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Sample records for teta

  1. TetaSARTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luckow, Kasper Søe; Bøgholm, Thomas; Thomsen, Bent

    2013-01-01

    We describe the design and the capabilities of the static timing analysis tool TetaSARTS that assists in temporal verification of Safety Critical Java (SCJ) systems. The primary functionality of TetaSARTS is schedulability analysis, which takes into account the scheduling policy and task interact......We describe the design and the capabilities of the static timing analysis tool TetaSARTS that assists in temporal verification of Safety Critical Java (SCJ) systems. The primary functionality of TetaSARTS is schedulability analysis, which takes into account the scheduling policy and task...... interactions. TetaSARTS also facilitates analysing processor utilisation and idle time, Worst Case Execution Time, Worst Case Response Time, and Worst Case Blocking Time. In the analyses, TetaSARTS accounts for the execution environment hosting the analysed system; both hardware implementations of the Java...... and for achieving high flexibility is model checking. In a process resembling the stages of an optimising compiler, TetaSARTS translates the SCJ system into a Network of Timed Automata amenable to model checking using the Uppaal model checker....

  2. PENGARUH BOBOT DAN FREKUENSI PEMUTARAN TELUR TERHADAP FERTILITAS, DAYA TETAS, DAN BOBOT TETAS ITIK LOKAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratih Dewanti

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh bobot dan frekuensi pemutaran telur terhadap fertilitas, daya tetas, dan bobot day old ducks (DOD itik lokal. Penelitian ini menggunakan 351 butir telur itik lokal dengan rasio induk jantan dan betina 1:10. Rancangan percobaan menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap pola faktorial 3x3. Perlakuan terdiri dari 3 kelompok dengan 3 ulangan dan setiap ulangan terdiri dari 13 butir telur. Bobot telur adalah 53-60 g (B1, 61-68 g (B2 dan 69-76 g (B3 dan pemutaran telur 4 kali, 6 kali, dan 8 kali dalam sehari. Hasil analisis variansi menunjukkan bahwa perlakuan yang diberikan tidak mempengaruhi fertilitas dan daya tetas, tetapi berpengaruh terhadap bobot DOD. Bobot tetas tertinggi terdapat pada telur dengan bobot besar (B3 yaitu sebesar 46,44 g. Tidak terdapat interaksi antara bobot dan frekuensi pemutaran telur terhadap fertilitas, daya tetas, dan bobot tetas DOD. Kesimpulan dari penelitian ini yaitu bobot dan frekuensi pemutaran telur tidak mempengaruhi fertilitas dan daya tetas tetapi bobot telur mempengaruhi bobot tetas. (Kata kunci: Bobot dan frekuensi pemutaran telur, Fertilitas, Daya tetas, Bobot tetas

  3. Memory, Trauma, and Phantasmagoria in Claudia Llosa's "La Teta Asustada"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda, Carolina

    2015-01-01

    The film "La teta asustada" (Claudia Llosa, 2009) was inspired by the text titled "Entre prójimos: El conflicto armado interno y la política de la reconciliación en el Perú" by the medical anthropologist Kimberly Theidon. In this study, Theidon compiles the testimonies of a group of indigenous women who were sexually assaulted…

  4. Electrocatalytic oxidation of hydrogen peroxide by poly(Ni -teta ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Electrocatalytic oxidation of hydrogen peroxide by poly(Ni. II. -teta) complex modified electrodes. V GANESAN and R RAMARAJ. School of Chemistry, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai 625 021, India. Electrochemical methods based on the direct reduction or oxidation of substrate molecules at bare electrodes are often ...

  5. Supporting Development of Energy-Optimised Java Real-Time Systems using TetaSARTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luckow, Kasper Søe; Bøgholm, Thomas; Thomsen, Bent

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents how the tool TetaSARTS can be used to support the development of embedded hard real-time systems written in Java using the emerging Safety Critical Java (SCJ) profile. TetaSARTS facilitates control-flow sensitive schedulability analysis of a set of real-time tasks, and features...... facilitates easy adjustment of a wide variety of parameters that may be of interest such as processor frequency. This paper demonstrates that TetaSARTS can be used for tuning processor frequency, for conducting control-flow sensitive Worst Case Response Time analysis, and for conducting processor utilisation...

  6. Relation between tetR and tetA expression in tetracycline resistant Escherichia coli

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Møller, Thea S B; Overgaard, Martin; Nielsen, Søren S; Bortolaia, Valeria; Sommer, Morten O A; Guardabassi, Luca; Olsen, John E

    2016-01-01

    Tetracyclines are among the most used antibiotics in livestock worldwide. Resistance is widely disseminated in Escherichia coli, where it is generally mediated by tetracycline efflux pumps, such as TetA...

  7. Relation between tetR and tetA expression in tetracycline resistant Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Thea S. B.; Overgaard, Martin; Nielsen, Søren S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tetracyclines are among the most used antibiotics in livestock worldwide. Resistance is widely disseminated in Escherichia coli, where it is generally mediated by tetracycline efflux pumps, such as TetA. Expression of tetracycline efflux pumps is tightly controlled by the repressor Tet......R, which has been shown to be tetracycline-responsive at sub-MIC tetracycline concentrations. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of increasing tetracycline concentrations on the growth of TetA-producing E. coli, and to determine how expression of tetA and tetR related to each other...... in different growth phases in the presence of tetracycline. Results: A tetracycline resistant E. coli strain containing tetA and tetR on the chromosome was constructed and cultured in the presence of increasing concentrations of tetracycline. Expression of tetR and tetA was measured at four time points...

  8. Pengaruh salinitas dan daya apung terhadap daya tetas telur ikan bandeng, Chanos-chanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofyatuddin Karina

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Salinitas dan daya apung memiliki peran penting terhadap daya tetas telur ikan bandeng. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh salinitas dan daya apung terhadap daya tetas telur ikan bandeng (Chanos-chanos. Rancangan acak lengkap digunakan sebagai analisis statistik untuk mempelajari pengaruh kedua parameter tersebut dengan tiga perlakuan dan tiga kali ulangan untuk setiap perlakuan. Daya apung yang diuji adalah mengapung, melayang dan tenggelam dengan tiga tingkatan salinitas 16, 23 dan 30 ppt. Hasil pengamatan menunjukkan bahwa persentase daya tetas telur yang mengapung pada ketiga salinitas tersebut secara berturut-turut adalah 76,7%; 78,7%; 91,7%, kemudian telur yang melayang adalah 65,3%; 67%; 77% dan telur yang tenggelam adalah 54%; 55,3%; 65%. Dengan kata lain, daya tetas telur meningkat seiring dengna meningkatnya salinitas. Berdasarkan analisis statistik one-way ANOVA dan uji lanjut Duncan menggunakan software SPSS versi 12 terdapat perbedaan yang nyata dari daya tetas telur pada salinitas 16 atau 23 ppt dengan 30 ppt. Juga dilaporkan bahwa telur yang mengapung memiliki daya tetas yang lebih tinggi dibandingkan telur yang tenggelam.

  9. Pengaruh Konsentrasi Kaporit Terhadap Daya Tetas Telur Aedes aegypti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bina Ikawati

    2017-02-01

    menjernihkan air sebagai desinfektan. Tujuan penelitian adalah menganalisis pengaruh konsentrasi kaporit terhadap daya tetas telur Aedes aegypti. Rancangan penelitian adalah post test only group design dengan berbagai konsentrasi kaporit yaitu 2,5 mg/l; 5,0 mg/l; 7,5 mg/l dan 10,0 mg/l. Data hasil penelitian dianalisis menggunakan uji Kruskall Wallis dan untuk mengetahui LC50 digunakan analisis probit. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan terdapat pengaruh pada berbagai dosis kaporit terhadap persentase penetasan telur Aedes aegypti. Makin tinggi konsentrasi kaporit maka ada kecenderungan makin sedikit jumlah telur yang menetas. Hasil pengolahan data dengan analisis probit menunjukkan bahwa daya hambat terhadap penetasan telur 50% pada konsentrasi 2,579 mg/l kaporit. Berdasarkan hasil tersebut kaporit dapat digunakan sebagai alternatif pengendalian vektor demam berdarah terpadu.Kata Kunci: Kaporit, daya tetas telur, Aedes aegypti

  10. Efficient inhibition of heavy metal release from mine tailings against acid rain exposure by triethylenetetramine intercalated montmorillonite (TETA-Mt).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Beini; Wu, Pingxiao; Huang, Zhujian; Li, Yuanyuan; Yang, Shanshan; Dang, Zhi; Ruan, Bo; Kang, Chunxi

    2016-11-15

    The potential application of triethylenetetramine intercalated montmorillonite (TETA-Mt) in mine tailings treatment and AMD (acid mine drainage) remediation was investigated with batch experiments. The structural and morphological characteristics of TETA-Mt were analyzed with XRD, FTIR, DTG-TG and SEM. The inhibition efficiencies of TETA-Mt against heavy metal release from mine tailings when exposed to acid rain leaching was examined and compared with that of triethylenetetramine (TETA) and Mt. Results showed that the overall inhibition by TETA-Mt surpassed that by TETA or Mt for various heavy metal ions over an acid rain pH range of 3-5.6 and a temperature range of 25-40°C. When mine tailings were exposed to acid rain of pH 4.8 (the average rain pH of the mining site where the mine tailings were from), TETA-Mt achieved an inhibition efficiency of over 90% for Cu(2+), Zn(2+), Cd(2+) and Mn(2+) release, and 70% for Pb(2+) at 25°C. It was shown that TETA-Mt has a strong buffering capacity. Moreover, TETA-Mt was able to adsorb heavy metal ions and the adsorption process was fast, suggesting that coordination was mainly responsible. These results showed the potential of TETA-Mt in AMD mitigation, especially in acid rain affected mining area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Electrocatalytic oxidation of hydrogen peroxide by poly (Ni II-teta ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 112; Issue 3. Electrocatalytic oxidation of hydrogen peroxide by poly(NiII-teta) complex modified electrodes. V Ganesan R Ramaraj. Volume 112 Issue 3 June 2000 pp 409-409. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  12. Study on MEA preparation with CoTETA/C catalysts as ORR catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gan, T.; Zhang, H.J.; Jiang, Q.Z.; Ma, Z.F. [Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ., Shanghai (China). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Although carbon platinum is the most common cathode catalyst for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) and zinc-air fuel cells, platinum is rare and costly. As such, there is a need to substitute platinum with a new and inexpensive catalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). This paper presented a study in which a new non-platinum ORR catalysts was developed, notably the CoTETA/C. Although it demonstrated good performance, it had lower current density. Because of the conductivity and surface wetting properties of CoTETA/C, there was a poor contact between the catalyst layer and membrane of the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) prepared by the traditional method, which resulted in higher contact resistance and lower current density. The study showed that the performance of a single cell can be improved by adjusting the ratio of Nafion and catalyst in ink and adding a specified amount of additives to the ink. 1 ref.

  13. Oligo- and dsDNA-mediated genome editing using a tetA dual selection system in Escherichia coli

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Young Shin Ryu; Sathesh-Prabu Chandran; Kyungchul Kim; Sung Kuk Lee

    2017-01-01

    .... Herein, we report on a promising method in Escherichia coli that relies on the insertion of an optimized tetA dual selection cassette followed by replacement of the same cassette with short, single-stranded DNA (oligos...

  14. Luminescence and Magnetic Properties of Tb(III) Complexes with TETA and Synergistic Effect by 1,10-Phenanthroline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Jung Youl; Shin, Su jeong; Kim, Jae Kwan; Park, Kyoung Chan [Hanbat National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    Two Tb(III) complexes, [Tb(TETA)]− and [Tb(TETA)(phen)]− (TETA = 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane-1,4,8,11-tetraacetate and phen=1,10-phenanthroline), were synthesized and their luminescence ({sup 5}D{sub 4} → {sup 7}F{sub =0-6} transitions) and magnetic properties were examined. The photoluminescence (PL) quantum yield of [Tb(TETA)(phen)]− (Q = 0.47) was significantly higher than that of [Tb(TETA)]− (Q = 0.006). The dramatic increase (78 x) in green luminescence was attributed to intramolecular energy transfer from phen to Tb(III). The energy transfer rate according to Dexter theory was found to be approximately 1011s−1. The temperature dependence of the molar susceptibilities confirmed that the two complexes behave as paramagnets obeying the Curie–Weiss law. In addition, the field-dependent magnetization of the two complexes measured in the −70 to + 70 kOe range at T=1.8K fitted well with the Brillouin function with the following values: g {sub eff}=1.5, μ B =9.27×10−21 emu, and J=6. These results provide new insights into the development of lanthanide metal complexes with tetraaza.

  15. IMUNITAS MATERNAL TERHADAP Aeromonas hydrophila: PENGARUHNYATERHADAP FEKUNDITAS DAN DAYA TETAS IKAN PATIN SIAM (Pangasionodon hypophthalmus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wartono Hadie

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh pemakaian vaksin Aeromonas hydrophila terhadap fekunditas dan daya tetas ikan patin siam, Pangasionodon hypophthalmus. Perlakuan yang diberikan ialah vaksin Aeromonas (hydrovac® dengan dosis 0,4 mL/kg bobot induk. Pada perlakuan menggunakan ajuvan dengan perbandingan 1:1 antara vaksin dan ajuvan. Injeksi dilakukan secara intra peritoneal, masing-masing pada tiga induk betina dengan ajuvan dan tiga induk betina tanpa ajuvan. Injeksi dilakukan pada tingkat kematangan gonad kedua TKG II. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pada serum induk dan ekstrak telur terdeteksi secara positif adanya antibodi, baik pada perlakuan ajuvan (VA maupun tanpa ajuvan (VNA. Vaksinasi dapat meningkatkan fekunditas hingga 31% dan meningkatkan daya tetas hingga 13%. The aims of this research are to determine the influence of Aeromonas hydrophila vaccines against fecundity and hatchability Pangasionodon hypophthalmus Siamese catfish. Treatment of Aeromonas vaccine is given (hydrovac® with a dose of 0.4 mL per kg of body weight. The adjuvant which use for treatment with a ratio of 1:1 between vaccines and adjuvants. Intra-peritoneal injection is done, each on three female parent with adjuvant and three female parent without adjuvant. Injection is performed at the level of gonad maturity II. Results showed that the serum of carriers and egg extracts is positively detected the existence of antibodies, both in adjuvant treatment (VA or without adjuvant (VNA. Vaccination could increase fecundity up to 31% and increases up to 13% hatchability.

  16. Ageing of the DGEBA/TETA epoxy system with off-stoichiometric compositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Moraes d'Almeida

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was carried out on the room temperature ageing of off-stoichiometric DGEBA/TETA epoxy formulations. The results obtained show that the epoxy rich mixtures have their inherent brittleness increased by the ageing treatment due to recrystalization of the unreacted epoxy monomers, although homopolymerization could also play a minor role. The initial reaction steps dominated by the amine addition reactions control the macromolecular structure and the mechanical performance of the stoichiometric and near stoichiometric formulation with excess of epoxy monomer. Plasticization due to absorbed -OH results on a significant increase of the deformability of these formulations. The amine rich mixtures have the more stable structures, although plasticization due to moisture absorption from the surrounding environment also produces an increase on the deformability of all, but one, of the formulations investigated.

  17. PENGARUH KONSENTRASI TAWAS PADA AIR SUMUR TERHADAP DAYA TETAS TELUR NYAMUK Aedes aegypti DI LABORATORIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliana Rohan Bria

    2011-12-01

    ditularkan oleh nyamuk Aedes aegypti. Tempat perindukan utama Ae. aegypti adalah penampungan air dalam rumah tangga maupun alamiah yang tidak berhubungan dengan tanah. Faktor lain yang berperan untuk kelangsungan hidup Ae. aegypti adalah air yang bebas dari bahan kimia. Tawas banyak digunakan keluarga Indonesia sebagai penjernih air karena sangat murah dan mudah diperoleh. Tujuan penelitian adalah : 1. untuk mengetahui apakah tawas berpengaruh pada daya tetas telur Ae. aegypti di Laboratorium? 2. Mengetahui LC 50 dan LC 90 dari tawas terhadap daya tetas telur Ae.aegypti. Rancangan penelitian adalah Post Test Only Control Group Design, dengan 7 perlakuan yaitu berbagai konsentrasi tawas dan 4 kali ulangan. Konsentrasi tawas yang digunakan adalah (2,8gr/l, (1,96gr/l, (1,37gr/l, (0,96gr/l, (0,67gr/l, (0,47gr/l, (0,33gr/l, (0,23gr/l dan (0,16gr/l. Data hasil penelitian dianalisis menggunakan uji Kruskall Waillis dan untuk mengetahui LC50 dan LC90 digunakan Analisis Probit. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa tawas pada air sumur dapat menurunkan daya tetas telur Aedes aegypti jika diberikan dalam konsentrasi yang adekuat yaitu 2,8gr/l. Terdapat perbedaan yang bermakna pada berbagai dosis tawas terhadap presentase penetasan telur Ae. aegypti. Makin tinggi konsentrasi tawas makin sedikit jumlah telur yang menetas. Hasil pengolahan data dengan program analisis probit menunjukkan bahwa daya hambat terhadap penetasan telur sebesar 50% pada konsentrasi 0,19616 gr/l dan daya hambat tawas terhadap penetasan telur sebesar 90% pada konsentrasi 0,40088 gr/l. Berdasarkan hasil tersebut tawas dapat di gunakan sebagai alternatif dalam penurunan kepadatan Ae.aegypti.

  18. Detection of tetracycline resistance determinant tetA gene and antimicrobial resistance pattern in Escherichia coli isolates recovered from healthy layer chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Balasubramaniam

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to study the occurrence of tetracycline resistance determinant tetA gene, and antibacterial resistance pattern in commensal Escherichia coli recovered from healthy non-clinical layer chickens. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four cloacal swabs were obtained from 15 flocks in five different layer farms located at around Namakkal, which is a place of high-intensity layer chicken rearing in south India. Identification of E. coli was carried out by performing cultural and biochemical tests. Antimicrobial resistance test was carried out using disc diffusion method. The polymerase chain reaction employing tetAC forward and tetAC reverse primers were carried out to detect tetA gene conferring resistance to tetracycline. Result: All the collected cloacal swabs yielded E. coli. Twenty-one isolates (88% were resistant to tetracycline antibiotic in disc diffusion method. All the isolates showed resistance to more than six antibiotics, which implied existence of multidrug resistant microbiota in intestine of poultry. Only seven (29% isolates showed the presence of tetA gene indicating the involvement of either other one or more efflux gene(s, namely tetB, tetC and tetD or ribosomal protection encoded by tetM, tetO, tetQ and tetS genes than tetA gene. Conclusion: Based on the presence of tetA gene among tetracycline-resistant bacteria in healthy non-clinical food-producing animals such as layer chickens, it can be significant in human medicine as tetA gene could easily be spread to other bacteria. This kind of phenomenon can be extrapolated in transfer of resistance for other antibacterial essential for treating bacterial infections in human. We conclude that preventing the spread of antimicrobial resistance through direct or indirect contact, consumed food/feed and through the environment is empirical in reduction of failures while treating bacterial infections.

  19. Effect of the hardener to epoxy monomer ratio on the water absorption behavior of the DGEBA/TETA epoxy system

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    Ayrton Alef Castanheira Pereira

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The water absorption behavior of the DGEBA/TETA epoxy system was evaluated as a function of the epoxy monomer to amine hardener ratio. Weight gain versus immersion time curves were obtained and the experimental points were fitted using Fickian and Non-Fickian diffusion models. The results obtained showed that for all epoxy monomer to hardener ratios analyzed water diffusion followed non-Fickian behavior. It was possible to correlate the water absorption behavior to the macromolecular structure developed when the epoxy/ hardener ratio was varied. All epoxy/hardener ratios present a two-phase macromolecular structure, composed of regions with high crosslink density and regions with lower crosslinking. Epoxy rich systems have a more open macromolecular structure with a lower fraction of the dense phase than the amine rich systems, which present a more compact two-phase structure.

  20. Effects of ceftiofur and chlortetracycline treatment strategies on antimicrobial susceptibility and on tet(A, tet(B, and bla CMY-2 resistance genes among E. coli isolated from the feces of feedlot cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neena Kanwar

    Full Text Available A randomized controlled field trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of two sets of treatment strategies on ceftiofur and tetracycline resistance in feedlot cattle. The strategies consisted of ceftiofur crystalline-free acid (CCFA administered to either one or all of the steers within a pen, followed by feeding or not feeding a therapeutic dose of chlortetracycline (CTC. Eighty-eight steers were randomly allocated to eight pens of 11 steers each. Both treatment regimens were randomly assigned to the pens in a two-way full factorial design. Non-type-specific (NTS E. coli (n = 1,050 were isolated from fecal samples gathered on Days 0, 4, 12, and 26. Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles were determined using a microbroth dilution technique. PCR was used to detect tet(A, tet(B, and bla CMY-2 genes within each isolate. Chlortetracycline administration greatly exacerbated the already increased levels of both phenotypic and genotypic ceftiofur resistance conferred by prior CCFA treatment (P<0.05. The four treatment regimens also influenced the phenotypic multidrug resistance count of NTS E. coli populations. Chlortetracycline treatment alone was associated with an increased probability of selecting isolates that harbored tet(B versus tet(A (P<0.05; meanwhile, there was an inverse association between finding tet(A versus tet(B genes for any given regimen (P<0.05. The presence of a tet(A gene was associated with an isolate exhibiting reduced phenotypic susceptibility to a higher median number of antimicrobials (n = 289, median = 6; 95% CI = 4-8 compared with the tet(B gene (n = 208, median = 3; 95% CI = 3-4. Results indicate that CTC can exacerbate ceftiofur resistance following CCFA therapy and therefore should be avoided, especially when considering their use in sequence. Further studies are required to establish the animal-level effects of co-housing antimicrobial-treated and non-treated animals together.

  1. Unprecedented connection mode of [V{sub 16}Sb{sub 4}O{sub 42}(H{sub 2}O)]{sup 8-} cluster anions by Mn{sup 2+} centered complexes. Solvothermal synthesis and properties of {[Mn(teta)]_4V_1_6Sb_4O_4_2(H_2O)}{sub n}.[(H{sub 2}O){sub 12}]{sub n}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, Maren; Naether, Christian; Bensch, Wolfgang [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel (Germany); Leusen, Jan van; Koegerler, Paul [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen (Germany)

    2017-11-17

    The new compound {[Mn(teta)]_4V_1_6Sb_4O_4_2}{sub n}.[(H{sub 2}O){sub 12}]{sub n} (teta = triethylenetetraamine) was synthesized under solvothermal conditions. The crystal structure features the high nuclearity [V{sub 16}{sup IV}Sb{sub 4}{sup III}O{sub 42}(H{sub 2}O)]{sup 8-} cluster anion, which consists of two rings composed of 8 edge-sharing VO{sub 5} polyhedra. The rings are perpendicular to each other generating four niches, which are occupied by two VO{sub 5} pyramids and two handle-like Sb{sub 2}O{sub 5} units. The two unique anions are each surrounded by eight Mn{sup 2+} centered complexes via Mn-O{sub term}-V bonds. Such an expansion has never been observed in heterometal polyoxovanadate chemistry. The connection mode between cluster anions and complex cations generates two individual layers stacked onto each other. Between the layers weak Sb..O contacts are observed. The crystal water molecules are mainly located in the empty space between the layers. Upon heating H{sub 2}O molecules are removed, while the crystal structure remains intact. The magnetic behavior is dominated by strong antiferromagnetic exchange interactions between the central V{sup 4+} ions, while the interaction between the cluster anion and central Mn{sup 2+} ions is significantly less pronounced. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Contagem bacteriana da superfície de tetas de vacas submetidas a diferentes processos de higienização, incluindo a ordenha manual com participação do bezerro para estimular a descida do leite Bacterial counts on the surface of the teats of cows milked under different methods of udder preparation, including cows milked by hand and stimulated by suckling a calf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Renaldi Feitosa Brito

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available A pele da teta é uma das principais fontes de contaminação microbiana do leite cru, além de ser uma fonte de infecção da glândula mamária. Este estudo comparou diferentes métodos de preparação do úbere, incluindo a participação do bezerro para estimular a descida do leite, em relação à contaminação microbiana da pele da teta. Um experimento com 36 vacas ordenhadas mecanicamente foi conduzido para comparar três procedimentos (A, B, C de preparação do úbere. Duas tetas de cada vaca foram amostradas para contagem total de bactérias (CTB e de coliformes, antes e após lavagem com água e secagem com papel toalha descartável (A; procedimento A, mais imersão das tetas em solução de iodo (4.000ppm e secagem com papel toalha descartável (B; higienização com toalha de papel embebida em solução desinfetante contendo clorexidina (C. O segundo experimento incluiu 16 vacas ordenhadas manualmente, na presença do bezerro. Permitiu-se a cada bezerro mamar as quatro tetas por alguns segundos, de acordo com o manejo do rebanho. Amostras para bacteriologia de duas tetas de cada vaca foram coletadas, antes, após a mamada do bezerro, e após higienização semelhante ao procedimento C, citado acima. Os tratamentos foram analisados usando-se o teste não- paramétrico de Kruskal-Wallis, considerando-se os dados de tCTB após o uso de um dos métodos de preparação do úbere ou da mamada do bezerro. Usou-se a transformação das contagens bacterianas para a escala logarítmica em base 10, com a fórmula tCTB=log10(CTB+0,5. Para os grupos A, B e C (primeiro experimento, os valores médios de diminuição de tCTB foram 1,8, 2,2 e 2,4, respectivamente. No segundo experimento, as CTB's aumentaram significativamente (PThe teat skin is one of the main sources of microbial contamination of raw milk as well as a source of mastitis infection. This study assessed the microbial load of the teat skin following the application of the different

  3. TINGKAT DAYA TETAS TELUR UDANG GALAH (Macrobranciun rosenbergii DENGAN SALINITAS YANG BERBEDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anny Rimalia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to obtain the best salinity for honey prawn (macro egg prawn (Macrobrancium rosenbergii. This study used Completely Randomized Design, with three treatments and three replications. The results showed that with the salinity of 6 ‰ resulted in an average hatchability of 86.4%, with the salinity of 8 ‰ resulted in 70.5% hatchability, and at salinity 10 ‰ yielded hatchability of 56, 5%. The result of analysis of variance (ANOVA, hatching power of prawn egg very different between treatment. Water quality such as temperature, DO, and pH, during the study can still be tolerated by giant prawns. The results of this study recommend using a salinity of 6 ‰ to do hatching of prawn eggs.

  4. UJI PERBEDAAN SALINITAS TERHADAP DAYA TETAS TELUR (Hatching Rate KEPITING BAKAU (Scylla serrata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Mulyawan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Mud crabs (Scylla sp. is one of marine commodities that is profitable. Mangrove crabs are able to hatch and breed within large variety of salinity. One of the main factors affecting hatching rate and also breeding is salinity. This research is aimed to know the effect of salinity to hatching rate of mud crabs. The design used was complete random sampling through three treatments: those are 15%o, 25%o and 30%o with 3 repetitions. Result of this research shows that hatching rate of mud crabs is affected by salinity. Treatment B (25 %o is significantly different with treatment A (15%o and C (30%o. The most appropriate hatching condition is gained from treatment B with average value 91.8%.Keywords: mud crab, Scylla sp, mangroves

  5. PENGARUH AIR SABUN DAN DETERJEN TERHADAP DAYA TETAS TELUR AEDES AEGYPTI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Made Sudarmaja

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Demam berdarah dengue yang ditularkan oleh nyamuk Aedes aegypti merupakan masalah kesehatan yang makin menjadi perhatian dengan kasus yang terus ada sepanjang tahun, walaupun tidak musim penghujan. Ini terkait dengan keberadaan vektornya yang terus ada sepanjang tahun dan berhubungan pula dengan keberadaan tandon yang mengandung air, baik air jernih dan mungkin pula air limbah rumah tangga seperti air sabun dan air deterjen. Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk mengetahui kemampuan menetas telur Aedes aegypti bila kontak dengan kedua jenis air limbah tersebut. Penelitian eksperimental ini dengan rancangan acak lengkap mendapatkan bahwa rata-rata telur yang menetas menjadi larva pada hari ke-7 pada kelompok kontrol sebanyak 14,48%, pada air sabun dalam konsentrasi 0,5 gram/liter sebanyak 58,9% dan pada air sabun dalam konsentrasi 1 gram/liter sebanyak 42,77 % . Uji statistik mendapatkan bahwa air sabun pada kedua konsentrasi mempercepat dan meningkatkan jumlah larva yang terbentuk bila dibandingkan dengan kontrol. Pada air yang mengandung detergen konsentrasi 1,75 gram/liter dan 3 gram/liter tidak ditemukan telur Aedes aegypti yang menetas.

  6. Uji Efektifitas Atraktan pada Lethal Ovitrap terhadap Jumlah dan Daya Tetas Telur Nyamuk Aedes aegypti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milana Salim

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractControl of Aedes aegypti mosquito as dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF vector can be conducted by using the ovitrap modified into a lethal ovitrap. The addition of attractant substances to the ovitrap can attract more mosquitoes to come in to the trap, and prevent the mosquitoes to lay eggs in other places. The aim of this research was to compare the percentage of the number of eggs trapped, the number of eggs that hatched and the percentage of larval mortality in lethal ovitrap modified with the addition of two types of attractant. This research was an experiment research with a complete random design. The samples used were female bloodfed Ae. aegypti mosquito. The insecticide used was water extract of Annona squamosa seed, and the attractants used were hay infus at water with concentration of 20% and larval rearing water of the Ae. aegypti. Aquades used as control. The results showed that hay infusion was more effective than larval rearing water in attracting female Ae. aegypti mosquito to lay eggs. The highest mortality was found in the combination of lethal ovitrap and hay infusion. The combination could be an alternative controlling strategy for DHF management program in order to reduce the density of Ae. aegypti mosquito and minimize the dengue transmission in a region.Keywords : Lethal Ovitrap, attractant, Aedes aegyptiAbstrakPengendalian nyamuk Aedes aegypti sebagai vektor demam berdarah dengue (DBD dapat dilakukan dengan menggunaan ovitrap yang dimodifikasi menjadi lethal ovitrap. Penambahan zat atraktanpada ovitrap dapat menarik lebih banyak nyamuk untuk datang ke perangkap yang dipasang dan mencegah nyamuk bertelur di tempat lain. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk membandingkan persentase jumlah telur terperangkap, jumlah telur menetas dan mortalitas larva pada lethal ovitrap yang diberi tambahan dua jenis atraktan. Insektisida yang digunakan adalah ekstrak air biji srikaya (Annona squamosa, sedangkan atraktan yang digunakan adalah air rendaman jerami dengan konsentrasi 20% dan air bekas kolonisasi larva Ae. aegypti. Jenis penelitian ini adalah eksperimen dengan rancangan acak lengkap. Sampel yang digunakan adalah nyamuk Ae. aegypti betina yang kenyang darah. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa air rendaman jerami merupakan atraktan yang lebih berpengaruh dibandingkan air bekas kolonisasi Ae. aegypti dalam menarik nyamuk Ae. aegypti untuk bertelur. Mortalitas larva tertinggi terdapat pada kombinasi lethal ovitrap dengan air rendaman jerami.Kombinasi lethal ovitrap dengan atraktan air rendaman jerami dapat menjadi strategi pengendalian alternatif bagi pengelola program DBD untuk mengurangi kepadatan nyamuk Ae. aegypti dan meminimalisasi transmisi penyakit demam berdarah dengue di suatu wilayah.Kata kunci : Lethal Ovitrap, atraktan, Aedes aegypti

  7. Knadungan Unsur Fluor pada Email Gigi TetaP Muda dengan Tumpatan Semen Ionomer Kaca Viskositas Tinggi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ririen Titi Yuliarti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the fluoride content differences in enamel of immature teeth with Glass Ionomer Cement Fuji IX and Ketac Molar filling.The subject for this study was 21 immature premolars teeth, and each tooth divided into 2 parts. The first part filled with Fuji IX (Fuji IX ART, GC and the second part filled with Ketac Molar (KetacMolar ART, MI, 3M ESPE, so the samples were 21 Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectrophotometry analysis of Fuji IX and 21 Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectrophotometry analysis of Ketac molar. The measurement was done to the fluoride content in enamel of immature teeth using Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectrophotometry in percentage.This study using t-test, exhibited differences but no significant from the percentage of delta the fluoride content in enamel of immature teeth with Fuji IX and Ketac Molar filling (t=1,953 p > 0.05.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v15i2.74

  8. PENERAPAN SISTEM KAWIN SODOK DAN MESIN TETAS MENINGKATKAN PRODUKTIVITAS AYAM BURAS SEBAGAI HEWAN UPAKARA DI DESA JIMBARAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wirapartha M

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This community service was conducted under the litle “Aplication Of Hand Breeding Systems and Hatching Machine Tecnology in an Effort to Reduce Raising Costs and Improve Productivity of Domestic Chicken (Buras Chiken as Ceremony Poultry in Jimbaran Village” on Friday, September 16 , 2011. Education and training aims to improve knowledge and skills of raisers in the village of Jimbaran in intoducing and applying hand breeding system and use of technology in domestic poultry hatching machine. In achieving this goal, the methodes used by 1 providing information about the hand breeding system in domestic chickens, hatching machine technologi and its benefits, 2 training on how to use hand breeding system to domestic chiken and use of hatching machine correctly and practically, 3 giving assistance in the form of papers on the management of the use of hatching machines, providing hatching eggs, chiken hatching machine, observation of chicken eggs, chicken hatching machine, observation of chicken eggs, roosters and hens. The result of this training with 40 participants was very good. All participants who were present, as people in Br. Mekar Sari Simpangan, Jimbaran Village, Bandung had never seen this system before and never applied the breeding system and hatching machine technology. People were very enthusiastic, it was proven from the questions asked and in general the participants were able to understand such technology on how to use hatching machine and the hand breeding system in domestic poultry.

  9. Knadungan Unsur Fluor pada Email Gigi TetaP Muda dengan Tumpatan Semen Ionomer Kaca Viskositas Tinggi

    OpenAIRE

    Ririen Titi Yuliarti; Ismu Suharsono Suwelo; Sri Harini Soemartono

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the fluoride content differences in enamel of immature teeth with Glass Ionomer Cement Fuji IX and Ketac Molar filling.The subject for this study was 21 immature premolars teeth, and each tooth divided into 2 parts. The first part filled with Fuji IX (Fuji IX ART, GC) and the second part filled with Ketac Molar (KetacMolar ART, MI, 3M ESPE), so the samples were 21 Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectrophotometry analysis of Fuji IX and 21 Energy Dispersive ...

  10. PENCAHAYAAN DENGAN PERSENTASE PENUTUPAN DINDING AKUARIUM YANG BERBEDA UNTUK DAYA TETAS DAN KELANGSUNGAN HIDUP LARVA IKAN KELABAU (Osteochilusmelanopleura Blkr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmadani Rahmadani

    2016-10-01

    Pada hasil penelitian ini, kelangsungan hidup larva ikan kelabau yang terbaik adalah pada perlakuan B (pemeliharaan larva kelabau pada akuarium dinding kaca 50% tertutup yaitu sebesar 71,90%. Dibandingkan dengan kelangsungan hidup larva ikan mas pada Tabel 9, didapatkan kelangsungan hidup terbaik pada perlakuan B (suhu 28°C yaitu sebesar 65,33%. Hasil penelitian ini membuktikan bahwa suhu air akuarium yang berbeda sangat berpengaruh terhadap kelangsungan hidup larva ikan kelabau. Suhu air akuarium pada perlakuan B (pemeliharaan larva kelabau pada akuarium dinding kaca 50% tertutup adalah 26,5°C yaitu masih dalam kisaran suhu optimal untuk kelangsungan hidup larva ikan kelabau.

  11. PENGARUH PEMBERIAN JAGUNG KUNING FERMENTASI DENGAN SUPLEMENTASI POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACID (PUFA DAN L-KARNITIN TERHADAP DAYA TETAS TELUR PUYUH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayu Siswoyo Putri

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to evaluate the effect of feeding fermented yellow corn with polyunsaturated fatty acid and L-Karnitin supplementation on the hatchability of quail (Coturnix-coturnix japonica egg. A number of 160 female and 40 male quails of 70 days old were used as experimental animal. The present research was designed in oneway Completely Randomized Design (CRD with five treatments and four replication, each replication contains of eight female and two males quails. The dietary treatments were P0= basal diet, P1= P0 with 100% substitution at yellow corn by fermented yellow corn, P2= P1 + 10 ppm L-karnitin, P3= P2 + 4% tuna fish oil, P4= P2 + 4% lemuru fish oil. Suplementation of fish oil as polyunsaturated fatty acid source and L-karnitin in fermented yellow corn diet didn’t affect eggs fertility, hatchability, and hatching quality, however, it significantly (P<0.01 affected hatching weight. The best result achieved in treatment P1 because it content yellow corn fermentation which increased the weight of hatching. It can be concluded that feeding fermented yellow corn with supplementation of polyunsaturated fatty acid source and L-karnitin quail eggs, increase DOQ hatching weight of quail eggs. (Key words: Fermented yellow corn, Hatchability, L-karnitin, Polyunsaturated fatty acid, Quail

  12. The exploitation of obsidian in the Central Plateau of Santa Cruz, Argentina: Results from La María and Cerro Tres Tetas and a regional perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Enrique Cueto

    2016-09-01

    Results from this work strengthen the idea that the groups which lived in the Central Plateau knew about and exploited an obsidian source known as Pampa del Asador. A raise in the use of this raw material throughout time is recorded, reaching its peak in the late Holocene. We identified two different moments in the exploitation of obsidian at the regional level. During the final Pleistocene and early Holocene, obsidian would not have played a relevant role in the organization of technology. Production sequences indicate that tools probably were entered to the sites already manufactured. During the middle and late Holocene nodules and cores could have been brought into the sites. The strategies involved in their reduction are in broad terms similar to those implemented with local raw materials; there is no evidence that obsidian had more value in any way. On the other hand, it is also not possible to state that there was just an eventual exploitation of this raw material. We believe that obsidian was acquired during mobility circuits which enabled the contact between different groups.

  13. EFFECT OF STORAGE TEMPERATURE PERCENTAGE OF EGG HATCHING OF AEDES AEGYPTI IN LABORATORY=PENGARUH SUHU PENYIMPANAN TERHADAP PRESENTASE TETAS TELUR Aedes aegypti DI LABORATORIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riyani Setiyaningsih

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available EnglishABSTRACTAedes aegypti is the vector of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF in Indonesia. Ae. aegypti has a high reproductive capacity, one female mosquitoes can lay 100-150 eggs. Eggs of Ae. aegypti can survive on dry temperatures within a few months, thus increasing the chances of transmission of dengue virus The aim of the study was to determine the effect of temperature on egg hatching percentage of Ae. aegypti. Eggs Ae. aegypti colonization in laboratory results are stored at room temperature and refrigerator temperature. Observations percentage of eggs hatching was observed at month zero, one, two, third, fourth, fifth, and sixth. The results of the study until the sixth month percentage of hatching eggs at room temperature was 63,17, 59,26, 24,33, 13,62, 10, and 0%. While storage on egg hatching refrigerator not occur in the first to sixth.INDONESIANAedes aegypti merupakan vektor Demam Berdarah Dengue (DBD di Indonesia. Ae. aegypti memiliki kemampuan reproduksi yang tinggi, satu ekor nyamuk betina dapat bertelur 100-150 butir telur. Telur Ae. aegypti mampu bertahan hidup pada suhu kering dalam beberapa bulan sehingga memperbesar peluang terjadinnya proses penularan virus DBD. Tujuan penelitian adalah mengetahui pengaruh suhu dan lama penyimpanan terhadap presentase penetasan telur Ae. aegypti. Telur Ae. aegypti hasil kolonisasi di laboratorium disimpan pada suhu ruang dan suhu refrigerator. Pengamatan presentase penetasan telur diamati pada bulan ke nol, kesatu, kedua, ketiga, keempat, kelima, dan keenam. Hasil penelitian pada bulan bertama sampai keenam presentase penetasan telur pada suhu ruang adalah 63,17, 59,26, 24,33, 13,62, 10, dan 0%. Sedangkan penyimpanan pada suhu kukas tidak terjadi penetasan telur pada bulan pertama sampai keenam.

  14. Determination of the zero in the Two theta angle and the wavelength in the neutron diffractometer for the Cyber computer of the ININ and for the IBM compatible microcomputers; Determinacion del cero en el angulo Dos teta y la longitud de onda en el difractometro de neutrones para la computadora Cyber del ININ y para microcomputadoras compatibles con IBM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macias B, L.R

    1991-05-15

    The objective of this work consists on determining the calibration in the angular parameters and the neutron wavelength used in the neutron diffractometer of the TRIGA Mark III reactor, through some readings in that a well-known sample is used by means of a Fortran computer program that is used in the CYBER computer of the ININ in Mexico, and/or in micro computers compatible with IBM. The program was also designed to determine the zero of the 2 {theta} angle of the goniometer of the diffractometer. The generated data were proven by means of well-known data of the Powder Diffraction File of the Joint Committee on Powder Diffraction Standards (JCPDS). (Author)

  15. Triethylenetetramine Synergizes with Pharmacologic Ascorbic Acid in Hydrogen Peroxide Mediated Selective Toxicity to Breast Cancer Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianlian Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is characterized by overexpression of superoxide dismutase (SOD and downregulation of catalase and more resistance to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 than normal cells. Thus, relatively high H2O2 promotes breast cancer cell growth and proliferation. However, excessive intracellular H2O2 leads to death of breast cancer cells. In cancer cells, high level ascorbic acid (Asc is able to be autoxidized and thus provides an electron to oxygen to generate H2O2. In the present study, we demonstrated that triethylenetetramine (TETA enhances Asc autoxidation and thus elevates H2O2 production in MCF-7 cells. Furthermore, Asc/TETA combination significantly impaired cancer cell viability, while having much milder effects on normal cells, indicating Asc/TETA could be a promising therapy for breast cancer. Moreover, SOD1 and N-acetyl-L-cysteine failed to improve MCF-7 cells viability in the presence of Asc/TETA, while catalase significantly inhibited the cytotoxicity of Asc/TETA to breast cancer cells, strongly suggesting that the selective cytotoxicity of Asc/TETA to cancer cells is H2O2-dependent. In addition, Asc/TETA induces RAS/ERK downregulation in breast cancer cells. Animal studies confirmed that Asc/TETA effectively suppressed tumor growth in vivo. In conclusion, TETA synergizes pharmacologic Asc autoxidation and H2O2 overproduction in breast cancer cells, which suppresses RAS/ERK pathway and results in apoptosis.

  16. Magnetic resonance sounding measurements for modeling of water flow transport in variably saturated porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legchenko, Anatoly; Legout, Cédric; Descloitres, Marc

    2017-04-01

    Numerical modeling of water flow in partly saturated porous media requires knowledge of hydraulic properties of the media. The straightforward approach consists of directly measuring K(teta) and h(teta), which is challenging in many practically important applications. In-situ non-invasive measurements of K(teta) and h(teta) are even more difficult and probably impossible. Additionally, K(teta) and h(teta) are both scale dependent parameters. Under favorable conditions, surface geophysical methods may allow non-invasive identification of different geological formations and estimate of the porosity. A few papers report hydrogeological modeling considering water-saturated formations with integrated geophysical data (aquifer geometry, K and teta at saturation). However, modeling of water transport in partly saturated subsurface is more difficult task because it requires more extensive knowledge of soil hydraulic properties. We use Magnetic Resonance Sounding (MRS) method for non-invasive time-lapse measurements of the water content as an input into numerical modeling tool for hydrogeological modeling. However, MRS is not able to provide h(teta), which rest inaccessible. We propose an approach, which consists of performing infiltration tests (or observation of natural infiltration and monitoring rain water) and measuring corresponding variation of the water content in the subsurface. Then, we use a data base of soils with accurately known hydraulic properties. We try different soils for modeling water transport under our conditions (reproducing our experiment) and select one, which allows fitting experimentally observed variations in the water content. When such a soil is found we obtain K(teta) and h(teta). Thus, instead of looking for true hydraulic characteristics of the subsurface we obtain some equivalent media that allows reproducing our observations. We demonstrate the feasibility of our approach using simple 1-D models and commercially available software

  17. Transparent Composite Utilizing Nonlinear Optical Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    8 Figure 8. RI of Epon 828 /Eponex 1510 epoxy resin mixtures cured with TETA. .......................13 Figure 9. RI of Epon 828 ...studied. Table 1. List of epoxide/curing agent systems tested for RI. Epoxy Curing Agent Epon 828 (bisphenol A epoxide) Triethylenetriamine...TETA) Epon 828 (bisphenol A epoxide) EPIKURE 3300 Epon 828 (bisphenol A epoxide) Amicure PACM Epon 862 (bisphenol F epoxide) EPIKURE 3300 DER 332

  18. Comparative investigation of thermal and mechanical properties of cross-linked epoxy polymers with different curing agents by molecular dynamics simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyranpour, F; Alahyarizadeh, Gh; Arab, B

    2015-11-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were carried out to predict the thermal and mechanical properties of the cross-linked epoxy system composed of DGEBA resin and the curing agent TETA. To investigate the effects of curing agents, a comprehensive and comparative study was also performed on the thermal and mechanical properties of DGEBA/TETA and DGEBA/DETDA epoxy systems such as density, glass transition temperature (Tg), coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) and elastic properties of different cross-linking densities and different temperatures. The results indicated that the glass transition temperature of DGEBA/TETA system calculated through density-temperature data, ∼ 385-395 °K, for the epoxy system with the cross-linking density of 62.5% has a better agreement with the experimental value (Tg, ∼ 400 °K) in comparison to the value calculated through the variation of cell volume in terms of temperature, 430-440 °K. They also indicated that CTE related parameters and elastic properties including Young, Bulk, and shear's moduli, and Poisson's ratio have a relative agreement with the experimental results. Comparison between the thermal and mechanical properties of epoxy systems of DGEBA/TETA and DGEBA/DETDA showed that the DGEBA/DETDA has a higher Tg in all cross linking densities than that of DGEBA/TETA, while higher mechanical properties was observed in the case of DGEBA/TETA in almost all cross linking densities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Aminoalkylated Merrifield Resins Reticulated by Tris-(2-chloroethyl Phosphate for Cadmium, Copper, and Iron (II Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokhtar Dardouri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to synthesize novel substituted polymers bearing functional groups to chelate heavy metals during depollution applications. Three polyamine functionalized Merrifield resins were prepared via ethylenediamine (EDA, diethylenetriamine (DETA, and triethylenetetramine (TETA modifications named, respectively, MR-EDA, MR-DETA, and MR-TETA. The aminoalkylated polymers were subsequently reticulated by tris-(2-chloroethyl phosphate (TCEP to obtain new polymeric resins called, respectively, MR-EDA-TCEP, MR-DETA-TCEP, and MR-TETA-TCEP. The obtained resins were characterized via attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR, elemental analysis (EA, and thermogravimetric (TGA, thermodynamic (DTA, and differential thermogravimetric (DTG analysis. The synthesized resins were then assayed to evaluate their efficiency to extract metallic ions such as Cd2+, Cu2+, and Fe2+ from aqueous solutions.

  20. Novel tetracycline resistance determinant isolated from an environmental strain of Serratia marcescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Stuart A; Maani, Elizabeth V; Lindell, Angela H; King, Catherine J; McArthur, J Vaun

    2007-04-01

    Resistances to tetracycline and mercury were identified in an environmental strain of Serratia marcescens isolated from a stream highly contaminated with heavy metals. As a step toward addressing the mechanisms of coselection of heavy metal and antibiotic resistances, the tetracycline resistance determinant was cloned in Escherichia coli. Within the cloned 13-kb segment, the tetracycline resistance locus was localized by deletion analysis and transposon mutagenesis. DNA sequence analysis of an 8.0-kb region revealed a novel gene [tetA(41)] that was predicted to encode a tetracycline efflux pump. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the TetA(41) protein was most closely related to the Tet(39) efflux protein of Acinetobacter spp. yet had less than 80% amino acid identity with known tetracycline efflux pumps. Adjacent to the tetA(41) gene was a divergently transcribed gene [tetR(41)] predicted to encode a tetracycline-responsive repressor protein. The tetA(41)-tetR(41) intergenic region contained putative operators for TetR(41) binding. The tetA(41) and tetR(41) promoters were analyzed using lacZ fusions, which showed that the expression of both the tetA(41) and tetR(41) genes exhibited TetR(41)-dependent regulation by subinhibitory concentrations of tetracycline. The apparent lack of plasmids in this S. marcescens strain, as well as the presence of metabolic genes adjacent to the tetracycline resistance locus, suggested that the genes were located on the S. marcescens chromosome and may have been acquired by transduction. The cloned Tet 41 determinant did not confer mercury resistance to E. coli, confirming that Tet 41 is a tetracycline-specific efflux pump rather than a multidrug transporter.

  1. WCET Analysis of Java Bytecode Featuring Common Execution Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luckow, Kasper Søe; Thomsen, Bent; Frost, Christian

    2011-01-01

    We present a novel tool for statically determining the Worst Case Execution Time (WCET) of Java Bytecode-based programs called Tool for Execution Time Analysis of Java bytecode (TetaJ). This tool differentiates itself from existing tools by separating the individual constituents of the execution...... environment into independent components. The prime benefit is that it can be used for execution environments featuring common embedded processors and software implementations of the JVM. TetaJ employs a model checking approach for statically determining WCET where the Java program, the JVM, and the hardware...

  2. Qualitative characterization of free polyamines in ethyleneamines epoxide hardeners by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy; Caracterizacion cualitativa de poliaminas libres en endurecedores de resinas epoxidicas del tipo etilenaminas por espectroscopia de resonancia magnetica nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Garcia, Filiberto [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil); Miguez, Eduardo; Tavares, Maria Ines B. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ/IMA), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Macromoleculas Professora Eloisa Mano

    2008-01-15

    The qualitative characterization of two commercial ethyneamines epoxide hardeners marketed by ACROS (U.S.A.) was carried out by using carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The products were triethylenetetramine (TETA) and tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA). TETA had four components, the most important one being triethylenetetramine, an ethyleneamine of lineal structure, in a concentration of 60 mol%. Another component had ramified structure, while the other two exhibited recurrent structures of the piperazina type. TEPA had five components with similar structures. The major component was tetraethylenepentamine in an approximate concentration of 55 mol%. These results agree with the composition of similar products marketed by Dow Chemical Company, namely DEH 24 and DEH 26, respectively. (author)

  3. Translations on Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs, Number 309

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-07-08

    that the airplane could have crashed. Inten- sive passes over the regions of Cabo de la Valle, El Pajaro and Cerro de la Teta, however, were...lesions in the nerve cells, causing serious emotional imbalance. Dr Camacho felt that drug addiction is found more 7 frequently in Ciudad

  4. A revision of Peliosanthes (Liliaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jessop, J.P.

    1976-01-01

    In the introduction a history is given of the development of the knowledge of the taxonomy of the genus Peliosanthes in the wide sense, including the generic names Teta, Bulbospermum, Lourya and Neolourya, in which altogether 35 specific epithets have been validly published, ranging from the Dcccan

  5. Occurrence of integrons and resistance genes among sulphonamide-resistant Shigella spp. from Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peirano, G.; Agersø, Yvonne; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2005-01-01

    of 2214 bp harbouring a gene cassette array conferring resistance to trimethoprim, streptothricin and spectinomycin/streptomycin. The genes coding for resistance to chloramphenicol (catA1), tetracycline [tet(A) and tet(B)] and ampicillin (bla(OXA) and bla(TEM)), were detected in resistant strains...

  6. The tetracycline resistance determinant Tet 39 and the sulphonamide resistance gene sulII are common among resistant Acinetobacter spp. isolated from integrated fish farms in Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agersø, Yvonne; Petersen, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    genes [tet(A), tet(B), tet(H), tet(M) and tet(39)] and class II integrons by PCR. One hundred and thirty-four of these isolates were also sulphonamide resistant and these isolates were screened for sulphonamide resistance genes (sulII and sulIII) as well as class I integrons. Plasmid extraction...

  7. Emergence of a Clonal Lineage of Multidrug-Resistant ESBL-Producing Salmonella Infantis Transmitted from Broilers and Broiler Meat to Humans in Italy between 2011 and 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franco, Alessia; Leekitcharoenphon, Pimlapas; Feltrin, Fabiola

    2015-01-01

    . This megaplasmid carried the ESBL gene blaCTX-M-1, and additional genes [tet(A), sul1, dfrA1 and dfrA14] mediating cefotaxime, tetracycline, sulfonamide, and trimethoprim resistance. It also contained genes conferring enhanced colonization capability, virulence (fimbriae, yersiniabactin), resistance and fitness...

  8. Safety Critical Java for Robotics Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Bent; Luckow, Kasper Søe; Bøgholm, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces Safety Critical Java (SCJ) and argues its readiness for robotics programming. We give an overview of the work done at Aalborg University and elsewhere on SCJl, some of its implementations in the form of the JOP, FijiVM and HVM and some of the tools, especially WCA, Teta...

  9. Therapeutic potential of copper chelation with triethylenetetramine in managing diabetes mellitus and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Garth J S

    2011-07-09

    This article reviews recent evidence, much of which has been generated by my group's research programme, which has identified for the first time a previously unknown copper-overload state that is central to the pathogenesis of diabetic organ damage. This state causes tissue damage in the blood vessels, heart, kidneys, retina and nerves through copper-mediated oxidative stress. This author now considers this copper-overload state to provide an important new target for therapeutic intervention, the objective of which is to prevent or reverse the diabetic complications. Triethylenetetramine (TETA) has recently been identified as the first in a new class of anti-diabetic molecules through the original work reviewed here, thus providing a new use for this molecule, which was previously approved by the US FDA in 1985 as a second-line treatment for Wilson's disease. TETA acts as a highly selective divalent copper (Cu(II)) chelator that prevents or reverses diabetic copper overload, thereby suppressing oxidative stress. TETA treatment of diabetic animals and patients has identified and quantified the interlinked defects in copper metabolism that characterize this systemic copper overload state. Copper overload in diabetes mellitus differs from that in Wilson's disease through differences in their respective causative molecular mechanisms, and resulting differences in tissue localization and behaviour of the excess copper. Elevated pathogenetic tissue binding of copper occurs in diabetes. It may well be mediated by advanced-glycation endproduct (AGE) modification of susceptible amino-acid residues in long-lived fibrous proteins, for example, connective tissue collagens in locations such as blood vessel walls. These AGE modifications can act as localized, fixed endogenous chelators that increase the chelatable-copper content of organs such as the heart and kidneys by binding excessive amounts of catalytically active Cu(II) in specific vascular beds, thereby focusing the

  10. Chemical and biological evaluation of scandium(III)-polyaminopolycarboxylate complexes as potential PET agents and radiopharmaceuticals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huclier-Markai, S.; Sabatie, A.; Ribet, S. [Univ. de Nantes (France). Lab. Subatech; Kubicek, V.; Hermann, P. [Charles Univ., Prague (Czech Republic). Dept. of Inorganic Chemistry; Paris, M. [Univ. de Nantes (France). Inst. des Materiaux; Vidaud, C. [CEA/DSV/iBEB/SBTN, Bagnols sur Ceze (France). Lab. d' Etude des Proteines Cibles; Cutler, C.S. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). Reserach Reactor Center

    2011-07-01

    Scandium isotopes ({sup 44}Sc, {sup 47}Sc) are more available and their properties are convenient for either PET imaging or radiotherapy. To use them in nuclear medicine, ligands forming complexes with a high stability are necessary. Available experimental data on stability constants for complexes of ligands such as EDTA, DTPA, DOTA, NOTA and TETA with various metal ions have been published. But scandium is the exception since scarce data is available in the literature. Values of stability constants of Sc(III) with the ligands were determined by free-ion selective radiotracer extraction, complemented by {sup 45}Sc NMR and potentiometry data. The thermodynamic stability of the Sc-complexes increases in the order TETA < NOTA < EDTA < DTPA < DOTA. The in vitro stability of the Sc(III) complexes was studied in the presence of hydroxyapatite and rat serum to estimate their in vivo stability. The most stable complex was shown to be Sc-DOTA.

  11. Preparation of Amino-Modified PAN Fibers with Triethylenetetramine as Aminating Reagents and Their Application in CO2 Adsorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbo Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Amino-modified polyacrylonitrile (AMPAN fiber was synthesized by the reaction of polyacrylonitrile (PAN fiber and triethylenetetramine (TETA in the presence of water. The effect of water amount, reaction temperature, and time on the weight increase degree and alkali content of the AMPAN fiber was investigated in detail. The characterization results indicated that TETA could be grafted onto the surface of PAN fiber by this method. However, the highest adsorption capacity of the AMPAN fibers was only 0.09 g/g even at 15 bar and 50°C, which was much lower than the porous materials. The reason for this result may be related to its low surface area.

  12. Susceptibility of Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecium isolated from pigs and broiler chickens to tetracycline degradation products and distribution of tetracycline resistance determinants in E-coli from food animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sengeløv, G.; Halling-Sørensen, B.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2003-01-01

    One hundred Escherichia coli isolates from diseased and healthy pigs, cattle and broiler chickens were screened for the presence of tetracycline resistance genes tet(A), (13), (C), (D) or (E). The tet(A) gene was the most abundant (71% of the 100 isolates) followed by tet(B) (25%). The predominan...... and 18 tetracycline resistant and 10 sensitive Enterococcus faecium to tetracyclines and tetracycline degradation products was determined. The resistant isolates showed reduced resistance to anhydrotetracycline, 4-epi-anhydrotetracycline, anhydrochlortetracycline and 4-epi......-anhydrochlortetracycline. In general both the tetracycline resistant and susceptible E. faecium were more susceptible to the compounds tested than E. coli. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V.. All rights reserved....

  13. An optimized, chemically regulated gene expression system for Chlamydomonas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Ferrante

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a model system for algal and cell biology and is used for biotechnological applications, such as molecular farming or biological hydrogen production. The Chlamydomonas metal-responsive CYC6 promoter is repressed by copper and induced by nickel ions. However, induction by nickel is weak in some strains, poorly reversible by chelating agents like EDTA, and causes, at high concentrations, toxicity side effects on Chlamydomonas growth. Removal of these bottlenecks will encourage the wide use of this promoter as a chemically regulated gene expression system. METHODOLOGY: Using a codon-optimized Renilla luciferase as a reporter gene, we explored several strategies to improve the strength and reversibility of CYC6 promoter induction. Use of the first intron of the RBCS2 gene or of a modified TAP medium increases the strength of CYC6 induction up to 20-fold. In the modified medium, induction is also obtained after addition of specific copper chelators, like TETA. At low concentrations (up to 10 microM TETA is a more efficient inducer than Ni, which becomes a very efficient inducer at higher concentrations (50 microM. Neither TETA nor Ni show toxicity effects at the concentrations used. Unlike induction by Ni, induction by TETA is completely reversible by micromolar copper concentrations, thus resulting in a transient "wave" in luciferase activity, which can be repeated in subsequent growth cycles. CONCLUSIONS: We have worked out a chemically regulated gene expression system that can be finely tuned to produce temporally controlled "waves" in gene expression. The use of cassettes containing the CYC6 promoter, and of modified growth media, is a reliable and economically sustainable system for the temporally controlled expression of foreign genes in Chlamydomonas.

  14. Chemical modification and characterization of poly(ethylene terephthalate) surfaces for collagen immobilization

    OpenAIRE

    Drobota, Mioara; Peršin, Zdenka; Fras, Lidija; Mohan, Tamilselvan; Stana-Kleinschek, Karin; Doliška, Aleš; Bračič, Matej; Ribitsch, Volker; Harabagiu, Valeria; Coseri, Sergiu

    2013-01-01

    The functionalization of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) surface films by reactions with multifunctional amines such as triethylenetetramine (TETA), and tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA) was investigated. For the functionalization of PET films surface we used a new way of treatment, a 'sandwich model'. Physical-chemical properties of functionalized PET films were analysed. Qualitative and quantitative determination of the introduced amine groups were examined by means of Fourier Transform Infr...

  15. Low prevalence of antibiotic-resistant gram-negative bacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-01-13

    Jan 13, 2009 ... detection of tetracycline resistance genes [tet(A), tet(B), tet(C), tet(D), tet(E), tet(G) and tet(M)]; macrolide or combinations of. TABLE 1. List of oligonucleotide primers used in this study. Resistance. Primer. Sequence (5′ → 3′). Amplicon. Reference gene name size (bp) ere(A). ereA-fw. TCA CTG GCT AGA ...

  16. Drug: D05316 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D05316 Drug Adsorbed tetanus toxoid (JP16); Tetanus toxoid adsorbed (USP) Immunizin...isms and parasites 63 Biological preparations 632 Toxins, toxoids 6322 Toxoids D05316 Adsorbed tetanus...s vaccines J07AM01 Tetanus toxoid D05316 Adsorbed tetanus toxoid (JP16); Tetanus ...toxoid adsorbed (USP) USP drug classification [BR:br08302] Immunological Agents Vaccines Tetanus Toxoid Adsorbed D05316 Adsorbed teta...nus toxoid (JP16); Tetanus toxoid adsorbed (USP) PubChem: 17398275 ...

  17. Electrochemical sensors using modified electrodes based on copper complexes formed with Algerian humic acid modified with ethylenediamine or triethylenetetramine for determination of nitrite in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ait Ramdane-Terbouche, Chafia; Terbouche, Achour; Djebbar, Safia; Hauchard, Didier

    2014-02-01

    The response and efficiency of new sensors for nitrite ions analysis have been studied electrochemically. These sensors were developed by modifying a carbon paste electrode (CPE) with copper (II) complexes formed with commercial (PFHA) and Algerian (YHA) humic acids and their modified compounds with ethylenediamine (EDA) or triethylenetetramine (TETA). The developed mechanism is based on the electrochemical oxidation of NO2(-) on the modified CPE for different nitrite concentrations. The obtained results showed that the carbon paste electrode modified with copper (II)-modified humic acids complexes (Cu-MHA) exhibited substantial electrocatalytic effect on the oxidation of nitrite anions compared with carbon paste electrode. The sensitivity of the modified CPE towards nitrite concentrations depends on the nature of the humic acid and its modified compounds. The measurements performed by using CPE/Cu-YHA-EDA and CPE/Cu-YHA-TETA gave the best sensitivity and a good linear response of current versus nitrite concentrations. The oxidation peak current of nitrite at CPE/Cu-YHA-TETA and CPE/Cu-YHA-EDA electrodes in weak acid solution is proportional to the concentration of nitrite over the range 0-1.38 × 10(-2) mol L(-1) with a limit of detection (LOD) of 1.46 μmol L(-1) (Sensitivity=41.06 μA(mmol L(-1))(-1) and 2.17 μmol L(-1) (Sensitivity=27.63μA(mmol L(-1))(-1), respectively. Compared to the sensors published in the literature, our CPE/Cu-YHA-TETA and CPE/Cu-YHA-EDA electrodes exhibit a good catalytic activity towards nitrite oxidation and a low limit of detection over a wide nitrite concentrations range. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Audouin's gull, a potential vehicle of an extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing Salmonella Agona

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antilles, Noelia; Garcia-Migura, Lourdes; Joensen, Katrine Grimstrup

    2015-01-01

    as those being used to treat severe salmonellosis in humans. Whole genome sequencing revealed the strain being multilocus sequence type ST13, and eight resistance genes (aadA2, aadB, bla(CTX-M-9), bla(DHA-1), qnrA1, tetA, sul1 and dfrA16) belonging to seven antimicrobial classes were confirmed, as well...

  19. Dicty_cDB: VSI144 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available (merA) gene... 49 9e-05 U75324_2( U75324 |pid:none) Cloning vector pJB3Tc20, complete sequ... 49 9e-05 AB114188_15(...c... 49 9e-05 AB027254_3( AB027254 |pid:none) Cloning vector pSB4 tetR, tetA, hy... 49 9e-05 protein

  20. The Ever Failing Counter Movement: the Case of Low Class Women Migration at Grobogan, Central Java

    OpenAIRE

    P. Astuti, Tri Marhaeni

    2008-01-01

    Tulisan ini merupakan sebagian kecil data hasil penelitian yang dilakukan di Godong, Grobogan Jawa Tengah, tentang migrasi yang dilakukan oleh perempuan di Godong ke Malaysia dan Singapura sebagai TKW. Perempuan Godong yang umumnya miskin, berpendidikan rendah, harus menanggung beban kemiskinan dan mencari jalan keluar dari kemiskinan dengan bermigrasi. Hal ini mereka lakukan karena suami—yang secara konstruksi sosial—dianggap sebagai pencari nafkah utama, tidak memiliki pekerjaan teta...

  1. Ekstrak daun Avicennia marina sebagai anti jamur pada telur ikan mas, Cyprinus carpio (Avicennia marina leaf extracts as an anti fungal for common carp, Cyprinus carpio eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofyatuddin Karina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine the effect and the optimum concentration of Avicennia leaf extracts on prevalence, hatching rate and hatching time of common carp eggs (Cyprinus carpio that infected by Saprolegnia sp. The research was conducted at Balai Benih Ikan (BBI Lukup Badak, Aceh Tengah District in June 2016. The completely randomized design was used as statistical analysis method in this study with five treatments and 4 replications. The fertilized eggs of common carp were infected by Saporolegnia sp. then treated by immersing in the extract. The treatments were the different concentrations of extract, namely; 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 ppm. The result of ANOVA test showed that the extract Avecenia leaf extracts gave the significant effect on the prevalence, hatching rate and hatching time of common carp eggs (P<0.05. The best results for all parameters were recorded at the concentration of 10 ppm. Therefore, it is concluded that the optimum concentration is 10 ppm. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh dan konsentrasi optimum ekstrak daun Avicennia marina terhadap prevalensi, daya tetas serta waktu tetas telur ikan mas (Cyprinus carpio yang terinfeksi Saprolegnia sp. Penelitian dilakukan di Balai Benih Ikan (BBI Lukup Badak, Kab. Aceh Tengah pada bulan Juni 2016. Analisis statistik menggunakan metode Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL dengan 5 taraf perlakuan dan 4 kali ulangan. Sampel yang digunakan adalah telur ikan mas yang telah terbuahi dan terinfeksi dengan jamur Saprolegnia sp. kemudian direndam dengan ekstrak. Perlakuan yang dilakukan meliputi perlakuan konsentrasi ekstrak yaitu: 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 ppm. Hasil uji ANOVA menunjukkan bahwa ekstrak daun Avicennia marina berpengaruh nyata (P<0,05 terhadap prevalensi serangan jamur, daya tetas serta waktu tetas telur ikan mas. Nilai terbaik untuk semua parameter yang diukur ditemukan pada konsentrasi 10 ppm ekstrak. Oleh karena itu disimpulkan bahwa konsentrasi yang

  2. Antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella spp. recovered from patients admitted to six different hospitals in Tehran, Iran from 2007 to 2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tajbakhsh, Mercedeh; Hendriksen, Rene S.; Nochi, Zahra

    2012-01-01

    %) and kanamycin (14%). The tetracycline resistance genes tet(A), tet(B), and tet(G) were found in 28%, 14% and 6% of the tetracycline resistant isolates, respectively. The genes aadA, aadB, strA, strB and aphA1-Iab were present in 83%, 55%, 34%, 1% and 17% of the aminoglycoside resistant isolates, respectively...

  3. Controlling the morphology and properties of solvothermal synthesized Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} nanoparticles by solvent type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahramzadeh, Saeid [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abdizadeh, Hossein [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Center of Excellence for High Performance Materials, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Golobostanfard, Mohammad Reza, E-mail: Bostanfr@ut.ac.ir [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-09-05

    Highlights: • CZTS nanoparticles are fabricated by solvothermal method with different solvents. • Different morphologies are achieved by EDA, TETA, EG, and OA solvents. • Property and chelating ability of the solvents have a key role on nanoparticles formation. • TETA and OA are strongly recommended for solar cell applications. - Abstract: The copper–zinc–tin sulfide Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} (CZTS) semiconductors are recently considered as one of the favorable materials for application as absorber layers in solar cells due to their appropriate direct band gap energy and high optical absorption coefficient. In this study, the effect of solvent type on properties of solvothermal synthesized CZTS nanoparticles has been investigated. Ethylenediamine (EDA), triethylenetetramine (TETA), ethylene glycol (EG), and oleic acid (OA) have been used as the solvent. X-ray diffraction technique and Raman spectroscopy confirmed the formation of crystalline CZTS nanoparticles with kesterite crystal structure in these solvents with the exception of EDA, which forms wurtzite crystal structure. Morphological characterizations show that several distinct morphologies including spherical (70–160 nm), nanoplates (∼45 nm thickness and more than 1 μm length), peculiar flower-like particles (with diameter of ∼0.4–1.5 μm), truncated hexagonal disks, irregular particles, and hexagonal microdisks are obtained by varying the solvent type. Optical studies revealed broad absorption of the CZTS particles in the visible region. Compared with other solvents, OA synthesized CZTS particles show higher absorption in the visible region. However, CZTS nanoparticles synthesized by TETA solvent show the most appropriate properties for application as an absorber materials in solar cells due to high crystallinity, low impurity phases, suitable size, and proper band gap energy.

  4. Toxicology and metabolism of nickel compounds. Progress report, December 1, 1974--November 30, 1975. [97433ONE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunderman, F.W. Jr.

    1975-08-15

    The toxicology and metabolism of nickel compounds (NiCl/sub 2/, Ni/sub 3/S/sub 2/, NiS, and Ni powder) were investigated in rats and hamsters. The new knowledge has included: demonstration that hyperglucagonemia is primarily responsible for the acute hyperglycemic effect of parenteral Ni(II) in rats; demonstration that parenteral injection of Ni(II) in rats produces acute nephropathy with proteinuria and amino aciduria, and with ultrastructural lesions of renal glomeruli and tubules; confirmation of the inhibitory effect of manganese upon the carcinogenicity of Ni/sub 3/S/sub 2/ after intramuscular injection in rats, and elucidation of the effects of manganese upon the rates of excretion of nickel, and upon the acute histological reactions produced by Ni/sub 3/S/sub 2/; discovery that the antidotal efficacy of triethylenetetramine (TETA) in acute Ni(II) poisoning in rats is substantially greater than that of other chelating agents, including ..cap alpha..-lipoic acid, diethyldithiocarbamate, d-penicillamine, and glycylglycyl-L-histidine-N-methylamide; observation that the acute renal toxicity of Ni(II) is suppressed by administration of TETA, but that the hyperglycemic and hyperglucagonemic responses to Ni(II) are not prevented by TETA; confirmation that marked erythrocytosis is induced in rats by a single intrarenal injection of Ni/sub 3/S/sub 2/, and elucidation of the time-response and dose-response relationships for the Ni-induced erythrocytosis. (auth)

  5. Toxicology and metabolism of nickel compounds. Progress report, December 1, 1975--November 30, 1976. [Tests made with rats and hamsters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunderman, F.W. Jr.

    1976-08-15

    The toxicology and metabolism of nickel compounds (NiCl/sub 2/, Ni/sub 3/S/sub 2/, NiS, Ni powder, and Ni(CO)/sub 4/) were investigated in rats and hamsters. Triethylenetetramine (TETA) and d-penicillamine are more effective than other chelating agents (Na-diethyldithiocarbamate, CaNa/sub 2/-versenate, diglycylhistidine-N-methylamide and ..cap alpha..-lipoic acid) as antidotes for acute Ni(II)-toxicity in rats. The antidotal efficacy of triethylenetetramine (TETA) in acute Ni(II)-toxicity is mediated by rapid reduction of the plasma concentration of Ni(II), consistent with renal clearance of the TETA-Ni complex at a rate more than twenty times greater than the renal clearance of non-chelated Ni(II). Fischer rats are more susceptible than other rat strains (Wistar-Lewis, Long-Evans and NIH-Black) to induction of erythrocytosis after an intrarenal injection of Ni/sub 3/S/sub 2/, and elucidation of the serial pathologic changes that occur in rats after an intrarenal injection of Ni/sub 3/S/sub 2/. When amorphous nickel monosulfide (NiS) and nickel subsulfide (Ni/sub 3/S/sub 2/) were administered by im injection to randomly selected Fischer rats in equivalent amounts under identical conditions, NiS did not induce any tumors whereas Ni/sub 3/S/sub 2/ induced sarcomas in almost all of the rats.

  6. Detection and linkage to mobile genetic elements of tetracycline resistance gene tet(M) in Escherichia coli isolates from pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurado-Rabadan, Sonia; de la Fuente, Ricardo; Ruiz-Santa-Quiteria, Jose A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: In Escherichia coli the genes involved in the acquisition of tetracycline resistance are mainly tet(A) and tet(B). In addition, tet(M) is the most common tetracycline resistance determinant in enterococci and it is associated with conjugative transposons and plasmids. Although tet(M) ...... expected. In our study, tet(M) detected in E. coli seems not to have been transferred from enterococci, although it can not be ruled out that the horizontal transfer of this gene occurred from other intestinal tract bacteria....... from pigs, as well as the detection of mobile genetic elements linked to tet(M) in E. coli and its possible transfer from enterococci. Results: tet(A) was the most frequently detected gene (87.9%) in doxycycline-resistant isolates. tet(M) was found in 13.1% E. coli isolates. The tet(M) gene......Background: In Escherichia coli the genes involved in the acquisition of tetracycline resistance are mainly tet(A) and tet(B). In addition, tet(M) is the most common tetracycline resistance determinant in enterococci and it is associated with conjugative transposons and plasmids. Although tet...

  7. Pion-proton bremsstrahlung calculation and the experimental'' magnetic moment of. Delta. sup ++ (1232)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, D.; Liou, M.K. (Department of Physics and Institute for Nuclear Theory, Brooklyn College of the City University of New York, Brooklyn, New York (USA)); Ding, Z.M. (Department of Physics, Central State University, Edmond, Oklahoma (USA) Department of Physics, Normandale Community College, Bloomington, Minnesota (USA))

    1991-11-01

    A bremsstrahlung amplitude in the special two-energy-two-angle (TETAS) approximation, which is relativistic, gauge invariant, and consistent with the soft-photon theorem, is derived for the pion-proton bremsstrahlung ({pi}{sup +}{ital p}{gamma}) process near the {Delta}{sup ++}(1232) resonance. In order to take into account bremsstrahlung emission from an internal {Delta}{sup ++} line with both charge and the anomalous magnetic moment {lambda}{sub {Delta}}, we have applied a radiation decomposition identity to modify Low's standard prescription for constructing a soft-photon amplitude. This modified procedure is very general; it can be used to derive the TETAS amplitude for any bremsstrahlung process with resonance. The derived TETAS amplitude is applied to calculate all {pi}{sup +}{ital p}{gamma} cross sections which can be compared with the experimental data. Treating {lambda}{sub {Delta}} as a free parameter in these calculations, we extract the experimental'' magnetic moment of the {Delta}{sup ++}, {mu}{sub {Delta}}, from recent data. The extracted values of {mu}{sub {Delta}} are (3.7--4.2){ital e}/(2{ital m}{sub {ital p}}) from the University of California, Los Angeles data and (4.6--4.9){ital e}/(2{ital m}{sub {ital p}}) from the Paul Scherrer Institute data. Here, {ital m}{sub {ital p}} is the proton mass.

  8. Estimativa da condutividade elétrica da solução do solo a partir do teor de água e da condutividade elétrica aparente do solo Estimative of soil solution electrical conductivity from soil water content and soil bulk electrical conductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gessionei da S. Santana

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O crescente uso da técnica de fertirrigação não tem sido acompanhado com pesquisas para disponibilizar informações capazes de proporcionar o correto manejo dessa técnica. A reflectometria no domínio do tempo (TDR possibilita o monitoramento simultâneo e contínuo do teor de água (teta e da condutividade elétrica aparente do solo (CEa. A literatura apresenta diversos modelos que relacionam teta e CEa com a condutividade elétrica da solução do solo (CEw, com vistas à predição da CEw a partir de dados de teta e CEa obtidos por meio da técnica da TDR. Porém, muitas pesquisas demonstram a necessidade de avaliação e calibração desses modelos para solos de diferentes classes texturais. Neste trabalho, foram avaliados seis modelos com o objetivo de conhecer a capacidade dos mesmos em relacionar teta, CEa e CEw. Experimentos de laboratório foram feitos, com solo de classes texturais franca e franco-arenosa, aplicando-se soluções com cinco condutividades elétricas combinadas com cinco teores de água no solo, resultando em 25 colunas de solo. Os modelos demonstraram capacidade para relacionar teta, CEa e CEw.The increase of fertigation techniques has not been followed by researches that generate available information to guide a correct fertigation management. The time-domain reflectometry allows the simultaneously monitoring of soil water content (theta and bulk electrical conductivity (CEa. Literature presents various models which relate TDR readings of theta and CEa to soil solution electrical conductivity (CEw. Nevertheless, many researches demonstrate the need for evaluation and calibration of these models under different soil conditions. In this work, six mathematical models were evaluated in order to establish the relationship among theta, CEa e CEw. Laboratory experiments were carried out using two soil materials, by means of applying five electrical conductivities combined with five soil water contents in PVC columns

  9. Field spatial and temporal patterns of soil water content and bulk density changes Padrões espacial e temporal de mudanças da umidade e densidade do solo no campo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Carlos Timm

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Soil water content (theta and bulk density (rhos greatly influence important soil and plant processes, such as water movement, soil compaction, soil aeration, and plant root system development. Spatial and temporal variability of theta and rhos during different periods of the year and different phases of crops are of fundamental interest. This work involves the characterization of spatial and temporal patterns of theta and rhos during different climatic periods of year, aiming to verify whether there are significant temporal changes in rhos at the soil surface layer when submitted to wetting and drying cycles. The field experiment was carried out in a coffee plantation, Rhodic Kandiudalf soil, clayey texture. Using a neutron/gamma surface probe, theta and rhos were measured meter by meter along a 200 m spatial transect, along an interrow contour line. During the wet period there was no difference of spatial patterns of theta while during the dry period differences were observed, and can be associated to precipitation events. It was also observed that there are rhos temporal changes at the soil surface along the studied period as a consequence of the in situ wetting and drying cycles.Umidade (teta e densidade do solo (ros influenciam importantes processos no solo e planta tais como: movimento de água, compactação do solo, aeração do solo e desenvolvimento radicular. Baseado neste fato, questões referentes à variabilidade espacial e temporal de teta e ros para diferentes períodos do ano e diferentes fases de desenvolvimento da cultura do café tornam-se de extremo interesse. Este trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar padrões espaciais e temporais de teta e ros durante diferentes períodos do ano e verificar se existem mudanças temporais significativas de ros na superfície do solo quando submetida a ciclos de umedecimento/secagem. O experimento foi conduzido em campo cultivado com café em um solo classificado como Nitossolo Vermelho

  10. Antimicrobial Resistance Genes in Pigeons from Public Parks in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Peña, K; Esperón, F; Torres-Mejía, A M; de la Torre, A; de la Cruz, E; Jiménez-Soto, M

    2017-11-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is known to be an emerging problem, but the extent of the issue remains incomplete. The aim of this study was to determine the presence or absence of nine resistance genes (bla TEM , catI, mecA, qnrS, sulI, sulII, tet(A), tet(Q), vanA) in the faeces of 141 pigeons from four urban parks in Alajuela, Guadalupe, Tres Ríos and San José in Costa Rica. The genes were identified by real-time PCR directly from enema samples. About 30% of the samples were positive for genes catI and sulI; between 13% and 17% were positive for qnrS, sulII, tet(A) and tet(Q); and 4% were positive for bla TEM . The mecA and vanA genes were not detected. The average of antimicrobial resistance genes detected per pigeon was 2. Eight different patterns of resistance were identified, without differences in the sampling areas, being the most common pattern 2 (sulII positive samples). During rainy season, the genes more frequently found were sulI and tet(A). In conclusion, the urban inhabiting pigeons tested are currently carrying antimicrobial resistance genes, potentially acting as reservoirs of resistant bacteria and vectors to humans. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study carried out on direct detection of resistance genes in the digestive metagenomes of pigeons. © 2017 The Authors. Zoonoses and Public Health Published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Effects of chlortetracycline and copper supplementation on the prevalence, distribution, and quantity of antimicrobial resistance genes in the fecal metagenome of weaned pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agga, Getahun E; Scott, H Morgan; Vinasco, Javier; Nagaraja, T G; Amachawadi, Raghavendra G; Bai, Jianfa; Norby, Bo; Renter, David G; Dritz, Steve S; Nelssen, Jim L; Tokach, Mike D

    2015-05-01

    Use of in-feed antibiotics such as chlortetracycline (CTC) in food animals is fiercely debated as a cause of antimicrobial resistance in human pathogens; as a result, alternatives to antibiotics such as heavy metals have been proposed. We used a total community DNA approach to experimentally investigate the effects of CTC and copper supplementation on the presence and quantity of antimicrobial resistance elements in the gut microbial ecology of pigs. Total community DNA was extracted from 569 fecal samples collected weekly over a 6-week period from groups of 5 pigs housed in 32 pens that were randomized to receive either control, CTC, copper, or copper plus CTC regimens. Qualitative and quantitative PCR were used to detect the presence of 14 tetracycline resistance (tet) genes and to quantify gene copies of tetA, tetB, blaCMY-2 (a 3rd generation cephalosporin resistance gene), and pcoD (a copper resistance gene), respectively. The detection of tetA and tetB decreased over the subsequent sampling periods, whereas the prevalence of tetC and tetP increased. CTC and copper plus CTC supplementation increased both the prevalence and gene copy numbers of tetA, while decreasing both the prevalence and gene copies of tetB. In summary, tet gene presence was initially very diverse in the gut bacterial community of weaned pigs; thereafter, copper and CTC supplementation differentially impacted the prevalence and quantity of the various tetracycline, ceftiofur and copper resistance genes resulting in a less diverse gene population. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Pitanje kontinuiteta Republike Hrvatske s državama prethodnicama na njezinom području

    OpenAIRE

    Degan, Vladimir-Đuro; Barić Punda, Vesna

    2017-01-01

    Povod za ovu raspravu jest skupna tužba (Class Action Complaint) koju je grupa nasljednika i rodbine hrvatskih Židova, Srba i Roma podnijela protiv Republike Hrvatske 31. svibnja 2016. godine Okružnom sudu Sjedinjenih Država za Sjeverni okrug Istočnoga područja Illinoisa. Tužba se zasniva na tvrdnji o apsolutnom identitetu i kontinuitetu Republike Hrvatske s tzv. „Nezavisnom Državom Hrvatskom“ iz Drugog svjetskog rata. U tužbi se od Republike Hrvatske traži odšteta za pretrpljene gubitke žrta...

  13. Low minimum inhibitory concentrations associated with the tetracycline-resistance gene tet(C) in Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, Gabhan; Kozak, Gosia K.; Hillyer, Elizabeth; Reid-Smith, Richard J.; Boerlin, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Twenty-eight Escherichia coli isolates from various animal and environmental sources with defined tetracycline-resistance genotypes for tet(A), tet(B), and tet(C) were tested for their susceptibility to tetracycline by means of both broth microdilution and Etest. All tet(C)-positive isolates had tetracycline minimum inhibitory concentrations clustering around an intermediate susceptibility range of 2 to 16 μg/mL. Detecting tet(C)-positive isolates by means of susceptibility testing may therefore be difficult with use of the current breakpoint for tetracycline of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. PMID:20592845

  14. The rarely reported tet(31) tetracycline resistance determinant is common in Gallibacterium anatis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen, Anders M.; Bager, Ragnhild J.; Ifrah, Dan

    2011-01-01

    The present investigation was undertaken to identify and characterize the tetracycline resistance determinant in 22 Gallibacterium anatis strains for which no determinant was identified using primers specific for tet(A, B, C, D, E, G, H, K, L, M, O). A recent study found tet(B) to be the most...... prevalent tetracycline resistance determinant in a larger collection of G. anatis field strains from Mexico and Denmark. However, in 41% of the tetracycline resistant strains no determinant could be assigned. Here we demonstrate that tet(31) is a common determinant in G. anatis originating from chickens...

  15. Radiolabeling human peripheral blood stem cells for positron emission tomography (PET imaging in young rhesus monkeys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice F Tarantal

    Full Text Available These studies focused on a new radiolabeling technique with copper ((64Cu and zirconium ((89Zr for positron emission tomography (PET imaging using a CD45 antibody. Synthesis of (64Cu-CD45 and (89Zr-CD45 immunoconjugates was performed and the evaluation of the potential toxicity of radiolabeling human peripheral blood stem cells (hPBSC was assessed in vitro (viability, population doubling times, colony forming units. hPBSC viability was maintained as the dose of (64Cu-TETA-CD45 increased from 0 (92% to 160 µCi/mL (76%, p>0.05. Radiolabeling efficiency was not significantly increased with concentrations of (64Cu-TETA-CD45 >20 µCi/mL (p>0.50. Toxicity affecting both growth and colony formation was observed with hPBSC radiolabeled with ≥40 µCi/mL (p0.05, and a trend towards increased radiolabeling efficiency was noted as the dose of (89Zr-Df-CD45 increased, with a greater level of radiolabeling with 160 µCi/mL compared to 0-40 µCi/mL (p<0.05. A greater than 2,000 fold-increase in the level of (89Zr-Df-CD45 labeling efficiency was observed when compared to (64Cu-TETA-CD45. Similar to (64Cu-TETA-CD45, toxicity was noted when hPBSC were radiolabeled with ≥40 µCi/mL (p<0.05 (growth, colony formation. Taken together, 20 µCi/mL resulted in the highest level of radiolabeling efficiency without altering cell function. Young rhesus monkeys that had been transplanted prenatally with 25×10(6 hPBSC expressing firefly luciferase were assessed with bioluminescence imaging (BLI, then 0.3 mCi of (89Zr-Df-CD45, which showed the best radiolabeling efficiency, was injected intravenously for PET imaging. Results suggest that (89Zr-Df-CD45 was able to identify engrafted hPBSC in the same locations identified by BLI, although the background was high.

  16. Evaluation of (64)Cu-labeled DOTA-D-Phe(1)-Tyr (3)-octreotide ((64)Cu-DOTA-TOC) for imaging somatostatin receptor-expressing tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanaoka, Hirofumi; Tominaga, Hideyuki; Yamada, Keiich; Paudyal, Pramila; Iida, Yasuhiko; Watanabe, Shigeki; Paudyal, Bishnuhari; Higuchi, Tetsuya; Oriuchi, Noboru; Endo, Keigo

    2009-08-01

    In-111 ((111)In)-labeled octreotide has been clinically used for imaging somatostatin receptor-positive tumors, and radiolabeled octreotide analogs for positron emission tomography (PET) have been developed. Cu-64 ((64)Cu; half-life, 12.7 h) is an attractive radionuclide for PET imaging and is produced with high specific activity using a small biomedical cyclotron. The aim of this study is to produce and fundamentally examine a (64)Cu-labeled octreotide analog, (64)Cu-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid-D: -Phe(1)-Tyr(3)-octreotide ((64)Cu-DOTA-TOC). (64)Cu produced using a biomedical cyclotron was reacted with DOTA-TOC for 30 min at 45 degrees C. The stability of (64)Cu-DOTA-TOC was evaluated in vitro (incubated with serum) and in vivo (blood collected after administration) by HPLC analysis. Biodistribution studies were performed in normal mice by administration of mixed solution of (64)Cu-DOTA-TOC and (111)In-DOTA-TOC and somatostatin receptor-positive U87MG tumor-bearing mice by administration of (64)Cu-DOTA-TOC or (64)Cu-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane-1,4,8,11-tetraacetic acid-octreotide ((64)Cu-TETA-OC). The tumor was imaged using (64)Cu-DOTA-TOC, (64)Cu-TETA-OC, and FDG with an animal PET scanner. (64)Cu-DOTA-TOC can be produced in amounts sufficient for clinical study with high radiochemical yield. (64)Cu-DOTA-TOC was stable in vitro, but time-dependent transchelation to protein was observed after injection into mice. In biodistribution studies, the radioactivity of (64)Cu was higher than that of (111)In in all organs except kidney. In tumor-bearing mice, (64)Cu-DOTA-TOC showed a high accumulation in the tumor, and the tumor-to-blood ratio reached as high as 8.81 +/- 1.17 at 6 h after administration. (64)Cu-DOTA-TOC showed significantly higher accumulation in the tumor than (64)Cu-TETA-OC. (64)Cu-DOTA-TOC PET showed a very clear image of the tumor, which was comparable to that of (18)F-FDG PET and very similar to that of (64)Cu-TETA

  17. La memoria de la violencia: las consecuencias del conflicto armado contra Sendero Luminoso representadas en una película y dos novelas peruanas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor Sagermann Bustinza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The peculiar situation of violence experienced in Peru of the 1980s and the 1990s shows a society immersed in the trauma, suffering and pain. The literature as well as the film have become a means to reflect the painful experience of the society. The aim of this article is to analyse some of the main characters of the novels: 'La hora azul' (2005 by Alonso Cueto, 'Abril rojo' by Santiago Roncagliolo (2006, and the film: 'La teta asustada' (2009 by Patricia Llosa in order to show the effects of traumatic experiences of the past and an attempt to return to normal life.

  18. Prevalence of tetracycline resistance genes among multi-drug resistant bacteria from selected water distribution systems in southwestern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesoji, Ayodele T; Ogunjobi, Adeniyi A; Olatoye, Isaac O; Call, Douglas R; Douglas, Douglas R

    2015-06-25

    Antibiotic resistance genes [ARGs] in aquatic systems have drawn increasing attention they could be transferred horizontally to pathogenic bacteria. Water treatment plants (WTPs) are intended to provide quality and widely available water to the local populace they serve. However, WTPs in developing countries may not be dependable for clean water and they could serve as points of dissemination for antibiotic resistant bacteria. Only a few studies have investigated the occurrence of ARGs among these bacteria including tetracycline resistance genes in water distribution systems in Nigeria. Multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria, including resistance to tetracycline, were isolated from treated and untreated water distribution systems in southwest Nigeria. MDR bacteria were resistant to >3 classes of antibiotics based on break-point assays. Isolates were characterized using partial 16S rDNA sequencing and PCR assays for six tetracycline-resistance genes. Plasmid conjugation was evaluated using E. coli strain DH5α as the recipient strain. Out of the 105 bacteria, 85 (81 %) and 20 (19 %) were Gram- negative or Gram- positive, respectively. Twenty-nine isolates carried at least one of the targeted tetracycline resistance genes including strains of Aeromonas, Alcaligenes, Bacillus, Klebsiella, Leucobacter, Morganella, Proteus and a sequence matching a previously uncultured bacteria. Tet(A) was the most prevalent (16/29) followed by tet(E) (4/29) and tet30 (2/29). Tet(O) was not detected in any of the isolates. Tet(A) was mostly found with Alcaligenes strains (9/10) and a combination of more than one resistance gene was observed only amongst Alcaligenes strains [tet(A) + tet30 (2/10), tet(A) + tet(E) (3/10), tet(E) + tet(M) (1/10), tet(E) + tet30 (1/10)]. Tet(A) was transferred by conjugation for five Alcaligenes and two E. coli isolates. This study found a high prevalence of plasmid-encoded tet(A) among Alcaligenes isolates, raising the possibility that this

  19. Improved composite targets for small scale {sup 64}Cu production comparing Au- and Pt-foils as {sup 64}Ni backing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walther, M.; Preusche, S.; Fuechtner, F.; Pietzsch, H. J.; Steinbach, J. [Institute of Radiopharmacy, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany)

    2012-12-19

    Advantages of a stacked assembly of target support components for {sup 64}Cu production via {sup 64}Ni(p,n){sup 64}Cu reaction were reported recently. The present work shows the applicability of these composite targets for beam currents up to 22 {mu}A. Gold and platinum foils were evaluated as {sup 64}Ni backing. The effective specific activity (ESA) and specific activity (SA) were determined by TETA titration at room temperature and at 80 Degree-Sign C and compared with additional copper quantification results via ICP-MS and stripping voltammetric trace analysis (VA).

  20. [New facts about pathogenesis of atrial fibrillation: correlation between changes in bioelectric brain activity and recurrence of atrial fibrillation paroxysms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedostup, A V; Vasiukov, S S; Fedorova, V I; Gordeev, S A

    2007-01-01

    Determination of neurophysiological features of the disease course in patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF); pathogenetic validation of use and assessment of therapeutic efficacy of clonazepam (an atypical agonist of benzodiazepine receptors) in combined antiarrhythmic therapy. The study group consisted of 31 patients with paroxysmal AF free of severe organic changes of the myocardium with twice a week paroxysms, on the average, treated ineffectively with beta-adrenoblockers, amiodaron, sotalol, etacisine, allapinin or combination of the above drugs. A comparative group consisted of 10 patients with perpetual arrhythmia. Fifteen healthy subjects entered the control group. Electroencephalograms were made on the unit Brain Surfing (Russia). Compression-spectral analysis was conducted with utilization of Fourier's algorithm in different periods of the disease for calculation of the absolute (mcV2/Hz) spectral power of the teta- (4.0-7 Hz), alpha (8-13 Hz) and beta-rhythm (14-18 Hz). Clonazepam was given in a dose 1.5 mg/day in addition to insufficiently effective anti-arrhythmic therapy. Holter ECG monitoring was carried out initially and in therapy with clonazepam. The spectral power of alpha-, beta- and teta-rhythm of patients with paroxysmal AF exhibits significant cyclic fluctuations depending on the disease course period. In attack-free period AF patients differ from healthy subjects by a significant fall of spectral power of beta-rhythm indicating functional deficiency of the reticular formation in this disease. 0-24 hours before AF paroxysm spectral power of all the rhythms rose greatly reflecting marked functional disintegration of nonspecific brain systems realizing psychovegetative regulation. At AF paroxysm spectral power of alpha- and beta-rhythm significantly decreased while that of teta-rhythm grew (activation of the lymbic complex). 0-24 h after paroxysm spectral power of alpha- and beta-rhythm continued to fall, of teta-rhythm--sharply fell

  1. Antibiotic resistance and resistance genes in Escherichia coli from poultry farms, southwest Nigeria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adelowo, Olawale O.; Fagade, Obasola E.; Agersø, Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This study investigated the mechanisms of resistance in 36 E. coli isolated from waste, litter, soil and water samples collected from poultry farms in Southwestern Nigeria. Methodology: Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) distributions of the isolates were determined using the me......B (61%), catA1 (25%), cmlA1 (13%), tetA (21%) and tetB (17%). Class 1 and 2 integrons were found in five (14%) and six (17%) isolates, respectively, while one isolate was positive for both classes of integrons. Seven out of eight isolates with resistance to ciprofloxacin and MIC...

  2. La memoria de la violencia: las consecuencias del conflicto armado contra Sendero Luminoso representadas en una película y dos novelas peruanas

    OpenAIRE

    Leonor Sagermann Bustinza

    2014-01-01

    The peculiar situation of violence experienced in Peru of the 1980s and the 1990s shows a society immersed in the trauma, suffering and pain. The literature as well as the film have become a means to reflect the painful experience of the society. The aim of this article is to analyse some of the main characters of the novels: 'La hora azul' (2005) by Alonso Cueto, 'Abril rojo' by Santiago Roncagliolo (2006), and the film: 'La teta asustada' (2009) by Patricia Llosa in order to show the eff...

  3. Verba Memotong Bahasa Rote Dialek Dengka: Kajian Meta Semantik Alami (Msa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efron Erwin Yohanes Loe

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Artikel ini menganalisis penggunaan kata kerja “memotong” dalam Bahasa Rote Dialek Dengka. Dari hasil wawacara dengan narasumber diperoleh sebelas leksikon “memotong” yang dijelaskan dalam bagian pembahasan. Kesebelas kata kerja “memotong” yaitu: soe, oɁoti, ŋgute, baɁe, tati, uŋga, teta, gaɁe, ete, faɁa, dan pa. Pendekatan teori yang digunakan untuk menganalisis kesebelas kata kerja “memotong” Bahasa Rote Dialek Dengka adalah Metabahasa Semantik Alami (MSA. Dengan pendekatan MSA pencapaian hasil analisis kesebelas leksikon menjadi maksimal karena setiap satu makna diperuntukan satu leksikon.

  4. Testing temperature on interfacial shear strength measurements of epoxy resins at different mixing ratios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Helga Nørgaard; Thomason, James L.; Minty, Ross

    2015-01-01

    The interfacial properties as Interfacial Shear Stress (IFSS) in fibre reinforced polymers are essential for further understanding of the mechanical properties of the composite. In this work a single fibre testing method is used in combination with an epoxy matrix made from Araldite 506 epoxy resin...... and triethylenetetramine (TETA) hardener. The IFSS was measured by a microbond test developed for a Thermal Mechanical Analyzer. The preliminary results indicate that IFSS has an inverse dependency of both testing temperature and the mixing ratio of hardener and epoxy resin. Especially interesting was the decreasing...

  5. The role of the epoxy resin: Curing agent ratio in composite interfacial strength by single fibre microbond test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minty, Ross; Thomason, James L.; Petersen, Helga Nørgaard

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on an investigation into the role of the epoxy resin: curing agent ratio in composite interfacial shear strength of glass fibre composites. The procedure involved changing the percentage of curing agent (Triethylenetetramine [TETA]) used in the mixture with several different...... percentages used, ranging from 4% up to 30%, including the stoichiometric ratio. It was found by using the microbond test, that there may exist a relationship between the epoxy resin to curing agent ratio and the level of adhesion between the reinforcing fibre and the polymer matrix of the composite....

  6. dfrA25, a novel trimethoprim resistance gene from Salmonella Agona isolated from a human urine sample in Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agersø, Yvonne; Peirano, Gisele; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: To describe a novel trimethoprim resistance gene, designated dfrA25, which was detected as a gene cassette within a class 1 integron in Salmonella Agona. Methods: The gene was cloned into Escherichia coli MT102 and resistance to 10 different antimicrobial drugs was measured. A phyloge...... a dihydrofolate reductase of 157 amino acids with closest identity (85%) to dfrA5 dihydrofolate reductase. dfrA25 was located on a transferable plasmid (similar to 150 kb) that also harboured the tetracycline resistance gene tet(A)....

  7. Determination of antibiotic resistance profile in Klebsiella pneumonia strains isolated from urinary tract infections of patients hospitalized in Peyambaran hospital (Tehran-Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Tavakol

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary tract infection (UTI is the second prevalent infection in human mostly caused by Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonia. The aim of this study was to determine the antibiotic resistance profile and detect the prevalence of antibiotic resistance encoding genes in K .pneumoniae isolated from UTI. Materials and Methods: Fifty K. pneumonia strains isolated from 122 UTI samples of hospitalized patients in Payambaran Hospital (Tehran, Iran which were subjected to this study (2014 were confirmed by standard biochemical tests. Isolates were tested for susceptibility to 10 antimicrobial drugs by using disk diffusion method. Antibiotic resistance encoding genes frequently include the aadA1, aac(3-IV, sul1, blaSHV, Cat1, cmlA, tetA, tetB, dfrA1, CITM, qnr in isolates were determined by PCR. Results: The highest antibiotic resistance in K. pneumoniae isolates were for Tetracycline and the lowest resistance (2% for Gentamicin and Imipenem. To determine the frequency of antibiotic resistant genes, 64% and 4% of isolates had tetA and Gentamicin-(aac(3-IV resistant genes, respectively. Conclusion: Frequency of antibiotic resistance encoding genes may have important and basic role in the occurrence and transfer of antibiotic resistance which can be due to the indiscriminate use of antibiotics.

  8. Characterization of microbiota composition and presence of selected antibiotic resistance genes in carriage water of ornamental fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerzova, Lenka; Videnska, Petra; Faldynova, Marcela; Sedlar, Karel; Provaznik, Ivo; Cizek, Alois; Rychlik, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    International trade with ornamental fish is gradually recognized as an important source of a wide range of different antibiotic resistant bacteria. In this study we therefore characterized the prevalence of selected antibiotic resistance genes in the microbiota found in the carriage water of ornamental fish originating from 3 different continents. Real-time PCR quantification showed that the sul1 gene was present in 11 out of 100 bacteria. tet(A) was present in 6 out of 100 bacteria and strA, tet(G), sul2 and aadA were present in 1-2 copies per 100 bacteria. Class I integrons were quite common in carriage water microbiota, however, pyrosequencing showed that only 12 different antibiotic gene cassettes were present in class I integrons. The microbiota characterized by pyrosequencing of the V3/V4 variable region of 16S rRNA genes consisted of Proteobacteria (48%), Bacteroidetes (29.5%), Firmicutes (17.8%), Actinobacteria (2.1%) and Fusobacteria (1.6%). Correlation analysis between antibiotic resistance gene prevalence and microbiota composition verified by bacterial culture showed that major reservoirs of sul1 sul2, tet(A), tet(B) tet(G), cat, cml, bla, strA, aacA, aph and aadA could be found among Alpha-, Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria with representatives of Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, Rhizobiaceae and Comamonadaceae being those most positively associated with the tested antibiotic resistance genes.

  9. Abundance and persistence of antibiotic resistance genes in livestock farms: a comprehensive investigation in eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Weixiao; Chen, Hong; Su, Chao; Yan, Shuhai

    2013-11-01

    Increases of antibiotic resistance genes in the environment may pose a threat to public health. The purpose of this study was to investigate the abundance and diversity of tetracycline (tet) and sulfonamide (sul) resistance genes in eight livestock farms in Hangzhou, eastern China. Ten tet genes (tetA, tetB, tetC, tetG, tetL, tetM, tetO, tetQ, tetW, and tetX), two sul genes (sulI and sulII), and one genetic element associated with mobile antibiotic resistance genes [class 1 integron (intI1)] were quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction. No significant difference was found in the abundance of the tet and sul genes in various scales of pig, chicken, and duck farms (P>0.05). The average abundance of ribosomal protection protein genes (tetQ, tetM, tetW, and tetO) in the manure and wastewater samples was higher than most of the efflux pump genes (tetA, tetB, tetC, and tetL) and enzymatic modification gene (tetX) (Pantibiotic resistance emanating from agricultural activities. © 2013.

  10. Diverse tetracycline resistant bacteria and resistance genes from coastal waters of Jiaozhou Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Hongyue; Ren, Jing; Song, Linsheng; Sun, Song; An, Liguo

    2008-02-01

    Environmental microbiology investigation was carried out in Jiaozhou Bay to determine the source and distribution of tetracycline-resistant bacteria and their resistance mechanisms. At least 25 species or the equivalent molecular phylogenetic taxa in 16 genera of resistant bacteria could be identified based on 16S ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid sequence analysis. Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, and Vibrionaceae constituted the majority of the typical resistant isolates. Indigenous estuarine and marine Halomonadaceae, Pseudoalteromonadaceae, Rhodobacteraceae, and Shewanellaceae bacteria also harbored tetracycline resistance. All the six resistance determinants screened, tet(A)-(E) and tet(G), could be detected, and the predominant genes were tet(A), tet(B), and tet(G). Both anthropogenic activity-related and indigenous estuarine or coastal bacteria might contribute to the tet gene reservoir, and resistant bacteria and their molecular determinants may serve as bioindicators of coastal environmental quality. Our work probably is the first identification of tet(E) in Proteus, tet(G) in Acinetobacter, tet(C) and tet(D) in Halomonas, tet(D) and tet(G) in Shewanella, and tet(B), tet(C), tet(E), and tet(G) in Roseobacter.

  11. Assessment of Tetracyclines Residues and Tetracycline Resistant Bacteria in Conventional and Organic Baby Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Guarddon

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Children are very vulnerable to bacterial infections and they are sometimes subject to antimicrobials for healing. The presence of resistance genes may counteract effects of antimicrobials. This work has thereby compared the amount of tetracycline resistance genes, tet(A and tet(B, between conventional and organic meat-based or vegetable-based baby foods and used the quantification of these genes to assess the presence of tetracycline residues in these samples. Counts of bacteria harboring the tet(A gene were higher than those containing tet(B, and there was no difference between the organic and the conventional samples. Samples with detectable amounts of tetracycline residues were also positive for the presence of tet genes, and when the presence of the genes was not detected, the samples were also negative for the presence of residues. The percentages of tetracycline residues were higher in organic samples than in conventional ones. It cannot be concluded that organic formulas are safer than conventional ones for the studied parameters.

  12. Occurrence of tetracycline-resistant fecal coliforms and their resistance genes in an urban river impacted by municipal wastewater treatment plant discharges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chong-Miao; Du, Cong; Xu, Huan; Miao, Yan-Hui; Cheng, Yan-Yan; Tang, Hao; Zhou, Jin-Hong; Wang, Xiao-Chang

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance of fecal coliforms in an urban river poses great threats to both human health and the environment. To investigate the occurrence and distribution of antibiotic resistant bacteria in an urban river, water samples were collected from the Chanhe River in Xi'an, China. After membrane filtration of water samples, the tetracycline resistance rate of fecal coliforms and their resistance genes were detected by plating and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), respectively. We found that fecal coliforms were generally resistant to tetracycline and saw average resistance rates of 44.7%. The genes tetA and tetB were widely detected, and their positive rate was 60%-100% and 40%-90%, respectively. We found few strains containing tetC, tetK, tetQ and tetX, and we did not identify any strains containing tetG, tetM or tetO. The prevalence of tetA and tetB over other genes indicated that the main mechanism for resistance to tetracycline is by changes to the efflux pump. Our analysis of the types and proportion of tetracycline resistance genes in the Chanhe River at locations upstream and downstream of the urban center suggests that the increased number of tetracycline-resistant fecal coliforms and spatial variation of tetracycline resistance genes diversity were related to municipal wastewater treatment plant discharge.

  13. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Orion Trapezium area ROSAT PSPC obs. I. (Geier+, 1995)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geier, S.; Wendker, H. J.; Wisotzki, L.

    2000-10-01

    A deep ROSAT PSPC image centred on the Orion Trapezium has revealed that most of the X-ray emission originates from discrete sources, in contrast to previous EINSTEIN data which suggested a diffuse emission component. We present a list of 171 X-ray sources all situated in the so-called inner ring of the field of view (20' radius). The field is crowded with sources. A special procedure had to be developed to cope with the severe blending of sources. The present list is not complete for LX<3.5*1029erg/s due to this reason and many more sources can still be expected by a next step in the reduction. Nearly all of the sources could be identified with pre-main sequence stars of the Ori OB 1 association in its subgroups Ic and Id. The statistics of this ensemble are discussed. It seems that members of the above subgroups can be distinguished on the basis of an additional amount of X-ray extinction seen in their spectra or hardness ratios. The O stars in the area ({teta}1 Ori C, {teta}2 Ori A and {iota} Ori) are briefly discussed. Six B stars are identified with X-ray sources. (2 data files).

  14. Performans Reproduksi Burung Cucak Rawa (Pycnonotus Zeylanicus Pada Penangkaran Secara Ex-Situ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Zulkarnain

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui penampilan reproduksi burung cucak rawa yang ditangkarkan secara ex-situ meliputi jumlah telur, bobot telur, lama mengeram, dan daya tetas telur. Dilakukan pengamatan dan dicatat kapan burung mulai bertelur, jumlah telur, bobot telur, lama mengeram, kapan telur menetas, jumlah telur yang menetas, lama disapih, bobot anakan, dan saat burung bertelur kembali sehingga dapat diketahui siklus reproduksi burung cucak rawa. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa burung cucak rawa menghasilkan dua butir telur. Bobot telur bervariasai antara 3,40–5,37 gram dengan rataan 4,60 gram. Burung cucak rawa mengeram selama 14 hari terhitung sejak burung tersebut bertelur. Daya tetas telur yang dihasilkan lima pasang indukan burung cucak rawa sangat tinggi, setiap telur yang dihasilkan menetas dengan baik. Anakan burung cucak rawa disapih pada umur 5 hari dengan bobot anakan bervariasi antara 18,46–29,26 gram dengan rataan 23,17 gram. Selisih waktu dari awal burung bertelur hingga bertelur kembali bervariasi antara 26–31 hari. Dengan mengetahui performa reproduksi burung cucak rawa yang ditangkarkan secara ex-situ diharapkan para penghobi dapat menangkarkan burung cucak rawa dan membantu melestarikan keberadaan burung cucak rawa.

  15. Lithologies, structure and basement-cover relationships in the schist belt of the Dom Feliciano Belt in Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henri Masquelin

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This work is the result of a multiyear effort to use field geology to describe lithologies, to establish contact relationships and to create a sketch of the tectonic evolution of the Meso- to Neoproterozoic metasedimentary successions within the Schist Belt of the Dom Feliciano Belt. This low-grade metamorphic cover rests on the high-grade metamorphic basement of the La China and Las Tetas complexes. This basement is Archean-Paleoproterozoic in age. The Schist Belt is overlapped unconformably by the Barriga Negra formation. The Lavalleja complex and the Barriga Negra formation both deformed together during the D2 deformation event (~ 570 -540 Ma, but the Barriga Negra only partially recorded the D2 transpressive event, whereas the Lavalleja complex was affected by both the D1 tangential event and the D2 event. Event D1 would have developed a fold nappe with vergence to the south. This hypothesis is supported by different structures: (i recumbent and upright folds oriented E-W, (ii subhorizontal mylonitic foliation in marbles (calc-schists, (iii stretching lineations plunging towards the SW in metaconglomerates of the Las Tetas Complex, and (iv a reworking of the subhorizontal foliation parallel to the Sarandí del Yí strike-slip shear zone.

  16. Inorganic and organic fertilizers impact the abundance and proportion of antibiotic resistance and integron-integrase genes in agricultural grassland soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nõlvak, Hiie; Truu, Marika; Kanger, Kärt; Tampere, Mailiis; Espenberg, Mikk; Loit, Evelin; Raave, Henn; Truu, Jaak

    2016-08-15

    Soil fertilization with animal manure or its digestate may facilitate an important antibiotic resistance dissemination route from anthropogenic sources to the environment. This study examines the effect of mineral fertilizer (NH4NO3), cattle slurry and cattle slurry digestate amendment on the abundance and proportion dynamics of five antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and two classes of integron-integrase genes (intI1 and intI2) in agricultural grassland soil. Fertilization was performed thrice throughout one vegetation period. The targeted ARGs (sul1, tetA, blaCTX-M, blaOXA2 and qnrS) encode resistance to several major antibiotic classes used in veterinary medicine such as sulfonamides, tetracycline, cephalosporins, penicillin and fluoroquinolones, respectively. The non-fertilized grassland soil contained a stable background of tetA, blaCTX-M and sul1 genes. The type of applied fertilizer significantly affected ARGs and integron-integrase genes abundances and proportions in the bacterial community (pdigestate proved to be considerable sources of ARGs, especially sul1, as well as integron-integrases. Sul1, intI1 and intI2 levels in grassland soil were elevated in response to each organic fertilizer's application event, but this increase was followed by a stage of decrease, suggesting that microbes possessing these genes were predominantly entrained into soil via cattle slurry or its digestate application and had somewhat limited survival potential in a soil environment. However, the abundance of these three target genes did not decrease to a background level by the end of the study period. TetA was most abundant in mineral fertilizer treated soil and blaCTX-M in cattle slurry digestate amended soil. Despite significantly different abundances, the abundance dynamics of bacteria possessing these genes were similar (p<0.05 in all cases) in different treatments and resembled the dynamics of the whole bacterial community abundance in each soil treatment. Copyright

  17. Understanding stability trends along the lanthanide series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regueiro-Figueroa, Martín; Esteban-Gómez, David; de Blas, Andrés; Rodríguez-Blas, Teresa; Platas-Iglesias, Carlos

    2014-04-01

    The stability trends across the lanthanide series of complexes with the polyaminocarboxylate ligands TETA(4-) (H4TETA=2,2',2'',2'''-(1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane-1,4,8,11-tetrayl)tetraacetic acid), BCAED(4-) (H4BCAED=2,2',2'',2'''-{[(1,4-diazepane-1,4-diyl)bis(ethane-2,1-diyl)]bis(azanetriyl)}tetraacetic acid), and BP18C6(2-) (H2BP18C6=6,6'-[(1,4,10,13-tetraoxa-7,16-diazacyclooctadecane-7,16-diyl)bis(methylene)]dipicolinic acid) were investigated using DFT calculations. Geometry optimizations performed at the TPSSh/6-31G(d,p) level, and using a 46+4f(n) ECP for lanthanides, provide bond lengths of the metal coordination environments in good agreement with the experimental values observed in the X-ray structures. The contractions of the Ln(3+) coordination spheres follow quadratic trends, as observed previously for different isostructural series of complexes. We show here that the parameters obtained from the quantitative analysis of these data can be used to rationalize the observed stability trends across the 4f period. The stability trends along the lanthanide series were also evaluated by calculating the free energy for the reaction [La(L)](n+/-)(sol)+Ln(3+)(sol)→[Ln(L)](n+/-)(sol)+La(3+)(sol). A parameterization of the Ln(3+) radii was performed by minimizing the differences between experimental and calculated standard hydration free energies. The calculated stability trends are in good agreement with the experimental stability constants, which increase markedly across the series for BCAED(4-) complexes, increase smoothly for the TETA(4-) analogues, and decrease in the case of BP18C6(2-) complexes. The resulting stability trend is the result of a subtle balance between the increased binding energies of the ligand across the lanthanide series, which contribute to an increasing complex stability, and the increase in the absolute values of hydration energies along the 4f period. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Comparative in vivo stability of copper-64-labeled cross-bridged and conventional tetraazamacrocyclic complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boswell, C Andrew; Sun, Xiankai; Niu, Weijun; Weisman, Gary R; Wong, Edward H; Rheingold, Arnold L; Anderson, Carolyn J

    2004-03-11

    The increased use of copper radioisotopes in radiopharmaceutical applications has created a need for bifunctional chelators (BFCs) that form stable radiocopper complexes and allow covalent attachment to biological molecules. The chelators most commonly utilized for labeling copper radionuclides to biomolecules are analogues of 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane-1,4,8,11-tetraacetic acid (TETA); however, recent reports have communicated the instability of the radio-Cu(II)-TETA complexes in vivo. A class of bicyclic tetraazamacrocycles, the ethylene "cross-bridged" cyclam (CB-cyclam) derivatives, form highly kinetically stable complexes with Cu(II) and therefore may be less susceptible to transchelation than their nonbridged analogues in vivo. Herein we report results on the relative biological stabilities and identification of the resulting radiolabeled metabolites of a series of (64)Cu-labeled macrocyclic complexes. Metabolism studies in normal rat liver have revealed that the (64)Cu complex of 4,11-bis(carboxymethyl)-1,4,8,11-tetraazabicyclo[6.6.2]hexadecane ((64)Cu-CB-TE2A) resulted in significantly lower values of protein-associated (64)Cu than (64)Cu-TETA [13 +/- 6% vs 75 +/- 9% at 4 h]. A similar trend was observed for the corresponding cyclen derivatives, with the (64)Cu complex of 4,10-bis(carboxymethyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazabicyclo[5.5.2]tetradecane ((64)Cu-CB-DO2A) undergoing less transchelation than the (64)Cu complex of 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid ((64)Cu-DOTA) [61 +/- 14% vs 90.3 +/- 0.5% protein associated (64)Cu at 4 h]. These data indicate that the structurally reinforcing cross-bridge enhances in vivo stability by reducing metal loss to protein in both the cyclam and cyclen cross-bridged (64)Cu complexes and that (64)Cu-CB-TE2A is superior to (64)Cu-CB-DO2A in that regard. These findings further suggest that a bifunctional chelator derivative of CB-TE2A is a highly desirable alternative for labeling copper radionuclides to

  19. Novas tendências dos polímeros epoxídicos: propriedades biológicas in vitro de formulações para aplicações médicas New trend for epoxy polymers: in vitro biological properties of formulations for medical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiberto González Garcia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho descreve as propriedades biológicas in vitro de três formulações epoxídicas usando o monômero do tipo éter diglicidílico do bisphenol-A (DGEBA com três co-monômeros do tipo poliamina alifática de maneira independente; trietilenotetramina (TETA, 1-(2-aminoetilpiperazina (AEP e isoforonodiamina (IPD. As interações biológicas entre os polímeros obtidos e o sangue foram estudadas in vitro utilizando quatro métodos biológicos diferentes. Estudos de adsorção protéica, adesão plaquetária, formação de trombos e citotoxicidade são apresentados e discutidos. Os ensaios de adsorção protéica mostraram que a superfície dos polímeros adsorve mais albumina humana do que fibrinogênio humano. Os resultados de adesão plaquetária e formação de trombos indicaram que os sistemas DGEBA-IPD e DGEBA-AEP exibem boa hemocompatibilidade. Os três polímeros epoxídicos não revelaram toxicidade com células de ovário de hamster chinês. Os resultados obtidos indicam que os polímeros epoxídicos baseados no IPD obedecem aos critérios de hemocompatibilidade e citotoxicidade exigidos de um biomaterial. Os polímeros epoxídicos baseados nas aminas AEP e TETA exibem apenas um comportamento não citotóxico.In this paper the in vitro biological properties are presented for three epoxy networks based on diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A epoxy prepolymer cured with aliphatic amines, namely triethylenetetramine (TETA, 1-(2-aminoethyl piperazine (AEP and isophoronediamine (IPD. The biological interactions between the fully-cured epoxy materials and blood were studied by in vitro methods. Research on the protein adsorption, platelet adhesion and thrombus formation is presented using a UV/VIS spectrometer and SEM analysis. Studies of protein adsorption onto polymeric surfaces showed that the three epoxy materials adsorbed more albumin than fibrinogen. Studies about platelet adhesion and thrombus formation of two epoxy polymers

  20. Variação do movimento da água do solo devido à atividade de minhocas: simulação numérica Chance of soil-water movement due to eartworms activity: numerical simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masato Kobiyama

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar a influência das minhocas sobre o movimento da água no solo. O fluxo da água unidimensional, vertical e não saturada foi expresso com base na equação de Picharas, que foi resolvida pelo método de diferenças finitas. As propriedades hidráulicas dos solos com e sem minhocas, que foram medidas no campo, foram utilizadas e expressas com as equações de VAN GENUCHTEN (1980. Os resultados mostram que a atividade das minhocas aumenta o pico do hidrograma no solo onde a água subsuperficial é dominante no processo chuva-vazão. Entretanto, o fenômeno do aumento do pico depende da relação entre os aumentos da condutividade hidráulica saturada (Ks e da umidade saturada (tetas. Se as minhocas provocarem um pequeno aumento em Ks ou um elevado aumento em tetas, haverá uma redução do pico. Caso ocorra contrário, um elevado aumento em Ks ou um pequeno aumento em tetas, este pico aumenta.The objective of this study was to evaluate, with a numerical method, the influence of earth worms on the soil-water movement. The one-dimensional, vertical, saturated and unsaturated water flow was expressed by the Richards equation. The generated equations were solved with a fïnite difference method. The hydraulic properties of soils with and without earthworms, which were measured on field, were utilized and expressed with VAN GENUCHTEN (1980 equations. The results demonstrated that the eathworms activity increased a peak of hydrograph of soil where the subsurface flow is dominant in the rainfall-runoff process. However, the phenomenon of this increase depenas on the relation between the increases of the saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks and the saturated water content (thetas. When the earthworms provide a small increase of Ks and a large increase of thetas, the peak would decrease. In the contrary case where Ks increases a lot and thetas increases a little, the peak would increase.

  1. APLIKASI INSEMINASI BUATAN PADA UDANG WINDU, Penaeus monodon ALAM MENGGUNAKAN SUMBER DAN JUMLAH SPERMATOFOR YANG BERBEDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Lante

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Salah satu kendala utama dalam domestikasi udang windu adalah rendahnya tingkat perkawinan secara alami dalam wadah budidaya. Hal yang sama terjadi pada udang windu alam yang digunakan di unit pembenihan. Salah satu upaya untuk mendapatkan telur fertil adalah melalui inseminasi buatan (IB. Inseminasi buatan merupakan teknik mentransfer spermatofor dari induk jantan dengan cara memasukkannya ke dalam telikum udang betina. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui performa reproduksi udang windu betina alam pasca-inseminasi menggunakan sumber dan jumlah spermatofor induk jantan alam yang berbeda. Penelitian dilakukan dua tahap yaitu 1 IB menggunakan spermatofor induk jantan dari perairan Sulawesi Selatan (SS dan spermatofor induk jantan dari Aceh (SA dan 2 IB menggunakan jumlah spermatofor berbeda yaitu satu spermatofor (S-1 dan dua spermatofor (S-2 pada udang windu betina alam. Inseminasi spermatofor dilakukan pada induk udang windu betina setelah dua hari moulting. Hasil yang diperoleh pada IB tahap pertama menunjukkan bahwa daya tetas telur udang windu betina alam lokal tidak dipengaruhi oleh sumber (lokasi asal udang jantan, di mana daya tetas telur relatif sama pada kedua perlakuan, yaitu 61,6% pada SS dan 61,7% pada SA. IB pada tahap kedua menunjukkan bahwa daya tetas telur fertil yang diperoleh pada S-2 sebesar 40,5%; lebih rendah dari S-1 sebesar 44%. One of the main constraints in the domestication of black tiger shrimp is very low natural mating in the tank. Similar condition have been happened in commercial hatcheries. An effort to improve the eggs fertility is through artificial insemination (AI. This study aimed to know reproductive performance of wild black tiger shrimp after insemination with different sources and numbers of spermatophore. This study consisted of two trials.The first one was AI using spermatophores of wild male obtained from two different locations, namely from South Sulawesi (SS and Aceh (SA. The second trial was

  2. Characterization of Antibiotic Resistance Gene Abundance and Microbiota Composition in Feces of Organic and Conventional Pigs from Four EU Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerzova, Lenka; Babak, Vladimir; Sedlar, Karel

    2015-01-01

    to our expectations, there were no extensive differences between the abundance of tested antibiotic resistance genes in microbiota originating from organic or conventionally housed pigs within individual countries. There were also no differences in the microbiota composition of organic and conventional...... natural lifestyle implies their increased exposure to environmental sources of different microorganisms including pathogens. To address these concerns, we determined the abundance of antibiotic resistance and diversity within fecal microbiota in pigs kept under conventional and organic farming systems...... in Sweden, Denmark, France and Italy. The abundance of sul1, sul2, strA, tet(A), tet(B) and cat antibiotic resistance genes was determined in 468 samples by real-time PCR and the fecal microbiota diversity was characterized in 48 selected samples by pyrosequencing of V3/V4 regions of 16S rRNA. Contrary...

  3. Eletrencefalograma na síndrome parkinsoniana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Geraldo Camargo Lima

    1973-09-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados os eletrencefalogramas de 50 pacientes parkinsonianos livres de qualquer antecedente convulsivo, sendo registrados traçados anormais em 40% dos casos. A incidência de traçados anormais foi maior na síndrome parkinsoniana bilateral do que na unilateral (52% e 25%, respectivamente. Entre as anormalidades assinaladas foram as paroxísticas as mais freqüentes (65% dos casos, caracterizando-se predominantemente por surtos de ondas teta. O registro de anormalidades paroxísticas do tipo irritativo encontrado em três casos é salientado. Alterações da atividade de base foram assinaladas em 35% dos pacientes. A idade dos pacientes não parece ter tido importante papel na gênese das anormalidades eletrencefalográficas.

  4. Historia de los conflictos interétnicos por el territorio en Chocó y Norte del Cauca. Su incidencia en la política de restitución de tierras, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela López Gómez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reports the relationship between indigenous and black communities in the area of northern Cauca (san Rafael and Monte Teta and north Choco (Unguia, focusing on the conflict over territory with the aim of demonstrating that ethnic groups are not homogeneous and that they do not have a state of inertia over time.it also aims to demonstrate that territorial disputes are common and they do not just limit to the confrontations between insurgent groups and the population but, on the contrary, the communities themselves also dispute over it. Having said that, in the current context in which the Land Restitution Law is one of the most important policies, this kind of analysis is relevant because although this law is critical for the victims, it can intensify or generate conflicts between the population for the territories.

  5. Two ‘Performances’ by Magaly Solier: Building a Cultural Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Bedoya

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes two public appearances of the actress and singer Magaly Solier, early in her career: the Berlinale 2009 Award Ceremony, where the film La teta asustada obtained the most important award; and the interview given to a Peruvian blog while visiting the “Yuyanapaq” photo exhibit. Both are interpreted as the construction of a personal narrative: a young woman, inheritor of the memory of violence caused by the internal armed conflict, who becomes a mediator between her tradition and mass media. The text summarizes chapter four of the thesis entitled “Made in Huanta. Transits and scenarios of Magaly Solier: the construction of a cultural text” (Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, August 2012.

  6. A new chloramphenicol and florfenicol resistance gene flanked by two integron structures in Salmonella typhimurium DT104.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcangioli, M A; Leroy-Sétrin, S; Martel, J L; Chaslus-Dancla, E

    1999-05-15

    A new chloramphenicol resistance gene from Salmonella typhimurium DT104, designated floR, also conferring resistance to florfenicol, was characterized. Sequence analysis of the deduced FloR protein suggested that it belongs to the 12-TMS (transmembrane segments) multidrug efflux pumps family. The floR gene, and the downstream sequenced tetR and tetA tetracycline resistance genes, were surrounded by two class 1 integrons. The first one contained the resistance gene aadA2 and a deleted sulI resistance gene. The second one contained the beta-lactamase gene pse1 and a complete sulI gene. Thus, the floR gene is included in a multiresistance locus of at least 12.5 kb. Its particular organization and chromosomal location could be involved in the antibioresistance pattern stability of the DT104 Salmonella typhimurium strains.

  7. One-pot synthesis of polyamines improved magnetism and fluorescence Fe3O4-carbon dots hybrid NPs for dual modal imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Wang, Xudong; Guo, Yali; Iqbal, Anam; Dong, Yaping; Li, Wu; Liu, Weisheng; Qin, Wenwu; Chen, Shizhen; Zhou, Xin; Yang, Yunhuang

    2016-04-07

    A one-step hydrothermal method was developed to fabricate Fe3O4-carbon dots (Fe3O4-CDs) magnetic-fluorescent hybrid nanoparticles (NPs). Ferric ammonium citrate (FAC) was used as a cheap and nontoxic iron precursor and as the carbon source. Moreover, triethylenetetramine (TETA) was used to improve the adhesive strength of CDs on Fe3O4 and the fluorescence intensity of CDs. The prepared water-soluble hybrid NPs not only exhibit excellent superparamagnetic properties (Ms = 56.8 emu g(-1)), but also demonstrate excitation-independent photoluminescence for down-conversion and up-conversion at 445 nm. Moreover, the prepared water-soluble Fe3O4-CDs hybrid NPs have a dual modal imaging ability for both magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and fluorescence imaging.

  8. Radioimmunotherapy: Development of an effective approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    Goals of this program are to answer the fundamental scientific questions for the development of an effective approach for delivering radiation therapy to cancer on antibody-based radiopharmaceuticals. The following list consists of highlights of developments from our program: documented therapeutic response of lymphoma in patients receiving radioimmunotherapy; development and application of quantitative radionuclide imaging techniques for therapy planning and dosimetry calculations; multicompartmental modeling and analysis of the in vivo MoAb kinetics in patients; a MoAb macrocycle chelate for Cu-67: development, production, in vitro and in vivo testing; NMR analysis of immunoradiotherapeutic effects on the metabolism of lymphoma; analysis of the variable molecular characteristics of the MoAb radiopharmaceutical, and their significance; in vivo studies in mice and patients of the metabolism of radioiodinated MoAb as well as In-111 CITC MoAb; and biodistribution of Cu-67 TETA MoAb in nude mice with human lymphoma.

  9. Radioimmunotherapy: Development of an effective approach. Progress report, 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-12-31

    Goals of this program are to answer the fundamental scientific questions for the development of an effective approach for delivering radiation therapy to cancer on antibody-based radiopharmaceuticals. The following list consists of highlights of developments from our program: documented therapeutic response of lymphoma in patients receiving radioimmunotherapy; development and application of quantitative radionuclide imaging techniques for therapy planning and dosimetry calculations; multicompartmental modeling and analysis of the in vivo MoAb kinetics in patients; a MoAb macrocycle chelate for Cu-67: development, production, in vitro and in vivo testing; NMR analysis of immunoradiotherapeutic effects on the metabolism of lymphoma; analysis of the variable molecular characteristics of the MoAb radiopharmaceutical, and their significance; in vivo studies in mice and patients of the metabolism of radioiodinated MoAb as well as In-111 CITC MoAb; and biodistribution of Cu-67 TETA MoAb in nude mice with human lymphoma.

  10. BET, thermal degradation, and FTIR spectras of triazine polyamine polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Can

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Here we show effect of the polyamine polymer chain length to BET isotherms. According to IUPAC classification [1], all three polymers are fitting type 1 physical adsorption isotherm with H3 hysteresis (except for EDA having H2 hysteresis. Moreover, TG and TGA analysis of polymers triazine-ethylenediamine (EDA and triazine-triethylenetetramine (TETA are provided. Due to the similarities of the structure, main decomposition temperatures are close to each other (between 593 K and 873 K. In order to understand change of FTIR spectra with adsorption and stripping Au(III, fresh, Au(III adsorbed and recycled spectras of polymers measured. For further discussions about the effect of chain length to adsorption of Au(III onto triazine polyamine polymer particles “Au (III Uptake by Triazine Polyamine Polymers: Mechanism, Kinetic and Equilibrium Studies” Can et al. [2] (article in press.

  11. HVM-TP: A Time Predictable, Portable Java Virtual Machine for Hard Real-Time Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luckow, Kasper Søe; Thomsen, Bent; Korsholm, Stephan Erbs

    2014-01-01

    We present HVMTIME; a portable and time predictable JVM implementation with applications in resource-constrained hard real-time embedded systems. In addition, it implements the Safety Critical Java (SCJ) Level 1 specification. Time predictability is achieved by a combination of time predictable...... algorithms, exploiting the programming model of the SCJ specification, and harnessing static knowledge of the hosted SCJ system. This paper presents HVMTIME in terms of its design and capabilities, and demonstrates how a complete timing model of the JVM represented as a Network of Timed Automata can...... be obtained using the tool TetaSARTSJVM. Further, using the timing model, we derive Worst Case Execution Times (WCETs) and Best Case Execution Times (BCETs) of the Java Bytecodes....

  12. A novel thermoplastic elastomer based on dynamically vulcanized polypropylene/acrylic rubber blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Thermoplastic elastomer based on polypropylene (PP and acrylic rubber (ACM was investigated, with special attention on the compatibilization and dynamic vulcanization. ACM component contains chlorine and carboxyl groups along the backbone, which act as center for the curing and reactive compatibilization. The last event was carried out by adding a combination of maleic anhydride-modified PP (PP-g-MA and triethylene tetramine (TETA, which act as interfacial agents between PP and ACM phases. The effectiveness of the compatibilization was suggested from mixing torque and viscosity, determined from rheological measurements. Outstanding mechanical performance, especially elongation at break, and better tensile set (lower values were obtained with the compatibilization. The dynamic vulcanization also resulted in good mechanical properties for compatibilized blends, but the performance was inferior to that observed for non vulcanized blends. The effect of the compatibilization and/or dynamic vulcanization on the dynamic mechanical, thermal, morphological and stress relaxation properties was investigated.

  13. Jamón jamón (1992): De jamones y cuernos

    OpenAIRE

    Sanabria, Carolina

    2013-01-01

    Entrados los años 90 y tras una recién inaugurada carrera cinematográfica que le merecería premios y buenas críticas, el director Bigas Luna rodó unatrilogía llamada ibérica, compuesta por Jamón jamón (1992), Huevos de oro (1993) y La teta y la luna (1994). Jamón jamón, la que lo catapultó a la fama, es una historia de relaciones complejas entre personajes diferentes pero marcados por instintos pulsionales que determinan el curso de sus vidas. El artículo pretende analizar desde una perspecti...

  14. Tree-ring based reconstruction of rockfalls at Cofre de Perote volcano, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Ramos, Osvaldo; Stoffel, Markus; Vázquez-Selem, Lorenzo

    2017-08-01

    In this study, dendrogeomorphic techniques are employed to analyse the temporal frequency and spatial distribution of rockfalls on a talus slope of La Teta valley, located on the NW slopes of Cofre de Perote volcano at 4000 m above sea level. Based on the interpretation of disturbance signals in growth rings of old-growth Pinus hartwegii Lindl. trees, we identify 100 growth disturbances related with rockfall events dated between 1780 and 2011, with slightly more than half of these events being dated to the last 50 years. The sectors most susceptible to rockfall correspond with the young rock lobes located at the foot of scarps. Roughly three in ten events has been triggered by regional, M > 6 earthquakes, whereas half of the events activity coincides with periods characterized by severe, prolonged summer rainfalls such as the ones occurred in 1995, 1998, 2005 and 2011.

  15. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U06920-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available (merA) gene... 49 9e-05 U75324_2( U75324 |pid:none) Cloning vector pJB3Tc20, complete sequ... 49 9e-05 AB114188_15(...c... 49 9e-05 AB027254_3( AB027254 |pid:none) Cloning vector pSB4 tetR, tetA, hy... 49 9e-05 AF1536(...salmo... 47 4e-04 EU284107_1( EU284107 |pid:none) Cloning vector pCV9, complete sequ... 47 4e-04 AP009241_11(...|pid:none) Cloning vector pAS1-tet tetracycline r... 46 7e-04 AF521666_1( AF521666 |pid:none) Cloning vector...46 7e-04 V00083_1( V00083 |pid:none) Artificial cloning vehicle pBR327, der... 46 7e-04 AJ276217_1( AJ276217

  16. A mild method of amine-type adsorbents syntheses with emulsion graft polymerization of glycidyl methacrylate on polyethylene non-woven fabric by pre-irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongjuan; Yao, Side; Li, Jingye; Cao, Changqing; Wang, Min

    2012-09-01

    A mild pre-irradiation method was used to graft glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) onto polyethylene (PE) non-woven fabric (NF). The polymer was irradiated by electron beam in air atmosphere at room temperature. The degree of grafting (Dg) was determined as a function of reaction time, absorbed dose, monomer concentration and temperature. After 30 kGy irradiation, with 5% GMA, surfactant Tween 20 (Tw-20) of 0.5% at 55 °C for 15 min, the trunk polymer was made grafted with a Dg of 150%. Selected PE-g-PGMA of different Dg was modified with aminated compounds such as ethylenediamine (EDA), diethylenetriamine (DETA), triethylenetetramine (TETA) and tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA). The obtained amine-type adsorbents were prepared to remove copper and uranium ions from solution. It was shown that at least 90% of copper and 60% of uranium with the initial concentration from 3 to 1000 ppb can be removed from water.

  17. OXA-48 carbapenemase-producing Salmonella enterica serovar Kentucky isolate of sequence type 198 in a patient transferred from Libya to Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiffert, Salome N; Perreten, Vincent; Johannes, Sönke; Droz, Sara; Bodmer, Thomas; Endimiani, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Here, we report a case of OXA-48-producing Salmonella enterica serovar Kentucky of sequence type 198 (ST198) from perianal screening cultures of a patient transferred from Libya to Switzerland. The blaOXA-48 gene was carried by Tn1999.2 and located on an ∼60-kb IncL/M plasmid. This Salmonella strain also possessed the blaVEB-8, aac(6)-Ib, tet(A), sul1, and mphA resistance genes and substitutions in GyrA (Ser83Phe and Asp87Asn) and ParC (Ser80Ile). This finding emphasizes that prompt screening strategies are essential to prevent the dissemination of carbapenemase producers imported from countries where they are endemic.

  18. Estudo de características do sistema mamário e suas relações com a produção de leite em vacas da raça Gir Study of the udder system characteristic and its relations with milk production on cows from Gyr breed

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    Roberto Luiz Teodoro

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO - Os objetivos deste trabalho foram estimar as herdabilidades e as correlações genéticas, fenotípicas e de ambiente para produção (T305, altura anterior (ALA e posterior (ALP do úbere, comprimento anterior (CAN e posterior (CPO das tetas, diâmetro anterior (DAN e posterior (DPO das tetas, forma anterior (FA e posterior (FP das tetas e forma de ponta de tetas anteriores (FA e posteriores (FP, por intermédio de um modelo que incluiu os efeitos fixos de ano-estação, rebanho-avaliador, idade à mensuração e efeitos aleatórios de animal (2251 classes, permanente de meio (925 classes e erro, pelo método de Máxima Verossimilhança Restrita. Produção de leite e características do sistema mamário foram analisadas usando 1804 registros. As estimativas de herdabilidade em análises uni e bivariada foram 0,26 para produção de leite, com variação de 0,09 (FA a 0,47 (ALA e ALP para as características do sistema mamário. As estimativas de correlações entre T305, ALA e ALP foram moderadas e negativas (-0,15 a -0,46 e menores (-0,28 a 0,23 para as demais características do úbere. A seleção para aumento da produção de leite levaria a desejáveis respostas correlacionadas em algumas características do sistema mamário, principalmente altura anterior e posterior do úbere (ALA e ALP.ABSTRACT - The objectives of this work were to estimate the heritabilities, genetic, phenotypic and environmental correlations for milk production (T305, front (ALA and rear (ALP udder height, front (CAN and rear (CPO teat length, front (DAN and rear (DPO teat diameter, front (FA and rear (FP teat shape, front (PA and rear (PP teat point shape by means of an animal model that included the fixed effects of year-season, herd-classifier and age at measurement and the random effects of animal (2,251 classes, environmental permanent effect (925 classes and error by using multiple-trait REML method. Milk production and udder traits were analyzed using

  19. SUCKLING PIGLETS PERFORMANCE AND MILK YIELD ACCORDING TO NURSING ORDER DESEMPENHO DE LEITÕES LACTENTES E PRODUÇÃO DE LEITE DE ACORDO COM O TETO DA MAMADA

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    Ivo Wentz

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated the performance of suckling piglets according to the location of the mammary gland and daily milk yield. In the first trial piglets were distributed in birth weight categories: light (?1.4kg, medium (1.41-1.75kg and heavy (>1.75kg. Piglets were weighted at 7, 14 and 21 days of life. Teats were classified in three classes: 1 (first pair, 2 (2nd, 3rd and 4th pairs and 3 (5th, 6th and 7th pairs. In all weight classes, piglets suckling in class 3 presented lower (P<0.05 daily weight gain and weight at weaning. Medium and heavy piglets presented better (P<0.05 performance in class 1, followed by class 2 and 3. Light piglets had no difference when suckling class 1 and 2 teats (P>0.05. Light piglets suckling in class 3 had the worst performance. Milk yield was higher (P<0.05 in mammary glands of classes 1 and 2 than in class 3.

    KEY WORDS: Performance, piglet, milk production, teat, weight gain.
    Os estudos relatados visaram avaliar o desempenho de leitões lactentes de acordo com a localização da glândula no complexo mamário e estimar a produção diária de leite. No primeiro estudo, os leitões foram distribuídos em classes de peso ao nascimento: leves (?1,4kg, médios (1,41-1,75kg e pesados (>1,75kg. As pesagens subsequentes foram realizadas aos 7, 14 e 21 dias de vida. As tetas foram classificadas em: 1 (primeiro par, 2 (pares 2, 3 e 4 e 3 (pares 5, 6 e 7. Dentro de cada classe de peso, os leitões que mamaram na classe de tetas 3 apresentaram menor ganho de peso diário e menor peso ao desmame (P<0,05. Leitões médios e pesados tiveram melhor (P<0,05 desempenho na classe de teto 1, seguidos da classe 2 e 3. Leitões leves não apresentaram diferença entre as classes de tetas 1 e 2 (P>0,05. Leitões leves que mamaram na classe 3 tiveram o pior desempenho de todos os grupos. Na avaliação da produção de leite, a maior foi observada (P<0,05 nas tetas das classes 1 e 2, quando comparada à produção da

  20. (meso-5,5,7,12,12,14-Hexamethyl-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecanenickel(II bis(O,O′-dibenzyl dithiophosphate

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    Xiu-Lan Zhang

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In the title salt-type 1:2 adduct, [Ni(C16H36N4](C14H14O2PS22 or [Ni(tet-a][S2P(OCH2Ph2]2, where tet-a is meso-5,5,7,12,12,14-hexamethyl-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane, the [Ni(tet-a]2+ complex cation exhibits a relatively undistorted square-planar geometry about the Ni atom, which lies on an inversion centre and is coordinated by four macrocyclic N atoms. The two O,O′-bis(2-phenylmethyl dithiophosphate anions act as counter-ions to balance the charge and they interact with the complex through N—H...S hydrogen bonds. Important geometric data include Ni—N distances of 1.958 (3 and 1.963 (3 Å.

  1. Microarray based comparative genotyping of gentamicin resistant Escherichia coli strains from food animals and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szmolka, Ama; Anjum, Muna F; La Ragione, Roberto M; Kaszanyitzky, Eva J; Nagy, Béla

    2012-04-23

    Recent data from the European and Hungarian Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring Systems have indicated that the routine use of gentamicin in human and veterinary medicine frequently leads to the selection of gentamicin resistance in Escherichia coli. The aim of this study was to provide molecular characterization of gentamicin resistance in clinical and commensal E. coli strains representing humans and food producing animals by genotyping for antimicrobial resistance and virulence using a miniaturized microarray. All 50 strains tested proved to be multidrug resistant defined as resistance to three or more antimicrobial classes. Antimicrobial resistances genes such as aadA1-like, strB, bla(TEM), sul1 and tet(A) or tet(B), and corresponding phenotypes (streptomycin-, ampicillin-, sulfamethoxazole- and tetracycline resistance) were detected in >50% of isolates regardless of the host or clinical background. However, certain genes encoding gentamicin resistance such as aac(6')-Ib and ant(2″)-Ia as well as catB3-like genes for phenicol resistance were only detected in human isolates. Among virulence genes, the increased serum survival gene iss was predominant in all host groups. Although the majority of gentamicin resistant E. coli strains were characterized by diverse antimicrobial resistance, and virulence gene patterns, accentuated links between catB3-like, aac(6')-Ib, bla(CTX-M-1) and sat genes could be detected in human strains. Further resistance/virulence gene associations (tet(A) with iroN and iss) were detected in poultry strains. In conclusion, the simultaneous characterization of antimicrobial resistance and virulence genotypes of representative clinical and commensal strains of E. coli should be useful for the identification of emerging genotypes with human and or animal health implications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Contribution of efflux pumps, porins, and β-lactamases to multidrug resistance in clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumbo, C; Gato, E; López, M; Ruiz de Alegría, C; Fernández-Cuenca, F; Martínez-Martínez, L; Vila, J; Pachón, J; Cisneros, J M; Rodríguez-Baño, J; Pascual, A; Bou, G; Tomás, M

    2013-11-01

    We investigated the mechanisms of resistance to carbapenems, aminoglycosides, glycylcyclines, tetracyclines, and quinolones in 90 multiresistant clinical strains of Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from two genetically unrelated A. baumannii clones: clone PFGE-ROC-1 (53 strains producing the OXA-58 β-lactamase enzyme and 18 strains with the OXA-24 β-lactamase) and clone PFGE-HUI-1 (19 strains susceptible to carbapenems). We used real-time reverse transcriptase PCR to correlate antimicrobial resistance (MICs) with expression of genes encoding chromosomal β-lactamases (AmpC and OXA-51), porins (OmpA, CarO, Omp33, Dcap-like, OprB, Omp25, OprC, OprD, and OmpW), and proteins integral to six efflux systems (AdeABC, AdeIJK, AdeFGH, CraA, AbeM, and AmvA). Overexpression of the AdeABC system (level of expression relative to that by A. baumannii ATCC 17978, 30- to 45-fold) was significantly associated with resistance to tigecycline, minocycline, and gentamicin and other biological functions. However, hyperexpression of the AdeIJK efflux pump (level of expression relative to that by A. baumannii ATCC 17978, 8- to 10-fold) was significantly associated only with resistance to tigecycline and minocycline (to which the TetB efflux system also contributed). TetB and TetA(39) efflux pumps were detected in clinical strains and were associated with resistance to tetracyclines and doxycycline. The absence of the AdeABC system and the lack of expression of other mechanisms suggest that tigecycline-resistant strains of the PFGE-HUI-1 clone may be associated with a novel resistance-nodulation-cell efflux pump (decreased MICs in the presence of the inhibitor Phe-Arg β-naphthylamide dihydrochloride) and the TetA(39) system.

  3. Phenotypic and genetic characterization of antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella serovars isolated from retail meats in Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Mueen; Checkley, Sylvia; Avery, Brent; Chalmers, Gabhan; Bohaychuk, Valerie; Gensler, Gary; Reid-Smith, Richard; Boerlin, Patrick

    2012-10-01

    This study determined the prevalence of Salmonella serovars, antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and resistance genes in Salmonella isolated from retail meats purchased in Alberta, Canada. Samples were collected during one year period (May 2007-April 2008) on weekly basis from 19 census divisions in Alberta. A total of 564 samples including chicken (n = 206), turkey (n = 91), beef (n = 134) and pork (n = 133) were purchased. Salmonella were recovered from chicken (40%), turkey (27%) and pork (2%) samples and was not found in ground beef. A total of 21, 8, and 3 different serovars were recovered from chicken, turkey and pork meats, respectively. Salmonella Hadar was most common in chicken whereas S. Heidelberg was common in turkey meat. Overall 29% (32/110) of isolates were susceptible to tested antimicrobials and resistance to ciprofloxacin, amikacin and nalidixic acid was not found in any isolate. Multiresistance (≥2 antimicrobials) was found in 56% of isolates. Resistance to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (AMC), ceftiofur (TIO), and ceftriaxone (CRO) was found in about 21% of chicken and 25% of turkey isolates. Resistance to either of tetracycline (TET), streptomycin (STR) or ampicillin (AMP) was unconditionally associated with S. Hadar but resistance to either of TET, AMP, AMC, TIO, CRO or cefoxitin was associated with S. Heidelberg. The strA/B (42% isolates), tet(A) (28% isolates), bla(CMY-2) (21% isolates) and bla(TEM) (17% isolates) were the most common resistance genes found. The bla(CMY-2) and bla(TEM) genes were unconditionally associated with S. Heidelberg; tet(A) and strA/B with S. Hadar and tet(B) gene with S. Kentucky. The strA/B genes were not associated with S. Heidelberg. Our data suggests that the prevalence of Salmonella serovars varied by the meat type and that AMR and resistance genes varied by the Salmonella serovars. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Tumor da região do terceiro ventrículo diagnóstico eletrencefalográfico

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    Paulino W. Longo

    1948-06-01

    Full Text Available Depois de rápidas considerações sobre as dificuldades do diagnóstico topográfico dos tumores da região do terceiro ventrículo e sobre as aquisições recentes da eletrencefalografia nesse sentido, os AA. apresentam a observação de uma paciente de 36 anos de idade, com história de 4 meses, portadora de uma síndrome de hipertensão intracraniana grave, acompanhada de hemiparesia esquerda muito discreta e alterações psíquicas. O exame do liqüido cefalorraquidiano revelou hipertensão e a eletrencefalografia evidenciou alterações difusas e bilaterais, ao lado de surtos persistentes e repetidos de ritmo teta, simétrica e sincronicamente reproduzidos, em áreas centrais e parietais de ambos os hemisférios, bem como ondas de ritmo delta focal, no lobo frontal direito, com típicas figuras de reversão. Os primeiros foram atribuídos ao edema cerebral e à hipertensão intracraniana, enquanto que estas (as ondas de ritmo teta acompanhadas de ritmo delta focal frontal direito foram interpretadas como dependentes de tumor cerebral profundamente situado, mediano, da região do terceiro ventrículo, comprometendo secundariamente o lobo frontal direito. A ventriculografia, em parte, e a intervenção cirúrgica subseqüente, confirmaram o diagnóstico, revelando a existência de um tumor cístico pediculado, que, da sela turca invadia o terceiro ventrículo e a parte profunda do lobo frontal direito (craniofaringioma.

  5. Antibiotics and Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Sediment of Honghu Lake and East Dongting Lake, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuyi; Cao, Xinhua; Lin, Hui; Wang, Jun

    2016-11-01

    Sediment is an ideal medium for the aggregation and dissemination of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). The levels of antibiotics and ARGs in Honghu Lake and East Dongting Lake of central China were investigated in this study. The concentrations of eight antibiotics (four sulfonamides and four tetracyclines) in Honghu Lake were in the range 90.00-437.43 μg kg-1 (dry weight (dw)) with mean value of 278.21 μg kg-1 dw, which was significantly higher than those in East Dongting Lake (60.02-321.04 μg kg-1 dw, mean value of 195.70 μg kg-1 dw). Among the tested three sulfonamide resistance genes (sul) and eight tetracycline resistance genes (tet), sul1, sul2, tetA, tetC, and tetM had 100 % detection frequency in sediment samples of East Dongting Lake, while only sul1, sul2, and tetC were observed in all samples of Honghu Lake. The relative abundance of sul2 was higher than that of sul1 at p  tetB > tetC > tetA. The relative abundance of sul1, sul2, and tetC in East Dongting Lake was significantly higher than those in Honghu Lake. The abundance of background bacteria may play an important role in the horizontal spread of sul2 and tetC genes in Honghu Lake and sul1 in East Dongting Lake, respectively. Redundancy analysis indicated that tetracyclines may play a more important role than sulfonamides in the abundance of sul1, sul2, and tetC gens in Honghu Lake and East Dongting Lake.

  6. Distribution of tetracycline resistance genes and AmpC β-lactamase genes in representative non-urban sewage plants and correlations with treatment processes and heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan-Bin; Hou, Mao-Yu; Li, Ya-Fei; Huang, Lu; Ruan, Jing-Jing; Zheng, Li; Qiao, Qing-Xia; Du, Qing-Ping

    2017-03-01

    The mixed development of livestock breeding and industry in non-urban zones is a very general phenomenon in China. Distribution of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in non-urban sewage treatment systems has not been paid enough attentions. In this study, eleven tetracycline resistance genes (tetA, tetB, tetC, tetE, tetG, tetL, tetM, tetO, tetQ, tetS and tetX), four AmpC β-lactamase genes (EBC, MOX, FOX and CIT) and four heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) were detected and analyzed in four non-urban sewage plants with different sewage sources and different treatment processes in Guangzhou. The results showed that tetA and tetC were the most prevalent tetracycline resistance genes with the same detection frequency of 85% and EBC was the most prevalent AmpC β-lactamase gene with a detection frequency of 75%. The relative abundance of tetracycline resistance genes was approximately 1.6 orders of magnitudes higher than that of AmpC β-lactamase genes in all samples. A/O was the most effective process for the non-urban sewage plant receiving industrial or agricultural wastewater. Sedimentation was the most key process to eliminate ARGs from liquid phase. Most ARGs were carried in excess sludge rather than effluent. Significant correlation was found between the tet gene and Zn (r = 0.881, p gene and Cu (r = 0.847, p gene and Cu (r = 0.714, p < 0.05). Therefore, the pollution of ARGs in the sewage treatment systems of non-urban zones co-polluted by heavy metals should be paid more attentions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Characterization of microbial community and antibiotic resistance genes in activated sludge under tetracycline and sulfamethoxazole selection pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yingying; Geng, Jinju, E-mail: jjgeng@nju.edu.cn; Ma, Haijun; Ren, Hongqiang; Xu, Ke; Ding, Lili

    2016-11-15

    To investigate the microbial community characteristics, antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), and bioreactor effluent quality change under tetracycline (TC) and sulfamethoxazole (SMX) selection pressure, sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) were used with environmentally relevant concentration and high-level of TC and SMX concentrations (0, 5 ppb, 50 ppb and 10 ppm). Chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonia nitrogen (NH{sub 4}{sup +}−N) removals appeared unchanged (p > 0.05) with 5 and 50 ppb, but decreased significantly with 10 ppm (p < 0.05). Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) concentrations increased significantly with increasing TC or SMX concentrations (p < 0.05). High-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing results suggested that Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the three most abundant phyla in sludge samples. The Actinobacteria percentages increased with increasing TC or SMX concentration, while Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes decreased. The microbial diversity achieved its maximum at 5 ppb and decreased with higher concentrations. The total ARGs abundances in sludge increased with addition of TC or SMX, and the higher relative abundances were in the order of sul1 > tetG > sul2 > tetA > intI1 > tetS > tetC. Pearson correlation analysis showed most ARGs (tetA, tetC, tetG, tetK, tetM, sul1) were significantly correlated with intI1 (p < 0.01). - Highlights: • COD and NH{sub 4}{sup +}−N removals significantly decrease under 10 ppm TC or SMX. • Activated sludge EPS concentrations increase with increasing TC or SMX concentrations. • TC and SMX affect the microbial community diversity of activated sludge. • Actinobacteria abundances increase with increase of TC or SMX concentration. • ARGs abundance increases with addition of TC or SMX.

  8. Characterization of Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella enterica Serovars Indiana and Enteritidis from Chickens in Eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jian; Liu, Yuqi; Zhou, Xuping; Beier, Ross C.; Wu, Guojuan; Hou, Xiaolin

    2014-01-01

    A total of 310 Salmonella isolates were isolated from 6 broiler farms in Eastern China, serotyped according to the Kauffmann-White classification. All isolates were examined for susceptibility to 17 commonly used antimicrobial agents, representative isolates were examined for resistance genes and class I integrons using PCR technology. Clonality was determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). There were two serotypes detected in the 310 Salmonella strains, which included 133 Salmonella enterica serovar Indiana isolates and 177 Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis isolates. Antimicrobial sensitivity results showed that the isolates were generally resistant to sulfamethoxazole, ampicillin, tetracycline, doxycycline and trimethoprim, and 95% of the isolates sensitive to amikacin and polymyxin. Among all Salmonella enterica serovar Indiana isolates, 108 (81.2%) possessed the blaTEM, floR, tetA, strA and aac (6')-Ib-cr resistance genes. The detected carriage rate of class 1 integrons was 66.5% (206/310), with 6 strains carrying gene integron cassette dfr17-aadA5. The increasing frequency of multidrug resistance rate in Salmonella was associated with increasing prevalence of int1 genes (rs = 0.938, P = 0.00039). The int1, blaTEM, floR, tetA, strA and aac (6')-Ib-cr positive Salmonella enterica serovar Indiana isolates showed five major patterns as determined by PFGE. Most isolates exhibited the common PFGE patterns found from the chicken farms, suggesting that many multidrug-resistant isolates of Salmonella enterica serovar Indiana prevailed in these sources. Some isolates with similar antimicrobial resistance patterns represented a variety of Salmonella enterica serovar Indiana genotypes, and were derived from a different clone. PMID:24788434

  9. Detection of emerging antibiotic resistance in bacteria isolated from subclinical mastitis in cattle in West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Arnab; Guha, Chanchal; Biswas, Ujjwal; Jana, Partha Sarathi; Chatterjee, Amaresh; Samanta, Indranil

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this work was to detect antibiotic resistance in Gram-negative bacteria isolated from subclinical mastitis in cattle in West Bengal. The milk samples were collected from the cattle suffering with subclinical mastitis in West Bengal. The milk samples were inoculated into the nutrient broth and incubated at 37°C. On the next day, the growth was transferred into nutrient agar and MacConkey agar. All the pure cultures obtained from nutrient agar slant were subjected to Gram-staining and standard biochemical tests. All the bacterial isolates were tested in vitro for their sensitivity to different antibiotics commonly used in veterinary practices. All Gram-negative isolates including positive control were subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of bla CTX-M , bla TEM , bla SHV , bla VIM , tetA, tetB, tetC, and tetM genes considered for extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL), metallo-β-lactamase, and tetracycline resistance. In total, 50 Gram-negative organisms (Escherichia coli, Proteus, Pseudomonas, Klebsiella, and Enterobacter) were isolated from milk samples of subclinical mastitis infected cattle. Among these Gram-negative isolates, 48% (24/50) were found either ESBL producing or tetracycline resistant. Out of total 50 Gram-negative isolates, bla CTX-M was detected in 18 (36%) isolates, and 6 (12%) harbored bla TEM genes in PCR. None of the isolates carried bla SHV genes. Further, in this study, 5 (10%) isolates harbored tet(A) gene, and 8 (16%) isolates carried tet(B) gene. No tet(C) gene was detected from the isolates. This study showed emerging trend of antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria associated with subclinical mastitis in cattle in West Bengal, India.

  10. Detection of emerging antibiotic resistance in bacteria isolated from subclinical mastitis in cattle in West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnab Das

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this work was to detect antibiotic resistance in Gram-negative bacteria isolated from subclinical mastitis in cattle in West Bengal. Materials and Methods: The milk samples were collected from the cattle suffering with subclinical mastitis in West Bengal. The milk samples were inoculated into the nutrient broth and incubated at 37°C. On the next day, the growth was transferred into nutrient agar and MacConkey agar. All the pure cultures obtained from nutrient agar slant were subjected to Gram-staining and standard biochemical tests. All the bacterial isolates were tested in vitro for their sensitivity to different antibiotics commonly used in veterinary practices. All Gram-negative isolates including positive control were subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR for detection of blaCTX-M, blaTEM, blaSHV, blaVIM, tetA, tetB, tetC, and tetM genes considered for extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL, metallo-β-lactamase, and tetracycline resistance. Results: In total, 50 Gram-negative organisms (Escherichia coli, Proteus, Pseudomonas, Klebsiella, and Enterobacter were isolated from milk samples of subclinical mastitis infected cattle. Among these Gram-negative isolates, 48% (24/50 were found either ESBL producing or tetracycline resistant. Out of total 50 Gram-negative isolates, blaCTX-M was detected in 18 (36% isolates, and 6 (12% harbored blaTEM genes in PCR. None of the isolates carried blaSHV genes. Further, in this study, 5 (10% isolates harbored tet(A gene, and 8 (16% isolates carried tet(B gene. No tet(C gene was detected from the isolates. Conclusion: This study showed emerging trend of antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria associated with subclinical mastitis in cattle in West Bengal, India.

  11. First study on characterization of virulence and antibiotic resistance genes in verotoxigenic and enterotoxigenic E. coli isolated from raw milk and unpasteurized traditional cheeses in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabaran, Alexandra; Mihaiu, Marian; Tăbăran, Flaviu; Colobatiu, Liora; Reget, Oana; Borzan, Mihai Marian; Dan, Sorin Daniel

    2017-03-01

    The study focused on the incidence of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) and verotoxigenic E. coli (VTEC) in raw milk and traditional dairy cheeses marketed in Romania, characterizing the virulence and antibiotic resistance genes of these isolates. One hundred and twenty samples of raw milk and 80 samples of unpasteurized telemy cheese were collected and cultured according to the international standard protocol. All the characteristic E. coli cultures were analyzed for the presence of STa, STb, LT, stx1, and stx2 toxicity genes. The ETEC/VTEC strains were tested for the presence of antibiotic resistance genes, such as aadA1, tetA, tetB, tetC, tetG, dfrA1, qnrA, aaC, sul1, bla SHV , bla CMY , bla TEM , and ere(A), using PCR. The results showed that 27 samples (18.62%) were positive for one of the virulence genes investigated. 48.1% (n = 13) tested positive at the genes encoding for tetracycline resistance, tetA being the most prevalent one (61.5%; n = 8). A high percent (33.3%; n = 9) revealed the beta-lactamase (bla TEM ) resistance gene, and none of the samples tested positive for bla CMY and bla SHV genes. The genes responsible for resistance to sulfonamides (sul1) and trimethoprim (dfrA1) were detected in rates of 14.8% (n = 4) and 7.4% (n = 2), respectively. E. coli is highly prevalent in raw milk and unpasteurized cheeses marketed in Romania. These strains might represent an important reservoir of resistance genes which can easily spread into other European countries, given the unique market.

  12. Low-dose copper infusion into the coronary circulation induces acute heart failure in diabetic rats: New mechanism of heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Carlos Chun Ho; Soon, Choong Yee; Chuang, Chia-Lin; Phillips, Anthony R J; Zhang, Shaoping; Cooper, Garth J S

    2015-09-01

    Diabetes impairs copper (Cu) regulation, causing elevated serum Cu and urinary Cu excretion in patients with established cardiovascular disease; it also causes cardiomyopathy and chronic cardiac impairment linked to defective Cu homeostasis in rats. However, the mechanisms that link impaired Cu regulation to cardiac dysfunction in diabetes are incompletely understood. Chronic treatment with triethylenetetramine (TETA), a Cu²⁺-selective chelator, improves cardiac function in diabetic patients, and in rats with heart disease; the latter displayed ∼3-fold elevations in free Cu²⁺ in the coronary effluent when TETA was infused into their coronary arteries. To further study the nature of defective cardiac Cu regulation in diabetes, we employed an isolated-perfused, working-heart model in which we infused micromolar doses of Cu²⁺ into the coronary arteries and measured acute effects on cardiac function in diabetic and non-diabetic-control rats. Infusion of CuCl₂ solutions caused acute dose-dependent cardiac dysfunction in normal hearts. Several measures of baseline cardiac function were impaired in diabetic hearts, and these defects were exacerbated by low-micromolar Cu²⁺ infusion. The response to infused Cu²⁺ was augmented in diabetic hearts, which became defective at lower infusion levels and underwent complete pump failure (cardiac output = 0 ml/min) more often (P hearts. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing the acute effects on cardiac function of pathophysiological elevations in coronary Cu²⁺. The effects of Cu²⁺ infusion occur within minutes in both control and diabetic hearts, which suggests that they are not due to remodelling. Heightened sensitivity to the acute effects of small elevations in Cu²⁺ could contribute substantively to impaired cardiac function in patients with diabetes and is thus identified as a new mechanism of heart disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Liquid chromatography method to determine polyamines in thermosetting polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dopico-Garcia, M.S. [Laboratorio de Quimica - Centro de Investigacions Tecnoloxicas, Universidade da Coruna, Campus de Esteiro s/n, 15403 Ferrol (Spain); Centro Galego do Plastico, A Cabana s/n, 15590 Ferrol (Spain); Lopez-Vilarino, J.M. [Laboratorio de Quimica - Centro de Investigacions Tecnoloxicas, Universidade da Coruna, Campus de Esteiro s/n, 15403 Ferrol (Spain); Fernandez-Martinez, G. [Unidad de Tecnicas Cromatograficas, Servizos de Apoio a Investigacion, Edificio Servizos Centrais de Investigacion, Universidade da Coruna, Campus de Elvina s/n, 15071 A Coruna (Spain); Gonzalez-Rodriguez, M.V., E-mail: victoria@udc.es [Dpto. de Quimica Analitica - E.U. Politecnica, Universidade da Coruna, Avda. 19 de Febrero s/n, 15405 Ferrol (Spain)

    2010-05-14

    A simple, robust and sensitive analytical method to determine three polyamines commonly used as hardeners in epoxy resin systems and in the manufacture of polyurethane is reported. The studied polyamines are: one tetramine, TETA (triethylenetetramine), and two diamines, IPDA (Isophorone diamine) and TCD-diamine (4,7-methano-1H-indene-5,?-dimethanamine, octahydro-). The latter has an incompletely defined structure, and, as far as we know, has not been previously determined by other methods. All three polyamines contain primary amines; TETA also contains secondary amines. The analytical method involves derivatization with 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate, used for the first time for these compounds, followed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis with a fluorescence (FL) detector ({lambda} excitation 248 nm, {lambda} emision 395 nm). The HPLC-DAD-LTQ Orbitrap MS was used in order to provide structural information about the obtained derivatized compounds. The hybrid linear ion trap LTQ Orbitrap mass spectrometer has been introduced in recent years and provides a high mass accuracy. The structures of the derivatized analytes were identified from the protonated molecular ions [M+H]{sup +} and corresponded to the fully labelled analytes. The following analytical parameters were determined for the method using the HPLC-FL: linearity, precision (2.5-10%), instrumental precision intraday (0.8-1.5%) and interday (2.9-6.3%), and detection limits (0.02-0.14 mg L{sup -1}). The stability of stock solutions and derivatized compounds was also investigated. The method was applied to determine the amine free content in epoxy resin dust collected in workplaces.

  14. Dynamics of antibiotic resistance genes and their relationships with system treatment efficiency in a horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nõlvak, Hiie; Truu, Marika; Tiirik, Kertu; Oopkaup, Kristjan; Sildvee, Teele; Kaasik, Ants; Mander, Ülo; Truu, Jaak

    2013-09-01

    Municipal wastewater treatment is one of the pathways by which antibiotic resistance genes from anthropogenic sources are introduced into natural ecosystems. This study examined the abundance and proportion dynamics of seven antibiotic resistance genes in the wetland media biofilm and in the influent and effluent of parallel horizontal subsurface flow mesocosm cells of a newly established hybrid constructed wetland treating municipal wastewater. The targeted genes (tetA, tetB, tetM, ermB, sul1, ampC, and qnrS) encode resistance to major antibiotic classes such as tetracyclines, macrolides, sulfonamides, penicillins, and fluoroquinolones, respectively. All targeted antibiotic resistance genes were detectable in the tested mesocosm environments, with the tetA, sul1, and qnrS genes being the most abundant in the mesocosm effluents. After initial fluctuation in the microbial community, target gene abundances and proportions stabilized in the wetland media biofilm. The abundance of 16S rRNA and antibiotic resistance genes, and the proportion of antibiotic resistance genes in the microbial community, were reduced during the wastewater treatment by the constructed wetland. The concentration of antibiotic resistance genes in the system effluent was similar to conventional wastewater treatment facilities; however, the mesocosms reduced sulfonamide resistance encoding sul1 concentrations more effectively than some traditional wastewater treatment options. The concentrations of antibiotic resistance genes in the wetland media biofilm and in effluent were affected by system operation parameters, especially time and temperature. The results also revealed a relationship between antibiotic resistance genes abundance and the removal efficiencies of NO2-N, NH4-N, and organic matter. Correlation analysis between the abundance of individual antibiotic resistance genes in the mesocosms influent, effluent and wetland media biofilm indicated that depending on antibiotic resistance gene

  15. Gamma ray transmission for hydraulic conductivity measurement of undisturbed soil columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Camargo Moreira

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This work had the objective to determine the Hydraulic Conductivity K(theta function for different depth levels z, of columns of undisturbed soil, using the gamma ray transmission technique applied to the Sisson method. The results indicated a growing behavior for K(theta and a homogeneous soil density, both in relation to the increase of the depth. The methodology of gamma ray transmission showed satisfactory results on the determination of the hydraulic conductivity in columns of undisturbed soil, besides being very reliable and a nondestructive method.O estudo da condutividade hidráulica para solos não saturados é essencial quando aplicado às situações relacionadas à irrigação, drenagem e transporte de nutrientes no solo, é uma importante propriedade para desenvolvimentos de culturas agrícolas. Este trabalho tem o objetivo de determinar a função Condutividade Hidráulica K(teta, em diferentes níveis z de profundidade, em colunas de solo indeformado, utilizando a transmissão de raios gama aplicada ao método de Sisson. Os resultados indicam um comportamento crescente para K(teta e uma densidade de solo homogênea, ambos em relação ao aumento da profundidade. A metodologia de transmissão de raios gama mostrou resultados bastante satisfatórios na determinação da condutividade hidráulica em colunas de solo indeformado, além de ser muito confiável e não destrutivo.

  16. Effect of Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate on Mortality, Hatching Rate of Eggs and Abnormality of Catfish (Pangasius hypophthalmus Sauvage Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Supriyono

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS surfactant in the water can affecting fish in all developmental stages.  This study was aimed to observe the effect of LAS on mortality, hatching rate of eggs, and abnormality of patin catfish (Pangasius hypophthalmus Sauvage larvae.   Fertilized eggs were incubated in water containing LAS at the dosages of 0.0, 0.5, 1.5, 3.0, 9.0, and 18.0 mg/L.  Eggs mortality was observed every 6 hours until larvae hatched (24 hours.  The results of study showed that the exposure of 18.0 mg LAS per liter water could put to death all the fertilized eggs and larvae be abnormal.  The exposure of LAS at concentration of 9.0 mg/L could kill 98% of eggs and hatching rate was only 2%.  The abnormality in larvae was bending in the body and tails. Keywords: patin catfish, Pangasius, Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate, LAS, abnormality   ABSTRAK Surfaktan Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate (LAS yang masuk ke dalam perairan sangat berpengaruh terhadap ikan dari stadia awal hidup ikan sampai dewasa. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh LAS terhadap mortalitas, daya tetas telur dan abnormalitas larva ikan patin (Pangasius hypophthalmus Sauvage.  Telur ikan patin yang telah dibuahi di rendam dalam air yang mengandung LAS dengan konsentrasi 0,0; 0,5; 1,5; 3,0; 9,0 dan 18,0 mg/L.  Mortalitas telur dicatat setiap 6 jam sampai menetas (24 jam.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa konsentrasi LAS sebesar 18,0 mg/L dapat mengakibatkan mortalitas telur dan abnormalitas pada larva secara total.  Konsentrasi LAS sebesar 9,0 mg/L dapat mematikan telur hingga 98% dan hanya menghasilkan daya tetas sebanyak 2%. Abnormalitas pada larva berupa pembengkokan pada tubuh dan ekor. Kata kunci: ikan patin, Pangasius, Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate, LAS dan abnormalitas

  17. Modelos para determinação dos parâmetros da equação de van Genuchten para um Cambissolo Models for determination of parameters of van Genuchten equation for a Cambisol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos R. de Mello

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Com este trabalho, objetiva-se a geração de modelos matemáticos para predição dos 4 parâmetros da equação de van Genuchten (tetaR, tetaS, alfa e n e para a umidade correspondente à capacidade de campo em função dos atributos areia, argila, matéria orgânica e densidade do solo, ambas de fácil e rotineira determinação em laboratório, além da profundidade. Coletaram-se 36 amostras não deformadas e deformadas nas profundidades de 0 a 30, 30 a 60 e 60 a 90 cm, em Cambissolo originado de gnaisse, determinando-se as umidades correspondentes às tensões de 2, 6 e 10 kPa em mesa de tensão e as referentes a 33, 100, 500 e 1500 kPa, em câmara de Richards. Para ajuste dos modelos, trabalhou-se com o programa SAS for Windows, com a rotina Proc Reg, e procedimento Backward, para selecionar as variáveis significativamente diferentes de zero num certo nível de probabilidade. Para avaliação dos modelos, consideraram-se o coeficiente de determinação e os erros de predição, tanto para os parâmetros estimados quanto para as umidades geradas pela equação de van Genuchten ajustada com os parâmetros estimados, para cada tensão descrita acima. Constatou-se que os erros foram consideravelmente pequenos, justificando a aplicação dos modelos.This work proposes to adjust mathematical models to predict the parameters of van Genuchten equation (thetaR, thetaS, alpha and n, besides a model to predict the soil moisture corresponding to the field capacity. The models express the equation parameters as dependent variables and sand, clay, organic matter, bulk density and depth as independent variables. All independent variables can be easily and routinely determined in laboratory. The samples were collected at 12 points in and three layers (0-30; 30-60; 60-90 cm of a Cambisol, using a Uhland sampler. The soil moisture at matric potentials of 2, 6 and 10 kPa were determined using a porous plate apparatus and those at matric potentials of 33

  18. On the existence of Levi Foliations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RENATA N. OSTWALD

    2001-03-01

    dimensão 3 tal que a folheação holomorfa induzida define uma folheação holomorfa ; isto é, se é uma folheação de Levi; então admite uma integral primeira Liouvilliana - uma função que pode ser construida por composição de funções rationais, exponenciações, integrações e funções racionais (Singer 1992. Por exemplo, se f é uma função holomorfa e se teta é uma 1-forma real em ²; então o pull-back de teta por f define uma folheação de Levi: : f*teta = 0 a qual é tangente a folheação holomorfa : df = 0. Este problema foi proposto por D. Cerveau em uma reunião (Fernandez 1997.

  19. A Functional Metagenomic Analysis of Tetracycline Resistance in Cheese Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana B. Flórez

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Metagenomic techniques have been successfully used to monitor antibiotic resistance genes in environmental, animal and human ecosystems. However, despite the claim that the food chain plays a key role in the spread of antibiotic resistance, metagenomic analysis has scarcely been used to investigate food systems. The present work reports a functional metagenomic analysis of the prevalence and evolution of tetracycline resistance determinants in a raw-milk, blue-veined cheese during manufacturing and ripening. For this, the same cheese batch was sampled and analyzed on days 3 and 60 of manufacture. Samples were diluted and grown in the presence of tetracycline on plate count milk agar (PCMA (non-selective and de Man Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS agar (selective for lactic acid bacteria, LAB. DNA from the cultured bacteria was then isolated and used to construct four fosmid libraries, named after the medium and sampling time: PCMA-3D, PCMA-60D, MRS-3D, and MRS-60D. Clones in the libraries were subjected to restriction enzyme analysis, PCR amplification, and sequencing. Among the 300 fosmid clones analyzed, 268 different EcoRI restriction profiles were encountered. Sequence homology of their extremes clustered the clones into 47 groups. Representative clones of all groups were then screened for the presence of tetracycline resistance genes by PCR, targeting well-recognized genes coding for ribosomal protection proteins and efflux pumps. A single tetracycline resistance gene was detected in each of the clones, with four such resistance genes identified in total: tet(A, tet(L, tet(M, and tet(S. tet(A was the only gene identified in the PCMA-3D library, and tet(L the only one identified in the PCMA-60D and MRS-60D libraries. tet(M and tet(S were both detected in the MRS-3D library and in similar numbers. Six representative clones of the libraries were sequenced and analyzed. Long segments of all clones but one showed extensive homology to plasmids from Gram

  20. Relação entre potássio na solução do solo, umidade e condutividade elétrica aparente do solo Relationship between potassium in the soil solution, soil water content and bulk electrical conductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gessionei da S. Santana

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Através de modelos que relacionam umidade (teta, condutividade elétrica aparente do solo (CEa e condutividade elétrica da solução do solo (CEw, objetivou-se avaliar, para condição de laboratório, a viabilidade de se estimar a concentração de potássio na solução do solo (K, para solos de classe textural franca (CTf e franco-arenosa (CTfa. Cinco soluções de cloreto de potássio, referentes a cinco condutividades elétricas (1,0, 2,5, 4,0, 5,5 e 7,0 dS m-1, foram aplicadas sobre o solo acondicionado em colunas de PVC, de forma a se obter cinco teta do solo (17,0 ± 1,4, 19,0 ± 1,8, 21,4 ± 2,2, 23,4 ± 2,2 e 26,0 ± 3,0%, em volume. Efetuaram-se leituras de teta e CEa com um aparelho de reflectometria no domínio do tempo (TDR e se extraiu solução do solo com extrator de cápsula de cerâmica, para determinar a CEw e o K. Três modelos foram ajustados aos dados, por meio de planilha eletrônica. É viável estimar a concentração de K na solução do solo, a partir detetae CEa, para condição de laboratório, por meio dos modelos de Rhoades et al. (1976, Vogeler et al. (1996 e Mualen & Friedman (1991, adaptados com uma relação entre CEw e K do tipo potência, nas faixas de 0 a 60 e 0 a 120 mg L-1, para solos de CTf e CTfa, respectivamente.The objective of this work was to evaluate the feasibility of estimating the potassium (K concentration in the soil solution, under laboratory conditions, for loamy (CTf and sandy loam (CTfa soils, through models that relate soil water content (theta, bulk electrical conductivity (CEa and soil solution electrical conductivity (CEw. Five potassium chloride solutions with electrical conductivities of 1.0, 2.5, 4.0, 5.5 and 7.0 dS m-1, were applied in a soil packed in PVC columns in order to obtain five soil water contents (17.0 ± 1.4, 19.0 ± 1.8, 21.4 ± 2.2, 23.4 ± 2.2 and 26.0 ± 3.0%, on volume basis. Readings of theta and CEa were obtained by using time domain reflectometry (TDR

  1. The influence of bromazepam on cortical power distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Sampaio

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The EEG has been widely employed in the assessment of electrophysiological changes induced by distinct medications. Its sensibility in detecting alterations produced by a specific substance may be enhanced by methods of quantitative analyses (qEEG. The present study aimed at investigating the modulatory effects of bromazepam on brain dynamics. The effects of bromazepam (3mg on EEG power distribution were tested in 10 healthy individuals, in a double-blind experiment. The electrophysiological measure was analyzed across experimental conditions, moments, and electrodes, in the delta, theta, alpha and beta frequency bands separately. A significant decrease of relative power was observed in delta and theta (main effect of condition. No interactions were observed. Although the expected anxiolytic EEG profile was not observed (increased beta and decreased alpha activity, this specific result may be related to other factors such as dosage used and the subjects' general physiological state, and not necessarily to the drug itself.O EEG tem sido amplamente empregado na avaliação de mudanças eletrofisiológicas induzidas por medicações distintas.A sensibilidade desta técnica em detectar alterações produzidas por uma substância pode ser aprimorada por métodos de análise quantitativa (EEGq. O presente estudo teve por objetivo investigar os efeitos modulatórios do bromazepam na dinâmica cerebral. Os efeitos de 3mg de bromazepam na distribuição de potência cortical foram observados em 10 indivíduos sadios, em um desenho duplo-cego. A medida eletrofisiológica foi analisada nas diferentes condições experimentais, momentos e eletrodos, em delta, teta, alfa e beta separadamente. Uma diminuição significativa de potência relativa foi observada em delta e teta (efeito principal para condição. Não foram observadas interações. Embora o perfil ansiolítico do EEG (aumento de beta e diminuição de alfa não tenha sido observado, esteresultado

  2. Quantitative EEG in children with learning disabilities: analysis of band power Eletrencefalograma quantitativo em crianças com dificuldades de aprendizagem: análise de freqüências

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lineu C. Fonseca

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to better understand the mechanisms of learning disabilities it is important to evaluate the electroencephalogram parameters and their relation to the results of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale. Thirty-six children with complaints of learning disability were studied. Electroencephalograms were carried out while awake and resting, and the values for absolute and relative powers calculated. The results were compared with those of 36 healthy children paired with respect to age, gender and maternal scholastic level. In the group with learning disabilities, the absolute (in the delta, theta and alpha 1 bands and relative (theta power values were higher and the relative power alpha 2 value significantly lower at the majority of the electrodes in relation to the control group. There was a high positive correlation in the children with learning disabilities between the relative power alpha 2 and the verbal, performance and total IQ values. These quantitative electroencephalogram findings in children with learning disabilities have a clear relation with psychological measurements and could be due to brain immaturity.Para compreender melhor os mecanismos das dificuldades de aprendizagem é importante avaliar a relação entre parâmetros do eletrencefalograma e resultados da Escala Weschler de Inteligência. Foram estudadas 36 crianças com queixas de dificuldades de aprendizagem. Foi realizado o eletrencefalograma durante vigília, em repouso e calculados os valores de potência absoluta e relativa. Os resultados foram comparados aos de 36 crianças sadias pareadas quanto a idade, gênero e escolaridade materna. As potências absoluta (das faixas delta, teta e alfa 1 e relativa (teta foram maiores e a potência relativa alfa 2 foi significativamente menor, na maioria dos eletrodos, no grupo com dificuldade de aprendizagem em relação ao grupo controle. Nas crianças com dificuldade de aprendizagem houve correlação elevada e positiva entre a

  3. Studi Simulasi Stick-slip Friction Akibat Multi-Directional Contact Friction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grandika Andrayodi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dalam kehidupan sehari-hari, tentu sangat tidak asing dengan penggunaan peralatan. Setiap peralatan yang bergerak selalu mengalami kerusakan akibat adanya gaya yang terdapat dari benda padat yang mempunyai kontak. Gaya yang ditimbulkan oleh dua benda yang bergesekan dan arahnya berlawanan disebut gaya gesek. Gaya gesek atau friction yang terjadi pada benda padat terdiri dari dua jenis, yaitu gaya gesek statis dan gaya gesek kinetis. Gesekan tersebut adalah stick-slip friction. Stick-slip friction juga terjadi ketika gerakan suatu benda mencapai kecepatan nol atau diam seketika kemudian bergerak kembali. Studi ini dilaksanakan untuk mengindikasikan daerah stick-slip pada pin dengan bantuan software agar tidak membutuhkan waktu yang lama dengan pengujian langsung atau eksperimental. Adapun penelitian ini dilaksanakan untuk melakukan permodelan simulasi dengan pemrograman daerah stick-slip pada multi-directional contact friction. Penelitian ini diawali dengan analisa kinematika gerakan spesimen untuk menentukan pada rasio kecepatan antara pin dan disk berapakah stick-slip kerap terjadi. Rasio rasio yang akan diamati yaitu pada rasio 0 hingga rasio 25 dengan radius disk sebesar 40 mm dan radius pin 10 mm variasi teta pada teta 0 hingga 6,28 radian, masing-masing rasio pin dan disk akan disimulasikan dengan program bergerak secara rotasi dan saling mengalami kontak permukaan sehingga akan tercipta gesekan ke arah yang berubah-ubah pada permukaan material. Setelah pemrograman dilakukan akan terlihat daerah benda yang mengalami gesekan terbesar yang mempunyai kecepatan nol sesaat. Daerah tersebut di visualisasikan dengan menggunakan program dan setelah itu dianalisa sebagai daerah stick-slip dengan rasio kecepatan tertentu. Sebagai data pembanding dalam pembahasan, diambil juga data penelitian fenomena stick-slip friction akibat multi-directional contact friction secara langsung.Hasil yang didapatkan dari terlaksananya penelitian ini adalah program

  4. Development of antibiotic resistance genes in microbial communities during long-term operation of anaerobic reactors in the treatment of pharmaceutical wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Sevcan; Ince, Bahar; Ince, Orhan

    2015-10-15

    Biological treatment processes offer the ideal conditions in which a high diversity of microorganisms can grow and develop. The wastewater produced during these processes is contaminated with antibiotics and, as such, they provide the ideal setting for the acquisition and proliferation of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). This research investigated the occurrence and variation in the ARGs found during the one-year operation of the anaerobic sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) used to treat pharmaceutical wastewater that contained combinations of sulfamethoxazole-tetracycline-erythromycin (STE) and sulfamethoxazole-tetracycline (ST). The existence of eighteen ARGs encoding resistance to sulfamethoxazole (sul1, sul2, sul3), erythromycin (ermA, ermF, ermB, msrA, ereA), tetracycline (tetA, tetB, tetC, tetD, tetE, tetM, tetS, tetQ, tetW, tetX) and class Ι integron gene (intΙ 1) in the STE and ST reactors was investigated by quantitative real-time PCR. Due to the limited availability of primers to detect ARGs, Illumina sequencing was also performed on the sludge and effluent of the STE and ST reactors. Although there was good reactor performance in the SBRs, which corresponds to min 80% COD removal efficiency, tetA, tetB, sul1, sul2 and ermB genes were among those ARGs detected in the effluent from STE and ST reactors. A comparison of the ARGs acquired from the STE and ST reactors revealed that the effluent from the STE reactor had a higher number of ARGs than that from the ST reactor; this could be due to the synergistic effects of erythromycin. According to the expression of genes results, microorganisms achieve tetracycline and erythromycin resistance through a combination of three mechanisms: efflux pumping protein, modification of the antibiotic target and modifying enzymes. There was also a significant association between the presence of the class 1 integron and sulfamethoxazole resistance genes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Rational synthesis of Pd nanoparticle-embedded reduced graphene oxide frameworks with enhanced selective catalysis in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian; Hu, Guowen; Yang, Yanmei; Zhang, Haoli; Zuo, Wei; Liu, Weisheng; Wang, Baodui

    2016-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) Pd-reduced graphene oxide framework (Pd-rGOF) with hierarchical macro- and mesoporous structures has been developed via covalence- and coordination-assisted self-assembly approach. In this facile fabrication process, GO was first cross-linked with triethylene tetramine (TETA) to form 3D GOF, in which well-dispersed and ultrasmall Pd nanoparticles (NPs) in situ grew and embedded the framework. The obtained nanopores, 3D Pd-rGOF, can act as nanoreactors to help the reaction substrates thoroughly contact with the surface of Pd NPs, thereby exhibiting high activity and selectivity toward the Tsuji-Trost reaction in water, with 99% conversion and selectivity for most substrates. Moreover, the 3D Pd-rGOF catalyst can be reused more than ten times without significant loss of activity, rendering this catalyst long-term stability. The abovementioned observations make the rGOF a universal platform to coordinate other noble metal ions (NM) to construct desired NM-rGOF nanocatalysts with improved activity, selectivity, and durability that can be used in a broad range of practical applications.A three-dimensional (3D) Pd-reduced graphene oxide framework (Pd-rGOF) with hierarchical macro- and mesoporous structures has been developed via covalence- and coordination-assisted self-assembly approach. In this facile fabrication process, GO was first cross-linked with triethylene tetramine (TETA) to form 3D GOF, in which well-dispersed and ultrasmall Pd nanoparticles (NPs) in situ grew and embedded the framework. The obtained nanopores, 3D Pd-rGOF, can act as nanoreactors to help the reaction substrates thoroughly contact with the surface of Pd NPs, thereby exhibiting high activity and selectivity toward the Tsuji-Trost reaction in water, with 99% conversion and selectivity for most substrates. Moreover, the 3D Pd-rGOF catalyst can be reused more than ten times without significant loss of activity, rendering this catalyst long-term stability. The

  6. Milt-Egg Ratio in Artificial Fertilization of Pangasiid Catfish Injected by Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone-Analog (GnRH-a and Domperidone Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Subagja

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Study on the level of gonadotropin hormone treatments combined with latency time to induce ovulation in Pangasius djambal was conducted in the Research Instalation of Germ Plasm, Cijeruk, Bogor. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of GnRH-a and domperidone mixture on the milt production and fertilization rates of Pangasius djambal, and to determine the optimal milt-egg ratio required for artificial fertilization. Different doses of hormone i.e: 0,3; 0,5 and 0,7 ml kg"1 body weight combined with latency time of 12, 24 and 48 h after inducing hormone were applied to increase milt-production. Milt dilution was 10"1, 10~2, 10"3, 10"4, 10"5, 10"6 and 10"7and evaluated for hatching rate and normality of larvae. The results showed that mean milt production was 4,3 ml/kg body weight, and there was interaction between hormone dose of 0,5 ml/kg of body weight and latency time 12 and 24 h that giving hatching rate of 77 to 83% ( p Key words : Fertilization, milt production, domperidone, Pangasius djambal   ABSTRAK Suatu studi penyuntikan hormon gonadotropin dengan perbedaan dosis dan waktu laten terhadap spesies Pangasius djambal telah dilakukan di Instalasi Riset Plasma Nutfah Air Tawar, Cijeruk, Bogor. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh hormon GnRH-a dan domperidon terhadap produktivitas semen ikan jantan dan viabilitasnya pada pembuahan buatan. Tujuan lainnya untuk menentukan perbandingan optimal antara jumlah spermatozoa dengan telur dalam fertilisasi buatan. Dosis hormon perlakuan untuk peningkatan produksi semen yaitu 0,3; 0,5 dan 0,7 ml.kg"1 bobot badan yang di kombinasikan dengan waktu inkubasi jantan 12, 24 dan 24 jam setelah penyuntikan hormon. Semen diencerkan mulai dari 10"', 10"2, 10"3, 10"4, 10~5, 10'6 dan 10"7, dan dilakukan pembuahan terhadap telur. Daya tetas dan abnormalitas larva dievaluasi. Hasil analisis menunjukan produksi semen rata-rata 4,3 ml/kg bobot badan, ada interaksi antara dosis hormon 0

  7. Prevalence of antibiotic resistance genes from effluent of coastal aquaculture, South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hyun Min; Kim, Young Beom; Choi, Sangki; Lee, Yunho; Shin, Seung Gu; Unno, Tatsuya; Kim, Young Mo

    2018-02-01

    The wide use of antibiotics in aquaculture for prophylactic and therapeutic purposes can potentially lead to the prevalence of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). This study reports for the first time the profile of ARGs from effluents of coastal aquaculture located in South Jeolla province and Jeju Island, South Korea. Using quantitative PCR (qPCR), twenty-two ARGs encoding tetracycline resistance (tetA, tetB, tetD, tetE, tetG, tetH, tetM, tetQ, tetX, tetZ, tetBP), sulfonamide resistance (sul1, sul2), quinolone resistance (qnrD, qnrS, aac(6')-Ib-cr), β-lactams resistance (bla TEM , bla CTX , bla SHV ), macrolide resistance (ermC), florfenicol resistance (floR) and multidrug resistance (oqxA) and a class 1 integrons-integrase gene (intI1) were quantified. In addition, Illumina Miseq sequencing was applied to investigate microbial community differences across fish farm effluents. Results from qPCR showed that the total number of detected ARGs ranged from 4.24 × 10 -3 to 1.46 × 10 -2 copies/16S rRNA gene. Among them, tetB and tetD were predominant, accounting for 74.8%-98.0% of the total ARGs. Furthermore, intI1 gene showed positive correlation with tetB, tetD, tetE, tetH, tetX, tetZ tetQ and sul1. Microbial community analysis revealed potential host bacteria for ARGs and intI1. Two genera, Vibrio and Marinomonas belonging to Gammaproteobacteria, showed significant correlation with tetB and tetD, the most dominant ARGs in all samples. Also, operational taxonomic units (OTUs)-based network analysis revealed that ten OTUs, classified into the phyla Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria/Chloroplast, Bacteroidetes, Verrucomicrobia and an unclassified phylum, were potential hosts of tetracycline resistance genes (i.e., tetA, tetG, tetH, tetM, tetQ and tetZ). Further systematic monitoring of ARGs is warranted for risk assessment and management of antibacterial resistance from fish farm effluents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effectiveness of Kaempferia galanga extract for the prevention of saprolegniasis on catfish Clarias gariepinus eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvilia Humsari

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTSaprolegniasis is a disease caused by the infection of Saprolegnia sp. Saprolegniasis can attack catfish eggs causing a decrease in hatching rate. There are some plants which have an antifungal potential, e.g. cutcherry Kaempferia galanga L. This study aimed to obtain the effective concentration of cutcherry rhizome extract for the prevention of saprolegniasis, resulting in a high hatching rate. This study applied five treatments: the extract at concentrations of 0 mg/L; 20 mg/L; 40 mg/L; 60 mg/L; and 80 mg/L applied to catfish eggs. The method applied was the immersion of eggs in cutcherry extract for one hour. The results showed that the immersion method applied in the application of cutcherry rhizome extract could reduce saprolegniasis. This was indicated by the decrease of saprolegniasis compared to control. The use of cutcherry rhizome extract (the treatment at concentrations of 20 mg/L; 40 mg/L; 60 mg/L; and 80 mg/L could prevent saprolegniasis with saprolegniasis levels of 43.5%; 27.5%; 19.5%; and 18.5%, respectively. Keywords :  catfish eggs, cutcherry rhizome extract, saprolegniasis  ABSTRAKSaprolegniasis merupakan suatu penyakit yang timbul karena infeksi Saprolegnia sp.  Saprolegniasis dapat menyerang telur ikan lele yang menyebabkan turunnya daya tetas telur. Terdapat beberapa tanaman yang memiliki daya antifungi seperti tanaman kencur Kaempferia galanga L. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan konsentrasi ekstrak rimpang kencur yang efektif untuk pencegahan penyakit saprolegniasis sehingga menghasilkan daya tetas telur yang tinggi. Penelitian menggunakan lima perlakuan yaitu dosis ekstrak 0 mg/L (kontrol; 20 mg/L; 40 mg/L; 60 mg/L; dan 80 mg/L dengan menggunakan telur ikan lele sangkuriang. Metode yang digunakan yaitu perendaman telur dalam ekstrak kencur selama satu jam. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa metode perendaman ekstrak rimpang kencur dapat mengurangi saprolegniasis. Hal ini ditunjukkan dengan semakin

  9. Feeding Broodstock on a Diet Containing Vitamin E and Fish Oil Improve Eggs and Larval Quality of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Darwisito

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to determine the effect of dietary vitamin E and n-3 fatty acids on the gonad maturation, egg and larva quality of Nile tilapia. Fish were treated by various combinations of dietary dosage of vitamin E (50, 100, 150, and 200 mg/kg feed and fish oil (10, 20, 30, and 40 g/kg feed. Three hundreds and twenty pairs of broodstock fish (female at stage of maturity II were selected and used for this experiment. Fish were fed on the experimental diets three times a day at satiation. The tested of parameters such as gonad somatic index, egg diameter, fecundity, number of spawned fish, hatching rate, and survival rate. Results of the experiment indicated that supplementation of vitamin E and fish oil stimulated gonad development and increased fecundity, hatching rate and survival rate of Nile tilapia larva. Combination of vitamin E 150 mg/kg feed and fish oil 30 g/kg feed significantly improved egg and larva quality of Nile tilapia. Thus, combination of vitamin E in 150 mg/kg diet with fish oil in dose 30 g/kg diet give the best reproduction performance. Keywords: Nile tilapia,  fish oil, vitamin E, reproduction performance   ABSTRAK Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mendapatkan kadar kombinasi vitamin E dan asam lemak esensial n-3 untuk pematangan gonad, kualitas telur dan larva ikan nila. Adapun dosis dari masing-masing perlakuan terdiri dari 4 taraf. Untuk vitamin E yaitu: 50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg, 150 mg/kg,  dan 200 mg/kg pakan  sedangkan minyak ikan yaitu: 10 g/kg, 20 g/kg, 30 g/kg dan 40 g/kg pakan. Ikan uji yang digunakan sebanyak 320 ekor induk betina dan 320 ekor induk jantan dan diseleksi.  Setiap hari ikan diberi pakan uji 2 kali sehari (pagi dan sore secara at satiation. Selama periode pemeliharaan parameter yang diamati meliputi: indeks gonad somatik, diameter telur, fekunditas, jumlah induk yang memijah, derajat tetas telur, dan ketahanan hidup larva. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa pakan dengan kombinasi

  10. Thermal performance of alumina filler reinforced intumescent fire retardant coating for structural application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Faiz; Ullah, Sami; Farhana Mohammad, Wan; Farth Shariff, M.

    2014-06-01

    In the modern construction, fire safety has significant consideration for the protection of people and assets. Several intumescent fire protection systems are in practice and have constrain of releasing toxic gases on degradation forms an insulating char layer protecting underlying substrate. An intumescent coating expands many times of its thickness on exposure to fire and protect the underlying substrate from fire. This study presents the results of thermal performance of an intumescent fire retardant coating (IFRC) developed for structural application. IFRC was developed using expandable graphite (EG), ammonium poly phosphate (APP) and melamine (MEL), epoxy resin Bisphenol-A (BPA) and hardener triethylenetetramine (TETA) were used as a binder as a curing agent. Char expansion of IFRC was measured by furnace fire test at 450°C, thermal performance was measured using a Bunsen burner at 950°C and temperature of substrate was recorded for 60 min at an interval of two min. Results showed that IFRC containing 3wt% alumina showed char expansion X19. After one hour exposure of coating to heat, substrate temperature recorded was 154°C. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) results showed the presence of high temperature compounds present in the char of coating, considered responsible to reduce the penetration of heat to the substrate.

  11. Microarray Evaluation of Antimicrobial Resistance and Virulence of Escherichia coli Isolates from Portuguese Poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Mendonça

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of antimicrobial resistance and virulence factors of 174 Escherichia coli strains isolated from healthy Portuguese Gallus gallus was evaluated. Resistance profiles were determined against 33 antimicrobials by microbroth dilution. Resistance was prevalent for tetracycline (70% and ampicillin (63%. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL phenotype was observed in 18% of the isolates. Multidrug resistance was found in 56% of isolates. A subset of 74 isolates were screened by DNA microarrays for the carriage of 88 antibiotic resistance genes and 62 virulence genes. Overall, 37 different resistance genes were detected. The most common were tet(A (72%, blaTEM (68%, and sul1 (47%, while 21% isolates harbored an ESBL gene (blaCTX-M group 1, group 2, or group 9. Of these, 96% carried the increased serum survival (iss virulence gene, while 89% presented the enterobactin siderophore receptor protein (iroN, 70% the temperature-sensitive hemagglutinin (tsh, and 68% the long polar fimbriae (lpfA virulence genes associated with extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli. In conclusion, prevalence of antibiotic resistant E. coli from the microbiota of Portuguese chickens was high, including to extended spectrum cephalosporins. The majority of isolates seems to have the potential to trigger extraintestinal human infection due to the presence of some virulence genes. However, the absence of genes specific for enteropathogenic E. coli reduces the risk for human intestinal infection.

  12. De muñecas a dueñas. La aparente inversión de roles de género en las narcoseries de Telemundo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainhoa Vásquez Mejías

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mientras las primeras narcoseries, como Sin tetas no hay paraíso y Las muñe - cas de la mafia , caracterizaron a sus personajes femeninos como víctimas, la cadena esta � dounidense Telemundo ha dado un vuelco a esta imagen incluyendo a protagonistas líderes del narcotráfico. Aparentemente, ello provoca una inversión en los roles de género, puesto que las mujeres se convierten en agente activo en un mundo patriarcal. Sin embargo, estas protagonistas se definen mediante elementos estereotípicamente femeninos, tales como la bondad, el sacrificio y la maternidad, que se concreta de manera literal y metafórica en dos narcoseries analizadas: La Reina del Sur y Camelia la texana . No obstante, el verdadero acto subversivo de estos personajes —para deslindarse de los prototipos de género— es su capacidad de analizar y decidir. Ellas, lejos de considerarse víctimas de sus circunstancias, asumen su responsabilidad por la vida que han escogido y la violencia con que actúan.

  13. Antibiotic resistance and molecular characterization of probiotic and clinical Lactobacillus strains in relation to safety aspects of probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Günter

    2011-02-01

    The evaluation of the safety of probiotic strains includes the exclusion of antibiotic resistance of clinical importance. Ninety-two strains from the genus Lactobacillus isolated from probiotics, food, and clinical sources were included in the investigation. Species tested were the L. acidophilus group, L. casei group, L. reuteri/fermentum group, and L. sakei/curvatus group. Cell and colony morphology, fermentation patterns, and growth characteristics as well as soluble whole cell proteins were analyzed. Antibiotic resistance against clinically important agents was determined by broth dilution tests. The vanA and tet genes were confirmed. Resistances occurred mainly against gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, sulfonamides, and, in some cases, glycopeptides. The natural glycopeptide resistance within the L. casei group and L. reuteri appears to be not of clinical relevance, as there was no vanA gene present. Therefore, the transfer of this resistance is very unlikely. Tet-(A), -(B), -(C), -(M), or -(O) gene could not be detected. The protein fingerprinting within the L. casei group proved that L. rhamnosus strains of clinical origin clustered together with probiotic strains. For safety evaluations resistance patterns of a broad range of strains are a useful criterion together with the exclusion of known resistance genes (like the vanA gene) and can be used for decision making on the safety of probiotics, both by authorization bodies and manufacturers.

  14. Antibiotic Resistance in Salmonella from Retail Foods of Animal Origin and Its Association with Disinfectant and Heavy Metal Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wenwen; Quan, Yuan; Yang, Shengzhi; Guo, Lijuan; Zhang, Xiuli; Liu, Shuliang; Chen, Shujuan; Zhou, Kang; He, Li; Li, Bei; Gu, Yunfu; Zhao, Shaohua; Zou, Likou

    2017-10-17

    This study aims to demonstrate the antibiotic resistance and its association with disinfectant and heavy metal resistance in 152 Salmonella isolates recovered from retail foods of animal origins. Susceptibility testing demonstrated that 92.8% isolates were resistant to at least one antibiotic, and the resistance was highest to oxytetracycline (80.9%), followed by trimethoprim (64.5%), amoxicillin (28.9%), ampicillin (28.3%), levofloxacin (21.7%), ciprofloxacin (16.4%), and gentamicin (10.5%), respectively. The blaTEM and tetA genes (44.7%) were commonly present. The qacF and qacEΔ1 genes were detected in 18.4% and 8.6% of all isolates. The Cu-resistance genes pcoR, pcoC, and pcoA were the most prevalent (20.4-40.8%), followed by Hg-resistance gene merA (17.8%) and As-resistance genes arsB (6.6%). The antibiotic resistance was highly associated with disinfectant or certain heavy metal resistance genes. Most notably, the association among Cu-resistance genes (pcoC, pcoR), disinfectant resistance genes (qacF, qacEΔ1), and tetracycline and sulfonamide resistance genes (tet, sul) was significant (p resistant Salmonella and using disinfectants for decontamination or metals in livestock may provide a pressure for coselecting strains with acquired resistance to other antimicrobials.

  15. Monitoring of drug resistance amplification and attenuation with the use of tetracycline-resistant bacteria during wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnisz, Monika; Korzeniewska, Ewa; Niestępski, Sebastian; Osińska, Adriana; Nalepa, Beata

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this study was to monitor changes (amplification or attenuation) in antibiotic resistance during wastewater treatment based on the ecology of tetracycline-resistant bacteria. The untreated and treated wastewater were collected in four seasons. Number of tetracycline-(TETR) and oxytetracycline-resistant (OTCR) bacteria, their qualitative composition, minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs), sensitivity to other antibiotics, and the presence of tet (A, B, C, D, E) resistance genes were determined. TETR and OTCR counts in untreated wastewater were 100 to 1000 higher than in treated effluent. OTCR bacterial counts were higher than TETR populations in both untreated and treated wastewater. TETR isolates were not dominated by a single bacterial genus or species, whereas Aeromonas hydrophila and Aeromonas sobria were the most common in OTCR isolates. The treatment process attenuated the drug resistance of TETR bacteria and amplified the resistance of OTCR bacteria. In both microbial groups, the frequency of tet(A) gene increased in effluent in comparison with untreated wastewater. Our results also indicate that treated wastewater is a reservoir of multiple drug-resistant bacteria as well as resistance determinants which may pose a health hazard for humans and animals when released to the natural environment.

  16. Analysis of the stress-strain state in single overlap joints using piezo-ceramic actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pǎltânea, Veronica; Pǎltânea, Gheorghe; Popovici, Dorina; Jiga, Gabriel; Papanicolaou, George

    2014-05-01

    In this paper is presented a 2D approach to finite element modeling and an analytical calculus of a single lap bonded joint. As adherent material were selected a sheet of wood, aluminum and titanium. For adhesive part were selected Bison Super Wood D3 in case of the wood single lap joint and an epoxy resin type DGEBA-TETA for gluing together aluminum and titanium parts. In the article is described a combined method, which consists in the placement of the piezoelectric actuator inside of the adhesive part, in order to determine the tensile stress in the overlap joint. A comparison between the analytical and numerical results has been achieved through a multiphysics modeling - electrical and mechanical coupled problem. The technique used to calculate the mechanical parameters (First Principal Stress, displacements) was the three-point bending test, where different forces were applied in the mid-span of the structure, in order to maintain a constant displacement rate. The length of the overlap joint was modified from 20 to 50 mm.

  17. Di- and Trivalent Metal-Ion Solution Studies with the Phosphinate-Containing Heterocycle DEDA-(PO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weekes, David M; Jaraquemada-Peláez, Maria de Guadalupe; Kostelnik, Thomas I; Patrick, Brian O; Orvig, Chris

    2017-09-05

    A 7-membered triprotic heterocycle, DEDA-(PO), was synthesized, characterized, and tested for its solution properties with three trivalent lanthanides (La(3+), Gd(3+), and Lu(3+)) and three biologically relevant divalent metal ions (Ca(2+), Zn(2+), and Cu(2+)). The ligand synthesis has been reported once before; however, the characterization results were previously misinterpreted to correspond to a larger, 14-membered heterocycle, TETA-(PO)2. This manuscript serves to correct the original paper. Potentiometric titrations were carried out with each of the metal ions, and the thermodynamic stability values in terms of log β and log KML were calculated showing a 1:1 metal-to-ligand ratio preference for the divalent metal ions and a 1:2 ratio for the lanthanides. The stability of the 1:2 complexes decreased across the lanthanide series, presumed to be a steric effect. Further resolution to the potentiometry results was given via pH-dependent NMR spectrometry (with La(3+)) and pH-dependent UV-vis spectroscopy (with Cu(2+)), and the pM values were calculated for all metal ions. The solid-state structure of the 1:1 Cu(2+)-DEDA-(PO) complex was further characterized by X-ray crystallography.

  18. Copper(II) chemistry of the functionalized macrocycle cyclam tetrapropionic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comba, Peter; Emmerling, Franziska; Jakob, Maik; Kraus, Werner; Kubeil, Manja; Morgen, Michael; Pietzsch, Jens; Stephan, Holger

    2013-05-07

    The Cu(II) complex of H(4)TETP (H(4)TETP = 1,4,8,11-tetraazatetradecane-1,4,8,11-tetrapropionic acid) is five-coordinate with a distorted square-pyramidal structure (τ = 0.45; i.e. the geometry is nearly half-way between square-pyramidal and trigonal-bipyramidal) and a relatively long Cu-N and a short Cu-O bond; the comparison between powder and solution electronic spectroscopy, the frozen solution EPR spectrum and ligand-field-based calculations (angular overlap model, AOM) indicate that the solution and solid state structures are very similar, i.e. the complex has a relatively low "in-plane" and a significant axial ligand field with a d(x(2)-y(2)) ground state. The ligand-enforced structure is therefore shown to lead to a partially quenched Jahn-Teller distortion and to a relatively low complex stability, lower than with the corresponding acetate-derived ligand H(4)TETA. This is confirmed by potentiometric titration and by the biodistribution with (64)Cu-labeled ligands which show that the uptake in the liver is significantly increased with the H(4)TETP-based system.

  19. Escherichia coli tetracycline efflux determinants in relation to tetracycline residues in chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    S N, Al-Bahry; B M, Al-Mashani; A S, Al-Ansari; A E, Elshafie; I Y, Mahmoud

    2013-09-01

    To screen for Escherichia coli (E. coli) resistant to tetracycline, followed by identification of tet efflux genes by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In addition, detection of tetracycline residues in chicken livers and kidneys were conducted using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS-MS). Strains of E. coli were isolated from samples of chicken colon and screened for tetracycline resistance. Tetracycline genes conferring resistance (Tc(r)) were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Most of the isolates were resistant to tetracycline (97.9%). PCR analysis indicated that Tc(r)E. coli R-plasmids contained tet(A), tet(B) and a combination of both efflux genes. None of the isolates contained other efflux tet genes tet (C, D, E and Y). High performance liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS-MS), a sensitive technique, was used to detect residues of chlortetracycline (CTC), oxytetracycline (OTC), doxycycline (DC) in chicken livers and kidneys. The samples containing tetracycline residues were at 0.13-0.65 pg/μL levels. Tetracycline and other antibiotics are commonly used in the poultry and meat production industry for prevention of microbial infections. Multiple antibiotic resistant bacteria in Oman have increased to alarming levels, threatening public health, domestic and may have adverse effect on environment. Copyright © 2013 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Análise da distribuição de potência cortical em função do aprendizado de datilografia Analisis da distribuición de potencia cortical en función del aprendizado de dactilografia Analysis of cortical power distribution as a function of the typewriting skill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Hugo Bastos

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi investigar alterações nos padrões eletroencefalográficos de sujeitos normais e destros durante o aprendizado motor de uma tarefa manual. Estudos recentes têm demonstrado que o córtex cerebral é suscetível a modificações em vários aspectos durante a aprendizagem e que tais alterações nos padrões eletrocorticais são resultado da aquisição de habilidades motoras e consolidação de memória. Para tal, a atividade elétrica cortical dos sujeitos foi analisada antes e depois da prática motora. Os dados foram captados pelo Braintech 3000 e analisados pelo programa Neurometrics. Para a análise estatística, variáveis comportamentais tais como tempo e erro foram observadas através de uma ANOVA one-way, blocos como efeito principal. Na variável neurofisiológica, potência absoluta, foi utilizado um teste t pareado a fim de detectar alterações entre os momentos pré e pós-aprendizagem, e diferentes eletrodos, CZ-C3/CZ-C4 em teta e alfa, e O1-P3/T3-F7 em beta. Os resultados principais demonstraram mudança na performance através das variáveis tempo e número de erros. Concomitantemente, foi verificado aumento de potência na banda alfa sobre áreas centrais (CZ-C3/CZ-C4 e diminuição em beta localizada na área temporoparietal esquerda (O1-P3/T3-F7. Alterações na banda teta, como demonstradas em outros experimentos, não ocorreram neste estudo. Tais resultados sugerem uma adaptação do córtex sensório-motor em que a alteração da atividade elétrica cortical é condizente com uma transição ao automatismo motor.El objetivo del presente estudio fue el de investigar alteraciones en los padrones electroencefalográficos de sujetos normales y diestros durante el aprendizaje motor de una tarea manual Estudios recientes tienen demostrado que en el cortex cervical es susceptible a varias modificaciones en varios aspectos durante el aprendizaje, y que tales alteraciones en los padrones

  1. Rapid startup of thermophilic anaerobic digester to remove tetracycline and sulfonamides resistance genes from sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Rui; Yang, Zhao-Hui; Wang, Qing-Peng; Bai, Yang; Liu, Jian-Bo; Zheng, Yue; Zhang, Yan-Ru; Xiong, Wei-Ping; Ahmad, Kito; Fan, Chang-Zheng

    2018-01-15

    Spread of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) originating from sewage sludge is highlighted as an eminent health threat. This study established a thermophilic anaerobic digester using one-step startup strategy to quickly remove tetracycline and sulfonamides resistance genes from sewage sludge. At least 20days were saved in the startup period from mesophilic to thermophilic condition. Based on the results of 16S rDNA amplicons sequencing and predicted metagenomic method, the successful startup largely relied on the fast colonization of core thermophilic microbial population (e.g. Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria). Microbial metabolic gene pathways for substrate degradation and methane production was also increased by one-step mode. In addition, real-time quantitative PCR approach revealed that most targeted tetracycline and sulfonamides resistance genes ARGs (sulI, tetA, tetO, tetX) were substantially removed during thermophilic digestion (removal efficiency>80%). Network analysis showed that the elimination of ARGs was attributed to the decline of their horizontal (intI1 item) and vertical (potential hosts) transfer-related elements under high-temperature. This research demonstrated that rapid startup thermophilic anaerobic digestion of wastewater solids would be a suitable technology for reducing quantities of various ARGs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Influence of two-phase anaerobic digestion on fate of selected antibiotic resistance genes and class I integrons in municipal wastewater sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Ying; Cui, Erping; Zuo, Yiru

    2016-01-01

    The response of representative antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) to lab-scale two-phase (acidogenic/methanogenic phase) anaerobic digestion processes under thermophilic and mesophilic conditions was explored. The associated microbial communities and bacterial pathogens were characterized by 16S r......RNA gene sequencing. A two-phase thermophilic digestion reduced the presence of tetA, tetG, tetX, sul1, ermB, dfrA1, dfrA12 and intI1 exhibiting 0.1-0.72 log unit removal; in contrast, tetO, tetW, sul3, ermF and blaTEM even increased relative to the feed, and sul2 showed no significant decrease....... The acidogenic phase of thermophilic digestion was primarily responsible for reducing the quantity of these genes, while the subsequent methanogenic phase caused a rebound in their quantity. In contrast, a two-phase mesophilic digestion process did not result in reducing the quantity of all ARGs and intI1 except...

  3. Comparison of ozone and thermal hydrolysis combined with anaerobic digestion for municipal and pharmaceutical waste sludge with tetracycline resistance genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Jin; Yao, Hong; Wang, Hui; Ren, Jia; Yu, Xiaohua

    2016-08-01

    Biosolids from wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) are environmental reservoirs of antibiotic resistance genes, which attract great concerns on their efficient treatments. Anaerobic digestion (AD) is widely used for sewage sludge treatment but its effectiveness is limited due to the slow hydrolysis. Ozone and thermal hydrolysis pre-treatment were employed to improve AD efficiency and reduce antibiotic-resistant genes in municipal and pharmaceutical waste sludge (MWS and PWS, respectively) in this study. Sludge solubilization achieved 15.75-25.09% and 14.85-33.92% after ozone and thermal hydrolysis, respectively. Both pre-treatments improved cumulative methane production and the enhancements were greater on PWS than MWS. Five tetracycline-resistant genes (tet(A), tet(G), tet(Q), tet(W), tet(X)) and one mobile element (intI1) were qPCR to assess pre-treatments. AD of pre-treated sludge reduced more tet genes than raw sludge for both ozonation and thermal hydrolysis in PWS and MWS. Thermal hydrolysis pre-treatment was more efficient than ozone for reduction after AD. Results of this study help support management options for reducing the spread of antibiotic resistance from biosolids. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Occurrence and removal of antibiotics and the corresponding resistance genes in wastewater treatment plants: effluents' influence to downstream water environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianan; Cheng, Weixiao; Xu, Like; Jiao, Yanan; Baig, Shams Ali; Chen, Hong

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the occurrence of 8 antibiotics [3 tetracyclines (TCs), 4 sulfonamides, and 1 trimethoprim (TMP)], 12 antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) (10 tet, 2 sul), 4 types of bacteria [no antibiotics, anti-TC, anti-sulfamethoxazole (SMX), and anti-double], and intI1 in two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) were assessed and their influences in downstream lake were investigated. Both WWTPs' effluent demonstrated some similarities, but the abundance and removal rate varied significantly. Results revealed that biological treatment mainly removed antibiotics and ARGs, whereas physical techniques were found to eliminate antibiotic resistance bacteria (ARBs) abundance (about 1 log for each one). UV disinfection did not significantly enhance the removal efficiency, and the release of the abundantly available target contaminants from the excess sludge may pose threats to human and the environment. Different antibiotics showed diverse influences on the downstream lake, and the concentrations of sulfamethazine (SM2) and SMX were observed to increase enormously. The total ARG abundance ascended about 0.1 log and some ARGs (e.g., tetC, intI1, tetA) increased due to the high input of the effluent. In addition, the abundance of ARB variation in the lake also changed, but the abundance of four types of bacteria remained stable in the downstream sampling sites.

  5. Reductions of bacterial antibiotic resistance through five biological treatment processes treated municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Qing-Bin; Guo, Mei-Ting; Wei, Wu-Ji; Yang, Jian

    2016-10-01

    Wastewater treatment plants are hot spots for antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). However, limited studies have been conducted to compare the reductions of ARB and ARGs by various biological treatment processes. The study explored the reductions of heterotrophic bacteria resistant to six groups of antibiotics (vancomycin, gentamicin, erythromycin, cephalexin, tetracycline, and sulfadiazine) and corresponding resistance genes (vanA, aacC1, ereA, ampC, tetA, and sulI) by five bench-scale biological reactors. Results demonstrated that membrane bioreactor (MBR) and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) significantly reduced ARB abundances in the ranges of 2.80∼3.54 log and 2.70∼3.13 log, respectively, followed by activated sludge (AS). Biological filter (BF) and anaerobic (upflow anaerobic sludge blanket, UASB) techniques led to relatively low reductions. In contrast, ARGs were not equally reduced as ARB. AS and SBR also showed significant potentials on ARGs reduction, whilst MBR and UASB could not reduce ARGs effectively. Redundancy analysis implied that the purification of wastewater quality parameters (COD, NH4 (+)-N, and turbidity) performed a positive correlation to ARB and ARGs reductions.

  6. The role of zero valent iron on the fate of tetracycline resistance genes and class 1 integrons during thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion of waste sludge and kitchen waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Pin; Gu, Chaochao; Wei, Xin; Li, Xiang; Chen, Hong; Jia, Hanzhong; Liu, Zhenhong; Xue, Gang; Ma, Chunyan

    2017-03-15

    Activated sludge has been identified as a potential significant source of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) to the environment. Anaerobic digestion is extensively used for sludge stabilization and resource recovery, and represents a crucial process for controlling the dissemination of ARGs prior to land application of digested sludge. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of zero valent iron (Fe 0 ) on the attenuation of seven representative tetracycline resistance genes (tet, tet(A), tet(C), tet(G), tet(M), tet(O), tet(W), and tet(X)), and the integrase gene intI1 during thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion of waste sludge and kitchen waste. Significant decrease (P genes was observed at Fe 0 dosage of 5 g/L, whereas no significant differences (P > 0.05) were found for all gene targets between digesters with Fe 0 dosages of 5 and 60 g/L. A first-order kinetic model favorably described the trends in concentrations of tet and intI1 gene targets during thermophilic anaerobic digestion with or without Fe 0 . Notably, tet genes encoding different resistance mechanisms behaved distinctly in anaerobic digesters, although addition of Fe 0 could enhance their reduction. The overall results of this research suggest that thermophilic anaerobic digestion with Fe 0 can be a potential alternative technology for the attenuation of tet and intI1 genes in waste sludge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Influence of two-phase anaerobic digestion on fate of selected antibiotic resistance genes and class I integrons in municipal wastewater sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ying; Cui, Erping; Zuo, Yiru; Cheng, Weixiao; Rensing, Christopher; Chen, Hong

    2016-07-01

    The response of representative antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) to lab-scale two-phase (acidogenic/methanogenic phase) anaerobic digestion processes under thermophilic and mesophilic conditions was explored. The associated microbial communities and bacterial pathogens were characterized by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. A two-phase thermophilic digestion reduced the presence of tetA, tetG, tetX, sul1, ermB, dfrA1, dfrA12 and intI1 exhibiting 0.1-0.72 log unit removal; in contrast, tetO, tetW, sul3, ermF and blaTEM even increased relative to the feed, and sul2 showed no significant decrease. The acidogenic phase of thermophilic digestion was primarily responsible for reducing the quantity of these genes, while the subsequent methanogenic phase caused a rebound in their quantity. In contrast, a two-phase mesophilic digestion process did not result in reducing the quantity of all ARGs and intI1 except for ermB and blaTEM. ARGs patterns were correlated with Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria during the two-phase anaerobic digestion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Antimicrobial Resistance of Enteric Salmonella in Bangui, Central African Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Diamant Mossoro-Kpinde

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The number of Salmonella isolated from clinical samples that are resistant to multiple antibiotics has increased worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of resistant Salmonella enterica isolated in Bangui. Methods. All enteric Salmonella strains isolated from patients in 2008 were identified and serotyped, and the phenotypes of resistance were determined by using the disk diffusion method. Nine resistance-associated genes, blaTEM, blaOXA, blaSHV, tetA, aadA1, catA1, dhfrA1, sul I, and sul II, were sought by genic amplification in seven S.e. Typhimurium strains. Results. The 94 strains isolated consisted of 47 S.e. Typhimurium (50%, 21 S.e. Stanleyville (22%, 18 S.e. Enteritidis (19%, 4 S.e. Dublin (4%, 4 S.e. Hadar (4%, and 1 S.e. Papuana (1%. Twenty-five (28% were multiresistant, including 20 of the Typhimurium serovar (80%. Two main phenotypes of resistance were found: four antibiotics (56% and to five antibiotics (40%. One S.e. Typhimurium isolate produced an extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL. Only seven strains of S.e. Typhimurium could be amplified genically. Only phenotypic resistance to tetracycline and aminosides was found. Conclusion. S. Typhimurium is the predominant serovar of enteric S. enterica and is the most widely resistant. The search for resistance genes showed heterogeneity of the circulating strains.

  9. Astroinformatics as a New Research Field. UkrVO Astroinformation Resources: Tasks and Prospective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavilova, I. B.

    The data-oriented astronomy has allowed classifying the Astroinformatics as a new academic research field, which covers various multi-disciplinary applications of the e-Astronomy. Among them are the data modeling, data mining, metadata standards development, data access, digital astronomical databases, image archives and visualization, machine learning, statistics and other computational methods and software for work with astronomical survey and catalogues with their teta- topeta-scale astroinformation resource. In this review we describe briefly the astroinformatics applications and software/services performed for different astronomical tasks in frame of the VIrtual Roentgen and Gamma Observatory (VIRGO) and Ukrainian VirtualObservatory (UkrVO). Among them there are projects based on the archival space-born data of X-ray and gamma space observatories and on the Joint Digitized Archive (JDA) database of astroplate network collections. The UkrVO JDA DR1 deals with the star catalogues (FON, Polar zone, open clusters, GRB star fields) as well as the UkrVO JDA DR2 deals with the Solar System bodies (giant and small planets, satellites, astronomical heritage images).

  10. Antimicrobial resistance and antimicrobial resistance genes in marine bacteria from salmon aquaculture and non-aquaculture sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Syed Q A; Cabello, Felipe C; L'abée-Lund, Trine M; Tomova, Alexandra; Godfrey, Henry P; Buschmann, Alejandro H; Sørum, Henning

    2014-05-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AR) detected by disc diffusion and antimicrobial resistance genes detected by DNA hybridization and polymerase chain reaction with amplicon sequencing were studied in 124 marine bacterial isolates from a Chilean salmon aquaculture site and 76 from a site without aquaculture 8 km distant. Resistance to one or more antimicrobials was present in 81% of the isolates regardless of site. Resistance to tetracycline was most commonly encoded by tetA and tetG; to trimethoprim, by dfrA1, dfrA5 and dfrA12; to sulfamethizole, by sul1 and sul2; to amoxicillin, by blaTEM ; and to streptomycin, by strA-strB. Integron integrase intl1 was detected in 14 sul1-positive isolates, associated with aad9 gene cassettes in two from the aquaculture site. intl2 Integrase was only detected in three dfrA1-positive isolates from the aquaculture site and was not associated with gene cassettes in any. Of nine isolates tested for conjugation, two from the aquaculture site transferred AR determinants to Escherichia coli. High levels of AR in marine sediments from aquaculture and non-aquaculture sites suggest that dispersion of the large amounts of antimicrobials used in Chilean salmon aquaculture has created selective pressure in areas of the marine environment far removed from the initial site of use of these agents. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Ameliorating risk: Culturable and metagenomic monitoring of the 14 year decline of a genetically engineered microorganism at a bioremediation field site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Layton, Alice [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Smart, Abby E. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Chauhan, Archana [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Ripp, Steven Anthony [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Williams, Daniel [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Burton, Whitney [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Moser, Scott [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Phillips, Jana Randolph [ORNL; Palumbo, Anthony Vito [ORNL; Sayler, Gary [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2012-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens HK44 represented the first genetically engineered microorganism to be approved in the United States for field release for applications related to subsurface soil bioremediation. In October 1996, strain HK44 was introduced into a replicated semi-contained array of soil lysimeters where its luciferase (luxCDABE)-based bioluminescent response to soil-borne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contaminants was detected and monitored for the next two years. At the termination of this experiment, it was decided that the lysimeters remain available for future longer-term monitoring efforts, and were thus covered and left essentially undisturbed until the initiation of a large sampling event in 2010, fourteen years after the original release. Although after extensive sampling culturable HK44 cells were not found, additional molecular and metagenomic analyses indicated that genetic signatures of HK44 cells still persisted, with genes diagnostic for the bioluminescent transposon carried by strain HK44 (luxA and tetA) being found at low concentrations (< 5000 copies/g).

  12. Audouin's gull, a potential vehicle of an extended spectrum β-lactamase producing Salmonella Agona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antilles, Noelia; Garcia-Migura, Lourdes; Joensen, Katrine Grimstrup; Leekitcharoenphon, Pimlapas; Aarestrup, Frank M; Cerdà-Cuéllar, Marta; Hendriksen, Rene S

    2015-01-01

    The genome of a multidrug-resistant Salmonella Agona isolated from Larus audouinii (Audouin's gull) in Spain was examined. The isolate showed high levels of resistance to different antimicrobials, including third generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones, which is a public health concern as those being used to treat severe salmonellosis in humans. Whole genome sequencing revealed the strain being multilocus sequence type ST13, and eight resistance genes (aadA2, aadB, blaCTX-M-9,blaDHA-1, qnrA1, tetA, sul1 and dfrA16) belonging to seven antimicrobial classes were confirmed, as well as the presence of two plasmids. Migratory Audouin's gulls have the ability to cover long distances during annual movements. Therefore, they have the potential to disseminate multidrug-resistant Salmonella and resistance genes in the environment and over great geographic distances, contributing to the global dissemination of resistance genes. © FEMS 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Characterization of egg laying hen and broiler fecal microbiota in poultry farms in Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary and Slovenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Videnska

    Full Text Available Poultry meat is the most common protein source of animal origin for humans. However, intensive breeding of animals in confined spaces has led to poultry colonisation by microbiota with a zoonotic potential or encoding antibiotic resistances. In this study we were therefore interested in the prevalence of selected antibiotic resistance genes and microbiota composition in feces of egg laying hens and broilers originating from 4 different Central European countries determined by real-time PCR and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing, respectively. strA gene was present in 1 out of 10,000 bacteria. The prevalence of sul1, sul2 and tet(B in poultry microbiota was approx. 6 times lower than that of the strA gene. tet(A and cat were the least prevalent being present in around 3 out of 10,000,000 bacteria forming fecal microbiome. The core chicken fecal microbiota was formed by 26 different families. Rather unexpectedly, representatives of Desulfovibrionaceae and Campylobacteraceae, both capable of hydrogen utilisation in complex microbial communities, belonged among core microbiota families. Understanding the roles of individual population members in the total metabolism of the complex community may allow for interventions which might result in the replacement of Campylobacteraceae with Desulfovibrionaceae and a reduction of Campylobacter colonisation in broilers, carcasses, and consequently poultry meat products.

  14. Phenotyping and genetic characterization of Salmonella enterica isolates from Turkey revealing arise of different features specific to geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Sinem; Bulut, Ece; Durul, Bora; Uner, Ilhan; Kur, Mehmet; Avsaroglu, M Dilek; Kirmaci, Hüseyin Avni; Tel, Yasar Osman; Zeyrek, Fadile Y; Soyer, Yesim

    2017-01-16

    192 Food samples (commonly consumed 8 food types), 355 animal samples (animal feces of bovine, ovine, goat and chicken) and 50 samples from clinical human cases in Sanliurfa city, Turkey in a year were collected to determine the Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica mosaic in Turkey. 161 Salmonella isolates represented 17 serotypes, 20 sequence types (STs) and 44 PFGE patterns (PTs). 3 serotypes, S. Enteritidis, S. Typhimurium and S. Kentucky, were recovered from three different hosts. The highest discriminatory power was obtained by PFGE (SID=0.945), followed by MLST (SID=0.902) and serotyping (SID=0.885) for all isolates. The prevalence of antimicrobial resistance genes (aadA1, aadA2, strA, strB, aphA 1-Iab , bla TEM-1 , bla PSE-1 , tetA) was highly correlated with phenotypic profiles of aminoglycoside, ß-lactam and tetracycline groups (kappa >0.85). From our knowledge, this is the first study reporting spatial and temporal distribution of Salmonella species through phenotypic and genetic approaches over farm to fork chain in Turkey. Thus, our data provided further information for evolution, ecology and transmission of Salmonella in Turkey. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Development of a spectroscopic assay for bifunctional ligand-protein conjugates based on copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brady, Erik D. E-mail: bradye@mail.nih.gov; Chong, Hyun-Soon; Milenic, Diane E.; Brechbiel, Martin W

    2004-08-01

    A simple, non-radioactive method for the determination of ligand-to-protein ratio (L/P) for novel ligand-antibody conjugates has been developed based on an exchange equilibrium with the purple Cu(II) complex of arsenazo III. The method requires a UV/Vis spectrometer and has been verified for monoclonal antibody Herceptin conjugates of a variety of ligand modalities, including common macrocyclic compounds NOTA and TETA, and with a new bifunctional tachpyridine (1H-Pyrrole-1-butanamide,N-[4-[[(1{alpha},3{alpha},5{alpha})-3,5-bis[(2-pyridi= nylmethyl) amino]cyclohexyl](2-pyridinylmethyl)amino]butyl]-2,5-dihydro-2, 5-dioxo-(9CI)). The spectroscopically derived values for L/P were verified by titration of the ligand-antibody conjugate with {sup 64}Cu. In each case, the value obtained by UV/Vis spectroscopy matches that found by radiolabeling. The method is rapid, taking less than 30 minutes with each ligand in this study.

  16. A New Synthesis of TE2A-a Potential Bifunctional Chelator for {sup 64}Cu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandya, Darpan N.; Kwak, Won Jung; Park, Jeong Chan; Gawande, Manoj B.; Yoo, Jeong Soo [Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jung Young; An, Gwang Il [Molecular Imaging Research Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Eun Kyoung [Korea Basic Science Institute, Chungbuk (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-09-15

    The development of a new bifunctional chelator, which holds radio metals strongly in living systems, is a prerequisite for the successful application of disease-specific biomolecules to medical diagnosis and therapy. Recently, TE2A was reported to make kinetically more stable Cu({Pi}) complexes than TETA. Herein, we report a new synthetic route to TE2A and explore its potential as a bifunctional chelator. TE2A was synthesized using the regioselective alkylation of benzyl bromoacetate and successive de protection of the methylene bridge and benzyl group. Salt-free TE2A was radiolabeled with {sup 64}Cu and micro PET imaging was performed to follow the clearance pattern of the {sup 64}Cu-TE2A complex. TE2A was conjugated with cyclic RGD peptide and the TE2A-c(RGDyK) conjugate was radiolabeled with {sup 64}Cu. TE2A was prepared in salt-free form cyclam in an overall yield of 74%. The micro PET images showed that {sup 64}Cu-TE2A is excreted rapidly from the body by the kidney and liver. TE2A was successfully conjugated with c(RGDyK) peptide through on carboxylate group and the TE2A-c(RGDyK) conjugate was radiolabeled with {sup 64}Cu in 94% yield within 30 min. TE2A can be used by itself as a bifunctional chelator without any further structural modification.

  17. Antimicrobial resistance in faecal enterococci and Escherichia coli isolates recovered from Iberian wolf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, A; Igrejas, G; Radhouani, H; Correia, S; Pacheco, R; Santos, T; Monteiro, R; Guerra, A; Petrucci-Fonseca, F; Brito, F; Torres, C; Poeta, P

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to report the antimicrobial resistance, the molecular mechanisms associated and the detection of virulence determinants within faecal Enterococcus spp. and Escherichia coli isolates of Iberian wolf. Enterococci (n = 227) and E. coli (n = 195) isolates were obtained from faecal samples of Iberian wolf (Canis lupus signatus). High rates of resistance were detected for tetracycline and erythromycin among the enterococci isolates, and most of resistant isolates harboured the tet(M) and/or tet(L) and erm(B) genes, respectively. The blaTEM, tet(A) and/or tet(B), and aadA or strA-strB genes were detected among most ampicillin-, tetracycline- or streptomycin-resistant E. coli isolates, respectively. E. coli isolates were ascribed to phylogroups A (n = 56), B1 (91), B2 (13) and D (35). The occurrence of resistant enterococci and E. coli isolates in the faecal flora of Iberian wolf, including the presence of resistant genes in integrons, and virulence determinants was showed in this study. Iberian wolf might act as reservoir of certain resistance genes that could be spread throughout the environment. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. Cultivation-dependent and high-throughput sequencing approaches studying the co-occurrence of antibiotic resistance genes in municipal sewage system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, An-Dong; Ma, Liping; Jiang, Xiao-Tao; Zhang, Tong

    2017-11-01

    During the past years, antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) leading for the spreading of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) became a global problem, especially multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria are considered the prime culprit of antibiotic resistance. However, the correlation between the antibiotic-resistant phenotype and the ARG profiles remains poorly understood. In the present study, metagenomic functional screening and metagenomic analysis of coliforms were combined to explore the phenotype and genotype of the ARBs from municipal sewage. Our results showed that the ARG co-occurrence was widespread in the municipal sewage. The present study also highlighted the high abundance of ARGs from antibiotic resistance coliforms especially the MDR coliforms with ARG level of 33.8 ± 4.2 copies per cell. The ARG profiles and the antibiotic resistance phenotypes of the isolated antibiotic resistant coliforms were also correlated and indicated that the resistance to the related antibiotic (ampicillin, kanamycin, erythromycin, chloramphenicol, and tetracycline) was mostly contributed by the ARGs belonging to the subtypes of β-lactamase, aminoglycoside 3-phosphotransferase, phosphotransferase type 2, chloramphenicol acetyltransferase, tetA, etc.

  19. Tetracycline-resistant coliforms in the effluent of the main sewage treatment plant in Hamilton, Ontario - do they have a common ancestral strain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorger, George J; Quinn, James S

    2010-07-01

    Sewage, a major source of bacterial contamination of the environment, can be an important health hazard. The presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in sewage can exacerbate this problem. The sources of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in sewage are, for this reason, worth identifying and addressing. The bacterial flora in the effluent of the Woodward Avenue Wastewater Treatment Plant (WAWTP) in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, contains many antibiotic-resistant coliforms. Here we ask, are the antibiotic resistance genes in the coliforms in the effluent of WAWTP descended from a recent common ancestor strain? If so, the source could be identified and eliminated. If, on the other hand, the antibiotic resistance genes in the bacterial flora of the WAWTP have more than one origin, identification and elimination of the source(s) could be difficult. There was considerable diversity of antibiotic resistance patterns and antibiotic resistance genes among the effluent and influent coliform isolates of the WAWTP, suggesting multiple genetic ancestry. The patterns of horizontal transmissibility and sequence differences in the genes tetA and tetE among these coliform isolates also suggest that they have no one predominant ancestral strain. Using the same logic, the evidence presented here is not compatible with a single ancestral origin of the antibiotic resistance genes in the isolates described herein.

  20. Identification and characterization of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Derby isolates carrying a new aadA26 gene cassette in a class 1 integron obtained at pig slaughterhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Graciela Volz; Michael, Geovana Brenner; Cardoso, Marisa; Schwarz, Stefan

    2014-07-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica (S.) serovar Derby is one of the most prevalent serovars in pigs. Twenty-seven multiresistant S. Derby isolates, obtained at two pig slaughterhouses in Southern Brazil, were investigated for their molecular relationships, genotypic resistance and presence of class 1 and 2 integrons. All isolates shared the same XbaI-macrorestriction pattern and showed a common resistance genotype with resistance to streptomycin/spectinomycin (aadA variant), sulphonamides (sul1) and tetracycline [tet(A)]. They carried chromosome-located class 1 integrons with a new aadA gene variant, designated aadA26, as part of a gene cassette. The sequence of the flanking regions of this integron and the amplification of the merA gene may indicate the location of the class 1 integron into a Tn21-related transposon. The close relationships among these isolates and isolates from an earlier study suggest the persistence of a resistant clone of S. Derby in the pig production chain in Southern Brazil. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Structural, mechanical and electrical characterization of epoxy-amine/carbon black nanonocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This work presents an insight into the effect of preparation procedure and the filler content on both electrical and mechanical properties of a nanocomposite system. For the preparation of the nanocomposites diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA was used with triethylenetetramine (TETA as a curing agent. As fillers carbon black (CB nanoparticles with size from 25 to 75 nm were used. The characterization was done using Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA, Dielectric Relaxation Spectroscopy (DRS, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC, Wide Angle X-ray Diffraction (WAXD and electrical conductivity measurements. The dependence of the dynamic mechanical and dielectric parameters (E′, E″, tanδ, ε', ε″, σ and Tg is associated with the filler content and is controlled by the employed curing conditions. An increase in electrical conductivity, which is observed at about 1% w/w of carbon black, indicates the creation of conducting paths and is associated with the Maxwell Wagner Sillars (MWS relaxation, probably due to the formation of aggregated microstructures in the bulk composite..

  2. Evaluating the effects of activated carbon on methane generation and the fate of antibiotic resistant genes and class I integrons during anaerobic digestion of solid organic wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingxin; Mao, Feijian; Loh, Kai-Chee; Gin, Karina Yew-Hoong; Dai, Yanjun; Tong, Yen Wah

    2017-10-30

    The effects of activated carbon (AC) on methane production and the fate of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) were evaluated through comparing the anaerobic digestion performance and transformation of ARGs among anaerobic mono-digestion of food waste, co-digestion of food waste and chicken manure, and co-digestion of food waste and waste activated sludge. Results showed that adding AC in anaerobic digesters improved methane yield by at least double through the enrichment of bacteria and archaea. Conventional digestion process showed ability in removing certain types of ARGs, such as tetA, tetX, sul1, sul2, cmlA, floR, and intl1. Supplementing AC in anaerobic digester enhanced the removal of most of the ARGs in mono-digestion of food waste. The effects tended to be minimal in co-digestion of co-substrates such as chicken manure and waste activated sludge, both of which contain a certain amount of antibiotics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Detection of selected antibiotic resistance genes using multiplex PCR assay in mastitis pathogens in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Pyatov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to develop multiplex polymerase chain reaction assays for the detection of aminoglycoside (strA, strB, sulphonamide (sulI, sulII, tetracycline (tetA, tetB, tetK, tetM, tetO, macrolide and lincosamide (msrA, ermA, ermB, ermC, mefA/E genes of resistance in mastitis pathogens (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis, Streptococcus agalactiae and Streptococcus dysgalactiae. Applying the established assays, we investigated the distribution of antibiotic resistance genes in the above mentioned species isolated from milk samples in the Czech Republic. Each assay consisted of seven pairs of primers. Six of them amplified fragments of antibiotic resistance genes and one pair a fragment of a species specific gene. Polymerase chain reaction conditions were optimized to amplify seven gene fragments simultaneously in one reaction. In total, 249 isolates were used, among which 111 were positive for E. coli, 52 for S. aureus and 86 for Streptococcus spp. The majority (60.2% of bacteria carried at least one antibiotic resistance gene and 44.6% were multidrug-resistant. The designed multiplex polymerase chain reaction assays may be applied as diagnostic method to replace or complement standard techniques of antibiotic susceptibility testing in the mentioned pathogens.

  4. Antibiotic susceptibility profiles of some Vibrio strains isolated from wastewater final effluents in a rural community of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igbinosa Etinosa O

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the antibiogram and antibiotic resistance genes of some Vibrio strains isolated from wastewater final effluents in a rural community of South Africa. V. vulnificus (18, V. metschnikovii (3, V. fluvialis (19 and V. parahaemolyticus (12 strains were isolated from final effluents of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP located in a rural community of South Africa. The disk diffusion method was used for the characterization of the antibiogram of the isolates. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR was employed to evaluate the presence of established antibiotic resistance genes using specific primer sets. Results The Vibrio strains showed the typical multidrug-resistance phenotype of an SXT element. They were resistant to sulfamethoxazole (Sul, trimethoprim (Tmp, cotrimoxazole (Cot, chloramphenicol (Chl, streptomycin (Str, ampicillin (Amp, tetracycline (Tet nalidixic acid (Nal, and gentamicin (Gen. The antibiotic resistance genes detected includes dfr18 and dfrA1 for trimethoprim; floR, tetA, strB, sul2 for chloramphenicol, tetracycline, streptomycin and sulfamethoxazole respectively. Some of these genes were only recently described from clinical isolates, demonstrating genetic exchange between clinical and environmental Vibrio species. Conclusions These results demonstrate that final effluents from wastewater treatment plants are potential reservoirs of various antibiotics resistance genes. Moreover, detection of resistance genes in Vibrio strains obtained from the wastewater final effluents suggests that these resistance determinants might be further disseminated in habitats downstream of the sewage plant, thus constituting a serious health risk to the communities reliant on the receiving waterbodies.

  5. Virulence and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli in the beef jerky production line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Fernanda Pereira; Voloski, Flávia Liége Schütz; Ramires, Tassiana; Haubert, Louise; Reta, Giulia Giugliani; Mondadori, Rafael Gianella; Silva, Wladimir Padilha da; Conceição, Rita de Cássia Dos Santos da; Duval, Eduarda Hallal

    2017-05-01

    Intense manipulation during beef jerky production increases the possibility of contamination with pathogenic microorganisms. This study evaluated the contamination by thermotolerant coliforms, Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp., on processing surfaces and raw materials during beef jerky production, as well as in the final product. Thermotolerant coliforms were found on all surfaces tested and in the raw material. Escherichia coli was identified in 6.7% of the surface samples, while Salmonella spp. was found in 3.3% of the surface samples and 8.6% of raw material samples. Virulence genes were detected in Salmonella spp. isolates. One Salmonella spp. isolate was resistant to sulfonamide, while one E. coli isolate was multiresistant, including the presence of resistance genes sul2, strA, strB, tetA and tetB. The presence of coliforms demonstrates failings in hygienic-sanitary procedures. The presence of pathogenic microorganisms causing foodborne diseases in the production line indicates persistent contamination in the production plant. Although the drying process applied to beef jerky should guarantee the safety of the final product, the presence of multiresistant pathogenic microorganisms, presenting virulence genes, should be a matter of concern. Because beef jerky is a ready-to-eat product, a failure in the production process may cause such microorganisms to pose a public health risk. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Synthesis, characterization and cytotoxicity of surface amino-functionalized water-dispersible multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuković, Goran; Marinković, Aleksandar; Obradović, Maja; Radmilović, Velimir; Čolić, Miodrag; Aleksić, Radoslav; Uskoković, Petar S.

    2009-06-01

    Surface functionalization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), with amino groups via chemical modification of carboxyl groups introduced on the nanotube surface, using O-(7-azabenzotriazol-1-yl)- N, N, N', N'-tetramethyluronium hexafluorophosphate (N-HATU) and N, N-diisopropylethylamine (DIEA) is reported. The N-HATU coupling agent provides faster reaction rate and the reaction occurs at lower temperature compared to amidation and acylation-amidation chemistry. The amines, 1,6-hexanediamine (HDA), diethylenetriamine (DETA), triethylenetetramine (TETA) and 1,4-phenylenediamine (PDA) were used. The resulting materials were characterized with different techniques such as FTIR, XRD, elemental analysis, TGA, TEM, UV-vis spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. MWCNTs functionalized with PDA posses the best dispersibility and electron transfer properties in comparison to the others amines. Functionalized MWCNTs, at the concentrations between 1 and 50 μg ml -1, were not cytotoxic for the fibroblast L929 cell line. However, the concentrations of MWCNTs higher of 10 μg ml -1 reduced cell growth and this effect correlated positively with the degree of their uptake by L929 cells.

  7. Synthesis, characterization and cytotoxicity of surface amino-functionalized water-dispersible multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vukovic, Goran; Marinkovic, Aleksandar [Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade, Karnegijeva 4, 11120 Belgrade (Serbia); Obradovic, Maja [Institute of Chemistry, Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade, Njegoseva 12, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Radmilovic, Velimir [National Centre for Electron Microscopy, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Colic, Miodrag [Institute for Medical Research, Military Medical Academy, Crnotravska 17, 11002 Belgrade (Serbia); Aleksic, Radoslav [Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade, Karnegijeva 4, 11120 Belgrade (Serbia); Uskokovic, Petar S., E-mail: puskokovic@tmf.bg.ac.rs [Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade, Karnegijeva 4, 11120 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2009-06-30

    Surface functionalization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), with amino groups via chemical modification of carboxyl groups introduced on the nanotube surface, using O-(7-azabenzotriazol-1-yl)-N,N,N',N'-tetramethyluronium hexafluorophosphate (N-HATU) and N,N-diisopropylethylamine (DIEA) is reported. The N-HATU coupling agent provides faster reaction rate and the reaction occurs at lower temperature compared to amidation and acylation-amidation chemistry. The amines, 1,6-hexanediamine (HDA), diethylenetriamine (DETA), triethylenetetramine (TETA) and 1,4-phenylenediamine (PDA) were used. The resulting materials were characterized with different techniques such as FTIR, XRD, elemental analysis, TGA, TEM, UV-vis spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. MWCNTs functionalized with PDA posses the best dispersibility and electron transfer properties in comparison to the others amines. Functionalized MWCNTs, at the concentrations between 1 and 50 {mu}g ml{sup -1}, were not cytotoxic for the fibroblast L929 cell line. However, the concentrations of MWCNTs higher of 10 {mu}g ml{sup -1} reduced cell growth and this effect correlated positively with the degree of their uptake by L929 cells.

  8. New Insights in the Design of Bioactive Peptides and Chelating Agents for Imaging and Therapy in Oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lucia Tornesello

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Many synthetic peptides have been developed for diagnosis and therapy of human cancers based on their ability to target specific receptors on cancer cell surface or to penetrate the cell membrane. Chemical modifications of amino acid chains have significantly improved the biological activity, the stability and efficacy of peptide analogues currently employed as anticancer drugs or as molecular imaging tracers. The stability of somatostatin, integrins and bombesin analogues in the human body have been significantly increased by cyclization and/or insertion of non-natural amino acids in the peptide sequences. Moreover, the overall pharmacokinetic properties of such analogues and others (including cholecystokinin, vasoactive intestinal peptide and neurotensin analogues have been improved by PEGylation and glycosylation. Furthermore, conjugation of those peptide analogues to new linkers and bifunctional chelators (such as AAZTA, TETA, TRAP, NOPO etc., produced radiolabeled moieties with increased half life and higher binding affinity to the cognate receptors. This review describes the most important and recent chemical modifications introduced in the amino acid sequences as well as linkers and new bifunctional chelators which have significantly improved the specificity and sensitivity of peptides used in oncologic diagnosis and therapy.

  9. Biochemical and molecular characterization of tetracycline-resistant Aeromonas veronii isolates from catfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Mohamed; Sung, Kidon; Khan, Saeed A; Khan, Ashraf A; Steele, Roger

    2006-10-01

    Eighty-one tetracycline-resistant Aeromonas sp. strains were isolated from farm-raised catfish. Morphological and biochemical characteristics indicated that 23 of the 81 aeromonads were Aeromonas hydrophila, 7 isolates were Aeromonas trota, 6 isolates were Aeromonas caviae, 42 isolates were Aeromonas veronii, and 3 isolates were Aeromonas jandaei. However, the AluI and MboI restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) patterns of the PCR-amplified 1.4-kb 16S rRNA gene from all 81 tetracycline-resistant aeromonads from catfish were identical to the RFLP banding patterns of A. veronii ATCC 35626, indicating that all 81 isolates were strains of A. veronii. A multiplex PCR assay successfully amplified the 5 tetracycline-resistant genes (tetA to E) from the genomic DNA of all 81 isolates. The assay determined that tetE was the dominant gene occurring in 73/81 (90.0%) of the aeromonads. Plasmids (2.0 to 20 kb) were isolated from 33 of the 81 isolates. Dendrogram analysis of the SpeI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis identified 15 distinct macrorestriction patterns among the isolates. Our results indicate the need for use of 16S rRNA in the identification of Aeromonas spp. and the prevalence of catfish as a reservoir of tet genes.

  10. CRIANÇAS, GÊNERO E SEXUALIDADE: REALIDADE E FANTASIA POSSIBILITANDO PROBLEMATIZAÇÕES

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    Cláudia Maria Ribeiro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0104-026X2011000200020 Na dinâmica da intertextualidade, numa escrita rizomática, entreteci o roteiro de três filmes – A ostra e o vento, A teta e a lua e Inocente malícia – que trazem personagens crianças vivenciando, diferentemente, as descobertas da sexualidade e das relações de gênero. Teci esses roteiros com uma das ações do Projeto intitulado Tecendo Gênero e Diversidade Sexual nas Redes de Proteção, aprovado pela Secad/MEC em 2007, especialmente as ações do Subprojeto Direitos da Criança. Muitas crianças – personagens dessa gincana – possibilitaram a escrita de roteiros do cotidiano de processos educativos. Assim, o texto discute que o adulto, muitas vezes, exercita a violência de um olhar poderoso diante do desejo da criança – que pode driblar esse poder –, constituindo suas linhas de fuga. Mas, também, discute que o adulto pode, intencionalmente, possibilitar à criança encharcar-se das temáticas de sexualidade e gênero.

  11. [Evaluation of an immunochromatographic dipstick test for the assessment of tetanus immunity in horses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recknagel, Stephan; Snyder, Alice; Blanke, Annemarie; Uhlig, Albrecht; Brüser, Benjamin; Schusser, Gerald Fritz

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of tetanus immunity in equine patients is crucial in cases of injuries, elective surgeries, or when effective vaccination protocols are to be designed. The Fassisi® TetaCheck is a stall-side rapid test which was developed to address these issues. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate its performance parameters. To this end, the qualitative test results obtained by two blinded observers were compared to tetanus toxoid antibody levels from 99 serum samples, measured with a double antigen ELISA. Additionally the colour intensities of the test window were quantified using a camera and photo editing software. Assuming that the protective level of tetanus toxoid antibodies is ≥ 0.1 IE/ml, the tetanus quick stick (TQS) showed a sensitivity of 83.6% and a specificity of 100%. almost perfect (K = 0.88). Exchanging the observer did not affect the interpretation of theTQS (K = 0.80; K = 0.84). The definition of five distinct colour intensities of the "test window" enabled a clear differentiation of unprotected individuals from those with a protective immunity. There was a linear relationship between the objectively measured colour intensities and the tetanus toxoid antibody concentration (r2 = 0.74). The TQS thus proved to be a robust and reliable test in the stall-side assessment of tetanus immunity in horses. Its implementation in equine daily practice can help to avoid unnecessary immunizations in adult horses and therefore minimize vaccination side effects.

  12. High prevalence of multidrug-tolerant bacteria and associated antimicrobial resistance genes isolated from ornamental fish and their carriage water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verner-Jeffreys, David W; Welch, Timothy J; Schwarz, Tamar; Pond, Michelle J; Woodward, Martin J; Haig, Sarah J; Rimmer, Georgina S E; Roberts, Edward; Morrison, Victoria; Baker-Austin, Craig

    2009-12-21

    Antimicrobials are used to directly control bacterial infections in pet (ornamental) fish and are routinely added to the water these fish are shipped in to suppress the growth of potential pathogens during transport. To assess the potential effects of this sustained selection pressure, 127 Aeromonas spp. isolated from warm and cold water ornamental fish species were screened for tolerance to 34 antimicrobials. Representative isolates were also examined for the presence of 54 resistance genes by a combination of miniaturized microarray and conventional PCR. Forty-seven of 94 Aeromonas spp. isolates recovered from tropical ornamental fish and their carriage water were tolerant to > or =15 antibiotics, representing seven or more different classes of antimicrobial. The quinolone and fluoroquinolone resistance gene, qnrS2, was detected at high frequency (37% tested recent isolates were positive by PCR). Class 1 integrons, IncA/C broad host range plasmids and a range of other antibiotic resistance genes, including floR, bla(TEM-1), tet(A), tet(D), tet(E), qacE2, sul1, and a number of different dihydrofolate reductase and aminoglycoside transferase coding genes were also detected in carriage water samples and bacterial isolates. These data suggest that ornamental fish and their carriage water act as a reservoir for both multi-resistant bacteria and resistance genes.

  13. Surto de mastite causado por leveduras em um rebanho brasileiro

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    Geraldo Márcio da Costa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever um surto de mastite bovina causada por leveduras em um rebanho leiteiro localizado no Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Análises microbiológicas de amostras de leite (106 dos quartos mamários infectados de vacas em lactação demonstraram que Corynebacterium bovis (43,48% e leveduras do gênero Candida (29,35% foram os principais agentes isolados no rebanho. C. albicans (33,34%, C. catenulata (22,23% e C. glabrata (18,52% foram as espécies mais comumente isoladas. A elevada prevalência da mastite por leveduras foi associada à falta de treinamento dos ordenhadores, ao tratamento intramamário repetitivo e a falhas na higienização de tetas antes da infusão intramamária. Medidas adequadas de manejo, tratamento específico com drogas antifúngicas e descarte de animais cronicamente infectados foram eficazes para o controle do surto.

  14. PENGARUH IMPLANTASI HORMON 17a-METIL TESTOSTERON TERHADAP PEMATANGAN GONAD DAN FERTILITAS SPERMA IKAN BAUNG (Mystus nemurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sularto Sularto

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh implantasi hormon 17a-metiltestosteron terhadap pematangan gonad dan daya fertilitas sperma ikan baung (Mystus nemurus. Ikan uji yang digunakan adalah calon induk ikan baung jantan dengan kisaran bobot antara 187–338,5 g; panjang 21,1–27,5 cm; berumur 2 tahun dari hasil budidaya. Wadah pemeliharaan berupa waring berukuran 2 m x 2 m x 1,25 m yang ditempatkan dalam kolam tembok berukuran 200 m. Perlakuan adalah implantasi pelet hormon 17a-metiltestosteron dengan dosis: 0 (kontrol (A, 100 (B, 200 (C, 300 (D, dan 400 µg/kg induk (E, setiap perlakuan diulang 4 kali. Hasil percobaan menunjukkan bahwa implantasi pelet hormon 17a-metiltestosteron dapat merangsang pematangan gonad serta meningkatkan produksi sperma ikan baung. Sperma hasil stripping terbukti dapat membuahi telur dengan daya fertilitas masing-masing perlakuan: 27,65% (A; 42,4% (B; 79,0 % (C; 43,95% (D; dan 39,5% (E, dengan daya tetas masing-masing perlakuan: 14,6% (A;  42,2% (B; 69,7 % (C; 43,5% (D; dan 32,5% (E. Dosis 200 µg/kg induk merupakan dosis yang paling efektif untuk pematangan gonad ikan baung jantan

  15. TRANSRECTAL ULTRASOUND TO IDENTIFY THE SEX OF CAPRINE FETUSES ULTRASSONOGRAFIA TRANSRETAL PARA IDENTIFICAR O SEXO FETAL DE CAPRINOS

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    Cristiano Rocha Aguiar Filho

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to establish the period for sexing caprine fetuses by transrectal ultrasonography through viewing the structures of the external genitalia, monitoring of the final positioning of the genital tubercle, and the day that the penis, scrotum, clitoris and nipples were seen. Fetuses of Boer (n = 36, Brownscale Alpine (n = 31 and Anglo-nubian (n = 27, breeds in the 40th-60th day of gestation, were tracked using linear transducer of 6.0 and 8.0 MHz. The final positioning of the genital tubercle occurred in the period from 47.11 ± 1.45 days in males and 45.62 ± 1.36 days in females. The visualization of structures of the external genitalia was in the period from 49.42 ± 2.20 days for scrotum; 49.37 ± 2.19 days for penis; 49.23 ± 1.75 days for nipples and 49.98 ± 2.52 days for clitoris. The migration of female genital tubercle in the fetus occurred earlier (P < 0.05 than in males, and the visualization of penis and scrotum was earlier (P < 0.05 than the nipples and clitoris, there was no difference (P > 0.05 among the structures of the same sex. In conclusion, although the sexing of caprine fetuses can be done before the 55th day of pregnancy, it is recommended to perform it only after the visualization of the structures of the external genitalia for a greater security in the sex identification.

    KEY WORDS: Clitoris. nipples, penis, scrotum, sexing.

    Procurou-se estabelecer o período para sexar fetos caprinos pela ultrassonografia transretal visibilizando-se as estruturas da genitália externa, sendo que para tal foi monitorado o dia do posicionamento final do tubérculo genital (TG, bem como o dia em que o pênis, a bolsa escrotal, o clitóris e as tetas foram visibilizados. Foram monitorados fetos das raças Boer (n = 36, Parda Alpina (n = 31 e Anglo-nubiana (n = 27, do 40o ao 60o dia de gestação, usando-se transdutor linear de 6,0 e 8,0 MHz. O posicionamento final do TG ocorreu no período de 47

  16. Aktivitas Vermisidal dan Ovisidal Daun Biduri (Calotropis Spp. Terhadap Cacing Fasciola Gigantica Secara In Vitro

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    Gilang Kala Maulana

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui aktivitas vermisidal dan ovisidal daun Biduri (Calotropis spp. terhadap cacing F. gigantica. Sampel yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini yaitu telur dan cacing F. gigantica yang diperoleh dari Rumah Potong Hewan Pesanggaran dan daun biduri diambil dari pantai Sanur, Denpasar Bali. Konsentrasi daun biduri dibuat menggunakan daun segar yang dihancurkan dan kemudian dicampurkan dengan cairan empedu untuk vermisidal dan aquades untuk ovisidal. Konsentrasi yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini yaitu 2,5%, 5%, 7,5%, dan 10%. Pengujian dilakukan secara in vitro dengan menggunakan lima perlakuan dan empat kali ulangan. Pengamatan vermisidal dilakukan setiap 30 menit sedangkan untuk ovisidal dilakukan pada hari ke-21 dan ke-28. Hasil dari penelitian didapatkan konsentrasi daun biduri (2,5%, 5%, 7,5%, dan 10% pada masing-masing kelompok perlakuan memiliki pengaruh vermisidal, tidak berbeda nyata (P>0.05 terhadap satu dengan yang lainnya. Efek ovisidal pada hari ke-21 dan ke-28 didapatkan adanya pengaruh yang nyata (P<0.05 terhadap daya hambat tetas telur cacing F. gigantica. Disimpulkan bahwa daun biduri memiliki aktivitas vermisidal dan ovisidal terhadap cacing dan telur F. gigantica. Konsentrasi yang paling efektif untuk vermisidal dan ovisidal terhadap cacing F. gigantica adalah 5%.

  17. TANTANGAN BISNIS IKAN HIAS TIGER CATFISH (Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum MELALUI PENGUASAAN TEKNOLOGI PEMIJAHAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eni Kusrini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ikan tiger catfish (Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum merupakan salah satu ikan hias hasil introduksi yang berasal dari Sungai Amazon Amerika Latin dan mempunyai nilai ekonomi yang cukup tinggi terutama untuk komoditas ekspor. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk memberikan informasi tentang pembenihan ikan tiger catfish secara buatan. Metode yang digunakan untuk pemijahan buatan ikan tiger catfish ini adalah dengan stimulasi hormon gonadotropin. Calon induk ikan hias tiger catfish dapat matang gonad dipelihara dalam kolam beton berukuran 2,5 m x 2,0 m x 0,8 m dengan ke dalaman air antara 50-60 cm dilengkapi dengan sistem sirkulasi. Perbandingan antara jantan dan betina yaitu 1:2. Bobot rata-rata induk yang siap dipijahkan sekitar 2,5 kg dan sudah berumur minimal dua tahun. Jumlah telur yang dihasilkan setiap satu induk dapat mencapai 300.000 butir dengan daya tetas rata-rata 80%. Telur akan menetas semua dalam waktu 15 19 jam pada suhu berkisar antara 26oC-30oC. Larva yang telah menetas tetap dibiarkan dalam akuarium sampai kuning telur yang menempel di tubuh habis termakan. Keberhasilan pembenihan diawali dari pengelolaan induk yang benar untuk dapat matang gonad, sehingga kualitas telur bagus dan akan menghasikan benih-benih yang berkualitas. Teknik pembenihan juga menjadi faktor yang menentukan untuk keberhasilan pembenihan. Teknologi pemijahan buatan dengan menggunakan stimulasi hormon gonadotropin ikan tiger catfish telah dikuasai dan telah berkembang di para breeder ikan hias.

  18. EVALUASI REPRODUKSI TIGA POPULASI IKAN PATIN SIAM Pangasionodon hypophthalmus PADA GENERASI KEDUA

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    Sularto Sularto

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian dilakukan untuk mengetahui keragaan trait reproduksi ikan patin siam generasi F-1. Ikan uji yang digunakan adalah tiga populasi patin siam hasil seleksi pada tahun 2004. Ikan dipelihara dalam jaring yang ditempatkan dalam kolam 6.000 m2 dengan kedalaman antara 1,25-1,5 m. Pakan berupa pelet komersial dengan kadar protein 28% diberikan sebanyak 2% bobot biomassa/hari. Parameter yang diamati adalah perkembangan gonad, fekunditas, fertilitas, dan daya tetas. Parameter pendukung adalah kualitas air dan tingkat curah hujan. Pengamatan perkembangan gonad dilakukan setiap bulan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ikan patin populasi Sukamandi mempunyai fekunditas tertinggi yaitu 201.319 butir/kg induk diikuti oleh populasi Jakarta 163.348 butir dan populasi Sukabumi 132.340 butir. Nilai indeks ovosomatik tertinggi terdapat pada populasi Sukamandi sebesar 16,52%, diikuti populasi Jakarta 14,63% dan populasi Sukabumi 10,79%. Diameter oosit terbesar terdapat pada populasi Jakarta yaitu 1,08 mm; demikian pula panjang larva tertinggi pada populasi Jakarta yaitu 3,79 mm. Derajat fertilitas tertinggi terdapat pada populasi Sukamandi yaitu 67,88%; sedangkan derajat penetasan tertinggi terdapat pada populasi Sukabumi yaitu 96,67%.

  19. VERMISIDAL DAN OVISIDAL GETAH BIDURI (Calotropis Spp. TERHADAP FASCIOLA GIGANTICA SECARA IN VITRO

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    Muhammad Gustav Satriadistfa Septiadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui efek vermisidal dan ovisidal getah biduri (Calotropis spp. serta perbedaan pengaruh konsentrasi terhadap cacing dan telur cacing Fasciola gigantica. Sampel yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah telur dan cacing Fasciola gigantica yang diambil di Rumah Potong Hewan Pesanggaran. Getah biduri diambil dari tanaman biduri yang berada di pantai sanur, Denpasar Bali. Konsentrasi getah biduri dibuat menggunakan getah segar yang ditambahkan dengan cairan empedu untuk vermisidal dan aquades untuk ovisidal. Konsentrasi yang digunakan yaitu 2,5%, 5%, 7,5%, dan 10 %. Pengujian dilakukan secara in vitro dengan 5 perlakuan dan 4 kali ulangan. Pengamatan vermisidal dilakukan setiap jam, sedangkan ovisidal pada hari ke-21 dan ke-28. Hasil dari penelitian ini didapatkan getah biduri memiliki aktivitas vermisidal dan ovisidal terhadap cacing dan telur cacing Fasciola gigantica. Konsentrasi getah biduri (2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, dan 10% tidak memiliki pengaruh vermisidal yang berbeda terhadap Fasciola gigantica. Efek ovisidal pada hari ke-21 dan 28 menunjukkan adanya pengaruh yang nyata (P<0.05 terhadap daya hambat tetas telur cacing Fasciola gigantica. Berdasarkan hasil yang didapatkan dapat disimpulkan bahwa vermisidal getah biduri terhadap cacing Fasciola gigantica tidak memiliki efek yang berbeda pada tiap konsentrasi yang digunakan, sedangkan pada uji ovisidal didapatkan hasil yang berbeda pada setiap konsentrasi yang digunakan.

  20. A eletrencefalografia nos tumores intracranianos. Considerações sobre nove casos cirurgicamente verificados

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    Paulo Pinto Pupo

    1948-03-01

    Full Text Available Os autores, trabalhando com um eletrencefalógrafo Grass, de 6 inscritores, trazem os seus primeiros resultados em casos de tumores intracranianos cirurgicamente verificados (além de 2 já publicados anteriormente. São eles em número de 9. No primeiro, um abscesso profundamente situado no lobo frontal era traduzido por ondas delta e figuras de reverso, no eletrencefalograma do lobo frontal correspondente, ao lado de alterações difusas no restante do hemisfério cerebral, melhoradas em EEG feito ulteriormente, em perfeita concordância com o edema cerebral e o quadro clínico de hipertensão intracraniana inicial. No segundo, ondas extremamente lentas» difusas por todo um hemisfério, com figuras de reverso pré-fronto-parietais e ondas teta, indicavam um glioma difuso e grandemente lesivo para o parênquima nervoso. No terceiro, disritmias paroxísticas frontais predominantes se correlacionavam com antiga epilepsia devida a grande meningioma da foice naquela localização. O caso 4 mostrava ondas lentas difusas por todo um hemisfério cerebral, de predominância pré-frontal, com figuras de reverso bem assisaladas, coincidindo com carcinoma metastático de grande volume, de localização subfrontal. O caso 5 mostrava alterações eletrencefalográficas localizadas, parietoccipitais, à esquerda, coincidentes com meningioma angioblástico parasagital parietoccipital. O sexto se refere a um tumor enorme e consistente, com aspecto de papiloma, que, do prolongamento temporal de ventrículo lateral, comprimia as formações cerebrais suprajacentes, cujo EEG evidenciava alterações focais nítidas frontais e temporais, com ondas e figuras de reverso bem caracterizadas. O caso 7, pelo contrário, evidenciava alterações eletrencefalográficas difusas por todo um hemisfério e repercutindo sôbre a área frontal do hemisfério oposto, indicando lesão cerebral pré-central, concordando inteiramente com a clínica, com a ventrigulografia e com o

  1. Aplicações da curva de resistência no controle da qualidade física de um solo sob pastagem Applications of the resistance curve in the control of the physical quality of soils under grass

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    SILVIA IMHOFF

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available A degradação da qualidade física do solo pode estar associada com a compactação causada pelo pisoteio dos animais. A resistência do solo à penetração (RP é um parâmetro físico utilizado para estabelecer o grau de compactação do solo. Contudo, esta varia com a umidade (teta e densidade do solo (Ds. O objetivo deste trabalho foi obter a curva de resistência do solo e utilizá-la na avaliação da qualidade física do solo num sistema de pastejo intensivo rotacionado de capim-elefante. A curva de resistência do solo foi determinada por meio de 48 amostras indeformadas, obtidas na profundidade de 0-10 cm numa Terra Roxa Estruturada utilizada com pastagem em sistema intensivo de exploração. Os resultados demonstraram correlação negativa entre a RP e teta, e correlação positiva entre RP e Ds. Estimativas indicaram que no potencial de -0,01 MPa a RP não atinge valores considerados restritivos ao crescimento radicular. Entretanto, no potencial de -0,3 MPa, a RP atinge níveis limitantes em toda a área. Quanto ao sistema de manejo e a espécie estudada, os resultados sugerem que a curva de resistência do solo pode ser utilizada para orientar as práticas de manejo visando à manutenção de uma qualidade física do solo adequada para o crescimento das plantas.The degradation of the physical quality of soils has been associated with the soil compaction caused by animal trampling. The soil resistance to penetration (SRP is a soil physical parameter used to assess the soil compaction degree. However, SRP varies with soil moisture (theta and bulk density (Db. The objective of this research was to quantify the soil resistance curve and use it to evaluate the physical quality of a soil under short duration grazing system of elephant grass. The soil resistance curve was measured using forty-eight undisturbed cores taken at the 0-10 cm depth of a Kandiudalfic Eutrudox used with elephant grass in intensive system of exploration. The

  2. Heterogeneidade da Capacidade Dissipativa e do Módulo de Young em Superfícies Poliméricas: Contraste de Fase em AFM com Contato Periódico Polymer Surface Viscoelastic Heterogeneity: Phase Contrast Using AFM, in the Periodic Contact Mode

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    Carlos A. R. Costa

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O contraste de fase em microscopia de força atômica no modo de contato periódico é determinado pela topografia, viscoelasticidade e pelas propriedades adesivas das amostras. A maximização da quantidade de informação extraída das imagens exige que o procedimento de aquisição seja previamente definido através da escolha adequada do ângulo de fase entre a onda aplicada ao cristal piezoelétrico, que provoca a oscilação da sonda, e a onda gerada pela resposta do fotodetector. O efeito da topografia no contraste de fase é minimizado somente se as duas senóides (oscilação da sonda e resposta do fotodetector forem ortogonais. Escolhendo teta = -90°, os domínios brilhantes na imagem são mais dissipativos que os domínios escuros, porém o oposto é observado usando teta = +90°. Esta regra é obtida da análise de operação do instrumento, e é experimentalmente verificada com uma amostra preparada pelo recobrimento parcial de uma superfície de mica com um filme de borracha natural. Três diferentes filmes foram analisados e revelaram diferentes padrões de domínios: domínios duros em uma matriz mole são observados em um látex copolimérico sintético, enquanto que um filme de borracha natural apresenta domínios moles em uma matriz mais dura, e um filme compósito de borracha natural com polifosfato de sódio é formado por domínios duros e moles, interpenetrantes.Phase contrast in periodic contact mode-AFM is determined by topographic, viscoelastic as well as adhesive properties of the samples. Image interpretation is not straightforward, unless the image acquisition procedure is previously well defined, making an adequate choice of the phase angle q between the wave applied to the driving piezo and the wave from the photodetector output. The effect of topography on phase contrast is minimum only if the two senoidal waves (probe oscillation and phododetector response are ortogonal. By choosing theta = -90°, brighter

  3. Alterações na distribuição de potência cortical em função da consolidação da memória no aprendizado de datilografia Changes in cortical power distribution produced by memory consolidation as a function of a typewriting skill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlo Cunha

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi investigar alterações nos padrões eletroencefalográficos de sujeitos normais e destros durante o aprendizado de uma tarefa motora (datilografia. Estudos têm demonstrado que o córtex cerebral é susceptível a modificações durante a aprendizagem e que alterações nos padrões elétricos corticais ocorrem em função da aquisição de uma habilidade motora e da consolidação da memória. Assim, a atividade elétrica cortical dos sujeitos foi analisada antes e depois da prática motora. Os dados foram captados pelo "Braintech" 3000 e analisados pelo programa "Neurometrics". Para a análise estatística, variáveis comportamentais tais como tempo e erro, foram analisadas através do teste ANOVA "one-way" (diferenças entre blocos. Em seguida, foi utilizado um Teste-t pareado para os pares de eletrodos CZ-C3/CZ-C4, nas bandas de freqüência teta e alfa. Os resultados principais demonstraram mudança na performance através das variáveis comportamentais "tempo" e "número de erros". Concomitantemente, não foram observadas alterações na variável neurofisiológica "Potência Absoluta" na banda teta. Em contrapartida, houve um aumento significativo na banda alfa em áreas centrais (CZ-C3/CZ-C4. Tais resultados sugerem uma adaptação do córtex sensório-motor em função do treinamento de datilografia.The present study aimed to investigate alterations in EEG patterns in normal, right-handed individuals, during the process of learning a specific motor skill (typewriting. Recent studies have shown that the cerebral cortex is susceptible to several changes during a learning process and that alterations in the brain's electrical patterns take place as a result of the acquisition of a motor skill and memory consolidation. In this context, subjects' brain electrical activity was analyzed before and after the motor task. EEG data were collected by a Braintech 3000 and analyzed by Neurometrics. For the

  4. Estimação de parâmetros genéticos de medidas de conformação, produção de leite e idade ao primeiro parto em vacas da raça Gir Leiteiro Estimate of genetic parameters of conformation traits, milk production and age at first calving in dairy Gyr breed cows

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    Amauri Arias Wenceslau

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO - Foram utilizados 573 registros zootécnicos de vacas primíparas da raça Gir Leiteiro para estimar os componentes de (covariância das características de conformação, produção de leite em até 305 dias de lactação (PLEI e idade ao primeiro parto (IPP pelo Método da Máxima Verossimilhança Restrita (REML. Esses componentes foram utilizados no cálculo dos coeficientes de herdabilidade e nas correlações genéticas, fenotípicas e residuais. As medidas de conformação, circunferência torácica (CTOR, altura na garupa (AG, comprimento corporal (CC, comprimento de tetas (CT, diâmetro de tetas (DT e altura de úbere (AU foram realizadas em vacas à primeira lactação, com idade média de 4,05 anos. As correlações genéticas e fenotípicas entre PLEI e IPP foram 0,49 e 0,18, respectivamente. As correlações genéticas entre as características foram: PLEI x CTOR = -0,37; PLEI x AG = -0,62; PLEI x CC = -0,52; PLEI x CT = -0,08; PLEI x DT = -0,12; PLEI x AU = -0,69; IPP x CTOR = -0,05; IPP x AG = -0,37; e IPP x CC = 0,25. As estimativas de correlações genéticas entre produção de leite e medidas de tamanho corporal, de modo geral, indicam que a seleção para produção de leite teria, como resposta correlacionada, diminuição do tamanho da vaca.ABSTRACT - Data from 573 primiparous lactating Gyr cows were used to estimate the (co variance components of the conformation traits, milk production up to 305 days of lactation (MP and age at first calving (AFC by REML method. These components were used to calculate heritability coefficients and genetic, phenotypic and residual correlations. The conformation measures, the heart girth (HG, croup height (CH, body length (BL, teats length (TL, teats diameter (TD and udder height (UH were obtained in the cows at first lactation with average age of 4.05 years. The genetic and phenotypic correlations between MP and AFC were 0.49 and 0.18 respectively. The genetic correlation between

  5. Analysis of Effective Broodstock Management and Breeding of Patin Siam (Pangasius hypophthalmus in BBAT Jambi

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    Mimid A. Hamid

    2009-01-01

    2006.   Beberapa parameter seperti bobot tubuh, bobot telur yang diovulasikan (egg somatic index, jumlah  1 gram telur, dan jumlah larva yang dihasilkan  dicatat setiap kegiatan pemijahan.  Data yang terkumpul dan dianalis, hubungan produktivitas dengan ukuran  dan umur induk dievaluasi secara terpadu.  Semua betina ditandai dengan menggunakan PIT tag system (micro chip.  Perkembangan kematangan gonad dimonitor tiap bulan. Data yang terkumpul menunjukkan adanya korelasi negatif antara egg somatic index dengan bobot tubuh ikan. Selain itu daya tetas cendrung  menurun dengan meningkatnya bobot tubuh..  Semua betina yang lebih tua menunjukkan produktivitas yang rendah, hal ini ditunjukkan dengan rendahnya ESI, daya tetas dan jumlah larva/kg induk.  Prosentase induk matang gonad cukup tinggi dari bulan Januari sampai April.     Pengamatan kematangan gonad per individu menunjukkan siklus reproduksi  yang cepat dalam 2 bulan.dari Januari sampai Maret. Beberapa induk lain ditemukan  dengan tingkat kematangan gonad yang tinggi pada periode tersebut sampai bulan April.  Secara umum tingkat kematangan menurun secara drastis  pada bulan Mei dan kematangan yang rendah sampai bulan Nopember. Kata kunci : pembenihan, patin siam, egg somatic index, kematangan

  6. ALGUMAS CARACTERÍSTICAS DE CARCAÇAS DE SUÍNOS ABATIDOS EM GOIÂNIA SOME CARCASSES CHARACTERISTICS OF SWINES SLAUGHTERED IN GOIÂNIA -GO

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    Albenones José de Mesquita

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O presente trabalho foi realizado em dois estabelecimentos de abate, sem Inspeção Federal, localizados em Goiânia - GO, utilizando-se uma amostra de 1.120 suínos adultos provenientes de várias regiões do Estado de Goiás. No período em que se realizou a colheita de dados foram abatidas mais fêmeas do que machos. Os animais tipo carne revelaram rendimentos médios de carcaça superiores ao misto, peso de carcaça com maior freqüência no intervalo de classe compreendido entre 55,5 a 70 Kg, maior número médio de pares de tetas, maior comprimento de carcaça e menor espessura de toucinho em relação aos outros tipos. Já os suínos tipo banha apresentaram maior freqüência de abate, maior rendimento médio de carcaça, embora o mesmo tenha sido relativo, peso de carcaça com maior freqüência também no intervalo de classe de 55,5 a 70 Kg, número médio de pares de tetas superior a cinco estando, portanto, de acordo com o padrão estabelecido para o tipo, menor comprimento de carcaça e maior espessura de toucinho médio. Os suínos tipo misto, excetuando o aspecto "freqüência de peso de carcaça” no qual mostraram-se superiores, apresentam para as características estudadas, valores intermediários entre os tipos carne e banha.

    The present work was made in two slaughterhouses without Federal Inspection in Goiânia using a sample of 1,120 adult swines, from many regions of the Goiás State. During the experiment were slaughtered much more females than males. The meat animals showed mean income of carcass superior to the mixed, its carcass height had the greater frequency in the class interval of 70.0 to 55.5 Kg, greater mean number of udder pair, greater carcass length and smaller lard density when related to the others types. Lard type swines showed greater frequency of slaughter, greater

  7. Sexagem fetal em ovelhas Santa Inês por ultra-sonografia

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    Santos Maico Henrique Barbosa dos

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve a finalidade de identificar o sexo e de determinar o dia da migração do tubérculo genital (TG de fetos ovinos através da ultra-sonografia em tempo real. O sexo foi identificado no Experimento I (EI levando-se em consideração a localização do TG e no Experimento II (EII, a presença do pênis, prepúcio e bolsa escrotal no feto macho e das tetas, vulva e clitóris no feto fêmea. No EI, as fêmeas (n=17 foram monitoradas em intervalos de 12 horas, do 35o ao 46o dia de gestação, por via transretal com transdutor linear (6,0 e 8,0 MHz. No EII, as fêmeas (n=30 com gestação de 55 a 75 dias foram examinadas apenas uma vez, utilizando-se o mesmo transdutor e via de exame do EI. Das 17 fêmeas do EI, 11 (64,6% tiveram seus fetos corretamente sexados, independente da gestação ter sido simples (7/11, dupla (3/11 ou tríplice (1/11. Nas 6 (35,4% gestações restantes, 3 (17,7% foram duplas, sendo impossível sexar um feto de cada gestação. Nas outras 3 (17,7% gestações, os fetos foram corretamente sexados, apesar dos nascimentos não coincidirem com a quantificação. Num feto macho de uma gestação simples, a migração ocorreu no 37degrees dia e até o 46degrees, todos os fetos das outras gestações estavam corretamente sexados. Das 30 fêmeas do EII, 16 (53,4% apresentaram gestações simples e a acurácia da sexagem foi de 100%. Nas 14 (46,6% restantes, as gestações foram duplas, sendo impossível, em quatro casos, determinar o sexo de, pelo menos, um dos gêmeos. De todos os fetos nascidos, a acurácia geral da sexagem foi de 88,0% (EI e 90,9% (EII, não sendo observada diferença (P>0,05 entre ambos os experimentos. Os resultados permitem concluir que a ultra-sonografia em tempo real é um método eficiente para diagnosticar o sexo fetal pela visualização do TG, assim como pela identificação do pênis, prepúcio e bolsa escrotal no feto macho e das tetas, vulva e clitóris no feto fêmea, desde que os

  8. PEMIJAHAN DAN PERKEMBANGAN EMBRIO IKAN PELANGI (Melanotaenia spp. ASAL SUNGAI SAWIAT, PAPUA

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    Bastiar Nur

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ikan pelangi asal Sungai Sawiat, Papua merupakan ikan hias endemik yang belum diketahui data biologinya. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui jumlah telur yang dihasilkan, fertilitas dan daya tetas telur serta tahapan perkembangan embrio ikan pelangi asal Sungai Sawiat. Induk jantan dan betina ukuran 10–15 cm sebanyak 20 ekor, dipelihara dalam bak beton berukuran 2,5 x 2,5 x 1,0 m3 dengan sistem resirkulasi dan diberi pakan berupa cacing darah (bloodworm dengan frekuensi 3 kali sehari secara ad libitum. Dua ekor induk betina dan satu ekor induk jantan yang matang gonad dipijahkan dalam bak beton berukuran 1,0 x 1,0 x 0,75 m3 dan diberi tanaman air berupa eceng gondok sebagai pelindung serta media penempelan telur. Pengamatan ada tidaknya telur dilakukan setiap pagi dan sore hari selama 14 hari. Telur yang didapat dicatat baik fertile maupun infertile. Sebanyak 20 butir telur ditetaskan dalam basket plastik berukuran 13 x 10 x 5 cm dan selanjutnya diamati perkembangan embrionya dengan menggunakan mikroskop. Hasil pengamatan menunjukkan bahwa jumlah telur yang dihasilkan sebanyak 436 butir per dua ekor induk betina (218 butir per ekor, fertilitas 77,06%; daya tetas telur 74,71%; dan telur menetas setelah 8.579 menit (142 jam 59 menit pada suhu air inkubasi 27,6 – 28,3oC. Rainbow fish species originated from Sawiat River of Papua is one of Indonesian endemic species which its biological data has not been catalogued properly. The objectives of this research were to know the number of eggs (fecundity, fertility and hatchability and also the stages of embryonic development of the fish. Total of 20 male and female broodstock around 10–15 cm in size, reared in concrete tank sized 2.5 x 2.5 x 1.0 m3 equipped with closed recirculating water system and fed with bloodworm  ad libitum 3 times daily. Two already matured females and one male were selected for natural breeding and then transferred to another concrete tank (1.0 x 1.0 x 0.75 m3 in

  9. Effects of Temperature, Relative Humidity, and DEN-2 Virus Transovarial Infection on Viability of Aedes aegypti

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    Tri Baskoro T. Satoto

    2013-02-01

    hari (F0. Virus DEN-2 diinfeksikan secara transovarial cara membran oral sampai generasi F2. Kelompok lain sebagai kontrol di inkubator temperatur dan suhu tertentu, waktu tertentu, jumlah telur yang dihasilkan, yang menetas dan mengandung virus dicatat. Hasil penelitian menemukan indeks transmisi transovarial generasi F0 dan F1 selama 14 hari masainkubasi adalah 93,3% dan 82,2%, laju tetas telur dari nyamuk F0 yang terinfeksi dan tidak terinfeksi masing-masing 68% dan 85%, sedangkan laju tetas telur dari nyamuk F1 yang terinfeksi dan tidak terinfeksi masing-masing 72,6% dan 76%. Pada tiga kondisi ruang uji, nyamuk berumur 7 hari dalam ruang gelap dan lembab menghasilkan telur paling banyak dibandingkan pada kondisi normal dan pada inkubasi tanpa CO2. Nyamuk umur 14 hari menghasilkan telur tertinggi dalam ruang gelap dan lembab, dibandingkan pada kondisi ruang normal dan dalaminkubasi tanpa CO2. Virus DEN-2 dapat menginfeksi Ae.aegypti secara transovarial dengan laju infeksi lebih tinggi pada F0 daripada F1. Suhu dan kelembaban mempengaruhi kemampuan produksi telur Ae. aegypti untuk hidup dan tumbuh.

  10. Emergence of a Clonal Lineage of Multidrug-Resistant ESBL-Producing Salmonella Infantis Transmitted from Broilers and Broiler Meat to Humans in Italy between 2011 and 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Alessia; Leekitcharoenphon, Pimlapas; Feltrin, Fabiola; Alba, Patricia; Cordaro, Gessica; Iurescia, Manuela; Tolli, Rita; D'Incau, Mario; Staffolani, Monica; Di Giannatale, Elisabetta; Hendriksen, Rene S; Battisti, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    We report the spread of a clone of multidrug-resistant (MDR), ESBL-producing (blaCTX-M-1) Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Infantis, in the Italian broiler chicken industry and along the food-chain. This was first detected in Italy in 2011 and led to human infection in Italy in 2013-2014.A set (n = 49) of extended-spectrum cephalosporin (ESC)-resistant (R) isolates of S. Infantis (2011-2014) from humans, food-producing animals and meat thereof, were studied along with a selected set of earlier and more recent ESC-susceptible (ESC-S) isolates (n = 42, 2001-2014). They were characterized by macrorestriction-PFGE analysis and genetic environment of ESC-resistance. Isolates representative of PFGE-patterns and origin were submitted to Whole Genome Sequencing. The emerging ESC-R clone, detected mainly from broiler chickens, broiler meat and humans, showed a minimum pattern of clinical resistance to cefotaxime, tetracycline, sulfonamides, and trimethoprim, beside ciprofloxacin microbiological resistance (MIC 0.25 mg/L). All isolates of this clone harbored a conjugative megaplasmid (~ 280-320 Kb), similar to that described in ESC-susceptible S. Infantis in Israel (pESI-like) in 2014. This megaplasmid carried the ESBL gene blaCTX-M-1, and additional genes [tet(A), sul1, dfrA1 and dfrA14] mediating cefotaxime, tetracycline, sulfonamide, and trimethoprim resistance. It also contained genes conferring enhanced colonization capability, virulence (fimbriae, yersiniabactin), resistance and fitness (qacE1, mer) in the intensive-farming environment. This emerging clone of S. Infantis has been causing infections in humans, most likely through the broiler industry. Since S. Infantis is among major serovars causing human infections in Europe and is an emerging non-typhoidal Salmonella globally, further spread of this lineage in primary productions deserves quick and thorough risk-management strategies.

  11. Performance of vertical up-flow constructed wetlands on swine wastewater containing tetracyclines and tet genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xu; Liu, Chaoxiang; Li, Ke; Su, Jianqiang; Zhu, Gefu; Liu, Lin

    2015-03-01

    Antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) pollution in animal feeding farms received more public attention recently. Livestock wastewater contains large quantities of antibiotics and ARGs even after traditional lagoon treatment. In this study, the performance of vertical up-flow constructed wetlands (VUF-CWs) on swine wastewater containing tetracycline compounds (TCs) and tet genes was evaluated based on three aspects, TCs and tet genes removal efficiencies, residual TCs and tet genes in soils and plants, and the effect of TCs accumulation on nutrients removal and tet genes development. High removal efficiencies (69.0-99.9%) were achieved for oxytetracycline (OTC), tetracycline (TC) and chlortetracycline (CTC) with or without OTC spiked in the influent additionally. TCs concentrations in surface soils increased at first two sampling periods and then decreased after plants were harvested. Satisfactory nutrients removal efficiencies were also obtained, but TN and NH4-N removal efficiencies were significantly negative correlated with total concentration of TCs (∑TCs) in the soils (p < 0.01). The absolute abundances of all the target genes (tetO, tetM, tetW, tetA, tetX and intI1) were greatly reduced with their log units ranging from 0.26 to 3.3. However, the relative abundances of tetO, tetM and tetX in some effluent samples were significantly higher than those in the influent (p < 0.05). The relative abundances of tet genes except for tetO were significantly correlated with ∑TCs in the soils (p < 0.05). In summary, the proposed VUF-CWs are effective alternative for the removal of TCs and tet genes. But it is of great importance to prevent large accumulation of TCs in the soils. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Study of CO{sub 2} capture processes in power plants; Etude de procedes de captage du CO{sub 2} dans les centrales thermiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amann, J.M

    2007-12-15

    The aim of the present study is to assess and compare various processes aiming at recover CO{sub 2} from power plants fed with natural gas (NGCC) and pulverized coal (PC). These processes are post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture using chemical solvents, natural gas reforming for pre-combustion capture by methanol and oxy-fuel combustion with cryogenic recovery of CO{sub 2}. These processes were evaluated using the process software Aspen PlusTM to give some clues for choosing the best option for each type of power plant. With regard to post-combustion, an aqueous solution based on a mixture of amines (N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) and triethylene tetramine (TETA)) was developed. Measurements of absorption were carried out between 298 and 333 K in a Lewis cell. CO{sub 2} partial pressure at equilibrium, characteristic of the CO{sub 2} solubility in the solvent, was determined up to 393 K. The solvent performances were compared with respect to more conventional solvents such as MDEA and monoethanolamine (MEA). For oxy-fuel combustion, a recovery process, based on a cryogenic separation of the components of the flue gas, was developed and applied to power plants. The study showed that O{sub 2} purity acts on the CO{sub 2} concentration in the flue gas and thus on the performances of the recovery process. The last option is natural gas reforming with CO{sub 2} pre-combustion capture. Several configurations were assessed: air reforming and oxygen reforming, reforming pressure and dilution of the synthesis gas. The comparison of these various concepts suggests that, in the short and medium term, chemical absorption is the most interesting process for NGCC power plants. For CP power plants, oxy-combustion can be a very interesting option, as well as post-combustion capture by chemical solvents. (author)

  13. Chronological Change of Resistance to β-Lactams in Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis Isolated from Broilers in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuma, Takehisa; Miyasako, Daisuke; Dahshan, Hesham; Takayama, Tomoko; Nakamoto, Yuko; Shahada, Francis; Akiba, Masato; Okamoto, Karoku

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiologic surveillance study was conducted in southern Japan to determine the antimicrobial resistance phenotypes and characterize the β-lactamase genes and the plasmids harboring these genes in Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis (S. Infantis) isolates from broilers. Between January, 2007 and December, 2008, a total of 1,472 fecal samples were collected and examined at the Laboratory of Veterinary Public Health, Kagoshima University, Japan. In 93 (6.3%) isolates recovered, 33 (35.5%) isolates showed resistance to cefotaxime, an extended-spectrum cephalosporin (ESC), conferred by TEM-20, TEM-52 and CTX-M-25 extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs). In addition to ESC-resistance, eight (8.6%) isolates exhibited resistance to cefoxitin mediated by CMY-2 AmpC β-lactamase. Plasmid analysis and polymerase chain reaction replicon typing revealed the bla TEM-20 and bla CMY-2 genes were associated with IncP plasmids, bla TEM-52 was linked with a non-typable plasmid and bla CTX-M-25 was carried by an IncA/C plasmid. Non-β-lactam resistance to streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, and oxytetracycline encoded by the aadA1, sul1, and tet(A) genes, respectively, was found in 86 (92.5%) isolates. Resistance to kanamycin and ofloxacin was exhibited in 12 (12.9%) and 11 (11.8%) isolates, respectively, the former was mediated by aphA1-Iab. These data indicate that S. Infantis isolates producing ESBLs and AmpC β-lactamase have spread among broiler farms in Japan. These data demonstrated that the incidence of ESC-resistant S. Infantis carrying bla TEM-52 remarkably increased and S. Infantis strains harboring bla CMY-2, bla TEM-20, or bla CTX-M-25 genes emerged from broilers in Japan for the first time in 2007 and 2008.

  14. Virulence characterisation of Salmonella enterica isolates of differing antimicrobial resistance recovered from UK livestock and imported meat samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roderick eCard

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica is a foodborne zoonotic pathogen of significant public health concern. We have characterised the virulence and antimicrobial resistance gene content of 95 Salmonella isolates from 11 serovars by DNA microarray recovered from UK livestock or imported meat. Genes encoding resistance to sulphonamides (sul1, sul2, tetracycline (tet(A, tet(B, streptomycin (strA, strB, aminoglycoside (aadA1, aadA2, beta-lactam (blaTEM, and trimethoprim (dfrA17 were common. Virulence gene content differed between serovars; S. Typhimurium formed two subclades based on virulence plasmid presence. Thirteen isolates were selected by their virulence profile for pathotyping using the Galleria mellonella pathogenesis model. Infection with a chicken invasive S. Enteritidis or S. Gallinarum isolate, a multidrug resistant S. Kentucky, or a S. Typhimurium DT104 isolate resulted in high mortality of the larvae; notably presence of the virulence plasmid in S. Typhimurium was not associated with increased larvae mortality. Histopathological examination showed that infection caused severe damage to the Galleria gut structure. Enumeration of intracellular bacteria in the larvae 24 hours post-infection showed increases of up to 7 log above the initial inoculum and transmission electron microscopy (TEM showed bacterial replication in the haemolymph. TEM also revealed the presence of vacuoles containing bacteria in the haemocytes, similar to Salmonella containing vacuoles observed in mammalian macrophages; although there was no evidence from our work of bacterial replication within vacuoles. This work shows that microarrays can be used for rapid virulence genotyping of S. enterica and that the Galleria animal model replicates some aspects of Salmonella infection in mammals. These procedures can be used to help inform on the pathogenicity of isolates that may be antibiotic resistant and have scope to aid the assessment of their potential public and animal health risk.

  15. Characterization of Antibiotic Resistance Gene Abundance and Microbiota Composition in Feces of Organic and Conventional Pigs from Four EU Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerzova, Lenka; Babak, Vladimir; Sedlar, Karel; Faldynova, Marcela; Videnska, Petra; Cejkova, Darina; Jensen, Annette Nygaard; Denis, Martine; Kerouanton, Annaelle; Ricci, Antonia; Cibin, Veronica; Österberg, Julia; Rychlik, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    One of the recent trends in animal production is the revival of interest in organic farming. The increased consumer interest in organic animal farming is mainly due to concerns about animal welfare and the use of antibiotics in conventional farming. On the other hand, providing animals with a more natural lifestyle implies their increased exposure to environmental sources of different microorganisms including pathogens. To address these concerns, we determined the abundance of antibiotic resistance and diversity within fecal microbiota in pigs kept under conventional and organic farming systems in Sweden, Denmark, France and Italy. The abundance of sul1, sul2, strA, tet(A), tet(B) and cat antibiotic resistance genes was determined in 468 samples by real-time PCR and the fecal microbiota diversity was characterized in 48 selected samples by pyrosequencing of V3/V4 regions of 16S rRNA. Contrary to our expectations, there were no extensive differences between the abundance of tested antibiotic resistance genes in microbiota originating from organic or conventionally housed pigs within individual countries. There were also no differences in the microbiota composition of organic and conventional pigs. The only significant difference was the difference in the abundance of antibiotic resistance genes in the samples from different countries. Fecal microbiota in the samples originating from southern European countries (Italy, France) exhibited significantly higher antibiotic resistance gene abundance than those from northern parts of Europe (Denmark, Sweden). Therefore, the geographical location of the herd influenced the antibiotic resistance in the fecal microbiota more than farm's status as organic or conventional.

  16. Diversity, distribution and quantification of antibiotic resistance genes in goat and lamb slaughterhouse surfaces and meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavilla Lerma, Leyre; Benomar, Nabil; Knapp, Charles W; Correa Galeote, David; Gálvez, Antonio; Abriouel, Hikmate

    2014-01-01

    The distribution and quantification of tetracycline, sulfonamide and beta-lactam resistance genes were assessed in slaughterhouse zones throughout meat chain production and the meat products; this study represents the first to report quantitatively monitor antibiotic resistance genes (ARG) in goat and lamb slaughterhouse using a culture independent approach, since most studies focused on individual bacterial species and their specific resistance types. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) revealed a high prevalence of tetracycline resistance genes tetA and tetB in almost all slaughterhouse zones. Sulfonamide resistance genes were largely distributed, while beta-lactam resistance genes were less predominant. Statistical analysis revealed that resistant bacteria, in most cases, were spread by the same route in almost all slaughterhouse zones, except for tetB, blaCTX and blaTEM genes, which occurred in few zones as isolated 'hot spots.' The sum of all analyzed ARG indicated that slaughterhouse surfaces and end products act as reservoirs of ARG, mainly tet genes, which were more prevalent in slaughtering room (SR), cutting room (CR) and commercial meat products (MP). Resistance gene patterns suggest they were disseminated throughout slaughterhouse zones being also detected in commercial meat products, with significant correlations between different sampling zones/end products and total resistance in SR, CR and white room (WR) zones, and also refrigerator 4 (F4) and MP were observed. Strategically controlling key zones in slaughterhouse (SR, CR and WR) by adequate disinfection methods could strategically reduce the risks of ARG transmission and minimize the issues of food safety and environment contamination.

  17. Antibiotic resistance genes in surface water of eutrophic urban lakes are related to heavy metals, antibiotics, lake morphology and anthropic impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuyi; Xu, Chen; Cao, Xinhua; Lin, Hui; Wang, Jun

    2017-08-01

    Urban lakes are impacted by heavy human activities and represent potential reservoirs for antibiotic resistance genes. In this study, six urban lakes in Wuhan, central China were selected to analyze the distribution of sulfonamide resistance (sul) genes, tetracycline resistance (tet) genes and quinolone resistance (qnr) genes and their relationship with heavy metals, antibiotics, lake morphology and anthropic impact. sul1 and sul2 were detected in all six lakes and dominated the types of antibiotic resistance genes, which accounted for 86.28-97.79% of the total antibiotic resistance gene abundance. For eight tested tet genes, antibiotic efflux pumps (tetA, tetB, tetC, and tetG) genes were all observed in six lakes and had higher relative abundance than ribosomal protection protein genes (tetM and tetQ). For 4 plasmid mediated quinolone resistance genes, only qnrD is found in all six lakes. The class I integron (intI1) is also found to be a very important media for antibiotic resistance gene propagation in urban lakes. The results of redundancy analysis and variation partitioning analysis showed that antibiotic and co-selection with heavy metals were the major factors driving the propagation of antibiotic resistance genes in six urban lakes. The heavily eutrophic Nanhu Lake and Shahu Lake which located in a high density building area with heavy human activities had the higher relative abundance of total antibiotic resistance genes. Our study could provide a useful reference for antibiotic resistance gene abundance in urban lakes with high anthropic impact.

  18. A Comprehensive Analysis on Spread and Distribution Characteristic of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Livestock Farms of Southeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Na; Guo, Xinyan; Yan, Zheng; Wang, Wei; Chen, Biao; Ge, Feng; Ye, Boping

    2016-01-01

    The pollution of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in livestock farms is a problem which need to be paid more attention to, due to the severe resistance dissemination and the further human health risk. In this study, all the relevant exposure matrices (manure, soil and water) of sixteen animal farms in Southeastern China were sampled to determine twenty-two ARGs conferring resistance to five major classes of antibiotics including tetracyclines, sulfonamides, quinolones, aminoglycosides, and macrolides. The results showed that the spread property of sul genes was most extensive and strong, followed by tet and erm genes. The abundance of tet genes expressing ribosomal protection proteins (tetM, tetO, tetQ, tetT and tetW) was higher than that expressing efflux pump proteins (tetA, tetC, tetE and tetG) in each type of samples. The high abundance and frequency of ermB gene in the matrices should be paid more attention, because macrolides is a major medicine for human use. For manures, it was found that the similar ARGs distribution rules were existing in poultry manure or porcine manure samples, despite of the different origins of these two types of livestock farms. Meanwhile, it was interesting that the distribution rule of tet genes in animal manure was nearly the same as all the ARGs. For soils, the result of nonmetric multi-dimensional scaling (NMDS) analysis showed that the pollution of ARGs in the soils fertilized by poultry and cattle manures were more substantial in northern Jiangsu, but no significant ARGs diversity was observed among porcine manured soils of five different regions. Furthermore, most ARGs showed significant positive relationships with environmental variables such as concentration of sulfonamides, tetracyclines, Cu, Zn and total organic carbon (TOC). The pollution profile and characteristics of so many ARGs in livestock farms can provide significative foundation for the regulation and legislation of antibiotics in China.

  19. Late-glacial and Holocene history of the dry forest area in the south Colombian Cauca Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrío, Juan Carlos; Hooghiemstra, Henry; Marchant, Robert; Rangel, Orlando

    2002-10-01

    Two sedimentary cores with pollen, charcoal and radiocarbon data are presented. These records document the Late-glacial and Holocene dry forest vegetation, fire and environmental history of the southern Cauca Valley in Colombia (1020 m). Core Quilichao-1 (640 cm; 3° 6N, 76° 31W) represents the periods of 13 150-7720 14C yr BP and, following a hiatus, from 2880 14C yr BP to modern. Core La Teta-2 (250 cm; 3° 5N, 76° 32W) provides a continuous record from 8700 14C yr BP to modern.Around 13 150 14C yr BP core Quilichao-1 shows an active Late-glacial drainage system and presence of dry forest. From 11 465 to 10 520 14C yr BP dry forest consists mainly of Crotalaria, Moraceae/Urticaceae, Melastomataceae/Combretaceae, Piper and low stature trees, such as Acalypha, Alchornea, Cecropia and Celtis. At higher elevation Andean forest comprising Alnus, Hedyosmum, Quercus and Myricacrop taxa (a.o.

  20. Characterization and Horizontal Transfer of Antimicrobial Resistance Genes and Integrons in Bacteria Isolated from Cooked Meat Products in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tao; Jiang, Xiaobing; Liang, Yu; Zhu, Yanping; Tian, Jinhe; Ying, Hao; Wang, Xuannian; Shi, Lei

    2017-11-17

    The aim of this study was to investigate antimicrobial resistance and the presence and transferability of corresponding resistance genes and integrons in bacteria isolated from cooked meat samples in the People's Republic of China. A total of 150 isolates (22 species belonging to 15 genera) were isolated from 49 samples. Resistance of these isolates to antimicrobials was commonly observed; 42.7, 36.0, and 25.3% of the isolates were resistant to tetracycline, streptomycin, and ampicillin, respectively. Multidrug resistance was observed in 41 (27.3%) of the isolates. Sixteen resistance genes, i.e., blaTEM-1 and blaCTX-M-14 (β-lactams), aac(3)-IIa (gentamicin), strA and strB (streptomycin), qnrB and qnrS (fluoroquinolone), sul1, sul2, and sul3 (sulfamethoxazole), cat1 and cat2 (chloramphenicol), and tetM, tetA, tetS, and tetB (tetracycline), were found in 54 isolates. One isolate of Pseudomonas putida carried qnrB, and sequence analysis of the PCR product revealed 96% identity to qnrB2. The qnr genes were found coresiding and were cotransferred with bla genes in two isolates. Twelve isolates were positive for the class 1 integrase gene, and four isolates carried the class 2 integrase gene. However, no class 3 integrase gene was detected. One isolate of Proteus mirabilis carried dfrA32-ereA-aadA2, and this unusual array could be transferred to Escherichia coli. Nonclassic class 1 integrons lacking qacEΔ1 and sul1 genes were found in 2 of the 12 intI1-positive isolates. Our results revealed the presence of multidrug-resistant bacteria in cooked meats and the presence and transferability of resistance genes in some isolates, suggesting that cooked meat products may act as reservoirs of drug-resistant bacteria and may facilitate the spread of resistance genes.

  1. Detection of antibiotic resistant enterococci and Escherichia coli in free range Iberian Lynx (Lynx pardinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Alexandre; Igrejas, Gilberto; Radhouani, Hajer; Santos, Tiago; Monteiro, Ricardo; Pacheco, Rui; Alcaide, Eva; Zorrilla, Irene; Serra, Rodrigo; Torres, Carmen; Poeta, Patrícia

    2013-07-01

    Thirty fecal samples from wild specimens of Iberian lynx were collected and analyzed for Enterococcus spp. (27 isolates) and Escherichia coli (18 isolates) recovery. The 45 isolates obtained were tested for antimicrobial resistance, molecular mechanisms of resistance, and presence of virulence genes. Among the enterococci, Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus hirae were the most prevalent species (11 isolates each), followed by Enterococcus faecalis (5 isolates). High percentages of resistance to tetracycline and erythromycin (33% and 30%, respectively) were detected among enterococcal isolates. The tet(M) and/or tet(L), erm(B), aac(6')-Ie-aph(2″)-Ia, ant(6)-Ia, or aph(3')-IIIa genes were detected among resistant enterococci. Virulence genes were detected in one E. faecalis isolate (cpd, cylB, and cylL) and one E. hirae isolate (cylL). High percentages of resistance were detected in E. coli isolates to tetracycline (33%), streptomycin (28%), nalidixic acid (28%), and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (SXT, 22%). Additionally, the blaTEM, tet(A), aadA, cmlA, and different combinations of sul genes were detected among most ampicillin, tetracycline, streptomycin, chloramphenicol and SXT-resistant isolates, respectively. Two isolates contained a class 1 integron with the gene cassette arrays dfrA1 + aadA1 and dfrA12 + aadA2. The E. coli isolates were ascribed to phylo-groups A (n=5); B1 (n=4); B2 (n=6), and D (n=3), with the virulence gene fimA present in all E. coli isolates. This study found resistance genes in wild specimens of Iberian lynx. Thus, it is important to notice that multiresistant bacteria have reached species as rare and completely non-synanthropic as the Iberian lynx. Furthermore, the susceptibility of this endangered species to bacterial infection may be affected by the presence of these virulence and resistance genes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The effects of silane network structure on their resistance to water-assisted crack growth.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, Edward J. (University of California, Santa Barbara, CA); Benkoski, Jason J. (University of California, Santa Barbara, CA); Hall, Jessica S.; Kent, Michael Stuart; Yim, Hyun

    2003-07-01

    Silane adhesion promoters are commonly used to improve the adhesion, durability, and corrosion resistance of polymer-oxide interfaces. The current study investigates a model interface consisting of the natural oxide of 100 Si and an epoxy cured from diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) and triethylenetetraamine (TETA). The thickness of (3-glycidoxypropyl)trimethoxysilane (GPS) films placed between the two materials provided the structural variable. Five surface treatments were investigated: a bare interface, a rough monolayer film, a smooth monolayer film, a 5 nm thick film, and a 10 nm thick film. Previous neutron reflection experiments revealed large extension ratios (>2) when the 5 and 10 nm thick GPS films were exposed to deuterated nitrobenzene vapor. Despite the larger extension ratio for the 5 nm thick film, the epoxy/Si fracture energy (G{sub c}) was equal to that of the 10 nm thick film under ambient conditions. Even the smooth monolayer exhibited the same G{sub c}. Only when the monolayer included a significant number of agglomerates did the G{sub c} drop to levels closer to that of the bare interface. When immersed in water at room temperature for 1 week, the threshold energy release rate (G{sub th}) was nearly equal to G{sub c} for the smooth monolayer, 5 nm thick film, and 10 nm thick film. While the G{sub th} for all three films decreased with increasing water temperature, the G{sub th} of the smooth monolayer decreased more rapidly. The bare interface was similarly sensitive to temperature; however, the G{sub th} of the rough monolayer did not change significantly as the temperature was raised. Despite the influence of pH on hydrolysis, the G{sub th} was insensitive to the pH of the water for all surface treatments.

  3. Diversity, distribution and quantification of antibiotic resistance genes in goat and lamb slaughterhouse surfaces and meat products.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyre Lavilla Lerma

    Full Text Available The distribution and quantification of tetracycline, sulfonamide and beta-lactam resistance genes were assessed in slaughterhouse zones throughout meat chain production and the meat products; this study represents the first to report quantitatively monitor antibiotic resistance genes (ARG in goat and lamb slaughterhouse using a culture independent approach, since most studies focused on individual bacterial species and their specific resistance types. Quantitative PCR (qPCR revealed a high prevalence of tetracycline resistance genes tetA and tetB in almost all slaughterhouse zones. Sulfonamide resistance genes were largely distributed, while beta-lactam resistance genes were less predominant. Statistical analysis revealed that resistant bacteria, in most cases, were spread by the same route in almost all slaughterhouse zones, except for tetB, blaCTX and blaTEM genes, which occurred in few zones as isolated 'hot spots.' The sum of all analyzed ARG indicated that slaughterhouse surfaces and end products act as reservoirs of ARG, mainly tet genes, which were more prevalent in slaughtering room (SR, cutting room (CR and commercial meat products (MP. Resistance gene patterns suggest they were disseminated throughout slaughterhouse zones being also detected in commercial meat products, with significant correlations between different sampling zones/end products and total resistance in SR, CR and white room (WR zones, and also refrigerator 4 (F4 and MP were observed. Strategically controlling key zones in slaughterhouse (SR, CR and WR by adequate disinfection methods could strategically reduce the risks of ARG transmission and minimize the issues of food safety and environment contamination.

  4. Occurrence of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes in a sewage treatment plant and its effluent-receiving river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Xu, Yan; Wang, Hongmei; Guo, Changsheng; Qiu, Huiyun; He, Yan; Zhang, Yuan; Li, Xiaochen; Meng, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The extensive use of antibiotics has caused the contamination of both antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the environment. In this study, the abundance and distribution of antibiotics and ARGs from a sewage treatment plant (STP) and its effluent-receiving river in Beijing China were characterized. Three classes of antibiotics including tetracycline, sulfonamide and quinolone were quantified by LC-MS/MS. In the secondary effluent they were detected at 195, 2001 and 3866 ng L(-1), respectively, which were higher than in the receiving river water. A total of 13 ARGs (6 tet genes: tetA, tetB, tetE, tetW, tetM and tetZ, 3 sulfonamide genes: sul1, sul2 and sul3, and 4 quinolone genes: gryA, parC, qnrC and qnrD) were determined by quantitative PCR. For all ARGs, sulfonamide resistance genes were present at relatively high concentrations in all samples, with the highest ARG concentration above 10(-1). ARGs remained relatively stable along each sewage treatment process. The abundances of detected ARGs from the STP were also higher than its receiving river. Bivariate correlation analysis showed that relative tet gene copies (tetB/16S-rRNA and tetW/16S-rRNA) were strongly correlated with the concentrations of tetracycline residues (r(2)>0.8, presistance gene (qnrC/16S-rRNA) and the concentrations of enrofloxacin (ENR) was also determined. The difference of ARGs levels in the raw influent and secondary effluent suggested that the STP treatment process may induce to increase the abundance of resistance genes. The results showed that the sewage was an important repository of the resistance genes, which need to be effectively treated before discharge into the natural water body. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Thermo-mechanical characterization of siliconized E-glass fiber/hematite particles reinforced epoxy resin hybrid composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arun Prakash, V.R., E-mail: vinprakash101@gmail.com; Rajadurai, A., E-mail: rajadurai@annauniv.edu.in

    2016-10-30

    Highlights: • Particles dimension have reduced using Ball milling process. • Importance of surface modification was explored. • Surface modification has been done to improve adhesion of fiber/particles with epoxy. • Mechanical properties has been increased by adding modified fiber and particles. • Thermal properties have been increased. - Abstract: In this present work hybrid polymer (epoxy) matrix composite has been strengthened with surface modified E-glass fiber and iron(III) oxide particles with varying size. The particle sizes of 200 nm and <100 nm has been prepared by high energy ball milling and sol-gel methods respectively. To enhance better dispersion of particles and improve adhesion of fibers and fillers with epoxy matrix surface modification process has been done on both fiber and filler by an amino functional silane 3-Aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS). Crystalline and functional groups of siliconized iron(III) oxide particles were characterized by XRD and FTIR spectroscopy analysis. Fixed quantity of surface treated 15 vol% E-glass fiber was laid along with 0.5 and 1.0 vol% of iron(III) oxide particles into the matrix to fabricate hybrid composites. The composites were cured by an aliphatic hardener Triethylenetetramine (TETA). Effectiveness of surface modified particles and fibers addition into the resin matrix were revealed by mechanical testing like tensile testing, flexural testing, impact testing, inter laminar shear strength and hardness. Thermal behavior of composites was evaluated by TGA, DSC and thermal conductivity (Lee’s disc). The scanning electron microscopy was employed to found shape and size of iron(III) oxide particles adhesion quality of fiber with epoxy matrix. Good dispersion of fillers in matrix was achieved with surface modifier APTMS. Tensile, flexural, impact and inter laminar shear strength of composites was improved by reinforcing surface modified fiber and filler. Thermal stability of epoxy resin was improved

  6. Resistance phenotypes and genotypes of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica isolates from feed, pigs, and carcasses in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Graciela Volz; Pissetti, Caroline; da Cruz Payão Pellegrini, Débora; da Silva, Luis Eduardo; Cardoso, Marisa

    2015-02-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica plays a role as a foodborne pathogen worldwide. The consumption of contaminated pork has been associated with human salmonellosis and the increase in antimicrobial resistance among Salmonella from pigs and pork products is a concern. A total of 225 Salmonella isolates from feed mills, the lairage environment, and the intestinal contents of pigs and carcasses were investigated for their antimicrobial susceptibility. A MIC for ciprofloxacin was screened by agar dilution, and antimicrobial resistance genes were investigated by PCR assays. Among the tested isolates, 171 (76%) showed resistance to at least one antimicrobial agent, and 91 (40.4%) were multiresistant. Resistance occurred most frequently to tetracycline (54.5%), sulfonamides (39.6%), and streptomycin (33.7%). Thirty-two (94.1%) nalidixic acid-resistant isolates exhibited decreased susceptibility to ciprofloxacin. The resistance genes found were blaTEM (ampicillin), tet(A) (tetracycline), tet(B) (tetracycline/minocycline), sul1, sul2, and sul3 (sulfonamides), catA1 (chloramphenicol), floR (florfenicol/chloramphenicol), strA and strB (streptomycin), aph(3')-Ia (kanamycin), aac(3)-IIa and aac(3)-IVa (apramycin/gentamicin), aadA variant (streptomycin/spectinomycin), and dfrA1 (trimethoprim). Salmonella isolates from pig feces and carcasses displayed a higher frequency of resistance to most antimicrobials tested than isolates from feed mills. Common resistance gene profiles were found in isolates from the lairage and the intestinal content of pigs and carcasses, demonstrating that resistance genes selected on farms may be found in pork.

  7. Estimativa de fluxos de água em solos não saturados Water flux estimates in unsaturated soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Reichardt

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Com dados obtidos em perfis de terra roxa estruturada do município de Piracicaba (SP, é mostrada a dificuldade da estimativa de fluxos de água no solo, utilizando o modelo de Darcy-Buckingham. O experimento trata do estabelecimento de balanços hídricos em 25 parcelas de 5 x 5 m, alinhadas ao longo de uma transeção de 125 m. O componente drenagem profunda do balanço hídrico é estimado mediante medidas de umidade do solo (teta, cm³/cm³, feitas com sonda de nêutrons, e de potencial total da água do solo H (cm H2O obtidas com tensiômetros. O trabalho mostra a grande dificuldade da estimativa de fluxos de drenagem q (mm/dia, a qual está relacionada: (1 à exponencialidade da relação entre a condutividade hidráulica do solo k (mm/dia e a umidade do solo ou o potencial matricial da água no solo h (cm H(20, e (2 à variabilidade espacial do solo.Difficulties of using Darcy-Buckingham's model to estimate unsaturated soil water flux densities are shown using field data collected in a Alfisol ("terra roxa estruturada" at Piracicaba, State of São Paulo, Brazil. The experiment consists of the establishment of water balances on 25 experimental plots of 5 m x 5 m, aligned along a 125 m transect. The deep drainage component of the water balances is estimated using soil water content data obtained through neutron probe readings and soil water potential data measured with mercury manometer tensiometers. The work shows the great difficulty of estimating drainage fluxes, which is mainly related to (1 the exponential relation between soil hydraulic conductivity and soil water content or soil water potential, and (2 soil spatial variability.

  8. Prevalence of sulfonamide and tetracycline resistance genes in drinking water treatment plants in the Yangtze River Delta, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xueping; Li, Jing; Yang, Fan; Yang, Jie; Yin, Daqiang

    2014-09-15

    The occurrence and distribution of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) and finished water are not well understood, and even less is known about the contribution of each treatment process to resistance gene reduction. The prevalence of ten commonly detected sulfonamide and tetracycline resistance genes, namely, sul I, sul II, tet(C), tet(G), tet(X), tet(A), tet(B), tet(O), tet(M) and tet(W) as well as 16S-rRNA genes, were surveyed in seven DWTPs in the Yangtze River Delta, China, with SYBR Green I-based real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. All of the investigated ARGs were detected in the source waters of the seven DWTPs, and sul I, sul II, tet(C) and tet(G) were the four most abundant ARGs. Total concentrations of ARGs belonging to either the sulfonamide or tetracycline resistance gene class were above 10(5) copies/mL. The effects of a treatment process on ARG removal varied depending on the overall treatment scheme of the DWTP. With combinations of the treatment procedures, however, the copy numbers of resistance genes were reduced effectively, but the proportions of ARGs to bacteria numbers increased in several cases. Among the treatment processes, the biological treatment tanks might serve as reservoirs of ARGs. ARGs were found in finished water of two plants, imposing a potential risk to human health. The results presented in this study not only provide information for the management of antibiotics and ARGs but also facilitate improvement of drinking water quality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. First Detection of CTX-M-1 in Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli in Seafood from Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Leila Ben; Hamdaoui, Mouna; Jouini, Ahlem; Boudabous, Abdellatif; Slama, Karim Ben; Torres, Carmen; Klibi, Naouel

    2017-10-17

    The purpose of this study was to determine the carriage rate of Escherichia coli isolates in seafood, to analyze the phenotype and genotype of antimicrobial resistance in the recovered isolates, and to characterize extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) E. coli producers. E. coli isolates were recovered from 24 (34.3%) of the 70 seafood samples analyzed, and one isolate per sample was further characterized. Antibiotic resistance was determined by the disk diffusion method in the 24 isolates, with the following results (number of resistant isolates): tetracycline (8), streptomycin (7), ampicillin (6), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (4), chloramphenicol (4), ciprofloxacin (3), cefotaxime (2), and ceftazidime (2). Six isolates showed a multiresistant phenotype (including at least three families of antibiotics). Among tetracycline-resistant E. coli isolates, tet(A) was detected in five isolates and tet(B) in two isolates. The qnr(A) or aac(6')-1b-cr genes were detected in two ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli isolates, and the sul2 gene in two trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-resistant isolates. ESBL-containing E. coli isolates, carrying the bla CTX-M-1 gene, were detected in 2 of the 70 seafood samples, obtained from gilt-head bream aquaculture. The ESBL isolates were typed phylogenetically and by multilocus sequence typing, and they were ascribed to lineage ST48/A and to the new ST3497/B1; these isolates carried the fimA, aer, and papGIII virulence genes. One of the ESBL-producing E. coli isolates carried an unusual class 1 integron (with the array dfr32-ereA-aadA1). Seafood could be a source of multiresistant E. coli isolates for the aquatic environment, and these could enter the food chain.

  10. Prevalence, antimicrobial susceptibility and virulotyping of Listeria species and Listeria monocytogenes isolated from open-air fish markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamali, Hossein; Paydar, Mohammadjavad; Ismail, Salmah; Looi, Chung Yeng; Wong, Won Fen; Radmehr, Behrad; Abedini, Atefeh

    2015-07-25

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and characterization of Listeria species and Listeria monocytogenes isolated from raw fish and open-air fish market environments. Eight hundred and sixty two samples including raw fish and fish market environments (samples from workers' hands, workers' knives, containers and work surface) were collected from the open-air fish markets in the Northern region of Iran. Listeria spp. was isolated from 104/488 (21.3%) raw fish and 29/374 (7.8%) of samples from open-air fish market environment. The isolates of Listeria spp. included L. innocua (35.3%), L. monocytogenes (32.3%), L. seeligeri (18%), and L. ivanovii (14.3%). Of the 43 L. monocytogenes isolates, 31 (72.1%), 10 (23.3%) and 2 (4.7%) belonged to serovars 1/2a, 4b, and 1/2b, respectively. The inlA, inlB, inlC, inlJ, actA, hlyA, iap, plcA, and prfA virulence-associated genes were detected in almost all of the L. monocytogenes isolates. The Listeria spp. isolates showed high resistance against tetracycline (23.3%), penicillin G, and cephalothin (each 16.5%). Besides, we observed significant resistance level to tetracycline (27.9%), ampicillin (20.9%), cephalothin, penicillin G, and streptomycin (each 16.3%) in the L. monocytogenes isolates. All of the isolates were susceptible to cefotaxime, gentamicin, kanamycin, and pefloxacin. We found that tetM (25.6%), tetA (23.3%), ampC (14%), and penA (11.6%) were the most prevalent antibiotic resistance genes in the L. monocytogenes isolates. Recovery of potentially pathogenic L. monocytogenes from raw fish and environment of open-air fish market samples in this study is a convincing evidence for the zoonotic potential of listeriosis.

  11. Quantitative and qualitative changes in antibiotic resistance genes after passing through treatment processes in municipal wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jangwoo; Jeon, Jong Hun; Shin, Jingyeong; Jang, Hyun Min; Kim, Sungpyo; Song, Myoung Seok; Kim, Young Mo

    2017-12-15

    In this study, quantitative and qualitative changes in antibiotics resistance genes (ARGs) were investigated in two municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) treating pretreated livestock or industrial wastewater as well as municipal sewage. Total eight ARGs (tetX, tetM, tetA, sul1, sul2, ermB, qnrD, and blaTEM) were quantified, and their relative abundance was assessed by ARGs copies/16S rRNA gene copies. The fate of ARGs was observed to be different between two WWTPs: sul, qnrD, and blaTEM were proliferated during the treatment processes only in the WWTP1 which received pretreated livestock wastewater. Furthermore, dynamic shifts in patterns of ARGs occurrence were observed during biological, secondary sedimentation and coagulation processes. During biological treatment in both WWTPs, relative abundance of tet and ermB changed: tet increased significantly by 211.6-357.6%, while ermB decreased by 70.4-92.0%. Little variation was observed in sul, qnrD and blaTEM. Subsequently, the relative abundance of tet decreased during the secondary sedimentation and coagulation in both WWTPs: tet decreased by 56.0-86.3% during sedimentation and by 48.2-75.7% during coagulation, respectively. During the final treatment, different responses of antibiotic resistance bacteria (ARB) and ARGs to ultraviolet (UV) disinfection were found: removal efficiencies of ARB were observed in the range of 34-75%, while obvious reduction in ARGs was not observed at the UV dose of 27mJ/cm(2). Although ARGs underwent various treatment processes, considerable levels of ARGs remained at discharge amounting to 4.2×10(18) copies/day from WWTP1 and 5.4×10(16) copies/day from WWTP2, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Antibiotic susceptibility and prevalence of foodborne pathogens in poultry meat in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, Sorin Daniel; Tăbăran, Alexandra; Mihaiu, Liora; Mihaiu, Marian

    2015-01-15

    The occurrence of pathogenic strains in poultry meat is of growing concern in Romania. Another problem found on a global level is the continuous increase of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria isolated from food. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of pathogenic bacteria in poultry carcasses obtained in Romania in 2012-2013 and to reveal the most prevalent patterns of antimicrobial resistance in the isolated strains. A total of 144 broiler chicken carcasses were evaluated according to classical microbiological methods. The DNA was extracted from the bacterial colonies and the resistance genes were identified by PCR. In 2012, 47.2% of the samples revealed at least one of the following bacteria: Campylobacter jejuni (9.72%; n = 7), Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis (4.17%; n = 3), Listeria monocytogenes (15.28%; n = 11), and Escherichia coli (16.67%; n = 12). In 2013, the number of positive samples of pathogenic bacteria decreased, although Campylobacter jejuni was isolated in a higher percentage (20.8% vs. 9.72%). The percentage of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria was high (23%); the most prevalent pattern included resistance to tetracycline, sulfonamides, and quinolones/fluoroquinolones. All the resistant Salmonella and E. coli strains were tested for the presence of characteristic resistance genes (Kn, bla(TEM), tetA, tetB, tetG, DfrIa, aadA1a, Sul) and revealed that these isolates represent an important reservoir in the spread of this phenomenon. Our findings suggest that Romania urgently needs an integrated surveillance system within the entire chain, for drug-resistant pathogens isolated from poultry meat.

  13. Metabolite profiling uncovers plasmid-induced cobalt limitation under methylotrophic growth conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Kiefer

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The introduction and maintenance of plasmids in cells is often associated with a reduction of growth rate. The reason for this growth reduction is unclear in many cases.We observed a surprisingly large reduction in growth rate of about 50% of Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 during methylotrophic growth in the presence of a plasmid, pCM80 expressing the tetA gene, relative to the wild-type. A less pronounced growth delay during growth under non-methylotrophic growth conditions was observed; this suggested an inhibition of one-carbon metabolism rather than a general growth inhibition or metabolic burden. Metabolome analyses revealed an increase in pool sizes of ethylmalonyl-CoA and methylmalonyl-CoA of more than 6- and 35-fold, respectively, relative to wild type, suggesting a strongly reduced conversion of these central intermediates, which are essential for glyoxylate regeneration in this model methylotroph. Similar results were found for M. extorquens AM1 pCM160 which confers kanamycin resistance. These intermediates of the ethylmalonyl-CoA pathway have in common their conversion by coenzyme B(12-dependent mutases, which have cobalt as a central ligand. The one-carbon metabolism-related growth delay was restored by providing higher cobalt concentrations, by heterologous expression of isocitrate lyase as an alternative path for glyoxylate regeneration, or by identification and overproduction of proteins involved in cobalt import.This study demonstrates that the introduction of the plasmids leads to an apparent inhibition of the cobalt-dependent enzymes of the ethylmalonyl-CoA pathway. Possible explanations are presented and point to a limited cobalt concentration in the cell as a consequence of the antibiotic stress.

  14. Solar photocatalysis as disinfection technique: Inactivation of Klebsiella pneumoniae in sewage and investigation of changes in antibiotic resistance profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venieri, Danae; Gounaki, Iosifina; Bikouvaraki, Maria; Binas, Vassilios; Zachopoulos, Apostolos; Kiriakidis, George; Mantzavinos, Dionissios

    2017-06-15

    The presence of pathogenic microorganisms in wastewater and their resistant nature to antibiotics impose effective disinfection treatment for public health and environmental protection. In this work, photocatalysis with metal-doped titania under artificial and natural sunlight, chlorination and UV-C irradiation were evaluated for their potential to inactivate Klebsiella pneumoniae in real wastewater. Their overall effect on antibiotic resistance profile and target antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) was also investigated. In particular, Mn-, Co- and binary Mn/Co-TiO 2 were tested resulting in bacterial decrease from 4 to 6 Logs upon 90 min of exposure to simulated solar irradiation. The response of catalysts under natural solar light was insufficient, as only a 2 Log reduction was recorded even after 60 min of treatment. The relative activity of the applied methods for K. pneumoniae inactivation was decreased in the order: photocatalysis with the binary Co/Mn-TiO 2 under artificial light > chlorination with dose of 5 mg/L of free chlorine > UV-C irradiation, at an initial bacterial concentration of 10 7  CFU/mL. The applied methods showed various effects on antibiotic resistance profile in residual cells. Among the tested antibiotics (ampicillin, cefaclor, sulfamethoxazole and tetracycline), considerable changes in MIC values were recorded for cefaclor and tetracycline. Resistance of surviving cells after treatment remained in high levels, reflecting the abundance of the corresponding target ARGs, namely tetA, tetM, sul1, blaTEM and ampC. The notable presence of target ARGs post disinfection raises concerns and makes wastewater effluent a carrier of antibiotic resistance elements into the aquatic environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Genetic elements associated with antimicrobial resistance among avian pathogenic Escherichia coli

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    Amal Awad

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Avian-pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC are pathogenic strains of E. coli that are responsible for one of the most predominant bacterial disease affecting poultry worldwide called avian colibacillosis. This study describes the genetic determinants implicated in antimicrobial resistance among APEC isolated from different broiler farms in Egypt. Methods A total of 116 APEC were investigated by serotyping, antimicrobial resistance patterns to 10 antimicrobials, and the genetic mechanisms underlying the antimicrobial-resistant phenotypes. Results Antibiogram results showed that the highest resistance was observed for ampicillin, tetracycline, nalidixic acid, and chloramphenicol. The detected carriage rate of integron was 29.3% (34/116. Further characterization of gene cassettes revealed the presence gene cassettes encoding resistance to trimethoprim (dfrA1, dfrA5, dfrA7, dfrA12, streptomycin/spectinomycin (aadA1, aadA2, aadA5, aadA23, and streptothricin (sat2. To our knowledge, this the first description of the presence of aadA23 in APEC isolates. Analysis of other antimicrobial resistance types not associated with integrons revealed the predominance of resistance genes encoding resistance to tetracycline (tetA and tetB, ampicillin (bla TEM, chloramphenicol (cat1, kanamycin (aphA1, and sulphonamide (sul1 and sul2. Among ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates, the S83L mutation was the most frequently substitution observed in the quinolone resistance-determining region of gyrA (56.3%. The bla TEM and bla CTX−M−1 genes were the most prevalent among APEC isolates producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESβL. Conclusions These findings provided important clues about the role of integron-mediated resistance genes together with other independent resistance genes and chromosomal mutations in shaping the epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance in E. coli isolates from poultry farms in Egypt.

  16. Characterization of a Large Antibiotic Resistance Plasmid Found in Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Strain B171 and Its Relatedness to Plasmids of Diverse E. coli and Shigella Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazen, Tracy H; Michalski, Jane; Nagaraj, Sushma; Okeke, Iruka N; Rasko, David A

    2017-09-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is a leading cause of severe infantile diarrhea in developing countries. Previous research has focused on the diversity of the EPEC virulence plasmid, whereas less is known regarding the genetic content and distribution of antibiotic resistance plasmids carried by EPEC. A previous study demonstrated that in addition to the virulence plasmid, reference EPEC strain B171 harbors a second, larger plasmid that confers antibiotic resistance. To further understand the genetic diversity and dissemination of antibiotic resistance plasmids among EPEC strains, we describe the complete sequence of an antibiotic resistance plasmid from EPEC strain B171. The resistance plasmid, pB171_90, has a completed sequence length of 90,229 bp, a GC content of 54.55%, and carries protein-encoding genes involved in conjugative transfer, resistance to tetracycline (tetA), sulfonamides (sulI), and mercury, as well as several virulence-associated genes, including the transcriptional regulator hha and the putative calcium sequestration inhibitor (csi). In silico detection of the pB171_90 genes among 4,798 publicly available E. coli genome assemblies indicates that the unique genes of pB171_90 (csi and traI) are primarily restricted to genomes identified as EPEC or enterotoxigenic E. coli However, conserved regions of the pB171_90 plasmid containing genes involved in replication, stability, and antibiotic resistance were identified among diverse E. coli pathotypes. Interestingly, pB171_90 also exhibited significant similarity with a sequenced plasmid from Shigella dysenteriae type I. Our findings demonstrate the mosaic nature of EPEC antibiotic resistance plasmids and highlight the need for additional sequence-based characterization of antibiotic resistance plasmids harbored by pathogenic E. coli. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  17. Bradicardia como manifestação epiléptica em epilepsia temporal: relato de caso Bradycardia during temporal lobe seizure: case report

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    CARMEN L. JORGE

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Descrevemos um caso de arritmia cardíaca como manifestação epiléptica. A monitorização video-eletrencefalográfica de uma paciente com 34 anos de idade que apresentava episódios de perda de consciência permitiu a detecção de períodos de assistolia como principal manifestação clínica, exigindo a implantação de marca-passo. O registro eletrencefalográfico concomitante mostrou atividade rítmica a 6-7 Hz de projeção na região temporal esquerda. A ressonância magnética mostrou lesão expansiva no giro para-hipocampal esquerdo. Alterações do ritmo cardíaco como taquicardia sinusal são frequentes em crises epilépticas. A descrição de bradicardia e/ou assistolia é rara. As conexões das estruturas mesiais temporais com estruturas profundas como o hipotálamo devem ser responsáveis pelas manifestações vegetativas durante crises epilépticas temporais.We describe a patient who had cardiac arrhythmia as epileptic manifestation. In a 34-year-old woman who had many episodes of loss of consciousness, the simultaneous ECG and video-EEG monitoring recorded bradycardia with a short episode of asystolia (4 seconds and left temporal rhythmic teta activity on EEG. MRI showed a small mass lesion in the left parahippocampal gyrus. Alterations in cardiac rhythm have been reported in epileptic seizures and taquycardia is the most common finding associated with them; bradyarrhythmia during seizures was uncommon. Many interconnections among insular cortex, limbic system and hypothalamus, may be responsible for vegetative manifestations in temporal lobe epilepsy.

  18. Effect of the selective pressure of sub-lethal level of heavy metals on the fate and distribution of ARGs in the catchment scale.

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    Xu, Yan; Xu, Jian; Mao, Daqing; Luo, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Our previous study demonstrated that high levels of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the Haihe River were directly attributed to the excessive use of antibiotics in animal agriculture. The antibiotic residues of the Xiangjiang River determined in this study were much lower than those of the Haihe River, but the relative abundance of 16 detected ARGs (sul1, sul2 and sul3, qepA, qnrA, qnrB, qnrD and qnrS, tetA, tetB, tetW, tetM, tetQ and tetO, ermB and ermC), were as high as the Haihe River particularly in the downstream of the Xiangjiang River which is close to the extensive metal mining. The ARGs discharged from the pharmaceutical wastewater treatment plant (PWWTP) are a major source of ARGs in the upstream of the Xiangjiang River. In the downstream, selective stress of heavy metals rather than source release had a significant influence on the distinct distribution pattern of ARGs. Some heavy metals showed a positive correlation with certain ARG subtypes. Additionally, there is a positive correlation between individual ARG subtypes and heavy metal resistance genes, suggesting that heavy metals may co select the ARGs on the same plasmid of antibiotic resistant bacteria. The co-selection mechanism between specific metal and antibiotic resistance was further confirmed by these isolations encoding the resistance genotypes to antibiotics and metals. To our knowledge, this is the first study on the fate and distribution of ARGs under the selective pressure exerted by heavy metals in the catchment scale. These results are beneficial to understand the fate, and to discern the contributors of ARGs from either the source release or the selective pressure by sub-lethal levels of environmental stressors during their transport on a river catchment scale. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Resistance Mechanism and Clonal Distribution of Tigecycline-Nonsusceptible Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolates in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Chulsoo; Yoon, Sang Sun; Yong, Tae Soon; Jeong, Seok Hoon; Lee, Kyungwon

    2016-05-01

    Tigecycline is one of the drugs used to treat multi-drug resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) infections, including complicated skin and soft tissue infections, complicated intra-abdominal infection, and community-acquired pneumonia in the Republic of Korea. However, since its commercial release, K. pneumoniae resistance against tigecycline has been reported, and there is a serious concern about the spread of tigecycline resistant bacteria. In this study, we collected and analyzed 342 isolates from 23 hospitals in the Republic of Korea to determine the mechanisms of tigecycline susceptibility and their clonal types. The hospitals include several from each province in the Republic of Korea, except Jeju, an island province, and nonsusceptibility among the isolates was tested by the disk diffusion method. In our lab, susceptibility was checked again using the broth dilution method, and clonal types were determined using the multilocus sequence typing protocol. Real-time PCR was performed to measure the ramR mutation in the isolates nonsusceptible to tigecycline, which would suggest an increased expression of the AcrAB multidrug pump. Fifty-six K. pneumoniae isolates were found to be nonsusceptible, 16% of the 342 collected. Twenty-seven and nine isolates of the tigecycline nonsusceptible isolates had mutations in the ramR and rpsJ genes, respectively; while 18 nonsusceptible isolates harbored the tetA gene. Comparison of isolates with and without ramR mutation showed a significant statistical difference (ppneumoniae, including ST11, ST768, ST15, ST23, ST48, and ST307. There does not seem to be a transferrable medium, such as plasmid, for the resistance yet, although mutation of the ramR gene may be a common event, accounting for 48% of the nonsusceptibility in this study.

  20. Antimicrobial resistance of bacterial strains isolated from avian cellulitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MM Santos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Avian cellulitis is an inflammatory process in the subcutaneous tissue, mainly located in the abdomen and thighs. This problem is commonly observed in poultry at slaughter and it is considered one of the major causes of condemnation of carcasses in Brazil. The aim of this study was to perform the microbial isolation of lesions of avian cellulitis from a processing plant located in the State of Goiás in order to analyze antimicrobial resistance by antibiogram test and to detect resistance genes by polymerase chain reaction. A total of 25 samples of avian cellulitis lesions were analyzed, from which 30 bacterial strains were isolated. There were eleven (44% strains of Escherichia coli, nine (36% strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis, seven (28% strains of Proteus mirabilis and three (12% strains of Manheimiahaemolytica. The antibiogram test showed that all strains were resistant to at least one antimicrobial. The gene of antimicrobial resistance tetB was detected in E. coli, S. epidermidis and P. mirabilis strains, and was the most frequently observed gene. The gene of antimicrobial resistance Sul1 was detected in all bacterial species, while tetA was found in E. coli and S. epidermidis strains, SHV in E. coli strains, S. epidermidis and P. mirabilis,and cat1 in one P. mirabilis strain. The results suggest a potential public health hazard due to the ability of these microorganisms to transmit antimicrobial resistancegenes to other microorganisms present in the intestinal tract of humans and animals, which may affect clinical-medical usage of these drugs.

  1. Molecular characterization of selected multidrug resistant Pseudomonas from water distribution systems in southwestern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesoji, Ayodele T; Ogunjobi, Adeniyi A; Olatoye, Isaac O

    2015-09-02

    Persistence of antibiotic resistant bacteria, including multidrug resistant (MDR) pseudomonads, is an important environmental health problem associated with drinking water distribution systems (DWDS) worldwide. There is paucity of data on the molecular characteristics of antibiotic resistance genes and their mode of transfer among pseudomonads from DWDS located in resource-challenged areas such as southwestern Nigeria. MDR pseudomonads (n = 22) were selected from a panel of 296 different strains that were isolated from treated and untreated water in six DWDS located across southwest Nigeria. Primarily, the isolated pseudomonads strains were identified by 16S rDNA sequencing and antibiotic-resistance testing was completed using agar breakpoints assays. The final panel of strains of resistant to more than three classes of antibiotics (i.e. MDR), were further characterized by PCR genotyping, Sanger sequencing, and plasmid profiling. Pseudomonad resistance to gentamicin and streptomycin ranged from 22.7 to 54.6 % while resistance to tetracycline, ceftiofur and sulphamethoxazole ranged from 40.9 to 77.3 %. The most commonly detected antibiotic resistance genes were tet(A) (31.8 % of isolates), sul1 (31.8 %), bla TEM (40.9 %) and aph(3″) (c) (36.4 %). Class 1 integron sequences were evident in 27.3 % of isolates and they harbored genes encoding resistance to aminoglycosides (aadA2, aadA1), trimethoprim (dfrA15, dfr7) and sulphonamide (sul1) while the plasmid ranged between 22 and 130 kb. Pseudomonas spp, isolated from these DWDS possess resistance genes and factors that are of public and environmental health significance. Therefore, has the potential of contributing to the global scourge of resistance genes transfer in human, animals and environments, thereby, useful in the epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance.

  2. Prevalence of antibiotic resistance genes of wastewater and surface water in livestock farms of Jiangsu Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Biao; Hao, Lijun; Guo, Xinyan; Wang, Na; Ye, Boping

    2015-09-01

    The overuse of antibiotics in livestock farms is general, leading to a wide distribution of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in aquatic environment adjacent to livestock farms. However, researches of the distribution and types of ARGs in aquatic environment of China are still in the initial stage. In this study, wastewater and surface water samples were collected from 12 livestock farms (four pig farms, four cattle farms, and four chicken farms) in Jiangsu Province of China. The prevalence, abundance, and distribution of 22 ARGs were investigated, which were categorized into six groups, including nine tetracyclin resistance genes, three sulfonamides resistance genes, three quinolone resistance genes, two macrolide resistance genes, three aminoglycoside resistance genes, and two multidrug resistance genes, employing quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). The results suggested that all of the 22 ARGs were detected in samples. Sul1, sul2, and tetM were the most abundant with the average concentration of 3.84 × 10(1) copies/16S recombinant RNA (rRNA) gene copies, 1.62 × 10(1) copies/16S rRNA gene copies, 2.33 × 10(1) copies/16S rRNA gene copies, respectively. Principle component analysis revealed that the comprehensive pollution of ARGs in northern Jiangsu was more serious. ARGs in wastewater were more abundant when compared to that in surface water. A preliminary study regarding the fate of ARGs after an aerobiotic process showed that tetA, tetC, sul1, sul2, oqxB, and qnrS were significantly increased. And, among the tetracycline resistance genes, the efflux pump genes were enriched while the ribosomal protection protein encoding genes were decreased in the aerobiotic process. The prevalance of ARGs in water environment is of concern; more surveillance is required to determine the pollution level and pattern of antibiotic resistance genes.

  3. Diversity, Distribution and Quantification of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Goat and Lamb Slaughterhouse Surfaces and Meat Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavilla Lerma, Leyre; Benomar, Nabil; Knapp, Charles W.; Correa Galeote, David; Gálvez, Antonio; Abriouel, Hikmate

    2014-01-01

    The distribution and quantification of tetracycline, sulfonamide and beta-lactam resistance genes were assessed in slaughterhouse zones throughout meat chain production and the meat products; this study represents the first to report quantitatively monitor antibiotic resistance genes (ARG) in goat and lamb slaughterhouse using a culture independent approach, since most studies focused on individual bacterial species and their specific resistance types. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) revealed a high prevalence of tetracycline resistance genes tetA and tetB in almost all slaughterhouse zones. Sulfonamide resistance genes were largely distributed, while beta-lactam resistance genes were less predominant. Statistical analysis revealed that resistant bacteria, in most cases, were spread by the same route in almost all slaughterhouse zones, except for tetB, blaCTX and blaTEM genes, which occurred in few zones as isolated ‘hot spots.’ The sum of all analyzed ARG indicated that slaughterhouse surfaces and end products act as reservoirs of ARG, mainly tet genes, which were more prevalent in slaughtering room (SR), cutting room (CR) and commercial meat products (MP). Resistance gene patterns suggest they were disseminated throughout slaughterhouse zones being also detected in commercial meat products, with significant correlations between different sampling zones/end products and total resistance in SR, CR and white room (WR) zones, and also refrigerator 4 (F4) and MP were observed. Strategically controlling key zones in slaughterhouse (SR, CR and WR) by adequate disinfection methods could strategically reduce the risks of ARG transmission and minimize the issues of food safety and environment contamination. PMID:25479100

  4. Characterization of antibiotic resistant and pathogenic Escherichia coli in irrigation water and vegetables in household farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Susana; A T Silva, Isabel; Tacão, Marta; Patinha, Carla; Alves, Artur; Henriques, Isabel

    2017-09-18

    This study aimed to characterize Escherichia coli present in irrigation water and vegetables from 16 household farms. Isolates were obtained from 50% of water (n=210 isolates) and 38% of vegetable samples (n=239). Phylogroups B1 (56% of isolates) and A (22%) were the most prevalent both in water and vegetables. Diarrheagenic strains were detected in vegetables. Irrespective of the source (i.e. water or vegetables), the most common antibiotic resistance was against streptomycin (89% resistant isolates) and tetracycline (24%). Common acquired genes (e.g. bla TEM , tetA, tetB) were found in isolates from both sources. Class I integrons were detected in water (arrays dfrA1-aadA1 and dfr16-blaP1b-aadA2-ereA) and vegetables (unknown arrays). intI2 was detected in water (dfrA1-sat2-aadA1). Plasmids were detected in 14 isolates (IncFIC, IncFIB, IncFrep, IncI1 in both samples; IncY in vegetables). Plasmids from seven isolates were transferrable by conjugation, conferring resistance to antibiotics to the recipient strain. Multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains were isolated from water (12% of the unique isolates) and vegetables (21%). Predominant sequence types (STs) among MDR isolates were ST10, ST297 and ST2522. In some cases, the same STs and identical clones (as showed by rep-PCR typing) were detected in water and vegetables, suggesting cross-contamination. This study identified several risk factors in E. coli isolates from vegetables and irrigation water, raising health concerns. Also, results suggest that irrigation groundwater constitutes a source of E. coli that may enter the food chain through vegetables ingestion. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Changes of bacterial diversity and tetracycline resistance in sludge from AAO systems upon exposure to tetracycline pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Manhong, E-mail: egghmh@163.com; Qi, Fangfang; Wang, Jue; Xu, Qi; Lin, Li

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • High-throughput sequencing was used to compare sludge bacteria with and without TC. • Bacterial diversity increased with TC addition despite of various oxygen conditions. • Total TRGs proliferated with TC addition in three kinds of sludge. • The concentration of efflux pump genes was the highest in the three groups of TRGs. - Abstract: Two lab-scale anaerobic-anoxic-oxic (AAO) systems were used to investigate the changes in tetracycline (TC) resistance and bacterial diversity upon exposure to TC pressure. High-throughput sequencing was used to detect diversity changes in microorganisms at the level of class in sludge from different bioreactors with and without TC. Real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was used to detect the abundances of eight tetracycline resistance genes (TRGs), tetA, tetB, tetC, tetE, tetM, tetO, tetS and tetX. The results showed that the diversities of the microbial communities of anoxic, anaerobic and aerobic sludge all increased with the addition of TC. TC substantially changed the structure of the microbial community regardless of oxygen conditions. Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria were the dominant species in the three kinds of sludge and were substantially enriched with TC pressure. In sludge with TC added, almost all target TRGs proliferated more than those in sludge without TC except tetX, which decreased in anaerobic sludge with TC addition. The concentration of efflux pump genes, tet(A–C, E), was the highest among the three groups of TRGs in the different kinds of sludge.

  6. Antibiotic resistance and virulence genes in coliform water isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stange, C; Sidhu, J P S; Tiehm, A; Toze, S

    2016-11-01

    Widespread fecal pollution of surface water may present a major health risk and a significant pathway for dissemination of antibiotic resistance bacteria. The River Rhine is one of the longest and most important rivers in Europe and an important raw water source for drinking water production. A total of 100 coliform isolates obtained from River Rhine (Germany) were examined for their susceptibility to seven antimicrobial agents. Resistances against amoxicillin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and tetracycline were detected in 48%, 11% and 9% of isolates respectively. The antibiotic resistance could be traced back to the resistance genes blaTEM, blaSHV, ampC, sul1, sul2, dfrA1, tet(A) and tet(B). Whereby, the ampC gene represents a special case, because its presence is not inevitably linked to a phenotypic antibiotic resistance. Multiple antibiotics resistance was often accompanied by the occurrence of class 1 or 2 integrons. E. coli isolates belonging to phylogenetic groups A and B1 (commensal) were more predominant (57%) compared to B2 and D groups (43%) which are known to carry virulent genes. Additionally, six E. coli virulence genes were also detected. However, the prevalence of virulence genes in the E. coli isolates was low (not exceeding 4.3% per gene) and no diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes were detected. This study demonstrates that surface water is an important reservoir of ARGs for a number of antibiotic classes such as sulfonamide, trimethoprim, beta-lactam-antibiotics and tetracycline. The occurrence of antibiotic resistance in coliform bacteria isolated from River Rhine provides evidence for the need to develop management strategies to limit the spread of antibiotic resistant bacteria in aquatic environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Aerobic digestion reduces the quantity of antibiotic resistance genes in residual municipal wastewater solids

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    Tucker R Burch

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Numerous initiatives have been undertaken to circumvent the problem of antibiotic resistance, including the development of new antibiotics, the use of narrow spectrum antibiotics, and the reduction of inappropriate antibiotic use. We propose an alternative but complimentary approach to reduce antibiotic resistant bacteria by implementing more stringent technologies for treating municipal wastewater, which is known to contain large quantities of antibiotic resistant bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs. In this study, we investigated the ability of conventional aerobic digestion to reduce the quantity of ARGs in untreated wastewater solids. A bench-scale aerobic digester was fed untreated wastewater solids collected from a full-scale municipal wastewater treatment facility. The reactor was operated under semi-continuous flow conditions for more than 200 days at a residence time of approximately 40 days. During this time, the quantities of tet(A, tet(W, and erm(B decreased by more than 90%. In contrast, intI1 did not decrease, and tet(X increased in quantity by 5-fold. Following operation in semi-continuous flow mode, the aerobic digester was converted to batch mode to determine the first-order decay coefficients, with half-lives ranging from as short as 2.8 days for tet(W to as long as 6.3 days for intI1. These results demonstrated that aerobic digestion can be used to reduce the quantity of antibiotic resistance genes in untreated wastewater solids, but that rates can vary substantially depending on the reactor design (i.e., batch versus continuous-flow and the specific ARG.

  8. Emergence of a Clonal Lineage of Multidrug-Resistant ESBL-Producing Salmonella Infantis Transmitted from Broilers and Broiler Meat to Humans in Italy between 2011 and 2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessia Franco

    Full Text Available We report the spread of a clone of multidrug-resistant (MDR, ESBL-producing (blaCTX-M-1 Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Infantis, in the Italian broiler chicken industry and along the food-chain. This was first detected in Italy in 2011 and led to human infection in Italy in 2013-2014.A set (n = 49 of extended-spectrum cephalosporin (ESC-resistant (R isolates of S. Infantis (2011-2014 from humans, food-producing animals and meat thereof, were studied along with a selected set of earlier and more recent ESC-susceptible (ESC-S isolates (n = 42, 2001-2014. They were characterized by macrorestriction-PFGE analysis and genetic environment of ESC-resistance. Isolates representative of PFGE-patterns and origin were submitted to Whole Genome Sequencing. The emerging ESC-R clone, detected mainly from broiler chickens, broiler meat and humans, showed a minimum pattern of clinical resistance to cefotaxime, tetracycline, sulfonamides, and trimethoprim, beside ciprofloxacin microbiological resistance (MIC 0.25 mg/L. All isolates of this clone harbored a conjugative megaplasmid (~ 280-320 Kb, similar to that described in ESC-susceptible S. Infantis in Israel (pESI-like in 2014. This megaplasmid carried the ESBL gene blaCTX-M-1, and additional genes [tet(A, sul1, dfrA1 and dfrA14] mediating cefotaxime, tetracycline, sulfonamide, and trimethoprim resistance. It also contained genes conferring enhanced colonization capability, virulence (fimbriae, yersiniabactin, resistance and fitness (qacE1, mer in the intensive-farming environment. This emerging clone of S. Infantis has been causing infections in humans, most likely through the broiler industry. Since S. Infantis is among major serovars causing human infections in Europe and is an emerging non-typhoidal Salmonella globally, further spread of this lineage in primary productions deserves quick and thorough risk-management strategies.

  9. Processing of three-dimensional structures of Nuclear Medicine in PET modality; Processamento de estruturas tridimensionais de medicina nuclear na modalidade PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacheco, Edward Florez; Furuie, Sergio Shiguemi, E-mail: edward.florez@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (EP/USP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Telecomunicacoes e Controle. Lab. de Engenharia Biomedica

    2013-03-15

    The nuclear medicine, as a specialty to obtain medical images is very important, and it has became one of the main procedures utilized in health care centers to analyze the metabolic behavior of the patient. This project was based on medical images obtained by the PET modality (Positron Emission Tomography). Thus, we developed a framework for processing Nuclear Medicine three-dimensional images of the PET modality, which is composed of consecutive steps that start with the generation of standard images (gold standard) by using simulated images of the Left Ventricular Heart, such as phantoms obtained from the NCAT-4D software. Then, Poisson quantum noise was introduced into the whole volume to simulate the characteristic noises in PET images. Subsequently, the pre-processing step was executed by using specific 3D filters, such as the median filter, the weighted Gaussian filter, and the Anscombe/Wiener filter. Then the segmentation process, which is based on the fuzzy connectedness theory, was implemented. For that purpose four different 3D approaches were implemented: Generic, LIFO, kTetaFOEMS, and dynamic weight algorithm. Finally, an assessment procedure was used as a measurement tool to quantify three parameters (true positive, false positive and maximum distance) that determined the level of efficiency and precision of our process. It was found that the pair filter - segmenter formed by the Anscombe/Wiener filter together with the Fuzzy segmenter based on dynamic weights provided the best results, with VP and FP rates of 98.49 {+-}0.27% and 2.19 {+-}0.19%, respectively, for the simulation of the left ventricular volume. Along with the set of choices made during the processing structure, the project was finished with the analysis of a small number of volumes that belonged to a real PET test, thus the quantification of the volumes was obtained. (author)

  10. Antimicrobial resistance genes in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Haemophilus parasuis and Pasteurella multocida isolated from Australian pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayao, Dae; Gibson, J S; Blackall, P J; Turni, C

    2016-07-01

    To identify genes associated with the observed antimicrobial resistance in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Haemophilus parasuis and Pasteurella multocida isolated from Australian pigs. Isolates with known phenotypic resistance to β-lactams, macrolides and tetracycline were screened for the presence of antimicrobial resistance genes. A total of 68 A. pleuropneumoniae, 62 H. parasuis and 20 P. multocida isolates exhibiting phenotypic antimicrobial resistance (A. pleuropneumoniae and P. multocida) or elevated minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) (H. parasuis) to any of the following antimicrobial agents - ampicillin, erythromycin, penicillin, tetracycline, tilmicosin and tulathromycin - were screened for a total of 19 associated antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) by PCR. The gene bla ROB-1 was found in all ampicillin- and penicillin-resistant isolates, but none harboured the bla TEM-1 gene. The tetB gene was found in 76% (74/97) of tetracycline-resistant isolates, 49/53 A. pleuropneumoniae, 17/30 H. parasuis and 8/14 P. multocida. One A. pleuropneumoniae isolate harboured the tetH gene, but none of the 97 isolates had tetA, tetC, tetD, tetE, tetL, tetM or tetO. A total of 92 isolates were screened for the presence of macrolide resistance genes. None was found to have ermA, ermB, ermC, erm42, mphE, mefA, msrA or msrE. The current study has provided a genetic explanation for the resistance or elevated MIC of the majority of isolates of Australian porcine respiratory pathogens to ampicillin, penicillin and tetracycline. However, the macrolide resistance observed by phenotypic testing remains genetically unexplained and further studies are required. © 2016 Australian Veterinary Association.

  11. A Comprehensive Analysis on Spread and Distribution Characteristic of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Livestock Farms of Southeastern China.

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    Na Wang

    Full Text Available The pollution of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs in livestock farms is a problem which need to be paid more attention to, due to the severe resistance dissemination and the further human health risk. In this study, all the relevant exposure matrices (manure, soil and water of sixteen animal farms in Southeastern China were sampled to determine twenty-two ARGs conferring resistance to five major classes of antibiotics including tetracyclines, sulfonamides, quinolones, aminoglycosides, and macrolides. The results showed that the spread property of sul genes was most extensive and strong, followed by tet and erm genes. The abundance of tet genes expressing ribosomal protection proteins (tetM, tetO, tetQ, tetT and tetW was higher than that expressing efflux pump proteins (tetA, tetC, tetE and tetG in each type of samples. The high abundance and frequency of ermB gene in the matrices should be paid more attention, because macrolides is a major medicine for human use. For manures, it was found that the similar ARGs distribution rules were existing in poultry manure or porcine manure samples, despite of the different origins of these two types of livestock farms. Meanwhile, it was interesting that the distribution rule of tet genes in animal manure was nearly the same as all the ARGs. For soils, the result of nonmetric multi-dimensional scaling (NMDS analysis showed that the pollution of ARGs in the soils fertilized by poultry and cattle manures were more substantial in northern Jiangsu, but no significant ARGs diversity was observed among porcine manured soils of five different regions. Furthermore, most ARGs showed significant positive relationships with environmental variables such as concentration of sulfonamides, tetracyclines, Cu, Zn and total organic carbon (TOC. The pollution profile and characteristics of so many ARGs in livestock farms can provide significative foundation for the regulation and legislation of antibiotics in China.

  12. Antibiotics in the agricultural soils from the Yangtze River Delta, China.

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    Sun, Jianteng; Zeng, Qingtao; Tsang, Daniel C W; Zhu, L Z; Li, X D

    2017-12-01

    This study focused on the occurrence and spatial distribution of 13 common antibiotics in the agricultural soils of the Yangtze River Delta (YRD), China. Antibiotics were detected in all the 241 soil samples (i.e., 100% detection rate) with the total concentrations ranging from 4.55 to 2,010 ng/g dry weight. The concentrations of three antibiotic classes decreased in the order: quinolones (mean 48.8 ng/g) > tetracyclines (mean 34.9 ng/g) > sulfonamides (mean 2.35 ng/g). Ciprofloxacin was the prevalent compound with a mean concentration of 27.7 ng/g, followed by oxytetracycline (mean of 18.9 ng/g). A distinct spatial distribution was observed, where high concentrations of antibiotics were detected in the sites adjacent to the livestock and poultry farms. The potential sources of antibiotics in the agricultural soils were the application of manure and wastewater irrigation in this region. Risk assessment for single antibiotic compound indicated that tetracyclines and quinolones could pose a potential risk, in which doxycycline and ciprofloxacin had the most severe ecological effect in the agricultural soils. Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), such as tetA, sulI, and qnrS, were detected in 15 analyzed soil samples, and sulI showed significant correlations with quinolones, tetracyclines, copper, and zinc. Further studies on the distribution of other ARGs in agricultural soil at a region-scale are needed for the risk management of extensively used antibiotics and major ARGs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Tetracycline hypersensitivity of an ezrA mutant links GalE and TseB (YpmB to cell division

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    Pamela eGamba

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Cell division in bacteria is initiated by the polymerization of FtsZ into a ring-like structure at midcell that functions as a scaffold for the other cell division proteins. In Bacillus subtilis, the conserved cell division protein EzrA is involved in modulation of Z-ring formation and coordination of septal peptidoglycan synthesis. Here, we show that an ezrA mutant is hypersensitive to tetracycline, even when the tetracycline efflux pump TetA is present. This effect is not related to the protein translation inhibiting activity of tetracycline. Overexpression of FtsL suppresses this phenotype, which appears to be related to the intrinsic low FtsL levels in an ezrA mutant background. A transposon screen indicated that the tetracycline effect can also be suppressed by overproduction of the cell division protein ZapA. In addition, tetracycline sensitivity could be suppressed by transposon insertions in galE and the unknown gene ypmB, which was renamed tseB (tetracycline sensitivity suppressor of ezrA. GalE is an epimerase using UDP-glucose and UDP-N-acetylglucosamine as substrate. Deletion of this protein bypasses the synthetic lethality of zapA ezrA and sepF ezrA double mutations, indicating that GalE influences cell division. The transmembrane protein TseB contains an extracytoplasmic peptidase domain, and a GFP fusion shows that the protein is enriched at cell division sites. A tseB deletion causes a shorter cell phenotype, indicating that TseB plays a role in cell division. Why a deletion of ezrA renders B. subtilis cells hypersensitive for tetracycline remains unclear. We speculate that this phenomenon is related to the tendency of tetracycline analogues to accumulate into the lipid bilayer, which may destabilize certain membrane proteins.

  14. Tetracycline hypersensitivity of an ezrA mutant links GalE and TseB (YpmB) to cell division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamba, Pamela; Rietkötter, Eva; Daniel, Richard A; Hamoen, Leendert W

    2015-01-01

    Cell division in bacteria is initiated by the polymerization of FtsZ into a ring-like structure at midcell that functions as a scaffold for the other cell division proteins. In Bacillus subtilis, the conserved cell division protein EzrA is involved in modulation of Z-ring formation and coordination of septal peptidoglycan synthesis. Here, we show that an ezrA mutant is hypersensitive to tetracycline, even when the tetracycline efflux pump TetA is present. This effect is not related to the protein translation inhibiting activity of tetracycline. Overexpression of FtsL suppresses this phenotype, which appears to be related to the intrinsic low FtsL levels in an ezrA mutant background. A transposon screen indicated that the tetracycline effect can also be suppressed by overproduction of the cell division protein ZapA. In addition, tetracycline sensitivity could be suppressed by transposon insertions in galE and the unknown gene ypmB, which was renamed tseB (tetracycline sensitivity suppressor of ezrA). GalE is an epimerase using UDP-glucose and UDP-N-acetylglucosamine as substrate. Deletion of this protein bypasses the synthetic lethality of zapA ezrA and sepF ezrA double mutations, indicating that GalE influences cell division. The transmembrane protein TseB contains an extracytoplasmic peptidase domain, and a GFP fusion shows that the protein is enriched at cell division sites. A tseB deletion causes a shorter cell phenotype, indicating that TseB plays a role in cell division. Why a deletion of ezrA renders B. subtilis cells hypersensitive for tetracycline remains unclear. We speculate that this phenomenon is related to the tendency of tetracycline analogs to accumulate into the lipid bilayer, which may destabilize certain membrane proteins.

  15. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Bordetella bronchiseptica Isolates from Swine and Companion Animals and Detection of Resistance Genes.

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    Sandra Prüller

    Full Text Available Bordetella bronchiseptica causes infections of the respiratory tract in swine and other mammals and is a precursor for secondary infections with Pasteurella multocida. Treatment of B. bronchiseptica infections is conducted primarily with antimicrobial agents. Therefore it is essential to get an overview of the susceptibility status of these bacteria. The aim of this study was to comparatively analyse broth microdilution susceptibility testing according to CLSI recommendations with an incubation time of 16 to 20 hours and a longer incubation time of 24 hours, as recently proposed to obtain more homogenous MICs. Susceptibility testing against a panel of 22 antimicrobial agents and two fixed combinations was performed with 107 porcine isolates from different farms and regions in Germany and 43 isolates obtained from companion animals in Germany and other European countries. Isolates with increased MICs were investigated by PCR assays for the presence of resistance genes. For ampicillin, all 107 porcine isolates were classified as resistant, whereas only a single isolate was resistant to florfenicol. All isolates obtained from companion animals showed elevated MICs for β-lactam antibiotics and demonstrated an overall low susceptibility to cephalosporines. Extension of the incubation time resulted in 1-2 dilution steps higher MIC50 values of porcine isolates for seven antimicrobial agents tested, while isolates from companion animals exhibited twofold higher MIC50/90 values only for tetracycline and cefotaxime. For three antimicrobial agents, lower MIC50 and MIC90 values were detected for both, porcine and companion animal isolates. Among the 150 isolates tested, the resistance genes blaBOR-1 (n = 147, blaOXA-2, (n = 4, strA and strB (n = 17, sul1 (n = 10, sul2 (n = 73, dfrA7 (n = 3 and tet(A (n = 8 were detected and a plasmid localisation was identified for several of the resistance genes.

  16. Detection of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Source and Drinking Water Samples from a First Nations Community in Canada.

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    Fernando, Dinesh M; Tun, Hein Min; Poole, Jenna; Patidar, Rakesh; Li, Ru; Mi, Ruidong; Amarawansha, Geethani E A; Fernando, W G Dilantha; Khafipour, Ehsan; Farenhorst, Annemieke; Kumar, Ayush

    2016-08-01

    Access to safe drinking water is now recognized as a human right by the United Nations. In developed countries like Canada, access to clean water is generally not a matter of concern. However, one in every five First Nations reserves is under a drinking water advisory, often due to unacceptable microbiological quality. In this study, we analyzed source and potable water from a First Nations community for the presence of coliform bacteria as well as various antibiotic resistance genes. Samples, including those from drinking water sources, were found to be positive for various antibiotic resistance genes, namely, ampC, tet(A), mecA, β-lactamase genes (SHV-type, TEM-type, CTX-M-type, OXA-1, and CMY-2-type), and carbapenemase genes (KPC, IMP, VIM, NDM, GES, and OXA-48 genes). Not surprisingly, substantial numbers of total coliforms, including Escherichia coli, were recovered from these samples, and this result was also confirmed using Illumina sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. These findings deserve further attention, as the presence of coliforms and antibiotic resistance genes potentially puts the health of the community members at risk. In this study, we highlight the poor microbiological quality of drinking water in a First Nations community in Canada. We examined the coliform load as well as the presence of antibiotic resistance genes in these samples. This study examined the presence of antibiotic-resistant genes in drinking water samples from a First Nations Community in Canada. We believe that our findings are of considerable significance, since the issue of poor water quality in First Nations communities in Canada is often ignored, and our findings will help shed some light on this important issue. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Field determined variation of the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity functions using simplified analysis of internal drainage experiments Variação da condutividade hidráulica do solo não saturado determinada em condições de campo utilizando análises simplificadas de experimentos de drenagem interna

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    M. M. Villagra

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available Experimentally determined values of unsaturated soil hydraulic conductivity are presented for an Alfisol of the county of Piracicaba, S.P., Brazil. Simultaneous measurements of soil water content and pressure head are made along a 125 m transect within an irrigated field during the internal drainage process. Calculations of the soil hydraulic conductivity were made using the instantaneous profile method (Watson, 1966 and the unit gradient method (LIBARDI et al., 1980. The spatial variability of the soil hydraulic conductivity manifested along the transect indicates the need to develop a field method to measure K(theta within prescribed fiducial limits, taking into account quantitative evaluation of spatial and temporal variances associated with the mathematical model, instrument calibration and soil properties.São apresentados dados experimentais de condutividade hidráulica do solo, para uní Alfisol (terra roxa estruturada do Município de Piracicaba,SP - Brasil. Medidas simultâneas de umidade do solo e de potencial total da água no solo foram realizadas ao longo de uma transeção de 125 m, dentro de um campo irrigado, durante o processo de drenagem interna. Os cálculos de condutividade hidráulica foram feitos utilizando o método do perfil instantâneo (WATSON, 1966 e o método do gradiente unitário (LIBARDI et al., 1980. A variabilidade espacial da condutividade hidráulica do solo observada ao longo da transeção aponta a necessidade do desenvolvimento de método de campo para a medida de K (teta dentro de limites preestabelecidos de precisão, levando em conta a medida quantitativa das variâncias temporal e espacial associadas ao modelo matemático, a calibração dos instrumentos e as propriedades do solo.

  18. Antimicrobial resistance and genetic diversity in ceftazidime non-susceptible bacterial pathogens from ready-to-eat street foods in three Taiwanese cities.

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    Lin, Lin; Wang, Sheng-Fan; Yang, Tsung-Ying; Hung, Wei-Chun; Chan, Min-Yu; Tseng, Sung-Pin

    2017-11-14

    Bacterial contamination of ready-to-eat (RTE) street foods is a major concern worldwide. Dissemination of antibiotic resistant pathogens from food is an emerging public-health threat. To investigate the prevalence of antibiotic resistance genes and ceftazidime resistance-associated efflux pumps in foodborne pathogens, 270 RTE street foods samples were collected in three densely populated Taiwanese cities. Among 70 ceftazidime non-susceptible isolates, 21 Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, 12 Pseudomonas spp., 22 Acinetobacter spp., and 15 Enterobacteriaceae isolates were identified. Phylogenetic analyses revealed high levels of genetic diversity between all of the different strains. Multi-drug resistance was observed in 86.4% (19/22) of Acinetobacter spp., 100% (12/12) of Pseudomonas spp., 71.4% (15/21) of S. maltophilia, and 93.3% (14/15) of Enterobacteriaceae. Of 70 ceftazidime non-susceptible isolates, 13 contained ESBLs or plasmid-mediated ampC genes and 23 contained ceftazidime resistance-associated efflux pumps, with Acinetobacter spp. identified as predominant isolate (69.6%; 16/23). AdeIJK pump RNA expression in Acinetobacter isolates was 1.9- to 2-fold higher in active efflux strains. Nine clinically resistant genes were detected: catIII and cmlA (chloramphenicol); aacC1, aacC2, aacC3, and aacC4 (gentamicin); tet(A), tet(C), and tet(D) (tetracycline). The scope and abundance of multidrug-resistant bacteria described in this report underscores the need for ongoing and/or expanded RTE monitoring and control measures.

  19. LA TECNOECONOMÍA AURÍFERA Y LOS ESTERTORES DE LA CONTAMINACIÓN: ANÁLISIS PARA DOS DISTRITOS DEL CAUCA

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    RAÚL HERNANDO CORTES-LANDAZURY

    Full Text Available Este documento tiene por objetivo indagar por la presión degradatoria ambiental en los ríos La Teta y Mazamorras, causada por la explotación de oro en los municipios de El Tambo y Buenos Aires, bajo los escenarios de tecnología manual y mecánica. Para lograrlo, en primera instancia se construye y se estima un modelo estocástico log-lin y a continuación se hace lo propio bajo un modelo estocástico log-log con información de datos panel bajo efectos aleatorios. Los resultados principales evidencian que la utilización de mercurio está determinada en esencia por el tamaño de la empresa, la tecnología, y el lugar donde ésta se ubique, pero no por los sólidos suspendidos que ella emite. Las empresas ubicadas en el municipio de Buenos Aires presionarían más la contaminación que aquellas ubicadas en El Tambo, y la tecnología mecánica hace lo propio frente a la tecnología manual. Así, las empresas con tecnología mecánica ubicadas en Buenos Aires son las que más contribuyen a degradar el medio ambiente y las ubicadas en El Tambo con tecnología manual, hacen lo contrario.

  20. Subacute and Chronic Left Ventricular Myocardial Scar: Accuracy of Texture Analysis on Nonenhanced Cine MR Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baessler, Bettina; Mannil, Manoj; Oebel, Sabrina; Maintz, David; Alkadhi, Hatem; Manka, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Purpose To test whether texture analysis (TA) allows for the diagnosis of subacute and chronic myocardial infarction (MI) on noncontrast material-enhanced cine cardiac magnetic resonance (MR) images. Materials and Methods In this retrospective, institutional review board-approved study, 120 patients who underwent cardiac MR imaging and showed large transmural (volume of enhancement on late gadolinium enhancement [LGE] images >20%, n = 72) or small (enhanced volume ≤20%, n = 48) subacute or chronic ischemic scars were included. Sixty patients with normal cardiac MR imaging findings served as control subjects. Regions of interest for TA encompassing the left ventricle were drawn by two blinded, independent readers on cine images in end systole by using a freely available software package. Stepwise dimension reduction and texture feature selection based on reproducibility, machine learning, and correlation analyses were performed for selecting features, enabling the diagnosis of MI on nonenhanced cine MR images by using LGE imaging as the standard of reference. Results Five independent texture features allowed for differentiation between ischemic scar and normal myocardium on cine MR images in both subgroups: Teta1, Perc.01, Variance, WavEnHH.s-3, and S(5,5)SumEntrp (in patients with large MI: all P values cine MR images, with an area under the curve of 0.93 and 0.92, respectively. Conclusion This proof-of-concept study indicates that TA of nonenhanced cine MR images allows for the diagnosis of subacute and chronic MI with high accuracy. © RSNA, 2017 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  1. Comparative genomics of multidrug resistance-encoding IncA/C plasmids from commensal and pathogenic Escherichia coli from multiple animal sources.

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    Claudia Fernández-Alarcón

    Full Text Available Incompatibility group A/C (IncA/C plasmids have received recent attention for their broad host range and ability to confer resistance to multiple antimicrobial agents. Due to the potential spread of multidrug resistance (MDR phenotypes from foodborne pathogens to human pathogens, the dissemination of these plasmids represents a public health risk. In this study, four animal-source IncA/C plasmids isolated from Escherichia coli were sequenced and analyzed, including isolates from commercial dairy cows, pigs and turkeys in the U.S. and Chile. These plasmids were initially selected because they either contained the floR and tetA genes encoding for florfenicol and tetracycline resistance, respectively, and/or the bla(CMY-2 gene encoding for extended spectrum β-lactamase resistance. Overall, sequence analysis revealed that each of the four plasmids retained a remarkably stable and conserved backbone sequence, with differences observed primarily within their accessory regions, which presumably have evolved via horizontal gene transfer events involving multiple modules. Comparison of these plasmids with other available IncA/C plasmid sequences further defined the core and accessory elements of these plasmids in E. coli and Salmonella. Our results suggest that the bla(CMY-2 plasmid lineage appears to have derived from an ancestral IncA/C plasmid type harboring floR-tetAR-strAB and Tn21-like accessory modules. Evidence is mounting that IncA/C plasmids are widespread among enteric bacteria of production animals and these emergent plasmids have flexibility in their acquisition of MDR-encoding modules, necessitating further study to understand the evolutionary mechanisms involved in their dissemination and stability in bacterial populations.

  2. Occurrence of antibiotic resistance and characterization of resistant genes and integrons in Enterobacteriaceae isolated from integrated fish farms south China

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    Su, Hao-Chang; Ying, Guang-Guo; Tao, Ran; Zhang, Rui-Quan; Fogarty, Lisa R.; Kolpin, Dana W.

    2011-01-01

    Antibiotics are still widely applied in animal husbandry to prevent diseases and used as feed additives to promote animal growth. This could result in antibiotic resistance to bacteria and antibiotic residues in animals. In this paper, Enterobacteriaceae isolated from four integrated fish farms in Zhongshan, South China were tested for antibiotic resistance, tetracycline resistance genes, sulfonamide resistance genes, and class 1 integrons. The Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were carried out to test antibiotic susceptibility and resistance genes, respectively. Relatively high antibiotic resistance frequencies were found, especially for ampicillin (80%), tetracycline (52%), and trimethoprim (50%). Out of 203 Enterobacteriaceae isolates, 98.5% were resistant to one or more antibiotics tested. Multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) was found highest in animal manures with a MAR index of 0.56. Tetracycline resistance genes (tet(A), tet(C)) and sulfonamide resistance genes (sul2) were detected in more than 50% of the isolates. The intI1 gene was found in 170 isolates (83.7%). Both classic and non-classic class 1 integrons were found. Four genes, aadA5, aadA22, dfr2, and dfrA17, were detected. To our knowledge, this is the first report for molecular characterization of antibiotic resistance genes in Enterobacteriaceae isolated from integrated fish farms in China and the first time that gene cassette array dfrA17-aadA5 has been detected in such fish farms. Results of this study indicated that fish farms may be a reservoir of highly diverse and abundant antibiotic resistant genes and gene cassettes. Integrons may play a key role in multiple antibiotic resistances posing potential health risks to the general public and aquaculture.

  3. Characterization of Antibiotic Resistance Gene Abundance and Microbiota Composition in Feces of Organic and Conventional Pigs from Four EU Countries.

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    Lenka Gerzova

    Full Text Available One of the recent trends in animal production is the revival of interest in organic farming. The increased consumer interest in organic animal farming is mainly due to concerns about animal welfare and the use of antibiotics in conventional farming. On the other hand, providing animals with a more natural lifestyle implies their increased exposure to environmental sources of different microorganisms including pathogens. To address these concerns, we determined the abundance of antibiotic resistance and diversity within fecal microbiota in pigs kept under conventional and organic farming systems in Sweden, Denmark, France and Italy. The abundance of sul1, sul2, strA, tet(A, tet(B and cat antibiotic resistance genes was determined in 468 samples by real-time PCR and the fecal microbiota diversity was characterized in 48 selected samples by pyrosequencing of V3/V4 regions of 16S rRNA. Contrary to our expectations, there were no extensive differences between the abundance of tested antibiotic resistance genes in microbiota originating from organic or conventionally housed pigs within individual countries. There were also no differences in the microbiota composition of organic and conventional pigs. The only significant difference was the difference in the abundance of antibiotic resistance genes in the samples from different countries. Fecal microbiota in the samples originating from southern European countries (Italy, France exhibited significantly higher antibiotic resistance gene abundance than those from northern parts of Europe (Denmark, Sweden. Therefore, the geographical location of the herd influenced the antibiotic resistance in the fecal microbiota more than farm's status as organic or conventional.

  4. Air-drying beds reduce the quantities of antibiotic resistance genes and class 1 integrons in residual municipal wastewater solids.

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    Burch, Tucker R; Sadowsky, Michael J; LaPara, Timothy M

    2013-09-03

    This study investigated whether air-drying beds reduce antibiotic resistance gene (ARG) concentrations in residual municipal wastewater solids. Three laboratory-scale drying beds were operated for a period of nearly 100 days. Real-time PCR was used to quantify 16S rRNA genes, 16S rRNA genes specific to fecal bacteria (AllBac) and human fecal bacteria (HF183), the integrase gene of class 1 integrons (intI1), and five ARGs representing a cross-section of antibiotic classes and resistance mechanisms (erm(B), sul1, tet(A), tet(W), and tet(X)). Air-drying beds were capable of reducing all gene target concentrations by 1 to 5 orders of magnitude, and the nature of this reduction was consistent with both a net decrease in the number of bacterial cells and a lack of selection within the microbial community. Half-lives varied between 1.5 d (HF183) and 5.4 d (tet(X)) during the first 20 d of treatment. After the first 20 d of treatment, however, half-lives varied between 8.6 d (tet(X)) and 19.3 d (AllBac), and 16S rRNA gene, intI1, and sul1 concentrations did not change (P > 0.05). These results demonstrate that air-drying beds can reduce ARG and intI1 concentrations in residual municipal wastewater solids within timeframes typical of operating practices.

  5. Molecular characterization of antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli strains from a dairy cattle farm and its surroundings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navajas-Benito, Enrique Víctor; Alonso, Carla Andrea; Sanz, Susana; Olarte, Carmen; Martínez-Olarte, Roberto; Hidalgo-Sanz, Sara; Somalo, Sergio; Torres, Carmen

    2017-01-01

    This study describes the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of 78 genetically different Escherichia coli recovered from air and exudate samples of a dairy cattle farm and its surroundings in Spain, in order to gain insight into the flow of antimicrobial resistance through the environment and food supply. Antimicrobial resistance was detected in 21.8% of the 78 E. coli isolates analyzed (resistance for at least one of the 14 agents tested). The highest resistance rates were recorded for ampicillin, nalidixic acid, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and tetracycline. The resistance genes detected were as follows (antibiotic (number of resistant strains), gene (number of strains)): ampicillin (9), blaTEM-1 (6); tetracycline (15), tet(A) (7), tet(B) (4), tet(A) + tet(B) (1); chloramphenicol (5), cmlA (2), floR (2); trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (10), sul2 (4), sul1 (3), sul3 (2), sul1 + sul2 (1); gentamicin-tobramycin (1), ant(2″) (1). About 14% of strains showed a multidrug-resistant phenotype and, of them, seven strains carried class 1 integrons containing predominantly the dfrA1-aadA1 array. One multidrug-resistant strain was found in both inside and outside air, suggesting that the airborne spread of multidrug-resistant bacteria from the animal housing facilities to the surroundings is feasible. This study gives a genetic background of the antimicrobial resistance problem in a dairy cattle farm and shows that air can act as a source for dissemination of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Antimicrobial resistance in equine faecal Escherichia coli isolates from North West England

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    Williams Nicola J

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Escherichia coli isolates of equine faecal origin were investigated for antibiotic resistance, resistance genes and their ability to perform horizontal transfer. Methods In total, 264 faecal samples were collected from 138 horses in hospital and community livery premises in northwest England, yielding 296 resistant E. coli isolates. Isolates were tested for susceptibility to antimicrobial drugs by disc diffusion and agar dilution methods in order to determine minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC. PCR amplification was used to detect genes conferring resistance to: ampicillin (TEM and SHV beta-lactamase, chloramphenicol (catI, catII, catIII and cml, tetracycline (tetA, tetB, tetC, tetD, tet E and tetG, and trimethoprim (dfrA1, dfrA9, dfrA12, dfrA13, dfr7, and dfr17. Results The proportion of antibiotic resistant isolates, and multidrug resistant isolates (MDR was significantly higher in hospital samples compared to livery samples (MDR: 48% of hospital isolates; 12% of livery isolates, p dfr, TEM beta-lactamase, tet and cat, conferring resistance to trimethoprim, ampicillin, tetracycline and chloramphenicol, respectively. Within each antimicrobial resistance group, these genes occurred at frequencies of 93% (260/279, 91%, 86.8% and 73.5%, respectively; with 115/296 (38.8% found to be MDR isolates. Conjugation experiments were performed on selected isolates and MDR phenotypes were readily transferred. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that E. coli of equine faecal origin are commonly resistant to antibiotics used in human and veterinary medicine. Furthermore, our results suggest that most antibiotic resistance observed in equine E. coli is encoded by well-known and well-characterized resistant genes common to E. coli from man and domestic animals. These data support the ongoing concern about antimicrobial resistance, MDR, antimicrobial use in veterinary medicine and the zoonotic risk that horses could potentially pose to

  7. Comprehensive expression analysis of pathogenicity genes in uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains.

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    Paniagua-Contreras, Gloria Luz; Hernández-Jaimes, Tania; Monroy-Pérez, Eric; Vaca-Paniagua, Felipe; Díaz-Velásquez, Clara; Uribe-García, Alina; Vaca, Sergio

    2017-02-01

    In this study, we investigated distinct expression patterns of genes encoding iron-acquisition systems, adhesins, protectins, and toxins in human uroepithelial cells infected with 194 uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) strains in vitro. We assessed the association of these genes with antibiotic resistance genes in this group of UPEC strains, previously characterised by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Strains were isolated from patients with urinary tract infections (UTIs) from Unidad Médica Familiar de Salud Pública, located in Estado de México, México. Antibiotic resistance genes were identified by PCR, and the expression of virulence genes was detected by reverse-transcriptase-PCR after in vitro infection of cultured A431 human keratinocytes derived from a vulvar epidermoid carcinoma. The most frequently expressed virulence genotypes among the investigated UPEC strains included usp (68%), iha (64.9%), kpsMT (61.3%), fim (58.2%), irp2 (48.4), papC (33.5%), set (31.4%) and astA (30.9%), whereas the most frequently detected antibiotic resistance genes were tet(A) (34%), sul1 (31.4%) and TEM (26.3%). Furthermore, the most abundant pattern of gene expression (irp2/fim/iha/kpsMT/usp), associated with 8 different combinations of antibiotic resistance genotypes, was exhibited by 28 strains (14.4%). Taken together, these results indicate collective participation of distinct virulence UPEC genotypes during in vitro infection of cultured human epithelial cells, suggesting their potential involvement in UTI pathogenesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Reclaimed water as a reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes: distribution system and irrigation implications

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    Nicole L Fahrenfeld

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Treated wastewater is increasingly being reused to achieve sustainable water management in arid regions. The objective of this study was to quantify the distribution of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs in recycled water, particularly after it has passed through the distribution system, and to consider point-of-use implications for soil irrigation. Three separate reclaimed wastewater distribution systems in the western U.S. were examined. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR was used to quantify ARGs corresponding to resistance to sulfonamides (sul1, sul2, macrolides (ermF, tetracycline (tet(A, tet(O, glycopeptides (vanA, and methicillin (mecA, in addition to genes present in waterborne pathogens Legionella pneumophila (Lmip, Escherichia coli (gadAB, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ecfx, gyrB. In a parallel lab study, the effect of irrigating an agricultural soil with secondary, chlorinated, or dechlorinated wastewater effluent was examined in batch microcosms. A broader range of ARGs were detected after the reclaimed water passed through the distribution systems, highlighting the importance of considering bacterial re-growth and the overall water quality at the point of use. Screening for pathogens with qPCR indicated presence of Lmip and gadAB genes, but not ecfx or gyrB. In the lab study, chlorination was observed to reduce 16S rRNA and sul2 gene copies in the wastewater effluent, while dechlorination had no apparent effect. ARGs levels did not change with time in soil slurries incubated after a single irrigation event with any of the effluents. However, when irrigated repeatedly with secondary wastewater effluent (not chlorinated or dechlorinated, elevated levels of sul1 and sul2 were observed. This study suggests that reclaimed water may be an important reservoir of ARGs, especially at the point of use, and that attention should be directed towards the fate of ARGs in irrigation water and the implications for human health.

  9. Can chlorination co-select antibiotic-resistance genes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wenfang; Zhang, Menglu; Zhang, Shenghua; Yu, Xin

    2016-08-01

    Selective pressures, such as chemical or heavy metal pollution, may co-select for bacterial antibiotic resistance in the environment. However, whether chlorination in water treatment can co-select antibiotic-resistant bacteria is controversial. In this study, high capacity quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis was applied to target almost all known antibiotic-resistance genes (ARGs) (282 types) and 13 mobile genetic elements (MGEs) in bacteria detected in secondary effluents from a municipal wastewater treatment plant after chlorination. The results revealed that 125 unique ARGs were detected in non-chlorinated samples, and the number decreased (79-91 types) as the chlorine concentration was increased. Moreover, 7.49 × 10(4)-3.92 × 10(7) copies/100 ml water reduction of ARGs occurred with 4 mg Cl2/l. Considering the relative abundance of ARGs (i.e., ARG copies normalized to 16S rRNA gene copies), 119 ARGs decreased in response to chlorination, whereas only six ARGs, such as dfrA1, tetPB-03, tetPA, ampC-04, tetA-02, and erm(36), were potentially enriched by 10.90-, 10.06-, 8.63-, 6.86-, 3.77-, and 1.09-fold, respectively. Furthermore, the relative abundance of 12 detected MGEs was lower after chlorination. Therefore, chlorination was effective in reducing ARGs and MGEs rather than co-selecting them. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli isolates in cattle and house sparrows on two Czech dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolejská, M; Senk, D; Cízek, A; Rybaríková, J; Sychra, O; Literák, I

    2008-12-01

    Rectal smears of calves, cows and young bulls, as well as cloacal smears of house sparrows (Passer domesticus), from farms at the villages of Sumice and Troskotovice, Czech Republic, were examined for E. coli resistant to 12 antimicrobials. The resistant isolates were tested for antimicrobial-resistance genes and integrons. Totals of 40% (n=183), 3% (n=95), 0% (n=33), and 9% (n=54) of Escherichia coli isolates from calves, cows, young bulls and house sparrows, respectively, were antimicrobial resistant. The following genes were identified in cattle E. coli isolates: tetA, tetB (isolates resistant to tetracycline), bla(TEM) (beta-lactams), strA, aadA (streptomycin), sul1, sul2 (sulphonamides), and cat, floR (chloramphenicol). Seven of 16 antimicrobial-resistant calf isolates from the Sumice farm possessed class 1 integrons with the aadA1 gene cassette integrated, 1 kb in size. On the Troskotovice farm, eight of 57 antimicrobial-resistant calf isolates possessed class 1 integrons. Integrons of 1.5kb with the dhfr1- aadA1 gene cassette were found in four isolates, followed by a 1kb integron with the aadA1 gene found in three isolates, and a 1.7kb integron with the dhfr17-aadA5 gene cassette and the phenotype ASSuTSxtNaCipCCfG. The prevalence of resistant E. coli in calves compared to adult cattle was much higher and probably was influenced by oral antimicrobial usage in calves, feeding with milk and colostrum from treated cows, as well as mechanisms unrelated to antimicrobial drug selection. Although house sparrows lived together with the cattle and came into contact with cattle waste on the farm, they were not infected by resistant E. coli isolates with the same characteristics as those found in cattle.

  11. Diclofenac Salts, VIII. Effect of the Counterions on the Permeation through Porcine Membrane from Aqueous Saturated Solutions

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    Cristina Cavallari

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The following bases: monoethylamine (EtA, diethylamine (DEtA, triethylamine (TEtA, monoethanolamine (MEA, diethanolamine (DEA, triethanolamine (TEA, pyrrolidine (Py, piperidine (Pp, morpholine (M, piperazine (Pz and their N-2-hydroxyethyl (HE analogs were employed to prepare 14 diclofenac salts. The salts were re-crystallized from water in order to obtain forms that are stable in the presence of water. Vertical Franz-type cells with a diffusional surface area of 9.62 cm2 were used to study the permeation of these diclofenac salts from their saturated solutions through an internal pig ear membrane. The receptor compartments of the cells contained 100 mL of phosphate buffer (pH 7.4; a saturated solution (5 mL of each salt was placed in the donor compartment, thermostated at 37 °C. Aliquots were withdrawn at predetermined time intervals over 8 h and then immediately analyzed by HPLC. Fluxes were determined by plotting the permeated amount, normalized for the membrane surface area versus time. Permeation coefficients were obtained dividing the flux values J by the concentration of the releasing phase—that is, water solubility of each salt. Experimental results show that fluxes could be measured when diclofenac salts with aliphatic amines are released from a saturated aqueous solution. Different chemical species (acid, anion, ion pairs contribute to permeation of the anti-inflammatory agent even though ion-pairs could be hypothesized to operate to a greater extent. Permeation coefficients were found higher when the counterion contains a ring; while hydroxy groups alone do not appear to play an important role, the ring could sustain permeation, disrupting the organized domains of the membrane.

  12. Appraisal and analysis of opportunities for a joint DOE/DOD energy demonstration program. Final report. [Includes possible site information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziem, R.W.

    1980-05-01

    The basic objective of this study was to assess the potential for cooperative projects between the Department of Energy (DOE) and the Department of Defense (DOD) in areas concerned with the development of Total Energy (TE) Systems and to do the groundwork and liaison necessary to initiate those projects. The scope of the potential joint projects includes cooperative effort in the development and test of a variety of heat engines (prime movers) capable of utilizing coal as well as synthetic liquid fuels derived from coal and oil shale; as well as the indication of potential Military Department sites which would be suitable for the demonstration of TE systems based on a variety of such prime movers. In order to accomplish the objective of the study, it was necessary to review a large number of DOD studies and plans and to discuss the objective of the TETAS studies with a large number of Military Department people. The DOD recognizes the requirement for an assured energy supply and the need to learn how to use the synthetic fuels from coal and shale being developed by the DOE. The need to modify engine systems to adapt them to differing fuel characteristics and make those engines more flexible relative to the range of fuels they will accept is clear. What is not so clear is the fact that the DOD has a much greater opportunity to conserve energy in now inefficient facility operations than it has in mobility operations which must continue to stress mission and high performance. This report indicates guidelines for the conduct of joint projects between the DOE and the DOD which can aid both in meeting their energy objective.

  13. Parâmetros genéticos para características lineares de úbere: escore final de tipo, produção de leite e produção de gordura na raça Holandesa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freitas A.F.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Utilizaram-se 3.063 registros de classificação linear de 2.593 vacas, obtidos entre 1997 e 1999, para estudar características de úbere, escore final de tipo e produções de leite e gordura por meio de modelo animal de repetibilidade para características múltiplas tomadas três a três. As médias das características de úbere variaram de 3,79 para colocação das tetas anteriores a 5,81 para altura do úbere posterior. A média do escore final para tipo foi 80 e para produções de leite e gordura foram, respectivamente, 7.019±1.817kg e 236±60kg. As repetibilidades variaram de 0,46 para profundidade do úbere a 0,76 para escore final de tipo, e as herdabilidades de 0,11 para ligamento suspensório mediano a 0,40 para escore final. Em geral, as correlações genéticas entre as características lineares de úbere foram altas e positivas. O maior valor foi entre altura e profundidade do úbere (0,71, seguida da correlação entre inserção anterior e profundidade do úbere (0,69. Ao envolver características produtivas e de úbere, o maior valor foi 0,46, obtido entre produção de leite e largura do úbere posterior. A correlação entre produção de gordura e largura do úbere foi moderada (0,23. Algumas correlações foram negativas e em geral as fenotípicas foram, em valores absolutos, inferiores às genéticas.

  14. Masculinization of betta fish Betta splendens by embryo immersion in extract of purwoceng Pimpinella alpina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harton Arfah

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to examine the effect of extract of purwoceng Pimpinella alpina for masculinization of Betta splendens. This research used completely randomized design with three treatments that were distinguished by doses of purwoceng extract, which were 10, 20, and 30 µL/L, and 0 µL/L as control. The treatments were given by immersion to 35 embryos at eye spots phase or about 28-hours after fertilization, for eight hours. The immersion process was done for 8 hours. The result showed that 20 µL/L dose of purwoceng extract produced 62.66% male, and hatching rate was 85.71%. This male percentage was higher compared to control (45.91%, but the hatching rate was lower than that of control (98.57%. At the higher dose (30 µL/L, male fish population and hatching rate reduced respectively 39.72% and 68.57%, respectively. Keywords: masculinization, embryo immersion, purwoceng extract, Betta splendens  ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengevaluasi pengaruh dosis ekstrak purwoceng Pimpinella alpina extract dalam maskulinisasi ikan cupang hias Betta splendens. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode rancangan acak lengkap dengan tiga perlakuan dan tiga ulangan dosis ekstrak purwoceng. yaitu 10, 20, dan 30 µL/L, serta perlakuan 0 µL/L sebagai kontrol. Perlakuan diberikan melalui perendaman selama delapan jam terhadap 35 embrio saat memasuki fase bintik mata atau sekitar jam ke-28 setelah pembuahan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa dosis ekstrak purwoceng 20 µL/L menghasilkan persentase ikan jantan sebesar 62,66%, dan daya tetas telur sebesar 85,71%. Persentase jantan tersebut lebih tinggi daripada kontrol (45,1%, tetapi derajat penetasannya lebih rendah daripada kontrol (98,57%. Pada dosis yang lebih tinggi (30 µL/L, populasi ikan jantan (39,72%, dan derajat penetasan (68,57% adalah menurun. Kata kunci: maskulinisasi, perendaman embrio, ekstrak purwoceng, Betta splendens

  15. Effect of Feeding Diet Containing Different Dose of Vitamin E with 1:2 of n-3/n-6 Fatty Acid Content on Reproductive Performance of Female Zebrafish Danio rerio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.B.P Utomo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of essential fatty acids  as a precursor of prostaglandin and as a component of cell membrane in the form of phospholipids, can affect cell fluidity. Vitamin E functions as  fatty acid antioxidant in the body and affects egg quality.  Vitamin E and essential fatty acids (n-3 and n-6 are required at the same time in a proper  ratio to induce fish gonad maturation.  Zebra fish Danio rerio broodstock in 29 days pre-saline were fed on diet containing 4 different vitamin E concentration; i.e. 325, 375, 425 and 475 mg/kg diet with constant n-3 and n-6 fatty acid doses of 1% and 2%, respectively, for 6 weeks.  Reproduction performance in terms of fecundity was improved (p Keywords: vitamin E, fatty acid, reproduction performance, Danio rerio   ABSTRAK Asam lemak esensial berperan sebagai prekursor prostaglandin dan sebagai fosfolipid pada membran sel yang dapat mempengaruhi fluiditasnya. Sedangkan vitamin E berperan  sebagai antioksidan asam lemak dalam tubuh sehingga berpengaruh terhadap kualitas telur yang dihasilkan. Vitamin E dan asam lemak  essensial (n-3 dan n-6 dibutuhkan secara bersamaan dengan kombinasi perbandingan yang tepat untuk pematangan gonad ikan. Induk ikan yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah ikan zebra Danio rerio yang berumur 29 hari pra salin dan dipelihara selama 6 minggu dengan pakan mengandung kadar vitamin E yang berbeda yaitu 325, 375, 425, dan 475 mg/kg pakan pada kadar asam lemak n-3 (1% dan n-6 (2 % tetap. Penampilan reproduksi pra salin ikan tersebut hanya berpengaruh nyata terhadap fekunditas namun tidak berpengaruh nyata terhadap gonado somatik indek, gonado somatik indek salin, derajat pembuahan telur, derajat tetas telur, kelangsungan hidup larva, laju penyerapan kuning telur dan laju pertumbuhan harian. Kata kunci: Vitamin E, asam lemak, penampilan reproduksi, Danio rerio

  16. Condutividade hidráulica de um Latossolo Roxo, não saturado, sob diferentes sistemas de uso e manejo Unsaturated soil hydraulic conductivity of un oxisol, under different use and management systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilson Antonio Klein

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as alterações na condutividade hidráulica de um Latossolo Roxo ácrico (Typic Acrorthox do município de Guaira, Região Norte do Estado de São Paulo, submetido ao plantio direto sem irrigação e ao plantio direto irrigado comparando com o solo de mata, condição natural. Determinou-se a condutividade hidráulica do solo (K, no campo, em função do conteúdo de água (teta , pelo método do perfil instantâneo, avaliando-se a redistribuição da água no perfil do solo, por meio de tensiômetros instalados de 0,1 em 0,1m até 1m de profundidade. Para determinar a função K(teta também em laboratório, amostras de solo com estrutura preservada, de 1,15m de comprimento e 0,2m de diâmetro, foram coletadas nos três manejos. Esses monólitos de solo foram instrumentados com tensiômetros e submetidos a variados fluxos estacionários descendentes de água, para determinação da função, pela equação de Darcy-Buckingham. Os resultados demonstraram que a estrutura do solo foi afetada pelos manejos até a profundidade de 0,4m, com maior intensidade no solo sob plantio direto irrigado, provocando redução da condutividade hidráulica do solo não saturado. O movimento da água no solo não saturado também foi afetado pelo aumento da densidade, especificamente pela alteração na distribuição do diâmetro dos poros, demonstrando ainda que, com a metodologia adotada (campo e monólito o solo, na condição natural, apresenta duas fases distintas com relação à condução de água, uma próxima à saturação e outra a partir da tensão de 40kPa, pelo que as equações de K(teta não podem ser extrapoladas para fora da faixa do conteúdo de água em que elas foram obtidas.The objective of this paper was to assess the changes of the soil hydraulic conductivity of an oxisol (Typic Acorthox of the county of Guaira (SP, Brazil (20 º27’S, 48 º18’W, 518m by comparing the managements of no

  17. Intra-articular drug delivery from an optimized topical patch containing teriflunomide and lornoxicam for rheumatoid arthritis treatment: does the topical patch really enhance a local treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Honglei; Cun, Dongmei; Xiang, Rongwu; Guan, Yanli; Zhang, Yuxiu; Li, Yuanru; Fang, Liang

    2013-07-10

    Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) often bear joint destruction and symptomatic pain. The aim of this work is to develop a compound transdermal patch containing teriflunomide (TEF) and lornoxicam (LOX) to transport these drugs across the skin with the isochronous permeation rates for RA therapy and investigate intra-articular delivery of TEF and LOX following transdermal patches applied topically. The salts of TEF and LOX with organic amines diethylamine (DEtA), triethylamine (TEtA), diethanolamine (DEA), triethanolamine (TEA) and N-(2'-hydroxy-ethanol)-piperdine (NP) were prepared to improve the skin permeation of the parent drug. The optimized patch formulation is obtained from a 3-factor, 2-level central composite design. After topical application of the optimized compound patch to only one knee joint in rabbit, intra-articular delivery of TEF and LOX on the application site was compared with that on the non-application site. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of the optimized compound patch were evaluated using the adjuvant arthritis model and the pain model induced by acetic acid, respectively. The in vitro experiment results showed that the amine salts of TEF and LOX, especially TEF-TEtA and LOX-TEtA, enhanced the skin permeation of TEF and LOX from the transdermal patch system. The optimal formulation successfully displayed isochronous permeation rates for TEF and LOX across rabbit skin, and was defined with 5% of TEF-TEtA, 10% of LOX-TEtA and 15% of azone. The in vivo study showed that TEF and LOX from transdermal patches were transferred into skin, ligament and fat pad on the application site by direct diffusion and on the non-application site by the redistribution of systemic blood supply, while local absorption of TEF and LOX in synovial fluid originated from the systemic blood supply rather than direct diffusion. In the RA rat model, the results of swelling inhibition on primary arthritis of bilateral hind paws further confirmed the above

  18. Transferable antibiotic resistance plasmids from biogas plant digestates often belong to the IncP-1ε subgroup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolters, Birgit; Kyselková, Martina; Krögerrecklenfort, Ellen; Kreuzig, Robert; Smalla, Kornelia

    2014-01-01

    Manure is known to contain residues of antibiotics administered to farm animals as well as bacteria carrying antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). These genes are often located on mobile genetic elements. In biogas plants (BGPs), organic substrates such as manure and plant material are mixed and fermented in order to provide energy, and resulting digestates are used for soil fertilization. The fate of plasmid carrying bacteria from manure during the fermentation process is unknown. The present study focused on transferable antibiotic resistance plasmids from digestates of seven BGPs, using manure as a co-substrate, and their phenotypic and genotypic characterization. Plasmids conferring resistance to either tetracycline or sulfadiazine were captured by means of exogenous plasmid isolation from digestates into Pseudomonas putida KT2442 and Escherichia coli CV601 recipients, at transfer frequencies ranging from 10(-5) to 10(-7). Transconjugants (n = 101) were screened by PCR-Southern blot hybridization and real-time PCR for the presence of IncP-1, IncP-1ε, IncW, IncN, IncP-7, IncP-9, LowGC, and IncQ plasmids. While 61 plasmids remained unassigned, 40 plasmids belonged to the IncP-1ε subgroup. All these IncP-1ε plasmids were shown to harbor the genes tet(A), sul1, qacEΔ1, intI1, and integron gene cassette amplicons of different size. Further analysis of 16 representative IncP-1ε plasmids showed that they conferred six different multiple antibiotic resistance patterns and their diversity seemed to be driven by the gene cassette arrays. IncP-1ε plasmids displaying similar restriction and antibiotic resistance patterns were captured from different BGPs, suggesting that they may be typical of this environment. Our study showed that BGP digestates are a potential source of transferable antibiotic resistance plasmids, and in particular the broad host range IncP-1ε plasmids might contribute to the spread of ARGs when digestates are used as fertilizer.

  19. Transferable antibiotic resistance plasmids from biogas plant digestates often belong to the IncP-1ε subgroup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit eWolters

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Manure is known to contain residues of antibiotics administered to farm animals as well as bacteria carrying antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs. These genes are often located on mobile genetic elements. In biogas plants (BGPs, organic substrates such as manure and plant material are mixed and fermented in order to provide energy, and resulting digestates are used for soil fertilization. The fate of plasmid carrying bacteria from manure during the fermentation process is unknown. The present study focused on transferable antibiotic resistance plasmids from digestates of seven BGPs, using manure as a co-substrate, and their phenotypic and genotypic characterization. Plasmids conferring resistance to either tetracycline or sulfadiazine were captured by means of exogenous plasmid isolation from digestates into Pseudomonas putida KT2442 and Escherichia coli CV601 recipients, at transfer frequencies ranging from 10-5 to 10-7. Transconjugants (n = 101 were screened by PCR-Southern blot hybridization and real-time PCR for the presence of IncP-1, IncP-1ε, IncW, IncN, IncP-7, IncP-9, LowGC and IncQ plasmids. While 61 plasmids remained unassigned, 40 plasmids belonged to the IncP-1ε subgroup. All these IncP-1ε plasmids were shown to harbor the genes tetA, sul1, qacE∆1, intI1 and integron gene cassette amplicons of different size. Further analysis of 16 representative IncP-1ε plasmids showed that they conferred six different multiple antibiotic resistance patterns and their diversity seemed to be driven by the gene cassette arrays. IncP-1ε plasmids displaying similar restriction and antibiotic resistance patterns were captured from different BGPs, suggesting that they may be typical for this environment. Our study showed that BGP digestates are a potential source of transferable antibiotic resistance plasmids and in particular the broad host range IncP-1ε plasmids might contribute to the spread of ARGs when digestates are used as fertilizer.

  20. Pathotyping and antibiotic resistance of porcine enterovirulent Escherichia coli strains from Switzerland (2014-2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, P; Gobeli, S; Perreten, V

    2017-07-01

    A total of 131 porcine E. coli were isolated in 2014 and 2015 from the gut of 115 pigs raised in Switzerland and suffering from diarrhea. The isolates were tested for antibiotic resistance, serotypes, virulence factors and genetic diversity. Serotypes were assigned by agglutination tests and virulence genes were identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Antibiotic resistance profile was determined by the measurement of the MIC of 14 antibiotics and by the detection of the corresponding genes using microarray and PCR approaches. Genetic diversity was determined by repetitive palindromic PCR (rep- PCR) revealing a heterogenous population. Half of the E. coli isolates possessing virulence factors could not be assigned to any of the 19 serotypes tested, but contained toxins and adhesins similarly to the sero-typable E. coli isolates. The most prevalent E. coli serotypes found were K88ac (18%), O139:K82 (6%), O141:K85ac (5%), O108:K`V189` (5%), O119:K`V113` (3%) and O157:K`V17` (2%). The combination of toxins EAST-1, STb and LT-I and adhesin F4 characterizing ETEC was the most frequent. The shigatoxin Stx2e (STEC) and intimin Eae (EPEC) were also detected, but less frequently. Seventy percent of the isolates were resistant to at least one antibiotic and 29% were resistant to more than 3 antibiotics. Isolates exhibited resistance to tetracycline (50%) associated to resistance genes tet(A), tet(B) and tet(C), sulfamethoxazole (49%) [sul1, sul2 and sul3], trimethoprim (34%) [dfr], nalidixic acid (29%), ampicillin (26%) [blaTEM-1], gentamicin (17%) [aac(3) -IIc, aac(3) -IVa and aac(3) -VIa], chloramphenicol (17%) [catAI and catAIII], and ciprofloxacin (8%) [mutations in GyrA (S83L) and ParC (S80I)]. All isolates were susceptible to 3rd generation cephalosporins, carbapenems, colistin and tigecycline. Pathogenic E. coli isolates from pigs in Switzerland could frequently not be assigned to a known serotype even if they contained diarrhea-causing virulence factors. They

  1. Single Strand Annealing Plays a Major Role in RecA-Independent Recombination between Repeated Sequences in the Radioresistant Deinococcus radiodurans Bacterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ithurbide, Solenne; Bentchikou, Esma; Coste, Geneviève; Bost, Bruno; Servant, Pascale; Sommer, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    The bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans is one of the most radioresistant organisms known. It is able to reconstruct a functional genome from hundreds of radiation-induced chromosomal fragments. Our work aims to highlight the genes involved in recombination between 438 bp direct repeats separated by intervening sequences of various lengths ranging from 1,479 bp to 10,500 bp to restore a functional tetA gene in the presence or absence of radiation-induced DNA double strand breaks. The frequency of spontaneous deletion events between the chromosomal direct repeats were the same in recA+ and in ΔrecA, ΔrecF, and ΔrecO bacteria, whereas recombination between chromosomal and plasmid DNA was shown to be strictly dependent on the RecA and RecF proteins. The presence of mutations in one of the repeated sequence reduced, in a MutS-dependent manner, the frequency of the deletion events. The distance between the repeats did not influence the frequencies of deletion events in recA + as well in ΔrecA bacteria. The absence of the UvrD protein stimulated the recombination between the direct repeats whereas the absence of the DdrB protein, previously shown to be involved in DNA double strand break repair through a single strand annealing (SSA) pathway, strongly reduces the frequency of RecA- (and RecO-) independent deletions events. The absence of the DdrB protein also increased the lethal sectoring of cells devoid of RecA or RecO protein. γ-irradiation of recA + cells increased about 10-fold the frequencies of the deletion events, but at a lesser extend in cells devoid of the DdrB protein. Altogether, our results suggest a major role of single strand annealing in DNA repeat deletion events in bacteria devoid of the RecA protein, and also in recA + bacteria exposed to ionizing radiation. PMID:26517555

  2. Stochastic simulations of the tetracycline operon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaznessis Yiannis N

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tetracycline operon is a self-regulated system. It is found naturally in bacteria where it confers resistance to antibiotic tetracycline. Because of the performance of the molecular elements of the tetracycline operon, these elements are widely used as parts of synthetic gene networks where the protein production can be efficiently turned on and off in response to the presence or the absence of tetracycline. In this paper, we investigate the dynamics of the tetracycline operon. To this end, we develop a mathematical model guided by experimental findings. Our model consists of biochemical reactions that capture the biomolecular interactions of this intriguing system. Having in mind that small biological systems are subjects to stochasticity, we use a stochastic algorithm to simulate the tetracycline operon behavior. A sensitivity analysis of two critical parameters embodied this system is also performed providing a useful understanding of the function of this system. Results Simulations generate a timeline of biomolecular events that confer resistance to bacteria against tetracycline. We monitor the amounts of intracellular TetR2 and TetA proteins, the two important regulatory and resistance molecules, as a function of intrecellular tetracycline. We find that lack of one of the promoters of the tetracycline operon has no influence on the total behavior of this system inferring that this promoter is not essential for Escherichia coli. Sensitivity analysis with respect to the binding strength of tetracycline to repressor and of repressor to operators suggests that these two parameters play a predominant role in the behavior of the system. The results of the simulations agree well with experimental observations such as tight repression, fast gene expression, induction with tetracycline, and small intracellular TetR2 amounts. Conclusions Computer simulations of the tetracycline operon afford augmented insight into the

  3. Epileptiform abnormalities and quantitative EEG in children with attention-deficit / hyperactivity disorder Atividade epileptiforme e eletrencefalograma quantitativo em crianças com transtorno de déficit de atenção/hiperatividade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lineu Corrêa Fonseca

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available There is much controversy about the importance of the electroencephalogram (EEG in assessing the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. The objective of this study was to assess the use of EEG and quantitative EEG (qEEG in ADHD children. Thirty ADHD children and 30 sex- and age-matched controls with no neurological or psychiatric problems were studied. The EEG was recorded from 15 electrode sites during an eyes-closed resting condition. Epileptiform activity was assessed, as were the absolute and relative powers in the classical bands after application of the Fast Fourier transform. Epileptiform activity was found in 3 (10% ADHD children. As compared to the controls, the ADHD group showed significantly greater absolute delta and theta powers in a diffuse way, and also greater absolute beta power and smaller relative alpha 1 and beta powers at some electrodes. A logistic multiple regression model, allowed for 83.3% sensibility and specificity in diagnosing ADHD.Há controvérsias sobre a importância do eletrencefalogama (EEG na avaliação do transtorno de déficit de atenção/hiperatividade (TDAH. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar, em crianças com TDAH, o EEG digital e quantitativo. Foram estudadas 30 crianças com TDAH e 30 sadias, sem evidências de problemas neurológicos ou psiquiátricos e pareadas por idade e gênero. Foi registrado o EEG em 15 posições de eletrodos, durante repouso e olhos fechados. Foi realizada pesquisa de atividade epileptiforme e feita análise de freqüências nas faixas clássicas, após aplicação da transformada rápida de Fourier. Foi encontrada atividade epileptiforme em 3 (10% crianças com TDAH. O grupo TDAH teve, em relação ao grupo controle, significativamente, maior potência absoluta delta e teta, de modo difuso, assim como maior potência absoluta beta e menor potência relativa alfa 1 e beta, em alguns eletrodos. Um modelo de regressão múltipla logística possibilitou sensibilidade e

  4. Prevalence and proliferation of antibiotic resistance genes in two municipal wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Daqing; Yu, Shuai; Rysz, Michal; Luo, Yi; Yang, Fengxia; Li, Fengxiang; Hou, Jie; Mu, Quanhua; Alvarez, P J J

    2015-11-15

    The propagation of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) is an emerging health concern worldwide. Thus, it is important to understand and mitigate their occurrence in different systems. In this study, 30 ARGs that confer resistance to tetracyclines, sulfonamides, quinolones or macrolides were detected in two activated sludge wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in northern China. Bacteria harboring ARGs persisted through all treatment units, and survived disinfection by chlorination in greater percentages than total Bacteria (assessed by 16S rRNA genes). Although the absolute abundances of ARGs were reduced from the raw influent to the effluent by 89.0%-99.8%, considerable ARG levels [(1.0 ± 0.2) × 10(3) to (9.5 ± 1.8) × 10(5) copies/mL)] were found in WWTP effluent samples. ARGs were concentrated in the waste sludge (through settling of bacteria and sludge dewatering) at (1.5 ± 2.3) × 10(9) to (2.2 ± 2.8) × 10(11) copies/g dry weight. Twelve ARGs (tetA, tetB, tetE, tetG, tetH, tetS, tetT, tetX, sul1, sul2, qnrB, ermC) were discharged through the dewatered sludge and plant effluent at higher rates than influent values, indicating overall proliferation of resistant bacteria. Significant antibiotic concentrations (2%-50% of raw influent concentrations) remained throughout all treatment units. This apparently contributed selective pressure for ARG replication since the relative abundance of resistant bacteria (assessed by ARG/16S rRNA gene ratios) was significantly correlated to the corresponding effluent antibiotic concentrations. Similarly, the concentrations of various heavy metals (which induce a similar bacterial resistance mechanism as antibiotics - efflux pumps) were also correlated to the enrichment of some ARGs. Thus, curtailing the release of antibiotics and heavy metals to sewage systems (or enhancing their removal in pre-treatment units) may alleviate their selective pressure and mitigate ARG proliferation in WWTPs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All

  5. Shiga Toxigenic Escherichia coli in Iranian Pediatric Patients With and Without Diarrhea: O-Serogroups, Virulence Factors and Antimicrobial Resistance Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dormanesh, Banafshe; Siroosbakhat, Soheila; Karimi Goudarzi, Peyman; Afsharkhas, Ladan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli is an important human pathogen cause of diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis, hemolytic uremic syndrome and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura in humans is a significant public health. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the molecular characteristics and antimicrobial resistance properties of Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) strains with respect to their seasonal, age and geographical distributions in Iranian pediatric patients with and without diarrhea. Patients and Methods: Four hundred and eighty swab samples were taken from pediatric patients with and without diarrhea of four major provinces of Iran. Swab samples were immediately cultured and the positive culture samples were analyzed by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. Finally, antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using the disk diffusion method in Mueller-Hinton agar. Results: In total, 118 out of 200 diarrheic stool samples (59%) and 77 out of 280 non-diarrheic stool samples (27.5%) were positive for E. coli. Samples taken from one to ten months old cases (73.33%) and those from Shiraz province (81.13%) were the most commonly infected. Samples taken in the summer season (91.66%) were the most commonly infected. A significant difference was shown between AEEC and EHEC strains of E. coli. The genes encoding Shiga toxins and intimin protein were the most commonly detected in all strains. O26 (33.33%), O111 (18.18%) and O91 (12.12%) serogroups had the highest incidence in patients with and without diarrhea. Prevalence of the genes that encode resistance against ampicillin (CITM), gentamicin (aac(3)-IV) and tetracycline (tetA) were 80.30%, 75.75% and 65.15%, respectively. The STEC strains harbored the highest levels of resistance against ampicillin (84.84%), gentamycin (78.78%), tetracycline (50%) and sulfamethoxazole (40.90%) antibiotics. We found that 55.08% of diarrheic and 1.29% of non-diarrheic E. coli isolates were

  6. Molecular characterization of serologically atypical provisional serovars of Shigella isolates from Kolkata, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Shanta; Jain, Priyanka; Nandy, Suman; Matsushita, Shigeru; Yoshida, Shin-ichi

    2014-12-01

    During 2000-2004, 13 Shigella strains that were untypable by commercially available antisera were isolated from children Shigella dysenteriae provisional serovar 204/96 (n = 3), Shigella dysenteriae provisional serovar E23507 (n = 1), Shigella dysenteriae provisional serovar I9809-73 (n = 1), Shigella dysenteriae provisional serovar 93-119 (n = 1), Shigella flexneri provisional serovar 88-893 (n = 6) and Shigella boydii provisional serovar E16553 (n = 1). In this study, characterization of those provisional serovars of Shigella was performed with respect to their antimicrobial resistance, plasmids, virulence genes and PFGE profiles. The drug resistant strains (n = 10) of Shigella identified in this study possessed various antibiotic resistance genetic markers like catA (for chloramphenicol resistance); tetA and tetB (for tetracycline resistance); dfrA1 and sul2 (for co-trimoxazole resistance); aadA1, strA and strB (for streptomycin resistance) and blaOXA-1 (for ampicillin resistance). Class 1 and/or class 2 integrons were present in eight resistant strains. Three study strains were pan-susceptible. A single mutation in the gyrA gene (serine to leucine at codon 83) was present in four quinolone resistant strains. The virulence gene ipaH (invasion plasmid antigen H) was uniformly present in all strains in this study, but the stx (Shiga toxin) and set1 (Shigella enterotoxin 1) genes were absent. Other virulence genes like ial (invasion associated locus) and sen (Shigella enterotoxin 2) were occasionally present. A large plasmid of 212 kb and of incompatibility type IncFIIA was present in the majority of the strains (n = 10) and diversity was noticed in the smaller plasmid profiles of these strains even within the same provisional serovars. PFGE profile analysis showed the presence of multiple unrelated clones among the isolates of provisional Shigella serovars. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the phenotypic and

  7. Evidence of increased antibiotic resistance in phylogenetically-diverse Aeromonas isolates from semi-intensive fish ponds treated with antibiotics

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    Hemant J Patil

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The genus Aeromonas is ubiquitous in aquatic environments encompassing a broad range of fish and human pathogens. Aeromonas strains are known for their enhanced capacity to acquire and exchange antibiotic resistance genes and therefore, are frequently targeted as indicator bacteria for monitoring antimicrobial resistance in aquatic environments. This study evaluated temporal trends in Aeromonas diversity and antibiotic resistance in two adjacent semi-intensive aquaculture facilities to ascertain effects of antibiotic treatment on antimicrobial resistance. In the first facility, sulfadiazine-trimethoprim was added prophylactically upon fingerling stocking and water column-associated Aeromonas were monitored periodically over an eleven-month fish-fattening cycle to assess temporal dynamics in taxonomy and antibiotic resistance. In the second facility, Aeromonas were isolated from fish skin ulcers sampled over a three-year period and from pond water samples to assess associations between pathogenic strains to those in the water column. A total of 1200 Aeromonas spp. were isolated, initially screened for sulfadiazine resistance and further screened against five additional antibiotics. In both facilities, strong correlations were observed between sulfadiazine resistance and trimethoprim and tetracycline resistances, whereas correlations between sulfadiazine resistance and ceftriaxone, gentamycin and chloramphenicol resistances were low. Abundance of multi-drug resistant strains as well as sul1, tetA and intI1 gene-harboring strains was significantly higher in profiles sampled during the fish cycle than those isolated prior to stocking and these genes were extremely abundant in the pathogenic strains. Five phylogenetically-distinct Aeromonas clusters were revealed using partial rpoD gene sequence analysis. Interestingly, prior to fingerling stocking the diversity of water column strains was high, and representatives from all five clusters were

  8. Faecal Escherichia coli isolates from healthy dogs harbour CTX-M-15 and CMY-2 β-lactamases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha-Gracia, R C; Cortés-Cortés, G; Lozano-Zarain, P; Bello, F; Martínez-Laguna, Y; Torres, C

    2015-03-01

    The presence of extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) and plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamase (pAmpC) producing Escherichia coli, along with the mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance and the molecular types of isolates, was investigated in faecal samples from 53 healthy dogs in Mexico. Samples were inoculated on Levine agar plates with 2 µg/mL cefotaxime for recovery of cefotaxime-resistant (CTX(R)) E. coli. CTX(R)E. coli isolates were recovered from 9/53 (17%) samples; one isolate was characterised from each positive sample. ESBL producing E. coli isolates were detected in 3/53 (6%) samples; these isolates carried the blaCTX-M-15 gene and one isolate also carried blaSHV-2. These three ESBL-positive E. coli isolates belonged to phylogroup A and sequence types ST617, ST410 or ST3944. The remaining 6/53 (11%) samples contained pAmpC positive isolates; these isolates carried the blaCMY-2 gene, which encodes CMY-2 β-lactamase. These six isolates belonged to phylogroups A (n = 2), B1 (n = 1) and D (n = 3), and sequences types ST1431, ST57, ST93 and ST4565. One CMY-2 β-lactamase positive E. coli isolate of lineage ST93 had the -32 mutation in the chromosomal ampC promoter/attenuator region. Five ESBL/pAmpC positive E. coli isolates carried class 1 integrons (dfrA17-aadA5, aadA and aadA/aadB arrays were detected in three isolates) and one isolate carried a class 2 integron (dfrA12-sat2-aadA1). The aac(6')Ib-cr, aac(3)-II, qnrB19, tet(A), tet(B), cmlA, and sul3 genes were also detected. All studied isolates showed unrelated PFGE-patterns. To our knowledge, this is the first description of ESBL-producing E. coli and the second of pAmpC-producing E. coli from healthy dogs in America. Our results suggest the potential zoonotic role of dogs in the transmission to humans of ESBL and pAmpC E. coli in the household environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Damage spreading at the corner-filling transition in the two-dimensional Ising model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio Puzzo, M. Leticia; Albano, Ezequiel V.

    2007-01-01

    The propagation of damage on the square Ising lattice with a corner geometry is studied by means of Monte Carlo simulations. By imposing free boundary conditions at which competing boundary magnetic fields ± h are applied, the system undergoes a filling transition at a temperature Tf(h) lower than the Onsager critical temperature TC. The competing fields cause the formation of two magnetic domains with opposite orientation of the magnetization, separated by an interface that for T larger than Tf(h) (but Tt^{\\eta } . The value obtained for the dynamic exponent (η* = 0.89(1)) is in agreement with that corresponding to the wetting transition in the slit geometry (Abraham model) given by ηWT = 0.91(1). However, for later times the propagation crosses to a new regime such as η** = 0.40(2), which is due to the propagation of the damage into the bulk of the magnetic domains. This result can be understood as being due to the constraints imposed on the propagation of damage by the corner geometry of the system that cause healing at the corners where the interface is attached. The critical points for the damage-spreading transition (TD(h)) are evaluated by extrapolation to the thermodynamic limit by using a finite-size scaling approach. Considering error bars, an overlap between the filling and the damage-spreading transitions is found, such that Tf(h) = TD(h). The probability distribution of the damage average position P(l0D) and that of the interface between magnetic domains of different orientation P(l0) are evaluated

  10. Prevalence and diversity of IncX plasmids carrying fluoroquinolone and β-lactam resistance genes in Escherichia coli originating from diverse sources and geographical areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobiasova, Hana; Dolejska, Monika

    2016-08-01

    To describe the prevalence and diversity of IncX plasmids with antibiotic resistance genes in Enterobacteriaceae and to identify the most disseminated lineages of the plasmid family. IncX plasmids were screened in 1894 Enterobacteriaceae isolates resistant to cefotaxime (2 mg/L) or with reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin (0.05 mg/L) obtained from various sources in five continents using PCR. IncX plasmid-harbouring isolates were identified using MALDI-TOF or biochemical tests, and screened for antibiotic resistance genes using PCR and sequencing; their clonality was determined by PFGE. Horizontal transfer of plasmids was tested using transformation and conjugation. IncX plasmids were characterized by S1-nuclease and PFGE, RFLP and hybridization. A total of 164 Escherichia coli isolates (8.7%, n = 1894) carried at least one IncX subgroup. Seven isolates harboured two distinct subgroups. IncX1 subgroup was found in 93 isolates, followed by IncX2 (35 isolates), IncX4 (28) and IncX3 (15). IncX4 plasmids were not transferred horizontally as single plasmids and therefore excluded from further analysis. The most disseminated lineages of IncX plasmids included IncX1 harbouring qnrS1 and blaTEM-1,-135 found in 36 E. coli from different sources in Europe and Australia and IncX2 carrying qnrS1 and tet(A) detected in nine E. coli from wildlife in Europe. IncX3 plasmids harboured predominantly blaSHV-12 and qnrS1 or qnrB7. IncX plasmids were widely distributed in E. coli from wildlife in Europe and were predominantly associated with fluoroquinolone resistance genes. Plasmids showing indistinguishable restriction profiles were identified in E. coli from different sources and countries suggesting wide dissemination of certain plasmid lineages. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Aprendizagem de procedimentos e efeitos ansiolíticos: medidas eletrencefalográficas, motora e atencional Procedural learning and anxiolytic effects: electroencephalographic, motor and attentional measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Elidio Portella

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar parâmetros atencionais, motores e eletrencefalográficos durante uma tarefa de procedimentos em sujeitos que ingeriram 6mg de bromazepam. A amostra consistiu de 26 sujeitos saudáveis, ambos os sexos, entre 19 e 36 anos. Os grupos controle e experimental foram submetidos à tarefa datilográfica em desenho duplo-cego randomizado. Os achados não revelaram diferenças nas medidas atencionais e motoras entre os grupos. Foram avaliadas medidas de coerência (EEGq entre regiões do escalpo nas bandas teta, alfa e beta. Análise inicial revelou um efeito principal para condição (Anova 2- critérios de variação - condição versus blocos. Uma segunda Anova, também com 2 critérios de variação (condição versus região do escalpo, demonstrou um efeito principal para ambos os fatores. Em conclusão, a medida de coerência parece não ser uma ferramenta sensível para demonstrar diferenças entre áreas corticais em função de uma tarefa de procedimentos.The objective of the present study was to evaluate attentional, motor and electroencephalographic (EEG parameters during a procedural task when subjects have ingested 6mg of bromazepam. The sample consisted of 26 healthy subjects, male or female, between 19 and 36 years of age. The control (placebo and experimental (bromazepam 6mg groups were submitted to a typewriting task in a randomized, double-blind design. The findings did not show significant differences in attentional and motor measures between groups. Coherence measures (qEEG were evaluated between scalp regions, in theta, alpha and beta bands. A first analysis revealed a main effect for condition (Anova-2way - condition versus blocks. A second Anova 2-way (condition versus scalp regions showed a main effect for both factors. The coherence measure was not a sensitive tool at demonstrating differences between cortical areas as a function of procedural learning.

  12. Molecular determination of antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli isolated from raw meat in Addis Ababa and Bishoftu, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messele, Yohannes Equar; Abdi, Reta Duguma; Yalew, Shimels Tikuye; Tegegne, Desiye Tesfaye; Emeru, Bezina Arega; Werid, Gebremeskel Mamu

    2017-08-15

    Consumption of meat contaminated by E. coli causes a serious illness and even death to affected individuals. Recently the emerging of antibiotic resistant foodborne E. coli poses serious public health risks worldwide. However, little is known about the antibiotic resistance profile of E. coli in Ethiopia. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) status of E. coli isolated from different type of meat. Overall 292 samples were collected from December 2015 to April 2016 from slaughterhouses to determine the prevalence and AMR of E. coli isolated from raw beef, mutton, chevon and chicken meat from Addis Ababa and Bishoftu, Ethiopia. The isolates were screened for AMR against commonly used antibiotics circulating in the Ethiopian market. Both phenotypic and genotypic approach were employed for AMR detection using disc diffusion test and PCR respectively. The prevalence of E. coli was 63 (21.6%), indicating one sample in every five samples harbors E. coli. Among these, the highest E. coli isolates was observed in chicken meat samples (37.0%; 27), followed by mutton (23.3%; 17), chevon (20.6%; 15) and beef (5.5%; 4). Results of disk diffusion test on the 63 isolates showed that only 4.8% of them were not resistance to all antimicrobials tested. Multiple drug resistance (resistance to ≥3 drugs) was 46.0%. Significantly high resistance to ampicillin (71.4%) and tetracycline (47.6%) was observed. Identification of genes associated with AMR was also done using PCR. The prevalence of E. coli isolates harboring resistance gene responsible for tetracycline (tet(A)), beta lactams (blaCMY) and sulphanamide (sulI) antibiotics were found 65.1, 65.1 and 54.0%, respectively. Twenty-five out of the 63 (39.7% %) E. coli isolates have got antimicrobial resistance gene to three or more classes of drugs. The associations of antimicrobial resistance phenotypes and resistance genes was also determined. The detection of resistance trait against

  13. Functionalized macroporous copolymer of glycidyl methacrylate: The type of ligand and porosity parameters influence on Cu(II ion sorption from aqueous solutions

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    Sandić Zvjezdana P.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The removal of heavy metals from hydro-metallurgical and other industries' wastewaters, their safe storage and possible recovery from waste- water streams is one of the greater ecological problems of modern society. Conventional methods, like precipitation, adsorption and biosorption, electrowinning, membrane separation, solvent extraction and ion exchange are often ineffective, expensive and can generate secondary pollution. On the other hand, chelating polymers, consisting of crosslinked copolymers as a solid support and functional group (ligand, are capable of selectively loading different metal ions from aqueous solutions. In the relatively simple process, the chelating copolymer is contacted with the contaminated solution, loaded with metal ions, and stripped with the appropriate eluent. Important properties of chelating polymers are high capacity, high selectivity and fast kinetics combined with mechanical stability and chemical inertness. Macroporous hydrophilic copolymers of glycidyl methacrylate and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate modified by different amines show outstanding efficiency and selectivity for the sorption of precious and heavy metals from aqueous solutions. In this study poly(GMA-co-EGDMA copolymers were synthesized with different porosity parameters and functionalized in reactions with ethylene diamine (EDA, diethylene triamine (DETA and triethylene tetramine (TETA. Under non-competitive conditions, in batch experiments at room temperature, the rate of sorption of Cu(II ions from aqueous solutions and the influence of pH on it was determined for four samples of amino-functionalized poly(GMA-co-EGDMA. The sorption of Cu(II for both amino-functionalized samples was found to be very rapid. The sorption half time, t1/2, defined as the time required to reach 50% of the total sorption capacity, was between 1 and 2 min. The maximum sorption capacity for copper (2.80 mmol/g was obtained on SGE-10/12-deta sample. The sorption

  14. Linkage study of voltage-gated potassium channels in familial mesial temporal lobe epilepsy Análise de ligação dos canais de potássio voltagem-dependente na epilepsia de lobo temporal mesial familiar

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    Cláudia Vianna Maurer-Morelli

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Voltage-gated potassium channels (VGKCs play a critical role in the regulation of neuronal excitability and have been implicated in some types of epilepsies. Recently, autoimmune limbic encephalitis (LE was associated with antibodies against VGKC. In addition, patients with LE showed partial epilepsy and increased T2 signal abnormalities in limbic structures. We have reported familial mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (FMTLE associated with hippocampal atrophy (HA and other signs of mesial temporal sclerosis detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. In order to investigate whether VGKC may be associated to HA present in FMTLE, we perform linkage study in these candidate genes. Seventy-three microsatellites markers were genotyped in different human autosomal chromosome. Two-point LOD scores did not show evidence for linkage with any of the microsatellite markers genotyped (Zmax ranging from 0.11to-9.53 at theta=0.00. In the present study, linkage data showed no evidence that VGKC are involved in the determination of HA in FMTLE.Canais de potássio voltagem-dependentes (CPVD desempenham importante papel na excitabilidade neuronal e estão associados a determinados tipos de epilepsia. Recentemente, um tipo de encefalite límbica autoimune (EL foi associado com anticorpos contra CPVD. Além disso, há relatos de pacientes com EL e epilepsia parcial, além de hipersinal em regiões límbicas detectadas em imagens de ressonância magnética (IRM. Nós temos descrito a epilepsia de lobo temporal mesial familial (ELTMF associada à atrofia hipocampal (AH e outros sinais de esclerose mesial temporal observadas em IRM. Para investigar se os CPVD podem estar associados com a AH identificada na ELTMF, empregamos o estudo de ligação genética nesses genes candidatos. Setenta e três marcadores microssatélites foram genotipados e o LOD score de dois pontos mostrou Zmax variando de 0.11 a -9.53 para teta=0.00. No presente estudo, os dados obtidos com a an

  15. QnrS1- and Aac(6’-Ib-cr-producing Escherichia coli among isolates from animals of different sources: susceptibility and genomic characterization

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    Daniela eJones-Dias

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli can inhabit humans and animals from multiple origins. These bacteria are often associated with gastroenteritis in animals, being a frequent cause of resistant zoonotic infections. In fact, bacteria from animals can be transmitted to humans through the food chain and direct contact. In this study, we aimed to assess the antibiotic susceptibility of a collection of S. enterica and E. coli recovered from animals of different sources, performing a genomic comparison of the plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR-producing isolates detected.Antibiotic susceptibility testing revealed a high number of non wild-type isolates for fluoroquinolones among S. enterica recovered from poultry isolates. In turn, the frequency of non-wild-type E. coli to nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin was higher in food-producing animals than in companion or zoo animals. Globally, we detected two qnrS1 and two aac(6’-Ib-cr in E. coli isolates recovered from animals of different origins. The genomic characterization of QnrS1-producing E. coli showed high genomic similarity (O86:H12 and ST2297, although they have been recovered from a healthy turtle dove from a Zoo Park, and from a dog showing symptoms of infection. The qnrS1 gene was encoded in a IncN plasmid, also carrying blaTEM-1-containing Tn3. Isolates harboring aac(6’-Ib-cr were detected in two captive bottlenose dolphins, within a time span of two years. The additional antibiotic resistance genes of the two aac(6’-Ib-cr-positive isolates (blaOXA-1, blaTEM-1, blaCTX-M-15, catB3, aac(3-IIa and tetA were enclosed in IncFIA plasmids that differed in a single transposase and 60 single nucleotide variants. The isolates could be assigned to the same genetic sublineage – ST131 fimH30-Rx (O25:H4, confirming clonal spread. PMQR-producing isolates were associated with symptomatic and asymptomatic hosts, which highlight the aptitude of E. coli to act as silent vehicles, allowing

  16. Antibiotic Resistance, Virulence, and Genetic Background of Community-Acquired Uropathogenic Escherichia coli from Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahiaoui, Merzouk; Robin, Frédéric; Bakour, Rabah; Hamidi, Moufida; Bonnet, Richard; Messai, Yamina

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate antibiotic resistance mechanisms, virulence traits, and genetic background of 150 nonrepetitive community-acquired uropathogenic Escherichia coli (CA-UPEC) from Algeria. A rate of 46.7% of isolates was multidrug resistant. bla genes detected were blaTEM (96.8% of amoxicillin-resistant isolates), blaCTX-M-15 (4%), overexpressed blaAmpC (4%), blaSHV-2a, blaTEM-4, blaTEM-31, and blaTEM-35 (0.7%). All tetracycline-resistant isolates (51.3%) had tetA and/or tetB genes. Sulfonamides and trimethoprim resistance genes were sul2 (60.8%), sul1 (45.9%), sul3 (6.7%), dfrA14 (25.4%), dfrA1 (18.2%), dfrA12 (16.3%), and dfrA25 (5.4%). High-level fluoroquinolone resistance (22.7%) was mediated by mutations in gyrA (S83L-D87N) and parC (S80I-E84G/V or S80I) genes. qnrB5, qnrS1, and aac(6')-Ib-cr were rare (5.3%). Class 1 and/or class 2 integrons were detected (40.7%). Isolates belonged to phylogroups B2+D (50%), A+B1 (36%), and F+C+Clade I (13%). Most of D (72.2%) and 38.6% of B2 isolates were multidrug resistant; they belong to 14 different sequence types, including international successful ST131, ST73, and ST69, reported for the first time in the community in Algeria and new ST4494 and ST4529 described in this study. Besides multidrug resistance, B2 and D isolates possessed virulence factors of colonization, invasion, and long-term persistence. The study highlighted multidrug-resistant CA-UPEC with high virulence traits and an epidemic genetic background.

  17. Pengaruh Selang Waktu Peletakkan Terhadap Keberhasilan Penetasan Telur Penyu Hijau (Chelonia mydas L. (Effect of Planting Time on Egg Hatching Success of Green Turtle (Chelonia mydas L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edi Wibowo Kushartono

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Salah satu usaha konservasi melindungi Penyu hijau (Chelonia mydas L. yaitu dengan tindakan relokasi dengan memindahkan telur dari sarang alami ke tempat penetasan semi alami. Waktu pemindahan dan peletakan telur yang tepat sangat diperlukan untuk memperoleh daya tetas maksimal. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui pengaruh selang waktu peletakan telur Penyu Hijau terhadap keberhasilan penetasannya. Rancangan penelitian adalah Rancangan Acak Kelompok berdasarkan 3 induk yang berbeda dengan perlakuan selang waktu peletakan yaitu 2, 7 dan 12 jam. Pengukuran dan pengamatan kondisi lingkungan dilakukan selama inkubasi. Pengamatan munculnya tukik mulai dilakukan pada hari ke 50 masa inkubasi.  Pembongkaran sarang dilakukan pada hari ke 60 masa inkubasi kemudian dilakukan pembedahan secara manual untuk mengamati telur yang gagal menetas. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa tidak ada pengaruh nyata secara signifikan adanya perbedaan selang waktu peletakan terhadap keberhasilan penetasan dan keberhasilan kemunculan. Namun selang waktu peletakan dengan nilai yang baik ditunjukkan pada 2 jam, dilanjutkan dengan 12 jam dan 7 jam. Kata kunci: penetasan, penyu hijau (Chelonia mydas L., semi alami One of the conservation efforts undertaken to protect the green turtle (C. mydas L. is by relocation of the nest where the eggs are removed from natural to semi-natural hatchery. A right time for the removal and burial of eggs are needed to obtain maximum hatching rate. The purpose of this study is to determine the impact of interval laying period on the hatching success of the green turtle eggs. Randomized block design is used which is based on three different turtles with treatment interval of burying, which is 2, 7, and 12 h. Measurements and observations were made during the environmental conditions of the incubation period. Observations hatchling emergence started on day 50 of incubation. Nest destruction was conducted on the 60th day incubation then eggs that failed to

  18. Single Strand Annealing Plays a Major Role in RecA-Independent Recombination between Repeated Sequences in the Radioresistant Deinococcus radiodurans Bacterium.

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    Solenne Ithurbide

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans is one of the most radioresistant organisms known. It is able to reconstruct a functional genome from hundreds of radiation-induced chromosomal fragments. Our work aims to highlight the genes involved in recombination between 438 bp direct repeats separated by intervening sequences of various lengths ranging from 1,479 bp to 10,500 bp to restore a functional tetA gene in the presence or absence of radiation-induced DNA double strand breaks. The frequency of spontaneous deletion events between the chromosomal direct repeats were the same in recA+ and in ΔrecA, ΔrecF, and ΔrecO bacteria, whereas recombination between chromosomal and plasmid DNA was shown to be strictly dependent on the RecA and RecF proteins. The presence of mutations in one of the repeated sequence reduced, in a MutS-dependent manner, the frequency of the deletion events. The distance between the repeats did not influence the frequencies of deletion events in recA+ as well in ΔrecA bacteria. The absence of the UvrD protein stimulated the recombination between the direct repeats whereas the absence of the DdrB protein, previously shown to be involved in DNA double strand break repair through a single strand annealing (SSA pathway, strongly reduces the frequency of RecA- (and RecO- independent deletions events. The absence of the DdrB protein also increased the lethal sectoring of cells devoid of RecA or RecO protein. γ-irradiation of recA+ cells increased about 10-fold the frequencies of the deletion events, but at a lesser extend in cells devoid of the DdrB protein. Altogether, our results suggest a major role of single strand annealing in DNA repeat deletion events in bacteria devoid of the RecA protein, and also in recA+ bacteria exposed to ionizing radiation.

  19. Nonmissile Penetrating Injury to the Head: Experience with 17 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Forhad H; Haque, Mohammod Raziul; Hossain, Zahed; Chowdhury, Noman Khaled; Alam, Sarwar Murshed; Sarker, Mainul Haque

    2016-10-01

    Penetrating nonmissile injuries to the head are far less common than missile penetrating injuries. Here we describe our experience in managing 17 cases of nonmissile injury to the head, likely the largest such series reported to date. We also highlight the surgical steps and techniques used to remove in situ objects (including weapons) in the penetrating wounds that have not been described previously. We conducted a retrospective study of cases of nonmissile, low-velocity penetrating injuries of the head managed in our department. The recorded data of patients with penetrating head injuries were studied for the cause of the injury, type of object, type and extent of penetration, Glasgow Coma Scale score on admission, other clinical issues, evaluation and assessment, interval from penetration to operation, surgical steps and notes, difficulty during the operation, major and minor complications, follow-up, and ultimate outcome. Our 17 cases included 6 cases of accidental penetration and 11 cases of penetration as the result of violence. Weapons and other foreign objects causing injury included a teta (a pointed metal weapon with a wooden handle and a barb near the tip, used for hunting and fishing) in 4 cases, a dao (a sharp metal cutting instrument with a wooden handle used for cutting vegetables, fish, meat, bamboo, wood, etc.) in 3 cases, a bamboo stick in 3 cases, a metal rod in 2 cases, a knife in 2 cases, a sharp stone in 1 case, a metal steam chamber cover in 1 case, and a long peg in 1 case. GCS on admission was between 13 and 15 in 15 cases. Only 1 patient exhibited limb weakness. Four patients with an orbitocranial penetrating injury had 1-sided vision loss; 2 of these patients had orbital evisceration, and 1 of these patients died. In 14 patients, the foreign object was in situ at presentation and was removed surgically. Computed tomography scan and plain X-ray of the head were obtained in all patients. Postoperatively, 2 patients (11.7%) needed support in

  20. Sperm quality of Litopenaeus vannamei broostock injected by PMSG and antidopamin

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    Fahmi Akbar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The important role in determining the productivity of shrimp was the quality and quantity of shrimp sperm. The decreasing of hatching rate was predicted as the effect of the decreasing quality of sperm. It then could  influence  the number and quality of naupli produced. Hormonal induction of maturation is one of alternative solution that can improve shrimp sperm quality. This study was conducted to examine the effect of pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG and antidopamine (AD injection on white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei sperm quality. This research consisted of six treatments which were treatment without eyestalk ablation, eyestalk ablation, and premix PMSG hormone, and AD at the dose  of 0.1 mL/kg, 0.25 mL/kg, 0.5 mL/kg, and 1 mL/kg. The observed parameters were sperm count and percentage of normal and abnormal sperm. The results showed that PMSG hormone and AD injection could improve sperm quality of L. vannamei shrimp. Hormone at the dose of 0.25 mL/kg and 0.5 mL/kg were the optimal doses to increase sperm count and the percentage of normal sperm, also to lower the percentage of abnormal sperm. Keyword: PMSG, AD, sperm quality, Litopenaeus vannamei  ABSTRAK Kuantitas dan kualitas sperma udang jantan sangat berperan penting dalam menentukan produktivitas udang. Terjadinya penurunan daya tetas telur udang diduga karena terjadinya penurunan kualitas sperma. Hal ini berpengaruh terhadap jumlah dan kualitas nauplius yang diproduksi. Induksi maturasi secara hormonal merupakan salah satu alternatif yang dapat meningkatkan kualitas sperma udang. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengkaji pengaruh penyuntikan pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG dan antidopamin (AD terhadap kualitas sperma udang vaname Litopenaeus vannamei. Penelitian terdiri atas enam perlakuan, yaitu perlakuan tanpa ablasi mata, ablasi mata, dan injeksi dengan premix hormon PMSG dan AD dosis 0,1 mL/kg, 0,25 mL/kg, 0,5 mL/kg, dan 1 mL/kg. Parameter yang diamati

  1. PERFORMA PEMIJAHAN IKAN TUNA SIRIP KUNING, Thunnus albacares DI KERAMBA JARING APUNG

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    Jhon Harianto Hutapea

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ikan tuna sirip kuning merupakan komoditas ekspor yang bernilai ekonomis tinggi yang populasinya semakin menurun di alam. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan di Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Budidaya Laut, Gondol dan bertujuan untuk mengetahui performa pemijahan ikan tuna sirip kuning yang dipelihara di dalam keramba jaring apung. Sebanyak 100 ekor induk ikan tuna dengan ukuran bobot sekitar 15-30 kg dipelihara dalam keramba sejak tahun 2014. Induk ikan diberi pakan berupa ikan layang dan cumi-cumi dengan rasio 2:1 dua kali sehari (pagi dan sore hari. Pengamatan yang dilakukan meliputi tingkah laku induk, pemijahan, dan keragaan telur yang dihasilkan, serta kualitas air terutama suhu dan oksigen dilakukan setiap hari. Induk ikan memijah untuk pertama kalinya terjadi pada tahun 2015. Selanjutnya pemijahan terjadi hampir setiap malam hari dengan jumlah telur yang dapat dikumpulkan berkisar 30.000-3.600.000 butir. Daya tetas telur yang diperoleh berkisar 26%-96%, dengan ketahanan hidup larva tanpa pakan (survival activity index-SAI berkisar 0,1-3,8. Berdasarkan hasil pengamatan ini dapat disimpulkan bahwa induk ikan tuna sirip kuning umur dua tahun dapat memijah di keramba jaring apung dan menghasilkan performa pemijahan yang baik. Yellowfin tuna is an export commodity and high economic value but its population tend to decrease. The research was conducted at Institute for Mariculture Research and Development of Indonesia. The purpose of this study was to observe the spawning performance of yellowfin tuna in floating net cage. The study was started in 2014 using 100 broodstock with estimated weight range of 15-30 kg. Feed supplied for broodstock were scad mackerel and squid with 2:1 ratio and was given twice a day in the morning and afternoon. The observations included broodstock behavior, spawning, egg performance, and daily morning of water quality (temperature and dissolve oxygen. First spawning was observed in January, 2015, where eggs were

  2. Amamentação parcelada em função da ordem de parto de porcas

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    Vivian Alonso

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi avaliar os efeitos da amamentação parcelada nas primeiras seis horas após o nascimento, sobre o peso ao desmame, aos 60 dias de idade e a dosagem de imunoglobulinas G séricas em leitões de porcas de diversas ordens de parto. Trinta e três fêmeas suínas foram usadas em delineamento inteiramente casualizado e em esquema fatorial 2 × 3, composto de dois manejos de leitões pós-nascimento e três agrupamentos por ordem de parto. No manejo tradicional, os leitões disputavam as tetas e mamavam aleatoriamente, enquanto no manejo com alimentação parcelada foram distribuídos em dois grupos para mamar. A coleta de sangue dos leitões foi realizada seis horas após o término do parto para titulação de IgG. Aos 21 e 60 dias de idade, os leitões foram pesados. O manejo de alimentação parcelada não afetou o peso nem a dosagem de IgG sérica dos leitões, independentemente da ordem de parição das porcas, no entanto os leitões das porcas primíparas apresentaram menor peso ao desmame. O manejo de alimentação parcelada resultou em aumento da concentração de IgG sérica dos leitões de porcas primíparas. A amamentação parcelada deve ser utilizada em primíparas, mas não necessariamente em porcas de segunda parição em diante, pois os leitões de primíparas submetidos ao manejo de alimentação parcelada apresentam maiores concentrações de IgG sérica.

  3. TRANSFER GEN ANTIVIRUS PADA EMBRIO UDANG WINDU, Penaeus monodon DALAM BERBAGAI KONSENTRASI DEOXYRIBO NUCLEIC ACID

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    Andi Parenrengi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Teknologi transgenesis khususnya rekayasa genetik untuk menghasilkan udang windu resisten penyakit merupakan salah satu strategi yang dapat dilakukan dalam upaya pemecahan masalah penyakit yang menimpa budidaya udang windu. Teknologi transgenesis khususnya transfer gen antivirus pada udang windu telah berhasil dilakukan melalui teknik transfeksi. Meskipun demikian optimalisasi komponen teknologi tersebut masih perlu dilakukan. Konsentrasi DNA gen merupakan salah satu komponen teknologi transgenesis yang harus dioptimalkan untuk mendapatkan efisiensi dalam transfer gen. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengetahui konsentrasi DNA gen antivirus yang optimal sebagai bahan transfer gen ke embrio menggunakan metode transfeksi. Embrio udang windu yang diperoleh dari hasil pemijahan induk asal Aceh, dikoleksi 5-10 menit setelah memijah dengan kepadatan 625 telur/2 mL. Transfeksi dilakukan dengan menggunakan media larutan transfeksi jetPEI dengan konsentrasi DNA gen antivirus sebagai perlakuan, yakni: 5, 10, dan 15 µg serta kontrol positif (tanpa plasmid DNA dan negatif (tanpa plasmid DNA dan larutan transfeksi, masing-masing 3 ulangan. Embrio hasil transfeksi ditetaskan pada stoples berisi air laut sebanyak 2 L yang diletakkan pada waterbath. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa gen antivirus telah berhasil diintroduksi ke embrio udang windu. Hasil analisis ragam menunjukkan bahwa perbedaan konsentrasi DNA (5-15 µg tidak berpengaruh nyata (P>0,05 terhadap daya tetas embrio udang windu. Analisis ekspresi gen pada larva udang windu juga menunjukkan adanya aktivitas ekspresi gen antivirus pada semua perlakuan konsentrasi DNA, di mana ekspresi gen antivirus pada larva transgenik lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan kontrol (tanpa transfeksi. Sintasan pasca-larva PL-1 yang didapatkan pada penelitian ini adalah 12,0%; 10,0%; 10,6%; 12,3%; dan 14,2% masing-masing untuk perlakuan konsentrasi plasmid DNA 5 µg, 10 µg, 15 µg, kontrol positif dan negatif, di mana

  4. PENINGKATAN TEKNIK PEMBENIHAN BUATAN IKAN HIAS BOTIA, Chromobotia macracanthus (Bleeker

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    Darti Satyani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian mengenai teknik pembenihan ikan tiger botia (Chromobotia macracanthus ini dikerjakan dengan menggunakan 2 bak yang masing-masing diisi 20 ekor induk botia. Pakan dari induk adalah cacing darah dan pelet udang (protein 30% sekenyangnya. Induk yang matang gonad distimulasi dengan hormon gonadotropin berkadar 1,0 mL/kg untuk betina dan 0,6 mL/kg untuk jantannya. Telur terbuahi ditetaskan dalam corong inkubator berukuran 3 dan 5 L dengan kepadatan 100 butir telur/liter. Larva yang menetas dipelihara dalam hapa ukuran 50 cm x 50 cm x50 cm di dalam bak fiberglas selama 15 hari. Pakan yang diberikan adalah naupli Artemia 3 (tiga kali sehari sekenyangnya. Hasil dari penelitian ini memperlihatkan bahwa 10 betina dan 3 jantan dari 34 ekor induk dapat matang gonad, namun hanya 5 ekor betina yang telurnya dapat menetas. Daya tetas telur pada corong yang kecil yaitu 3 (tiga liter (32,17% ± 16,25% nyata lebih tinggi dari yang 5 (lima liter (14,22% ± 3,83%. Sintasan dan pertumbuhan larva dalam hapa tidak ada beda antara kepadatan 3 dan 5 ekor/liter. Chromobotia macracanthus as clown loach artificial propagation experiments were carried out using broodfishes maintained in two 2m3 concrete tanks (20 fish per tank. Broodfish were fed ad libitum with bloodworms and a 30% crude proteins commercial pelleted feed. Oocyte maturation and ovulation were induced with two successive injection of ovaprim of female at doses of 0.4 mL. kg-1 body weight, then 0.6 mL.kg-1 6 hours later. Males received one ovaprim injection at dose of 0.4 mL.kg-1 bw. After gamete collection and artificial fertilization, eggs were incubated at 25°C— 27°C in 3 or 5 liters funnel incubators. Hatched larvae were reared for 15 days in 0.5x0.5x0.5 hapas placed in 1m fiberglass tanks. In the hapas, the larvae were stocked at either 3 or 5 larvae per liter and fed with Artemia nauplii distributed in exess 3 times per day. Among the broodfish, 10 females  and 3 males were found with

  5. Mapeamento de locos de características quantitativas para desempenho no cromossomo 4 de suínos Mapping of quantitative trait loci for performance on chromosome 4 in pigs

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    Kleibe de Moraes Silva

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Uma população F2 de suínos obtida a partir do intercruzamento da geração F1, proveniente do acasalamento divergente de dois machos da raça naturalizada brasileira Piau com 18 fêmeas comerciais (Landrace × Large White × Piétrain e genotipada para cinco marcadores tipo microssatélite foi utilizada com o objetivo de mapear locos de características quantitativas associados a características de desempenho no cromossomo 4. As características avaliadas foram: número de tetas, peso ao nascimento, peso aos 21, 42, 63, 77 e 105 dias de idade, peso ao abate, consumo de ração, conversão alimentar e ganho de peso médio diário dos 77 aos 105 dias de idade e idade ao abate. Utilizou-se o método de regressão por intervalo de mapeamento com análises realizadas por meio do programa QTL EXPRESS. Verificou-se a presença de apenas um QTL significativo (para peso aos 77 dias. A utilização deste QTL na Seleção Assistida por Marcadores deve ser feita depois que a posição desse QTL for refinada, com possível identificação da mutação causal e estimação de seus efeitos.The objective of this work was to map QTL on porcine chromosome 4 and associate them to performance traits. For this, a F2 pig population was established from a cross from the F1 generation, produced by crossing two naturalized Brazilian Piau sires and 18 commercial dams (Landrace × Large White × Piétrain. The population was genotyped for five microsatellite markers. The performance of traits evaluated in the population were: teat number, birth weight, weight at 21, 42, 63, 77 and 105 days of age, slaughter age, feed intake, feed gain ratio, average daily gain from 77 to 105 days of age, and slaughter age. Data were analyzed through multiple regressions developed for analysis of interval mapping using QTL EXPRESS software. Significant evidence for QTL was verified for weight at 77 days of age. The use of this information for marker assisted selection can be done after

  6. Shiga (Vero-toxin producing Escherichia coli isolated from the hospital foods; virulence factors, o-serogroups and antimicrobial resistance properties

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    Reza Ranjbar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background According to the presence of the weak, diabetic and immunosuppressive patients in hospitals, hospital foods should have a high quality and safety. Cooking a lot of foods higher than daily requirement, storage of cooked foods in an inappropriate condition and presence of nurses and servants in distribution of food to patients are the main reasons caused contamination of hospital foods. Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli is one of the common cause of food poisoning in hospitals. The present research was carried out to study the distribution of virulence factors, O-serogroups and antibiotic resistance properties in STEC strains recovered from Iranian hospital food samples. Methods Five-hundred and eighty raw and cooked food samples were collected and immediately transferred to the laboratory. E. coli-positive strains were subjected to PCR and disk diffusion method. Results Thirty-nine out of 580 (6.72% hospital food samples were contaminated with E. coli. Raw (20% and cooked meat (6% were the most commonly contaminated samples. Raw samples had the higher prevalence of E. coli (P <0.01. Samples which were collected in the summer season had the highest prevalence of bacteria (64.10%. Significant difference was seen between the prevalence of EHEC and AEEC subtypes (P <0.01. The most commonly detected virulence factors in both EHEC and AEEC subtypes were stx1 and eae. The most commonly detected serogroups were O26 (43.75% and O157 (25% and there were no positive results for O103, O145, O91, O113 and O128 serogroups. Aac (3-IV (100%, CITM (100% and tetA (62.50% were the most commonly detected antibiotic resistance genes. STEC strains harbored the highest levels of resistance against ampicillin (93.75%, gentamycin (93.75%, tetracycline (87.50% and ciprofloxacin (81.25%. All of the STEC strains were resistant to at least 3 antibiotics, while the prevalence of resistance against more than 12 antibiotics were 12.50%. Conclusions High

  7. Plasmidic qnrA3 enhances Escherichia coli fitness in absence of antibiotic exposure.

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    Adrien Michon

    Full Text Available The widespread presence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinants, particularly qnr genes, has become a current issue. By protecting DNA-gyrase from quinolones, Qnr proteins confer a low level quinolone resistance that is not sufficient to explain their emergence. Since Qnr proteins were hypothesized to act as DNA-binding protein regulators, qnr genes could have emerged by providing a selective advantage other than antibiotic resistance. We investigated host fitness of Escherichia coli isogenic strains after acquisition of the qnrA3 gene, inserted either alone onto a small plasmid (pBR322, or harbored on a large conjugative native plasmid, pHe96(qnrA3 found in a clinical isolate. The isogenic strains were derived from the susceptible E. coli CFT073, a virulent B2 group strain known to infect bladder and kidneys in a mouse model of pyelonephritis. In vitro experiments included growth analysis by automatic spectrophotometry and flow cytometry, and competitions with CFU enumeration. In vivo experiments included infection with each strain and pairwise competitions in absence of antimicrobial exposure. As controls for our experiments we used mutations known to reduce fitness (rpsL K42N mutation or to enhance fitness (tetA deletion in pBR322. E. coli CFT073 transformed with pBRAM(PBR322-qnrA3 had significantly higher maximal OD than E. coli CFT073 transformed with pBR322 or pBR322ΔtetA, and in vivo competitions were more often won by the qnrA3 carrying strain (24 victories vs. 9 loss among 42 competitions, p = 0.001. In contrast, when pHe96(qnrA3 was introduced by conjugation in E. coli CFT073, it exerted a fitness cost shown by an impaired growth observed in vitro and in vivo and a majority of lost competitions (33/35, p<0.0001. In conclusion, qnrA3 acquisition enhanced bacterial fitness, which may explain qnr emergence and suggests a regulation role of qnr. However, fitness was reduced when qnrA3 was inserted onto multidrug

  8. Synthesis, characterization and cure kinetics of polyaniline modified MMT clay/epoxy nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aykanat, Aydin

    bisphenol-A (DGEBA) epoxy prepolymer crosslinked with tri ethylene tetra amine (TETA) was analyzed by DSC. The tensile, flexural and impact tests of carbon fiber epoxy micro composites showed that PANi coated carbon fiber epoxy systems have higher modulus, toughness and mechanical strengths compared to unmodified carbon fiber epoxy composites. In the second part of the research work, conducting polyaniline (PANi) montmorillonite (MMT) clay nanocomposites were synthesized by using in-situ polymerization. The X-Ray diffraction patterns showed that polyaniline was intercalated between clay galleries in the order of nanoscale. From the SEM micrographs, it was revealed that, in-situ polymerization of aniline took place both in and out of the clay galleries. Polyaniline surface modified clay nanoparticles were then dispersed in diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A (DGEBA) epoxy prepolymer using high shear mixing and ultrasonication. The viscosity measurements of modified and unmodified clay dispersed in epoxy prepolymer systems showed that PANi modified clay has lower viscosity than the pristine clay that provides easiness during processing. Infrared spectroscopy data proves that reactive secondary and tertiary amine groups on the fully dispersed polyaniline modified clay platelets react with epoxy resin resulting a strong chemical and physical interaction between nanoparticles and polymeric matrix. The effect of PANi surface modified nano particles on the curing reaction and kinetics of epoxy with tri-ethylene tetra amine (TETA) was analyzed by using DSC and explained by modified Avrami equation. The X-Ray diffraction pattern of fully cured 5% (w/w) PANi-MMT clay epoxy nanocomposites showed exfoliation behavior. Thermal analysis showed that for 5% (w/w) PANi-MMT filled epoxy nanocomposites has higher thermal stability than both fully cured pristine epoxy and 5% (w/w) clay epoxy nanocomposite. With the addition and exfoliation of 5% (w/w) PANi modified clay an increase of 8°C in

  9. Análise Temporal da Coma de CO+ no Cometa P/Halley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelzke, M. R.; Schlosser, W.; Schmidt-Kaler, Th.

    1995-08-01

    Observações fotográficas e fotoelétricas da coma de gás ionizado do cometa P/Halley a nível de CO+ em 4250 angstroms fizeram parte do programa de Monitoramento do Halley desenvolvido pela Universidade de Bochum (Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum) na Alemanha, realizado de 17 de fevereiro a 17 de abril de 1986 no European Southern Observatory (ESO) em La Silla (Chile). Nesta faixa espectral é possível observar a contínua formação, bem como o movimento e expansão das estruturas de plasma. Para observar a morfologia destas estruturas foram analisadas 32 placas fotográficas de CO+ (placas de vidro) do cometa P/Halley. Tais placas possuem um campo de visão de 28,6 por 28,6 graus sendo obtidas entre 29 de março e 17 de abril de 1986 com tempos de exposição entre 20 e 120 minutos. Todas as placas foram digitadas com o auxílio de um microdensitômetro PDS 2020 GM (Photometric Data System) do Instituto Astronómico da Westfaelischen Wilhelms-Universitaet em Muenster, Alemanha (um pixel = 25 por 25 micrômetros correspondendo aproximadamente a 46,88 por 46,88 segundos de arco). Após a digitação os dados foram reduzidos à intensidades relativas, sendo que os posssíveis de calibração também foram reduzidos à intensidades absolutas, expressas em termos de densidade colunar utilizando-se dos sistemas de tratamento de imagens MIDAS (Munich Image Data Analysis System; ESO - Image Processing Group, 1988) e IHAP (Image Handling And Processing; Middleburg, 1983). Com o auxílio do método de teta mínimo de Stellingwerf (Stellingwerf, 1978) obteve-se um período de 2,22 +/- 0,09 dias a partir da análise de estruturas na coma de plasma através da subtração de imagens subsequentes. Este método foi comparado com o método de Fourier. Provavelmente exista um segundo ciclo com período aproximado de 3,6 dias. A idéia de subtrair imagens subsequentes é devido ao fato de que os efeitos de rotação são apenas 10% dos fenômenos de distribuição gasosa. Portanto as

  10. Electroencephalographic changes after one nigth of sleep deprivation Respostas eletrencefalográficas após uma noite de privação de sono

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    Camila Ferreira

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Total or partial sleep deprivation (SD causes degrading effects on different cognitive and psychomotor functions that might be related to electrophysiological changes frequently observed. In the present study, we investigated the effects of one night of sleep deprivation on waking EEG. Experimental protocol consisted of recording electroencephalographic data from eleven healthy young subjects before (baseline and after (time 2 one night of sleep deprivation. A natural log transformation was carried out and showed a significant increase in theta T6 (p=0.041, O2 (p=0.018 and OZ (p=0.028; and delta T6 (p=0.043 relative power; and a decrease in alpha Fp1 (p=0.040, F3 (p=0.013, Fp2 (p=0.033, T4 (p=0.050, T6 (p=0.018, O2 (p=0.011 and Oz (p=0.025 and beta (p=0.022 absolute power. These outcomes show that the EEG power spectra, after sleep deprivation, exhibit site-specific differences in particular frequency bands and corroborate for the premise of local aspects of brain adaptation after sleep deprivation, rather than global.Privação total ou parcial de sono causa efeitos deletérios em diferentes funções cognitivas e psicomotoras, que podem estar relacionados às mudanças eletrofísiológicas frequentemente observadas. No presente estudo, investigou-se os efeitos de uma noite de privação de sono nas respostas eletrencefalográficas de repouso. O protocolo experimental consistiu na coleta e gravação dos dados do qEEG de onze sujeitos jovens e saudáveis antes (momento baseline e após (momento 2 uma noite de privação de sono. Todos os dados sofreram transformação logarítmica, que evidenciou um aumento significativo nas potências relativas de teta T6 (p=0,041, O2 (p=0,018 e OZ (p=0,028; e delta T6 (p=0,043. As bandas de freqüência mais rápidas alfa Fp1 (p=0,040, F3 (p=0,013, Fp2 (p=0,033, T4 (p=0,050, T6 (p=0,018, O2 (p=0,011, Oz (p=0,025 e beta (p=0,022 apresentaram reduções significativas na potência absoluta. Os resultados

  11. Antimicrobial resistance and resistance genes in Salmonella strains isolated from broiler chickens along the slaughtering process in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yuanting; Lai, Haimei; Zou, Likou; Yin, Sheng; Wang, Chengtao; Han, Xinfeng; Xia, Xiaolong; Hu, Kaidi; He, Li; Zhou, Kang; Chen, Shujuan; Ao, Xiaolin; Liu, Shuliang

    2017-10-16

    A total of 189 Salmonella isolates were recovered from 627 samples which were collected from cecal contents of broilers, chicken carcasses, chicken meat after cutting step and frozen broiler chicken products along the slaughtering process at a slaughterhouse in Sichuan province of China. The Salmonella isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing to 10 categories of antimicrobial agents using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Those antibiotics-resistant isolates were further investigated for the occurrence of resistance genes, the presence of class 1 integron as well as the associated gene cassettes, and the mutations within the gyrA and parC genes. Consequently, the prevalence of Salmonella was 30.14% (47.96% for cecal content, 18.78% for chicken carcasses, 31.33% for cutting meat and 14.00% for frozen meat, respectively). The predominant serotypes were S. Typhimurium (15.34%) and S. Enteritidis (69.84%). High resistance rates to the following drugs were observed: nalidixic acid (99.5%), ampicillin (87.8%), tetracycline (51.9%), ciprofloxacin (48.7%), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (48.1%), and spectinomycin (34.4%). Antimicrobial resistance profiling showed that 60.8% of isolates were multidrug resistant (MDR), and MDR strains increased from 44.7% to 78.6% along the slaughtering line. 94.6% (n=157) of beta-lactam-resistant isolates harbored at least one resistance gene of bla TEM or bla CTX-M . The relatively low prevalence of aminoglycoside resistance genes (aac(3)-II, aac(3)-IV, and ant(2″)-I) was found in 49 (66.2%) of antibiotic-resistant isolates. The tetracycline resistance genes (tet(A), tet(B), tet(C), and tet(G) and sulfonamide resistance genes (sul1, sul2, and sul3) were identified in 84 (85.7%) and 89 (97.8%) antibiotic-resistant isolates respectively. floR was identified in 44 (97.8%) florfenicol-resistant isolates. Class 1 integron was detected in 37.4% (n=43) of the MDR isolates. Two different gene cassettes, bla OXA-30 -aad

  12. Evolution of corresponding resistance genes in the water of fish tanks with multiple stresses of antibiotics and heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaolin; Xu, Yanbin; Chen, Jinliang; Ling, Jiayin; Li, Yafei; Huang, Lu; Zhou, Xiao; Zheng, Li; Xie, Guangyan

    2017-11-01

    Abuse of antibiotics and heavy metals in aquaculture has been widely concerned and might aggravate the spread of resistance genes in environment. To investigate the occurrence and proliferation of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and heavy metal resistance genes (HMRGs), three commonly used antibiotics (tetracycline, sulfanilamide, cefotaxime) and two heavy metals (Zn and Cu) were designed to add individually or jointly in nine fish tanks including five individual exposure tanks of tetracycline (tet), sulfanilamide (sul), cefotaxime (cef), Cu, Zn and four combination exposure tanks of tetracycline + sulfanilamide (tet + sul), tetracycline + sulfanilamide + cefotaxime (tet + sul + cef), tetracycline + sulfanilamide + Cu (tet + sul + Cu), tetracycline + sulfanilamide + Zn (tet + sul + Zn) as well as the control during the experiment period of 180 days. Nineteen ARGs (tetA, tetB, tetC, tetD, tetE, tetG, tetM, tetO, tetQ, tetS, tetW, tetX, tetY, sul1, sul2, sul3, blaDHA, blaMOX, blaFOX), two HMRGs (copA, czcA) and the class 1 integron gene (intI 1) in fish tanks water were investigated. The results showed that the residual rate of antibiotics and heavy metals ranged from 0.03% to 2.46% and 9.25%-52.97%, respectively, positively related to their original concentration and types. Tetracycline resistance genes were more sensitive to antibiotics and easier to be induced and developed than sulfanilamide resistance genes and AmpC β-lactamase resistance genes. The total relative abundances of ARGs in combined stresses exposure tanks (tet + sul, tet + sul + cef, tet + sul + Cu, tet + sul + Zn) were about 1.01-1.55 times more than the sum of their individual ones. The co-selective effects of cefotaxime on the abundance and diversity of tetracycline resistance genes were stronger than Zn and Cu. Besides, multivariate correlation analysis revealed that tetO, tetQ, tetW and sul3 were in significant correlation with the concentrations of

  13. Microbiological quality of ready-to-eat salads: an underestimated vehicle of bacteria and clinically relevant antibiotic resistance genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Joana; Mourão, Joana; Pestana, Nazaré; Peixe, Luísa; Novais, Carla; Antunes, Patrícia

    2013-09-16

    The increase demand for fresh vegetables is causing an expansion of the market for minimally processed vegetables along with new recognized food safety problems. To gain further insight on this topic we analyzed the microbiological quality of Portuguese ready-to-eat salads (RTS) and their role in the spread of bacteria carrying acquired antibiotic resistance genes, food products scarcely considered in surveillance studies. A total of 50 RTS (7 brands; split or mixed leaves, carrot, corn) were collected in 5 national supermarket chains in Porto region (2010). They were tested for aerobic mesophilic counts, coliforms and Escherichia coli counts as well as for the presence of Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes. Samples were also plated in different selective media with/without antibiotics before and after enrichment. The E. coli, other coliforms and Enterococcus recovered were characterized for antibiotic resistance profiles and clonality with phenotypic and genetic approaches. A high number of RTS presented poor microbiological quality (86%--aerobic mesophilic counts, 74%--coliforms, 4%--E. coli), despite the absence of screened pathogens. In addition, a high diversity of bacteria (species and clones) and antibiotic resistance backgrounds (phenotypes and genotypes) were observed, mostly with enrichment and antibiotic selective media. E. coli was detected in 13 samples (n=78; all types and 4 brands; phylogenetic groups A, B1 and D; none STEC) with resistance to tetracycline [72%; tet(A) and/or tet(B)], streptomycin (58%; aadA and/or strA-strB), sulfamethoxazole (50%; sul1 and/or sul2), trimethoprim (50%; dfrA1 or dfrA12), ampicillin (49%; blaTEM), nalidixic acid (36%), ciprofloxacin (5%) or chloramphenicol (3%; catA). E. coli clones, including the widespread group D/ST69, were detected in different samples from the same brand or different brands pointing out to a potential cross-contamination. Other clinically relevant resistance genes were detected in 2 Raoultella

  14. Avaliação de parâmetros hidráulicos para modelos de distribuição de água no solo sob gotejamento Evaluation of soil hydraulic parameters for soil water distribution models under drip irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugênio Ferreira Coêlho

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available As soluções analíticas de distribuição de água para ponto fonte e regime de fluxo não- permanente são dependentes de parâmetros de solos considerados constantes em suas deduções. Erros na determinação desses parâmetros implicam insucesso dessas soluções. Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o comportamento dos parâmetros alfada equação de Gardner k(h = Ks ealfah e o parâmetro de linearização k = dK(teta/dteta em diferentes posições do bulbo molhado, considerando os processos de infiltração isolado e seguido de redistribuição de água, à semelhança de um ciclo de irrigação. Dados de potencial matricial foram coletados em diversas posições do bulbo molhado em duas situações:(i início da irrigação até atingir regime permanente em todo o bulbo molhado (infiltração; e (ii durante dois ciclos de irrigação envolvendo infiltração e redistribuição de água. Os resultados mostraram que os parâmetros alfa e k variaram nas posições do bulbo molhado em relação ao gotejador, de acordo com o regime de umidade a que tais posições estiveram sujeitas. A obtenção desses parâmetros pelo método inverso requer testes que considerem as fases de infiltração e redistribuição em pelo menos dois ciclos de irrigação.The transient analytical solutions for water distribution from point source are dependent on the soil parameters alpha from Gardner equation, i.e., k(h = Ks ealphah and the linearization parameter k=dK(theta/dtheta assumed constant in the derivation of these solutions. Errors in obtaining these parameters result in failure of the solutions. The objective of this work was to evaluate the parameter alpha and k at different locations in the wetted volume under an isolated and a cyclic infiltration process. Matric potential data were collected in several positions of the wetted volume in two situations: (i beginning of irrigation until steady-state, i.e., only during infiltration process, and (ii

  15. In Vitro Assessment of the In Vivo Stability of Cu-64 Radiopharmaceuticals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Packard, Alan B

    2011-12-15

    Benefits: The FISRE method that will be used in this project, once validated, will provide researchers with a core technology by which the stability of Cu 64 radiopharmaceuticals can be accurately measured. In the short-term, we expect to produce extensive data regarding the stability of Cu-64 complexes of ligands of radiopharmaceutical interest, primarily those that are most commonly used as BFCs (e.g., DOTA, TETA). These data will provide a quantitative basis for deciding which ligands may be best suited for use as BFCs, data that is not currently available. In the intermediate term, we expect that these results will facilitate the development of new Cu-64 radiopharmaceuticals by providing a quantitative approach to assessing the stability of Cu-64 chelates. This innovative methodology will enable investigators to quantitatively compare the ability of different BFCs to retain Cu-64 in vivo. The benefits of this approach will be best seen in the development of Cu-64-labeled monoclonal antibodies where the accumulation of antibodies in the liver obviates liver uptake as an effective surrogate measure of Cu-64 lability. In the longer-term, we anticipate an improvement in the way in which various diseases (especially cancer) are detected, diagnosed, staged, and treated. This method will also enable researchers to distinguish differences in biodistribution that may arise from differences in charge, lipophilicity, etc. from those that may arise from loss of Cu-64 from the chelator. Last, this novel quantitative tool will allow investigators to evaluate the chemical factors that determine the in vivo stability of Cu-64 radiopharmaceuticals laying the groundwork for the future development of more effective Cu-64 radiopharmaceuticals. Once the feasibility of this method is established, it can also be used to evaluate the stability of other metalloradiopharmaceuticals including those based on Ga-68, a radionuclide that is showing great promise in tumor imaging.

  16. Detecção de locos de características quantitativas nos cromossomos 16, 17 e 18 de suínos Detection of QTL for production traits on swine chromosomes 16, 17 and 18

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Martins Paixão

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho realizar o mapeamento de Locos de características quantitativas (QTL nos cromossomo 16, 17 e 18 de suínos e associar seus efeitos com características de desempenho. Utilizou-se uma população F2 proveniente do cruzamento de dois varrões da raça naturalizada brasileira Piau com 18 fêmeas de linhagem comercial (Landrace x Large White x Pietrain. A população foi genotipada para 11 marcadores microssatélites e o mapa de ligação específico dos marcadores para a população foi construído. Os marcadores de microssatélites foram considerados adequados para estudos de características quantitativas quando analisado o conteúdo de informação polimórfica (PIC. Para identificação do QTL, utilizou-se o método de regressão por intervalo de mapeamento e realizaram-se as análises por meio do programa QTLExpress. Foram detectados QTL não descritos na literatura para: número de tetas no cromossomo 16; peso aos 63 e aos 77 dias de idade no cromossomo 17; e peso aos 21 dias e idade de abate no cromossomo 18. Foram também identificados QTL já descritos em outras populações, como para peso aos 21 dias de idade no SSC16. As informações dos QTL significativos encontrados servem para futuros estudos de mapeamento fino com identificação de genes e para maior entendimento dos fenótipos produtivos de suínos.The objectives of this study were to map Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL in chromosomes 16, 17 and 18 and to associate their effects with performance traits in a F2 pig population developed by mating two Brazilian Piau sires with 18 crossbred dams (Landrace x Large White x Pietrain. The linkage map for this population was constructed after genotyping the animals for 11 microsatellite markers and scoring the genotype. Estimates of polymorphic information content (PIC indicated that the microsatellite markers were appropriate for QTL analyses. Data were analyzed by interval mapping using the QTLEXPRESS

  17. Modelagem da infiltração de água no solo sob condições de estratificação utilizando-se a equação de Green-Ampt Modeling of water infiltration in soil under stratified conditions using the Green-Ampt equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto A. Cecílio

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A infiltração de água no solo é um dos mais significantes processos do ciclo hidrológico. A equação de Green-Ampt (GA é bastante utilizada na modelagem da infiltração; entretanto, diversos autores alertam para a necessidade de adequação de seus parâmetros de entrada (umidade de saturação (tetas; condutividade hidráulica do solo saturado (K0 e potencial matricial na frente de umedecimento (psi. Neste sentido, avaliou-se a aplicabilidade do modelo de GA, assim como as diversas proposições de adequação de K0 e psi, em um Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo sob condições de estratificação. Determinaram-se a infiltração acumulada (I, a taxa de infiltração (Ti e as características físicas do perfil necessárias para a aplicação do modelo. Foram feitas simulações com base na combinação de seis metodologias para a determinação de psi e três para a condutividade hidráulica da zona de transmissão (Kw, verificando-se que as combinações seguintes simularam bem o processo de infiltração: Kw igual a 0,5 K0 associado a psi determinado com base na umidade inicial do solo (psi (tetai; Kw igual à taxa de infiltração estável (Tie associado a psi igual à média entre psi (tetai e psi relativo à umidade de saturação de campo (psi (tetaw; e Kw igual a K0 associado a psi calculado com base na textura e porosidade do solo (psi(textura e Kw igual à Tie associado a psi(textura.Soil water infiltration is one of the most important processes of the hydrological cycle. The Green and Ampt equation (GA is quite used to simulate the infiltration process, however, several authors showed the necessity of some adaptations in the GA parameters: saturation moisture (thetas, hydraulic conductivity (K0 and mean suction in the wetting front (psi. An evaluation was made of the GA model and of the several correction propositions of K0 and psi, applied in a stratified Red-Yellow Latosol. A soil box filled with soil material belonging to three

  18. Violencia simbólica y dominación masculina en el discurso cinematográfico colombiano

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    Luisa Fernanda Muñoz Rodríguez

    2016-01-01

    án tratados los textos de las películas colombianas Sin tetas no hay paraíso (2010, del director Gustavo Bolivar; Rosario Tijeras (2005, del director Emilio Maillé, y El arriero (2009, del director Guillermo Calle. Desde estos lugares se generará el análisis de las categorías de cuerpo y estereotipo de género, que visibilizan estructuras de violencia simbólica desde lo discursivo en el cine colombiano.

  19. Animal infections by vaccinia-like viruses in the state of Rio de Janeiro: an expanding disease Infecções animais por vírus semelhantes ao vaccínia no estado do Rio de Janeiro: uma doença em expansão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermann G. Schatzmayr

    2009-07-01

    ípios no estado do Rio de Janeiro, ao longo dos últimos nove anos. Amostras clínicas foram coletadas de animais com vesículas, pústulas e crostas no úbere e tetas, e da região do nariz e da cavidade oral de bezerros. Um teste de neutralização viral por redução de placas foi desenvolvido para investigar a presença de anticorpos contra Orthopoxvirus. Os fluidos de vesículas / pústulas e as crostas foram testadas por PCR, microscopia eletrônica (ME e por inoculação em células VERO para isolamento viral. Anticorpos contra Orthopoxvirus foram detectados na grande maioria dos animais. O teste de PCR demonstrou homologia entre os vírus isolados e amostras de vírus vaccínia usados como controles. Na ME, partículas típicas de Orthopoxvirus foram observadas em vários espécimes analisados. Os vírus isolados em cultivo celular foram confirmados como Orthopoxvirus por PCR e ME. O gene HA da amostra Cantagalo/IOC isolada em nosso laboratório foi seqüenciado e comparado com outras amostras semelhantes ao vaccínia, mostrando uma alta homologia com a amostra original Cantagalo, tendo sido as duas amostras isoladas em 1999 de gado leiteiro. Anticorpos para Orthopoxvirus foram detectados em um roedor silvestre do gênero Akodon sp. coletado na região noroeste do estado, sugerindo uma circulação de poxvírus na natureza. No entanto, os testes de PCR aplicados a tecidos de roedores silvestres foram negativos. Infecções vesiculares / pustulares em humanos que mantinham contato com os animais afetados também foram relatadas. Assim, infecções por amostras semelhantes ao vírus VACV em bovinos e em humanos parecem em expansão no estado, gerando perdas econômicas em animais e quadros de doença incapacitante temporária em pacientes humanos. Dessa forma, a possibilidade da imunização do gado leiteiro no estado deve ser devidamente avaliada.

  20. Marine echinoderms as reservoirs of antimicrobial resistant bacteria

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    Catarina Marinho

    2014-06-01

    (Marinho et al., 2013. Erythromycin and tetracycline are widely used in human therapy, and this may have contributed to the increasing resistance to these antibiotics (Hummel et al., 2007, Barros et al., 2011. It also highlights the lack of antibiotic efficiency in medicine, doing with resistance dissemination. Also, several genes associated with antimicrobial resistance were already found in antimicrobial-resistant enterococci from echinoderms: tet(M/tet(L, erm(A/erm(B, vat(D/vat(E, aac(6’-aph(2'' and aph(3'-IIIa genes were detected in tetracycline, erythromycin, quinupristin-dalfopristin, gentamicin and kanamycin-resistant isolates, respectively (Marinho et al., 2013. Despite of the small number of Escherichia coli isolates from echinoderms samples, they displayed an antibiotic-resistant phenotype to: tetracycline, streptomycin, tobramycin and amoxicillin + clavulanic acid. E. coli isolates from echinoderms tetracycline-resistant had tet(A and tet(B genes present in their genome. Besides, the aadA gene was detected in all E. coli streptomycin-resistant strains isolated from echinoderms (Marinho et al., 2013. According to some results, enterococci and E. coli displaying phenotype and resistance genes to some antibiotics that were already documented in marine animals, humans, wastewaters and numerous wildlife animals (Marinho et al., 2013, Barros et al., 2011, Sousa et al., 2011, Foti et al., 2009. Echinoderms are coastal animals and, consequently, it is possible that sewage discharges at the ocean may represent the main source of antibiotic-resistant bacteria deriving from several habitats. Indirect effects in micro-systems from the antibiotic disturbance are largely unknown; however, it is expected that such disorder might have significant long-term effects on the rate and stability of the ecosystem. Nevertheless, the consumption of exotic food is an example of a potential pathway for human contact with marine echinoderms microbiota, which may contain antibiotic

  1. SEXAGEM FETAL PELA ULTRA-SONOGRAFIA IDENTIFICANDO-SE O TUBÉRCULO GENITAL OU A GENITÁLIA EXTERNA DE CAPRINOS DA RAÇA ALPINA AMERICANA FETAL SEXING BY ULTRASONOGRAPHY IDENTIFYING THE GENITAL TUBERCLE OR EXTERNAL GENITALIA OF AMERICAN ALPINE GOATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Pereira Neves

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho objetivou-se diagnosticar precoce¬mente o sexo de fetos caprinos da raça Alpina Americana através da ultra-sonografia, identificando-se a posição final do tubérculo genital (TG ou visualizando-se as estruturas anatômicas da genitália externa, bem como avaliar a acu¬rácia da sexagem fetal resultante de exame único ou repe¬tido. No Grupo I (GI, identificou-se o sexo levando-se em consideração o posicionamento final do TG, e no Grupo II (GII a presença de estruturas anatômicas da genitália externa. Realizaram-se os exames por via transretal com aparelho de ultra-som (240 Parus - Pie Medical equipado com transdutor linear de 6 e 8 MHz. No GI, 52 fetos de 32 matrizes foram monitorados em intervalos de doze horas, do 40º ao 60º dia de gestação. No GII, submeteram-se 34 fetos de 24 matrizes com gestação entre 45 e 70 dias a exame único. A acurácia da sexagem no GI foi de 100% na gestação simples, 87,5% na dupla e 66,7% na tríplice, sen¬do registrada diferença significativa (P < 0,05 entre gesta¬ção simples e tríplice. No GII, a acurácia foi de 85,7% na gestação simples e de 80,0% na dupla, não sendo obser¬vada diferença (P > 0,05 entre ambas. A migração do TG genital ocorreu, em média, no 46,4 ± 2,1 dia de gestação. Os resultados permitem concluir que a ultra-sonografia é um método apropriado para diagnosticar precocemente o sexo fetal através da identificação da posição final do TG ou da visualização de estruturas anatômicas da genitália externa e que exames repetidos não aumentam a acurácia da sexagem fetal na gestação múltipla. PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Bolsa escrotal, prepúcio, tetas, vulva. The aim of this study was to diagnostic previously the gender of American Alpine fetuses by ultrasonography identifying the final position of the genital tubercle (GT or viewing the anatomical structures of external genitalia, as well as to evaluate the accuracy of fetal sexing by single

  2. DETERMINAÇÃO DO PERÍODO DE MIGRAÇÃO DO TUBÉRCULO GENITAL NA SEXAGEM PRECOCE DE FETOS OVINOS DAS RAÇAS DAMARA, SANTA INÊS E 3/4 DAMARA-SANTA INÊS DETERMINATION OF THE GENITAL TUBERCLE MIGRATION PERIOD TO EARLY SEXING SHEEP FETUSES OF DAMARA, SAINT INES AND 3/4 CROSSBRED DAMARA-SAINT INES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo de Assis Silva

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Com este estudo, procurou-se determinar, pela ultrasonografia, o período de migração do tubérculo genital (TG para estabelecimento do momento ideal de sexagem de fetos das raças Damara, Santa Inês e 3/4 Damara-Santa Inês (¾ D-SI. Os exames foram realizados do 30º. ao 60º. dia de prenhez, em intervalos de 24 horas, por via transretal, utilizando-se transdutor linear de dupla freqüência (6,0 e 8,0 MHz. A migração do TG variou de 38 a 51 dias nos fetos da raça Damara, 37 a 46 dias naqueles da raça Santa Inês e de 36 a 45 dias nos fetos ¾ D-SI, perfazendo uma média de 45,0 ± 3,0 dias na raça Damara, de 42,0 ± 2,0 dias na Santa Inês e de 39,2 ± 2,3 dias nos fetos ¾ D-SI. O valor médio da migração do TG é mais precoce (P < 0,05 nos fetos ¾ D-SI do que nos das raças Damara e Santa Inês e mais tardia (P < 0,05 nos da raça Damara do que nos da raça Santa Inês. A acurácia da sexagem fetal nas gestações simples (100% foi maior (P < 0,05 do que nas gestações duplas (88,5%. Os resultados permitem concluir que a migração do TG é diferente entre os fetos das raças Damara, Santa Inês e ¾ D-SI, que o período ideal de sexagem dessas raças é a partir do 50º dia de gestação e que gestações duplas comprometem a acurácia do exame ultra-sonográfico. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Bolsa escrotal, prepúcio, tetas, ultra-sonografia, vulva The objective was to determine the genital tubercle (GT migration period to establish the ideal timing for sexing fetus from Damara, Santa Inês and 3/4 crossbred Damara-Santa Inês (¾ D-SI breeds by ultrasound. The transrectal ultrasound was performed with a double frequency linear transducer (6.0 and 8.0 MHz every 24 hours from day 30 to day 60 of pregnancy. The GT migration period ranged from 38 to 51 days in Damara fetus, 37 to 46 days in Santa Inês fetus and from 36 to 45 days in ¾ SI-D fetus. The mean GT migration period was 45.0 ± 3.0, 42.0 ± 2.0 and 39.2 ± 2.3 days for Damara

  3. PREFACE: Singular interactions in quantum mechanics: solvable models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Antonio, Gianfausto; Exner, Pavel; Geyler, Vladimir

    2005-06-01

    conditions at vertices directly. Two papers are devoted to inverse problems in this context: M Harmer studies inverse scattering for the matrix Schrödinger operator on the halfline with applications to star graphs, while P Kurasov and M Nowaczyk give a mathematically rigorous version of the known Gutkin-Smilansky result on the inverse spectral problem. The paper by O Post contributes to the question of how graphs can be approximated by more realistic `fat' graphs, and describes a class leading to disconnected quantum graphs. Finally, S Kondej and one of the editors study scattering in the context of `leaky' graphs which takes quantum tunnelling into account. While most results in this field describe one-particle Hamiltonians, more complicated systems have also been studied. In this issue we have three examples. C Cacciapuito, R Carlone, and R Figari discuss decoherence in a simple model of two particles, one heavy and one light, interacting through a δ potential; they give a rigorous meaning to a formula derived by Joos and Zeh. A related model by R Figari and A Teta is used to describe ionization. M Hallnäs, E Langmann, and C Paufler treat a true N-body situation, namely a model of one-dimensional gas of distinguishable particles interacting through generalized point interactions; they write the Bethe ansatz and present the solution of a particular case. The last group is a collection of contributions which in one sense or another are outside quantum mechanics, either modifying its postulates or applying it to a different physical situation. The latter applies to the paper of D Noja and A Posilicano in which they study nonlinear wave equations with point perturbations and show the existence of a solution to the Cauchy problem. F Coutinho et al discuss one-dimensional point interactions with energy-dependent coupling constant, S Albeverio and S Kuzhel examine a class of point interactions which are not symmetric but P-symmetric, where P is the parity operator, and M