Schønning, Kristian; Johansen, Kim; Landt, Bodil
of the Aptima HIV-1 Quant Dx Assay (Aptima) and the COBAS Ampliprep/COBAS TaqMan HIV-1 Test v2.0 (CAPCTMv2) for the quantification of HIV-1 RNA in plasma samples. Study design The performance of the two tests was compared on 216 clinical plasma samples, on dilutions series in seven replicates of five clinical......), but differed for the Low control (CV: 17.9% vs. 7.1%; Aptima assay vs. CAPCTMv2 test, respectively). However, this did not impact clinical categorization of clinical samples at neither the 50 cp/mL nor 200 cp/mL level. Conclusion The Aptima assay and the CAPCTMv2 test are highly correlated and are useful...
Salpini, Romina; Piermatteo, Lorenzo; Gill, Upkar; Battisti, Arianna; Stazi, Francesca; Guenci, Tania; Giannella, Sara; Serafini, Valentina; Kennedy, Patrick T F; Perno, Carlo Federico; Svicher, Valentina; Ciotti, Marco
Intrahepatic total HBV DNA (it-HBV DNA) level might reflect the size of virus reservoir and correlate with the histological status of the liver. To quantitate it-HBV DNA in a series of 70 liver biopsies obtained from hepatitis B chronic patients, a modified version of the COBAS(®)Ampliprep/COBAS(®)TaqMan HBV test v2.0 was used for this purpose. The linearity and reproducibility of the modified protocol was tested by quantifying serial dilutions of a full-length HBV containing plasmid and it-HBV DNA from a reference patient. A good linear trend between the expected values and those generated by the assay was observed at different concentrations of both plasmid and reference patient (R (2) = 0.994 and 0.962, respectively). Differences between the values obtained in two independent runs were ≤0.3 log IU for the plasmid and ≤0.6 log IU/mg for the reference patient, showing a high inter-run reproducibility. In the 70 liver biopsies, it-HBV DNA level ranged from 1.4 to 5.4 log IU/mg, with a good linearity and reproducibility between the values obtained in two runs [R (2) = 0.981; median (IQR) difference of it-HBV DNA 0.05 (0.02-0.09) IU/mg]. The modified COBAS(®)Ampliprep/COBAS(®)TaqMan HBV test v2.0 allows an accurate quantitation of it-HBV DNA. Its determination may have prognostic value and may be a useful tool for the new therapeutic strategies aimed at eradicating the HBV infection.
Pas, Suzan; Rossen, John W. A.; Schoener, Daniel; Thamke, Diana; Pettersson, Annika; Babiel, Reiner; Schutten, Martin
Despite FDA approval and CE marking of commercial tests, manufacturer-independent testing of the technical aspects of newly developed tests is important. To evaluate the analytical performance and explore the clinical applicability of the new Roche COBAS AmpliPrep COBAS TaqMan HIV-1 test, version
Hansen, Young B L; Damgaard, Anette; Poulsen, Jørgen H
BACKGROUND: Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin (NGAL) is a promising biomarker for acute kidney injury (AKI). Our objectives were to evaluate the NGAL Test(TM) from Bioporto for both urine NGAL and plasma NGAL on the Cobas 6000 c501 (Roche Diagnostics, Rotkreuz, Switzerland) with matched...
Full Text Available The plasma specimen is the gold standard for viral load monitoring, the key method to assess the effect of antiviral chemotherapy and to monitor progression of the disease toward AIDS. Nevertheless, several works endorse the use of dried blood spots (DBS on filter paper for the reliable quantification of the levels needed to take therapeutic decisions, detect of treatment failure and monitor the occurrence of drug resistance. The purpose of this study was to validate the use of Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan HIV-1 test version 2.0, with DBS. To evaluate the performance of the above mentioned kit, three stages were involved: 1- Standardization of DBS working conditions, 2- Stability studies at three temperature conditions and 3- Performance evaluation of the kit using this alternative specimen. Additionally, the viral load was quantified in parallel (plasma and DBS to 43 genetically characterized samples, with different levels of viral load. The Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated and the prediction of the value of RNA in plasma starting from the obtained value in DBS was made. Linear regression analysis was performed and coefficients of variation in precision assays were calculated. The best conditions pickups to the work with DBS were: 100 µL of blood (2 spots/50 µl, dried time between 16 and 18 hours at room temperature and, elution of the blood, 2 hours, between 2 and 8°C; in TRIS-EDTA buffer. The samples on DBS proved to be stable during the study periods. A strong correlation was attained between the measurements of viral load in plasma and DBS samples (r=0.96. The detection rate was 90.7 and the coefficient of variation between the values obtained in plasma-DBS sample pairs averaged 3.42%. The CAP/CTM HIV-1 test provided a linear response in DBS, from 330 copies/mL to 420 000 copies/mL. Overall, coefficients of variation in precision tests were below 10%. Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan HIV-1 test version 2.0 had a good
Iwasaki, Ricardo; Galvez-Philpott, Felipe; Arias-Stella Jr.,Javier; Arias-Stella, Javier
Background: Molecular tests allow the detection of high-risk human papillomavirus in cervical samples, playing an important role in the prevention of cervical cancer. Objectives: We performed a study to determine the prevalence of HPV 16, HPV 18 and other high-risk human papillomavirus (pool 12 genotypes) in Peruvian females from diverse urban areas using the cobas 4800 HPV test. Methods: Routine cervical samples collected in our laboratory were analyzed by cobas 4800 HPV test. Results:...
Wang, Fangnian; Tian, Yu; Chen, Lingjun; Luo, Robert; Sickler, Joanna; Liesenfeld, Oliver; Chen, Shuqi
The performance of a polymerase chain reaction-based point-of-care assay, the cobas Strep A Nucleic Acid Test for use on the cobas Liat System (cobas Liat Strep A assay), for the detection of group A Streptococcus bacteria was evaluated in primary care settings. Throat swab specimens from 427 patients were tested with the cobas Liat Strep A assay and a rapid antigen detection test (RADT) by existing medical staff at 5 primary care clinics, and results were compared with bacterial culture. The cobas Liat Strep A assay demonstrated equivalent sensitivity (97.7%) and specificity (93.3%) to reference culture with a 15-minute turnaround time. In comparison to RADTs, the cobas Liat Strep A assay showed improved sensitivity (97.7% Liat vs 84.5% RADT). The Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments-waived cobas Liat Strep A assay demonstrated the ease of use and improved turnaround time of RADTs along with the sensitivity of culture.
Conclusion: Our study showed high prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus in urban Peru, mainly among young women. In both single and multiple infections other high-risk human papillomavirus were more prevalent than HPV 16 and HPV 18, which might influence vaccine impact in our country. Furthermore, the cobas 4800 HPV test may be considered a useful tool for HPV molecular diagnosis.
Full Text Available Background: Molecular tests allow the detection of high-risk human papillomavirus in cervical samples, playing an important role in the prevention of cervical cancer. Objectives: We performed a study to determine the prevalence of HPV 16, HPV 18 and other high-risk human papillomavirus (pool 12 genotypes in Peruvian females from diverse urban areas using the cobas 4800 HPV test. Methods: Routine cervical samples collected in our laboratory were analyzed by cobas 4800 HPV test. Results: A total of 2247 samples from female patients aged 17–79 years were tested. high-risk human papillomavirus was positive in 775 (34.49% samples. Of these, 641 (82.71% were single infections and 134 (17.29% were multiple infections. The positivity rates for HPV 16, HPV 18, and other high-risk human papillomavirus were 10.77%, 2.0%, and 28.08%, respectively. In multiple high-risk human papillomavirus infections, the concomitance of HPV 16 and other high-risk human papillomavirus was more prevalent (13.42%. Conclusion: Our study showed high prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus in urban Peru, mainly among young women. In both single and multiple infections other high-risk human papillomavirus were more prevalent than HPV 16 and HPV 18, which might influence vaccine impact in our country. Furthermore, the cobas 4800 HPV test may be considered a useful tool for HPV molecular diagnosis.
Iwasaki, Ricardo; Galvez-Philpott, Felipe; Arias-Stella, Javier; Arias-Stella, Javier
Molecular tests allow the detection of high-risk human papillomavirus in cervical samples, playing an important role in the prevention of cervical cancer. We performed a study to determine the prevalence of HPV 16, HPV 18 and other high-risk human papillomavirus (pool 12 genotypes) in Peruvian females from diverse urban areas using the cobas 4800 HPV test. Routine cervical samples collected in our laboratory were analyzed by cobas 4800 HPV test. A total of 2247 samples from female patients aged 17-79 years were tested. high-risk human papillomavirus was positive in 775 (34.49%) samples. Of these, 641 (82.71%) were single infections and 134 (17.29%) were multiple infections. The positivity rates for HPV 16, HPV 18, and other high-risk human papillomavirus were 10.77%, 2.0%, and 28.08%, respectively. In multiple high-risk human papillomavirus infections, the concomitance of HPV 16 and other high-risk human papillomavirus was more prevalent (13.42%). Our study showed high prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus in urban Peru, mainly among young women. In both single and multiple infections other high-risk human papillomavirus were more prevalent than HPV 16 and HPV 18, which might influence vaccine impact in our country. Furthermore, the cobas 4800 HPV test may be considered a useful tool for HPV molecular diagnosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Levi, Angelique W; Bernstein, Jane I; Hui, Pei; Duch, Kara; Schofield, Kevin; Chhieng, David C
.... To compare the performance of the Roche cobas and Hybrid Capture 2 tests for the detection of high-risk human papillomavirus using both ThinPrep and SurePath preparations as part of a validation study...
Lee, Do-Hoon; Hwang, Na Rae; Lim, Myong Cheol; Yoo, Chong Woo; Joo, Jungnam; Kim, Joo-Young; Park, Sang-Yoon; Hwang, Sang-Hyun
Anyplex II HPV HR (Anyplex_HR; Seegene, Seoul, Korea) is a new multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for screening cervical cancer, and it is designed to detect 14 high-risk human papillomaviruses along with all the genotype information in a single tube. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of the Anyplex_HR in comparison to that of the Cobas 4800 HPV (Cobas_4800; Roche Molecular Diagnostics, Pleasanton, CA, USA) and the Hybrid capture 2 (HC2; Qiagen GmbH, Hilden, Germany). The performance of the Anyplex_HR for high-risk human papillomavirus genotype detection was prospectively evaluated against that of the HC2 and the Cobas_4800 at the National Cancer Center using 400 cervical samples. All discrepant samples were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction with type-specific primers followed by sequencing. The overall agreement and kappa value of the Anyplex_HR with the Cobas_4800 were 98.0% and 0.96, respectively. The level of agreement between the two assays and the corresponding kappa values for human papillomavirus16, human papillomavirus18 and other high-risk human papillomaviruses were 99.5%, 99.8% and 98.8%, and 0.98, 0.96 and 0.97, respectively. The agreement and kappa value of the HC2 with the Cobas_4800 were 95.3% and 0.91. The human papillomavirus positivity of the Anyplex_HR and the Cobas_4800 in low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion/high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion samples demonstrated 100% concordance. Both the Anyplex_HR and the Cobas_4800 showed excellent results in the precision test. The Anyplex_HR is comparable with the Cobas_4800 and the HC2 for human papillomavirus DNA testing, and it may prove more useful for follow-up testing and patient management by providing genotyping information additional to human papillomavirus16 and human papillomavirus18. © The Author(s) 2016.
Ge, Yimin; Christensen, Paul; Luna, Eric; Armylagos, Donna; Schwartz, Mary R; Mody, Dina R
Human papillomavirus (HPV) tests and genotyping have been used in clinical risk assessment. The purpose of this study was to analyze the performance of 2 common HPV testing platforms in detecting high-grade cervical lesions (high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion [HSIL] or worse [≥HSIL]). Between January 1 and December 31, 2015, 2041 Papanicolaou (Pap) tests with biopsy confirmation were analyzed along with HPV tests performed on Cobas or Aptima platforms. A biopsy diagnosis of grade 2 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia was confirmed with p16/Ki-67 immunohistochemistry. In total, 1866 and 175 Pap cases were tested on Cobas and Aptima platforms, respectively. Both platforms were highly sensitive (97% for both) for biopsy-confirmed ≥HSIL. Cobas HPV testing had higher positive rates for the diagnosis of benign lesions (84% vs 51%) and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (89% vs 63%) on biopsy compared with Aptima. Aptima testing had significantly higher specificity for ≥HSIL than Cobas (41% vs 13%; P cervical lesions, Aptima HPV testing demonstrated significantly higher specificity and positive predictive value than Cobas testing for biopsy-confirmed ≥HSIL. The considerable difference may be related to the significant increase in E6/E7 expression after HPV DNA integration. The significantly higher specificity and overall accuracy of Aptima testing for ≥HSIL, resulting in the identification of high-risk populations that require immediate treatment and close follow-up, may prove useful in clinical risk stratification. Cancer Cytopathol 2017;125:652-7. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.
Rao, Arundhati; Sandri, Maria Teresa; Sideri, Mario; Young, Stephen; Sharma, Abha; Behrens, Catherine
The increasing importance of high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) testing in cervical cancer screening warrants evaluation of HPV DNA tests with an equivocal zone requiring retesting of samples in the low positive range. To compare the results of the digene hc2 High Risk HPV DNA Test (hc2), which has a manufacturer's recommended retesting zone with the cobas HPV Test, a real-time polymerase chain reaction amplification test without an equivocal range. A retrospective subanalysis of the ATHENA study comparing results for hc2 High Risk HPV DNA Test and the cobas HPV Test using the LINEAR ARRAY HPV Genotyping Test (LA) and Sanger sequencing as comparators was performed. The ability of each test to detect high-grade cervical disease in the equivocal range was also evaluated. 5.2% of samples fell within the equivocal zone (RLU/CO 1.0-2.5) and required retesting with the hc2 High Risk HPV DNA Test. In this low-positive range the cobas HPV Test showed better positive percent agreement (PPA) than hc2 High Risk HPV DNA Test for LA and sequencing (84.2% vs.70.9% and 92.1% vs.82.5%, respectively). hc2 High Risk HPV DNA Test and the cobas HPV Test demonstrated comparable sensitivity for detection of high-grade disease in the equivocal range. In the low cobas HPV Test range (cycle threshold [Ct] 40-35), the cobas HPV test again demonstrated a better PPA than hc2 High Risk HPV DNA Test with LA and sequencing as comparators and more high-grade disease was detected by the cobas HPV Test than hc2 High Risk HPV DNA Test. The cobas HPV Test demonstrates reliable performance in the hc2 High Risk HPV DNA Test equivocal zone, thus supporting it as an option for HPV testing that avoids the need for retesting. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Wentzensen, Nicolas; Follansbee, Stephen; Borgonovo, Sylvia; Tokugawa, Diane; Sahasrabuddhe, Vikrant V; Chen, Jie; Lorey, Thomas S; Gage, Julia C; Fetterman, Barbara; Boyle, Sean; Sadorra, Mark; Tang, Scott Dahai; Darragh, Teresa M; Castle, Philip E
Anal human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are common, and the incidence of anal cancer is high in HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM). To evaluate the performance of HPV assays in anal samples, we compared the cobas HPV test (cobas) to the Roche Linear Array HPV genotyping assay (LA) and cytology in HIV-infected MSM. Cytology and cobas and LA HPV testing were conducted for 342 subjects. We calculated agreement between the HPV assays and the clinical performance of HPV testing and HPV genotyping alone and in combination with anal cytology. We observed high agreement between cobas and LA, with cobas more likely than LA to show positive results for HPV16, HPV18, and other carcinogenic types. Specimens testing positive in cobas but not in LA were more likely to be positive for other markers of HPV-related disease compared to those testing negative in both assays, suggesting that at least some of these were true positives for HPV. cobas and LA showed high sensitivities but low specificities for the detection of anal intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2/3 (AIN2/3) in this population (100% sensitivity and 26% specificity for cobas versus 98.4% sensitivity and 28.9% specificity for LA). A combination of anal cytology and HPV genotyping provided the highest accuracy for detecting anal precancer. A higher HPV load was associated with a higher risk of AIN2/3 with HPV16 (P(trend) < 0.001), HPV18 (P(trend) = 0.07), and other carcinogenic types (P(trend) < 0.001). We demonstrate that cobas can be used for HPV detection in anal cytology specimens. Additional tests are necessary to identify men at the highest risk of anal cancer among those infected with high-risk HPV. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
Levi, Angelique W; Bernstein, Jane I; Hui, Pei; Duch, Kara; Schofield, Kevin; Chhieng, David C
All Food and Drug Administration-approved methods in the United States for human papillomavirus testing including the Hybrid Capture 2 human papillomavirus assay and the Roche cobas human papillomavirus test are approved for cytology specimens collected into ThinPrep media but not for specimens collected into SurePath solution. To compare the performance of the Roche cobas and Hybrid Capture 2 tests for the detection of high-risk human papillomavirus using both ThinPrep and SurePath preparations as part of a validation study. One thousand three hundred seventy-one liquid-based cytology samples, including 1122 SurePath and 249 ThinPrep specimens, were tested for high-risk human papillomavirus DNA using the Roche cobas human papillomavirus test and the Hybrid Capture 2 human papillomavirus assay. For cases with discrepant results, confirmatory testing was performed using Linear Array human papillomavirus testing. One hundred and fifty-six (11.38%) and 184 (13.42%) of the 1371 specimens tested positive for high-risk human papillomavirus DNA using the Hybrid Capture 2 human papillomavirus assay and Roche cobas human papillomavirus assay, respectively. In addition, 1289 (94.0%) of 1371 specimens demonstrated concordant high-risk human papillomavirus results with a κ value of 0.72 (95% confidence interval, 065-0.78). There was no statistically significant difference in the percentage of positive high-risk human papillomavirus results between the 2 liquid-based preparations with either assay. Discordant results between the 2 assays were noted in 82 of 1371 cases (6%). Twenty-seven of 82 cases (32.9%) were Hybrid Capture 2 positive/Roche cobas negative and 55 of 82 cases (67.1%) were Roche cobas positive/Hybrid Capture 2 negative. Two of 20 Hybrid Capture 2-positive/Roche cobas-negative cases (10%) and 26 of 37 Roche cobas-positive/Hybrid Capture 2-negative cases (70%) tested positive for high-risk human papillomavirus by Linear Array. Both assays showed good agreement
Gils, Charlotte; Ramanathan, R.; Breindahl, T.
Background. NT-proBNP may be useful for ruling out heart failure in primary health care. In this study we examined the analytical quality of NT-proBNP in primary health care on the Cobas h 232 point-of-care instrument compared with measurements performed in a hospital laboratory. Materials...
Full Text Available Determine the ability of the Cobas 4800 assay to detect high-risk human papillomavirus (HrHPV and high-grade cervical lesions when using cervico-vaginal samples applied to liquid medium and solid media cards compared to a direct cervical sample.Two cervico-vaginal specimens (pseudo self-collected were obtained from 319 women. One was applied to an iFTA Card (FTA then the brush placed in liquid-based medium (LSELF; the other was applied to a new solid media: POI card (POI. The clinical performance of Cobas4800 assay using the three aforementioned specimens was compared to direct collected endocervical specimens in liquid media (LDOC.The overall agreements of HrHPV detection were 84.2% (LSELF vs. LDOC, 81.0% (FTA vs. LDOC, and 82.3% (POI vs. LDOC. LSELF, FTA and POI identified 98.0%, 79.6%, and 97.5% positive cases of LDOC. Sensitivity to identify CIN2+ were 98.4% (LSELF, 73.8% (FTA, 95.1% (POI, and 93.4% (LDOC respectively. FTA had 78.1% and 90.4% agreement with the LSELF samples for all HrHPV and HPV16/18 detection respectively, while POI had 91.6% for both.Cobas4800 HPV test combined with cervico-vaginal specimens applied to both liquid media and POI solid card are accurate to detect HrHPV infection and high-grade cervical lesions as compared with direct endocervical samples in liquid media.
Tewari, Devansu; Novak-Weekley, Susan; Hong, Christina; Aslam, Shagufta; Behrens, Catherine M
Determine performance of the cobas human papillomavirus (HPV) test for triage of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) in SurePath. Women presenting for routine screening had cervical specimens collected in SurePath and specimen transport medium (STM); those with ASC-US cytology underwent colposcopy. Performance of cobas HPV in SurePath specimens that had undergone a preanalytic procedure to reverse possible cross-linking of HPV DNA was compared with Hybrid Capture 2 (hc2) specimens in STM. Among 856 women, HPV prevalence was 45.8%; HPV 16 and HPV 18 prevalences were lower than expected in the 21- to 29-year-old group in this highly vaccinated population. cobas HPV performance in SurePath was comparable to hc2 in STM. Sensitivity and specificity for detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or worse were 87.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 71.9%-95.2%) and 55.5% (95% CI, 52.1%-58.9%) for cobas and 85.3% (95% CI, 69.9%-93.6%) and 54.7% (95% CI, 51.4%-57.9%) for hc2. Sensitivity was negatively affected by random biopsies performed at colposcopy; comparable sensitivities were achieved in the nonvaccinated and vaccinated populations with disease determined by directed biopsy only. Performance of cobas HPV for ASC-US triage in pretreated SurePath specimens meets criteria for validation. Preliminary data indicate reliable performance of HPV testing in a highly vaccinated population.
Peterson, Lance R; Woods, Christopher W; Davis, Thomas E; Wang, Zi-Xuam; Young, Stephen A; Osiecki, John C; Lewinski, Michael A; Liesenfeld, Oliver
Health care-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Staphylococcus aureus (SA) infections are continuing problems. Rapidly determining the MRSA colonization status of a patient facilitates practice to reduce spread of MRSA clinical disease. Sensitive detection of all SA prior to surgery, followed by decolonization, can significantly reduce postoperative infection from this pathogen. Our goal was to validate a new automated assay for this testing. We compared performance of the cobas MRSA/SA Test on the cobas 4800 System to direct and enriched chromogenic culture using nasal swabs collected from patients at six United States sites. Compared to direct and enriched culture, the sensitivity for MRSA and SA was 93.1% and 93.9%, and the specificity was 97.5% and 94.2%, respectively. After discrepancy analysis, the sensitivity for MRSA and SA was 97.1% and 98.6%, and the specificity was 98.3% and 95.5%, respectively. Compared to direct culture, sensitivity for detecting any SA was 99.6%. The cobas MRSA/SA Test is an effective tool to simultaneously perform surveillance testing for nasal colonization of both MRSA and MSSA.
Maritz, Jean; van Zyl, Gert U; Preiser, Wolfgang
Criteria that define low positive results on the COBAS® AmpliPrep/COBAS® TaqMan (CAP/CTM) HIV-1 Qual test as inconclusive have been adopted by all academic centres in South Africa that conduct infant HIV PCR, following previous investigations that showed poor specificity of these results. Retesting all inconclusive specimens has considerable cost implications. Therefore, it was attempted to characterise such inconclusive results, by comparing those that prove to be either negative or positive on follow-up testing. This retrospective, laboratory-based study found that 193 of 211 (91.5%) patients with previous inconclusive results (defined as reported positive by CAP/CTM but with cycle threshold [Ct ] values of >32 and/or fluorescence intensity [FI] values of positive using independently obtained follow-up samples after a median of 28 days. The only significant independent predictor of a later positive result was a higher FI value (3.326 vs. 0.495, P positives. As the lower FI values in false-positive compared to true-positive results probably are indicative of a non-specific signal, the incorporation of stringent amplification slope criteria in the assay's test definition file may improve correct classification and thus reduce the need for repeat testing of a large number of inconclusive specimens. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Pierce, Virginia M; Eversley, Jacqueline S; Tran, Thuy K; Rosenberg, Eric S
Differences between the designs of hepatitis C virus (HCV) viral load assays can result in genotype-related variability in RNA quantification. We tested paired aliquots of plasma specimens from HCV-infected individuals using two versions (v1.0 and v2.0) of the Roche COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan HCV Test (CAP/CTM HCV) and noted variability between results for a subset of specimens; we then sought to determine whether discrepant results were more prevalent among specific HCV genotypes. Archived and prospectively-collected plasma samples from 114 unique patients were tested using CAP/CTM HCV v1.0 and v2.0. The HCV genotype result for each patient was determined by retrospectively reviewing laboratory records. All (46/46) specimens with quantifiable viral loads from patients with genotype 1 or 2 infection had CAP/CTM HCV v1.0 and v2.0 results that were within 0.5 log10 IU/mL; in contrast, only 3/11 (27.3%) from patients with HCV genotype 3 (mean difference, 0.56 log10 IU/mL higher with v2.0) and 0/3 (0%) from patients with HCV genotype 4 (mean difference, 0.91 log10 IU/mL higher with v2.0) had results within 0.5 log10 IU/mL. Among specimens with detectable HCV RNA below the lower limit of quantification with v1.0, greater proportions of genotype 3 (4/7, 57.1%) and genotype 4 (3/4, 75.0%) specimens than genotype 1 or 2 specimens (6/30, 20.0%) had v2.0 results within the quantifiable range. In patients infected with HCV genotype 3, sequential CAP/CTM HCV viral load results should be compared with caution and interpreted in the context of the specific assay version used.
Comparison of human papillomavirus detection by Aptima HPV and cobas HPV tests in a population of women referred for colposcopy following detection of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance by Pap cytology.
Castle, Philip E; Eaton, Barbara; Reid, Jennifer; Getman, Damon; Dockter, Janel
Few studies have compared the cobas HPV test to the Aptima HPV assay (AHPV) and the Aptima HPV 16 18/45 genotype assay (AHPV GT) for high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) detection, clinical performance in detecting cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 (CIN2) or more severe (CIN2+) diagnoses, and risk stratification by partial HPV genotyping. The cobas HPV test is a DNA test that separately and concurrently detects HPV16, HPV18, and a pool of 12 other hrHPV types. AHPV is an RNA test for a pool of 14 hrHPV genotypes, and AHPV GT is an RNA test run on AHPV-positive results to detect HPV16 separately from HPV18 and HPV45, which are detected together. In a population of patients (n=988) referred for colposcopy because of a cervical Pap cytology result of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US), a cervical scrape specimen was taken, placed into a ThinPrep Pap test vial containing PreservCyt liquid cytology medium, and tested in a blinded fashion with cobas and AHPV and with AHPV GT for AHPV-positive results. The final diagnoses were based on a consensus panel review of the biopsy specimen histology. AHPV and cobas were equally sensitive for CIN2+ diagnoses (89.4% each; P=1.000), and AHPV was more specific than cobas (63.1% versus 59.3%; P≤0.001). The percent total agreement, percent positive agreement, and kappa value were 90.9%, 81.1%, and 0.815, respectively. Risk stratification using partial HPV genotyping was similar for the two assays. AHPV and AHPV GT had similar sensitivity and risk stratification to cobas HPV, but they were more specific than cobas HPV. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
Lucía P Gomez
Full Text Available Las técnicas de amplificación de ácidos nucleicos (NAT se incorporaron en los bancos de sangre para reducir el riesgo residual de transmisión de infecciones por vía transfusional. La cocirculación de distintas variantes del HIV-1 en Argentina indica la necesidad de evaluar la sensibilidad de los ensayos serológicos y moleculares disponibles para su detección. En este trabajo se evaluó la sensibilidad del equipo COBAS AmpliScreenTM HIV-1 Test, versión 1.5 (Roche, para detectar ARN viral en plasmas de individuos infectados con HIV-1 de Argentina. Los resultados demuestran que esta técnica tiene una alta sensibilidad para detectar ARN de HIV-1 en las condiciones ensayadas: para ensayo de mini-pooles (pooles = 50 copias de ARN/ml, la sensibilidad fue = 92 %, y para procedimiento estándar (plasmas = 207 copias de ARN/ml, la sensibilidad fue 100 %. Además, la técnica COBAS AmpliScreenTM HIV-1 Test, versión 1.5 (Roche, es adecuada para la detección de las variantes de HIV-1 prevalentes.
Lim, Myong Cheol; Lee, Do-Hoon; Hwang, Sang-Hyun; Hwang, Na Rae; Lee, Bomyee; Shin, Hye Young; Jun, Jae Kwan; Yoo, Chong Woo; Lee, Dong Ock; Seo, Sang-Soo; Park, Sang-Yoon; Joo, Jungnam
Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing based on cervical samples is important for use in cervical cancer screening. However, cervical sampling is invasive. Therefore, non-invasive methods for detecting HPV, such as urine samples, are needed. For HPV detection in urine samples, two real-time PCR (RQ-PCR) tests, Roche cobas 4800 test (Roche_HPV; Roche Molecular Diagnostics) and Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV test (Abbott_HPV; Abbott Laboratories) were compared to standard cervical samples. The performance of Roche_HPV and Abbott_HPV for HPV detection was evaluated at the National Cancer Center using 100 paired cervical and urine samples. The tests were also compared using urine samples stored at various temperatures and for a range of durations. The overall agreement between the Roche_HPV and Abbott_HPV tests using urine samples for any hrHPV type was substantial (86.0% with a kappa value of 0.7173), and that for HPV 16/18 was nearly perfect (99.0% with a kappa value of 0.9668). The relative sensitivities (based on cervical samples) for HPV 16/18 detection using Roche_HPV and Abbott_HPV with urine samples were 79.2% (95% CI; 57.9-92.9%) and 81.8% (95% CI; 59.7-94.8%), respectively. When the cut-off CT value for Abbott_HPV was extended to 40 for urine samples, the relative sensitivity of Abbott_HPV increased to 91.7% from 81.8% for HPV16/18 detection and to 87.0% from 68.5% for other hrHPV detection. The specificity was not affected by the change in the CT threshold. Roche_HPV and Abbott_HPV showed high concordance. However, HPV DNA detection using urine samples was inferior to HPV DNA detection using cervical samples. Interestingly, when the cut-off CT value was set to 40, Abbott_HPV using urine samples showed high sensitivity and specificity, comparable to those obtained using cervical samples. Fully automated DNA extraction and detection systems, such as Roche_HPV and Abbott_HPV, could reduce the variability in HPV detection and accelerate the standardization of HPV
Lindemann, Maria Luisa Mateos; Dominguez, Mario Jose Rodriguez; de Antonio, Jesús Chacón; Sandri, Maria Teresa; Tricca, Alessio; Sideri, Mario; Khiri, Hacène; Ravet, Sophie; Boyle, Sean; Aldrich, Carrie; Halfon, Philippe
...), in three European centers, in 1360 cervical samples. Both HPV tests performed similarly, with no significant difference in the number of positive and negative samples identified by each test and good agreement between the tests was observed...
Jun, Jae Kwan; Lim, Myong Cheol; Hwang, Sang-Hyun; Shin, Hye Young; Hwang, Na Rae; Kim, Yeon-Jin; Yoo, Chong Woo; Lee, Dong Ock; Joo, Jungnam; Park, Sang-Yoon; Lee, Do-Hoon
Self-collected vaginal swab samples have been proposed as an alternative specimen collection method for human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA detection. Two vaginal swabs (a cone-shaped flocked swab (DRY) and a L-shape FLOQSwab with 2mL eNAT transport medium (WET)) were compared to standard cervical samples for HPV DNA testing. Additionally, they were also compared by using Roche Cobas 4800 HPV (Roche_HPV) and Abbott Real-time High Risk HPV (Abbott_HPV) tests. Ninety-six women were prospectively enrolled from the National Cancer Center in Korea between June and August 2015. WET and DRY vaginal swabs and cervical specimens were collected. Roche_HPV and Abbott_HPV tests were performed. The Roche_HPV test on cervical specimens was used as reference. The observed agreements (kappa) of Roche_HPV and Abbott_HPV between WET and DRY swabs were 89.6% (0.790, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.667-0.913) and 91.7% (0.833, 95%CI: 0.723-0.943), respectively. No statistical difference was observed between WET and DRY swabs (p>0.05 for all comparisons). For HPV16/18, the sensitivity/specificity of Roche_HPV on the DRY and WET samples presented 93.8%/96.3% and 87.5%/97.5%, respectively. For other High Risk HPV (hrHPV), the sensitivity/specificity of Roche_HPV on the DRY and WET swabs presented 91.9%/91.5% and 97.3%/98.3, respectively. The sensitivity/specificity of the Abbott_HPV on the DRY and WET swabs were 93.8%/98.8%, 87.5%/98.8% for HPV16/18, and 91.9%/93.2%, 100.0%/93.2% for other hrHPV, respectively. HPV tests performed similarly when using vaginal DRY and WET swab samples. Using DRY and WET swabs to collect vaginal specimens could be an alternative to collecting cervical samples for HPV DNA testing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Melchers, W.J.G.; Kuijpers, J; Sickler, J.J.; Rahamat-Langendoen, J.C.
Rapid diagnosis of influenza A and B is important for direct treatment decisions in patient care and for the reduction of in-hospital transmissions. The new real-time PCR based molecular point-of-care (POC) assay, the cobas(R) Influenza A/B test on the cobas(R) Liat(R) System (cobas(R) Liat(R)
Lorente, Nicolas; Fernàndez-López, Laura; Fuertes, Ricardo; Rojas Castro, Daniela; Pichon, François; Cigan, Bojan; Chanos, Sophocles; Meireles, Paula; Lucas, Raquel; Morel, Stéphane; Slaaen Kaye, Per; Agustí, Cristina; Klavs, Irena; Platteau, Tom; Casabona, Jordi
Community-based voluntary counselling and testing (CBVCT) services for men who have sex with men (MSM) can reach those most-at-risk and provide an environment for gay men that is likely to be non-stigmatising. Longitudinal data on the behaviour of HIV-negative MSM are scarce in Europe. The aim of this protocol, developed during the Euro HIV Early Diagnosis And Treatment (EDAT) project, is to implement a multicentre community-based cohort of HIV-negative MSM attending 15 CBVCT services in 5 European countries. (1) To describe the patterns of CBVCT use, (2) to estimate HIV incidence, and to identify determinants of (3) HIV seroconversion and (4) HIV and/or sexually transmitted infection (STI) test-seeking behaviour. All MSM aged 18 years or over and who had a negative HIV test result are invited to participate in the COmmunity-BAsed Cohort (COBA-Cohort). Study enrolment started in February 2015, and is due to continue for at least 12 months at each study site. Follow-up frequency depends on the testing recommendations in each country (at least 1 test per year). Sociodemographic data are collected at baseline; baseline and follow-up questionnaires both gather data on attitudes and perceptions, discrimination, HIV/STI testing history, sexual behaviour, condom use, and pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis. Descriptive, exploratory and multivariate analyses will be performed to address the main research objectives of this study, using appropriate statistical tests and models. These analyses will be performed on the whole cohort data and stratified by study site or country. The study was approved by the Public Health authorities of each country where the study is being implemented. Findings from the COBA-Cohort study will be summarised in a report to the European Commission, and in leaflets to be distributed to study participants. Articles and conference abstracts will be submitted to peer-reviewed journals and conferences. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited
Phillips, S; Cornall, A M; Machalek, D A; Garland, S M; Bateson, D; Garefalakis, M; Tabrizi, S N
Roche Amplicor HPV (AMP) had previously been used for detection of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) in epidemiological and clinical studies. As this assay is no longer available, we compared its performance using PreservCyt samples from women aged of 18-24 years attending for routine cervical cytology screening to Roche Cobas® 4800 (Cobas) to determine if subsequent studies could continue using the Cobas assay. Overall 507 samples were tested on Cobas and compared to previous AMP results, with discrepant samples tested on Roche Linear Array. Overall, agreement between the Cobas and AMP for the presence of HR HPV types was very high (κ = 0.81) (95 % CI: 0.76 - 0.87) with percentage agreement of 91.57 %. Cobas is comparable to AMP for the detection of HR-HPV types in a community recruited cohort of healthy women.
A European multicientre study on the comparison of HBV viral loads between VERIS HBV assay and Roche COBAS(®) TAQMAN(®) HBV test, Abbott RealTime HBV assay, Siemens VERSANT HBV assay, and Qiagen artus HBV RG kit.
Braun, Patrick; Delgado, Rafael; Drago, Monica; Fanti, Diana; Fleury, Hervé; Izopet, Jacques; Lombardi, Alessandra; Marcos, MaAngeles; Sauné, Karine; O'Shea, Siobhan; Pérez-Rivilla, Alfredo; Ramble, John; Trimoulet, Pascale; Vila, Jordi; Whittaker, Duncan; Artus, Alain; Rhodes, Daniel
Hepatitis B viral load testing is essential to treatment and monitoring decisions in patients with chronic Hepatitis B. Beckman Coulter has developed the VERIS HBV Assay (Veris) for use on the fully automated DxN VERIS Molecular Diagnostics System.(1) OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the clinical performance of the Veris HBV Assay at multiple EU laboratories STUDY DESIGN: Method comparison was performed with a total of 344 plasma specimens from HBV infected patients tested with Veris and COBAS(®) TaqMan(®) HBV Test (Cobas), 207 specimens tested with Veris and RealTime HBV Assay (RealTime), 86 specimens tested with Veris and VERSANT(®) HBV Assay (Versant), and 74 specimens tested with Veris and artus(®) HBV RG PCR kit (artus). Bland-Altman analysis showed average bias of -0.46 log10 IU/mL between Veris and Cobas, -0.46 log10IU/mL between Veris and RealTime, -0.36 log10IU/mL between Veris and Versant, and -0.12 log10IU/mL between Veris and artus. Bias was consistent across the assay range. Patient monitoring results using Veris demonstrated similar viral load trends over time to Cobas, RealTime, and artus. The VERIS HBV Assay demonstrated comparable clinical performance, with varying degrees of negative bias, compared to other currently marketed assays for HBV DNA monitoring. This negative bias should be taken into consideration if switching monitoring methods to Veris. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Gonzalo M Castro
Full Text Available La transmisión vertical es la principal vía de contagio del HIV en la edad pediátrica. El diagnóstico de la infección congénita antes de los 18 meses se realiza mediante ensayos virológicos: detección de genoma viral como ARN plasmático y ADN proviral. La sensibilidad de estos ensayos varía según la edad del niño, con valores de especificidad mayores al 95 %. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el desempeño del ensayo de carga viral (CV COBAS Taqman HIV-1 Test, v1.0 (Roche, y su concordancia con una PCR múltiple anidada in-house para la detección del ADN proviral. De 341 muestras procesadas, 15 resultaron positivas y 326 negativas por ambas metodologías. Para la metodología de CV, la sensibilidad general fue del 88,2 % y la especificidad del 100 %. Nuestros resultados indican que la metodología de CV evaluada puede utilizarse como técnica alternativa para el diagnóstico de infección congénita por HIV.
Melchers, Willem J G; Kuijpers, Judith; Sickler, Joanna Jackson; Rahamat-Langendoen, Janette
Rapid diagnosis of influenza A and B is important for direct treatment decisions in patient care and for the reduction of in-hospital transmissions. The new real-time PCR based molecular point-of-care (POC) assay, the cobas(®) Influenza A/B test on the cobas(®) Liat(®) System (cobas(®) Liat(®) Influenza A/B assay), generated a PCR result in less than 20 min, was evaluated for the detection of influenza A and B. One hundred twenty-one retrospectively collected respiratory specimens, previously analyzed with a routine influenza A/B test (Diagenode) were tested using the cobas(®) Liat(®) Influenza A/B assay. The cobas(®) Liat(®) Influenza A/B assay allows influenza A and B testing by RT-PCR within 20 min. This assay detected influenza A in 51 of 56 samples positive by the Diagenode test. The five discrepant results were retested with the Cepheid Influenza A/B test, confirming two positive cases. All 30 influenza B Diagenode positive samples were found positive by the cobas(®) Liat(®) Influenza A/B assay. Control samples (viral negative and non-influenza pathogens) were all negative by the cobas(®) Liat(®) Influenza A/B assay. The cobas(®) Liat(®) Influenza A/B assay showed a sensitivity for influenza A/B of 96% and 100%, respectively, and 100% specificity for both targets. The cobas(®) Liat(®) Influenza A/B assay is a useful tool for accurate, rapid, and sensitive detection of influenza A and B, offering timely and personalized patient management and infection control when implemented at the point-of-care. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available New commercially available Human Papillomavirus (HPV assays need to be evaluated in a variety of cervical screening settings. Cobas HPV Test (cobas is a real-time PCR-based assay allowing for separate detection of HPV genotypes 16 and 18 and a bulk of 12 other high-risk genotypes. The aim of the present study, Horizon, was to assess the prevalence of high-risk HPV infections in an area with a high background risk of cervical cancer, where women aged 23-65 years are targeted for cervical screening. We collected 6,258 consecutive cervical samples from the largest cervical screening laboratory in Denmark serving the whole of Copenhagen. All samples were stored in SurePath media. In total, 5,072 samples were tested with cobas, Hybrid Capture 2 High Risk HPV DNA test (HC2 and liquid-based cytology. Of these, 27% tested positive on cobas. This proportion decreased by age, being 43% in women aged 23-29 years and 10% in women aged 60-65 years. HC2 assay was positive in 20% of samples, and cytology was abnormal (≥ atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance for 7% samples. When only samples without recent abnormalities were taken into account, 24% tested positive on cobas, 19% on HC2, and 5% had abnormal cytology. The proportion of positive cobas samples was higher than in the ATHENA trial. The age-standardized cobas positivity vs. cytology abnormality was 3.9 in our study and 1.7 in ATHENA. If in Copenhagen the presently used cytology would be replaced by cobas in women above age 30 years, an extra 11% of women would based on historical data be expected to have a positive cobas test without an underlying cervical intraepithelial lesion grade 3 or worse. Countries with a high prevalence of HPV infections should therefore proceed to primary HPV-based cervical screening with caution.
Evaluation of clinical sensitivity and specificity of hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus, and human immunodeficiency Virus-1 by cobas MPX: Detection of occult HBV infection in an HBV-endemic area.
Ha, Jihye; Park, Younhee; Kim, Hyon-Suk
Transfusion-transmitted infectious diseases remain a major concern for blood safety, particularly with hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Nucleic acid testing (NAT) in donor screening shortens the serologically negative window period and reduces virus transmission. The cobas MPX (Roche Molecular Systems, Inc., Branchburg, New Jersey) is a recently developed multiplex qualitative PCR system that enables the simultaneous detection of HBV, HCV, and HIV with improved sensitivity and throughput using cobas 6800 and 8800 instruments. The aim of this study was to conduct an evaluation of the clinical sensitivity and specificity of cobas MPX detection of HBV, HCV, and HIV in clinical specimens. Among samples referred for HBV, HCV, and HIV-1 quantification at Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, positive samples were selected to evaluate sensitivity. A total of 843 samples was tested using both cobas MPX and COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan Tests for HBV, HCV, and HIV-1 using the cobas 8800 system and a COBAS TaqMan 96 analyzer, respectively. Samples that showed discrepancies were confirmed by nested PCR. The cobas MPX achieved excellent sensitivity and specificity for the detection of HBV, HCV, and HIV-1 in clinical samples. We found that the lower limit of detection (LOD) of blood screening by NAT actually improves clinical sensitivity, and occult HBV infection prevalence among healthy employees of the hospital was rather high. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Chen, L.; Tian, Y.; Chen, S.; Liesenfeld, O.
Rapid and accurate diagnosis of influenza is important for patient management and infection control. We determined the performance of the cobas® Influenza A/B assay, a rapid automated nucleic acid assay performed on the cobas® Liat System for qualitative detection of influenza A and influenza B from nasopharyngeal (NP) swab specimens. Retrospective frozen and prospectively collected NP swabs from patients with signs and symptoms of influenza collected in universal transport medium (UTM) were tested at multiple sites including CLIA-waived sites using the cobas® Influenza A/B assay. Results were compared to the Prodesse Pro-Flu+ assay and to viral culture. Compared to the Prodesse ProFlu+ Assay, sensitivities of the cobas® Influenza A/B assay for influenza A and B were 97.7 and 98.6%, respectively; specificity was 99.2 and 99.4%. Compared to viral culture, the cobas® Influenza A/B assay showed sensitivities of 97.5 and 96.9% for influenza virus A and B, respectively; specificities were 97.9% for both viruses. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)/sequencing showed that the majority of viral culture negative but cobas® Influenza A/B positive results were true positive results, indicating that the cobas® Influenza A/B assay has higher sensitivity compared to viral culture. In conclusion, the excellent accuracy, rapid time to result, and remarkable ease of use make the cobas® Influenza A/B nucleic acid assay for use on the cobas® Liat System a highly suitable point-of-care solution for the management of patients with suspected influenza A and B infection. PMID:26716012
Fornari, D; Rebolj, M; Bjerregård, B; Lidang, M; Christensen, I; Høgdall, E; Bonde, J
In two laboratories (Departments of Pathology, Copenhagen University Hospitals of Herlev and Hvidovre), we compared cobas and Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) human papillomavirus (HPV) assays using SurePath® samples from women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) at ≥30 years and women after treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). Samples from 566 women with ASCUS and 411 women after treatment were routinely tested with HC2 and, thereafter, with cobas. Histological outcomes were retrieved from the Danish Pathology Data Base. We calculated the overall agreement between the assays, and compared their sensitivity and specificity for ≥CIN2. In women with ASCUS, HC2 and cobas testing results were similar in the two laboratories. The overall agreement was 91% (95% CI, 88-93). After CIN treatment, the overall agreement was 87% (95% CI, 82-91) at Herlev and 88% (95% CI, 82-92) at Hvidovre. There were no significant differences in the sensitivity for ≥CIN2 between the two tests [Herlev, 98% (95% CI, 89-100) for HC2 versus 94% (95% CI, 82-99) for cobas; Hvidovre, 97% (95% CI, 83-100) for HC2 versus 100% (95% CI, 88-100) for cobas]. The differences were also not significant for specificity. In women with the studied well-defined clinical indications for HPV testing, cobas and HC2 performed similarly in terms of the detection of HPV and ≥CIN2. © 2016 The Authors. Cytopathology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Ikegame, Satoshi; Sakoda, Yoritake; Fujino, Nao; Taguchi, Kazuhito; Kawasaki, Masayuki; Kajiki, Akira
A retrospective observational study was performed to determine the sensitivity and limitation of PCR test for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and M. avium complex. We obtained clinical specimens collected from the respiratory tract, cultured M. tuberculosis or M. avium complex, and performed PCR analysis. A total of 299 samples (M. tuberculosis, 177; M. avium, 35; M. intracellulare, 87) were analyzed by COBAS TaqMan PCR from April 2007 to March 2011. The PCR positivity rates were 50–55%, 70–100%, 88–98%, and 100% in smear-negative, smear 1+, 2+, and 3+ groups, respectively. The PCR positivity of tuberculosis in smear 1+ was 80.6%, which was statistically significantly (P avium, 21; M. intracellulare, 43), which were analyzed by COBAS Amplicor PCR. The PCR positivity rates obtained using COBAS TaqMan PCR and COBAS Amplicor PCR were not significantly different. The sensitivity of PCR test for mycobacteria is not sufficient in case of smear 1+. Careful consideration must be given to the interpretation of negative PCR test results in smear 1+, because smear-positive tuberculosis is the criterion for isolation. PMID:23029612
Full Text Available A retrospective observational study was performed to determine the sensitivity and limitation of PCR test for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and M. avium complex. We obtained clinical specimens collected from the respiratory tract, cultured M. tuberculosis or M. avium complex, and performed PCR analysis. A total of 299 samples (M. tuberculosis, 177; M. avium, 35; M. intracellulare, 87 were analyzed by COBAS TaqMan PCR from April 2007 to March 2011. The PCR positivity rates were 50–55%, 70–100%, 88–98%, and 100% in smear-negative, smear 1+, 2+, and 3+ groups, respectively. The PCR positivity of tuberculosis in smear 1+ was 80.6%, which was statistically significantly (P<0.001 lower than that of smear 2+ (97.3%. From January 2005 to March 2007, we collected an additional 138 samples (M. tuberculosis, 74; M. avium, 21; M. intracellulare, 43, which were analyzed by COBAS Amplicor PCR. The PCR positivity rates obtained using COBAS TaqMan PCR and COBAS Amplicor PCR were not significantly different. The sensitivity of PCR test for mycobacteria is not sufficient in case of smear 1+. Careful consideration must be given to the interpretation of negative PCR test results in smear 1+, because smear-positive tuberculosis is the criterion for isolation.
Cobb, Bryan; Simon, Christian O; Stramer, Susan L; Body, Barbara; Mitchell, P Shawn; Reisch, Natasa; Stevens, Wendy; Carmona, Sergio; Katz, Louis; Will, Stephen; Liesenfeld, Oliver
Molecular diagnostics is a key component of laboratory medicine. Here, the authors review key triggers of ever-increasing automation in nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT) with a focus on specific automated Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) testing and platforms such as the recently launched cobas® 6800 and cobas® 8800 Systems. The benefits of such automation for different stakeholders including patients, clinicians, laboratory personnel, hospital administrators, payers, and manufacturers are described. Areas Covered: The authors describe how molecular diagnostics has achieved total laboratory automation over time, rivaling clinical chemistry to significantly improve testing efficiency. Finally, the authors discuss how advances in automation decrease the development time for new tests enabling clinicians to more readily provide test results. Expert Commentary: The advancements described enable complete diagnostic solutions whereby specific test results can be combined with relevant patient data sets to allow healthcare providers to deliver comprehensive clinical recommendations in multiple fields ranging from infectious disease to outbreak management and blood safety solutions.
Kageha, Sheila; Okoth, Vincent; Kadima, Silvia; Vihenda, Stella; Okapesi, Elphas; Nyambura, Elizabeth; Maiyo, Alex; Ndung'u, Nancy; Khamadi, Samoel; Mwau, Matilu
In Kenya, the availability of a cheap diagnostic service for HIV-exposed infants has helped scale-up access to treatment, and provided a means by which programs that support Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission of HIV can be evaluated. As expected for any large testing program, discrepant and indeterminate results present a significant challenge. Dried Blood Spots were collected from health centers countrywide and couriered to four laboratories for tests. Results were dispatched either by email, telephone, GSM SMS printer or courier. Between 2006 and 2009, tests were conducted with the Manual Roche v. 1.5 Assay. In 2010 the labs switched fully to the Cobas® AmpliPrep/ Cobas® TaqMan® HIV-1 Qual automated Roche Test. Between 2006 and 2010, the KEMRI CVR EID Lab conducted 64 591 HIV tests in on children HIV tests (38 834) used the manual assay, while 17 133 tests used the automated assay. Overall, 10.7% (6915) of the samples tested positive, while 86.6% (55 967) tested negative. A total of 1.6% (1041) tested indeterminate and required a re-bleed of the infant. Two hundred positive tests by the manual assay were retrieved randomly and retested using the automated assay. Among them, 192 (96%) remained positive, 5 (2.5%) were negative while 3 (1.5%) failed. A total of 160 negative samples by the manual assay were retrieved and retested with the automated assay. Among them, 154 (96.24%) remained negative, 3 (1.88%) tested positive while 3 (1.88%) failed. A total of 215 samples that gave indeterminate results by the manual assay were retested using the automated system. Among them, 62 (28.8%) gave positive results, 144 (66.97%) negative and 6 (2.8%) samples still gave discrepant results. Three (1.4%) did not amplify successfully. A few infants who were apparently positive appeared to test HIV negative with age. Indeterminate results are a significant challenge for HIV diagnostic services, as seen in the Kenyan EID Program. In our experience, they are more
Yu, Shinae; Kwon, Min-Jung; Lee, Eun Hee; Park, Hyosoon; Woo, Hee-Yeon
The cervical cancer screening guidelines suggest that early detection of HPV16 and HPV18 is helpful for identifying women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade two or higher. We comparatively evaluated three HPV DNA assays, Roche Cobas HPV, RFMP HPV PapilloTyper, and Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2). A total of 861 cervical swab samples from women over 30 years of age were classified into two groups, that is, high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) and non-HSIL, according to cervical cytology results and analyzed by three assays. The results of direct sequencing or Linear array HPV genotyping test were considered true when the three assays presented discrepancies. The concordance rates between Roche Cobas HPV versus RFMP HPV PapilloTyper, RFMP HPV PapilloTyper versus HC2, and Roche Cobas versus HC2 were 94.5%, 94.3%, and 95.9%, respectively. For detection of HPV16 and HPV18, Roche Cobas HPV showed the concordance rates of 98.3% (κ = 0.73) and 99.4% (κ = 0.40) with the confirmation tests, respectively; and RFMP HPV PapilloTyper showed the concordance rates of 99.5% (κ = 0.92) and 100.0% (κ = 1.00), respectively. In conclusion, Roche Cobas HPV, RFMP HPV PapilloTyper, and HC2 showed high agreement rates. Roche Cobas HPV and RFMP HPV PapilloTyper are particularly useful, since both provide HPV specific genotypes, HPV16 and HPV18. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Comparison of the Roche Cobas(®) 4800 HPV assay to Digene Hybrid Capture 2, Roche Linear Array and Roche Amplicor for Detection of High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Genotypes in Women undergoing treatment for cervical dysplasia.
Phillips, Samuel; Garland, Suzanne M; Tan, Jeffery H; Quinn, Michael A; Tabrizi, Sepehr N
The recently FDA (U.S. food and drug administration) approved Roche Cobas(®) 4800 (Cobas) human papillomavirus (HPV) has limited performance data compared to current HPV detection methods for test of cure in women undergoing treatment for high grade lesions. Evaluation of Cobas HPV assay using historical samples from women undergoing treatment for cervical dysplasia. A selection of 407 samples was tested on the Cobas assay and compared to previous results from Hybrid Capture 2, HPV Amplicor and Roche Linear Array. Overall, a correlation between high-risk HPV positivity and high grade histological diagnosis was 90.6% by the Cobas, 86.1% by Hybrid Capture 2, 92.9% by HPV Amplicor and 91.8% by Roche Linear Array. The Cobas HPV assay is comparative to both the HPV Amplicor and Roche Linear Array assays and better than Hybrid capture 2 assay in the detection of High-Risk HPV in women undergoing treatment for cervical dysplasia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Gibson, Jane; Schechter-Perkins, Elissa M; Mitchell, Patricia; Mace, Sharon; Tian, Yu; Williams, Kemi; Luo, Robert; Yen-Lieberman, Belinda
Point of Care Testing (POCT) provides the capability for rapid laboratory test results in patient care environments where a traditional clinical laboratory is not available. POCTs have shorter turn-around times (TATs), they may be performed by non-laboratory personnel, and the need for transport time is eliminated. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently granted Clinical Laboratory Improvements Amendment (CLIA) waiver status to the cobas(®) Influenza A/B & RSV assay, a rapid, accurate point-of-care test for Influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) performed on the Liat(®) System. The performance characteristics of this test were determined though a multi-site study consisting of different point of care testing environments. Prospectively collected Nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs from 1361 patients seen at 8 primary care clinics and 4 emergency departments (EDs) and 295 retrospectively identified specimens were tested for Influenza A/B and RSV on the cobas(®) Liat(®) platform. Performance characteristics were determined through comparison to ProFlu+, a laboratory-based PCR test for Influenza A/B and RSV (reference test). Discordant specimens were adjudicated following bi-directional sequencing. The cobas(®) Influenza A/B and RSV assay showed sensitivities of 99.6%, 99.3%, and 96.8% for Influenza A, Influenza B, and RSV, respectively as determined from percent positive agreement (PPA) following comparison to the reference test. Sequencing confirmed cobas(®) Influenza A/B and RSV results in 49.2% of reference test discordant specimens, while crossing threshold data suggest increased sensitivity compared to the reference test. The cobas(®) Influenza A/B and RSV assay was found to be a rapid, sensitive POCT for the detection of these viruses, and provides laboratory-quality PCR-based diagnostic results in point of care settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Cho, Won-Hyung; Won, Eun-Jeong; Choi, Hyun-Jung; Kee, Seung-Jung; Shin, Jong-Hee; Ryang, Dong-Wook; Suh, Soon-Pal
The AdvanSure tuberculosis/non-tuberculous mycobacterium (TB/NTM) PCR (LG Life Science, Korea) and COBAS TaqMan Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) PCR (Roche Diagnostics, USA) are commonly used in clinical microbiology laboratories. We aimed to evaluate these two commercial real-time PCR assays for detection of MTB in a large set of clinical samples over a two-year period. AdvanSure TB/NTM PCR and COBAS TaqMan MTB PCR were performed on 9,119 (75.2%) and 3,010 (24.8%) of 12,129 (9,728 respiratory and 2,401 non-respiratory) MTB specimens, with 361 (4.0%) and 102 (3.4%) acid-fast bacilli (AFB)-positive results, respectively. In MTB culture, 788 (6.5%) MTB and 514 (4.2%) NTM were identified. The total sensitivity and specificity of the AdvanSure assay were 67.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 63.9-71.6) and 98.3% (95% CI, 98.0-98.6), while those of the COBAS TaqMan assay were 67.2% (95% CI, 60.0-73.8) and 98.4% (95% CI, 97.9-98.9), respectively. The sensitivities and specificities of the AdvanSure and COBAS TaqMan assays for AFB-positive and AFB-negative samples were comparable. Furthermore, the AdvanSure assay showed fewer invalid results compared with the COBAS TaqMan assay (5.0 vs. 20.4 invalid results/1,000 tests, P<0.001). AdvanSure assay represents a comparable yet more reliable method than COBAS TaqMan for the identification of mycobacteria in routine clinical microbiology.
Luijt, DS; Bos, PAJ; van Zwet, AA; Vader, PCV; Schirm, J
A total of 3,023 clinical specimens were tested for Neisseria gonorrhoeae by using COBAS AMPLICOR (CA) PCR and confirmation of positives by N. gonorrhoeae-specific 16S rRNA PCR. The sensitivity of CA plus 16S rRNA PCR was 98.8%, compared to 68.2% for culture. Confirmation of CA positives increased
Preisler, Sarah; Rebolj, Matejka; Untermann, Anette
New commercially available Human Papillomavirus (HPV) assays need to be evaluated in a variety of cervical screening settings. Cobas HPV Test (cobas) is a real-time PCR-based assay allowing for separate detection of HPV genotypes 16 and 18 and a bulk of 12 other high-risk genotypes. The aim...... of the present study, Horizon, was to assess the prevalence of high-risk HPV infections in an area with a high background risk of cervical cancer, where women aged 23-65 years are targeted for cervical screening. We collected 6,258 consecutive cervical samples from the largest cervical screening laboratory...... in Denmark serving the whole of Copenhagen. All samples were stored in SurePath media. In total, 5,072 samples were tested with cobas, Hybrid Capture 2 High Risk HPV DNA test (HC2) and liquid-based cytology. Of these, 27% tested positive on cobas. This proportion decreased by age, being 43% in women aged 23...
Mortier, Virginie; Vancoillie, Leen; Dauwe, Kenny; Staelens, Delfien; Demecheleer, Els; Schauvliege, Marlies; Dinakis, Sylvie; Van Maerken, Tom; Dessilly, Géraldine; Ruelle, Jean; Verhofstede, Chris
Pre-analytical sample processing is often overlooked as a potential cause of inaccurate assay results. Here we demonstrate how plasma, extracted from standard EDTA- containing blood collection tubes, may contain traces of blood cells consequently resulting in a false low-level HIV-1 viral load when using Roche Cobas HIV-1 assays. The presence of human DNA in Roche Cobas 4800 RNA extracts and in RNA extracts from the Abbott HIV-1 RealTime assay was assessed by quantifying the human albumin gene by means of qPCR. RNA was extracted from plasma samples before and after an additional centrifugation and tested for viral load and DNA contamination. The relation between total DNA content and viral load was defined. Elevated concentrations of genomic DNA were detected in 28 out of 100 Cobas 4800 extracts and were significantly more frequent in samples processed outside of the Aids Reference Laboratory. An association between genomic DNA presence and spurious low-level viremia results was demonstrated. Supplementary centrifugation of plasma before RNA extraction eliminated the contamination and the false viremia. Plasma isolated from standard EDTA-containing blood collection tubes may contain traces of HIV DNA leading to false viral load results above the clinical cut-off. Supplementary centrifugation of plasma before viral load analysis may eliminate the occurrence of this spurious low-level viremia.
Krajden, Mel; Cook, Darrel; Mak, Annie; Chu, Ken; Chahil, Navdeep; Steinberg, Malcolm; Rekart, Michael; Gilbert, Mark
We compared a 3rd generation (gen) and two 4th gen HIV enzyme immunoassays (EIA) to pooled nucleic acid testing (PNAT) for the identification of pre- and early seroconversion acute HIV infection (AHI). 9550 specimens from males >18 year from clinics attended by men who have sex with men were tested by Siemens ADVIA Centaur(®) HIV 1/O/2 (3rd gen) and HIV Combo (4th gen), as well as by Abbott ARCHITECT(®) HIV Ag/Ab Combo (4th gen). Third gen non-reactive specimens were also tested by Roche COBAS(®) Ampliprep/COBAS® TaqMan HIV-1 Test v.2 in pools of 24 samples. Sensitivity and specificity of the three EIAs for AHI detection were compared. 7348 persons contributed 9435 specimens and had no evidence of HIV infection, 79 (94 specimens) had established HIV infection, 6 (9 specimens) had pre-seroconversion AHI and 9 (12 specimens) had early seroconversion AHI. Pre-seroconversion AHI cases were not detected by 3rd gen EIA, whereas 2/6 (33.3%) were detected by Siemens 4th gen, 4/6 (66.7%) by Abbott 4th gen and 6/6 (100%) by PNAT. All three EIAs and PNAT detected all individuals with early seroconversion AHI. Overall sensitivity/specificity for the EIAs relative to WB or NAT resolved infection status was 93.6%/99.9% for Siemens 3rd gen, 95.7%/99.7% for Siemens 4th gen and 97.9%/99.2% for Abbott 4th gen. While both 4th gen EIAs demonstrated improved sensitivity for AHI compared to 3rd gen EIA, PNAT identified more AHI cases than either 4th gen assay. PNAT is likely to remain a useful strategy to identify AHI in high-risk populations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan ketepatan indikator dalam kisi-kisi soal, keterwakilan setiap kompetensi dasar dalam kisi-kisi soal, kesesuaian antara kisi-kisi soal dan soal, serta capaian daya serap setiap kompetensi dasar. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian deskriptif kualitatif-kuantitatif. Subjek penelitian ini adalah kisi-kisi soal, soal, dan capaian daya serap dari soal uji coba I bahasa Indonesia di SMP kabupaten Wonosobo tahun 2013. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan teknik baca dan catat. Hasil penelitian ini adalah sebagai berikut: (1 ketepatan indikator dalam kisi-kisi soal termasuk kategori tepat (86,4% dengan rincian ketepatan indikator pada kategori sangat tepat sebesar 22%, tepat sebesar 68%, cukup tepat sebesar 8%, kurang tepat sebesar 2%, dan tidak tepat sebesar 0%; (2 keterwakilan setiap kompetensi dasar dalam kisi-kisi soal uji coba I bahasa Indonesia Kabupaten Wonosobo dalam kategori sangat terwakili (96,7%; (3 kesesuaian antara kisi-kisi soal dan soal uji coba I bahasa Indonesia Kabupaten Wonosobo tahun 2013 termasuk kategori sesuai (86%; dan capaian daya serap untuk seluruh kompetensi dasar dalam soal uji coba I bahasa Indonesia Kabupaten Wonosobo tahun 2013 termasuk kategori rendah yaitu sebesar 56,89% dengan rincian capaian pada kategori sangat tinggi sebesar 0%, tinggi sebesar 14%, sedang sebesar 24%, rendah sebesar 30%, dan sangat rendah sebesar 32%. Kata Kunci: telaah, kisi-kisi soal, soal, daya serap THE ANALYSIS OF THE FIRST TRY OUT OF INDONESIAN LANGUAGE TEST IN JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS OF WONOSOBO REGENCY IN 2013 Abstract This study aims to describe the accuracy of the indicators in the table of specifications, the representation of each basic competence in the table of specifications, the compatibility between table of specifications and test items, and the learning outcomes performance of each basic competence of the test items. This research is qualitative-quantitative descriptive. The subjects
Ai, Tomohiko; Yuri, Maiko; Tabe, Yoko; Kakimoto, Atsushi; Morishita, Soji; Tsuchiya, Koji; Takamochi, Kazuya; Kodama, Yuzo; Takahashi, Fumiyuki; Shigeki, Misawa; Horii, Takashi; Suzuki, Kenji; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Miida, Takashi; Ohsaka, Akimichi
EGFR, a tyrosine-kinase, plays an important role in the progression of lung cancer. Since genetic abnormality of EGFR alters the effects of tyrosine-kinase inhibitors targeting EGFR, molecular analyses of EGFR have recently gained more attention in the treatment of lung cancer. However, several different techniques are available and which method is superior has not been determined. In this study, we compared two recently developed PCR-based techniques, PCR-clamp method and cobas EGFR assay. Ninety-four surgical samples and 58 biopsy samples from patients suffering from non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) were included in the study. Samples with positive and negative genetic abnormalities, 66 and 28 respectively, were chosen for PCR-Clamp methods. Those same samples were reanalyzed with cobas EGFR assay. The concordance between PCR-Clamp and cobas EGFR methods was 95.7%. PCR-Clamp failed to detect four mutations that were detected with cobas EGFR assay. These two methods were further tested by analyzing 58 random biopsy samples. The concordance for the biopsy samples was 93.1%, and PCR-Clamp, again, failed to detect three mutations that were detected with cobas EGFR assay. Our results showed both methods detected most of the known EGFR mutations and the concordance was similar to those previously reported in different ethnicities. However, in our study, PCR-Clamp method failed to detect a total of seven mutations that were detected with cobas EGFR assay. Thus, we concluded that cobas EGFR assay is an easier and more accurate screening assay than PCR-Clamp method in detecting EGFR genetic abnormalities.
Full Text Available Tempurung kelapa mempunyai sifat fisik yang menarik dan cocok dimanfaatkan menjadi produk kerajinan khususnya kerajinan perhiasan atau perabot busana. Salah satu barang kerajinan yang dapat dibuat dari tempurung kelapa adalah kancing baju untuk busana ataupun kancing untuk asesoris tas. Pembuatan kancing tempurung dengan menggunakan alat hasil rekayasa Balai Besar Industri Kerajinan dan Batik yang terdiri dari 3 unit alat, yaitu alat pengeplong, alat pelubang dan alat bubut. Untuk mengetahui kelayakan operasional dari alat tersebut maka perlu dilakukan uji coba dan analisa secara tekno ekonominya.Hasil pengujian alat menunjukkan bahwa 1 jam dapat membuat kancing tempurung sebanyak 12,43 set. Kapasitas produksi perhari sebanyak 87 set kancing tempurung rangkap dengan tenaga kerja 5 orang. Alat hasil rekayasa tersebut akan mencapai efektifitas dan efisiensi dengan spesialisasi dalam proses produksinya, yaitu 1 orang spesialisasi dalam proses plong dan bur dan 4 orang spesialisasi dalam pembubutan. Perhitungan ekonomi uji coba a/at tersebut sebagai berikut : - Total modal Rp. 4.752.150,- - Biaya produksi Rp. 6.426.050,-- Jumlah produksi 6.525 set per 3 bulan - Harga jual perset sekitar Rp. 1.350 .-- Hasil penjualan per 3 bulan Rp. 8.808. 750,- - Keuntungan sebelum pajak Rp. 2.382. 700,- - Prosentase keuntungan 50,14 % - Waktu pengembalian modal 5,6 bulan - Prosentase batas rugi laba 65,2 %- Harga jual perset sekitar Rp.1.350 ,-Tempurung kelapa mempunyai sifat fisik yang menarik dan cocok dimanfaatkan menjadi produk kerajinan khususnya kerajinan perhiasan atau perabot busana. Salah satu barang kerajinan yang dapat dibuat dari tempurung kelapa adalah kancing baju untuk busana ataupun kancing untuk asesoris tas. Pembuatan kancing tempurung dengan menggunakan alat hasil rekayasa Balai Besar Industri Kerajinan dan Batik yang terdiri dari 3 unit alat, yaitu alat pengeplong, alat pelubang dan alat bubut. Untuk mengetahui kelayakan operasional dari alat
Doche, C; Thomé, M; Dimet, I; Bienvenu, J
The Roche Cobas Core automated enzyme immunoassay of antibodies against hepatitis B virus surface antigen (anti-HBs) was evaluated using a protocol complying with the Société Française de Biologie Clinique guidelines. Results showed good precision (CV below 6 and 9% for intra- and inter-assay precision) and accuracy (according to the Paul-Ehrlich-Institute standard); the detection limit of the test was 2 IU/l. The manufacturer's specifications were confirmed and a satisfactory correlation (r = 0.901) was found with an automated method (IMx, Abbott) used for comparison.
Pettus, Jason R; Wilson, Terri L; Steinmetz, Heather B; Lefferts, Joel A; Tafe, Laura J
Clinical laboratories are expected to reliably identify human papilloma virus (HPV) associated oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) for prognostic and potential therapeutic applications. In addition to surrogate p16 immunohistochemistry (IHC) testing, DNA-based HPV-specific testing strategies are widely utilized. Recognizing the efficiency of the Roche Cobas 4800 platform for testing gynecological cytology specimens for high-risk HPV, we elected to evaluate the potential utility of this platform for testing formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) OPSCC tissue. Using the Roche Linear Array assay for comparison, we tested twenty-eight samples (16 primary OPSCC, 2 lymph node metastases from primary OPSCC, 1 oral tongue carcinoma, 3 benign squamous papillomas, and 3 non-oropharyngeal carcinoma tissues). Excluding two invalid results, the Roche Cobas 4800 testing resulted in excellent inter-assay concordance (25/26, 96.2%) and 100% concordance for HPV-16/HPV-18 positive samples. This data suggests that the Roche Cobas 4800 platform may be a cost-effective method for testing OPSCC FFPE tissues in a clinical molecular pathology laboratory setting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Although 3rd generation TSH assays are the most widely used immunoassays, credible comparison studies, specially involving Indian sub-populations are practically non-existent. To compare the TSH measurements between chemiluminescence (Architect) and electrochemiluminescence (Cobas) inmmunoassays in an urban ambulatory Indian population. 1,615 subjects were selected randomly from the usual laboratory workflow, their TSH measured in Architect and Cobas and the paired data thus generated were statistically analysed. TSH values of Cobas were observed to be higher than the Architect values by 28.7 %, with a significant proportional difference between the two, but majority of the Cobas values (above 90 %) were within the limits of agreement with Architect values. In situations where both the instruments are in use simultaneously, a standardization of the methods is imperative, in larger interest of the patient populace.
Bakan, Ebubekir; Ozturk, Nurinnisa; Baygutalp, Nurcan Kilic; Polat, Elif; Akpinar, Kadriye; Dorman, Emrullah; Polat, Harun; Bakan, Nuri
Introduction Urine screening is achieved by either automated or manual microscopic analysis. The aim of the study was to compare Cobas 6500 and Iris IQ200 urine analyzers, and manual urine microscopic analysis. Materials and methods A total of 540 urine samples sent to the laboratory for chemical and sediment analysis were analyzed on Cobas 6500 and Iris IQ200 within 1 hour from sampling. One hundred and fifty three samples were found to have pathological sediment results and were subjected to manual microscopic analysis performed by laboratory staff blinded to the study. Spearman’s and Gamma statistics were used for correlation analyses, and the McNemar test for the comparison of the two automated analyzers. Results The comparison of Cobas u701 to the manual method yielded the following regression equations: y = - 0.12 (95% CI: - 1.09 to 0.67) + 0.78 (95% CI: 0.65 to 0.95) x for WBC and y = 0.06 (95% CI: - 0.09 to 0.25) + 0.66 (95% CI: 0.57 to 0.73) x for RBC. The comparison of IQ200 Elite to manual method the following equations: y = 0.03 (95% CI: - 1.00 to 1.00) + 0.88 (95% CI: 0.66 to 1.00) x for WBC and y = - 0.22 (95% CI: - 0.80 to 0.20) + 0.40 (95% CI: 0.32 to 0.50) x for RBC. IQ200 Elite compared to Cobas u701 yielded the following equations: y = - 0.95 (95% CI: - 2.13 to 0.11) + 1.25 (95% CI: 1.08 to 1.44) x for WBC and y = - 1.20 (95% CI: - 1.80 to -0.30) + 0. 80 (95% CI: 0.55 to 1.00) x for RBC. Conclusions The two analyzers showed similar performances and good compatibility to manual microscopy. However, they are still inadequate in the determination of WBC, RBC, and EC in highly-pathological samples. Thus, conﬁrmation by manual microscopic analysis may be useful. PMID:27812305
Bensalah, Mohammed; Bouayadi, Ouardia; Rahmani, Nawal; Lyagoubi, Amina; Lamrabat, Somiya; Choukri, Mohammed
Parathormone (PTH) is the main hormone of phosphocalcic homeostasis. It is synthesized and secreted by the parathyroid glands. PTH has become a routine test in the medical biology laboratory. However, its measurement presents analytical difficulties with the various marketed kits. The aim of this work is to present the results of a comparative study between the PTH measurment on Abbott architect ci8200 and on Roche's Cobas e411 automaton. It is a prospective study carried out for 252 hospitalized patients in the various departments of the University Hospital Center Mohammed VI of Oujda. The "intact" PTH tests were performed on two automata: Abbott Architect ci8200 and Roche Cobas e411. The first uses chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. The second uses electrochemiluminiscence sandwich enzyme immunoassay. The agreement of the results between the different techniques was evaluated using the Bland-Altman difference diagram and the Passing-Bablok and Deming regression line (MedCalc software version 188.8.131.52®). By analyzing the diagram of Bland-Altman, we note that the average bias between both methods is of the order of 193.9 pg/mL. As for the equation of the right of Passing-Bablok, it is: Y(Architect) = 3.11 X (Cobas) - 12.26. In conclusion, our study shows a great discrepancy between the results of the PTH assay on the Architect ci8200 versus the Cobas e411, hence the biologist's indisputable role in the control and evaluation of the kits marketed through the various validation tests.
Preisler, Sarah; Rebolj, Matejka; Ejegod, Ditte Møller; Lynge, Elsebeth; Rygaard, Carsten; Bonde, Jesper
High-risk Human Papillomavirus (HPV) testing is replacing cytology in cervical cancer screening as it is more sensitive for preinvasive cervical lesions. However, the bottleneck of HPV testing is the many false positive test results (positive tests without cervical lesions). Here, we evaluated to what extent these can be explained by cross-reactivity, i.e. positive test results without evidence of high-risk HPV genotypes. The patterns of cross-reactivity have been thoroughly studied for hybrid capture II (HC2) but not yet for newer HPV assays although the manufacturers claimed no or limited frequency of cross-reactivity. In this independent study we evaluated the frequency of cross-reactivity for HC2, cobas, and APTIMA assays. Consecutive routine cervical screening samples from 5022 Danish women, including 2859 from women attending primary screening, were tested with the three evaluated DNA and mRNA HPV assays. Genotyping was undertaken using CLART HPV2 assay, individually detecting 35 genotypes. The presence or absence of cervical lesions was determined with histological examinations; women with abnormal cytology were managed as per routine recommendations; those with normal cytology and positive high-risk HPV test results were invited for repeated testing in 18 months. Cross-reactivity to low-risk genotypes was detected in 109 (2.2 %) out of 5022 samples on HC2, 62 (1.2 %) on cobas, and 35 (0.7 %) on APTIMA with only 10 of the samples cross-reacting on all 3 assays. None of the 35 genotypes was detected in 49 (1.0 %), 162 (3.2 %), and 56 (1.1 %) samples, respectively. In primary screening at age 30 to 65 years (n = 2859), samples of 72 (25 %) out of 289 with high-risk infections on HC2 and < CIN2 histology were due to cross-reactivity. On cobas, this was 106 (26 %) out of 415, and on APTIMA 48 (21 %) out of 224. Despite manufacturer claims, all three assays showed cross-reactivity. In primary cervical screening at age ≥30 years, cross
Yin, Lianli; Chen, Xiang; Tang, Yinghua; Sun, Yifan
Progesterone is a reliable indicator of either natural or induced ovulation, and it plays an important role in preparing for implantation in the uterus and maintaining pregnancy. Estradiol is the most powerful natural estrogen in humans. It adjusts reproductive function in females and, with progesterone, maintains a pregnancy. Prolactin is also an important indicator, and its major physiological action is the initiation and maintenance of lactation in women. Architect i2000sr and Cobas e601 are automated immunoassay systems that are widely used to measure progesterone, estradiol, and prolactin concentrations in the blood. However, there is a dearth of confidence in these methods for comparative research. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the correlation of serum progesterone, estradiol, and prolactin results measured with Architect i2000sr and Cobas e601. Two hundred venous blood samples from routine serum progesterone, estradiol, and prolactin tests were analyzed on the Cobas e601 and the Architect i2000sr in our laboratory within the same day. Passing-Bablok regression analysis and a Bland-Altman plot were used to compare methods. According to the concordance correlation coefficient, the correlation was strong in estradiol, but the correlation of prolactin and progesterone was poor between the two systems. The Bland-Altman plots showed that the measured value of progesterone, estradiol, and prolactin detected by Cobas e601 were about 1.30, 1.24, and 1.10 times higher, respectively, than that measured using Architect i2000sr. The results of progesterone, estradiol, and prolactin of one method should not be directly transferable to the other.
Wesarachkitti, Bongkot; Khejonnit, Varanya; Pratumvinit, Busadee; Reesukumal, Kanit; Meepanya, Suriya; Pattanavin, Chanutchaya; Wongkrajang, Preechaya
To evaluate and compare the performances of the automated urinalysis devices UX-2000 and Cobas 6500. A total of 258 urine specimens were collected from the routine specimen workload. We analyzed all specimens on both automated instruments and recorded the turnaround time from each method. Physical, chemical, and sedimentary urine components were compared between the automated and the manual method for each analyzer. The correlation of urine physical/chemical properties between the 2 instruments was excellent. The Cobas 6500 instrument demonstrated a higher level of agreement for red blood cells (Cobas 6500:R= 0.94; UX-2000:R= 0.78) and white blood cells (Cobas 6500:R= 0.95; UX-2000:R= 0.85). The UX-2000 demonstrated higher sensitivity for small round cells, hyaline casts, pathological casts, and bacteria. The median turnaround time was 1.5 minutes and 8.5 minutes for the Cobas 6500 and UX-2000, respectively. The 2 devices showed similar performance in technical evaluation; they each reduce workload and increase time saving. However, manual examination by technicians is recommended for pathological specimens. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Leitner-Ferenc, Veronika; Atamaniuk, Johanna; Jansen-Skoupy, Sonja; Stöckelmeier, Brigitta; Grohs, Katharina; Födinger, Manuela
Reference intervals provided by diagnostic test manufacturers should be transferred to clinical laboratories after validation. Although protocols exist, laboratories rarely perform and report on results of validation studies. We validated reference intervals (RIs) of 87 analytes on a Cobas 8000 platform according to standards published by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). For 8 analytes, decision limits were provided in the package inserts. Among the 79 RIs subjected to transference validation, 8 were found not valid for transference, including lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) among women, and the following among both sexes: potassium, homocysteine, immunoglobulin E (IgE), free lambda light chain (FLC λ), C3 complement (C3c), folate, and 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25[(OH]D). For LDH, potassium, homocysteine, C3c, folate, and 25(OH)D, RIs or thresholds suitable for transference were available in the literature; however, this was not the case for IgE and FLC λ. The present study demonstrates that validation of RIs provided in the manufacturer provided package inserts is indispensable.
Analytical Performance Evaluation of a New Cobas Tacrolimus Assay on Cobas e411 Analyzer: Comparison of Values Obtained by the CMIA Tacrolimus Assay and a Liquid Chromatography Combined with Tandem Mass Spectrometric Method.
Dasgupta, Amitava; Khalil, Samir A; Johnson-Davis, Kamisha L
Recently Roche Diagnostics (Indianapolis, IN) developed Cobas tacrolimus assay (currently for investigational use only in U.S) for application on multiple platforms including Cobas e 411 analyzer. We evaluated analytic performance of this new assay. Within run, between run and linearity of this new assay were evaluated. In addition, tacrolimus values in 40 specimens obtained by using this new method were compared with values obtained by using the CMIA assay (Abbott Laboratories). Moreover, 10 specimens where accurate tacrolimus values were determined by a reference method (LC-MS/MS), were further analyzed using Cobas tacrolimus assay and the CMIA assay. New Cobas tacrolimus assay showed excellent precision and accuracy. Comparing tacrolimus values obtained by using the CMIA tacrolimus assay (x-axis) with corresponding values obtained by using the Cobas tacrolimus assay (y-axis), the following regression equation was observed: y=0.922x+0.512 (n=40, r=0.99). For additional 10 specimens where tacrolimus values were determined by LC-MS/MS, tacrolimus values obtained by the Cobas tacrolimus assay as well as by the CMIA assay were higher than the corresponding LC-MS/MS values. The new Cobas tacrolimus assay is comparable to the FDA approved CMIA tacrolimus assay. Therefore, when this assay is approved by the FDA, it can be used for therapeutic drug monitoring of tacrolimus. © 2016 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.
Nicol, Mackenzie; Whiley, David; Nulsen, Mary; Bromhead, Collette
To use nucleic acid amplification techniques (NAAT) for detection of markers associated with gonococcal antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in non-cultured clinical samples to enhance surveillance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae AMR in New Zealand. A total of 198 clinical samples from patients living in two cities, Wellington and Auckland and the more rural region of Gisborne, New Zealand, which were positive for N. gonorrhoeae by the Cobas 4800 were tested for three markers that predict reduced susceptibility or resistance to three antibiotics. Residual DNA extracts from the Cobas 4800 NG/CT test were tested for a single-nucleotide polymorphism in the gyrA gene at codon 91 associated with quinolone resistance; a sequence on the plasmid in penicillinase-producing N. gonorrhoeae (PPNG) which confers resistance to penicillin and the mosaic penA sequence associated with reduced susceptibility to extended-spectrum cephalosporins in N. gonorrhoeae. A total of 186/198 (94%) of the samples provided a valid result on gyrA genotyping, confirming the utility of N. gonorrhoeae DNA extracted by the Roche Cobas 4800 CT/NG test for subsequent detection of AMR markers. The NAAT results for Wellington, Auckland and Gisborne, respectively, showed that 77%, 33% and 32% of samples had the marker associated with quinolone resistance, while 4%, 15% and 0% were positive for the PPNG plasmid marker, and 9%, 5% and 0% samples were positive for mosaic penA sequence. The use of residual clinical DNA samples from the Cobas 4800 CT/NG test proved an efficient and effective method for performing AMR genotyping. These data also show for the first time the presence of gonococci with a mosaic penA sequence in New Zealand. Overall, the results further highlight the potential of molecular methods to aid N. gonorrhoeae AMR surveillance, particularly for regions where gonococcal culture is no longer performed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a
Fornari, D; Rebolj, M; Bjerregaard, B
OBJECTIVE: In two laboratories (Departments of Pathology, Copenhagen University Hospitals of Herlev and Hvidovre), we compared cobas and Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) human papillomavirus (HPV) assays using SurePath® samples from women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS...
W.H.F. Goessens (Wil); P. de Man (Peter); J.G. Koeleman; A. Luijendijk (Ad); R. te Witt (René); H.P. Endtz (Hubert); A.F. van Belkum (Alex)
textabstractThe performances of the BDProbeTec ET (Becton Dickinson) and COBAS AMPLICOR MTB (Roche) were retrospectively evaluated for detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in various respiratory specimens. The BACTEC and MGIT liquid culture system (Becton Dickinson) was used as a reference
Park, Yongjung; Lee, Eunhee; Choi, Jonghyeon; Jeong, Seri; Kim, Hyon-Suk
Infection with high-risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes is an important risk factor for cervical cancers. We evaluated the clinical performances of two new real-time PCR assays for detecting HR HPVs compared to that of the Hybrid Capture 2 test (HC2). A total of 356 cervical swab specimens, which had been examined for cervical cytology, were assayed by Abbott RealTime HR and Roche Cobas HPV as well as HC2. Sensitivities and specificities of these assays were determined based on the...
Guan, Xiaoyong; Sun, Yifan; Zhang, Hongyu; Liang, Ka; Long, Kang; Li, Jin; Tang, Shifu; Liu, Chunming
Human chorionic gonadotropin-beta (β-hCG) is an important index used to monitor embryonic development following embryo transfer. Architect i2000sr and Cobas e601 are widely used automated immunoassay systems used to measure serum β-hCG concentrations; however, the correlations between serum β-hCG levels measured with these two immunoassays and the accuracy of the immunoassays have not been fully evaluated. Serum β-hCG levels were measured in 133 serum samples using the Architect i2000sr and Cobas e601 automated immunoassay systems. Passing-Bablok regression analysis was used to compare the correlation in serum β-hCG levels obtained using the two immunoassays. A Bland-Altman plot analysis was used to identify mean ratios and 95% CIs of the mean ratios of the β-hCG results between the two immunoassays. In this graphical method the mean ratios between the two techniques were plotted against the averages of the two techniques. The total coefficients of variations (CVs) of serum β-hCG ranged from 3.12 - 4.66% for Cobas e601 and 3.18 - 4.99% for Architect i2000sr. The measured value of serum β-hCG detected by the two immunoassays was statistically significant (p 10000 IU/L, n = 81), the correlation coefficient r was 0.8076. The Bland-Altman plot analysis showed that the measured value of serum β-hCG detected by Architect i2000sr was about 1.25 times higher than that of Cobas e601. The mean ratio was 1.12 at a low concentration of serum β-hCG, and it was 1.33 at a high concentration. Architect i2000sr and Cobas e601 have good concordance for determining serum β-hCG. However, the β-hCG values measured with Architect i2000sr were 25% higher than those obtained using Cobas e601.
Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in an STI population: performances of the Presto CT-NG assay, the Lightmix Kit 480 HT CT/NG and the COBAS Amplicor with urine specimens and urethral/cervicovaginal samples
Schuurs, T A; Verweij, S P; Weel, J F L; Ouburg, S; Morré, S A
Objectives This study assessed the performances of the Presto CT-NG assay, the Lightmix Kit 480 HT CT/NG and the COBAS Amplicor for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae detection. Design A cross-sectional study design. Setting Izore, Centre for Diagnosing Infectious Diseases in Friesland, the Netherlands, tested samples sent from regional sexually transmitted infection (STI) outpatient clinics and regional hospitals from the province Friesland, the Netherlands. Participants Samples were collected from 292 men and 835 women. These samples included 560 urine samples and 567 urethral/cervicovaginal samples. Primary and secondary outcome measures The primary outcome measure is C trachomatis infection. No secondary outcome measures are available. Results The sensitivity, specificity, positive predicative value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) for C trachomatis detection in urine samples using the Presto CT-NG assay were 100%, 99.8%, 98.1% and 100%, respectively; for the Lightmix Kit 480 HT CT/NG: 94.2%, 99.8%, 96.1% and 99.4%, respectively; for the COBAS Amplicor: 92.3%, 99.6%, 96% and 99.2%, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV for C trachomatis detection in urethral/cervicovaginal swabs using the Presto CT-NG assay and the COBAS Amplicor were 100%, 99.8%, 97.7% and 100%, respectively; for the Lightmix Kit 480 HT CT/NG: 100%, 99.6%, 97.7% and 100%, respectively. Calculations for N gonorrhoeae could not be made due to a low prevalence. Conclusions All three assays had a high sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV for C trachomatis, with best performance for the Presto CT-NG assay. PMID:24381252
Park, Yongjung; Lee, Eunhee; Choi, Jonghyeon; Jeong, Seri; Kim, Hyon-Suk
Infection with high-risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes is an important risk factor for cervical cancers. We evaluated the clinical performances of two new real-time PCR assays for detecting HR HPVs compared to that of the Hybrid Capture 2 test (HC2). A total of 356 cervical swab specimens, which had been examined for cervical cytology, were assayed by Abbott RealTime HR and Roche Cobas HPV as well as HC2. Sensitivities and specificities of these assays were determined based on the criteria that concordant results among the three assays were regarded as true-positive or -negative and that the results of genotyping and sequencing were considered true findings when the HPV assays presented discrepant results. The overall concordance rate among the results for the three assays was 82.6%, and RealTime HR and Cobas HPV assays agreed with HC2 in 86.1% and 89.9% of cases, respectively. The two real-time PCR assays agreed with each other for 89.6% of the samples, and the concordance rate between them was equal to or greater than 98.0% for detecting HPV type 16 or 18. HC2 demonstrated a sensitivity of 96.6% with a specificity of 89.1% for detecting HR HPVs, while RealTime HR presented a sensitivity of 78.3% with a specificity of 99.2%. The sensitivity and specificity of Cobas HPV for detecting HR HPVs were 91.7% and 97.0%. The new real-time PCR assays exhibited lower sensitivities for detecting HR HPVs than that of HC2. Nevertheless, the newly introduced assays have an advantage of simultaneously identifying HPV types 16 and 18 from clinical samples.
Sattler, I; Roessner, C A; Stolowich, N J; Hardin, S H; Harris-Haller, L W; Yokubaitis, N T; Murooka, Y; Hashimoto, Y; Scott, A I
We cloned, sequenced, and overexpressed cobA, the gene encoding uroporphyrinogen III methyltransferase in Propionibacterium freudenreichii, and examined the catalytic properties of the enzyme. The methyltransferase is similar in mass (27 kDa) and homologous to the one isolated from Pseudomonas denitrificans. In contrast to the much larger isoenzyme encoded by the cysG gene of Escherichia coli (52 kDa), the P. freudenreichii enzyme does not contain the additional 22-kDa peptide moiety at its N...
Chernesky, Max A; Jang, Dan; Gilchrist, Jodi; Smieja, Marek; Arias, Manuel; Hatchette, Todd; Poirier, Andre; Mayne, Donna; Ratnam, Sam
North American and European advisory groups recommend testing for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) with nucleic acid amplification tests. Testing is often performed on automated instruments. The objectives of this study were to process urines for the diagnosis of CT and NG and to examine workflow procedures and outcomes. While processing 1, 24, 48, 96, and 192 urine specimens on 3 batch-mode systems which use 96-well plates: cobas 4800, m2000, and Viper XTR and the random access cartridge testing GeneXpert Infinity 80, we measured assay performance, hands-on time for processing and maintenance, reagents and plastics consumption, time required to obtain results, and testing accuracy. The Infinity 80 required the least hands-on time for single specimens and smaller batches, whereas the Viper XTR and m2000 required the most hands-on time for all batch sizes. Cumulative daily, weekly, and monthly maintenance was highest for the Viper XTR and lowest for Infinity 80. All batch-mode instruments consumed large amounts of disposables. Time to results was shortest for the Infinity 80, and the Viper XTR provided the shortest time for the batch-mode instruments. All systems showed similar diagnostic accuracy. Because detection performances were similar, issues of hands-on time, maintenance, time to results, and consumables are important operational factors for the diagnosis and treatment of CT/NG infections.
Fariña Pérez, L A
The development of urologic radiology with intracavitary and intravenous contrast agents played an essential role in the rise of Urology as a surgical speciality, in agreement with other circumstances that made it both possible (the invention of endoscopic instruments and laboratory technics to study the urine and the kidney function, advances in anaesthesia, asepsis, control of hemorrhage and infection), and necessary (because of social request for these specialised medical services). Study of the life and work of Manuel Cobas Núñez (1885-1956), whose surgical practice and publications pioneered the modern Urology and Uroradiology in Galicia (Spain). After being trained in Necker Hospital (Paris) and Instituto Rubio (Madrid), Cobas was one of the first to practice urology in Galicia, with a high interest in surgical diseases of the upper urinary tract. His knowledge of renoureteral surgery was outstanding for the time. In august 1931 he published "Pielografia ascendente y pielografia descendente", one of the first and best documented books on upper urinary tract examination using retrograde and intravenous pyelography, written only months after marketing of the first intravenous contrasts agents. Working in private practice, out of the academic fields, Cobas was a protagonists of the beginning of Galician modern urology. His publications and book on pyelography show that he was one of the first experts in renal surgery and must be also recognized as a pioneer of uroradiology in Galicia and Spain.
Zanoni, Michelle; Giron, Leila B. [UNIFESP; Vilhena, Cintia; Sucupira, Maria Cecilia; Lloyd, Robert M.; Diaz, Ricardo Sobhie
Ninety-six samples from hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected individuals were used to compare ViveST samples to frozen samples in COBAS TaqMan, RealArt, and VERSANT. Correlation (r) between ViveST samples and frozen samples was 0.99 in all three platforms. Correlations among tests using frozen samples were 0.96 for COBAS and RealArt, 0.94 for COBAS and VERSANT, and 0.97 for VERSANT and RealArt. The results indicate that ViveST may be useful in clinical practice. Different HBV-VL platforms correla...
Zanoni, Michelle; Giron, Leila B; Vilhena, Cintia; Sucupira, Maria Cecilia; Lloyd, Robert M; Diaz, Ricardo Sobhie
Ninety-six samples from hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected individuals were used to compare ViveST samples to frozen samples in COBAS TaqMan, RealArt, and VERSANT. Correlation (r) between ViveST samples and frozen samples was 0.99 in all three platforms. Correlations among tests using frozen samples were 0.96 for COBAS and RealArt, 0.94 for COBAS and VERSANT, and 0.97 for VERSANT and RealArt. The results indicate that ViveST may be useful in clinical practice. Different HBV-VL platforms correlated well with one another.
Vojniković, Bozidar; Vojniković, Davor; Brcić, Luka
In 14 experimental Cavia Coba'ya eyes were irradiated with UV-B light, lambda 312 nm, 25 J/cm2 in 15 minute exposure. Including the transmission of light through optical media: cornea, lens, humor aqueous and vitreous body, and pupil surface of 7 mm2, we can calculate that in these conditions retina can be really irradiated with 10 J/cm2. The half number of Cavia Coba'ya was simultaneously irradiated with visible light, lambda of 550-600 nm (1000 Lx). Control group was 5 Cavia Coba'ya. Two months after irradiation, eyes were enucleated and fixed in 4% formaldehyde. Histopathological findings showed alterations of all retinal layers: loss of ganglion cells, axons, reduction of photoreceptors, vacuolar degeneration and hyperplasia of retinal pigment epithelium. In the second group of irradiance, the eyes with visible light lambda 550-600 nm, all retinal alterations were in 50% decreased.
Tabrizi, Sepehr N.; Unemo, Magnus; Limnios, Athena E.; Hogan, Tiffany R.; Hjelmevoll, Stig-Ove; Garland, Susanne M.; Tapsall, John
Molecular detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in extragenital samples may result in false-positive results due to cross-reaction with commensal Neisseria species or Neisseria meningitidis. This study examined 450 characterized clinical culture isolates, comprising 216 N. gonorrhoeae isolates and 234 isolates of nongonococcal Neisseria species (n = 218) and 16 isolates of other closely related bacteria, with six commercial nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs). The six NAATs tested were Gen-Probe APTIMA COMBO 2 and APTIMA GC, Roche COBAS Amplicor CT/NG and COBAS 4800 CT/NG tests, BD ProbeTec GC Qx amplified DNA assay, and Abbott RealTime CT/NG test. All assays except COBAS Amplicor CT/NG test where four (1.9%) isolates were not detected showed a positive result with all N. gonorrhoeae isolates (n = 216). Among the 234 nongonococcal isolates examined, initial results from all assays displayed some false-positive results due to cross-reactions. Specifically, the COBAS Amplicor and ProbeTec tests showed the highest number of false-positive results, detecting 33 (14.1%) and 26 (11%) nongonococcal Neisseria isolates, respectively. On the first testing, APTIMA COMBO 2, APTIMA GC, Abbott RealTime, and Roche COBAS 4800 showed lower level of cross-reactions with five (2.1%), four (1.7%), two (1%), and two (1%) of the isolates showing low-level positivity, respectively. Upon retesting of these nine nongonococcal isolates using freshly cultured colonies, none were positive by the APTIMA COMBO 2, Abbott RealTime, or COBAS 4800 test. In conclusion, the COBAS Amplicor and ProbeTec tests displayed high number of false-positive results, while the remaining NAATs showed only sporadic low-level false-positive results. Supplementary testing for confirmation of N. gonorrhoeae NAATs remains recommended with all samples tested, in particular those from extragenital sites. PMID:21813721
Diagnostic accuracy of the real-time PCR cobas(®) Liat(®) Influenza A/B assay and the Alere i Influenza A&B NEAR isothermal nucleic acid amplification assay for the detection of influenza using adult nasopharyngeal specimens.
Young, Stephen; Illescas, Patrick; Nicasio, Joclin; Sickler, Joanna Jackson
Accurate detection of influenza requires diagnostic testing; however, methods such as RADTs and central laboratory-based tests are limited by low sensitivity and time constraints, respectively. To compare the performances of the cobas(®) Liat(®) Influenza A/B and Alere™ i Influenza A&B point-of-care (POC) assays for detecting influenza A and B viruses using fresh nasopharyngeal specimens with the GenMark Dx(®) Respiratory Viral Panel as the reference method, a FDA cleared IVD PCR test. A total of 87 samples collected in viral transport medium from adults ≥18 years of age were re-tested on both POC assays (based on the reference PCR method, 29 were influenza A and 18 were influenza B virus positive). The overall sensitivity and specificity of the cobas Influenza A/B for the detection of influenza A and B relative to reference PCR was 97.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] 88.9%, 99.6%) and 97.5% (95% CI: 87.1%, 99.6%), respectively, while the sensitivity of the Alere i Influenza A&B assay relative to the reference PCR method was 63.8% (95% CI: 49.5%, 76.0%) and the specificity was 97.5% (95% CI: 87.1%, 99.6%). The individual sensitivities and specificities of the cobas Influenza A/B assay for influenza A alone and influenza B alone were comparable to those of the reference PCR method (influenza A: sensitivity of 100% [95% CI: 88.3%, 100.0%] and specificity of 98.3% [95% CI: 90.9%, 99.7%]; influenza B: sensitivity of 94.4% [95% CI: 74.2%, 99.0%] and specificity of 100% [95% CI: 94.7%, 100.0%]). For the Alere i Influenza A&B assay, the individual specificities for influenza A and B were comparable to those of the reference PCR method (98.3% [95% CI: 90.9%, 99.7%] and 97.1% [95% CI: 90.0%, 99.2%], respectively), while the individual sensitivities were low relative to reference PCR (55.2% [95% CI: 37.5%, 71.6%] and 72.2% [95% CI: 49.1%, 87.5%], respectively). The cobas Influenza A/B assay demonstrated performance equivalent to laboratory-based PCR, and could replace
Sattler, I; Roessner, C A; Stolowich, N J; Hardin, S H; Harris-Haller, L W; Yokubaitis, N T; Murooka, Y; Hashimoto, Y; Scott, A I
We cloned, sequenced, and overexpressed cobA, the gene encoding uroporphyrinogen III methyltransferase in Propionibacterium freudenreichii, and examined the catalytic properties of the enzyme. The methyltransferase is similar in mass (27 kDa) and homologous to the one isolated from Pseudomonas denitrificans. In contrast to the much larger isoenzyme encoded by the cysG gene of Escherichia coli (52 kDa), the P. freudenreichii enzyme does not contain the additional 22-kDa peptide moiety at its N-terminal end bearing the oxidase-ferrochelatase activity responsible for the conversion of dihydrosirohydrochlorin (precorrin-2) to siroheme. Since it does not contain this moiety, it is not a likely candidate for synthesis of a cobalt-containing early intermediate that has been proposed for the vitamin B12 biosynthetic pathway in P. freudenreichii. Uroporphyrinogen III methyltransferase of P. freudenreichii not only catalyzes the addition of two methyl groups to uroporphyrinogen III to afford the early vitamin B12 intermediate, precorrin-2, but also has an overmethylation property that catalyzes the synthesis of several tri- and tetra-methylated compounds that are not part of the vitamin B12 pathway. The enzyme catalyzes the addition of three methyl groups to uroporphyrinogen I to form trimethylpyrrocorphin, the intermediate necessary for biosynthesis of the natural products, factors S1 and S3, previously isolated from this organism. A second gene found upstream from the cobA gene encodes a protein homologous to CbiO of Salmonella typhimurium, a membrane-bound, ATP-dependent transport protein thought to be part of the cobalt transport system involved in vitamin B12 synthesis. These two genes do not appear to constitute part of an extensive cobalamin operon.
Álvarez-Argüelles, Marta Elena; de Oña-Navarro, María; Rojo-Alba, Susana; Torrens-Muns, Magdalena; Junquera-Llaneza, Maria Luisa; Antonio-Boga, Jose; Pérez-Castro, Sonia; Melón-García, Santiago
Surrogate markers such as viral load are necessary to follow the evolution of disease resulting from infection with Human Papilloma virus (HPV), especially in this era of vaccination. As such, this paper uses the automated system Cobas-4800-HPV to define viral load as number of HPV copies/cell and apply the results to clinical samples. A curve to determine viral load per cell was constructed from HPV plasmid and cell concentrations using the Cobas-4800-HPV system. According to these curves, HPV viral load was determined in 309 positive endocervical swabs (58 from patients with previous HPV-infection, 118 with current lesions and 133 symptom-free patients presenting for screening) from women attending gynaecology consultations from January to June 2013. In curves with r(2)≥0.95 the Cobas-4800-HPV system has a detection limit of 150 (2.18 log) viral copies, and the limit for β-globin corresponds to that of a single cell. In women reporting for screening, viral load was under 10(4) (4 log) copies/10(3) cells. For women with lesions or previous HPV infection loads were significantly higher particularly in the 30-45 year group (p=0.038). Elevated viral loads were especially noticeable in non-HPV 16/HPV 18. Automated system Cobas-4800-HPV is suitable for define viral load of HPV. Correlation between viral load and number of cells established. Higher viral load in women with disease, and those between 30 and 45 years. Increased viral load of non-16/18 high-risk HPV genotypes detected in patients with lesions compared to screening patients. A difference not observed for HPV 16/18, or in coinfections. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Antonenka, Uladzimir; Hofmann-Thiel, Sabine; Turaev, Laziz; Esenalieva, Ainura; Abdulloeva, Mokhonim; Sahalchyk, Evgeni; Alnour, Tarig; Hoffmann, Harald
Background Nucleic acid amplification assays allow for the rapid and accurate detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) directly in clinical specimens thereby facilitating diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB). With the fully automated Xpert MTB/RIF system (Cepheid) an innovative solution of TB diagnostics has been launched. We performed a direct head-to-head comparison of Xpert MTB/RIF with two widely used commercial assays, ProbeTec ET DTB (DTB) (Becton-Dickinson) and COBAS TaqMan MTB (CTM-MTB...
Parra-Sánchez, M; García-Rey, S; Marcuello, A; Zakariya-Yousef, I; Bernal, S; Pueyo, I; Martín-Mazuelos, E; Palomares, J C
PCR assays are nowadays between the most sensitive and reliable methods for screening and diagnosing sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The aim of this study was to analyze the reliability, accuracy, and usefulness of the new NG OligoGen kit in comparison with the cobas 4800 assay for the detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in clinical samples. A prospective study was designed for detection of N. gonorrhoeae including urine samples (n=152), rectal (n=80), endocervical (n=67), pharyngeal (n=41), and urethral swabs (n=5) that were sent from a regional STI clinic in Seville, Spain. Samples were collected from 255 (73.9%) men and 90 women. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predicative values, and kappa value for N. gonorrhoeae detection using the NG OligoGen kit were 99.6%, 100%, 100%, 99.1%, and 0.99, respectively. Statistical data obtained in this study confirm the usefulness and reliable results of this new assay. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Preisler, Sarah Nørgaard; Rebolj, Matejka; Ejegod, Ditte Møller
Background High-risk Human Papillomavirus (HPV) testing is replacing cytology in cervical cancer screening as it is more sensitive for preinvasive cervical lesions. However, the bottleneck of HPV testing is the many false positive test results (positive tests without cervical lesions). Here, we...... evaluated to what extent these can be explained by cross-reactivity, i.e. positive test results without evidence of high-risk HPV genotypes. The patterns of cross-reactivity have been thoroughly studied for hybrid capture II (HC2) but not yet for newer HPV assays although the manufacturers claimed...
Fachri, Yuli; Septia, Rismala
This research discusses the United States response to North Koreas missile test and Kim Jong Un as a commander. Since the end of the Korean War, North Korea has been trying to develop nuclear weapons and missile test. Various negotiations have been conducted to prevent the development, but these efforts never succeeded. Kim Jong Un as a new commander of North Korea has contin ued the countrys nuclear testing.This research will explain how the Unites States respond to the North Koreas nu...
Laboratory, Nigerian Institute of Medical Research, Yaba, Lagos, Nigeria. 2. Clinical Sciences Division, Nigerian ... The COBAS Amplicor automated Analyzer (PCR based) was used to assay the virus quantitatively. Results: 594 patients were tested from .... dose-response relationship. That study also showed that HBV DNA ...
Full Text Available Gloriosa superba L belongs to the Colchiceae family. These vine plants reach 2.5 m in height and can grow at 400 m above sea level. The leaves contain chemical compounds such as alkaloid colchisin, glorisin and triterpen which possess analgesic properties. Many studies have been conducted in the tubers of such plants but scientific information on the efficacy of the leaves as analgesic have not thus far been published. Therefore, in this work a study was conducted to test behavior and analgesic efficacy of compounds in the Gloria superba L. leaves extracted with ethanol. The results showed !he influence on the central nervous system and analgesic effects at doses of extract for 2 mg/100g body weight of mice and it's no significant different with asetosal (p< 0,05. Key Words: Behavior test, Analgesic test, Gloria superba L, Leaves
Tjetjep Syarif Hidayat; Abas Basuni Jahari
Test The Guidance For The Impelentation of "Dietary Guidelines" For Different Area Conditions.Background: Dietary guidelines for nutrition education tool developed by the health department until now still difficult in the field. Dietary guidelines should be arranged by local officials. Guidelines that needs to be made how to craft a balanced nutrition messages in accordance with local conditions.Objectives: To develop a guidance on how to implement the PUGS which is suitable for the local con...
Hidayat, Tjetjep Syarif; Jahari, Abas Basuni
Test The Guidance For The Impelentation of "Dietary Guidelines" For Different Area Conditions.Background: Dietary guidelines for nutrition education tool developed by the health department until now still difficult in the field. Dietary guidelines should be arranged by local officials. Guidelines that needs to be made how to craft a balanced nutrition messages in accordance with local conditions.Objectives: To develop a guidance on how to implement the PUGS which is suitable for the local con...
Tjetjep Syarif Hidayat
Full Text Available Test The Guidance For The Impelentation of "Dietary Guidelines" For Different Area Conditions.Background: Dietary guidelines for nutrition education tool developed by the health department until now still difficult in the field. Dietary guidelines should be arranged by local officials. Guidelines that needs to be made how to craft a balanced nutrition messages in accordance with local conditions.Objectives: To develop a guidance on how to implement the PUGS which is suitable for the local conditions.Methods: Exploratory research methods as applied research for local officials. Implematation manual has been composed PUGS who first disseminated to local officials at the district level. And than local officials to practice through the following stages; how do identify nutritional problems and then how to make balanced nutrition messages in accordance with local conditions. This guidance was tested in the district of Tasikmalaya, West Java and Magelang of Central Java.Results: Showed that there was a significant difference after and before test the guidance for the implementation of dietary guidelines in local officers were able to identify nutrition problems and to develop messages on PUGS.Keywords: PUGS, implementation of dietary guidelines and local condition.
Ammersbach, Mélanie; Beaufrère, Hugues; Gionet Rollick, Annick; Tully, Thomas
Limited plasma biochemical information is available in Strigiformes. Only one study investigated the agreement between a point-of-care with a reference laboratory analyzer for biochemistry variables in birds. The objective was to report reference intervals (RI) for plasma biochemistry variables in Strigiformes, and to assess agreement between the Abaxis Vetscan V2 and Roche Cobas c501. A prospective study was designed to assess plasma biochemistry RI for concentration of calcium, phosphorus, total protein, albumin, globulin, glucose, bilirubin, uric acid, bile acids, sodium, potassium, and chloride, and activities of AST, GGT, CK, amylase, lipase, LDH, and GLDH. In addition, the agreement between the Vetscan and the Cobas in owl species was assessed. A total of 190 individuals were sampled belonging to 12 Strigiformes species including Barn Owls, Barred Owls, Great Horned Owls, Eurasian Eagle Owls, Spectacled Owls, Eastern Screech Owls, Long-Eared Owls, Short-Eared Owls, Great Gray Owls, Snowy Owls, Northern Saw-Whet Owls, and Northern Hawk-Owls. Order-, species-, and method-specific RI were determined on both analyzers. Although Vetscan data were not equivalent to the Cobas, 4 analytes (glucose, AST, CK, and total protein, with correction for bias) were within acceptable agreement, 3 analytes (uric acid, calcium, and phosphorus) were within close agreement, and the remaining analytes were in strong disagreement. Species-specific differences were observed notably for the concentration of glucose in Barn Owls and electrolytes in Northern Saw-Whet Owls. Overall, this study suggests that the Vetscan has acceptable clinical performance in Strigiformes for some analytes and highlights discrepancies for several analytes. © 2015 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.
Braun, Patrick; Delgado, Rafael; Drago, Monica; Fanti, Diana; Fleury, Hervé; Hofmann, Jörg; Izopet, Jacques; Kühn, Sebastian; Lombardi, Alessandra; Mancon, Alessandro; Marcos, Mª Angeles; Mileto, Davide; Sauné, Karine; O'Shea, Siobhan; Pérez-Rivilla, Alfredo; Ramble, John; Trimoulet, Pascale; Vila, Jordi; Whittaker, Duncan; Artus, Alain; Rhodes, Daniel
Viral load monitoring is essential for patients under treatment for HIV. Beckman Coulter has developed the VERIS HIV-1 Assay for use on the novel, automated DxN VERIS Molecular Diagnostics System. ¥ OBJECTIVES: Evaluation of the clinical performance of the new quantitative VERIS HIV-1 Assay at multiple EU laboratories. Method comparison with the VERIS HIV-1 Assay was performed with 415 specimens at 5 sites tested with COBAS ® AmpliPrep/COBAS ® TaqMan ® HIV-1 Test, v2.0, 169 specimens at 3 sites tested with RealTime HIV-1 Assay, and 202 specimens from 2 sites tested with VERSANT HIV-1 Assay. Patient monitoring sample results from 4 sites were also compared. Bland-Altman analysis showed the average bias between VERIS HIV-1 Assay and COBAS HIV-1 Test, RealTime HIV-1 Assay, and VERSANT HIV-1 Assay to be 0.28, 0.39, and 0.61 log 10 cp/mL, respectively. Bias at low end levels below 1000cp/mL showed predicted bias to be HIV-1 Assay versus COBAS HIV-1 Test and RealTime HIV-1 Assay, and HIV-1 Assay. Analysis on 174 specimens tested with the 0.175mL volume VERIS HIV-1 Assay and COBAS HIV-1 Test showed average bias of 0.39 log 10 cp/mL. Patient monitoring results using VERIS HIV-1 Assay demonstrated similar viral load trends over time to all comparators. The VERIS HIV-1 Assay for use on the DxN VERIS System demonstrated comparable clinical performance to COBAS ® HIV-1 Test, RealTime HIV-1 Assay, and VERSANT HIV-1 Assay. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Geelen, Tanja H; Rossen, John W; Beerens, Antoine M; Poort, Linda; Morré, Servaas A; Ritmeester, Wilma S; van Kruchten, Harry E; van de Pas, Masja M; Savelkoul, Paul H M
A prospective, multicenter trial was designed to compare the performance characteristics of the cobas® 4800 (Roche Diagnostics, Indianapolis, IN, USA) and m2000 real-time™ (Abbott Molecular Inc., Des Plaines, IL, USA) assays for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG)
Albertini, Anne-Flore; Raoux, Delphine; Neumann, Frédéric; Rossat, Stéphane; Tabet, Farid; Pedeutour, Florence; Duranton-Tanneur, Valérie; Kubiniek, Valérie; Vire, Olivier; Weinbreck, Nicolas
In France, determination of the mutation status of RAS genes for predictive response to anti-EGFR targeted treatments is carried out by public platforms of molecular biology of cancer created by the French National Cancer Institute. This study aims to demonstrate the feasibility of these analyses by a private pathology laboratory (MEDIPATH) as per the requirements of accreditation. We retrospectively studied the mutation status of KRAS and NRAS genes in 163 cases of colorectal metastatic cancer using the Cobas ® technique. We compared our results to those prospectively obtained through pyrosequencing and allelic discrimination by the genetic laboratory of solid tumors at the Nice University Hospital (PACA-EST regional platform). The results of both series were identical: 98.7% positive correlation; negative correlation of 93.1%; overall correlation of 95.7% (Kappa=0.92). This study demonstrates the feasibility of molecular analysis in a private pathology laboratory. As this practice requires a high level of guarantee, its accreditation, according to the NF-EN-ISO15189 quality compliance French standard, is essential. Conducting molecular analysis in this context avoids the steps of routing the sample and the result between the pathology laboratory and the platform, which reduces the overall time of rendering the result. In conclusion, the transfer of some analysis from these platforms to private pathology laboratories would allow the platforms to be discharged from a part of routine testing and therefore concentrate their efforts to the development of new analyses constantly required to access personalized medicine. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.
Wu, Xiaobin; Chao, Yan; Wan, Zemin; Wang, Yunxiu; Ma, Yan; Ke, Peifeng; Wu, Xinzhong; Xu, Jianhua; Zhuang, Junhua; Huang, Xianzhang
Haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) is widely used in the management of diabetes. Therefore, the reliability and comparability among different analytical methods for its detection have become very important. A comparative evaluation of the analytical performances (precision, linearity, accuracy, method comparison, and interferences including bilirubin, triglyceride, cholesterol, labile HbA1c (LA1c), vitamin C, aspirin, fetal haemoglobin (HbF), and haemoglobin E (Hb E)) were performed on Capillarys 2 Flex Piercing (Capillarys 2FP) (Sebia, France), Tosoh HLC-723 G8 (Tosoh G8) (Tosoh, Japan), Premier Hb9210 (Trinity Biotech, Ireland) and Roche Cobas c501 (Roche c501) (Roche Diagnostics, Germany). A good precision was shown at both low and high HbA1c levels on all four systems, with all individual CVs below 2% (IFCC units) or 1.5% (NGSP units). Linearity analysis for each analyzer had achieved a good correlation coefficient (R2 > 0.99) over the entire range tested. The analytical bias of the four systems against the IFCC targets was less than ± 6% (NGSP units), indicating a good accuracy. Method comparison showed a great correlation and agreement between methods. Very high levels of triglycerides and cholesterol (≥ 15.28 and ≥ 8.72 mmol/L, respectively) led to falsely low HbA1c concentrations on Roche c501. Elevated HbF induced false HbA1c detection on Capillarys 2FP (> 10%), Tosoh G8 (> 30%), Premier Hb9210 (> 15%), and Roche c501 (> 5%). On Tosoh G8, HbE induced an extra peak on chromatogram, and significantly lower results were reported. The four HbA1c methods commonly used with commercial analyzers showed a good reliability and comparability, although some interference may falsely alter the result.
Surapan Khunamornpong; Jongkolnee Settakorn; Kornkanok Sukpan; Suree Lekawanvijit; Narisara Katruang; Sumalee Siriaunkgul
Objective. To evaluate the performance of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing in urine samples compared to that of cervical sample testing in Northern Thailand. Methods. Paired urine and cervical samples were collected during the follow-up of women with a previous positive HPV test. HPV testing was performed using the Cobas 4800 HPV Test. Linear Array assay was used for genotyping in selected cases. Results. Paired urine and cervical samples were obtained from 168 women. Of 123 p...
Oladokun, R; Korsman, S; Ndabambi, N; Hsiao, N; Hans, L; Williamson, C; Abrahams, M-R; Eley, B
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing is the gold standard for determining the HIV status in children HIV-exposed boy referred to our hospital after he had been admitted several times for infectious diseases. A rapid antibody test on the child was positive, while routine diagnostic HIV PCRs using the Roche COBAS Ampliprep/COBAS TaqMan HIV Qual Test were negative at 6 weeks, 6 months, 7 months and 15 months. In addition, the same PCR test performed on the HIV-infected mother was also negative. Alternative PCR and viral load assays using different primer sets detected HIV RNA or proviral DNA in both child and mother. Gag sequences from the child and his mother classified both infections as HIV-1 subtype C, with very rare mutations that may have resulted in PCR assay primer/probe mismatch. Consequently, the child was commenced on antiretroviral therapy and made a remarkable recovery. These findings indicate that more reliable PCR assays capable of detecting a wide range of HIV subtypes are desirable to circumvent the clinical problems created by false-negative PCR results.
Stoler, Mark H; Wright, Thomas C; Sharma, Abha; Apple, Raymond; Gutekunst, Karen; Wright, Teresa L
This study evaluated the clinical performance of the cobas 4800 HPV Test (Roche Molecular Systems, Pleasanton, CA) for high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) testing with individual HPV-16/HPV-18 genotyping in women 21 years or older with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US). Women (N = 47,208) were recruited in the United States during routine screening, and liquid-based cytology and HPV testing were performed. The ASC-US prevalence was 4.1% (1,923/47,208), and 1,578 women underwent colposcopy with valid results. The cobas 4800 HPV Test demonstrated performance comparable to the Hybrid Capture 2 test (QIAGEN, Gaithersburg, MD) for the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 2 or worse and grade 3 or worse. HPV-16/HPV-18+ women had a greater absolute risk of CIN 2 or worse compared with pooled HR-HPV+ and HR-HPV- women (24.4%, 14.0%, and 0.8%, respectively). The cobas 4800 HPV Test is clinically validated for ASC-US triage. HPV-16/HPV-18 genotyping can identify women at highest risk for high-grade cervical disease, and this additional risk stratification may be used in formulating patient management decisions.
Masika, Likhona Siphe; Zhao, Zhen; Soldin, Steven John
Thyroid dysfunction is a common medical condition affecting an estimated 30 million people in the US alone. Employing gold standard Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MSMS) methods we have examined the extent of inaccuracy of immunoassay (IA) measurement for total T3 (TT3) at low, normal and high concentrations. 268 TT3 Roche Cobas 6000 immunoassay TT3 values (covering the low, normal, and high ranges) were compared with LC-MSMS results. At TT3 concentrations between 50 and 113ng/dL (conversion factor for TT3 to SI Units is ng/dL×0.0154=nmol/L), n=122, LC-MSMS values were lower than immunoassay with 72% found to be below the 2.5th percentile by LC-MSMS compared to 27% for immunoassay. Strikingly 45% of the patients classified as normal TT3 by immunoassay were defined as lower than the 2.5th percentile by LC-MSMS. Only 38 of the 122 patients with low T3's were not receiving T4. In this latter group all of whom had TSH's>3.7mIU/L, 74% of results by LC-MSMS were below the 2.5th percentile while only 21% were below the 2.5th percentile by IA. The clinical consequences of these inaccuracies may affect whether dosing with T4 or combination of T4 with T3 is selected for treatment. Finally the correlation of TT3 with TSH was far superior when TT3 was measured by LC-MSMS. A typical case which demonstrates our message is included. T3 being the active hormone needs to be reliably measured and if the patient has low TT3 and hypothyroid symptoms persist; treatment with T3 should be considered. A typical case report is included to illustrate the problems of inaccurate immunoassay results for TT3. Measurement of TT3 by immunoassay at low concentrations is less than optimal and often provides the clinician with a normal result when the LC-MSMS method and the patient's clinical condition suggests that supplementation with T3 (as in combination therapy) may be required to optimize patient care. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Vafaie, Mehrshad; Biener, Moritz; Mueller, Matthias; Abu Sharar, Haitham; Hartmann, Oliver; Hertel, Sabine; Katus, Hugo A; Giannitsis, Evangelos
Point of care testing (POCT) assays for cardiac troponin (cTn) are hampered by lower analytical sensitivity and thus suboptimal rule-out of myocardial infarction (MI). We investigated, whether additional measurement of copeptin using an ultrasensitive assay improves diagnostic performance of POCT for cTn T compared to a high sensitivity troponin T (hsTnT) assay. 131 patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome were prospectively enrolled in our center 08/2010 to 11/2011. In blood samples obtained at presentation, ultrasensitive copeptin (Kryptor, BRAHMS) and two commercially available POCT assays, AQT90 Flex Radiometer (Radiometer) and Cobas h232 POC-System (Cobas), were tested. HsTnT (Cobas E411, Roche) at baseline and after 3 and 6h in the central laboratory served as reference. Copeptin improved rule-out of non-STEMI combined with all tested troponin assays. Addition of copeptin increased sensitivity of Cobas from 67.9% (95% CI: 0.506; 0.852) to 89.3% (95% CI: 0.778; 1.007) and Radiometer from 71.4% (95% CI: 0.547; 0.882) to 85.7% (95% CI: 0.728; 0.987), achieving the sensitivity of hsTnT alone at admission of 85.7% (95% CI: 0.728; 0.987). The area under the curve (AUC) of Radiometer (0.822) was numerically but insignificantly (p=0.17) higher than AUC of Cobas (0.725). Addition of copeptin increased AUC of Radiometer to 0.826 (p=0.96) and AUC of Cobas to 0.814 (p=0.20). Additional use of ultrasensitive copeptin improves diagnostic performance of conventional sensitive POCT assays overcoming lower sensitivities at the cost of a drop of clinical specificity. When hsTn is temporarily unavailable, copeptin and POCT for cTn may allow initial evaluation at a comparable performance as hsTnT at admission. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers.......Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers....
Saadé, C; Wüst, T
The aim of the continuous development of anti-HIV-ELISA tests is the improvement of their specificity and sensitivity. With this study the precision and the specificity of the Cobas Core Anti-HIV-1/HIV-2 DAGS, a 3rd-generation anti-HIV assay, were evaluated. 1,557 frozen and 1,654 fresh sera from blood donors were tested with the Cobas Core Anti-HIV-1/HIV-2 DAGS (Roche Diagnostic Systems, Basel, Switzerland) and the Abbott Recombinant HIV-1/HIV-2 3rd Generation EIA (Abbott GmbH Diagnostika, Wiesbaden, Germany), which was used as a reference assay. Positive sera were tested with a Westernblot. 34 sera, previously not negative in the Abbott test, were retested with the two anti-HIV assays and with a Westernblot. The intra- and inter-assay precision was evaluated with the positive and negative controls of the test kits and with control sera. The intra- and inter-assay precision of the Roche test was very good. The specificity of the Roche test is 99.91%. Out of 3,211 tested sera those of three blood donors were false positive in the Roche test and one sample false positive in the Abbott test. The precision and specificity of the new anti-HIV test fulfil the demands of transfusion medicine.
Blanco, Sebastián; Balangero, Marcos César; Valle, Mildre Cledy; Montini, Oscar Luis; Carrizo, Luis Horacio; Gallego, Sandra Verónica
Results from 10-year experience using nucleic acid test (NAT) screening in a blood bank of Córdoba are presented, showing the first data on prevalence of recent hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections and occult HBV infections (OBIs) in Argentina. Molecular screening was performed by COBAS AmpliScreen human immunodeficiency virus Type 1 (HIV-1) test Version 1.5 and COBAS AmpliScreen hepatitis C virus (HCV) test Version 2.0 and COBAS TaqScreen MPX and MPX Version 2.0 test (Roche Molecular Systems). To characterize OBI, additional molecular and serologic assays were performed. As results of NAT, 0.075% of the donors (155/205,388) tested positive for HIV, 0.05% (106/205,388) for HCV, and 0.045% (76/168,215) for HBV. Donors who tested positive for HIV or HCV by NAT were also positive by serology. There was one of 33,643 donors recently infected with HBV. At time of donation, six of 76 (7.9%) donors with confirmed HBV infection presented virologic and serologic profiles consistent with OBI. By additional studies three were OBI, two were window period infections, and one remained unclassified. NAT contributed significantly to the reduction of the potential risk of HBV transmission with a frequency of one in 56,072, detecting three in 168,215 donors without serologic evidence of infection. NAT also detected three in 168,215 OBIs. The finding of high frequency of recent infections (1/33,643), unexpected for this country, highlights the need of promoting unified effective regulations that enforce the use of NAT in all blood banks in Argentina and points out the importance of assessing the risk of HBV transmission in blood banks of other countries considered to be low-endemic. © 2016 AABB.
Stoler, Mark H; Wright, Thomas C; Sharma, Abha; Zhang, Guili; Apple, Raymond; Wright, Teresa L; Behrens, Catherine M
We have previously shown that human papillomavirus (HPV) genotyping, using the cobas HPV Test (Roche Molecular Systems, Pleasanton, CA), can be used to identify women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) at the highest risk for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 2 or worse. We investigated the impact of age stratification on the risk of CIN 2 or worse in women with ASC-US and the performance of HPV genotyping in different age strata. The sensitivity of the cobas HPV Test was 93.3% in the 21- to 29-year-old age group and 67.7% in the 40 years or older group, most likely owing to pathologic misclassification of CIN 2 or worse in older women. The prevalence of CIN 2 or worse in younger women was nearly 4-fold that detected in older women and was predominantly HPV-16-related. Age-specific evaluation of ASC-US cytology in conjunction with HPV genotype status enables more effective risk assessment and could be used in clinical management.
Decavele, An-Sofie C; Fiers, Tom; Penders, Joris; Delanghe, Joris R
Chronic kidney disease is a major health problem and the global guidelines require screening of albuminuria. Therefore, affordable and sensitive albuminuria screening tests are needed. We explored the potential of urine strips, generally reported in the ordinal scale, measured on an automatic strip reader for reporting quantitative and sensitive albumin results. We compared reflectance data of Combur-Test® strips obtained from the Cobas U411 reader (Roche) with albuminuria data from a nephelometer BNII (Siemens) and with protein concentrations from the pyrogallol red method (Modular P, Roche) for 389/328 non-pathologic and pathologic urine samples, respectively. Imprecision of the reflectance signal of the Cobas U411 was measured with commercial control material (Bio-Rad). Inter-run coefficients of variations (CVs) for reflectance for levels 1 and 2 were 1.7%/4.9%, respectively, and intra-run CVs were 1.8%/4.2%, respectively. Good agreement was obtained between the albumin concentration of the BNII and the protein strip reflectance data (n=389): Y (10,000/protein reflectance, 1/%)=160+0.132·X (albuminuria BNII, mg/L)-0.0000111·X2 (albuminuria BNII, mg/L); r2=0.921. Lower agreement was found between the protein assay (n=328) and the reflectance (r2=0.831). A calibration curve was made between 11.5 mg/L and 121.5 mg/L. The limit of blank (LOB) was 44.7 mg/L. The present study demonstrates that reflectance data generated by a test strip reader allows for quantitative analysis of albumin. Although the lower limit of the microalbumin range (30 mg/L) cannot be achieved with the dye-binding method, the results are satisfactory for screening purposes.
Ottiger, Cornelia; Gygli, Nicole; Huber, Andreas R
hepatitis C infections are detected by anti-HCV screening tests. Reactive anti-HCV results give no information about the presence or absence of hepatitis C viruses, or of unspecific reactivity. To obtain information about the viral load, HCV RNA measurements, following a reactive anti-HCV result, are performed in well equipped and specialised laboratories. Anti-HCV immunoblots are the only means to exclude non specific reactivity. The measurement of HCV core antigen (HCV-Ag), as an alternative to HCV RNA, is discussed, as it can be analysed on the same instrument as anti-HCV. The detection limit of HCV-Ag is crucial to use it in lieu of HCV RNA, in regard of the different genotypes. A renewed algorithm is proposed to exclude unspecific reactivity of anti-HCV. Samples were tested on Architect i2000SR (Abbott) for anti-HCV and HCV-Ag. HCV RNA measurements were obtained by Cobas Ampliprep/Taqman (Roche) or m2000rt(®) (Abbott). Comparison between HCV-Ag and HCV RNA from 126 samples of 101 patients with chronic hepatitis C gave linear regression R(2) 0.89, slope 0.885 and intercept -2.258, which were independent of the genotypes. The detection limit of HCV-Ag was between 2.4 and 4.5 Log(10)IU/mL. A renewed algorithm for confirmation of reactive anti-HCV results is proposed: active or resolved hepatitis C infections or false reactivity can be differentiated by sequenced reflex testing due to HCV-Ag, anti-HCV immunoblot and HCV RNA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Introduction: HIV-1 viral escape in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF despite viral suppression in plasma is rare [1,2]. We describe the case of a 50-year-old HIV-1 infected patient who was diagnosed with HIV-1 in 1995. Antiretroviral therapy (ART was started in 1998 with a CD4 T cell count of 71 cells/ìL and HIV-viremia of 46,000 copies/mL. ART with zidovudine (AZT, lamivudine (3TC and efavirenz achieved full viral suppression. After the patient had interrupted ART for two years, treatment was re-introduced with tenofovir (TDF, emtricitabin (FTC and ritonavir boosted atazanavir (ATVr. This regimen suppressed HIV-1 in plasma for nine years and CD4 cells stabilized around 600 cells/ìL. Since July 2013, the patient complained about severe gait ataxia and decreased concentration. Materials and Methods: Additionally to a neurological examination, two lumbar punctures, a cerebral MRI and a neuropsycological test were performed. HIV-1 viral load in plasma and in CSF was quantified using Cobas TaqMan HIV-1 version 2.0 (Cobas Ampliprep, Roche diagnostic, Basel, Switzerland with a detection limit of 20 copies/mL. Drug resistance mutations in HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and protease were evaluated using bulk sequencing. Results: The CSF in January 2014 showed a pleocytosis with 75 cells/ìL (100% mononuclear and 1,184 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL, while HIV-1 in plasma was below 20 copies/mL. The resistance testing of the CSF-HIV-1 RNA showed two NRTI resistance-associated mutations (M184V and K65R and one NNRTI resistance-associated mutation (K103N. The cerebral MRI showed increased signal on T2-weighted images in the subcortical and periventricular white matter, in the basal ganglia and thalamus. Four months after ART intensification with AZT, 3TC, boosted darunavir and raltegravir, the pleocytosis in CSF cell count normalized to 1 cell/ìL and HIV viral load was suppressed. The neurological symptoms improved; however, equilibrium disturbances and impaired memory
Taieb, Fabien; Tram, Tran Hong; Ho, Hien Thi; Pham, Van Anh; Nguyen, Lan; Pham, Ban Hien; Tong, Linh An; Tuaillon, Edouard; Delaporte, Eric; Nguyen, Anh Tuan; Bui, Duc Duong; Do, NhanThi; Madec, Yoann
Background. Although it is the best method to detect early therapeutic failure, viral load (VL) monitoring is still not widely available in many resource-limited settings because of difficulties in specimen transfer, personnel shortage, and insufficient laboratory infrastructures. Dried blood spot (DBS) use, which was introduced in the latest World Health Organization recommendations, can overcome these difficulties. This evaluation aimed at validating VL measurement in DBS, in a laboratory without previous DBS experience and in routine testing conditions. Methods. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults were observed in a HIV care site in Hanoi, and each patient provided 2 DBS cards with whole blood spots and 2 plasma samples. Viral load was measured in DBS and in plasma using the COBAS Ampliprep/TaqMan and the Abbott RealTime assays. To correctly identify those with VL ≥ 1000 copies/mL, sensitivity and specificity were estimated. Results. A total of 198 patients were enrolled. With the Roche technique, 51 plasma VL were ≥1000 copies/mL; among these, 28 presented a VL in DBS that was also ≥1000 copies/mL (sensitivity, 54.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 40.3-68.9). On the other hand, all plasma VL < 1000 copies/mL were also <1000 copies/mL in DBS (specificity, 100; 95% CI, 97.5-100). With the Abbott technique, 45 plasma VL were ≥1000 copies/mL; among these, 42 VL in DBS were also ≥1000 copies/mL (sensitivity, 93.3%; 95% CI, 81.7-98.6); specificity was 94.8 (95% CI, 90.0-97.7). Conclusions. The Abbott RealTime polymerase chain reaction assay provided adequate VL results in DBS, thus allowing DBS use for VL monitoring.
Chang, Joy; Tarasova, Tetyana; Shanmugam, Vedapuri; Azarskova, Marianna; Nguyen, Shon; Hurlston, Mackenzie; Sabatier, Jennifer; Zhang, Guoqing; Osmanov, Saladin; Ellenberger, Dennis; Yang, Chunfu; Vitek, Charles; Liulchuk, Maria; Nizova, Natalya
An accurate accessible test for early infant diagnosis (EID) is crucial for identifying HIV-infected infants and linking them to treatment. To improve EID services in Ukraine, dried blood spot (DBS) samples obtained from 237 HIV-exposed children (≤18 months of age) in six regions in Ukraine in 2012 to 2013 were tested with the AmpliSens DNA-HIV-FRT assay, the Roche COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan (CAP/CTM) HIV-1 Qual test, and the Abbott RealTime HIV-1 Qualitative assay. In comparison with the paired whole-blood results generated from AmpliSens testing at the oblast HIV reference laboratories in Ukraine, the sensitivity was 0.99 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.95 to 1.00) for the AmpliSens and Roche CAP/CTM Qual assays and 0.96 (95% CI, 0.90 to 0.98) for the Abbott Qualitative assay. The specificity was 1.00 (95% CI, 0.97 to 1.00) for the AmpliSens and Abbott Qualitative assays and 0.99 (95% CI, 0.96 to 1.00) for the Roche CAP/CTM Qual assay. McNemar analysis indicated that the proportions of positive results for the tests were not significantly different (P > 0.05). Cohen's kappa (0.97 to 0.99) indicated almost perfect agreement among the three tests. These results indicated that the AmpliSens DBS and whole-blood tests performed equally well and were comparable to the two commercially available EID tests. More importantly, the performance characteristics of the AmpliSens DBS test meets the World Health Organization EID test requirements; implementing AmpliSens DBS testing might improve EID services in resource-limited settings. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
Mahieu, Ludo; Marien, Annick; De Dooy, Jozef; Mahieu, Margo; Mahieu, Hanne; Van Hoof, Viviane
Blood sampling for laboratory testing is a major cause of iatrogenic blood loss and anemia in neonatal intensive care unit [NICU] patients. The objective of the study was to assess whether the implementation of a multi-parameter Point of Care Test [POCT] (Roche, Cobas b221) analyzer affected blood loss for central laboratory testing and need for red blood cell transfusion in our NICU. This was a retrospective observational cohort study in a NICU with comparison of two serial cohorts of 2 years each. Implementation of a multi-parameter POCT decreased central laboratory performed testing for bilirubin (-32% per patient) and electrolytes (-36% per patient). On average, the net blood volume taken per admitted patient for electrolyte testing decreased with 23.7% and 22.2% for bilirubin testing in the second cohort. After implementation of POCT, fewer very low birth weight infants [VLBWI] required blood transfusion (38.9% vs. 50%, pparameter POCT analyzer decreases transfusions among VLBWI by reducing iatrogenic blood loss for central laboratory testing. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Full Text Available Abstrak Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengembangkan produk tes diagnostik berbasis mobile phone yang layak digunakan untuk mengidentifikasi pemahaman konsep siswa pada materi suhu. Dalam penelitian ini terdapat tiga tahap. Tiga tahap ini antara lain uji coba skala terbatas, uji coba skala luas, dan implementasi. Hasil validasi dari kelayakan produk dilakukan oleh pakar instrumen tes, pakar media, dan angket tanggapan siswa, menunjukkan m-diagnostic test yang dikembangkan oleh penelitian dinyatakan layak untuk digunakan karena telah memenuhi aspek kelayakan isi, bahasa, konstruk, rekayasa perangkat lunak, dan komunikasi visual. Hasil tes diagnostik pada tahap implementasi menunjukkan ada 6 siswa dari 18 siswa yang memenuhi aspek ketuntasan minimal.Hasil persentase tingkat pemahaman siswa yang termasuk dalam kriteria relational understanding pada tiap indikator ialah 50% relational understanding untuk indikator 1 (mengetahui definisi suhu dan kalor, 55% relational understanding untuk indikator 2 (memahami skala suhu pada termometer. Hasil dari penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa m-diagnostic test telah layak digunakan untuk mendiagnosis tingkat pemahaman konsep siswa. Kata kunci: m-diagnostic test, pemahaman konsep, suhu. Abstract The purpose of this research was develop a mobile phone diagnostic test product which use to identify student’s concept understanding in the temperature and heat material. This result indicated the level of student’s concept understanding in the temperature and heat material. This research have three steps for trial product. The steps were limited-scale, wide-scale, and implementation. The validation result by proffesional of instrument test, proffesional of media, and the questionnaire responses of students has been showed that the m-diagnostic test worthy to used because the product has fulfilled contents aspect, language aspect, construct aspect, software technology aspect, and visual communication aspect. The
Stellrecht, Kathleen A; Nattanmai, Seela M; Butt, Jumshan; Maceira, Vincente P; Espino, Alvin A; Castro, Allan J; Landes, Allen; Dresser, Nicolas; Butt, Shafiq A
Nucleic acid amplification assays have become the method of choice for influenza (Flu) testing due to superior accuracy and faster turnaround time. Although assays are designed to detect highly conserved genomic targets, mutations can influence test sensitivity. Most of the circulating viruses in the United States during the 2014-2015 season were associated with significant genetic drift; however, the effect on testing was unknown. We compared the performance of Prodesse ProFlu+/ProFAST+ (PFlu/PFAST), FilmArray Respiratory Panel (RP), cobas(®) Influenza A/B test (cIAB), and Xpert(®) Flu (Xpt) in a retrospective analysis of consecutive nasopharyngeal specimens received for a two-week period during the winter of 2015. Furthermore, limits of detection (LOD) were determined with six isolates of Flu. Of the 275 specimens, 63 were positive for FluA by PFAST, 60 were positive by RP, 58 were positive by cIAB and 52 were positive by Xpt. Only a subset of 135 specimens was tested by PFlu, of which 32 were positive. The sensitivity/specificity for PFAST, RP, cIAB, Xpt and PFlu was 100/99.1%, 96.7/99.5%, 91.8/99.1%, 85.2%/100%, and 75.6%/98.9%, respectively. LOD analyses demonstrated assay performance variations were strain associated. Specifically, PFlu's and cIAB's LODs were higher with A/Texas/50/2012-like and A/Switzerland/9715293/2013-like strains, while Xpt's highest LOD was with the Swiss strain. Strain-associated assay performance variation is known to occur with other Flu test methods; hence, it is not surprising that such variation would be observed with molecular tests. Careful monitoring and reporting for strain-associated variances are warranted for all test methods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
White, Kirsten; Garner, Will; Wei, Lilian; Eron, Joseph J; Zhong, Lijie; Miller, Michael D; Martin, Hal; Plummer, Andrew; Tran-Muchowski, Cecilia; Lindstrom, Kim; Porter, James; Piontkowsky, David; Light, Angela; Reiske, Heinz; Quirk, Erin
Assess the performance of HIV-1 RNA repeat testing of stored samples in cases of low-level viremia during clinical trials. Prospective and retrospective analysis of randomized clinical trial samples and reference standards. To evaluate assay variability of the Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan HIV-1 Test, v2.0, three separate sources of samples were utilized: the World Health Organization (WHO) HIV reference standard (assayed using 50 independent measurements at six viral loads <200 copies/ml), retrospective analysis of four to six aliquots of plasma samples from four clinical trial participants, and prospective repeat testing of 120 samples from participants in randomized trials with low-level viremia. The TaqMan assay on the WHO HIV-1 RNA standards at viral loads <200 copies/ml performed within the expected variability according to assay specifications. However, standards with low viral loads of 36 and 18 copies/ml reported values of at least 50 copies/ml in 66 and 18% of tests, respectively. In participants treated with antiretrovirals who had unexpected viremia of 50-200 copies/ml after achieving <50 copies/ml, retesting of multiple aliquots of stored plasma found <50 copies/ml in nearly all cases upon retesting (14/15; 93%). Repeat testing was prospectively implemented in four clinical trials for all samples with virologic rebound of 50-200 copies/ml (n = 120 samples from 92 participants) from which 42% (50/120) had a retest result of less than 50 copies/ml and 58% (70/120) retested at least 50 copies/ml. The TaqMan HIV-1 RNA assay shows variability around 50 copies/ml that affects clinical trial results and may impact clinical practice. In participants with a history of viral load suppression, unexpected low-level viremia may be because of assay variability rather than low-drug adherence or true virologic failure. Retesting a stored aliquot of the same sample may differentiate between assay variability and virologic failure as the source
Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 genetic diversity poses a challenge to reliable viral load monitoring. Discrepancies between different testing platforms have been observed, especially for non-clade-B virus. Therefore we compare, in antiretroviral therapy (ART-naïve South African subjects predominantly infected with HIV-1 clade-C, three commercially available assays: the COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan HIV-1 Test version 2.0 by Roche (CAP/CTM v2.0, the BioMérieux NucliSens Version 2.0 Easy Q/Easy Mag (NucliSens v2.0 and the Roche COBAS Amplicor HIV-1 Monitor Test Version 1.5 (Amplicor v1.5. Strong linear correlation was observed and Bland-Altman analyses showed overall good agreement between the assays with mean viral load differences of 0.078 log cp/ml (NucliSens v2.0 - Amplicor v1.5, 0.260 log cp/ml (CAP/CTM v2.0 - Amplicor v1.5 and 0.164 log cp/ml (CAP/CTM v2.0 - NucliSens v2.0, indicating lower mean viral load results for the Amplicor v1.5 and higher mean readings for the CAP/CTM v2.0. Consistent with observations following previous comparisons of CAP/CTM v2.0 versus Amplicor v1.5, the CAP/CTM v2.0 assay detected low-level viremia (median 65 cp/ml in more than one-third of those in whom viremia had been undetectable (<20 cp/ml in assays using the NucliSens platform. These levels of viremia are of uncertain clinical significance but may be of importance in early detection of ART resistance in those on treatment. Overall the three assays showed good comparability of results but with consistent, albeit relatively small, discrepancies for HIV-1 clade-C samples, especially in the low-viremic range that should be taken into account when interpreting viral load data.
Lippi, Giuseppe; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Lima-Oliveira, Gabriel; Brocco, Giorgio; Danese, Elisa; Guidi, Gian Cesare
To investigate the influence of different phlebotomy postures on clinical chemistry testing. Nineteen volunteers were recruited from the laboratory staff. A first set of samples was drawn after 25 min of resting in supine position, a second after 20 min in sitting position, and a third after 20 min in upright position. Clinical chemistry testing was performed on Roche Cobas C501. The plasma volume change (PVC) was -3.4% from supine to sitting, -14.1% from supine to standing and -9.7% from sitting to standing. Compared to quality specifications for bias, hemoglobin, hematocrit, albumin and total proteins exhibited meaningful increases from supine to sitting, whereas meaningful increases were observed for hemoglobin, hematocrit, albumin, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), amylase, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total bilirubin, calcium, total and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), glucose, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), magnesium, total protein and triglycerides from sitting to standing. The parameters with meaningful bias from sitting to upright were hemoglobin, hematocrit, albumin, ALP, total bilirubin, calcium, total and HDL cholesterol, glucose, LDH and total protein. These results provide further support to the need of standardizing patient's posture during phlebotomy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Iwata, Takashi; Hasegawa, Toshihiko; Ochiai, Kazunori; Takizawa, Ken; Umezawa, Satoshi; Kuramoto, Hiroyuki; Ohmura, Mineo; Kubushiro, Kaneyuki; Arai, Hiroharu; Sakamoto, Masaru; Motoyama, Teiichi; Watanabe, Kayoko; Aoki, Daisuke
We evaluated high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) DNA testing for high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) lesions by cobas HPV test and diagnostic HPV16/18 genotyping in Japanese women with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions. Of 357 patients, HR-HPV positivity prevalence was 75.6%, and 21.3% had grade 2 or higher CIN lesions (CIN2+), with the highest prevalence at 30 to 34 years. Negative predictive values of HR-HPV for CIN2+ in our patients were 93.1% (any age) and 94.9% (40-50 years). Absolute risk for CIN2+ in HR-HPV positive and HPV16/18 positive individuals was 25.9 and 35.1, respectively. Relative risk for CIN2+ lesions was 5.1 for HPV16/18 positive versus HR-HPV negative, and 3.8 for HR-HPV positive versus HR-HPV negative women. Predictive values of CIN2+ positive were higher for HPV16/18 positive women (any age) than 12 other HPV positive-genotypes, and highest (50%) at 40-50 years. The HPV16/18 genotyping might prevent women (>40 years) at risk of high-grade CIN lesions from undergoing unnecessary colposcopy/overtreatment of nonprogressive lesions. © The Author(s) 2015.
Castle, Philip E; Stoler, Mark H; Wright, Thomas C; Sharma, Abha; Wright, Teresa L; Behrens, Catherine M
The ATHENA study was designed to assess the performance of carcinogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) testing and HPV16 or HPV18 genotyping compared with liquid-based cytology for cervical cancer screening in a large US population aged 21 years and older. We did a subanalysis of this population to compare the screening performance of the cobas HPV test versus liquid-based cytology in women aged 25 years and older, and assess management strategies for HPV-positive women. Women aged 25 years or older who were attending routine cervical screening were enrolled from 61 clinical centres in 23 US states. Cervical specimens were obtained for liquid-based cytology and HPV DNA testing with two first-generation assays (Amplicor HPV test and Linear Array HPV genotyping test) and the second-generation cobas HPV test (with individual HPV16 and HPV18 detection). Colposcopy and diagnostic biopsies were done on women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) or worse cytology, those who tested positive with either first-generation HPV test, and a random sample of women who tested negative for HPV and cytology. All women not selected for colposcopy received their results and exited the study. Participants and colposcopists were masked to cytology and HPV test results until the colposcopy visit was completed. The primary endpoint for this substudy was histologically confirmed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3) or worse. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00709891; the study is in the follow-up phase, which is due to be completed in December, 2012. From May 27, 2008, to Aug 27, 2009, 47,208 women were enrolled, of whom 41,955 met our eligibility criteria. Valid cobas HPV and liquid-based cytology test results were available for 40,901 women (97%), who were included in this analysis. Of these, 4275 women (10%) tested cobas HPV positive and 2617 (6%) had abnormal cytology. 431 women were diagnosed with CIN2 or worse and 274
Fulcher, Glenn; Davidson, Fred
Just like buildings, tests are designed and built for specific purposes, people, and uses. However, both buildings and tests grow and change over time as the needs of their users change. Sometimes, they are also both used for purposes other than those intended in the original designs. This paper explores architecture as a metaphor for language…
Eliza Merina dkk
Abstrak. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan tujuan untuk mengembangkan sebuah perangkat tes kognitif yang valid dan reliabel untuk pengukuran kompetensi profesional calon-calon guru SMK Keahlian NKPI melalui prosedur yang benar. Metode penelitian yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah riset dan pengembangan. Prosedur yang dilalui dalam penelitan ini yaitu : identifikasi tujuan pengukuran, pengembangan spesifikasi tes, penulisan butir soal, penelaahan butir tes (uji validitas, uji coba tes 1, analisa butir tes 1, uji reliabilitas, uji coba tes 2, analisa butir tes 2, dan perakitan bentuk akhir tes. Pada awal pembuatan spesifikasi tes dan penulisan butir, jumlah butir yang dikembangkan berjumlah 65 butir tes. Seiring proses pengembangan tes dilakukan, jumlah butir tes mengalami degradasi (penurunan. Setelah melalui tahap telaah butir (uji validitas yang dilakukan oleh 3 orang ahli di bidang NKPI, butir tes mengalami pengurangan 5 butir tes sehingga tersisa 60 butir tes untuk dirakit menjadi perangkat tes uji coba 1. Setelah uji coba 1 dilakukan dilanjutkan dengan analisis butir 1 yang dilakukan sesuai teori ujian klasik yang terdiri dari tingkat kesukaran, daya diskriminasi butir, dan efektivitas distraktor. Dari analisis tersebut, jumlah butir soal pun mengalami pengurangan hingga tersisa 29 butir tes untuk dirakit menjadi perangkat tes uji coba 2. Dari hasil uji coba 1 pun dilakukan uji reliabilitas menggunakan pendekatan konsistensi internal (internal consistency yaitu dengan perhitungan reliabilitas Kuder Richardson (KR20. Diperoleh nilai koefisien reliabilitas sebesar 0,71 yang menunjukkan bahwa perangkat tes tergolong reliabel. Uji coba 2 dilakukan dan diteruskan dengan analisa butir 2, kembali lagi butir soal mengalami pengurangan hingga tersisa 19 butir tes untuk dirakit menjadi perangkat tes bentuk akhir. Kata Kunci : pengembangan tes, pengukuran kompetensi, nautika kapal penangkaan ikan
Bachmann, Laura H; Johnson, Robert E; Cheng, Hong; Markowitz, Lauri E; Papp, John R; Hook, Edward W
The optimal methods for the diagnosis of pharyngeal Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection are uncertain. The objective of this study was to define the performance of culture and nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) for the diagnosis of pharyngeal N. gonorrhoeae. In this cross-sectional study, males and females >15 years old who acknowledged performing fellatio or cunnilingus (in the previous 2 months) were recruited from three clinics (two human immunodeficiency virus clinics and one sexually transmitted diseases clinic) located in Birmingham, AL. The test performance of culture for N. gonorrhoeae, the Gen-Probe Aptima Combo 2 transcription-mediated amplification assay (TMA), the BD ProbeTec ET amplified DNA strand displacement assay (SDA), and the Roche Cobas Amplicor PCR was defined by using a rotating "gold standard" of any positive results by two or three of the three tests that excluded the test being evaluated. A total of 961 evaluable test sets were collected. On the basis of a rotating gold standard of positive results by two of three comparator tests, the sensitivity and the specificity were as follows: culture for N. gonorrhoeae, 50.0% and 99.4%, respectively; PCR, 80.3% and 73.0%, respectively; TMA, 83.6% and 98.6%, respectively; and SDA, 93.2% and 96.3%, respectively. On the basis of a rotating gold standard of positive results by three of three comparator tests, the sensitivity and specificity were as follows: culture for N. gonorrhoeae, 65.4% and 99.0%, respectively; PCR, 91.9% and 71.8%, respectively; TMA, 100% and 96.2%, respectively; and SDA, 97.1% and 94.2%, respectively. In conclusion, currently available NAATs are more sensitive than culture for the detection of pharyngeal gonorrhea in at-risk patients. PCR is substantially less specific than culture, TMA, or SDA and should not be used for the detection of pharyngeal gonorrhea.
Bachmann, Laura H.; Johnson, Robert E.; Cheng, Hong; Markowitz, Lauri E.; Papp, John R.; Hook, Edward W.
The optimal methods for the diagnosis of pharyngeal Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection are uncertain. The objective of this study was to define the performance of culture and nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) for the diagnosis of pharyngeal N. gonorrhoeae. In this cross-sectional study, males and females >15 years old who acknowledged performing fellatio or cunnilingus (in the previous 2 months) were recruited from three clinics (two human immunodeficiency virus clinics and one sexually transmitted diseases clinic) located in Birmingham, AL. The test performance of culture for N. gonorrhoeae, the Gen-Probe Aptima Combo 2 transcription-mediated amplification assay (TMA), the BD ProbeTec ET amplified DNA strand displacement assay (SDA), and the Roche Cobas Amplicor PCR was defined by using a rotating “gold standard” of any positive results by two or three of the three tests that excluded the test being evaluated. A total of 961 evaluable test sets were collected. On the basis of a rotating gold standard of positive results by two of three comparator tests, the sensitivity and the specificity were as follows: culture for N. gonorrhoeae, 50.0% and 99.4%, respectively; PCR, 80.3% and 73.0%, respectively; TMA, 83.6% and 98.6%, respectively; and SDA, 93.2% and 96.3%, respectively. On the basis of a rotating gold standard of positive results by three of three comparator tests, the sensitivity and specificity were as follows: culture for N. gonorrhoeae, 65.4% and 99.0%, respectively; PCR, 91.9% and 71.8%, respectively; TMA, 100% and 96.2%, respectively; and SDA, 97.1% and 94.2%, respectively. In conclusion, currently available NAATs are more sensitive than culture for the detection of pharyngeal gonorrhea in at-risk patients. PCR is substantially less specific than culture, TMA, or SDA and should not be used for the detection of pharyngeal gonorrhea. PMID:19193848
Full Text Available Introduction: Due to discontinuation of the Siemens Versant HIV-1 RNA (bDNA assay in the UK, our laboratory switched to the Roche Cobas Ampliprep/Taqman HIV-1 viral load (VL assay (Roche in April 2013. This assay has a lower cut-off of 20 RNA copies/mL (compared with <50 for the Siemens assay. Our laboratory demonstrated previously that a significant proportion (18% of patients undetectable using bDNA HIV-1 RNA quantification exhibited low level viraemia (LLV using the new assay. Local guidelines recommend that patients stable on therapy receive twice-yearly VLs. We evaluated the impact of the introduction of the new assay on our clinical service. Methods: A retrospective cohort analysis of treated patients with stable undetectable VL by bDNA (<50 copies/mL followed by ≥ one low-level (<400 copies/mL VL with the Roche assay. Demographic data were collected in addition to frequency of VL testing and genotypic resistance assays. Referrals to virtual clinic (VC were recorded. Patients were identified using laboratory data and information collected from electronic patient records. Results were analyzed with SPSS v18. Results: One hundred and ninety patients were included. Demographics: 79.5% male; 60.6% homosexual; mean age of 46 years. Duration on stable treatment was 46.35 (std. dev. 38.15 months. Current treatment regimens were 43.3% PI-based; 43.3% NNRTI-based and 13.7% other. Patients were stratified into VL 20–49 copies/mL (n=109; VL 50–199 copies/mL (n=71 and VL 200–399 copies/mL (n=10. In total, there were 471 VLs measured of which 274 were additional as a result of the assay switch. This resulted in six HIV-1 genotype requests and 16 VC discussions (Table 1. Longer duration on HAART was associated with reduced frequency of VL testing. The relative risk of ongoing detectability according to drug class are: PI 1.62 (95% CI 1.18–2.21; NNRTI 0.507 (95% CI 0.30–0.85 and other 1.09 (95% CI 0.48–2.43. Conclusions: Changes in assay
Full Text Available Reproductive tract infection (RTIs/sexually transmitted infections (STIs are recognized as a major public health problem, particularly due to their relationship with HIV infection. Early detection and treatment of Chlamydia trachomatis infection (CTI among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women may impact heterosexual HIV transmission. A total of 120 participants were enrolled: 30 HIV seropositive women with symptoms of RTIs, 30 HIV seropositive women without symptoms of RTIs, 30 HIV seronegative women with symptoms of RTIs, and 30 HIV seronegative women without symptoms of RTIs. One endocervical swab was collected from all participants and CTI was detected by real-time PCR (COBAS TaqMan CT Test, v2.0. CTI was detected in 4 (6.67% HIV-infected women and in 1 (1.67% HIV-uninfected woman (OR 4.214; 95% CI 0.457–38.865. Vaginal discharge was present in almost half of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women; lower abdominal pain was present in 11 (18.3% of HIV-infected and in 9 (15% of HIV-uninfected women. This study showed that CTI is more prevalent among HIV-infected females as compared to HIV-uninfected females. As the use of real-time PCR is not feasible in most hospitals, efforts should be made to develop a simple, sensitive, and specific test to identify women with CTI for prevention of sequelae and HIV transmission.
Robins, Elliot; Huston, Ted L.
Most models of marital choice are attempts to explain choices within the field of available eligibles. The essence of compatibility testing is that people select their mates by evaluating the match between psychological characteristics after sorting the available field on the basis of social characteristics. A compatibility model seems to require…
Dwyer, Stephen F.
This test plan is a document that provides a systematic approach to the planned testing of rooftop structures to determine their actual load carrying capacity. This document identifies typical tests to be performed, the responsible parties for testing, the general feature of the tests, the testing approach, test deliverables, testing schedule, monitoring requirements, and environmental and safety compliance.
Oxyuriasis test; Enterobiasis test; Tape test ... diagnose this infection is to do a tape test. The best time to do this is in ... lay their eggs at night. Steps for the test are: Firmly press the sticky side of a ...
... you want to learn. Search form Search Predictive testing You are here Home Testing & Services Testing for ... you make the decision. What Is Predictive Genetic Testing Predictive genetic testing searches for genetic changes, or ...
... you want to learn. Search form Search Pharmacogenomic testing You are here Home Testing & Services Testing for ... to fit your genetic makeup What Is Pharmacogenomic Testing? Pharmacogenomic testing is done before your healthcare provider ...
... Heterophile Test Heterophile Antibody Test Monospot Formal Name Infectious Mononucleosis Rapid Test This article was last reviewed on ... Why Get Tested? To detect and help diagnose infectious mononucleosis (mono) When To Get Tested? When a person, ...
Acid hemolysin test; Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria - Ham test; PNH - Ham test ... BJ. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, eds. Laboratory Tests and Diagnostic Procedures . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...
Direct antiglobulin test; Indirect antiglobulin test; Anemia - hemolytic ... No special preparation is necessary for this test. ... There are 2 types of the Coombs test: Direct Indirect The direct ... that are stuck to the surface of red blood cells. Many diseases ...
... Genetic Tests for Targeted Cancer Therapy Glucose Tests Gonorrhea Testing Gram Stain Growth Hormone Haptoglobin hCG Pregnancy ... With some NAATs, samples collected for testing of gonorrhea and chlamydial infections can also be used to ...
... Urinary Tract Imaging Urodynamic Testing Virtual Colonoscopy Urodynamic Testing What is the urinary tract? The urinary tract ... view of the urinary tract What is urodynamic testing? Urodynamic testing is any procedure that looks at ...
... Links Patient Resources For Health Professionals Subscribe Search Mononucleosis (Mono) Test Send Us Your Feedback Choose Topic ... Questions Related Content View Sources Also Known As Mononucleosis Spot Test Mononuclear Heterophile Test Heterophile Antibody Test ...
... Prep Fungal Smear, Culture, Antigen and Antibody Tests Mycology Tests Fungal Molecular Tests Potassium Hydroxide Preparation Calcofluor ... February 7, Modified). Calcofluor White with 10% KOH. Mycology Online [On-line information]. Available online at http:// ...
... age and race What you eat and drink Medicines you take How well you followed pre-test instructions Your doctor may also compare your results to results from previous tests. Laboratory tests are often part of a routine checkup ...
... LDL-P) Lead Legionella Testing Leptin Levetiracetam Lipase Lipid Profile Lipoprotein (a) Lithium Liver Panel Lp-PLA2 Lupus ... Site Tests: Albumin , CBC , CMP , Electrolytes , Iron Tests , Lipid Profile , Urinalysis , Prealbumin , Vitamin D , Vitamin B12 and Folate , ...
... is responding to gluten. Unlike antibody testing, the HLA gene testing for celiac disease measures the presence or ... found on the surface of some cells. The HLA gene test for celiac disease can be performed at ...
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Statistical Tests That Do Not Require Random Sampling Randomization Tests Numerical Examples Randomization Tests and Nonrandom Samples The Prevalence of Nonrandom Samples in Experiments The Irrelevance of Random Samples for the Typical Experiment Generalizing from Nonrandom Samples Intelligibility Respect for the Validity of Randomization Tests Versatility Practicality Precursors of Randomization Tests Other Applications of Permutation Tests Questions and Exercises Notes References Randomized Experiments Unique Benefits of Experiments Experimentation without Mani
Sonneveld, C.; Voogt, W.
Tissue tests are widely used in horticulture practice and have in comparison with soil or substrate testing advantages as well disadvantages in comparison with soil testing. One of the main advantages of tissue tests is the certainty that analysed nutrients in plant tissues are really present in the
Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes
A test chamber for measuring electromagnetic radiation emitted by an apparatus to be tested or for exposing an apparatus to be tested to an electromagnetic radiation field. The test chamber includes a reverberation chamber made of a conductive tent fabric. To create a statistically uniform field in
Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes
A test chamber for measuring electromagnetic radiation emitted by an apparatus to be tested or for exposing an apparatus to be tested to an electromagnetic radiation field. The test chamber includes a reverberation chamber made of a conductive tent fabric. To create a statistically uniform field in
Comparative evaluation of three automated systems for DNA extraction in conjunction with three commercially available real-time PCR assays for quantitation of plasma Cytomegalovirus DNAemia in allogeneic stem cell transplant recipients.
Bravo, Dayana; Clari, María Ángeles; Costa, Elisa; Muñoz-Cobo, Beatriz; Solano, Carlos; José Remigia, María; Navarro, David
Limited data are available on the performance of different automated extraction platforms and commercially available quantitative real-time PCR (QRT-PCR) methods for the quantitation of cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA in plasma. We compared the performance characteristics of the Abbott mSample preparation system DNA kit on the m24 SP instrument (Abbott), the High Pure viral nucleic acid kit on the COBAS AmpliPrep system (Roche), and the EZ1 Virus 2.0 kit on the BioRobot EZ1 extraction platform (Qiagen) coupled with the Abbott CMV PCR kit, the LightCycler CMV Quant kit (Roche), and the Q-CMV complete kit (Nanogen), for both plasma specimens from allogeneic stem cell transplant (Allo-SCT) recipients (n = 42) and the OptiQuant CMV DNA panel (AcroMetrix). The EZ1 system displayed the highest extraction efficiency over a wide range of CMV plasma DNA loads, followed by the m24 and the AmpliPrep methods. The Nanogen PCR assay yielded higher mean CMV plasma DNA values than the Abbott and the Roche PCR assays, regardless of the platform used for DNA extraction. Overall, the effects of the extraction method and the QRT-PCR used on CMV plasma DNA load measurements were less pronounced for specimens with high CMV DNA content (>10,000 copies/ml). The performance characteristics of the extraction methods and QRT-PCR assays evaluated herein for clinical samples were extensible at cell-based standards from AcroMetrix. In conclusion, different automated systems are not equally efficient for CMV DNA extraction from plasma specimens, and the plasma CMV DNA loads measured by commercially available QRT-PCRs can differ significantly. The above findings should be taken into consideration for the establishment of cutoff values for the initiation or cessation of preemptive antiviral therapies and for the interpretation of data from clinical studies in the Allo-SCT setting.
A complete guide to the uniaxial tensile test, the cornerstone test for determining the mechanical properties of materials: Learn ways to predict material behavior through tensile testing. Learn how to test metals, alloys, composites, ceramics, and plastics to determine strength, ductility and elastic/plastic deformation. A must for laboratory managers, technicians, materials and design engineers, and students involved with uniaxial tensile testing. Tensile Testing , Second Edition begins with an introduction and overview of the test, with clear explanations of how materials properties are determined from test results. Subsequent sections illustrate how knowledge gained through tensile tests, such as tension properties to predict the behavior (including strength, ductility, elastic or plastic deformation, tensile and yield strengths) have resulted in improvements in materals applications. The Second Edition is completely revised and updated. It includes expanded coverage throughout the volume on a variety of ...
Professor Sven Erik Nordenbo og centerleder Niels Egelund, begge DPU, i samtale om nationale test.......Professor Sven Erik Nordenbo og centerleder Niels Egelund, begge DPU, i samtale om nationale test....
... Tests G6PD Gamma-Glutamyl Transferase (GGT) Gastrin Gastrointestinal Pathogens Panel Genetic Tests for Targeted Cancer Therapy Glucose ... as spinach, as well as whole grains and nuts. Foods that have dietary fiber are usually also ...
... Tests G6PD Gamma-Glutamyl Transferase (GGT) Gastrin Gastrointestinal Pathogens Panel Genetic Tests for Targeted Cancer Therapy Glucose ... hepatic). Copper is found in many foods including nuts, chocolate, mushrooms, shellfish, whole grains, dried fruits, and ...
... Serum Screening, Second Trimester Measles and Mumps Tests Mercury Metanephrines Methotrexate Methylmalonic Acid Mononucleosis (Mono) Test MRSA ... Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis Kidney Disease Lactose Intolerance Lead Poisoning Leukemia Liver Disease Lung Cancer Lung Diseases Lupus ...
... bilirubin test in conjunction with other laboratory tests ( alkaline phosphatase , aspartate aminotransferase , alanine aminotransferase ) when someone shows signs of abnormal liver function. A bilirubin level may be ordered when ...
... High-sensitivity C-reactive Protein (hs-CRP) Histamine Histone Antibody HIV Antibody and HIV Antigen (p24) HIV ... can get tested. You can input your zip code and find a local testing site. How can ...
... High-sensitivity C-reactive Protein (hs-CRP) Histamine Histone Antibody HIV Antibody and HIV Antigen (p24) HIV ... can get tested. You can input your zip code and find a local testing site. Should I ...
... Known As T. vaginalis Wet Prep Formal Name Trichomonas vaginalis testing This article was last reviewed on March ... Tested? To diagnose an infection with the parasite Trichomonas vaginalis , which causes the sexually transmitted disease trichomoniasis When ...
... Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli Sickle Cell Tests Sirolimus Smooth Muscle Antibody (SMA) ... at http://www.upcmd.com/dot/examples/00218/description.html. Sainato, D., (2002, March). Genetic Testing for ...
... Content View Sources Ask Us Also Known As ACT Activated Coagulation Time Formal Name Activated Clotting Time ... What is being tested? The activated clotting time (ACT) is a test that is used primarily to ...
... AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities Rubella Test Share this page: Was this page helpful? ... Three-day Measles; 3-day Measles Formal name: Rubella Antibodies, IgM and IgG Related tests: TORCH ; Measles ...
... Links Patient Resources For Health Professionals Subscribe Search Gonorrhea Testing Send Us Your Feedback Choose Topic At ... Sources Ask Us Also Known As GC Test Gonorrhea NAAT or NAT Neisseria gonorrhoeae Nucleic Acid Amplification ...
... Pregnancy hCG Tumor Marker HDL Cholesterol Heavy Metals Helicobacter pylori Testing Hematocrit Hemoglobin Hemoglobin A1c Hemoglobinopathy Evaluation ... absorbs too much iron, even on a normal diet. How is the sample collected for testing? A ...
... Testing Leptin Levetiracetam Lipase Lipid Profile Lipoprotein (a) Lithium Liver Panel Lp-PLA2 Lupus Anticoagulant Testing Luteinizing ... 50% of the cases of PBC will be discovered before a person has noticeable symptoms. What causes ...
... Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli Sickle Cell Tests Sirolimus Smooth Muscle Antibody (SMA) ... Ratio Valproic Acid Vancomycin Vanillylmandelic Acid (VMA) VAP Vitamin A Vitamin B12 and Folate Vitamin D Tests ...
... treatment. These include: allergy screening tests done in supermarkets or drug stores, home testing, applied kinesiology (allergy ... this topic visit the AAAAI Store . Utility navigation Donate Annual meeting Browse your conditions Check pollen counts ...
... Urine Culture Urine Metanephrines Urine Protein and Urine Protein to Creatinine Ratio Valproic Acid Vancomycin Vanillylmandelic Acid (VMA) VAP Vitamin A Vitamin B12 and Folate Vitamin D Tests Vitamin K VLDL Cholesterol von Willebrand Factor Warfarin Sensitivity Testing ...
... of the blood testing required to obtain a marriage license. What does the test result mean? Adult ... their joints , especially their hands and wrists. Side effects are rarely seen in young children who get ...
... Testing Leptin Levetiracetam Lipase Lipid Profile Lipoprotein (a) Lithium Liver Panel Lp-PLA2 Lupus Anticoagulant Testing Luteinizing ... at http://www.thoracic.org/education/breathing-in-america/resources/chapter-9-fungal-lung-disease.pdf. Accessed ...
... spasms and rapid eye movements referred to as "dancing eyes, dancing feet." The VMA test may also be ordered ... ratio is associated with a poorer prognosis . A variety of medications can interfere with VMA testing, but ...
... Acidosis and Alkalosis Adrenal Insufficiency and Addison Disease Alcoholism Allergies Alzheimer Disease Anemia Angina Ankylosing Spondylitis Anthrax ... for Teens (Ages 13-18) Screening Tests for Young Adults (Ages 19-29) Screening Tests for Adults ( ...
Jilma-Stohlawetz, Petra; Wreford-Bush, Tim; Mills, Francesca; Davidson, Fiona; Kursten, Friedrich W; Jilma, Bernd; Birchall, Janet
The transmission of pathogens, antibodies, and proteins is a possible consequence of blood product transfusion. A female patient had an unexpected positive serum β-human chorionic gonadotropin result, indicative of pregnancy, after she had received a transfusion with 1 unit of platelet concentrate, 4 units of red blood cells, and 4 units of pooled solvent/detergent-treated plasma (Octaplas). To investigate the possibility of passive transfusion of β-human chorionic gonadotropin from the plasma transfusion, one additional unit from the same batch was thawed and analyzed. To validate the β-human chorionic gonadotropin assay for use in solvent/detergent-treated plasma and to investigate any interference in the assay, dilution experiments were performed using the implicated plasma batch diluted with male and non-pregnant female sera. Also, plasma from a known pregnant woman was diluted with Octaplas (tested negative for β-human chorionic gonadotropin) and with a male serum to validate the assay for use in solvent/detergent-treated plasma. The implicated solvent/detergent-treated plasma had a mean β-human chorionic gonadotropin level of 91.5 mIU/mL. Results from the dilution experiments revealed an excellent correlation (r > 0.99) between β-human chorionic gonadotropin measurement in solvent/detergent-treated plasma and male serum and no over or under recovery of the expected results. Further measurements of β-human chorionic gonadotropin levels in the female recipient revealed an estimated half-life of 6 hours. This case demonstrates the importance of considering the possibility of passive transmission of analytes to a patient from the transfusion of blood products. Furthermore, the measurement of β-human chorionic gonadotropin is valid in solvent/detergent-treated plasma using a Roche Cobas analyzer. © 2017 AABB.
Lima-Oliveira, Gabriel; Guidi, Gian Cesare; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Brocco, Giorgio; Danese, Elisa; Lippi, Giuseppe
An experimental study was planned to assess the influence on routine clinical chemistry parameters of fist making prior to, and maintenance during, venipuncture. Blood was collected from 16 healthy volunteers with two separate sequential procedures, entailing standard venipuncture with hand opened throughout blood collection, or clenching the fist 6 times before venipuncture and maintaining the fist until completion of blood collection. After separation of lithium-heparin plasma at vacuum tubes with gel separator, 28 routine clinical chemistry parameters and serum indices were measured on Roche Cobas 6000 〈c501〉 module. Fist clenching and maintaining were associated with significant variations of 8/26 (31%) analytes tested. Specifically, aspartate aminotransferase (+2.3%), calcium (+2.2%), chloride (+1.0%), creatine kinase (+2.0%), magnesium (+2.3%), potassium (+13.4%), and sodium (+0.7%) increased, whereas phosphate (-5.0%) decreased. All variations except aspartate aminotransferase and creatine kinase exceeded the quality specifications for desirable imprecision. A remarkable increase of free hemoglobin in plasma (i.e., +28.2%) was also observed. The ratio of plasma potassium was significantly associated with that of plasma CK (r=0.55; p=0.029), but not with variations of other analytes. No significant correlation was observed between the ratio of free hemoglobin and those of other analytes. The results of our investigation demonstrate that repeated clenching and maintenance of fist during venipuncture may trigger acute variations of several routine clinical chemistry parameters, which may be attributable to muscle contraction, hemolysis or both. Accordingly, venipuncture should be performed avoiding fist clenching and maintenance. Copyright Â© 2016 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hvad er egentlig formålet med de nationale test? Bliver eleverne klogere af at blive testet? Og er der en sammenhæng mellem bandekrig og nationale test? Fysisk medie: dpu.dk/tv......Hvad er egentlig formålet med de nationale test? Bliver eleverne klogere af at blive testet? Og er der en sammenhæng mellem bandekrig og nationale test? Fysisk medie: dpu.dk/tv...
... Abroad Treatment Basic Statistics Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... All Collapse All Should I get tested for HIV? CDC recommends that everyone between the ages of ...
Holbøll, Joachim T.; Henriksen, Mogens; Nilson, Jesper K.
, destroy the insulation and eventually cause breakdown. It is difficult to make a model of the real-life components that can be used to examine all of these phenomena. Some decisions have to be made on how to approach this problem, how to design a test cell and how the tests should be carried out....... In this paper, four suggestions on test cells are considered....
... like immunoreactivity; Serum trypsinogen; Immunoreactive trypsin Images Blood test References Forsmark CE. Chronic pancreatitis. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. Sleisenger and Fordtran's Gastrointestinal ...
Bundsgaard, Jeppe; Puck, Morten Rasmus
Nationale test skubber undervisning i en forkert retning. Det er lærerne og skolelederne enige om. Men særligt skolelederne ser også muligheder for at bruge testen til at få viden om elevernes faglige kompetencer og om undervisningen. Det kommer til udtryk i rapporten Nationale test: Danske lærere...
... and bicarbonate , to help regulate the amount of fluid in the body and maintain the acid-base balance . This test measures the level of chloride in ... and bicarbonate , to help regulate the amount of fluid in the body and maintain the acid-base (pH) balance . Chloride and electrolyte tests may also be ordered ...
the valve cores using a valve core removal tool to simulate a puncture flat. This should be done at the test site, after the tires are warmed up...F), and ideally be as close to the SAE standard temperature of 25 °C (77 °F) as possible. Test conditions should also be dry (no precipitation or
... on the bad things that could happen also fuels test anxiety. For example, someone worrying about doing poorly ... are shaking." Just like other types of anxiety, test anxiety can create a bad cycle: The more a person focuses on the negative ...
... be a sign of anemia or thalassemia. Blood Chemistry Tests/Basic Metabolic Panel The basic metabolic panel ( ... parents, and children talk about their experiences with clinical research. More Information Related Health Topics Anemia Coronary Heart ...
... Factor Antibody Iron Iron Tests JAK2 Mutation Kidney Stone Analysis Kidney Stone Risk Panel KRAS Mutation Lactate Lactate Dehydrogenase (LD) ... whooping cough); when you have symptoms of a cold and have been exposed to someone with pertussis ...
... Factor Antibody Iron Iron Tests JAK2 Mutation Kidney Stone Analysis Kidney Stone Risk Panel KRAS Mutation Lactate Lactate Dehydrogenase (LD) ... The two most common infections with HSV are "cold sores" affecting the lips and genital herpes. Both ...
... eye or brain infection that a health practitioner suspects are due to toxoplasmosis Sample Required? A blood ... to an infection or detects the genetic material ( DNA ) of the parasite in the blood. Testing is ...
... later stages of the infection. Some conditions may cause a false-positive test, including: IV drug use Lyme disease Certain types of pneumonia Malaria Pregnancy Systemic lupus erythematosus and some other autoimmune ...
... the earlier and later stages. Some conditions may cause a false-positive test, including: HIV Lyme disease Certain types of pneumonia Malaria Systemic lupus erythematosus The body does not always ...
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The U. S. Navy dedicated the decommissioned Spruance Class destroyer ex-PAUL F. FOSTER (EDD 964), Test Ship, primarily for at sea demonstration of short range weapon...
... detects the presence of HPV, the virus that causes cervical cancer, in your system. Certain types of HPV — including ... have any of the types of HPV that cause cervical cancer. Depending on your test results, your doctor may ...
... of Intramural Research Research Resources Research Meeting Summaries Technology Transfer Clinical Trials What Are Clinical Trials? Children & ... special preparations. For some, you may need to fast (not eat any food) for 8 to 12 hours before the test. ...
... Analysis Kidney Stone Risk Panel KRAS Mutation Lactate Lactate Dehydrogenase (LD) Lactoferrin Lactose Tolerance Tests LDL Cholesterol LDL ... metabolism) in which pyruvate is not converted to lactate. One example is pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency. In these cases, pyruvate will accumulate, the ...
... acute myocardial infarction ( heart attack ), cystic fibrosis , and dumping syndrome . The serotonin test is not usually ordered ... Thank you. Contact a Scientist Find Us On Social Media: Facebook Twitter Google Plus Footer Menu Home ...
... person's talents or future potential. Results of any intelligence test may be culturally biased. The more widely used ... Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence Stanford-Binet Intelligence ... mathematical, analytical, spatial (for example, reading ...
... High-sensitivity C-reactive Protein (hs-CRP) Histamine Histone Antibody HIV Antibody and HIV Antigen (p24) HIV ... www.mayomedicallaboratories.com/test-catalog/print.php?unit_code=87972. Accessed September 2011. See More See Less ...
... Total Protein and Albumin/Globulin (A/G) Ratio Toxoplasmosis Testing Trace Minerals Transferrin and Iron-binding Capacity ( ... Blood in Urine (Hematuria) Bone Marrow Disorders Breast Cancer Cancer Cardiovascular Disease Celiac Disease Cervical Cancer Chronic ...
... disease . This test may be included in a coronary risk profile. ... cholesterol level may be associated with a higher risk for heart disease and stroke. However, VLDL cholesterol level is rarely targeted when treatment for high ...
Rose, David Martin; Schenkman, Benjamin L.; Borneo, Daniel R.
The Department of Energy Office of Electricity (DOE/OE), Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) and the Base Camp Integration Lab (BCIL) partnered together to incorporate an energy storage system into a microgrid configured Forward Operating Base to reduce the fossil fuel consumption and to ultimately save lives. Energy storage vendors have supplied their systems to SNL Energy Storage Test Pad (ESTP) for functional testing and a subset of these systems were selected for performance evaluation at the BCIL. The technologies tested were electro-chemical energy storage systems comprised of lead acid, lithium-ion or zinc-bromide. MILSPRAY Military Technologies has developed an energy storage system that utilizes lead acid batteries to save fuel on a military microgrid. This report contains the testing results and some limited assessment of the Milspray Scorpion Energy Storage Device.
... Pregnancy hCG Tumor Marker HDL Cholesterol Heavy Metals Helicobacter pylori Testing Hematocrit Hemoglobin Hemoglobin A1c Hemoglobinopathy Evaluation ... not enough iron is taken in from the diet, blood levels will drop; thus, over time, the ...
... Pregnancy hCG Tumor Marker HDL Cholesterol Heavy Metals Helicobacter pylori Testing Hematocrit Hemoglobin Hemoglobin A1c Hemoglobinopathy Evaluation ... bones. It comes into the body through the diet and is absorbed by the small intestine and ...
... Pregnancy hCG Tumor Marker HDL Cholesterol Heavy Metals Helicobacter pylori Testing Hematocrit Hemoglobin Hemoglobin A1c Hemoglobinopathy Evaluation ... balance . Phosphorus comes into the body through the diet. It is found in many foods and is ...
... Pregnancy hCG Tumor Marker HDL Cholesterol Heavy Metals Helicobacter pylori Testing Hematocrit Hemoglobin Hemoglobin A1c Hemoglobinopathy Evaluation ... humid locations and is influenced by the regional diet. It is higher in areas that routinely eat ...
... Pregnancy hCG Tumor Marker HDL Cholesterol Heavy Metals Helicobacter pylori Testing Hematocrit Hemoglobin Hemoglobin A1c Hemoglobinopathy Evaluation ... but can occur due to an extremely poor diet, malabsorption disorders , or prolonged use of certain antibiotics, ...
... Pregnancy hCG Tumor Marker HDL Cholesterol Heavy Metals Helicobacter pylori Testing Hematocrit Hemoglobin Hemoglobin A1c Hemoglobinopathy Evaluation ... or trying to get more copper in my diet? In most cases, a regular diet satisfies the ...
... Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli Sickle Cell Tests Sirolimus Smooth Muscle Antibody (SMA) ... 20Files/Nutrition/DRIs/DRI_Electrolytes_Water.pdf?la=en. Accessed Oct 2015. Sources Used in Previous Reviews ...
... Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli Sickle Cell Tests Sirolimus Smooth Muscle Antibody (SMA) ... int/immunization/research/meetings_workshops/rsv_vaccine_development/en/. Accessed November 2016. Sources Used in Previous Reviews ...
... Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli Sickle Cell Tests Sirolimus Smooth Muscle Antibody (SMA) ... www.who.int/vaccine_research/diseases/soa_parasitic/en/index2.html through http://www.who.int . Accessed ...
Sørensen, Ole Henning
The knowledge test is about competing temporal and spatial expressions of the politics of technological development and national prosperity in contemporary society. The discussion is based on literature of national systems of innovation and industrial networks of various sorts. Similarities...
... Pregnancy hCG Tumor Marker HDL Cholesterol Heavy Metals Helicobacter pylori Testing Hematocrit Hemoglobin Hemoglobin A1c Hemoglobinopathy Evaluation ... sometimes reported as total CO 2 ). A person's diet provides sodium, potassium, and chloride. The kidneys help ...
... affecting osmolality; to help determine the cause of chronic diarrhea When To Get Tested? When someone has a ... increased or decreased amounts of urine, or has chronic diarrhea Sample Required? A blood sample drawn from a ...
... Links Patient Resources For Health Professionals Subscribe Search Lead Send Us Your Feedback Choose Topic At a ... Related Content View Sources Also Known As Blood Lead Test Blood Lead Level BLL Formal Name Lead, ...
... safe and unsafe drugs, different sites use different classifications and the lists are not the same. Why ... Kathleen D. & Pagana, Timothy J. (2001). M osby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 5th Edition: Mosby, Inc., ...
R. Fernando Prialé Z.
Full Text Available En primer lugar, se considera el impacto de las microcomputadoras en la actualidad, viéndolo como un hecho social destinado a traer profundos cambios: nos orientamos hacia una cultura informática cuyo signo es la posibilidad de tratar grandes cantidades de información. En segundo lugar; se analiza brevemente la importancia de los tests en el desarrollo de la psicología. Finalmente, se discute la posibilidad de aplicar la informática a la psicometría con el ejemplo del test de BARSIT. The impact of microcomputers is discussed as a cultural fact that will bring profound changes in the near future: a society with an ubiquous capacity for treating big amounts of information. The importance of tests for the development of psychology is then analysed. Finaly, the possibility of applying microcomputers to psychometry is discussed trough a concrete example: The BARSIT test.
... Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & ... stool. Collecting a Stool Specimen Unlike most other lab tests, stool is sometimes collected by the child's ...
... LA Kaplan, AJ Pesce, SC Kazmierczak, Eds), CV Mosby, St. Louis, 2003, pp. 657-674. Pagana, Kathleen ... osby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 5th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO. Pp325, 670-672. (2003 ...
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... the past few decades, some lab-to-lab variability can occur due to differences in testing equipment, ... Pp 443-444. Clarke, W., Editor (© 2011). Contemporary Practice in Clinical Chemistry 2nd Edition: AACC Press, Washington, ...
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Kjeldsen, Lars Peter; Eriksen, Mette Rose
Artikelen er en evaluering af de adaptive tests, som blev indført i folkeskolen. Artiklen sætter særligt fokus på evaluering i folkeskolen, herunder bidrager den med vejledning til evaluering, evalueringsværktøjer og fagspecifkt evalueringsmateriale.......Artikelen er en evaluering af de adaptive tests, som blev indført i folkeskolen. Artiklen sætter særligt fokus på evaluering i folkeskolen, herunder bidrager den med vejledning til evaluering, evalueringsværktøjer og fagspecifkt evalueringsmateriale....
Full Text Available Treadmill exercise testing can be performed on a horse to evaluate the level of fitness with the aim of predicting performance (Franklin and Allen, 2014. The speed at 2 mmol/L of blood lactate (VLA2, the speed at 4 mmol/L (VLA4 and the speed at 200 bpm of heart rate (V200 are indices that have been related to performance (Coroucé et al., 2002. Aim of the present work is to analyze these parameters in a population of high performance Standarbred racehorses. Six healthy and at the same level of training Standardbred racehorses (average age 3,3±2,0 y.o. underwent an incremental exercise test (Zucca et al., 2003 on a high speed treadmill (Sӓto I, SATO, Sweden. During the test heart rate (HR was monitored with a heart rate meter (Polar horsetrainer, Polar, Finland. Venous blood was collected with the aid of a 14G teflon venous catheter placed in the jugular vein. Plasma lactate was measured with enzymatic colorimetric method lactate dry-fast kit for automatic system (Cobas Mira Classic, Roche, Switzerland. Data were analyzed with a dedicated software (Lactate Express, Mesics, Germany and VLA2, VLA4 and V200 were calculated and statistically compared by T-student test for paired sample (Prism, GraphPad, USA. Statistical significance was set at p<0,05. Average VLA2 was 8.3±0.5 m/s, average VLA4 was 9.2±0.4 m/s, average V200 was 8.1±0.9. There was a significant difference between VLA4 and V200 (Fig. 1. No difference was observed between VLA2 and V200 V200 is often reported to be close to VLA4, and considered as correspondent to the onset of blood lactate accumulation (Coroucé et al, 2002. According to our results, it may be argued that V200 is a measure that does not fit with the lactate threshold. These data could be used as control for further studies on racehorses with poor performance syndrome.
... gov/publications/AssessingAlcohol/index.htm .) This issue of Alcohol Research & Health highlights some of the most popular screening ... tolerance to more than two drinks (the T question) = 2 points. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) can detect alcohol ...
Loverre, P F; Spada, F R
We study the feasibility of a long-baseline neutrino experiment from CERN to Gran Sasso LNGS Laboratories using the CERN PS accelerator. Baseline and neutrino energy spectrum are suitable to explore a region of the Dm2 and sin2(thetat) parameters space which is not reached by K2K, the first experiment that will test at accelerator the atmospheric neutrino anomaly put in evidence by Super Kamiokande
Nira R Pollock
Full Text Available Monitoring for drug-induced liver injury (DILI via serial transaminase measurements in patients on potentially hepatotoxic medications (e.g., for HIV and tuberculosis is routine in resource-rich nations, but often unavailable in resource-limited settings. Towards enabling universal access to affordable point-of-care (POC screening for DILI, we have performed the first field evaluation of a paper-based, microfluidic fingerstick test for rapid, semi-quantitative, visual measurement of blood alanine aminotransferase (ALT. Our objectives were to assess operational feasibility, inter-operator variability, lot variability, device failure rate, and accuracy, to inform device modification for further field testing. The paper-based ALT test was performed at POC on fingerstick samples from 600 outpatients receiving HIV treatment in Vietnam. Results, read independently by two clinic nurses, were compared with gold-standard automated (Roche Cobas results from venipuncture samples obtained in parallel. Two device lots were used sequentially. We demonstrated high inter-operator agreement, with 96.3% (95% C.I., 94.3-97.7% agreement in placing visual results into clinically-defined "bins" (5x upper limit of normal, >90% agreement in validity determination, and intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.89 (95% C.I., 0.87-0.91. Lot variability was observed in % invalids due to hemolysis (21.1% for Lot 1, 1.6% for Lot 2 and correlated with lots of incorporated plasma separation membranes. Invalid rates <1% were observed for all other device controls. Overall bin placement accuracy for the two readers was 84% (84.3%/83.6%. Our findings of extremely high inter-operator agreement for visual reading-obtained in a target clinical environment, as performed by local practitioners-indicate that the device operation and reading process is feasible and reproducible. Bin placement accuracy and lot-to-lot variability data identified specific targets for device optimization and
. The results, however, tell nothing about the kind of actions, which has caused the overconsolidation. The determined OCR-values might be due to previous ice caps but a big difference in the two values from Solsø indicates a considerable influence from other actions. The sediments from Hollerup and Solsø...... a model set up by Moust Jacobsen in 1992. The test results do not show any significant difference in the determined values of the overconsolidation ratio (OCR) for the samples from Hollerup and Solsø, east and west of the main stationary line for the last ice sheet in Weichselian, respectively...
Rebolj, Matejka; Bonde, Jesper; Preisler, Sarah
In women aged ≥30 years, Human Papillomavirus testing will replace cytology for primary cervical screening. We compared Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2), cobas, CLART, and APTIMA HPV assays with cytology on 2869 SurePath samples from women undergoing routine screening at 30-65 years in Copenhagen, Denmark....... Women with cytological abnormalities were managed according to routine recommendations, with 92% completeness. Those with cytology-normal/HPV-positive samples (on any of the four assays) were invited for repeated cytology and HPV testing in 1.5 year, and 58% had additional testing. HPV testing detected...... more ≥CIN3 than cytology (HC2: 35, cobas, CLART: 37, APTIMA: 34, cytology: 31), although statistically the differences were not significant. Cobas and CLART detected significantly more ≥CIN2 than cytology (cobas, CLART: 49, cytology: 39). The proportion of women with false-positive test results...
CHF - tests; Congestive heart failure - tests; Cardiomyopathy - tests; HF - tests ... the best test to: Identify which type of heart failure (systolic, diastolic, valvular) Monitor your heart failure and ...
Cholesterol test results; LDL test results; VLDL test results; HDL test results; Coronary risk profile results; Hyperlipidemia-results; Lipid disorder test results; Heart disease - cholesterol results
... Persantine stress test; Thallium stress test; Stress test - nuclear; Adenosine stress test; Regadenoson stress test; CAD - nuclear stress; Coronary artery disease - nuclear stress; Angina - nuclear ...
An enormous glint of sunlight darted over gently sloping summits and the hairpin curves of the mountain road. Mirrors concentrated this glint into a single beam, which then shot through a thick sheet of aluminum. Such was the result of the first test run on heliostats of the unique Solntse scientific-production complex being erected in Tashkent Oblast. There will be 62 such heliostats, each with an area of 50 square meters. Hot beams will be transmitted to the concave mirror of a concentrator (2,000 square meters). And the glint that shoots from it effortlessly melts not only aluminum but also almost all known materials. A special melting furnace toward which the concentractor directs hundreds of kilowatts of energy, burns brighter than a thousand suns. The complex presently under construction is intended for acquisition of ultrahigh-heat and concurrently ultrapure materials needed by many industrial sectors. This is extremely difficult to do by traditional chemical methods and even by the most modern methods--ultrahigh frequency and cathode ray methods.
Full Text Available Bluetooth is a new emerging technology. This technology gives significant changes for electronic devices that we are using. If we look around, a keyboard is connected to a computer. So does a printer, a mouse, a monitor and so on. This condition creates a problem of so many scattered wires installed in the offices, houses and other places. Another problem is how to inspect the damaging or boken wires. In this paper, we will have a discussion on specific applications of bluetooth such as services provided by the bluetooth technology; bluetooth method - how bluetooth devices make connections in a piconet; as well as investigation on bluetooth protocol stack. Bluetooth has succesfully built easy connection among devices from many vendor without using cables, with less power dan money. By using bluetooth, we can build small network or Piconet, consisting of several devices without cables. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Bluetooth adalah suatu teknologi baru yang mulai dikenal dan digunakan. Teknologi ini memberikan perubahan yang signifikan terhadap peralatan elektronik yang kita gunakan. Jika kita melihat sekeliling kita dimana keyboard dihubungkan pada komputer. Demikian juga halnya dengan printer, mouse, monitor dan lain sebagainya. Semua peralatan itu dihubungkan dengan menggunakan kabel. Akibatnya terjadi masalah banyak kabel yang dibutuhkan di kantor, rumah atau tempat-tempat lainnya. Masalah lain yang ditemui adalah bagaimana menelusuri kabel-kabel yang terpasang jika ada suatu kesalahan atau kerusakan. Bluetooth memperbaiki penggunaan teknologi kabel yang cenderung menyulitkan ini dengan cara menghubungkan beberapa peralatan tanpa menggunakan kabel. Pada karya tulis ini, dibahas aplikasi spesifik bluetooth, antara lain servis-servis apa saja yang disediakan oleh teknologi bluetooth; cara kerja bluetooth yaitu bagaimana bluetooth device melakukan koneksi di dalam sebuah piconet serta bluetooth protocol stack. Bluetooth telah berhasil memudahkan koneksi antar beberapa alat dari berbagai vendor tanpa kabel dengan tenaga yang kecil serta biaya yang ringan. Dengan bluetooth dapat dibentuk sebuah jaringan kecil atau Piconet yang terdiri dari beberapa peralatan dan sekali lagi, tanpa memerlukan kabel. Kata kunci: Bluetooth, Bluetooth Protocol Stack, Piconet, Komunikasi data, Nirkabel.
Full Text Available VFEDTKYLVQSAVDGYNVCIFAYGQTGSGKTFTIYGADSNPGLTPRAMSELFRIMKKDSNKFSFSLKAYMVELYQDTLVDLLLPKQAKRLKLDIKKDSKG...VFEDTKYLVQSAVDGYNVCIFAYGQTGSGKTFTIYGADSNPGLTPRAMSELFRIMKKDSNKFSFSLKAYMVELYQDTLVDLLLPKQAKRLKLDIKKDSKG
Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui perbedaan hasil tangkapan udang dari tamba dan ayunan modifikasi dan hasil tangkapan selain udang. Dari hasil penelitian diperoleh perlakuan A (tamba diperoleh hasil tangkapan udang sebanyak 52 ekor, dengan berat total 2.210 gram. Perlakuan B (ayunan modifikasi lantai bambu, diperoleh hasil tangkapan udang sebanyak 29 ekor, dengan berat total 180 gram. Total hasil tangkapan udang dengan menggunakan tamba dan ayunan modifikasi lantai bambu selama 16 hari pengamatan adalah 81 ekor dengan berat total 2.390 gram. Jenis hasil tangkapan utama yaitu Udang Galah (Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man dengan hasil tangkapan sampingan adalah ikan Lundu (Mystus gulio dan ikan Sapu-Sapu (Hypostomus plecostomus. This study aims to (1 know the difference between the catch of prawns from tamba and ayunan, and (2 to determine the catch other than prawn. The results, treatment A (tamba gained as much as 52 prawns, with a total weight of 2,210 grams. Treatment B (ayunan modifications bamboo flooring, gained as much as 29 prawns, with a total weight of 180 grams. Total catch of prawns using swing modifications and addi bamboo flooring for 16 days of observation was 81 prawns with a total weight of 2,390 grams. Main types of catches fresh water prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man with a side of the catch is Lundu (Mystus Gulio and Sapu-sapu (Hypostomus plecostomus.
Hardon, A.; Idrus, N.I.
The everyday lives of contemporary youths are awash with drugs to boost pleasure, moods, sexual performance, vitality, appearance and health. This paper examines pervasive practices of chemical ‘self-maximization’ from the perspectives of youths themselves. The research for this paper was conducted
Migren merupakan gejala nyeri kepala rekuren yang paling sering dikeluhkan dalam dunia medis. Di Amerika Serikat, lebih dari 30 juta orang menderita satu atau lebih nyeri kepala migren dalam setahun. Berdasarkan literatur, migren merupakan komorbiditas rinosinusitis dan asma serta melibatkan saraf trigeminus. Tatalaksana migren dalam bidang kedokteran adalah obat-obatan dan tindakan invasif seperti injeksi atau operasi pada saraf. Sangat menarik bahwa menurut laporan kasus telah dibuktikan ba...
Migren merupakan gejala nyeri kepala rekuren yang paling sering dikeluhkan dalam dunia medis. Di Amerika Serikat, lebih dari 30 juta orang menderita satu atau lebih nyeri kepala migren dalam setahun. Berdasarkan literatur, migren merupakan komorbiditas rinosinusitis dan asma serta melibatkan saraf trigeminus. Tatalaksana migren dalam bidang kedokteran adalah obat-obatan dan tindakan invasif seperti injeksi atau operasi pada saraf. Sangat menarik bahwa menurut laporan kasus telah dibuktikan ba...
Full Text Available Trial The Management of Severe Malnourished Children of Nutrition Clinic Method, The Nutrition Research and Development Centre at Village Level.Background: Managerrent of severe malnutrition recommended by WHO should be in hospital. For family with severe malnourished child, generally poor, hospitalization means spend a lot of money. The alternative method is the out patient management developed by Nutrition Clinic of the Nutrition Research ard Development Centre.Objectives: To study the effectiveneess of management for severe malnourished of Nutrition Clinic method in village level (posyandu by village cadre.Methods: The study was carried out at 4 sub-districts in Bogor and Sukabumi, West Java. Sixty under-five children for group 1 and 60 for group 2 were selected. Three to five posyandu's cadres were selected in each village. Visit schedule to posyandu for group 1 was similar to that Nutrition Clinic while group 2 was every 1 week. Nutrition package for group 1 and 2 was same. Data collection included body measurements, morbiddity and food consumption. Observation to the cadres performance include ownership and he use of guidance book.Results: Seven percent of children aged 6-11 months, 20% aged 12-17 months, 60% aged 18-35 months and 13% aged > 36 months. Around 30% of children had been grven fruit and porridge on the age 1-4 months old. Nutritional status improved variously depended on the nutritional indices. Energy consumption was low but protein consumption had reached the recommended allowance. Compliance to come to posyandu and nutrition package was high.Conclusions: Around 10% of cchildren had changed from under-weight to well-nourished, but most of severe malnourished children remained severe in 3 months. Stunted was over 75% and remained stunted in 3 months. Wasted was 50% and began to decline in 3 months. The average of weight increment in 3 months was 0,6 kg. Cadre could give simple education to mothers using the available guidance book.Recommendations: To use wasted as an indicator in the evaluation of management of severe malnutrition. Active role of health Centre is needed to have maximum effect of the implementation of Nutrition Clinic method at village level.Key words: management, severe malnutrition, nutrition clinic, out-patient, village cadre.
Full Text Available Drug financing is the biggest cost component of health care which is relatively easy to be intervened, especially the government sector. If key outcome indicators have been determined at the beginning of an intervention measuring whether the objectives of the intervention have been met through changes in these indicators makes it possible to assess the impact of an intervention. The objective of the study is essential regarding the recent decentralization policy. Guidelines on Drug Management and Financiing at Puskesmas with indicators adopted from WHO-PAHO "Manual of Rapid Assessment Pharmaceutical Management, 1995" as well as indicators recently developed from a study in Pekalongan District in 1999/2000, i.e. cost recovery, real cost and ability to pay, is intended to increase efficiency, to assess the system and broaden knowledge of drug managing staff at District Health office, District (Dinkes kabupaten, Pharmaceutical Warehouse (GFK and Health Centre (puskesmas. In this cross-sectional retrospective study training of data collector, 5 health provider (H.P from Puskesmas, 1 H.P from GFK and 1 H.P from Dinkes Kabupaten, should prepare them for different situations. The design for this study to characterize drug use practices in a region would call for a sample of at least 20 health facilities, with at least 30 encounters being recorded in each facility. Studying 20 Puskesmas from 4 districts: Jombang, Lumajang, Malang and Pasuruan through their medical records (600 from each Puskesmas will increase the reliability and generalizability of indicators. The results of this study shows that In all districts drug budget per capita increased during 1998-2001 for different reasons and patients' ability to pay was higher than the real treatment cost for certain diseases. On the other hand, the average drug budget per encounter was higher than the real cost and cost recovery was declining for all districts except for Jombang, More intensive socialization of rational prescribing for Puskesmas physician to achieve efficiency in drug budgeting and of this guidelines implementation is necessary, regional authority should better return all Puskesmas retribution entirely. Key words : pharmacoeconomtc, health center, assessment guidelines
Full Text Available Secara empiris/tradisional rimpang dringo (Acorus calamus L. digunakan sebagai obat encok (reumatik, bengkak, demam, dll. Rimpang dringo, antara lain mengandung minyak atsiri, tanin, protein dan kalsium oksalat. Berdasarkan pemakaian empiris dan kandungan kimianya terutama minyak atsiri diduga rimpang dringo mempunyai efek terhadap susunan saraf pusat antara lain efek analgetik. Untuk membuktikan adanya efek analgetik, maka dilakukan penelitian efek analgetik ekstrak rimpang dringo pada mencit menurut cara Witkin dengan dosos 0,15 mg, 1,5 mg dan 4,5 mg /10g.bb. serta penelitian toksisitas akut menurut Weil C.S untuk mengetahui besarnya LD50 ekstrak rimpang dringo.Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ekstrak rimpang dringo dosis 0,15 mg/10 g.bb belum mempunyai efek analgetik. Ekstrak rimpang dringo dosis 1,5 mg dan 4,5 mg /10 g.bb mempunyai efek analgetik yang tidak berbeda dengan asetosal dosis 0,52 mg/10 g.bb. Ekstrak rimpang dringo mempunyai LD50 = 15,2 (13,4 - 17,3 mg/10 g.bb. secara i.p. pada mencit. Kata kunci: Acorus calamus L; Analgetik; Toksisitas Akut
Arboledas, Juan Carlos Alados; Guerrero, Inmaculada Pavón; Rodríguez, María José Blanco; Martos, Eva Torres; Pérez, Ana Belén; León, Cristina Cepero; Sierra Sánchez, Jesus F; Prieto, María Dolores López; Porcuna, Natalia Chueca; Mochón, María Dolores Ocete; Macías, Juan; de la Iglesia Salgado, Alberto; Granger, Javier Rodríguez; Fernández, Marcial Delgado; Lozano, Inmaculada Guerrero; Ramírez, Elena Reigadas; Rivero, Antonio; Del Carmen Lozano Domínguez, María; Viciana, Isabel; Montemayor, Juan Carlos Galán; García, Federico García
We evaluated the utility of Architect core antigen assay® Abbott Diagnostics (HCVAg) for monitoring patients with HCV infection and compared to HCV-RNA quantification (Cobas Ampliprep TaqMan-Roche Diagnostics). Samples from 262 patients were studied. Mean baseline HCV RNA and HCVAg levels were similar for responders (6.2 log IU/mL and 3.4 log fmol/L) and non-responders (6.1 log IU/mL and 3.2 log fmol/L), respectively. Only 10 patients failed to achieve SVR12 and all were detected by both assays. To evaluate HCVAg quantification as a tool for the detection of failure to DAAs, we performed a retrospective study of 132 non-responder patients. Mean HCV RNA and HCVAg levels at the time of detection of therapeutic failure were 5.88±0.97 log IU/mL and 3.19±0.79 log fmol/L, respectively. HCVAg (>3 fmol/L) was detected in 130/132 patients (98.5%). HCVAg assay was useful for patient selection and for evaluating virological response to DAAs in the real world. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hariyati, Hariyati; Indaryanti, Indaryanti; Zulkardi, Zulkardi
Penelitian ini bertujuan mengembangkan materi luas permukaan dan volum limas dengan pendekatan PMRI. Subjek dalam penelitian ini adalah siswa kelas VIII SMP Negeri 4 Palembang. Dalam mengembangkan materi terdapat proses evaluasi formatif dan uji coba terhadap materi, yaitu expert review, one-to-one evaluation, small group, dan field test. Dari tiga tahap pertama, materi dinyatakan valid. Kemudian materi diujicobakan di lapangan (field test). Dari hasil uji coba diperoleh simpulan yaitu mengha...
Monospot test; Heterophile antibody test; Heterophile agglutination test; Paul-Bunnell test; Forssman antibody test ... The mononucleosis spot test is done when symptoms of mononucleosis are ... Fatigue Fever Large spleen (possibly) Sore throat Tender ...
Coccidioidomycosis antibody test; Coccidioides blood test; Valley fever blood test ... There is no special preparation for the test. ... The precipitin test is one of several tests that can be done to determine if you are infected with coccidioides, which ...
Arbyn, Marc; Ronco, Guglielmo; Anttila, Ahti; Meijer, Chris J L M; Poljak, Mario; Ogilvie, Gina; Koliopoulos, George; Naucler, Pontus; Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy; Peto, Julian
screening provides a further small gain in sensitivity at the expense of a considerable loss in specificity if positive by either test is referred to colposcopy, in comparison with HPV testing only. Randomised trials and follow-up of cohort studies consistently demonstrate a significantly lower cumulative incidence of CIN3+ and even of cancer, in women aged 30 years or older, who were at enrollment hrHPV DNA negative compared to those who were cytologically negative. The difference in cumulative risk of CIN3+ or cancer for double negative (cytology & HPV) versus only HPV-negative women is small. HC2, GP5+/6+ PCR (polymerase chain reaction), cobas(®) 4800 PCR (Roche Molecular Systems Inc., Alameda, CA, USA) and Real Time PCR (Abbott Molecular, Des Plaines, IL, USA) can be considered as clinically validated for use in primary screening. The loss in specificity associated with primary HPV-based screening can be compensated by appropriate algorithms involving reflex cytology and/or HPV genotyping for HPV16 or 18. There exists a substantial evidence base to support that HPV testing is advantageous both in triage of women with equivocal abnormal cytology, in surveillance after treatment of CIN lesions and in primary screening of women aged 30 years or older. However, the possible advantages offered by HPV-based screening require a well organised program with good compliance with screening and triage policies. This article forms part of a special supplement entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases" Vaccine Volume 30, Supplement 5, 2012. Copyright © 2012 Marc Arbyn. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Urine myoglobin; Heart attack - myoglobin urine test; Myositis - myoglobin urine test; Rhabdomyolysis - myoglobin urine test ... The test involves only normal urination, which should cause no discomfort.
Júlio C Possati-Resende
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the accuracies of double staining for p16/Ki-67 and the molecular test for high-risk HPV (hr-HPV to identify high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2/CIN3 in women with cervical cytology of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL. Data were collected from 201 women who underwent cervical cytology screening in the Barretos Cancer Hospital and their results were categorized as ASC-US (n=96 or LSIL (n=105. All patients underwent colposcopy with or without cervical biopsy for diagnosis of CIN2/CIN3. The hr-HPV test (Cobas 4800 test and immunocytochemistry were performed to detect biomarkers p16/Ki-67 (CINtec PLUS test. Two samples (1 ASC-US/1 LSIL were excluded from the analysis due to inconclusive results of the histologic examination. There were 8 cases of CIN2/CIN3 among 95 women with ASC-US (8.4%, and 23 cases of CIN2/CIN3 among 104 women with LSIL (22.1%. In the group of women with ASC-US, the sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing CIN2/CIN3 were 87.5% and 79.5% for the HPV test and 62.5% and 93.1% for p16/Ki-67. Among women with LSIL, the sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of CIN2/CIN3 were 87% and 34.7% for the HPV test and 69.6% and 75.3% for immunocytochemistry. Superior performance was observed for p16/Ki-67 double staining, especially among women under 30 for whom the test had an area under the ROC curve of 0.762 (p30 years. In younger women (≤30 years with LSIL, p16/Ki-67 had greater accuracy in identifying precursor lesions. Among women >30 years diagnosed with LSIL, the two methods showed similar performance.
Norris, John; Drackert, Anastasia
The Test of German as a Foreign Language (TestDaF) plays a critical role as a standardized test of German language proficiency. Developed and administered by the Society for Academic Study Preparation and Test Development (g.a.s.t.), TestDaF was launched in 2001 and has experienced persistent annual growth, with more than 44,000 test takers in…
(RT PCR) using COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan. HBV Test, v2.0 by Roche, with a lower limit of quanti- fication (LLOQ) of 20 IU/mL. Patients were requested ... two arms, except for a trend to higher total Bilirubin in the HBsAg negative individuals and this is shown on. Table 3. Table 3. Comparison of liver panel among ...
Full Text Available Objectives: This study evaluated the Xpert HPV Assay in women attending screening in general practice by comparing Xpert with two established HPV tests, cytology and histology. Methods: A prospective study in women aged 20–60 years attending screening in Bristol, Edinburgh and London using residual Preservcyt cytology samples. Sample order was randomised between Roche cobas4800 and Cepheid Xpert assays with Qiagen hc2 third. Results: 3408 cases were included in the primary analysis. Positivity for Xpert was 19.6%, cobas 19.2% and hc2 19.9% with high concordance (kappa=86.8% vs cobas, 81.55 vs hc2. Xpert, cobas and hc2 showed similar sensitivity (98.7%, 97.5%, 98.7% for CIN2+. All pairwise comparisons had high concordance (Kappa ≥0.78 with any abnormal cytology. Xpert and hc2 were positive for all cases of ≥moderate dyskaryosis (N=63, cobas was negative in two. Histology was available for 172 participants. 79 reported CIN2+, 47 CIN3+. All CIN3+ was positive on Xpert and hc2 and one case negative for cobas. One case of CIN2 was negative for all assays. Conclusions: The performance of Xpert HPV Assay in a general screening population is comparable to established HPV tests. It offers simplicity of testing, flexibility with non-batching of individual samples and rapid turnaround time. Keywords: Human papillomavirus, Xpert, Cervical screening, HPV testing
... Content Related Images View Sources Also Known As H. pylori antibody test, stool antigen, breath tests Urea breath test CLO test Rapid urease test (RUT) for H. pylori Formal Name Helicobacter pylori This article was last ...
... you want to learn. Search form Search Diagnostic testing You are here Home Testing & Services Testing for ... help you make the decision. What Is Diagnostic Testing? Diagnostic genetic testing can usually work out if ...
... what you want to learn. Search form Search Tests related to pregnancy You are here Home Testing & Services Testing for ... Genes: A Guide to Genetic Counseling . What Are Tests Related to Pregnancy? Pregnancy related testing is done before or during ...
... blood test - quantitative; Beta-HCG blood test - quantitative; Pregnancy test - blood - quantitative ... of a screening test for Down syndrome. This test is also done to diagnose abnormal conditions not related to pregnancy that can raise HCG level.
The groundbreaking book Design Driven Testing brings sanity back to the software development process by flipping around the concept of Test Driven Development (TDD) - restoring the concept of using testing to verify a design instead of pretending that unit tests are a replacement for design. Anyone who feels that TDD is "Too Damn Difficult" will appreciate this book. Design Driven Testing shows that, by combining a forward-thinking development process with cutting-edge automation, testing can be a finely targeted, business-driven, rewarding effort. In other words, you'll learn how to test
Learning Software Testing with Test Studio is a practical, hands-on guide that will help you get started with Test Studio to design your automated solution and tests. All through the book, there are best practices and tips and tricks inside Test Studio which can be employed to improve your solution just like an experienced QA.If you are a beginner or a professional QA who is seeking a fast, clear, and direct to the point start in automated software testing inside Test Studio, this book is for you. You should be familiar with the .NET framework, mainly Visual Studio, C#, and SQL, as the book's
Petrenko, A.; van der Bijl, H.M.; Rensink, Arend; Ulrich, A.; Tretmans, G.J.
Abstract. Compositional testing concerns the testing of systems that consist of communicating components which can also be tested in isolation. Examples are component based testing and interoperability testing. We show that, with certain restrictions, the ioco-test theory for conformance testing is
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Air Force Arnold Engineering Development Center's Engine Test Facility (ETF) test cells are used for development and evaluation testing of propulsion systems for...
Serum myoglobin; Heart attack - myoglobin blood test; Myositis - myoglobin blood test; Rhabdomyolysis - myoglobin blood test ... too high, it can damage the kidneys. This test is ordered when your health care provider suspects ...
Ketone bodies - urine; Urine ketones; Ketoacidosis - urine ketones test; Diabetic ketoacidosis - urine ketones test ... Urine ketones are usually measured as a "spot test." This is available in a test kit that ...
... Videos for Educators Search English Español Blood Test: Glucose KidsHealth / For Parents / Blood Test: Glucose What's in ... liver or kidneys) is working. What Is a Glucose Test? A glucose test measures how much glucose ...
... Normalized Ratio Related tests: Activated Clotting Time ; Partial Thromboplastin Time ; Prothrombin Consumption Time; Fibrinogen ; Coagulation Factors ; Platelet Count ; Platelet Function Tests ; Thrombin Time ; Warfarin Sensitivity Testing All content on Lab Tests Online has ...
... is easier to treat. Blood tests and heart health tests can help find heart diseases or identify ... diseases. There are several different types of heart health tests. Your doctor will decide which test or ...
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Genetic Testing KidsHealth / For Parents / Genetic Testing What's in ... blood, skin, bone, or other tissue is needed. Genetic Testing During Pregnancy For genetic testing before birth, ...
... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Prenatal Genetic Screening Tests Home For Patients Search FAQs Prenatal ... Screening Tests FAQ165, July 2017 PDF Format Prenatal Genetic Screening Tests Pregnancy What is prenatal genetic testing? ...
Rochon, Justine; Gondan, Matthias; Kieser, Meinhard
Background: Student's two-sample t test is generally used for comparing the means of two independent samples, for example, two treatment arms. Under the null hypothesis, the t test assumes that the two samples arise from the same normally distributed population with unknown variance. Adequate...... control of the Type I error requires that the normality assumption holds, which is often examined by means of a preliminary Shapiro-Wilk test. The following two-stage procedure is widely accepted: If the preliminary test for normality is not significant, the t test is used; if the preliminary test rejects...... the null hypothesis of normality, a nonparametric test is applied in the main analysis. Methods: Equally sized samples were drawn from exponential, uniform, and normal distributions. The two-sample t test was conducted if either both samples (Strategy I) or the collapsed set of residuals from both samples...
Malarkey, Cynthia J.; Aiken, Lewis R.
The Survey of Testing Practices was administered to 470 undergraduate students at Pepperdine University and the Univesity of California Los Angeles. The items concerned testing practices in three or four classes taken the previous term: type of test, test administration, class size, procedures for returning tests, test difficulty, and observed…
Vassilakos, Gregory J.; Corliss, James M.; Mark, Stephen D.
Modal testing of the Boilerplate Test Article (BTA) was performed to obtain data to determine the accuracy of the BTA LS- DYNA model in determining the structural response. The BTA is a full-scale steel and aluminum test article that is representative of the Orion Crew Module (CM), with similar outer-mold-line geometry, mass properties, and some similar structural features, including an internal pressure vessel connected to a backshell and heatshield via longerons, Retention and Release (R&R) brackets, and an aft ring. The structural design of the Orion CM is being developed based on LS-DYNA water landing simulations. To obtain data to evaluate the accuracy of LS-DYNA water impact landing simulations, a series of BTA water impacts was conducted at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). Discrepancies between test and simulation data are attributed to three causes:(1) Test data variability and uncertainty, (2) LS-DYNA water model and fluid-structure coupling approximations; and (3) LS-DYNA structural modeling approximations. Two activities have been undertaken to assess the accuracy of the BTA LS-DYNA structural model separately from the fluid-structure coupling portion of the water landing simulations: 1) modal testing, and 2) static load testing. The results from the static load tests are documented in a separate report. For the modal test series, the following tests were performed: (1) BTA Fully-Assembled Model Test, (2) BTA Backshell Removed Modal Test, (3) Standalone Heatshield Modal Test, (4) Standalone Windward Backshell Panel Modal Test; and (5) Standalone Leeward Backshell Panel Modal Test. This report documents findings from correlation of modal test data with LS-DYNA modal analysis results. The following figures illustrate the correlation of the modal frequencies. Where multiple closely spaced modes have been identified, the points representing the upper and lower frequencies are shown connected by a dotted line.
As a classroom teacher, Kari Smith realized that traditional objective tests don't always assess what students actually know. But tests are so deeply embedded in the education system that it would be difficult to do away with them entirely. Smith decided to make tests into learning tools. In this article, Smith describes three strategies for…
The average grade equivalent reading comprehension scores of students in Black schools are compared to those of students in White schools under two forms of test administration. Concludes that use of grade level testing with the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills is biased in favor of low scoring subgroups. (Author)
Anderson, Scarvia B.; Dobbin, John E.
Public uses of tests and testing include all those materials and practices in observation of human behavior that are intended to help administrators, school boards, legislatures, taxpayers, and others to evaluate their educational systems. Pedagogical uses of tests, on the other hand, cover all those materials and practices in observation of human…
SUNIL L. BANGARE; SEEMA BORSE; PALLAVI S. BANGARE; SHITAL NANDEDKAR
Software testing is an investigation conducted to provide stakeholders with information about the quality of the product or service under test. With the help of software testing we can verify or validate the software product. Normally testing will be done after development of software but we can perform the software testing at the time of development process also. This paper will give you a brief introduction about Automated API Testing Tool. This tool of testing will reduce lots of headache ...
Among the tests you perform on web applications, security testing is perhaps the most important, yet it's often the most neglected. The recipes in the Web Security Testing Cookbook demonstrate how developers and testers can check for the most common web security issues, while conducting unit tests, regression tests, or exploratory tests. Unlike ad hoc security assessments, these recipes are repeatable, concise, and systematic-perfect for integrating into your regular test suite.
Wright, Thomas C; Stoler, Mark H; Behrens, Catherine M; Sharma, Abha; Zhang, Guili; Wright, Teresa L
ATHENA evaluated the cobas HPV Test as the primary screen for cervical cancer in women ≥25years. This reports the 3-year end-of-study results comparing the performance of HPV primary screening to different screening and triage combinations. 42,209 women ≥25years were enrolled and had cytology and hrHPV testing. Women with abnormal cytology (≥atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance) and those HPV positive were referred to colposcopy. Women not reaching the study endpoint of CIN2+ entered the 3-year follow-up phase. 3-year CIR of CIN3+ in cytology-negative women was 0.8% (95% CI; 0.5-1.1%), 0.3% (95% CI 0.1-0.7%) in HPV-negative women, and 0.3% (95% CI; 0.1-0.6%) in cytology and HPV negative women. The sensitivity for CIN3+ of cytology was 47.8% (95% CI; 41.6-54.1%) compared to 61.7% (95% CI; 56.0-67.5%) for the hybrid strategy (cytology if 25-29years and cotesting with cytology and HPV if ≥30years) and 76.1% (95% CI; 70.3-81.8%) for HPV primary. The specificity for CIN3+ was 97.1% (95% CI; 96.9-97.2%), 94.6% (95% CI; 94.4-94.8%), and 93.5% (95% CI; 93.3-93.8%) for cytology, hybrid strategy, and HPV primary, respectively. Although HPV primary detects significantly more cases of CIN3+ in women ≥25years than either cytology or hybrid strategy, it requires significantly more colposcopies. However, the number of colposcopies required to detect a single CIN3+ is the same as for the hybrid strategy. HPV primary screening in women ≥25years is as effective as a hybrid screening strategy that uses cytology if 25-29years and cotesting if ≥30years. However, HPV primary screening requires less screening tests. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Arginine test; Arginine-GHRH test ... of re-inserting the needle each time. The test takes between 2 to 5 hours. The procedure ... eat for 10 to 12 hours before the test. Eating food can change the test results. Some ...
... Advertisement Featured ContentPap Smear (Pap Test)Read Article >>Pap Smear (Pap Test)Preconception Carrier ScreeningsRead Article >>Preconception Carrier ... Article >>Tests and ProceduresPap Smear (Pap Test)A Pap smear (Pap test) is a medical exam used to ...
James R. Davidson
The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) prepared this generic test plan to provide clients (vendors, end users, program sponsors, etc.) with a sense of the scope and depth of vulnerability testing performed at the INL’s Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) Test Bed and to serve as an example of such a plan. Although this test plan specifically addresses vulnerability testing of systems applied to the energy sector (electric/power transmission and distribution and oil and gas systems), it is generic enough to be applied to control systems used in other critical infrastructures such as the transportation sector, water/waste water sector, or hazardous chemical production facilities. The SCADA Test Bed is established at the INL as a testing environment to evaluate the security vulnerabilities of SCADA systems, energy management systems (EMS), and distributed control systems. It now supports multiple programs sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, other government agencies, and private sector clients. This particular test plan applies to testing conducted on a SCADA/EMS provided by a vendor. Before performing detailed vulnerability testing of a SCADA/EMS, an as delivered baseline examination of the system is conducted, to establish a starting point for all-subsequent testing. The series of baseline tests document factory delivered defaults, system configuration, and potential configuration changes to aid in the development of a security plan for in depth vulnerability testing. The baseline test document is provided to the System Provider,a who evaluates the baseline report and provides recommendations to the system configuration to enhance the security profile of the baseline system. Vulnerability testing is then conducted at the SCADA Test Bed, which provides an in-depth security analysis of the Vendor’s system.b a. The term System Provider replaces the name of the company/organization providing the system
Full Text Available The experimental tests performed to validate a tractor prototype before its production, need a substantial financial and time commitment. The tests could be reduced using accelerated tests able to reproduce on the structural part of the tractor, the same damage produced on the tractor during real life in a reduced time. These tests were usually performed reproducing a particular harsh condition a defined number of times, as for example using a bumpy road on track to carry out the test in any weather condition. Using these procedures the loads applied on the tractor structure are different with respect to those obtained during the real use, with the risk to apply loads hard to find in reality. Recently it has been demonstrated how, using the methodologies designed for cars, it is possible to also expedite the structural tests for tractors. In particular, automotive proving grounds were recently successfully used with tractors to perform accelerated structural tests able to reproduce the real use of the machine with an acceleration factor higher than that obtained with the traditional methods. However, the acceleration factor obtained with a tractor on proving grounds is in any case reduced due to the reduced speed of the tractors with respect to cars. In this context, the goal of the paper is to show the development of a methodology to perform an accelerated structural test on a medium power tractor using a 4 post test rig. In particular, several proving ground testing conditions have been performed to measure the loads on the tractor. The loads obtained were then edited to remove the not damaging portion of signals, and finally the loads obtained were reproduced in a 4 post test rig. The methodology proposed could be a valid alternative to the use of a proving ground to reproduce accelerated structural tests on tractors.
DST; ACTH suppression test; Cortisol suppression test ... During this test, you will receive dexamethasone. This is a strong man-made (synthetic) glucocorticoid medicine. Afterward, your blood is drawn ...
BMD test; Bone density test; Bone densitometry; DEXA scan; DXA; Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; p-DEXA; Osteoporosis - BMD ... need to undress. This scan is the best test to predict your risk of fractures, especially of ...
Acetone bodies; Ketones - serum; Nitroprusside test; Ketone bodies - serum; Ketones - blood; Ketoacidosis - ketones blood test ... fat cells break down in the blood. This test is used to diagnose ketoacidosis . This is a ...
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Mark I Test Facility is a state-of-the-art space environment simulation test chamber for full-scale space systems testing. A $1.5M dollar upgrade in fiscal year...
Thode, Henry C
Describes the selection, design, theory, and application of tests for normality. Covers robust estimation, test power, and univariate and multivariate normality. Contains tests ofr multivariate normality and coordinate-dependent and invariant approaches.
Federal Laboratory Consortium — This test apparatus, when combined with the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex, produces a thorough, full-scale test capability. The Large Rotor Test Apparatus...
Kidney function tests are common lab tests used to evaluate how well the kidneys are working. Such tests include: ... Oh MS, Briefel G. Evaluation of renal function, water, electrolytes ... and Management by Laboratory Methods . 23rd ed. Philadelphia, ...
Alkaline phosphatase isoenzyme test ... anything for 10 to 12 hours before the test, unless your health care provider tells you to do so. Many medicines can interfere with blood test results. Your health care provider will tell you ...
Methemoglobinemia - methylene blue test ... No special preparation is required for this test. ... which are genetic (problem with your genes). This test is used to tell the difference between methemoglobinemia ...
... levels of estradiol, which are produced by the testes and adrenal glands. In young girls, estradiol levels ... to check for damage or disease of the testes, ovaries, or adrenal glands. Testing estradiol levels also ...
Federal Laboratory Consortium — Redstone Test Center provides an expert workforce and technologically advanced test equipment to conduct the rigorous testing necessary for U.S. Army acquisition and...
... Fasting blood sugar; Glucose test; Diabetic screening - blood sugar test; Diabetes - blood sugar test ... to screen a person for diabetes. High blood sugar and diabetes may not cause symptoms in the early stages. ...
... Testing Leptin Levetiracetam Lipase Lipid Profile Lipoprotein (a) Lithium Liver Panel Lp-PLA2 Lupus Anticoagulant Testing Luteinizing ... 2012 guidelines from the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA), confirmatory testing on adults is not usually ...
.... InterTech provided two Model 1075 pressure-decay leak detectors to perform the three tests-a leak test at 220 inches of water column, a leak test at 5 inches of water column, and a forward direction...
... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Prenatal Genetic Diagnostic Tests Home For Patients Search FAQs Prenatal ... Pamphlets - Spanish FAQ164, September 2016 PDF Format Prenatal Genetic Diagnostic Tests Pregnancy What is prenatal genetic testing? ...
Federal Laboratory Consortium — Provides a wide variety of testing equipment, fixtures and facilities to perform both unique aviation component testing as well as common types of materials testing...
... type I - glucagon test; Hypoglycemia - glucagon test; Low blood sugar - glucagon test ... A blood sample is needed . ... When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel ... Afterward, there may be some throbbing or a slight bruise. This ...
... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003718.htm Prolactin blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... test measures the amount of prolactin in the blood. How the Test is Performed A blood sample is needed . How ...
... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003474.htm BUN - blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... for the Test Many medicines can interfere with blood test results. Your health care provider will tell you ...
Vejen, Niels Kristian
Three small test SDHW systems was tested in a laboratory test facility.The three SDHW systems where all based on the low flow principe and a mantle tank but the design of the systems where different.......Three small test SDHW systems was tested in a laboratory test facility.The three SDHW systems where all based on the low flow principe and a mantle tank but the design of the systems where different....
Strigini, L.; Littlewood, B.; European Space Agency
This document provides an introduction to statistical testing. Statistical testing of software is here defined as testing in which the test cases are produced by a random process meant to produce different test cases with the same probabilities with which they would arise in actual use of the software. Statistical testing of software has these main advantages: for the purpose of reliability assessment and product acceptance, it supports directly estimates of reliability, and thus decisions on...
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electrical Power Mobile Test capabilities are utilized to conduct electrical power quality testing on aircraft and helicopters. This capability allows that the...
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Test Control Center (TCC) provides a consolidated facility for planning, coordinating, controlling, monitoring, and analyzing distributed test events. ,The TCC...
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electromagnetic Interface Testing facilitysupports such testing asEmissions, Field Strength, Mode Stirring, EMP Pulser, 4 Probe Monitoring/Leveling System, and...
Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory develops screening assays, tests and modifies biosensor equipment, and optimizes food safety testing protocols for the military and civilian sector...
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Global Positioning System (GPS) Test Facility Instrumentation Suite (GPSIS) provides great flexibility in testing receivers by providing operational control of...
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Textiles Performance Testing Facilities has the capabilities to perform all physical wet and dry performance testing, and visual and instrumental color analysis...
Duckworth, Angela Lee; Quinn, Patrick D.; Lynam, Donald R.; Loeber, Rolf; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda
Intelligence tests are widely assumed to measure maximal intellectual performance, and predictive associations between intelligence quotient (IQ) scores and later-life outcomes are typically interpreted as unbiased estimates of the effect of intellectual ability on academic, professional, and social life outcomes. The current investigation critically examines these assumptions and finds evidence against both. First, we examined whether motivation is less than maximal on intelligence tests administered in the context of low-stakes research situations. Specifically, we completed a meta-analysis of random-assignment experiments testing the effects of material incentives on intelligence-test performance on a collective 2,008 participants. Incentives increased IQ scores by an average of 0.64 SD, with larger effects for individuals with lower baseline IQ scores. Second, we tested whether individual differences in motivation during IQ testing can spuriously inflate the predictive validity of intelligence for life outcomes. Trained observers rated test motivation among 251 adolescent boys completing intelligence tests using a 15-min “thin-slice” video sample. IQ score predicted life outcomes, including academic performance in adolescence and criminal convictions, employment, and years of education in early adulthood. After adjusting for the influence of test motivation, however, the predictive validity of intelligence for life outcomes was significantly diminished, particularly for nonacademic outcomes. Collectively, our findings suggest that, under low-stakes research conditions, some individuals try harder than others, and, in this context, test motivation can act as a third-variable confound that inflates estimates of the predictive validity of intelligence for life outcomes. PMID:21518867
Duckworth, Angela Lee; Quinn, Patrick D; Lynam, Donald R; Loeber, Rolf; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda
Intelligence tests are widely assumed to measure maximal intellectual performance, and predictive associations between intelligence quotient (IQ) scores and later-life outcomes are typically interpreted as unbiased estimates of the effect of intellectual ability on academic, professional, and social life outcomes. The current investigation critically examines these assumptions and finds evidence against both. First, we examined whether motivation is less than maximal on intelligence tests administered in the context of low-stakes research situations. Specifically, we completed a meta-analysis of random-assignment experiments testing the effects of material incentives on intelligence-test performance on a collective 2,008 participants. Incentives increased IQ scores by an average of 0.64 SD, with larger effects for individuals with lower baseline IQ scores. Second, we tested whether individual differences in motivation during IQ testing can spuriously inflate the predictive validity of intelligence for life outcomes. Trained observers rated test motivation among 251 adolescent boys completing intelligence tests using a 15-min "thin-slice" video sample. IQ score predicted life outcomes, including academic performance in adolescence and criminal convictions, employment, and years of education in early adulthood. After adjusting for the influence of test motivation, however, the predictive validity of intelligence for life outcomes was significantly diminished, particularly for nonacademic outcomes. Collectively, our findings suggest that, under low-stakes research conditions, some individuals try harder than others, and, in this context, test motivation can act as a third-variable confound that inflates estimates of the predictive validity of intelligence for life outcomes.
Shen, Y; Wu, D; Zelen, M
Consider two diagnostic procedures having binary outcomes. If one of the tests results in a positive finding, a more definitive diagnostic procedure will be administered to establish the presence or absence of a disease. The use of both tests will improve the overall screening sensitivity when the two tests are independent, compared with employing two tests that are positively correlated. We estimate the correlation coefficient of the two tests and derive statistical methods for testing the independence of the two diagnostic procedures conditional on disease status. The statistical tests are used to investigate the independence of mammography and clinical breast exams aimed at establishing the benefit of early detection of breast cancer. The data used in the analysis are obtained from periodic screening examinations of three randomized clinical trials of breast cancer screening. Analysis of each of these trials confirms the independence of the clinical breast and mammography examinations. Based on these three large clinical trials, we conclude that a clinical breast exam considerably increases the overall sensitivity relative to screening with mammography alone and should be routinely included in early breast cancer detection programs.
Andreasen, Karen Egedal; Jensen, Lars Bang
Kapitlet rummer en analyse og diskussion af test inden for naturfagsområdet og de fagforståelser de afspejler med fokus på de nationale test.......Kapitlet rummer en analyse og diskussion af test inden for naturfagsområdet og de fagforståelser de afspejler med fokus på de nationale test....
Sweat test; Sweat chloride; Iontophoretic sweat test; CF - sweat test; Cystic fibrosis - sweat test ... A colorless, odorless chemical that causes sweating is applied to a small area on an arm or leg. An electrode is then attached to the spot. A weak electrical ...
Bicarbonate test; HCO3-; Carbon dioxide test; TCO2; Total CO2; CO2 test - serum; Acidosis - CO2; Alkalosis - CO2 ... The CO2 test is most often done as part of an electrolyte or basic metabolic panel. Changes in your ...
V. N. Yarmolik
Full Text Available Modern RAM tests and methods for their generation are analyzed and investigated. The wide application of pseudoexhaustive tests as the main test procedure for modern computer systems has been proved. The main estimates and metrics for so kind of tests are obtained. The values of analytical estimates have been validated by the experimental investigations.
Peptic ulcer disease - H. pylori ; PUD - H. pylori ... There are several methods to test for H. pylori infection. Breath Test (Carbon Isotope-urea Breath Test, or UBT) Up to 2 weeks before the test, you need to stop taking antibiotics, ...
Brawner, E. L.; Martin, R.; Pate, W.
Testing device, which determines ability of a technician to identify color-coded electric wires, is superior to standard color blindness tests. It tests speed of wire selection, detects partial color blindness, allows rapid testing, and may be administered by a color blind person.
Pre-tests are a non-graded assessment tool used to determine pre-existing subject knowledge. Typically pre-tests are administered prior to a course to determine knowledge baseline, but here they are used to test students prior to topical material coverage throughout the course. While counterintuitive, the pre-tests cover material the student is…
International Organization for Standardization. Geneva
ISO 1217:2009 specifies methods for acceptance tests regarding volume rate of flow and power requirements of displacement compressors. It also specifies methods for testing liquid-ring type compressors and the operating and testing conditions which apply when a full performance test is specified.
A load testing circuit a circuit tests the load impedance of a load connected to an amplifier. The load impedance includes a first terminal and a second terminal, the load testing circuit comprising a signal generator providing a test signal of a defined bandwidth to the first terminal of the load...
A. van Deursen (Arie); L.M.F. Moonen (Leon); A. van den Bergh; G. Kok
textabstractTwo key aspects of extreme programming (XP) are unit testing and merciless refactoring. Given the fact that the ideal test code / production code ratio approaches 1:1, it is not surprising that unit tests are being refactored. We found that refactoring test code is different from
... However, your doctor may want to use a stress test to screen for CHD if you have diabetes. This disease increases your risk of CHD. Currently, though, no evidence shows that having a stress test will improve your outcome if you have diabetes. What To Expect Before Stress Testing Stress testing ...
... Important? Top 10 Homework Tips Raising Confident Kids Blood Test: Bilirubin KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood Test: Bilirubin Print ... español Análisis de sangre: bilirrubina What Is a Blood Test? A blood test is when a sample of ...
The Lyme disease blood test looks for antibodies in the blood to the bacteria that causes Lyme disease. The test is used to help ... specialist looks for Lyme disease antibodies in the blood sample using the ELISA test . If the ELISA test is positive, it must ...
... than 12 parts per million over your fasting (pre-test) level. The blood test is considered normal if your glucose level ... of 12 parts per million (ppm) over your pre-test level is considered positive, ... lactose. The blood test is considered abnormal if your glucose level ...
Jain, Abhinandan; Cameron, Jonathan M.; Myint, Steven
This software runs a suite of arbitrary software tests spanning various software languages and types of tests (unit level, system level, or file comparison tests). The dtest utility can be set to automate periodic testing of large suites of software, as well as running individual tests. It supports distributing multiple tests over multiple CPU cores, if available. The dtest tool is a utility program (written in Python) that scans through a directory (and its subdirectories) and finds all directories that match a certain pattern and then executes any tests in that directory as described in simple configuration files.
The easy way to get practice and excel at numeracy tests Whether you're looking for a new job, applying to certain university courses, or attempting to join the military, you're increasingly likely to face a numeracy test as part of the screening process. And the only way to prepare for a numeracy test is practise. Numeracy Tests For Dummies is an accessible one-stop guide to pass these test. Featuring expert advice, instruction, review, and plenty of practise, Numeracy Tests For Dummies will help you succeed. Numeracy Tests For Dummies contains instruction and revision on:Basic mathematical k
Jewell, R. E.
Vibroacoustic testing was performed on the orbital workshop dynamic test article and the payload assembly, the two major elements of the Skylab payload. The testing was conducted on each of the Skylab elements separately in the reverberation chamber at the Johnson Space Center. The two test configurations were high fidelity flight article simulations. The testing was conducted in two phases; in the first phase, acoustic tests were performed at levels simulating the lift-off and atmospheric flight acoustic criteria. In the second phase, low frequency sinusoidal vibration tests were conducted to obtain modal response data. The objectives of the Skylab vibroacoustic test program were to: verify the vibration design and test criteria; qualify selected flight components to the vibroacoustic criteria; and verify analytical models used for dynamic load analyses. This paper describes the vibroacoustic testing and discusses the results.
More, J.J.; Garbow, B.S.; Hillstrom, K.E.
Much of the testing of optimization software is inadequate because the number of test functions is small or the starting points are close to the solution. In addition, there has been too much emphasis on measuring the efficiency of the software and not enough on testing reliability and robustness. To address this need, a relatively large but easy-to-use collection of test functions was produced and guidelines for testing the reliability and robustness of unconstrained optimization software were designed. 9 tables.
Angela Lee Duckworth; Patrick D. Quinn; Donald R. Lynam; Rolf Loeber; Magda Stouthamer-Loeber; Edward E. Smith
.... The current investigation critically examines these assumptions and finds evidence against both. First, we examined whether motivation is less than maximal on intelligence tests administered in the context of low-stakes research situations...
Braasch, P.; Gay, P. L.
Wolf Testing is software for easily creating and editing exams. Wolf Testing allows the user to create an exam from a database of questions, view it on screen, and easily print it along with the corresponding answer guide. The questions can be multiple choice, short answer, long answer, or true and false varieties. This software can be accessed securely from any location, allowing the user to easily create exams from home. New questions, which can include associated pictures, can be added through a web-interface. After adding in questions, they can be edited, deleted, or duplicated into multiple versions. Long-term test creation is simplified, as you are able to quickly see what questions you have asked in the past and insert them, with or without editing, into future tests. All tests are archived in the database. Written in PHP and MySQL, this software can be installed on any UNIX / Linux platform, including Macintosh OS X. The secure interface keeps students out, and allows you to decide who can create tests and who can edit information already in the database. Tests can be output as either html with pictures or rich text without pictures, and there are plans to add PDF and MS Word formats as well. We would like to thank Dr. Wolfgang Rueckner and the Harvard University Science Center for providing incentive to start this project, computers and resources to complete this project, and inspiration for the project's name. We would also like to thank Dr. Ronald Newburgh for his assistance in beta testing.
Galhotra, Sainyam; Brun, Yuriy; Meliou, Alexandra
This paper defines software fairness and discrimination and develops a testing-based method for measuring if and how much software discriminates, focusing on causality in discriminatory behavior. Evidence of software discrimination has been found in modern software systems that recommend criminal sentences, grant access to financial products, and determine who is allowed to participate in promotions. Our approach, Themis, generates efficient test suites to measure discrimination. Given a sche...
Mohanty, J; Balakrishnan, Arunkumar
This book is focused on the advancements in the field of software testing and the innovative practices that the industry is adopting. Considering the widely varied nature of software testing, the book addresses contemporary aspects that are important for both academia and industry. There are dedicated chapters on seamless high-efficiency frameworks, automation on regression testing, software by search, and system evolution management. There are a host of mathematical models that are promising for software quality improvement by model-based testing. There are three chapters addressing this concern. Students and researchers in particular will find these chapters useful for their mathematical strength and rigor. Other topics covered include uncertainty in testing, software security testing, testing as a service, test technical debt (or test debt), disruption caused by digital advancement (social media, cloud computing, mobile application and data analytics), and challenges and benefits of outsourcing. The book w...
İsmail Fırat ALTAY
Full Text Available Teaching of a language is a very complicated issue and testing is anindispensable part of this matter. Thanks to testing teachers can assess efficiency ofteaching and learning atmosphere, and can get feedback about their learners. In order torealize this, a test should have some qualifications. One of these qualifications is aboutpragmatics. This paper aims at explaining what makes a test pragmatic and howpragmatic tests can be formed. So, examples of pragmatic tests of different types arepresented with explanations. Their pragmatic components and nature are focused on bygiving example test items on the problematic area of test questions prepared. Finally,the writer states his last words by making further comments and explanations onpragmatics of testing in the conclusion part.
Beuchert, Louise Voldby; Nandrup, Anne Brink
working with the first four rounds of the test data. We provide a brief introduction to adaptive testing, the available data and general data issues including missing data, test participation and data transformations. Additionally, we construct a standardized measure of the raw pupil ability estimate......In 2010, the Danish National Tests were implemented in the public compulsory schools as a mean of evaluating the performance of the public school system. The extensive test program consists of ten mandatory tests in six subjects in grades 2 through 8. In this paper, we share our insights from...... within each test and argue that this is often a more feasible measure for data analyses compared to the transformed test score presented to pupils and teachers. We provide the reader with preliminary analyses of the relation between pupils' national test results and a wide range of pupil background...
Gas Test Loop Hydraulic Testing Staff
The Gas Test Loop (GTL) project is for the design of an adaptation to the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) to create a fast-flux test space where fuels and materials for advanced reactor concepts can undergo irradiation testing. Incident to that design, it was found necessary to make use of special booster fuel to enhance the neutron flux in the reactor lobe in which the Gas Test Loop will be installed. Because the booster fuel is of a different composition and configuration from standard ATR fuel, it is necessary to qualify the booster fuel for use in the ATR. Part of that qualification is the determination that required thermal hydraulic criteria will be met under routine operation and under selected accident scenarios. The Hydraulic Testing task in the GTL project facilitates that determination by measuring flow coefficients (pressure drops) over various regions of the booster fuel over a range of primary coolant flow rates. A high-fidelity model of the NW lobe of the ATR with associated flow baffle, in-pile-tube, and below-core flow channels was designed, constructed and located in the Idaho State University Thermal Fluids Laboratory. A circulation loop was designed and constructed by the university to provide reactor-relevant water flow rates to the test system. Models of the four booster fuel elements required for GTL operation were fabricated from aluminum (no uranium or means of heating) and placed in the flow channel. One of these was instrumented with Pitot tubes to measure flow velocities in the channels between the three booster fuel plates and between the innermost and outermost plates and the side walls of the flow annulus. Flow coefficients in the range of 4 to 6.5 were determined from the measurements made for the upper and middle parts of the booster fuel elements. The flow coefficient for the lower end of the booster fuel and the sub-core flow channel was lower at 2.3.
Kalyanova, Olena; Heiselberg, Per
This document includes a definition of the comparative test cases DSF200_3 and DSF200_4, which previously described in the comparative test case specification for the test cases DSF100_3 and DSF200_3 [Ref.1]....... This document includes a definition of the comparative test cases DSF200_3 and DSF200_4, which previously described in the comparative test case specification for the test cases DSF100_3 and DSF200_3 [Ref.1]....
Chen, Tsong Yueh; Kuo, Fei-Ching; Ma, Wenjuan; Susilo, Willy; Towey, Dave; Voas, Jeffrey; Zhou, Zhi Quan
Testing is a major approach for the detection of software defects, including vulnerabilities in security features. This article introduces metamorphic testing (MT), a relatively new testing method, and discusses how the new perspective of MT can help to conduct negative testing as well as to alleviate the oracle problem in the testing of security-related functionality and behavior. As demonstrated by the effectiveness of MT in detecting previously unknown bugs in real-world critical applications such as compilers and code obfuscators, we conclude that software testing of security-related features should be conducted from diverse perspectives in order to achieve greater cybersecurity.
The Materials Test Branch resides at Marshall Space Flight Center's Materials and Processing laboratory and has a long history of supporting NASA programs from Mercury to the recently retired Space Shuttle. The Materials Test Branch supports its customers by supplying materials testing expertise in a wide range of applications. The Materials Test Branch is divided into three Teams, The Chemistry Team, The Tribology Team and the Mechanical Test Team. Our mission and goal is to provide world-class engineering excellence in materials testing with a special emphasis on customer service.
When the propellants in a liquid rocket engine burn, the rocket not only launches and moves in space, it causes forces that interact with the vehicle itself. When these interactions occur under specific conditions, the vehicle's structures and components can become unstable. One instability of primary concern is termed pogo (named after the movement of a pogo stick), in which the oscillations (cycling movements) cause large loads, or pressure, against the vehicle, tanks, feedlines, and engine. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has developed a unique test technology to understand and quantify the complex fluid movements and forces in a liquid rocket engine that contribute strongly to both engine and integrated vehicle performance and stability. This new test technology was established in the MSFC Cold Flow Propulsion Test Complex to allow injection and measurement of scaled propellant flows and measurement of the resulting forces at multiple locations throughout the engine.
Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Supports electromagnetic interference/radio frequency interference (EMI/RFI) testing of flight hardware. It is also used to support custom RF testing up to...
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Ballistic Test Facility is comprised of two outdoor and one indoor test ranges, which are all instrumented for data acquisition and analysis. Full-size aircraft...
... Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Prenatal Genetic Testing Chart (Infographic) Home For Patients Search FAQs Prenatal Genetic Testing Chart (Infographic) PFSI010 ››› Weeks 1–4 Weeks 5–8 ...
... TOPIC Vesicoureteral Reflux (VUR) Blood in the Urine (Hematuria) Urine Test: Creatinine Urine Test: Microalbumin-to-Creatinine ... Video) Urinary Tract Infections Blood in the Urine (Hematuria) Kidneys and Urinary Tract Contact Us Print Resources ...
... pressure (the bottom number in a blood pressure reading), lowers peripheral vascular resistance, increases your heart rate ... mayoclinic.org/tests-procedures/tilt-table-test/basics/definition/PRC-20019879 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and ...
... Analysis Kidney Stone Risk Panel KRAS Mutation Lactate Lactate Dehydrogenase (LD) Lactoferrin Lactose Tolerance Tests LDL Cholesterol LDL ... set of tests (cell count, protein, albumin, and lactate dehydrogenase (LD) level, and appearance of the fluid) to ...
This book is ideal if you want to learn about the testing disciplines and automated testing tools from a hands-on, conversational guide. You should already know Python and be comfortable with Python 3.
... that may be present in rare strains of HIV. The test may not detect a drug-resistant strain of ... Less Common Questions Related Content On This Site Tests: HIV Viral Load ; CD4 Count ; HIV Antibody and HIV ...
... LDL Particle Testing (LDL-P) Lead Legionella Testing Leptin Levetiracetam Lipase Lipid Profile Lipoprotein (a) Lithium Liver ... such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is suspected. Blood gases may also be used ...
... LDL Particle Testing (LDL-P) Lead Legionella Testing Leptin Levetiracetam Lipase Lipid Profile Lipoprotein (a) Lithium Liver ... 40; when you have chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or unexplained liver disease at any age; when ...
If you are an Android developer looking to test your applications or optimize your application development process, then this book is for you. No previous experience in application testing is required.
Uric acid urine test is performed to check for the amount of uric acid in urine. Urine is collected over a 24 ... for testing. The most common reason for measuring uric acid levels is in the diagnosis or treatment of ...
... you have difficulty with being in closed spaces (claustrophobia), mention this to your provider ordering the test. ... 4 If you have difficulty with closed spaces (claustrophobia), let the test center know in case one ...
Office of Personnel Management — The USA Hire Testing Platform delivers tests used in hiring for positions in the Federal Government. To safeguard the integrity of the hiring processes and ensure...
... test; Cancer of cervix - HPV DNA test References Hacker NF. Cervical dysplasia and cancer. In: Hacker NF, Gambone JC, Hobel CJ, eds. Hacker and Moore's Essentials of Obstetrics and Gynecology . 6th ...
... Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli Sickle Cell Tests Sirolimus Smooth Muscle Antibody (SMA) ... the "At a Glance" section of our test descriptions. However, be sure to check with your healthcare ...
Federal Laboratory Consortium — ATR controls fully-instrumented and integrated test ranges that provide full-service support for cradle-to-grave testing. Airspace and surface target areas are used...
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Environmental Test Facility (ETF) provides non-isolated shock testing for stand-alone equipment and full size cabinets under MIL-S-901D specifications. The ETF...
... Patient Resources For Health Professionals Subscribe Search Platelet Function Tests Send Us Your Feedback Choose Topic At ... Also Known As Platelet Aggregation Studies PFT Platelet Function Assay PFA Formal Name Platelet Function Tests This ...
Full Text Available It is essential to regularly test the usability of a learning management system, in order to ensure a fast adoption by new users and rapidly shift the focus from the platform to the content and the learning experience. Quantitative testing yields the most reliable results due to the large number of data points acquired, but lacks the in-depth analysis of the qualitative research from a controlled testing setup. We are proposing in this paper an integrated usability testing tool, which can replace a certain type of laboratory testing, where the users’ actions on the real platform are measured and analyzed. We conducted tests with the tool and compared the results with a small scale laboratory test using the same scenarios. The results seem to confirm the proposed tool as a viable alternative to the laboratory test.
... Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli Sickle Cell Tests Sirolimus Smooth Muscle Antibody (SMA) ... Ratio Valproic Acid Vancomycin Vanillylmandelic Acid (VMA) VAP Vitamin A Vitamin B12 and Folate Vitamin D Tests ...
... Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli Sickle Cell Tests Sirolimus Smooth Muscle Antibody (SMA) ... Ratio Valproic Acid Vancomycin Vanillylmandelic Acid (VMA) VAP Vitamin A Vitamin B12 and Folate Vitamin D Tests ...
... Acidosis and Alkalosis Adrenal Insufficiency and Addison Disease Alcoholism Allergies Alzheimer Disease Anemia Angina Ankylosing Spondylitis Anthrax ... through Their Medical Tests Tips to Help the Elderly through Their Medical Tests Related Video View More × ...
... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003403.htm Cord blood testing To use the sharing features on this page, ... the baby to the mother's womb. Cord blood testing can be done to evaluate a newborn's health. ...
Small-scale version of solid-fuel rocket motor flexseal nozzle bearing assembly instrumented and tested in compression-testing fixture simulating conditions during rocket motor operation described in report.
Diabetes - home glucose testing; Diabetes - home blood sugar testing ... day Your blood sugar level The amount of carbohydrates you ate The type and dose of your diabetes medicine The type of any exercise you do ...
Federal Laboratory Consortium — Insensitive Munitions Testing at RTC is conducted (IAW MILSTD-2105) at Test Area 4. Our engineers and technicians obtain data for hazards classification and safety...
... Testing Leptin Levetiracetam Lipase Lipid Profile Lipoprotein (a) Lithium Liver Panel Lp-PLA2 Lupus Anticoagulant Testing Luteinizing ... common cause of chronic liver disease in North America. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) ...
... Testing Leptin Levetiracetam Lipase Lipid Profile Lipoprotein (a) Lithium Liver Panel Lp-PLA2 Lupus Anticoagulant Testing Luteinizing ... Scleroderma Elsewhere On The Web Lupus Foundation of America American College of Rheumatology: Antinuclear Antibodies (ANA) American ...
... Testing Leptin Levetiracetam Lipase Lipid Profile Lipoprotein (a) Lithium Liver Panel Lp-PLA2 Lupus Anticoagulant Testing Luteinizing ... and other forms of licorice sold in North America do not actually contain licorice. Check the package ...
... Testing Leptin Levetiracetam Lipase Lipid Profile Lipoprotein (a) Lithium Liver Panel Lp-PLA2 Lupus Anticoagulant Testing Luteinizing ... For more information, see the Thyroid Foundation of America's web page Thyroid Problems During and After Pregnancy - ...
... endocervical canal itself but also, in some cases, endometrial, extrauterine, and other cancers. What follow-up tests ... cancer risk for women undergoing concurrent testing for human papillomavirus and cervical cytology: A population-based study ...
Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides the capability to perform large-scale structural loads testing on spacecraft and other structures. Results from these tests can be used to verify...
... and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates the development and marketing of all laboratory tests that use test kits ... Cancer.gov en español Multimedia Publications Site Map Digital Standards for NCI Websites POLICIES Accessibility Comment Policy ...
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Variable Attitude Test Stand designed and built for testing of the V-22 tilt rotor aircraft propulsion system, is used to evaluate the effect of aircraft flight...
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Corrosion Testing Facility is part of the Army Corrosion Office (ACO). It is a fully functional atmospheric exposure site, called the Corrosion Instrumented Test...
Clemmensen, Torkil; Goyal, Shivam
In this paper, we present the results of a pilot study in Denmark of cross cultural effects on Think Aloud usability testing. We provide an overview of previous research on cross cultural usability evaluation with a special focus on the relationship between the evaluator and the test user....... This relation was studied in an experiment with usability testing of a localized clipart application in which eight participants from Denmark and India formed pairs of evaluator-test user. The test users were asked to think aloud and the evaluators' role were to facilitate the test users thinking aloud...... and hereby identify usability problems with the clipart application. Data on the evaluators' and test users' behaviour were recorded and analyzed by coding and summarizing statistics on these behavioural events. The results show that Think Aloud Usability Test of a localized application is most effectively...
... Links Patient Resources For Health Professionals Subscribe Search Strep Throat Test Send Us Your Feedback Choose Topic At ... Tested? To determine if your sore throat is "strep throat" that is caused by group A streptococcus (GAS) ...
... or eye disease and you should have a professional eye examination. Amsler grid test: If the grid appears distorted or broken, there may be a problem with the retina . Distance vision test: If you do not read the ...
... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003564.htm Ethylene glycol blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... risk any time the skin is broken) Images Blood test References Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Ethylene glycol - serum ...
... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003695.htm ACTH blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... the adrenal gland . It regulates blood pressure and blood sugar. This test can help find the causes of certain hormone ...
... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003567.htm ACE blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... Alternative Names Serum angiotensin-converting enzyme; SACE Images Blood test References Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Angiotensin-converting enzyme ( ...
... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003357.htm Pyruvate kinase blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... energy when oxygen levels are low. How the Test is Performed A blood sample is needed. In the laboratory, white blood ...
... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003373.htm Fibrinopeptide A blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... measure the level of this substance in your blood. How the Test is Performed A blood sample is needed. How ...
... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003470.htm ALP - blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... include the liver, bile ducts, and bone. A blood test can be done to measure the level of ...
... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003559.htm Leucine aminopeptidase blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... Alternative Names Serum leucine aminopeptidase; LAP - serum Images Blood test References Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) - ...
... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003499.htm LDH isoenzyme blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... Names LD; LDH; Lactic (lactate) dehydrogenase isoenzymes Images Blood test References Carty RP, Pincus MR, Sarafraz-Yazdi E. ...
... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003566.htm Aldolase blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... risk any time the skin is broken) Images Blood test References Berridge BR, Van Vleet JF, Herman E. ...
... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003506.htm Ammonia blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... Encephalopathy - ammonia; Cirrhosis - ammonia; Liver failure - ammonia Images Blood test References Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Ammonia (NH3) - blood ...
Antibody Blood Tests Researchers have discovered that people with celiac disease who eat gluten have higher than normal levels of ... do I do if I have a negative blood test (or panel) but I’m still having symptoms? ...
... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003661.htm Antithrombin III blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... a protein that helps control blood clotting. A blood test can determine the amount of AT III present ...
Püntmann, Isabel; Wosniok, Werner; Haeckel, Rainer
The applicability of point-of-care testing (POCT) glucometers for monitoring blood glucose concentrations has been demonstrated. However, their use in diagnosing type 2 diabetes is still debated. Therefore, a new statistical procedure for estimating discordance rates (DRs) was applied in comparing a well-established laboratory method (Ebio) with another laboratory method (Cobas Integra 700) and with several POCT glucometers (Accu-Chek, Accutrend, Elite, HemoCue, Omni) in detecting glucose intolerance states. All procedures led to parallel glucose concentration patterns in capillary blood, venous plasma, and venous blood during oral glucose tolerance tests. However, the mean concentrations differed more or less. The Ebio and Integra results agreed within a maximal deviation of 3%. In blood samples, the HemoCue and Accutrend results were closest to the laboratory procedures (Ebio and Integra) and the highest differences were obtained with the Elite. Comparing whole blood values with those obtained in the aqueous blood compartment (Omni), even greater differences were observed. When all procedures were referred to the same glucose standard, the Ebio, Integra, Accutrend, and Omni results remained almost unchanged, whereas the Elite "moved" toward the Ebio results, and the Accu-Chek results toward the Omni results. Thus, traceability to an aqueous standard was observed with the Ebio, Integra, Accutrend, and Elite in all three sample systems. The Accu-Chek was only traceable in the presence of albumin, and HemoCue was not traceable at all. The clinical relevance of the differences observed between Ebio and POCT glucometers was tested by comparing the relative number of discordant classifications. The highest DRs were observed in the fasting state. They were higher in capillary blood than in the other sample systems. The DRs were found higher with POCT glucometers than with the other established laboratory procedure (Integra). Thus, at least in the fasting state, all POCT
Janovsky, R.; Behr, R.
Within the frame of the German national ASTRA program, the need for in-flight experimentation as a key element in the development of the next generation launcher was addressed by the Phoenix project. The Phoenix 1 flight test vehicle was designed to demonstrate the un-powered horizontal landing of a representative, winged RLV configuration. The Phoenix 1 flight test vehicle is downscaled from the reference RLV shape "Hopper", with the dimensions of 7.8m overall length, 3.8m span, and 1200kg mass. In order to be representative of a full scale RLV, the scaling method preserves all features challenging the automatic landing from the flight control point of view. These are in particular the poor flying qualities of the static unstable vehicle and the high landing velocity of 71m/s, which is same as for the full scale vehicle. The landing demonstration scenario comprises a drop from the helicopter approximately 6km ahead of the runway threshold at 2.4km above runway level. The subsequent free flight includes an accelerating dive to merge with a steep final approach path representative of an RLV, followed by a long flare, touch down on the runway, and rollout to standstill. Besides its mandatory avionics system, the vehicle is also equipped with an additional flight test instrumentation to identify local aerodynamic flow and structural stress. This FTI system is designed to collect data by recording about 130 sensor signals during flight. This test instrumentation system was operated during a test campaign dedicated to verify the aerodynamic data base of Phoenix in the Dutch-German Wind-tunnel (DNW) in August 2003 and during three automatic landing flight tests after helicopter drop in May 2004. Post flight analysis of these data allows to validate the design models and the development tools in order to establish a flight validated data base for future work. This paper gives an overview on the Phoenix system including the flight test instrumentation, the test program and
Didiek Andiana Ramadan; Drs. Linga Hermanto, MMSI Drs. Linga Hermanto, MMSI
In this paper, we design a test apparatus Transistor Specification. Specification is atype of transistor is a transistor and common emitter current reinforcement value ( βDC ). The system will provide information in the form of an LED display emits greenlight when the tested types of NPN transistor and the second LED emits blue lightwhen the tested types of PNP transistors.To test the value of β, whose value is proportional to the display used by the collectorcurrent Ic.
Buros, Oscar K., Ed.
Tests in Print II is a comprehensive, annotated bibliography of all in-print tests published as separates for use with English-speaking subjects. The 1,155 two-column pages list 2,467 tests in print as of early 1974; 16,574 references through 1971 on specific tests; a reprinting of the 1974 APA-AERA-NCME Standards for Educational andPsychological…
Mullette, Mark; Matthews, Gary; Russell, Kevin (Technical Monitor)
The actuator technology required for AMSD and subsequently NGST are critical in the successful development for future cryogenic systems. Kodak has undertaken an extensive test plan to determine the performance of the force actuators developed under the AMSD program. These actuators are currently in testing at MSFC and are expected to finish this test cycle in early June 2002.
'intelligence' just like a human being. The Turing test provides an unbiased method of comparing intelligent behaviour of humans with that of computers. The. Turing test is repeatable and objective. Turing did not regard his test as a necessary condition for attributing intelligence to machines but only as a sufficient condition.
Pendlebury, A. C.
Defining vocational English as a specific vocabulary of individual words and phases connected with a certain occupation, the author outlines principles of testing, lists types of vocational English tests, and attempts to show that in constructing such tests a whole range of types of question can be used. (FB)
Follow-up Testing Follow-up testing is conducted to ensure that antibody levels are returning to normal, indicating that the intestine is healing on the ... has entered the diet. How often should follow-up testing occur? New celiacs should receive follow-up ...
Huberty, Carl J.
An approach to statistical testing, which combines Neyman-Pearson hypothesis testing and Fisher significance testing, is recommended. The use of P-values in this approach is discussed in some detail. The author also discusses some problems which are often found in introductory statistics textbooks. The problems involve the definitions of…
Brown, James Dean, Ed.; Yamashita, Sayoko Okada, Ed.
Papers on second language testing in Japan include: "Differences Between Norm-Referenced and Criterion-Referenced Tests" (James Dean Brown); "Criterion-Referenced Test Construction and Evaluation" (Dale T. Griffe); "Behavioral Learning Objectives as an Evaluation Tool" (Judith A. Johnson); "Developing Norm-…
The simple and partial Mantel tests are routinely used in many areas of evolutionary biology to assess the significance of the association between two or more matrices of distances relative to the same pairs of individuals or demes. Partial Mantel tests rather than simple Mantel tests are widely ...... as supporting material....
Usability testing seems complicated and time-consuming. Is it though? In fact, it is the best way to understand how real users experience your product. In this interactive session, we will do a live usability test and you will get advice on how to conduct your own usability tests.
Jansen, MA, Robert
Includes one diagnostic test and three complete tests, all questions answered and explained, self-assessment guides, and subject reviews. Also features test strategies, QR codes to short instructional videos, and a detailed appendix with equations, physical constants, and a basic math review.
Software testing is presented as a so-called theme within which different authors and groups have defined different subjects each of these subjects having a different focus on testing. A uniform concept of software testing is non-existent and the space of possible coherent perspectives on software
... a Voice in Health Care Decisions Blood Test: Testosterone KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood Test: Testosterone Print A A A What's in this article? ... Análisis de sangre: testosterona What It Is A testosterone test measures the blood level of the male ...
Alexandru Dan CĂPRIŢĂ
Full Text Available Unit tests are a vital part of several software development practicesand processes such as Test-First Programming, Extreme Programming andTest-Driven Development. This article shortly presents the software quality andtesting concepts as well as an introduction to an automated unit testingframework for PHP web based applications.
Lewis, Charles; Sheehan, Kathleen
Introduces a theoretical framework for mastery testing, using Item Response Theory and Bayesian Decision Theory. The idea of sequential testing is developed, with the goal of providing longer or shorter tests as needed, and a computerized application to a hypothetical professional knowledge examination is discussed. (Author/LRW)
Einmahl, John; Gan, Zhuojiong
Omnibus tests for central symmetry of a bivariate probability distribution are proposed. The test statistics compare empirical measures of opposite regions. Under rather weak conditions, we establish the asymptotic distribution of the test statistics under the null hypothesis; it follows that they
complex electronics and munitions that are more susceptible to fatigue failure increased the potential for vibration to cause catastrophic failures... fatigue equiva- lent laboratory vibration specifications based on measured field data were also advancing. This led to the inclusion of the first fatigue ...critical vibration testing element. The field vibration environment may be described as the simultaneous vibration in three translational and three
Kanji, Gopal K
This expanded and updated Third Edition of Gopal K. Kanji's best-selling resource on statistical tests covers all the most commonly used tests with information on how to calculate and interpret results with simple datasets. Each entry begins with a short summary statement about the test's purpose, and contains details of the test objective, the limitations (or assumptions) involved, a brief outline of the method, a worked example, and the numerical calculation. 100 Statistical Tests, Third Edition is the one indispensable guide for users of statistical materials and consumers of statistical information at all levels and across all disciplines.
Lo, Jamie O; Cori D, Feist; Norton, Mary E; Caughey, Aaron B
Noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) refers to recently developed genetic tests of the maternal serum that allow higher detection rates of trisomy 21 and other chromosomal aneuploidies in high-risk pregnancies. Noninvasive prenatal test analyzes cell-free DNA (cfDNA) in the maternal serum. Approximately 3% to 15% of cfDNA in the maternal blood is of fetal origin. Analysis of cfDNA can help identify fetuses affected with trisomy 21 and several other fetal aneuploidies. Testing can be performed after 9 to 10 weeks' gestation and has a higher sensitivity and specificity for trisomy 21 than other aneuploidy screening test. Noninvasive prenatal test has been studied and validated in singleton pregnancies at risk for trisomy 21 secondary to advanced maternal age, an abnormal serum screen, personal or family history of aneuploidy, or abnormal ultrasound findings, if these are suggestive of trisomy 13, 18, or 21. The utilization of NIPT for genetic screening has increased rapidly since introduction of the first clinical test in October 2011. Currently, there are limitations to NIPT including the possibility of test failure (2.6%-5.4%) and the focus on only the common trisomies. Noninvasive prenatal test is a screening test, and both false-positive (0.2%-1%) and false-negative results can occur. As the technology for NIPT is further evaluated, this test is likely to be increasingly used for prenatal screening. This review provides the obstetric clinician with an update of the current issues concerning NIPT.
Alcaraz, A; Gregg, H; Koester, C
The current format of the OPCW proficiency tests has multiple sets of 2 samples sent to an analysis laboratory. In each sample set, one is identified as a sample, the other as a blank. This method of conducting proficiency tests differs from how an OPCW designated laboratory would receive authentic samples (a set of three containers, each not identified, consisting of the authentic sample, a control sample, and a blank sample). This exercise was designed to test the reporting if the proficiency tests were to be conducted. As such, this is not an official OPCW proficiency test, and the attached report is one method by which LLNL might report their analyses under a more realistic testing scheme. Therefore, the title on the report ''Report of the Umpteenth Official OPCW Proficiency Test'' is meaningless, and provides a bit of whimsy for the analyses and readers of the report.
Hjortskov, N; Jepsen, Leif; Nielsen, B
The pilocarpine iontophoresis test (P-test) is used as a predictor of the capacity to produce sweat. Therefore, we studied the reproducibility of this test in 12 normal subjects on 10 consecutive days. Furthermore, we determined whether the P-test reflects whole-body and regional sweat secretion...... during exercise in the heat. Finally, we determined whether the P-test stimulates the eccrine sweat glands to maximal sweat secretion. Six growth hormone-deficient (GHD) patients who are known to have decreased sweating, and 11 healthy control subjects were studied. To induce maximal sweat secretion......-to-day variation of 20.8% between individual subjects. There was a significant positive correlation between the P-test and regional sweat secretion (r2 = 0.74). The correlation coefficient (r2) was 0.50 for the correlation between the P-test and whole-body sweat secretion, and 0.52 for the correlation between...
Hjortskov, N; Jepsen, Leif; Nielsen, B
regional sweat secretion and whole-body sweat secretion. We conclude that the pilocarpine iontophoresis test reflects heat- and exercise-induced sweating capacity. However, this test does not induce maximal sweating, and it cannot be used as a single reliable predictor of whole-body sweating, due......The pilocarpine iontophoresis test (P-test) is used as a predictor of the capacity to produce sweat. Therefore, we studied the reproducibility of this test in 12 normal subjects on 10 consecutive days. Furthermore, we determined whether the P-test reflects whole-body and regional sweat secretion...... during exercise in the heat. Finally, we determined whether the P-test stimulates the eccrine sweat glands to maximal sweat secretion. Six growth hormone-deficient (GHD) patients who are known to have decreased sweating, and 11 healthy control subjects were studied. To induce maximal sweat secretion...
This presentation will explore how educational standardized testing becomes meaningful/not meaningful for children and teachers and at the same time how testing becomes part of everyday differentiation and categorization processes. The presentation is based on a 3 year long post doc project...... concerning the practice of standardized testing in the Danish primary and lower secondary school (Folkeskole). The empirical material consists of qualitative interviews of pupils and teachers and participative observations both in and outside test situations in 5 school classes. The theoretical basis...... with regard to; 1) how the technology of testing and children in communities co-constitute the practice in which children take part and becomes measured, 2) the ongoing reproduction and transformation of testing practice and 3) the contradictions and conflicts of testing practice. This theoretical outset...
Full Text Available With absolute normal semen analysis parameters it may not be necessary to shift to specialized tests early but in cases with borderline parameters or with history of fertilization failure in past it becomes necessary to do a battery of tests to evaluate different parameters of spermatozoa. Various sperm function tests are proposed and endorsed by different researchers in addition to the routine evaluation of fertility. These tests detect function of a certain part of spermatozoon and give insight on the events in fertilization of the oocyte. The sperms need to get nutrition from the seminal plasma in the form of fructose and citrate (this can be assessed by fructose qualitative and quantitative estimation, citrate estimation. They should be protected from the bad effects of pus cells and reactive oxygen species (ROS (leukocyte detection test, ROS estimation. Their number should be in sufficient in terms of (count, structure normal to be able to fertilize eggs (semen morphology. Sperms should have intact and functioning membrane to survive harsh environment of vagina and uterine fluids (vitality and hypo-osmotic swelling test, should have good mitochondrial function to be able to provide energy (mitochondrial activity index test. They should also have satisfactory acrosome function to be able to burrow a hole in zona pellucida (acrosome intactness test, zona penetration test. Finally, they should have properly packed DNA in the nucleus to be able to transfer the male genes (nuclear chromatic decondensation test to the oocyte during fertilization.
Barltrop, Kevin J.; Lee, Cin-Young; Horvath, Gregory A,; Clement, Bradley J.
A generalized framework has been developed for systems validation that can be applied to both traditional and autonomous systems. The framework consists of an automated test case generation and execution system called Nemesis that rapidly and thoroughly identifies flaws or vulnerabilities within a system. By applying genetic optimization and goal-seeking algorithms on the test equipment side, a "war game" is conducted between a system and its complementary nemesis. The end result of the war games is a collection of scenarios that reveals any undesirable behaviors of the system under test. The software provides a reusable framework to evolve test scenarios using genetic algorithms using an operation model of the system under test. It can automatically generate and execute test cases that reveal flaws in behaviorally complex systems. Genetic algorithms focus the exploration of tests on the set of test cases that most effectively reveals the flaws and vulnerabilities of the system under test. It leverages advances in state- and model-based engineering, which are essential in defining the behavior of autonomous systems. It also uses goal networks to describe test scenarios.
Full Text Available Russell and Haney (1997 reported that open-ended test items administered on paper may underestimate the achievement of students accustomed to writing on computers. This study builds on Russell and Haney's work by examining the effect of taking open-ended tests on computers and on paper for students with different levels of computer skill. Using items from the Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System (MCAS and the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP, this study focuses on language arts, science and math tests administered to eighth grade students. In addition, information on students' prior computer use and keyboarding speed was collected. Unlike the previous study that found large effects for open-ended writing and science items, this study reports mixed results. For the science test, performance on computers had a positive group effect. For the two language arts tests, an overall group effect was not found. However, for students whose keyboarding speed is at least 0.5 or one-half of a standard deviation above the mean, performing the language arts test on computer had a moderate positive effect. Conversely, for students whose keyboarding speed was 0.5 standard deviations below the mean, performing the tests on computer had a substantial negative effect. For the math test, performing the test on computer had an overall negative effect, but this effect became less pronounced as keyboarding speed increased. Implications are discussed in terms of testing policies and future research.
Larry H. Ludlow
Full Text Available Given the high stakes of teacher testing, there is no doubt that every teacher test should meet the industry guidelines set forth in the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing. Unfortunately, however, there is no public or private business or governmental agency that serves to certify or in any other formal way declare that any teacher test does, in fact, meet the psychometric recommendations stipulated in the Standards. Consequently, there are no legislated penalties for faulty products (tests nor are there opportunities for test takers simply to raise questions about a test and to have their questions taken seriously by an impartial panel. The purpose of this article is to highlight some of the psychometric results reported by National Evaluation Systems (NES in their 1999 Massachusetts Educator Certification Test (MECT Technical Report, and more specifically, to identify those technical characteristics of the MECT that are inconsistent with the Standards. A second purpose of this article is to call for the establishment of a standing test auditing organization with investigation and sanctioning power. The significance of the present analysis is twofold: a psychometric results for the MECT are similar in nature to psychometric results presented as evidence of test development flaws in an Alabama class-action lawsuit dealing with teacher certification (an NES-designed testing system; and b there was no impartial enforcement agency to whom complaints about the Alabama tests could be brought, other than the court, nor is there any such agency to whom complaints about the Massachusetts tests can be brought. I begin by reviewing NES's role in Allen v. Alabama State Board of Education, 81-697-N. Next I explain the purpose and interpretation of standard item analysis procedures and statistics. Finally, I present results taken directly from the 1999 MECT Technical Report and compare them to procedures, results, and consequences of
American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia
1.1 This test method defines the procedure for evaluating the corrosivity of aircraft maintenance chemicals, when present between faying surfaces (sandwich) of aluminum alloys commonly used for aircraft structures. This test method is intended to be used in the qualification and approval of compounds employed in aircraft maintenance operations. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information. 1.3 This standard may involve hazardous materials, operations, and equipment. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. Specific hazard statements appear in Section 9.
Bardenheier, R.; Rogers, G.
The design concept of “Crashworthiness” requires the information on material behaviour under dynamic impact loading in order to describe and predict the crash behaviour of structures. Especially the transport related industries, like car, railway or aircraft industry, pursue the concept of lightweight design for a while now. The materials' maximum constraint during loading is pushed to permanently increasing figures. This means in terms of crashworthiness that the process of energy absorption in structures and the mechanical behaviour of materials must well understood and can be described appropriately by material models. In close cooperation with experts from various industries and research institutes Instron has developed throughout the past years a new family of servohydraulic testing machines specifically designed to cope with the dynamics of high rate testing. Main development steps are reflected versus their experimental necessities.
dimensions should be checked during machining with a micrometer or vernier caliper; final dimensions are normally measured with a micrometer and reported to...maintained at 110 ± 5 ’C. 3.8.6 Micrometer or vernier caliper for measuring length and diameter of •. test specimen. Micrometer or caliper should be direct...and normal to the long axis. Sample dimensions should be checked during machining with a micrometer or vernier caliper; final dimensions are normally
Hjortskov, N; Jepsen, Leif; Nielsen, B
The pilocarpine iontophoresis test (P-test) is used as a predictor of the capacity to produce sweat. Therefore, we studied the reproducibility of this test in 12 normal subjects on 10 consecutive days. Furthermore, we determined whether the P-test reflects whole-body and regional sweat secretion...... during exercise in the heat. Finally, we determined whether the P-test stimulates the eccrine sweat glands to maximal sweat secretion. Six growth hormone-deficient (GHD) patients who are known to have decreased sweating, and 11 healthy control subjects were studied. To induce maximal sweat secretion......, the patients exercised on a bicycle ergometer at a workload corresponding to 40% of their maximal aerobic power (VO2max). The 11 healthy subjects exercised at a workload of 150 W. All subjects exercised for 60 min in ambient air at 35 degrees C, with 50% relative humidity. The P-test showed a mean day...
Guillot, Gilles; Rousset, François
1. The simple and partialMantel tests are routinely used in many areas of evolutionary biology to assess the significance of the association between two ormorematrices of distances relative to the same pairs of individuals or demes. Partial Mantel tests rather than simple Mantel tests are widely...... used to assess the relationship between two variables displaying some form of structure. 2. We show that contrary to a widely shared belief, partialMantel tests are not valid in this case, and their bias remains close to that of the simpleMantel test. 3. We confirm that strong biases are expected under...... a sampling design and spatial correlation parameter drawn from an actual study. 4. TheMantel tests should not be used in case autocorrelation is suspected in both variables compared under the null hypothesis.We outline alternative strategies. The R code used for our computer simulations is distributed...
Schafer, D R
This guide to uniformity in testing is intended primarily as an aid to persons responsible for designing, developing, and performing environmental tests. It will also be of use to those concerned with production, evaluation, and quality control and assurance. Checklists for preparing the environmental testing portion of product specifications are included, as are copies of Process Standards covering the instrumentation, equipment, and methods for use in environmental testing of Sandia National Laboratories components. Techniques and equipment are constantly improving. This version of SC-4452 reflects current state-of-the-art and practice in environmental testing. Previously existing sections of the document have ben updated and new ones have been added, e.g., Transient Testing on Vibration Machines.
Tiziani, Hans J.; Reichelt, Stephan; Pruss, Christof; Rocktaeschel, M.; Hofbauer, U.
Aspheric surfaces are becoming interesting for the reduction of elements in optical systems as well as for improving the quality of the image forming system. The fabrication process of aspheric surfaces has been improved. For optical testing of aspheric surfaces computer generated holograms (CGHs) are interesting and already used. To perform aspheric testing in the same accuracy as spherical surface testing, further improvements of the CGH-null test method are required. A new concept for testing aspheric surfaces with CGH-nulls, including a calibration of the system, will be described. To specify and verify CGH quality, systematic errors due to fabrication inaccuracies of the CGHs will be analysed. On the other hand, alternative methods that provide more flexibility but possibly less accuracy than the CGH-null technique are required. Potential alternative testing methods of aspherics will be discussed.
LaPeyronnie, Glenn M. (Inventor); Huff, Charles M. (Inventor)
The present invention provides a testing apparatus and method for testing the adhesion of a coating to a surface. The invention also includes an improved testing button or dolly for use with the testing apparatus and a self aligning button hook or dolly interface on the testing apparatus. According to preferred forms, the apparatus and method of the present invention are simple, portable, battery operated rugged, and inexpensive to manufacture and use, are readily adaptable to a wide variety of uses, and provide effective and accurate testing results. The device includes a linear actuator driven by an electric motor coupled to the actuator through a gearbox and a rotatable shaft. The electronics for the device are contained in the head section of the device. At the contact end of the device, is positioned a self aligning button hook, attached below the load cell located on the actuator shaft.
Leiguarda, Ramon; Clarens, Florencia; Amengual, Alejandra; Drucaroff, Lucas; Hallett, Mark
Limb apraxia comprises many different and common disorders, which are largely unrecognized essentially because there is no easy-to-use screening test sensitive enough to identify all types of limb praxis deficits. We evaluated 70 right-handed patients with limb apraxia due to a single focal lesion of the left hemisphere and 40 normal controls, using a new apraxia screening test. The test covered 12 items including: intransitive gestures, transitive gestures elicited under verbal, visual, and tactile modalities, imitation of meaningful and meaningless postures and movements, and a multiple object test. Interrater reliability was maximum for a cutoff of >2 positive items identifying apraxia on the short battery (Cohen's kappa .918, p 3 items (Cohen's kappa .768, p 2 was higher, indicating greater apraxia diagnosis agreement between raters at this cutoff value. The screening test proved to have high specificity and sensitivity to diagnose every type of upper limb praxis deficit, thus showing advantages over previously published tests.
Hjortskov, N; Jepsen, Leif; Nielsen, B
, the patients exercised on a bicycle ergometer at a workload corresponding to 40% of their maximal aerobic power (VO2max). The 11 healthy subjects exercised at a workload of 150 W. All subjects exercised for 60 min in ambient air at 35 degrees C, with 50% relative humidity. The P-test showed a mean day......The pilocarpine iontophoresis test (P-test) is used as a predictor of the capacity to produce sweat. Therefore, we studied the reproducibility of this test in 12 normal subjects on 10 consecutive days. Furthermore, we determined whether the P-test reflects whole-body and regional sweat secretion...... during exercise in the heat. Finally, we determined whether the P-test stimulates the eccrine sweat glands to maximal sweat secretion. Six growth hormone-deficient (GHD) patients who are known to have decreased sweating, and 11 healthy control subjects were studied. To induce maximal sweat secretion...
Gordon, P A; Stuart, J; Lee, T R; Breeze, G R; Pugh, R N
The NBT test is a non-specific test of neutrophil membrane stimulation which has application to the study of neutrophil function, particularly in the septicaemic patient. An improved cytochemical test which eliminates potential sources of laboratory error has been developed. Venous or capillary blood samples may be studied and the technique can be applied to the neutropenic patient since available neutrophils are concentrated by cytocentrifugation. Clinical evaluation in 443 patients is described. PMID:1184763
Siple, Bud H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
The purpose of this Performance Testing Program Plan is to identify the process and phased approach that will be implemented at Site XYZ . The purpose of the testing program at Site XYZ is specifically designed to evaluate the effectiveness of systems that are employed at this site. This plan defines tasks to be accomplished to ensure that performance testing is conducted as effectively and efficiently as possible.
performing Total Ionizing Dose ( TID ) testing. The project was to be led by the researchers at the Configurable Space Microsystems Innovations and...platform that will allow electrical and physical interconnection to them during the test phase. The way the Total Ionizing Dose ( TID ) testing occurs is...be quite robust in its TID response and is under consideration for several CubeSat missions. Total ionizing dose exposures at high and low dose rates
Gale, Seth A.; Barrett, A.M.; Boeve, Bradley F.; Chatterjee, Anjan; Coslett, H. Branch; D'Esposito, Mark; Finney, Glen R.; Gitelman, Darren R.; Hart, John J.; Lerner, Alan J.; Meador, Kimford J.; Pietras, Alison C.; Voeller, Kytja S.; Kaufer, Daniel I.
Objective: To evaluate the evidence basis of single-domain cognitive tests frequently used by behavioral neurologists in an effort to improve the quality of clinical cognitive assessment. Methods: Behavioral Neurology Section members of the American Academy of Neurology were surveyed about how they conduct clinical cognitive testing, with a particular focus on the Neurobehavioral Status Exam (NBSE). In contrast to general screening cognitive tests, an NBSE consists of tests of individual cognitive domains (e.g., memory or language) that provide a more comprehensive diagnostic assessment. Workgroups for each of 5 cognitive domains (attention, executive function, memory, language, and spatial cognition) conducted evidence-based reviews of frequently used tests. Reviews focused on suitability for office-based clinical practice, including test administration time, accessibility of normative data, disease populations studied, and availability in the public domain. Results: Demographic and clinical practice data were obtained from 200 respondents who reported using a wide range of cognitive tests. Based on survey data and ancillary information, between 5 and 15 tests in each cognitive domain were reviewed. Within each domain, several tests are highlighted as being well-suited for an NBSE. Conclusions: We identified frequently used single-domain cognitive tests that are suitable for an NBSE to help make informed choices about clinical cognitive assessment. Some frequently used tests have limited normative data or have not been well-studied in common neurologic disorders. Utilizing standardized cognitive tests, particularly those with normative data based on the individual's age and educational level, can enhance the rigor and utility of clinical cognitive assessment. PMID:26163433
brush . This omibination of characteristics will enhance test result repeatability. 3.1.2 ’Test Area Selection Parameters. In addition to minimum...slope and absence of brush arr] timber, an optimum test area contains hciw9eneous soil types with virtually identical depth, to allow for constant charge...0 feet, 1 foot, 2 feet, 3 teet , . . . 40 feet. When tapes are fastened to radius stakes at the increment cooresponding to the stake’s distance from
Full Text Available Mobile application testing is a process by which application software developed for mobile devices is tested, in aspects as functionality, usability and consistency. These applications can be pre-installed or installed from distribution platforms for mobile software. Due mobile devices have witnessed of a phenomenal growth in recent years (a study by Yankee Group predicted to generate $ 4.2 billion in revenue for 2013 through 7000 million downloads of applications the U.S., it is necesary test engineers increasingly specialize. In this article are described the types of applications, the challenges of testing, and its automation.
Schoenfeld, Michael P.; Webster, Kenny L.; Pearson, Boise J.
As part of the Nuclear Systems Office Fission Surface Power Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU) project, a reactor simulator test loop (RxSim) was design & built to perform integrated testing of the TDU components. In particular, the objectives of RxSim testing was to verify the operation of the core simulator, the instrumentation and control system, and the ground support gas and vacuum test equipment. In addition, it was decided to include a thermal test of a cold trap purification design and a pump performance test at pump voltages up to 150 V since the targeted mass flow rate of 1.75 kg/s was not obtained in the RxSim at the originally constrained voltage of 120 V. This paper summarizes RxSim testing. The gas and vacuum ground support test equipment performed effectively in NaK fill, loop pressurization, and NaK drain operations. The instrumentation and control system effectively controlled loop temperature and flow rates or pump voltage to targeted settings. The cold trap design was able to obtain the targeted cold temperature of 480 K. An outlet temperature of 636 K was obtained which was lower than the predicted 750 K but 156 K higher than the cold temperature indicating the design provided some heat regeneration. The annular linear induction pump (ALIP) tested was able to produce a maximum flow rate of 1.53 kg/s at 800 K when operated at 150 V and 53 Hz.
Designed for students and professionals looking to advance their careers, our test prep gives you everything you need to succeed. Focused chapter reviews cover all the information tested on the GRE Physics exam. Each review chapter contains examples to reinforce key concepts. The book includes four full-length practice tests based on the most recent GRE Physics exam. Each test contains every type of question that can be expected on the GRE so you can “practice for real” and boost your confidence before taking the exam.
A hollow fitting for use in gas spectrometry leak testing of conduit joints is divided into two generally symmetrical halves along the axis of the conduit. A clip may quickly and easily fasten and unfasten the halves around the conduit joint under test. Each end of the fitting is sealable with a yieldable material, such as a piece of foam rubber. An orifice is provided in a wall of the fitting for the insertion or detection of helium during testing. One half of the fitting also may be employed to test joints mounted against a surface.
Farnè, M; Sebellico, A
"Academic achievement anxiety" (or "test anxiety") is a situation-specific anxiety. In this research, 53 medical student were subjected to the McNair et al. POMS (an inventory assessing six identifiable mood or affective states) during their psychology examination; 31 of them had been tested with the POMS also 50-70 days before the examination and the other 22 repeated the test 50-70 days after it. All the emotional states increased significantly during the examination, except the Anger-Hostility factor; the significance of the "period effect" for the Confusion-Bewilderment factor shows there is a state of confusion due to the novelty of the test.
Lyons, J. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)
In this very brief, informal presentation, a representative of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission outlines some problems with charcoal filter testing procedures and actions being taken to correct the problems. Two primary concerns are addressed: (1) the process to find the test method is confusing, and (2) the requirements of the reference test procedures result in condensation on the charcoal and causes the test to fail. To address these problems, emergency technical specifications were processed for three nuclear plants. A generic or an administrative letter is proposed as a more permanent solution. 1 fig.
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The enclosed and environmentally controlled chamber is able to test four units (single-phase) simultaneously at conditions ranging from tundra to desert temperatures...
Federal Laboratory Consortium — Recently redesignated to honor Dr. Hugh L. Dryden, NASA's Dryden Aeronautical Test Range (DATR) supports aerospace flight research and technology integration, space...
Ruppel, Gregg L; Enright, Paul L
Pulmonary function testing is often considered the basis for diagnosis in many categories of pulmonary disease. Although most of the testing methodologies are well established and widely employed, there are still many questions regarding how tests should be performed, how to ensure that reliable data are produced, what reference values and rules should be used, and how pulmonary function tests (PFTs) should be interpreted to best support clinical decision making. This conference was organized around a set of questions aimed at many of these issues. Each presenter was asked to address a specific topic regarding what tests should be done, how those test should be performed to answer a particular clinical question, and to relate test results to an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment of the patient. These topics included testing of adults and children, with concentration on important disease entities such as COPD, asthma, and unexplained dyspnea. Special emphasis was given to discussing reference values, lower limits of normal, interpretive strategies to optimize disease classification, and those factors directly affecting data quality. Established techniques for spirometry, lung volumes, diffusing capacity, exercise testing, and bronchial challenges were compared and contrasted with new technologies, and with technologies that might be part of pulmonary function laboratories in the near future.
Federal Laboratory Consortium — Comprehensive Environmental and Structural AnalysesThe ERDC Pavement Testing Facility, located on the ERDC Vicksburg campus, was originally constructed to provide an...
Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The MTF is employed to validate advanced structural concepts and verify new analytical methodologies. Test articles range in size from subcomponent to full...
Full Text Available A trial was conducted using ULV spraying of Bendiocarb 20% (Ficam ULV in Salatiga municipality at a dosage of 45 ml/ha and 75 ml/ha. The trial was conducted in the morning. Two cycles were implemented at an interval of 7 days, using a vehicle-mounted ULV generator. Results revealed no significant changes in mosquito population densitities, in any of the parameters observed.
Full Text Available A biological larvicide spherifix containing Bacillus sphaericus VCRC B 42 was investigated against Anopheles sundaicus in Klaces hamlet, Cilacap regency. This study was conducted to determine the effectivity of spherifix on An. sundaicus larvae at a dosage of 2.5 kg/Ha. Observations were conducted one day before application of the larvicide, 24, 36, 48 hours, day 4, 7, and 14 after application. The larval reduction rates were calculated using the formula of Mulia et al, 1971, and a reduction of the results were 16.69 % after 24 hours, 20.95 % after 36 hours, 34.07 % after 48 hours, 65.08 % after 4 days, 85.98 % after 7 days, and 90.81 % after 14 days. B. sphaericus has capabilities to function as a biological larvicide.
Suwasono, Hadi; Soekirno, Mardjan
A synthetic pyrethroid insecticides with active ingredient of alphacypermethrin (Fendona 30 EC), cypermethrin (Cynoff 25 ULV) and lambdacyhalothrin (ICON 25 EC) trials against dengue fever/dengue haemorrhagic fever vector of Aedes aegypti was carried out in Northern Jakarta by thermal fogging application. The results shown after 24 hours holding period, the percent mortality of Ae.aegypti exposed to both alphacypermethrin and cypermethrin indoors or outdoors between 86-93% whereas lambdacyhal...
Full Text Available A synthetic pyrethroid insecticides with active ingredient of alphacypermethrin (Fendona 30 EC, cypermethrin (Cynoff 25 ULV and lambdacyhalothrin (ICON 25 EC trials against dengue fever/dengue haemorrhagic fever vector of Aedes aegypti was carried out in Northern Jakarta by thermal fogging application. The results shown after 24 hours holding period, the percent mortality of Ae.aegypti exposed to both alphacypermethrin and cypermethrin indoors or outdoors between 86-93% whereas lambdacyhalothrin was lower than 70% (48-58%. Statistical analysis revealed that there was significantly different between both alphacypermethrin and cypermethrin compared to lambdacyhalothrin neither to malathion. Its means that alphacypermethrin and cypermethrin with dosages of 75 ml/ha and 300 ml/ha respectively were better than lambdacyhalothrin (75 ml/ha and as similar as malathion to control Ae. aegypti. Keywords: insecticides, dengue haemorrhagic fever, Aedes aegypti
Hølge-Hazelton, Bibi; Nielsen, Gregers; Langstrup, Henriette
Teknologirådet omkring rapporten ”Test dig selv! – Vurderinger og anbefalinger vedrørende anvendelse medicinsk udstyr til selvtestning. Offentliggjort d. 25.10.11.......Teknologirådet omkring rapporten ”Test dig selv! – Vurderinger og anbefalinger vedrørende anvendelse medicinsk udstyr til selvtestning. Offentliggjort d. 25.10.11....
Albers, Willem/Wim; Kallenberg, W.C.M.; Otten, G.D.
Because of inaccuracies of the measurement process inspection of manufactured parts requires test limits which are more strict than the given specification limits. Test limits derived under the assumption of normality for product characteristics turn out to violate the prescribed bound on the
Vigue, Charles L.
Describes several laboratory experiments that are adaptations of clinical tests for certain genetic diseases in babies. Information and procedures are provided for tests for phenylketonuria (PKU), galactosemia, tyrosinemia, cystinuria, and mucopolysaccharidosis. Discusses the effects of each disease on the infants' development. (TW)
A brief description of the East Mesa test site is given. The test facility is supplied by brines from three of the existing production wells, each brine having distinctive physical characteristics. Some of the experimental programs involving heat exchangers and power cycles are briefly discussed. These include binary fluid cycles, two-phase expansion cycles, and combination cycles. (MOW)
In this article, the author challenges the implicit assumptions of tests as a neutral tool for measuring the individual’s learning achievement. Instead, testing is explored as a social practice which becomes part of children’s conduct of everyday life. The theoretical foundation for the analysis...
Glucose test - CSF; Cerebrospinal fluid glucose test ... The glucose level in the CSF should be 50 to 80 mg/100 mL (or greater than 2/3 ... Abnormal results include higher and lower glucose levels. Abnormal ... or fungus) Inflammation of the central nervous system Tumor
Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)
textabstractThis paper proposes a general-to-simple test procedure for the presence of seasonal patterns in time series, which is based on tests for parameter restrictions in a general periodic model. The method is illustrated for the U.K. stock price index and the U.S. CLI index.
Federal Laboratory Consortium — Current Configuration: Accommodate a device under test up to 2.8 m diameter, 0.7 m height and 15,000 lbs. weight. Up to 10 g/s, 4.5 K helium flow. Up to 250 A test...
Orendorff, Christopher [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lamb, Joshua [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Steele, Leigh Anna Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
This report describes recommended abuse testing procedures for rechargeable energy storage systems (RESSs) for electric vehicles. This report serves as a revision to the FreedomCAR Electrical Energy Storage System Abuse Test Manual for Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Applications (SAND2005-3123).
Dimova, Slobodanka; Jensen, Christian
/video recorded speech samples and written reports produced by two experienced raters after testing. Our findings suggest that reduction or reduction-like pronunciation features are found in tested L2 speech, but whenever raters identify and comment on such reductions, they tend to assess reductions negatively...
Hull, B.; John, V.
This text covers, the underlying principles and some major applications of non-destructive inspection methods. Complete chapters are devoted to each of the following: liquid penetration inspection, magnetic particle inspection, electrical testing, ultrasonic testing and radiography. The concluding chapter introduces the reader to some of the more recent developments in non-destructive inspection.
Candiasa I Made
Full Text Available Test for measuring vocational aptitude has been formulated and validated. There are three main constructs involved in vocational aptitude test, which are individual characteristics, activities that are likely to be selected, and professions that tend to be idolized. Individual characteristics indicate the individuals talents, whereas the activity that tends to be chosen leads to student interest in the activity, and the intended profession gives clues about the capability of themselves to pursue the profession. Content validity test with Lawse technique yields content validity ratio (CVR for all items are in the range 0.82-0.94 and content validity index (CVI = 0.88. The construct validity test yields comparative fit index (CFI = 0.918 and chi square coefficient (χ2 = 5.85 with significance (p = 0.002. These findings indicate that the test is valid either by content or construct. Furthermore, the reliability test with Alpha Cronbach found the alpha coefficient (α = 0.82. Finally, it can be concluded that vocational aptitude test can be utilized for early identification of student vocational aptitude. The hope, the test can help students to choose the appropriate vocational school, in order to obtain the better learning outcomes.
Ordan, Julien Marius
A new user facility for accelerator R&D, the CERN Linear Electron Accelerator for Research (CLEAR), started operation in August 2017. CLEAR evolved from the former CLIC Test Facility 3 (CTF3) used by the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC). The new facility is able to host and test a broad range of ideas in the accelerator field.
Appraising the predictive abilities of diagnostic tests can be surprisingly difficult. The purpose of this article is to provide an introduction to the principles underlying the objective evaluation of diagnostic tests. Starting from basic concepts about probability,. Bayes' theorem will be introduced and an explanation given as to.
The Canon 5 undergoes first brazing for preparation in the CLIC study at the CLIC Test Facility 2 (CTF2). This will test injection for a proposed linear collider that will further explore discoveries made at the LHC. Electric fields in the canon will boost electrons into the acceleration fields of the collider.
specific abilities while Ree and others (Olea & Ree, 1994; Ree, TESTS OF GENERAL COGNITIVE ABILITY 9 Carretta, & Doub , 1998/1999; Ree, Carretta...Ree, M. J., Carretta, T. R., & Doub , T. (1998/1999). A Test of Three Models of the Role of g and Prior Job Knowledge in the Acquisition of Subsequent
Isbell, Daniel Richard
L2 vocabulary is commonly conceptualized in terms of a size or depth of one's total lexical knowledge and tested discretely with selection-type items. Concerns exist, however, regarding L2 users' ability to cope with unknown vocabulary, especially in the context of academic reading. This motivated the creation of a test which measures the ability…
This article presents the author's response to Xiaoming Xi's paper titled "How do we go about investigating test fairness?" In the paper, Xi offers "a means to fully integrate fairness investigations and practice". Given the current importance accorded to fairness in the language testing community, Xi makes a case for viewing fairness as an aspect…
 This invention relates to over-the-air testing of a device in an anechoic chamber. In particular, the invention is suitable for simulating both uplink and downlink over-the-air communication with a device under test even when the anechoic chamber has different numbers of uplink and downlink...
Springintveld, Jan; Vaandrager, Frits; d' Argenio, P.R.
We present a generalization of the classical theory of testing for Mealy machines to a setting of dense real-time systems. A model of timed I/O automata is introduced, inspired by the timed automaton model of Alur and Dill, together with a notion of test sequence for this model. Our main
Springintveld, Jan; Vaandrager, Frits; d' Argenio, P.R.
We present a generalization of the classical theory of testing for Mealy machines to a setting of dense real-time systems. A model of timed I/O automata is introduced, inspired by the timed automaton model of Alur and Dill, together with a notion of test sequence for this model. Our main
In this thesis we provide a unit testing approach for multi-purposes object-oriented programming languages in the style of Java and C#. Our approach includes the definition of a test specification language which results from extending the programming language with new designated specification
Existing statistical tests for the fit of the Rasch model have been criticized, because they are only sensitive to specific violations of its assumptions. Contingency table methods using loglinear models have been used to test various psychometric models. In this paper, the assumptions of the Rasch
... Pagana, T. J., and Pagana, T. N. (© 2015). Mosby's Diagnostic & Laboratory Test Reference 12th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO. Pp 494-496. Sources ... health/ . Accessed February 2008. Pagana K, Pagana T. Mosby's Manual of Diagnostic and Laboratory Tests. 3rd Edition, ...
... Pagana, T. J., and Pagana, T. N. (© 2015). Mosby's Diagnostic & Laboratory Test Reference 12th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO. Pp 946-948. Sources ... Edition]. Pagana, Kathleen D. & Pagana, Timothy J. (2001). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 5th Edition: Mosby, ...
The influence of the communicative approach to second language teaching on the design of the new Certificates in Communicative Skills in English tests is examined, and the evaluation of the tests in practice is discussed from that perspective. It is proposed that a number of characteristics of the new series should relate directly and consciously…
Zaka, F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
The Chemical Reactivity Test (CRT) is used to determine the thermal stability of High Explosives (HEs) and chemical compatibility between (HEs) and alien materials. The CRT is one of the small-scale safety tests performed on HE at the High Explosives Applications Facility (HEAF).
..., introduced animal testing as an experimental method for testing surgical procedures before applying them to human patients. In recent years, the practice of using animals for biomedical research has come under severe criticism by animal protection and animal rights groups. Laws have been passed in several countries to make the practice more 'humane...
Full Text Available Currently, software engineers are increasingly turning to the option of automating functional tests, but not always have successful in this endeavor. Reasons range from low planning until over cost in the process. Some principles that can guide teams in automating these tests are described in this article.
... in your body that prevents blood clotting. A blood test can be done to see how much of ... Certain medicines can change blood test results: Tell your health care provider about all the medicines you take. Your provider will tell you if you need ...
... in the body that prevents blood clotting. A blood test can be done to see how much of ... Certain medicines can change blood test results. Tell your health care provider about all the medicines you take. Your provider will tell you if you need ...