; Gaedicke, Gerhard

    2007-11-01

    We report the uncommon clinical course of tetanus in a completely immunized 14-year-old boy. His initial symptoms, which included a flaccid paralysis, supported a diagnosis of botulism. Preliminary mouse-test results with combined botulinum antitoxins A, B, and E, obtained from tetanus-immunized horses, backed this diagnosis. The change in his clinical course from paralysis to rigor and the negative, more specific, botulinum mouse test with isolated botulinum antitoxins A, B, and E, obtained from nonvaccinated rabbits, disproved the diagnosis of botulism. Tetanus was suspected despite complete vaccination. The final results of a positive mouse test performed with isolated tetanus antitoxin confirmed the diagnosis. Adequate treatment was begun, and the boy recovered completely.

  13. Tetanus immunity in nursing home residents of Bolu, Turkey

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    Tamer Ali

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tetanus is a serious but vaccine-preventable disease and fatality rate of the disease is high in the neonates and the elderly. The aim of this study was to detect the tetanus antibody prevalence in the over sixty-year age residents of the nursing homes in Bolu. Methods A voluntary-based study was done in the residents of two nursing homes in Bolu, Turkey. Blood samples were taken from 71 volunteers residing in there nursing homes. Tetanus IgG antibodies were measured by a commercial ELISA kit. Results Among overall subjects, only 11 (15.7 % had the protective tetanus antibody titers at the time of the study. Totally, 10 subjects were examined in emergency rooms due to trauma or accidents within the last ten years and, four (40% of them had protective antibody levels. Of the remaining 61 subjects only 7 (11% had protective antibody levels (p Conclusions Tetanus antibody level is below the protective level in the majority of the over-sixty-year-age subjects residing in the nursing homes. Each over sixty-year age person in our country should be vaccinated. Until this is accomplished, at least, nursing home residents should be vaccinated during registration.

  14. Men with Low Vitamin A Stores Respond Adequately to Primary Yellow Fever and Secondary Tetanus Toxoid Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current recommendations for vitamin A intake and liver stores (20 mg/g) are based on maintaining normal vision. Higher levels may be required for maintaining normal immune function. To test this hypothesis, we conducted an 8 wk residential study among 36 healthy Bangladeshi men with low serum retino...

  15. Diphtheria, Tetanus, and Pertussis Immunity in Indian Adults and Immunogenicity of Td Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Prasad S.; Raut, Sidram K.; Dhorje, Sanjay P.; Barde, Prajakt J.; Koli, Girish; Jadhav, Suresh S.

    2011-01-01

    Rise of diphtheria cases in adults is a cause of concern worldwide. Pertussis is also now affecting adults. We assessed serum levels of tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis antibodies in 62 adults in Pune, India, who had missed their primary immunization. All adults were then given three doses of tetanus-diphtheria (Td) vaccine at 0, 1, and 6 months. All adults were immune to tetanus but 78% had long-term protection. For diphtheria, 88% were protected but only 9% had long term immunity. Only 60% were immune to pertussis. After three doses of the vaccine, long term immunity to both tetanus and diphtheria increased to 87% and 97%, respectively (P < 0.05). Geometric mean titres (GMT) of both antibodies also increased significantly. The vaccine caused minor local reactions and mild fever in a few subjects. There is need of three doses of Td vaccination in those Indian adults, who missed their primary immunization. Susceptibility to pertussis also needs to be further explored. PMID:23724309

  16. Performance of a bedside test for tetanus immunity: results of a cross-sectional study among three EDs in the Netherlands in 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Maas, N At; Donken, R; Te Wierik, M J M; Swaan, C M; Hahne, S J M; de Melker, H E

    2016-11-01

    Despite sustained high vaccination coverage and a national guideline by the Health Council (HC-guideline) on tetanus postexposure prophylaxis (T-PEP), tetanus sporadically occurs in the Netherlands. This study aims to assess the added value of a bedside test for tetanus immunity (Tetanos Quick Stick (TQS); Ingen BioSciences Group, France), in the context of routine T-PEP in two adult cohorts: those born before introduction of tetanus toxoid vaccination in the National Immunization Programme (NIP) in 1957 (pre-NIP-cohort; n=196) and those born after (NIP-cohort; n=405). Adults included at the time of visiting one of three participating EDs received T-PEP as per routine recommendations. Subsequently, a nurse performed the TQS and filled in a questionnaire. We compared the indication for T-PEP based on TQS results with those based on the HC-guideline and with actually administration of T-PEP, stratified by cohort. Among the pre-NIP and NIP-cohort, 16% and 9%, respectively, received T-PEP, while this was not indicated based on the HC-guideline. Furthermore, 8% and 7%, respectively, did not get T-PEP, although it was indicated by the guideline. Comparing the indication derived from the HC-guideline with TQS result found that 22% (pre-NIP-cohort) and 8% (NIP-cohort) were not eligible for T-PEP according to the HC-guideline but had a negative TQS. Conversely, 36% (pre-NIP-cohort) and 73% (NIP-cohort) were eligible for T-PEP according to the HC-guideline but had positive TQS, indicating sufficient tetanus protection. Use of the TQS would allow better targeting of T-PEP. Furthermore, stricter adherence to the HC-guideline can prevent overimmunisation and decrease the risk of tetanus. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. Immunity to Diphtheria and Tetanus in Army Personnel and Adult Civilians in Mashhad, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini Shokouh, Seyyed Javad; Mohammadi, Babak; Rajabi, Jalil; Mohammadian Roshan, Ghasem

    2017-03-24

    This study aimed to investigate serologic immunity to diphtheria and tetanus in army personnel and a sample population of adult civilians in Mashhad, Iran. Army personnel (n = 180) and civilians (n = 83) who presented at Mashhad army hospital participated in this study. Diphtheria and tetanus antitoxin levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Approximately 77% and 94% of army personnel aged 18-34 years had at least basic protection against diphtheria (antitoxin level ≥0.1 IU/mL) and tetanus (antitoxin level >0.1 IU/mL), respectively. For civilians in this age group, the proportions were 76% for both diseases. Antitoxin levels waned with age. Thus, participants older than 50 years had lower immunity; this decrease in immunity was more pronounced for tetanus than for diphtheria in both army personnel and civilians. For both diseases, geometric mean antitoxin titers and the proportion of participants with at least basic protection were higher in subjects with a history of vaccination in the last 10 years (P diphtheria and tetanus. However, the large number of susceptible older adults (>50 years old) calls for improved booster vaccination protocols.

  18. Exposure risks and tetanus immunization in women of family owned farms. Implications for occupational and environmental health nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, C; Carruth, A K

    2001-03-01

    A sampling pool of 4,808 farms in 10 parishes across southeast Louisiana was used to examine the risk factors of farm women who engage in activities putting them at risk for tetanus and to examine the circumstances related to vaccination. Data were collected, via stratified random sampling, in summer 1998 resulting in 657 completed interviews. Only 53.6% of women were current with a tetanus booster, having received their immunization within the past 10 years. Just as many women received tetanus vaccination following an injury or accident as for prevention. As women aged, they were less likely to be compliant. In the South, a number of environmental factors contribute to the risk for tetanus exposure and infection. These risk factors were examined in light of compliance with tetanus booster compliance. Increasing awareness of risk is essential because although tetanus is uncommon, the death rate from tetanus is greater than 30%.

  19. Efficacy and safety of vi-tetanus toxoid conjugated typhoid vaccine (PedaTyph™) in Indian children: School based cluster randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Monjori; Shah, Nitin; Ghosh, Apurba; Chatterjee, Suparna; Kaur, Iqbal; Bhattacharya, Nisha; Basu, Suparna

    2016-04-02

    Vi polysaccharide typhoid vaccines cannot be used in children vaccine prepared by binding Vi to tetanus toxoids (Vi-TT) induces protective levels even in children vaccination with a Vi-TT vaccine in children 6 months to 12 years of age. Overall, 1765 subjects were recruited from two registered municipal urban slums of southern Kolkata. Most of the children of the slum dwellers attended the schools in the locality which was selected with permission from the school authority. Schools were randomly divided into vaccinated (Test group) and unvaccinated group (Control group). Children and their siblings of test group received 2-doses of PedaTyph™ vaccine at 6 weeks interval. Control group received vaccines as per national guidelines. Adverse events (AEs) were examined after 30 minutes, 1 month and clinical events were observed till 12 months post-vaccination. Incidence of culture positive typhoid fever in the control group was 1.27% vis-a-vis none in vaccine group during 12 months. In subgroup evaluated for immunogenicity, an antibody titer value of 1.8 EU/ml (95% CI: 1.5 EU/ml, 2.2 EU/ml), 32 EU/ml (95% CI: 27.0 EU/ml, 39.0 EU/ml) and 14 EU/ml (95% CI: 12.0 EU/ml, 17.0 EU/ml) at baseline, 6 weeks and 12 months, respectively was observed. Sero-conversion among the sub-group was 100% after 6 weeks of post-vaccination and 83% after 12 months considering 4-fold rise from baseline. The efficacy of vaccine was 100 % (95% CI: 97.6%, 100%) in the first year of follow-up with minimal AEs post vaccination. Vi conjugate typhoid vaccine conferred 100% protection against typhoid fever in 1765 children 6 months to 12 years of age with high immunogenicity in a subgroup from the vaccine arm.

  20. Tetanus after a minor injury leading to death in a previously non-immunized, elderly, Norwegian woman

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    Bjørn Brandsæter

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tetanus vaccination is part of the Norwegian childhood vaccination program. An elderly woman injured her arm and leg after a minor fall on her outdoor stairs. Two weeks later she presented with trismus. This developed into tetanic spasms, obstructed airways and the need for a tracheostomy. She died 14 days later due to pneumonia and multi-organ failure. ELISA for tetanus toxoid IgG was negative, probably because the patient was born before the introduction of tetanus vaccination in the Norwegian childhood vaccination program. Lack of adherence to the vaccination programs should be considered in patients presenting with symptoms resembling diseases they normally would be protected from. Although the patient presented with typical symptoms the diagnosis was not suspected initially, probably due to the rareness of this disease in Norway.

  1. Randomized, controlled, multicenter study of the immunogenicity and safety of a fully liquid combination diphtheria-tetanus toxoid-five-component acellular pertussis (DTaP5), inactivated poliovirus (IPV), and haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine compared with a DTaP3-IPV/Hib vaccine administered at 3, 5, and 12 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesikari, Timo; Silfverdal, Sven Arne; Boisnard, Florence; Thomas, Stéphane; Mwawasi, Grace; Reynolds, Donna

    2013-10-01

    This study compared the levels of immunogenicity and safety of diphtheria-tetanus toxoid-five-component acellular pertussis (DTaP(5)), inactivated poliovirus (IPV), and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) (DTaP(5)-IPV-Hib) and DTaP(3)-IPV/Hib vaccines for study participants 3, 5, and 12 months of age. Post-dose 3 noninferiority criteria comparing DTaP(5)-IPV-Hib to DTaP(3)-IPV/Hib using rates of seroprotection were demonstrated against diphtheria, tetanus, and polio types 1 to 3, but not for polyribosylribitol phosphate (PRP). While PRP did not meet noninferiority criteria, the seroprotection rate and geometric mean concentration (GMC) were high, indicating a clinically robust immune response. GMCs or titers for other antigens (including pertussis) and the safety profiles were generally similar between groups. Fully liquid DTaP(5)-IPV-Hib can be administered using the 3-, 5-, and 12-month vaccination schedule. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT00287092.).

  2. Altered Memory T-Cell Responses to Bacillus Calmette-Guerin and Tetanus Toxoid Vaccination and Altered Cytokine Responses to Polyclonal Stimulation in HIV-Exposed Uninfected Kenyan Infants.

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    Miguel A Garcia-Knight

    Full Text Available Implementation of successful prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV strategies has resulted in an increased population of HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU infants. HEU infants have higher rates of morbidity and mortality than HIV-unexposed (HU infants. Numerous factors may contribute to poor health in HEU infants including immunological alterations. The present study assessed T-cell phenotype and function in HEU infants with a focus on memory Th1 responses to vaccination. We compared cross-sectionally selected parameters at 3 and 12 months of age in HIV-exposed (n = 42 and HU (n = 28 Kenyan infants. We measured ex vivo activated and bulk memory CD4 and CD8 T-cells and regulatory T-cells by flow cytometry. In addition, we measured the magnitude, quality and memory phenotype of antigen-specific T-cell responses to Bacillus Calmette-Guerin and Tetanus Toxoid vaccine antigens, and the magnitude and quality of the T cell response following polyclonal stimulation with staphylococcal enterotoxin B. Finally, the influence of maternal disease markers on the immunological parameters measured was assessed in HEU infants. Few perturbations were detected in ex vivo T-cell subsets, though amongst HEU infants maternal HIV viral load positively correlated with CD8 T cell immune activation at 12 months. Conversely, we observed age-dependent differences in the magnitude and polyfunctionality of IL-2 and TNF-α responses to vaccine antigens particularly in Th1 cells. These changes mirrored those seen following polyclonal stimulation, where at 3 months, cytokine responses were higher in HEU infants compared to HU infants, and at 12 months, HEU infant cytokine responses were consistently lower than those seen in HU infants. Finally, reduced effector memory Th1 responses to vaccine antigens were observed in HEU infants at 3 and 12 months and higher central memory Th1 responses to M. tuberculosis antigens were observed at 3 months only. Long-term monitoring of

  3. Inhibitory activity of fenoterol on Dermatophagoides-, Parietaria-, tetanus-toxoid-, and Candida albicans-stimulated blood mononuclear cells: differences in beta2-adrenoreceptor stimulation but not in cell apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestri, M; Oddera, S; Scarso, L; Pistoia, V; Tasso, P; Rossi, G A

    2000-05-01

    beta2-adrenoreceptor agonists have the ability to downregulate in vitro the proliferative response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (BMCs). This activity could be related to a variety of beta2-adrenoreceptor-mediated functions, including induction of cell apoptosis in activated T-cells. To test this hypothesis, BMCs from atopic subjects, sensitized to house dust mites (Dermatophagoides [Der p]) and/or to Parietaria were incubated with fenoterol (10(-8)-10(-5) M) in the presence of (a) purified allergen extracts (Der p [5 microg/mL] or Parietaria [5 microg/mL]) or (b) antigens (tetanus toxoid [1 microg/mL] or Candida albicans [5 x 10(5) bodies/mL]). The BMC proliferation was assessed by [3H] thymidine incorporation and cell apoptosis was assessed by evaluating DNA fragmentation by a fluorescence technique, using propidium iodide. In cultures stimulated with Der p or with Parietaria, fenoterol induced a dose-dependent inhibition of BMC proliferation, significant also at the lowest concentration tested (10(-8) M) (p 0.05). The different inhibitory efficacy of fenoterol appeared to be related to the degree of activation of beta2-adrenoreceptors on the different BMC populations that responded to the different stimuli. Indeed, in the presence of fenoterol (10(-6) and 10(-5)M), a significant increase in cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels was seen in Der p- or Parietaria-stimulated cells (p 0.05; each comparison). Finally, the percentage of cells with fragmented DNA was lower in cultures stimulated with Der p or Parietaria than in those stimulated with tetanus toxoid or C. albicans, and the presence of fenoterol did not modify cell apoptosis (p > 0.05; each comparison). Thus, the different inhibitory activity of fenoterol on BMCs activated by allergens (Der p or Parietaria) or by antigens (tetanus toxoid or C. albicans) seems to be related to differences in beta2-adrenoreceptor expression and/or function in the different antigen-specific T-cell subsets, but

  4. India is on the way forward to maternal and neonatal tetanus elimination!

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    Bairwa, Mohan; Sk, Shashikantha; Rajput, Meena; Khanna, Pardeep; Malik, Jagbir Singh; Nagar, Mukesh

    2012-08-01

    Tetanus is an acute, potentially fatal disease, caused by a bacterium, Clostridium tetani. The disease usually occurs in newborns through infection of the unhealed umbilical stump, particularly when the stump is cut with a non-sterile instrument. NT contributes to 5-7% of neonatal mortality worldwide. Several thousand mothers are also estimated to die annually of maternal tetanus. MNT elimination relies on promotion of maternal tetanus immunization along with safe delivery and avoidance of unsafe abortion and umbilical cord care practices. The Government of India (1983) introduced at least two doses of tetanus toxoid vaccine (TT) to all pregnant women during each pregnancy as a part of its nationwide immunization policy. To date, a total of 15 States including union territories of the India have achieved NT elimination. The remaining Indian States need to strengthen TT coverage to save the lives of neonates as well as mothers from tetanus.

  5. Epidemiological and clinical aspects of neonatal tetanus from a tertiary care hospital

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    Ali Y. Aqeel

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: It is essential to begin campaigns or integrate complete maternal tetanus toxoid immunization at primary health centers (PHC during antenatal care. Immunization needs to be arranged so pregnant women can be educated regarding the importance of ANC and the risks of unhygienic home delivery, and immunization should be addressed with adequate information. Pregnant women and those of childbearing age in mountainous areas should be the first targets for these activities.

  6. Durability of Vaccine-Induced Immunity Against Tetanus and Diphtheria Toxins: A Cross-sectional Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarlund, Erika; Thomas, Archana; Poore, Elizabeth A.; Amanna, Ian J.; Rynko, Abby E.; Mori, Motomi; Chen, Zunqiu; Slifka, Mark K.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Many adult immunization schedules recommend that tetanus and diphtheria vaccination be performed every 10 years. In light of current epidemiological trends of disease incidence and rates of vaccine-associated adverse events, the 10-year revaccination schedule has come into question. Methods. We performed cross-sectional analysis of serum antibody titers in 546 adult subjects stratified by age or sex. All serological results were converted to international units after calibration with international serum standards. Results. Approximately 97% of the population was seropositive to tetanus and diphtheria as defined by a protective serum antibody titer of ≥0.01 IU/mL. Mean antibody titers were 3.6 and 0.35 IU/mL against tetanus and diphtheria, respectively. Antibody responses to tetanus declined with an estimated half-life of 14 years (95% confidence interval, 11–17 years), whereas antibody responses to diphtheria were more long-lived and declined with an estimated half-life of 27 years (18–51 years). Mathematical models combining antibody magnitude and duration predict that 95% of the population will remain protected against tetanus and diphtheria for ≥30 years without requiring further booster vaccination. Conclusions. These studies demonstrate that durable levels of protective antitoxin immunity exist in the majority of vaccinated individuals. Together, this suggests that it may no longer be necessary to administer booster vaccinations every 10 years and that the current adult vaccination schedule for tetanus and diphtheria should be revisited. PMID:27060790

  7. Effective humoral immunity against diphtheria and tetanus in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus or myasthenia gravis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csuka, Dorottya; Czirják, László; Hóbor, Renáta; Illes, Zsolt; Bánáti, Miklós; Rajczy, Katalin; Tordai, Attila; Füst, George

    2013-07-01

    Controversy exists about the effectiveness of vaccine-induced immune response in patients with immunoregulatory disorders. Our aim was to determine the antibody titers to diphtheria and tetanus in patients with either of two autoimmune diseases. 279 patients with SLE (205 females, aged 45.0 ± 13.8 years), 158 patients with myasthenia gravis (MG) (101 females, aged 55 ± 18.7 years) and 208 healthy subjects (122 females, aged 48 ± 14.6 years) were enrolled. Serum concentrations of diphtheria-antitoxin-IgG (A-DIPHTH) and tetanus-antitoxoid-IgG (A-TET) were determined with ELISA. Equal proportions of healthy subjects, as well as patients with SLE or MG exhibited proper antibody responses and immune protection against diphtheria and tetanus. In all three test groups, serum concentration of A-DIPHTH decreased significantly (p60-years-old) subjects. There were no significant differences among the groups in the age-related changes of A-TET and A-DIPHTH except that in diphtheria and tetanus infections in patients with SLE or MG is comparable to the healthy population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. POTENSI NETRALISASI IMUNOGLOBULIN Y ANTITETANUS YANG DIISOLASI DARI TELUR AYAM (THE POTENCY NETRALIZATION OF ANTI TETANUS IMMUNOGLOBULIN Y THAT WERE ISOLATED FROM CHICKEN EGGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Suartha

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The porpuse of study was to explore the potential use of? anti tetanus IgY from eggs yolk as a substitute for anti tetanus serum raised in ?horses. The eggs were collected from chickens which have previously been immunized with tetanus toxoid. Neutralization potency test of anti tetanus IgY determined by ?Spearman-Karber method.? The highest mean titer of anti tetanus of egg yolk was 80.16 ? 33.55 IU/ml and the lowest was 1.69 ? 0.63 IU/ml. The concentration? of purified IgY was 1.644 ? 0.424 mg/ml. Spearman-Karber value of potency of anti tetanus IgY are 35 IU/ml. ?This research concluded that Chickens was capable of produced of anti tetanus in eggs yolk with value of potency are 35 IU/ml.

  9. PROFIL TETANUS NEONATORUM DALAM RANGKA KEBIJAKAN ELIMINASI TETANUS MATERNAL DAN NEONATAL DI KABUPATEN BANGKALAN PROVINSI JAWA TIMUR TAHUN 2012–2014

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    Mugeni Sugiharto

    2017-01-01

    : Infants in their golden period are particularly vulnerable to infectious diseases, such as neonatal tetanus. Bangkalan District Government supports policy on Elimination Maternal Neonatal Tetanus (EMNT to save infants from neonatal tetanus infection. The study aims to identify profiles of tetanus cases among infants for support the policy on EMNT in Bangkalan District, East Java Province year 2012–2014. Methods: The study used secondary data on Tetanus Toxoid immmunization and tetanus neonatorum from Bangkalan District Health Office. In Depth interview on the policy on EMNT for the Programmer of immunization. Result: Every year there were tetanus neonatorum cases in Bangkalan District that caused deats because their mothers were not immunized by TT during pregnancies, deliveries assisted by traditional birth attendants, unhygienic cord care such as unsterile scissors and using traditional herbs for curing. To prevent tetanus neonatorum, Bangkalan District issued policy on EMNT as in the operational strategies that must conducted by all related staffs. Implementation of the EMNT policy is not as expected because there were still TN cases are each year, TT coverage tended lower as 61.7% in 2012 to 59.18% in 2014. In accordance, DPT for infants were from 92.8% to 88.0% during the same. Conclusion: Bangkalan District are prone to tetanus, including tetanus neonatorum, due to declining coverages of TT immunization among pregnant women and DPT immunization among infants each year. The policy of tetanus neonatorum elimination was appropriate to increase immunization coverage and prevents TN among infants in Bangkalan. Suggestion: Programmer immunization should be more active to disseminate TT immunization through the ANC among pregnant women and DPT for infants to prevent tetanus cases. 

  10. Immunogenicity and safety of a quadrivalent meningococcal serogroups A, C, W-135 and Y tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-TT) administered to adults aged 56 Years and older: results of an open-label, randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dbaibo, Ghassan; El-Ayoubi, Nabil; Ghanem, Soha; Hajar, Farah; Bianco, Veronique; Miller, Jacqueline M; Mesaros, Narcisa

    2013-05-01

    The burden of invasive meningococcal disease is substantial in older adults in whom the case fatality rate is high. Travelers to regions with high rates of meningococcal disease, such as Hajj pilgrims, are at increased risk of meningococcal infection, and disease transmission from travelers to their close contacts has been documented. In younger individuals, meningococcal conjugate vaccines offer advantages over polysaccharide vaccines in terms of duration of protection and boostability, and induction of herd immune effects through reductions in nasopharyngeal carriage of meningococci. To date, few data are available evaluating meningococcal conjugate vaccine use in adults >55 years of age. To evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of quadrivalent meningococcal serogroups A, C, W-135 and Y vaccine with all serogroups conjugated to tetanus toxoid (MenACWY-TT, Nimenrix™, GlaxoSmithKline, Belgium) and a licensed quadrivalent polysaccharide vaccine (MenPS, Mencevax™ GlaxoSmithKline, Belgium) in adults >55 years of age. This was a phase IIIb, open-label, randomized (3:1), controlled study conducted at one study center in Lebanon. A total of 400 healthy adults between 56 and 103 years of age without previous MenPS or tetanus toxoid vaccination within the previous 5 years or meningococcal conjugate vaccination at any time previously were included. They received a single-dose vaccination with MenACWY-TT or MenPS with blood sampling before and 1 month after vaccination. The main outcome measures were serum bactericidal activity (rabbit complement source: rSBA) vaccine response (VR) rate [rSBA titer of ≥1:32 in initially seronegative subjects (rSBA titer <1:8); ≥4-fold increase in subjects with pre-vaccination rSBA titers between 1:8 and 1:128, and ≥2-fold increase in subjects with pre-vaccination rSBA titers ≥1:128]. The percentages of subjects with rSBA titers ≥1:8 and ≥1:128 and rSBA geometric mean titers (GMTs) were assessed. Solicited adverse events

  11. Half-dose immunization for diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis: response of preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernbaum, J; Daft, A; Samuelson, J; Polin, R A

    1989-04-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics currently recommends administering full-dose diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, (DTP) vaccine to preterm infants, beginning at 2 months' chronologic age. Many physicians, however, continue to administer DTP vaccine at a reduced dosage in an attempt to lessen side effects. This study was designed to quantitate the immune response of 20 preterm infants immunized with half-dose DTP vaccine and to determine the nature and extent of side effects. Control subjects were 25 preterm infants immunized with full-dose vaccine. Although 96% of infants who received a full dose were able to mount a serologic response to pertussis after a second dose of DTP, 45% of infants who received a half dose were unable to mount a similar immune response to pertussis even after a third dose of DTP and required a full-dose (fourth dose of DTP) vaccine to better ensure protection. Serologic responses to diphtheria and tetanus were similar in the two groups. The incidence of side effects in preterm infants receiving both full-dose and half-dose DTP was less than that seen in a full-term population. Thus, the physician caring for the preterm infant should adhere to the American Academy of Pediatrics' recommendation for the immunization of preterm infants and offer full-dose DTP vaccine at the routine time intervals of 2, 4, 6, and 15 or 18 months' chronologic age to ensure adequate protection.

  12. Orally administered recombinant Lactobacillus casei vector vaccine expressing β-toxoid of Clostridium perfringens that induced protective immunity responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimolaei, Mojtaba; Golchin, Mehdi; Ezatkhah, Majid

    2017-12-01

    Clostridium perfringens types B and C cause enteritis and enterotoxemia in animals. The conventional vaccine production systems need time-consuming detoxification and difficult quality control steps. In this study, a modified β-toxoid gene was synthesized, cloned into the pT1NX vector, and electroporated into Lactobacillus casei competent cells to yield L. casei-β recombinant strain. Surface expression of the recombinant β-toxoid was evaluated by ELISA and confirmed by immunofluorescence microscopy. Vaccinated BALB/c mice with L. casei-β induced potent humoral and cell-mediated immune responses that were protective against lethal challenges with 100 MLD/mL of the β-toxin. Safety and efficacy of the recombinant clone was evaluated and the presumptive toxicity of L. casei-β was studied by toxicity test and histopathological findings, which were the same as negative controls. Our results support the use of L. casei as a live oral vector vaccine, and that the recombinant L. casei-β is a potential candidate for being used in the control of enterotoxemia diseases caused by C. perfringens types B and C. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Assessment of Serologic Immunity to Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis After Treatment of Korean Pediatric Hematology and Oncology Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyo Jin; Lee, Jae-Wook; Chung, Nak-Gyun; Cho, Bin; Kim, Hack-Ki

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis antibody titers after antineoplastic treatment and to suggest an appropriate vaccination approach for pediatric hemato-oncologic patients. A total of 146 children with either malignancy in remission after cessation of therapy or bone marrow failure were recruited. All children had received routine immunization including diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccination before diagnosis of cancer. The serologic immunity to diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis was classified as: completely protective, partially protective, or non-protective. Non-protective serum antibody titer for diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis was detected in 6.2%, 11.6%, and 62.3% of patients, respectively, and partial protective serum antibody titer for diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis was seen in 37%, 28.1%, and 8.9% of patients. There was no significant correlation between the severity of immune defect and age, gender or underlying disease. Revaccination after antineoplastic therapy showed significantly higher levels of antibody for each vaccine antigen. Our data indicates that a large proportion of children lacked protective serum concentrations of antibodies against diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis. This suggests that reimmunization of these patients is necessary after completion of antineoplastic treatment. Also, prospective studies should be undertaken with the aim of devising a common strategy of revaccination. PMID:22219618

  14. Efficacy and immunogenicity of a Vi-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine in the prevention of typhoid fever using a controlled human infection model of Salmonella Typhi: a randomised controlled, phase 2b trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Celina; Gibani, Malick M; Moore, Maria; Juel, Helene B; Jones, Elizabeth; Meiring, James; Harris, Victoria; Gardner, Jonathan; Nebykova, Anna; Kerridge, Simon A; Hill, Jennifer; Thomaides-Brears, Helena; Blohmke, Christoph J; Yu, Ly-Mee; Angus, Brian; Pollard, Andrew J

    2017-12-02

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S Typhi) is responsible for an estimated 20 million infections and 200 000 deaths each year in resource poor regions of the world. Capsular Vi-polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccines (Vi-conjugate vaccines) are immunogenic and can be used from infancy but there are no efficacy data for the leading candidate vaccine being considered for widespread use. To address this knowledge gap, we assessed the efficacy of a Vi-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine using an established human infection model of S Typhi. In this single-centre, randomised controlled, phase 2b study, using an established outpatient-based human typhoid infection model, we recruited healthy adult volunteers aged between 18 and 60 years, with no previous history of typhoid vaccination, infection, or prolonged residency in a typhoid-endemic region. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to receive a single dose of Vi-conjugate (Vi-TT), Vi-polysaccharide (Vi-PS), or control meningococcal vaccine with a computer-generated randomisation schedule (block size 6). Investigators and participants were masked to treatment allocation, and an unmasked team of nurses administered the vaccines. Following oral ingestion of S Typhi, participants were assessed with daily blood culture over a 2-week period and diagnosed with typhoid infection when meeting pre-defined criteria. The primary endpoint was the proportion of participants diagnosed with typhoid infection (ie, attack rate), defined as persistent fever of 38°C or higher for 12 h or longer or S Typhi bacteraemia, following oral challenge administered 1 month after Vi-vaccination (Vi-TT or Vi-PS) compared with control vaccination. Analysis was per protocol. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02324751, and is ongoing. Between Aug 18, 2015, and Nov 4, 2016, 112 participants were enrolled and randomly assigned; 34 to the control group, 37 to the Vi-PS group, and 41 to the Vi-TT group. 103 participants

  15. Maternal HIV infection and placental malaria reduce transplacental antibody transfer and tetanus antibody levels in newborns in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumberland, Phillippa; Shulman, Caroline E; Maple, P A Chris; Bulmer, Judith N; Dorman, Edgar K; Kawuondo, Ken; Marsh, Kevin; Cutts, Felicity T

    2007-08-15

    In clinical trials, maternal tetanus toxoid (TT) vaccination is effective in protecting newborns against tetanus infection, but inadequate placental transfer of tetanus antibodies may contribute to lower-than-expected rates of protection in routine practice. We studied the effect of placental malaria and maternal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection on placental transfer of antibodies to tetanus. A total of 704 maternal-cord paired serum samples were tested by ELISA for antibodies to tetanus. The HIV status of all women was determined by an immunoglobulin G antibody-capture particle-adherence test, and placental malaria was determined by placental biopsy. Maternal history of TT vaccination was recorded. Tetanus antibody levels were reduced by 52% (95% confidence interval [CI], 30%-67%) in newborns of HIV-infected women and by 48% (95% CI, 26%-62%) in newborns whose mothers had active-chronic or past placental malaria. Thirty-seven mothers (5.3%) and 55 newborns (7.8%) had tetanus antibody levels tetanus immunization was the strongest predictor of seronegativity and of tetanus antibody levels in maternal and cord serum. Malarial and HIV infections may hinder efforts to eliminate maternal and neonatal tetanus, making implementation of the current policy for mass vaccination of women of childbearing age an urgent priority.

  16. RISK CHARACTERIZATION OF MATERNAL AND NEONATAL TETANUS IN VIEW OF TETANUS VACCINATION CAMPAIGNS IN PAKISTAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ejaz A; Khan, Rownak; Iqbal, Muhammad Tariq; Hasan, Quamrul; Farrukh, Saadia; Rana, Muhammad Safdar; Khan, Wasiq Mehmood

    2015-01-01

    Pakistan is one of the remaining 24 countries which have not yet achieved Maternal and Neonatal Tetanus Elimination (MNTE), The country adopted high-risk approach for 56 out of 119 districts with country-wide Tetanus Toxoid (TT) provision in Routine Immunization (RI) during early 2000-2003. The TT's mass campaigns could only cover 13% of high risk districts for 2009- 2011, and mostly for the Punjab province. To achieve MNT elimination, the country needs risk mapping for cost-effective intervention. We used both the quantitative and qualitative methods to conduct risk characterization. All the three available data sets (Reported EPI coverage data, PDHS 2012-13, and PSLM 2010-11) were assessed. A mix of core and surrogate indicators-for risk categorization was used through ranking and scoring the aggregated data and considering the past tetanus campaigns' coverage. Tetanus Toxoid (TT2+)-coverage of pregnant women and delivery in health facility, both received more weightage in scoring. We based the higher and lower cuts off points for each indicator on data ranges. The districts with higher scores, i.e., 10.5 and above were ranked good followed by medium (5.5-10.4) and low performing (less than 5.5). Consultations with the national and provincial field officers were utilized to understand the local context. In Pakistan, there are 139 districts out of which, 60 are the high risk districts for tetanus. Highest percentage is for Baluchistan (83%) followed by Sindh (52%), and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (40%). Most of the Punjab is at medium risk (55%), followed by KP (52%), and Sindh (39%). Pakistan is at medium to high risk of MNT with a great variation at the sub-national level. Campaigns aiming to these districts may bring the country closer to MNT elimination target.

  17. Delayed BCG vaccination results in minimal alterations in T cell immunogenicity of acellular pertussis and tetanus immunizations in HIV-exposed infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakney, Anna K; Tchakoute, Christophe Toukam; Hesseling, Anneke C; Kidzeru, Elvis B; Jones, Christine E; Passmore, Jo-Ann S; Sodora, Donald L; Gray, Clive M; Jaspan, Heather B

    2015-09-11

    Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) is effective in preventing disseminated tuberculosis (TB) in children but may also have non-specific benefits, and is thought to improve immunity to unrelated antigens through trained innate immunity. In HIV-infected infants, there is a risk of BCG-associated adverse events. We aimed to explore whether delaying BCG vaccination by 8 weeks, in utero or perinatal HIV infection is excluded, affected T-cell responses to B. pertussis (BP) and tetanus toxoid (TT), in HIV-exposed, uninfected infants. Infants were randomized to receive BCG vaccination at birth or 8 weeks of age. At 8 and 14 weeks, T cell proliferation and intracellular cytokine (IL-2, IL-13, IL-17, and IFN-γ) expression was analyzed in response to BP, TT and Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) antigens. Delaying BCG vaccination did not alter T-cell proliferation to BP or TT antigens. Infants immunized with BCG at birth had higher CD4+ T cell proliferation to SEB at 14 weeks of age (p=0.018). Birth-vaccinated infants had increased CD8+ IL-2 expression in response to BP, but not TT or SEB, at 8 weeks. Infants vaccinated with BCG at 8 weeks had significantly lower IL-13 expression by BP-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells at 14 weeks (p=0.032 and p=0.0035, respectively). There were no observed differences in multifunctional cytokine response to TT, BP or SEB between infants vaccinated with BCG at birth versus 8 weeks of age. Delaying BCG vaccination until 8 weeks of age results in robust T-cellular responses to BP and TT in HIV-exposed infants. NCT02062580. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Bronchoaspiration as a possible cause in a case of tetanus. A reminder on the importance of adulthood immunizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrosky-Zeichner, L; Volkow, P; Ponce de León, S

    1999-01-01

    Although preventable by immunization tetanus still takes a large death toll, mostly in developing countries, where adult population is often unprotected and opportune medical care unavailable. We present a case of tetanus in an elderly patient with bronchoaspiration pneumonia after a near-drowning incident, in which no objective entry site could be suspected with as much temporal relation as the bronchoaspiration incident. Bronchoaspiration of organic matter and feces provides both a source of the causative agent and an adequate polymicrobial environment for the development of the disease. It is under such conditions that we propose this unusual entry site as the cause of tetanus in our patient. Special emphasis is made on the importance of adulthood immunization programs and how incidents like this one should be taken into account in the overall care provided to the elderly population.

  19. Antibody response to diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis immunization in preterm infants who receive dexamethasone for chronic lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Michael J; Heal, Carrie; Gardener, Elizabeth; Powell, Peter; Sims, Douglas G

    2004-04-01

    To study the effect of dexamethasone in preterm infants with chronic lung disease (CLD) on antibody response to routine immunization against diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis (DTP). Serum samples were obtained before and after immunization with DTP (Trivax-AD) from an unselected cohort of 93 preterm infants in the United Kingdom. Antibodies to diphtheria and tetanus and to 4 pertussis antigens (pertussis toxin, filamentous hemagglutinin, pertactin, and fimbrial agglutinogens 2 + 3) were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Linear regression models were fitted to the natural log of antibody titers to compare the dexamethasone-treated and -untreated infants adjusting for potential risk factors. Sixty-seven (72%) of 93 infants received dexamethasone. Preimmunization geometric mean titers (GMTs) were comparable in both groups for all antibodies. The rise in GMT after immunization was reduced in the dexamethasone-treated group. Final GMT was significantly lower for tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis toxin, and fimbrial agglutinogens 2 + 3 but not for filamentous hemagglutinin or pertactin. Using the minimum protective titer of 0.01 IU/mL, there was no significant reduction in protection for diphtheria and tetanus in the dexamethasone-treated infants. Using the higher reference titer of 0.1 IU/mL, there was a 16% reduction in protection for diphtheria (95% confidence interval: 3%-27%) and a 9% reduction in protection for tetanus (95% confidence interval: -7% to 20%). The use of dexamethasone for CLD in preterm infants is associated with a reduction in antibody titer to routine immunization against diphtheria and tetanus. Antibody responses to 2 of 4 pertussis antigens are reduced, but the clinical significance of this observation is unclear. Protection against tetanus and diphtheria is not impaired when the lower reference value for protective antibody is used. On the basis of this study of UK preterm infants who were treated with dexamethasone for the

  20. Diagnosis of tetanus immunization status: multicenter assessment of a rapid biological test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombet, Isabelle; Saguez, Colette; Sanson-Le Pors, Marie-José; Coudert, Benoît; Chatellier, Gilles; Espinoza, Pierre

    2005-09-01

    Diagnosis of tetanus immunization status by medical interview of patients with wounds is poor. Many protected patients receive unnecessary vaccine or immunoglobulin, and unprotected patients may receive nothing. The aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility and accuracy of the Tetanos Quick Stick (TQS) rapid finger prick stick test in the emergency department for determining immunization status. We designed a prospective multicenter study for blinded comparison of TQS with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Adults referred for open wounds in 37 French hospital emergency departments had the TQS after receiving standard care (emergency-TQS). TQS was also performed in the hospital laboratory on total blood (blood/lab-TQS) and serum (serum/lab-TQS). ELISA was performed with the same blood sample at a central laboratory. We assessed concordance between emergency-TQS and blood/lab-TQS by the kappa test and the diagnostic accuracy (likelihood ratios) of medical interview, emergency-TQS, and lab-TQS. ELISA was positive in 94.6% of the 988 patients included. Concordance between blood/emergency-TQS and blood/lab-TQS results was moderate (kappa=0.6), with a high proportion of inconclusive blood/emergency-TQS tests (9.8%). Likelihood ratios for immunization were 3.0 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.8 to 5.1), 36.6 (95% CI, 5.3 to 255.3), 89.1 (95% CI, 5.6 to 1,405.0), and 92.7 (95% CI, 5.9 to 1,462.0) for medical interview, blood/emergency-TQS, blood/lab-TQS, and serum/lab-TQS, respectively. The sensitivity of the blood/emergency-TQS was 76.7%, and the specificity was 98% by reference to the ELISA. TQS use in the emergency room could make tetanus prevention more accurate if its technical feasibility were improved, and our assessment will be supplemented by a cost effectiveness study.

  1. A prefilled injection device for outreach tetanus immunization by Bolivian traditional birth attendants Vacunación antitetánica extrainstitucional por parteras empíricas bolivianas mediante dispositivos desechables de una sola dosis

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    Rosario Quiroga

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the performance, acceptability, and appropriateness of a new, single-use, prefilled injection device called UniJect™ for an outreach immunization application.6 Between April and June 1995, UniJect devices were used by 36 traditional birth attendants to administer tetanus toxoid injections to 2 240 pregnant women during routine, antenatal home visits in the Northern, Ichilos, and Warnes Districts of Santa Cruz, Bolivia. Because tetanus toxoid is relatively heat stable, the traditional birth attendants were able to keep the tetanus toxoid-filled UniJect devices in their homes for up to one month without refrigeration. The devices were stored, transported, and disposed of in an outreach carrier designed to reduce the risks of improper handling and disposal. Data were collected from injection recipients, traditional birth attendants, and supervisors via observation, questionnaires, and post-study interviews. The performance of the UniJect device and its acceptability among all groups was very high. The traditional birth attendants used UniJect properly and safely; there were no reports or observations of device misuse, reuse, or needle-stick. Advantages cited included the fact that the device required no assembly, offered assured sterility, and reduced vaccine wastage sometimes associated with multi-dose vials. The ability to store and transport the vaccine-filled devices without ice also greatly simplified logistics.En este estudio se evaluaron el rendimiento, la aceptabilidad y la conveniencia de la inmunización antitetánica extrainstitucional con un nuevo dispositivo hipodérmico de una sola dosis, el UniJect®. De abril a junio de 1995, el dispositivo UniJect aprestado de fábrica con una sola dosis de toxoide tetánico fue utilizado por 36 parteras tradicionales para vacunar a 2 240 mujeres embarazadas durante las visitas domiciliarias prenatales de rutina en los distritos Norte, Ichilos y Warnes de Santa Cruz, Bolivia

  2. PENETAPAN STANDAR NASIONAL TOKSOID SERAP TETANUS

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    Muljati Prijanto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available To check the potency of DPT vaccine, standard preparations of the components, namely Adsorbed Diphtheria Toxoid, Pertussis Vaccine and Adsorbed Tetanus Toxoid, are needed. Since WHO International Standard Preparations are distributed only in limited amounts, WHO has suggested that each member country should develop a National Standard, which is matched against International Standard Preparations. An Indonesian National Standard of DPT vaccine (lot 1 has been prepared and lyophilized at the National Institute of Health in Tokyo. The potency of the National Standard of Tetanus Toxoid adsorbed was determined by challenge method in guinea pigs. After several experiments, the potency of the National Standard of Tetanus Toxoid adsorbed was decided i.e. 76 IU/ml. Using the same standard preparations, namely the National Standards, it is hoped that from a lot of DPT vaccine, similar results of potency could be achieved when determined by the Government Vaccine Quality Control Laboratory and the Manufacturer's laboratory.

  3. POTENSI NETRALISASI IMUNOGLOBULIN Y ANTITETANUS YANG DIISOLASI DARI TELUR AYAM (THE POTENCY NETRALIZATION OF ANTI TETANUS IMMUNOGLOBULIN Y THAT WERE ISOLATED FROM CHICKEN EGGS)

    OpenAIRE

    I Nyoman Suartha; I Wayan Teguh Wibawan; Retno Damayanti Soejoedono; Bibiana W. Lay

    2007-01-01

    The porpuse of study was to explore the potential use of? anti tetanus IgY from eggs yolk as a substitute for anti tetanus serum raised in ?horses. The eggs were collected from chickens which have previously been immunized with tetanus toxoid. Neutralization potency test of anti tetanus IgY determined by ?Spearman-Karber method.? The highest mean titer of anti tetanus of egg yolk was 80.16 ? 33.55 IU/ml and the lowest was 1.69 ? 0.63 IU/ml. The concentration? of purified IgY was 1.644 ? 0.424...

  4. A randomized study to assess the immunogenicity, antibody persistence and safety of a tetravalent meningococcal serogroups A, C, W-135 and Y tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine in children aged 2–10 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesikari, Timo; Forstén, Aino; Boutriau, Dominique; Bianco, Véronique; Van der Wielen, Marie; Miller, Jacqueline M.

    2012-01-01

    Incidence of meningococcal diseases is high in children, and effective vaccines are needed for this age group. In this phase II, open, controlled study, 309 children aged 2–10 y from Finland were randomized (3:1) into two parallel groups to receive one dose of meningococcal ACWY-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (ACWY-TT group; n = 231) or a licensed meningococcal ACWY polysaccharide vaccine (Men-PS group; n = 78). Serum bactericidal activity using rabbit complement (rSBA) was evaluated up to three years post-vaccination. Exploratory comparisons suggested that rSBA vaccine response rates and geometric mean titers (GMTs) for each serogroup at one month post-vaccination and rSBA GMTs for serogroups A, W-135 and Y up to three years post-vaccination were higher in the ACWY-TT compared with Men-PS group, but did not detect any difference between groups in terms of rSBA-MenC GMTs at three years post-vaccination; this is explained by the higher proportion of children from the Men-PS group who were excluded because they were re-vaccinated with a monovalent meningococcal serogroup C vaccine due to loss of protective antibody levels against this serogroup. Although there was a higher incidence of local reactogenicity in the ACWY-TT group, general and unsolicited symptoms reporting rates were comparable in both groups. This study showed that MenACWY-TT was immunogenic with a clinically acceptable safety profile in children aged 2–10 y. MenACWY-TT induced higher functional antibody titers for all serogroups, which persisted longer for serogroups A, W-135 and Y, than the MenACWY polysaccharide vaccine. This study has been registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT00427908. PMID:23032168

  5. Cephalic Tetanus from Penetrating Orbital Wound

    OpenAIRE

    Eloïse Guyennet; Jean-Laurent Guyomard; Emilie Barnay; Franck Jegoux; Jean-François Charlin

    2009-01-01

    Tetanus is a neurologic disorder caused by tetanospasmin, a protein toxin elaborated by Clostridium tetani. Cephalic tetanus is a localized form of the disease causing trismus and dysfunction of cranial nerves. We report the case of a man who presented with facial trauma, complete ophthalmoplegia, exophthalmos, areactive mydriasis, and periorbital hematoma. An orbital CT revealed air bubbles in the right orbital apex. The patient was given a tetanus toxoid booster and antibiotherapy. After ex...

  6. Tetanus is still present in the 21st century: case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero-Maldonado, Mariely; Bosques-Rosado, Marisel; Soto-Malavé, Ruth; Deliz-Roldán, Brenda; Bertrán-Pasarell, Jorge; Vargas Otero, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    Tetanus is a very serious disease that can be fatal. Its incidence in the developed world has diminished considerably since the introduction of tetanus toxoid. More importantly, tetanus is one of the few infectious diseases that can be prevented. The recommendations for immunization are clear and readily available. In spite of the progress, we still see cases of tetanus in which the prognosis is poor. We present the case of a 67 year-old man that was admitted to our hospital with one of the most common manifestations of tetanus: trismus. Even though his treatment was established immediately, the hospital stay was long and made him susceptible to various medical complications and nosocomial infections. The incidence of tetanus in Puerto Rico is low but the mortality rate continues to be elevated in the high-risk group: patients older than 60 years of age. This is the reason for which we present this case. Our goal is to provide information with regards to epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis and management of tetanus. In addition, it is equally essential to remind our colleagues the significance of adequate prevention of this potentially mortal and disabling disease.

  7. THE LEVEL OF INTENSITY OF IMMUNITY TO DIPHTHERIA AND TETANUS AMONG THE POPULATION OF THE REPUBLIC OF CRIMEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iskander Z. Karimov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of state and assessment of population immunity to diphtheria and tetanus play important role in the study of the existing epidemic situation, development of preventive measures and the prognosis of tendencies of development of epidemic process. The aim of this work was the studying of level and estimation of intensity of immunity to diphtheria and tetanus in the population of the Crimean Republic. The concentration of antibodies measured in IU/ml was accepted to the main indicator of antidiphtherial and antitetanic immunity. In 2013, in total, there were observed 525 persons, 239 of them — city dwellers and 286 — from the rural area. Indicators of concentration of anti-toxin in examined serums were determined by the RPHA method with using of the standardized erythrocyte diphtheritic and tetanic diagnosticums. The assessment of immunity level was performed according to WHO recommendations on following criterias: concentration of antibodies within 0,015–0,06 IU/ml — conditional protection, 0,1–0,5 IU/ml — moderate protection; more than 1,0 IU/ml — high immunity. Antibodies concentration 0,1 IU/ml was taken as minimal protective level for both antidiphtherial and antitetanic antibodies. Research of intensity of antidiphtherial and antitetanic immunity in the population of Crimea allowed to reveal some decrease in level of immune protection in 2013 in comparison with 2012. The highest number of the seronegative and conditionally protected persons against tetanus in 2013 were noted among pregnant women and newborns — 31,8% and 27,8% respectively. The quantity of unprotected and conditionally protected population among children is 11,1%, among teenagers — 10,5%. The greatest layer of the seronegative persons among adults revealed in age group from 58 and older (15%, and conditionally protected — in the 48 to 57 age group (19,2%. The total number of the seronegative population in relation to diphtheria increased for 5

  8. Efficacy demonstration of tetanus vaccines by double antigen ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosskopf, U; Noeske, K; Werner, E

    2005-09-01

    This paper describes a double antigen ELISA (DAE) for rapid, specific and reliable assessment of the antitetanus immune status of horses and sheep. Compared with the indirect ELISA, the double antigen ELISA has the advantage of species-independent testing of sera. Thanks to its test design, it is more specific since the detected antibodies are forced to bind tetanus toxoid twice. In addition, it is very sensitive to tetanus antibodies, enabling the detection of low antibody titres, in range which is relevant for the assessment of the protective status (tetanus toxin neutralising antibodies). The detection limit of the DAE for tetanus antibodies is in the order of 10(-4) EU/ml. A comparison of in vitro results of individual sera with in vivo titres showed that horse sera with titres of 0.04 and 0.05 EU/ml in the DAE showed titres of > 0.05 IU and 0.034 IU/ml respectively during in vivo testing thus indicating good agreement. For tested sheep sera which were rated > 0.05 IU/ml in vivo, the corresponding titre in the DAE was 0.24 EU/ml. Clear tetanus antitoxin establishment of protective ELISA limits requires further comparative examination of sera with low titres (tetanus vaccines ad us. vet. As a consequence, the toxin neutralisation test (still being the standard method of choice for quantifying tetanus toxin neutralising antitoxin titres) could be replaced, since it requires too great a number of animals per test and involves considerable suffering for the animals. The test described here reduces the use of mice and guinea pigs within vaccine efficacy testing. In addition, it involves less exposure of the laboratory personnel to toxin.

  9. Seroepidemiology of diphtheria and tetanus among children and young adults in Tajikistan: nationwide population-based survey, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khetsuriani, Nino; Zakikhany, Katherina; Jabirov, Shamsiddin; Saparova, Nargis; Ursu, Pavel; Wannemuehler, Kathleen; Wassilak, Steve; Efstratiou, Androulla; Martin, Rebecca

    2013-10-01

    Tajikistan had a major diphtheria outbreak (≈ 10,000 cases) in the 1990 s, which was controlled after nationwide immunization campaigns with diphtheria-tetanus toxoid in 1995 and 1996. Since 2000, only 52 diphtheria cases have been reported. However, in coverage surveys conducted in 2000 and 2005, diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine coverage was lower than administratively reported estimates raising concerns about potential immunity gaps. To further assess population immunity to diphtheria in Tajikistan, diphtheria antibody testing was included in a large-scale nationwide serosurvey for vaccine-preventable diseases conducted in connection with a poliomyelitis outbreak in 2010. In addition, the serosurvey provided an opportunity to assess population immunity to tetanus. Residents of all regions of Tajikistan aged 1-24 years were included in the serosurvey implemented during September-October 2010. Participants were selected through stratified cluster sampling. Specimens were tested for diphtheria antibodies using a Vero cell neutralization assay and for tetanus antibodies using an anti-tetanus IgG ELISA. Antibody concentrations ≥ 0.1 IU/mL were considered seropositive. Overall, 51.4% (95% CI, 47.1%-55.6%) of participants were seropositive for diphtheria and 78.9% (95% CI, 74.7%-82.5%) were seropositive for tetanus. The lowest percentages of seropositivity for both diseases were observed among persons aged 10-19 years: diphtheria seropositivity was 37.1% (95% CI, 31.0%-43.7%) among 10-14 year-olds, and 35.3% (95% CI, 29.9%-41.1%) among 15-19 year-olds; tetanus seropositivity in respective age groups was 65.3% (95% CI, 58.4%-71.6%) and 70.1% (95% CI, 64.5%-75.2%). Population immunity for diphtheria in Tajikistan is low, particularly among 10-19 year-olds. Population immunity to tetanus is generally higher than for diphtheria, but is suboptimal among 10-19 year-olds. These findings highlight the need to improve routine immunization service delivery, and support a

  10. Tetanus: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nature of the wound. In all cases, the wound should be cleaned. Seek treatment immediately and bring your immunization record with you. ... five years since the last dose and the wound is other than clean and minor. Is there a treatment for tetanus? There is no "cure" for tetanus ...

  11. Immune responses to commercial equine vaccines against equine herpesvirus-1, equine influenza virus, eastern equine encephalomyelitis, and tetanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Mark A; Townsend, Hugh G G; Kohler, Andrea K; Hussey, Steve; Breathnach, Cormac; Barnett, Craig; Holland, Robert; Lunn, D P

    2006-05-15

    Horses are commonly vaccinated to protect against pathogens which are responsible for diseases which are endemic within the general horse population, such as equine influenza virus (EIV) and equine herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1), and against a variety of diseases which are less common but which lead to greater morbidity and mortality, such as eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEE) and tetanus. This study consisted of two trials which investigated the antigenicity of commercially available vaccines licensed in the USA to protect against EIV, EHV-1 respiratory disease, EHV-1 abortion, EEE and tetanus in horses. Trial I was conducted to compare serological responses to vaccines produced by three manufacturers against EIV, EHV-1 (respiratory disease), EEE, and tetanus given as multivalent preparations or as multiple vaccine courses. Trial II compared vaccines from two manufacturers licensed to protect against EHV-1 abortion, and measured EHV-1-specific interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) mRNA production in addition to serological evidence of antigenicity. In Trial I significant differences were found between the antigenicity of different commercial vaccines that should be considered in product selection. It was difficult to identify vaccines that generate significant immune responses to respiratory viruses. The most dramatic differences in vaccine performance occurred in the case of the tetanus antigen. In Trial II both vaccines generated significant antibody responses and showed evidence of EHV-1-specific IFN-gamma mRNA responses. Overall there were wide variations in vaccine response, and the vaccines with the best responses were not produced by a single manufacturer. Differences in vaccine performance may have resulted from differences in antigen load and adjuvant formulation.

  12. Duration of immunity induced by an equine influenza and tetanus combination vaccine formulation adjuvanted with ISCOM-Matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldens, J G M; Pouwels, H G W; Derks, C G G; Van de Zande, S M A; Hoeijmakers, M J H

    2010-10-08

    Equine influenza is a contagious disease caused by equine influenza virus which belongs to the orthomyxovirus family. Outbreaks of equine influenza cause severe economic loses to the horse industry and consequently horses in competition are required to be regularly vaccinated against equine influenza. Unlike the existing inactivated vaccines, Equilis Prequenza Te is the only one able to induce protection against clinical disease and virus excretion after a primary vaccination course consisting of two vaccine applications 4-6 weeks apart until the recommended time of the third vaccination. In this paper we describe the duration of immunity profile, tested in an experimental setting according to European legislation, of this inactivated equine influenza and tetanus combination vaccine. In addition to influenza antigen, the formulation contains a second generation ISCOM (the so called ISCOMatrix) as an adjuvant. The vaccine aims at the induction of protection from the primary vaccination course until the time of annual revaccination 12 months later, against challenge with a virulent equine influenza strain. The protection against A/equine/Kentucky/95 (H3N8) at the time of annual revaccination was evidenced by a significant reduction of clinical signs of influenza, a significant reduction of virus excretion and a significant reduction of fever. The effect of the annual revaccination on the duration of immunity against influenza and tetanus was also studied by serology. For tetanus, as a consequence of the 24 months duration of immunity, an alternating annual vaccination schedule consisting of Prequenza and Prequenza Te is proposed after the first three doses of Prequenza Te. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Diphtheria toxoid and N-trimethyl chitosan layer-by-layer coated pH-sensitive microneedles induce potent immune responses upon dermal vaccination in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipper, Pim; van der Maaden, Koen; Groeneveld, Vincent; Ruigrok, Mitchel; Romeijn, Stefan; Uleman, Sven; Oomens, Cees; Kersten, Gideon; Jiskoot, Wim; Bouwstra, Joke

    2017-09-28

    Dermal immunization using antigen-coated microneedle arrays is a promising vaccination strategy. However, reduction of microneedle sharpness and the available surface area for antigen coating is a limiting factor. To overcome these obstacles, a layer-by-layer coating approach can be applied onto pH-sensitive microneedles. Following this approach, pH-sensitive microneedle arrays (positively charged at coating pH5.8 and nearly uncharged at pH7.4) were alternatingly coated with negatively charged diphtheria toxoid (DT) and N-trimethyl chitosan (TMC), a cationic adjuvant. First, the optimal DT dose for intradermal immunization was determined in a dose-response study, which revealed that low-dose intradermal immunization was more efficient than subcutaneous immunization and that the EC50 dose of DT upon intradermal immunization is 3-fold lower, as compared to subcutaneous immunization. In a subsequent immunization study, microneedle arrays coated with an increasing number (2, 5, and 10) of DT/TMC bilayers resulted in step-wise increasing DT-specific immune responses. Dermal immunization with microneedle arrays coated with 10 bilayers of DT/TMC (corresponding with ±0.6μg DT delivered intradermally) resulted in similar DT-specific immune responses as subcutaneous immunization with 5μg of DT adjuvanted with aluminum phosphate (8-fold dose reduction). Summarizing, the layer-by-layer coating approach onto pH-sensitive microneedles is a versatile method to precisely control the amount of coated and dermally-delivered antigen that is highly suitable for dermal immunization. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The presentation of tetanus in a tertiary health centre in Abakaliki ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They were treated with intravenous diazepam, metronidazole, tetanus toxoid and anti-tetanus serum. The mean duration of admission was 12.5days and mortality rate was 18.8%. Presence of co-morbid medical conditions was associated with mortality. Conclusion: The study showed that tetanus affects predominantly ...

  15. Transcutaneous immunization with cross-reacting material CRM(197) of diphtheria toxin boosts functional antibody levels in mice primed parenterally with adsorbed diphtheria toxoid vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickings, Paul; Peyre, Marisa; Coombes, Laura; Muller, Sylviane; Rappuoli, Rino; Del Giudice, Giuseppe; Partidos, Charalambos D; Sesardic, Dorothea

    2008-04-01

    Transcutaneous immunization (TCI) capitalizes on the accessibility and immunocompetence of the skin, elicits protective immunity, simplifies vaccine delivery, and may be particularly advantageous when frequent boosting is required. In this study we examined the potential of TCI to boost preexisting immune responses to diphtheria in mice. The cross-reacting material (CRM(197)) of diphtheria toxin was used as the boosting antigen and was administered alone or together with either one of two commonly used mucosal adjuvants, cholera toxin (CT) and a partially detoxified mutant of heat-labile enterotoxin of Escherichia coli (LTR72). We report that TCI with CRM(197) significantly boosted preexisting immune responses elicited after parenteral priming with aluminum hydroxide-adsorbed diphtheria toxoid (DTxd) vaccine. In the presence of LTR72 as an adjuvant, toxin-neutralizing antibody titers were significantly higher than those elicited by CRM(197) alone and were comparable to the functional antibody levels induced after parenteral booster immunization with the adsorbed DTxd vaccine. Time course study showed that high levels of toxin-neutralizing antibodies persisted for at least 14 weeks after the transcutaneous boost. In addition, TCI resulted in a vigorous antigen-specific proliferative response in all groups of mice boosted with the CRM(197) protein. These findings highlight the promising prospect of using booster administrations of CRM(197) via the transcutaneous route to establish good herd immunity against diphtheria.

  16. Possível interferência da antitoxina tetânica pré-existente, na vacinação antitetânica Possible interference of pre-existing tetanus antitoxin in antitetanus immunization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalvo Guidolin

    1981-04-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se qual a possível interferência no desenvolvimento da imunidade antitetânica ativa em cobaias e camundongos, filhos de fêmeas vacinadas contra o tétano em diferentes épocas durante o período da prenhês. Verificou-se que a vacinação das fêmeas, em gestação não interferiu, negativamente, no desenvolvimento da imunidade ativa dos animais filhos, quando submetidos à vacinação ao redor de 60 dias após o nascimento. A presença de baixos níveis de anticorpos circulantes, recebidos congenitamente, parece ter, em determinadas condições, estimulado a resposta imunitária quando, posteriormente, os animais filhos foram vacinados contra o tétano. Sugere-se que o complexo antígeno-anticorpo formado seja capaz de melhorar a resposta imunitária induzida pelo toxóide.Possibility of interference in the development of active antitetanic immunity was studied in the offspring of guinea pigs and mice whose mothers had received antitetanic vaccine during different periods of pregnancy. Vaccination of the females during pregnancy did not interfere negatively in the development of active immunity in their offspring when the latter were vaccinated about 60 days after birth. The presence of small amounts of circulating antibodies, congenitally received, seems, under certain conditions, to stimulate the immune response upon posterior vaccination against tetanus. This suggests that the acquired antigen-antibody complex heightens the immune response induced by the toxoid.

  17. A Chimeric protein of CFA/I, CS6 subunits and LTB/STa toxoid protects immunized mice against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeinalzadeh, Narges; Salmanian, Ali Hatef; Goujani, Goli; Amani, Jafar; Ahangari, Ghasem; Akhavian, Asal; Jafari, Mahyat

    2017-07-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia Coli (ETEC) strains are the commonest bacteria causing diarrhea in children in developing countries and travelers to these areas. Colonization factors (CFs) and enterotoxins are the main virulence determinants in ETEC pathogenesis. Heterogeneity of CFs is commonly considered the bottleneck to developing an effective vaccine. It is believed that broad spectrum protection against ETEC would be achieved by induced anti-CF and anti-enterotoxin immunity simultaneously. Here, a fusion antigen strategy was used to construct a quadrivalent recombinant protein called 3CL and composed of CfaB, a structural subunit of CFA/I, and CS6 structural subunits, LTB and STa toxoid of ETEC. Its anti-CF and antitoxin immunogenicity was then assessed. To achieve high-level expression, the 3CL gene was synthesized using E. coli codon bias. Female BALB/C mice were immunized with purified recombinant 3CL. Immunized mice developed antibodies that were capable of detecting each recombinant subunit in addition to native CS6 protein and also protected the mice against ETEC challenge. Moreover, sera from immunized mice also neutralized STa toxin in a suckling mouse assay. These results indicate that 3CL can induce anti-CF and neutralizing antitoxin antibodies along with introducing CFA/I as a platform for epitope insertion. © 2017 The Societies and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  18. Immunization

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a lot worse. Some are even life-threatening. Immunization shots, or vaccinations, are essential. They protect against ... B, polio, tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis (whooping cough). Immunizations are important for adults as well as children. ...

  19. EFEKTIVITAS IMUMSASI DPT PADA BAYI USIA 2 BULAN DI YOGYAKARTA: I. Efektivitas imunisasi toksoid serap difteri dan tetanus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muljati Prijanto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Since 1987 the Expanded Program on Immunization in Indonesia started to administer DPT and Polio vaccines in 2 month infants. The titer of maternal antibodies against diphtheria and tetanus in new born babies was high. The objective of this study is to determine the effectiveness of diphtheriae and tetanus toxoid of DPT vaccine administered in 2 months infant. The study was carried out in Tresnawati hospital in Yogyakarta. Samples of 83 of 2 month infants and 36 of 3 month infants were given 3 dozes of DPT vaccines. Blood was taken before and after immunization of DPT 1, 2 and 3. Antibodies against diphtheriae and tetanus were measured by passive haemaglutination test. The maternal antibody against diphtheriae was effected immune response after DPT 1 and DPT 2 and for tetanus after DPT 1. The percentage of protected infants and mean titer of tetanus in group of 2 month infants was lower than control but there was no significant difference between the 2 groups. They were protected 100% after DPT 2, and 3. The percentage of protected infants against diphtheriae before and after DPT 1, 2, 3 in the group of 2 month infants were 98,7%, 36,4%, 58,9 % and 83,6 % compared with 61,5%, 42,3%, 88,5% and 100%. There was significant difference between the 2 groups. There was a different effect of maternal antibodies between diphtheriae and tetanus. The high titer of diphtheriae antibody was caused by natural infection while the high titer tetanus was caused by immunization of TT given to their mothers during pregnancy. This study suggest the importance of avoiding drop out of DPT 3.

  20. Cephalic Tetanus from Penetrating Orbital Wound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloïse Guyennet

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Tetanus is a neurologic disorder caused by tetanospasmin, a protein toxin elaborated by Clostridium tetani. Cephalic tetanus is a localized form of the disease causing trismus and dysfunction of cranial nerves. We report the case of a man who presented with facial trauma, complete ophthalmoplegia, exophthalmos, areactive mydriasis, and periorbital hematoma. An orbital CT revealed air bubbles in the right orbital apex. The patient was given a tetanus toxoid booster and antibiotherapy. After extraction of a wooden foreign body, the patient developed right facial nerve palsy, disorders of swallowing, contralateral III cranial nerve palsy, and trismus. Only one case of cephalic tetanus from penetrating orbital wound has been reported in literature 20 years ago. When a patient presents with an orbital wound with ophthalmoplegia and signs of anaerobic infection, cephalic tetanus should be ruled out.

  1. Combined active-passive immunisation of horses against tetanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liefman, C E

    1980-03-01

    The protection afforded by active, passive and combined active-passive methods of immunisation against tetanus was examined in previously unimmunised horses. Three groups of horses were injected; one with tetanus toxoid alone, one with tetanus antitoxin alone and one in which the tetanus toxoid and tetanus antitoxin were injected simultaneously. The protection afforded was determined by monitoring the levels of antitoxin achieved in the horses by each of these methods. The results obtained demonstrated the effectiveness of the combined active-passive method in affording rapid and prolonged protection and enabled the examination of some of the factors involved in active and in passive immunisation when used alone. The advantages obtained by the use of the combined active-passive method in protecting unimmunised horses suddenly placed at risk to infection are outlined.

  2. Passive antibodies derived from intramuscularly immunized toxoid fusion 3xSTaN12S-dmLT protect against STa+ enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) diarrhea in a pig model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandre, Rahul M; Duan, Qiangde; Wang, Yin; Zhang, Weiping

    2017-01-23

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains are among the most common causes of children's diarrhea and travelers' diarrhea. Developing effective vaccines against ETEC associated diarrhea becomes a top priority. ETEC heat-labile toxin (LT) and heat-stable toxin (STa) toxoid fusion 3xSTa N12S -dmLT was demonstrated recently to induce neutralizing antitoxin antibodies in intraperitoneally or subcutaneously immunized mice. However, whether antibodies derived from this toxoid fusion are protective against ETEC diarrhea has not been examined. In this study, we intramuscularly immunized pregnant gilts with toxoid fusion 3xSTa N12S -dmLT, challenged suckling piglets with a STa-positive ETEC strain, and assessed protective efficacy of passive acquire antitoxin antibodies against ETEC diarrhea. Data showed all three immunized gilts developed anti-STa IgG and IgA antibodies, and piglets born to the immunized dams acquired anti-STa and anti-LT antibodies. When challenged with a STa+ ETEC strain, none of the piglets born to the immunized dams developed watery diarrhea, with 20 piglets remained normal and the other 8 piglets developed mild diarrhea indicated with stained butt. In contrast, the control dams and born piglets had no anti-STa or anti-LT antibodies detected, and 26 out 32 piglets developed watery diarrhea after challenge of the STa+ ETEC strain. These results indicated that passive acquired anti-STa antibodies are protective against ETEC diarrhea, and suggested potential application of toxoid fusion 3xSTa N12S -dmLT in ETEC vaccine development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Modulation of benzo[a]pyrene induced neurotoxicity in female mice actively immunized with a B[a]P–diphtheria toxoid conjugate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schellenberger, Mario T.; Grova, Nathalie; Farinelle, Sophie; Willième, Stéphanie [Institute of Immunology, Centre de Recherche Public de la Santé/Laboratoire National de Santé, 20A rue Auguste Lumière, L-1950 Luxembourg, Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg (Luxembourg); Schroeder, Henri [University of Nancy, URAFPA, INRA UC340, F-54500 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Muller, Claude P., E-mail: claude.muller@crp-sante.lu [Institute of Immunology, Centre de Recherche Public de la Santé/Laboratoire National de Santé, 20A rue Auguste Lumière, L-1950 Luxembourg, Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg (Luxembourg)

    2013-09-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) is a small molecular weight carcinogen and the prototype of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). While these compounds are primarily known for their carcinogenicity, B[a]P and its metabolites are also neurotoxic for mammalian species. To develop a prophylactic immune strategy against detrimental effects of B[a]P, female Balb/c mice immunized with a B[a]P–diphtheria toxoid (B[a]P–DT) conjugate vaccine were sub-acutely exposed to 2 mg/kg B[a]P and behavioral performances were monitored in tests related to learning and memory, anxiety and motor coordination. mRNA expression of the NMDA receptor (NR1, 2A and 2B subunits) involved in the above behavioral functions was measured in 5 brain regions. B[a]P induced NMDA1 expression in three (hippocampus, amygdala and cerebellum) of five brain regions investigated, and modulated NMDA2 in two of the five brain regions (frontal cortex and cerebellum). Each one of these B[a]P-effects was reversed in mice that were immunized against this PAH, with measurable consequences on behavior such as anxiety, short term learning and memory. Thus active immunization against B[a]P with a B[a]P–DT conjugate vaccine had a protective effect and attenuated the pharmacological and neurotoxic effects even of high concentrations of B[a]P. - Highlights: • B[a]P-antibodies attenuated B[a]P induced NMDA expression in several brain regions. • B[a]P had measurable consequences on anxiety, short term learning and memory. • B[a]P immunization attenuated the pharmacological and neurotoxic effects of B[a]P. • Vaccination may also provide some protection against chemical carcinogenesis.

  4. Neonatal Tetanus: A Continuing Menace

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alasia Datonye

    WHO/EPI/GEN/86/7 REVE 1 (ENGLISH). 27. UNICEF. Neonatal tetanus: protecting mothers and children. The State of World's Children 1994: 10. 28. WHO. EPI: Disease incidence and immunization coverage (Saudi Arabia). Weekly Epidem. Record. 1986;. 61(7): 45-46. 29. WHO. EPI. Neonatal tetanus mortality surveys.

  5. Did we forget tetanus?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alempijević Đorđe

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Currently, in our country (Republic of Serbia tetanus is a rarely occurring disease, mainly affecting people older than 65 years of age. A small number of reported cases is mainly due to appropriate immunization. Therefore, each case of tetanus may be considered as failure of health care system to provide adequate immunization. Case outline. A 71-year-old woman was injured in her garden. She sustained laceration in the left coccygeal region. The next day the wound was treated by a surgeon, but tetanus postexposure prophylaxis was not administrated. On the fifth day following the incident, the symptoms and signs of tetanus became apparent, and the patient died two days later. Postmortem examination revealed the wound that was not adequately treated, since there was a foreign body and a dressing inserted in the wound. Signs of acute (aerobic infection were also present. Conclusion. Tetanus is a severe, potentially lethal disease that is absolutely preventable. Mistakes in immunization and surgical treatment of the wound can be considered as medical malpractice.

  6. [Did we forget tetanus?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alempijević, Djordje; Baralić, Ivanka; Kiurski, Milosav; Jecmenica, Dragan; Pavlekić, Snezana; Zivković, Vladimir; Savić, Slobodan

    2009-01-01

    Currently, in our country (Republic of Serbia) tetanus is a rarely occurring disease, mainly affecting people older than 65 years of age. A small number of reported cases is mainly due to appropriate immunization. Therefore, each case of tetanus may be considered as failure of health care system to provide adequate immunization. A 71-year-old woman was injured in her garden. She sustained laceration in the left coccygeal region. The next day the wound was treated by a surgeon, but tetanus postexposure prophylaxis was not administrated. On the fifth day following the incident, the symptoms and signs of tetanus became apparent, and the patient died two days later. Postmortem examination revealed the wound that was not adequately treated, since there was a foreign body and a dressing inserted in the wound. Signs of acute (aerobic) infection were also present. Tetanus is a severe, potentially lethal disease that is absolutely preventable. Mistakes in immunization and surgical treatment of the wound can be considered as medical malpractice.

  7. PLGA nano/micro particles encapsulated with pertussis toxoid (PTd) enhances Th1/Th17 immune response in a murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pan; Asokanathan, Catpagavalli; Liu, Fang; Khaing, Kyi Kyi; Kmiec, Dorota; Wei, Xiaoqing; Song, Bing; Xing, Dorothy; Kong, Deling

    2016-11-20

    Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) based nano/micro particles were investigated as a potential vaccine platform for pertussis antigen. Presentation of pertussis toxoid as nano/micro particles (NP/MP) gave similar antigen-specific IgG responses in mice compared to soluble antigen. Notably, in cell line based assays, it was found that PLGA based nano/micro particles enhanced the phagocytosis of fluorescent antigen-nano/micro particles by J774.2 murine monocyte/macrophage cells compared to soluble antigen. More importantly, when mice were immunised with the antigen-nano/micro particles they significantly increased antigen-specific Th1 cytokines INF-γ and IL-17 secretion in splenocytes after in vitro re-stimulation with heat killed Bordetalla pertussis, indicating the induction of a Th1/Th17 response. Also, presentation of pertussis antigen in a NP/MP formulation is able to provide protection against respiratory infection in a murine model. Thus, the NP/MP formulation may provide an alternative to conventional acellular vaccines to achieve a more balanced Th1/Th2 immune response. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Determination of low tetanus or diphtheria antitoxin titers in sera by a toxin neutralization assay and a modified toxin-binding inhibition test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Sonobe

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A method for the screening of tetanus and diphtheria antibodies in serum using anatoxin (inactivated toxin instead of toxin was developed as an alternative to the in vivo toxin neutralization assay based on the toxin-binding inhibition test (TOBI test. In this study, the serum titers (values between 1.0 and 19.5 IU measured by a modified TOBI test (Modi-TOBI test and toxin neutralization assays were correlated (P < 0.0001. Titers of tetanus or diphtheria antibodies were evaluated in serum samples from guinea pigs immunized with tetanus toxoid, diphtheria-tetanus or triple vaccine. For the Modi-TOBI test, after blocking the microtiter plates, standard tetanus or diphtheria antitoxin and different concentrations of guinea pig sera were incubated with the respective anatoxin. Twelve hours later, these samples were transferred to a plate previously coated with tetanus or diphtheria antitoxin to bind the remaining anatoxin. The anatoxin was then detected using a peroxidase-labeled tetanus or diphtheria antitoxin. Serum titers were calculated using a linear regression plot of the results for the corresponding standard antitoxin. For the toxin neutralization assay, L+/10/50 doses of either toxin combined with different concentrations of serum samples were inoculated into mice for anti-tetanus detection, or in guinea pigs for anti-diphtheria detection. Both assays were suitable for determining wide ranges of antitoxin levels. The linear regression plots showed high correlation coefficients for tetanus (r² = 0.95, P < 0.0001 and for diphtheria (r² = 0.93, P < 0.0001 between the in vitro and the in vivo assays. The standardized method is appropriate for evaluating titers of neutralizing antibodies, thus permitting the in vitro control of serum antitoxin levels.

  9. Predictors of Neonatal Tetanus Mortality in Katsina State, Northwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafique Sani Nass

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The mortality rate of neonatal tetanus (NNT remains high in Nigeria. The study was guided by Mosley and Chen’s model for the elements of child survival in developing countries. The goal of the study was to assess the associations between selected NNT risk factors, number of maternal tetanus toxoid injections, frequency of antenatal visits, place of delivery, and cord care with neonatal mortality as the outcome variable. Methods: The study is a retrospective record review using data from 332 NNT records and analyzed using a logistic regression model. Findings: Neonates whose mothers had 1 dose of tetanus toxoid vaccine were found to be 4% less prone to NNT mortality compared to neonates whose mothers did not have any dose of tetanus toxoid vaccine during pregnancy ( P < .05, odds ratio = 4.12, 95% confidence interval = 1.04-16.29. Frequency of antenatal visits, place of delivery, and cord care were all not significant predictors of NNT mortality. Conclusion: The study shows that there is association between NNT risk factors and neonatal mortality, hence the need to further strengthen the NNT surveillance system for early detection of potential risk factors. This would help develop specific public health interventions aimed at improving the outcome of NNT. Implications: The identification and analysis of NNT mortality risk factors and promoting tetanus toxoid vaccination among pregnant women are effective strategies toward attaining NNT elimination goals in Nigeria.

  10. Tetanus: Disease Villain!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-05-22

    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics talk about tetanus-what it is, symptoms, and how to protect yourself from it.  Created: 5/22/2014 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 5/22/2014.

  11. [Transfer factor of immune reactivity to diphtheria-tetanus anatoxin modulates the action of neurotransmitters in the intestinal smooth muscle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melenevs'ka, N V; Miroshnychenko, M C; Filippov, I B; Kholodna, L S; Shuba, M F

    2007-01-01

    Transfer factor (TF) of immune reactivity (10(-5) - 10(-3) mg/ml) to diphtheria-tetanus anatoxin modulates slow waves and spontaneous contractile activity of non-atropinized smooth muscle stripes (SMS) of guinea-pig taenia coli. TF (10(-4) mg/ml) transforms slow waves into stable depolarization and tonic contraction. After SMS atropinization, the substance acts in the same way. In the presence of methylene blue (10(-5) M), a guanylatecyclase blocker, FT induces transitory increase of SMS muscle tone, which is followed by their stable relaxation. ATP and UTP, purinoceptors agonists, evoke substantial hyperpolarization of smooth muscle cells membrane and their relaxation. FT enhances post-inhibitory excitation in SMS. In the presence of acetylcholine (10(-5) M) FT (10(-4) mg/ml) transforms the inhibitory ATP action on tonic contraction into excitative. This substance (10(-5), 10(-4) mg/ml) enhances Ca2+ mobilization from ryanodine-sensitive calcium store, inhibits the release of these cations from IP3-sensitive calcium store of sarcoplasmic reticulum. TF demolishes the inhibitory actions of sodium nitroprusside (nitric oxide donor), and noradrenaline in taenia coli smooth muscles.

  12. Oral immunization of mice against Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin with a Lactobacillus casei vector vaccine expressing epsilon toxoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimolaei, Mojtaba; Golchin, Mehdi; Daneshvar, Hamid

    2016-06-01

    Clostridium perfringens type D infects ruminants and causes the enterotoxemia disease by ε-toxin. A mutated ε-toxin gene lacking toxicity was designed, synthesized, and cloned into the pT1NX vector and electroporated into Lactobacillus casei competent cells to yield LC-pT1NX-ε recombinant strain. BALB/c mice, immunized orally with this strain, highly induced mucosal, humoral, and cell-mediated immune responses and developed a protection against 200 MLD/ml of the activated ε-toxin. This study showed that the LC-pT1NX-ε could be a promising vaccine candidate against the enterotoxemia disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Safety and immunogenicity of a combined Tetanus, Diphtheria, recombinant acellular Pertussis vaccine (TdaP) in healthy Thai adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirivichayakul, Chukiat; Chanthavanich, Pornthep; Limkittikul, Kriengsak; Siegrist, Claire-Anne; Wijagkanalan, Wassana; Chinwangso, Pailinrut; Petre, Jean; Hong Thai, Pham; Chauhan, Mukesh; Viviani, Simonetta

    2017-01-02

    An acellular Pertussis (aP) vaccine containing recombinant genetically detoxified Pertussis Toxin (PTgen), Filamentous Hemagglutinin (FHA) and Pertactin (PRN) has been developed by BioNet-Asia (BioNet). We present here the results of the first clinical study of this recombinant aP vaccine formulated alone or in combination with tetanus and diphtheria toxoids (TdaP). A phase I/II, observer-blind, randomized controlled trial was conducted at Mahidol University in Bangkok, Thailand in healthy adult volunteers aged 18-35 y. The eligible volunteers were randomized to receive one dose of either BioNet's aP or Tetanus toxoid-reduced Diphtheria toxoid-acellular Pertussis (TdaP) vaccine, or the Tdap Adacel® vaccine in a 1:1:1 ratio. Safety follow-up was performed for one month. Immunogenicity was assessed at baseline, at 7 and 28 d after vaccination. Anti-PT, anti-FHA, anti-PRN, anti-tetanus and anti-diphtheria IgG antibodies were assessed by ELISA. Anti-PT neutralizing antibodies were assessed also by CHO cell assay. A total of 60 subjects (20 per each vaccine group) were enrolled and included in the safety analysis. Safety laboratory parameters, incidence of local and systemic post-immunization reactions during 7 d after vaccination and incidence of adverse events during one month after vaccination were similar in the 3 vaccine groups. One month after vaccination, seroresponse rates of anti-PT, anti-FHA and anti-PRN IgG antibodies exceeded 78% in all vaccine groups. The anti-PT IgG, anti-FHA IgG, and anti-PT neutralizing antibody geometric mean titers (GMTs) were significantly higher following immunization with BioNet's aP and BioNet's TdaP than Adacel® (Pdiphtheria GMTs at one month after immunization were comparable in all vaccine groups. All subjects had seroprotective titers of anti-tetanus and anti-diphtheria antibodies at baseline. In this first clinical study, PTgen-based BioNet's aP and TdaP vaccines showed a similar tolerability and safety profile to Adacel

  14. Effect of tetanus-diphtheria (Td vaccine on immune response to hepatitis B vaccine in healthy individuals with insufficient immune response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Salehi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hepatitis B virus (HBV fails to produce appropriate immune responses in some healthy individuals; thus, different strategies have been adopted to promote immune responses. The current study aimed at evaluating the efficacy of HBV vaccine coadministered with tetanus-diphtheria (Td vaccine compared with HBV vaccine in healthy individuals through measuring hepatitis B surface antibody (HBsAb levels. Materials and Methods: This was a randomized controlled clinical trial, which was implemented in Isfahan, Isfahan Province (Iran in 2013. One hundred and forty healthy individuals, whose HBsAb titers were less than 10 IU/L were recruited. The subjects were randomly assigned to either in intervention or control trials. The control group received 40 μg of recombinant HBV vaccines intramuscularly injected at 0, 1, and 6 months; however, the intervention group was simultaneously vaccinated by Td with the first dose of HBV vaccine. HBV antibody levels (titer were measured before the vaccination and 6 months after the last vaccination. Results: Antibody titers of the subjects in the intervention and control groups increased from 5.07 ± 2.9 IU/L to 744.45 ± 353.07 IU/L and from 4.45 ± 3.4 IU/L to 589.94 ± 353 IU/L, respectively (both P < 0.001. Also, the mean difference of antibody titer was significantly different between the two groups (P = 0.011. Conclusion: Td vaccination can be applied as a feasible approach to promote efficient and persistent immunity in healthy individuals with insufficient HBsAb titers.

  15. Effect of tetanus-diphtheria (Td) vaccine on immune response to hepatitis B vaccine in healthy individuals with insufficient immune response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Maryam; Haghighat, Abbas; Salehi, Hassan; Taleban, Roya; Salehi, Marzieh; Kalbasi, Nader; Moafi, Mohammad; Salehi, Mohammad Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) fails to produce appropriate immune responses in some healthy individuals; thus, different strategies have been adopted to promote immune responses. The current study aimed at evaluating the efficacy of HBV vaccine coadministered with tetanus-diphtheria (Td) vaccine compared with HBV vaccine in healthy individuals through measuring hepatitis B surface antibody (HBsAb) levels. Materials and Methods: This was a randomized controlled clinical trial, which was implemented in Isfahan, Isfahan Province (Iran) in 2013. One hundred and forty healthy individuals, whose HBsAb titers were less than 10 IU/L were recruited. The subjects were randomly assigned to either in intervention or control trials. The control group received 40 μg of recombinant HBV vaccines intramuscularly injected at 0, 1, and 6 months; however, the intervention group was simultaneously vaccinated by Td with the first dose of HBV vaccine. HBV antibody levels (titer) were measured before the vaccination and 6 months after the last vaccination. Results: Antibody titers of the subjects in the intervention and control groups increased from 5.07 ± 2.9 IU/L to 744.45 ± 353.07 IU/L and from 4.45 ± 3.4 IU/L to 589.94 ± 353 IU/L, respectively (both P < 0.001). Also, the mean difference of antibody titer was significantly different between the two groups (P = 0.011). Conclusion: Td vaccination can be applied as a feasible approach to promote efficient and persistent immunity in healthy individuals with insufficient HBsAb titers. PMID:26929760

  16. Immunity against diphtheria and tetanus in human immunodeficiency virus-infected Danish men born 1950-59

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurtzhals, J A; Kjeldsen, K; Heron, I

    1992-01-01

    To evaluate the possible need for vaccination against diphtheria and tetanus of patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), antibodies were measured in blood samples from 78 Danish HIV-infected men, born 1950-59, who could be expected to have received primary vaccination before...... they contracted the HIV infection. No patients (95% confidence interval: 0-4) had tetanus antibodies below the protective level, whereas 24 of the 78 patients (16-33) were unprotected against diphtheria. In the background population of the same age group and sex, 5% and 10% have been found unprotected against...... tetanus and diphtheria, respectively. No relationship between disease stages and antibody levels could be found. Neither was there any difference between patients with normal and reduced numbers of CD4+ lymphocytes. From 25 patients two blood samples were taken at an interval of at least one year. Anti...

  17. Immunogenicity and safety results from a randomized multicenter trial comparing a Tdap-IPV vaccine (REPEVAX®) and a tetanus monovalent vaccine in healthy adults: new considerations for the management of patients with tetanus-prone injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurichesse, Henri; Zimmermann, Ulrich; Galtier, Florence; Launay, Odile; Duval, Xavier; Richard, Patrick; Sadorge, Christine; Soubeyrand, Benoit

    2012-12-01

    In adults with a tetanus-prone injury, combined vaccines such as Tdap-IPV (REPEVAX®) can boost immunity against several diseases simultaneously. This Phase IIIb, parallel-group, open-label trial compared antibody responses to Tdap-IPV and tetanus monovalent vaccine (TMV; Vaccin Tétanique Pasteur® or Tetavax®) against tetanus toxoid 10 and 28 d post-vaccination. Between July and December 2009, four centers in France and five in Germany recruited healthy adults who had received a tetanus-containing vaccine 5-10 y previously. Participants were randomized 1:1 to receive at the first visit a single dose (0.5 mL) of Tdap-IPV or TMV, with follow-up visits at Day 10 and Day 28. per protocol (PP) population immunogenicity at Day 10 (primary) and at Day 28 (secondary); safety throughout the study. Of 456 adults randomized, 223 received Tdap-IPV and 233 received TMV (PP population: 183 and 199 participants, respectively). All participants receiving Tdap-IPV and 99.0% receiving TMV had an anti-tetanus antibody concentration ≥ 0.1 IU/mL, confirming non-inferiority of Tdap-IPV to TMV (95% confidence interval of the difference: -1.2, 3.6). Number of adverse events reported was comparable in each group. Injection-site reactions were reported by 76.6% participants receiving Tdap-IPV and 74.6% receiving TMV. Systemic events (e.g., malaise, myalgia and headache) were reported in 47.7% and 39.7% of the Tdap-IPV and the TMV groups, respectively. Tdap-IPV is effective and well-tolerated for use in the management of tetanus-prone injuries in emergency settings in persons for whom a booster against diphtheria, pertussis and poliomyelitis is also needed.

  18. Generalised tetanus: A rare complication of Richter's hernia | Alhaji ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We present a case report of generalized tetanus following umbilical Richter's hernia in a 10 month old unimmunized boy. This case is reported because tetanus is a rare complication of Richter's hernia and to emphasize the need for immunization of all unimmunized children with tetanus vaccine. A high index of suspicion is ...

  19. Adjuvant properties of thermal component of hyperthermia enhanced transdermal immunization: effect on dendritic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Joshi

    Full Text Available Hyperthermia enhanced transdermal (HET immunization is a novel needle free immunization strategy employing application of antigen along with mild local hyperthermia (42°C to intact skin resulting in detectable antigen specific Ig in serum. In the present study, we investigated the adjuvant effect of thermal component of HET immunization in terms of maturation of dendritic cells and its implication on the quality of the immune outcome in terms of antibody production upon HET immunization with tetanus toxoid (TT. We have shown that in vitro hyperthermia exposure at 42°C for 30 minutes up regulates the surface expression of maturation markers on bone marrow derived DCs. This observation correlated in vivo with an increased and accelerated expression of maturation markers on DCs in the draining lymph node upon HET immunization in mice. This effect was found to be independent of the antigen delivered and depends only on the thermal component of HET immunization. In vitro hyperthermia also led to enhanced capacity to stimulate CD4+ T cells in allo MLR and promotes the secretion of IL-10 by BMDCs, suggesting a potential for Th2 skewing of T cell response. HET immunization also induced a systemic T cell response to TT, as suggested by proliferation of splenocytes from immunized animal upon in vitro stimulation by TT. Exposure to heat during primary immunization led to generation of mainly IgG class of antibodies upon boosting, similar to the use of conventional alum adjuvant, thus highlighting the adjuvant potential of heat during HET immunization. Lastly, we have shown that mice immunized by tetanus toxoid using HET route exhibited protection against challenge with a lethal dose of tetanus toxin. Thus, in addition to being a painless, needle free delivery system it also has an immune modulatory potential.

  20. Onderzoek naar de mogelijkheden om in vitro antistof produktie door immune cellen te gebruiken voor de controle van difterie en tetanus bevattende vaccins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loggen HG; Akkermans AM; van de Donk HJM; Kreeftenberg JG; Hendriksen CFM; de Jong WH

    1992-01-01

    This report describes the possible use of an in vitro culture system for the production of antibodies, as testsystem for the control of diphtheria and tetanus containing vaccines like DPTP (Diphtheria, Pertussis, Tetanus and Polio) and DTP (Diphtheria, Tetanus and Polio). Both in a human and rabbit

  1. Impact of tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine use in wound management on health care costs and pertussis cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbird, Sandra E; Graham, Jonathan; Mauskopf, Josephine; Masseria, Cristina; Krishnarajah, Girishanthy

    2015-01-01

    The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends the use of tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine for routine wound management in adolescents and adults who require a tetanus toxoid-containing vaccine who were vaccinated ≥ 5 years earlier with tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid (Td) vaccine, and who have not previously received Tdap. To estimate the overall budget and health impact of vaccinating individuals presenting for wound management with Tdap instead of Td vaccine, the current standard of care in practices that do not use Tdap for purposes of wound management. A decision-analytic economic model was developed to estimate the expected increase in direct medical costs and the expected number of cases of pertussis avoided associated with the use of Tdap instead of Td vaccine in the wound management setting. Patients eligible for Tdap were aged 10+ years and required a tetanus-containing vaccine. Age-specific wound incidence data and Td and Tdap vaccination rates were taken from the National Health Interview Survey and the National Immunization Survey for the most recent available year. Age-specific pertussis incidence used in this analysis (151 per 100,000 for adolescents, 366 per 100,000 for those aged 20-64 years, and 176 per 100,000 for those aged 65+ years) used reported incidence rates adjusted by a factor of 10 for adolescents and by a factor of 100 for adults, based on assumptions previously made by ACIP to account for underreporting. Vaccine wholesale acquisition costs without federal excise tax were assumed in the base case. Efficacy of vaccination with Tdap in preventing pertussis was based on clinical trial data. Possible herd immunity effects of vaccination were not included in the model. Costs associated with vaccination and treatment of pertussis cases were reported as total annual costs and per-member-per-month (PMPM) costs for hypothetical health plans and for the U

  2. Do I Need a Tetanus Shot?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a hero. Learn CPR Use “ICE” in Your Cell Phone Prepare for Disasters Communication With Your Family And ... United States, tetanus immunization is required before starting school. The first time you are vaccinated, you will ...

  3. The burden of tetanus in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanteza, Barbara; Galukande, Moses; Aceng, Jane; Musinguzi, Joshua; Opio, Alex; Mbonye, Anthony K; Mukooyo, Eddie; Behumize, Prosper; Makumbi, Fredrick

    2016-01-01

    available. The burden of tetanus is increasing, especially among females aged 5+ years. Tetanus entry wounds among the inpatients in Masafa hospital were mostly due to road traffic accidents, and young males. The tetanus case fatality was very high (47.4 %) and so was patient requested discharge. There is a need to do more to protect the population against tetanus infection, especially among females, and males who need either initial or booster tetanus immunization as SMC is scaled up.

  4. Frequency of apnea, bradycardia, and desaturations following first diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-inactivated polio-Haemophilus influenzae type B immunization in hospitalized preterm infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spady Donald W

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adverse cardiorespiratory events including apnea, bradycardia, and desaturations have been described following administration of the first diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-inactivated polio-Haemophilus influenzae type B (DTP-IPV-Hib immunization to preterm infants. The effect of the recent substitution of acellular pertussis vaccine for whole cell pertussis vaccine on the frequency of these events requires further study. Methods Infants with gestational age of ≤ 32 weeks who received their first DTP-IPV-Hib immunization prior to discharge from two Edmonton Neonatal Intensive Care Units January 1, 1996 to November 30, 2000 were eligible for the study. Each immunized infant was matched by gestational age to one control infant. The number of episodes of apnea, bradycardia, and/or desaturations (ABD and the treatment required for these episodes in the 72 hours prior to and 72 hours post-immunization (for the immunized cohort or at the same post-natal age (for controls was recorded. Results Thirty-four infants who received DTP-IPV-Hib with whole cell pertussis vaccine, 90 infants who received DTP-IPV-Hib with acellular pertussis vaccine, and 124 control infants were entered in the study. Fifty-six immunized infants (45.1% and 36 control infants (29.0% had a resurgence of or increased ABD in the 72 hours post-immunization in the immunized infants and at the same post-natal age in the controls with an adjusted odds ratio for immunized infants of 2.41 (95% CI 1.29,4.51 as compared to control infants. The incidence of an increase in adverse cardiorespiratory events post-immunization was the same in infants receiving whole cell or acellular pertussis vaccine (44.1% versus 45.6%. Eighteen immunized infants (14.5% and 51 control infants (41.1% had a reduction in ABD in the 72 hours post- immunization or at the equivalent postnatal age in controls for an odds ratio of 0.175 (95%CI 0.08, 0.39. The need for therapy of ABD in the immunized

  5. Frequency of apnea, bradycardia, and desaturations following first diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-inactivated polio-Haemophilus influenzae type B immunization in hospitalized preterm infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jackie; Robinson, Joan L; Spady, Donald W

    2006-01-01

    Background Adverse cardiorespiratory events including apnea, bradycardia, and desaturations have been described following administration of the first diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-inactivated polio-Haemophilus influenzae type B (DTP-IPV-Hib) immunization to preterm infants. The effect of the recent substitution of acellular pertussis vaccine for whole cell pertussis vaccine on the frequency of these events requires further study. Methods Infants with gestational age of ≤ 32 weeks who received their first DTP-IPV-Hib immunization prior to discharge from two Edmonton Neonatal Intensive Care Units January 1, 1996 to November 30, 2000 were eligible for the study. Each immunized infant was matched by gestational age to one control infant. The number of episodes of apnea, bradycardia, and/or desaturations (ABD) and the treatment required for these episodes in the 72 hours prior to and 72 hours post-immunization (for the immunized cohort) or at the same post-natal age (for controls) was recorded. Results Thirty-four infants who received DTP-IPV-Hib with whole cell pertussis vaccine, 90 infants who received DTP-IPV-Hib with acellular pertussis vaccine, and 124 control infants were entered in the study. Fifty-six immunized infants (45.1%) and 36 control infants (29.0%) had a resurgence of or increased ABD in the 72 hours post-immunization in the immunized infants and at the same post-natal age in the controls with an adjusted odds ratio for immunized infants of 2.41 (95% CI 1.29,4.51) as compared to control infants. The incidence of an increase in adverse cardiorespiratory events post-immunization was the same in infants receiving whole cell or acellular pertussis vaccine (44.1% versus 45.6%). Eighteen immunized infants (14.5%) and 51 control infants (41.1%) had a reduction in ABD in the 72 hours post- immunization or at the equivalent postnatal age in controls for an odds ratio of 0.175 (95%CI 0.08, 0.39). The need for therapy of ABD in the immunized infants was not

  6. Human Onchocerciasis and Tetanus Vaccination: Impact on the Postvaccination Antitetanus Antibody Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Philip J.; Espinel, Ivan; Wieseman, Moira; Paredes, Wilson; Espinel, Mauricio; Guderian, Ronald H.; Nutman, Thomas B.

    1999-01-01

    To investigate whether helminth infections may affect the efficacy of vaccines by impairing the immune response to nonparasite vaccine antigens, we compared the antibody responses to tetanus toxoid (TT) after tetanus vaccination in 193 subjects with Onchocerca volvulus infection with 85 comparable noninfected controls. After vaccination, the proportions of subjects in each group attaining protective levels of antitetanus antibodies were similar (96.9% infected versus 97.6% noninfected). Postvaccination increases in antitetanus immunoglobulin G (IgG) and the predominant IgG isotype, IgG1, were equivalent in both groups, as were increases in specific IgG4 and IgE; however, significantly greater increases in specific IgG2 (P volvulus-infected group into two groups representing light and heavy infections revealed a significantly impaired antitetanus IgG response in those with heavy infections compared to those with light infections (P volvulus does not prevent the development of a protective antitetanus response, although heavier O. volvulus infections are able to alter the magnitude of this response, and concurrent helminth infections (O. volvulus and intestinal helminths) may alter TT-specific antibody isotype responses. PMID:10531253

  7. [SAFETY AND IMMUNOGENICITY OF A NATIONAL COMBINED VACCINE AGAINST PERTUSSIS, DIPHTHERIA, TETANUS, HEPATITIS B AND Hib-INFECTION, CONTAINING ACELLULAR PERTUSSIS COMPONENT, DURING IMMUNIZATION OF ADULTS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldblyum, I V; Nikolaeva, A M; Pavroz, K A; Danilina, T V; Sosnina, O Yu; Vyaznikova, T V; Ershov, A E; Trofimov, D M; Polushkina, A V

    2016-01-01

    Study safety, reactogenicity and immunologic effectiveness of a national combined vaccine against diphtheria, pertussis (acellular component), tetanus, hepatitis B and Hib-infection during immunization of volunteers aged 18-60 years. The study was carried out in accordance with ethical standards and requirements, regulated by Helsinki declaration and Good clinical practice (ICHGCP). In a simple non-randomized clinical trial 20 adult volunteers took part, the mean age of those was 46.9 years. Registered: post-vaccination reactions (both local and systemic) were mild and of moderate degree of severity, stopped independently after 2-3 days without administration of drug treatment. Postvaccinal complications were not noted. Parameters of general and biochemical analysis of blood, urine, IgE content in dynamics of immunization were within normal limits. A single administration of aAPDT--HepB+Hib to individuals aged 18-60 years resulted in development of antibodies against all the components of the preparation. Seroconversion factor fluctuated from 6.9 to 53.5: The results obtained allow to recommend the vaccine for evaluation of its safety, reactogenicity, immunologic and prophylaxis effectiveness in randomized clinical observation trials in children.

  8. Risk of serious acute neurological illness after immunization with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine. A population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, J L; Thapa, P B; Wassilak, S G; Bobo, J K; Mendelman, P M; Foy, H M

    1994-01-05

    To evaluate the association between serious acute neurological illness and receipt of whole-cell pertussis vaccine, given as diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccine. Population-based case-control study. Outpatient and inpatient hospital settings, physician practices, and the general population in Washington and Oregon states. A total of 424 confirmed cases of neurological illness were identified prospectively during a 12-month period by statewide active surveillance from the population of 218,000 children 1 to 24 months of age living in Washington and Oregon (estimated 368,000 DTP immunizations given). Each case child was matched to two population control children by birth date (+/- 5 days), gender, and county of birth. Written immunization records were used to determine whether illness occurred within 7 days of immunization in case children, or within 7 days of the same reference date in control children, thus qualifying as exposed. Outpatient and inpatient cases of complex febrile seizures, seizures without fever, infantile spasms, and acute encephalitis/encephalopathy confirmed by an expert panel masked to immunization history. The estimated odds ratio (OR) for onset of serious acute neurological illness within 7 days for young children exposed to DTP vaccine was 1.1 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.6 to 2.0). When the analysis was restricted to children with encephalopathy or complicated seizures and adjusted for factors possibly affecting vaccine administration, the OR was 3.6 (95% CI, 0.8 to 15.2). Odds ratios for specific study diagnoses varied, but all CIs included 1. No elevated risk was observed for the largest group of illnesses studied, nonfebrile seizures (OR, 0.5; 95% CI, 0.2 to 1.5). This study did not find any statistically significant increased risk of onset of serious acute neurological illness in the 7 days after DTP vaccine exposure for young children.

  9. Tdap Vaccine (Tetanus, Diphtheria and Pertussis): What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tdap Vaccine What You Need to Know (Tetanus, Diphtheria and Pertussis) Many Vaccine Information Statements are available ... immunize. org/ vis 1 Why get vaccinated? Tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis are very serious diseases. Tdap vaccine ...

  10. Effect of Tetanus-diphtheria Vaccine on Immune Response to Hepatitis B Vaccine in Low-responder Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghighat, Abbas; Moafi, Mohammad; Sharifian, Jalil; Salehi, Hassan; Taleban, Roya; Kalbasi, Nader; Salehi, Marzieh; Salehi, Mohammad Mahdi; Salehi, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Background: Conventional hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination fails to achieve efficient protection in about 5–10% of the world population. Hence, different strategies have been adopted to ameliorate HBV antibody titers. This study aimed to evaluate the concurrent application of tetanus-diphtheria (Td) and HBV vaccination on hepatitis B surface (HBs) antibody titer in low-responder healthy individuals. Methods: This was a randomized clinical trial, which was implemented among 140 of medical staff working as health-care workers assumed as low-responders. The subjects were randomly allocated to either control or interventional groups. The control and interventional groups received HBV recombinant vaccine while the latter group was also vaccinated through Td. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was applied to measure HBs antibody (HBsAb) titers just before and 6 months after the last vaccination. All data were entered into SPSS software. Independent t-test, paired t-test, and Chi-square or Fisher's exact test were applied for data comparison. Results: Antibody titers of the subjects in the intervention and control groups soared from 49.08 ± 20.08 IU/L to 917.78 ± 204.80 IU/L and from 46.95 ± 18.55 to 586.81 ± 351.77 IU/L, respectively (both P < 0.001); nevertheless, by comparison with control group, variation of antibody titer in the interventional group was significantly higher (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Concurrent application of Td and HBV vaccine could effectively enhance protective levels of HBsAb titers in low-responder individuals. PMID:27563430

  11. Tetanus: Symptoms and Complications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this infection is tightening of the jaw muscles. Tetanus infection can lead to serious health problems, including being ... Serious health problems that can happen because of tetanus include: ... bones (fractures) Infections gotten by a patient during a hospital visit ( ...

  12. Tetanus (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of tetanus vaccinations the patient has received, and the nature of the wound. The doctor may recommend a tetanus booster ( ... muscle spasms — particularly after sustaining a wound — seek medical attention right away. Reviewed by: Ryan J. Brogan, ...

  13. Mortality from tetanus neonatorum in Punjab (Pakistan).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleman, O

    1982-01-01

    Researchers conducted a survey study of 59,598 households in 3 major socioeconomic groups (urban slums, rural agricultural areas, and rural cattle and horse raising areas) in the Punjab province of Pakistan to estimate mortality from neonatal tetanus and to develop a strategy for its control. The investigators learned of 13,831 live births. 724 of these died in the 1st month of life with 432 (60%) dying from neonatal tetanus. Village untrained "dai" or trained midwives delivered all infants in all 3 areas. Often these deliverers placed cow dung on the stump of the severed umbilical cord and used a dirty cloth for cleaning the infant. In addition, the trained midwives would use unclean unsterilized tools to assist in delivery. In rural areas, animals sleep inside with the family and they are always with the family. Since Clostridium tetani is found in intestines of animals, especially horses, the neonatal tetanus rates as a percentage of all neonatal deaths for the rural agricultural and rural cattle and horse raising areas were higher (60% and 73%) than for the urban slums (45%). The village barber circumcises male infants on or before the 7th day of life. Since he stuffs the wound with ash or cow dung or rubs it with a dirty cloth, the chances of infecting the wound with C1. tetani increases. Therefore the total ratio of male deaths to female deaths was 1.61:1. Most males died during the last 3 weeks of the 1st month which can be attributed to circumcision. Overall most deaths occurred between 4-19 days. None of the mothers interviewed had been vaccinated with a tetanus toxoid during pregnancy which greatly contributed to the neonatal tetanus mortality rate.

  14. 9 CFR 113.112 - Clostridium Perfringens Type D Toxoid and Bacterin-Toxoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clostridium Perfringens Type D Toxoid... VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Inactivated Bacterial Products § 113.112 Clostridium Perfringens Type D Toxoid and Bacterin-Toxoid. Clostridium Perfringens Type D Toxoid and Clostridium Perfringens Type D...

  15. 9 CFR 113.111 - Clostridium Perfringens Type C Toxoid and Bacterin-Toxoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clostridium Perfringens Type C Toxoid... VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Inactivated Bacterial Products § 113.111 Clostridium Perfringens Type C Toxoid and Bacterin-Toxoid. Clostridium Perfringens Type C Toxoid and Clostridium Perfringens Type C...

  16. Neonatal tetanus elimination in Pakistan: progress and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambo, Jonathan A; Nagulesapillai, Tharsiya

    2012-12-01

    Pakistan is one of the 34 countries that have not achieved the neonatal tetanus (NT) global elimination target set by the World Health Organization (WHO). NT, caused by Clostridium tetani, is a highly fatal infection of the neonatal period. It is one of the most underreported diseases and remains a major but preventable cause of neonatal and infant mortality in many developing countries. In 1989, the World Health Assembly called for the elimination of NT by 1995, and since then considerable progress has been made using the following strategies: clean delivery practices, routine tetanus toxoid (TT) immunization of pregnant women, and immunization of all women of childbearing age with three doses of TT vaccine in high-risk areas during supplementary immunization campaigns. This review presents the activities, progress, and challenges in achieving NT elimination in Pakistan. A review of the literature found TT vaccination coverage in Pakistan ranged from 60% to 74% over the last decade. Low vaccination coverage, the main driver for NT in Pakistan, is due to many factors, including demand failure for TT vaccine resulting from inadequate knowledge of TT vaccine among reproductive age females and inadequate information about the benefits of TT provided by health care workers and the media. Other factors linked to low vaccination coverage include residing in rural areas, lack of formal education, poor knowledge about place and time to get vaccinated, and lack of awareness about the importance of vaccination. A disparity exists in TT vaccination coverage and antenatal care between urban and rural areas due to access and utilization of health care services. NT reporting is incomplete, as cases from the private sector and rural areas are underreported. To successfully eliminate NT, women of reproductive age must be made aware of the benefits of TT vaccine, not only to themselves, but also to their families. Effective communication strategies for TT vaccine delivery and

  17. The evaluation of Tetanus-diphtheria (Td vaccine impacts on immune response to hepatitis B (HB vaccine in non-responder dialysis patientsFNx01

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrzad Shahidi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Hepatitis B (HB vaccine response in hemodialysis patients is less than healthy individuals. Different strategies have been taken into account to improve the response rate. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of tetanus and diphtheria (Td vaccine as an adjuvant therapy to HB vaccination. Methods: Sixty three end-stage renal disease patients were recruited on dialysis that were older than 18 years and had passed at least 3 doses of HB vaccination schedule, and had HBS antibody (Ab with titer less than 10 IU/L. The patients were divided into two groups; A (30 patients and B (33 patients. Both of the groups received a 3-dose HB vaccination schedule of 40 μ g intramuscularly in the left deltoid muscle at 0, 1 and 6 months. Group A also received Td vaccine intramuscularly simultaneous with the first dose of HB vaccine. HBS Ab was measured in periods of 1 and 6 months after completion of the vaccination. Results: One month after completion of the vaccination, group A had better but not significant response rate (96% than group B (83.9% (p > 0.05; in addition, after 6 month there was no difference between the two groups (87.5% vs. 83.3% (p > 0.05. Patients with HCV infection had lower response rate than patients who did not have HCV infection (33.3% vs. 92.5% (p < 0.05. Age had negative effect on immune response to HB vaccination (r = -0.339; p = 0.005. Conclusions: The use of Td vaccine concurrent with HB vaccination may increase the response rate in non-responder individuals; however, it seems it does not have any role in the persistence of immune response. Age and HCV infection negatively affected the response to HB vaccination in dialysis patients.

  18. Factors influencing Haemagglutination Tests with Tetanus Antitoxin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulthorpe, A. J.

    1959-01-01

    The agglutinin titres of tetanus antitoxins tested with preserved sheep cells sensitized with tetanus toxoid have been found to be inversely proportional to the cell concentration used. The agglutinin titres per international unit of antitoxin were widely different among various electrophoretically separated globulin fractions of tetanus antitoxin. There were smaller differences between the agglutinating capacity of γ-globulin fractions of sera from different horses. With haemagglutination inhibition tests there was always a relative increase in test dose between the LA and LA/100 level of test. This relative increase was greatest where the sensitivity of the cell suspensions was high. Increased suspension sensitivity may be the result of treatment of cells with greater quantities of sensitizing antigen or of reduction in the concentration of sensitized cells in the suspension. A greater volume of serum was required to give a standard end point, when mixed with a test dose (LA) of toxin, if the mixtures were allowed to stand for increasing periods of time. These observations have been discussed. PMID:13653730

  19. Clinician awareness of tetanus-diphtheria vaccination in trauma patients: a questionnaire study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Young-Hoon

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most trauma patients visit the hospital via the emergency department. They are at high risk for tetanus infection because many trauma patients are wounded. Tetanus immunity in the Korean population has been revealed to be decreased in age groups over 20 years old. It is important for emergency physicians to vaccinate patients with the tetanus booster in wound management. Methods Questionnaires were sent to the directors of the emergency departments of resident training hospitals certified by the Korean Society of Emergency Medicine. Results Two thirds of the emergency department directors surveyed reported applying tetanus prophylaxis guidelines to more than 80% of wounded patients. However, about 45% of clinicians in the emergency departments considered giving less than half of the wounded patient tetanus booster vaccinations, and there were no distinct differences in tetanus booster vaccination rates among different age groups. Most emergency physicians are familiar with tetanus prophylaxis guidelines for wound management. However, more than half of the emergency department directors reported that the major reason for not considering tetanus-diphtheria vaccination was due to assumptions that patients already had tetanus immunity. Conclusion Attitude changes should be encouraged among emergency physicians regarding tetanus prophylaxis. As emergency physicians are frequently confronted with patients that are at a high risk for tetanus infection in emergency situations, they need to be more informed regarding tetanus immunity epidemiology and encouraged to administer tetanus booster vaccines.

  20. Active immunisation of horses against tetanus including the booster dose and its application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liefman, C E

    1981-02-01

    Successful active immunisation of horses against tetanus is dependent on a number of factors of which the toxoid preparation used, its method of application and the ability of the individual horse to respond are fundamental. Two immunisation schedules using an aluminium-based toxoid preparation were examined and the protection determined by monitoring the level of antitoxin afforded by each schedule. The results obtained demonstrated that 2 doses of this toxoid are necessary to ensure 12 months protection in all horses. These results are discussed in relation to the factors involved in active immunisation against tetanus. Reference is also made to the occurrence of a transient phase of reduced levels of antitoxin following booster doses of toxoid in immunised horses during which it is considered these horses could become more susceptible to tetanus. The effect of a booster dose on immunised horses was examined and while there can be a reduction in the level of antitoxin in some immunised horses following this dose its effect is minimal, short-lived and for all practical purposes can be disregarded. The application of the booster dose in practice is also discussed.

  1. Immunogenicity and safety of an inactivated hepatitis A vaccine administered concomitantly with diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis and haemophilus influenzae type B vaccines to children less than 2 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Terry; Bernstein, Henry; Blatter, Mark M; Bromberg, Kenneth; Guerra, Fernando; Kennedy, William; Pichichero, Michael; Senders, Shelly D; Trofa, Andrew; Collard, Alix; Sullivan, Diane C; Descamps, Dominique

    2006-09-01

    The availability of a hepatitis A virus vaccine for infant and early childhood immunization could reduce the transmission of hepatitis A virus in the United States. This study evaluated the immunogenicity and safety of a hepatitis A virus vaccine (Havrix, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium) administered concomitantly with diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis and Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccines to children vaccination history. Subjects 11 to 13 months of age received 2 doses of hepatitis A virus vaccine 6 months apart (N = 243). Subjects aged 15 to 18 months received 2 doses of hepatitis A virus vaccine 6 months apart (N = 241); or hepatitis A virus vaccine, diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis, and H influenzae type b at month 0 and the second dose of hepatitis A virus vaccine 6 months later (N = 183); or diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis and H influenzae type b at month 0 and hepatitis A virus vaccine at months 1 and 7 (N = 175). Subjects 23 to 25 months of age received hepatitis A virus vaccine at months 0 and 6 (N = 242). Immune responses were measured at baseline and 30 days after vaccine doses, and solicited and unsolicited adverse events were collected. After 2 doses of hepatitis A virus vaccine, all of the subjects in all of the groups were seropositive. Coadministration of hepatitis A virus vaccine with diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis and H influenzae type b vaccines did not impact the immunogenicity of the 3 vaccines, except for the antipertussis toxoid vaccine response, which was slightly decreased. Hepatitis A virus vaccine was well tolerated in children 11 to 25 months of age. The administration of 2 doses of hepatitis A virus vaccine on a 0- and 6-month schedule starting at 11 to 13 months of age or at 15 to 18 months of age was as immunogenic and well tolerated as the administration of 2 doses in children 2 years of age. Immune responses to diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis and H influenzae type b either given

  2. Diphtheria, tetanus and poliovirus antibody persistence 5 years after vaccination of pre-schoolers with two different diphtheria, tetanus and inactivated poliomyelitis vaccines (Td-IPV or DT-IPV) and immune responses to a booster dose of DTaP-IPV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajdos, Vincent; Vidor, Emmanuel; Richard, Patrick; Tran, Clément; Sadorge, Christine

    2015-07-31

    This follow-up study assessed the 5-year persistence of vaccine-induced antibodies (Td-IPV or DT-IPV) and the immune response to a booster dose of DTaP-IPV. This was an open-label, parallel-group (two arms), multicentre trial performed at 44 study sites in France. Children aged 11-13 years, of either sex, who received Td-IPV (Revaxis(®)) and DT-IPV (DT Polio(®)) vaccines at 6 years of age in one previous open-label trial with no further vaccination against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis or poliomyelitis, were enrolled. All participants received a single intramuscular booster dose (0.5mL) of DTaP-IPV vaccine (Tetravac-Acellulaire(®)). Study endpoints were based on antibody persistence and post-booster immune responses. Safety was monitored throughout the study. Descriptive statistics were used for all analyses. Of the 758 children included in the previous study, 274 were included in this follow-up study; 129 had previously been vaccinated with Td-IPV, and 145 had previously received DT-IPV. At least 96.5% of participants in both groups presented an anti-diphtheria and anti-tetanus concentration ≥0.01IU/mL, and anti-poliovirus types 1-3 titres≥8 (1/dilution). Following vaccination with DTaP-IPV, anti-diphtheria and anti-tetanus antibody concentrations ≥0.1IU/mL and anti-poliovirus types 1-3 antibody titres ≥8 (1/dilution) were achieved in all participants. DTaP-IPV was well tolerated in this study. There were no serious adverse events during the study, and no participant withdrew because of adverse events. The present study confirmed the long-term immunity conferred by Td-IPV when given as a booster dose, and supports the use of Td-IPV as a second booster at 6 years of age in children previously vaccinated against diphtheria, tetanus and poliomyelitis types 1-3. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Risk of Febrile Seizures and Epilepsy After Vaccination With Diphtheria, Tetanus, Acellular Pertussis, Inactivated Poliovirus, and Haemophilus Influenzae Type b

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Yuelian; Christensen, Jakob Christensen; Hviid, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Context Vaccination with whole-cell pertussis vaccine carries an increased risk of febrile seizures, but whether this risk applies to the acellular pertussis vaccine is not known. In Denmark, acellular pertussis vaccine has been included in the combined diphtheria-tetanus toxoids-acellular pertus...

  4. Immunogenicity and safety after booster vaccination of diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis in young adults: an open randomized controlled trial in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Megumi; Okada, Kenji; Yamaguchi, Yuko; Uno, Shingo; Otsuka, Yasuko; Shimanoe, Chisato; Nanri, Hinako; Horita, Mikako; Ozaki, Iwata; Nishida, Yuichiro; Tanaka, Keitaro

    2013-12-01

    The recent increase of pertussis in young adults in Japan is hypothesized to be due in part to waning protection from the acellular pertussis vaccine. While a booster immunization may prevent an epidemic of pertussis among these young adults, little is known about the safety and immunogenicity of such a booster with the diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP), which is currently available in Japan. One hundred and eleven medical students with a mean age of 19.4 years were randomly divided into 2 groups of 55 and 56 subjects and received, respectively, 0.2 or 0.5 ml of DTaP. Immunogenicity was assessed by performing the immunoassay using serum, and the geometric mean concentration (GMC), GMC ratio (GMCR), seropositive rate, and booster response rate were calculated. Adverse reactions and adverse events were monitored for 7 days after vaccination. After booster vaccination in the two groups, significant increases were found in the antibodies against pertussis toxin, filamentous hemagglutinin, diphtheria toxoid, and tetanus toxoid, and the booster response rates for all subjects reached 100%. The GMCs and GMCRs against all antigens were significantly higher in the 0.5-ml group than in the 0.2-ml group. No serious adverse events were observed. Frequencies of local reactions were similar in the 2 groups, although the frequency of severe local swelling was significantly higher in the 0.5-ml group. These data support the acceptability of booster immunization using both 0.2 and 0.5 ml of DTaP for young adults for controlling pertussis. (This study was registered at UMIN-CTR under registration number UMIN000010672.).

  5. PENGARUH INFEKSI CACING USUS TERHADAP EKSPRESI INTERFERON GAMMA SERUM PASKA PEMBERIAN IMUNISASI TETANUS TOKSOID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selfi Renita Rusjdi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakPenyakit cacing usus masih merupakan masalah kesehatan di Indonesia. Penyakit ini mempunyai dampak merugikan pada manusia terutama pada anak. Selain menimbulkan gangguan gizi, cacing ini juga menimbulkan penurunan respon terhadap antigen. Penurunan respon ini terjadi akibat respon polarisasi Th2 pada infeksi cacing usus. Tetanus toksoid yang diberikan dalam Bulan Imunisasi Anak Sekolah merupakan antigen sebagai penginduksi respon sel T. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh infeksi cacing usus terhadap ekspresi IFN-γ serum paska pemberian tetanus toksoid.Lokasi penelitian dilakukan di Kecamatan Batang Anai Padang Pariaman dengan menggunakan rancangan potong lintang. Populasi dalam penelitian ini adalah murid kelas 2 dan kelas 3 SDN 08 dan SDN 22 Batang Anai Padang Pariaman. Status kecacingan didapatkan dari pemeriksaan feses metoda Kato-Katz. Kadar IFN-γ serum didapatkan dari pemeriksaan serum metode ELISA. Pengolahan dan analisa data menggunakan uji Kolmogorov-Smirnov.Hasil penelitian pada kelompok yang terinfeksi cacing usus didapatkan rerata kadar IFN-γ adalah sebesar 0,15 ± 0,16 pg/ml dan kelompok kontrol didapatkan sebesar 1,4 ± 1,02 pg/ml. Terdapat perbedaan bermakna kadar IFN-γ antara kelompok yang terinfeksi cacing usus dengan kelompok kontrol. (p< 0,05.Dari hasil penelitian dapat disimpulkan bahwa infeksi cacing usus dapat menekan ekspresi IFN-γ terhadap pemberian tetanus toksoid.Kata kunci: Cacing Usus, Tetanus Toksoid, Interferon gamma (IFN-γAbstractIntestinal helminthiasis is still unsolved problem in Indonesia. Children are particularly vulnerable to get health problem caused by those infection. The health problems are malnutrition and nowadays impairment immune response of antigen. The impairment is caused by Th2 polarized response. Tetanus toksoid which is annually given to elementary school children in Bulan Imunisasi Anak Sekolah isARTIKEL PENELITIAN88known as T cell strong inducer after vaccination

  6. Tetanus in Singapore: report of three cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghuram, J; Ong, Y Y; Wong, S Y

    1995-11-01

    Three cases of tetanus in Singapore are presented. One local resident had cephalic tetanus most likely secondary to otitis media and the other two, residents from surrounding Asean countries, had generalised tetanus. The portal of entry was a puncture wound on the foot in one patient and the ear in another. No portal of entry was identified in one patient. All three patients required tracheostomy, ventilatory support and intensive care management for periods ranging from 11 to 22 days. One patient died from complications of nosocomial septicaemia and one patient required prolonged rehabilitation. There was a questionable history of tetanus immunization in the Singapore resident whereas the other two patients who were foreigners had never received any immunization. Tetanus is an uncommon but important disease in Singapore. In spite of the availability of intensive care management, it continues to be a disease with significant morbidity and mortality. Early recognition and treatment of the disease are critical factors in determining the prognosis. This is a disease that may be largely prevented by adequate immunization.

  7. Trismus as a Clinical Manifestation of Tetanus: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadiochos, Ioannis; Papadiochou, Sofia; Petsinis, Vassilis; Goutzanis, Lampros; Atsali, Charikleia; Papadogeorgaki, Nikolaos

    2016-01-01

    Although the incidence of tetanus disease has radically declined in developed countries, both dental practitioners and oral and maxillofacial surgeons should be knowledgeable about its diagnosis since initial manifestations of the disease, such as trismus and dysphagia, are observed in the orofacial region. This study reports on a case of generalized tetanus diagnosed in a middle-aged man. Before the tetanus diagnosis, the patient had sought medical advice from seven different health care professionals, including a dentist and an oral and maxillofacial surgeon. The patient reported trismus and dysphagia as his main complaints. The suspicion of tetanus emerged from the patient's manifestations in conjunction with his history of trauma and his agricultural occupation. The patient underwent successful treatment including administration of muscle relaxants, antibiotics, and booster vaccination doses of tetanus toxoid as well as a tracheostomy and aided mechanical ventilation. This case report highlights the significance of taking a meticulous medical history, thoroughly performing a physical examination, and systematically assessing orofacial signs and symptoms.

  8. Development and evaluation of chitosan microspheres for tetanus, diphtheria and divalent vaccines: a comparative study of subcutaneous and intranasal administration in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashem, Fahima M; Fahmy, Sahar A; El-Sayed, Aly M; Al-Sawahli, Majid M

    2013-01-01

    There is a need to use the new technologies to induce immunity with minimum number of vaccination sessions to ensure compliance with reducing cost. To develop single shot vaccines of tetanus, diphtheria and divalent toxoids microsphere's formulations and to induce their immune response after intranasal and subcutaneous administration in mice. The microspheres were prepared using different concentrations of chitosan. Microsphere's morphology, particle size analysis, encapsulation efficiency and antigen integrity were performed and the best formulations were selected for in vitro and in vivo testing in mice. The developed microspheres have a yield percent of 70.3-91.5%. In vitro release of antigens indicated that tetanus release was increased up to 75 and 81% post T5 and TD5 formulations respectively, whereas diphtheria cumulative release increased up to 74 and 69% post D3 and TD5, respectively. Antibody levels produced were lower than that obtained from alum adsorbed vaccine but higher than the minimum level required to induce immunogenicity (>0.01 IU/mL). The subcutaneous route of administration was superior over the intranasal route in producing higher antibody levels. Chitosan microspheres were developed successfully and prove that chitosan represents a good candidate for vaccines delivery.

  9. A single-dose cytomegalovirus-based vaccine encoding tetanus toxin fragment C induces sustained levels of protective tetanus toxin antibodies in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Rob; Nakai, Toru; Parkins, Christopher J; Caposio, Patrizia; Fairweather, Neil F; Sesardic, Dorothea; Jarvis, Michael A

    2012-04-26

    The current commercially available vaccine used to prevent tetanus disease following infection with the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium tetani is safe and effective. However, tetanus remains a major source of mortality in developing countries. In 2008, neonatal tetanus was estimated to have caused >59,000 deaths, accounting for 1% of worldwide infant mortality, primarily in poorer nations. The cost of multiple vaccine doses administered by injection necessary to achieve protective levels of anti-tetanus toxoid antibodies is the primary reason for low vaccine coverage. Herein, we show that a novel vaccine strategy using a cytomegalovirus (CMV)-based vaccine platform induces protective levels of anti-tetanus antibodies that are durable (lasting >13 months) in mice following only a single dose. This study demonstrates the ability of a 'single-dose' CMV-based vaccine strategy to induce durable protection, and supports the potential for a tetanus vaccine based on CMV to impact the incidence of tetanus in developing countries. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Prenatal passive transfer of maternal immunity in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nofs, Sally A; Atmar, Robert L; Keitel, Wendy A; Hanlon, Cathleen; Stanton, Jeffrey J; Tan, Jie; Flanagan, Joseph P; Howard, Lauren; Ling, Paul D

    2013-06-15

    Asian (Elephas maximus) and African (Loxodonta africana) elephants exhibit characteristics of endotheliochorial placentation, which is common in carnivore species and is associated with modest maternal to fetal transplacental antibody transfer. However, it remains unknown whether the bulk of passive immune transfer in elephants is achieved prenatally or postnatally through ingestion of colostrum, as has been documented for horses, a species whose medical knowledgebase is often extrapolated for elephants. To address this issue, we took advantage of the fact that many zoo elephants are immunized with tetanus toxoid and/or rabies vaccines as part of their routine health care, allowing a comparison of serum antibody levels against these antigens between dams and neonates. Serum samples were collected from 3 newborn Asian elephant calves at birth (before ingestion of colostrum); 2-4 days after birth; and 2-3 months of age. The findings indicate that the newborns had anti-tetanus toxoid and anti-rabies titers that were equivalent to or higher than the titers of their dams from birth to approximately 3 months of age, suggesting that the majority of maternal-to-fetal transfer is transplacental and higher than expected based on the architecture of the Asian elephant placenta. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Safety and immunogenicity of tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis vaccine administered to children 10 or 11 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Gary S; Pool, Vitali; Greenberg, David P; Johnson, David R; Sheng, Xiaohua; Decker, Michael D

    2014-11-01

    Boosting immunity to tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis through the use of Tdap vaccines is routinely recommended at 11 to 12 years of age; some states, however, require Tdap for entry into middle school, which may begin at 10 years of age. This study was conducted to determine whether Tdap5 (Adacel), which is licensed for use in children beginning at 11 years of age, is as safe and immunogenic in 10-year-olds as it is in 11-year-olds. Children who had received 5 previous doses of any diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccine were enrolled in a phase IV clinical trial; 646 10-year-olds and 645 11-year-olds completed the study, which involved a single intramuscular dose of Tdap5 along with pre- and postvaccination serologies. Postvaccination geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) of antibody to pertussis antigens (pertussis toxoid, filamentous hemagglutinin, pertactin, and fimbria types 2 and 3) of 10-year-olds were noninferior to those of 11-year-olds, as were booster response rates for all pertussis antibodies, except for those to fimbrial antigens (94% and 97%, respectively). Seroprotection rates among 10-year-olds for tetanus and diphtheria were noninferior to those in 11-year-olds. Rates of injection site reactions, solicited systemic reactions, and unsolicited adverse events, adverse reactions, and serious adverse events were similar in the two groups. These data support the conclusion that Tdap5 is safe and immunogenic in 10-year-olds. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01311557.). Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Td Vaccine (Tetanus and Diphtheria): What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    VACCINE INFORMATION STATEMENT Td Vaccine (Tetanus and Diphtheria) What You Need to Know Many Vaccine Information Statements are available in Spanish and other languages. See www. immunize. org/ vis Hojas de ...

  13. Two cases of tetanus?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horn, Janneke; Vroom, Margreeth B.; Tijssen, Marina A. J.; Schultz, Marcus J.

    2006-01-01

    Tetanus is a rare infectious disease in Western countries that leads to diagnostic difficulties. Several diseases may mimic tetanus, and diagnostic considerations can at times be difficult, especially in critically ill patients, who need prompt treatment. Two patients are presented who were

  14. Tetanus (Lockjaw) Photos

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Disease This micrograph depicts a group of Clostridium tetani bacteria This neonate is displaying a bodily rigidity produced by Clostridium tetani exotoxin, called "neonatal tetanus" This patient presented ...

  15. Tetanus following ocular wooden foreign body in incompletely vaccinated patient: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suneth Karunarathne

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Tetanus is now encountered rarely in clinical practice. There were no reported cases of tetanus due to ocular injuries in Sri Lanka. We report of a case of tetanus following an ocular injury which can be at least partly attributed to the disruption of immunization programmes due to political unrest. A 13 year-old Sri Lankan Tamil schoolgirl who had a splinter prick injury to left orbit was treated for intraorbital abscess and orbital cellulites. She developed clinical tetanus while on intravenous antibiotics. Following intensive care and ventilatory support she achieved an uncomplicated recovery. Ocular injury is a rare cause of tetanus worldwide. Adequate debridement of orbital soft tissue injuries can be difficult and demanding. Even in countries with high immunization coverage, tetanus can still occur due to lapses in immunization with conflict and war.

  16. Production of Recombinant Human scFv Against Tetanus Toxin Heavy Chain by Phage Display Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalili, Ehsan; Lakzaei, Mostafa; Rasaee, Mohhamad Javad; Aminian, Mahdi

    2015-10-01

    Tetanus, as a major cause of death in developing countries, is caused by tetanus neurotoxin. Recombinant antibodies against tetanus neurotoxin can be useful in tetanus management. Phage display of antibody fragments from immune human antibody libraries with single chain constructs combining the variable fragments (scFv) has been one of the most prominent technologies in antibody engineering. The aim of this study was the generation of a single chain fragment of variable region (scFv) library and selection of specific antibodies with high affinity against tetanus toxin. Immune human single chain fragment variable (HuscFv) antibody phagemid library was displayed on pIII of filamentous bacteriophage. Selection of scFv clones was performed against tetanus toxin antigens after three rounds of panning. The selected scFv clones were analyzed for inhibition of tetanus toxin binding to ganglioside GT1b. After the third round of panning, over 35 HuscFv phages specific for tetanus toxin were isolated from this library of which 15 clones were found to bind specifically to tetanus toxin. The selected HuscFv phages expressed as a soluble HuscFv peptide and some clones showed positive signals against tetanus toxin. We found that six HuscFv clones inhibit toxin binding to ganglioside GT1b. These selected antibodies can be used in the management of tetanus.

  17. Enhancement of human adaptive immune responses by administration of a high-molecular-weight polysaccharide extract from the cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensisTumor necrosis factor-alpha binding capacity and anti-infliximab antibodies measured by fluid-phase radioimmunoassays as predictors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lobner, M.; Walsted, A.; Larsen, R.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of consumption of Immulina, a high-molecular-weight polysaccharide extract from the cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis, on adaptive immune responses was investigated by evaluation of changes in leukocyte responsiveness to two foreign recall antigens, Candida albicans (CA) and tetanus...... toxoid (TT), in vitro. Consumption of Immulina by 11 healthy male volunteers caused an immediate, but temporary, increase of CA-induced CD4+ T-helper (Th) cell proliferation (P ...) and fell below baseline levels after 14 days (P effects on IL-10 responses were observed. Upon addition to normal mononuclear cells in vitro, Immulina elicited strong TNF...

  18. Tetanus trismus in a 2 year old child: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menon Narayanankutty Sunilkumar, Vadakut Krishnan Parvathy

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Tetanus is still a major cause of mortality and morbidity in developing countries. It occurs in children mainly in the unimmunized, due to parental ignorance and objection to vaccination. This potentially fatal disease caused by a neurotoxin, tetanospasmin released from wounds infected with Clostridium tetani, an anaerobic gram–positive bacillus. As tetanus becomes less common, cases are likely to be misdiagnosed or go unrecognized. In this case report, we present a case of tetanus in a partially immunized 2 year old girl who presented with trismus. She was treated with the recent recommendations and adequate supportive care. Detection of tetanus at a very early stage can favor lifesaving interventions. Trismus, infected wound and partially immunized/unimmunized status of a child were the key features leading to the prompt diagnosis and early treatment.

  19. Haemoglobin C and S role in acquired immunity against Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Verra

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A recently proposed mechanism of protection for haemoglobin C (HbC; beta6Glu-->Lys links an abnormal display of PfEMP1, an antigen involved in malaria pathogenesis, on the surface of HbC infected erythrocytes together with the observation of reduced cytoadhesion of parasitized erythrocytes and impaired rosetting in vitro. We investigated the impact of this hypothesis on the development of acquired immunity against Plasmodium falciparum variant surface antigens (VSA encoding PfEMP1 in HbC in comparison with HbA and HbS carriers of Burkina Faso. We measured: i total IgG against a single VSA, A4U, and against a panel of VSA from severe malaria cases in human sera from urban and rural areas of Burkina Faso of different haemoglobin genotypes (CC, AC, AS, SC, SS; ii total IgG against recombinant proteins of P. falciparum asexual sporozoite, blood stage antigens, and parasite schizont extract; iii total IgG against tetanus toxoid. Results showed that the reported abnormal cell-surface display of PfEMP1 on HbC infected erythrocytes observed in vitro is not associated to lower anti- PfEMP1 response in vivo. Higher immune response against the VSA panel and malaria antigens were observed in all adaptive genotypes containing at least one allelic variant HbC or HbS in the low transmission urban area whereas no differences were detected in the high transmission rural area. In both contexts the response against tetanus toxoid was not influenced by the beta-globin genotype. These findings suggest that both HbC and HbS affect the early development of naturally acquired immunity against malaria. The enhanced immune reactivity in both HbC and HbS carriers supports the hypothesis that the protection against malaria of these adaptive genotypes might be at least partially mediated by acquired immunity against malaria.

  20. Haemoglobin C and S role in acquired immunity against Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verra, Federica; Simpore, Jacques; Warimwe, George M; Tetteh, Kevin K; Howard, Tevis; Osier, Faith H A; Bancone, Germana; Avellino, Pamela; Blot, Isa; Fegan, Greg; Bull, Peter C; Williams, Thomas N; Conway, David J; Marsh, Kevin; Modiano, David

    2007-10-03

    A recently proposed mechanism of protection for haemoglobin C (HbC; beta6Glu-->Lys) links an abnormal display of PfEMP1, an antigen involved in malaria pathogenesis, on the surface of HbC infected erythrocytes together with the observation of reduced cytoadhesion of parasitized erythrocytes and impaired rosetting in vitro. We investigated the impact of this hypothesis on the development of acquired immunity against Plasmodium falciparum variant surface antigens (VSA) encoding PfEMP1 in HbC in comparison with HbA and HbS carriers of Burkina Faso. We measured: i) total IgG against a single VSA, A4U, and against a panel of VSA from severe malaria cases in human sera from urban and rural areas of Burkina Faso of different haemoglobin genotypes (CC, AC, AS, SC, SS); ii) total IgG against recombinant proteins of P. falciparum asexual sporozoite, blood stage antigens, and parasite schizont extract; iii) total IgG against tetanus toxoid. Results showed that the reported abnormal cell-surface display of PfEMP1 on HbC infected erythrocytes observed in vitro is not associated to lower anti- PfEMP1 response in vivo. Higher immune response against the VSA panel and malaria antigens were observed in all adaptive genotypes containing at least one allelic variant HbC or HbS in the low transmission urban area whereas no differences were detected in the high transmission rural area. In both contexts the response against tetanus toxoid was not influenced by the beta-globin genotype. These findings suggest that both HbC and HbS affect the early development of naturally acquired immunity against malaria. The enhanced immune reactivity in both HbC and HbS carriers supports the hypothesis that the protection against malaria of these adaptive genotypes might be at least partially mediated by acquired immunity against malaria.

  1. Investigation of the detoxification mechanism of formaldehyde-treated tetanus toxin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen-Andersen, Morten; Jørgensen, Sys Borcher; Wilhelmsen, Ellen Sloth

    2007-01-01

     The tetanus vaccine is based on the extremely potent tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT), which is converted by treatment with formaldehyde and lysine into the non-toxic, but still immunogenic tetanus toxoid (TTd). This formaldehyde-induced detoxification, which to a large extend determines the quality...... and formaldehyde in the detoxification process and (ii) characterisation of the chemically detoxified TTd. (i) We examined a number of TTd components that was produced by varying the concentrations of formaldehyde and lysine during the inactivation. Toxicity tests showed that the detoxification failed when...... the lysine or formaldehyde concentration was formaldehyde-dependent and, furthermore, revealed that inter-chain cross-linking was not the only requirement for the inactivation...

  2. Tetanus, Diphtheria, and Pertussis Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis (whooping cough) are serious bacterial infections. Tetanus causes painful tightening of the muscles, usually all ... It can lead to "locking" of the jaw. Diphtheria usually affects the nose and throat. Whooping cough ...

  3. Tetanus ses stadig i Danmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Mathias Amdi; Sørensen, Signe Maj

    2015-01-01

    Tetanus (lockjaw) is caused by toxins produced by Clostridium tetani, usually transmitted through contaminated wounds. We describe a case of tetanus in an unvaccinated, previously healthy 78-year-old woman. Twelve days after minor trauma to the right palm, initially treated with tetanus vaccination...

  4. Clinician awareness of tetanus-diphtheria vaccination in trauma patients: a questionnaire study

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon Young-Hoon; Moon Sung-Woo; Choi Sung-Hyuk; Cho Young-Duck; Kim Jung-Youn; Kwak Young Ho

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Most trauma patients visit the hospital via the emergency department. They are at high risk for tetanus infection because many trauma patients are wounded. Tetanus immunity in the Korean population has been revealed to be decreased in age groups over 20 years old. It is important for emergency physicians to vaccinate patients with the tetanus booster in wound management. Methods Questionnaires were sent to the directors of the emergency departments of resident training hos...

  5. Does vaccination ensure protection? Assessing diphtheria and tetanus antibody levels in a population of healthy children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowin, Ewelina; Wysocki, Jacek; Kałużna, Ewelina; Świątek-Kościelna, Bogna; Wysocka-Leszczyńska, Joanna; Michalak, Michał; Januszkiewicz-Lewandowska, Danuta

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Vaccination effectiveness is proven when the disease does not develop after a patient is exposed to the pathogen. In the case of rare diseases, vaccination effectiveness is assessed by monitoring specific antibody levels in the population. Such recurrent analyses allow the evaluation of vaccination programs. The primary schedule of diphtheria and tetanus vaccinations is similar in various countries, with differences mainly in the number and timing of booster doses. The aim of the study was to assess diphtheria and tetanus antibody concentrations in a population of healthy children. Diphtheria and tetanus antibody levels were analyzed in a group of 324 children aged 18 to 180 months. All children were vaccinated in accordance with the Polish vaccination schedule. Specific antibody concentrations greater than 0.1 IU/mL were considered protective against tetanus or diphtheria. Levels above 1.0 were considered to ensure long-term protection. Protective levels of diphtheria antibodies were found in 229 patients (70.46%), and of tetanus in 306 patients (94.15%). Statistically significant differences were found in tetanus antibody levels in different age groups. Mean concentrations and the percentage of children with high tetanus antibody titers increased with age. No similar correlation was found for diphtheria antibodies. High diphtheria antibody levels co-occurred in 72% of the children with high tetanus antibody levels; 95% of the children with low tetanus antibody levels had low levels of diphtheria antibodies. The percentage of children with protective diphtheria antibody levels is lower than that in the case of tetanus antibodies, both in Poland and abroad, but the high proportion of children without diphtheria protection in Poland is an exception. This is all the more puzzling when taking into account that Polish children are administered a total of 5 doses containing a high concentration of diphtheria toxoid, at intervals shorter than 5 years. The

  6. Progress in Tetanus Prophylaxis: The Advent of Human Antitoxin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perey, Bernard J. F.

    1966-01-01

    Injections of tetanus antitoxin of animal origin frequently cause serious disability and sometimes death. Despite world-wide knowledge of these effects, millions of prophylactic injections of equine tetanus antitoxin are given annually, and it is continually proposed that the dosage be increased in order to obtain higher “protective” levels in the serum, a procedure which would increase the incidence and severity of reactions. Furthermore, equine antitoxin frequently fails to prevent tetanus. Tetanus antitoxin of human origin is available which carries no risk of complications and confers a higher degree of immunity more quickly than equine antitoxin. The cost of treating reactions to horse serum, together with the financial loss incurred by work-absence, far outweighs the cost of human antitoxin. In the author's opinion, the use, in this country, of antitoxin of animal origin is no longer medically acceptable and may well prove legally indefensible. PMID:5902706

  7. PRODUCTION OF AN EFFECTIVE ANTI-Bothrops-TETANUS MIXED HYPERIMMUNE SERUM OF EQUINE ORIGIN

    OpenAIRE

    GUIDOLIN, R.; STEPHANO, M. A.; MORAIS, J. F.; SAKAGUTI, E. H.; PRADO, S. M. A.; FRATELLI, F.; VANCETTO, M. D. C.; HIGASHI, H. G.

    1998-01-01

    The present investigation reveals the possibility of simultaneous immunization of horses with Bothrops or Crotalus snake venoms and Tetanus antigens for the production of anti-Bothrops-Tetanus or anti-Crotalus-Tetanus mixed serum, with high titers of the respective specific antibodies. Bothrops antivenoms with an average neutralizing titer of 4.16 mg venom/ml were obtained from plasma of horses with titers lower than 0.5 mg venom/ml when Tetanus antigens were not used. This suggests the exist...

  8. Incidence and outcome of neonatal tetanus in Enugu over a 10-year ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Talukdar B, Rath B, Sachdar HPS, Purl RK. Declining trend in tetanus hospitalizations. Indian Pediatr 1994;31:849-851. 8. Oruamabo RS, Okonji GO, Igbagiri FP. Impact of Expanded Programme on. Immunization on rates and trend in admission of neonatal tetanus and measles. Nigerian Journal of Paediatrics 1994;21:52.

  9. Coin in the oesophagus: An unusual cause of tetanus in a child - A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... oesophagus is reported. The coin was located at 2 centimeters from the oesophageal opening. There was no history of immunization against tetanus. In spite of endoscopic removal of the coin that was impacted for 8 days and treatment for the spasm and infection, the child died. KEY WORDS: Coin, Oesophagus, Tetanus.

  10. Comparative evaluation of antibody response in rabbits vaccinated with toxoid, alum precipitated and alum precipitated oil adjuvant enterotoxaemia vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Kumar Rai

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To compare the newly formulated enterotoxaemia vaccine having oil and alum adjuvants, with presently available toxoid and alum precipitated vaccines. Materials and Methods: Three types of enterotoxaemia vaccines, namely toxoid (TV, alum precipitated (APV and alum precipitated oil adjuvant vaccine (AOV were prepared using a highly toxigenic strain of Clostridium perfringens type D procured from Division of Biological Standardization, IVRI, Izatnagar. Humoral immunity generated in rabbits with these vaccines was then quantified using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and mice neutralization test (MNT. Results: Out of three enterotoxaemia vaccines tested, alum precipitated oil adjuvant vaccine produced higher and persistent antibody titre for more than 45 days without any booster dose and did not produce any untoward reactions at the injection site. Alum precipitated vaccine elicited better and persistent immune response than toxoid vaccine though it was less than alum precipitated oil adjuvant vaccine. In MNT, alum precipitated and alum precipitated oil adjuvant vaccines showed protection at 45th day of post vaccination while toxoid vaccine showed only up to 28th day. Conclusion: Results of the study unfolded the synergistic role of adjuvants in the induction of better and persistent immune response and also indicated the superiority of alum precipitated oil adjuvant vaccine over the currently available toxoid and alum precipitated enterotoxaemia vaccines. [Vet World 2013; 6(4.000: 200-204

  11. Drug: D05316 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D05316 Drug Adsorbed tetanus toxoid (JP16); Tetanus toxoid adsorbed (USP) Immunizin...isms and parasites 63 Biological preparations 632 Toxins, toxoids 6322 Toxoids D05316 Adsorbed tetanus...s vaccines J07AM01 Tetanus toxoid D05316 Adsorbed tetanus toxoid (JP16); Tetanus ...toxoid adsorbed (USP) USP drug classification [BR:br08302] Immunological Agents Vaccines Tetanus Toxoid Adsorbed D05316 Adsorbed teta...nus toxoid (JP16); Tetanus toxoid adsorbed (USP) PubChem: 17398275 ...

  12. Active immunization against GnRH in ovine (Ovis aries: testicular morphometry, histopathology and endocrine responses in prepubertal ram lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutierrez-Reinoso MA

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the present research was to assess the effects of an active immunization against GnRH on male reproductive function as an alternative to surgical sterilization evaluating testicular morphometry, histopathological alterations and plasma gonadotropin levels in prepubertal ram lambs. Dorper ram lambs (age= 2 months; control group, n= 5; treatment group, n=15 were immunised by using an anti-GnRH vaccine (two administrations spaced 15d developed by linking a GnRH homologous molecule to tetanus toxoid (clostridial toxoid with aluminum hydroxide as coadjuvant. To determine the effectiveness of the vaccination protocol, testicular morphometry was evaluated (length, width, mean volume and total volume together with histopathological alterations in testicular tissue samples (seminiferous tubule diameters, spermatogonia per testis and sperm presence and endocrine responses (ELISA from blood samples (FSH, LH, testosterone and cortisol plasma levels. Morphometric parameters (testicular length, width and volume were significantly reduced in vaccinated animals with respect to the control group (p0.05. In conclusion, prepubertal active immunization against GnRH led to marked differences on testes morphometry and activity in ovine species, however, it did not affect endocrine levels nor spermatogenesis in all individuals studied showing a partial vaccination effect in some of them. Thus, taking into account the heterogeneous dysfunctional responses obtained, different vaccination assays and strategies should be tested before active immunization against GnRH is considered as a viable alternative to conventional surgical sterilization.

  13. Maternal supplementation with LGG reduces vaccine-specific immune responses in infants at high-risk of developing allergic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul V Licciardi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics are defined as live micro-organisms that when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host. Among their pleiotropic effects, inhibition of pathogen colonisation at the mucosal surface as well as modulation of immune responses are widely recognised as the principal biological activities of probiotic bacteria. In recent times, the immune effects of probiotics have led to their application as vaccine adjuvants, offering a novel strategy for enhancing the efficacy of current vaccines. Such an approach is particularly relevant in regions where infectious disease burden is greatest and where access to complete vaccination programs is limited. In this study, we report the effects of the probiotic, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG on immune responses to tetanus, Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib and pneumococcal conjugate (PCV7 vaccines in infants. This study was conducted as part of a larger clinical trial assessing the impact of maternal LGG supplementation in preventing the development of atopic eczema in infants at high-risk for developing allergic disease. Maternal LGG supplementation was associated with reduced antibody responses against tetanus, Hib and pneumococcal serotypes contained in PCV7 (N=31 compared to placebo-treatment (N=30 but not total IgG levels. Maternal LGG supplementation was also associated with a trend to increased number of tetanus toxoid-specific Treg in the peripheral blood compared to placebo-treated infants. These findings suggest that maternal LGG supplementation may not be beneficial in terms of improving vaccine-specific immunity in infants. Further clinical studies are needed to confirm these findings. As probiotic immune effects can be species/strain specific, our findings do not exclude the potential use of other probiotic bacteria to modulate infant immune responses to vaccines.

  14. Seroprevalence of diphtheria toxoid IgG antibodies in children, adolescents and adults in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zasada, Aleksandra A; Rastawicki, Waldemar; Rokosz, Natalia; Jagielski, Marek

    2013-11-19

    Recommendations for diphtheria immunization are to apply an effective primary immunization in infancy and to maintain immunity throughout life. Immunity against diphtheria depends primarily on antibody to the diphtheria toxin. This study evaluated the seroprevalence of IgG diphtheria antitoxin in sera of healthy children, adolescents and adults in Poland. A total of 1387 serum samples collected between 2010 and 2012 from individuals with ages ranging from 1 month to 85 years were investigated. Antibody concentrations were measured with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Anti-Diphtheria Toxoid ELISA IgG, Euroimmun, Germany). The results showed that among 1387 individuals examined, 547 (39.4%) had anti-diphtheria toxoid IgG antibody levels below 0.1 IU/ml (36.9% ≤ 18 years and 40.5% >18 years old, respectively). The 212 (50.8%) children and 542 (55.9%) adults showed only basic protection (0.1-1.0 IU/ml) and need immediate booster. High levels of anti-diphtheria toxoid IgG antibodies (>1.0 IU/ml) were found more often in children and adolescent (12.2%) than in adults (3.6%) and this was statistically significant (P 60 years old. Characteristically, in individuals > 40 years old high levels of anti-diphtheria toxoid IgG antibodies (>1.0 IU/ml) were not seen. There were no statistically significant differences in results in relation to gender. The present study showed inadequate immunity levels to diphtheria amongst the Polish population, especially in adults > 40 years old and children ≤ 2 years old. To prevent reemergence of diphtheria an information campaign reminding people about recommendations concerning diphtheria booster vaccination in adults should be conducted. Moreover, the immunogenicity of the DTP vaccine used in Poland should be verified.

  15. [Tetanus prophylaxis in general practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boukes, F.S.; Wiersma, T.J.; Beaujean, D.; Burgmeijer, R.J.; Timen, A.

    2004-01-01

    In response to the report 'Immunisation against tetanus following injuries' from the Dutch Health Council, the Dutch College of General Practitioners, the National Coordinating Body for the Control of Infectious Diseases and The Netherlands Vaccine Institute have drawn up guidelines for tetanus

  16. Neonatal Tetanus: A Continuing Menace | Yaguo Ide | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Tetanus especially that affecting the newborn has continued to contribute to morbidity and mortality in developing countries such as Nigeria despite the availability, for over 30 years of an effective vaccine. Its contributing factors include low immunization coverage, poor obstetric services and illiteracy. This study ...

  17. A review of neonatal tetanus in University of Maiduguri Teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Neonatal tetanus is a vaccine preventable disease and is a leading cause of neonatal mortality in developing countries. The effectiveness of immunization and hygienic umbilical cord care practices in the prevention of the disease has been established. Objective: The objective of this study was to audit the ...

  18. tetanus nearly eliminated after 40 years of vaccination in rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-07-01

    Jul 1, 2014 ... campaign was organised in order to cover the whole district and to provide immunity for tetanus, measles and BCG vaccination as well because it is a vaccination to be given only once and leaving a scar on the arm as indicator. The aim was to have monthly clinics to reach a fully vaccinated condition in all ...

  19. Elevated Immune Response Among Children 4 Years of Age With Pronounced Local Adverse Events After the Fifth Diphtheria, Tetanus, Acellular Pertussis Vaccination.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Lee, Saskia; Kemmeren, Jeanet M; de Rond, Lia G H; Öztürk, Kemal; Westerhof, Anneke; de Melker, Hester E; Sanders, Elisabeth A M; Berbers, Guy A M; van der Maas, Nicoline A T; Rümke, Hans C; Buisman, Anne-Marie

    In the Netherlands, acellular pertussis vaccines replaced the more reactogenic whole-cell pertussis vaccines. This replacement in the primary immunization schedule of infants coincided with a significant increase in pronounced local adverse events (AEs) in 4 years old children shortly after the

  20. A simple method for measuring immune complex-mediated, Fc gamma receptor dependent antigen-specific activation of primary human T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junker, Fabian; Krishnarajah, Sinduya; Qureshi, Omar; Humphreys, David; Fallah-Arani, Farnaz

    2018-03-01

    Immune complex (IC) deposition of IgG containing autologous antigens has been observed in autoimmunity. This can lead to IC-mediated antigen uptake and presentation by antigen presenting cells (APC) driving T cell dependent inflammation. IgG receptors (FcγRs) have been suggested to be involved in this process. Since ICs have been linked to autoimmune diseases, interfering with IC mediated effects on APCs and subsequent autoimmune T cell activation via FcγR blockade may be therapeutically beneficial. However, this is currently challenging due to a lack of translatable animal models and specific human in vitro assays to study IC-driven T cell responses. Here, we developed a simple cellular assay to study IC-mediated T cell activation in vitro using human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and tetanus toxoid as a model antigen. We observed that tetanus ICs led to a strong induction of T cell proliferation and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which are hallmarks of chronic inflammation. This process was exacerbated when compared to tetanus toxoid challenge alone. IC-mediated T cell effects were FcγR dependent and inhibited by high-dose intravenous IgG (IVIg), a drug often used for the clinical treatments of autoimmune diseases. Similar effects were also seen using a hepatitis antigen. Consequently, we propose our assay as a rapid yet robust alternative to more labour-intense and time-consuming protocols, for example involving separate maturation of dendritic cells followed by T cell co-culture to study antigen specific primary T cell activation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Randomised study of the possible adjuvant effect of BCG vaccine on the immunogenicity of diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine in Senegalese infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simondon, F; Preziosi, M P; Pinchinat, S; Yam, A; Chabirand, L; Wassilak, S; Pines, E; Trape, J F; Salomon, H; Hoffenbach, A

    1999-01-01

    Following a study in Senegal (1990-1995) in which the relative efficacy of a diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP) was compared with that of a diphtheria-tetanus-whole-cell pertussis vaccine in children given a simultaneous injection of Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine, this subsequent study was conducted to evaluate the possible adjuvant effect of the BCG vaccine on acellular pertussis vaccine components. A second objective was to compare the immunogenicity of these components when administered in accordance with a 2-4-6-month (spaced) schedule or an accelerated 2-3-4-month schedule. In all, 390 healthy Senegalese infants were randomly divided into three groups of 130 infants. Antibodies to acellular pertussis components were measured in serum samples obtained within 2 days of the first DTaP dose and 1 month after the third dose. BCG vaccine, given simultaneously with the DTaP vaccine, did not influence the immunogenicity of the acellular pertussis vaccine components when compared with separate administration of the two vaccines. Infants immunised according to a 2-4-6-month schedule had a significantly higher immune response than those immunised according to a 2-3-4-month schedule with respect to the response to pertussis toxoid assessed by seroneutralisation on Chinese hamster ovary cells (P<0.0001). These results suggest that BCG and DTaP vaccines can be given simultaneously without interference or enhancement and that more optimal immunogenicity is achieved with an extended than with an accelerated schedule.

  2. Effect of long-term fluticasone treatment on immune function in horses with heaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauvillier, J; Felippe, M J B; Lunn, D P; Lavoie-Lamoureux, A; Leclère, M; Beauchamp, G; Lavoie, J-P

    2011-01-01

    Corticosteroids currently are the most effective pharmacological treatment available to control heaves in horses. Systemically administered corticosteroids have been shown to alter immune response in horses, humans, and other species. Aerosolized administration theoretically minimizes systemic adverse effects, but the effect of inhaled corticosteroids on immune function has not been evaluated in horses. To evaluate the effects of prolonged administration of inhaled fluticasone on the immune system of heaves-affected horses. Heaves-affected horses were treated with inhaled fluticasone (n = 5) for 11 months or received environmental modifications only (n = 5). Prospective analysis. Clinical parameters and CBC, lymphocyte subpopulations and function, and circulating neutrophil gene expression were sequentially measured. Primary and anamnestic immune responses also were evaluated by measuring antigen-specific antibodies in response to vaccination with bovine viral antigen and tetanus toxoid, respectively. No clinical adverse effects were observed and no differences in immune function were detected between treated and untreated horses. The treatment of heaves-affected horses with inhaled fluticasone at therapeutic dosages for 11 months has no significant detectable effect on innate and adaptive (both humoral and cell-mediated) immune parameters studied. These results suggest that prolonged administration of fluticasone would not compromise the systemic immune response to pathogens nor vaccination in adult horses. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  3. Maternal infection with Trypanosoma cruzi and congenital Chagas disease induce a trend to a type 1 polarization of infant immune responses to vaccines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Dauby

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We previously showed that newborns congenitally infected with Trypanosoma cruzi (M+B+ display a strong type 1 parasite-specific T cell immune response, whereas uninfected newborns from T. cruzi-infected mothers (M+B- are prone to produce higher levels of proinflammatory cytokines than control neonates (M-B-. The purpose of the present study was to determine if such fetal/neonatal immunological environments could alter the response to standard vaccines administered in early life. METHODOLOGY: Infants (6-7 months old living in Bolivia, an area highly endemic for T. cruzi infection, and having received Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG, hepatitis B virus (HBV, diphtheria and tetanus vaccines, were enrolled into the M+B+, M+B-, M-B- groups mentioned above. The production of IFN-gamma and IL-13, as markers of Th1 and Th2 responses respectively, by peripherical blood mononuclear cells stimulated with tuberculin purified protein derivative of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (PPD or the vaccinal antigens HBs, diphtheria toxoid (DT or tetanus toxoid (TT, as well as circulating levels of IgG antibodies against HBsAg, DT and TT were analyzed in infants. Cellular responses to the superantigen SEB were also monitored in M+B+, M+B-, M-B-infants and newborns. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: M+B+ infants developed a stronger IFN-gamma response to hepatitis B, diphtheria and tetanus vaccines than did M+B- and M-B- groups. They also displayed an enhanced antibody production to HBsAg. This was associated with a type 1-biased immune environment at birth, since cells of M+B+ newborns produced higher IFN-gamma levels in response to SEB. M+B- infants produced more IFN-gamma in response to PPD than the other groups. IL-13 production remained low and similar in all the three groups, whatever the subject's ages or vaccine status. CONCLUSION: These results show that: i both maternal infection with T. cruzi and congenital Chagas disease do not interfere with responses to BCG

  4. Safety, immunogenicity and persistence of immune response to the combined diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis, poliovirus and Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine (DTPa-IPV/Hib) administered in Chinese infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanping; Li, Rong Cheng; Ye, Qiang; Li, Changgui; Liu, You Ping; Ma, Xiao; Li, Yanan; Zhao, Hong; Chen, Xiaoling; Assudani, Deepak; Karkada, Naveen; Han, Htay Htay; Van Der Meeren, Olivier; Mesaros, Narcisa

    2017-03-04

    We conducted 3 phase III, randomized, open-label, clinical trials assessing the safety, reactogenicity (all studies), immunogenicity (Primary vaccination study) and persistence of immune responses (Booster study) to the combined diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, poliomyelitis, and Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine (DTPa-IPV/Hib) in Chinese infants and toddlers. In the Pilot study (NCT00964028), 50 infants (randomized 1:1) received 3 doses of DTPa-IPV/Hib at 2-3-4 (Group A) or 3-4-5 months of age (Group B). In the Primary study (NCT01086423), 984 healthy infants (randomized 1:1:1) received 3 doses of DTPa-IPV/Hib at 2-3-4 (Group A) or 3-4-5 (Group B) months of age, or concomitant DTPa/Hib and poliomyelitis (IPV) vaccination at 2-3-4 months of age (Control group); 825 infants received a booster dose of DTPa/Hib and IPV at 18-24 months of age (Booster study; NCT01449812). In the Pilot study, unsolicited symptoms were more frequent in Group A (16 versus 1 infant; mostly upper respiratory tract infection and pyrexia); this observation was attributed to an epidemic outbreak of viral infections. Non-inferiority of 3-dose primary vaccination with DTPa-IPV/Hib over separately administered DTPa/Hib and IPV was demonstrated for Group A (primary objective). Similar antibody concentrations were observed in all groups, except for anti-polyribosyl-ribitol phosphate and anti-poliovirus types 1-3 which were higher in DTPa-IPV/Hib recipients. Protective antibody levels against all vaccine antigens remained high until booster vaccination. Three-dose vaccination with DTPa-IPV/Hib had a clinically acceptable safety profile.

  5. El villano del tetanus (Tetanus: Disease Villain!)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-04-29

    En este podcast, los niños de Kidtastics hablan sobre el tétanos, lo que es, sus síntomas, y cómo protegerse.  Created: 4/29/2013 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 8/10/2016.

  6. Immune activation and HIV-specific T cell responses are modulated by a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor in untreated HIV-infected individuals: An exploratory clinical trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Prebensen

    Full Text Available Pathologically elevated immune activation and inflammation contribute to HIV disease progression and immunodeficiency, potentially mediated by elevated levels of prostaglandin E2, which suppress HIV-specific T cell responses. We have previously shown that a high dose of the cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor celecoxib can reduce HIV-associated immune activation and improve IgG responses to T cell-dependent vaccines. In this follow-up study, we included 56 HIV-infected adults, 28 antiretroviral therapy (ART-naïve and 28 on ART with undetectable plasma viremia but CD4 counts below 500 cells/μL. Patients in each of the two study groups were randomized to receive 90 mg qd of the cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor etoricoxib for six months, two weeks or to a control arm, respectively. T cell activation status, HIV Gag-specific T cell responses and plasma inflammatory markers, tryptophan metabolism and thrombin generation were analyzed at baseline and after four months. In addition, patients received tetanus toxoid, conjugated pneumococcal and seasonal influenza vaccines, to which IgG responses were determined after four weeks. In ART-naïve patients, etoricoxib reduced the density of the activation marker CD38 in multiple CD8+ T cell subsets, improved Gag-specific T cell responses, and reduced in vitro plasma thrombin generation, while no effects were seen on plasma markers of inflammation or tryptophan metabolism. No significant immunological effects of etoricoxib were observed in ART-treated patients. Patients receiving long-term etoricoxib treatment had poorer tetanus toxoid and conjugated pneumococcal vaccine responses than those receiving short-course etoricoxib. Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors may attenuate harmful immune activation in HIV-infected patients without access to ART.

  7. Poor functional immune recovery in aged HIV-1-infected patients following successfully treatment with antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasahara, Taissa M; Hygino, Joana; Andrade, Regis M; Monteiro, Clarice; Sacramento, Priscila M; Andrade, Arnaldo F B; Bento, Cleonice A M

    2015-10-01

    Aging is now a well-recognized characteristic of the HIV-infected population and both AIDS and aging are characterized by a deficiency of the T-cell compartment. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the impact of antiretroviral (ARV) therapy in recovering functional response of T cells to both HIV-1-specific ENV peptides (ENV) and tetanus toxoid (TT), in young and aged AIDS patients who responded to ARV therapy by controlling virus replication and elevating CD4(+) T cell counts. Here, we observed that proliferative response of T-cells to either HIV-1-specific Env peptides or tetanus toxoid (TT) was significantly lower in older antiretroviral (ARV)-treated patients. With regard to cytokine profile, lower levels of IFN-γ, IL-17 and IL-21, associated with elevated IL-10 release, were produced by Env- or TT-stimulated T-cells from older patients. The IL-10 neutralization by anti-IL-10 mAb did not elevate IFN-γ and IL-21 release in older patients. Finally, even after a booster dose of TT, reduced anti-TT IgG titers were quantified in older AIDS patients and it was related to both lower IL-21 and IFN-γ production and reduced frequency of central memory T-cells. Our results reveal that ARV therapy, despite the adequate recovery of CD4(+) T cell counts and suppression of viremia, was less efficient in recovering adequate immune response in older AIDS patients. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Post-neonatal Tetanus in a PICU of a Developing Economy: Intensive Care Needs, Outcome and Predictors of Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angurana, Suresh Kumar; Jayashree, Muralidharan; Bansal, Arun; Singhi, Sunit; Nallasamy, Karthi

    2017-04-27

    To evaluate pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) needs, outcome and predictors of mortality in post-neonatal tetanus. Review of 30 consecutive post-neonatal tetanus cases aged 1 months to 12 years admitted to a PICU in north India over a period of 10 years (January 2006 to December 2015). Chronic suppurative otitis media was the commonest portal of entry. All received tetanus toxoid, human tetanus immunoglobulin (HTIG) and appropriate antibiotics; 7 (23.3%) received intrathecal HTIG. Common complications were respiratory failure, rhabdomyolysis, autonomic dysfunction, acute kidney injury and healthcare-associated infections. PICU needs were as follows: ventilation; benzodiazepine, morphine and magnesium sulfate infusion; neuromuscular blockers, inotropes, tracheostomy and renal replacement therapy. Mortality rate was 40%; severity Grade IIIb, autonomic dysfunction, use of vasoactive drugs and those who did not receive intrathecal HTIG were significantly associated with mortality. Post-neonatal tetanus is associated with high mortality, and PICU needs include management of spasms, autonomic dysfunction and complications and cardiorespiratory support.

  9. Reversed passive haemagglutination systems for the estimation of tetanus toxins and antitoxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, R. J.

    1965-01-01

    Preserved sheep erythrocytes sensitized with tetanus antitoxins of varying purity have been used as the indicator in the estimation of tetanus toxins and antitoxins. Suspensions giving good agglutination patterns were produced using unrefined serum from well-immunized horses, pepsin-refined serum and preparations of γ-globulin. The most stable preparation was a freeze-dried suspension that had been sensitized with immune γ-globulin. When these suspensions were used for the estimation of tetanus toxic filtrates by direct agglutination and tetanus antitoxins by haemagglutination inhibition the results in both cases were in close aggrement with the in vivo values as estimated by the mouse test at the 0.1 L+ level. PMID:14245316

  10. 9 CFR 113.115 - Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterin-Toxoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterin-Toxoid... REQUIREMENTS Inactivated Bacterial Products § 113.115 Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterin-Toxoid. Staphylococcus... Staphylococcus aureus which has been inactivated and is nontoxic. Each serial of biological product containing...

  11. Use of allicin as feed additive to enhance vaccination capacity of Clostridium perfringens toxoid in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu El Hammed, Waleed; Soufy, Hamdy; El-Shemy, Ahmed; Nasr, Soad M; Dessouky, Mohamed I

    2016-04-12

    The present study assessed the efficacy of Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) toxoid and/or allicin - as feed additive - in rabbits for preventing or minimizing the severity of infection with locally isolated strain of C. perfringens type A. Serum biochemical, immunological and pathological investigations were also done. One hundred rabbits of 6 weeks of age were divided into five equal groups (G1-G5). G1 were kept as normal control. G2 was allocated for C. perfringens type A infection. G3 was vaccinated with C. perfringens toxoid at zero time and then with a booster dose at the 3rd week of the experimental period. G4 was treated with allicin 20% added to the ration (200mg/kg ration) all over the experimental period. G5 was vaccinated with C. perfringens toxoid at the zero time then with a booster dose at the 3rd week of the experiment period, and treated with allicin 20% from the zero time till the end of the experiment. At the 4th week, G2, G3, G4 and G5 were challenged orally (5 ml) and subcutaneously (2 ml) with 24h cooked meat broth containing 1 × 10(7) colony-forming units/ml of C. perfringens type A strain. Blood and tissue samples were collected from all groups po st-vaccination then post-challenge for biochemical analysis, serum neutralization test and histopathological examinations. Results revealed that rabbits treated with both allicin and toxoid vaccine demonstrated high level of antitoxin titre post-challenge, improved liver and kidney functions, and reduced morbidity and mortality rates and the severity of histopathological changes associated with challenge of rabbits with C. perfringens type A strain. In conclusion, vaccination of rabbits with C. perfringens toxoid combined with allicin 20% gave better protection, enhanced immune response and had no adverse effects on the general health conditions against C. perfringens type A infection compared to rabbits vaccinated with C. perfringens toxoid only. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  12. Tdap (tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis) Vaccine and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetanus, Diphtheria and Pertussis (Tdap) Vaccine In every pregnancy, a woman starts out with a 3-5% chance of ... sheet talks about whether exposure to the tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis (or Tdap) vaccine may increase the ...

  13. Generalized tetanus in a 4-year old boy presenting with dysphagia and trismus: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Introduction The low incidence of tetanus in developed countries has resulted in a decreased vigilance of this disease. This raises concern, as the prodromal stadium of a generalized tetanus infection may lack the characteristic paroxysmal muscle spasms. Tetanus can rapidly progress into life-threatening muscle spasms accompanied by respiratory insufficiency and/or autonomic dysfunction. This emphasizes the need for early diagnosis and treatment. Case presentation A 4-year-old Caucasian boy presented with a one-week history of general malaise, mild fever, indolence and anorexia. He subsequently developed dysphagia, sialorrhoea, difficulties opening the mouth and eventually dehydration. Due to parental concerns about the boy's refusal of fluids, a pediatrician was consulted. At that time of presentation he showed signs of trismus and muscle rigidity. Together with the lack of immunization and a toe nail infection, this lead to the suspicion of a generalized tetanus infection. After sedation, endotracheal intubation and ventilation, passive immunization and initiation of antimicrobial treatment, he was immediately transferred to a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) for further treatment. The frequency and severity of paroxysmal muscle spasms increased progressively during his PICU stay, despite high doses of sedatives. Not before two weeks after admittance, extubation and careful weaning off sedatives was achieved. Conclusion Tetanus infection remains a rare but potentially lethal disease in developed countries. As the full scope of classical symptoms may be absent at first presentation, tetanus should always be considered in non-immunized patients with an acute onset of dysphagia and trismus. PMID:19829891

  14. Tetanus in Poland in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieliński, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Despite of the small number of cases reported in Poland tetanus is a permanent risk to unvaccinated people. The severity of the disease is associated with high case fatality, especially among people in older age groups. The aim of this paper is to present the data of epidemiological surveillance of tetanus in 2012. Principal source of the data is bulletin: "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2012, and individual reports of cases of tetanus sent to the Department of Epidemiology, NIPH -NIH. In 2012, there were reported 19 cases of tetanus. 6 cases occurred in men, and 13 women. 13 cases occurred in persons over 69 years of age and in those age groups 6 cases were fatal. The paper describes the geographical distribution and the month of infection, the nature of the wounds which were portals of infection and the duration of incubation period of the cases. Severity of tetanus, despite a small number of cases each year leads to several deaths, which could be prevented by vaccination.

  15. The burden of tetanus in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Nanteza, Barbara; Galukande, Moses; Aceng, Jane; Musinguzi, Joshua; Opio, Alex; Mbonye, Anthony K; Mukooyo, Eddie; Behumize, Prosper; Makumbi, Fredrick

    2016-01-01

    Background The successful scale-up of safe male circumcision (SMC) in Uganda has been hinged on client?s safety and quality of services. However, after the recent three tetanus deaths after circumcision a review of all tetanus cases in one of the hospitals where the cases occurred was initiated. This was to ascertain the potential for an association between tetanus infection and circumcision. Routinely collected national data were also reviewed to determine the burden of tetanus in Uganda and...

  16. Immunosuppressive activity of a polychlorinated biphenyl preparation on the humoral immune response in guinea pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, J.G.; Roij, Th. de

    Three groups of 12 female albino guinea pigs were fed 0, 10 and 50 ppm Aroclor 1260 (PCB) for 8 wk. In half of the animals a function test of the immunological system was carried out: tetanus toxoid injection was used to study the humoral response. At the end of the experiment cellulose acetate

  17. Adaptive Immune Response to Model Antigens Is Impaired in Murine Leukocyte-Adhesion Deficiency-1 Revealing Elevated Activation Thresholds In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten Peters

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Absence of β2 integrins (CD11/CD18 leads to leukocyte-adhesion deficiency-1 (LAD1, a rare primary immunodeficiency syndrome. Although extensive in vitro work has established an essential function of β2 integrins in adhesive and signaling properties for cells of the innate and adaptive immune system, their respective participation in an altered adaptive immunity in LAD1 patients are complex and only partly understood in vivo. Therefore, we investigated adaptive immune responses towards different T-dependent antigens in a murine LAD1 model of β2 integrin-deficiency (CD18−/−. CD18−/− mice generated only weak IgG responses after immunization with tetanus toxoid (TT. In contrast, robust hapten- and protein-specific immune responses were observed after immunization with highly haptenated antigens such as (4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenyl21 acetyl chicken γ globulin (NP21-CG, even though regularly structured germinal centers with specificity for the defined antigens/haptens in CD18−/− mice remained absent. However, a decrease in the hapten/protein ratio lowered the efficacy of immune responses in CD18−/− mice, whereas a mere reduction of the antigen dose was less crucial. Importantly, haptenation of TT with NP (NP-TT efficiently restored a robust IgG response also to TT. Our findings may stimulate further studies on a modification of vaccination strategies using highly haptenated antigens in individuals suffering from LAD1.

  18. Does vaccination ensure protection? Assessing diphtheria and tetanus antibody levels in a population of healthy children: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowin, Ewelina; Wysocki, Jacek; Kałużna, Ewelina; Świątek-Kościelna, Bogna; Wysocka-Leszczyńska, Joanna; Michalak, Michał; Januszkiewicz-Lewandowska, Danuta

    2016-12-01

    Vaccination effectiveness is proven when the disease does not develop after a patient is exposed to the pathogen. In the case of rare diseases, vaccination effectiveness is assessed by monitoring specific antibody levels in the population. Such recurrent analyses allow the evaluation of vaccination programs. The primary schedule of diphtheria and tetanus vaccinations is similar in various countries, with differences mainly in the number and timing of booster doses. The aim of the study was to assess diphtheria and tetanus antibody concentrations in a population of healthy children.Diphtheria and tetanus antibody levels were analyzed in a group of 324 children aged 18 to 180 months. All children were vaccinated in accordance with the Polish vaccination schedule.Specific antibody concentrations greater than 0.1 IU/mL were considered protective against tetanus or diphtheria. Levels above 1.0 were considered to ensure long-term protection.Protective levels of diphtheria antibodies were found in 229 patients (70.46%), and of tetanus in 306 patients (94.15%). Statistically significant differences were found in tetanus antibody levels in different age groups. Mean concentrations and the percentage of children with high tetanus antibody titers increased with age. No similar correlation was found for diphtheria antibodies. High diphtheria antibody levels co-occurred in 72% of the children with high tetanus antibody levels; 95% of the children with low tetanus antibody levels had low levels of diphtheria antibodies.The percentage of children with protective diphtheria antibody levels is lower than that in the case of tetanus antibodies, both in Poland and abroad, but the high proportion of children without diphtheria protection in Poland is an exception. This is all the more puzzling when taking into account that Polish children are administered a total of 5 doses containing a high concentration of diphtheria toxoid, at intervals shorter than 5 years. The decrease in

  19. Tetanus in the horse: a review of 20 cases (1970 to 1990).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, S L; Little, C B; Baird, J D; Tremblay, R R; Smith-Maxie, L L

    1994-01-01

    The case records of 20 horses with tetanus referred to the Ontario Veterinary College-Veterinary Teaching Hospital between 1970 and 1990 were reviewed. The fatality rate was 75%. There was a strong association with previous vaccination and survival (P = .03). Most of the animals had been injured an average of 9 days (range 2 to 21 days) prior to development of clinical signs. Hyperesthesia and prolapse of the third eyelid were the most common clinical signs. Treatment regimens varied during hospitalization; however, all horses received parenteral penicillin, tranquilizers, tetanus toxoid, and antitoxin. Five of the nonsurviving animals were given intrathecal tetanus antitoxin. One animal had seizures as a complication of intrathecal treatment. The prognosis was best for horses that (1) had been vaccinated prior to the injury, (2) responded to the phenothiazine tranquilizers, and (3) did not rapidly (over 24 to 48 hours) become recumbent. Considering the species susceptibility, potential for contaminated wounds, and the increased survival of vaccinated horses, yearly revaccination is recommended.

  20. A cross-sectional study of tetanus and diphtheria antibody concentrations post vaccination among lung transplant patients compared with healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, K A; Cunningham, K C; Henriquez, K M; Nielsen, A R; Worzella, S L; Hayney, M S

    2014-12-01

    Lung transplant (LuTx) patients are routinely immunized against tetanus and diphtheria. However, few studies have been done to measure serologic immunity in the transplant population. The primary objective of this study was to compare tetanus and diphtheria antibody concentrations in LuTx vs. healthy subjects. Serum was used from an available sample of 111 total individuals (n = 36 healthy; n = 75 LuTx). Tetanus and diphtheria antibody concentrations were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay method. A statistically significant difference in both tetanus and diphtheria antibody concentrations was found between the groups. The median concentration of tetanus antibody was higher for healthy individuals compared with the LuTx group (3.2 IU/mL [1.2-5.2 interquartile range {IQR}] vs. 1.3 IU/mL [0.4-2.6 IQR], respectively; P = 0.0001). No difference in time was found since the last tetanus-diphtheria vaccine or tetanus-diphtheria-pertussis vaccine dose between the groups (healthy 76.5 months [16-114 IQR] vs. LuTx 74.5 months [45-118 IQR]; P = 0.44). Tetanus and diphtheria immunizations are recommended for LuTx patients to reduce the risk of infection. Because the LuTx group has lower antibody concentrations, further studies should investigate the possible need for more frequent tetanus and diphtheria boosters. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Expression of HLA Class II Molecules in Humanized NOD.Rag1KO.IL2RgcKO Mice is Critical for Development and Function of Human T and B Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    of the immune system is to protect against infections by eliciting specific antibodies that bind to and eliminate pathogens. Tetanus toxoid, a...titers of specific human IgG antibodies upon tetanus toxoid vaccination. Conclusions: Our study demonstrates the critical role of HLA class II... tetanus toxoid vaccination. Conclusions: Our study demonstrates the critical role of HLA class II molecules for development of functional human T cells

  2. The influence of atopy and asthma on immune responses in inner-city adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakumanu, Sujani; Jaffee, Katy; Visness, Cynthia M; Dresen, Amy; Burger, Melissa; Witter, Frank R; O'Connor, George T; Cruikshank, William W; Shreffler, Wayne G; Bacharier, Leonard B; Gern, James E

    2016-03-01

    Asthma in the inner-city population is usually atopic in nature, and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. However, the underlying immune abnormalities that underlie asthma in urban adults have not been well defined. We investigated the influence of atopy and asthma on cytokine responses of inner-city adult women to define immune abnormalities associated with asthma and atopy. Blood samples were collected from 509 of 606 inner-city women enrolled in the Urban Environment and Childhood Asthma (URECA) study. We tested for associations between atopy and asthma status and cytokine responses in peripheral blood mononuclear cells incubated ex vivo with a panel of innate and adaptive immune stimulants. Atopic subjects had heightened Th2 cytokine responses (IL-4, IL-5, IL-13) to cockroach and dust mite antigens, tetanus toxoid, and phytohemagglutinin (P atopy was broadly related to increased Th2-like responses to all antigens and PHA, while asthma was only weakly related to mitogen-induced IL-4 and IL-5 responses. There were few asthma or allergy-related differences in responses to innate stimuli, including IFN-α and IFN-γ responses. In this inner-city adult female population, atopy is associated with enhanced Th2 responses to allergens and other stimuli, and there was little or no additional signal attributable to asthma. In particular, these data indicate that altered systemic interferon and innate immune responses are not associated with allergies and/or asthma in inner-city women.

  3. Combined vaccines in the national prevention immunization schedules for the children in Belarus, Kazakhstan, Russia and Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Baranov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Еhe announcement of the east European expert group for vaccine prevention presents position of the leading specialists of Russia, Belarus, Ukraine and Kazakhstan on key issues of the national pre vention immunization schedule. the authors examine in detail the aspects of vaccination against hepatitis type b, including optimal term of injection of the first vaccine dose, vaccination tactics for the premature and low weight newborns, safety of recombinant vaccines against hepatitis type в. based on the analysis of the morbidity of h. influenzae type b invasive forms along with the methods recommended by who (HIB RAT, experts recommend introduction of the vaccine against this infection into the prevention immunization schedule. The experts believe the basis for the combined vaccines in pediatrics to be the vaccines with cellfree pertussis component. This class of vaccines allows introducing the additional booster dose of pertussis vaccines for immunization of the preschool children into the immunization schedule, which is dictated by the present epidemic situation with due account for this infection. The experts note the importance of application of the combined vaccines in pediatrics, whose wide implementation into healthcare system practices is in the interests of the parents, medical officers and society.Key words: hepatitis type в, h. influenzae type b, HIB RAT, pertussis, diphteria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis vaccine, poliovaccines, combined vaccines, prevention immunization schedule, children.

  4. [Tetanus in intensive care units].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellana-San Martín, C; Su, H; Bustamante-Durán, D; Velásquez-Pagoaga, L

    Tetanus is medical disease with a high mortality rate, even in high tech centres and in Intensive Care Units (ICU). AIMS. To analyse the appearance and evolution of tetanus in the ICU at our hospital. This retrospective descriptive study, made up of 26 patients admitted to hospital with tetanus in the ICU at the Hospital Escuela during the period between January 1995 and December 2001, examined the clinico epidemiological of the disease and the clinical evolution of the patients. Of the cases reviewed (n= 26), 34.6% were females and 65.4% males. The main clinical manifestations were: trismus (88%), dysphagia (77%) and cervical rigidity (69%). The incubation period varies from 3 days to 4 weeks. Most cases resulted from cut wounds (54%), to a lesser extent from excoriations (15%), and one case was associated with gynaecological surgery. The entry sites of the injuries were mainly on the upper (42%) and lower limbs (34.6%). Three patients had been vaccinated and 17 had not. Six cases were not recorded. The chief complications that developed were: dysautonomia (73%) and pneumonia (42%). The mortality rate was 69%. In spite of having suitable equipment available with which to treat tetanus, mortality is high, mainly because of dysautonomias. Prevention is therefore the most effective way of controlling this disease

  5. Evaluation of immunogenicity and safety of the new tetanus-reduced diphtheria (Td) vaccines (GC1107) in healthy Korean adolescents: a phase II, double-blind, randomized, multicenter clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhim, Jung-Woo; Lee, Kyung-Yil; Kim, Sang-Yong; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Hyun-Hee; Kim, Hwang Min; Choi, Young-Youn; Ma, Sang-Hyuk; Kim, Dong-Ho; Ahn, Dong Ho; Kang, Jin-Han

    2013-04-01

    This phase II clinical trial was conducted to compare the immunogenicity and safety of a newly developed tetanus-reduced diphtheria (Td) vaccine (GC1107-T5.0 and GC1107-T7.5) and control vaccine. This study was also performed to select the proper dose of tetanus toxoid in the new Td vaccines. Healthy adolescents aged between 11 and 12 yr participated in this study. A total of 130 subjects (44 GC1107-T5.0, 42 GC1107-T7.5 and 44 control vaccine) completed a single dose of vaccination. Blood samples were collected from the subjects before and 4 weeks after the vaccination. In this study, all subjects (100%) in both GC1107-T5.0 and GC1107-T7.5 groups showed seroprotective antibody levels (≥ 0.1 U/mL) against diphtheria or tetanus toxoids. After the vaccination, the geometric mean titer (GMT) against diphtheria was significantly higher in Group GC1107-T5.0 (6.53) and GC1107-T7.5 (6.11) than in the control group (3.96). The GMT against tetanus was 18.6 in Group GC1107-T5.0, 19.94 in GC1107-T7.5 and 19.01 in the control group after the vaccination. In this study, the rates of local adverse reactions were 67.3% and 59.1% in GC1107-T5.0 and GC1107-7.5, respectively. No significant differences in the number of adverse reactions, prevalence and degree of severity of the solicited and unsolicited adverse reactions were observed among the three groups. Thus, both newly developed Td vaccines appear to be safe and show good immunogenicity. GC1107-T5.0, which contains relatively small amounts of tetanus toxoid, has been selected for a phase III clinical trial.

  6. Tetanus in the dog: review and a case-report of concurrent tetanus with hiatal hernia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Tetanus with hiatal hernia was diagnosed in a four-month-old female sheepdog pup. The animal was treated with tetanus antitoxin, antibiotics, fluids and intensive nursing care for three weeks and subsequently made a full recovery. PMID:21851651

  7. Comparative safety and immunogenicity of an acellular versus whole-cell pertussis component of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccines in Senegalese infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simondon, F; Yam, A; Gagnepain, J Y; Wassilak, S; Danve, B; Cadoz, M

    1996-12-01

    A diphtheria and tetanus toxoid two-component acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP), consisting of 25 micrograms glutaraldehyde-detoxified pertussis toxin (PT) and 25 micrograms native filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), was compared with diphtheria and tetanus toxoid whole-cell pertussis vaccine (DTwP) in a randomized, double-blind manner in 286 Senegalese infants inoculated at two, four, and six months of age. In infants receiving DTaP a significantly lower rate of local reactions, crying and fever was observed than in infants receiving DTwP. One month after the third dose, the geometric mean titres for FHA antibodies were higher in the DTaP group, whereas increases in PT antibody titres were higher in the DTwP group. More than 90% of the infants had a fourfold or more increase in antibodies to both PT and FHA with either vaccine. Diphtheria, tetanus, and polio antibody responses were also measured and found to be comparable between the two groups. The results of this pilot study support the implementation of a field trial to compare the protective efficacy of these vaccines against pertussis in the same setting.

  8. Update on child and adolescent immunizations: selected review of US recommendations and literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Jenna A; Capua, Tali; Bocchini, Joseph A

    2012-06-01

    To provide a clinically relevant synopsis of recent research findings as well as updated guidelines from the American Academy of Pediatrics and Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices regarding child and adolescent immunizations. Childhood vaccinations have served to dramatically reduce pediatric morbidity and mortality in the USA. Much of the recent research has focused on the improvement of current vaccines as well as on the development of new vaccines. By improving the safety, efficacy and immunogenicity of vaccinations, children can be more fully protected. Additionally, recommendations have broadened as vaccinations have been proven well tolerated and effective for a growing number of subpopulations. Although more groups of children are now included in vaccination recommendations, efforts must continue to ensure that all eligible children receive their vaccinations. This article reviews selected recent publications on influenza, human papillomavirus, the childhood and adolescent/adult formulations of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis, meningococcal conjugate and pneumococcal vaccines. The relationship between febrile seizures and childhood immunizations is explored. The research on childhood and adolescent vaccinations is continuously growing and will serve to shape future recommendations. Through their findings, we can learn how to optimize the protection of all children and adolescents against these very serious diseases.

  9. Localized Tetanus in Lagos, Nigeria | Okubadejo | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Localized tetanus is rare in Nigerians, with an incidence of 1.8% in a previous report. We report six cases of localized tetanus out of total of 95 cases of tetanus seen at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital over a period of 3 years. All cases were seen and managed by one or both of the authors, the policy in the hospital ...

  10. Characterisation of immune responses in healthy foals when a multivalent vaccine protocol was initiated at age 90 or 180 days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, E G; Bello, N M; Bryan, A J; Hankins, K; Wilkerson, M

    2015-11-01

    Protection from infectious disease requires antigen-specific immunity. In foals, most vaccine protocols are delayed until 6 months to avoid maternal antibody interference. Susceptibility to disease may exist prior to administration of vaccination at age 4-6 months. The aim of this investigation was to characterise immune activation among healthy foals in response to a multivalent vaccine protocol and compare immune responses when foals were vaccinated at age either 90 or 180 days. Randomised block design. Twelve healthy foals with colostral transfer were blocked for age and randomly assigned to vaccination at age 90 days (treatment) or at age 180 days (control). Vaccination protocols included a 3-dose series and booster vaccine administered at age 11 months. Immune response following vaccination at age 90 or 180 days was comparable for several measures of cellular immunity. Antigen specific CD4+ and CD8+ expression of interleukin-4, interferon-γ and granzyme B to eastern equine encephalomyelitis, western equine encephalomyelitis, West Nile virus, tetanus toxoid, equine influenza and equine herpesvirus-1/4 antigens were evident for both groups 30 days after initial vaccine and at age 344 days. Both groups showed a significant increase in antigen-specific immunoglobulin G expression following booster vaccine at age 11 months, thereby indicating memory immune responses. The data presented in this report demonstrate that young foals are capable of immune activation following a 3-dose series with a multivalent vaccine, despite presence of maternal antibodies. Although immune activation does not automatically confer protection, several of the immune indicators measured showed comparable expression in foals vaccinated at 3 months relative to control foals vaccinated at age 6 months. In high-risk situations where immunity may be required earlier than following a conventional vaccine series, our data provide evidence that foals respond to immunisation initiated at 3 months

  11. Narrative review: tetanus-a health threat after natural disasters in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshar, Majid; Raju, Mahesh; Ansell, David; Bleck, Thomas P

    2011-03-01

    Tetanus is an expected complication when disasters strike in developing countries, where tetanus immunization coverage is often low or nonexistent. Collapsing structures and swirling debris inflict numerous crush injuries, fractures, and serious wounds. Clostridium tetani infects wounds contaminated with dirt, feces, or saliva and releases neurotoxins that may cause fatal disease. Clusters of infections have recently occurred after tsunamis and earthquakes in Indonesia, Kashmir, and Haiti. The emergency response to clusters of tetanus infections in developing countries after a natural disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach in the absence of an intensive care unit, readily available resources, and a functioning cold-chain system. It is essential that injured people receive immediate surgical and medical care of contaminated, open wounds with immunization and immunoglobulin therapy. Successful treatment of tetanus depends on prompt diagnosis of clinical tetanus, treatment to ensure neutralization of circulating toxin and elimination of C. tetani infection, control of spasms and convulsions, maintenance of the airway, and management of respiratory failure and autonomic dysfunction.

  12. Immunization of humans with polysaccharide vaccines induces systemic, predominantly polymeric IgA2-subclass antibody responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarkowski, A; Lue, C; Moldoveanu, Z; Kiyono, H; McGhee, J R; Mestecky, J

    1990-05-15

    Ig class- and IgA subclass-specific immune responses to protein and polysaccharide Ag were studied in serum, external secretions, and at the single cell level in peripheral blood of systemically immunized adults. Immunization with tetanus toxoid induced predominantly IgG antibody responses in serum and in the PBMC. The IgA antibody response was low, and was mostly of the IgA1 subclass. In contrast, immunization with polysaccharide Ag (Haemophilus influenzae type b, Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A, C, Y, W-135, and Streptococcus pneumoniae capsular polysaccharides) elicited a major IgA response predominantly of the IgA2 isotype. Analysis of the molecular forms of secreted IgA antibodies indicated that polymers were produced early after immunization, irrespective of the nature of the Ag. When compared with serum antibody and to PBMC cell responses, systemic immunization with polysaccharides induced a minor salivary response dominated by IgG and IgM antibodies. In contrast, the presence of antipolysaccharide antibodies in bile, irrespective of their isotype, paralleled the serum response 14 days after the immunization with polysaccharide Ag. These results suggest that biliary Ig were mostly derived from serum. Different patterns of the expression of MHC class II Ag on T cells, B cells, and monocytes during the course of immunization with protein or polysaccharide Ag were observed: whereas protein Ag induced a high frequency of HLA-DP- and HLA-DR-expressing cells early in the course of immunization, polysaccharide vaccines elicited low and protracted increases of HLA-DP+ T cells. Polysaccharide vaccine covalently coupled to a protein carrier induced a higher frequency of antipolysaccharide antibody-secreting cells in peripheral blood and increased the IgG to IgA ratio among polysaccharide-specific antibody-secreting cells.

  13. Efficacy of a non-updated, Matrix-C-based equine influenza subunit-tetanus vaccine following Florida sublineage clade 2 challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Pouwels, H. G. W.; Van de Zande, S. M. A.; Horspool, L. J. I.; Hoeijmakers, M. J. H.

    2014-01-01

    Assessing the ability of current equine influenza vaccines to provide cross-protection against emerging strains is important. Horses not vaccinated previously and seronegative for equine influenza based on haemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay were assigned at random to vaccinated (n=7) or non-vaccinated (control, n=5) groups. Vaccination was performed twice four weeks apart with a 1 ml influenza subunit (A/eq/Prague/1/56, A/eq/Newmarket/1/93, A/eq/Newmarket/2/93), tetanus toxoid vaccine wi...

  14. 9 CFR 113.451 - Tetanus Antitoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....451 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Antibody Products § 113.451 Tetanus Antitoxin. Tetanus Antitoxin is a specific antibody product containing...

  15. Immunogenicity, safety, and antibody persistence at 3, 5, and 10 years postvaccination in adolescents randomized to booster immunization with a combined tetanus, diphtheria, 5-component acellular pertussis, and inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine administered with a hepatitis B virus vaccine concurrently or 1 month apart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embree, Joanne; Law, Barbara; Voloshen, Tim; Tomovici, Antigona

    2015-03-01

    An understanding of the antibody persistence elicited by a combined tetanus, diphtheria, 5-component acellular pertussis, and inactivated poliovirus vaccine (Tdap-IPV) after adolescent vaccination is important to optimize booster dosing intervals. Our objectives were to compare the safety and immunogenicity of Tdap-IPV coadministered with hepatitis B vaccine (HepB) and sequential administration and evaluate humoral immunity at 3, 5, and 10 years after Tdap-IPV vaccination in adolescents. This phase II randomized, controlled, and open-label study enrolled 280 11- to 14-year-old adolescents with up to 10 years postvaccination follow-up. Group 1 (n = 145) received Tdap-IPV, followed by a HepB dose 1 month later, and group 2 (n = 135) received both vaccines simultaneously. No consistent increases in solicited reactions or unsolicited adverse events occurred with coadministration. All vaccinees attained seroprotective antibody levels at ≥0.01 IU/ml for diphtheria and tetanus, at a ≥1:8 dilution for poliovirus (serotypes 1, 2, and 3), and ≥10 mIU/ml for hepatitis B at 1 month postvaccination. Clinically relevant immunologic interactions did not occur with coadministration. For pertussis, all participants achieved seropositivity levels (at or above the lower limit of quantitation), and 72.7% to 95.8% had 4-fold increases in pertussis antibodies at 1 month postvaccination. At 10 years postvaccination, the remaining participants (62.8% of the original cohort) maintained seroprotective levels of ≥0.01 IU/ml for diphtheria and tetanus, a ≥1:8 dilution for all 3 poliovirus serotypes, and 74.1% to 98.2% maintained pertussis seropositivity levels depending on the antigen tested. There were no differences between the groups. These results support the coadministration of Tdap-IPV and HepB to adolescents and suggest that vaccination with Tdap-IPV can offer protection for 10 years after an adolescent booster vaccination. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology

  16. Prolonged trismus post tetanus in a Nigerian boy: The role of oral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Tetanus is characterized by increased muscle tone and spasms caused by the neurotoxin, tetanospasmin. Management principles include wound debridement, antibiotic therapy, neutralize circulating toxins, spasm control, supportive care and initiation of active immunization. Aim: To highlight the use of oral ...

  17. Seroepidemiology of diphtheria, tetanus, poliomyelitis and pertussis : evaluation of the national immunisation programme in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melker, de H.

    1999-01-01

    In view of the evaluation of the National Immunisation Programme in the Netherlands the main objectives were to obtain insight into the immunity to diphtheria, tetanus and poliomyelitis, into the occurrence of pertussis and to improve serodiagnosis of pertussis.

    In a

  18. [Tetanus in Poland in 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieliński, Andrzej; Rudowska, Jolanta

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological assessment of the incidence of tetanus in Poland in 2010 was based on the analysis of aggregate data provided by the State Sanitary Inspection and published an annual newsletter: Infectious diseases and intoxications in Poland in 2010, compiled by MP Czarkowski, E Cielebak, B Kondej, E Staszewska, Warsaw in 2011 and based on an annual newsletter: Vaccinations in Poland in 2010, compiled by MP Czarkowski, E Cielebak, B Kondej, E Staszewska, Warsaw 2011. A more accurate characterization of disease was based on the individual reports sent to the Department of Epidemiology, NIPH-NIH. In the last decade the incidence of tetanus has remained below 0.08/100 000 inhabitants. The average annual incidence was lower than in the previous decade, but within the last ten years to the annual variation is difficult to assign a distinct incidence tendency. Rather, they correspond to random fluctuations. In 2010, 16 cases were reported, including which occurred in 2009. All cases was reported as probable--diagnosis based on clinical signs and information about injuries. Overall incidence was 0.042/100 000, which was small and not significanty different from incidence in 2009 (0.05/100 000). All cases in 2010, were over 59 years of age, which is a strong expression of the trend observed for years that the disease is present in older age groups where the level of vaccination against tetanus is particularly low. Among people infected, there were three men and 13 women. Four cases ended with deaths. Three of these were women, among whom mortality was 23.1%, and one death occurred in a man, mortality 33.3%. Three deaths occurred among the 6 cases in people over 79 years of age, mortality 50%. The incubation period of the disease in 3 cases was less than 7 days, in 4 cases 8-14 days, in 4 cases 15-21 days, in 2 cases 22 days and more. Portals of entry of infection in 7 cases accounted for abrasion or laceration, in 6 cases the puncture wound in one it was bitten wound, and

  19. Neonatal BCG vaccination is associated with enhanced T-helper 1 immune responses to heterologous infant vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel H. Libraty

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal Bacille Calmette Guérin (BCG vaccination has been reported to have beneficial effects beyond preventing infantile tuberculous meningitis and miliary disease. We hypothesized that BCG vaccine given at birth would enhance T-helper 1 (Th1 immune responses to the first vaccines given later in infancy. We conducted a nested case-control study of neonatal BCG vaccination and its heterologous Th1 immune effects in 2–3 months old infants. BCG vaccination at birth was associated with an increased frequency of interferon-γ (IFN-γ producing spot-forming cells (SFC to tetanus toxoid 2–3 months later. The frequency of IFN-γ producing SFC to polioviruses 1–3 also trended higher among infants who received BCG vaccination at birth. The frequency of IFN-γ+/tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α+CD45RO+CD4+ T-cells upon stimulation with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA/Ionomycin was higher in 2–3 months old infants who received BCG vaccination at birth compared to those who did not. The circulating frequency of forkhead box P3 (FoxP3+ CD45RO+ regulatory CD4+ T-cells also trended lower in these infants. Neonatal BCG vaccination is associated with heterologous Th1 immune effects 2–3 months later.

  20. Child and adolescent immunizations: selected review of recent US recommendations and literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Carol M; Schneyer, Rebecca J; Bocchini, Joseph A

    2014-06-01

    To provide a clinically relevant summary of the latest research and recommendations regarding childhood and adolescent immunizations. Childhood vaccination has dramatically reduced pediatric morbidity and mortality in the United States. Recent research on childhood and adolescent immunizations has focused on expanding the use of current vaccines for additional subpopulations as well as the development of new vaccines. In particular, data confirming the safety and immunogenicity of vaccines in various groups of children have shaped national guidelines. Furthermore, studies on vaccine uptake, cost-effectiveness, and impact of vaccination have reinforced the importance of adhering to these guidelines. More work needs to be done by providers and parents to increase vaccination coverage rates to better protect children and adolescents from these serious diseases. In this article, selected recent publications and recommendations on the following vaccines are reviewed: influenza, meningococcal conjugate, childhood and adolescent/adult formulations of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis, pneumococcal conjugate, and human papillomavirus. Research on childhood and adolescent vaccinations continues to shape future guidelines. Through this work, we can learn how to optimize the protection of all children and adolescents against vaccine-preventable diseases.

  1. Lichen planus following tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis vaccination: A case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosengard, Heather C; Wheat, Chikoti M; Tilson, Matthew P; Cuda, Jonathan D

    2018-01-01

    Lichen planus is an inflammatory dermatosis with a prevalence of approximately 1%. Recent meta-analyses show that patients with hepatitis C virus have a 2.5- to 4.5-fold increased risk of developing lichen planus. Lichen planus has also followed vaccinations and has specifically been attributed to the hepatitis B vaccine, the influenza vaccine, and the tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis vaccine. We describe a case of lichen planus in a hepatitis C virus-infected African American male occurring in temporal association with the administration of the tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis vaccine. The patient's presentation was clinically consistent with lichen planus and confirmed by biopsy. It is likely that many cases of vaccine-induced lichen planus have gone unpublished or unrecognized. In areas with high prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection, we may expect to see more cases of vaccine-induced lichen planus especially in light of the updated Centers for Disease Control and Prevention tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis vaccination recommendations. This case serves to educate healthcare providers about vaccine-induced lichen planus and, in particular, the need to counsel hepatitis C virus-infected patients about a potential risk of developing lichen planus following vaccination. We also reflect on current theories suggesting the T-cell-mediated pathogenesis of lichen planus and the role that hepatitis C virus and toxoid or protein vaccines may play in initiating the disease.

  2. Immunity Following Childhood Vaccinations in Perinatally HIV-Exposed Children with and without HIV Infection in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Succi, Regina Cm; Krauss, Margot R; Harris, D Robert; Machado, Daisy M; de Moraes-Pinto, Maria I; Mussi-Pinhata, Marisa M; Pavia Ruz, Noris; Pierre, Russell B; Kolevic Roca, Lenka A; Joao, Esaú; Foradori, Irene; Scotta, Marcelo C; Hazra, Rohan; Siberry, George K

    2017-11-14

    Perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV) children are at risk for undervaccination and poor vaccine response at four years of age. Childhood vaccine coverage and immune response were compared between PHIV and HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) children in Latin America and the Caribbean. PHIV and HEU children were enrolled prospectively at fifteen sites from 2002-2009. Full vaccination by age four years was defined as: three hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine doses; four tetanus toxoid-containing vaccine doses; three doses of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine by age 12 months or ≥1 dose given after age 12 months; one measles-containing vaccine dose; one rubella-containing vaccine dose. Immunity was defined by serum antibody titer. Fisher's exact test (for categorical measures) and t-test (for continuous measures) were used for comparisons. Among 519 children seen at age four years, 191 had serum specimens available (137 PHIV, 54 HEU). Among those with specimens available, 29.3% initiated combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) <12 months of age, 30.9% initiated at ≥12 months of age, and 39.8% had not received cART by the time they were seen at four years of age.At four years of age, 59.9% were on PI-containing cART (cART/PI), and 20.4% were on no ARV. PHIV children were less likely than HEU children to be fully vaccinated for tetanus (55.5% vs. 77.8%, p=0.005) and measles and rubella (both 70.1% vs. 94.4%, p<0.001). Among those fully vaccinated, immunity was significantly lower among PHIV than HEU for all vaccines examined: 20.9% vs. 37.8% for HBV (p=0.04), 72.0% vs. 90.5% for tetanus (p=0.02), 51.4% vs. 68.8% for Hib (p=0.05), 80.2% vs. 100% for measles (p<0.001) and 72.9% vs. 98.0% for rubella (p<0.001) vaccine, respectively. Compared to HEU, PHIV children were significantly less likely to be immune to vaccine-preventable diseases when fully vaccinated. Strategies to increase immunity against vaccine-preventable diseases among PHIV require further study.

  3. Doses of Tie-taunts Toxoid '

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    THE World Health Organisation (WHO) instituted the. Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) in 1974 in a bid to provide vaccination to most of the children of the world before their first birthday.1 In Nigeria, the EPI sched- ule was adopted in 1979 ... as part of routine infant immunization, probable portal of entry of the ...

  4. Immunizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Why Exercise Is Wise Are Detox Diets Safe? Immunizations KidsHealth > For Teens > Immunizations Print A A A What's in this article? ... fault if you don't have all the immunizations (vaccinations) you need. Shots that doctors recommend today ...

  5. Tetanus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2013:chap 33. Simon BC, Hern HG. Wound management principles. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap ...

  6. NNDSS - Table II. Tetanus to Varicella

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Tetanus to Varicella - 2017. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding year),...

  7. NNDSS - Table II. Tetanus to Vibriosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Tetanus to Vibriosis - 2015.In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding year),...

  8. NNDSS - Table II. Tetanus to Vibriosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Tetanus to Vibriosis - 2016. In this Table, provisional* cases of selected†notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding...

  9. NNDSS - Table II. Tetanus to Varicella

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Tetanus to Varicella - 2018. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding year),...

  10. Active immunization against GnRH in pre-pubertal domestic mammals: testicular morphometry, histopathology and endocrine responses in rabbits, guinea pigs and ram lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aponte, P M; Gutierrez-Reinoso, M A; Sanchez-Cepeda, E G; Garcia-Herreros, M

    2017-08-24

    Effective tools for male contraception are important in the control of reproduction in animal populations. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of active immunization against gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) on male reproductive function assessing testicular morphological changes and serum-gonadotropin levels in pre-pubertal rabbits, guinea pigs and ram lambs. An anti-GnRH vaccine was developed by linking a GnRH-homologous molecule to a tetanus clostridial toxoid (Al(OH)3 coadjuvant). After vaccination protocols testicular morphometry, histopathological alterations and endocrine responses (FSH, LH, testosterone and cortisol serum levels) were evaluated. Testicular volume was significantly reduced in vaccinated animals with respect to the control group in rabbits, guinea pigs and ram lambs (Pguinea pigs and ram lambs (Pguinea pigs (80%) and ram lambs (60%). No significant differences were observed between vaccinated and control groups regarding FSH and LH during the experiments in the three experimental species/models used. Testosterone, however, was only significantly lower (~22-fold, P<0.01) in vaccinated rabbits. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that pre-pubertal active immunization against GnRH leads to endocrine disruption and marked differences on testicular morphometry, development and activity among lagomorphs, hystricomorphs and ovine species with species-specific sensitivity regarding the anti-GnRH immune response.

  11. Updates on tetanus toxin: a fundamental approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Ahaduzzaman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium tetani is an anaerobic bacterium that produces second most poisonous protein toxins than any other bacteria. Tetanus in animals is sporadic in nature but difficult to combat even by using antibiotics and antiserum. It is crucial to understand the fundamental mechanisms and signals that control toxin production for advance research and medicinal uses. This review was intended for better understanding the basic patho-physiology of tetanus and neurotoxins (TeNT among the audience of related field.

  12. Neuronal sensitivity to tetanus toxin requires gangliosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, L C; Bateman, K E; Clifford, J C; Neale, E A

    1999-08-27

    Tetanus toxin produces spastic paralysis in situ by blocking inhibitory neurotransmitter release in the spinal cord. Although di- and trisialogangliosides bind tetanus toxin, their role as productive toxin receptors remains unclear. We examined toxin binding and action in spinal cord cell cultures grown in the presence of fumonisin B(1), an inhibitor of ganglioside synthesis. Mouse spinal cord neurons grown for 3 weeks in culture in 20 microM fumonisin B(1) develop dendrites, axons, and synaptic terminals similar to untreated neurons, even though thin layer chromatography shows a greater than 90% inhibition of ganglioside synthesis. Absence of tetanus and cholera toxin binding by toxin-horseradish peroxidase conjugates or immunofluorescence further indicates loss of mono- and polysialogangliosides. In contrast to control cultures, tetanus toxin added to fumonisin B(1)-treated cultures does not block potassium-stimulated glycine release, inhibit activity-dependent uptake of FM1-43, or abolish immunoreactivity for vesicle-associated membrane protein, the toxin substrate. Supplementing fumonisin B(1)-treated cultures with mixed brain gangliosides completely restores the ability of tetanus toxin to bind to the neuronal surface and to block neurotransmitter release. These data demonstrate that fumonisin B(1) protects against toxin-induced synaptic blockade and that gangliosides are a necessary component of the receptor mechanism for tetanus toxin.

  13. Ranitidine improves postoperative suppression of antibody response to preoperative vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Hammer, J H; Moesgaard, F

    1992-01-01

    The effect of the histamine-2 receptor antagonist ranitidine (100 mg intravenously every 12 hours for 72 hours) on postoperative serum antibody responses to preoperative immunization with six limit of flocculation tetanus toxoid and six limit of flocculation diphtheria toxoid was assessed...... and antidiphtheria toxoid were drawn before skin incision and on postoperative days 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 14, 21, and 28. Ranitidine significantly increased the postoperative antibody response to tetanus toxoid, (p less than 0.01) and insignificantly increased that to diphtheria toxoid vaccination (p less than 0...

  14. Characteristics of memory B cells elicited by a highly efficacious HPV vaccine in subjects with no pre-existing immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin M Scherer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Licensed human papillomavirus (HPV vaccines provide near complete protection against the types of HPV that most commonly cause anogenital and oropharyngeal cancers (HPV 16 and 18 when administered to individuals naive to these types. These vaccines, like most other prophylactic vaccines, appear to protect by generating antibodies. However, almost nothing is known about the immunological memory that forms following HPV vaccination, which is required for long-term immunity. Here, we have identified and isolated HPV 16-specific memory B cells from female adolescents and young women who received the quadrivalent HPV vaccine in the absence of pre-existing immunity, using fluorescently conjugated HPV 16 pseudoviruses to label antigen receptors on the surface of memory B cells. Antibodies cloned and expressed from these singly sorted HPV 16-pseudovirus labeled memory B cells were predominantly IgG (>IgA>IgM, utilized diverse variable genes, and potently neutralized HPV 16 pseudoviruses in vitro despite possessing only average levels of somatic mutation. These findings suggest that the quadrivalent HPV vaccine provides an excellent model for studying the development of B cell memory; and, in the context of what is known about memory B cells elicited by influenza vaccination/infection, HIV-1 infection, or tetanus toxoid vaccination, indicates that extensive somatic hypermutation is not required to achieve potent vaccine-specific neutralizing antibody responses.

  15. Transient suppression of the humoral immune response mediated by a factor derived from specifically activated, doubly primed lymphoid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempf, K E; Rubin, A S

    1977-08-01

    In cultures of sheep erythrocyte- (SRBC) stimulated spleen cells from mice immunized with tetanus toxoid (TT) and horse erythrocytes (HRBC) 30 to 90 days earlier, the addition of both HRBC (day 0) and TT (day 2) resulted in significant suppression of the anti-SRBC plaque-forming cell (PFC) response compared to the response of similar cultures maintained without the priming antigens. The observed inhibition was due to the presence of a soluble factor that was released into the supernatant fluid of the specifically stimulated, primed population of lymphoid cells between 72 and 120 hr after culture initiation. The active mediator, a macromolecule of approximately 24,000 daltons as determined by gel filtration over Sephadex G-150 and Ultrogel AcA 44, was suppressive when added within 24 hr, but not 48 hr, of assay for PFC against the reference SRBC antigen. The transiently acting soluble suppressor (TASS) was not overtly cytotoxic since total cell recovery and viability were unaffected in its presence. The results presented here are discussed in relation to a possible mechanism of action in which the negative regulation of immunoglobulin production is favored once a minimum level of immune reactivity is reached.

  16. Diphtheria outbreak in Thailand, 2012; seroprevalence of diphtheria antibodies among Thai adults and its implications for immunization programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanlapakorn, Nasamon; Yoocharoen, Pornsak; Tharmaphornpilas, Piyanit; Theamboonlers, Apiradee; Poovorawan, Yong

    2014-09-01

    An age distribution shift in diphtheria cases during a 2012 outbreak in northeastern of Thailand suggests adults are increasingly at risk for infection in Thailand. Data regarding immunity against diphtheria among the adult Thai population is limited. We review a 2012 diphtheria outbreak in Thailand and conducted a nationwide seroepidemiological survey to determine the prevalence of diphtheria antibodies among Thai adults in order to inform immunization programs. A total of 41 confirmed cases, 6 probable cases and 101 carriers of diphtheria were reported from northeastern and upper southern Thailand. The diphtheria outbreak in northeastern Thailand occurred among adults aged > or =15 years; sporadic cases occurred among children from upper southern Thailand. We conducted a seroepidemiological survey of 890 Thai adults from 4 age groups (20-29, 30-39, 40-49 and 50-59 years) in 7 different geographical areas of Thailand (Chiang Mai, Ratchaburi, Chon Buri, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Phitsanulok, Khon Kaen and Songkhla). Diptheria toxin antibody levels were measured with a commercially available ELISA test. The seroprotection rate ranged from 83% to 99%, with the highest in eastern Thailand (Chon Buri, 99%) and the lowest in northern Thailand (Chiang Mai, 83%). Diphtheria antibodies declined with increasing age. We recommend one doseof diphtheria-tetanus toxoid (dT) vaccine once after 20 years of age in order to boost the antibody and revaccinations every 10 years to prevent future outbreaks.

  17. Sensitivity and specificity of tritiated thymidine incorporation and ELISPOT assays in identifying antigen specific T cell immune responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacLeod Beth

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Standardization of cell-based immunologic monitoring is becoming increasingly important as methods for measuring cellular immunity become more complex. We assessed the ability of two commonly used cell-based assays, tritiated thymidine incorporation (proliferation and IFN-gamma ELISPOT, to predict T cell responses to HER-2/neu, tetanus toxoid (tt, and cytomegalovirus (CMV antigens. These antigens were determined to be low (HER-2/neu, moderate (tt, and robustly (CMV immunogenic proteins. Samples from 27 Stage II, III, and IV HER-2/neu positive breast cancer patients, vaccinated against the HER-2/neu protein and tt, were analyzed by tritiated thymidine incorporation and IFN-gamma ELISPOT for T cell response. Results Linear regression analysis indicates that both stimulation index (SI (p = 0.011 and IFN-gamma secreting precursor frequency (p Conclusion These data underscore the importance of taking into consideration the performance characteristics of assays used to measure T cell immunity. This consideration is particularly necessary when determining which method to utilize for assessing responses to immunotherapeutic manipulations in cancer patients.

  18. Tetanus - still a scourge in the 21st century: a paediatric hospital-based study in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Kirtisudha; Basu, Srikanta; Kumar, Dipti; Dutta, Ashok Kumar; Kumar, Praveen; Rath, Bimbadhar

    2012-07-01

    Tetanus remains endemic in India. A retrospective hospital-based study was conducted to review the profile of all children admitted with diagnosis of tetanus between January 2009 and December 2010. A total of 140 cases of tetanus were admitted; 45 cases of neonatal tetanus (NT) and 77 cases of post-neonatal tetanus (PNT) were studied. Age of presentation of NT was 9.4 ± 1.2 days. Home-delivered children accounted for 86.7% of cases, with 77.8% being attended by untrained birth attendants. Unimmunized mothers accounted for 93.4%. In PNT, otogenic route of infection and trauma were present in 58.4% and 23.3% of cases, respectively. The rate of hospital admission of tetanus remains high. Unlike previously published reports, otogenic route is the most common mode of PNT infection in this study. Improving immunization, increasing deliveries by skilled birth attendants and prompt treatment of suppurative otitis media are the main areas in which public health initiatives need to be focused.

  19. Use of Tetanus Allergen for Determining the Sensitivity of People to Tetanus Anatoxin

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-12-06

    allergens made it possible to establish that 50% of those examined (1o4 of the 201) with an unknown inoculative anamnesis obtained the tetanus anatoxin in the...selecting the remedies for the prophylaxis of tetanus in wounded persons with unknown inoculative anamnesis . FTD-MT-24-1646-74 8 BIBLIOGRAPHY Bjui’enxo

  20. Efficacy Testing of H56 cDNA Tattoo Immunization against Tuberculosis in a Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platteel, Anouk C M; Nieuwenhuizen, Natalie E; Domaszewska, Teresa; Schürer, Stefanie; Zedler, Ulrike; Brinkmann, Volker; Sijts, Alice J A M; Kaufmann, Stefan H E

    2017-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( Mtb ), remains a global threat. The only approved vaccine against TB, Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), provides insufficient protection and, being a live vaccine, can cause disseminated disease in immunocompromised individuals. Previously, we found that intradermal cDNA tattoo immunization with cDNA of tetanus toxoid fragment C domain 1 fused to cDNA of the fusion protein H56, comprising the Mtb antigens Ag85B, ESAT-6, and Rv2660c, induced antigen-specific CD8 + T cell responses in vivo . As cDNA tattoo immunization would be safer than a live vaccine in immunocompromised patients, we tested the protective efficacy of intradermal tattoo immunization against TB with H56 cDNA, as well as with H56_E, a construct optimized for epitope processing in a mouse model. As Mtb antigens can be used in combination with BCG to boost immune responses, we also tested the protective efficacy of heterologous prime-boost, using dermal tattoo immunization with H56_E cDNA to boost BCG immunization in mice. Dermal H56 and H56_E cDNA immunization induced H56-specific CD4 + and CD8 + T cell responses and Ag85B-specific IgG antibodies, but did not reduce bacterial loads, although immunization with H56_E ameliorated lung pathology. Both subcutaneous and intradermal immunization with BCG resulted in broad cellular immune responses, with increased frequencies of CD4 + T effector memory cells, T follicular helper cells, and germinal center B cells, and resulted in reduced bacterial loads and lung pathology. Heterologous vaccination with BCG/H56_E cDNA induced increased H56-specific CD4 + and CD8 + T cell cytokine responses compared to vaccination with BCG alone, and lung pathology was significantly decreased in BCG/H56_E cDNA immunized mice compared to unvaccinated controls. However, bacterial loads were not decreased after heterologous vaccination compared to BCG alone. CD4 + T cells responding to Ag85B- and ESAT-6

  1. Duration of tetanus immunoglobulin G titres following basic immunisation of horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, A; Anagrius, K; Gånheim, A; Rosanowski, S M; Bergström, K

    2016-11-01

    Recommendations for prophylactic vaccination against tetanus in horses vary greatly between countries and have scarce scientific support in the peer-reviewed literature. In human medicine, recommended booster vaccination intervals are also very variable, but are considerably longer than for horses. More information is needed about the duration of immunity induced by modern vaccines. To investigate if the duration of antibody titres previously determined to be protective against tetanus differ from what is indicated by recommended vaccination intervals for horses. Prospective seroconversion study. Thirty-four horses were enrolled for basic immunisation with an ISCOM Matrix-combination vaccine (Equilis Prequenza Te). Horses received the first vaccination at age 5-11 months, and the second dose 4 weeks later. A third vaccine dose was given 15-17 months after the second dose. Serum tetanus antibody titres were analysed by toxin-binding enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay 2 weeks as well as 14-16 months after the second dose. After the third vaccine dose, titres were checked once yearly for 3 years. Results were described by age and level of antibody titre at first sampling. Two weeks after the second dose, all horses (34/34) had antibody levels that exceeded the limit of detection, 0.04 iu/ml. After 16 months the levels were above 0.04 iu/ml in 28/33 horses, the remaining 5 horses potentially had suboptimal protection against tetanus. After the third vaccine dose antibody levels remained above 0.04 iu/ml in 25/26 horses for 1 year, 16/16 horses for 2 years, and 8/8 horses for 3 years. Horses that undergo basic immunisation with 3 doses of vaccine after age 5 months are likely to have serum antibody titres consistent with protection against tetanus for more than 3 years. Current guidelines for tetanus prophylaxis should be revised. © 2015 EVJ Ltd.

  2. Recall Responses to Tetanus and Diphtheria Vaccination Are Frequently Insufficient in Elderly Persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Birgit; Schirmer, Michael; Matteucci Gothe, Raffaella; Siebert, Uwe; Fuchs, Dietmar; Grubeck-Loebenstein, Beatrix

    2013-01-01

    Demographic changes and a more active life-style in older age have contributed to an increasing public awareness of the need for lifelong vaccination. Currently many older persons have been vaccinated against selected pathogens during childhood but lack regular booster immunizations. The impact of regular vaccinations when started late in life was analyzed in an open, explorative trial by evaluating the immune response against tetanus and diphtheria in healthy older individuals. 252 persons aged above 60 years received a booster vaccination against tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis and polio and a subcohort (n=87) was recruited to receive a second booster vaccination against tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis 5 years later. The percentage of unprotected individuals at the time of enrollment differed substantially for tetanus (12%) and diphtheria (65%). Despite protective antibody concentrations 4 weeks after the first vaccination in almost all vaccinees, antibodies had again dropped below protective levels in 10% (tetanus) and 45% (diphtheria) of the cohort after 5 years. Protection was restored in almost all vaccinees after the second vaccination. No correlation between tetanus- and diphtheria-specific responses was observed, and antibody concentrations were not associated with age-related changes in the T cell repertoire, inflammatory parameters, or CMV-seropositivity suggesting that there was no general biological “non-responder type.” Post-vaccination antibody concentrations depended on pre-existing plasma cells and B cell memory as indicated by a strong positive relationship between post-vaccination antibodies and pre-vaccination antibodies as well as antibody-secreting cells. In contrast, antigen-specific T cell responses were not or only weakly associated with antibody concentrations. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that single shot vaccinations against tetanus and/or diphtheria do not lead to long-lasting immunity in many elderly persons despite

  3. Recall responses to tetanus and diphtheria vaccination are frequently insufficient in elderly persons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Weinberger

    Full Text Available Demographic changes and a more active life-style in older age have contributed to an increasing public awareness of the need for lifelong vaccination. Currently many older persons have been vaccinated against selected pathogens during childhood but lack regular booster immunizations. The impact of regular vaccinations when started late in life was analyzed in an open, explorative trial by evaluating the immune response against tetanus and diphtheria in healthy older individuals. 252 persons aged above 60 years received a booster vaccination against tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis and polio and a subcohort (n=87 was recruited to receive a second booster vaccination against tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis 5 years later. The percentage of unprotected individuals at the time of enrollment differed substantially for tetanus (12% and diphtheria (65%. Despite protective antibody concentrations 4 weeks after the first vaccination in almost all vaccinees, antibodies had again dropped below protective levels in 10% (tetanus and 45% (diphtheria of the cohort after 5 years. Protection was restored in almost all vaccinees after the second vaccination. No correlation between tetanus- and diphtheria-specific responses was observed, and antibody concentrations were not associated with age-related changes in the T cell repertoire, inflammatory parameters, or CMV-seropositivity suggesting that there was no general biological "non-responder type." Post-vaccination antibody concentrations depended on pre-existing plasma cells and B cell memory as indicated by a strong positive relationship between post-vaccination antibodies and pre-vaccination antibodies as well as antibody-secreting cells. In contrast, antigen-specific T cell responses were not or only weakly associated with antibody concentrations. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that single shot vaccinations against tetanus and/or diphtheria do not lead to long-lasting immunity in many elderly persons

  4. Immunogenicity and safety of the new reduced-dose tetanus-diphtheria vaccine in healthy Korean adolescents: A comparative active control, double-blind, randomized, multicenter phase III study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seung Beom; Rhim, Jung-Woo; Shin, Hye Jo; Kim, Sang Yong; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Hyun-Hee; Lee, Kyung-Yil; Kim, Hwang Min; Choi, Young Youn; Ma, Sang Hyuk; Kim, Chun Soo; Kim, Dong Ho; Ahn, Dong Ho; Kang, Jin Han

    2017-04-01

    A new reduced-dose tetanus-diphtheria (Td) vaccine was developed in Korea, and phase I and II clinical trials were successfully undertaken. We conducted this double-blind, randomized, multicenter phase III clinical trial to assess the immunogenicity and safety of the new Td vaccine. Healthy adolescents 11-12 years of age were enrolled and randomized to receive the new Td vaccine (study group) or a commercially available Td vaccine (control group). Blood samples were collected prior to and 4 weeks after the vaccination. Between the study and control groups, seroprotection rate, booster response, and geometric mean titer of antibodies against diphtheria and tetanus toxoids were compared after the vaccination. All solicited and unsolicited adverse events and serious adverse events during the 6-week study period were monitored. A total of 164 adolescents received vaccination, and 156 of them were evaluated to assess immunogenicity. The seroprotection rate and geometric mean titer for antibodies against diphtheria were significantly higher in the study group, whereas those against tetanus were significantly higher in the control group. However, all seroprotection rates against diphtheria and tetanus in the study and control groups were high: 100% against diphtheria and tetanus in the study group, and 98.7% against diphtheria and 100% against tetanus in the control group. No significant differences in the frequency of solicited and unsolicited adverse events were observed between the two vaccine groups. The new Td vaccine is highly immunogenic and safe, and this new Td vaccine can be effectively used for preventing diphtheria and tetanus. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Td (tetanus and diphtheria) vaccine - what you need to know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from both of these diseases. Both diphtheria and tetanus are infections caused by bacteria. Diphtheria spreads from person to person through secretions from coughing or sneezing. Tetanus-causing bacteria enter the body through cuts, scratches, ...

  6. Prognostic factors in Adult Tetanus in a Tertiary referral Centre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Tetanus is a cause of painful and avoidable deaths in Nigeria. The aim of this study is to identify the factors that significantly contribute to the outcome of adult tetanus at Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals' Complex. Method: Medical records of adult patients (≥ 16years) admitted for tetanus at the ...

  7. Recurrent Local Tetanus: A Case Report | Talabi | Nigerian Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This case report is on the recurrence of tetanus localized over the (R) upper limb within a seventeen-month period. Recurrent localized tetanus has not been reported in our local medical literature just as there is paucity of reported localized tetanus. The patient in this case sustained a piercing broomstick injury to the medial ...

  8. 46 TETANUS – A REVIEW OF CURRENT CONCEPTS IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drclement

    2009-12-01

    Dec 1, 2009 ... history, epidemiology and clinical diagnosis of tetanus and emphasized the current opinions in the management of tetanus outlining the various suggested treatment plans from experts in developing countries which form the basis for World Health. Organization recommendations. INTRODUCTION. Tetanus,.

  9. [Flaccid tetraplegia following anti-tetanus vaccination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perriol, M-P; Devos, D; Hurtevent, J-F; Gautier, S; Caron, J; Destée, A

    2004-10-01

    Anti-tetanus vaccination is considered to be very safe. However complications such as mononevritis, multinevritis or even polyradiculonevritis can be encountered. An 85-year-old man was admitted to our unit after a traffic accident caused by stroke. Seventy-two hours later the patient developed tetraplegia within a few hours, caused by neuropathy secondary to anti-tetanus vaccination. In this elderly patient, the rapid onset and severe presentation of the tetraplegia as well as the past history of normal vaccination and the axonal form of the neuropathy could have led to a misdiagnosis of neuropathy after booster anti-tetanus vaccination. We first ruled out other possible diagnoses and then reviewed the possible mechanisms of neurological complications of vaccinations. These complications are probably underestimated in elderly hospitalized patients who receive a booster shot in the emergency department. This report illustrates the importance of reconsidering the benefit/risk relationship of anti-tetanos vaccination.

  10. PBMC transcription profiles of pigs with divergent humoral immune responses and lean growth performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Marcel; Murani, Eduard; Ponsuksili, Siriluck; Wimmers, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    The identification of key genes and regulatory networks in the transcriptomic responses of blood cells to antigen stimulation could facilitate the understanding of host defence and disease resistance. Moreover, genetic relationships between immunocompetence and the expression of other phenotypes, such as those of metabolic interest, are debated but incompletely understood in farm animals. Both positive and negative associations between immune responsiveness and performance traits such as weight gain or lean growth have been reported. We designed an in vivo microarray study of transcriptional changes in porcine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) during the immune response to tetanus toxoid (TT) as a model antigen for combined cellular (Th1) and humoral (Th2) responses. The aim of the study was to investigate the responsiveness of PBMCs against the background of divergent lean growth (LG) performance and anti-TT antibody (AB) titers and to compare lean growth and humoral immune performance phenotypes. In general, high LG phenotypes had increased cellular immune response transcripts, while low AB phenotypes had increased transcripts for canonical pathways that represented processes of intracellular and second messenger signaling and immune responses. Comparison of lean growth phenotypes in the context of high AB titers revealed higher cellular immune response transcripts in high LG phenotypes. Similar comparisons in the context of low AB titers failed to identify any corresponding pathways. When high and low AB titer phenotypes were differentially compared, low AB phenotypes had higher cellular immune response transcripts on a low LG background and higher cell signaling, growth, and proliferation transcripts on a high LG background. Divergent phenotypes of both lean growth performance and humoral immune response are affected by significant and functional transcript abundance changes throughout the immune response. The selected high-performance phenotypes

  11. A toe that pointed the wrong way: An unusual presentation of tetanus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnarpan Chatterjee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 15-year-old girl who was initially diagnosed to have a striatal toe. Her condition progressed and she later developed clinical features consistent with tetanus. History of blunt trauma to nose was elicited retrospectively. Antimicrobial therapy with metronidazole and both active and passive immunization was started immediately. The patient went on to make a complete recovery.

  12. [Tetanus risk assessment in the older outpatients: Usefulness of the "Tétanos Quick Stick ®"?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaï, D; Farcet, A; Molines, C; Delalande, G; Retornaz, F

    2015-05-01

    Tetanus is a serious disease, which could be potentially lethal. All cases are observed in patients inadequately immunized. The immunochromatographic tests (including Tetanos quick Stick(®) [TQS]) have demonstrated their efficiency in emergency setting. The aim of our study was to assess the usefulness of these tests in elderly outpatients seen in ambulatory settings. This prospective study included patients aged 65 years and over who presented to the outpatients' clinic of the Gerontologic Departmental Center (Marseille). A TQS and a self-administered questionnaire to assess risk factors for tetanus were performed. One hundred and twenty-two patients were studied. The prevalence of positive TQS was 66%. Patients have an average of 2.5 risk factors for tetanus. Negative TQS was observed in 35% of patients who had seen their general practitioner for a wound during the previous year. Elderly patients accumulate several risk factors regardless of age and lifestyle. While physicians are familiar with the vaccine recommendations, they are often faced with the difficulty of assessing patient's status based only on the patient's interview, which is frequently not reliable. The implementation of immunochromatographic tests in general practice could help physicians in the management of patients at risk for tetanus. Copyright © 2014 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Structural perturbation of diphtheria toxoid upon adsorption to aluminium hydroxide adjuvant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regnier, Marie; Metz, Bernard; Tilstra, Wichard; Hendriksen, Coenraad; Jiskoot, Wim; Norde, Willem; Kersten, Gideon

    2012-01-01

    Aluminium-containing adjuvants are often used to enhance the potency of vaccines. In the present work we studied whether adsorption of diphtheria toxoid to colloidal aluminium hydroxide induces conformational changes of the antigen. Diphtheria toxoid has a high affinity for the aluminium hydroxide

  14. Safety of immunization during pregnancy: a review of the evidence of selected inactivated and live attenuated vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller-Stanislawski, Brigitte; Englund, Janet A; Kang, Gagandeep; Mangtani, Punam; Neuzil, Kathleen; Nohynek, Hanna; Pless, Robert; Lambach, Philipp; Zuber, Patrick

    2014-12-12

    Vaccine-preventable infectious diseases are responsible for significant maternal, neonatal, and young infant morbidity and mortality. While there is emerging scientific evidence, as well as theoretical considerations, indicating that certain vaccines are safe for pregnant women and fetuses, policy formulation is challenging because of perceived potential risks to the fetus. This report presents an overview of available evidence on pregnant women vaccination safety monitoring in pregnant women, from both published literature and ongoing surveillance programs. Safety data were reviewed for vaccines against diseases which increase morbidity in pregnant women, their fetus or infant as well as vaccines which are used in mass vaccination campaigns against diseases. They include inactivated seasonal and pandemic influenza, mono- and combined meningococcal polysaccharide and conjugated vaccines, tetanus toxoid and acellular pertussis combination vaccines, as well as monovalent or combined rubella, oral poliomyelitis virus and yellow fever vaccines. No evidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes has been identified from immunization of pregnant women with these vaccines. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Tetanus after blunt lawn mower trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Normand

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A patient presented with tetanus ten days after blunt trauma with a lawn mower. Our case describes the diagnosis and treatment of this patient with an infectious disease commonly seen in the developing world but rarely seen in the developed world.

  16. Molecular basis for tetanus toxin coreceptor interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Baldwin, Michael R; Barbieri, Joseph T

    2008-07-08

    Tetanus toxin (TeNT) elicits spastic paralysis through the cleavage of vesicle-associated membrane protein-2 (VAMP-2) in neurons at the interneuronal junction of the central nervous system. While TeNT retrograde traffics from peripheral nerve endings to the interneuronal junction, there is limited understanding of the neuronal receptors utilized by tetanus toxin for the initial entry into nerve cells. Earlier studies implicated a coreceptor for tetanus toxin entry into neurons: a ganglioside binding pocket and a sialic acid binding pocket and that GT1b bound to each pocket. In this study, a solid phase assay characterized the ganglioside binding specificity and functional properties of both carbohydrate binding pockets of TeNT. The ganglioside binding pocket recognized the ganglioside sugar backbone, Gal-GalNAc, independent of sialic acid-(5) and sialic acid-(7) and GM1a was an optimal substrate for this pocket, while the sialic acid binding pocket recognized sialic acid-(5) and sialic acid-(7) with "b"series of gangliosides preferred relative to "a" series gangliosides. The high-affinity binding of gangliosides to TeNT HCR required functional ganglioside and sialic acid binding pockets, supporting synergistic binding to coreceptors. This analysis provides a model for how tetanus toxin utilizes coreceptors for high-affinity binding to neurons.

  17. The treatment of autonomic dysfunction in tetanus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Opiates. In 1972, Rie and Wilson[25] reported the successful use of morphine to control autonomic dysfunction in a case of tetanus. It does not appear to act as a peripheral α-adrenergic antagonist but rather attenuates sympathetic efferent discharge within the central nervous system. Buchanan et al.[26] reported in 1979 ...

  18. Prevalence of diphtheria and tetanus antibodies among adults in Singapore: a national serological study to identify most susceptible population groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, L W; James, L; Goh, K T

    2016-03-01

    In view of waning antitoxin titres over time after the last vaccine dose against diphtheria and tetanus, we determined the immunity levels in adults to identify most susceptible groups for protection in Singapore. Our study involved residual sera from 3293 adults aged 18-79 who had participated in a national health survey in 2010. IgG antibody levels were determined using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Overall, 92.0% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 91.1-92.9%) had at least basic protection against diphtheria (antibody levels ≥0.01 IU/ml), while 71.4% (95% CI: 69.8-72.9%) had at least short-term protection against tetanus (antibody levels >0.1 IU/ml). The seroprevalence declined significantly with age for both diseases; the drop was most marked in the 50- to 59-year age group for diphtheria and 60- to 69-year age group for tetanus. There was a significant difference in seroprevalence by residency for diphtheria (92.8% among Singapore citizens versus 87.1% among permanent residents; P = 0.001). The seroprevalence for tetanus was significantly higher among males (83.2%) than females (62.4%) (P diphtheria and tetanus, particularly those travelling to areas where diphtheria is endemic or epidemic. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Seroprevalence of antibodies to diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis among healthy adolescents and adults in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourakbari, Babak; Moradi, Behnaz; Mirzaee, Farin; Mahmoudi, Shima; Teymuri, Mostafa; Mamishi, Setareh

    2013-01-01

    Serologic data on diseases that are preventable by vaccine are useful to evaluate the success of immunization programs. In this study we evaluated the serologic levels of antibodies to diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis. In a cross sectional study, a total of 360 people aged 10-25 years were randomly selected and classified by sex and age (10-14, 15-20, 21-25 years). Overall, 78.8% of people aged 10-25 years had fully protected levels of diphtheria antibody (> or = 0.1 IU/ML), and 89.7% had fully protected levels of tetanus antibody (> or = 0.1 IU/ML), 94.3% of women aged 15-25 years had anti tetanus antibody sufficient to protect against neonatal tetanus (> or = 0.1 IU/ML). Antibodies to Pertussis toxin (PT) were found in 44.2% samples but only 1.4% had fully protective levels. Antibodies to PT increased with age, ranging from 33.5% in aged 10-14 years to 54.6 % in aged 21-25 years. No differences were found between male and female, except for diphtheria in age group 21-25 years. Results of this study reveal that diphtheria and tetanus (dT) are efficient between booster doses. About pertussis, most people are susceptible to pertussis and increased PT antibodies with age suggest acquired asymptomatic Bordeella pertussis infection. Also B. pertussis infections in adolescents and adults are of concern, as they are the most important source of transmission of pertussis to young, unprotected infants. So one booster dose in adolescents and adults (as CDC recommended), to reduce mortality and morbidity in infants, is therefore suggested.

  20. The fight-or-flight response is associated with PBMC expression profiles related to immune defence and recovery in swine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Oster

    Full Text Available Defining phenotypes according to molecular features would promote the knowledge of functional traits like behaviour in both human and animal research. Beside physiological states or environmental factors, an innate predisposition of individual coping strategies was discussed, including the proactive and reactive pattern. According to backtest reactivity, animals assigned as high-resisting (proactive and low-resisting (reactive were immune challenged with tetanus toxoid in a time course experiment. Using the Affymetrix platform and qPCR, individual coping characteristics were reflected as gene expression signatures in porcine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC at naïve state (day 0 and in response to the model antigen (day 14, day 28, and day 140. Further, the blood cell count was analysed at all stages. On the transcriptional level, processes acting on cell communication, vasculogenesis, and blood coagulation were highlighted in high-resisting animals at naïve state (day 0, temporarily blurred due to immune challenge (day 14 but subsequently restored and intensified (day 28. Notably, similar amounts of white and red blood cells, platelets and haematocrit between high-resisting and low-resisting samples suggest coping-specific expression patterns rather than alterations in blood cell distribution. Taken together, the gene expression patterns indicate that proactive pigs might favour molecular pathways enabling an effective strategy for defence and recovery. This corroborates the previously suggested belief, that proactive animals are prone to an increased number of injuries as an evolutionary inherited mechanism. In contrast to previous assumptions, coping-specific immunity in pigs lacks inherited shifts between cellular and humoral immune responses.

  1. Low tetanus, diphtheria and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccination coverage among HIV infected individuals in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabmeier-Pfistershammer, K; Herkner, H; Touzeau-Roemer, V; Rieger, A; Burgmann, H; Poeppl, W

    2015-07-31

    Current management guidelines of HIV infected adults include recommendation to immunization against common vaccine preventable diseases. This effort is hindered by the scarce knowledge regarding the immunization status of this especially vulnerable patient group. This study analyzed the serostatus for pertussis, diphtheria and tetanus of more than 700 HIV infected individuals residing in Austria. These individuals were representative for the Austrian HIV cohort regarding sex, age, transmission risk and HIV progression markers. Overall, 73.6% were on suppressive HAART, mean CD4 cell count was 603c/μl. Seropositivity was 84% for diphtheria, 51% for tetanus and 1% for pertussis. Migrants had a lower chance of tetanus seropositivity (OR 0.30 (CI 0.21 to 0.43)). Increase in CDC classification were associated with increased diphtheria seropositivity (OR 1.42 (CI 1.02 to 1.98)) and a CD4 nadir200c/μl, 95% lacked seroprotection to at least one of the antigens included in the triple vaccine Tdap and could be vaccinated. Thus, a proactive approach would largely reduce the number of patients at risk for these vaccine-preventable diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Peptide Network between Tetanus Toxin and Human Proteins Associated with Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guglielmo Lucchese

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sequence matching analyses show that Clostridium tetani neurotoxin shares numerous pentapeptides (68, including multiple occurrences with 42 human proteins that, when altered, have been associated with epilepsy. Such a peptide sharing is higher than expected, nonstochastic, and involves tetanus toxin-derived epitopes that have been validated as immunopositive in the human host. Of note, an unexpected high level of peptide matching is found in mitogen-activated protein kinase 10 (MK10, a protein selectively expressed in hippocampal areas. On the whole, the data indicate a potential for cross-reactivity between the neurotoxin and specific epilepsy-associated proteins and may help evaluate the potential risk for epilepsy following immune responses induced by tetanus infection. Moreover, this study may contribute to clarifying the etiopathogenesis of the different types of epilepsy.

  3. Carrier priming with CRM 197 or diphtheria toxoid has a different impact on the immunogenicity of the respective glycoconjugates: biophysical and immunochemical interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecetta, S; Lo Surdo, P; Tontini, M; Proietti, D; Zambonelli, C; Bottomley, M J; Biagini, M; Berti, F; Costantino, P; Romano, M R

    2015-01-03

    Glycoconjugate vaccines play an enormous role in preventing infectious diseases. The main carrier proteins used in commercial conjugate vaccines are the non-toxic mutant of diphtheria toxin (CRM197), diphtheria toxoid (DT) and tetanus toxoid (TT). Modern childhood routine vaccination schedules include the administration of several vaccines simultaneously or in close sequence, increasing the concern that the repeated exposure to conjugates based on these carrier proteins might interfere with the anti-polysaccharide response. Extending previous observations we show here that priming mice with CRM197 or DT does not suppress the response to the carbohydrate moiety of CRM197 meningococcal serogroup A (MenA) conjugates, while priming with DT can suppress the response to DT-MenA conjugates. To explain these findings we made use of biophysical and immunochemical techniques applied mainly to MenA conjugates. Differential scanning calorimetry and circular dichroism data revealed that the CRM197 structure was altered by the chemical conjugation, while DT and the formaldehyde-treated form of CRM197 were less impacted, depending on the degree of glycosylation. Investigating the binding and avidity properties of IgGs induced in mice by non-conjugated carriers, we found that CRM197 induced low levels of anti-carrier antibodies, with decreased avidity for its MenA conjugates and poor binding to DT and respective MenA conjugates. In contrast, DT induced high antibody titers able to bind with comparable avidity both the protein and its conjugates but showing very low avidity for CRM197 and related conjugates. The low intrinsic immunogenicity of CRM197 as compared to DT, the structural modifications induced by glycoconjugation and detoxification processes, resulting in conformational changes in CRM197 and DT epitopes with consequent alteration of the antibody recognition and avidity, might explain the different behavior of CRM197 and DT in a carrier priming context. Copyright © 2014

  4. Mapping quantitative trait loci for innate immune response in the pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, M J; Cinar, M U; Grosse-Brinkhaus, C; Tesfaye, D; Tholen, E; Juengst, H; Looft, C; Wimmers, K; Phatsara, C; Schellander, K

    2011-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for the serum levels of cytokines and Toll-like receptors as traits related to innate immunity in pig. For this purpose, serum concentration of interleukin 2 (IL2), interleukin 10 (IL10), interferon-gamma (IFNG), Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) were measured in blood samples obtained from F(2) piglets (n = 334) of a Duroc × Piétrain resource population (DUPI) after Mycoplasma hypopneumoniae (Mh), tetanus toxoid (TT) and Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) vaccination at 6, 9 and 15 weeks of age. Animals were genotyped at 82 genetic markers covering all autosomes. QTL analysis was performed under the line cross F(2) model using QTL Express and 33 single QTL were detected on almost all porcine autosomes. Among the single QTL, eight, twelve and thirteen QTL were identified for innate immune traits in response to Mh, TT and PRRSV vaccine, respectively. Besides single QTL, six QTL were identified by a two-QTL model, of which two for TLR9_TT were in coupling phase and one for IL10_PRRSV was in repulsion phase. All QTL were significant at 5% chromosome-wide level including one and seven at 5% genome- and 1% chromosome-wide level significance. All innate immune traits are influenced by multiple chromosomal regions implying multiple gene action. Some of the identified QTL coincided with previously reported QTL for immune response and disease resistance, and the newly identified QTL are potentially involved in the immune function. The immune traits were also influenced by environmental factors like year of birth, age, parity and litter size. The results of this work shed new light on the genetic background of innate immune response and these findings will be helpful to identify candidate genes in these QTL regions related to immune competence and disease resistance in pigs. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. The treatment of autonomic dysfunction in tetanus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T van den Heever

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of generalised tetanus in a 50-year-old female patient after sustaining a wound to her right lower leg. She developed autonomic dysfunction, which included labile hypertension alternating with hypotension and sweating. The autonomic dysfunction was treated successfully with a combination of morphine sulphate infusion, magnesium sulphate, and clonidine. She also received adrenaline and phenylephrine infusions as needed for hypotension. We then discuss the pathophysiology, clinical features and treatment options of autonomic dysfunction.

  6. Characteristics of adult tetanus in Accra

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Tetanus is a life threatening infection with an estimated annual global incidence of about 1 million .... Vagina 1 1.4% Abortion 2 2.7%. Unknown 14 18.9% Unknown 13 17.6%. 0 th ers .... of pregnant women in the mother and child health (MCH) pro- gram and a probable greater outdoor-at-risk activity in men ...

  7. Neonatal tetanus mortality in coastal Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, P; Steinglass, R; Mutie, D M

    1993-01-01

    In a house-to-house survey in Kilifi District, Kenya, mothers of 2556 liveborn children were interviewed about neonatal mortality, especially from neonatal tetanus (NNT). The crude birth rate was 60.5 per 1000 population, the neonatal mortality rate 21.1 and the NNT mortality rate 3.1 per 1000 li...... indicates that over the past decade the surveyed area has greatly reduced neonatal and NNT mortality. Possible strategies for accelerated NNT control have been identified by the survey....

  8. The reconstitution of the thymus in immunosuppressed individuals restores CD4-specific cellular and humoral immune responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plana, Montserrat; Garcia, Felipe; Darwich, Laila; Romeu, Joan; López, Anna; Cabrera, Cecilia; Massanella, Marta; Canto, Esther; Ruiz-Hernandez, Raul; Blanco, Julià; Sánchez, Marcelo; Gatell, Josep M; Clotet, Bonaventura; Ruiz, Lidia; Bofill, Margarita

    2011-01-01

    Infection with HIV-1 frequently results in the loss of specific cellular immune responses and an associated lack of antibodies. Recombinant growth hormone (rGH) administration reconstitutes thymic tissue and boosts the levels of peripheral T cells, so rGH therapy may be an effective adjuvant through promoting the recovery of lost cellular and T-cell-dependent humoral immune responses in immunosuppressed individuals. To test this concept, we administered rGH to a clinically defined group of HIV-1-infected subjects with defective cellular and serological immune responses to at least one of three commonly employed vaccines (hepatitis A, hepatitis B or tetanus toxoid). Of the original 278 HIV-1-infected patients entering the trial, only 20 conformed to these immunological criteria and were randomized into three groups: Group A (n = 8) receiving rGH and challenged with the same vaccine to which they were unresponsive and Groups B (n = 5) and C (n = 7) who received either rGH or vaccination alone, respectively. Of the eight subjects in Group A, five recovered CD4 cellular responses to vaccine antigen and four of these produced the corresponding antibodies. In the controls, three of the five in group B recovered cellular responses with two producing antibodies, whereas three of the seven in Group C recovered CD4 responses, with only two producing antibodies. Significantly, whereas seven of ten patients receiving rGH treatment in Group A (six patients) and B (one patient) recovered T-cell responses to HIVp24, only two of six in Group C responded similarly. In conclusion, reconstitution of the thymus in immunosuppressed adults through rGH hormone treatment restored both specific antibody and CD4 T-cell responses. PMID:21501161

  9. Immune response to vaccines is maintained in patients treated with dimethyl fumarate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hehn, Christian; Howard, Jonathan; Liu, Shifang; Meka, Ven; Pultz, Joe; Mehta, Devangi; Prada, Claudia; Ray, Soma; Edwards, Michael R; Sheikh, Sarah I

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the immune response to vaccinations in patients with relapsing forms of MS treated with delayed-release dimethyl fumarate (DMF) vs nonpegylated interferon (IFN). In this open-label, multicenter study, patients received 3 vaccinations: (1) tetanus-diphtheria toxoid (Td) to test T-cell-dependent recall response, (2) pneumococcal vaccine polyvalent to test T-cell-independent humoral response, and (3) meningococcal (groups A, C, W-135, and Y) oligosaccharide CRM 197 conjugate to test T-cell-dependent neoantigen response. Eligible patients were aged 18-55 years, diagnosed with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), and either treated for ≥6 months with an approved dose of DMF or for ≥3 months with an approved dose of nonpegylated IFN. Primary end point was the proportion of patients with ≥2-fold rise in antitetanus serum IgG levels from prevaccination to 4 weeks after vaccination. Seventy-one patients (DMF treated, 38; IFN treated, 33) were enrolled. The mean age was 45.3 years (range 27-55); 86% were women. Responder rates (≥2-fold rise) to Td vaccination were comparable between DMF- and IFN-treated groups (68% vs 73%). Responder rates (≥2-fold rise) were also similar between DMF- and IFN-treated groups for diphtheria antitoxoid (58% vs 61%), pneumococcal serotype 3 (66% vs 79%), pneumococcal serotype 8 (95% vs 88%), and meningococcal serogroup C (53% vs 53%), all p > 0.05. In a post hoc analysis, no meaningful differences were observed between groups in the proportion of responders when stratified by age category or lymphocyte count. DMF-treated patients mount an immune response to recall, neoantigens, and T-cell-independent antigens, which was comparable with that of IFN-treated patients and provided adequate seroprotection. NCT02097849. This study provides Class II evidence that patients with RRMS treated with DMF respond to vaccinations comparably with IFN-treated patients.

  10. Desensitization with DTP (diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atanasković-Marković Marina

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunization with DTP vaccine (diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis is a part of the vaccination calendar offered in childhood. Adverse allergic reactions vary from minimal urticarial reactions to life-threatening anaphylaxis. In infancy these reactions usually interrupt the vaccination calendar, but immunization in these children should be done. At the University Children's Hospital of Belgrade, a group of 137 children with suspected allergic anaphylactic reaction to DTP, DT, TT and monopertussis vaccine was studied for the last six years. Skin (prick and intradermal tests were performed with corresponding vaccine. If both tests were negative, the vaccine could be given as a single dose of 0.5 ml. If one of these tests were positive desensitization with vaccine could be done (according to the protocol described by Carey and Meltzer. In one group of 52 children three days before desensitization, premedication with antihistamines, was done, whereas in the other group of 52 children premedication was not done. Two (3.8% children in a group of 52 children with premedication had a minor (local reaction after vaccination and 50 children (96.2% had no reaction after vaccination, whereas no children (0% had systemic reaction after desensitization.

  11. Tetanus: Pathophysiology, Treatment, and the Possibility of Using Botulinum Toxin against Tetanus-Induced Rigidity and Spasms

    OpenAIRE

    Bjørnar Hassel

    2013-01-01

    Tetanus toxin, the product of Clostridium tetani, is the cause of tetanus symptoms. Tetanus toxin is taken up into terminals of lower motor neurons and transported axonally to the spinal cord and/or brainstem. Here the toxin moves trans-synaptically into inhibitory nerve terminals, where vesicular release of inhibitory neurotransmitters becomes blocked, leading to disinhibition of lower motor neurons. Muscle rigidity and spasms ensue, often manifesting as trismus/lockjaw, dysphagia, opistoton...

  12. Novel Sperm and Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone-based Recombinant Fusion Protein: Achievement of 100% Contraceptive Efficacy by Co-immunization of Male and Female Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minhas, Vidisha; Shrestha, Abhinav; Wadhwa, Neerja; Singh, Rita; Gupta, Satish Kumar

    2016-12-01

    Improvements in long-term female contraception can be achieved by vaccinating with sperm-derived proteins. Here, recombinant proteins comprising either (i) N- (amino acid residues 1-80) or C- (amino acid residues 76-126) terminal fragments of mouse sperm protein 17 (Sp17) fused to the promiscuous T non-B cell epitope of tetanus toxoid (TT), amino acid residues 830-844 followed by di-lysine linker (KK) (TT-KK-Sp17 N or TT-KK-Sp17 C , respectively) or (ii) mouse equatorin (amino acid residues 21-185) fused to the T non-B cell epitope of bovine RNase (amino acid residues 94-104) were expressed in Escherichia coli. Immunization of female FVB/J mice, using alum as an adjuvant, led to the generation of high antibody titers against the above proteins. Antibodies against both N- and C-terminal fragments of Sp17 reacted with the entire capacitated mouse spermatozoa, whereas those against equatorin reacted exclusively with the equatorial region. Despite the reactivity of all immune sera, only sera from mice immunized with TT-KK-Sp17 N and TT-KK-Sp17 C significantly reduced mouse in vitro fertilization. Mating studies of the immunized females with un-immunized male mice revealed the highest infertility in the TT-KK-Sp17 C -immunized group. In an attempt to further boost the immune response, the C-terminal fragment of Sp17 was expressed as fusion protein with a tandem repeat of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) (Sp17 C -GnRH 2 ). Immunization of both male and female mice with Sp17 C -GnRH 2 led to higher contraceptive efficacy compared to mice immunized with TT-KK-Sp17 C . Interestingly, mating studies wherein partners were both immunized with Sp17 C -GnRH 2 showed a complete failure of female mice to conceive. Thus, immunization of both males and females with Sp17 C -GnRH 2 has the potential to increase contraceptive efficacy. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 83: 1048-1059, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Immuunstatus met betrekking tot tetanus bij vrouwen van 21 t/m 24 jaar. I Tetanus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagenaars; A.M.; Veer; M.van der; Hannik; C.A.; Waerdt; W.J.van de; Nagel; J.; Huisman; J.*; Oei; R.J.*

    1985-01-01

    In sera van 344 vrouwen, van wie de vaccinatie-status grotendeels bekend was, werd het niveau van de tetanus-antistoffen m.b.t. de ELISA bepaald. De vrouwen varieerden in leeftijd tussen 21 en 24 jaar, d.w.z. de tijd verlopen sinds de laatste vaccinatie bedroeg 13-16 jaar. Een goede

  14. Post-neonatal tetanus in University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Tetanus is a public health problem in Nigeria. This study examines the demographic and clinical profile of postneonatal tetanus (PNT) seen in University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital (UMTH), North- eastern Nigeria. Methods: This is a hospital-based prospective study of PNT. All children beyond the neonatal ...

  15. Intensive care management of severe tetanus at the university of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The advent of intensive care management of severe tetanus patients is said to have reduced the mortality rate from the ailment. This study evaluated the experience at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital. Materials and Methods: Case files of severe tetanus patients referred to the intensive care unit (ICU) ...

  16. Placental malaria and neonatal anti-tetanus antibody status: Any ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Neonatal tetanus (NT) has long remained an important cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality in the tropics, where it coexists with a high prevalence of placental malaria. The current strategy for the control of NT involves stimulating the production of a protective level of an anti-tetanus antibody in the mother, ...

  17. Reduced serum tetanus antibody titre in HIV infected subjects with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tetanus infection is widespread and difficult to completely eradicate. Thus the present study was designed to assess the tetanus antibody titre in HIV infected subjects in relation to the presence or absence of malaria parasitaemia. 107 subjects consisting of asymptomatic group (asymptomatic HIV, n=17 and asymptomatic ...

  18. Cardiovascular instability and baroreflex activity in a patient with tetanus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lieshout, J. J.; Wieling, W.; Settels, J. J.; Karemaker, J. M.

    1991-01-01

    In a patient with tetanus we tested the hypothesis that the hyperadrenergic cardiovascular instability might be due to impairment of the baroreceptor reflex by the tetanus toxin. Baroreflex sensitivity assessed with the phenylephrine method was found to be normal. Changes in arterial pressure

  19. Tetanus from Intramuscular Quinine Injection InWarri Niger Delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To evaluate the development of tetanus from intramuscular injection in children inWarri, Niger Delta of Nigeria Materials and Methods; Retrieval and analysis of case notes of all children with tetanus seen between 1999 and 2008 at Central Hospital Warri with referrals from surrounding General Hospitals and GN ...

  20. Tetanus nearly eliminated after 40 years of vaccination in rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To study the incidence of tetanus during the last 50 years in Sengerema, Tanzania. Design: Analysing the annual reports in the only district hospital, focusing on the number of admissions and mortality for tetanus and malaria. Setting: Sengerema Hospital, Sengerema district, Tanzania. Subject: Number of ...

  1. Post Neonatal Tetanus in Calabar, Nigeria: A 10 Year Review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1997-01-01

    A 10 year retrospective study of post neonatal tetanus in University of Calabar Teaching Hospital was carried out. The study period spanned from January 1, 1997 to December 31, 2006. The aim was to determine the incidence of post neonatal tetanus and associated bio-characteristics. Information was extracted from case ...

  2. Perioperative care of a child with tetanus | Schloss | Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tetanus is caused by tetanospasmin, a toxin that is produced by the anaerobic bacterium, Clostridium tetani. Despite widespread vaccination, which limits its incidence in many parts of the world, tetanus may still occur owing to lack of immunisation related to religious tenets, cultural beliefs or inaccessibility to medical care.

  3. Upsurge in neonatal tetanus in Benin City, Nigeria | Omoigberale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However recently there appear to be an increase in neonatal tetanus despite these interventions leading to increasing neonatal morbidity and mortality. Objective: To study the upsurge in neonatal tetanus despite the various interventions, examine possible causes responsible for it and proffer suggestions for eliminating ...

  4. Risk factors for neonatal tetanus in KwaZulu-Natal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To study cases of neonatal tetanus (NNn in an intensive care unit (ICU) to support formulation of appropriate intervention strategies. Site. Paediatric ICU, King Edward VIII Hospital, Durban. .... Trial of pyridoltine therapy for tetanus neonatorum. J Infect Dis 1982: 145: 547-549. Accepted 16 Jan 1995. Epidemic s dysentery.

  5. serological evaluation of protective immunity against tetanus in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    throughout the study period were 73.05 ± 9.16% and 55.30 ± 4.97 g/dl at Tiga Dam and Gaya. General Hospitals respectively. .... total proteins of clients attending Tiga Dam General Hospital, Kano. Age group. (years). Serum albumin .... and Lange publishers, California, USA. Pp173-. 180. Hardegree, M.C., Barile, M.F., ...

  6. Humoral Immune Reconstitution Kinetics after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in Children: A Maturation Block of IgM Memory B Cells May Lead to Impaired Antibody Immune Reconstitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Azim, Hisham; Elshoury, Amro; Mahadeo, Kris M; Parkman, Robertson; Kapoor, Neena

    2017-09-01

    Although T cell immune reconstitution after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) has been well studied, long-term B cell immune reconstitution remains less characterized. We evaluated humoral immune reconstitution among 71 pediatric allo-HSCT recipients. Although tetanus toxoid antibody levels were normal at 1 year after allo-HSCT, antipolysaccharide carbohydrate antibodies remained persistently low for up to 5 years. While naive B cell counts normalized by 6 months, IgM memory B cell deficiency persisted for up to 2 years (P = .01); switched memory B cell deficiency normalized by 1 year after allo-HSCT. CD4(+) T cell immune reconstitution correlated with that of switched memory B cells as early as 6 months after allo-HSCT (r = .55, P = .002) but did not correlate with IgM memory B cells at any time point after allo-HSCT. Taken together, this suggests that allo-HSCT recipients have impaired antibody immune reconstitution, mainly due to IgM memory B cell maturation block, compared with more prompt T cell-dependent switched memory cell immune reconstitution. We further explored other factors that might affect humoral immune reconstitution. The use of total body irradiation was associated with lower naive B cells counts at 6 months after HSCT (P = .04) and lower IgM (P = .008) and switched (P = .003) memory B cells up to 2 years. Allo-HSCT recipients with extensive chronic graft-versus-host disease had lower IgM memory B cell counts (P = .03) up to 2 years after allo-HSCT. The use of cord blood was associated with better naive (P = .01), IgM (P = .0005), and switched memory (P = .006) B cells immune reconstitution. These findings may inform future prophylaxis and treatment strategies regarding risk of overwhelming infection, graft-versus-host disease, and post-allogeneic HSCT revaccination. Copyright © 2017 The American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  7. Insufficient tetanus vaccination status in patients with chronic leg ulcers. Results of a prospective investigation in 100 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korber, A; Graue, N; Rietkotter, J; Kreuzfelder, E; Grabbe, S; Dissemond, J

    2008-01-01

    Tetanus disease is caused by Clostridium tetani and is one of the most common infectious diseases worldwide. Despite international recommendations for patients with a chronic leg ulcer, there has been a distinctive lack of protection provided by vaccination for these patients in the past decades. Within the context of our prospective clinical investigation we consecutively determined the concentrations of immunoglobulin G antibodies against C. tetani in 100 patients with a chronic leg ulcer between January 2005 and November 2006. A total of 38 patients were male, and 62 were female. Their mean age was 71 years (25-94). In a total of 47% (n = 47; 13 male, 34 female, mean age: 76 years) of the patients, insufficient immunoglobulin G antibody concentrations were detected. Particularly the subanalysis indicated an insufficient tetanus protection provided by vaccination in 70% of the people aged >or=80 years. A chronic wound, e.g. in the form of a leg ulcer, is known as a potential entrance for C. tetani. Unlike acute wounds, however, it is hardly ever considered to be a reason for assessment of the tetanus immune status. The results of our investigation clarify that particularly elderly people suffering from a leg ulcer have to be tested for tetanus protection provided by vaccination more strictly than ever, and if necessary, vaccinations have to be renewed. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Tetanus associated with road accidents in the infectious diseases department of Point G University Hospital, Bamako, Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traoré, A M; Coulibaly, I; Dabo, G; Cissé, H; Diallo, K; Soukho-Kaya, A; Diango, M D; Cissé, T; Dembélé, M; Traoré, H A; Pichard, E; Minta, D K

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiological, clinical, and prognostic aspects of tetanus associated with road accidents and to make recommendations. This observational study collected retrospective clinical data over a 9-year period about adults admitted for trismus and/or generalized or localized paroxysm after a road accident. The study included 25 patients, accounting for 22.12 % of all tetanus cases. Men were massively overrepresented (sex-ratio M/F: 24/1). The median age was 34 ± 8 years. In all, vaccination status was unknown for 4 patients and known to be negative for 21. Immunoprophylaxis was nonexistent in all cases. The generalized clinical form was dominant (96 %). Severity reached level III for 12 % of patients. The points of entry included open leg fractures (4 cases), head wounds (2), mucocutaneous wounds (14), and muscle contusions (5). The mean time to referral for tetanus was 8 ± 7 days, and the median hospital stay 9.08 ± 11 days. Patients were mostly residents of urban (56 %) and suburban areas (28 %) [P = 0.04]. Two cases were complicated by severe malaria. The mortality rate was 60 %, and 52 % of the deaths occurred within the first 72 hours after hospitalization. It is essential to promote serum therapy and tetanus immunization for patients after road accidents. Increasing the awareness of traditional healers of these treatments deserves consideration.

  9. Remembering Emil von Behring: from Tetanus Treatment to Antibody Cooperation with Phagocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Stefan H E

    2017-02-28

    A century ago, Emil von Behring passed away. He was the first to be honored by the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1901 for the successful therapy of diphtheria and tetanus, which he had developed from the bench to the bed. He also contributed to the foundation of immunology, since his therapy was based on passive immunization with specific antisera. Being an ambitious character, he did not shy away from friction with his colleagues Paul Ehrlich and Elias Metchnikoff and his mentor, Robert Koch. Behring was not only an excellent translational researcher but also a successful entrepreneur and early proponent of public-private partnerships. Copyright © 2017 Kaufmann.

  10. Remembering Emil von Behring: from Tetanus Treatment to Antibody Cooperation with Phagocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan H. E. Kaufmann

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A century ago, Emil von Behring passed away. He was the first to be honored by the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1901 for the successful therapy of diphtheria and tetanus, which he had developed from the bench to the bed. He also contributed to the foundation of immunology, since his therapy was based on passive immunization with specific antisera. Being an ambitious character, he did not shy away from friction with his colleagues Paul Ehrlich and Elias Metchnikoff and his mentor, Robert Koch. Behring was not only an excellent translational researcher but also a successful entrepreneur and early proponent of public-private partnerships.

  11. Immunogenicity and safety of one dose of diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis and poliomyelitis vaccine (Repevax®) followed by two doses of diphtheria, tetanus and poliomyelitis vaccine (Revaxis®) in adults aged ≥ 40 years not receiving a diphtheria- and tetanus-containing vaccination in the last 20 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominicus, Rolf; Galtier, Florence; Richard, Patrick; Baudin, Martine

    2014-06-30

    The immunogenicity and safety of one dose of Tdap-IPV (tetanus, diphtheria, acellular pertussis and inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine) and two doses of Td-IPV (tetanus, diphtheria and inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine) were assessed in adults who had not received a diphtheria- and tetanus-containing vaccine in the last 20 years. This open-label, multicentre study was conducted in adults aged ≥ 40 years with no diphtheria- and tetanus-containing vaccine in the last 20 years. Participants received one dose of Tdap-IPV followed by two doses of Td-IPV (0, 1, 6 month schedule). Primary immunogenicity objectives: to demonstrate acceptable seroprotection rates (percentage of participants with antibody titre above threshold) post-dose 3 for diphtheria (≥ 0.1IU/mL by seroneutralization assay [SNA]); tetanus (≥ 0.1IU/mL by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA]); and poliomyelitis (≥ 8 1/dil by SNA); and to evaluate the percentage of participants with an antibody concentration ≥ 5EU/mL (by ELISA) for pertussis antigens post-dose 1. Seroprotection rates were acceptable if the lower limit of the 95% confidence interval (CI) was >95%. Percentage of participants with basic clinical immunity against diphtheria (≥ 0.01IU/mL) was also assessed. Safety (adverse events [AEs] and serious AEs) was assessed after each dose. Overall, 336 participants were included (mean age: 60.2 years). Post-dose 3 seroprotection rates were: diphtheria, 94.6% (CI 91.5-96.8); tetanus and poliomyelitis, 100% (CI: 98.8-100). Percentage of participants with an antibody titre ≥ 5EU/mL against pertussis antigens was ≥ 95.8% for all five pertussis components. Basic clinical immunity against diphtheria was achieved in 100% (CI: 98.8-100) of participants. AEs were reported more frequently following vaccination with Tdap-IPV (post-dose 1: 65.3%) than with Td-IPV (post-dose 2: 48.3%; post-dose 3: 50.3%). This study highlights the benefits of using Tdap-IPV followed by two doses of Td-IPV in an

  12. [Tetanus. Physiopathology and intensive care treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romitti, M; Romitti, F; Banchini, E

    2000-06-01

    Tetanus as a topic illness is underlined on the basis of the increased cases as well as the appearance of new populations at risk of infection. The tetanospasmins of mechanism action is stressed in order to evaluate the etiopathogenetic role of common therapies as well as the new ones. Ten cases of serious infection personally observed are analysed. The case records of ten tetanus patients treated in our Intensive Care Unit between 1986 and 1997 have been retrospectively analysed. The prognosis correlated to the seriousness of the case. The most common clinical symptoms on admission were trismus and dysphagia (100% of patients). In 70% of cases, the illness was considered serious enough to warrant the use of neuro-muscular blockers and controlled ventilation. Among the complications observed pulmonary problems had the highest incidence (90%), followed by cardio-vascular ones (80%). Respiratory infections were the most frequently observed (9 patients). Autonomic dysfunction was a constant feature in patients with severe forms of the illness. The observed mortality rate was 30%. It was higher in males at the extremes of the age range. In the light of the survival results as well as the most recent literature data, guidelines for the approach of serious tetanic patients are outline. It is underlined that therapy effectiveness is higher when from being a symptom therapy it becomes an etiopathogenetic therapy.

  13. Effect of levamisole supplementation on tetanus vaccination response rates in haemodialysis patients: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallahzadeh, Mohammad Kazem; Sajjadi, Sharareh; Singh, Neeraj; Khajeh, Masomeh; Sagheb, Mohammad Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    Levamisole as an immunomodulator drug has been demonstrated to improve the immune response to hepatitis B virus vaccination in haemodialysis patients. The aim of this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial was to evaluate the effect of levamisole supplementation on tetanus-diphtheria (Td) vaccine response rates in haemodialysis patients. Forty haemodialysis patients who had not received tetanus vaccination in a year before investigation and had unprotective anti-tetanus immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels (levamisole (100 mg) or placebo daily, for 6 days before and 6 days after vaccination. The anti-tetanus IgG levels were measured 1 and 6 months after vaccination. One month post-vaccination, four patients were excluded from the levamisole group and two from the placebo group because of either death or renal transplantation. At 1 month, 13 out of 16 (81%) patients in the levamisole group as compared with six out of 18 (33%) patients in the placebo group developed protective anti-tetanus IgG levels (relative risk = 2.44, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.21, 4.88). From 1 to 6 months post-vaccination, one more patient in the levamisole group and two more patients in the placebo group were excluded because of renal transplantation. At 6 months, 11 out of 15 (73%) patients in the levamisole group as compared with four out of 16 (25%) patients in the placebo group still had protective anti-tetanus IgG levels (relative risk = 2.93, 95% CI = 1.19, 7.23). Supplementation of Td vaccination with levamisole may enhance seroconversion against tetanus in haemodialysis patients. © 2013 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  14. Autonomic Dysfunction Because of Severe Tetanus in an Unvaccinated Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Syuan Lin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Tetanus is rare in a country with a national vaccination program. When it does occur, the associated autonomic dysfunction is a challenge for physicians. We report here a case of an unvaccinated 5-year-old boy who suffered from tetanus complicated by autonomic dysfunction, which was successfully controlled by the infusion of magnesium sulfate. This is the first case that demonstrated the therapeutic effect of magnesium sulfate in a child with tetanus. This case highlights the importance of implementing a vaccination program.

  15. Dysphagia and trismus: an unusual case of tetanus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Villa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Tetanus is a life-threatening infection that is rare in the developed world; it is more frequent in the elderly people and immunocompromised patients. We report a case of a 53-year-old woman who presented with dysphagia, mouth pain and trismus. She did not report any injuries. The suspected diagnosis of tetanus was made. The blood examination showed severe lymphocytopenia and a positive result for the antinuclear antibody (ANA test, with a suspected diagnosis of Sjogren’s syndrome. It is possible that her immunocompromised conditions could have led to the onset of tetanus, even after casual and minimal contact with Clostridium spores.

  16. [Characteristics of Clostridium tetani and laboratory diagnosis of tetanus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smietańska, Karolina; Rokosz-Chudziak, Natalia; Rastawicki, Waldemar

    2013-01-01

    The causative agent of tetanus is the obligate anaerobic bacterium--Clostridium tetani. These bacteria form endospores that are able to survive long periods of exposure to air and other adverse environmental conditions. Infection generally occurs through wound contamination. We can distinguish several forms of tetanus: generalized, local and neonatal. Diagnosis of tetanus is based primarily on the patient's clinical symptoms (muscle cramps, painful back muscle spasms, generalized contractions of the arcuate curvature of the body) as well as on microbiological diagnosis. This article is a brief review of C. tetani and diagnosis of infections caused by these organisms in humans.

  17. Tetanus: Pathophysiology, Treatment, and the Possibility of Using Botulinum Toxin against Tetanus-Induced Rigidity and Spasms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassel, Bjørnar

    2013-01-01

    Tetanus toxin, the product of Clostridium tetani, is the cause of tetanus symptoms. Tetanus toxin is taken up into terminals of lower motor neurons and transported axonally to the spinal cord and/or brainstem. Here the toxin moves trans-synaptically into inhibitory nerve terminals, where vesicular release of inhibitory neurotransmitters becomes blocked, leading to disinhibition of lower motor neurons. Muscle rigidity and spasms ensue, often manifesting as trismus/lockjaw, dysphagia, opistotonus, or rigidity and spasms of respiratory, laryngeal, and abdominal muscles, which may cause respiratory failure. Botulinum toxin, in contrast, largely remains in lower motor neuron terminals, inhibiting acetylcholine release and muscle activity. Therefore, botulinum toxin may reduce tetanus symptoms. Trismus may be treated with botulinum toxin injections into the masseter and temporalis muscles. This should probably be done early in the course of tetanus to reduce the risk of pulmonary aspiration, involuntary tongue biting, anorexia and dental caries. Other muscle groups are also amenable to botulinum toxin treatment. Six tetanus patients have been successfully treated with botulinum toxin A. This review discusses the use of botulinum toxin for tetanus in the context of the pathophysiology, symptomatology, and medical treatment of Clostridium tetani infection. PMID:23299659

  18. Tetanus: Pathophysiology, Treatment, and the Possibility of Using Botulinum Toxin against Tetanus-Induced Rigidity and Spasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjørnar Hassel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tetanus toxin, the product of Clostridium tetani, is the cause of tetanus symptoms. Tetanus toxin is taken up into terminals of lower motor neurons and transported axonally to the spinal cord and/or brainstem. Here the toxin moves trans-synaptically into inhibitory nerve terminals, where vesicular release of inhibitory neurotransmitters becomes blocked, leading to disinhibition of lower motor neurons. Muscle rigidity and spasms ensue, often manifesting as trismus/lockjaw, dysphagia, opistotonus, or rigidity and spasms of respiratory, laryngeal, and abdominal muscles, which may cause respiratory failure. Botulinum toxin, in contrast, largely remains in lower motor neuron terminals, inhibiting acetylcholine release and muscle activity. Therefore, botulinum toxin may reduce tetanus symptoms. Trismus may be treated with botulinum toxin injections into the masseter and temporalis muscles. This should probably be done early in the course of tetanus to reduce the risk of pulmonary aspiration, involuntary tongue biting, anorexia and dental caries. Other muscle groups are also amenable to botulinum toxin treatment. Six tetanus patients have been successfully treated with botulinum toxin A. This review discusses the use of botulinum toxin for tetanus in the context of the pathophysiology, symptomatology, and medical treatment of Clostridium tetani infection.

  19. AFRIMEDIC VOL. 2, NO. 2

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Buchi

    vaccine. The efficacy of the tetanus toxoid in protecting individuals from tetanus has been recognized for many decades now. Consequently, international and national health bodies have ... through the active immunization of all individuals at risk. .... appendicectomy carried out in a doctors residence, 1 episiotomy carried ...

  20. Conformational Changes in Small Ligands Upon Tetanus Toxin Binding

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Henderson, Terry J; Gitti, Rossitza K

    2008-01-01

    ... A upon binding to tetanus toxin. C13 T1 measurements suggested that to a first approximation, the conformational behavior of doxorubicin in solution appears to be a composite of a rigid aromatic ring system, ring librations...

  1. Tetanus epidemiology in Santa Catarina, Brazil from 1998 to 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Mattos, Ana Carolina Squeff de; Hernandes Júnior, Clineu Gaspar; Fuentefria, Alexandre Meneghello

    2010-01-01

    Objetive: This work describes demographic and clinical characteristics of individuals with accidental tetanus in Santa Catarina, Brazil. Materials and Methods: 291 cases of accidental tetanus reported from 1998 to 2008 were analyzed retrospectively through a cross-sectional, descriptive and correlated study based on percentage and numeric frequency as well as on number and incidence rate (i.r.) found in compulsory notification forms. Results: Most cases (73,54%) occurred among men residing in...

  2. Clinical characteristics of adult tetanus in a Taiwan medical center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Chieh Weng

    2011-11-01

    Conclusion: This study revealed several characteristics of adult tetanus cases in the post-vaccine era in Taiwan. Further serological studies and improved tetanus vaccinations may be needed to ensure better protection, especially for high-risk populations. The exceptionally good prognosis for our patients confirms that appropriate treatment, including wound care, early diagnosis, proper medication, and prevention of complications, is essential in managing this traditional curable disease.

  3. Tetanus and botulinum neurotoxins: mechanism of action and therapeutic uses.

    OpenAIRE

    Pellizzari, R; Rossetto, O.; G. Schiavo; Montecucco, C

    1999-01-01

    The clostridial neurotoxins responsible for tetanus and botulism are proteins consisting of three domains endowed with different functions: neurospecific binding, membrane translocation and proteolysis for specific components of the neuroexocytosis apparatus. Tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT) binds to the presynaptic membrane of the neuromuscular junction, is internalized and transported retroaxonally to the spinal cord. The spastic paralysis induced by the toxin is due to the blockade of neurotransm...

  4. Generalized Tetanus in a Gyrfalcon ( Falco rusticolus ) with Pododermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaufrère, Hugues; Laniesse, Delphine; Stickings, Paul; Tierney, Robert; Sesardic, Thea; Slavic, Durda; Compo, Nicole; Smith, Dale A

    2016-12-01

    A 2-yr-old male gyrfalcon ( Falco rusticolus ) was presented for severe and generalized muscle spasticity and pododermatitis. The falcon had been treated for pododermatitis over the previous 4 mo. Muscle rigidity and spasms involved the entire bird but were more severe on the right leg. The bird was also tachypneic and hyperthermic at 45 C. While the plantar pododermatitis lesions had healed, there was still a small abscess on the lateral aspect of the right foot. Clinical signs were consistent with tetanus. Several bacteria were isolated from the abscess including Clostridium tetani . The isolate was confirmed to be toxigenic by PCR. Attempts to detect tetanus toxin in the bird's plasma were unsuccessful. The abscess was debrided. The gyrfalcon received equine tetanus antitoxin, intravenous metronidazole, methocarbamol, midazolam, a constant-rate infusion of Fentanyl, active cooling, and supportive care. Inhalant anesthesia with isoflurane was the only treatment that would lower the body temperature and reduce the clinical signs. The gyrfalcon died a few hours after admission. The characteristic clinical signs and isolation of toxigenic C. tetani from a wound were strong supportive evidence for a diagnosis of tetanus. This case constitutes the first reported natural occurrence of tetanus in an avian species. Further information is needed to determine whether gyrfalcons are more susceptible to tetanus than are other avian species and whether pododermatitis lesions may be risk factors.

  5. 21 Days head-down bed rest induces weakening of cell-mediated immunity - Some spaceflight findings confirmed in a ground-based analog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsen, Jens; Bartels, Lars Erik; Dige, Anders; Hvas, Christian Lodberg; Frings-Meuthen, Petra; Boehme, Gisela; Thomsen, Marianne Kragh; Fenger-Grøn, Morten; Dahlerup, Jens Frederik

    2012-08-01

    Several studies indicate a weakening of cell-mediated immunity (CMI) and reactivation of latent herpes viruses during spaceflight. We tested the hypothesis that head-down bed rest (HDBR), a ground-based analog of spaceflight, mimics the impact of microgravity on human immunity. Seven healthy young males underwent two periods of 3 weeks HDBR in the test facility of the German Aerospace Center. As a nutritional countermeasure aimed against bone demineralisation, 90 mmol potassium bicarbonate (KHCO(3)) was administered daily in a crossover design. Blood samples were drawn on five occasions. Whole blood was stimulated with antigen i.e. Candida albicans, purified protein derivative (PPD) tuberculin, tetanus toxoid and Cytomegalovirus (CMV) (CMV-QuantiFERON). Flow cytometric analysis included CD4(+)CD25(+)CD127(-)FOXP3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs), γδ T cells, B cells, NK cells and dendritic cells. In one of the two bed rest periods, we observed a significant decrease in production of interleukin-2 (IL-2), interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) following phytohemagglutinin (PHA) stimulation, with a rapid normalization being observed after HDBR. The cytokine levels showed a V-shaped pattern that led to a relativeTh2-shift in cytokine balance. Only three individuals responded to the specific T cell antigens without showing signs of an altered response during HDBR, nor did we observe reactivation of CMV or Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Of unknown significance, dietary supplementation with KHCO(3) counteracted the decrease in IL-2 levels during HDBR, while there was no impact on other immunological parameters. We conclude that discrete alterations in CMI may be induced by HDBR in selected individuals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Immunization Dropout Rates in Ihe, Awgu Local Government Area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Immunization against childhood diseases is one of the most important ways of preventing childhood morbidity and mortality. Aims: The objective of this study is to review the dropout rates of immunization of children in a health center using a single dose of diphtheria‑pertussis‑tetanus (DPT1) and three doses of ...

  7. Toxoide de la difteria en el tratamiento de la lepra (1)

    OpenAIRE

    Chala H., J. Ignacio; Lleras Restrepo, Federico

    2011-01-01

    En abril de 1939 el doctor D. R. Collier de "Cheingmai Leper Asylum", Thailand, informó sobre los óptimos resultados obtenidos en el tratamiento de la lepra por medio de la "antitoxina" y "toxoide" de la difteria. Las investigaciones las llevó a cabo en un grupo de enfermos de ese leprosorio.

  8. Toxoide de la difteria en el tratamiento de la lepra (1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ignacio Chala H.

    1943-09-01

    Full Text Available En abril de 1939 el doctor D. R. Collier de "Cheingmai Leper Asylum", Thailand, informó sobre los óptimos resultados obtenidos en el tratamiento de la lepra por medio de la "antitoxina" y "toxoide" de la difteria. Las investigaciones las llevó a cabo en un grupo de enfermos de ese leprosorio.

  9. 9 CFR 113.110 - Clostridium Botulinum Type C Bacterin-Toxoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Inactivated Bacterial Products § 113.110 Clostridium Botulinum Type C Bacterin-Toxoid. Clostridium... challenged intraperitoneally with botulinum Type C toxin which has been titrated in mice to provide for a 104...

  10. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    determine the serological response in children those of neonatal tetanus, 'n l d'n t' ht 'aw, ' . . . . 1 c u 1 g 1g 1 aged 1-15 years immunized With diphtheria- stiff neck ' \\rbody muscles, difficult pertusis-tetanus vaccine (DPT) alone or with swallowin and s asms. Cases occur between . / g p tetanus toxoid (TT) booster dose ...

  11. Tdap (tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis) vaccine - what you need to know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... after a severe cut or burn to prevent tetanus infection. Your doctor or the person giving you the vaccine can give you more information. Tdap may safely be given at the ... tetanus or pertussis containing vaccine, OR has a severe ...

  12. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) adhesin-toxoid MEFA (multiepitope fusion antigen) CFA/I/II/IV-3xSTaN12S-mnLTG192G/L211A derived antibodies inhibit adherence of seven adhesins (CFA/I, CFA/II & CFA/IV), neutralize enterotoxicity of both toxins (LT & STa), and protect piglets against diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandre, Rahul; Ruan, Xiaosai; Lu, Ti; Duan, Qiangde; Sack, David; Zhang, Weiping

    2017-12-20

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are a leading cause of children's diarrhea and travelers' diarrhea. Vaccines inducing antibodies to broadly inhibit bacterial adherence and to neutralize toxin enterotoxicity are expected effective against ETEC-associated diarrhea. 6xHis-tagged adhesin-toxoid fusion proteins were shown to induce neutralizing antibodies to several adhesins and LT and STa toxins (X. Ruan, DA Sack, W. Zhang, PLoS ONE, 10:e0121623, 2015). However, antibodies derived from his-tagged CFA/I/II/IV-2xSTaA14Q-dmLT or CFA/I/II/IV-2xSTaN12S-dmLT protein were less effective in neutralizing STa enterotoxicity and were not evaluated in vivo for efficacy against ETEC diarrhea. Additionally, his-tagged proteins are considered less desirable for human vaccines. In this study, we produced a tag-less adhesin-toxoid MEFA (multiepitope fusion antigen) protein, enhanced anti-STa immunogenicity by including a third copy of STa toxoid STaN12S, and examined antigen immunogenicity in a murine model. Moreover, we immunized pregnant pigs with the tag-less adhesin-toxoid MEFA protein and evaluated passive antibody protection against STa+ or LT+ ETEC infection in a pig challenge model. Results showed that tag-less adhesin-toxoid MEFA CFA/I/II/IV-3xSTaN12S-mnLTR192G/L211A induced broad anti-adhesin and antitoxin antibody responses in the intraperitoneally immunized mice and the intramuscularly immunized pigs. Mouse and pig serum antibodies significantly inhibited adherence of seven CFA adhesins (CFA/I, CS1 to CS6) and effectively neutralized both toxins. More importantly, suckling piglets born to the immunized mothers acquired antibodies and were protected against STa+ ETEC and LT+ ETEC diarrhea. These results indicated tag-less CFA/I/II/IV-3xSTaN12S-mnLTR192G/L211A induced broadly protective anti-adhesin and antitoxin antibodies and suggested this adhesin-toxoid MEFA a potential antigen for developing broadly protective ETEC vaccines. Copyright © 2017 American Society for

  13. Determinants of tetanus, diphtheria and poliomyelitis vaccinations among Hajj pilgrims, Marseille, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautret, Philippe; Yong, Winnie; Soula, Georges; Parola, Philippe; Brouqui, Philippe; DelVecchio Good, Mary-Jo

    2010-08-01

    It has been observed that Muslim pilgrims departing France for Mecca have low national immunization rates against tetanus, diphtheria and poliomyelitis (TdP). Our purpose is to identify immigration, socio-economic and socio-cultural determinants of vaccination coverage against TdP. A cross-sectional survey study was conducted in late 2006 among 580 pilgrims in preparation who attended the Infectious and Tropical Medicine ward in Hôpital Nord at Marseille to receive their N. meningitidis vaccine required for travel to Mecca. Total vaccination rates for tetanus (18.9%), diphtheria (14.7%) and poliomyelitis (15.0%) were comparable. Pilgrim's characteristic lower socio-economic and social status, in addition to their unifying linguistic, cultural and religious identity defines them as a particularly disadvantageous group in France. French citizenship, higher level of education, better French fluency and no previous travel to country of origin were the strongest and most significant determinants of TdP vaccination status. These results suggest that the Muslim community in France is at risk from inequities of national preventive care efforts.

  14. Challenges of tracheostomy in patients managed for severe tetanus in a developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayotunde James Fasunla

    2010-01-01

    Conclusions: Tetanus is still a major health problem in develop-ing countries and this can be prevented if recommended childhood tetanus vaccination and booster shots regimen are properly taken. Although, tracheostomy is associated with complications in severe tetanus patients, these patients would have all died of cardio-respiratory failure if tracheostomy had not been performed.

  15. Incidence and outcome of neonatal tetanus in Enugu over a 10-year ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Tetanus is a preventable disease that can be eradicated by immunisation and improved obstetric practice. Aim. To study the trend and outcome of tetanus admissions among children in the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH), Enugu, Nigeria. Method. All cases of tetanus admitted into the children's ...

  16. Tetanus infection in an HIV-positive patient with a history of prior ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An HIV-positive woman (previously vaccinated against tetanus) presented with tetanus infection after uvulectomy and manual vacuum aspiration (MVA).The course of her disease and treatment exposed critical issues in the proper prophylaxis and management of tetanus, particularly in a limited-resource setting with a high ...

  17. Clinical Tetanus in Pigs in a Pig Farming Complex, Lagos, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tetanus is a state of muscular contractions caused by infection of wounds with the bacterium, Clostridium tetani. This bacterium produces toxins that affect the nervous system of both humans and animals. Although tetanus is rare in swine, in this report, we examine two clinical cases of tetanus in a pig farming complex in ...

  18. Maternal immunization with vaccines containing recombinant NetB toxin partially protects progeny chickens from necrotic enteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyburn, Anthony L; Portela, Ricardo W; Ford, Mark E; Bannam, Trudi L; Yan, Xu X; Rood, Julian I; Moore, Robert J

    2013-11-13

    Avian necrotic enteritis is a major economic and welfare issue throughout the global poultry industry and is caused by isolates of Clostridium perfringens that produce NetB toxin. Previously we have shown that birds directly vaccinated with inactivated C. perfringens type A culture supernatant (toxoid) combined with recombinant NetB (rNetB) protein were significantly protected from homologous and heterologous challenge. In the present study the protective effect of maternal immunization was examined. Broiler breeder hens were injected subcutaneously with genetically toxoided rNetB(S254L) alone, C. perfringens type A toxoid and toxoid combined with rNetB(S254L). Vaccination resulted in a strong serum immunoglobulin Y response to NetB in hens immunized with rNetB(S254L) formulations. Anti-NetB antibodies were transferred to the eggs and on into the hatched progeny. Subclinical necrotic enteritis was induced experimentally in the progeny and the occurrence of specific necrotic enteritis lesions evaluated. Birds derived from hens immunized with rNetB(S254L) combined with toxoid and challenged with a homologous strain (EHE-NE18) at either 14 or 21 days post-hatch had significantly lower levels of disease compared to birds from adjuvant only vaccinated hens. In addition, birds from hens immunized with rNetB(S254L) alone were significantly protected when challenged at 14 days post-hatch. These results demonstrate that maternal immunization with a NetB-enhanced toxoid vaccine is a promising method for the control of necrotic enteritis in young broiler chickens.

  19. [Shiga toxin and tetanus toxin as a potential biologic weapon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toczyska, Izabela; Płusa, Tadeusz

    2015-09-01

    Toxins produced by the bacteria are of particular interest as potential cargo combat possible for use in a terrorist attack or war. Shiga toxin is usually produced by shiga toxigenic strains of Escherichia coli (STEC - shigatoxigenic Escherichia coli). To infection occurs mostly after eating contaminated beef. Clinical syndromes associated with Shiga toxin diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis, hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS - hemolytic uremic syndrome) or thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. Treatment is symptomatic. In HUS, in which mortality during an epidemic reaches 20%, extending the kidney injury dialysis may be necessary. Exposure to tetanus toxin produced by Clostridium tetani, resulting in the most generalized tetanus, characterized by increased muscle tension and painful contractions of individual muscle groups. In the treatment beyond symptomatic behavior (among others spasticity medications, anticonvulsants, muscle relaxants) is used tetanus antitoxin and antibiotics (metronidazole choice). A common complication is acute respiratory failure - then it is necessary to implement mechanical ventilation. © 2015 MEDPRESS.

  20. Trismus, the first symptom in a challenging diagnosis of Tetanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannini, Lorenzo; Maccari, Alberto; Chiesa, Valentina; Canevini, Maria Paola

    2016-02-11

    Tetanus is a severe, life-threatening infectious disease present worldwide. The incidence of this disease is very low in developed countries, and practitioners are unfamiliar with its symptoms and signs, resulting in late diagnosis and low recovery rate. Furthermore, main symptoms, such as trismus, are often associated with several confounding factors: these may lead the physician to send patients towards an incorrect diagnostic management and the calling on of wrong specialists. This case focuses on the importance of considering tetanus in the differential diagnosis of trismus associated with systemic symptoms, and discusses the clinical implications of an initial wrong diagnostic pathway. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  1. Botulinum and tetanus neurotoxins: structure, function and therapeutic utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turton, Kathryn; Chaddock, John A; Acharya, K Ravi

    2002-11-01

    The toxic products of the anaerobic bacteria Clostridium botulinum, Clostridium butyricum, Clostridium barati and Clostridium tetani are the causative agents of botulism and tetanus. The ability of botulinum neurotoxins to disrupt neurotransmission, often for prolonged periods, has been exploited for use in several medical applications and the toxins, as licensed pharmaceutical products, now represent the therapeutics of choice for the treatment for several neuromuscular conditions. Research into the structures and activities of botulinum and tetanus toxins has revealed features of these proteins that might be useful in the design of improved vaccines, effective inhibitors and novel biopharmaceuticals. Here, we discuss the relationships between structure, mechanism of action and therapeutic use.

  2. The effect of vitamin A supplementation and diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccination on parasitaemia in an experimental murine malaria model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Mathias Jul; Hein-Kristensen, Line; Hempel, Casper

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background: Vitamin A supplementation (VAS) decreases overall child mortality in low-income countries. For logistical reasons, VAS has been linked to routine childhood immunizations. However, several recent studies have indicated that VAS may increase mortality and morbidity from...... infectious diseases when given with the diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccine. The immunological effects of combining the 2 treatments are unknown. Methods: We studied the effect of treating C57BL/6 mice with VAS and DTP, 1 week prior to infection with Plasmodium berghei ANKA. The progression of disease...

  3. Randomized trial on the safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of MenACWY-CRM, an investigational quadrivalent meningococcal glycoconjugate vaccine, administered concomitantly with a combined tetanus, reduced diphtheria, and acellular pertussis vaccine in adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparini, Roberto; Conversano, Michele; Bona, Gianni; Gabutti, Giovanni; Anemona, Alessandra; Dull, Peter M; Ceddia, Francesca

    2010-04-01

    This study evaluated the safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of an investigational quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine, MenACWY-CRM, when administered concomitantly with a combined tetanus, reduced diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine, in subjects aged 11 to 25 years. Subjects received either MenACWY-CRM and Tdap, MenACWY-CRM and saline placebo, or Tdap and saline placebo. No significant increase in reactogenicity and no clinically significant vaccine-related adverse events (AEs) occurred when MenACWY-CRM and Tdap were administered concomitantly. Similar immunogenic responses to diphtheria, tetanus, and meningococcal (serogroups A, C, W-135, and Y) antigens were observed, regardless of concomitant vaccine administration. Antipertussis antibody responses were comparable between vaccine groups for filamentous hemagglutinin and were slightly lower, although not clinically significantly, for pertussis toxoid and pertactin when the two vaccines were administered concomitantly. These results indicate that the investigational MenACWY-CRM vaccine is well tolerated and immunogenic and that it can be coadministered with Tdap to adolescents and young adults.

  4. Tetanus toxin modulates serotonin transport in rat-brain neuronal cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelliccioni, P; Gil, C; Najib, A; Sarri, E; Picatoste, F; Aguilera, J

    2001-12-01

    As has been previously described, tetanus toxin (TeTx) and its H(C) fragment inhibit the sodium-dependent 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) uptake in rat-brain synaptosomes, probably through a kinase mechanism affecting the 5-HT transporter. Now, the inhibition of 5-HT uptake in neurons in primary culture by TeTx in a dose-dependent manner is described in this work. This effect is also produced by the nontoxic C-terminal fragment of the TeTx heavy chain (H(C)-fragment), indicating that 5-HT uptake inhibition is a consequence of the toxin binding to the plasmatic membrane and not to its catalytic activity. This conclusion is supported by the fact that the 5-HT accumulation was not inhibited by the light chain of TeTx or the toxoid, and was even potentiated by botulinum neurotoxin A. These results correlate with the activation of phosphoinositide-phospholipase C activity in the cultures used in this study, this activity only being enhanced by TeTx and by its Hc-fragment. On the other hand, the use of tyrosine phosphorylation modulators indicates that both Na3VO4 and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) produce an enhancement of 5-HT uptake in this system, which is also sensitive to TeTx inhibition. On the other hand, genistein alone is able to reduce the 5-HT transport in cultured neurons, and this effect did not appear to be additive to that elicited by TeTx. This result suggests that TeTx and genistein may share some events in their respective mechanisms of action. Furthermore, the incubation at different concentrations of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) confirms the involvement of protein kinase C (PKC) in 5-HT transport modulation in rat-brain neuronal primary cultures. In summary, we shall demonstrate in this work that TeTx induces, through its Hc fragment, an inhibition of both basal and stimulated serotonin uptakes in primary neuronal cultures, in parallel to the activation of phosphoinositide-phospholipase C activity and PKC activation.

  5. Effect of buckminsterfullerenes on cells of the innate and adaptive immune system: an in vitro study with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunz, Hanno; Plankenhorn, Sandra; Klein, Reinhild

    2012-01-01

    C60 nanoparticles, the so-called buckminsterfullerenes, have attracted great attention for medical applications as carriers, enzyme inhibitors or radical scavengers. However, publications evaluating their immunological mechanisms are still rather limited. Therefore, we aimed to analyze systematically the in vitro influence of polyhydroxy-C60 (poly-C60) and N-ethyl-polyamino-C60 (nepo-C60) on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from healthy individuals, angling their effect on proliferation, expression of surface markers, and cytokine production. We isolated PBMC from 20 healthy subjects and incubated them in a first step only with poly-C60 or nepo-C60, and in a second step together with recall antigens (purified protein derivative, tetanus toxoid, bacillus Calmette-Guérin). Proliferation was determined by 3H-thymidine incorporation, activation of PBMC-subpopulations by flow cytometry by measurement of the activation marker CD69, and secretion of T helper cell type 1 (TH1)- (interferon-gamma [IFN-γ], tumor necrosis factor beta [TNF-β]), TH2- (interleukin-5 [IL-5], −13, −10) and macrophage/monocyte-related cytokines (IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α) into the supernatants by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Both fullerenes did not influence T cell reactivity, with no enhanced expression of CD69 and production of T cell cytokines observed, the CD4/CD8 ratio remaining unaffected. In contrast, they significantly enhanced the release of IL-6 and CD69-expression by CD56 positive natural killer cells. PBMC, which had been cultured together with the three recall antigens were not affected by both fullerenes at all. These data indicate that fullerenes do not interact with T cell reactivity but may activate cells of the innate immune system. Furthermore, they seem to act only on ‘naïve’ cells, which have not been prestimulated with recall antigens, there are however, large inter individual differences. PMID:22942641

  6. manual vacuum aspiration in the management of post abortal tetanus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eight (8) of the patients had uterine evacuation while in coma, while three (3) were conscious but had spasm and features of tetanus. The age range was between (19 — 37) years; the uterine evacuation was performed on the patient's bed after adequate sedation to present spasms. The clinical improvement was ...

  7. Clinical profile and outcome of pediatrics tetanus: the experience of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Tetanus is an acute vaccine preventable illness manifested by neuromuscular dysfunction due to a potent exotoxin, tetanospasmin produced by Clostridium tetani. It is a common health problem in developing countries like Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to assess clinical profile and outcome of Pediatrics ...

  8. Characteristics of adult tetanus in Accra | Hesse | West African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This retrospective study was undertaken to define the characteristics of cases of tetanus in adults admitted to the Korle-bu Teaching Hospital, Accra, Ghana, from 1 January 1994 to 31 December, 2001. Methods: Information was extracted from the admission and discharge registers of the Isolation Unit of Korle-bu Teaching ...

  9. Neonatal Tetanus in Nigeria: One Social Scourge too many! | Akani ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Neonatal tetanus (NNT) is still a major cause of morbidity and mortality among neonates in Nigeria and every case is an embarrassment to the health services provided in the country. Nigeria is one of 27 countries that account for 90 percent of the global burden of NNT. Major contributors to the persistently high incidence of ...

  10. The treatment of autonomic dysfunction in tetanus | Maryke Spruyt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report a case of generalised tetanus in a 50-year-old female patient after sustaining a wound to her right lower leg. She developed autonomic dysfunction, which included labile hypertension alternating with hypotension and sweating. The autonomic dysfunction was treated successfully with a combination of morphine ...

  11. Neonatal tetanus prevention programme in Kenya: Successes and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To review the disease process, and success and controversies associated with neonatal tetanus control in Kenya. Data sources: Medline search on published articles in journals, books and national/ international agency reports. Data selection: Relevant literature from peer-reviewed scientific papers, international ...

  12. Tetanus following Fournier's gangrene: case report and literature ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A forty-year-old man with Tetanus complicating Fournier's gangrene seen at the Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital Zaria is presented. Fournier's gangrene is a form of necrotizing fascitis affecting the scrotum. It can occur in otherwise healthy individual, but in many cases underlying problems like diabetes mellitus, ...

  13. Tetanus – A Review Of Current Concepts In Management | Ogunrin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tetanus is a vaccinepreventable disease that yearly causes a total of 309,000 deaths. Reports showed up to 1 million cases annually, mostly in underdeveloped countries. Clostridium tetani, the causative organism, is widespread in the faeces of domestic animals and humans, while spores of C. tetani are abundant in soil ...

  14. [Molecular mechanism of action of tetanus toxin and botulinum neurotoxins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulain, B

    1994-02-01

    Tetanus toxin and botulinum neurotoxins are di-chain proteins of 150 kD molecular weight. They are produced by bacteria of the Clostridium genus. These toxins act on the nervous system by inhibiting neurotransmitter release (glycine and GABA in the case of tetanus toxin; acetylcholine in the case of botulinum neurotoxins) thus inducing the spastic or flaccid paralysis that characterizes tetanus and botulism, respectively. Their cellular mechanism of action involves three main steps, namely binding to the neurone membrane, internalization and intracellular blockade of the release mechanism for neurotransmitters. Membrane acceptors for these toxins are not yet fully identified; they would consist of membrane gangliosides and proteins. The internalization step would be achieved by endocytosis. Recent findings show that both binding and internalization are mediated only by the heavy chain of the toxins whereas the intracellular blockade of neurotransmitter release involves their light chain alone. The light chain has been identified as a zinc metalloprotease and its substrates would be proteins involved in the neurotransmitter release mechanism. The target of tetanus toxin and of botulinum neurotoxin type B is VAMP/synaptobrevin, a membrane protein of the synaptic vesicles of nerve cell terminals.

  15. [Tetanus in Brazil: a disease of the elderly?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, E N; Pedroso, E R

    2000-01-01

    Epidemiological data regarding the age distribution of tetanus in Brazil is scarce. This work analyzed the historical evolution of tetanus in Brazil, between 1980 and 1991, according to the Mortality Information System and established the age distribution for this disease. The data used was that provided by FUNASA-CENEPI, DATASUS and IBGE. Between 1980 and 1991, the coefficient of general incidence dropped from 2.6 to 1.0 case per 100,000 inhabitants. There was a decline in the mortality coefficients within all the age groups, except in the elderly. In the North and South regions, there was an increase in the mortality coefficient among the elderly. Infantile tetanus is disappearing, particularly, in the developed areas. However, the overall lethality tended to rise in this period and, in 1991, it reached 32.5%. In Brazil, tetanus presents epidemic behavior similar to that observed in the developed countries, where the elderly represent the main risk group to contract and die from the disease.

  16. Clinical profile and outcome of adult tetanus in Kano | Owolabi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Introduction: Though tetanus is rare in the developed countries of the world, it remains a major public health hazard in the developing world like Nigeria despite availability of inexpensive vaccine. ... The most common portal of entry was leg wound while portal of entry was not identifiable in 37 (29.4%) patients.

  17. Tetanus Complicating Typhoid Ileal Perforation: A Case Report | Eze ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Both tetanus and typhoid ileitis are endemic in poor developing nations. This presentation aims at contributing to the list of complications of typhoid intestinal perforation. Case Report: A 30-year old male had acute abdomen. Exploratory laparotomy revealed typhoid perforation with faecal contamination of the ...

  18. Neonatal Tetanus in Mgeria: One Social Scourge too many!

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    :percent of the global burden of NNT. ... Annual and Monthhl Dirtrihutian 0f 308 Cases of Neonatal Tetanus at the Uninerrity zy' Port Harmnrt Teaching Horpz'tal ..... 10. WHO. The World Health Report 1996 - Fighting disease, fostering development. World Health Forum 1997; 1821~. 8. 11 Federal Ministry of Health and ...

  19. Adult tetanus at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The management was carried out in the general medical wards and consisted of anti-tetanus serum (ATS), crystalline penicillin, dextrose infusion, diazepam and metho carbarmol provided for by patients. Results: There were 42 patients: 26 males and 16 females. The ages ranged from 15 to 60 years (mean 29 years).

  20. VACCINES AND IMMUNIZATION: WORLD SITUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.H. Brundtland

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The last issue of the report «vaccines and immunization: world situation» stresses considerable success in immunization at the global level since the mid 90 s — completely total eradication of poliomyelitis across the world, as well as the drastic reduction of the new measles and tetanus cases among mothers and newborns in some poor countries. The report also briefly describes the progress in the development and implementation of the new life saving vaccines, which may save millions of lives annually. The authors have explained some of the reasons, why the global community should invest in immunization, as well as the perspectives for the use of vaccines and immunization in future.Key words: vaccine, immunization, children.

  1. Impact of a pharmacist immunizer on adult immunization rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginbotham, Suzanne; Stewart, Autumn; Pfalzgraf, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    To describe the immunization needs of indigent community-dwelling patients from a primary care center for the medically underserved, evaluate the impact of a pharmacist immunizer on vaccination rates of adults presenting for care, and evaluate the impact of a pharmacist immunizer on the percent of adult patients who are current on immunizations. Prospective, controlled, parallel study among patients aged 18 to 79 years presenting for a medical appointment at a primary health care center located in a metropolitan area and providing care to the medically underserved. An immunization needs assessment (INA) was used to identify patients not current on adult immunizations. The intervention group received an offer to be immunized by a pharmacist using the results from the INA. Vaccination rates and percent of patients current on vaccinations were obtained using electronic medical records. Of 101 participants, 82 (81.2%) needed at least one immunization. The availability of a pharmacist immunizer had a significant impact on the number of patients who were current on all immunizations at the completion of the study. The combination of the INA by a pharmacist demonstrated a significant effect on influenza and tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis vaccination rates. The use of an identical tool by other health care providers did not have an impact on individual vaccine rates or the likelihood of patients being brought current on vaccinations. A dedicated pharmacist immunizer embedded in an indigent care primary health care clinic had a significant impact on increasing adult immunization rates and bringing patients current on vaccinations.

  2. Reported History of Measles and Long-term Impact on Antibody to Tetanus in Children 6–59 Months of Age Receiving DTP in the Democratic Republic of Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbaugh, Hayley; Cherry, James D; Gerber, Sue; Higgins, Stephen G; Gadoth, Adva; Alfonso, Vivian H; Mukadi, Patrick; Hoff, Nicole; Doshi, Reena; Rimoin, Anne W

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Recent studies suggest a measles-induced immune amnesia that could have long-term immunosuppressive effects via preferential depletion of memory B and T CD150+ lymphocytes. Methods We examined the association between past measles and tetanus antibody levels among children participating in the 2013–2014 Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) Demographic and Health Survey (DHS). Our sample consisted of 833 children aged 6–59 months whose mothers were selected for interview. Mothers reported (via recall) history of measles within the lifetime of the child. Classification of children who previously had measles was completed using maternal recall and measles immunoglobulin G (IgG) serostatus obtained via dried blood spot (DBS) analysis. A multiplex chemiluminescent immunoassay platform was used to obtain serologic results and Assay Score (AS) was calculated as a ratio to a positive control included in each run. Tetanus serostatus was categorized as being above or below the sample median serology AS value. Tetanus vaccination status was obtained via dated vaccination card and limited to children receiving the complete 3-dose vaccination series. Results The median AS for tetanus serology among the entire sample of 833 children was 0.085, while children with history of measles had a median AS of 0.053 (N = 41) and children with no history of measles had a median AS of 0.088 (N = 792), chi-square P-value < 0.05. A random intercept logistic regression model was used to examine the association between previous measles disease and odds of having below median levels of tetanus antibody. Controlling for potential confounding variables, the odds of a child with past history of measles having less than the median level of tetanus antibody was 3.86 (95% CI: 1.70, 8.78) among children fully vaccinated for tetanus. Conclusion The results suggest that, among children 6–59 months in DRC, measles may have a long-term impact on levels of pre-existing, vaccine

  3. Opposite effects of actively and passively acquired immunity to the carrier on responses of human infants to a Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barington, T; Gyhrs, A; Kristensen, Kim

    1994-01-01

    Vaccination of infants with Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) capsular polysaccharide (HibCP) coupled to carrier proteins has proven protective against invasive Hib diseases in several trials. However, insufficient immunogenicity has been noted in certain populations. Therefore, studies analyzing...... factors influencing the antibody response to conjugate vaccines are needed. In this study, the response to HibCP coupled to tetanus toxoid (TT) was examined in relation to (i) priming with or coadministration of the carrier protein and (ii) the levels of passively acquired maternal TT antibodies. One...... hundred forty-four infants were vaccinated with HibCP-TT at 5 and 6 months. They were randomized into three groups that received TT as part of a diphtheria-tetanus-polio vaccine at either 6 and 7 months (group A), 5 and 6 months (group B), or 4 and 5 months (group C). Maternally acquired TT antibodies...

  4. Efficacy of a non-updated, Matrix-C-based equine influenza subunit-tetanus vaccine following Florida sublineage clade 2 challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouwels, H G W; Van de Zande, S M A; Horspool, L J I; Hoeijmakers, M J H

    2014-06-21

    Assessing the ability of current equine influenza vaccines to provide cross-protection against emerging strains is important. Horses not vaccinated previously and seronegative for equine influenza based on haemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay were assigned at random to vaccinated (n=7) or non-vaccinated (control, n=5) groups. Vaccination was performed twice four weeks apart with a 1 ml influenza subunit (A/eq/Prague/1/56, A/eq/Newmarket/1/93, A/eq/Newmarket/2/93), tetanus toxoid vaccine with Matrix-C adjuvant (EquilisPrequenza Te). All the horses were challenged individually by aerosol with A/eq/Richmond/1/07 three weeks after the second vaccination. Rectal temperature, clinical signs, serology and virus excretion were monitored for 14 days after challenge. There was no pain at the injection site or increases in rectal temperature following vaccination. Increases in rectal temperature and characteristic clinical signs were recorded in the control horses. Clinical signs were minimal in vaccinated horses. Clinical (P=0.0345) and total clinical scores (P=0.0180) were significantly lower in the vaccinated than in the control horses. Vaccination had a significant effect on indicators of viraemia - the extent (P=0.0006) and duration (P=horse was positive or negative for virus excretion during the study. Further research is needed to fully understand the specific properties of this vaccine that may contribute to its cross-protective capacity. British Veterinary Association.

  5. Supplementation of Merino ewes with vitamin E plus selenium increases α-tocopherol and selenium concentrations in plasma of the lamb but does not improve their immune function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterndale, S; Broomfield, S; Currie, A; Hancock, S; Kearney, G A; Lei, J; Liu, S; Lockwood, A; Scanlan, V; Smith, G; Thompson, A N

    2017-10-24

    Vitamin E and selenium have been reported to improve immune function across a range of species. Ewes lambing on poor-quality dry pasture in autumn in Western Australia are at risk of being deficient in vitamin E and selenium at lambing thus predisposing their lambs to deficiencies and increasing the risk of infection and disease. This study tested the hypotheses that (i) supplementation of autumn-lambing ewes with vitamin E plus selenium in late gestation will increase the concentrations of vitamin E and selenium in plasma in the ewe and lamb and (ii) that the increased concentrations of vitamin E and selenium in plasma in the lambs will improve their innate and adaptive immune responses and thus survival. Pregnant Merino ewes were divided into a control group (n=58) which received no supplementation or a group supplemented with vitamin E plus selenium (n=55). On days 111, 125 and 140 of pregnancy ewes in the vitamin E plus selenium group were given 4 g all-rac-α-tocopherol acetate orally. On day 111 the ewes were also given 60 mg of selenium as barium selenate by subcutaneous injection. The concentrations of α-tocopherol and selenium were measured in ewes and/or lambs from day 111 of pregnancy to 14 weeks of age±10 days (weaning). Immune function of the lamb was assessed by analysing the numbers and phagocytic capacities of monocytes and polymorphonuclear leucocytes and plasma IgG and anti-tetanus toxoid antibody concentrations between birth and 14 weeks of age±10 days. Maternal supplementation with vitamin E plus selenium increased the concentration of α-tocopherol in plasma (1.13 v. 0.67 mg/l; Pselenium in whole blood (0.12 v. 0.07 mg/l; PSupplementation also increased the concentration of α-tocopherol (0.14 v. 0.08 mg/l; Pselenium (0.08 v. 0.05 mg/l; Psupplementation on immune function or survival in the lambs.

  6. The effect of prophylaxis with chloroquine and proguanil on delayed-type hypersensitivity and antibody production following vaccination with diphtheria, tetanus, polio, and pneumococcal vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyhrs, A; Pedersen, B K; Bygbjerg, I

    1991-01-01

    (1,000 mg/week), or 4) proguanil hydrochloride (200 mg/day) for six weeks. Skin testing was performed on days 0 and 28. Vaccinations with diphtheria, tetanus, polio, and pneumococcal polysaccharide antigen vaccines were performed on day 28, and the presence of specific antibodies was determined...... dosages, does not induce any detectable suppression of delayed-type hypersensitivity or vaccination responses to diphtheria, tetanus, polio, or pneumococcal polysaccharide antigens....... with seven delayed-type common antigens (Multitest) and 2) humoral immunity by measurement of specific antibody response to vaccination. Sixty healthy young individuals were randomized into four groups and given 1) no treatment (controls), 2) chloroquine diphosphate (500 mg/week), 3) chloroquine diphosphate...

  7. Page 1 Missed Opportunities for Immunization... Samuel G. etal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    102 Ethiop, J. Health Sct diseases, namely, measles, pertussis and neonatal tetanus. More than a quarter of a. Ifillion children are condemned to life long disability in the developing world due to poliomyelitis (1). All these deaths and disabilities can be prevented to a large extent. if children were appropriately immunized for.

  8. Tetanus toxin: convulsant action on mouse spinal cord neurons in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergey, G K; MacDonald, R L; Habig, W H; Hardegree, M C; Nelson, P G

    1983-11-01

    The effects of direct application of tetanus toxin on fetal mouse spinal cord neurons in culture are described. Tetanus toxin produces increased excitation characterized by paroxysmal depolarizing events (PDE). In contrast to the abrupt onset of convulsant action produced by postsynaptic glycine antagonist strychnine, the convulsant action of tetanus occurs after a dose-dependent latent period. The onset of the convulsant action of tetanus toxin is paralleled by a reduction in observed spontaneous inhibitory synaptic potentials. Excitatory synaptic events can be identified as components of some tetanus-PDE. The toxin does not alter postsynaptic responses to the inhibitory amino acids glycine and gamma-aminobutyric acid. The latency and convulsant action of tetanus toxin are consistent with an irreversible presynaptic membrane interaction that reduces inhibitory transmission, a mechanism of action distinct from those of convulsants that antagonize inhibitory transmitters at the postsynaptic membrane.

  9. Mechanism of action of tetanus and botulinum neurotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montecucco, C; Schiavo, G

    1994-07-01

    The clostridial neurotoxins responsible for tetanus and botulism are metallo-proteases that enter nerve cells and block neurotransmitter release via zinc-dependent cleavage of protein components of the neuroexocytosis apparatus. Tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT) binds to the presynaptic membrane of the neuromuscular junction and is internalized and transported retroaxonally to the spinal cord. Whilst TeNT causes spastic paralysis by acting on the spinal inhibitory interneurons, the seven serotypes of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) induce a flaccid paralysis because they intoxicate the neuromuscular junction. TeNT and BoNT serotypes B, D, F and G specifically cleave VAMP/synaptobrevin, a membrane protein of small synaptic vesicles, at different single peptide bonds. Proteins of the presynaptic membrane are specifically attacked by the other BoNTs: serotypes A and E cleave SNAP-25 at two different sites located within the carboxyl terminus, whereas the specific target of serotype C is syntaxin.

  10. Adolescent Girls’ Understanding of Tetanus Infection and Prevention: Implications for the Disease Control in Western Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Adebola Emmanuel Orimadegun; Akinlolu Adedayo Adepoju; Olusegun Olusina Akinyinka

    2014-01-01

    Tetanus is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Nigeria is aiming to eliminate tetanus by maintaining coverage of routine vaccinations for infants and pregnant women, but little attention is given to the adolescents’ needs. This study assessed the understanding of adolescent girls about tetanus infection and prevention in order to provide information that may foster better policy. In this cross-sectional analytical study, 851 female adolescents were selected from ...

  11. Challenges of Tracheostomy in Patients Managed for Severe Tetanus in a Developing Country

    OpenAIRE

    Ayotunde James Fasunla

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Severe tetanus is one of the indications for admissions into the intensive care unit requiring muscular paralysis, tracheo-stomy and mechanical ventilatory support. This study aimed to evaluate tetanus patients managed with tracheostomy and to de-termine associated complications. Methods: This was a 16-year review of patients who were man-aged for tetanus with tracheostomy in an intensive care unit be-tween 1999 and 2009. The data collected from the medical records including de...

  12. Generalized tetanus could be complicated with Guillain-Barré syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Hoon; Hwang, Yun Su; Cho, Ji Hyun

    2016-07-01

    A retrospective analysis of patients diagnosed with tetanus was conducted to evaluate the occurrence of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). Two of 13 tetanus cases were complicated with GBS. Their symptoms and signs related to GBS improved markedly after a 5-day infusion of intravenous immunoglobulin. Physicians should keep in mind that GBS can be an important cause of muscle weakness in patients with tetanus. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Generalized tetanus could be complicated with Guillain–Barré syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Hoon Lee

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective analysis of patients diagnosed with tetanus was conducted to evaluate the occurrence of Guillain–Barré syndrome (GBS. Two of 13 tetanus cases were complicated with GBS. Their symptoms and signs related to GBS improved markedly after a 5-day infusion of intravenous immunoglobulin. Physicians should keep in mind that GBS can be an important cause of muscle weakness in patients with tetanus.

  14. Awareness And Compliance Of Women Of Childbearing Age In A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Awareness And Compliance Of Women Of Childbearing Age In A Nigerian Urban Community With The TT1 - TT5 Immunization Schedule. ... Sahel Medical Journal ... Only 10.4% of the respondents have received at least two doses of the tetanus toxoid (TT2+) immunization which, fall far below the recommended 80% or ...

  15. Effect of tetanus toxin on oxytocin and vasopressin release from nerve endings of the neurohypophysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, J L; Habig, W H; Trenchard, H; Russell, J T

    1990-12-01

    The effect of tetanus toxin on neuropeptide hormone release from isolated nerve endings of the neural lobe of rat pituitaries (neurosecretosomes) was measured in a perfusion system. Tetanus toxin inhibited depolarization-evoked release of oxytocin and vasopressin in a time- and dose-dependent manner. At 1 microgram/ml, tetanus toxin blocked stimulated release by 85%. Tetanus toxin that was preincubated with a neutralizing monoclonal antibody or heated to 100 degrees C had no effect on hormone release. The ionophores A23187 and ionomycin were potent stimulators of hormone release in control nerve endings, but were not able to overcome the effect of tetanus toxin in intoxicated nerve endings. 8-Bromo-cyclic GMP, which has been reported to reverse the action of tetanus toxin in PC12 cells, had no effect on the action of tetanus toxin in neurosecretosomes. Neurosecretosomes are the first system in which tetanus toxin has been shown to block release from peptidergic nerve terminals. They appear to be a valuable in vitro system for studying the biochemical mechanism of tetanus toxin action.

  16. Nursing a critically ill tetanus patient in an intensive care unit in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Chris; Viveash, Sue

    2017-05-11

    The global incidence of tetanus has been gradually reducing. Improvements in vaccination and health education programmes and the World Health Organization campaign to eradicate maternal and neonatal tetanus have all resulted in fewer presentations globally. Unfortunately, tetanus mortality remains a significant problem for many developing countries, owing to inadequate vaccination programmes or to conflict or humanitarian disasters during which vaccination programmes are stopped or there is sporadic cover. This case study explores the care of a tetanus patient in an intensive care unit in Zambia, a lower-middle-income country in sub-Saharan Africa.

  17. Factors Related to Pertussis and Tetanus Vaccination Status Among Foreign-Born Adults Living in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-González, Liliana; Rodriguez-Lainz, Alfonso; O'Halloran, Alissa; Rowhani-Rahbar, Ali; Liang, Jennifer L; Lu, Peng-Jun; Houck, Peter M; Verguet, Stephane; Williams, Walter W

    2017-06-01

    Pertussis is a common vaccine-preventable disease (VPD) worldwide. Its reported incidence has increased steadily in the United States, where it is endemic. Tetanus is a rare but potentially fatal VPD. Foreign-born adults have lower tetanus-diphtheria-pertussis (Tdap) and tetanus-diphtheria (Td) vaccination coverage than do U.S.-born adults. We studied the association of migration-related, socio-demographic, and access-to-care factors with Tdap and Td vaccination among foreign-born adults living in the United States. The 2012 and 2013 National Health Interview Survey data for foreign-born respondents were analyzed. Multivariable logistic regression was conducted to calculate prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals, and to identify variables independently associated with Tdap and Td vaccination among foreign-born adults. Tdap and Td vaccination status was available for 9316 and 12,363 individuals, respectively. Overall vaccination coverage was 9.1% for Tdap and 49.8% for Td. Younger age, higher education, having private health insurance (vs. public insurance or uninsured), having visited a doctor in the previous year, and region of residence were independently associated with Tdap and Td vaccination. Among those reporting a doctor visit, two-thirds had not received Tdap. This study provides further evidence of the need to enhance access to health care and immunization services and reduce missed opportunities for Tdap and Td vaccination for foreign-born adults in the United States. These findings apply to all foreign-born, irrespective of their birthplace, citizenship, language and years of residence in the United States. Addressing vaccination disparities among the foreign-born will help achieve national vaccination goals and protect all communities in the United States.

  18. Evaluation of Immunogenicity of Yersinia enterocolitica O:8 Oligopolysaccaride-DiphtheriaeToxoide Conjugate in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SM Rezavian

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Yersiniosis is created by Yersinia enterocolitica O:8 and causes problems in the world especialy in cold and mild countries. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the immunogenicity of Yersinia enterocolitica O:8 oligopolysaccaride (OPS conjugate to diphtheria toxoid (DT as a vaccine candidate.   Methods : After cultivation of bacteria, the LPS were isolated by modified hot phenol method. Then dialysis and concentration were done and the OPS were extracted by acetic acid 2%. To conjugate with diphtheria toxoid, ADH was used as a spacer molecule and EDAC as a linker. Conjugate was purified by gel filtration. Then 4 groups of female BALB/c mice were selected (15 mice in each group. Injection was performed intraperitoneally in three doses with two weeks interval. Then serum samples were collected and antibody response against OPS was measured by indirect ELISA method for detection of total IgG, IgA, IgM, IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b and IgG3.   Results: After second and third doses, OPS-DT recieved group showed significant increase in all types of antibodies titer in anti-OPS in comparison to group that recived nonconjugated OPS. The increase in titer of antibodies was as: OPS-DT>OPS>DT. A remarkable increase was shown in total IgG and IgM titers (with total amount of 3204 and 670, respectively. In IgG1 subclass the amount was 920 and in other subclasses of IgG (IgG3, IgG2a and IgG2b the amounts were 910, 110, and 99, respectively.   Conclusion: The results shows that OPS of Yersinia enterocolitica O:8 increases the anti-OPS antibodies in the form of conjugate with diphtheria toxoid and could be considered as an appropriate vaccine candidate.

  19. Immunization Status of Young People Attending a Youth Clinic in Geneva, Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meynard, Anne; Genequand, Lydia Markham; Jeannot, Emilien; Wyler-Lazarevic, Claire-Anne; Cerutti, Bernard; Narring, Françoise

    2016-04-01

    Adolescent vaccination coverage is very variable in European countries and data are scarce. The aim of this study was to assess immunization status and analyze potential variations according to sociodemographic variables in a youth clinic in Geneva, Switzerland. Immunization status was assessed retrospectively: Tetanus (number of doses or in absence of data tetanus antibodies) and measles as indicators of childhood coverage as well as hepatitis B and human papillomavirus. All new patients (N = 390) of Geneva University Hospital's youth clinic were included between January 2010 and June 2011. Vaccine coverage was low for all vaccines regardless of sex or origin. 89% of young people tested (mostly recent immigrants with no available data) had tetanus antibodies indicating adequate childhood immunization but hepatitis B and HPV coverage was low especially in recent immigrants. Systematic assessment allows better adolescent vaccine coverage and can improve safety by avoiding unnecessary dosis.

  20. Long-term outcome in survivors of neonatal tetanus following specialist intensive care in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trieu, Huynh T; Anh, Nguyen Thi Kim; Vuong, Huynh Ngoc Thien; Dao, T T M; Hoa, Nguyen Thi Xuan; Tuong, Vo Ngoc Cat; Dinh, Pham Tam; Wills, Bridget; Qui, Phan Tu; Van Tan, Le; Yen, Lam Minh; Sabanathan, Saraswathy; Thwaites, Catherine Louise

    2017-09-25

    Neonatal tetanus continues to occur in many resource-limited settings but there are few data regarding long-term neurological outcome from the disease, especially in settings with critical care facilities. We assessed long-term outcome following neonatal tetanus in infants treated in a pediatric intensive care unit in southern Vietnam. Neurological and neurodevelopmental testing was performed in 17 survivors of neonatal tetanus and 18 control children from the same communities using tools previously validated in Vietnamese children. The median age of children assessed was 36 months. Eight neonatal tetanus survivors and 9 community control cases aged < 42 months were tested using the Bayley III Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (Bayley III-VN) and 8 neonatal tetanus survivors and 9 community controls aged ≥42 months were tested using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children. No significant reductions in growth indices or neurodevelopmental scores were shown in survivors of neonatal tetanus compared to controls although there was a trend towards lower scores in neonatal tetanus survivors. Neurological examination was normal in all children except for two neonatal tetanus survivors with perceptive deafness and one child with mild gross motor abnormality. Neonatal tetanus survivors who had expienced severe disease (Ablett grade ≥ 3) had lower total Bayley III-VN scores than those with mild disease (15 (IQR 14-18) vs 24 (IQR 19-27), p = 0.05) with a significantly lower cognitive domain score (3 (IQR 2-6) severe disease vs 7 (IQR 7-8) mild disease, p = 0.02). Neonatal tetanus is associated with long-term sequelae in those with severe disease. In view of these findings, prevention of neonatal tetanus should remain a priority.

  1. Safety of a tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis vaccine when used off-label in an elderly population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Hung Fu; Sy, Lina S; Qian, Lei; Marcy, S Michael; Jackson, Lisa A; Glanz, Jason; Nordin, Jim; Baxter, Roger; Naleway, Allison; Donahue, James; Weintraub, Eric; Jacobsen, Steven J

    2013-02-01

    Published data on the safety of tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap) in persons aged ≥65 years are limited. This study aims to examine a large cohort of Tdap users ≥65 years for evidence of increased risk of adverse events following vaccination. A matched cohort study design and a self-controlled case series (SCCS) design were used. The study population was adults aged ≥65 years who received the Tdap or tetanus and diphtheria (Td) vaccine during 1 January 2006-31 December 2010 at 7 health maintenance organizations in the United States. Seven major groups of prespecified events were identified electronically by diagnostic codes. The study included 119 573 Tdap vaccinees and the same number of Td vaccinees. The results indicated that the risk of the prespecified events following Tdap was comparable to that following Td vaccination in this elderly population. There was a small increased rate of codes suggesting medically attended inflammatory or allergic events in 1-6 days following Tdap in the SCCS analysis (incidence rate ratio, 1.59 [95% confidence interval, 1.40-1.81]). Although there is a small increased risk of medically attended inflammatory or allergic events in 1-6 days following Tdap compared to other time periods, it is no more common than that following Td. This study provides empirical safety data suggesting that immunizing adults aged ≥65 years with Tdap to reduce the risk of pertussis in the elderly and their contacts should not have untoward safety consequences.

  2. Immunogenicity of a low-dose diphtheria, tetanus and acellular pertussis combination vaccine with either inactivated or oral polio vaccine compared to standard-dose diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis when used as a pre-school booster in UK children: A 5-year follow-up of a randomised controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, T; Voysey, M; Yu, L M; McCarthy, N; Baudin, M; Richard, P; Fiquet, A; Kitchin, N; Pollard, A J

    2015-08-26

    This serological follow up study assessed the kinetics of antibody response in children who previously participated in a single centre, open-label, randomised controlled trial of low-dose compared to standard-dose diphtheria booster preschool vaccinations in the United Kingdom (UK). Children had previously been randomised to receive one of three combination vaccines: either a combined adsorbed tetanus, low-dose diphtheria, 5-component acellular pertussis and inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) (Tdap-IPV, Repevax(®); Sanofi Pasteur MSD); a combined adsorbed tetanus, low-dose diphtheria and 5-component acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap, Covaxis(®); Sanofi Pasteur MSD) given concomitantly with oral polio vaccine (OPV); or a combined adsorbed standard-dose diphtheria, tetanus, 2-component acellular pertussis and IPV (DTap-IPV, Tetravac(®); Sanofi Pasteur MSD). Blood samples for the follow-up study were taken at 1, 3 and 5 years after participation in the original trial (median, 5.07 years of age at year 1), and antibody persistence to each vaccine antigen measured against defined serological thresholds of protection. All participants had evidence of immunity to diphtheria with antitoxin concentrations greater than 0.01IU/mL five years after booster vaccination and 75%, 67% and 79% of children who received Tdap-IPV, Tdap+OPV and DTap-IPV, respectively, had protective antitoxin levels greater than 0.1IU/mL. Long lasting protective immune responses to tetanus and polio antigens were also observed in all groups, though polio responses were lower in the sera of those who received OPV. Low-dose diphtheria vaccines provided comparable protection to the standard-dose vaccine and are suitable for use for pre-school booster vaccination. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Recombinant Lactobacillus casei expressing Clostridium perfringens toxoids α, β2, ε and β1 gives protection against Clostridium perfringens in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li; Guo, Zhihou; Liu, Jiali; Wang, Zi; Wang, Ruichong; Li, Yijing; Wang, Li; Xu, Yigang; Tang, Lijie; Qiao, Xinyuan

    2017-07-13

    The present study used Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 as antigen delivery system to express C. perfringens toxoids α-β2-ε-β1 to construct the recombination Lactobacillus casei pPG-2-α-β2-ε-β1/L. casei 393. After being induced by 1% xylose, the specificity and integrity of recombinant strain were determined by Western-blotting. Rabbits as native animal model were immunized orally with pPG-2-α-β2-ε-β1/L. casei 393 and the titers of specific IgG and sIgA were determined by ELISA. The result showed that oral administration with the recombinants could elicit both local mucosal and systemic immune responses. The proliferation of spleen lymphocytes in rabbits immunized with pPG-2-α-β2-ε-β1/L. casei 393 was observed. Levels of IL-4 and IFN-γ produced were significantly higher in lymphocytes isolated from the vaccine group than those from the control groups. Flow cytometry assay showed that both the percentages of CD4+T cells and CD8+T cells from the vaccine group were significantly increased than the control groups. All these results showed that immunizing with recombinants can elicit both humoral immunity and cellular immunity. Besides, in order to determine the effectiveness of oral immunization with pPG-2-α-β2-ε-β1/L. casei 393, rabbits of vaccine group and control groups were challenged with 1×LD100 unit of culture filtrate of C. perfringens type C and type D toxins respectively. After challenge, 100% of the immunized rabbits survived, while the rabbits of the control group were killed within 48h. Observation on histopathology showed that histopathological changes were obviously found in heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, intestine and brain of rabbits from the control groups, while no apparent histopathological change was observed in the vaccine group. All the results show that pPG-2-α-β2-ε-β1/L. casei 393 can eliciteffective immunoprotection against C. perfringens. All of these suggest that the use of pPG-2-α-β2-ε-β1/L. casei 393 can be

  4. Profile and outcome of patients with post-neonatal tetanus in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The incidence of tetanus has remained unacceptably high in developing countries. We aimed to describe the profile and outcome of children with tetanus admitted at the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital (LASUTH), Ikeja. Methods: A prospective and cross-sectional study of children aged 1 month to 12 ...

  5. Cephalic Tetanus: case report of a rare complication of orbito-ocular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methodology: A case of cephalic tetanus in a 24-year old Nigerian motor mechanic; presenting with torticollis, trismus, facial and neck muscle spasms and multiple cranial nerve ... He was treated vigorously with anti-tetanus serum, intravenous diazepam and fluids, intravenous metronidazole and other parenteral broad-

  6. Case-fatality of adult Tetanus at Jimma University Teaching Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Tetanus remains a major health problem in Ethiopia like in most other developing countries. Objectives: To assess the clinical presentation, complications and outcome of tetanus patients. Methods: In this retrospective study, patients (age > 13 years) who were admitted to Jimma University Teaching Hospital ...

  7. Characteristics Of Tetanus Cases Seen Over A Ten Year Period In A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tetanus remains a great public health problem in developing sub-Saharan Africa and it is associated with high mortality. We evaluated the epidemiological characteristics and clinical profiles of tetanus cases seen in a tertiary health facility in Benin City, Nigeria between 1990 and 2000. All consecutive patients admitted in ...

  8. Tetanus bij een jong ongevaccineerd meisje na een val op straat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolman, K. M.; Plötz, F. B.; Wolfs, T. F. W.; Beunders, J. H. J.; van Vught, A. J.

    2002-01-01

    A 4-year-old girl developed tetanus after she had fallen on the street a week before. She had never been vaccinated and despite pressure from the family practitioner, the parents refused to allow her to be given human anti-tetanus immunoglobulin as a matter of principle after the wound had been

  9. A 5-Year Review of Tetanus Cases Among Adults in a Tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Tetanus remains an important cause of preventable morbidity and mortality in developing countries. There is paucity of data on the pattern of tetanus among adults in south east Nigeria. Objective: The aim was to review the patient characteristics, risk factors, clinical features, treatment and mortality among adult ...

  10. Tetanus: A 10-year review of cases in a teaching hospital in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim/Objectives: The objective of this study was to present the descriptive characteristics of non-neonatal tetanus cases seen in a teaching hospital in Northwestern Nigeria over a 10-year period and to discuss the implications of the study findings for anti-tetanus vaccination policy and implementation in developing countries.

  11. Expression of Tetanus Toxin Subfragments In Vitro and Characterization of Epitopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andersen-Beckh, Bettina; Binz, Thomas; Kurazono, Hisao; Mayer, Thomas; Eisel, Ulrich; Niemann, Heiner

    1989-01-01

    To define epitopes of tetanus toxin, we compared four different in vitro systems in terms of their ability to produce tetanus toxin-specific subfragments from cloned DNA. A transcription-translation system developed from a nontoxigenic strain of Clostridium tetani was found to yield predominantly

  12. Tetanus Toxin Action : Inhibition of Neurotransmitter Release Linked to Synaptobrevin Proteolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Link, Egenhard; Edelmann, Lambert; Chou, Judy H.; Binz, Thomas; Yamasaki, Shinji; Eisel, Uli; Baumert, Marion; Südhof, Thomas C.; Niemann, Heiner; Jahn, Reinhard

    1992-01-01

    Tetanus toxin is a potent neurotoxin that inhibits the release of neurotransmitters from presynaptic nerve endings. The mature toxin is composed of a heavy and a light chain that are linked via a disulfide bridge. After entry of tetanus toxin into the cytoplasm, the released light chain causes block

  13. Experience with tetanus in a tertiary hospital in South East Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Tetanus has for long been an avoidable source of morbidity and mortality particularly in developing countries. The aim of this study was to review the experience with managing tetanus in a regional tertiary hospital in Nigeria. Methods: A retrospective study of patients who were admitted with a clinical diagnosis ...

  14. Delineation of Several DR-Restricted Tetanus Toxin T Cell Epitopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demotz, Stephane; Lanzavecchia, Antonio; Eisel, Ulrich; Niemann, Heiner; Widmann, Christian; Corradin, Giampietro

    1989-01-01

    We have characterized five human T cell clones specific for tetanus toxin. The combination of different techniques allowed us to precisely map two T cell epitopes within fragments 830-843 and 1273-1284 of tetanus toxin, as formally demonstrated by the use of corresponding synthetic peptides. The

  15. Post-Neonatal Tetanus in Nguru, Yobe State, North-Eastern Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Post-Neonatal Tetanus in Nguru, Yobe State, North-Eastern Nigeria. ... Eighteen cases of post-neonatal tetanus managed between January 2005 and December 2008 at the Federal Medical Centre, Nguru were retrospectively reviewed. The male female ratio was 3.5: 1 ... infection, accounting for 50% of cases. A mortality of ...

  16. Adult tetanus in Accra, why the high mortality? an audit of clinical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Tetanus is a life threatening infection relatively uncommon in the developed countries but occurs frequently in developing countries with case fatality rates of 40-60%. Recent review of adult tetanus at the Korle-bu Teaching Hospital showed a high case fatality of 50%. In order to determine the factors underlying ...

  17. Tetanus toxin light chain expression in Sertoli cells of transgenic mice causes alterations of the actin cytoskeleton and disrupts spermatogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisel, Ulrich; Reynolds, Kay; Riddick, Michelle; Zimmer, Anne; Niemann, Heiner; Zimmer, Andreas; Gruss, P.

    Tetanus toxin is a powerful neurotoxin known to inhibit neurotransmitter release. The tetanus toxin light chain is a metalloprotease that cleaves some members of the synaptobrevin gene family with high specificity. Here, we report the expression of a synthetic gene encoding the tetanus toxin light

  18. Mortality from tetanus between 1990 and 2015: findings from the global burden of disease study 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hmwe H. Kyu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although preventable, tetanus still claims tens of thousands of deaths each year. The patterns and distribution of mortality from tetanus have not been well characterized. We identified the global, regional, and national levels and trends of mortality from neonatal and non-neonatal tetanus based on the results from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015. Methods Data from vital registration, verbal autopsy studies and mortality surveillance data covering 12,534 site-years from 1980 to 2014 were used. Mortality from tetanus was estimated using the Cause of Death Ensemble modeling strategy. Results There were 56,743 (95% uncertainty interval (UI: 48,199 to 80,042 deaths due to tetanus in 2015; 19,937 (UI: 17,021 to 23,467 deaths occurred in neonates; and 36,806 (UI: 29,452 to 61,481 deaths occurred in older children and adults. Of the 19,937 neonatal tetanus deaths, 45% of deaths occurred in South Asia, and 44% in Sub-Saharan Africa. Of the 36,806 deaths after the neonatal period, 47% of deaths occurred in South Asia, 36% in sub-Saharan Africa, and 12% in Southeast Asia. Between 1990 and 2015, the global mortality rate due to neonatal tetanus dropped by 90% and that due to non-neonatal tetanus dropped by 81%. However, tetanus mortality rates were still high in a number of countries in 2015. The highest rates of neonatal tetanus mortality (more than 1,000 deaths per 100,000 population were observed in Somalia, South Sudan, Afghanistan, and Kenya. The highest rates of mortality from tetanus after the neonatal period (more than 5 deaths per 100,000 population were observed in Somalia, South Sudan, and Kenya. Conclusions Though there have been tremendous strides globally in reducing the burden of tetanus, tens of thousands of unnecessary deaths from tetanus could be prevented each year by an already available inexpensive and effective vaccine. Availability of more high quality data could help narrow the uncertainty of tetanus

  19. Tetanus toxin action: inhibition of neurotransmitter release linked to synaptobrevin proteolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, E; Edelmann, L; Chou, J H; Binz, T; Yamasaki, S; Eisel, U; Baumert, M; Südhof, T C; Niemann, H; Jahn, R

    1992-12-15

    Tetanus toxin is a potent neurotoxin that inhibits the release of neurotransmitters from presynaptic nerve endings. The mature toxin is composed of a heavy and a light chain that are linked via a disulfide bridge. After entry of tetanus toxin into the cytoplasm, the released light chain causes block of neurotransmitter release. Recent evidence suggests that the L-chain may act as a metalloendoprotease. Here we demonstrate that blockade of neurotransmission by tetanus toxin in isolated nerve terminals is associated with a selective proteolysis of synaptobrevin, an integral membrane protein of synaptic vesicles. No other proteins appear to be affected by tetanus toxin. In addition, recombinant light chain selectively cleaves synaptobrevin when incubated with purified synaptic vesicles. Our data suggest that cleavage of synaptobrevin is the molecular mechanism of tetanus toxin action.

  20. The travel diaries of tetanus and botulinum neurotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surana, Sunaina; Tosolini, Andrew P; Meyer, Ione F G; Fellows, Alexander D; Novoselov, Sergey S; Schiavo, Giampietro

    2017-10-12

    Tetanus (TeNT) and botulinum (BoNT) neurotoxins, the causative agents of tetanus and botulism, respectively, are the most potent toxic molecules known to mankind. This extreme potency is attributed to: i) their specificity for essential components of the neurotransmitter release machinery present at vertebrate synapses, and ii) their high-affinity targeting to motor neurons by binding to polysialogangliosides and protein receptors. Comprising the clostridial neurotoxin family, TeNT and BoNTs engage distinct surface receptors and intracellular sorting pathways in neurons. BoNTs bind to the intraluminal domain of specific synaptic vesicle proteins that are exposed to the extracellular milieu upon exocytosis, and are taken up by synaptic vesicle recycling. A sizeable proportion of BoNT molecules remain at the neuromuscular junction, where their protease moiety is released into the cytoplasm, blocking synaptic transmission and causing flaccid paralysis. In contrast, TeNT undergoes binding to specific components of the basal membrane at the neuromuscular junction, is endocytosed into motor neurons and sorted to axonal signalling endosomes. Following this, TeNT is transported to the soma of motor neurons located in the spinal cord or brainstem, and then transcytosed to inhibitory interneurons, where it blocks synaptic transmission. TeNT-induced impairment of inhibitory input leads to hyperactivity of motor neurons, causing spastic paralysis, which is the hallmark of tetanus. This review examines the molecular mechanisms leading to the entry, sorting and intracellular trafficking of TeNT and BoNTs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Action mechanisms of botulinum neurotoxins and tetanus neurotoxins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deloye, F; Doussau, F; Poulain, B

    1997-01-01

    Tetanus (TeNT) neurotoxin and botulinum (BoNT, serotypes A-G) neurotoxins are di-chain bacterial proteins of MW-150 kDa which are also termed as clostridial neurotoxins. They are the only causative agents of two severe neuroparalytic diseases, namely tetanus and botulism. The peripheral muscle spasms which characterise tetanus are due to a blockade of inhibitory (GABAergic and glycinergic) synapses in the central nervous system leading to a motor neurones desinhibition. In contrast, botulism symptoms are only peripheral. They are consequent to a near irreversible and highly selective inhibition of acetyl-choline release at the motor nerve endings innervating skeletal muscles. During the past decade, the cellular and molecular modes of action of clostridial neurotoxins has been near completely elucidated. After a binding step of the neurotoxins to specific membrane acceptors located only on nerve terminals, BoNTs and TeNT are internalized into neurons. Inside their target neurones, the intracellularly active moiety (their light chain) is translocated from the endosomal compartment to the cytosol. The neurotoxins' light chains are zinc-dependent (endopeptidases which are specific for one among three synaptic proteins (VAMP/synaptobrevin, syntaxin or SNAP-25) implicated in neurotransmitter exocytosis. The presence of distinct targets for BoNTs and TeNT correlates well with the observed quantal alterations of neurotransmitter release which characterize certain toxin serotypes. In addition, evidence for a second, non-proteolytic, inhibitory mechanism of action has been provided recently. Most likely, this additional blocking action involves the activation of neurone transglutaminases. Due to their specific action on key proteins of the exocytosis apparatus, clostridial neurotoxins are now widely used as molecular tools to study exocytosis.

  2. Diphtheria toxoid-containing microparticulate powder formulations for pulmonary vaccination : Preparation, characterization and evaluation in guinea pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amidi, Maryam; Pellikaan, Hubert C.; Hirschberg, Hoang; de Boerd, Anne H.; Crommelin, Daan J. A.; Hennink, Wim E.; Kersten, Gideon; Jiskoot, Wim

    2007-01-01

    this study, the potential of N-Trimethyl chitosan (TMC, degree of quaternization 50%) and dextran microparticles for pulmonary delivery of diphtheria toxoid (DT) was investigated. The antigen-containing microparticles were prepared by drying of an aqueous solution of polymer and DT through a

  3. Management of Tetanus Neonatorum in a respiratory unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Sikosana

    1979-09-01

    Full Text Available Tetanus results from infection by clostridium tetani, which is present in the faeces of animals and man therefore also in the soil. It enters the body through a wound; in the case of a neonate, this is always the raw surface of the umbilicus. The infection of this wound occurs by contamination of cord dressings by dust or soil, but in some cases mothers apply cow dung to the umbilicus. In some cases the umbilical cord is cut with an unsterile blade or even an old broken bottle. The baby is usually born at home.

  4. IMMUNOGENICITY AND SAFETY OF QUINVAXEM® (DIPHTHERIA, TETANUS, WHOLE-CELL PERTUSSIS, HEPATITIS B AND HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAE TYPE B VACCINE) GIVEN TO VIETNAMESE INFANTS AT 2 TO 4 MONTHS OF AGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huu, Tran Ngoc; Phuong, Nguyen Thi Minh; Toan, Nguyen Trong; Thang, Ho Vinh

    2015-07-01

    Vietnam plans to replace the routine childhood diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus combination (DPT) vaccine with a pentavalent vaccine. The present study was performed to assess the immunogenicity and safety of the combined diphtheria, tetanus, whole-cell pertussis, hepatitis B (HepB), and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) (DTwP-HepB-Hib) Quinvaxem® vaccine in children. A total of 131 infants received the Quinvaxem® vaccine at 2, 3 and 4 months. Antibody levels were measured at baseline, at one month after the third injection and one year after the first injection. Seroprotection rates were high for each vaccine antigen at one month after the third dose: 93.1% for diphtheria, 98.5% for tetanus, 99.2% for pertussis (seroconversion rate), 93.1% for HepB, and 100% for Hib (anti-PRP ≥ 0.15 µg/ml). The rate of children with protective antibodies persisting at one year after the first dose was 88.4% for diphtheria, 49.6% for pertussis, 82.2% for tetanus, 76.7% for HepB and 97.7% for Hib (anti-PRP ≥ 0.15 µg/ml). The Quinvaxem® vaccine was well tolerated and has a low rate of adverse events. Quinvaxem® given at 2, 3 and 4 months of age was immunogenic and safe for primary immunization among infants in Vietnam.

  5. [Study on the effect of a biostimulant on the growth and toxigenic function of Clostridium tetani strain Copenhagen-471].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garib, F Iu; Petrov, V Iu; Komarova, E A; Sheremet'ev, N N

    2002-01-01

    Bakstim, a new biostimulating preparation obtained from the organs of the immune system of animals, was developed. The impact of Bakstim on the growth and toxigenic function of C. tetani production strain Copenhagen-471 was evaluated. The addition of the preparation to Gluzman commercial medium for obtaining tetanus toxoid led to an increase in the yield of bacterial biomass from 1.9 to 4-fold and an increase in the toxoid production from 2 to 2.8-fold. The optimum concentration of this biostimulant ensuring the maximum yield of tetanus toxin from the production culture was determined (1,000 mg/l). Bakstim will supposedly be used as additive to nutrient media for the production of tetanus toxoid.

  6. Preparación toxoide a partir de la fracción hemorrágica del veneno de Bothrops asper (serpiente de América Central y del Sur) (Toxoid preparation from hemorrhagic fraction of the venom from Bothrops asper (snake from Central and South America).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Acosta, A; Aguilar, I; Girón, M E

    1993-01-01

    A technique is described for preparing a toxoid from the hemorrhagic fraction of the Bothrops asper venom. This method conserves a high degree of immunogenicity although it eliminates lethal effects. None of the animals vaccinated with the toxoid from this fraction had hemorrhagic lesions after they were injected the venom from the hemorrhagic fraction.

  7. Leukocyte transcript alterations in West-African girls following a booster vaccination with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orntoft, Nikolaj W; Thorsen, Kasper; Benn, Christine S

    2013-01-01

    identified a group of nine comparable West African girls, from a biobank of 356 children, who were due to receive DTP booster vaccine at age 18 months. As a pilot experiment we extracted RNA from blood samples before, and 6 weeks after, vaccination to analyze the coding transcriptome in leukocytes using......Background. Observational studies from low-income countries have shown that the vaccination against diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis (DTP) is associated with excess female mortality due to infectious diseases. Methods. To investigate possible changes in gene expression after DTP vaccination, we...... expression microarrays, and ended up with information from eight girls. The data was further analyzed using dedicated array pathway and network software. We aimed to study whether DTP vaccination introduced a systematic alteration in the immune system in girls. Results. We found very few transcripts to alter...

  8. Autonomic nervous system dysfunction predicts poor prognosis in patients with mild to moderate tetanus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamsi Rohmah

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Autonomic nervous system (ANS dysfunction is present in up to one third of patients with tetanus. The prognostic value of ANS dysfunction is known in severe tetanus but its value is not well established in mild to moderate tetanus. Methods Medical records of all patients admitted with tetanus at two academic tertiary care centers in Karachi, Pakistan were reviewed. The demographic, clinical and laboratory data was recorded and analyzed. ANS dysfunction was defined as presence of labile or persistent hypertension or hypotension and sinus tachycardia, tachyarrythmia or bradycardia on EKG. Patients were divided into two groups based on presence of ANS dysfunction (ANS group and non ANS group. Tetanus severity was classified on the basis of Ablett criteria. Results Ninety six (64 males; 32 females patients were admitted with the diagnosis over a period of 10 years. ANS group had 31 (32% patients while non ANS group comprised of 65 (68% patients. Both groups matched for age, gender, symptom severity, use of tetanus immunoglobulin and antibiotics. Twelve patients in ANS group had mild to moderate tetanus (Ablett I and II and 19 patients had severe/very severe tetanus (Ablett III and IV. Fifteen (50% patients in ANS group required ventilation as compared to 28 (45% in non-ANS group (p = 0.09. Fourteen (47% patients died in ANS group as compared to 10 (15% in non ANS group (p= 0.002. Out of those 14 patients died in ANS group, six patients had mild to moderate tetanus and eight patients had severe/ very severe tetanus. Major cause of death was cardiac arrhythmias (13/14; 93% in ANS group and respiratory arrest (7/10; 70% in non ANS group. Ten (33% patients had complete recovery in ANS group while in non ANS group 35(48% patients had complete recovery (p= 0.05. Conclusions ANS dysfunction was present in one third of our tetanus population. 40% patients with ANS dysfunction had only mild to moderate tetanus. ANS dysfunction

  9. Replacement of the in vivo neutralisation test for efficacy demonstration of tetanus vaccines ad us. vet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosskopf, Ute; Noeske, Kerstin; Werner, Esther

    2005-01-01

    The bacterium Clostridium (C.) tetani is an ubiquitous pathogen. This anaerobic, gram-positive bacterium can form spores and can be found in the whole environment. It enters the body via injuries of the skin and wounds where it releases the neurotoxin "tetanospasmin" (= tetanus toxin). The animals most susceptible to tetanus infection are horses and sheep. Only active immunisation by tetanus vaccine provides effective protection against tetanus intoxication. The marketing authorisation requirements stipulate that efficacy of tetanus vaccines ad us. vet. must be demonstrated in all target animal species via determination of neutralising tetanus serum antitoxin concentrations. The standard method used for this purpose is still the toxin neutralisation test (TNT), as it quantifies the tetanus toxin-neutralising effect of tetanus serum antibodies in vivo. In this test, tetanus toxin is added to dilutions of serum from vaccinated horse and sheep. The serum dilutions are then administered to mice or guinea pigs, which are observed for toxic symptoms. Against the background of animal protection, the goal of one project of the Paul-Ehrlich-Institut (Bundesministerium fuer Bildung und Forschung (Federal Ministry for Education and Research), 0312636) was to establish an alternative to the toxin neutralisation test, enabling the testing of efficacy of tetanus vaccines with serological in vitro methods. For this purpose, a so-called double antigen ELISA (DAE) was established which enables the testing of sera of different species in one assay. In addition, the sera were tested in an indirect ELISA for horses and sheep separately. Altogether, ten groups of horses and eight groups of sheep were immunised with ten animals per group each. The tetanus vaccines comprised almost all products authorised for the German market at the start of the project. 564 horse sera and 257 sheep sera were tested using the two ELISA methods. Some sera were also tested in vivo. The kinetics of

  10. Tetanus and botulinum neurotoxins: mechanism of action and therapeutic uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellizzari, R; Rossetto, O; Schiavo, G; Montecucco, C

    1999-02-28

    The clostridial neurotoxins responsible for tetanus and botulism are proteins consisting of three domains endowed with different functions: neurospecific binding, membrane translocation and proteolysis for specific components of the neuroexocytosis apparatus. Tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT) binds to the presynaptic membrane of the neuromuscular junction, is internalized and transported retroaxonally to the spinal cord. The spastic paralysis induced by the toxin is due to the blockade of neurotransmitter release from spinal inhibitory interneurons. In contrast, the seven serotypes of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) act at the periphery by inducing a flaccid paralysis due to the inhibition of acetylcholine release at the neuromuscular junction. TeNT and BoNT serotypes B, D, F and G cleave specifically at single but different peptide bonds, of the vesicle associated membrane protein (VAMP) synaptobrevin, a membrane protein of small synaptic vesicles (SSVs). BoNT types A, C and E cleave SNAP-25 at different sites located within the carboxyl-terminus, while BoNT type C additionally cleaves syntaxin. The remarkable specificity of BoNTs is exploited in the treatment of human diseases characterized by a hyperfunction of cholinergic terminals.

  11. Complex regional pain syndrome type I after diphtheria-tetanus (Di-Te) vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilić, Ervina; Bilić, Ernest; Zagar, Marija; Cerimagić, Denis; Vranjes, Davorka

    2013-09-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS I) is a disorder of one or more extremities characterized by pain, abnormal sensitivity (allodynia), swelling, limited range of motion, vasomotor instability, fatigue and emotional distress. The symptoms may be aggravated by even minor activity or weather change. It is usually provoked by injury, surgery or injection but in a small proportion of patients CRPS I develops without a clear causative event. There are several literature reports on CRPS after rubella and hepatitis B vaccination. We present a case of CRPS I affecting the left arm after diphtheria and tetanus (Di-Te) vaccination in the left deltoid muscle in a young girl having experienced profound emotional stress before the vaccination procedure. History data on previous minor trauma at the site of vaccination or emotional stress may necessitate temporary vaccination delay due to their proneness to impaired local or systemic immune response and CRPS as a complication of vaccination. If a child or an adult has prominent swelling and severe pain after vaccination, the diagnosis of CRPS I should be considered and if confirmed, the multidisciplinary treatment should start as soon as possible.

  12. Antibody response to booster vaccination with tetanus and diphtheria in adults exposed to perfluorinated alkylates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kielsen, Katrine; Shamim, Zaiba; Ryder, Lars P; Nielsen, Flemming; Grandjean, Philippe; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben; Heilmann, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that exposure to perfluorinated alkylate substances (PFASs) may induce immunosuppression in humans and animal models. In this exploratory study, 12 healthy adult volunteers were recruited. With each subject, serum-PFAS concentrations were measured and their antibody responses prospectively followed for 30 days after a booster vaccination with diphtheria and tetanus. The results indicated that serum-PFAS concentrations were positively correlated and positively associated with age and male sex. The specific antibody concentrations in serum were increased from Day 4 to Day 10 post-booster, after which a constant concentration was reached. Serum PFAS concentrations showed significant negative associations with the rate of increase in the antibody responses. Interestingly, this effect was particularly strong for the longer-chain PFASs. All significant associations remained significant after adjustment for sex and age. Although the study involved a small number of subjects, these findings of a PFAS-associated reduction of the early humoral immune response to booster vaccination in healthy adults supported previous findings of PFAS immunosuppression in larger cohorts. Furthermore, the results suggested that cellular mechanisms right after antigen exposure should be investigated more closely to identify possible mechanisms of immunosuppression from PFAS.

  13. Prevention of Tetanus Outbreak Following Natural Disaster in Indonesia: Lessons Learned from Previous Disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascapurnama, Dyshelly Nurkartika; Murakami, Aya; Chagan-Yasutan, Haorile; Hattori, Toshio; Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Egawa, Shinichi

    2016-03-01

    In Indonesia, the Aceh earthquake and tsunami in 2004 killed 127,000 people and caused half a million injuries, while the Yogyakarta earthquake in 2006 caused 5,700 deaths and 37,000 injuries. Because disaster-affected areas are vulnerable to epidemic-prone diseases and tetanus is one such disease that is preventable, we systematically reviewed the literature related to tetanus outbreaks following previous two natural disasters in Indonesia. Based on our findings, recommendations for proper vaccination and education can be made for future countermeasures. Using specified keywords related to tetanus and disasters, relevant documents were screened from PubMed, the WHO website, and books. Reports offering limited data and those released before 2004 were excluded. In all, 16 publications were reviewed systematically. Results show that 106 cases of tetanus occurred in Aceh, with a case fatality ratio (CFR) of 18.9%; 71 cases occurred in Yogyakarta, with CFR of 36.6%. For both outbreaks, most patients had been wounded during scavenging or evacuation after the disaster occurred. Poor access to health care because of limited transportation or hospital facilities, and low vaccination coverage and lack of awareness of tetanus risk contributed to delayed treatment and case severity. Tetanus outbreaks after disasters are preventable by increasing vaccination coverage, improving wound care treatment, and establishing a regular surveillance system, in addition to good practices of disaster management and supportive care following national guidelines. Furthermore, health education for communities should be provided to raise awareness of tetanus risk reduction.

  14. Non-specific effect of Bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccine on the immune response to routine immunisations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritz, Nicole; Mui, Milton; Balloch, Anne; Curtis, Nigel

    2013-06-26

    Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is one of the most commonly administered vaccines worldwide. In addition to protection against tuberculosis (TB), evidence suggests that BCG immunisation has a number of additional beneficial non-specific immunological effects. These include a reduction in overall infant and child mortality attributable to causes other than TB in high-mortality regions. The antibody response to immunisations provides an opportunity to investigate the influence of BCG on the immune response to unrelated antigens. This study compared the antibody response to routine immunisations in BCG-immunised and non-BCG-immunised infants. BCG-immunised infants were recruited from a related study in which BCG was given at birth and non-BCG-immunised infants were recruited from immunisation clinics. All infants received their routine immunisations according to the Australian National Immunisation Program. Concentrations of antibodies against pneumococcal (anti-Pn Ps), Haemophilus influenzae type B (anti-Hib), tetanus toxoid (anti-TT) and hepatitis B surface (anti-HBs) antigen were measured four weeks after the last (six month) set of infant immunisations. A total of 127 parents agreed for their infants to take part in the study of which 108 were included in the final analysis (56 BCG-immunised and 52 non-BCG-immunised). The geometric mean concentration (GMC) of anti-Pn Ps IgG for all serotypes, anti-Hib IgG and anti-TT IgG were higher in the BCG-immunised group than the non-BCG-immunised group. This difference reached statistical significance for serotype 9V (pimmunised group than the non-BCG-immunised group (p=0.03). The majority of participants in both groups had antibody levels above the protective threshold. BCG immunisation at birth influences the antibody response to routine immunisations administered later in infancy. This has important implications for the introduction of both pneumococcal conjugate and novel TB vaccines in resource-limited countries

  15. Action of tetanus toxin on cholinergic neuroblastoma X glioma hybrid cells: selective blockade of Ca spikes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, N; Ozutsumi, K; Matsuda, M; Higashida, H; Miki, N

    1983-12-01

    We examined the effect of tetanus toxin on clonal neuroblastoma X glioma hybrid cells, NG108-15, by intracellular microelectrode studies of passive membrane electrical properties and action potentials generated under various conditions. Binding of tetanus toxin to the surface of the cells was demonstrated by indirect immunofluorescent staining but no morphological alteration was observed in tetanus toxin-treated cells under a phase contrast microscope. These is no significant difference between the tetanus toxin-treated and untreated cells in their passive electrical membrane properties, i.e. resting membrane potentials, input resistances, time constants and input capacities. Cells in 120 mM Na+, 2 mM Ca2+ salt solution showed Na spikes, and cells in high Ca2+ (30 mM), Na+-free salt solution showed Ca spikes in response to depolarizing current pulses. While the Na spike was not affected by tetanus toxin, the Ca spike was blocked by the toxin. The minimum dose of tetanus toxin for maximum suppression of the peak potential level of the Ca spike was 250 ng/ml. Addition of tetraethyl ammonium (TEA) to extracellular fluid enhanced the Ca spike in untreated cells. In toxin-treated cells, TEA did not alter the effect of tetanus toxin on the Ca spike. Blockade of the Ca spike by tetanus toxin could be detected even at low extracellular Ca2+ concentration (10 mM) by adding TEA to the extracellular fluid and adjusting the membrane potential to a steady hyperpolarized level (-80 mV) to ensure optimal and uniform electrical responses. The usefulness of NG108-15 hybrid cells for in vitro investigations on the mechanism of action of tetanus toxin was discussed.

  16. Association between sudden infant death syndrome and diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis immunisation: an ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Nordhorn, Jacqueline; Hettler-Chen, Chih-Mei; Keil, Thomas; Muckelbauer, Rebecca

    2015-01-28

    Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) continues to be one of the main causes of infant mortality in the United States. The objective of this study was to analyse the association between diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) immunisation and SIDS over time. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention provided the number of cases of SIDS and live births per year (1968-2009), allowing the calculation of SIDS mortality rates. Immunisation coverage was based on (1) the United States Immunization Survey (1968-1985), (2) the National Health Interview Survey (1991-1993), and (3) the National Immunization Survey (1994-2009). We used sleep position data from the National Infant Sleep Position Survey. To determine the time points at which significant changes occurred and to estimate the annual percentage change in mortality rates, we performed joinpoint regression analyses. We fitted a Poisson regression model to determine the association between SIDS mortality rates and DTP immunisation coverage (1975-2009). SIDS mortality rates increased significantly from 1968 to 1971 (+27% annually), from 1971 to 1974 (+47%), and from 1974 to 1979 (+3%). They decreased from 1979 to 1991 (-1%) and from 1991 to 2001 (-8%). After 2001, mortality rates remained constant. DTP immunisation coverage was inversely associated with SIDS mortality rates. We observed an incidence rate ratio of 0.92 (95% confidence interval: 0.87 to 0.97) per 10% increase in DTP immunisation coverage after adjusting for infant sleep position. Increased DTP immunisation coverage is associated with decreased SIDS mortality. Current recommendations on timely DTP immunisation should be emphasised to prevent not only specific infectious diseases but also potentially SIDS.

  17. Genetic fusions of a CFA/I/II/IV MEFA (multiepitope fusion antigen) and a toxoid fusion of heat-stable toxin (STa) and heat-labile toxin (LT) of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) retain broad anti-CFA and antitoxin antigenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Xiaosai; Sack, David A; Zhang, Weiping

    2015-01-01

    Immunological heterogeneity has long been the major challenge in developing broadly effective vaccines to protect humans and animals against bacterial and viral infections. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains, the leading bacterial cause of diarrhea in humans, express at least 23 immunologically different colonization factor antigens (CFAs) and two distinct enterotoxins [heat-labile toxin (LT) and heat-stable toxin type Ib (STa or hSTa)]. ETEC strains expressing any one or two CFAs and either toxin cause diarrhea, therefore vaccines inducing broad immunity against a majority of CFAs, if not all, and both toxins are expected to be effective against ETEC. In this study, we applied the multiepitope fusion antigen (MEFA) strategy to construct ETEC antigens and examined antigens for broad anti-CFA and antitoxin immunogenicity. CFA MEFA CFA/I/II/IV [CVI 2014, 21(2):243-9], which carried epitopes of seven CFAs [CFA/I, CFA/II (CS1, CS2, CS3), CFA/IV (CS4, CS5, CS6)] expressed by the most prevalent and virulent ETEC strains, was genetically fused to LT-STa toxoid fusion monomer 3xSTaA14Q-dmLT or 3xSTaN12S-dmLT [IAI 2014, 82(5):1823-32] for CFA/I/II/IV-STaA14Q-dmLT and CFA/I/II/IV-STaN12S-dmLT MEFAs. Mice intraperitoneally immunized with either CFA/I/II/IV-STa-toxoid-dmLT MEFA developed antibodies specific to seven CFAs and both toxins, at levels equivalent or comparable to those induced from co-administration of the CFA/I/II/IV MEFA and toxoid fusion 3xSTaN12S-dmLT. Moreover, induced antibodies showed in vitro adherence inhibition activities against ETEC or E. coli strains expressing these seven CFAs and neutralization activities against both toxins. These results indicated CFA/I/II/IV-STa-toxoid-dmLT MEFA or CFA/I/II/IV MEFA combined with 3xSTaN12S-dmLT induced broadly protective anti-CFA and antitoxin immunity, and suggested their potential application in broadly effective ETEC vaccine development. This MEFA strategy may be generally used in multivalent

  18. Genetic fusions of a CFA/I/II/IV MEFA (multiepitope fusion antigen and a toxoid fusion of heat-stable toxin (STa and heat-labile toxin (LT of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC retain broad anti-CFA and antitoxin antigenicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaosai Ruan

    Full Text Available Immunological heterogeneity has long been the major challenge in developing broadly effective vaccines to protect humans and animals against bacterial and viral infections. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC strains, the leading bacterial cause of diarrhea in humans, express at least 23 immunologically different colonization factor antigens (CFAs and two distinct enterotoxins [heat-labile toxin (LT and heat-stable toxin type Ib (STa or hSTa]. ETEC strains expressing any one or two CFAs and either toxin cause diarrhea, therefore vaccines inducing broad immunity against a majority of CFAs, if not all, and both toxins are expected to be effective against ETEC. In this study, we applied the multiepitope fusion antigen (MEFA strategy to construct ETEC antigens and examined antigens for broad anti-CFA and antitoxin immunogenicity. CFA MEFA CFA/I/II/IV [CVI 2014, 21(2:243-9], which carried epitopes of seven CFAs [CFA/I, CFA/II (CS1, CS2, CS3, CFA/IV (CS4, CS5, CS6] expressed by the most prevalent and virulent ETEC strains, was genetically fused to LT-STa toxoid fusion monomer 3xSTaA14Q-dmLT or 3xSTaN12S-dmLT [IAI 2014, 82(5:1823-32] for CFA/I/II/IV-STaA14Q-dmLT and CFA/I/II/IV-STaN12S-dmLT MEFAs. Mice intraperitoneally immunized with either CFA/I/II/IV-STa-toxoid-dmLT MEFA developed antibodies specific to seven CFAs and both toxins, at levels equivalent or comparable to those induced from co-administration of the CFA/I/II/IV MEFA and toxoid fusion 3xSTaN12S-dmLT. Moreover, induced antibodies showed in vitro adherence inhibition activities against ETEC or E. coli strains expressing these seven CFAs and neutralization activities against both toxins. These results indicated CFA/I/II/IV-STa-toxoid-dmLT MEFA or CFA/I/II/IV MEFA combined with 3xSTaN12S-dmLT induced broadly protective anti-CFA and antitoxin immunity, and suggested their potential application in broadly effective ETEC vaccine development. This MEFA strategy may be generally used in

  19. Genetic Fusions of a CFA/I/II/IV MEFA (Multiepitope Fusion Antigen) and a Toxoid Fusion of Heat-Stable Toxin (STa) and Heat-Labile Toxin (LT) of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) Retain Broad Anti-CFA and Antitoxin Antigenicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Xiaosai; Sack, David A.; Zhang, Weiping

    2015-01-01

    Immunological heterogeneity has long been the major challenge in developing broadly effective vaccines to protect humans and animals against bacterial and viral infections. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains, the leading bacterial cause of diarrhea in humans, express at least 23 immunologically different colonization factor antigens (CFAs) and two distinct enterotoxins [heat-labile toxin (LT) and heat-stable toxin type Ib (STa or hSTa)]. ETEC strains expressing any one or two CFAs and either toxin cause diarrhea, therefore vaccines inducing broad immunity against a majority of CFAs, if not all, and both toxins are expected to be effective against ETEC. In this study, we applied the multiepitope fusion antigen (MEFA) strategy to construct ETEC antigens and examined antigens for broad anti-CFA and antitoxin immunogenicity. CFA MEFA CFA/I/II/IV [CVI 2014, 21(2):243-9], which carried epitopes of seven CFAs [CFA/I, CFA/II (CS1, CS2, CS3), CFA/IV (CS4, CS5, CS6)] expressed by the most prevalent and virulent ETEC strains, was genetically fused to LT-STa toxoid fusion monomer 3xSTaA14Q-dmLT or 3xSTaN12S-dmLT [IAI 2014, 82(5):1823-32] for CFA/I/II/IV-STaA14Q-dmLT and CFA/I/II/IV-STaN12S-dmLT MEFAs. Mice intraperitoneally immunized with either CFA/I/II/IV-STa-toxoid-dmLT MEFA developed antibodies specific to seven CFAs and both toxins, at levels equivalent or comparable to those induced from co-administration of the CFA/I/II/IV MEFA and toxoid fusion 3xSTaN12S-dmLT. Moreover, induced antibodies showed in vitro adherence inhibition activities against ETEC or E. coli strains expressing these seven CFAs and neutralization activities against both toxins. These results indicated CFA/I/II/IV-STa-toxoid-dmLT MEFA or CFA/I/II/IV MEFA combined with 3xSTaN12S-dmLT induced broadly protective anti-CFA and antitoxin immunity, and suggested their potential application in broadly effective ETEC vaccine development. This MEFA strategy may be generally used in multivalent

  20. Minimal change nephrotic syndrome in an 82 year old patient following a tetanus-diphteria-poliomyelitis-vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clajus Christian

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The most common cause of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome in children and younger adults is the minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS. In the elderly MCNS is relatively uncommon. Over the last decade some reports suggest a rare but possible association with the administration of various vaccines. Case presentation A 82-year old Caucasian female presented with pronounced nephrotic syndrome (proteinuria of 7.1 g/d, hypoproteinemia of 47 g/l. About six weeks prior to admission, she had received a combination vaccination for tetanus, diphtheria and poliomyelitis as a booster-vaccination from her general practitioner. The renal biopsy revealed typical minimal change lesions. She responded well to the initiated steroid treatment. As through physical examination as well as extensive laboratory and imaging studies did neither find any evidence for malignancies nor infections we suggest that the minimal change nephrotic syndrome in this patient might be related to the activation of the immune system triggered by the vaccination. Conclusion Our case as well as previous anecdotal reports suggests that vaccination and the resulting stimulations of the immune system might cause MCNS and other severe immune-reactions. Increased awareness in that regard might help to expand the database of those cases.

  1. Tetanus Toxin C-Fragment: The Courier and the Cure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Osta

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In many neurological disorders strategies for a specific delivery of a biological activity from the periphery to the central nervous system (CNS remains a considerable challenge for successful therapy. Reporter assays have established that the non-toxic C‑fragment of tetanus toxin (TTC, provided either as protein or encoded by non-viral naked DNA plasmid, binds pre-synaptic motor neuron terminals and can facilitate the retrograde axonal transport of desired therapeutic molecules to the CNS. Alleviated symptoms in animal models of neurological diseases upon delivery of therapeutic molecules offer a hopeful prospect for TTC therapy. This review focuses on what has been learned on TTC-mediated neuronal targeting, and discusses the recent discovery that, instead of being merely a carrier molecule, TTC itself may well harbor neuroprotective properties.

  2. [Clostridium tetani isolated from patients with systemic tetanus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onuki, Tomoyo; Nihonyanagi, Shin; Nakamura, Masaki; Ide, Toshimitsu; Hattori, Jun; Kanoh, Yuhsaku; Soma, Kazui

    2013-01-01

    Clostridium tetani is widely distributed in ground or mud, especially in field and pond-shore surface layers. C. tetani is rarely isolated from specimens of patients with tetanus, and is generally diagnosed based on clinical symptoms such as trismus or general tonic spasms. This means that positive C. tetani infection is rarely diagnosed bacterially. Using gram straing, we identified C. tetani in specimens from patients suspected of C. tetani infection brought to the Kitasato University Hospital emergency center. Rapid gram staining information in the bacteriology laboratory is expected to improve recovery from C. tetani infection. It is therefore necessary to ensure clinical specimen quality control, and to keep standard strains of rare bacteria for isolation and identification.

  3. THE EFFECT OF CAROVERINE AND ITS COMBINATION WITH AMINOOXYACETIC ACID ON SURVIVAL TIME OF MICE WITH EXPERIMENTAL TETANUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indira Mujezinović

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Tetanus is a disease that occurs in humans and various animal species worldwide. Tetanus toxin, after binding itself to nerve structures in the spinal cord, blocking the release of inhibitory transmitors which results in predominance of excitatory transmitors, and this manifestes itself in skeletal muscle spasm. In theory, inhibition of excitatory transmission can try to antagonize a number of ways: by stimulating inhibitory transmission with application inhibitory transmitors, inhibition of excitatory transmission by application of antagonists of excitatory transmitors and combination of antagonists of excitatory transmitors. Bearing this in mind, we attempted to normalize the disorders by tetanus toxin with the use of caroverine, an antagonist of excitatory transmitors, alone and in combination with aminooxyacetic acid (substance that increases the level of GABA. Experiments were conducted on albino mice of both sexes, weight 20-25 g. The experimental tetanus was induced by application of tetanus toxin. The application of caroverine and combination with aminooxyacetic acid was carried out 24 hours after application of tetanus toxin, once per day, until the death. Caroverine, given alone in a dose of 1,2 mg/kg significantly prolonged the LD50 period of mice with experimental tetanus, so the obtained results can be said that its application only at this dose proved to be effective. The combination with aminooxyacetic acid was gave an insignificant extension of mice’s dying time with experimental tetanus in the trial, compared to the control group. Key words: tetanus, tetanus toxin, transmitors, caroverine, aminooxyacetic acid

  4. Immunizing the World's Children by 1990. Hearing before the International Task Force of the Select Committee on Hunger. House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, First Session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC.

    A hearing was held to update information on progress toward immunizing the world's children against diphtheria, whooping cough, tetanus, polio, measles, and tuberculosis. Immunization programs are regarded as essential in the effort to break the infection-malnutrition cycle in children in developing nations. Witnesses at the hearing included…

  5. Dutch national immunization schedule: compliance and associated characteristics for the primary series.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheepers, Elsemieke D; van Lier, Alies; Drijfhout, Ingrid H; Berbers, Guy; van der Maas, Nicoline A T; de Melker, Hester E; Knol, Mirjam J

    In the Netherlands, the recommended priming immunization schedule for diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis and polio (DTaP-IPV) is at 2, 3 and 4 months of age. We evaluated the compliance with the recommended schedule, as well as its characteristics. We included all infants born between 2007 and 2012 who

  6. Immunogenicity and reactogenicity of a decennial booster dose of a combined reduced-antigen-content diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis and inactivated poliovirus booster vaccine (dTpa-IPV) in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovac, Martina; Rathi, Niraj; Kuriyakose, Sherine; Hardt, Karin; Schwarz, Tino F

    2015-05-21

    Pertussis in adults and adolescents could be reduced by replacing traditional tetanus and diphtheria (Td) boosters with reduced-antigen-content diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (dTpa) vaccines. This study evaluated the administration of dTpa-IPV (dTpa-inactivated poliovirus) in adults ten years after they received a booster dose of either dTpa-IPV, dTpa+IPV or Td-IPV in trial NCT01277705. Open multicentre, phase IV study (www.clinicaltrials.govNCT01323959) in which healthy adults, who had received a previous dose of dTpa-IPV, dTpa+IPV or Td-IPV ten years earlier, received a single decennial booster dose of dTpa-IPV (Boostrix-polio, GlaxoSmithKline Vaccines). Blood samples were collected before and one month after booster vaccination. Antibody concentrations against all vaccine antigens were measured and reactogenicity and safety were assessed. A total of 211 subjects (mean age 50.3 years) received vaccination of whom 201 were included in the according-to-protocol cohort for immunogenicity. Before the decennial dTpa-IPV booster, ≥71.0% subjects were seroprotected/seropositive against all vaccine antigens. One month after the booster dose, all subjects were seroprotected against tetanus and poliovirus types 2 and 3; ≥95.7% subjects were seroprotected against diphtheria and ≥98.3% against poliovirus type 1. Anti-pertussis booster responses for the various antigens were observed in ≥76.5% (pertussis toxoid; PT), ≥85.1% (filamentous haemagglutinin; FHA) and ≥63.2% (pertactin; PRN) of subjects. During the 4-day follow-up, the overall incidence of local AEs was 71.6%, 75.0% and 72.2% in dTpa-IPV, dTpa+IPV and Td-IPV groups, respectively. Pain was the most frequent solicited local adverse event (AE; ≥62.7% subjects) and fatigue the most frequent solicited general AE (≥18.5%). No serious AEs were reported during the study. A booster dose of dTpa-IPV was immunogenic and well tolerated in adults who had received a booster dose of either dTpa-IPV, d

  7. The role of transglutaminase in the mechanism of action of tetanus toxin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    J A Coffield; R V Considine; J Jeyapaul; A B Maksymowych; R D Zhang; L L Simpson

    1994-01-01

    .... These actions might also account for toxin-induced blockade of exocytosis. Therefore, a series of experiments were performed to evaluate the possibility that tetanus toxin exerts its effects via transglutaminase...

  8. [Mechanism of paradoxical resistance of the digastric muscle to the action of tetanus toxin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhaĭlov, V V; Shubin, A I

    1987-05-01

    Excitability parameters of m. masseter and m. digastricus fibers (resting minute potential--MP, action potential--AP, critical level of depolarization--CLD and rheobase currents) were determined in anesthetized rats (nembutal, 40 mg/kg) on days 3-4 and 10-15 after local intramuscular tetanus toxin injection (20 and 40 mouse Dlm, respectively). The development of local tetanus in m. masseter was characterized by typical excitability changes--a decrease in MP and AP. Local spasm in m. digastricus under analogous conditions of tetanus toxin injection was absent, while excitability tests demonstrated MP, AP and CLD augmentation. As m. digastricus motoneurons are devoid of inhibitory synaptic regions, these nervous cells are not affected by tetanus toxin.

  9. Student pharmacists' perceptions of immunizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubli, Kara; McBane, Sarah; Hirsch, Jan D; Lorentz, Sarah

    2017-05-01

    The primary aim of this study was to explore changes in knowledge level, perceived importance and apprehension of immunizations by first year pharmacy students pre- vs. post-immunization education and training. First year pharmacy students at the University of California San Diego Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences (UC San Diego SSPPS) completed a pre- and post-immunization training course questionnaire. Knowledge base and perceived importance level of immunizations including hepatitis B, influenza, measles, mumps, rubella (MMR), varicella, tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis (Tdap), meningococcal and human papilloma virus (HPV) were assessed. In addition, apprehension of needle administration and fears regarding safety and efficacy were evaluated. Of 120 students, 85 (71%) completed pre- and post-course questionnaires for this study. Mean knowledge test scores increased from 56% pre-course to 83% post-course. Pre-course, 73% of participants considered immunizations as very important in preventing future disease outbreaks. Post-course, this percentage climbed to 94%. Prior to taking the course, 52% of students were apprehensive about administering injections; however, after completing the course this percentage declined to 33%. The majority of students who had been fearful prior to the course retained their fears of receiving needle injections. The proportion of students believing immunizations should be a personal choice, not mandatory, did not significantly change from pre-course (49%) to post-course (44%). The UC San Diego SSPPS immunization course increased student knowledge of immunization facts and the perceived importance of immunizations. However, a substantial portion of students retained apprehension about administering and receiving needle injections and the proportion believing immunizations should be a personal choice, almost half, did not change appreciably. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Heterosubtypic protection against influenza A induced by adenylate cyclase toxoids delivering conserved HA2 subunit of hemagglutinin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Staneková, Z.; Adkins, Irena; Kosová, Martina; Janulíková, J.; Šebo, Peter; Varečková, E.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 97, č. 1 (2013), s. 24-35 ISSN 0166-3542 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/08/0447; GA ČR GP310/09/P582 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxoid * Influenza A infection * Cross-protection Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry Impact factor: 3.434, year: 2013

  11. An Open-Label, Randomized Study of a 9-Valent Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Given Concomitantly with Diphtheria, Tetanus, Pertussis, and Poliomyelitis Vaccines to Healthy Adolescents 11 to 15 Years of Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosalaraksa, Pope; Mehlsen, Jesper; Vesikari, Timo

    2015-01-01

    .8% in both groups at month 7. For REPEVAX, noninferiority of immune response was established for diphtheria, tetanus, and all polio and pertussis antigens for both groups. There were no vaccine-related serious AEs. CONCLUSION: Overall, concomitant administration of 9vHPV vaccine and REPEVAX was generally......BACKGROUND: A nine-valent human papillomavirus (9vHPV) vaccine has recently been reported to be safe and highly efficacious against infection and disease related to HPV6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58. We evaluated the immunogenicity and safety of the 9vHPV vaccine administered concomitantly with REPEVAX...... (diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis, and inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine). METHODS: This open-label, randomized, multicenter study enrolled 1054 males and females ages 11-15 years. Subjects were randomly assigned to each group in a 1:1 ratio. Subjects received a 0.5mL dose of 9vHPV vaccine...

  12. Pengaruh Pengetahuan Terhadap Sikap Ibu Mengenai Imunisasi Ulangan Difteria-Tetanus

    OpenAIRE

    Yenny Purnama; Eddy Fadlyana; Nanan Sekarwana

    2016-01-01

    Latar belakang. Peran serta dan penerimaan ibu mengenai imunisasi ulangan difteria-tetanus diperlukan untuk menunjang upaya pencegahan penyakit tersebut. Tujuan. Mengetahui pengaruh pengetahuan terhadap sikap ibu murid SD kelas I mengenai imunisasi ulangan difteria-tetanus. Metode. Subjek penelitian adalah ibu murid SD kelas I di Kotamadya Bandung, menggunakan penelitian kuantitatif dan kualitatif. Rancangan penelitian kuantitatif berupa survei cross-sectional dimulai bulan November sam...

  13. Differential effects of tetanus toxin on inhibitory and excitatory synaptic transmission in mammalian spinal cord neurons in culture: a presynaptic locus of action for tetanus toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergey, G K; Bigalke, H; Nelson, P G

    1987-01-01

    Tetanus toxin reduces monosynaptic inhibitory and excitatory synaptic transmission in mouse spinal cord neurons in culture. Inhibitory transmission is preferentially reduced by the toxin; however, excitatory transmission is also ultimately reduced and blocked by the concentrations of toxin used in these studies. Recordings from monosynaptically connected cell pairs revealed a marked diminution in amplitude of evoked monosynaptic inhibitory postsynaptic potentials coincident with the onset of convulsant action at a time when evoked monosynaptic EPSPs were relatively unaffected. Increased polysynaptic excitation occurred as a result of diminished inhibition. This supports the reduction of inhibition as an important mechanism in the convulsant action of tetanus toxin. Quantal analysis of the late effects of tetanus toxin on the monosynaptic excitatory postsynaptic potential revealed a reduction in quantal number with no reduction in quantal size, thus demonstrating a presynaptic locus of action for the toxin on spinal neurons.

  14. Immunogenicity test of tetanus component in adsorbed vaccines by toxin binding inhibition test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Cristina Souza Matos

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Samples from 20 lots of diphtheria-tetanus (adult use dT vaccine and from 20 lots of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP vaccine were used to standardize and validate the in vitro toxin binding inhibition (ToBI test for the immunogenicity test of the tetanus component. The levels of tetanus antitoxin obtained by ToBI test were compared to those obtained using the toxin neutralization (TN test in mice routinely employed to perform the quality control of the tetanus component in adsorbed vaccines. The results ranged from 1.8 to 3.5 IU/ml for dT and 2 to 4 IU/ml for DTP by ToBI test and 1.4 to 3 IU/ml for dT and 1.8 to 3.5 IU/ml for DTP by TN in mice. These results were significantly correlated. From this study, it is concluded that the ToBI test is an alternative to the in vivo neutralization procedure in the immunogenicity test of the tetanus component in adsorbed vaccines. A substantial refinement and a reduction in use of animals can be achieved.

  15. Immunogenicity, reactogenicity and consistency of production of a Brazilian combined vaccine against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis and Haemophilus influenzae type b

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo de Menezes Martins

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A randomized, double-blinded study evaluating the immunogenicity, safety and consistency of production of a combined diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine entirely produced in Brazil by Bio-Manguinhos and Instituto Butantan (DTP/Hib-BM was undertaken. The reference vaccine had the same DTP vaccine but the Hib component was produced using purified materials supplied by GlaxoSmithKline (DTP/Hib-GSK, which is registered and has supplied the Brazilian National Immunization Program for over more than five years. One thousand infants were recruited for the study and received vaccinations at two, four and six months of age. With respect to immunogenicity, the vaccination protocol was followed in 95.6% and 98.4% of infants in the DTP/Hib-BM and DTP/Hib-GSK groups, respectively. For the Hib component of the study, there was 100% seroprotection (>0.15 µg/mL with all three lots of DTP/Hib-BM and DTP/Hib-GSK. The geometric mean titer (GMT was 9.3 µg/mL, 10.3 µg/mL and 10.3 µg/mL for lots 1, 2 and 3 of DTP/Hib-BM, respectively, and the GMT was 11.3 g/mL for DTP/Hib-GSK. For diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis, seroprotection was 99.7%, 100% and 99.9%, respectively, for DTP/Hib-BM, three lots altogether and 99.2%, 100% and 100% for DTP/Hib-GSK. GMTs were similar across all lots and vaccines. Adverse events rates were comparable among the vaccine groups. The Brazilian DTP/Hib vaccine demonstrated an immunogenicity and reactogenicity profile similar to that of the reference vaccine.

  16. RESULTS OF ADMINISTRATION OF COMBINED VACCINE AGAINST DIPHTHERIA, PERTUSSIS, TETANUS, POLIOMYELITIS AND HAEMOPHILIC INFECTION TYPE B IN CHILDREN WITH CONCOMITANT DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. F. Snegova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article summarizes data on methods and opportunities of frequently ailing children rehabilitation. Authors mark a leading role of vaccination against pneumotropic infections. Questions of successful interaction between doctor and frequently ailing child’s parents are highlighted. The observation of 94 children 3 months — 3 years old (patients had different types of initial immune insuffiiency, neurological pathology, recurrent obstructive bronchitis, or were included in group of frequently ailing children vaccinated with Pentaxim was performed. 94% of children showed asymptomatic postvaccinal period. Fever up to 39°C occurred in 2.3% of patients. Local reactions (diameter was not over 3–5 cm developed in 1.7% of children. There was no any case of postvaccinal complication. Evaluation of vaccine’s reactogenity proves its safety and reasonability in immunization against pertussis, diphtheria, tetanus, poliomyelitis, Haemophilis influenzae type b in children of different health state including those with concomitant diseases.

  17. Autonomic nervous system instability, tetanic necrosis of the heart and myocardial TNFalpha expression in a tetanus fatal case.

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    Pomara, Cristoforo; Neri, Margherita; Riezzo, Irene; Turillazzi, Emanuela; Fineschi, Vittorio

    2009-08-21

    The cardiovascular manifestations of tetanus consist of disturbances of heart rate and rhythm, blood pressure instability, arrhythmias, myocardial dysfunction and sympathetic overactivity. It was suggested that either a sudden loss of catecholamine stimulation or myocardial damage caused by the direct action of the tetanus toxin, could be involved in cardiac dysfunction described in tetanus. However, histologic evidence of myocardial necrosis in tetanus was demonstrated in few cases. We report a fatal case of tetanus in which we investigated the cardiac morphology and the expression of TNFalpha to elucidate the heart involvement in this case. Since it is well known that myocardial damage caused by catecholamines can induce synthesis of cytokines by myocytes, cytokines, specifically those with known cardiodepressant properties such as TNF-alpha, could be an alternative mechanism involved in cardiac dysfunction in the setting of tetanus.

  18. Tetanus toxin mechanism of action in Torpedo electromotor system: a study on different steps in the intoxication process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreros, J; Blasi, J; Arribas, M; Marsal, J

    1995-03-01

    The mechanism of action of tetanus toxin was characterized in the electromotor system of Torpedo marmorata either at peripheral and central nervous system. The consecutive steps of the intoxication pathway were observed: (i) [125I]tetanus toxin specifically bound to neuronal plasma membranes isolated both from electric organ and electric lobe of Torpedo, exhibiting one and two binding sites respectively; (ii) [125I]tetanus toxin was internalized into nerve terminals and retrogradely transported to the electric lobe after its injection in the electric organ; (iii) finally, intracellular effect of tetanus toxin was studied either at electric organ and electric lobe membrane fractions. In both preparations tetanus toxin cleaved synaptobrevin, as detected by immunoblotting methods. In conclusion, our findings exhibit the presence of two different populations of acceptors for tetanus toxin in central and peripheral nervous system and show that synaptobrevin cleavage may account for intracellular toxicity in Torpedo.

  19. Immunization Coverage in WHO Regions: A Review Article

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    Rahim Vakili

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available   In 1974, the World Health Organization (WHO established the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI to ensure that all children have access to routinely recommended vaccines. Since then, global coverage with the four core vaccines (Bacille calmette guérin vaccine [for protection against tuberculosis], Diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine [DTP], Polio vaccine, and Measles vaccine has increased from

  20. Antitoxic immunity to cholera in dogs immunized orally with cholera toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, N F; Cray, W C; Engel, P F

    1980-02-01

    Colera toxin was evaluated as an oral immunogen against experimental canine cholera. Dogs were immunized orally with 100-microgram doses of purified cholera toxin or comparable doses of crude toxin. Both doses caused moderate diarrhea in most nonimmune dogs. Repeated oral doses (12 doses in 54 days) gave marked protection against the diarrheal effect of oral toxin, provoked a vigorous antitoxic response in jejunal mucosa, and gave nearly complete protection against subsequent oral challenge with living virulent Vibrio cholerae. Protection appeared to be due largely to the antitoxic response in intestinal mucosa. The effectiveness of cholera toxin as an oral vaccine contrasts with the previously described ineffectiveness of toxoid given orally. This study provides an example of mucosal immunity due to a nonreplicating vaccine given orally and suggests that cholera toxin may be useful as a component of an oral vaccine for cholera.

  1. Irradiation of the Crude Venom of Bothrops jararacussu to Obtain Toxoid

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    Ferreira, Camila G.; Avalloni, Tânia M.; Oshima-Franco, Yoko; de J. Oliveira, Sara; de Oliveira, José M.; Cogo, José C.

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this work was to reduce the toxicity of Bothrops jararacussu venom using gamma-rays of low-energy coming from a source of Americium-241 (E = 59.6 keV and 3.7×109 Bq of activity) in order to obtain a toxoid. The radiation dose that each sample received was controlled by exposure time of the venom to the radiation beam. Mouse nerve phrenic-diaphragm preparation was used for testing the loss of venom toxicity, since the venom causes an irreversible neuromuscular blockade. In this condition, the several samples of irradiated venom, when assayed in neuromuscular preparation showed that with a dose of 0.051 Gy the paralysis caused by the irradiated venom was of 91%, at 0.360 Gy was of 79%, at 1.662 Gy was of 50% and at 2.448 Gy was of 42%. Therefore, it can be concluded that the irradiation model was able to induce a progressive loss of the venom toxicity.

  2. Hoffmeister Series Ions Protect Diphtheria Toxoid from Structural Damages at Solvent/Water Interface

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    Pedro S. de Araujo

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available During the W1/O phase (in the W1/O/W2 process of protein microencapsulation within poly-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA, hydrophobic interfaces are expanded where interfacial adsorption occurs followed by protein unfolding and aggregation. Spectroscopic and immunological techniques were used to ascertain the effects of the Hoffmeister series ions on Diphtheria toxoid (Dtxd stability during the W1/O phase. A correlation was established between salts used in aqueous solutions and the changes in Dtxd solubility and conformation. The Dtxd α-helical content was quite stable thus leading to the conclusion that encapsulation was followed by protein aggregation, with minor exposition of hydrophobic residues and a small change at the S-S dihedral angle. Dtxd aggregation is 95% avoided by the chaotropic SCN-. This was used to prepare a stable Dtxd and immunologically recognized/PLGA formulation in the presence of 30 mM SNC-. The recovery increased by 10.42% or 23.2% when microencapsulation was within the -COOMe or -COOH (12kDa PLGA, respectively. In conclusion, the aim of this work was achieved, which was to obtain the maximum of Dtxd stability after contact with CH2Cl2 to begin its PLGA microencapsulation within ideal conditions. This was a technological breakthrough because a simple solution like salt addition avoided heterologous proteins usage.

  3. Knowledge of Emergency Medicine Residents in Relation to Prevention of Tetanus

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    Hojjat Derakhshanfar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Knowledge of emergency medicine residents about the management of patients suspected of having tetanus favoring wounds is very important due to their responsibility for the treatment of such patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate this knowledge and making sure of the adequacy of instructions they have received in relation to prevention of tetanus.  Methods: A reliable and reproducible questionnaire was used to evaluate knowledge of all the emergency medicine residents in Imam Hussein Hospital in Tehran, Iran, about conditions favoring tetanus (9 questions and proper interventions in such conditions (12 questions. The questionnaires were completed and scored as poor and good. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to analyze data. Statistical significance was set at P<0.05. Results: In the present study, 73 emergency medicine residents were evaluated (45.2% male. Knowledge of 31 (42.5% residents in relation to conditions favoring tetanus and 41 (56.2% residents in correct therapeutic interventions was in good level. The most frequent incorrect answer was related to diabetic ulcers and wounds in patients with sepsis. There was an increase in scores of conditions favoring tetanus (P<0.001 and correct therapeutic interventions (P=0.001 with an increase in educational years. However, age (P=0.64, gender (P=0.31, job experience (P=0.38 and participation in educational courses (P=0.67 had no effect on the knowledge level of emergency medicine residents. Conclusion: According to the findings of the present study, the knowledge of emergency medicine residents about correct management of patients suspected of tetanus was low, which emphasizes the necessity of providing further instructions on prevention of tetanus in wound management. 

  4. [Toward a New Immunization Schedule in Spain, 2016 (Part 1)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limia-Sánchez, Aurora; Andreu, María Mar; Torres de Mier, María de Viarce; Navarro-Alonso, José Antonio

    2016-03-08

    The immunization Schedule is a dynamic public health tool that has incorporated different changes over the years influenced by the epidemiologic situation and the scientific evidence. The Immunization Advisory Committee [Ponencia de Programa y Registro de Vacunaciones], as the Interterritorial Council scientific and technical advisory body, carries out assessments of different programmes and vaccines and proposes changes that after approval will be introduced in the Regions schedule. This article is divided into two parts presenting the rationale followed to propose a new schedule for the immunization against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B and invasive disease by Haemophilus influenzae type b. This first part is focused in the reasoning to undertake the assessment, the review of the immunization policy and the impact of immunization in Spain, as well as a review of the immunization schedules in similar countries.

  5. Comparison of in-house biotin-avidin tetanus IgG enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with gold standard in vivo mouse neutralization test for the detection of low level antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonmez, Cemile; Coplu, Nilay; Gozalan, Aysegul; Akin, Lutfu; Esen, Berrin

    2017-06-01

    Detection of anti-tetanus antibody levels is necessary for both determination of the immune status of individuals and also for planning preventive measures. ELISA is the preferred test among in vitro tests however it can be affected by the cross reacting antibodies. A previously developed in-house ELISA test was found not reliable for the antibody levels ≤1.0IU/ml. A new method was developed to detect low antibody levels correctly. The aim of the present study was to compare the results of the newly developed in-house biotin-avidin tetanus IgG ELISA test with the in vivo mouse neutralization test, for the antibody levels ≤1.0IU/ml. A total of 54 serum samples with the antibody levels of three different levels, =0.01IU/ml, 0.01-0.1IU/ml, 0.1-1IU/ml, which were detected by in vivo mouse neutralization test were studied by the newly developed in-house biotin-avidin tetanus IgG ELISA test. Test was validated by using five different concentrations (0.01IU/ml, 0.06IU/ml, 0.2IU/ml, 0.5IU/ml, 1.0IU/ml). A statistically significant correlation (r(2)=0.9967 p=0,001) between in vivo mouse neutralization test and in-house biotin-avidin tetanus IgG ELISA test, was observed. For the tested concentrations intra-assay, inter-assay, accuracy, sensitivity, specificity and coefficients of variations were determined as ≤15%. In-house biotin-avidin tetanus IgG ELISA test can be an alternative method to in vivo mouse neutralization method for the detection of levels ≤1.0IU/ml. By using in-house biotin-avidin tetanus IgG ELISA test, individuals with non protective levels, will be reliably detected. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Factors affecting acceptance of complete immunization coverage of children under five years in rural Bangladesh Factores que influyen en la aceptación de la cobertura de vacunación completa entre los niños menores de cinco años de edad en zonas rurales de Bangladesh

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    Mosiur Rahman

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This article establishes the hypothesis that predisposing, enabling and household needs influence the complete vaccination status of children. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data from the 2004 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (N= 3530 was used. The data was analyzed using descriptive and multiple logistic regression methods. RESULTS: Approximately 60% of the children in rural Bangladesh were fully immunized. The full vaccination rate increased with an increase in the previous birth interval and the education level of the mother. Women with the highest wealth index were significantly more likely to fully immunize their children. Distance from health facility, parity, mother's age, mass media, children's sex and tetanus toxoid injection were also significantly positively associated with full vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: Findings reflect that, irrespective of need, only children from higher economic or educational groups can afford to be fully vaccinated in rural Bangladesh. In other words, predisposing, enabling and need factors appear to have a strong association with full immunization coverageOBJETIVO: Establecer la hipótesis de que los predisponentes, los facilitadores y los factores de necesidad de los hogares influyen en el estado de vacunación completa de los niños. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se utilizaron los datos de Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey de 2004 (N= 3530. Es un estudio descriptivo en el que se utilizó el método de regresión logística múltiple para el análisis de datos. RESULTADOS: Aproximadamente 60% de los niños estaban completamente inmunizados en zonas rurales de Bangladesh. La tasa de vacunación completa aumentó con un incremento en el intervalo de los nacimientos anteriores y el nivel educativo de la madre. Las mujeres con mejor nivel económico muestran un índice significativamente más alto de probabilidad en el hecho de haber administrado todas las vacunas a sus hijos. La distancia del centro de

  7. Immune System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Counselors Kidney Stones Brain and Nervous System Immune System KidsHealth > For Teens > Immune System Print A A ... put us out of commission. What the Immune System Does The immune (pronounced: ih-MYOON) system, which ...

  8. Using Geographic Information Systems to Determination of The Distribution of Neonatal Tetanus

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    Saffet Erdogan

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study aimed to explore the distribution of neonatal tetanus between provinces of Turkey with the aid of geographic information systems and spatial analyses and to identify infection cluster areas. METHODS: Analyses performed to report neonatal tetanus cases that recorded by the Ministry of Health belong to 1990-2006 period and to the demographic data belong to 1996-2006 period recorded by Turkish Statistical Institute. Firstly, to detect global variations and trends in the values of smoothed rates over the neighboring provinces, spatial rate smoothing based on spatial moving areas technique is performed by using different weight matrices. Secondly, global and local spatial autocorrelation analyses are performed whether the cases of neonatal tetanus show clustering. RESULTS: Analyses showed that neonatal tetanus cases are not spatially random and form clusters in the country (Moran’s I: 0.030, p<0.05. Spatial rate smoothing analysis that is performed by using 658 cases showed a significant trend towards to the Southeast and East Anatolian region. Local spatial autocorrelation analyses determined significantly some specific provinces as clusters. CONCLUSION: This study shows that neonatal tetanus is a serious public health concern in the some region of Turkey, and that regions should have a priority to implement precautionary measures. It also shows that geographic information systems, spatial analyses and statistics can contribute to understanding epidemiology of diseases and identifying high rate disease locations. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(1.000: 59-68

  9. The role of transglutaminase in the mechanism of action of tetanus toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffield, J A; Considine, R V; Jeyapaul, J; Maksymowych, A B; Zhang, R D; Simpson, L L

    1994-09-30

    Tetanus toxin is a zinc-dependent metalloendoprotease that cleaves synaptobrevin, a polypeptide found in the membranes of synaptic vesicles. This action is thought to account for toxin-induced blockade of transmitter release. However, Facchiano and Luini (Fachiano, F., and Luini, A. (1992) J. Biol Chem. 267, 13267-13271) have proposed that tetanus toxin can stimulate transglutaminase, and Facchiano et al. (Facchiano, F., Benfenati, F., Valtorta, F., and Luini, A. (1993) J. Biol Chem. 268, 4588-4591) have further proposed that the stimulated enzyme produces cross-linking of synapsin. These actions might also account for toxin-induced blockade of exocytosis. Therefore, a series of experiments were performed to evaluate the possibility that tetanus toxin exerts its effects via transglutaminase. The results indicated that clostridial neurotoxins were poor substrates for the cross-linking effects of transglutaminase, and transglutaminase was a poor substrate for the proteolytic actions of tetanus toxin. In addition, at concentrations relevant to blockade of exocytosis, clostridial neurotoxins did not act on intact cells to stimulate transglutaminase, nor did they act on the isolated enzyme to stimulate cross-linking of putrescine and dimethylcasein. When used as competitive inhibitors of endogenous transglutaminase substrates, glycine methyl ester and monodansylcadaverine did not block toxin action. Furthermore, concentrations of calcium that were too low to support transglutaminase activity did not prevent toxin action. The data suggest that stimulation of transglutaminase is not the principal mechanism by which tetanus toxin blocks exocytosis in nerve cells.

  10. Tetanus in the equine species: a retrospective study of 31 cases.

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    van Galen, G; Delguste, C; Sandersen, C; Verwilghen, D; Grulke, S; Amory, H

    2008-06-15

    Few studies exist about factors affecting the outcome of horses with tetanus. 31 equids (30 horses and 1 donkey) with a clinical diagnosis of tetanus admitted to the Equine Clinic of the University of Liege between 1991 and 2006. The cases were divided into two groups according to the outcome (survivors and non-survivors). The clinical data of survivors and non-survivors were compared using an ANOVA (continuous data) or a Fisher's test (discrete data). The survival rate was 32%. Most animals were 5 years or younger, and none had been appropriately vaccinated. The non-survivors were significantly younger than the survivors. The development of dyspnoea, recumbency, and the combination of dysphagia, dyspnoea, and recumbency was observed significantly more in the non-survivors than in the survivors. The timing of tetanus antitoxin administration (either immediately after the onset of suggestive signs or after a delay) was not different between the two groups. The time between the occurrence of a wound and the first signs ranged from 2 days to 2 months and was not significantly different between groups. All non-survivors died within 8 days of the first signs. This study suggests that young animals are affected more often and more severely by tetanus than older animals. Dyspnoea, recumbency, and the combination of dysphagia, dyspnoea, and recumbency can be considered as indicators of a poor prognosis in equids suffering from tetanus.

  11. Characteristic tetanus infection in disaster-affected areas: case study of the Yogyakarta earthquakes in Indonesia

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    Suwa Hirohiko

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tetanus is an infectious disease caused by the contamination of wounds from bacteria that live in soil. The tetanus mortality rate remains high in developing countries affected by natural disasters. Whether the socio-demography and geographical conditions may influence the tetanus treatment outcome on the earthquake situation in Yogyakarta, Indonesia has not been investigated. Findings We present 26 tetanus patients who were admitted to eight hospitals following the earthquakes that occurred on May, 27, 2006, in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. The independent variables were age, gender, distance, admission, hospitalization, and type of hospital with the dependent variable surviving or perishing. Data were analyzed by logistic regression methods on SPSS 17.0. The distance from the patient's place of residence to the hospital were obtained and analyzed by using geospatial tools MapInfo 7.8 SCP and Global Mapper 7. Eight of the 26 patients were dead (30.8% and statistical results showed that the distance (OR = 1.740, 95% CI = 1.068–2.835 and type of hospital (OR = 0.067, 95% CI = 0.001–3.520 were significant predictors of death. Conclusion Our findings show that in order to reduce the mortality rates, performing triage systems based on the distance and type of hospital priority for internally displaced persons could be proposed as well as making provisions for the generally old population in order to prevent an outbreak of tetanus following earthquakes in Yogyakarta, Indonesia.

  12. Seroprevalence study of anti diphtheria antibodies in two age-groups of Romanian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragomirescu, Cristiana Cerasella; Coldea, Ileana-Luminiţa; Ilie, Anamaria; Stănescu, Aurora; Ungureanu, Vasilica; Popa, Mircea Ioan

    2014-01-01

    Diphtheria represents a serious infectious disease with high epidemic potential. It is a vaccine preventable disease (a minimum vaccine coverage of 95% for children of 1 year and 90% in adults could prevent the disease). Diphtheria vaccination is included in the National Immunization Program (NIP). Complete vaccination for children consists in DTaP (diphtheria toxoid, tetanus toxoid and acellular pertussis vaccine) vaccine administration from the age of 2 months until 4 years and dT vaccine (tetanus toxoid and a reduced dose of diphtheria toxoid) at 14 years old. The aim of this paper was to highlight the protection against diphtheria of an age segment of the Romanian adult population (20 to 39 years old) using a seroprevalence study. The Romanian subjects were selected from two age groups: 20-29 years (n = 219) and 30-39 years (n = 229), representative for all counties of Romania. The commercial kit Anti-Diphtheria Toxoid ELISA (IgG) (EUROIMMUN) was used to detect the antibodies of IgG class against diphtheria toxoid in the sera obtained from our subjects. We detected a 56.6% rate of positive sera (> 0.1 IU/ml--protection level) for the 20-29 age group and 31.7% positivity for the 30-39 age group. These data show a low protection level against diphtheria of the Romanian adult population, which decreases with age. The serologic data on preventable vaccine diseases are useful in order to evaluate the success of the immunization programs.

  13. Genetic Fusions of Heat-Labile Toxoid (LT) and Heat-Stable Toxin b (STb) of Porcine Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Elicit Protective Anti-LT and Anti-STb Antibodies ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiping; Francis, David H.

    2010-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC)-associated diarrhea causes a substantial economic loss to swine producers worldwide. The majority of ETEC strains causing porcine diarrhea, especially postweaning diarrhea (PWD), produce heat-labile toxin (LT) and heat-stable toxin b (STb). LT is commonly used in vaccine development, but STb has not been included because of its poor immunogenicity. As a virulence factor in porcine diarrhea, STb needs to be included as an antigen for development of broad-spectrum vaccines. In this study, we used an LT toxoid (LTR192G [hereafter, LT192]) derived from porcine ETEC to carry a mature STb peptide for LT192-STb fusions to enhance STb immunogenicity for potential vaccine application. Anti-LT and anti-STb antibodies were detected in immunized rabbits and pigs. In addition, when challenged with an STb-positive ETEC strain, all 10 suckling piglets borne by immunized gilts remained healthy, whereas 7 out 9 piglets borne by unimmunized gilts developed moderate diarrhea. This study indicates that the LT192-STb fusion enhanced anti-STb immunogenicity and suggests the LT192-STb fusion antigen can be used in future vaccine development against porcine ETEC diarrhea. PMID:20505006

  14. A mechanism of the thearubigin fraction of black tea (Camellia sinensis) extract protecting against the effect of tetanus toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Eiki; Ishii, Toshiaki; Shimizu, Yoshio; Sawamura, Shin-ichi; Nishimura, Masakazu

    2002-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to elucidate the mechanism of the protective effect of black tea extract's thearubigin fraction against the action of tetanus toxin. The effects of thearubigin fraction extracted from a black tea infusion were examined for neuromuscular blocking action on tetanus toxin in mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparations and on the binding of this toxin to the synaptosomal membrane preparations of rat cerebral cortices. The interaction between tetanus toxin and thearubigin fraction was also investigated. Tetanus toxin (4 micrograms/ml) abolished indirect twitches in mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparations within 150 min. Thearubigin fraction mixed with tetanus toxin blocked the inhibitory effect of the toxin. Mixing iodinated toxin with thearubigin fraction inhibited the specific binding of [125I]tetanus toxin to the synaptosomal membrane preparation. The effects of thearubigin fraction were dose-dependent. The elution profile of [125I]tetanus toxin on Sephadex G-50 column chromatography was different from that of toxin mixed with thearubigin fraction. These findings indicate that thearubigin fraction protects against the action of tetanus toxin by binding with the toxin.

  15. Generalised tetanus in a 2-week-old foal: use of physiotherapy to aid recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mykkänen, A K; Hyytiäinen, H K; McGowan, C M

    2011-11-01

    A 2-week-old Estonian Draft foal presented with signs of severe generalised tetanus, recumbency and inability to drink. The suspected source of infection was the umbilicus. Medical treatment was administered, including tetanus antitoxin, antimicrobial therapy and phenobarbital to control tetanic spasms. In addition, an intensive physiotherapy program was carried out during the recovery period. Techniques designed for syndromes involving upper motor neuron spasticity in humans were applied. Exercises aimed at weight-bearing and mobility were executed with the help of a walking-frame. The foal made a complete recovery. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the use of physiotherapy in the treatment of tetanus in horses. © 2011 The Authors. Australian Veterinary Journal © 2011 Australian Veterinary Association.

  16. Microbiologic characterization and antimicrobial susceptibility of Clostridium tetani isolated from wounds of patients with clinically diagnosed tetanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, James I; Lam, Thi Minh Yen; Huynh, Thi Loan; To, So Diep; Tran, Thi Thu Nga; Nguyen, Van Minh Hoang; Le, Thanh Son; Nguyen, van Vinh Chau; Parry, Christopher; Farrar, Jeremy J; Tran, Tinh Hien; Baker, Stephen

    2009-05-01

    Clostridium tetani is the etiologic agent of the muscle-spasming disease tetanus. Despite an effective vaccine, tetanus is an ongoing problem in some developing countries. Diagnosis by bacterial culture is not done because it is generally unnecessary and the entry of route of the bacteria can be inapparent. We attempted to isolate and evaluate C. tetani from the wounds of 84 patients with tetanus. We effectively isolated C. tetani from 45 patients. All strains tested positive by polymerase chain reaction for the gene encoding tetanus neurotoxin. Antimicrobial susceptibilities were determined by disc diffusion and E-test. All C. tetani isolates were susceptible to penicillin and metronidazole but resistant to co-trimoxazole. Despite treatment with high doses of penicillin, C. tetani was isolated after 16 days of intravenous penicillin in two cases. These data show that the intravenous route for penicillin may be inadequate for clearing the infection and emphasizes wound debridement in the treatment of tetanus.

  17. Tetanus in Italy 2001-2010: a continuing threat in older adults.

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    Filia, Antonietta; Bella, Antonino; von Hunolstein, Christina; Pinto, Antonella; Alfarone, Giovanna; Declich, Silvia; Rota, Maria Cristina

    2014-02-03

    Despite being a completely preventable disease, tetanus cases continue to occur in Italy and notification and hospitalization rates have been reported to be higher with respect to European and other industrialized countries. We examined statutory notification, hospitalization, mortality and seroprevalence data to describe tetanus epidemiology in Italy from 2001 to 2010. A total of 594 tetanus cases were notified, with an average annual incidence of 1.0/1,000,000 population. Most cases were unvaccinated or incompletely vaccinated. Eighty percent of cases occurred in subjects aged >64 years and a higher proportion of females with respect to males were reported in this age group. The annual number of hospital admissions was 1.4-1.7 times greater than the number of notifications in the same year. The mean annual number of reported deaths was 21. Seroprevalence data show progressively higher susceptibility levels with increasing age. Over 50% of persons aged 45-64 years and over two thirds of subjects ≥65 years had tetanus antibody levels Italy and, as in other countries, most cases occur in older adults, especially elderly women. The observed differences in notification and hospitalization rates suggest underreporting by physicians. In recent years, Italy has accounted for most cases reported annually in the European Union (EU) but different case definitions are used. In Italy, a confirmed case is one that meets the clinical case definition while the EU case definition classifies confirmed cases as those with laboratory confirmation of disease. The incidence of clinical tetanus in Italy is ten-fold higher than in other industrialized countries, like Australia and Canada, likely due to higher susceptibility levels in Italy. In view of the low prevalence of tetanus antibodies in adults ≥45 years, strategies to improve vaccine uptake in this population group need to be implemented. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Pretravel consultation: rapid dipstick test as a decision guidance for the application of tetanus booster vaccinations.

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    Paulke-Korinek, Maria; Rendi-Wagner, Pamela; Kundi, Michael; Tomann, Batya; Wiedermann, Ursula; Kollaritsch, Herwig

    2008-01-01

    When deciding whether to administer a tetanus vaccination--for international travel or injury--a subject's vaccination certificate should be investigated. As many people lack valid vaccination cards and are unable to recall their vaccination history, the Tetanos Quick Stick (TQS) test rapidly detects protective tetanus immunoglobulin IgG antibodies in whole blood, serum, or plasma. This immunochromatographic dipstick test yields a positive or negative result. Our study evaluates the effectiveness of the TQS test by comparing the binary TQS test results of 100 sera with the tetanus antibody levels as measured by the standardized enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. We used the TQS test to determine whether a person needed a tetanus booster vaccination. If the test showed a clearly visible line that was similar to the control line, the result was determined to be positive. All positive TQS test results had a concentration of IgG antibodies above 0.5 IU/mL as measured by ELISA, indicating that no booster vaccination was required. Similarly, in all cases with an antibody level below 0.1 IU/mL, where a vaccination would have been recommended based on the ELISA test result, the TQS test yielded a negative result. The positive predictive value and the specificity for the dipstick test were therefore 100%. The TQS test is a reliable, fast, and cost-effective means of identifying subjects with a preexisiting level of tetanus IgG antibodies above approximately 0.5 IU/mL. This can help to avoid unnecessary tetanus vaccinations in travel clinics, emergency departments, and practices of family doctors.

  19. Risk of febrile seizures and epilepsy after vaccination with diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis, inactivated poliovirus, and Haemophilus influenzae type B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuelian; Christensen, Jakob; Hviid, Anders; Li, Jiong; Vedsted, Peter; Olsen, Jørn; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2012-02-22

    Vaccination with whole-cell pertussis vaccine carries an increased risk of febrile seizures, but whether this risk applies to the acellular pertussis vaccine is not known. In Denmark, acellular pertussis vaccine has been included in the combined diphtheria-tetanus toxoids-acellular pertussis-inactivated poliovirus-Haemophilus influenzae type b (DTaP-IPV-Hib) vaccine since September 2002. To estimate the risk of febrile seizures and epilepsy after DTaP-IPV-Hib vaccination given at 3, 5, and 12 months. A population-based cohort study of 378,834 children who were born in Denmark between January 1, 2003, and December 31, 2008, and followed up through December 31, 2009; and a self-controlled case series (SCCS) study based on children with febrile seizures during follow-up of the cohort. Hazard ratio (HR) of febrile seizures within 0 to 7 days (0, 1-3, and 4-7 days) after each vaccination and HR of epilepsy after first vaccination in the cohort study. Relative incidence of febrile seizures within 0 to 7 days (0, 1-3, and 4-7 days) after each vaccination in the SCCS study. A total of 7811 children were diagnosed with febrile seizures before 18 months, of whom 17 were diagnosed within 0 to 7 days after the first (incidence rate, 0.8 per 100,000 person-days), 32 children after the second (1.3 per 100,000 person-days), and 201 children after the third (8.5 per 100,000 person-days) vaccinations. Overall, children did not have higher risks of febrile seizures during the 0 to 7 days after the 3 vaccinations vs a reference cohort of children who were not within 0 to 7 days of vaccination. However, a higher risk of febrile seizures was found on the day of the first (HR, 6.02; 95% CI, 2.86-12.65) and on the day of the second (HR, 3.94; 95% CI, 2.18-7.10), but not on the day of the third vaccination (HR, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.73-1.57) vs the reference cohort. On the day of vaccination, 9 children were diagnosed with febrile seizures after the first (5.5 per 100,000 person-days), 12

  20. [Alferecía and the first cases of tetanus neonaturum described in Chile in 1894].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledermann D, Walter

    2011-12-01

    Federico Puga Borne presented the first two cases of known Chilean tetanus neonatorum in 1891. These cases had a fatal course, were poorly described and had no necropsy. The presentation was done in a regular session of the Sociéte Scientifique du Chili, founded in 1891 by a French citizen settled in the country, and published in the Actes de la Sociéte Scientifique du Chili. At this time, tetanus had never been seen in a newborn in Chile, while it was very common in other South American countries; its popular name was alferecía, but this term covered many other neurological disorders.