WorldWideScience

Sample records for tests by location

  1. HIV Testing Rates and Testing Locations, by Race and Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rountree, Michele A.; Chen Lynn; Brown Adama; Pomeroy, Elizabeth C.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to report the HIV testing rates among white Americans, African Americans, and Hispanic Americans and to identify the frequency of use of HIV testing locations according to a variety of sociodemographic variables. Data for this study came from the 2005 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). Participants in…

  2. MICROGRIDS: THE AGRIA TEST LOCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Krkoleva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the pilot Microgrid in Macedonia, developed within the framework of the MOREMICROGRIDS (EU EP6 projecet, contract No. SES6-019864 project. This Microgrid is the first of its kind being developed in the Western Balkan region and serves as pilot site for introduction and examination of the Microgrids concept in non European Union conditions. The test network consists of a part of the low voltage grid, located on a pig farm. The main electricity source for the Microgrid is a small biogas plant, which uses the biogas produced by a waste water treatment process. The paper addresses the Microgrid design, development of test scenarios and test results from the pilot location.

  3. Hydrodynamic, mass transfer, and dissolution effects induced by tablet location during dissolution testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Ge; Armenante, Piero M

    2009-04-01

    Tablets undergoing dissolution in the USP Dissolution Testing Apparatus II are often found at locations on the vessel bottom that are off-center with respect to the dissolution vessel and impeller. A previously validated CFD approach and a novel experimental method were used here to examine the effect of tablet location on strain rates and dissolution rates. Dissolution tests were conducted with non-disintegrating tablets (salicylic acid) and disintegrating tablets (Prednisone) immobilized at different locations along the vessel bottom. CFD was used to predict the velocity profiles and strain rates when the tablets were placed at such locations. A CFD-based model was derived to predict the mass transfer coefficient and dissolution curves, which were then compared to the experimental results. Both non-disintegrating and disintegrating off-center tablets experimentally produced higher dissolution rates than centered tablets. The CFD-predicted strain rate distribution along the bottom was highly not uniform and the predicted strain rates correlated well with the experimental mass transfer coefficients. The proposed CFD-based model predicts mass transfer rates that correlate well with the experimental ones. The exact tablet location has a significant impact on the dissolution profile. The proposed model can satisfactorily predict the mass transfer coefficients and dissolution profiles for non-disintegrating tablets.

  4. Effect of stabilizer location upon pitching and yawing moments in spins as shown by tests with the spinning balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamber, M J; Zimmerman, C H

    1933-01-01

    Tests were made with the spinning balance in a 5-foot wind tunnel to study the effect of stabilizer location upon the pitching and yawing moments given by the tail surfaces in spinning attitudes. The tests revealed that the horizontal surfaces, when in a normal location, seriously reduced the effectiveness of the fin and rudder, particularly at angles of attack of 50 degrees or more. The tests also revealed that a more forward or more rearward location gave no consistent or decided improvement; that a lower location greatly increased the shielding so that the yawing moment from the combination was in general less than that given by the bare fuselage; and that a higher location decreased the shielding and gave a favorable interference effect, particularly at the high angles of attack. Additional results regarding the stabilizer and the elevator are given.

  5. Locating Minimal Fault Interaction in Combinatorial Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Combinatorial testing (CT technique could significantly reduce testing cost and increase software system quality. By using the test suite generated by CT as input to conduct black-box testing towards a system, we are able to detect interactions that trigger the system’s faults. Given a test case, there may be only part of all its parameters relevant to the defects in system and the interaction constructed by those partial parameters is key factor of triggering fault. If we can locate those parameters accurately, this will facilitate the software diagnosing and testing process. This paper proposes a novel algorithm named complete Fault Interaction Location (comFIL to locate those interactions that cause system’s failures and meanwhile obtains the minimal set of target interactions in test suite produced by CT. By applying this method, testers can analyze and locate the factors relevant to defects of system more precisely, thus making the process of software testing and debugging easier and more efficient. The results of our empirical study indicate that comFIL performs better compared with known fault location techniques in combinatorial testing because of its improved effectiveness and precision.

  6. Effectiveness of Guided Multiple Choice Objective Questions Test on Students' Academic Achievement in Senior School Mathematics by School Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igbojinwaekwu, Patrick Chukwuemeka

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated, using pretest-posttest quasi-experimental research design, the effectiveness of guided multiple choice objective questions test on students' academic achievement in Senior School Mathematics, by school location, in Delta State Capital Territory, Nigeria. The sample comprised 640 Students from four coeducation secondary…

  7. Accurate source location from waves scattered by surface topography: Applications to the Nevada and North Korean test sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Y.; Wang, N.; Bao, X.; Flinders, A. F.

    2016-12-01

    Scattered waves generated near the source contains energy converted from the near-field waves to the far-field propagating waves, which can be used to achieve location accuracy beyond the diffraction limit. In this work, we apply a novel full-wave location method that combines a grid-search algorithm with the 3D Green's tensor database to locate the Non-Proliferation Experiment (NPE) at the Nevada test site and the North Korean nuclear tests. We use the first arrivals (Pn/Pg) and their immediate codas, which are likely dominated by waves scattered at the surface topography near the source, to determine the source location. We investigate seismograms in the frequency of [1.0 2.0] Hz to reduce noises in the data and highlight topography scattered waves. High resolution topographic models constructed from 10 and 90 m grids are used for Nevada and North Korea, respectively. The reference velocity model is based on CRUST 1.0. We use the collocated-grid finite difference method on curvilinear grids to calculate the strain Green's tensor and obtain synthetic waveforms using source-receiver reciprocity. The `best' solution is found based on the least-square misfit between the observed and synthetic waveforms. To suppress random noises, an optimal weighting method for three-component seismograms is applied in misfit calculation. Our results show that the scattered waves are crucial in improving resolution and allow us to obtain accurate solutions with a small number of stations. Since the scattered waves depends on topography, which is known at the wavelengths of regional seismic waves, our approach yields absolute, instead of relative, source locations. We compare our solutions with those of USGS and other studies. Moreover, we use differential waveforms to locate pairs of the North Korea tests from years 2006, 2009, 2013 and 2016 to further reduce the effects of unmodeled heterogeneities and errors in the reference velocity model.

  8. Location and source characteristics of the 2016 January 6 North Korean nuclear test constrained by InSAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Meng

    2017-05-01

    The interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data from the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency ALOS-2 satellite show possible deformation associated with the 2016 January 6 North Korean nuclear test whereas the European Space Agency Sentinel-1A data are decorrelated. This is the first time that deformation related to a nuclear test has been measured since 1992. Here, I present two interpretations of the observed deformation: First, the deformation can be explained by a triggered landslide on the western slope of Mt Mantap, with a displacement of up to 10 cm across a patch of 1 km2. Second, the observation may be from uplift created by the nuclear explosion. In the second interpretation, the location, depth and cavity size can be estimated from a topography-corrected homogenous half-space model (Mogi). The preferred location of the 2016 January 6 event is 41.2993°N 129.0715°E, with an uncertainty of 100 m. The estimated depth is 420-700 m and the cavity radius is 23-27 m. Based on empirical data and the assumption of granite as the host rock, the yield is estimated to be 11.6-24.4 kilotons of TNT, which is consistent with previous results based on seismic data. With these two interpretations, I demonstrate that InSAR data provide an independent tool to locate and estimate source characteristics of nuclear tests in North Korea. The ambiguity of interpretation is mainly due to the limited InSAR data acquisition. Future frequent data collection by current and upcoming InSAR satellites will allow full use of InSAR for nuclear monitoring and characterization in North Korea and around the world.

  9. Testing the Quick Seismic Event Locator and Magnitude Calculator (SSL_Calc) by Marsite Project Data Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunc, Suleyman; Tunc, Berna; Caka, Deniz; Baris, Serif

    2016-04-01

    Locating and calculating size of the seismic events is quickly one of the most important and challenging issue in especially real time seismology. In this study, we developed a Matlab application to locate seismic events and calculate their magnitudes (Local Magnitude and empirical Moment Magnitude) using single station called SSL_Calc. This newly developed sSoftware has been tested on the all stations of the Marsite project "New Directions in Seismic Hazard Assessment through Focused Earth Observation in the Marmara Supersite-MARsite". SSL_Calc algorithm is suitable both for velocity and acceleration sensors. Data has to be in GCF (Güralp Compressed Format). Online or offline data can be selected in SCREAM software (belongs to Guralp Systems Limited) and transferred to SSL_Calc. To locate event P and S wave picks have to be marked by using SSL_Calc window manually. During magnitude calculation, instrument correction has been removed and converted to real displacement in millimeter. Then the displacement data is converted to Wood Anderson Seismometer output by using; Z=[0;0]; P=[-6.28+4.71j; -6.28-4.71j]; A0=[2080] parameters. For Local Magnitude calculation,; maximum displacement amplitude (A) and distance (dist) are used in formula (1) for distances up to 200km and formula (2) for more than 200km. ML=log10(A)-(-1.118-0.0647*dist+0.00071*dist2-3.39E-6*dist3+5.71e-9*dist4) (1) ML=log10(A)+(2.1173+0.0082*dist-0.0000059628*dist2) (2) Following Local Magnitude calculation, the programcode calculates two empiric Moment Magnitudes using formulas (3) Akkar et al. (2010) and (4) Ulusay et al. (2004). Mw=0.953* ML+0.422 (3) Mw=0.7768* ML+1.5921 (4) SSL_Calc is a software that is easy to implement and user friendly and offers practical solution to individual users to location of event and ML, Mw calculation.

  10. HIV/AIDS testing sites and locator services

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The HIV Testing Sites & Care Services Locator is a first-of-its-kind, location-based search tool that allows you to search for testing services, housing...

  11. Laboratory Test Results for the Travelling Wave Fault Location Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Glik

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the travelling wave fault location algorithm for high voltage lines based on wavelet transform. The algorithm is implemented in a prototype and tested in the laboratory. The article presents the hardware and software part of a travelling wave fault locator, methodology and test results.

  12. Cancers by Body Location/System

    Science.gov (United States)

    A list of all cancers, organized by location and/or function in the body. Cancers on the list are linked to information about treatment, supportive care, screening, prevention, clinical trials, and other topics.

  13. Mass Appraisal Modelling in Minsk: Testing different Models Location sensitive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio D’Amato

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Mass Appraisal is the valuation of large quantity of properties. This automatic valuation procedure gave the opportunity to reach a single point estimate (The Appraisal of Real Estate, 13th Edition. The work test different location sensitive methodologies on a sample of 600 residential properties in the city of Minsk in Belarus. This is the first application of mass appraisal modelling in Belarus. Empirical application compares a location blind model with two Location Value Response Surface models (O Connor, 1982, the former based on the detection of value influence centers the latter based on error surface modelling.

  14. Fast Flux Test Facility Asbestos Location Tracking Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    REYNOLDS, J.A.

    1999-04-13

    Procedure Number HNF-PRO-408, revision 0, paragraph 1.0, ''Purpose,'' and paragraph 2.0, ''Requirements for Facility Management of Asbestos,'' relate building inspection and requirements for documentation of existing asbestos-containing building material (ACBM) per each building assessment. This documentation shall be available to all personnel (including contractor personnel) entering the facility at their request. Corrective action was required by 400 Area Integrated Annual Appraisal/Audit for Fiscal Year 1992 (IAA-92-0007) to provide this notification documentation. No formal method had been developed to communicate the location and nature of ACBM to maintenance personnel in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) 400 Area. The scope of this Data Package Document is to locate and evaluate any ACBM found at FFTF which constitutes a baseline. This includes all buildings within the protected area. These findings are compiled from earlier reports, numerous work packages and engineering evaluations of employee findings.

  15. Evaluation of striga -resistant early maize hybrids and test locations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The two test locations possessed high discriminating ability. More promising genotypes were identified under Striga infestation based on multiple traits than based on yield per se, suggesting that grain yield alone is not a precise predictor of Striga resistance. Based on both biplot analyses, TZEI12 x TZEI25 was identified as ...

  16. Differentiating the Cochran-Armitage Trend Test and Pearson's χ2 Test: Location and Dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhengyang; Ku, Hung-Chih; Huang, Zhipeng; Xing, Guan; Xing, Chao

    2017-09-01

    In genetic case-control association studies, a standard practice is to perform the Cochran-Armitage (CA) trend test with 1 degree-of-freedom (d.f.) under the assumption of an additive model. However, when the true genetic model is recessive or near recessive, it is outperformed by Pearson's χ2 test with 2 d.f. In this article, we analytically reveal the statistical basis that leads to the phenomenon. First, we show that the CA trend test examines the location shift between the case and control groups, whereas Pearson's χ2 test examines both the location and dispersion shifts between the two groups. Second, we show that under the additive model, the effect of location deviation outweighs that of the dispersion deviation and vice versa under a near recessive model. Therefore, Pearson's χ2 test is a more robust test than the CA trend test, and it outperforms the latter when the mode of inheritance evolves to the recessive end. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/University College London.

  17. Searching for Twitter Posts by Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-27

    pages 164–171, 2012. [4] B. Han, P. Cook, and T. Baldwin. Text-based Twitter User Geolocation Prediction. Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research , 49...Searching for Twitter Posts by Location Ariana Minot Harvard University School of Engineering and Applied Sciences Cambridge, MA, USA minot...fas.harvard.edu Andrew Heier, Davis King, Olga Simek MIT Lincoln Laboratory Lexington, MA, USA ABSTRACT The microblogging service Twitter is an increasingly

  18. Error Analysis of Determining Airplane Location by Global Positioning System

    OpenAIRE

    Hajiyev, Chingiz; Burat, Alper

    1999-01-01

    This paper studies the error analysis of determining airplane location by global positioning system (GPS) using statistical testing method. The Newton Rhapson method positions the airplane at the intersection point of four spheres. Absolute errors, relative errors and standard deviation have been calculated The results show that the positioning error of the airplane varies with the coordinates of GPS satellite and the airplane.

  19. An Adaptive Approach to Locating Mobile HIV Testing Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsalves, Gregg S; Crawford, Forrest W; Cleary, Paul D; Kaplan, Edward H; Paltiel, A David

    2017-07-01

    Public health agencies suggest targeting "hotspots" to identify individuals with undetected HIV infection. However, definitions of hotspots vary. Little is known about how best to target mobile HIV testing resources. We conducted a computer-based tournament to compare the yield of 4 algorithms for mobile HIV testing. Over 180 rounds of play, the algorithms selected 1 of 3 hypothetical zones, each with unknown prevalence of undiagnosed HIV, in which to conduct a fixed number of HIV tests. The algorithms were: 1) Thompson Sampling, an adaptive Bayesian search strategy; 2) Explore-then-Exploit, a strategy that initially draws comparable samples from all zones and then devotes all remaining rounds of play to HIV testing in whichever zone produced the highest observed yield; 3) Retrospection, a strategy using only base prevalence information; and; 4) Clairvoyance, a benchmarking strategy that employs perfect information about HIV prevalence in each zone. Over 250 tournament runs, Thompson Sampling outperformed Explore-then-Exploit 66% of the time, identifying 15% more cases. Thompson Sampling's superiority persisted in a variety of circumstances examined in the sensitivity analysis. Case detection rates using Thompson Sampling were, on average, within 90% of the benchmark established by Clairvoyance. Retrospection was consistently the poorest performer. We did not consider either selection bias (i.e., the correlation between infection status and the decision to obtain an HIV test) or the costs of relocation to another zone from one round of play to the next. Adaptive methods like Thompson Sampling for mobile HIV testing are practical and effective, and may have advantages over other commonly used strategies.

  20. The effects of gamelike features and test location on cognitive test performance and participant enjoyment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumsden, Jim; Skinner, Andy; Woods, Andy T; Lawrence, Natalia S; Munafò, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    Computerised cognitive assessments are a vital tool in the behavioural sciences, but participants often view them as effortful and unengaging. One potential solution is to add gamelike elements to these tasks in order to make them more intrinsically enjoyable, and some researchers have posited that a more engaging task might produce higher quality data. This assumption, however, remains largely untested. We investigated the effects of gamelike features and test location on the data and enjoyment ratings from a simple cognitive task. We tested three gamified variants of the Go-No-Go task, delivered both in the laboratory and online. In the first version of the task participants were rewarded with points for performing optimally. The second version of the task was framed as a cowboy shootout. The third version was a standard Go-No-Go task, used as a control condition. We compared reaction time, accuracy and subjective measures of enjoyment and engagement between task variants and study location. We found points to be a highly suitable game mechanic for gamified cognitive testing because they did not disrupt the validity of the data collected but increased participant enjoyment. However, we found no evidence that gamelike features could increase engagement to the point where participant performance improved. We also found that while participants enjoyed the cowboy themed task, the difficulty of categorising the gamelike stimuli adversely affected participant performance, increasing No-Go error rates by 28% compared to the non-game control. Responses collected online vs. in the laboratory had slightly longer reaction times but were otherwise very similar, supporting other findings that online crowdsourcing is an acceptable method of data collection for this type of research.

  1. The effects of gamelike features and test location on cognitive test performance and participant enjoyment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Lumsden

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Computerised cognitive assessments are a vital tool in the behavioural sciences, but participants often view them as effortful and unengaging. One potential solution is to add gamelike elements to these tasks in order to make them more intrinsically enjoyable, and some researchers have posited that a more engaging task might produce higher quality data. This assumption, however, remains largely untested. We investigated the effects of gamelike features and test location on the data and enjoyment ratings from a simple cognitive task. We tested three gamified variants of the Go-No-Go task, delivered both in the laboratory and online. In the first version of the task participants were rewarded with points for performing optimally. The second version of the task was framed as a cowboy shootout. The third version was a standard Go-No-Go task, used as a control condition. We compared reaction time, accuracy and subjective measures of enjoyment and engagement between task variants and study location. We found points to be a highly suitable game mechanic for gamified cognitive testing because they did not disrupt the validity of the data collected but increased participant enjoyment. However, we found no evidence that gamelike features could increase engagement to the point where participant performance improved. We also found that while participants enjoyed the cowboy themed task, the difficulty of categorising the gamelike stimuli adversely affected participant performance, increasing No-Go error rates by 28% compared to the non-game control. Responses collected online vs. in the laboratory had slightly longer reaction times but were otherwise very similar, supporting other findings that online crowdsourcing is an acceptable method of data collection for this type of research.

  2. Tests of Location Equality Under Non-Identical Distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İrem YILMAZ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The ANOVA-F test is the most known procedure for comparing at least three population means. However, this conventional test might give misleading results when it’s underlying assumptions are violated. In this study, Welch’s test with trimmed mean, Welch’s test with trimmed mean and a bootstrap-t, newly proposed test and ANOVA-F test were compared in terms of actual Type I error rates under not only non-normality and heteroscedasticity, but also with non-identical distribution shapes. The newly proposed method outperformed ANOVA-F and other alternatives under various situations.

  3. High-precision location and yield of North Korea's 2013 nuclear test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Miao; Wen, Lianxing

    2013-06-01

    Using North Korea's 2009 nuclear test as reference and satellite imagery, we show that the location and yield of North Korea's 2013 nuclear test can be quickly and accurately determined based on seismic data. North Korea's 2013 nuclear test site is pinpointed by deriving relative location of North Korea's 2009 and 2013 nuclear tests and using the previously determined location of the 2009 nuclear test, while its yield is estimated based on the relative amplitude ratios of the Lg waves recorded for both events, the previously determined Lg-magnitude of 2009 nuclear test and burial depth inferred from satellite imagery. North Korea's 2013 test site is determined to be located at (41°17'26.88″N, 129°4'34.68″E), about 345 m south and 453 m west of its 2009 nuclear test site, with a geographic precision of 94 m. Its yield is estimated to be 12.2 ± 3.8 kt.

  4. Evaluation of Emergency-Locator-Transmitter performance in real and simulated crash tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carden, H. D.

    1981-01-01

    Emergency locator transmitter (ELT) activation problems were investigated by testing a sampling of ELT units in actual crashes and in a special test apparatus which simulated longitudinal crash pulses with superimposed local structural resonances. The probable causes of excessive false alarms and nonactivation of ELT's during crash situations were determined. Solutions to operational and technical problems were also examined as well as the sensitivity of ELT impact switches to orientation and to local structural vibrations.

  5. Failure Behaviors Depending on the Notch Location of the Impact Test Specimens on the HAZ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Yun Chan; Kim, Dong Wook; Lee, Young Suk [Chungang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Jae Keun; Park, Ji Hong [Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    Numerical studies were performed to examine the effects of notch location of impact specimens on the failure behavior of HAZ (Heat Affected Zone) when Charpy V-notch impact test were made at a low temperature (1 .deg. C). Carbon steel plate (SA-516 Gr. 70) with thickness of 25mm for pressure vessel was welded by SMAW (Shielded Metal-Arc Welding) and specimens were fabricated from the welded plate. Charpy tests were then performed with specimens having different notch positions of specimens varying from the fusion line through HAZ to base metal. A series of finite element analysis which simulates the Charpy test and crack propagation initiating at the tip of V-notch was carried out as well. The finite element analysis takes into account the irregular fusion line and non-homogenous material properties due to the notch location of the specimen in HAZ. Results reveals that the energies absorbed during impact test depend significantly on the notch location and direction of specimen. Finite element analysis also demonstrates that the notch location of specimens, to a great extent, influences the reliability and consistency of the test.

  6. SLIFER measurement for explosive yield. [Shorted Location Indicator by Frequency of Electrical Resonance (SLIFER)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bass, R.C.; Benjamin, B.C.; Miller, H.M.; Breding, D.R.

    1976-04-01

    This report describes the shorted location indicator by frequency of electrical resonance (SLIFER) system used at Sandia Laboratories for determination of explosive yield of under ground nuclear tests.

  7. Accurate source location from waves scattered by surface topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nian; Shen, Yang; Flinders, Ashton; Zhang, Wei

    2016-06-01

    Accurate source locations of earthquakes and other seismic events are fundamental in seismology. The location accuracy is limited by several factors, including velocity models, which are often poorly known. In contrast, surface topography, the largest velocity contrast in the Earth, is often precisely mapped at the seismic wavelength (>100 m). In this study, we explore the use of P coda waves generated by scattering at surface topography to obtain high-resolution locations of near-surface seismic events. The Pacific Northwest region is chosen as an example to provide realistic topography. A grid search algorithm is combined with the 3-D strain Green's tensor database to improve search efficiency as well as the quality of hypocenter solutions. The strain Green's tensor is calculated using a 3-D collocated-grid finite difference method on curvilinear grids. Solutions in the search volume are obtained based on the least squares misfit between the "observed" and predicted P and P coda waves. The 95% confidence interval of the solution is provided as an a posteriori error estimation. For shallow events tested in the study, scattering is mainly due to topography in comparison with stochastic lateral velocity heterogeneity. The incorporation of P coda significantly improves solution accuracy and reduces solution uncertainty. The solution remains robust with wide ranges of random noises in data, unmodeled random velocity heterogeneities, and uncertainties in moment tensors. The method can be extended to locate pairs of sources in close proximity by differential waveforms using source-receiver reciprocity, further reducing errors caused by unmodeled velocity structures.

  8. Accurate source location from P waves scattered by surface topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, N.; Shen, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Accurate source locations of earthquakes and other seismic events are fundamental in seismology. The location accuracy is limited by several factors, including velocity models, which are often poorly known. In contrast, surface topography, the largest velocity contrast in the Earth, is often precisely mapped at the seismic wavelength (> 100 m). In this study, we explore the use of P-coda waves generated by scattering at surface topography to obtain high-resolution locations of near-surface seismic events. The Pacific Northwest region is chosen as an example. The grid search method is combined with the 3D strain Green's tensor database type method to improve the search efficiency as well as the quality of hypocenter solution. The strain Green's tensor is calculated by the 3D collocated-grid finite difference method on curvilinear grids. Solutions in the search volume are then obtained based on the least-square misfit between the 'observed' and predicted P and P-coda waves. A 95% confidence interval of the solution is also provided as a posterior error estimation. We find that the scattered waves are mainly due to topography in comparison with random velocity heterogeneity characterized by the von Kάrmάn-type power spectral density function. When only P wave data is used, the 'best' solution is offset from the real source location mostly in the vertical direction. The incorporation of P coda significantly improves solution accuracy and reduces its uncertainty. The solution remains robust with a range of random noises in data, un-modeled random velocity heterogeneities, and uncertainties in moment tensors that we tested.

  9. iPhone Location Aware Apps by Example - Beginners Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Chawdhary, Zeeshan

    2012-01-01

    Using a By example approach you will master the essentials of location awareness and augmented reality by building five complete apps using easy to follow step by step instructions geared towards newcomers. Novice to professional level iOS programmers who want to master location awareness and augmented reality. Build five practical location-based iOS Apps from scratch, a first for any book, converting learning into actual implementation.

  10. Attention to multiple locations is limited by spatial working memory capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Close, Alex; Sapir, Ayelet; Burnett, Katherine; d'Avossa, Giovanni

    2014-08-21

    What limits the ability to attend several locations simultaneously? There are two possibilities: Either attention cannot be divided without incurring a cost, or spatial memory is limited and observers forget which locations to monitor. We compared motion discrimination when attention was directed to one or multiple locations by briefly presented central cues. The cues were matched for the amount of spatial information they provided. Several random dot kinematograms (RDKs) followed the spatial cues; one of them contained task-relevant, coherent motion. When four RDKs were presented, discrimination accuracy was identical when one and two locations were indicated by equally informative cues. However, when six RDKs were presented, discrimination accuracy was higher following one rather than multiple location cues. We examined whether memory of the cued locations was diminished under these conditions. Recall of the cued locations was tested when participants attended the cued locations and when they did not attend the cued locations. Recall was inaccurate only when the cued locations were attended. Finally, visually marking the cued locations, following one and multiple location cues, equalized discrimination performance, suggesting that participants could attend multiple locations when they did not have to remember which ones to attend. We conclude that endogenously dividing attention between multiple locations is limited by inaccurate recall of the attended locations and that attention poses separate demands on the same central processes used to remember spatial information, even when the locations attended and those held in memory are the same. © 2014 ARVO.

  11. Are rates of pathology test ordering higher in general practices co-located with pathology collection centres?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studdert, David M; Britt, Helena C; Pan, Ying; Fahridin, Salma; Bayram, Clare F; Gurrin, Lyle C

    2010-07-19

    To determine whether rates of pathology test ordering by general practitioners in general practices co-located with pathology collection centres (PCCs) are higher than those of GPs in practices located apart from PCCs. We identified all practices in the Melbourne and Sydney metropolitan areas that were co-located with PCCs (same or immediately adjacent suite) and the date co-location was established. This information was merged with the Bettering the Evaluation and Care of Health database to identify samples of GP-patient encounters in co-located practices (n = 31,700) and practices located apart from the nearest PCC (n = 289,700) over the period 2000-2009. Using Poisson regression analysis and logistic regression analysis, we compared GP test-ordering rates across the two types of practices, controlling for a range of potential confounders. Numbers of tests ordered per encounter; likelihood of ordering one or more tests per encounter. In unadjusted analyses, GPs in co-located practices ordered more pathology tests than GPs in practices located apart from PCCs (40.3 v 37.0 tests per 100 encounters, P = 0.01) and had a higher likelihood of ordering one or more tests (16.8% v 15.5% of encounters, P commercial influences and relationships exist in the pathology sector, GPs' test-ordering behaviour may be unaffected.

  12. Mammography test sets: reading location and prior images do not affect group performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soh, B P; Lee, W B; McEntee, M F; Kench, P L; Reed, W M; Heard, R; Chakraborty, D P; Brennan, P C

    2014-04-01

    To examine how the location where reading takes place and the availability of prior images can affect performance in breast test-set reading. Under optimized viewing conditions, 10 expert screen readers each interpreted a reader-specific set of images containing 200 mammographic cases. Readers, randomly divided into two groups read images under one of two pairs of conditions: clinical read with prior images and laboratory read with prior images; laboratory read with prior images and laboratory read without prior images. Region-of-interest (ROI) figure-of-merit (FOM) was analysed using JAFROC software. Breast side-specific sensitivity and specificity were tested using Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed rank tests. Agreement between pairs of readings was measured using Kendall's coefficient of concordance. Group performances between test-set readings demonstrated similar ROI FOMs, sensitivity and specificity median values, and acceptable levels of agreement between pairs of readings were shown (W = 0.75-0.79, p reading conditions. On an individual reader level, two readers demonstrated significant decreases (p images were unavailable. Reading location had an inconsistent impact on individual performance. Reading location and availability of prior images did not significantly alter group performance. Copyright © 2013 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. High‐precision location and yield of North Korea's 2013 nuclear test

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhang, Miao; Wen, Lianxing

    2013-01-01

    Using North Korea's 2009 nuclear test as reference and satellite imagery, we show that the location and yield of North Korea's 2013 nuclear test can be quickly and accurately determined based on seismic data...

  14. 49 CFR 325.57 - Location and operation of sound level measurement systems; stationary test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... vehicle being measured. (c) The microphone of the sound level measurement system shall be oriented toward... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Location and operation of sound level measurement...; Stationary Test § 325.57 Location and operation of sound level measurement systems; stationary test. (a) The...

  15. 27 CFR 478.50 - Locations covered by license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Locations covered by license. 478.50 Section 478.50 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO... location at which a firearms or ammunition business or activity requiring a license under this part is...

  16. Design and Testing of a Multi-Sensor Pedestrian Location and Navigation Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Renaudin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available avigation and location technologies are continually advancing, allowing ever higher accuracies and operation under ever more challenging conditions. The development of such technologies requires the rapid evaluation of a large number of sensors and related utilization strategies. The integration of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSSs such as the Global Positioning System (GPS with accelerometers, gyros, barometers, magnetometers and other sensors is allowing for novel applications, but is hindered by the difficulties to test and compare integrated solutions using multiple sensor sets. In order to achieve compatibility and flexibility in terms of multiple sensors, an advanced adaptable platform is required. This paper describes the design and testing of the NavCube, a multi-sensor navigation, location and timing platform. The system provides a research tool for pedestrian navigation, location and body motion analysis in an unobtrusive form factor that enables in situ data collections with minimal gait and posture impact. Testing and examples of applications of the NavCube are provided.

  17. Rorschach test: Italian calibration update about statistical frequencies of responses and location sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Caruson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The remarkable importance of a calibration of a test lies in the formalization of useful statistical norms. In particular, the determination of these norms is of key importance for the Rorschach Test because of it allows objectifying the estimates of the interpretations’ formal qualities, and help to characterize responses consistent with the common perception. The aim of this work is to communicate the new results provided by a study conducted  on Rorschach protocols related to a sample of “non-clinical” subjects. The expert team in Psychodiagnostic of CIFRIC (Italian Center for training, research and clinic in medicine and psychology has carried out the following work identifying the rate at which the details of each card are interpreted by normative sample. The data obtained are systematized in new Location sheets, which refers to the next edition of the "Updated Manual of Locations and Coding of Responses to Rorschach Test".             Considering the Rorschach Test one of the more effective means for the acquaintance of the personality, it appears therefore fundamental to provide the professional, who uses it, with the possibility of accessing updated statistical data that reflect the population of reference, in order to deduce from them reliable and objectively valid indications.

  18. A new location-scale test based on a combination of the ideas of Levene and Lepage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhäuser, Markus; Leuchs, Ann-Kristin; Ball, Dorothee

    2011-05-01

    Lepage's test combines the Wilcoxon rank-sum and the Ansari-Bradley statistics. We propose to replace the latter statistic by a Wilcoxon rank-sum calculated after Levene's transformation. We use the medians for this transformation, i.e. absolute deviations from sample medians are calculated. The new location-scale test can be carried out as a permutation test based on permutations of the original observations, the Levene transformation has to be applied for each permutation in an intermediate step to calculate the test statistic. Simulations indicate that the new test can be more powerful than an O'Brien-type test and Lepage's test, the latter is the standard nonparametric location-scale test. The new test is illustrated using real data about colony sizes of yellow-eyed penguins and an SAS program to perform the test is freely available. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Optimal location of a mine facility by genetic algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumral, M. [Inonu University, Malatya (Turkey). School of Engineering

    2004-06-01

    When raw material is extracted from multiple mines or faces and when the construction of a mine facility is being planned, the selection for the optimal location of the facility is an important consideration because of high transportation costs. This paper presents an approach for the selection of optimal location of a mining facility based on the genetic algorithms which is a directed random search technique. The technique, simple and easy to apply, is demonstrated for the case of the location of a coal washery plant, whose supply comes from five mines with varying reserves and coal qualities, topographical conditions and mine status. The result shows that the solution produced by the proposed algorithm can be used to find the optimal location of any mining facility.

  20. Inter ISO Market Coordination by Calculating Border Locational Marginal Prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BABIC, A. B.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the methodology for solving Locational Marginal Price (LMP differences (inconsistency of LMPs that arise at the boundary buses between separate power markets is proposed. The algorithm developed enables us to obtain consistent LMP values at the boundary buses between interconnected ISOs. A Primal-Dual Interior Point based optimal power flow (OPF is applied, with complete set of power system physical limit constraints, to solve a regional spot market. The OPF is implemented such that producer and consumer behaviors are modeled simultaneously, while the welfare is maximized. In this paper a generalized methodology for multiple ISOs case is proposed and later it is practically applied on two interconnected independent entities. The algorithm for approximation of cost coefficients of generators and dispatchable loads for neighboring ISOs is proposed. The developed algorithm enables participating ISOs to obtain LMPs at the boundary buses with other interconnected ISOs. By controlling interchange of electric power at the scheduled level, regional spot markets are resolved eliminating possible exercise of market power by individual interconnected ISOs. Results of proposed methodology are tested on the IEEE 118-bus power system.

  1. Innovative Solid State Lighting Replacements for Industrial and Test Facility Locations Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed effort will develop a solid-state LED replacement lamp for rocket engine test stand lighting and more general hazardous-location lighting. The LED...

  2. Current expertise location by exploiting the dynamics of knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Nozicka

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Systems for expertise location are either very expensive in terms of the costs of maintenance or they tend to become obsolete or incomplete during the time. This article presents a new approach to knowledge mapping/expertise location allowing reducing the costs of knowledge mapping by maintaining the accuracy of the knowledge map. The efficiency of the knowledge map is achieved by introducing the knowledge estimation measures analysing the dynamics of knowledge of company employees and their textual results of work. Finding an expert with most up-to date knowledge is supported by focusing publishing history analysis. The efficiency of proposed measures within various timeframes of publishing history is evaluated by evaluation method introduced within the article. The evaluation took place in the environment of a middle-sized software company allowing seeing directly a practical usability of the expertise location technique. The results form various implications deployment of knowledge map within the company.

  3. Technology for home dementia care: A prototype locating system put to the test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megges, Herlind; Freiesleben, Silka Dawn; Jankowski, Natalie; Haas, Brigitte; Peters, Oliver

    2017-09-01

    The user experience of persons with dementia and their primary caregivers with locating systems is not firmly established. Eighteen dyads used a prototype locating system during 4 weeks. Primary outcome measures were ratings of usability, and product functions and features. Secondary outcome measures were caregiver burden, perceived self-efficacy, frequency of use, and willingness to purchase the prototype. Changes in scores between baseline (T 1 ) and end of testing period (T 2 ) were compared by performing independent and dependent samples correlations and descriptive statistics. Seventeen dyads made up the final sample. Ratings of usability and product functions and features were fair, but usability ratings were significantly reduced after 4 weeks. Although the prototype was used infrequently by majority of the participants, most caregivers would be willing to purchase the prototype, with men more willing than women. No significant change in technological willingness, caregiver burden, or perceived self-efficacy was found between T 1 and T 2 . Perceived self-efficacy significantly negatively correlated with willingness to purchase the prototype after 4 weeks. Results highlight the importance of including end users in the research and development phase of locating systems to improve the user experience in home dementia care. Necessary indications for further research are carrying out randomized controlled trials with larger, more representative samples and developing innovative software and hardware solutions.

  4. Location, Location, Location!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsdell, Kristin

    2004-01-01

    Of prime importance in real estate, location is also a key element in the appeal of romances. Popular geographic settings and historical periods sell, unpopular ones do not--not always with a logical explanation, as the author discovered when she conducted a survey on this topic last year. (Why, for example, are the French Revolution and the…

  5. Robustness to non-normality of various tests for the one-sample location problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle K. McDougall

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the effect of the normal distribution assumption on the power and size of the sign test, Wilcoxon's signed rank test and the t-test when used in one-sample location problems. Power functions for these tests under various skewness and kurtosis conditions are produced for several sample sizes from simulated data using the g-and-k distribution of MacGillivray and Cannon [5].

  6. Determining an optimal retail location by using GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trubint Nikola

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Reengineering of retail networks is a continual process that has been in the forefront of management attention worldwide. The central question is how to achieve positive business results under high costs, but at the same time maintain the attained service quality. This reengineering process may be implemented successfully only if preceded by detailed preparations concerning, primarily, the analysis of business results, market potentials and retail outlet location. GIS tools offer a strong support to this process. Apart from theoretical considerations, this paper will also present the use of GIS as a tool in determining the optimal locations of the Serbian post retail.

  7. The modified Location Learning Test: norms for the assessment of spatial memory function in neuropsychological patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, R.P.C.; Nys, G.M.S.; Brands, A.M.; Berg, E. van den; Zandvoort, M.J. Van

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the applicability of the modified Location Learning Test (mLLT) as a test of spatial memory in neuropsychological patients. Three groups of participants were examined: stroke patients, patients with diabetes mellitus and healthy participants (N=411). Three error measures were

  8. Test plan for the 34 meter vertical axis wind turbine test bed located at Bushland, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephenson, W.A.

    1986-12-01

    A plan is presented for the testing and evaluation of a new 500 kw vertical axis wind turbine test bed. The plan starts with the initial measurements made during construction, proceeds through evaluation of the design, the development of control methods, and finally to the test bed phase where new concepts are evaluated and in-depth studies are performed.

  9. Location and characterisation of pollution sites by principal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Location and characterisation of pollution sites by principal component analysis of trace contaminants in a slightly polluted seasonal river: a case study of the ... The high positive loadings of variables B and As concentrations on the first principal component and the biplots indicate that their main common point sources are ...

  10. Test location Guetsch, Switzerland for wind-power installations; Teststandort fuer Windkraftanlagen Guetsch. Vorstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaffner, B.; Cattin, R.; Schilter, Ch.

    2007-07-15

    This illustrated technical report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes work done on the preliminary project for providing test facilities for wind-power installations on the 'Guetsch' location in the Swiss Alps. In the context of the Alpine Test Site Guetsch project, which involves meteorological measurements and wind turbine performance analysis research, a comprehensive infrastructure for the acquisition of climate data and the performance of wind turbines has been defined. This work is to be carried out by the Swiss Federal Office of Meteorology and Climatology MeteoSwiss and the company Meteotest within the framework of the COST Action 727 2005 - 2008 of the European Union. The aim of this preliminary study is to identify the possibilities for the realisation of an alpine test site for wind turbines based on the existing infrastructure. The economic and technical conditions for the testing of both large and small wind turbines are discussed. Topics examined include site ownership and access, infrastructure and measurement systems, financing possibilities and a timeline for implementation.

  11. Acoustic emission non-destructive testing of structures using source location techniques.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beattie, Alan G.

    2013-09-01

    The technology of acoustic emission (AE) testing has been advanced and used at Sandia for the past 40 years. AE has been used on structures including pressure vessels, fire bottles, wind turbines, gas wells, nuclear weapons, and solar collectors. This monograph begins with background topics in acoustics and instrumentation and then focuses on current acoustic emission technology. It covers the overall design and system setups for a test, with a wind turbine blade as the object. Test analysis is discussed with an emphasis on source location. Three test examples are presented, two on experimental wind turbine blades and one on aircraft fire extinguisher bottles. Finally, the code for a FORTRAN source location program is given as an example of a working analysis program. Throughout the document, the stress is on actual testing of real structures, not on laboratory experiments.

  12. Parameterizing Plasmaspheric Hiss Wave Power by Plasmapause Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaspina, D.; Jaynes, A. N.; Boule, C.; Bortnik, J.; Thaller, S. A.; Ergun, R.; Kletzing, C.; Wygant, J. R.

    2016-12-01

    Plasmaspheric hiss is a superposition of electromagnetic whistler-mode waves largely confined within the plasmasphere, the cold plasma torus surrounding Earth. Hiss plays an important role in radiation belt dynamics by pitch angle scattering electrons for a wide range of electron energies (10's of keV to > 1 MeV) which can result in their loss to the atmosphere. This interaction is often included in predictive models of radiation belt dynamics using statistical hiss wave power distributions derived from observations. However, the traditional approach to creating these distributions parameterizes hiss power by L-parameter (e.g. MacIlwain L, dipole L, or L*) and a geomagnetic index (e.g. DST or AE). Such parameterization introduces spatial averaging of dissimilar wave power radial profiles, resulting in heavily smoothed wave power distributions. This work instead parameterizes hiss wave power distributions using plasmapause location and distance from the plasmapause. Using Van Allen Probes data and these new parameterizations, previously unreported and highly repeatable features of the hiss wave power distribution become apparent. These features include: (1) The highest amplitude hiss wave power is concentrated over a narrower range of L than previous studies have indicated, and (2) the location of the peak in hiss wave power is determined by the plasmapause location, occurring at a consistent standoff distance Earthward of the plasmapause. Based on these features, parameterizing hiss using the plasmapause location and distance from the plasmapause may shed new light on hiss generation and propagation physics, as well as serve to improve the parameterization of hiss in predictive models of the radiation belts.

  13. Design and Test of an Event Detector and Locator for the ReflectoActive Seals System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stinson, Brad J [ORNL

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of this work was to research, design, develop and test a novel instrument for detecting fiber optic loop continuity and spatially locating fiber optic breaches. The work is for an active seal system called ReflectoActive{trademark} Seals whose purpose is to provide real time container tamper indication. A Field Programmable Gate Array was used to implement a loop continuity detector and a spatial breach locator based on a high acquisition speed single photon counting optical time domain reflectometer. Communication and other control features were added in order to create a usable instrument that met defined requirements. A host graphical user interface was developed to illustrate system use and performance. The resulting device meets performance specifications by exhibiting a dynamic range of 27dB and a spatial resolution of 1.5 ft. The communication scheme used expands installation options and allows the device to communicate to a central host via existing Local Area Networks and/or the Internet.

  14. Exploring differences between central located test and home use test in a living lab context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendin, Karin Maria Elisabet; Annika, Åström; Anna, Ståhlbröst

    2015-01-01

    or liking of a product or group of products is determined together with the view of whether one product is preferred over other products. This article explores the similarities and differences between CLT and HUT test results in a LL context. In both settings, the acceptance of five flavoured chocolate bars...

  15. The Impact of Intelligent Transport Systems on Office Location Attractiveness : Testing the Predictive Validity of a Location Choice Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Argiolu, R.; Van der Heijden, R.; Bos, I.; Marchau, V.A.W.J.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, a model was developed describing effects of Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) on location preferences of office-keeping organisations in urbanised. The model is based on a Hierarchical Information Integration Approach, using Stated Preference data. The model indicates that ITS

  16. Pipeline blockage location by strain measurement using an ROV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, L.M.

    1995-12-31

    The paper describes an ROV based inspection method for locating a blockage in a marine pipeline. The method measures changes in the hoop strain in the pipe corresponding to changes in the internal fluid pressure. The device (patent applied for), converts radial extension or compression of the pipe into axial compression or tension respectively of a load cell. It allows the use of a high sensitivity axial strain sensing element to measure the hoop strain in the pipe. By pressurizing the pipe at positions upstream and downstream of the blockage and measuring the resulting hoop strain, the boundaries of the blockage can be accurately defined. The device can be installed and recovered by ROV, the signals being relayed to the surface via the ROV`s umbilical. The method has been used successfully to locate and define the extent of a blockage in a deepwater oil flowline running from a satellite well system to a production platform, allowing the planning of effective remedial action. The results of the strain measurements were found to be fully consistent with the contents of the pipe determined by subsequent sectioning. Key features of the hoop strain device include rugged design, high sensitivity, ease of attachment and recovery by ROV with the need for minimal cleaning and for access only to a sector of the pipe, typically {1/4} the circumference.

  17. Observation of Dog-Ear Regression by Anatomical Location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Thomas A; Keane, James C; Varma, Rajat; Walsh, Stephanie B; Huang, Conway C

    2017-11-01

    When an excision is performed by a method other than elliptical excision, direct primary wound closure can result in standing cones or "dog-ears." In 2008, Lee and colleagues noted that dog-ears of <8 mm in height have a statistically greater tendency to resolve without further surgical correction than larger dog-ears. To stratify dog-ears by anatomic location and inform on the need for correction at the time of surgery. After tumor extirpation, patients were counseled that primary closure of the surgical wound would result in dog-ears at the wound apices. Dog-ears were left uncorrected in participating patients. At 6 months, patients were assessed for resolution of the dog-ears and asked to rate the appearance of the scar. A total of 140 dog-ears were observed in the study period. Anatomical locations included the hand/foot, trunk, limb, and head/neck. Among these dog-ears, 114/140 (81%) showed complete resolution. Patient satisfaction with the scar appearance correlated well with the dog-ear resolution, with most patients rating the appearance of the scar as good to excellent. This study suggests that dog-ears on the hand and dog-ears ≤4 mm on the trunk may be observed without any final cosmetic penalty.

  18. Testing seismic amplitude source location for fast debris-flow detection at Illgraben, Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Walter

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Heavy precipitation can mobilize tens to hundreds of thousands of cubic meters of sediment in steep Alpine torrents in a short time. The resulting debris flows (mixtures of water, sediment and boulders move downstream with velocities of several meters per second and have a high destruction potential. Warning protocols for affected communities rely on raising awareness about the debris-flow threat, precipitation monitoring and rapid detection methods. The latter, in particular, is a challenge because debris-flow-prone torrents have their catchments in steep and inaccessible terrain, where instrumentation is difficult to install and maintain. Here we test amplitude source location (ASL as a processing scheme for seismic network data for early warning purposes. We use debris-flow and noise seismograms from the Illgraben catchment, Switzerland, a torrent system which produces several debris-flow events per year. Automatic in situ detection is currently based on geophones mounted on concrete check dams and radar stage sensors suspended above the channel. The ASL approach has the advantage that it uses seismometers, which can be installed at more accessible locations where a stable connection to mobile phone networks is available for data communication. Our ASL processing uses time-averaged ground vibration amplitudes to estimate the location of the debris-flow front. Applied to continuous data streams, inversion of the seismic amplitude decay throughout the network is robust and efficient, requires no manual identification of seismic phase arrivals and eliminates the need for a local seismic velocity model. We apply the ASL technique to a small debris-flow event on 19 July 2011, which was captured with a temporary seismic monitoring network. The processing rapidly detects the debris-flow event half an hour before arrival at the outlet of the torrent and several minutes before detection by the in situ alarm system. An analysis of continuous seismic

  19. Testing seismic amplitude source location for fast debris-flow detection at Illgraben, Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Fabian; Burtin, Arnaud; McArdell, Brian W.; Hovius, Niels; Weder, Bianca; Turowski, Jens M.

    2017-06-01

    Heavy precipitation can mobilize tens to hundreds of thousands of cubic meters of sediment in steep Alpine torrents in a short time. The resulting debris flows (mixtures of water, sediment and boulders) move downstream with velocities of several meters per second and have a high destruction potential. Warning protocols for affected communities rely on raising awareness about the debris-flow threat, precipitation monitoring and rapid detection methods. The latter, in particular, is a challenge because debris-flow-prone torrents have their catchments in steep and inaccessible terrain, where instrumentation is difficult to install and maintain. Here we test amplitude source location (ASL) as a processing scheme for seismic network data for early warning purposes. We use debris-flow and noise seismograms from the Illgraben catchment, Switzerland, a torrent system which produces several debris-flow events per year. Automatic in situ detection is currently based on geophones mounted on concrete check dams and radar stage sensors suspended above the channel. The ASL approach has the advantage that it uses seismometers, which can be installed at more accessible locations where a stable connection to mobile phone networks is available for data communication. Our ASL processing uses time-averaged ground vibration amplitudes to estimate the location of the debris-flow front. Applied to continuous data streams, inversion of the seismic amplitude decay throughout the network is robust and efficient, requires no manual identification of seismic phase arrivals and eliminates the need for a local seismic velocity model. We apply the ASL technique to a small debris-flow event on 19 July 2011, which was captured with a temporary seismic monitoring network. The processing rapidly detects the debris-flow event half an hour before arrival at the outlet of the torrent and several minutes before detection by the in situ alarm system. An analysis of continuous seismic records furthermore

  20. Selection of locations of knots for linear splines in random regression test-day models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamrozik, J; Bohmanova, J; Schaeffer, L R

    2010-04-01

    Using spline functions (segmented polynomials) in regression models requires the knowledge of the location of the knots. Knots are the points at which independent linear segments are connected. Optimal positions of knots for linear splines of different orders were determined in this study for different scenarios, using existing estimates of covariance functions and an optimization algorithm. The traits considered were test-day milk, fat and protein yields, and somatic cell score (SCS) in the first three lactations of Canadian Holsteins. Two ranges of days in milk (from 5 to 305 and from 5 to 365) were taken into account. In addition, four different populations of Holstein cows, from Australia, Canada, Italy and New Zealand, were examined with respect to first lactation (305 days) milk only. The estimates of genetic and permanent environmental covariance functions were based on single- and multiple-trait test-day models, with Legendre polynomials of order 4 as random regressions. A differential evolution algorithm was applied to find the best location of knots for splines of orders 4 to 7 and the criterion for optimization was the goodness-of-fit of the spline covariance function. Results indicated that the optimal position of knots for linear splines differed between genetic and permanent environmental effects, as well as between traits and lactations. Different populations also exhibited different patterns of optimal knot locations. With linear splines, different positions of knots should therefore be used for different effects and traits in random regression test-day models when analysing milk production traits.

  1. Test report: effect of specimen orientation and location on the tensile properties of GTS forging 1472859

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melcher, Ryan J [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2008-02-12

    ASTM standardized tensile tests were performed on GTS WR-quality 1472859 forging (21-6- 9 material) to determine the dependence of tensile properties on specimen orientation (longitudinal vs. transverse) with respect to forging ‘grain flow’ and location within the forging. Statistical analyses of the results show that location has a statistically measurable effect on the longitudinal tensile properties (as compared to the error involved in tensile testing). However, this dependence of the properties with location, especially in the circumferential orientation, causes large variability in the results that clouds the statistical determination of any orientation effect. As a result, this forging is determined to be inhomogeneous along the forging length, with a significant range in properties observed (e.g. yield strengths from 85 to 117 ksi) and highest strength/lowest ductility in the spherical region. Additional specimens should be tested to acquire a higher resolution view of this inhomogeneity if the end use of the data is structural integrity analyses using spatially dependent properties; however, sufficient data is provided in this study to extract a statistical lower bound for conservative, homogeneous structural analysis.

  2. Honey bee sting pain index by body location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael L. Smith

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Schmidt Sting Pain Index rates the painfulness of 78 Hymenoptera species, using the honey bee as a reference point. However, the question of how sting painfulness varies depending on body location remains unanswered. This study rated the painfulness of honey bee stings over 25 body locations in one subject (the author. Pain was rated on a 1–10 scale, relative to an internal standard, the forearm. In the single subject, pain ratings were consistent over three repetitions. Sting location was a significant predictor of the pain rating in a linear model (p < 0.0001, DF = 25, 94, F = 27.4. The three least painful locations were the skull, middle toe tip, and upper arm (all scoring a 2.3. The three most painful locations were the nostril, upper lip, and penis shaft (9.0, 8.7, and 7.3, respectively. This study provides an index of how the painfulness of a honey bee sting varies depending on body location.

  3. Slope-Based and Geometric Encoding of a Goal Location by the Terrestrial Toad (Rhinella arenarum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotelo, María Inés; Bingman, Verner P; Muzio, Rubén N

    2017-08-28

    The current study was designed to test for the ability of terrestrial toads, Rhinella arenarum, to use slope as source of spatial information to locate a goal, and investigate the relative importance of slope and geometric information for goal localization. Toads were trained to locate a single, water-reward goal location in a corner of a rectangular arena placed on an incline. Once the toads learned the task, 3 types of probe trials were carried out to determine the relative use of slope and geometric information for goal localization. The probe trials revealed that the toads were able to independently use slope, and as previously reported, geometry to locate the goal. However, the boundary geometry of the experimental arena was found to be preferentially used by the toads when geometric and slope information were set in conflict. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Emergency Locator Transmitter System Performance During Three Full-Scale General Aviation Crash Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littell, Justin D.; Stimson, Chad M.

    2016-01-01

    Full-scale crash tests were conducted on three Cessna 172 aircraft at NASA Langley Research Center's Landing and Impact Research facility during the summer of 2015. The purpose of the three tests was to evaluate the performance of commercially available Emergency Locator Transmitter (ELT) systems and support development of enhanced installation guidance. ELTs are used to provide location information to Search and Rescue (SAR) organizations in the event of an aviation distress situation, such as a crash. The crash tests simulated three differing severe but survivable crash conditions, in which it is expected that the onboard occupants have a reasonable chance of surviving the accident and would require assistance from SAR personnel. The first simulated an emergency landing onto a rigid surface, while the second and third simulated controlled flight into terrain. Multiple ELT systems were installed on each airplane according to federal regulations. The majority of the ELT systems performed nominally. In the systems which did not activate, post-test disassembly and inspection offered guidance for non-activation cause in some cases, while in others, no specific cause could be found. In a subset of installations purposely disregarding best practice guidelines, failure of the ELT-to-antenna cabling connections were found. Recommendations for enhanced installation guidance of ELT systems will be made to the Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics (RTCA) Special Committee 229 for consideration for adoption in a future release of ELT minimum operational performance specifications. These recommendations will be based on the data gathered during this test series as well as a larger series of crash simulations using computer models that will be calibrated based on these data

  5. Optimizations of transverse projected emittance at the photo-injector test facility at DESY, location Zeuthen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rimjaem, S., E-mail: r.sakhorn@gmail.com [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Platanenallee 6, 15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Stephan, F.; Krasilnikov, M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Platanenallee 6, 15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Ackermann, W. [Technische Universtaet Darmstadt, Schossgartenstrasse 8, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Asova, G.; Baehr, J. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Platanenallee 6, 15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Gjonaj, E. [Technische Universtaet Darmstadt, Schossgartenstrasse 8, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Grabosch, H.J.; Hakobyan, L.; Haenel, M.; Ivanisenko, Y.; Khojoyan, M.; Klemz, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Platanenallee 6, 15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Lederer, S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Mahgoub, M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Platanenallee 6, 15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Michelato, P.; Monaco, L. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Milano - LASA, Via F.lli Cervi 201, 20090 Segrate Milano (Italy); Nozdrin, M.; O' Shea, B.; Otevrel, M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Platanenallee 6, 15738 Zeuthen (Germany); and others

    2012-04-11

    High brightness electron sources for linac based short-wavelength free-electron lasers are developed and optimized for small transverse projected emittance at the photo-injector test facility at DESY, location Zeuthen (PITZ). A major part of the measurement program at PITZ is dedicated to transverse phase space optimization in order to fulfill the requirements of the European X-ray free-electron laser (European XFEL). A laser-driven RF-gun, treated with a dry-ice sublimation-impulse cleaning technique, a new photocathode laser system allowing short rise and fall times of the flat-top temporal distribution as well as several new diagnostic components have been installed at PITZ in 2008. The electrons generated via the photo-effect at a cesium telluride (Cs{sub 2}Te) cathode are accelerated by a 1.6 cell L-band RF-gun cavity with a maximum accelerating gradient at the cathode of about 60 MV/m. The transverse projected emittance is measured using a single slit scan technique. In the 2008-2009 run period, a detailed characterization of the projected transverse emittance was performed at different operating conditions. Optimizations and measurement results as well as simulation predictions of the transverse projected emittance for bunch charges of 1, 0.5, 0.25 and 0.1 nC are presented and discussed in this paper. The geometric mean of the normalized projected rms emittance in both transverse directions for an electron bunch charge of 1 nC was measured to be 0.89{+-}0.01 mm mrad for a 100% rms phase-space distribution.

  6. Optimizations of transverse projected emittance at the photo-injector test facility at DESY, location Zeuthen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimjaem, S.; Stephan, F.; Krasilnikov, M.; Ackermann, W.; Asova, G.; Bähr, J.; Gjonaj, E.; Grabosch, H. J.; Hakobyan, L.; Hänel, M.; Ivanisenko, Y.; Khojoyan, M.; Klemz, G.; Lederer, S.; Mahgoub, M.; Michelato, P.; Monaco, L.; Nozdrin, M.; O'Shea, B.; Otevrel, M.; Petrosyan, B.; Richter, D.; Rönsch-Schulenburg, J.; Sertore, D.; Schreiber, S.; Schnepp, S.; Shapovalov, A.; Spesyvtsev, R.; Staykov, L.; Vashchenko, G.; Weiland, T.; Will, I.

    2012-04-01

    High brightness electron sources for linac based short-wavelength free-electron lasers are developed and optimized for small transverse projected emittance at the photo-injector test facility at DESY, location Zeuthen (PITZ). A major part of the measurement program at PITZ is dedicated to transverse phase space optimization in order to fulfill the requirements of the European X-ray free-electron laser (European XFEL). A laser-driven RF-gun, treated with a dry-ice sublimation-impulse cleaning technique, a new photocathode laser system allowing short rise and fall times of the flat-top temporal distribution as well as several new diagnostic components have been installed at PITZ in 2008. The electrons generated via the photo-effect at a cesium telluride (Cs2Te) cathode are accelerated by a 1.6 cell L-band RF-gun cavity with a maximum accelerating gradient at the cathode of about 60 MV/m. The transverse projected emittance is measured using a single slit scan technique. In the 2008-2009 run period, a detailed characterization of the projected transverse emittance was performed at different operating conditions. Optimizations and measurement results as well as simulation predictions of the transverse projected emittance for bunch charges of 1, 0.5, 0.25 and 0.1 nC are presented and discussed in this paper. The geometric mean of the normalized projected rms emittance in both transverse directions for an electron bunch charge of 1 nC was measured to be 0.89±0.01 mm mrad for a 100% rms phase-space distribution.

  7. Solving the Quadratic Capacitated Facilities Location Problem by Computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cote, Leon C.; Smith, Wayland P.

    Several computer programs were developed to solve various versions of the quadratic capacitated facilities location problem. Matrices, which represent various business costs, are defined for the factors of sites, facilities, customers, commodities, and production units. The objective of the program is to find an optimization matrix for the lowest…

  8. Children's Objective Physical Activity by Location: Why the Neighborhood Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneeshaw-Price, Stephanie; Saelens, Brian; Sallis, James; Glanz, Karen; Frank, Lawrence; Kerr, Jacqueline; Hannon, Peggy; Grembowski, David; Chan, KC Gary; Cain, Kelli

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of where children are active may lead to more informed policies about how and where to intervene and improve physical activity. This study examined where children aged 6–11 were physically active using time-stamped accelerometer data and parent-reported place logs and assessed the association of physical-activity location variation with demographic factors. Children spent most time and did most physical activity at home and school. Although neighborhood time was limited, this time was more proportionally active than time in other locations (e.g., active 42.1% of time in neighborhood vs. 18.1% of time at home). Children with any neighborhood-based physical activity had higher average total physical activity. Policies and environments that encourage children to spend time outdoors in their neighborhoods could result in higher overall physical activity. PMID:23877357

  9. 50 CFR Figure 7 to Part 679 - Location of Trawl Gear Test Areas in the GOA and the BSAI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Location of Trawl Gear Test Areas in the GOA and the BSAI 7 Figure 7 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT... EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 7 Figure 7 to Part 679—Location of Trawl Gear Test Areas in...

  10. Philae locating and science support by robotic vision techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remetean, E.; Dolives, B.; Souvannavong, F.; Germa, T.; Ginestet, JB.; Torres, A.; Mousset, T.

    2016-08-01

    The ROLIS, CIVA-P and OSIRIS instruments on-board the Philae lander and the Rosetta orbiter acquired high-resolution images during the lander's descent towards the targeted landing site Agilkia, during its unexpected rebounds and at the final landing site Abydos on comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. We, exploited these images, using robotic vision techniques, to locate the first touchdown on the surface of the comet nucleus, to reconstruct the lander's 3D trajectory during the descent and at the beginning of the first rebound, and to create local digital terrain models and depth maps of Agilkia and Abydos sites. Using the ROLIS close-up images we could also determine the actual movements of the lander between the beginning and the end of the First Science Sequence and we propose a new lander's bubble movement command meant to increase the probability for a successful drilling during a hypothetical future Long Term Science phase.

  11. LHCb VErtex LOcator module characterisation and long term quality assurance tests

    CERN Document Server

    Bates, A; Doherty, F; Dumps, R; Dwyer, L; Gersabeck, M; Marinho, 1, F; Melone, J; Parkes, C; Saavedra, A; Tobin, M; Viret, S

    2009-01-01

    LHCb is the dedicated b-physics experiment of the LHC. Its vertex detector, the VErtex LOcator (VELO), will operate in a harsh radiation environment with limited access due to its proximity to the LHC beam. To ensure the long term operation and performance, every module was required to pass a set of quality assurance tests. These were specifically developed for the VELO modules to take into account their operational environment and assembly steps. Each VELO module was rigorously inspected, tested and thermally cycled in the Glasgow module burn-in procedures. This paper provides details of the burn-in procedures and summarises the main results that were found. Some of the major results presented in this paper are: the full characterisation of the leakage currents; identification of bad channels; and signal to noise measurements. A few minor problems were identified through visual inspections of the modules and the feedback into the production process proved critical. As a result of the electrical and thermal t...

  12. Location accuracy evaluation of lightning location systems using natural lightning flashes recorded by a network of high-speed cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, J.; Saraiva, A. C. V.; Campos, L. Z. D. S.; Pinto, O., Jr.; Antunes, L.

    2014-12-01

    This work presents a method for the evaluation of location accuracy of all Lightning Location System (LLS) in operation in southeastern Brazil, using natural cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning flashes. This can be done through a multiple high-speed cameras network (RAMMER network) installed in the Paraiba Valley region - SP - Brazil. The RAMMER network (Automated Multi-camera Network for Monitoring and Study of Lightning) is composed by four high-speed cameras operating at 2,500 frames per second. Three stationary black-and-white (B&W) cameras were situated in the cities of São José dos Campos and Caçapava. A fourth color camera was mobile (installed in a car), but operated in a fixed location during the observation period, within the city of São José dos Campos. The average distance among cameras was 13 kilometers. Each RAMMER sensor position was determined so that the network can observe the same lightning flash from different angles and all recorded videos were GPS (Global Position System) time stamped, allowing comparisons of events between cameras and the LLS. The RAMMER sensor is basically composed by a computer, a Phantom high-speed camera version 9.1 and a GPS unit. The lightning cases analyzed in the present work were observed by at least two cameras, their position was visually triangulated and the results compared with BrasilDAT network, during the summer seasons of 2011/2012 and 2012/2013. The visual triangulation method is presented in details. The calibration procedure showed an accuracy of 9 meters between the accurate GPS position of the object triangulated and the result from the visual triangulation method. Lightning return stroke positions, estimated with the visual triangulation method, were compared with LLS locations. Differences between solutions were not greater than 1.8 km.

  13. Serving by local consensus in the public service location game

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Yi-Fan

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the issue of distributed and cooperative decision-making in a network game of public service location. Each node of the network can choose to be a provider of service which is accessible to the provider itself and also to all the neighboring nodes. A node may also choose only to be a consumer, and then it has to pay a tax, and the collected tax is evenly distributed to all the service providers to remedy their cost. If nodes do not communicate with each other but make individual best-response decisions, the system will be trapped in an inefficient situation of high tax level. In this work we investigate a decentralized local-consensus selection mechanism, according to which nodes in need of service recommend their neighbors of highest local impact as candidate servers, and a node may become a server only if all its non-server neighbors give their assent. We demonstrate that this local-consensus mechanism, although only involving information exchange among neighboring nodes, leads to socially effici...

  14. Source location of chorus emissions observed by Cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Parrot

    Full Text Available One of the objectives of the Cluster mission is to study sources of various electromagnetic waves using the four satellites. This paper describes the methods we have applied to data recorded from the STAFF spectrum analyser. This instrument provides the cross spectral matrix of three magnetic and two electric field components. This spectral matrix is analysed to determine, for each satellite, the direction of the wave normal relative to the Earth’s magnetic field as a function of frequency and of time. Due to the Cluster orbit, chorus emissions are often observed close to perigee, and the data analysis determines the direction of these waves. Three events observed during different levels of magnetic activity are reported. It is shown that the component of the Poynting vector parallel to the magnetic field changes its sense when the satellites cross the magnetic equator, which indicates that the chorus waves propagate away from the equator. Detailed analysis indicates that the source is located in close vicinity of the plane of the geomagnetic equator.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (plasma waves and instabilities; storms and substorms; Space plasma physics (waves and instabilities

  15. Predicting tumor location by modeling the deformation of the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathmanathan, Pras; Gavaghan, David J; Whiteley, Jonathan P; Chapman, S Jonathan; Brady, J Michael

    2008-10-01

    Breast cancer is one of the biggest killers in the western world, and early diagnosis is essential for improved prognosis. The shape of the breast varies hugely between the scenarios of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (patient lies prone, breast hanging down under gravity), X-ray mammography (breast strongly compressed) and ultrasound or biopsy/surgery (patient lies supine), rendering image fusion an extremely difficult task. This paper is concerned with the use of the finite-element method and nonlinear elasticity to build a 3-D, patient-specific, anatomically accurate model of the breast. The model is constructed from MR images and can be deformed to simulate breast shape and predict tumor location during mammography or biopsy/surgery. Two extensions of the standard elasticity problem need to be solved: an inverse elasticity problem (arising from the fact that only a deformed, stressed, state is known initially), and the contact problem of modeling compression. The model is used for craniocaudal mediolateral oblique mammographic image matching, and a number of numerical experiments are performed.

  16. Do Street Robbery Location Choices Vary Over Time of Day or Day of Week? A Test in Chicago

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernasco, Wim; Ruiter, Stijn; Block, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: This article examines the hypothesis that in street robbery location choices, the importance of location attributes is conditional on the time of day and on the day of the week. Method: The hypothesis is assessed by estimating and comparing separate discrete location choice models for

  17. Analysis Of Students' Critical Thinking Skills By Location, Gender ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined students' critical thinking skills (CTS) at Amound University, Somaliland and compared their CTS with the U.S.A normative sample of 2,677 university students. Students' CTS was also compared by gender and its relationship with students' motivation (SMOT) to learn their academic disciplines at the ...

  18. Location choice by households and polluting firms : An evolutionary approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, BR; de Vries, FP

    This paper examines several policy regimes to deal with the problem of households suffering from environmental damage by firms in the same region. We employ an evolutionary framework to analyze migration movements in the course of time, since firms and households will not relocate immediately in

  19. Lack of mirror use by pigs to locate food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gieling, Elise T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314411240; Mijdam, Elco; van der Staay, F. Josef|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074262653; Nordquist, Rebecca E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/296303291

    Many mammalian species, as well as birds, are able to use a mirror either in the context of self-recognition, or instrumentally for discovering and manipulating objects that cannot be perceived directly. A noteworthy study by Broom et al. (2009) investigated the ability of pigs (Sus scrofa) to use a

  20. Location and characterisation of pollution sites by principal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-07-04

    Jul 4, 2007 ... abstract. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to deduce the common origin of trace contaminants in a slightly contaminated, ... sites by means of the biplots resulting from the representation of the scores on the components. .... and 2005 sampling campaigns expanded instrumental response.

  1. Effects of intersegmental transfers on target location by proteins

    CERN Document Server

    Sheinman, Michael

    2008-01-01

    We study a model for a protein searching for a target, using facilitated diffusion, on a DNA molecule confined in a finite volume. The model includes three distinct pathways for facilitated diffusion: (a) sliding - in which the protein diffuses along the contour of the DNA (b) jumping - where the protein travels between two sites along the DNA by three-dimensional diffusion, and finally (c) intersegmental transfer - which allows the protein to move from one site to another by transiently binding both at the same time. The typical search time is calculated using scaling arguments which are verified numerically. Our results suggest that the inclusion of intersegmental transfer (i) decreases the search time considerably (ii) makes the search time much more robust to variations in the parameters of the model and (iii) that the optimal search time occurs in a regime very different than that found for models which ignore intersegmental transfers. The behavior we find is rich and shows surprising dependencies, for e...

  2. Dynamic loads on human and animal surrogates at different test locations in compressed-gas-driven shock tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alay, E.; Skotak, M.; Misistia, A.; Chandra, N.

    2017-10-01

    Dynamic loads on specimens in live-fire conditions as well as at different locations within and outside compressed-gas-driven shock tubes are determined by both static and total blast overpressure-time pressure pulses. The biomechanical loading on the specimen is determined by surface pressures that combine the effects of static, dynamic, and reflected pressures and specimen geometry. Surface pressure is both space and time dependent; it varies as a function of size, shape, and external contour of the specimens. In this work, we used two sets of specimens: (1) anthropometric dummy head and (2) a surrogate rodent headform instrumented with pressure sensors and subjected them to blast waves in the interior and at the exit of the shock tube. We demonstrate in this work that while inside the shock tube the biomechanical loading as determined by various pressure measures closely aligns with live-fire data and shock wave theory, significant deviations are found when tests are performed outside.

  3. Solution of facility location problem in Turkey by using fuzzy C-means method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocakaya, Mustafa Nabi; Türkakın, Osman Hürol

    2013-10-01

    Facility location problem is one of most frequent problems, which is encountered while deciding facility places such as factories, warehouses. There are various techniques developed to solve facility location problems. Fuzzy c-means method is one of the most usable techniques between them. In this study, optimum warehouse location for natural stone mines is found by using fuzzy c-means method.

  4. Accreditation Status and Geographic Location of Outpatient Echocardiographic Testing Facilities Among Medicare Beneficiaries: The VALUE-ECHO Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Scott C; Wang, Kefeng; Dong, Chuanhui; Yi, Li; Marinovic Gutierrez, Carolina; Di Tullio, Marco R; Farrell, Mary Beth; Burgess, Pamela; Gornik, Heather L; Hamburg, Naomi M; Needleman, Laurence; Orsinelli, David; Robison, Susana; Rundek, Tatjana

    2017-08-08

    Accreditation of echocardiographic testing facilities by the Intersocietal Accreditation Commission (IAC) is supported by the American College of Cardiology and American Society of Echocardiography. However, limited information exists on the accreditation status and geographic distribution of echocardiographic facilities in the United States. Our study aimed to identify (1) the proportion of outpatient echocardiography facilities used by Medicare beneficiaries that are IAC accredited, (2) their geographic distribution, and (3) variations in procedure type and volume by accreditation status. As part of the VALUE-ECHO (Value of Accreditation, Location, and Utilization Evaluation-Echocardiography) study, we examined the proportion of IAC-accredited echocardiographic facilities performing outpatient echocardiography in the 2013 Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services outpatient limited data set (100% sample) and their geographic distribution using geocoding in ArcGIS (ESRI, Redlands, CA). Among 4573 outpatient facilities billing Medicare for echocardiographic testing in 2013, 99.6% (n = 4554) were IAC accredited (99.7% in the 50 US states and 86.2% in Puerto Rico). The proportion IAC-accredited echocardiographic facilities varied by region, with 98.7%, 99.9%, 99.9%, 99.5%, and 86.2% of facilities accredited in the Northeast, South, Midwest, West, and Puerto Rico, respectively (P < .01, Fisher exact test). Of all echocardiographic outpatient procedures conducted (n = 1,890,156), 99.8% (n = 1,885,382) were performed in IAC-accredited echocardiographic facilities. Most procedures (90.9%) were transthoracic echocardiograms, of which 99.7% were conducted in IAC-accredited echocardiographic facilities. Almost all outpatient echocardiographic facilities billed by Medicare are IAC accredited. This accreditation rate is substantially higher than previously reported for US outpatient vascular testing facilities (13% IAC accredited). The uniformity of imaging

  5. Development of Electrode Units for Electrokinetic Desalination of Masonry and Pilot Scale Test at Three locations for Removal of Chlorides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Christensen, Iben Vernegren; Skibsted, Gry

    2010-01-01

    Electrode units for electrokinetic desalination of masonry has been developed and tested in pilot scale at three different locations. The units are formed as casings with a metallic mesh electrode, and carbonate rich clay to buffer the acid produced at the anode. The case has an extra loose bottom...... which allows continuous pressure between clay and masonry so good electrical contact is remained. The electrode units were tested at three different locations, two on baked brick masonry (inside in a heated room and outside on a masonry with severe plaster peeling) and the third pilot scale experiment...

  6. Trends in energy intake among US children by eating location and food source, 1977-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poti, Jennifer M; Popkin, Barry M

    2011-08-01

    Little is known about the influence of location of food consumption and preparation upon daily energy intake of children. To examine trends in daily energy intake by children for foods eaten at home or away from home, by source of preparation, and for combined categories of eating location and food source. The analysis uses data from 29,217 children aged 2 to 18 years from the 1977-1978 Nationwide Food Consumption Survey, 1989-1991 and 1994-1998 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals, and 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Nationally representative weighted percentages and means of daily energy intake by eating location were analyzed for trends from 1977 to 2006. Comparisons by food source were examined from 1994 to 2006. Analyses were repeated for three age groups: 2 to 6 years, 7 to 12 years, and 13 to 18 years. Difference testing was conducted using a t test. Increased energy intake (+179 kcal/day) by children from 1977-2006 was associated with a major increase in energy eaten away from home (+255 kcal/day). The percentage of daily energy eaten away from home increased from 23.4% to 33.9% from 1977-2006. No further increase was observed from 1994-2006, but the sources of energy shifted. The percentage of energy from fast food increased to surpass intake from schools and become the largest contributor to foods prepared away from home for all age groups. For foods eaten away from home, the percentage of daily energy from stores increased to become the largest source of energy eaten away from home. Fast food eaten at home and store-bought food eaten away from home increased significantly. Eating location and food source significantly influence daily energy intake for children. Foods prepared away from home, including fast food eaten at home and store-prepared food eaten away from home, are fueling the increase in total energy intake. However, further research using alternative data sources is necessary to verify that store

  7. Trends in energy intake among US children by eating location and food source, 1977–2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poti, Jennifer M.; Popkin, Barry M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Little is known about the impact of location of food consumption and preparation upon daily energy intake for children. Objective To examine trends in daily energy intake by children for foods eaten at home or away-from-home, by source of preparation, and for combined categories of eating location and food source. Subjects The analysis uses data from 29,217 children aged 2–18 years from the 1977–1978 Nationwide Food Consumption Survey, 1989–1991 and 1994–1998 Continuing Survey of Food Intake by Individuals, and 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Methods Nationally representative weighted percentages and means of daily energy intake by eating location were analyzed for trends from 1977 to 2006. Comparisons by food source were examined from 1994 to 2006. Analyses were repeated for 3 age groups: 2–6, 7–12, and 13–18 year olds. Difference testing was conducted using a t test. Results Increased energy intake (+179 kcal/d) by children from 1977–2006 was associated with a major increase in calories eaten away-from-home (+255 kcal/d). The percentage of kcal/d eaten away-from-home increased from 23.4% to 33.9% from 1977–2006. No further increase was observed from 1994–2006, but the sources of calories shifted. The percentage of calories from fast food increased to surpass intake from schools and become the largest contributor to foods prepared away-from-home for all age groups. For foods eaten away-from-home, the percentage of kcal/d from stores increased to become the largest source of calories eaten away-from-home. Fast food eaten at home and store-bought food eaten away-from-home increased significantly. Conclusion Eating location and food source significantly impact daily energy intake for children. Foods prepared away-from-home, including fast food eaten at home and store-prepared food eaten away-from-home, are fueling the increase in total calorie intake. However, further research using alternative data

  8. Do Street Robbery Location Choices Vary Over Time of Day or Day of Week? A Test in Chicago

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernasco, Wim; Ruiter, Stijn; Block, Richard

    2017-01-01

    © 2016, © The Author(s) 2016.Objectives: This article examines the hypothesis that in street robbery location choices, the importance of location attributes is conditional on the time of day and on the day of the week. Method: The hypothesis is assessed by estimating and comparing separate discrete

  9. Energy intakes of US children and adults by food purchase location and by specific food source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewnowski, Adam; Rehm, Colin D

    2013-05-08

    To our knowledge, no studies have examined energy intakes by food purchase location and food source using a representative sample of US children, adolescents and adults. Evaluations of purchase location and food sources of energy may inform public health policy. Analyses were based on the first day of 24-hour recall for 22,852 persons in the 2003-4, 2005-6, and 2007-8 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES). The most common food purchase locations were stores (grocery store, supermarket, convenience store, or specialty store), quick-service restaurants/pizza (QSR), full-service restaurants (FSR), school cafeterias, or food from someone else/gifts. Specific food sources of energy were identified using the National Cancer Institute aggregation scheme. Separate analyses were conducted for children ages 6-11y, adolescents ages 12-19y, and adults aged 20-50y and ≥51y. Stores (grocery, convenience, and specialty) were the food purchase locations for between 63.3% and 70.3% of dietary energy in the US diet. Restaurants provided between 16.9% and 26.3% of total energy. Depending on the respondents' age, QSR provided between 12.5% and 17.5% of energy, whereas FSR provided between 4.7% and 10.4% of energy. School meals provided 9.8% of energy for children and 5.5% for adolescents. Vending machines provided service and full-service restaurants. All food purchase locations, including stores, restaurants and schools play an important role in stemming the obesity epidemic.

  10. Design Science Research toward Designing/Prototyping a Repeatable Model for Testing Location Management (LM) Algorithms for Wireless Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research effort was to develop a model that provides repeatable Location Management (LM) testing using a network simulation tool, QualNet version 5.1 (2011). The model will provide current and future protocol developers a framework to simulate stable protocol environments for development. This study used the Design Science…

  11. Innovative Solid State Lighting Replacements for Industrial and Test Facility Locations Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is the replacement of existing test stand and parking lot fixtures with current SSL LED technology. The replacement fixtures will reduce...

  12. Rasch analysis examining processing mechanisms of the object location memory test revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Tracy L; Schmidt, Karen M

    2005-01-01

    This study's objective was the construction and examination of the Object Location Memory Revised (OLM-R), an instrument designed to measure spatial memory. The OLM-R measured a participant's (N=111) ability to inspect a spatial array and recall image identities and positions after a distractor task. Rasch methodology and regression analyses were employed to explore the influence a priori design factors have on performance and item difficulty. Rasch analyses revealed that, while the OLM-R has a misfitting item, overall the instrument shows good measurement properties. Specific analyses examining complexity factors indicated that Object Manipulation (e.g., moving, replacing, or unchanging) and the Number of Items in an array were leading influences of OLM-R performance.

  13. Qualification testing of solar photovoltaic powered refrigerator freezers for medical use in remote geographic locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaszeta, W. J.

    1982-01-01

    One of the primary obstacles to the application of vaccination in developing countries is the lack of refrigerated storage. Vaccines exposed to elevated temperatures suffer a permanent loss of potency. Photovoltaic (PV) powered refrigerator/freezer (R/F) units could surmount the problem of refrigeration in remote areas where no reliable commercial power supply is available. The performance measurements of two different models of PV powered R/F units for medical use are presented. Qualification testing consisted of four major procedures: no-load pull down, ice making, steady-state (maintenance), and holdover. Both R/F units met the major World Health Organization (WHO) requirements. However, the testing performed does not provide complete characterization of the two units; such information could be derived only from further extensive test procedures.

  14. evaluation of striga-resistant early maize hybrids and test locations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    infestation based on multiple traits than based on yield per se, suggesting that grain yield alone is not a precise predictor of Striga resistance. .... for simultaneous evaluation of genotype as well as test environment is the heritability- .... texture, grain filling, and insect or disease damage. Plant aspect is the assessment of the ...

  15. Detecting Answer Copying Using Alternate Test Forms and Seat Locations in Small-Scale Examinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ark, L. Andries; Emons, Wilco H. M.; Sijtsma, Klaas

    2008-01-01

    Two types of answer-copying statistics for detecting copiers in small-scale examinations are proposed. One statistic identifies the "copier-source" pair, and the other in addition suggests who is copier and who is source. Both types of statistics can be used when the examination has alternate test forms. A simulation study shows that the…

  16. Final Scientific Report, Integrated Seismic Event Detection and Location by Advanced Array Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kvaerna, T.; Gibbons. S.J.; Ringdal, F; Harris, D.B.

    2007-01-30

    primarily the result of spurious identification and incorrect association of phases, and of excessive variability in estimates for the velocity and direction of incoming seismic phases. The mitigation of these causes has led to the development of two complimentary techniques for classifying seismic sources by testing detected signals under mutually exclusive event hypotheses. Both of these techniques require appropriate calibration data from the region to be monitored, and are therefore ideally suited to mining areas or other sites with recurring seismicity. The first such technique is a classification and location algorithm where a template is designed for each site being monitored which defines which phases should be observed, and at which times, for all available regional array stations. For each phase, the variability of measurements (primarily the azimuth and apparent velocity) from previous events is examined and it is determined which processing parameters (array configuration, data window length, frequency band) provide the most stable results. This allows us to define optimal diagnostic tests for subsequent occurrences of the phase in question. The calibration of templates for this project revealed significant results with major implications for seismic processing in both automatic and analyst reviewed contexts: • one or more fixed frequency bands should be chosen for each phase tested for. • the frequency band providing the most stable parameter estimates varies from site to site and a frequency band which provides optimal measurements for one site may give substantially worse measurements for a nearby site. • slowness corrections applied depend strongly on the frequency band chosen. • the frequency band providing the most stable estimates is often neither the band providing the greatest SNR nor the band providing the best array gain. For this reason, the automatic template location estimates provided here are frequently far better than those obtained by

  17. Selection of river crossing location and sleeping site by proboscis monkeys (Nasalis larvatus) in Sabah, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Ikki; Tuuga, Augustine; Akiyama, Yoshihiro; Higashi, Seigo

    2008-11-01

    From May 2005-2006, selections of river crossing locations and sleeping sites used by a one-male group (BE-Group) of proboscis monkeys (Nasalis larvatus) were investigated along the Menanggul River, tributary of the Kinabatangan River, Sabah, Malaysia. The frequency of river crossings for focal monkeys in the BE-Group was significantly higher at locations with narrow branch-to-bank distances. Branch-to-bank distances were defined as the distances between the longest tree branches extending over the river and the bank of river on each side. This was measured in areas crossed by the monkeys. The focal monkeys used locations with a higher probability of successful river crossings that did not require jumping into the water and swimming across than those that did. The frequency of sleeping site usage by the BE-Group was positively correlated with the frequency of using river crossing locations by the focal monkeys. Previous reports on predation of proboscis monkeys indicate that clouded leopards (Neofelis diardi) and crocodilians (Tomistoma schlegeli and Crocodylus porosus) may be the major terrestrial and aquatic predators of these monkeys. The selection of river crossing locations by proboscis monkeys may be influenced both by the threat of these predators and the location of suitable and protected sleeping sites. Finally, sleeping sites locations that offer arboreal escape routes may protect proboscis monkeys from leopard attack. Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Masculinization and defeminization of female rats by males located caudally in the uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houtsmuller, E J; Slob, A K

    1990-10-01

    It is assumed that female rats are masculinized by the presence of males in the same uterine horn. Two hypotheses regarding the mechanism have been proposed: 1) interamniotic diffusion of androgens (contiguity hypothesis) and 2) transport of androgens via the bloodflow (caudal male hypothesis). This study was designed to test these hypotheses while taking into account two previously uncontrolled factors: hemihysterectomy of the mother during pregnancy and birth by caesarean section. Pregnant females were hemihysterectomized during pregnancy or left intact; pups were born naturally or through caesarean section. Position in utero was determined. In adulthood all females were ovariectomized and tested for mounting behavior before and during testosterone treatment and lordosis behavior during estradiol treatment. It was found that females with males located caudally in the same uterine horn were more masculinized and defeminized than females without such males. Adjacent males had no influence on the behavioral sexual differentiation of females. These results confirm the "caudal male hypothesis" rather than the "contiguity hypothesis." Hemihysterectomy during pregnancy prevented the "caudal male effect." Birth through caesarean section did not interfere with the caudal male effect.

  19. The accuracy of locating the cricothyroid membrane by palpation - an intergender study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Campbell, Mark; Shanahan, Hilary; Ash, Simon; Royds, Jonathan; Husarova, Viera; McCaul, Conan

    2014-01-01

    .... In a prospective observational study, anaesthetists were asked to locate the CTM by palpation which was then identified using ultrasound and the distance between the actual and estimated margin of the CTM was measured...

  20. Estimating Solar Irradiation Absorbed by Photovoltaic Panels with Low Concentration Located in Craiova, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel L. Alboteanu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Solar irradiation is one of the important parameters that should be taken into consideration for the design and utilization of a photovoltaic system. Usually, the input parameters of a photovoltaic system are solar irradiation, the ambient environment temperature and the wind speed, and as a consequence most photovoltaic systems are equipped with sensors for measuring these parameters. This paper presents several mathematical models for solar irradiation assessment. The starting point is represented by the mathematical model of extraterrestrial irradiation, and resulting finally in the model for solar irradiation, absorbed by a low concentration photovoltaic panel. These estimating models of solar irradiation have been particularized for the Craiova, Romania, and have been verified through numerical simulation. Regarding terrestrial solar irradiation, four mathematical models have been adopted, namely Adnot, Haurwitz, Kasten and Empirical (EIM. Of these, the most appropriate for the Craiova location were the models Adnot and Empirical. Consequently, for the calculation of the solar irradiation absorbed by the photovoltaic (PV panels with low concentration, these models have been taken into consideration. In this study, a comparative analysis was also carried out with respect to the solar irradiation absorbed by the PV panels without concentration and those with collectedness of the solar radiation. This analysis was based on the results of numerical simulation and experimental tests.

  1. Trial-unique, delayed nonmatching-to-location (TUNL) touchscreen testing for mice: sensitivity to dorsal hippocampal dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chi Hun; Romberg, Carola; Hvoslef-Eide, Martha; Oomen, Charlotte A; Mar, Adam C; Heath, Christopher J; Berthiaume, Andrée-Anne; Bussey, Timothy J; Saksida, Lisa M

    2015-11-01

    The hippocampus is implicated in many of the cognitive impairments observed in conditions such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and schizophrenia (SCZ). Often, mice are the species of choice for models of these diseases and the study of the relationship between brain and behaviour more generally. Thus, automated and efficient hippocampal-sensitive cognitive tests for the mouse are important for developing therapeutic targets for these diseases, and understanding brain-behaviour relationships. One promising option is to adapt the touchscreen-based trial-unique nonmatching-to-location (TUNL) task that has been shown to be sensitive to hippocampal dysfunction in the rat. This study aims to adapt the TUNL task for use in mice and to test for hippocampus-dependency of the task. TUNL training protocols were altered such that C57BL/6 mice were able to acquire the task. Following acquisition, dysfunction of the dorsal hippocampus (dHp) was induced using a fibre-sparing excitotoxin, and the effects of manipulation of several task parameters were examined. Mice could acquire the TUNL task using training optimised for the mouse (experiments 1). TUNL was found to be sensitive to dHp dysfunction in the mouse (experiments 2, 3 and 4). In addition, we observed that performance of dHp dysfunction group was somewhat consistently lower when sample locations were presented in the centre of the screen. This study opens up the possibility of testing both mouse and rat models on this flexible and hippocampus-sensitive touchscreen task.

  2. Do Street Robbery Location Choices Vary Over Time of Day or Day of Week? A Test in Chicago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiter, Stijn; Block, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This article examines the hypothesis that in street robbery location choices, the importance of location attributes is conditional on the time of day and on the day of the week. Method: The hypothesis is assessed by estimating and comparing separate discrete location choice models for each two-hour time block of the day and for each day of the week. The spatial units of analysis are census blocks. Their relevant attributes include presence of various legal and illegal cash economies, presence of high schools, measures of accessibility, and distance from the offender’s home. Results: The hypothesis is strongly rejected because for almost all census block attributes, their importance hardly depends on time of day or day of week. Only the effect of high schools in census blocks follows expectations, as its effect is only demonstrated at the times and on the days that schools are open. Conclusions: The results suggest that street robbers’ location choices are not as strongly driven by spatial variations in immediate opportunities as has been suggested in previous studies. Rather, street robbers seem to perpetrate in the environs of cash economies and transit hubs most of the time irrespective of how many potential victims are around. PMID:28232756

  3. Do Street Robbery Location Choices Vary Over Time of Day or Day of Week? A Test in Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernasco, Wim; Ruiter, Stijn; Block, Richard

    2017-03-01

    This article examines the hypothesis that in street robbery location choices, the importance of location attributes is conditional on the time of day and on the day of the week. The hypothesis is assessed by estimating and comparing separate discrete location choice models for each two-hour time block of the day and for each day of the week. The spatial units of analysis are census blocks. Their relevant attributes include presence of various legal and illegal cash economies, presence of high schools, measures of accessibility, and distance from the offender's home. The hypothesis is strongly rejected because for almost all census block attributes, their importance hardly depends on time of day or day of week. Only the effect of high schools in census blocks follows expectations, as its effect is only demonstrated at the times and on the days that schools are open. The results suggest that street robbers' location choices are not as strongly driven by spatial variations in immediate opportunities as has been suggested in previous studies. Rather, street robbers seem to perpetrate in the environs of cash economies and transit hubs most of the time irrespective of how many potential victims are around.

  4. A mathematical model to predict the optimal test line location and sample volume for lateral flow immunoassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragavendar, M S; Anmol, Chopra M

    2012-01-01

    Lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) platform is one of the most relevant technologies for screening and diagnosing clinical conditions. However due to low sensitivity and poor repeatability of the platform it has been used only for limited and non-critical tests. Mathematical models have been used to understand the principles of capillary flow and antibody antigen based immunoreactions in nitrocellulose membrane typically seen in LFIA. The model presented in this paper predicts the optimized location of test line on LFIA strip, sample volume and total reaction time that is needed to achieve the required sensitivity for different analytes on a case to case basis. The membrane properties like capillary flow time (s/cm), concentration and affinity constants of antibodies can be varied and the corresponding effect on strip design can be found. Hence this model can be used as a design tool to optimize the LFIA strip construction and reagent development processes.

  5. A permutation test to analyse systematic bias and random measurement errors of medical devices via boosting location and scale models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, Andreas; Schmid, Matthias; Pfahlberg, Annette; Uter, Wolfgang; Gefeller, Olaf

    2017-06-01

    Measurement errors of medico-technical devices can be separated into systematic bias and random error. We propose a new method to address both simultaneously via generalized additive models for location, scale and shape (GAMLSS) in combination with permutation tests. More precisely, we extend a recently proposed boosting algorithm for GAMLSS to provide a test procedure to analyse potential device effects on the measurements. We carried out a large-scale simulation study to provide empirical evidence that our method is able to identify possible sources of systematic bias as well as random error under different conditions. Finally, we apply our approach to compare measurements of skin pigmentation from two different devices in an epidemiological study.

  6. Volatiles released by Chinese liquorice roots mediate host location behaviour by neonate Porphyrophora sophorae (Hemiptera: Margarodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xian-Fu; Chen, Hong-Hao; Li, Jun-Kai; Zhang, Rong; Turlings, Ted Cj; Chen, Li

    2016-10-01

    The cochineal scale, Porphyrophora sophorae (Hemiptera: Coccoidea, Margarodidae), is one of the most serious arthropod pests of Chinese liquorice, Glycyrrhiza uralensis (Fabaceae), an important medicinal herb. The adult females tend to deposit the ovisacs in soil relatively far away from liquorice plants. After hatching, neonates move out of the soil and may use chemical cues to search for new hosts. We collected and analysed the volatiles from soils with and without liquorice roots, and chromatographic profiles revealed hexanal, β-pinene and hexanol as potential host-finding cues for P. sphorae. The attractiveness of these compounds to neonates was studied in the laboratory using four-arm olfactometer bioassays. The larvae showed a clear preference for β-pinene over hexanal and hexanol, as well as all possible combinations of the three compounds. In addition, a field experiment confirmed that β-pinene was significantly more attractive than hexanal and hexanol. Newly eclosed larvae of P. sphorae exploit root volatiles as chemical cues to locate their host plant. β-Pinene proved to be the major chemical cue used by P. sphorae neonates searching for roots of their host plant. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Prospective study to evaluate the number and the location of biopsies in rapid urease test for diagnosis of Helicobacter Pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Abou Rached

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori can cause a wide variety of illnesses such as peptic ulcer disease, gastric adenocarcinoma and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma. The diagnosis and eradication of H. pylori are crucial. The diagnosis of H. pylori is usually based on the rapid urease test (RUT and gastric antral biopsy for histology. The aim of this study is to evaluate the numbers of needed biopsies and their location (antrum/fundus to obtain optimal result for the diagnosis of H. pylori. Three hundred fifty consecutive patients were recruited, 210 fulfill the inclusion criteria and had nine gastric biopsies for the detection of H. pylori infection: two antral for the first RUT (RUT1, one antral and one fundic for the second (RUT2, one antral for the third (RUT3 and two antral with two fundic for histology (HES, Giemsa, PAS. The reading of the 3 types of RUT was performed at 1 hour, 3 hours and 24 hours and biopsies were read by two experienced pathologists not informed about the result of RUT. Results of RUT were considered positive if H. pylori was found on histology of at least one biopsy. The RUT1 at 1h, 3h and 24h has a sensitivity of 72%, 82% and 89% and a specificity of 100%, 99% and 87% respectively. The positive predictive value (PPV was 100%, 99% and 85% respectively and the negative predictive value (NPV of 81%, 87% and 90%. The RUT2 at 1h, 3h and 24h, respectively, had a sensitivity of 86%, 87% and 91% and a specificity of 99%, 97% and 90%. The PPV was 99%, 96% and 88% and NPV of 89%, 90%, 94%. The RUT3 at 1h, 3h and 24h, respectively, had a sensitivity of 70%, 74% and 84% and a specificity of 99%, 99% and 94%. The PPV was 99%, 99% and 92% and NPV of 79%, 81% and 87%. The best sensitivity and specificity were obtained for RUT1 read at 3h, for RUT2 read 1h and 3h, and the RUT3 read at 24h.This study demonstrates that the best sensitivity and specificity of rapid test for urease is obtained when fundic plus antral biopsy

  8. Development of an indoor location based service test bed and geographic information system with a wireless sensor network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Shau-Shiun; Hsu, Li-Ta; Tsai, Wen-Ming

    2010-01-01

    In order to provide the seamless navigation and positioning services for indoor environments, an indoor location based service (LBS) test bed is developed to integrate the indoor positioning system and the indoor three-dimensional (3D) geographic information system (GIS). A wireless sensor network (WSN) is used in the developed indoor positioning system. Considering the power consumption, in this paper the ZigBee radio is used as the wireless protocol, and the received signal strength (RSS) fingerprinting positioning method is applied as the primary indoor positioning algorithm. The matching processes of the user location include the nearest neighbor (NN) algorithm, the K-weighted nearest neighbors (KWNN) algorithm, and the probabilistic approach. To enhance the positioning accuracy for the dynamic user, the particle filter is used to improve the positioning performance. As part of this research, a 3D indoor GIS is developed to be used with the indoor positioning system. This involved using the computer-aided design (CAD) software and the virtual reality markup language (VRML) to implement a prototype indoor LBS test bed. Thus, a rapid and practical procedure for constructing a 3D indoor GIS is proposed, and this GIS is easy to update and maintenance for users. The building of the Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics at National Cheng Kung University in Taiwan is used as an example to assess the performance of various algorithms for the indoor positioning system.

  9. Development of an Indoor Location Based Service Test Bed and Geographic Information System with a Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shau-Shiun Jan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to provide the seamless navigation and positioning services for indoor environments, an indoor location based service (LBS test bed is developed to integrate the indoor positioning system and the indoor three-dimensional (3D geographic information system (GIS. A wireless sensor network (WSN is used in the developed indoor positioning system. Considering the power consumption, in this paper the ZigBee radio is used as the wireless protocol, and the received signal strength (RSS fingerprinting positioning method is applied as the primary indoor positioning algorithm. The matching processes of the user location include the nearest neighbor (NN algorithm, the K-weighted nearest neighbors (KWNN algorithm, and the probabilistic approach. To enhance the positioning accuracy for the dynamic user, the particle filter is used to improve the positioning performance. As part of this research, a 3D indoor GIS is developed to be used with the indoor positioning system. This involved using the computer-aided design (CAD software and the virtual reality markup language (VRML to implement a prototype indoor LBS test bed. Thus, a rapid and practical procedure for constructing a 3D indoor GIS is proposed, and this GIS is easy to update and maintenance for users. The building of the Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics at National Cheng Kung University in Taiwan is used as an example to assess the performance of various algorithms for the indoor positioning system.

  10. Ranking Businesses and Municipal Locations by Spatiotemporal Cardiac Arrest Risk to Guide Public Defibrillator Placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Christopher L F; Brooks, Steven C; Morrison, Laurie J; Chan, Timothy C Y

    2017-03-21

    Efforts to guide automated external defibrillator placement for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) treatment have focused on identifying broadly defined location categories without considering hours of operation. Broad location categories may be composed of many businesses with varying accessibility. Identifying specific locations for automated external defibrillator deployment incorporating operating hours and time of OHCA occurrence may improve automated external defibrillator accessibility. We aim to identify specific businesses and municipal locations that maximize OHCA coverage on the basis of spatiotemporal assessment of OHCA risk in the immediate vicinity of franchise locations. This study was a retrospective population-based cohort study using data from the Toronto Regional RescuNET Epistry cardiac arrest database. We identified all nontraumatic public OHCAs occurring in Toronto, ON, Canada, from January 2007 through December 2015. We identified 41 unique businesses and municipal location types with ≥20 locations in Toronto from the YellowPages, Canadian Franchise Association, and the City of Toronto Open Data Portal. We obtained their geographic coordinates and hours of operation from Web sites, by phone, or in person. We determined the number of OHCAs that occurred within 100 m of each location when it was open (spatiotemporal coverage) for Toronto overall and downtown. The businesses and municipal locations were then ranked by spatiotemporal OHCA coverage. To evaluate temporal stability of the rankings, we calculated intraclass correlation of the annual coverage values. There were 2654 nontraumatic public OHCAs. Tim Hortons ranked first in Toronto, covering 286 OHCAs. Starbucks ranked first in downtown, covering 110 OHCAs. Coffee shops and bank machines from the 5 largest Canadian banks occupied 8 of the top 10 spots in both Toronto and downtown. The rankings exhibited high temporal stability with intraclass correlation values of 0.88 (95

  11. Body temperature of the parasitic wasp Pimpla turionellae (Hymenoptera) during host location by vibrational sounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroder, Stefan; Samietz, Jörg; Stabentheiner, Anton; Dorn, Silvia

    2008-03-01

    The pupal parasitoid Pimpla turionellae (L.) uses self-produced vibrations transmitted on the plant substrate, so-called vibrational sounding, to locate immobile concealed pupal hosts. The wasps are able to use vibrational sounding reliably over a broad range of ambient temperatures and even show an increased signal frequency and intensity at low temperatures. The present study investigates how control of body temperature in the wasps by endothermic mechanisms may facilitate host location under changing thermal environments. Insect body temperature is measured with real-time IR thermography on plant-stem models at temperature treatments of 10, 18, 26 and 30 °C, whereas behaviour is recorded with respect to vibrational host location. The results reveal a low-level endothermy that likely interferes with vibrational sound production because it occurs only in nonsearching females. At the lowest temperature of 10 °C, the thoracic temperature is 1.15 °C warmer than the ambient surface temperature whereas, at the high temperatures of 26 and 30 ° C, the wasps cool down their thorax by 0.29 and 0.47 °C, respectively, and their head by 0.45 and 0.61 °C below ambient surface temperature. By contrast, regardless of ambient temperature, searching females always have a slightly elevated body temperature of at most 0.30 °C above the ambient surface temperature. Behavioural observations indicate that searching females interrupt host location more frequently at suboptimal temperatures, presumably due to the requirements of thermoregulation. It is assumed that both mechanisms, producing vibrations for host location and low-level endothermy, are located in the thorax. Endothermy by thoracic muscle work probably disturbs signal structure of vibrational sounding, so the processes cannot be used at the same time.

  12. Disentangling the visual cues used by a jumping spider to locate its microhabitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedore, Cynthia; Johnsen, Sönke

    2016-08-01

    Many arthropod species have evolved to thrive only on the leaves of a particular species of plant, which they must be capable of finding in order to survive accidental displacement, developmental transitions or the changing of the seasons. A number of studies have tested whether such species select leaves to land or oviposit on based on their color, shape or size. Unfortunately, many studies did not control for correlates of these characters, such as the brightness of different colors, the areas of different shapes, and the level of ambient illumination in the vicinity of different sizes of leaves. In the present study, we tested for leaf color, shape and size preferences in a leaf-dwelling jumping spider (Lyssomanes viridis) with known summer and winter host plants, while controlling for these correlates. First, color preferences were tested outdoors under the natural illumination of their forest habitat. Lyssomanes viridis did not prefer to perch on a green substrate compared with various shades of gray, but did prefer the second darkest shade of gray we presented them with. Of the green and gray substrates, this shade of gray's integrated photon flux (350-700 nm), viewed from below, i.e. the spider's perspective in the arena, was the most similar to that of real leaves. This relationship also held when we weighted the transmitted photon flux by the jumping spiders' green photopigment spectral sensitivity. Spiders did not prefer the star-like leaf shape of their summer host plant, Liquidambar styraciflua, to a green circle of the same area. When given a choice between a L. styraciflua leaf-shaped stimulus that was half the area of an otherwise identical alternative, spiders preferred the larger stimulus. However, placing a neutral density filter over the side of the experimental arena with the smaller stimulus abolished this preference, with spiders then being more likely to choose the side of the arena with the smaller stimulus. In conclusion, L. viridis

  13. Locational Pricing to Mitigate Voltage Problems Caused by High PV Penetration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Weckx

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a locational marginal pricing algorithm is proposed to control the voltage in unbalanced distribution grids. The increasing amount of photovoltaic (PV generation installed in the grid may cause the voltage to rise to unacceptable levels during periods of low consumption. With locational prices, the distribution system operator can steer the reactive power consumption and active power curtailment of PV panels to guarantee a safe network operation. Flexible loads also respond to these prices. A distributed gradient algorithm automatically defines the locational prices that avoid voltage problems. Using these locational prices results in a minimum cost for the distribution operator to control the voltage. Locational prices can differ between the three phases in unbalanced grids. This is caused by a higher consumption or production in one of the phases compared to the other phases and provides the opportunity for arbitrage, where power is transferred from a phase with a low price to a phase with a high price. The effect of arbitrage is analyzed. The proposed algorithm is applied to an existing three-phase four-wire radial grid. Several simulations with realistic data are performed.

  14. Location-Aware POI Recommendation for Indoor Space by Exploiting WiFi Logs

    OpenAIRE

    Zengwei Zheng; Yuanyi Chen; Sinong Chen; Lin Sun; Dan Chen

    2017-01-01

    Indoor shopping trajectories provide us with a new approach to understanding user’s behaviour pattern in urban shopping mall, which can be derived from user-generated WiFi logs using indoor localization technology. In this paper, we propose a location-aware Point-of-Interest (POI) recommendation service in urban shopping mall that offers a user a set of indoor POIs by considering both personal interest and location preference. The POI recommendation service cannot only improve user’s shopping...

  15. The Acquisition of the English Locative Alternation by Kuwaiti EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah M. Alotaibi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to test whether 100 advanced Kuwaiti EFL learners have acquired the English locative alternation. A Grammaticality Judgment Task (GJT was used to examine whether the participants have the ability to make a distinction between verbs that alternate between the figure-object frame and the ground-object frame and those verbs that do not. The researcher selected the verbs on the basis of Pinker’s (1989 classification of alternating vs. non-alternating English locative verbs. The results show that the participants’ performance on the alternating verbs was better than that on the non-alternating ones. They also reveal that negative transfer of the argument structure of the verbs from the participants’ first language into English contributed to their erroneous answers on the test. Additionally, it has been argued that positive transfer from L1 also played a major role in the participants’ correct answers on the test. The study concludes with some recommendations for further research.

  16. Estimation of the location parameter of distributions with known coefficient of variation by record values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. K. Sajeevkumar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we derived the Best Linear Unbiased Estimator (BLUE of the location parameter of certain distributions with known coefficient of variation by record values. Efficiency comparisons are also made on the proposed estimator with some of the usual estimators. Finally we give a real life data to explain the utility of results developed in this article.

  17. 47 CFR Appendix A to Subpart A of... - Locations Where GMRS Is Regulated by the FCC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Locations Where GMRS Is Regulated by the FCC A Appendix A to Subpart A of Part 95 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES General Mobile Radio Service (GMRS) Pt. 95, Subpt. A, App. A Appendix A to Subpart A of Part...

  18. Smoking prevalence differs by location of residence among Ghanaians in Africa and Europe : The RODAM study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brathwaite, Rachel; Addo, Juliet; Kunst, Anton E.; Agyemang, Charles; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis; De-Graft Aikins, Ama; Beune, Erik; Meeks, Karlijn; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin; Bahendeka, Silver; Mockenhaupt, Frank P.; Amoah, Stephen; Galbete, Cecilia; Schulze, Matthias B.; Danquah, Ina; Smeeth, Liam

    2017-01-01

    Background Although the prevalence of smoking is low in Ghana, little is known about the effect of migration on smoking. Comparing Ghanaians living in their country of origin to those living in Europe offers an opportunity to investigate smoking by location of residence and the associations between

  19. Smoking prevalence differs by location of residence among Ghanaians in Africa and Europe: The RODAM study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brathwaite, Rachel; Addo, Juliet; Kunst, Anton E.; Agyemang, Charles; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis; de-Graft Aikins, Ama; Beune, Erik; Meeks, Karlijn; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin; Bahendeka, Silver; Mockenhaupt, Frank P.; Amoah, Stephen; Galbete, Cecilia; Schulze, Matthias B.; Danquah, Ina; Smeeth, Liam

    2017-01-01

    Although the prevalence of smoking is low in Ghana, little is known about the effect of migration on smoking. Comparing Ghanaians living in their country of origin to those living in Europe offers an opportunity to investigate smoking by location of residence and the associations between smoking

  20. Carotenoids located in human lymphocyte subpopulations and Natural Killer cells by Raman microspectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puppels, G.J.; Puppels, G.J.; Garritsen, H.S.P.; Garritsen, H.S.P.; Kummer, J.A.; Greve, Jan

    1993-01-01

    The presence and subcellular location of carotenoids in human lymphocyte sub-populations (CD4+, CD8+, T-cell receptor-γδ+, and CD19+ ) and natural killer cells (CD16+ ) were studied by means of Raman microspectroscopy. In CD4+ lymphocytes a high concentration (10-3M) of carotenoids was found in the

  1. ANALYSIS OF TERRESTRIAL PLANET FORMATION BY THE GRAND TACK MODEL: SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE AND TACK LOCATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brasser, R.; Ida, S. [Earth-Life Science Institute, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Matsumura, S. [School of Science and Engineering, Division of Physics, Fulton Building, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 4HN (United Kingdom); Mojzsis, S. J. [Collaborative for Research in Origins (CRiO), Department of Geological Sciences, University of Colorado, UCB 399, 2200 Colorado Avenue, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0399 (United States); Werner, S. C. [The Centre for Earth Evolution and Dynamics, University of Oslo, Sem Saelandsvei 24, NO-0371 Oslo (Norway)

    2016-04-20

    The Grand Tack model of terrestrial planet formation has emerged in recent years as the premier scenario used to account for several observed features of the inner solar system. It relies on the early migration of the giant planets to gravitationally sculpt and mix the planetesimal disk down to ∼1 au, after which the terrestrial planets accrete from material remaining in a narrow circumsolar annulus. Here, we investigate how the model fares under a range of initial conditions and migration course-change (“tack”) locations. We run a large number of N-body simulations with tack locations of 1.5 and 2 au and test initial conditions using equal-mass planetary embryos and a semi-analytical approach to oligarchic growth. We make use of a recent model of the protosolar disk that takes into account viscous heating, includes the full effect of type 1 migration, and employs a realistic mass–radius relation for the growing terrestrial planets. Our results show that the canonical tack location of Jupiter at 1.5 au is inconsistent with the most massive planet residing at 1 au at greater than 95% confidence. This favors a tack farther out at 2 au for the disk model and parameters employed. Of the different initial conditions, we find that the oligarchic case is capable of statistically reproducing the orbital architecture and mass distribution of the terrestrial planets, while the equal-mass embryo case is not.

  2. Detection and location of mechanical system degradation by using detector signal noise data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damiano, B.; Blakeman, E.D.; Phillips, L.D.

    1994-06-01

    This report describes the investigation of a diagnostic method for detecting and locating the source of structural degradation in mechanical systems. The goal of this investigation was to determine whether the diagnostic method would be practically and successfully applied to detect and locate structural changes in a mechanical system. The diagnostic method uses a mathematical model of the mechanical system to define relationships between system parameters, such as spring rates and damping rates, and measurable spectral features, such as natural frequencies and mode shapes. These model-defined relationships are incorporated into a neural network, which is used to relate measured spectral features to system parameters. The diagnosis of the system`s condition is performed by presenting the neural network with measured spectral features and comparing the system parameters estimated by the neural network to previously estimated values. Changes in the estimated system parameters indicate the location and severity of degradation in the mechanical system. The investigation involved applying the method by using computer-simulated data and data collected from a bench-top mechanical system. The effects of neural network training set size and composition on the accuracy of the model parameter estimates were investigated by using computer-simulated data. The measured data were used to demonstrate that the method can be applied to estimate the parameters of a {open_quotes}real{close_quotes} mechanical system. The results show that this diagnostic method can be applied to successfully locate and estimate the magnitude of structural changes in a mechanical system. The average error in the estimated spring rate values of the bench-top mechanical system was approximately 5 to 10%. This degree of accuracy is sufficient to permit the use of this method for detecting and locating structural degradation in mechanical systems.

  3. Responses of the Q6/Q6s ATD Positioned in Booster Seats in the Far-Side Seat Location of Side Impact Passenger Car and Sled Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylko, Suzanne; Bohman, Katarina; Bussières, Alain

    2015-11-01

    Passenger car side impact crash tests and sled tests were conducted to investigate the influence of booster seats, near-side occupant characteristics and vehicle interiors on the responses of the Q6/Q6s child ATD positioned in the rear, far-side seating location. Data from nine side impact sled tests simulating a EuroNCAP AEMD barrier test were analyzed with data obtained from 44 side impact crash tests. The crash tests included: FMVSS 214 and IIHS MDB, moving car-to-stationary car and moving car-to-moving car. A Q6 or prototype Q6s ATD was seated on the far-side, using a variety of low and high back booster seats. Head and chest responses were recorded and ATD motions were tracked with high-speed videos. The vehicle lateral accelerations resulting from MDB tests were characterized by a much earlier and more rapid rise to peak than in tests where the bullet was another car. The near-side seating position was occupied by a Hybrid III 10-year-old ATD in the sled tests, and a rear or front facing child restraint or a 5th percentile side impact ATD in the crash tests. Head impacts occurred more frequently in vehicles where a forward facing child restraint was present behind the driver seat for both the low and high back booster seats. Pretensioners were found to reduce lateral head displacements in all sled test configurations but the greatest reduction in lateral excursion was obtained with a high back booster seat secured with LATCH and tested in combination with pretensioners.

  4. Age, sex, and handedness differentially contribute to neurospatial function on the Memory Island and Novel-Image Novel-Location tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Brian J; Acevedo, Summer F; Edwards, Krystle R; Curtiss, Alan B; McGinnis, Gwendolyn J; Raber, Jacob

    2011-07-06

    Memory Island and the Novel-Image Novel-Location are recently developed measures of spatial learning and recognition-memory modeled after the Morris water maze and the novel object-recognition tests. The goal of this study was to characterize how sex, age, and handedness contribute to Memory Island and Novel-Image Novel-Location performance. Volunteers (N=287, ages 6 to 67) from a local science museum completed four Memory Island trials containing a visible target and four trials containing a hidden target. A pronounced sex difference favoring males was noted in all measures of hidden trial performance. The total latency during the hidden trials among older-adults was longer than younger-adults or adolescents. Faster and more efficient performance by males was also identified during the visible trials, particularly among children. Adolescents and younger-adults outperformed children and older ages. Sinistrals had a lower cumulative distance to the target. Novel-Image Novel-Location behavior was examined in a separate sample (N=128, ages 6 to 86). Females had higher Novel-Image and Novel-Location scores than males. Novel-Image performance was independent of age while sinistrals had elevated Novel-Image scores relative to dextrals. Together, these findings identify how sex, age, and handedness uniquely contribute to performance on these tasks. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Sprinkle Test by Phoenix's Robotic Arm (Movie)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander used its Robotic Arm during the mission's 15th Martian day since landing (June 9, 2008) to test a 'sprinkle' method for delivering small samples of soil to instruments on the lander deck. This sequence of four images from the spacecraft's Surface Stereo Imager covers a period of 20 minutes from beginning to end of the activity. In the single delivery of a soil sample to a Phoenix instrument prior to this test, the arm brought the scooped up soil over the instrument's opened door and turned over the scoop to release the soil. The sprinkle technique, by contrast, holds the scoop at a steady angle and vibrates the scoop by running the motorized rasp located beneath the scoop. This gently jostles some material out of the scoop to the target below. For this test, the target was near the upper end the cover of the Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity Analyzer instrument suite, or MECA. The cover is 20 centimeters (7.9 inches) across. The scoop is about 8.5 centimeters (3.3 inches) across. Based on the test's success in delivering a small quantity and fine-size particles, the Phoenix team plans to use the sprinkle method for delivering samples to MECA and to the Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer, or TEGA. The next planned delivery is to MECA's Optical Microscope, via the port in the MECA cover visible at the bottom of these images. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  6. Numerical study of the Notch Location of the Impact Test Specimens on the HAZ of SA516 Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Yun Chan; Kim, Dong Wook; Lee, Young Seog [Chungang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Jae Keun; Park, Ji Hong [Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    Experimental and numerical studies were performed to examine the effects of notch position on the failure behavior and energy absorption when the Charpy V-notch impact test is made at 1 .deg. C. For this purpose, carbon steel plate (SA-516 Gr. 70) with thickness of 25mm usually used for pressure vessel was welded by SMAW (Shielded Metal-Arc Welding) method and specimens were fabricated from the welded plate. The Charpy impact tests were then performed with specimens having different notch positions varying within HAZ. A series of three-dimensional FE analysis which simulates the Charpy test and crack propagation are carried out as well to examine the reproducibility of test results. The FE analysis takes into account the heterogeneous mechanical properties with complex microstructures in HAZ. Results reveal that the absorbed energies during impact test depend significantly on the notch position.

  7. Modularity bounds for clusters located by leading eigenvectors of the normalized modularity matrix

    OpenAIRE

    Fasino, Dario; Tudisco, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Nodal theorems for generalized modularity matrices ensure that the cluster located by the positive entries of the leading eigenvector of various modularity matrices induces a connected subgraph. In this paper we obtain lower bounds for the modularity of that set of nodes showing that, under certain conditions, the nodal domains induced by eigenvectors corresponding to highly positive eigenvalues of the normalized modularity matrix have indeed positive modularity, that is they can be recognize...

  8. The use of front-back arrays by young children to code locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qingfen; Liu, Jing; Shao, Yi

    2017-09-01

    Research suggests that during the first 2years of life, children use an egocentric reference system and an extrinsic reference frame, the latter being one allocentric reference system, to encode locations. However, little is known about children's use of an object's intrinsic structure, another allocentric reference system. The current study focused on the role of the front-back relationship, one of the simplest intrinsic reference frames, in children's location encoding. Children (3- to 5-year-olds) participated in a hide-and-find game with one of three different intrinsic front-back array conditions: a facet-induced front-back array, a motion-induced front-back array, or no array. The results showed that whereas the ability to use a facet-induced front-back array began by 3years of age, children used a motion-induced front-back array to encode locations at 4years of age. These results provide evidence that the developmental trajectories of using an intrinsic reference frame to encode locations vary and depend on the specific spatial array involved. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Identifying and locating land irrigated by center-pivot irrigation systems using satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, R. O.

    1980-01-01

    A methodology for using Landsat imagery for the identification and location of land irrigated by center-pivot irrigation systems is presented. The procedure involves the use of sets of Landsat band 5 imagery taken separated in time by about three weeks during the irrigation season, a zoom transfer scope and mylar base maps to record the locations of center pivots. Further computer processing of the data has been used to obtain plots of center-pivot irrigation systems and tables indicating the distribution and growth of systems by county for the state of Nebraska, and has been found to be in 95% agreement with current high-altitude IR photography. The information obtainable can be used for models of ground-water aquifers or resource planning.

  10. Using the concept of Chou's pseudo amino acid composition to predict apoptosis proteins subcellular location: an approach by approximate entropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaoying; Wei, Rong; Zhang, Tongliang; Gu, Quan

    2008-01-01

    The function of protein is closely correlated with it subcellular location. Prediction of subcellular location of apoptosis proteins is an important research area in post-genetic era because the knowledge of apoptosis proteins is useful to understand the mechanism of programmed cell death. Compared with the conventional amino acid composition (AAC), the Pseudo Amino Acid composition (PseAA) as originally introduced by Chou can incorporate much more information of a protein sequence so as to remarkably enhance the power of using a discrete model to predict various attributes of a protein. In this study, a novel approach is presented to predict apoptosis protein solely from sequence based on the concept of Chou's PseAA composition. The concept of approximate entropy (ApEn), which is a parameter denoting complexity of time series, is used to construct PseAA composition as additional features. Fuzzy K-nearest neighbor (FKNN) classifier is selected as prediction engine. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is adopted for optimizing the weight factors which are important in PseAA composition. Two datasets are used to validate the performance of the proposed approach, which incorporate six subcellular location and four subcellular locations, respectively. The results obtained by jackknife test are quite encouraging. It indicates that the ApEn of protein sequence could represent effectively the information of apoptosis proteins subcellular locations. It can at least play a complimentary role to many of the existing methods, and might become potentially useful tool for protein function prediction. The software in Matlab is available freely by contacting the corresponding author.

  11. Hanford Single-Shell Tank Leak Causes and Locations - 241-BY and 241-TY Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girardot, Crystal L.; Harlow, Donald G.

    2013-11-19

    This document identifies 241-BY Tank Farm (BY Farm) and 241-TY Tank Farm (TY Farm) leak causes and locations for the 100 series leaking tanks (241-BY-103, 241-TY-103, 241-TY-104, 241-TY-105, and 241-TY-106) identified in RPP-RPT-43704, Hanford BY Farm Leak Assessments Report, and in RPP-RPT-42296, Hanford TY Farm Leak Assessments Report. This document satisfies the BY and TY Farm portion of the target (T04) in Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order milestone M-045-91F.

  12. Hanford Single-Shell Tank Leak Causes and Locations - 241-BY and 241-TY Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girardot, Crystal L.; Harlow, Donald G.

    2014-09-04

    This document identifies 241-BY Tank Farm (BY Farm) and 241-TY Tank Farm (TY Farm) lead causes and locations for the 100 series leaking tanks (241-BY-103, 241-TY-103, 241-TY-104, 241-TY-105 and 241-TY-106) identified in RPP-RPT-43704, Hanford BY Farm Leak Assessments Report, and in RPP-RPT-42296, Hanford TY Farm Leak Assessments Report. This document satisfies the BY and TY Farm portion of the target (T04) in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order milestone M-045-91F.

  13. An inter-examiner reliability study in locating C7 spinous process by palpation

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    M.Tech. Palpation is a skill taught to manual practitioners on a daily basis. This skill is used by health care professionals, including chiropractors, to examine patients complaining of spinal pain. It is the chiropractor’s responsibility to have the ability and experience to locate and identify individual spinal levels, as well as any changes in tissues affected, to accurately diagnose and treat their patients (Downey, Taylor and Niere, 1999). The inability of the therapist to have this ...

  14. Source location and mechanism analysis of an earthquake triggered by the 2016 Kumamoto, southwestern Japan, earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Takeshi; Aoi, Shin

    2017-01-01

    The 2016 Kumamoto earthquake ( Mw 7.0) occurred in the central part of Kyushu Island, southwestern Japan, on April 16, 2016. The mainshock triggered an event of maximum acceleration 700 gal that caused severe damage to infrastructure and thousands of homes. We investigate the source location of the triggered event, and the timing of large energy release, by employing the back-projection method for strong-motion network data. The optimal location is estimated to be [33.2750°, 131.3575°] (latitude, longitude) at a depth of 5 km, which is 80 km northeast of the epicenter of the mainshock. The timing is 33.5 s after the origin time of the mainshock. We also investigate the source mechanism by reproducing observed displacement waveforms at a near-source station. The waveforms at smaller-sized events, convolved with the source time function of a pulse width 1 s, are similar to the signature of the observed waveforms of the triggered event. The observations are also reproduced by synthetic waveforms for a normal-fault mechanism and a normal-fault with strike-slip components at the estimated locations. Although our approach does not constrain the strike direction well, our waveform analysis indicates that the triggered earthquake occurred near the station that observed the strong motions, primarily via a normal-fault mechanism or a normal-fault with strike-slip components.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  15. Adélie penguin foraging location predicted by tidal regime switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Matthew J; Irwin, Andrew; Moline, Mark A; Fraser, William; Patterson, Donna; Schofield, Oscar; Kohut, Josh

    2013-01-01

    Penguin foraging and breeding success depend on broad-scale environmental and local-scale hydrographic features of their habitat. We investigated the effect of local tidal currents on a population of Adélie penguins on Humble Is., Antarctica. We used satellite-tagged penguins, an autonomous underwater vehicle, and historical tidal records to model of penguin foraging locations over ten seasons. The bearing of tidal currents did not oscillate daily, but rather between diurnal and semidiurnal tidal regimes. Adélie penguins foraging locations changed in response to tidal regime switching, and not to daily tidal patterns. The hydrography and foraging patterns of Adélie penguins during these switching tidal regimes suggest that they are responding to changing prey availability, as they are concentrated and dispersed in nearby Palmer Deep by variable tidal forcing on weekly timescales, providing a link between local currents and the ecology of this predator.

  16. Lightning Attachment Estimation to Wind Turbines by Utilizing Lightning Location Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Stephan; Holbøll, Joachim; Lopez, Javier

    2016-01-01

    coverage with a good accuracy for downward lightning. Furthermore, advances in the technology indicate the detection of certain upward lightning events. A correlation between the size of the uncertainty ellipse and the peak current of the lightning detections is presented. Furthermore, lightning data from...... three different wind power plant locations are analyzed and the impact of varying data qualities is evaluated regarding the ability to detect upward lightning. This work provides a variety of background information which is relevant to the exposure assessment of wind turbine and includes practical......The goal of a lightning exposure assessment is to identify the number, type and characteristics of lightning discharges to a certain structure. There are various Lightning Location System (LLS) technologies available, each of them are characterized by individual performance characteristics...

  17. Three-dimensional location of human rectus pulleys by path inflections in secondary gaze positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, R A; Miller, J M; Demer, J L

    2000-11-01

    Connective tissue pulleys serve as the functional mechanical origins of the extraocular muscles (EOMs). Anterior to these pulleys, EOM paths shift with gaze to follow the scleral insertions, whereas posterior EOM paths are stable in the orbit. Inflections in EOM paths produced by gaze shifts can be used to define the functional location of pulleys in three dimensions (3-D). Contiguous magnetic resonance images in planes perpendicular to the orbital axis spanned the anteroposterior extents of 22 orbits of 11 normal adults with the eyes in central gaze, elevation, depression, abduction, and adduction. Mean EOM cross-sectional area centroids represented in a normalized, oculocentric coordinate system were plotted over the length of each EOM to determine paths. Path inflections were identified to define pulley locations in 3-D. All rectus EOM paths exhibited in secondary gaze positions distinct inflections 3 to 9 mm posterior to globe center, which were consistent across subjects. The globe center and the lateral rectus pulley translated systematically in the orbit with lateral gaze, whereas other pulleys remained stable relative to the orbit. Distinct inflections in rectus EOM paths in secondary gaze positions confirm the existence of pulleys and define their locations in 3-D. The globe and lateral rectus pulley translate systematically with gaze position. The EOM pulleys may simplify neural control of eye movements by implementing a commutative ocular motor plant in which commands for 3-D eye velocity are effectively independent of eye position.

  18. HIV infection and testing among Latino men who have sex with men in the United States: the role of location of birth and other social determinants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra M Oster

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the United States, Latino men who have sex with men (MSM are disproportionately affected by HIV. Latino MSM are a diverse group who differ culturally based on their countries or regions of birth and their time in the United States. We assessed differences in HIV prevalence and testing among Latino MSM by location of birth, time since arrival, and other social determinants of health. METHODS: For the 2008 National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System, a cross-sectional survey conducted in large US cities, MSM were interviewed and tested for HIV infection. We used generalized estimating equations to test associations between various factors and 1 prevalent HIV infection and 2 being tested for HIV infection in the past 12 months. RESULTS: Among 1734 Latino MSM, HIV prevalence was 19%. In multivariable analysis, increasing age, low income, and gay identity were associated with HIV infection. Moreover, men who were U.S.-born or who arrived ≥5 years ago had significantly higher HIV prevalence than recent immigrants. Among men not reporting a previous positive HIV test, 63% had been tested for HIV infection in the past 12 months; recent testing was most strongly associated with having seen a health care provider and disclosing male-male attraction/sexual behavior to a health care provider. CONCLUSIONS: We identified several social determinants of health associated with HIV infection and testing among Latino MSM. Lower HIV prevalence among recent immigrants contrasts with higher prevalence among established immigrants and suggests a critical window of opportunity for HIV prevention, which should prioritize those with low income, who are at particular risk for HIV infection. Expanding health care utilization and encouraging communication with health care providers about sexual orientation may increase testing.

  19. Optimal Location of Vanadium in Muscovite and Its Geometrical and Electronic Properties by DFT Calculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiushi Zheng

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Vanadium-bearing muscovite is the most valuable component of stone coal, which is a unique source of vanadium manufacture in China. Numbers of experimental studies have been carried out to destroy the carrier muscovite’s structure for efficient extraction of vanadium. Hence, the vanadium location is necessary for exploring the essence of vanadium extraction. Although most infer that vanadium may substitute for trivalent aluminium (Al as the isomorphism in muscovite for the similar atomic radius, there is not enough experimental evidence and theoretical supports to accurately locate the vanadium site in muscovite. In this study, the muscovite model and optimal location of vanadium were calculated by density functional theory (DFT. We find that the vanadium prefers to substitute for the hexa-coordinated aluminum of muscovite for less deformation and lower substitution energy. Furthermore, the local geometry and relative electronic properties were calculated in detail. The basal theoretical research of muscovite contained with vanadium are reported for the first time. It will make a further influence on the technology development of vanadium extraction from stone coal.

  20. Location of lightning stroke on OPGW by use of distributed optical fiber sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lidong; Liang, Yun; Li, Binglin; Guo, Jinghong; Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Xuping

    2014-12-01

    A new method based on a distributed optical fiber sensor (DOFS) to locate the position of lightning stroke on the optical fiber ground wire (OPGW) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. In the method, the lightning stroke process is considered to be a heat release process at the lightning stroke position, so Brillouin optical time domain reflectometry (BOTDR) with spatial resolution of 2m is used as the distributed temperature sensor. To simulate the lightning stroke process, an electric anode with high pulsed current and a negative electrode (the OPGW) are adopted to form a lightning impulse system with duration time of 200ms. In the experiment, lightning strokes with the quantity of electric discharge of 100 Coul and 200 Coul are generated respectively, and the DOFS can sensitively capture the temperature change of the lightning stroke position in the transient electric discharging process. Experimental results show that DOFS is a feasible instrument to locate the lightning stroke on the OPGW and it has excellent potential for the maintenance of electric power transmission line. Additionally, as the range of lightning stroke is usually within 10cm and the spatial resolution of a typical DOFS is beyond 1m, the temperature characteristics in a small area cannot be accurately represented by a DOFS with a large spatial resolution. Therefore, for further application of distributed optical fiber temperature sensors for lightning stroke location on OPGW, such as BOTDR and ROTDR, it is important to enhance the spatial resolution.

  1. Effects of wing locations on wing rock induced by forebody vortices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Baofeng

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that asymmetric vortex wakes over slender bodies exhibit a multi-vortex structure with an alternate arrangement along a body axis at high angle of attack. In this investigation, the effects of wing locations along a body axis on wing rock induced by forebody vortices was studied experimentally at a subcritical Reynolds number based on a body diameter. An artificial perturbation was added onto the nose tip to fix the orientations of forebody vortices. Particle image velocimetry was used to identify flow patterns of forebody vortices in static situations, and time histories of wing rock were obtained using a free-to-roll rig. The results show that the wing locations can affect significantly the motion patterns of wing rock owing to the variation of multi-vortex patterns of forebody vortices. As the wing locations make the forebody vortices a two-vortex pattern, the wing body exhibits regularly divergence and fixed-point motion with azimuthal variations of the tip perturbation. If a three-vortex pattern exists over the wing, however, the wing-rock patterns depend on the impact of the highest vortex and newborn vortex. As the three vortices together influence the wing flow, wing-rock patterns exhibit regularly fixed-points and limit-cycled oscillations. With the wing moving backwards, the newborn vortex becomes stronger, and wing-rock patterns become fixed-points, chaotic oscillations, and limit-cycled oscillations. With further backward movement of wings, the vortices are far away from the upper surface of wings, and the motions exhibit divergence, limit-cycled oscillations and fixed-points. For the rearmost location of the wing, the wing body exhibits stochastic oscillations and fixed-points.

  2. Are ant assemblages of Brazilian veredas characterised by location or habitat type?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CB Costa-Milanez

    Full Text Available Wetland areas in the Brazilian Cerrado, known as “veredas”, represent ecosystems formed on sandy soils with high concentrations of peat, and are responsible for the recharge of aquiferous reservoirs. They are currently under threat by various human activities, most notably the clearing of vegetation for Eucalyptus plantations. Despite their ecological importance and high conservation value, little is known about the actual effects of human disturbance on the animal community. To assess how habitat within different veredas, and plantations surrounding them affect ant assemblages, we selected four independent vereda locations, two being impacted by Eucalyptus monoculture (one younger and one mature plantation and two controls, where the wetland was surrounded by cerrado vegetation. Ant sampling was conducted in May 2010 (dry season using three complementary methods, namely baits, pitfall traps, and hand collection, in the wetland and in the surrounding habitats. A total of 7,575 ants were sampled, belonging to seven subfamilies, 32 genera and 124 species. Ant species richness and abundance did not differ between vereda locations, but did between the habitats. When impacted by the monoculture, ant species richness and abundance decreased in wetlands, but were less affected in the cerrado habitat. Ant species composition differed between the three habitats and between vereda locations. Eucalyptus plantations had an ant species composition defined by high dominance of Pheidole sp. and Solenopsis invicta, while natural habitats were defined by Camponotus and Crematogaster species. Atta sexdens was strictly confined to native habitats of non-impacted “veredas”. Eucalyptus monocultures require high quantities of water in the early stages, which may have caused a decrease in groundwater level in the wetland, allowing hypogeic ants such as Labidus praedator to colonise this habitat.

  3. Power gain by pre-testing?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, Willem/Wim; Boon, P.C.; Kallenberg, W.C.M.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study whether it is possible to gain power by pre-testing, and to give insight in when this occurs, to what extent and at which price. Pre-test procedures consist of a preliminary test which tests a particular property of a given restricted model, followed by a main test

  4. Testing the proficiency to distinguish locations with elevated plantar pressure within and between professional groups of foot therapists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaper Nicolaas C

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identification of locations with elevated plantar pressures is important in daily foot care for patients with rheumatoid arthritis, metatarsalgia and diabetes. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the proficiency of podiatrists, pedorthists and orthotists, to distinguish locations with elevated plantar pressure in patients with metatarsalgia. Methods Ten podiatrists, ten pedorthists and ten orthotists working in The Netherlands were asked to identify locations with excessively high plantar pressure in three patients with forefoot complaints. Therapists were instructed to examine the patients according to the methods used in their everyday clinical practice. Regions could be marked through hatching an illustration of a plantar aspect. A pressure sensitive platform was used to quantify the dynamic bare foot plantar pressures and was considered as 'Gold Standard' (GS. A pressure higher than 700 kPa was used as cut-off criterion for categorizing peak pressure into elevated or non-elevated pressure. This was done for both patient's feet and six separate forefoot regions: big toe and metatarsal one to five. Data were analysed by a mixed-model ANOVA and Generalizability Theory. Results The proportions elevated/non-elevated pressure regions, based on clinical ratings of the therapists, show important discrepancies with the criterion values obtained through quantitative plantar pressure measurement. In general, plantar pressures in the big toe region were underrated and those in the metatarsal regions were overrated. The estimated method agreement on clinical judgement of plantar pressures with the GS was below an acceptable level: i.e. all intraclass correlation coefficient's equal or smaller than .60. The inter-observer agreement for each discipline demonstrated worrisome results: all below .18. The estimated mutual agreements showed that there was virtually no mutual agreement between the professional groups studied

  5. Long Period (LP) volcanic earthquake source location at Merapi volcano by using dense array technics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metaxian, Jean Philippe; Budi Santoso, Agus; Laurin, Antoine; Subandriyo, Subandriyo; Widyoyudo, Wiku; Arshab, Ghofar

    2015-04-01

    Since 2010, Merapi shows unusual activity compared to last decades. Powerful phreatic explosions are observed; some of them are preceded by LP signals. In the literature, LP seismicity is thought to be originated within the fluid, and therefore to be representative of the pressurization state of the volcano plumbing system. Another model suggests that LP events are caused by slow, quasi-brittle, low stress-drop failure driven by transient upper-edifice deformations. Knowledge of the spatial distribution of LP events is fundamental for better understanding the physical processes occurring in the conduit, as well as for the monitoring and the improvement of eruption forecasting. LP events recorded at Merapi have a spectral content dominated by frequencies between 0.8 and 3 Hz. To locate the source of these events, we installed a seismic antenna composed of 4 broadband CMG-6TD Güralp stations. This network has an aperture of 300 m. It is located on the site of Pasarbubar, between 500 and 800 m from the crater rim. Two multi-parameter stations (seismic, tiltmeter, S-P) located in the same area, equipped with broadband CMG-40T Güralp sensors may also be used to complete the data of the antenna. The source of LP events is located by using different approaches. In the first one, we used a method based on the measurement of the time delays between the early beginnings of LP events for each array receiver. The observed differences of time delays obtained for each pair of receivers are compared to theoretical values calculated from the travel times computed between grid nodes, which are positioned in the structure, and each receiver. In a second approach, we estimate the slowness vector by using MUSIC algorithm applied to 3-components data. From the slowness vector, we deduce the back-azimuth and the incident angle, which give an estimation of LP source depth in the conduit. This work is part of the Domerapi project funded by French Agence Nationale de la Recherche (https

  6. Risk assessment of soil-based exposures to plutonium at experimental sites located on the Nevada Test Site and adjoining areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Layton, D.W.; Anspaugh, L.R.; Bogen, K.T.; Straume, T.

    1993-06-01

    In the late 1950s and early 1960s, a series of tests was conducted at or near the Nevada Test Site to study issues involving plutonium-bearing devices. These tests resulted in the dispersal of about 5 TBq of {sup 239,240}Pu on the surficial soils at the test locations. Access to the sites is strictly controlled; therefore, it does not constitute a threat to human health at the present time. However, because the residual {sup 239} Pu decays slowly (half-life of 24,110 y), the sites could indeed represent a long-term hazard if they are not remediated and if institutional controls are lost. To investigate the magnitude of the potential health risks for this no-remediation case, we defined three basic exposure scenarios that could bring individuals in contact with {sup 239,240}Pu at the sites: (1) a resident living in a subdivision located at a test site, (2) a resident farmer, and (3) a worker at a commercial facility. Our screening analyses indicated that doses to organs are dominated by the intemal deposition of Pu via the inhalation pathway, and thus our risk assessment focused on those factors that affect inhalation exposures and associated doses, including inhalation rates, activity patterns, tenure at a residence or occupation, indoor/outdoor air relationships, and resuspension outdoors. Cancer risks were calculated as a function of lifetime cumulative doses to the key target organs (i.e., bone surface, liver, and lungs) and risk factors for those organs. Uncertainties in the predicted cancer risks were analyzed using Monte-Carlo simulations of the probability distributions used to represent assessment parameters. The principal sources of uncertainty in the estimated risks were population mobility, the relationship between indoor and outdoor contaminant levels, and the dose and risk factors for bone, liver, and lung.

  7. Flight Test Results of Rocket-Propelled Buffet-Research Models Having 45 Degree Sweptback Wings and 45 Degree Sweptback Tails Located in the Wing Chord Plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Homer P.

    1953-01-01

    Three rocket-propelled buffet-research models have been flight tested to determine the buffeting characteristics of a swept-wing- airplane configuration with the horizontal tail operating near the wing wake. The models consisted of parabolic bodies having 45deg sweptback wings of aspect ratio 3.56, at aspect ratio of 0.3, NACA 64A007 airfoil sections, and tail surfaces of geometry and section identical to the wings. Two tests were conducted with the horizontal tail located in the wing chord plane with fixed incidence angles of -1.5deg on one model and 0deg on the other model. The third test was conducted with no horizontal tail. Results of these tests are presented as incremental accelerations in the body due to buffeting, trim angles of attack, trim normal- and side-force coefficients, wing-tip helix angles, static-directional-stability derivatives , and drag coefficients plotted against Mach number. These data indicate that mild low-lift buffeting was experienced by all models over a range of Mach number from approximately 0.7 to 1.4. It is further indicated that this buffeting was probably induced by wing-body interference and was amplified at transonic speeds by the horizontal tail operating in the wing wake. A longitudinal trim change was encountered by the tail-on models at transonic speeds, but no large changes in side force and no wing dropping were indicated.

  8. The light stability of transparent coating materials is influenced by the location of exposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vratislav Závada

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The ultraviolet radiation (UV, reaching the earth‘s surface, changes color of the paint films. By exposure to weathering, the biggest damage is caused by light, especially short-wavelength UV, high temperature and humidity. Any of these factors can lead to degradation. These natural elements can be reproduced and accelerated in laboratory conditions in test devices, such as the fluorescent UV or xenon-arc test chambers. Such equipment can provide fast and reproducible results. The artificial aging is a useful tool for product research and it is required by many international standards. A major problem in comparing the outdoor and laboratory tests is the fact, that the weathering-chamber enviroment is well controlled, whilst nature is not. The outdoor exposure tests are influenced by many factors, such as altitude, local conditions, seasonal variations, orientation of the sample and variable properties of test materials. Our work compares the influence of altitude of the tested position on light stability of surface finish treatment. The color changes are observed on different kinds of coating paint films with different contents of chemically binded UV stabilizator. Furthermore, the influence of bolstering material was observed. This material was mostly made of woods from temperate clima zone. One tropical wood was used for this purpose as well. The color changes of paint films (∆E on different bolstering materials were assessed by spectrophotometer.

  9. Evaluation of the accuracy of nine electronic apex locators by using Micro-CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connert, T; Judenhofer, M S; Hülber-J, M; Schell, S; Mannheim, J G; Pichler, B J; Löst, C; ElAyouti, A

    2017-07-04

    To determine the accuracy of locating the apical constriction using apex locators. Extracted teeth were micro-CT scanned preoperatively to localize the apical constriction. Electronic length measurements of 91 root canals were made using nine electronic apex locators (EAL) connected to a mounting model. Distances from the major foramen were recorded at each scale bar of the EALs, and a file was fixed in the canal at a position indicated by each EAL to be the apical constriction. A second micro-CT scan was conducted, and distances from the file tip to constriction and major foramen were calculated for each EAL. The accuracy of EALs was determined with a tolerance of 0.1, 0.25, 0.5 and 1 mm, and the 95% confidence interval was used to compare the EALs. A rank analysis was performed in which measurements beyond the major foramen were considered as inaccurate. Regardless of the type of teeth, there was no significant difference in the accuracy of determining the apical constriction and major foramen between the nine EALs within a tolerance of ±0.5 mm and 1 mm, but there was a significant difference for the tolerances of ±0.1 and 0.25 mm. The highest ranks close to the constriction (98% and 94%) and to the major foramen (86% and 73%) were observed in Dentaport ZX and Elements Diagnostic Unit, respectively. Overestimation of working length beyond the major foramen was observed in all EALs (5% to 71%) when the scale for the major foramen, as recommended by the manufacturers, was used. However, when the scale for the constriction was used, only 3% of the measurements were beyond the major foramen. Electronic apex locators were able to determine the apical constriction. Using EALs to determine the major foramen led to overestimation of the working length. Therefore, it may be recommended to use the EAL scale of the constriction. © 2017 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Location-Aware POI Recommendation for Indoor Space by Exploiting WiFi Logs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zengwei Zheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Indoor shopping trajectories provide us with a new approach to understanding user’s behaviour pattern in urban shopping mall, which can be derived from user-generated WiFi logs using indoor localization technology. In this paper, we propose a location-aware Point-of-Interest (POI recommendation service in urban shopping mall that offers a user a set of indoor POIs by considering both personal interest and location preference. The POI recommendation service cannot only improve user’s shopping experience but also help the store owner better understand user’s shopping preference and intent. Specifically, the proposed method consists of two phases: offline modelling and online recommendation. The offline modelling phase is designed to learn user preference by mining his/her historical shopping trajectories. The online recommendation phase automatically produces top-k recommended POIs based on the learnt preference. To demonstrate the utility of our proposed approach, we have performed a comprehensive experiment evaluation on a real-world dataset collected by 468 users over 33 days. The experimental results show that the proposed recommendation service achieves much better recommendation performance than several existing benchmark methods.

  11. DETERMINATION OF COORDINATES OF SEISMIC WAVE SOURCE BY AMPLITUDE METHOD OF PASSIVE LOCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasily D. Syten’ky

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of the mathematical synthesis of the method of passive location of a seismic wave source. The method employs measurements of regular attenuation of seismic oscillation amplitudes. If it is impossible to determine the location of a seismic event by means of direct measurements, indirect measurements are needed. A priori information for the mathematical synthesis was obtained from functional equations showing inverse proportions of measured amplitudes, arbitrary effective attenuation coefficients and corresponding coordinates. An original method was applied to process the data. The method providing for passive location of seismic waves sources has been developed; it is called the radial basic method. In the one-dimensional case, a distance is determined on the basis of seismic oscillation amplitudes measured by two seismographs that are located at a known base distance coinciding with the direction to the source of seismic waves. The distance is calculated from the receiver that is nearest to the source. If the base distance and the direct line between the seismograph and the seismic wave source do not coincide, a projection of the distance between the receivers to the given straight line is taken into account.Three seismographs were placed at mutually perpendicular base distances in a plane (i.e. the two-dimensional space. This allowed us to obtain an analytical equation for determining the direction to the seismic wave source using measured amplitudes. The value of the angle is taken into account when calculating the distance.For the seismic wave source located in the three-dimensional space, transition equations for combined coordinate systems (i.e. the Descartes (Cartesian, at the axes of which the seismographs were placed, and the spherical coordinate systems were applied, and analytical equations were obtained for determination of coordinates, such as distance/polar radius, elevation

  12. DETERMINATION OF COORDINATES OF SEISMIC WAVE SOURCE BY AMPLITUDE METHOD OF PASSIVE LOCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasily D. Syten’ky

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of the mathematical synthesis of the method of passive location of a seismic wave source. The method employs measurements of regular attenuation of seismic oscillation amplitudes. If it is impossible to determine the location of a seismic event by means of direct measurements, indirect measurements are needed. A priori information for the mathematical synthesis was obtained from functional equations showing inverse proportions of measured amplitudes, arbitrary effective attenuation coefficients and corresponding coordinates. An original method was applied to process the data. The method providing for passive location of seismic waves sources has been developed; it is called the radial basic method. In the one-dimensional case, a distance is determined on the basis of seismic oscillation amplitudes measured by two seismographs that are located at a known base distance coinciding with the direction to the source of seismic waves. The distance is calculated from the receiver that is nearest to the source. If the base distance and the direct line between the seismograph and the seismic wave source do not coincide, a projection of the distance between the receivers to the given straight line is taken into account.Three seismographs were placed at mutually perpendicular base distances in a plane (i.e. the two-dimensional space. This allowed us to obtain an analytical equation for determining the direction to the seismic wave source using measured amplitudes. The value of the angle is taken into account when calculating the distance.For the seismic wave source located in the three-dimensional space, transition equations for combined coordinate systems (i.e. the Descartes (Cartesian, at the axes of which the seismographs were placed, and the spherical coordinate systems were applied, and analytical equations were obtained for determination of coordinates, such as distance/polar radius, elevation

  13. Taste quality and intensity of 100 stimuli as reported by rats: the taste-location association task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shree Hari eGautam

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The interpretation of neural activity related to sensory stimulation requires an understanding of the subject's perception of the stimulation. Previous methods used to evaluate the perception of chemosensory stimuli by rodents have distinct limitations. We developed a novel behavioral paradigm, the taste-location association task, to complement these methods. First we tested if rats are able to learn associations between five basic taste stimuli and their spatial locations. This spatial task was based on 4 prototypical tastants and water. All four rats trained to perform the task reached levels of performance well above chance. Control trials demonstrated that the rats used only taste cues. Further, the learned stimulus set was resistant to interference, allowing for generalization experiments performed subsequently. We tested the rats' gustatory generalizations of 100 tastants to the five trained stimuli, both regarding their taste qualities as well as intensity ratings. The taste profiles generated by these experiments contribute to the understanding of how perception of the specific taste stimuli relate to the perception of the five basic taste qualities in intact behaving rats. In this large taste space we found that intensity plays a major role. Furthermore, umami stimuli were not reported as being similar to other basic tastants. Our new paradigm enables neurophysiological studies of taste-based learning and memory in awake, freely moving animals.

  14. Motion and Muscle Activity Are Affected by Instability Location During a Squat Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nairn, Brian C; Sutherland, Chad A; Drake, Janessa D M

    2017-03-01

    Nairn, BC, Sutherland, CA, and Drake, JDM. Motion and muscle activity are affected by instability location during a squat exercise. J Strength Cond Res 31(3): 677-685, 2017-Squat exercise training using instability devices has become increasingly popular for a multitude of reasons. Many devices generate instability at the feet and provide a bottom-up perturbation; however, the effect of a top-down instability device during a squat remains unclear. To induce instability at the upper body, a water-filled cylinder called the Attitube was used. This study analyzed the effects of instability location (top-down, bottom-up, and no instability) during a squat exercise in terms of kinematics and muscle activation. Ten male participants were instrumented with 75 reflective markers to track kinematics of the ankle, knee, hip, trunk, and the Bar/Attitube, and electromyography was recorded from 12 muscles bilaterally. Squats were performed with an Olympic bar on a stable surface, an Olympic bar on a BOSU ball (BALL, bottom-up), and the Attitube on solid ground (TUBE, top-down). The TUBE showed up to 1.5 times reduction in erector spinae activation and up to 1.5 times less trunk flexion while being performed at a slower velocity. There was also higher abdominal activation in the TUBE, with up to 2.8 times greater oblique activation compared with the stable condition. The BALL increased ankle eversion and knee flexion with higher muscle activation in gastrocnemius, biceps femoris, and quadriceps. Overall, changing the location of instability during a squat changed the motion and muscle activation patterns of the trunk and lower extremities. This provides information for future research into rehabilitation, learning proper squat technique, and for specific training scenarios.

  15. Total arsenic concentrations in Chinese children's urine by different geographic locations, ages, and genders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuan; Wang, Beibei; Cui, Xiaoyong; Lin, Chunye; Liu, Xitao; Ma, Jin

    2017-04-26

    Little is known about the variation of Chinese children's exposure to arsenic by geography, age, gender, and other potential factors. The main objective of this study was to investigate the total arsenic concentration in Chinese children's urine by geographic locations, ages, and genders. In total, 259 24-h urine samples were collected from 210 2- to 12-year-old children in China and analyzed for total arsenic and creatinine concentrations. The results showed that the upper limit (upper limit of the 90% confidence interval for the 97.5 fractile) was 27.51 µg/L or 55.88 µg/g creatinine for Chinese children. The total urinary arsenic levels were significantly different for children in Guangdong, Hubei, and Gansu provinces (P  0.05), although the level for boys (the upper limit was 59.30 µg/g) was slightly higher than that for girls (the upper limit was 58.64 µg/g creatinine). Because the total urinary arsenic concentrations are significantly different for general populations of children in different locations and age groups, the reference level of total urinary arsenic might be dependent on the geographic site and the child's age.

  16. Consumption of added sugars among US children and adults by food purchase location and food source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewnowski, Adam; Rehm, Colin D

    2014-09-01

    The proposed changes to the Nutrition Facts Label by the US Food and Drug Administration will include information on added sugars for the first time. The objective was to evaluate the sources of added sugars in the diets of a representative sample of US children and adults by food purchase location and food source (eg, food group). This cross-sectional study among 31,035 children, adolescents, and adults aged ≥6 y from the 2003-2004, 2005-2006, 2007-2008, and 2009-2010 NHANES used data from a 24-h dietary recall to evaluate consumption of added sugars. Food locations of origin were identified as stores (supermarket or grocery store), quick-service restaurants/pizza (QSRs), full-service restaurants (FSRs), schools, and others (eg, vending machines or gifts). Added sugars consumption by food purchase location was evaluated by age, family income-to-poverty ratio, and race-ethnicity. Food group sources of added sugars were identified by using the National Cancer Institute food categories. Added sugars accounted for ∼14.1% of total dietary energy. Between 65% and 76% of added sugars came from stores, 6% and 12% from QSRs, and 4% and 6% from FSRs, depending on age. Older adults (aged ≥51 y) obtained a significantly greater proportion of added sugars from stores than did younger adults. Lower-income adults obtained a significantly greater proportion of added sugars from stores than did higher-income adults. Intake of added sugars did not vary by family income among children/adolescents. Soda and energy and sports drinks were the largest food group sources of added sugars (34.4%), followed by grain desserts (12.7%), fruit drinks (8.0%), candy (6.7%), and dairy desserts (5.6%). Most added sugars came from foods obtained from stores. The proposed changes to the Nutrition Facts Label should capture the bulk of added sugars in the US food supply, which suggests that the recommended changes have the potential to reduce added sugars consumption. © 2014 American Society

  17. Power gain by pre-testing?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, Willem/Wim; Boon, P.C.; Kallenberg, W.C.M.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study whether it is possible to gain power by pre-testing, and to give insight in when this occurs, to what extent, and, at which price. A pre-test procedure consists of a preliminary test which tests a particular property of a given restricted model, followed by a main

  18. Supporting the search for the CEP location with nonlocal PNJL models constrained by lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contrera, Gustavo A. [IFLP, UNLP, CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, La Plata (Argentina); Gravitation, Astrophysics and Cosmology Group, FCAyG, UNLP, La Plata (Argentina); CONICET, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Grunfeld, A.G. [CONICET, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Departamento de Fisica, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Blaschke, David [University of Wroclaw, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Wroclaw (Poland); Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University (MEPhI), Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-15

    We investigate the possible location of the critical endpoint in the QCD phase diagram based on nonlocal covariant PNJL models including a vector interaction channel. The form factors of the covariant interaction are constrained by lattice QCD data for the quark propagator. The comparison of our results for the pressure including the pion contribution and the scaled pressure shift Δ P/T {sup 4} vs. T/T{sub c} with lattice QCD results shows a better agreement when Lorentzian form factors for the nonlocal interactions and the wave function renormalization are considered. The strength of the vector coupling is used as a free parameter which influences results at finite baryochemical potential. It is used to adjust the slope of the pseudocritical temperature of the chiral phase transition at low baryochemical potential and the scaled pressure shift accessible in lattice QCD simulations. Our study, albeit presently performed at the mean-field level, supports the very existence of a critical point and favors its location within a region that is accessible in experiments at the NICA accelerator complex. (orig.)

  19. Accuracy Refinement Algorithm for Mobile Target Location Tracking by Radio Signal Strength Indication Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Erin-Ee-Lin; Chung, Wan-Young

    A novel RSSI (Received Signal Strength Indication) refinement algorithm is proposed to enhance the resolution for indoor and outdoor real-time location tracking system. The proposed refinement algorithm is implemented in two separate phases. During the first phase, called the pre-processing step, RSSI values at different static locations are collected and processed to build a calibrated model for each reference node. Different measurement campaigns pertinent to each parameter in the model are implemented to analyze the sensitivity of RSSI. The propagation models constructed for each reference nodes are needed by the second phase. During the next phase, called the runtime process, real-time tracking is performed. Smoothing algorithm is proposed to minimize the dynamic fluctuation of radio signal received from each reference node when the mobile target is moving. Filtered RSSI values are converted to distances using formula calibrated in the first phase. Finally, an iterative trilateration algorithm is used for position estimation. Experiments relevant to the optimization algorithm are carried out in both indoor and outdoor environments and the results validated the feasibility of proposed algorithm in reducing the dynamic fluctuation for more accurate position estimation.

  20. Olfactory Cues, Visual Cues, and Semiochemical Diversity Interact During Host Location by Invasive Forest Beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Jessica L; Kelly, Dave; Bader, Martin K-F; Brockerhoff, Eckehard G

    2017-01-01

    Plant-feeding insects use visual and olfactory cues (shape, color, plant volatiles) for host location, but the relative importance of different cues and interactions with non-host-plant volatiles in ecosystems of varying plant biodiversity is unclear for most species. We studied invasive bark beetles and wood borers associated with pine trees to characterize interactions among color, host and non-host volatiles, by employing traps that mimic tree trunks. Cross-vane flight intercept traps (black, green, red, white, yellow, clear) and black funnel traps were used with and without attractants (α-pinene + ethanol), repellents (non-host green leaf volatiles, 'GLV'), and attractant/repellent combinations in four pine forests in New Zealand. We trapped 274,594 Hylurgus ligniperda, 7842 Hylastes ater, and 16,301 Arhopalus ferus. Trap color, attractant, and color × attractant effects were highly significant. Overall, black and red traps had the highest catches, irrespective of the presence of attractants. Alpha-pinene plus ethanol increased trap catch of H. ligniperda 200-fold but only 6-fold for H. ater and 2-fold for A. ferus. Green leaf volatiles had a substantial repellent effect on trap catch of H. ligniperda but less on H. ater and A. ferus. Attack by H. ligniperda was halved when logs were treated with GLV, and a similar effect was observed when logs were placed among broadleaved understory shrubs emitting GLV. Overall, H. ligniperda was most strongly affected by the olfactory cues used, whereas H. ater and A. ferus were more strongly affected by visual cues. Collectively, the results support the semiochemical diversity hypothesis, indicating that non-host plant volatiles from diverse plant communities or artificial dispensers can contribute to resistance against herbivores by partly disrupting host location.

  1. Twist angle determination in liquid crystal displays by location of local adiabatic points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Ignacio; Bennis, Noureddine; Davis, Jeffrey A.; Ferreira, Carlos

    1998-12-01

    In this work we present a method for the determination of the twist angle of an arbitrary twisted nematic liquid crystal spatial light modulator. The method is based on the location of local adiabatic points, i.e., situations in which the liquid crystal SLM acts only as a rotation device. For these cases, the rotation induced on the polarization of the incident beam is equal to the twist angle. Consequently, the twist angle can be determined with high precision. We show that local adiabatic regime may be achieved in two ways, either by changing the incident beam wavelength, or by applying a voltage to the electrodes of the display. However, the simple model that describes the SLM in the off-state, may break down when a voltage is applied to the display, and it may affect the local adiabatic behaviour. We present theoretical and experimental results.

  2. Occurrence and location of concentrated load and generator regions observed by Cluster in the plasma sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hamrin

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Here, and in a companion paper by Hamrin et al. (2009 [Scale size and life time of energy conversion regions observed by Cluster in the plasma sheet], we investigate localized energy conversion regions (ECRs in the Earth's plasma sheet. In total we have studied 151 ECRs within 660 h of plasma sheet data from the summer and fall of 2001 when Cluster was close to apogee at an altitude of about 15–20 RE. Cluster offers appropriate conditions for the investigation of energy conversion by the evaluation of the power density, E·J, where E is the electric field and J the current density. From the sign of the power density, we have identified more than three times as many Concentrated Load Regions (CLRs as Concentrated Generator Regions (CGRs. We also note that the CLRs appear to be stronger. To our knowledge, these are the first in situ observations confirming the general notion of the plasma sheet, on the average, behaving as a load. At the same time the plasma sheet appears to be highly structured, with energy conversion occurring in both directions between the fields and the particles. From our data we also find that the CLRs appear to be located closer to the neutral sheet, while CGRs prefer locations towards the plasma sheet boundary layer (PSBL. For both CLRs and CGRs, E and J in the GSM y (cross-tail direction dominate the total power density, even though the z contribution occasionally can be significant. The prevalence of the y-direction seems to be weaker for the CGRs, possibly related to a higher fluctuation level near the PSBL.

  3. Identifying the location and population served by domestic wells in California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler D. Johnson

    2015-03-01

    New hydrological insights for the region: Aggregating the results indicates that three hydrogeologic provinces contain nearly 80% of all domestic wells and also have the highest density of domestic well users: Central Valley (31.6%, Sierra Nevada (31.5%, and Northern Coast Ranges (16.6%. Results were also aggregated into groundwater basins and highland areas, collectively called Groundwater Units (GUs. Twenty-eight of the 938 GUs contain more than 50% of the total population served by domestic wells, 70 GUs contain more than 75%, and 150 GUs contain 90%. The 28 GUs are mostly located in the eastern and southern San Joaquin Valley (11, the Sacramento Valley (7, and the western foothills of the Sierra Nevada province (5. Using the information presented in this research along with other information about domestic-well use, the US Geological Survey has begun sampling high-use GUs for the Shallow Aquifer Assessment component of the Groundwater Ambient Assessment (GAMA program.

  4. Smoking prevalence differs by location of residence among Ghanaians in Africa and Europe: The RODAM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brathwaite, Rachel; Addo, Juliet; Kunst, Anton E; Agyemang, Charles; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis; de-Graft Aikins, Ama; Beune, Erik; Meeks, Karlijn; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin; Bahendeka, Silver; Mockenhaupt, Frank P; Amoah, Stephen; Galbete, Cecilia; Schulze, Matthias B; Danquah, Ina; Smeeth, Liam

    2017-01-01

    Although the prevalence of smoking is low in Ghana, little is known about the effect of migration on smoking. Comparing Ghanaians living in their country of origin to those living in Europe offers an opportunity to investigate smoking by location of residence and the associations between smoking behaviours and migration-related factors. Data on a relatively homogenous group of Ghanaians living in London (n = 949), Amsterdam (n = 1400), Berlin (n = 543), rural Ghana (n = 973) and urban Ghana (n = 1400) from the cross-sectional RODAM (Research on Obesity & Diabetes in African Migrants) study were used. Age-standardized prevalence rates of smoking by location of residence and factors associated with smoking among Ghanaian men were estimated using prevalence ratios (PR: 95% CIs). Current smoking was non-existent among women in rural and urban Ghana and London but was 3.2% and 3.3% in women in Amsterdam and Berlin, respectively. Smoking prevalence was higher in men in Europe (7.8%) than in both rural and urban Ghana (4.8%): PR 1.91: 95% CI 1.27, 2.88, adjusted for age, marital status, education and employment. Factors associated with a higher prevalence of smoking among Ghanaian men included European residence, being divorced or widowed, living alone, Islam religion, infrequent attendance at religious services, assimilation (cultural orientation), and low education. Ghanaians living in Europe are more likely to smoke than their counterparts in Ghana, suggesting convergence to European populations, although prevalence rates are still far below those in the host populations.

  5. Smoking prevalence differs by location of residence among Ghanaians in Africa and Europe: The RODAM study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Brathwaite

    Full Text Available Although the prevalence of smoking is low in Ghana, little is known about the effect of migration on smoking. Comparing Ghanaians living in their country of origin to those living in Europe offers an opportunity to investigate smoking by location of residence and the associations between smoking behaviours and migration-related factors.Data on a relatively homogenous group of Ghanaians living in London (n = 949, Amsterdam (n = 1400, Berlin (n = 543, rural Ghana (n = 973 and urban Ghana (n = 1400 from the cross-sectional RODAM (Research on Obesity & Diabetes in African Migrants study were used. Age-standardized prevalence rates of smoking by location of residence and factors associated with smoking among Ghanaian men were estimated using prevalence ratios (PR: 95% CIs.Current smoking was non-existent among women in rural and urban Ghana and London but was 3.2% and 3.3% in women in Amsterdam and Berlin, respectively. Smoking prevalence was higher in men in Europe (7.8% than in both rural and urban Ghana (4.8%: PR 1.91: 95% CI 1.27, 2.88, adjusted for age, marital status, education and employment. Factors associated with a higher prevalence of smoking among Ghanaian men included European residence, being divorced or widowed, living alone, Islam religion, infrequent attendance at religious services, assimilation (cultural orientation, and low education.Ghanaians living in Europe are more likely to smoke than their counterparts in Ghana, suggesting convergence to European populations, although prevalence rates are still far below those in the host populations.

  6. The Female Advantage in Object Location Memory is Robust to Verbalizability and Mode of Presentation of Test Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejbak, Lisa; Vrbancic, Mirna; Crossley, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    This study extends Duff and Hampson's [Duff, S., & Hampson, E. (2001). A sex difference on a novel spatial working memory task in humans. "Brain and Cognition, 47," 470-493] finding of a sex-related difference in favor of females for an object location memory task. Twenty female and 20 male undergraduate students performed both manual and…

  7. Physical activity locations in Georgia: frequency of use by socio-demographic group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln R. Larson; Jason W. Whiting; Gary T. Green; J. M. Bowker

    2014-01-01

    Active outdoor recreation helps to mitigate health consequences associated with sedentary behavior. Enhanced understanding of socio-demographic differences in physical activity (PA) location preferences could therefore contribute to health promotion.This study examined frequency o fuse fo rvarious PA locations in Georgia,a state with historically high levels of...

  8. Locations of Physical Activity as Assessed by GPS in Young Adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Jordan A; Schipperijn, Jasper; Kerr, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    Positioning System devices assessed minutes of and proportion of time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in each of the 5 locations. Mixed-effects regression compared MVPA across locations and demographic factors. RESULTS: Forty-two percent of adolescents' overall MVPA occurred at school...

  9. Emission of volatile organic compounds as affected by feedlot location, moisture, and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated the effects within pen location, moisture, and temperature on odor emission from manure resulting from a diet containing 30% wet distillers grain with solubles. Pen surface material was collected from three locations. Material from each pen was consolidated for each specific...

  10. Fetal gender screening based on placental location by 2-dimentional ul-trasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razieh Mohammad Jafari

    2014-08-01

    Conclusion: According to our results, an anterior and posterior positions of the placen-ta had significant relation with fetal gender. Our findings are consistent with previous studies regarding prediction of fetal gender using placental location. We suggest that more research with large sample size is required as well as investigations with more de-tails about placental locations.

  11. United States paper, paperboard, and market pulp capacity trends by process and location, 1970-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Ince; Xiaolei Li; Mo Zhou; Joseph Buongiorno; Mary Reuter

    This report presents a relational database with estimates of annual production capacity for all mill locations in the United States where paper, paperboard, or market pulp were produced from 1970 to 2000. Data for more than 500 separate mill locations are included in the database, with annual capacity data for each year from 1970 to 2000 (more than 17, 000 individual...

  12. Using thermal infrared imagery produced by unmanned air vehicles to evaluate locations of ecological road structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sercan Gülci

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aerial photos and satellite images are widely used and cost efficient data for monitoring and analysis of large areas in forestry activities. Nowadays, accurate and high resolution remote sensing data can be generated for large areas by using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV integrated with sensors working in various spectral bands. Besides, the UAV systems (UAVs have been used in interdisciplinary studies to produce data of large scale forested areas for desired time periods (i.e. in different seasons or different times of a day. In recent years, it has become more important to conduct studies on determination of wildlife corridors for controlling and planning of habitat fragmentation of wild animals that need vast living areas. The wildlife corridors are a very important base for the determination of a road network planning and placement of ecological road structures (passages, as well as for the assessment of special and sensitive areas such as riparian zones within the forest. It is possible to evaluate wildlife corridors for large areas within a shorter time by using data produced by ground measurements, and remote sensing and viewer systems (i.e. photo-trap, radar and etc., as well as by using remote sensing data generated by UAVs. Ecological behaviors and activities (i.e. sheltering, feeding, mating, etc. of wild animals vary spatially and temporally. Some species are active in their habitats at day time, while some species are active during the night time. One of the most effective methods for evaluation of night time animals is utilizing heat sensitive thermal cameras that can be used to collect thermal infrared images with the night vision feature. When the weather conditions are suitable for a flight, UAVs assist for determining location of corridors effectively and accurately for moving wild animals at any time of the day. Then, the most suitable locations for ecological road structures can be determined based on wildlife corridor

  13. Visual matching test-taking strategies used by deaf readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaSasso, C

    1985-03-01

    Earlier investigations of deaf students' test-taking strategies have described visual matching strategies consisting generally of locating a word in the question, locating the same word in the text, and selecting a response in visual proximity to that word. Studies to date have utilized multiple-choice measures. The present investigation sought to confirm and extend earlier findings by (a) determining whether visual matching test-taking strategies are used by deaf students in testing situations requiring them to generate responses; (b) describing these strategies, if found; (c) determining whether visual matching is related to overall test performance of deaf readers; and (d) determining whether there are differences between the strategies used by deaf and hearing readers with comparable SAT-HI reading comprehension test performance. The results of this investigation indicate extensive use of visual matching test-taking strategies by deaf subjects but not by hearing subjects. The extent of strategy use was not related to deaf subjects' overall performance on the lookback test. Nine variations of strategy were identified and described. Implications are drawn for teachers, researchers, and other practitioners working with deaf children.

  14. Planning the City Logistics Terminal Location by Applying the Green p-Median Model and Type-2 Neurofuzzy Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamučar, Dragan; Vasin, Ljubislav; Atanasković, Predrag; Miličić, Milica

    2016-01-01

    The paper herein presents green p-median problem (GMP) which uses the adaptive type-2 neural network for the processing of environmental and sociological parameters including costs of logistics operators and demonstrates the influence of these parameters on planning the location for the city logistics terminal (CLT) within the discrete network. CLT shows direct effects on increment of traffic volume especially in urban areas, which further results in negative environmental effects such as air pollution and noise as well as increased number of urban populations suffering from bronchitis, asthma, and similar respiratory infections. By applying the green p-median model (GMM), negative effects on environment and health in urban areas caused by delivery vehicles may be reduced to minimum. This model creates real possibilities for making the proper investment decisions so as profitable investments may be realized in the field of transport infrastructure. The paper herein also includes testing of GMM in real conditions on four CLT locations in Belgrade City zone.

  15. Planning the City Logistics Terminal Location by Applying the Green p-Median Model and Type-2 Neurofuzzy Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Pamučar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper herein presents green p-median problem (GMP which uses the adaptive type-2 neural network for the processing of environmental and sociological parameters including costs of logistics operators and demonstrates the influence of these parameters on planning the location for the city logistics terminal (CLT within the discrete network. CLT shows direct effects on increment of traffic volume especially in urban areas, which further results in negative environmental effects such as air pollution and noise as well as increased number of urban populations suffering from bronchitis, asthma, and similar respiratory infections. By applying the green p-median model (GMM, negative effects on environment and health in urban areas caused by delivery vehicles may be reduced to minimum. This model creates real possibilities for making the proper investment decisions so as profitable investments may be realized in the field of transport infrastructure. The paper herein also includes testing of GMM in real conditions on four CLT locations in Belgrade City zone.

  16. Planning the City Logistics Terminal Location by Applying the Green p-Median Model and Type-2 Neurofuzzy Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamučar, Dragan; Vasin, Ljubislav; Atanasković, Predrag; Miličić, Milica

    2016-01-01

    The paper herein presents green p-median problem (GMP) which uses the adaptive type-2 neural network for the processing of environmental and sociological parameters including costs of logistics operators and demonstrates the influence of these parameters on planning the location for the city logistics terminal (CLT) within the discrete network. CLT shows direct effects on increment of traffic volume especially in urban areas, which further results in negative environmental effects such as air pollution and noise as well as increased number of urban populations suffering from bronchitis, asthma, and similar respiratory infections. By applying the green p-median model (GMM), negative effects on environment and health in urban areas caused by delivery vehicles may be reduced to minimum. This model creates real possibilities for making the proper investment decisions so as profitable investments may be realized in the field of transport infrastructure. The paper herein also includes testing of GMM in real conditions on four CLT locations in Belgrade City zone. PMID:27195005

  17. Validation of measured friction by process tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Morten; Henningsen, Poul; Tan, Xincai

    The objective of sub-task 3.3 is to evaluate under actual process conditions the friction formulations determined by simulative testing. As regards task 3.3 the following tests have been used according to the original project plan: 1. standard ring test and 2. double cup extrusion test. The task...... has, however, been extended to include a number of new developed process tests: 3. forward rod extrusion test, 4. special ring test at low normal pressure, 5. spike test (especially developed for warm and hot forging). Validation of the measured friction values in cold forming from sub-task 3.1 has...... been made with forward rod extrusion, and very good agreement was obtained between the measured friction values in simulative testing and process testing....

  18. Nuclear explosion locations at the Balapan, Kazakhstan, nuclear test site: the effects of high-precision arrival times and three-dimensional structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Clifford; Trabant, Chad; Haslinger, Florian; Hartog, Renate

    2001-04-01

    We have investigated the potential contributions of improved arrival times (using waveform cross-correlation) and the use of three-dimensional (3-D) velocity models for seismic event location capability. Our analyses are applied to a dataset of nuclear explosions at Balapan, Kazakhstan, for which ground-truth locations and some absolute origin times are available. This ground-truth information allows us to determine excellent origin time estimates for the remaining explosions. The combination of excellent ground-truth location information and high-quality origin time estimates permits us to (1) carry out a detailed examination of the quality of ISC picks, (2) identify probable timing errors in the digital data, (3) evaluate relative and absolute location capability using data from a sparse network, (4) assess the influence of event signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) on relative location accuracy, (5) utilize the Balapan events as a source array for 3-D tomography beneath the test site, and (6) test the influence of 3-D structure (local and global) on relative location accuracy and precision in a "controlled" situation. Our principal finding is that improved arrival times are the primary contributor to improved locations. Joint and individual relocations of Balapan events using the full digital dataset result in average mislocations of less than 1 km and 95% confidence regions of a compatible size. To mimic a CTBT scenario more realistically, we also carry out relocations using very few stations (4-10 observations). Location accuracy degrades somewhat, but the high-quality picks generally result in mislocations less than 10 km, even for events with very large azimuthal gaps. Uncertainty is generally underestimated in these cases. Tests with artificially degraded SNR show that mislocation increases slowly as SNR decreases. 3-D velocity structure makes a smaller contribution to relative location accuracy than accurate time picks. Travel time variations due to global 3-D

  19. Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and discretionary foods among US adults by purchase location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, R; Maurer, G

    2016-12-01

    Excess calorie intake from sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods occupies a significant proportion of Western diet. The aim of this study was to examine consumption of SSBs and discretionary foods in US adults by purchase location. Nationally representative 24-h dietary recall data came from the 2011-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The discretionary food category identifies energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods that do not necessarily contain essential nutrients but may add variety and enjoyment. Linear regressions were performed to estimate daily calorie intake from SSBs and discretionary foods by purchase location (supermarket/grocery store, convenience store, vending machine, fast-food restaurant, full-service restaurant and other source), adjusting for individual characteristics and sampling design. During 2011-2012, 46.3% and 88.8% of US adults consumed SSBs and discretionary foods on any given day, respectively. SSB consumers on average consumed 213.0 kcal from SSBs daily, of which 111.6 kcal (52.4%) were purchased from supermarkets/grocery stores, 33.0 kcal (15.5%) from fast-food restaurants, 23.9 kcal (11.2%) from convenience stores, 17.1 kcal (8.0%) from full-service restaurants, 8.5 kcal (4.0%) from vending machines and 19.0 kcal (8.9%) from other sources. Discretionary food consumers on average consumed 439.0 kcal from discretionary foods daily, of which 280.1 kcal (63.8%) were purchased from supermarkets/grocery stores, 45.8 kcal (10.4%) from fast-food restaurants, 30.0 kcal (6.8%) from full-service restaurants, 21.1 kcal (4.8%) from convenience stores, 4.1 kcal (0.9%) from vending machines and 58.0 kcal (13.2%) from other sources. Supermarkets/grocery stores were by far the single largest source for SSB and discretionary food purchases in US adults.

  20. Bond Strength of High-Viscosity Glass Ionomer Cements is Affected by Tubular Density and Location in Dentin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesco, Tamara K; Calvo, Ana Flávia B; Domingues, Gabrielle G; Mendes, Fausto M; Raggio, Daniela P

    2015-08-01

    This study evaluated the influence of tubular density of different dentin depths and location on the bond strength of high-viscosity glass ionomer cements (GIC). A total of 20 molars were selected and assigned into six experimental groups, considering two different high-viscosity GICs-Fuji IX (FIX) or Ketac Molar (KM), and dentin location-proximal, occlusal superficial, or occlusal deep dentin (n=10). Teeth were cut and a topographical analysis of four sections per group was performed to obtain data about the tubular density of each different dentin location and depths by laser scanning confocal microscopy (100×). Polyethylene tubes were placed over the pretreated surfaces and filled with one of the GICs. Microshear bond strength (µSBS) test was performed after storage in distilled water (24 h at 37°C). Failure modes were evaluated using a stereomicroscope (400×). Multilevel regression analysis was performed to compare the results at a significance level set at 5%. The tubule density was inversely proportional to the bond strength for both GICs (p<0.05). Adhesive/mixed failure prevailed in all experimental groups. Proximal (30036.5±3433.3) and occlusal superficial 29665.3±1434.04 dentin shows lower tubule density, resulting in a better GIC bonding performance (proximal: FIX-3.61±1.05; KM-3.40±1.62; occlusal superficial: FIX-4.70±1.85; KM-4.97±1.25). Thus, we can concluded that the lowest tubule density in proximal and occlusal superficial dentin results in a better GIC bond strength performance.

  1. Lattice location of transition metals in silicon by means of emission channeling

    CERN Document Server

    da Silva, Daniel José; Wahl, Ulrich; Correia, João Guilherme

    The behavior of transition metals (TMs) in silicon is a subject that has been studied extensively during the last six decades. Their unintentional introduction during the Si production, crystal growth and device manufacturing have made them difficult contaminants to avoid. Once in silicon they easily form deep levels, either when in the isolated form or when forming precipitates. One important effect is the reduction of efficiency of silicon-based devices, being dramatic, in particular, in photovoltaic applications. One way to avoid such effects is by engineering the location of the TM: some TM complexes or lattice sites of the isolated form do not introduce any level in the silicon bandgap. Which point defects lead to such passivation is still under debate. Another way is to mitigate the reduction of efficiency by reducing the dangling bonds of TMs with hydrogen. The most important and commonly used procedures to diminish the unwanted effects of the introduced deep levels are, nevertheless, based on the so-c...

  2. The accuracy of locating the cricothyroid membrane by palpation - an intergender study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Mark; Shanahan, Hilary; Ash, Simon; Royds, Jonathan; Husarova, Viera; McCaul, Conan

    2014-01-01

    The cricothyroid membrane (CTM) is the recommended site of access to the airway during cricothyrotomy to provide emergency oxygenation. We sought to compare the ability of physicians to correctly identify the CTM in male and female patients. In a prospective observational study, anaesthetists were asked to locate the CTM by palpation which was then identified using ultrasound and the distance between the actual and estimated margin of the CTM was measured. Participants assessed the ease of CTM palpation using a visual analog scale. In a second series, the angulation of the posterior junction of the thyroid laminae was measured using ultrasound. 23 anaesthetists and 44 subjects participated. A total of 36 assessments were carried out in each gender. Incorrect identification of the CTM was more common in females (29/36 vs. 11/36, P palpation correlated with decreased posterior thyroid cartilage angulation (P = 0.04). CTM localisation is more difficult in female subjects irrespective of body habitus. It may be prudent to localize this structure by additional means (e.g. ultrasound) in advance of any airway manoeuvres or to modify the cricothyrotomy technique in the event that it is necessary in an emergency.

  3. Simulation of the plume emitted by a municipal waste incinerator located in the Madeira island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coutinho, M.; Ribeiro, C.; Pereira, M.; Borrego, C. [Campus Univ., AVEIRO (Portugal). IDAD - Inst. of Environment and Development

    2004-07-01

    The study of meteorological circulations in small islands has been quite limited with the majority of the research published concerning the analysis of the eolic potential for energy production. Other researchers focused on the description of the dispersion of gases emitted by volcanic activity. In this paper, a mesoscale meteorological and dispersion model was applied to simulate the behaviour of the plume of a municipal waste incinerator (MSW) that was constructed in the southern slope of the Madeira island at an altitude of 1380 m. Madeira is a Portuguese island located in the Atlantic Ocean at approximately 32 40'N and 16 52'W with a clear east-west development. The island is relatively small (60 x 20 km{sup 2}) but is characterized by very complex orography with maximum peaks reaching 1800 m. The fact that the orography has the same east-west development creates a very strong distinction between the northern and the southern slopes. The northern slope is strongly exposed to the prevalent synoptic flows and the southern slope is much warmer, quiet and where the majority of the population lives. The climate is very mild with small thermal amplitudes and maximum temperatures between 18 to 28 C. Sea temperature during summer rises to 22-23 C. (orig.)

  4. Locational Pricing to Mitigate Voltage Problems Caused by High PV Penetration

    OpenAIRE

    Sam Weckx; Reinhilde D'hulst; Johan Driesen

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a locational marginal pricing algorithm is proposed to control the voltage in unbalanced distribution grids. The increasing amount of photovoltaic (PV) generation installed in the grid may cause the voltage to rise to unacceptable levels during periods of low consumption. With locational prices, the distribution system operator can steer the reactive power consumption and active power curtailment of PV panels to guarantee a safe network operation. Flexible loads also respond to...

  5. The influence of intraoperative microelectrode recordings and clinical testing on the location of final stimulation sites in deep brain stimulation for Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaier, Juergen Ralf; Habermeyer, Christine; Janzen, Annette; Fellner, Claudia; Hochreiter, Andreas; Proescholdt, Martin; Brawanski, Alexander; Lange, Max

    2013-02-01

    The goal of our study was to investigate the influence of intraoperative microelectrode recordings and clinical testing on the location of the final stimulation site in deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease. In 22 patients with Parkinson's disease we compared magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based and atlas-based targets with the adjusted stimulation sites after intraoperative, multitrack microelectrode recording (MER) and intraoperative and postoperative clinical testing. The investigation included 176 target/stimulation sites in 44 subthalamic nuclei (STNs), which were related to a standardised three-dimensional, MRI-defined STN. Atlas-based targets were positioned more superior and more medial than the MRI-based targets, which were located in the centre of the MRI-STN. The optimal stimulation sites, found intraoperatively after MER and clinical testing, were located more lateral and slightly more superior than both planned targets. In the majority of the cases the location of the active contact was the most superior and most lateral of all target sites. The differences in the distributions of those four targets reached statistical significance. However, final active contacts were distributed throughout the MRI-defined STN and its immediate surroundings. The adoption of microelectrode recordings and extensive clinical testing allows the adjustment of anatomical targeting even to unexpected stimulation sites in and around the MRI-defined STN.

  6. Lippmann-Schwinger integral equation approach to the emission of radiation by sources located inside finite-sized dielectric structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, T.; Tromborg, Bjarne

    2002-01-01

    A full-vectorial integral equation method is presented for calculating near fields and far fields generated by a given distribution of sources located inside finite-sized dielectric structures. Special attention is given to the treatment of the singularity of the dipole source field. A method.......g., an excited atom located inside a dieletric structure....

  7. Space use by Black-tailed Godwits Limosa limosa limosa during settlement at a previous or a new nest location

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Den Brink, Valentijn; Schroeder, Julia; Both, Christiaan; Lourenco, Pedro M.; Piersma, Theunis; Hooijmeijer, Jos C.E.W.

    Capsule Black-tailed Godwits first return to the nest location of the previous year, even when moving to a different nest location later that season. Aims To examine the use of space by Black-tailed Godwits during the two months before egg-laying to two weeks afterwards. Methods We compare the

  8. Firearm Projectile in the Maxillary Tuberosity Located by Adjunctive Examination of Wide-Field Optical Fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Sérgio Araújo; Varotti, Fernando de Pilla; Bagnato, Vanderlei Salvador; Pratavieira, Sebastião

    2017-10-10

    Demonstrate the use of wide-field optical fluorescence as an adjunctive examination in a clinical routine to oral diagnosis. Use of wide-field optical fluorescence in the oral cavity has been restricted to topics related to the detection and diagnosis of oral cancer. In a regular medical appointment, a 58-year-old female patient, without any complaint or oral symptom, underwent the complementary examination by wide-field optical fluorescence. A device with high-power light-emitting diode emitting light centered at a wavelength of (400 ± 10) nm and maximum irradiance of (0.040 ± 0.008) W/cm(2) was used for fluorescence visualization. We report the location of a firearm projectile, intraosseous, in the maxillary tuberosity using wide-field optical fluorescence. It is evidenced that wide-field optical fluorescence, within a clinical routine, can provide relevant images and data, with an immediate result, without the use of ionizing radiation, enabling an efficient oral diagnosis.

  9. The Impact of the Location on the Price Offered by Accommodation Establishments in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Švec

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to assess the relationship between the price of accommodation and the urban space and character of the place. The price and spatial connections (together with the quality of the provided services become an important motive for clients when choosing a concrete accommodation establishment. As the competition is very difficult in the field of accommodation establishments and the supply multiply surpasses the demand, there is an intensive search for miscellaneous strategies of engaging in the competition. The built-up territory of the town České Budějovice was chosen as a model territory. The prices of the summer season 2012 have been entered into the analysis. The impact of the location was assessed on the level of the type of land-use. The distribution of the accommodation establishments in the studied is highly uneven, without any more significant tendency to the creation of the spatial clusters. It is fundamentally influenced especially by the distance of the historical center. A price map was formed identifying the zones with the above-average prices, as well as the zones with the highly below-average prices.

  10. Interactions of Condensed Tannins with Saccharomyces cerevisiae Yeast Cells and Cell Walls: Tannin Location by Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekoue Nguela, Julie; Vernhet, Aude; Sieczkowski, Nathalie; Brillouet, Jean-Marc

    2015-09-02

    Interactions between grape tannins/red wine polyphenols and yeast cells/cell walls was previously studied within the framework of red wine aging and the use of yeast-derived products as an alternative to aging on lees. Results evidenced a quite different behavior between whole cells (biomass grown to elaborate yeast-derived products, inactivated yeast, and yeast inactivated after autolysis) and yeast cell walls (obtained from mechanical disruption of the biomass). Briefly, whole cells exhibited a high capacity to irreversibly adsorb grape and wine tannins, whereas only weak interactions were observed for cell walls. This last point was quite unexpected considering the literature and called into question the real role of cell walls in yeasts' ability to fix tannins. In the present work, tannin location after interactions between grape and wine tannins and yeast cells and cell walls was studied by means of transmission electron microscopy, light epifluorescence, and confocal microscopy. Microscopy observations evidenced that if tannins interact with cell walls, and especially cell wall mannoproteins, they also diffuse freely through the walls of dead cells to interact with their plasma membrane and cytoplasmic components.

  11. Colon and rectal cancer survival by tumor location and microsatellite instability: the Colon Cancer Family Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Amanda I; Lindor, Noralane M; Jenkins, Mark A; Baron, John A; Win, Aung Ko; Gallinger, Steven; Gryfe, Robert; Newcomb, Polly A

    2013-08-01

    Cancers in the proximal colon, distal colon, and rectum are frequently studied together; however, there are biological differences in cancers across these sites, particularly in the prevalence of microsatellite instability. We assessed the differences in survival by colon or rectal cancer site, considering the contribution of microsatellite instability to such differences. This is a population-based prospective cohort study for cancer survival. This study was conducted within the Colon Cancer Family Registry, an international consortium. Participants were identified from population-based cancer registries in the United States, Canada, and Australia. Information on tumor site, microsatellite instability, and survival after diagnosis was available for 3284 men and women diagnosed with incident invasive colon or rectal cancer between 1997 and 2002, with ages at diagnosis ranging from 18 to 74. Cox regression was used to calculate hazard ratios for the association between all-cause mortality and tumor location, overall and by microsatellite instability status. Distal colon (HR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.49-0.71) and rectal cancers (HR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.57-0.81) were associated with lower mortality than proximal colon cancer overall. Compared specifically with patients with proximal colon cancer exhibiting no/low microsatellite instability, patients with distal colon and rectal cancers experienced lower mortality, regardless of microsatellite instability status; patients with proximal colon cancer exhibiting high microsatellite instability had the lowest mortality. Study limitations include the absence of stage at diagnosis and cause-of-death information for all but a subset of study participants. Some patient groups defined jointly by tumor site and microsatellite instability status are subject to small numbers. Proximal colon cancer survival differs from survival for distal colon and rectal cancer in a manner apparently dependent on microsatellite instability status. These

  12. Variation in Hospice Services by Location of Care: Nursing Home Versus Assisted Living Facility Versus Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unroe, Kathleen T; Bernard, Brittany; Stump, Timothy E; Tu, Wanzhu; Callahan, Christopher M

    2017-07-01

    To describe differences in hospice services for patients living at home, in nursing homes or in assisted living facilities, including the overall number and duration of visits by different hospice care providers across varying lengths of stay. Retrospective cohort study using hospice patient electronic medical record data. Large, national hospice provider. Data from 32,605 hospice patients who received routine hospice care from 2009 to 2014 were analyzed. Descriptive statistics were calculated for utilization measures for each type of provider and by location of care. Frequency and duration of service contacts were standardized to a 1 week period and pairwise comparisons were used to detect differences in care provided between the three settings. Minimal differences were found in overall intensity of service contacts across settings, however, the mix of services were different for patients living at home versus nursing home versus assisted living facility. Overall, more nurse care was provided at the beginning and end of the hospice episode; intensity of aide care services was higher in the middle portion of the hospice episode. Nearly 43% of the sample had hospice stays less than 2 weeks and up to 20% had stays greater than 6 months. There are significant differences between characteristics of hospice patients in different settings, as well as the mix of services they receive. Medicare hospice payment methodology was revised starting in 2016. While the new payment structure is in greater alignment with the U shape distribution of services, it will be important to evaluate the impact of the new payment methodology on length of stay and mix of services by different providers across settings of care. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  13. Investigation of radical locations in various sesame seeds by CW EPR and 9-GHz EPR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, K; Hara, H

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the location of radical in various sesame seeds using continuous-wave (CW) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and 9-GHz EPR imaging. CW EPR detected persistent radicals (single line) for various sesame seeds. The EPR linewidth of black sesame seeds was narrower than that of the irradiated white sesame seeds. A very small signal was detected for the white sesame seeds. Two-dimensional (2D) imaging using a 9-GHz EPR imager showed that radical locations vary for various sesame seeds. The paramagnetic species in black sesame seeds were located on the seed coat (skin) and in the hilum region. The signal with the highest intensity was obtained from the hilum part. A very low-intensity image was observed for the white sesame seeds. In addition, the 2D imaging of the irradiated white sesame seeds showed that free radicals were located throughout the entire seed. For the first time, CW EPR and 9-GHz EPR imaging showed the exact location of radical species in various sesame seeds.

  14. Jacobsen syndrome detected by noninvasive prenatal testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Jamie O; Feist, Cori D; Hashima, Jason; Shaffer, Brian L

    2015-02-01

    Noninvasive prenatal testing has a high detection rate of common fetal chromosomal aneuploidies. However, detection of additional chromosome abnormalities has not been well described or validated. We report a case of Jacobsen syndrome, a congenital disorder involving deletion of chromosome 11q, detected by noninvasive prenatal testing at 14 weeks of gestation and confirmed on neonatal testing with array chromosomal genomic hybridization. Noninvasive prenatal testing should be considered when multiple fetal anomalies are present and invasive testing is declined. As the clinical application of noninvasive prenatal testing continues to evolve, additional submicroscopic chromosomal information may be clinically helpful and should be confirmed with diagnostic testing until larger studies help further define the screening characteristics of noninvasive prenatal testing.

  15. The Determination of Sunglint Locations on the Ocean Surface by Observation from Geostationary Satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. Emecen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The method of determining a principal point of sunglint (PPS on the ocean surface by observation from geostationary orbit is described. To find a PPS first a nonlinear equation is solved numerically, and then from one transformation the coordinates (latitude and longitude of the PPS are obtained. The diurnal, seasonal and annual excursion of PPS are investigated. The entry parameters of the problem are the time t and longitude of satellite φsat. The contour of the Sun disk image and its sizes on a smooth ocean surface are studied. This method of finding PPS is then tested upon the Earth’s image recorded from Meteosat satellites.

  16. Reconstructing the Sky Location of Gravitational-Wave Detected Compact Binary Systems: Methodology for Testing and Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidney, T.; Aylott, B.; Christensen, N.; Farr, B.; Farr, W.; Feroz, F.; Gair, J.; Grover, K.; Graff, P.; Hanna, C.; hide

    2014-01-01

    The problem of reconstructing the sky position of compact binary coalescences detected via gravitational waves is a central one for future observations with the ground-based network of gravitational-wave laser interferometers, such as Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo. Different techniques for sky localization have been independently developed. They can be divided in two broad categories: fully coherent Bayesian techniques, which are high latency and aimed at in-depth studies of all the parameters of a source, including sky position, and "triangulation-based" techniques, which exploit the data products from the search stage of the analysis to provide an almost real-time approximation of the posterior probability density function of the sky location of a detection candidate. These techniques have previously been applied to data collected during the last science runs of gravitational-wave detectors operating in the so-called initial configuration. Here, we develop and analyze methods for assessing the self consistency of parameter estimation methods and carrying out fair comparisons between different algorithms, addressing issues of efficiency and optimality. These methods are general, and can be applied to parameter estimation problems other than sky localization. We apply these methods to two existing sky localization techniques representing the two above-mentioned categories, using a set of simulated inspiralonly signals from compact binary systems with a total mass of equal to or less than 20M solar mass and nonspinning components. We compare the relative advantages and costs of the two techniques and show that sky location uncertainties are on average a factor approx. equals 20 smaller for fully coherent techniques than for the specific variant of the triangulation-based technique used during the last science runs, at the expense of a factor approx. equals 1000 longer processing time.

  17. Location Detection and Tracking of Moving Targets by a 2D IR-UWB Radar System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van-Han Nguyen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In indoor environments, the Global Positioning System (GPS and long-range tracking radar systems are not optimal, because of signal propagation limitations in the indoor environment. In recent years, the use of ultra-wide band (UWB technology has become a possible solution for object detection, localization and tracking in indoor environments, because of its high range resolution, compact size and low cost. This paper presents improved target detection and tracking techniques for moving objects with impulse-radio UWB (IR-UWB radar in a short-range indoor area. This is achieved through signal-processing steps, such as clutter reduction, target detection, target localization and tracking. In this paper, we introduce a new combination consisting of our proposed signal-processing procedures. In the clutter-reduction step, a filtering method that uses a Kalman filter (KF is proposed. Then, in the target detection step, a modification of the conventional CLEAN algorithm which is used to estimate the impulse response from observation region is applied for the advanced elimination of false alarms. Then, the output is fed into the target localization and tracking step, in which the target location and trajectory are determined and tracked by using unscented KF in two-dimensional coordinates. In each step, the proposed methods are compared to conventional methods to demonstrate the differences in performance. The experiments are carried out using actual IR-UWB radar under different scenarios. The results verify that the proposed methods can improve the probability and efficiency of target detection and tracking.

  18. Location Detection and Tracking of Moving Targets by a 2D IR-UWB Radar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Van-Han; Pyun, Jae-Young

    2015-01-01

    In indoor environments, the Global Positioning System (GPS) and long-range tracking radar systems are not optimal, because of signal propagation limitations in the indoor environment. In recent years, the use of ultra-wide band (UWB) technology has become a possible solution for object detection, localization and tracking in indoor environments, because of its high range resolution, compact size and low cost. This paper presents improved target detection and tracking techniques for moving objects with impulse-radio UWB (IR-UWB) radar in a short-range indoor area. This is achieved through signal-processing steps, such as clutter reduction, target detection, target localization and tracking. In this paper, we introduce a new combination consisting of our proposed signal-processing procedures. In the clutter-reduction step, a filtering method that uses a Kalman filter (KF) is proposed. Then, in the target detection step, a modification of the conventional CLEAN algorithm which is used to estimate the impulse response from observation region is applied for the advanced elimination of false alarms. Then, the output is fed into the target localization and tracking step, in which the target location and trajectory are determined and tracked by using unscented KF in two-dimensional coordinates. In each step, the proposed methods are compared to conventional methods to demonstrate the differences in performance. The experiments are carried out using actual IR-UWB radar under different scenarios. The results verify that the proposed methods can improve the probability and efficiency of target detection and tracking. PMID:25808773

  19. Volatile chemical cues guide host location and host selection by parasitic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justin B. Runyon; Mark C. Mescher; Consuelo M. De Moraes

    2006-01-01

    The importance of plant volatiles in mediating interactions between plant species is much debated. Here, we demonstrate that the parasitic plant Cuscuta pentagona (dodder) uses volatile cues for host location. Cuscuta pentagona seedlings exhibit directed growth toward nearby tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum...

  20. Improved ultrasound transducer positioning by fetal heart location estimation during Doppler based heart rate measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamelmann, Paul; Vullings, Rik; Schmitt, Lars; Kolen, Alexander F; Mischi, Massimo; van Laar, Judith O E H; Bergmans, Jan W M

    2017-09-21

    Doppler ultrasound (US) is the most commonly applied method to measure the fetal heart rate (fHR). When the fetal heart is not properly located within the ultrasonic beam, fHR measurements often fail. As a consequence, clinical staff need to reposition the US transducer on the maternal abdomen, which can be a time consuming and tedious task. In this article, a method is presented to aid clinicians with the positioning of the US transducer to produce robust fHR measurements. A maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) algorithm is developed, which provides information on fetal heart location using the power of the Doppler signals received in the individual elements of a standard US transducer for fHR recordings. The performance of the algorithm is evaluated with simulations and in vitro experiments performed on a beating-heart setup. Both the experiments and the simulations show that the heart location can be accurately determined with an error of less than 7 mm within the measurement volume of the employed US transducer. The results show that the developed algorithm can be used to provide accurate feedback on fetal heart location for improved positioning of the US transducer, which may lead to improved measurements of the fHR.

  1. Hydrogen atoms can be located accurately and precisely by x-ray crystallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woińska, Magdalena; Grabowsky, Simon; Dominiak, Paulina M; Woźniak, Krzysztof; Jayatilaka, Dylan

    2016-05-01

    Precise and accurate structural information on hydrogen atoms is crucial to the study of energies of interactions important for crystal engineering, materials science, medicine, and pharmacy, and to the estimation of physical and chemical properties in solids. However, hydrogen atoms only scatter x-radiation weakly, so x-rays have not been used routinely to locate them accurately. Textbooks and teaching classes still emphasize that hydrogen atoms cannot be located with x-rays close to heavy elements; instead, neutron diffraction is needed. We show that, contrary to widespread expectation, hydrogen atoms can be located very accurately using x-ray diffraction, yielding bond lengths involving hydrogen atoms (A-H) that are in agreement with results from neutron diffraction mostly within a single standard deviation. The precision of the determination is also comparable between x-ray and neutron diffraction results. This has been achieved at resolutions as low as 0.8 Å using Hirshfeld atom refinement (HAR). We have applied HAR to 81 crystal structures of organic molecules and compared the A-H bond lengths with those from neutron measurements for A-H bonds sorted into bonds of the same class. We further show in a selection of inorganic compounds that hydrogen atoms can be located in bridging positions and close to heavy transition metals accurately and precisely. We anticipate that, in the future, conventional x-radiation sources at in-house diffractometers can be used routinely for locating hydrogen atoms in small molecules accurately instead of large-scale facilities such as spallation sources or nuclear reactors.

  2. Fatigue Lives of Specimens Representing Critical Locations in Mirage III Spars under Australian and Swiss Test Spectra,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-02-01

    short life specimens (BJ tOlD and BJI 5JB) tested at a scaling factor ofŖ.2 where there were multiple initiation sites fron tlie bottom of the chamfer...specimens. the primary fatigue crack development was from multiple initiation along the bore of the bolt hole. leading to a final crack shape

  3. Repeated Test Taking on the SAT: The Effects of Ethnicity, Gender, Financial Aid, and High School Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Lian

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether there was a significant relationship between repeated test taking on the SAT and several demographic measures. These measures included ethnicity (American Indian/Alaskan Native, Asian/Asian American/Pacific Islander, Black/African American, Mexican/Mexican American, Puerto Rican, Other…

  4. Locating the Origin of Scattered Waves By Simulating Time Reversal of the Seismic Wavefield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, S. C.; Pitarka, A.; Sjogreen, B.; Petersson, A.; Simmons, N. A.; Johannesson, G.

    2014-12-01

    The Source Physics Experiment (SPE) is a series of underground chemical explosions at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) that are improving our physical understanding how explosion sources generate seismic waves. Better understanding the origin of S-waves from explosions is a primary goal of the SPE. Even at distances of a few kilometers from the SPE sources, seismic recordings include arrivals of unknown origin that could originate as S-waves at the explosive source or from topographic and subsurface scatterers. Back propagation of time reversed seismograms has been used to determine the location of seismic events (e.g. Tromp et al., 2005; Larmat et al., 2006), and Myers et al. (2007) demonstrated that the time-reversal method can be used to determine the origin of direct and scattered waves in seismic simulations. In this study we identify the origin of distinct features in synthetic seismograms that are generated by elastic, finite-difference simulation of seismic propagation from SPE explosions through a model that has been developed specifically for the SPE. The SPE model includes 3-dimensional velocity discontinuities at geologic boundaries, as well as free-surface topography. Although the largest arrivals in the synthetic seismograms are expected to originate at the explosion source, other prominent features are likely to originate as scattered energy from model discontinuities. Scattering sources in the SPE model that are needed in order to match synthetic seismograms to field recordings of SPE shots will be identified. Conversely, model structures may be removed if they result in disagreement between synthetic seismograms and field recordings. Ultimately, we plan to constrain the origin of prominent features in field recordings of SPE shots by directly using the field recordings as inputs to time reversal simulations. Direct use of field recordings will require development of methods that account for the uncertainty of the seismic model through which

  5. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) pollination in California's Central Valley is limited by native bee nest site location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardiñas, Hillary S; Tom, Kathleen; Ponisio, Lauren Catherine; Rominger, Andrew; Kremen, Claire

    2016-03-01

    The delivery of ecosystem services by mobile organisms depends on the distribution of those organisms, which is, in turn, affected by resources at local and landscape scales. Pollinator-dependent crops rely on mobile animals like bees for crop production, and the spatial relationship between floral resources and nest location for these central-place foragers influences the delivery of pollination services. Current models that map pollination coverage in agricultural regions utilize landscape-level estimates of floral availability and nesting incidence inferred from expert opinion, rather than direct assessments. Foraging distance is often derived from proxies of bee body size, rather than direct measurements of foraging that account for behavioral responses to floral resource type and distribution. The lack of direct measurements of nesting incidence and foraging distances may lead to inaccurate mapping of pollination services. We examined the role of local-scale floral resource presence from hedgerow plantings on nest incidence of ground-nesting bees in field margins and within monoculture, conventionally managed sunflower fields in California's Central Valley. We tracked bee movement into fields using fluorescent powder. We then used these data to simulate the distribution of pollination services within a crop field. Contrary to expert opinion, we found that ground-nesting native bees nested both in fields and edges, though nesting rates declined with distance into field. Further, we detected no effect of field-margin floral enhancements on nesting. We found evidence of an exponential decay rate of bee movement into fields, indicating that foraging predominantly occurred in less than 1% of medium-sized bees' predicted typical foraging range. Although we found native bees nesting within agricultural fields, their restricted foraging movements likely centralize pollination near nest sites. Our data thus predict a heterogeneous distribution of pollination services

  6. Locating Fetal Facial Surface, Oral Cavity and Airways by a 3D Ultrasound Calibration Using a Novel Cones' Phantom

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    XU, Rong; OHYA, Jun; SATO, Yoshinobu; ZHANG, Bo; FUJIE, Masakatsu G

    2014-01-01

    ...) surgery, this paper proposes a 3D ultrasound (US) calibration-based approach that can locate the fetal facial surface, oral cavity, and airways by a registration between a 3D fetal model and 3D US images...

  7. Assessment of waterfront location in hardened concrete by GPR within COST Action TU1208

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Abad, Isabel; Klysz, Gilles; Balayssac, Jean Paul; Pajewski, Lara

    2016-04-01

    This work focuses on the analysis of the capability of Ground-Penetrating radar (GPR) technique for evaluating how the water penetrates into concrete samples by means of the assessment of the waterfront advance. Research activities have been carried out during a Short-Term Scientific Missions (STSMs) funded by the COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology) Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar" in November 2015. The evaluation of water penetrability is crucial in most building materials, such us concrete, since, water and aggressive chemical agents dissolved therein contribute to the deterioration of the material. A number of techniques have been developed to measure their advance in concrete. Although the most common method for measuring water content is the gravimetric method by observing the change in mass, this method has a large number of disadvantages. In this context, non-destructive techniques as GPR play an interesting role. In particular, the application of GPR in the building materials area is providing very promising and interesting results regarding the building materials characterization and especially concrete deterioration evaluation [1-3]. In addition, recent experimental studies highlight the strong relation between wave propagation parameters (velocity and energy level) and water content advance [4-5]. Water content has a decisive influence on dielectric properties and those might be assessed by the study of the wave properties that are derived by using GPR. Therefore, the waterfront advance will result in a change on wave parameters. In line with this, this research is focused on the development of specific processing algorithms necessary to understand how the water penetrates and how the wave parameters will be affected regarding the location of the antenna in reference to the water absorption direction. For this purpose, concrete samples were manufactured, which after curing (90 days) and oven

  8. Novel lnu(G) gene conferring resistance to lincomycin by nucleotidylation, located on Tn6260 from Enterococcus faecalis E531.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiao-Qing; Wang, Xiao-Ming; Li, Hui; Shang, Yan-Hong; Pan, Yu-Shan; Wu, Cong-Ming; Wang, Yang; Du, Xiang-Dang; Shen, Jian-Zhong

    2017-04-01

    To identify a novel putative lincosamide resistance gene determinant in a swine Enterococcus faecalis E531 exhibiting a lincosamide resistance/macrolide susceptibility (L R M S ) phenotype and to determine its location and genetic environment. The whole genomic DNA of E. faecalis E531, which tested negative for the known lincosamide nucleotidyltransferase genes, was sequenced. A putative lincosamide resistance gene determinant was cloned into an Escherichia coli - E. faecalis shuttle vector (pAM401) and transformed into E. faecalis JH2-2. The MICs were determined by the microbroth dilution method. Inactivity of lincomycin was examined by UPLC-MS/MS. Inverse PCR and primer walking were used to explore the genetic environment based on the assembled sequence. A novel resistance gene, designated lnu (G), which encodes a putative lincosamide nucleotidyltransferase, was found in E. faecalis E531. The deduced Lnu(G) amino acid sequence displayed 76.0% identity to Lnu(B) in Enterococcus faecium . Both E. faecalis E531 and E. faecalis JH2-2 harbouring pAM401- lnu (G) showed a 4-fold increase in the MICs of lincomycin, compared with E. faecalis JH2-2 or E. faecalis JH2-2 harbouring empty vector pAM401 only. UPLC-MS/MS demonstrated that the Lnu(G) enzyme catalysed adenylylation of lincomycin. The genetic environment analysis revealed that the lnu (G) gene was embedded into a novel putative transposon, designated Tn 6260 , which was active. A novel lincosamide nucleotidyltransferase gene lnu (G) was identified in E. faecalis . The location of the lnu (G) gene on a mobile element Tn 6260 makes it easy to disseminate.

  9. Solving the Bilevel Facility Location Problem under Preferences by a Stackelberg-Evolutionary Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José-Fernando Camacho-Vallejo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This research highlights the use of game theory to solve the classical problem of the uncapacitated facility location optimization model with customer order preferences through a bilevel approach. The bilevel model provided herein consists of the classical facility location problem and an optimization of the customer preferences, which are the upper and lower level problems, respectively. Also, two reformulations of the bilevel model are presented, reducing it into a mixed-integer single-level problem. An evolutionary algorithm based on the equilibrium in a Stackelberg’s game is proposed to solve the bilevel model. Numerical experimentation is performed in this study and the results are compared to benchmarks from the existing literature on the subject in order to emphasize the benefits of the proposed approach in terms of solution quality and estimation time.

  10. Predicting the Location and Time of Mobile Phone Users by Using Sequential Pattern Mining Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ozer, Mert; Keles, Ilkcan; Toroslu, Hakki

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, using cell phone log data to model human mobility patterns became an active research area. This problem is a challenging data mining problem due to huge size and non-uniformity of the log data, which introduces several granularity levels for the specification of temporal...... and spatial dimensions. This paper focuses on the prediction of the location of the next activity of the mobile phone users. There are several versions of this problem. In this work, we have concentrated on the following three problems: predicting the location and the time of the next user activity...... the success of these methods with real data obtained from one of the largest mobile phone operators in Turkey. Our results are very encouraging, since we were able to obtain quite high accuracy results under small prediction sets....

  11. Location of Ancient Building Remains by Geophysical Surveys in the Bogoroditsky Nunnery of Kazan, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slepak, Z.

    2003-04-01

    In the beginning of the 20th cent., several cathedrals, towers and fence of the Bogoroditsky Nunnery, an architectural monument of the 18-19th cent., were destroyed. However, some attempts to rebuild the nunnery have been made in the recent years. For this purpose, transient electromagnetic sounding, using the equipment ImpulseAuto M-1/0-20, was conducted in 2000-02 to locate the remains of ancient buildings in the cultural layer. The resulting vertical sections of total electric conduction S(H) along the survey lines revealed the former position of the Our Lady Church, Candlemas Day Church, Trinity Cathedral, Cathedral of Our Lady of Kazan (COLK), and of some towers and walls. Archaeological excavations revealed the remains of a stone apse of the COLK's eastern part. Preserved drawings permitted the precise location of the Cathedral. These data will be used for the minimising further excavations and in engineering and restoration works.

  12. Location of Artifacts Deposited by the Blow Fly Lucilia cuprina After Feeding on Human Blood at Simulated Indoor Crime Scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durdle, Annalisa; Verdon, Timothy J; Mitchell, Robert John; van Oorschot, Roland A H

    2017-11-16

    Human DNA profiles can be obtained from fly artifacts (feces and regurgitant) when a fly has been feeding on biological material, sometimes 2 years after deposition. Morphological similarity between artifacts and spots of unaltered biological material make it difficult to distinguish between them, and presumptive and confirmatory forensic tests are unreliable in making the distinction. Knowing possible artifact locations will assist investigators in recognizing where DNA contamination might occur. Flies were released into a house with human blood available under a variety of different climatic and lighting conditions. The location of flies and artifacts was recorded after 72 h. It was found flies may move toward warm or well-lit areas and deposit artifacts there, but artifacts were predominantly located around food sources and were often found in low positions. Factors such as ambient temperature, and the proximity of light and food sources, had an impact on where artifacts were deposited. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  13. Optimal Location of Vanadium in Muscovite and Its Geometrical and Electronic Properties by DFT Calculation

    OpenAIRE

    Qiushi Zheng; Yimin Zhang; Tao Liu; Jing Huang; Nannan Xue; Qihua Shi

    2017-01-01

    Vanadium-bearing muscovite is the most valuable component of stone coal, which is a unique source of vanadium manufacture in China. Numbers of experimental studies have been carried out to destroy the carrier muscovite’s structure for efficient extraction of vanadium. Hence, the vanadium location is necessary for exploring the essence of vanadium extraction. Although most infer that vanadium may substitute for trivalent aluminium (Al) as the isomorphism in muscovite for the similar atomic rad...

  14. Intelligent Photovoltaic Systems by Combining the Improved Perturbation Method of Observation and Sun Location Tracking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajie Wang

    Full Text Available Currently, tracking in photovoltaic (PV systems suffers from some problems such as high energy consumption, poor anti-interference performance, and large tracking errors. This paper presents a solar PV tracking system on the basis of an improved perturbation and observation method, which maximizes photoelectric conversion efficiency. According to the projection principle, we design a sensor module with a light-intensity-detection module for environmental light-intensity measurement. The effect of environmental factors on the system operation is reduced, and intelligent identification of the weather is realized. This system adopts the discrete-type tracking method to reduce power consumption. A mechanical structure with a level-pitch double-degree-of-freedom is designed, and attitude correction is performed by closed-loop control. A worm-and-gear mechanism is added, and the reliability, stability, and precision of the system are improved. Finally, the perturbation and observation method designed and improved by this study was tested by simulated experiments. The experiments verified that the photoelectric sensor resolution can reach 0.344°, the tracking error is less than 2.5°, the largest improvement in the charge efficiency can reach 44.5%, and the system steadily and reliably works.

  15. Intelligent Photovoltaic Systems by Combining the Improved Perturbation Method of Observation and Sun Location Tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yajie; Shi, Yunbo; Yu, Xiaoyu; Liu, Yongjie

    2016-01-01

    Currently, tracking in photovoltaic (PV) systems suffers from some problems such as high energy consumption, poor anti-interference performance, and large tracking errors. This paper presents a solar PV tracking system on the basis of an improved perturbation and observation method, which maximizes photoelectric conversion efficiency. According to the projection principle, we design a sensor module with a light-intensity-detection module for environmental light-intensity measurement. The effect of environmental factors on the system operation is reduced, and intelligent identification of the weather is realized. This system adopts the discrete-type tracking method to reduce power consumption. A mechanical structure with a level-pitch double-degree-of-freedom is designed, and attitude correction is performed by closed-loop control. A worm-and-gear mechanism is added, and the reliability, stability, and precision of the system are improved. Finally, the perturbation and observation method designed and improved by this study was tested by simulated experiments. The experiments verified that the photoelectric sensor resolution can reach 0.344°, the tracking error is less than 2.5°, the largest improvement in the charge efficiency can reach 44.5%, and the system steadily and reliably works.

  16. Does drinking location matter? Profiles of risky single-occasion drinking by location and alcohol-related harm among young men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline eBähler

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In adolescents and young adults, acute consequences like injuries account for a substantial proportion of alcohol-related harm, especially in risky single-occasion (RSO drinkers. The primary aim of the study was to characterize different drinking profiles in RSO drinkers according to drinking locations and their relationship to negative, alcohol-related consequences. The sample consisted of 2746 young men from the Cohort Study on Substance Use Risk Factors (C-SURF who had reported drinking 6 or more drinks on a single occasion at least monthly over the preceding 12 months. Principal component analysis on the frequency and amount of drinking at 11 different locations was conducted, and two distinguishable components emerged: a non-party-dimension (loading high on theatre/cinema, sport clubs, other clubs/societies, restaurants, and sport events and a party-dimension (loading high on someone else’s home, pubs/bars, discos/nightclubs, outdoor public places, special events, and home. Differential impacts of drinking location profiles were observed on severe negative alcohol-related consequences (SAC. Relative to those classified as low or intermediate in both dimensions, no significant difference experiencing SAC was found among those who were classified as high in the non-party-dimension only. However, those who were classified as high in the party-dimension alone or in both dimensions were more likely to experience SAC. These differential effects remained after adjusting for alcohol consumption (volume and RSOD, personality traits, and peer-influence (adjusted OR=0.83 [0.68-1.02], 1.57 [1.27-1.96] and 1.72 [1.23-2.41], respectively, indicating independent effects of drinking location on SAC. The inclusion of sociodemographic factors did not alter this association. The fact that this cluster of party-dimension locations seems to predispose young men to experiencing SAC has important implications for alcohol control policies.

  17. Does Drinking Location Matter? Profiles of Risky Single-Occasion Drinking by Location and Alcohol-Related Harm among Young Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bähler, Caroline; Dey, Michelle; Dermota, Petra; Foster, Simon; Gmel, Gerhard; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun

    2014-01-01

    In adolescents and young adults, acute consequences like injuries account for a substantial proportion of alcohol-related harm, especially in risky single-occasion (RSO) drinkers. The primary aim of the study was to characterize different drinking profiles in RSO drinkers according to drinking locations and their relationship to negative, alcohol-related consequences. The sample consisted of 2746 young men from the Cohort Study on Substance Use Risk Factors who had reported drinking six or more drinks on a single-occasion at least monthly over the preceding 12 months. Principal component analysis on the frequency and amount of drinking at 11 different locations was conducted, and 2 distinguishable components emerged: a non-party-dimension (loading high on theater/cinema, sport clubs, other clubs/societies, restaurants, and sport events) and a party-dimension (loading high on someone else's home, pubs/bars, discos/nightclubs, outdoor public places, special events, and home). Differential impacts of drinking location profiles were observed on severe negative alcohol-related consequences (SAC). Relative to those classified as low or intermediate in both dimensions, no significant difference experiencing SAC was found among those who were classified as high in the non-party-dimension only. However, those who were classified as high in the party-dimension alone or in both dimensions were more likely to experience SAC. These differential effects remained after adjusting for alcohol consumption (volume and risky single-occasion drinking), personality traits, and peer-influence [adjusted OR = 0.83 (0.68-1.02), 1.57 (1.27-1.96), and 1.72 (1.23-2.41), respectively], indicating independent effects of drinking location on SAC. The inclusion of sociodemographic factors did not alter this association. The fact that this cluster of party-dimension locations seems to predispose young men to experiencing SAC has important implications for alcohol control policies.

  18. Gene Locater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anwar, Muhammad Zohaib; Sehar, Anoosha; Rehman, Inayat-Ur

    2012-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Locating genes on a chromosome is important for understanding the gene function and its linkage and recombination. Knowledge of gene positions on chromosomes is necessary for annotation. The study is essential for disease genetics and genomics, among other aspects. Currently available...... software's for calculating recombination frequency is mostly limited to the range and flexibility of this type of analysis. GENE LOCATER is a fully customizable program for calculating recombination frequency, written in JAVA. Through an easy-to-use interface, GENE LOCATOR allows users a high degree...

  19. Measurement of children's creativity by tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksić Slavica B.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available After over a 50-year permanent development of tests designed to measure creativity and the results they produced, a question is raised if creativity can be measured by tests at all. A special problem are procedures for measuring creative potential in younger children because children, unlike adults, do not possess creative products that are a single reliable evidence of creativity in the real world. The paper considers test reliability and validity in measuring creativity as well as the dilemma: how much justifiable it is to measure children's creativity by tests if it is not clear what they measure and if there is not a significant relationship between creativity scores and creativity in life. Unsatisfactory creativity test reliability and validity does not mean those tests should be given up the majority of researchers agree. Of the tests of creativity administered in work with the young, the status of Urban-Jellen Test of Creative Thinking - Drawing Production (TCT-DP is given prominence due to the fact that over the past ten years or so it has been used in a larger number of studies as well as in some studies carried out in this country. In TCT-DP scoring is not based on statistical uncommonness of the figures produced but on a number of criteria derived from Gestalt psychology. The factor analyses of the defined criteria of creativity, applied on samples in various settings yielded that the test contains an essential factor of creativity "novelty".

  20. Library Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh locations including address, coordinates, phone number, square footage, and standard operating hours. The map below does not display...

  1. Direct Access by Spatial Position in Visual Memory. 2. Visual Location Probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-12-31

    YjPl TO L2j~31 1Y5OWeC5*9yt rl PA$ON 16. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTATION Work Collaborative with AT&T Bell Laboratories I 7 COSATI COCKS it S#AIEC TERMS IC...example, McClelland (1979), Sternberg (1969, 1984), and Townsend & Ashby (1983). December 31, 1986 J Visual location probes -6- Sternberg, Knoll...1981) Finite mixture distributions. New York: Chapman & Hall. Townsend, J. T.& Ashby , F. G. (1983) The stochastic modeling of elementary psychological

  2. DIRECTIONS OF USING DIRECT PAYMENTS BY THE INDIVIDUAL FARMS LOCATED IN CHOSEN REGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Sadowski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the diversity of directions for use of direct payments in different types of individual farms. The questionnaire surveys were performed on 295 farms located in dif-ferent parts of the country. Analysed farms were divided into groups according to the amount direct support received. Based on the survey concluded that in all analysed groups the largest share of direct payments is spent on the purchase of means of production. The smallest farms also spend to a high extent, the money on household purposes (20.5% and the largest ones to finance the investment (17.7%.

  3. Strength Restoration of Cracked Sandstone and Coal under a Uniaxial Compression Test and Correlated Damage Source Location Based on Acoustic Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiaowei; Zhang, Nong; Zheng, Xigui; Pan, Dongjiang

    2015-01-01

    Underground rock masses have shown a general trend of natural balance over billions of years of ground movement. Nonetheless, man-made underground constructions disturb this balance and cause rock stability failure. Fractured rock masses are frequently encountered in underground constructions, and this study aims to restore the strength of rock masses that have experienced considerable fracturing under uniaxial compression. Coal and sandstone from a deep-buried coal mine were chosen as experimental subjects; they were crushed by uniaxial compression and then carefully restored by a chemical adhesive called MEYCO 364 with an innovative self-made device. Finally, the restored specimens were crushed once again by uniaxial compression. Axial stress, axial strain, circumferential strain, and volumetric strain data for the entire process were fully captured and are discussed here. An acoustic emission (AE) testing system was adopted to cooperate with the uniaxial compression system to provide better definitions for crack closure thresholds, crack initiation thresholds, crack damage thresholds, and three-dimensional damage source locations in intact and restored specimens. Several remarkable findings were obtained. The restoration effects of coal are considerably better than those of sandstone because the strength recovery coefficient of the former is 1.20, whereas that of the latter is 0.33, which indicates that MEYCO 364 is particularly valid for fractured rocks whose initial intact peak stress is less than that of MEYCO 364. Secondary cracked traces of restored sandstone almost follow the cracked traces of the initial intact sandstone, and the final failure is mainly caused by decoupling between the adhesive and the rock mass. However, cracked traces of restored coal only partially follow the traces of intact coal, with the final failure of the restored coal being caused by both bonding interface decoupling and self-breakage in coal. Three-dimensional damage source

  4. Strength Restoration of Cracked Sandstone and Coal under a Uniaxial Compression Test and Correlated Damage Source Location Based on Acoustic Emissions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei Feng

    Full Text Available Underground rock masses have shown a general trend of natural balance over billions of years of ground movement. Nonetheless, man-made underground constructions disturb this balance and cause rock stability failure. Fractured rock masses are frequently encountered in underground constructions, and this study aims to restore the strength of rock masses that have experienced considerable fracturing under uniaxial compression. Coal and sandstone from a deep-buried coal mine were chosen as experimental subjects; they were crushed by uniaxial compression and then carefully restored by a chemical adhesive called MEYCO 364 with an innovative self-made device. Finally, the restored specimens were crushed once again by uniaxial compression. Axial stress, axial strain, circumferential strain, and volumetric strain data for the entire process were fully captured and are discussed here. An acoustic emission (AE testing system was adopted to cooperate with the uniaxial compression system to provide better definitions for crack closure thresholds, crack initiation thresholds, crack damage thresholds, and three-dimensional damage source locations in intact and restored specimens. Several remarkable findings were obtained. The restoration effects of coal are considerably better than those of sandstone because the strength recovery coefficient of the former is 1.20, whereas that of the latter is 0.33, which indicates that MEYCO 364 is particularly valid for fractured rocks whose initial intact peak stress is less than that of MEYCO 364. Secondary cracked traces of restored sandstone almost follow the cracked traces of the initial intact sandstone, and the final failure is mainly caused by decoupling between the adhesive and the rock mass. However, cracked traces of restored coal only partially follow the traces of intact coal, with the final failure of the restored coal being caused by both bonding interface decoupling and self-breakage in coal. Three

  5. Testing Computability by Width Two OBDDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ron, Dana; Tsur, Gilad

    Property testing is concerned with deciding whether an object (e.g. a graph or a function) has a certain property or is “far” (for some definition of far) from every object with that property. In this paper we give lower and upper bounds for testing functions for the property of being computable by a read-once width-2 Ordered Binary Decision Diagram (OBDD), also known as a branching program, where the order of the variables is known. Width-2 OBDDs generalize two classes of functions that have been studied in the context of property testing - linear functions (over GF(2)) and monomials. In both these cases membership can be tested in time that is linear in 1/ɛ. Interestingly, unlike either of these classes, in which the query complexity of the testing algorithm does not depend on the number, n, of variables in the tested function, we show that (one-sided error) testing for computability by a width-2 OBDD requires Ω(log(n)) queries, and give an algorithm (with one-sided error) that tests for this property and performs tilde{O}(log(n)/ɛ) queries.

  6. Evaluation of contact heat thermal threshold testing for standardized assessment of cutaneous nociception in horses - comparison of different locations and environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poller, Christin; Hopster, Klaus; Rohn, Karl; Kästner, Sabine Br

    2013-01-08

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the performance of contact heat thermal stimulation in horses at different body sites and under different environmental conditions and different test situations. Five warm-blood horses were equipped with the thermal probe located on the skin of nostril (N), withers (W) or coronary band (C). Skin temperature and reaction temperature (thermal threshold) at each location were measured and percent thermal excursion (% TE = 100 * (threshold temperature - skin temperature)/(cut-out temperature - skin temperature) was calculated. Environmental conditions were changed in partial random order for all locations, so each horse was tested in its familiar box stall and stocks, in the morning and evening and at warm and cold ambient temperatures. Type of reaction to the stimulus and horse's general behaviour during stimulation were recorded. The stimulation sites were examined for the occurrence of possible skin lesions. Skin temperatures were significantly different during warm and cold ambient temperatures at all three locations, but remained constant over repeated stimulation. An obvious response to stimulation before reaching cut-out temperature could be detected most frequently at N and W in boxes during warm ambient temperatures. The most frequent type of reaction to thermal stimulation at the nostril was headshaking (64.6%), skin twitching at the withers (82.9%) and hoof withdrawal at the coronary band (79.2%). The outcome of thermal threshold testing depended on ambient temperature, stimulation site and environment. Best results with the WTT2 in horses were obtained at the nostrils or withers in a familiar environment at warm ambient temperatures.

  7. Locating the Places People Meet New Sexual Partners in a Southern US City to Inform HIV/STI Prevention and Testing Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Maria R.; Tisdale, Caroline; Norcott, Kathy; Duncan, Jesse; Kaplan, Andrew M.; Weir, Sharon S.

    2012-01-01

    Places where people meet new sex partners can be venues for the delivery of individual and environmental interventions that aim to reduce transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI). Using the Priorities for Local AIDS Control Efforts (PLACE) methodology we identified and characterized venues where people in a southeastern US city with high prevalence of both HIV and STI go to meet new sexual partners. A total of 123 community informants identified 143 public, private and commercial venues where people meet sex partners. Condoms were available at 14% of the venues, although 48% of venue representatives expressed a willingness to host HIV prevention efforts. Interviews with 373 people (229 men, 144 women) socializing at a random sample of 54 venues found high rates of HIV risk behaviors including concurrent sexual partnerships, transactional sex and illicit substance abuse. Risk behaviors were more common among those at certain venue types including those that may be overlooked by public health outreach efforts. The systematic methodology used was successful in locating venues where risky encounters are established and reveal opportunities for targeted HIV prevention and testing programs as well as research. PMID:20614175

  8. Fault Detection and Location by Static Switches in Microgrids Using Wavelet Transform and Adaptive Network-Based Fuzzy Inference System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Yi Hong

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Microgrids are a highly efficient means of embedding distributed generation sources in a power system. However, if a fault occurs inside or outside the microgrid, the microgrid should be immediately disconnected from the main grid using a static switch installed at the secondary side of the main transformer near the point of common coupling (PCC. The static switch should have a reliable module implemented in a chip to detect/locate the fault and activate the breaker to open the circuit immediately. This paper proposes a novel approach to design this module in a static switch using the discrete wavelet transform (DWT and adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS. The wavelet coefficient of the fault voltage and the inference results of ANFIS with the wavelet energy of the fault current at the secondary side of the main transformer determine the control action (open or close of a static switch. The ANFIS identifies the faulty zones inside or outside the microgrid. The proposed method is applied to the first outdoor microgrid test bed in Taiwan, with a generation capacity of 360.5 kW. This microgrid test bed is studied using the real-time simulator eMegaSim developed by Opal-RT Technology Inc. (Montreal, QC, Canada. The proposed method based on DWT and ANFIS is implemented in a field programmable gate array (FPGA by using the Xilinx System Generator. Simulation results reveal that the proposed method is efficient and applicable in the real-time control environment of a power system.

  9. Long-chain free fatty acids: Semiochemicals for host location by western corn rootworm larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbard, B E; Bernklau, E J; Bjostad, L B

    1994-12-01

    A bioassay-driven sequential fractionation scheme was used to isolate fractions of a crude dichloromethane maize seedling extract behaviorally active to larvae of the western corn rootworm,Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte. (Z,Z)-9,12-Octadecadienoic (linoleic) acid, (Z)-9-octadecenoic (oleic) acid, and octadecanoic (stearic) acid were identified from a purified fraction of maize extract that was attractive to western corn rootworm larvae in choice tests with equal levels of carbon dioxide on both sides of the choice. When synthetic linoleic, oleic, and stearic acids were tested together in the amounts and proportions found in the attractive fraction (1000, 800, and 300 ng of linoleic, oleic, and stearic acids, respectively), significantly more western corn rootworm larvae were found on the side with synthetic free fatty acids plus carbon dioxide than on the side with carbon dioxide alone. Results of the choice-test bioassays were not significantly different when the synthetic blend of free fatty acids was substituted for the purified maize fraction. Neither the purified extract nor the synthetic blend was behaviorally active in preliminary single-choice experiments without carbon dioxide. Linoleic, oleic, and stearic acids were also tested individually in the choice test bioassay with carbon dioxide on both sides of the choice to determine a dose-response curve. Linoleic and oleic acid each had one dose that was significantly attractive in conjunction with carbon dioxide on both sides of the choice, but stearic acid was not active in the doses tested.

  10. Location and Age Database for Selected Foraminifer Samples Collected by Exxon Petroleum Geologists in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabb, Earl E.; Parker, John M.

    2003-01-01

    Most of the geologic maps published for central California before 1960 were made without the benefit of age determinations from microfossils. The ages of Cretaceous and Tertiary rocks in the mostly poorly exposed and structurally complex sedimentary rocks represented in the Coast Ranges are critical in determining stratigraphic succession or lack of it, and in determining whether the juxtaposition of similar appearing but different age formations means a fault is present. Since the 1930’s, at least, oil company geologists have used microfossils to assist them in geologic mapping and in determining the environments of deposition of the sediment containing the microfossils. This information has been so confidential that some companies even coded the names of foraminifers to prevent disclosure. In the past 20 years, however, the attitude of petroleum companies about this information has changed, and many of the formerly confidential materials and reports are now available. We report here on 1,964 Exxon foraminifer samples mostly from surface localities in the San Francisco Bay region, and elsewhere in California. Most but not all the samples were plotted on U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) 7.5’ topographic maps or on obsolete USGS 15’ maps. The information from the slides can be used to update geologic maps prepared without the benefit of microfossil data, to analyze the depth and temperature of ocean water covering parts of California during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic Eras, and for solving nomenclature and other scientific problems. A similar report on more than 30,000 slides for surface samples collected by Chevron geologists has been released (Brabb and Parker, 2003), and another report provides information on slides for more than 2000 oil test wells in Northern California (Brabb, Powell, and Brocher, 2001).

  11. Lattice Location of Radioactive Probes in Semiconductors and Metals by Electron and Positron Channelling

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The channelling effect of decay-electrons and positrons is used for the localization of radioactive impurities implanted into single crystals. Because of the low implantation doses and the variety of different isotopes available at ISOLDE, this technique is especially suited for applications in semiconducting materials. \\\\ \\\\ Channelling measurements in Si, GaAs and GaP implanted with In-, Cd- and Xe-isotopes have demonstrated that impurity lattice sites can be studied directly after implantation without any annealing. The electron-channelling technique can be ideally combined with hyperfine interaction techniques like Moessbauer s This was shown for the formation of In-vacancy complexes in ion-implanted Ni. \\\\ \\\\ We intend to continue the lattice location measurements in semiconductors implanted with various radioactive impurities of Cd, In, Sn, Sb and Te.

  12. Preliminary Study on the Lesion Location and Prognosis of Cubital Tunnel Syndrome by Motor Nerve Conduction Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhu; Jia, Zhi-Rong; Wang, Ting-Ting; Shi, Xin; Liang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Background: To study lesions’ location and prognosis of cubital tunnel syndrome (CubTS) by routine motor nerve conduction studies (MNCSs) and short-segment nerve conduction studies (SSNCSs, inching test). Methods: Thirty healthy subjects were included and 60 ulnar nerves were studied by inching studies for normal values. Sixty-six patients who diagnosed CubTS clinically were performed bilaterally by routine MNCSs and SSNCSs. Follow-up for 1-year, the information of brief complaints, clinical symptoms, and physical examination were collected. Results: Sixty-six patients were included, 88 of nerves was abnormal by MNCS, while 105 was abnormal by the inching studies. Medial epicondyle to 2 cm above medial epicondyle is the most common segment to be detected abnormally (59.09%), P < 0.01. Twenty-two patients were followed-up, 17 patients’ symptoms were improved. Most of the patients were treated with drugs and modification of bad habits. Conclusions: (1) SSNCSs can detect lesions of compressive neuropathy in CubTS more precisely than the routine motor conduction studies. (2) SSNCSs can diagnose CubTS more sensitively than routine motor conduction studies. (3) In this study, we found that medial epicondyle to 2 cm above the medial epicondyle is the most vulnerable place that the ulnar nerve compressed. (4) The patients had a better prognosis who were abnormal in motor nerve conduction time only, but not amplitude in compressed lesions than those who were abnormal both in velocity and amplitude. Our study suggests that SSNCSs is a practical method in detecting ulnar nerve compressed neuropathy, and sensitive in diagnosing CubTS. The compound muscle action potentials by SSNCSs may predict prognosis of CubTS. PMID:25947398

  13. Preliminary Study on the Lesion Location and Prognosis of Cubital Tunnel Syndrome by Motor Nerve Conduction Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To study lesions′ location and prognosis of cubital tunnel syndrome (CubTS by routine motor nerve conduction studies (MNCSs and short-segment nerve conduction studies (SSNCSs, inching test. Methods: Thirty healthy subjects were included and 60 ulnar nerves were studied by inching studies for normal values. Sixty-six patients who diagnosed CubTS clinically were performed bilaterally by routine MNCSs and SSNCSs. Follow-up for 1-year, the information of brief complaints, clinical symptoms, and physical examination were collected. Results: Sixty-six patients were included, 88 of nerves was abnormal by MNCS, while 105 was abnormal by the inching studies. Medial epicondyle to 2 cm above medial epicondyle is the most common segment to be detected abnormally (59.09%, P < 0.01. Twenty-two patients were followed-up, 17 patients′ symptoms were improved. Most of the patients were treated with drugs and modification of bad habits. Conclusions: (1 SSNCSs can detect lesions of compressive neuropathy in CubTS more precisely than the routine motor conduction studies. (2 SSNCSs can diagnose CubTS more sensitively than routine motor conduction studies. (3 In this study, we found that medial epicondyle to 2 cm above the medial epicondyle is the most vulnerable place that the ulnar nerve compressed. (4 The patients had a better prognosis who were abnormal in motor nerve conduction time only, but not amplitude in compressed lesions than those who were abnormal both in velocity and amplitude. Our study suggests that SSNCSs is a practical method in detecting ulnar nerve compressed neuropathy, and sensitive in diagnosing CubTS. The compound muscle action potentials by SSNCSs may predict prognosis of CubTS.

  14. Test of Detonation Locator System AN/GSS-4. Operation PLUMBBOB, Desert Rock VII and VIII, Project 50.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-10-01

    u n.-ccl a;; tlv r^forcnco^ sinco all tetonntiOltS vore -jclioduled vlth refoi-cncc to tiatt tJranlo fro i MfVi Tlio teclmiquc ucod ruido it...generator. The bias had to be set high enough to prevent excessive triggering by ambient noise, but low enough to permit triggering by the desired em...nths of a microsecond or nortt These variations were attributed to ambient atmospheric conditions. The OftBlt paper also reported the observation

  15. The location analysis of the local pharmacies by the multi criteria decision-making AHP-Fuzzy method (case study IRAN-SHIRAZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Jabbedari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Due to the burden on citizens seeking access to the pharmacies, the optimal location of pharmacies, patients' access to medicines, and the pharmacies proportional distribution, are some significantly important factors to consider.. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the current distribution of pharmacies and to determine the best location for the establishment of new pharmacies in the study area. Materials & Methods: This study was a case study that was conducted in the city of Shiraz. This study collected data in the form of a map to locate the service centers, weighting the criteria and compare them with other test methods which were used to analyze the hierarchy in the geographical information system (GIS. The layers (maps used  in this study were eight dual-layer maps, including 200 meters of daily pharmacies and 1000 meters of overnight pharmacies. In addition, the final weight was calculated for each layer by AHP-Fuzzy method. Results: 24 locations in the city were demonstrated, as the best places to establish a new pharmacy according to the research criteria layers. The incompatibility rate of 0.8 was calculated, which shows the weight of the layers located within the accepted range. The government hospitals and pharmacies layers are in the highest weight (23% and the lowest weight (3% respectively. Conclusion: By the combination layers of information on the final map, the locations were identified for the establishment of pharmacies. This study showed that the current location of pharmacies in the city of Shiraz do not match the standards and requirements.

  16. Association between chronic kidney disease and urinary calculus by stone location: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Joseph J; Chen, Yi-Kuang; Lin, Herng-Ching

    2012-12-01

    Study Type--Disease prevalence study (cohort design) Level of Evidence 2a. What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Several studies have estimated the potential association of urinary calculus (UC) with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, previous literature focusing on this issue tended to evaluate the impact of kidney stones alone on incident CKD, with no studies having been conducted investigating the association between CKD and stone formation in other portions of the urological system. We found that patients with CKD were consistently more likely than comparison subjects to have been previously diagnosed with kidney calculus (odds ratio [OR] 2.10, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.95-2.27), ureter calculus (OR 1.68, 95% CI 1.51-1.85), bladder calculus (OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.13-1.98), and unspecified calculus (OR 1.89, 95% CI 1.74-2.06). We concluded that there was an association between CKD and UC regardless of stone location. • To explore the association of chronic kidney disease (CKD) with prior kidney calculus, ureter calculus, and bladder calculus using a population-based dataset in Taiwan. Several studies have estimated the potential association of urinary calculus (UC) with CKD. However, previous literature focusing on this issue tended to evaluate the impact of kidney stones alone on incident CKD, with no studies having been conducted investigating the association between CKD and stone formation in other portions of the urological system. • We identified 21,474 patients who received their first-time diagnosis of CKD between 2001 and 2009. • The 21,474 controls were frequency-matched with cases for sex, age group, and index year. • We used conditional logistic regression analyses to compute the odds ratio (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) as an estimation of association between CKD and having been previously diagnosed with UC. • The results show that compared with controls, the OR of prior UC for cases was 1

  17. On Stratified Adjusted Tests by Binomial Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimokawa, Asanao; Miyaoka, Etsuo

    2017-02-14

    To estimate or test the treatment effect in randomized clinical trials, it is important to adjust for the potential influence of covariates that are likely to affect the association between the treatment or control group and the response. If these covariates are known at the start of the trial, random assignment of the treatment within each stratum would be considered. On the other hand, if these covariates are not clear at the start of the trial, or if it is difficult to allocate the treatment within each stratum, completely randomized assignment of the treatment would be performed. In both sampling structures, the use of a stratified adjusted test is a useful way to evaluate the significance of the overall treatment effect by reducing the variance and/or bias of the result. If the trial has a binary endpoint, the Cochran and Mantel-Haenszel tests are generally used. These tests are constructed based on the assumption that the number of patients within a stratum is fixed. However, in practice, the stratum sizes are not fixed at the start of the trial in many situations, and are instead allowed to vary. Therefore, there is a risk that using these tests under such situations would result in an error in the estimated variation of the test statistics. To handle the problem, we propose new test statistics under both sampling structures based on multinomial distributions. Our proposed approach is based on the Cochran test, and the difference between the two tests tends to have similar values in the case of a large number of patients. When the total number of patients is small, our approach yields a more conservative result. Through simulation studies, we show that the new approach could correctly maintain the type I error better than the traditional approach.

  18. Strengthening concept learning by repeated testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola; Jonsson, Bert; Nyberg, Lars

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether repeated testing with feedback benefits learning compared to rereading of introductory psychology key-concepts in an educational context. The testing effect was examined immediately after practice, after 18 days, and at a five-week delay in a sample of undergraduate students (n = 83). The results revealed that repeated testing with feedback significantly enhanced learning compared to rereading at all delays, demonstrating that repeated retrieval enhances retention compared to repeated encoding in the short- and the long-term. In addition, the effect of repeated testing was beneficial for students irrespectively of working memory capacity. It is argued that teaching methods involving repeated retrieval are important to consider by the educational system. PMID:24313425

  19. Maintaining the confidentiality of plot locations by exploiting the low sensitivity of forest structure models to different spectral extraction kernels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sean P. Healey; Elizabeth Lapoint; Gretchen G. Moisen; Scott L. Powell

    2011-01-01

    The United States Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) unit maintains a large national network of inventory plots.While the consistency and extent of this network make FIA data attractive for ecological modelling, the FIA is charged by statute not to publicly reveal inventory plot locations. However, use of FIA plot data by the remote sensing community...

  20. Influence of time pressure in a simple response task, a choice-by-location task, and the Simon task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Lubbe, Robert Henricus Johannes; Jaśkowski, Piotr; Wauschkuhn, Bernd; Verleger, Rolf

    2001-01-01

    Examined the influence of strategy for a simple response task, a choice-by-location task, and the Simon task by varying time pressure in 11 Ss (mean age 28 yrs). Besides reaction time (RT) and accuracy, we measured response force and derived two measures from the event-related EEG potential to form

  1. Analysis of light incident location and detector position in early diagnosis of knee osteoarthritis by Monte Carlo simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanping; Chen, Yisha; Yan, Huangping; Wang, Xiaoling

    2017-01-01

    Early detection of knee osteoarthritis (KOA) is meaningful to delay or prevent the onset of osteoarthritis. In consideration of structural complexity of knee joint, position of light incidence and detector appears to be extremely important in optical inspection. In this paper, the propagation of 780-nm near infrared photons in three-dimensional knee joint model is simulated by Monte Carlo (MC) method. Six light incident locations are chosen in total to analyze the influence of incident and detecting location on the number of detected signal photons and signal to noise ratio (SNR). Firstly, a three-dimensional photon propagation model of knee joint is reconstructed based on CT images. Then, MC simulation is performed to study the propagation of photons in three-dimensional knee joint model. Photons which finally migrate out of knee joint surface are numerically analyzed. By analyzing the number of signal photons and SNR from the six given incident locations, the optimal incident and detecting location is defined. Finally, a series of phantom experiments are conducted to verify the simulation results. According to the simulation and phantom experiments results, the best incident location is near the right side of meniscus at the rear end of left knee joint and the detector is supposed to be set near patella, correspondingly.

  2. Predicting Outcome after Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury by Early Magnetic Resonance Imaging Lesion Location and Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smitherman, Emily; Hernandez, Ana; Stavinoha, Peter L.; Huang, Rong; Kernie, Steven G.; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Brain lesions after traumatic brain injury (TBI) are heterogeneous, rendering outcome prognostication difficult. The aim of this study is to investigate whether early magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of lesion location and lesion volume within discrete brain anatomical zones can accurately predict long-term neurological outcome in children post-TBI. Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) MRI hyperintense lesions in 63 children obtained 6.2±5.6 days postinjury were correlated with the Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended-Pediatrics (GOS-E Peds) score at 13.5±8.6 months. FLAIR lesion volume was expressed as hyperintensity lesion volume index (HLVI)=(hyperintensity lesion volume / whole brain volume)×100 measured within three brain zones: zone A (cortical structures); zone B (basal ganglia, corpus callosum, internal capsule, and thalamus); and zone C (brainstem). HLVI-total and HLVI-zone C predicted good and poor outcome groups (pCompared to patients with lesions in zone A alone or in zones A and B, patients with lesions in all three zones had a significantly higher odds ratio (4.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.19–16.0) for developing an unfavorable outcome. PMID:25808802

  3. Visual Perception by Drivers of the Advertisements Located at Selected Major Routes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichajło, Lesław

    2017-10-01

    This article characterizes the research based on the analysis of the eye fixation points on the advertisements. The research has been realized in real road and traffic conditions. The group of 12 drivers was equipped with the glasses occulometric measurement system mounted on the driver’s head. The participants were driving their private cars. The analysis was concentrated on the fixations on the advertisement tables located along the selected national roads in Rzeszów area (Poland). For better recognition if the advertisements have distracted the drivers the number of fixations on the advertisements has been compared with the fixations on the road signs. The active drivers have observed many visual attractors like advertisements, road signs and cars being ahead and on another lane. Passive drivers have low number of fixations on road signs and advertisements. Their fixations typically have been localized on survey and they probably used the peripheral vision in order to recognition of road sign shapes. The results show, that: the percentage of fixations on the advertisement and road signs is different for each participants; the highest percentage of fixated advertisements was on the section with small number of advertisements, but in the city area, when a group of advertisements was on the road, the participants selected some of them, yet no participant fixated all advertisements localized in a small distance between them; the single advertisement visible from the long distance strongly attracts the visual perception; the percentage of the fixated advertisements was higher than road signs.

  4. [Virus detection and viral location in brain tissue of sulking mice infected recombinant rabies virus by frozen section].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying; Gong, Kai; Tang, Qing

    2010-04-01

    To observe the existence and location of the recombinant rabies virus in the hippocampus of the sulking mice infected recombinant rabies virus. A group of one-day-old sulking mice and 4-week-old mice were challenged with the CTN-GFP strain by intracerebral inoculation, frozen longitudinal transect sections of hippocampus were prepared from the suckling mice in order to observe the expression of the GFP protein and the location of the recombinant rabies virus. DAPI was performed to stain the cell nuclei in blue while GFP expression from CTN-GFP infected brain cells was observed under a confocal microscope. The location of the rabies virus can be clearly observed by preparing frozen section of certain sites from the brain, and this method also provide a new tool to trace the route of spread of the rabies virus within the animal host.

  5. [Quick confirmation of nasointestinal tube placed below pylorus in critically ill patients by duodenal bulb ultrasonic anatomy locating method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, R Z; Fan, X M; Sun, R H; Zhang, F; Wang, L G; Zeng, Z; Liu, Y; Hu, B C; Tu, Y X

    2017-05-09

    Objective: To investigate the value of duodenal bulb ultrasonic anatomy locating method quickly confirm nasointestinal tube placed below pylorus in critically ill patients. Methods: A total of 56 critically ill patients with nasointestinal tube posting surgery by blindly inserting method were collected from March 1 st, 2016 to August 1 st, 2016 in the Department of Critical Care Medicine of Zhejiang Provincial People's Hospital.In these patients, the duodenal bulbs were rapidly detected and located by ultrasonic anatomy locating method and at the same time observed whether nasointestinal tube echogram were in them or not. If nasointestinal tube echogram was observed in duodenal bulbs that meant nasointestinal tube placed below pylorus successfully. If disturbed by ultrasound artifacts or other reasons, injected gas into the nasointestinal tube could help to confirm when hyperechoic strip emerged. Gastrointestinal decompression or gastrointestinal motion promoting drug could help to reduce the interference of abdominal cavity or bowel gas if necessary. The results were compared with the abdominal X examination to vertify the accuracy of this method, and at the same time recorded its total time-consuming and its related complications. Results: The duodenal bulbs were rapidly located by ultrasonic anatomy locating method in 53 cases(94.6%) time-consuming(42±23)s. Nasointestinal tubes observed in duodenal bulb were confirmed to be placed below pylorus successfully in 52 cases(92.9%)time-consuming(140±94)s.There were no obvious complications in all patients. Conclusion: Duodenal bulb ultrasonic anatomy locating method is a safe, simple and convenient method with high accuracy that can quickly confirm whether nasointestinal tube placed below pylorus in critically ill patients or not.

  6. Programmatic implications of implementing the relational algebraic capacitated location (RACL algorithm outcomes on the allocation of laboratory sites, test volumes, platform distribution and space requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naseem Cassim

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: CD4 testing in South Africa is based on an integrated tiered service delivery model that matches testing demand with capacity. The National Health Laboratory Service has predominantly implemented laboratory-based CD4 testing. Coverage gaps, over-/under-capacitation and optimal placement of point-of-care (POC testing sites need investigation.Objectives: We assessed the impact of relational algebraic capacitated location (RACL algorithm outcomes on the allocation of laboratory and POC testing sites.Methods: The RACL algorithm was developed to allocate laboratories and POC sites to ensure coverage using a set coverage approach for a defined travel time (T. The algorithm was repeated for three scenarios (A: T = 4; B: T = 3; C: T = 2 hours. Drive times for a representative sample of health facility clusters were used to approximate T. Outcomes included allocation of testing sites, Euclidian distances and test volumes. Additional analysis included platform distribution and space requirement assessment. Scenarios were reported as fusion table maps.Results: Scenario A would offer a fully-centralised approach with 15 CD4 laboratories without any POC testing. A significant increase in volumes would result in a four-fold increase at busier laboratories. CD4 laboratories would increase to 41 in scenario B and 61 in scenario C. POC testing would be offered at two sites in scenario B and 20 sites in scenario C.Conclusion: The RACL algorithm provides an objective methodology to address coverage gaps through the allocation of CD4 laboratories and POC sites for a given T. The algorithm outcomes need to be assessed in the context of local conditions.

  7. Programmatic implications of implementing the relational algebraic capacitated location (RACL algorithm outcomes on the allocation of laboratory sites, test volumes, platform distribution and space requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naseem Cassim

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: CD4 testing in South Africa is based on an integrated tiered service delivery model that matches testing demand with capacity. The National Health Laboratory Service has predominantly implemented laboratory-based CD4 testing. Coverage gaps, over-/under-capacitation and optimal placement of point-of-care (POC testing sites need investigation. Objectives: We assessed the impact of relational algebraic capacitated location (RACL algorithm outcomes on the allocation of laboratory and POC testing sites. Methods: The RACL algorithm was developed to allocate laboratories and POC sites to ensure coverage using a set coverage approach for a defined travel time (T. The algorithm was repeated for three scenarios (A: T = 4; B: T = 3; C: T = 2 hours. Drive times for a representative sample of health facility clusters were used to approximate T. Outcomes included allocation of testing sites, Euclidian distances and test volumes. Additional analysis included platform distribution and space requirement assessment. Scenarios were reported as fusion table maps. Results: Scenario A would offer a fully-centralised approach with 15 CD4 laboratories without any POC testing. A significant increase in volumes would result in a four-fold increase at busier laboratories. CD4 laboratories would increase to 41 in scenario B and 61 in scenario C. POC testing would be offered at two sites in scenario B and 20 sites in scenario C. Conclusion: The RACL algorithm provides an objective methodology to address coverage gaps through the allocation of CD4 laboratories and POC sites for a given T. The algorithm outcomes need to be assessed in the context of local conditions.

  8. Distribution of sexually transmitted diseases and risk factors by work locations among female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusch, Melanie L A; Brouwer, Kimberly C; Lozada, Remedios; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Magis-Rodríguez, Carlos; Patterson, Thomas L

    2010-10-01

    Sex work is regulated in the Zona Roja (red light district) in Tijuana, Mexico, where HIV and sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevalence is high among female sex workers (FSWs). We examined the spatial distribution of STDs by work venue among FSWs in Tijuana. FSWs aged 18 years and older who reported unprotected sex with ≥ 1 client in the past 2 months underwent testing for HIV, syphilis, gonorrhea, and Chlamydia. HIV/STDs were mapped by venue (i.e., bar, hotel) and Getis-Ord Gi statistics were used to identify geographic hotspots. High-risk venues were then identified using a standardized STD ratio (high risk defined as a ratio ≥ 1.25). Logistic regression was used to assess correlates of working at a high risk venue. Of 474 FSWs, 176 (36.4%) had at least 1 bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI); 36 (7.6%) were HIV-positive. Within the Zona Roja, 1 venue was identified as a geographic "hotspot," with a higher than expected number of HIV/STD-positive FSW (P < 0.05) as compared to neighboring venues. Using the STD ratio definition, 11 venues were identified as high-risk; FSWs working in these locations had higher education, were more likely to report always using drugs with sex, and having mostly US clients. They were less likely to be registered FSWs or to live at their work venue. A relatively few number of sex work venues accounted for a large proportion of the HIV/STI burden among FSWs in Tijuana. Structural interventions that focus on sex work venues could help increase STI diagnosis, prevention, and treatment among FSWs in Tijuana.

  9. Questionnaire design: carry-over effects of overall acceptance question placement and pre-evaluation instructions on overall acceptance scores in central location tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastian, Mauresa; Eggett, Dennis L; Jefferies, Laura K

    2015-02-01

    Question placement and usage of pre-evaluation instructions (PEI) in questionnaires for food sensory analysis may bias consumers' scores via carry-over effects. Data from consumer sensory panels previously conducted at a central location, spanning 11 years and covering a broad range of food product categories, were compiled. Overall acceptance (OA) question placement was studied with categories designated as first (the first evaluation question following demographic questions), after nongustation questions (immediately following questions that do not require panelists to taste the product), and later (following all other hedonic and just-about-right [JAR] questions, but occasionally before ranking, open-ended comments, and/or intent to purchase questions). Each panel was categorized as having or not having PEI in the questionnaire; PEI are instructions that appear immediately before the first evaluation question and show panelists all attributes they will evaluate before receiving test samples. Postpanel surveys were administered regarding the self-reported effect of PEI on panelists' evaluation experience. OA scores were analyzed and compared (1) between OA question placement categories and (2) between panels with and without PEI. For most product categories, OA scores tended to be lower when asked later in the questionnaire, suggesting evidence of a carry-over effect. Usage of PEI increased OA scores by 0.10 of a 9-point hedonic scale point, which is not practically significant. Postpanel survey data showed that presence of PEI typically improved the panelists' experience. Using PEI does not appear to introduce a meaningful carry-over effect. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  10. Kali Linux assuring security by penetration testing

    CERN Document Server

    Ali, Shakeel; Allen, Lee

    2014-01-01

    Written as an interactive tutorial, this book covers the core of Kali Linux with real-world examples and step-by-step instructions to provide professional guidelines and recommendations for you. The book is designed in a simple and intuitive manner that allows you to explore the whole Kali Linux testing process or study parts of it individually.If you are an IT security professional who has a basic knowledge of Unix/Linux operating systems, including an awareness of information security factors, and want to use Kali Linux for penetration testing, then this book is for you.

  11. Shapley Facility Location Games

    OpenAIRE

    Ben-Porat, Omer; Tennenholtz, Moshe

    2017-01-01

    Facility location games have been a topic of major interest in economics, operations research and computer science, starting from the seminal work by Hotelling. Spatial facility location models have successfully predicted the outcome of competition in a variety of scenarios. In a typical facility location game, users/customers/voters are mapped to a metric space representing their preferences, and each player picks a point (facility) in that space. In most facility location games considered i...

  12. Vertical and horizontal location of the mental foramen in relation to the mandibular second premolar by the radiograph method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Paes Varoli

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Measure the distance in millimeters, between the apex and the long axis of the mandibular second premolar and the mental foramen. Methods: One hundred and four panoramic radiographs of adults with teeth were selected. Measurement was performed by digitizing the radiographs. The “Image Tool 1.28” program was used to identify the distances. The data of 67 radiographs out of the total, whose visualization of the foramen on the right and left sides was considered good, were submitted to the Student’s-t test and Wilcoxon Sign Test Sinais de Postos de Wilcoxon with a=5%. Results: Analyzing the distance from the long axis to the foramen in the 104 radiographs, it was found located at the medial, 73.34% on the right and 69.04% on the left, being the highest percentages. In the distance between the apex and the foramen, the two sides wererelated, t(t=1.07; gl=66; p=0.288, on the right being (median; mean±standard deviation: 4.73; 4.88±3.46 and on the left (5.45;5.23±3.68 and from the long axis to the foramen, relating the sides, parametric (t=1.98; gl=66; p=0.051 and non-parametric (p=0.081, indicating on the right (median; mean±standard deviation: 4.02; 3.81±4.03 and on the left (3.79; 2.78±4.15. The results indicated that the mental foramen was presented medially to the 2nd premolar, being correspondent to the sides, both to a mean of, right, 4.88mm from the apex and 3.81 mm in the mesial direction; and left, 5.23mm from the apex and 2.78mm in the mesial direction. Conclusion: It could be concluded that both the distance from the apex and from the long axis did not differ statistically toward the right and left.

  13. The nature and location of Acholeplasma laidlawii membrane proteins investigated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, D B; Rodwell, A W; Rodwell, E S

    1978-11-02

    The high resolution, two-dimensional electrophoresis system for the separation of proteins described by O'Farrell, (O'Farrell, P.H. (1975) J. Biol. Chem. 250, 4007--4021) has been modified for the separation of Acholeplasma laidlawii proteins. Reproducible protein patterns have been obtained from A. laidlawii cell, membrane and soluble protein preparations. The isoelectric focusing of membrane proteins was greatly improved by removing the bulk of the membrane lipid before solubilizing the protein. A. laidlawii peripheral membrane proteins were removed from the membrane by low ionic strength washing and by treatment with EDTA. The effect of an exhaustive EDTA treatment and a rapid, warm EDTA treatment were compared. By comparing the protein patterns obtained in these ways it was possible to distinguish two separate groups of peripheral membrane proteins and one integral membrane protein group. The peripheral membrane proteins which were removed from the membrane at low ionic strength (group I) were also insoluble in Triton X-100, whereas additional peripheral membrane proteins extractable by subsequent EDTA treatment (group II) were soluble in Triton X-100. Exterior-facing membrane proteins were distinguished from the interior-facing ones by lactoperoxidase-catalyzed iodination of intact cells and membranes. Group I peripheral membrane proteins faced the cell interior whereas group II proteins faced the cell exterior. We counted approximately 320 individual whole cell proteins. Of these, about 140 were membrane associated and a maximum of 40 proteins were iodinated after iodinating intact cells. A. laidlawii was also grown in the presence of NaH232PO4 and whole cell proteins were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. One membrane protein and two soluble proteins were labelled.

  14. Phonological processing of rhyme in spoken language and location in sign language by deaf and hearing participants: a neurophysiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin, C; Zuinen, T; Bayard, C; Leybaert, J

    2013-06-01

    Sign languages (SL), like oral languages (OL), organize elementary, meaningless units into meaningful semantic units. Our aim was to compare, at behavioral and neurophysiological levels, the processing of the location parameter in French Belgian SL to that of the rhyme in oral French. Ten hearing and 10 profoundly deaf adults performed a rhyme judgment task in OL and a similarity judgment on location in SL. Stimuli were pairs of pictures. As regards OL, deaf subjects' performances, although above chance level, were significantly lower than that of hearing subjects, suggesting that a metaphonological analysis is possible for deaf people but rests on phonological representations that are less precise than in hearing people. As regards SL, deaf subjects scores indicated that a metaphonological judgment may be performed on location. The contingent negative variation (CNV) evoked by the first picture of a pair was similar in hearing subjects in OL and in deaf subjects in OL and SL. However, an N400 evoked by the second picture of the non-rhyming pairs was evidenced only in hearing subjects in OL. The absence of N400 in deaf subjects may be interpreted as the failure to associate two words according to their rhyme in OL or to their location in SL. Although deaf participants can perform metaphonological judgments in OL, they differ from hearing participants both behaviorally and in ERP. Judgment of location in SL is possible for deaf signers, but, contrary to rhyme judgment in hearing participants, does not elicit any N400. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Caloric testing by continuous automatic alternating irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reker, U

    1980-01-01

    Quantitative caloric test results show a high variability. They were described as questionable by Frenzel (1955) and a review of the test was recommended by Hood (1973). Thus, we developed a new method: continuous automatic alternating irrigation. An irrigator is connected to two water-baths of 30 degrees C and 44 degrees C. A time-relays switches over from one bath to the other every 60 s. The continuous, but alternating, irrigations produce subsequently alternating exponential temperature waves in the temporal bone. The mathematical model shows a quasi-periodicity and sufficient symmetry of the alternating thermal gradient across the canal, except for the first stimulus. After 11 irrigations of 60 s, a short (20 s) "washout" irrigation terminates the sequence. By the five repetitions of each stimulus and the additional possibility of correlating the response to the paper-marked stimulus periodicity the judgement is far more reliable and therefore, in doubtful cases, despite the five-fold data, quicker. The technical device is simple enough for routine use and inexpensive. The results of the caloric test are now much more clear-cut and the correlation to a known clinical pathology is remarkably high.

  16. Complex regulation of mucosal pentraxin (Mptx) revealed by discrete micro-anatomical locations in colon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drew, J.E.; Farquharson, A.J.; Keijer, J.; Barrera, L.N.

    2006-01-01

    Recently a mucosal pentraxin, Mptx, regulated by heme and calcium was reported in rat gut mucosal scrapings using microarray strategies. Considering the heterogeneity of gut mucosa scrapings and the widespread use of the rat as a model to study colon pathologies this study was undertaken to generate

  17. Locating far-field impulsive sound sources in air by triangulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Brian G.; Criswick, Lionel G.; Lo, Kam W.

    2002-01-01

    The firing of a gun generates an acoustic impulse that propagates radially outwards from the source. Acoustic gun-ranging systems estimate the source position by measuring the relative time of arrival of the impulse at a number of spatially distributed acoustic sensors. The sound-ranging problem is revisited here using improved time-delay estimation methods to refine the source position estimates. The time difference for the acoustic wavefront to arrive at two spatially separated sensors is estimated by cross correlating the digitized outputs of the sensors. The time-delay estimate is used to calculate the source bearing, and the source position is cross fixed by triangulation using the bearings from two widely separated receiving nodes. The variability in the bearing and position estimates is quantified by processing acoustic sensor data recorded during field experiments for a variety of impulsive sound sources: artillery guns, mortars, and grenades. Imperfect knowledge of the effective speed of sound travel results in bias errors in the source bearing estimates, which are found to depend on the orientation of the sensor pair axis with respect to the source direction. Combining the time-delay estimates from two orthogonal pairs of sensors reduces these bias errors.

  18. Strong physical constraints on sequence-specific target location by proteins on DNA molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, H.; Keatch, S.A.; Dryden, D.T.F

    2006-01-01

    of the loading bay and allows an estimation of the size of the footprint on the DNA of the sequence-specific protein by assaying protein binding or function in the presence of increasing concentrations of non-specific ligand. Assaying for function gives an 'activity footprint'; the minimum length of DNA required...... for function rather than the more commonly measured physical footprint. Assaying the complex type I restriction enzyme, EcoKI, gives an activity footprint of similar to 66 bp for ATP hydrolysis and 300 bp for the DNA cleavage function which is intimately linked with translocation of DNA by EcoKI. Furthermore......Sequence-specific binding to DNA in the presence of competing non-sequence-specific ligands is a problem faced by proteins in all organisms. It is akin to the problem of parking a truck at a loading bay by the side of a road in the presence of cars parked at random along the road. Cars even...

  19. Determining the Location of DNA Modification and Mutation Caused by UVB Light in Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    is typical for human libraries (7). These reads were then processed to determine the dinucleotide composition on the 5’ end. The percentage of each...applied to the membrane in the µg quantities indicated and fixed by crosslinking. The membrane was blocked in milk and probed with anti CPD primary

  20. Chromosomal Location by Use of Trisomics and New Alleles of an Endopeptidase in Zea Mays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Gunnar Gissel; Scandalios, John G.

    1974-01-01

    An association was found earlier between the Ep1 gene locus coding for an endopeptidase and the endosperm color gene Y1 on chromosome 6 of Zea mays. By employing primary trisomics we have unequivocally placed the Ep1 gene on chromosome 6, closely linked to the Y1 locus. Additionally we describe new...

  1. Arid soil microbial enzymatic activity profile as affected by geographical location and soil degradation status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evaluating soil health is critical for any successful remediation effort. Arid lands, with their minimal carbon and water contents, low nutritional status and restricted, seasonal microbial activity pose specific challenges to soil health restoration and by extension, restoration of ecosystem repr...

  2. Assessment of human sleep depth is being de-standardized by recently advised EEG electrode locations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bob Kemp

    Full Text Available Human sleep depth was traditionally assessed by scoring electro-encephalographic slow-wave amplitudes at the globally standardized C4-M1 electrode derivation. Since 2007, the American Association of Sleep Medicine (AASM has accepted three additional derivations for the same purpose. These might well differ in slow wave amplitudes which would bias the scorings. Some derivations might also introduce large inter-individual variability. We compared mean and variability of slow wave amplitudes between six derivations including the four AASM ones. Slow wave amplitudes in those derivations were simultaneously measured using automated analysis in 29 patients. Each amplitude was divided by the average from the six derivations, thus removing shared factors such as age, gender and sleep depth while retaining factors that differ between the derivations such as caused by local skull characteristics, electrode distance and neuronal dipole orientation. The remaining inter-individual variability differed significantly and up to a factor of two between the AASM derivations. The amplitudes differed significantly and up to 60% between the AASM derivations, causing substantial scoring bias between centres using different derivations. The resulting de-standardization most likely affects any patient group because the amplitude differences were consistent over diagnoses, genders, and age. Derivation-dependent amplitude thresholds were proposed to reduce the scoring bias. However, it would be better to settle on just one derivation, for instance Cz-Oz or Fpz-Cz because these have lowest variability while matching the traditional C4-M1 amplitudes.

  3. Long-term Miscanthus Yields Influenced by Location, Genotype, Row Distance, Fertilization and Harvest Season

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ugilt Larsen, Søren; Jørgensen, Uffe; Kjeldsen, Jens Bonderup

    2014-01-01

    in Foulum and on coarse sand in Jyndevad. Effects of genotype, row distance and fertilization were investigated. In both trials, yield development over time was characterized by an increase during the first years, optimum yields after 7–8 years and a decrease to a lower level which remained relatively...... constant from year 11 to 20. Spring harvest reduced the yield by 34–42 % compared to autumn harvest. In Foulum annual fertilization with 75 kg ha−1 N increased the yield of the genotype Goliath (Miscanthus sinensis) by 26 %. Additional N fertilization only increased the yield of Goliath little......, and the genotype Giganteus (Miscanthus × giganteus) did not respond to fertilization at all. The highest mean yield in Foulum for the period 1997–2012 was obtained with the shortest row distance (∼18,000 rather than ∼12,000 plants ha−1) and harvested in late autumn, namely 13.1 and 12.0 Mg ha−1 DM annually...

  4. Ultrasonic Backscatter Imaging by Shear-Wave-Induced Echo Phase Encoding of Target Locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAleavey, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    We present a novel method for ultrasound backscatter image formation wherein lateral resolution of the target is obtained by using traveling shear waves to encode the lateral position of targets in the phase of the received echo. We demonstrate that the phase modulation as a function of shear wavenumber can be expressed in terms of a Fourier transform of the lateral component of the target echogenicity. The inverse transform, obtained by measurements of the phase modulation over a range of shear wave spatial frequencies, yields the lateral scatterer distribution. Range data are recovered from time of flight as in conventional ultrasound, yielding a B-mode-like image. In contrast to conventional ultrasound imaging, where mechanical or electronic focusing is used and lateral resolution is determined by aperture size and wavelength, we demonstrate that lateral resolution using the proposed method is independent of the properties of the aperture. Lateral resolution of the target is achieved using a stationary, unfocused, single-element transducer. We present simulated images of targets of uniform and non-uniform shear modulus. Compounding for speckle reduction is demonstrated. Finally, we demonstrate image formation with an unfocused transducer in gelatin phantoms of uniform shear modulus. PMID:21244978

  5. Non destructive testing of works of art by terahertz analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodnar, Jean-Luc; Metayer, Jean-Jacques; Mouhoubi, Kamel; Detalle, Vincent

    2013-11-01

    Improvements in technologies and the growing security needs in airport terminals lead to the development of non destructive testing devices using terahertz waves. Indeed, these waves have the advantage of being, on one hand, relatively penetrating. They also have the asset of not being ionizing. It is thus potentially an interesting contribution in the non destructive testing field. With the help of the VISIOM Company, the possibilities of this new industrial analysis method in assisting the restoration of works of art were then approached. The results obtained within this framework are presented here and compared with those obtained by infrared thermography. The results obtained show first that the THZ method, like the stimulated infrared thermography allows the detection of delamination located in murals paintings or in marquetries. They show then that the THZ method seems to allow detecting defects located relatively deeply (10 mm) and defects potentially concealed by other defects. It is an advantage compared to the stimulated infra-red thermography which does not make it possible to obtain these results. Furthermore, they show that the method does not seem sensitive to the various pigments constituting the pictorial layer, to the presence of a layer of "Japan paper" and to the presence of a layer of whitewash. It is not the case of the stimulated infrared thermography. It is another advantage of the THZ method. Finally, they show that the THZ method is limited in the detection of low-size defects. It is a disadvantage compared to the stimulated infrared thermography.

  6. Optimum reduction of the dynamo threshold by a ferromagnetic layer located in the flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herault, J; Pétrélis, F

    2014-09-01

    We consider a fluid dynamo model generated by the flow on both sides of a moving layer. The magnetic permeability of the layer is larger than that of the flow. We show that there exists an optimum value of magnetic permeability for which the critical magnetic Reynolds number for dynamo onset is smaller than for a nonmagnetic material and also smaller than for a layer of infinite magnetic permeability. We present a mechanism that provides an explanation for recent experimental results. A similar effect occurs when the electrical conductivity of the layer is large.

  7. CLAXTON by Mark Cocker:Natural history, location, environmental subjects, conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Gibbs, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Editor: Dan Franklin; Senior art editor: Suzanne DeanCo-ordinated by the Central Illustration Agency, LondonSixteen wood engravings for cover-art, chapter headings and spine illustrations.Two-colour cover-art, and black & white full-page illustrationsThe conceptual approach to this series of illustrations was based upon the spirit of nature and landscape, as well as the actual appearance of animals, birds, insects, and plants. This was not to be a realistic representation of particular sp...

  8. Deducing lightning locations and charge moment change by ELF observations around Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, T.; Hobara, Y.; Hayakawa, M.; Shiokawa, K.

    2011-12-01

    The electromagnetic radiations from lightning discharges have been intensively studied for a long time by using different frequency ranges. Recent observations of electromagnetic radiations from lightning in the ELF frequency range so-called ELF transients are recognized as a powerful tool not only to deduce the global lightning distribution but also to obtain one of the most important properties of lightning discharges such as charge moment changes (Qds). Although accurate Qds for the lightning discharges can be deduced from the static electric field measurement by using e.g. electric field mill, the detection ranges of this equipment is significantly limited in space (typically within few decade of km). Therefore Qds distributions of local thunderstorm activities over the spatial scale of Japan (within few thousands km) have not been studied yet. In this paper, we report the initial results of local ELF network observations (i.e. multiple observations over Japan) to deduce the spatio-temporal lightning discharge distributions with a charge moment change of the thunderstorm activity around Japan. The statistical properties of the charge moment changes will be presented as well.

  9. Remarks on superconducting gravimeter calibration by co-located gravity observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meurers, B.; Blaumoser, N.; Ullrich, Ch.

    2012-04-01

    Using absolute gravimetry for site by site recording of temporal gravity variations is the most common method to calibrate stationary relative gravimeters, specifically superconducting gravimeters. This method is based on the assumption that both sensors record the same gravity signal. Actually, this condition is never perfectly fulfilled, not even when absolute gravimeters are involved. Instrumental effects like drift are the main reason. Therefore the situation dramatically deteriorates if spring gravimeters are applied as reference due to their large and sometimes irregular drift. This paper investigates the role of instrumental drift at calibration experiments based both on absolute and spring gravimeters and how the calibration results improve if drift is considered even in case of absolute gravimeters. The question whether spring gravimeters can reliably support SG calibration is discussed especially under the aspect of appropriate drift modelling. The accuracy which is presently achievable with FG5 absolute gravimeters strongly depends on the drop-to-drop scatter and therefore on the site noise. E.g. at Conrad observatory (Austria) the difference between the mean calibration factor obtained when drift is or is not taken into account turns out to be in the same order of magnitude as the error, i.e. the improvement by a common drift adjustment is just at the error limit. Nevertheless, based on this result, adjusting the instrumental drift is recommended. This will especially hold when further instrumental improvements reduce the drop-to-drop scatter or even presently at low noise stations.

  10. Chemical Ligation and Isotope Labeling to Locate Dynamic Effects during Catalysis by Dihydrofolate Reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Louis Y P; Ruiz-Pernía, J Javier; Adesina, Aduragbemi S; Loveridge, E Joel; Tuñón, Iñaki; Moliner, Vincent; Allemann, Rudolf K

    2015-07-27

    Chemical ligation has been used to alter motions in specific regions of dihydrofolate reductase from E. coli and to investigate the effects of localized motional changes on enzyme catalysis. Two isotopic hybrids were prepared; one with the mobile N-terminal segment containing heavy isotopes ((2) H, (13) C, (15) N) and the remainder of the protein with natural isotopic abundance, and the other one with only the C-terminal segment isotopically labeled. Kinetic investigations indicated that isotopic substitution of the N-terminal segment affected only a physical step of catalysis, whereas the enzyme chemistry was affected by protein motions from the C-terminal segment. QM/MM studies support the idea that dynamic effects on catalysis mostly originate from the C-terminal segment. The use of isotope hybrids provides insights into the microscopic mechanism of dynamic coupling, which is difficult to obtain with other studies, and helps define the dynamic networks of intramolecular interactions central to enzyme catalysis. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  11. Genetic testing by cancer site: endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilarski, Robert; Nagy, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Numerous hereditary syndromes, caused by mutations in multiple tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes, can cause tumors in organs of the endocrine system. The primary syndromes (and genes) addressed here include multiple endocrine neoplasia types 1 and 2 (MEN1 and RET genes), Cowden syndrome (PTEN), hereditary pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma syndromes (multiple genes), and von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL). Clinical genetic testing is available for each of these syndromes and is generally directed to individuals with endocrine or other tumors and additional features suggestive of a hereditary syndrome. However, for some endocrine tumors, the proportion because of heredity is so high that genetic testing may be appropriate for all affected individuals. Management for hereditary cases typically involves aggressive screening and/or surgical protocols, starting at young ages to minimize morbidity and mortality. Endocrine tumors can be less commonly seen in a number of other hereditary syndromes (eg, neurofibromatosis), which are not reviewed in this section.

  12. Light intensity simulation in real space by viewing locations for autostereoscopic display design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Jungguen; Lee, Kwang-Hoon; Lee, Dong-Su; Park, Min-Chul; Son, Jung-Young; Ju, Byeong-Kwon

    2013-05-01

    Autostereoscopy is a common method for providing 3D perception to viewers without glasses. They produce 3D images with a wide perspective, and can achieve the effect of observing different images visible on the same plane from difference point of view. In autostereoscopic displays, crosstalk occurs when incomplete isolation of the left and right images so that one leakage into the other. This paper addresses a light intensity simulator that can calculate crosstalk according to variable viewing positions by automatically tracking heads of viewers. In doing so, we utilize head tracking technique based on infrared laser sensors to detect the observers' viewing positions. Preliminary results show that the proposed system was appropriate to be operated in designing the autostereoscopic displays ensuring human safety.

  13. Subduction megathrust segmentation correlated with earthquake swarm locations appears to be caused by increased stress heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtkamp, S.; Brudzinski, M. R.

    2011-12-01

    For each Mw≥8.5 earthquake with a publicly available finite fault rupture model, we find slip is closely bounded along-strike by earthquake swarms, either prior or subsequent. These earthquake swarms tend to have much larger spatial extents than their cumulative moment would suggest, arguing against a static stress triggering mechanism. In Japan, Chile, Sumatra, and Alaska, earthquake swarms correlate with regions of the plate interface that exhibit low interseismic strain accumulation. This low fault coupling could be a result of aseismic slip during swarms or stress heterogeneity that leads to both swarm occurrence and great earthquake termination. Geodetic studies of earthquake swarms are limited but show several cases with no evidence for aseismic slip during swarms. Moreover, the 1964 Alaska and 2010 Maule earthquakes ruptured through regions with lower coupling than where they terminated, arguing that a factor other than small pre-stress controls where large earthquakes terminate. Large variations in coupling over small spatial scales could produce a fragmented set of small asperities conducive for generating a swarm of smaller earthquakes (Figure). Great earthquakes would be unlikely to rupture through that region as homogeneity of fault zone properties seems to be conducive for generating the largest megathrust earthquakes. Earthquake swarms are one of the better proxies for along-strike segmentation of subduction megathrusts, thereby potentially providing an new method for finding margins with the potential for devastating Mw~9 scale earthquakes. Figure: Cartoon illustrating our preferred hypothesis that increased stress heterogeneity causes earthquake swarm activity and stops large earthquake rupture propagation. Stress on the fault is in grayscale with black being high fault pre-stress. In this model, the heterogeneous stress distribution fosters swarm activity by limiting the size to which an earthquake can grow (leading to a high b

  14. Alteration of neural action potential patterns by axonal stimulation: the importance of stimulus location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crago, Patrick E; Makowski, Nathaniel S

    2014-10-01

    Stimulation of peripheral nerves is often superimposed on ongoing motor and sensory activity in the same axons, without a quantitative model of the net action potential train at the axon endpoint. We develop a model of action potential patterns elicited by superimposing constant frequency axonal stimulation on the action potentials arriving from a physiologically activated neural source. The model includes interactions due to collision block, resetting of the neural impulse generator, and the refractory period of the axon at the point of stimulation. Both the mean endpoint firing rate and the probability distribution of the action potential firing periods depend strongly on the relative firing rates of the two sources and the intersite conduction time between them. When the stimulus rate exceeds the neural rate, neural action potentials do not reach the endpoint and the rate of endpoint action potentials is the same as the stimulus rate, regardless of the intersite conduction time. However, when the stimulus rate is less than the neural rate, and the intersite conduction time is short, the two rates partially sum. Increases in stimulus rate produce non-monotonic increases in endpoint rate and continuously increasing block of neurally generated action potentials. Rate summation is reduced and more neural action potentials are blocked as the intersite conduction time increases. At long intersite conduction times, the endpoint rate simplifies to being the maximum of either the neural or the stimulus rate. This study highlights the potential of increasing the endpoint action potential rate and preserving neural information transmission by low rate stimulation with short intersite conduction times. Intersite conduction times can be decreased with proximal stimulation sites for muscles and distal stimulation sites for sensory endings. The model provides a basis for optimizing experiments and designing neuroprosthetic interventions involving motor or sensory stimulation.

  15. Modeling slow-slip segmentation in Cascadia subduction zone constrained by tremor locations and gravity anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Duo; Liu, Yajing

    2017-04-01

    Along-strike segmentation of slow-slip events (SSEs) and nonvolcanic tremors in Cascadia may reflect heterogeneities of the subducting slab or overlying continental lithosphere. However, the nature behind this segmentation is not fully understood. We develop a 3-D model for episodic SSEs in northern and central Cascadia, incorporating both seismological and gravitational observations to constrain the heterogeneities in the megathrust fault properties. The 6 year automatically detected tremors are used to constrain the rate-state friction parameters. The effective normal stress at SSE depths is constrained by along-margin free-air and Bouguer gravity anomalies. The along-strike variation in the long-term plate convergence rate is also taken into consideration. Simulation results show five segments of ˜Mw6.0 SSEs spontaneously appear along the strike, correlated to the distribution of tremor epicenters. Modeled SSE recurrence intervals are equally comparable to GPS observations using both types of gravity anomaly constraints. However, the model constrained by free-air anomaly does a better job in reproducing the cumulative slip as well as more consistent surface displacements with GPS observations. The modeled along-strike segmentation represents the averaged slip release over many SSE cycles, rather than permanent barriers. Individual slow-slip events can still propagate across the boundaries, which may cause interactions between adjacent SSEs, as observed in time-dependent GPS inversions. In addition, the moment-duration scaling is sensitive to the selection of velocity criteria for determining when SSEs occur. Hence, the detection ability of the current GPS network should be considered in the interpretation of slow earthquake source parameter scaling relations.

  16. The State of Essential Newborn Care by Delivery Location in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunsoo Timothy; Singh, Kavita

    2017-11-01

    Introduction Essential newborn care (ENC) around the time of birth is critical in improving neonatal survival. There is currently a gap in our knowledge of the use of ENC by place of delivery in Bangladesh. This study assesses the provision of ENC and examines the odds of newborns receiving ENC by different levels of delivery care in Bangladesh. Methods Descriptive statistics and logistic regressions were performed on ENC practices from the 2011 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey dataset. ENC practices included nonapplication of substances to the cord; application of antiseptic to the cord; drying newborn within 5 min; wrapping newborn within 5 min; delaying first bath until the first 72 h; and breastfeeding within 1 h. Key predictors included home delivery with a lay attendant, delivery with primary healthcare services and delivery with higher-level healthcare services. Results Coverage of ENC practices was low. Women who delivered with primary and higher-level healthcare services generally reported greater odds of their newborns receiving recommended ENC than women who had home delivery with a lay attendant, the referent category. However, the odds of delayed first bath until 72 h and breastfeeding within 1 h were not statistically different for newborns who were delivered with primary healthcare services. Discussion These findings have significant public health implications as primary healthcare facilities are the first point of entry into the healthcare system. Provision of ENC, particularly delayed first bath until 72 h and breastfeeding within 1 h, should be encouraged for all healthy mother-newborn pairs in Bangladesh.

  17. Identification of slip surface location by TLS-GPS datafor landslide mitigation case study: Ciloto-Puncak, West Java

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadarviana, Vera, E-mail: vsadarviana@gmail.com; Hasanuddin, A. Z.; Joenil, G. K.; Irwan; Wijaya, Dudy; Ilman, H.; Agung, N.; Achmad, R. T.; Pangeran, C.; Martin, S.; Gamal, M. [Geodesy Research Group, Faculty of Earth Sciences and Technology, Bandung Institute of Technology, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132, West Java (Indonesia); Santoso, Djoko [Geophysics Engineering Research Group, Faculty of Geoscience and Mineral Engineering, Bandung Institute of Technology, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132, West Java (Indonesia)

    2015-04-24

    Landslide can prevented by understanding the direction of movement to the safety evacuation track or slip surface location to hold avalanches. Slip surface is separating between stable soil and unstable soil in the slope. The slip surface location gives information about stable material depth. The information can be utilize to mitigate technical step, such as pile installation to keep construction or settlement safe from avalanches.There are two kinds landslide indicators which are visualization and calculation. By visualization, landslide identified from soil crack or scarp. Scarp is a scar of exposed soil on the landslide. That identification can be done by Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS) Image. Shape of scarp shows type of slip surface, translation or rotational. By calculation, kinematic and dynamic mathematic model will give vector, velocity and acceleration of material movement. In this calculation need velocity trend line at GPS point from five GPS data campaign. From intersection of trend lines it will create curves or lines of slip surface location. The number of slip surface can be known from material movement direction in landslide zone.Ciloto landslide zone have complicated phenomenon because that zone have influence from many direction of ground water level pressure. The pressure is causes generating several slip surface in Ciloto zone. Types of Ciloto slip surface have mix between translational and rotational type.

  18. Superconducting Gravimeter Calibration by CoLocated Gravity Observations: Results from GWR C025

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Meurers

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In autumn 2007 the superconducting gravimeter GWR C025 was transferred from Vienna (VI to the new Conrad observatory (CO 60 km SW of Vienna. It is one of few instruments which were operated at different stations. This aspect motivated a reanalysis of all calibration experiments at VI and CO, focused on drift and noise effects. Considering the drift even of absolute gravimeters in a common adjustment reduces the root mean square error of the averaged calibration factor essentially. Also spring type gravimeters have some potential to contribute to the SG calibration factor determination. The calibration factor of GWR C025 did not significantly change during the transfer from VI to CO. The final calibration factor is calculated as weighted average over in total 9 JILAg and FG5 experiments with an accuracy of better than ±0.5‰. The calibration factor is temporarily stable with maximum variation less than ±0.1‰. Based on these results the gravity time series of VI and CO have been analyzed. The respective amplitude factors for O1, K1, and M2 agree almost perfectly at both stations after correcting for ocean loading effects. The maximum deviation from the numbers provided by the nonhydrostatic-body-tide models DDW and MAT01 is 0.8‰.

  19. Controlling the length and location of in situ formed nanowires by means of microfluidic tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Phillip; Puigmartí-Luis, Josep; Imaz, Inhar; Maspoch, Daniel; Dittrich, Petra S

    2011-02-21

    Progress in microelectronics, sensors and optics is strongly dependent on the miniaturization of components, and the integration of nanoscale structures into applicable systems. In this regard, conventional top-down technologies such as lithography have limits concerning the dimensions and the choice of material. Therefore, several bottom-up approaches have been investigated to satisfy the need for structures with large aspect ratios in the nanometre regime. For further implementation, however, it is crucial to find methods to define position, orientation and length of the nanowires. In this study, we present a microchip to trap in situ formed bundles of nanowires in microsized cages and clamps, thereby enabling immobilisation, positioning and cutting-out of desired lengths. The microchip consists of two layers, one of which enables the formation of metal-organic nanowires at the interface of two co-flowing laminar streams. The other layer, separated by a thin and deflectable PDMS membrane, serves as the pneumatic control layer to impress microsized features ("donuts") onto the nanowires. In this way, a piece of the nanowire bundle with a prescribed length is immobilised inside the donut. Furthermore, partly open ring-shaped structures enabled trapping of hybrid wires and subsequent functionalisation with fluorescent beads. We believe that the method is a versatile approach to form and modify nanoscale structures via microscale tools, thereby enabling the construction of fully functional nanowire-based systems.

  20. Drought stress affects plant metabolites and herbivore preference but not host location by its parasitoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldegergis, Berhane T; Zhu, Feng; Poelman, Erik H; Dicke, Marcel

    2015-03-01

    One of the main abiotic stresses that strongly affects plant survival and the primary cause of crop loss around the world is drought. Drought stress leads to sequential morphological, physiological, biochemical and molecular changes that can have severe effects on plant growth, development and productivity. As a consequence of these changes, the interaction between plants and insects can be altered. Using cultivated Brassica oleracea plants, the parasitoid Microplitis mediator and its herbivorous host Mamestra brassicae, we studied the effect of drought stress on (1) the emission of plant volatile organic compounds (VOCs), (2) plant hormone titres, (3) preference and performance of the herbivore, and (4) preference of the parasitoid. Higher levels of jasmonic acid (JA) and abscisic acid (ABA) were recorded in response to herbivory, but no significant differences were observed for salicylic acid (SA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Drought significantly impacted SA level and showed a significant interactive effect with herbivory for IAA levels. A total of 55 VOCs were recorded and the difference among the treatments was influenced largely by herbivory, where the emission rate of fatty acid-derived volatiles, nitriles and (E)-4,8-dimethylnona-1,3,7-triene [(E)-DMNT] was enhanced. Mamestra brassicae moths preferred to lay eggs on drought-stressed over control plants; their offspring performed similarly on plants of both treatments. VOCs due to drought did not affect the choice of M. mediator parasitoids. Overall, our study reveals an influence of drought on plant chemistry and insect-plant interactions.

  1. Microbiological evaluation of hot beverages dispensed by vending machines from the Army barracks of Brigata Meccanizzata Aosta located in Messina

    OpenAIRE

    Chiara Beninati; Daniele Muscolino; Antonio Panebianco; Alessandro Giuffrida; Filippo Giarratana; Attilio Longo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of hot beverages dispensed by vending machines (VMs). The study was carried out on 203 samples from 15 VMs located in 5 Army barracks in Messina. The samples included: water used for preparation of beverages, swab of water tank, swab of blender machine, chocolate powder, milk powder, cappuccino and chocolate drink (29 samples for each types). All samples were examined for total bacterial count (TBC), coliforms, Escherich...

  2. Quality assessment of fluconazole capsules and oral suspensions compounded by pharmacies located in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laporte, Carine M; Cruz-Espindola, Crisanta; Thungrat, Kamoltip; Schick, Anthea E; Lewis, Thomas P; Boothe, Dawn M

    2017-04-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate pharmaceutical characteristics (strength or concentration, accuracy, and precision), physical properties, and bacterial contamination of fluconazole compounded products. SAMPLE Fluconazole compounded products (30- and 240-mg capsules; 30- and 100-mg/mL oral suspensions) from 4 US veterinary compounding pharmacies. PROCEDURES Fluconazole compounded products were ordered 3 times from each of 4 pharmacies at 7- or 10-day intervals. Generic fluconazole products (50- and 200-mg tablets; 10- and 40-mg/mL oral suspensions) served as references. Compounded products were evaluated at the time of receipt; suspensions also were evaluated 3 months later and at beyond-use dates. Evaluations included assessments of strength (concentration), accuracy, precision, physical properties, and bacterial contamination. Acceptable accuracy was defined as within ± 10% of the labeled strength (concentration) and acceptable precision as within ± 10%. Fluconazole was quantified by use of high-performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS Physical characteristics of compounded products differed among pharmacies. Aerobic bacterial cultures yielded negative results. Capsules (30 and 240 mg) had acceptable accuracy (median, 96.3%; range, 87.3% to 135.2%) and precision (mean ± SD, 7.4 ± 6.0%). Suspensions (30 and 100 mg/mL) had poor accuracy (median, 73.8%; range, 53.9% to 95.2%) and precision (mean ± SD, 15.0 ± 6.9%). Accuracy and precision were significantly better for capsules than for suspensions. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Fluconazole compounded products, particularly suspensions, differed in pharmaceutical and physical qualities. Studies to evaluate the impact of inconsistent quality on bioavailability or clinical efficacy of compounded fluconazole products are indicated, and each study should include data on the quality of the compounded product evaluated.

  3. The 2009MW 6.1 L'Aquila fault system imaged by 64k earthquake locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valoroso, Luisa

    2016-03-01

    On April 6 2009, a MW 6.1 normal-faulting earthquake struck the axial area of the Abruzzo region in central Italy. We investigate the complex architecture and mechanics of the activated fault system by using 64k high-resolution foreshock and aftershock locations. The fault system is composed by two major SW dipping segments forming an en-echelon NW trending system about 50km long: the high-angle L'Aquila fault and the listric Campotosto fault, located in the first 10km depth. From the beginning of 2009, foreshocks activated the deepest portion of the mainshock fault. A week before the MW 6.1 event, the largest (MW 4.0) foreshock triggered seismicity migration along a minor off-fault segment. Seismicity jumped back to the main plane a few hours before the mainshock. High-precision locations allowed us to peer into the fault zone showing complex geological structures from the metre to the kilometre scale, analogous to those observed by field studies and seismic profiles. Also, we were able to investigate important aspects of earthquakes nucleation and propagation through the upper crust in carbonate-bearing rocks such as: the role of fluids in normal-faulting earthquakes; how crustal faults terminate at depths; the key role of fault zone structure in the earthquake rupture evolution processes.

  4. [Testing aphasia by psychometric methods (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, C

    1981-04-01

    In a survey of psychometric tests in world-wide use for the examination of aphasia stress is laid on methodological points. Separately for individual tests and tests and test batteries the development and clinical application are delineated, statistical criteria mentioned and diagnostic usefulness evaluated.

  5. Standard Test Method for Testing Nonmetallic Seal Materials by Immersion in a Simulated Geothermal Test Fluid

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1985-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a procedure for a laboratory test for performing an initial evaluation (screening) of nonmetallic seal materials by immersion in a simulated geothermal test fluid. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For specific precautionary statements, see Section 6 and 11.7.

  6. Determination of Effective Criteria for location Selection of WPC Plants from agricultural residues in Iran by AHP Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hasan alizadeh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at determining the effective criteria for location selection of WPC Plants from agricultural residues in Iran. For this purpose, after review and studies papers and books, Six criteria" products and materials, regulations, technical and human, economic, infrastructure and environmental and also 30 sub-criteria were identified. The priority rates of these criteria and sub-criteria were evaluated by AHP technique. The results indicated that among 30 effective sub-criteria in location selection of the WPC plants from agricultural residues, amount of wastes supply (0.087, continuity of wastes supply, cost of wastes supply, amount of sales and export, granted facilities and less Hazards for the environment and forest had the highest priorities, which were rated as 0.071, 0.067, 0.065, 0.064 and 0.062 respectively.

  7. Efficient tests development inspired by mathematical structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encheva, Sylvia

    2017-07-01

    Developing short tests for knowledge and skills evaluation is definitely easier and faster than developing larger ones. Larger tests however provide much more information than the short ones. In the era of global digitalization the question of effective test construction arises quite naturally. Reuse of short tests for constructing larger ones is one way to find an optimal solution to the problems related to tests development.

  8. Development of a method for estimating oesophageal temperature by multi-locational temperature measurement inside the external auditory canal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakada, Hirofumi; Horie, Seichi; Kawanami, Shoko; Inoue, Jinro; Iijima, Yoshinori; Sato, Kiyoharu; Abe, Takeshi

    2017-09-01

    We aimed to develop a practical method to estimate oesophageal temperature by measuring multi-locational auditory canal temperatures. This method can be applied to prevent heatstroke by simultaneously and continuously monitoring the core temperatures of people working under hot environments. We asked 11 healthy male volunteers to exercise, generating 80 W for 45 min in a climatic chamber set at 24, 32 and 40 °C, at 50% relative humidity. We also exposed the participants to radiation at 32 °C. We continuously measured temperatures at the oesophagus, rectum and three different locations along the external auditory canal. We developed equations for estimating oesophageal temperatures from auditory canal temperatures and compared their fitness and errors. The rectal temperature increased or decreased faster than oesophageal temperature at the start or end of exercise in all conditions. Estimated temperature showed good similarity with oesophageal temperature, and the square of the correlation coefficient of the best fitting model reached 0.904. We observed intermediate values between rectal and oesophageal temperatures during the rest phase. Even under the condition with radiation, estimated oesophageal temperature demonstrated concordant movement with oesophageal temperature at around 0.1 °C overestimation. Our method measured temperatures at three different locations along the external auditory canal. We confirmed that the approach can credibly estimate the oesophageal temperature from 24 to 40 °C for people performing exercise in the same place in a windless environment.

  9. TESTING OF PULP VITALITY BY PULSOXIMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela CIOBANU

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The methods applied for diagnosing the health condition of the pulp tissue are numerous, however, nowadays, an increasingly higher number of conventional tests are replaced by some objective, non-invasive, painless and reliable tests. Among them, pulse oximetry is a method for the investigation of pulp vitality based on oxygen saturation (SaO2 of the hemoglobin from the blood present in the pulp vascular bed, as a means of differentiating among the vital and the non-vital teeth. In the present study, registrations were made on a group of 120 frontal maxillary teeth, in patients with ages between 20 and 40 years, on using a digital sensor modified by the pulse oximeter with which the pulse and the values of oxygen saturation were measured at the level of both teeth and right hand finger. The mean SaO2 value in the pulp blood of the vital teeth was of 83.30% for the central incisor, of 78.51% for the lateral one and of 84.56%, respectively, for the canine; the value recorded at finger level was of 97%. In the non-vital teeth, the SaO2 value measured on the pulse oximeter was of 0%. Pulse registration showed mean values of 70.56 beatings/min at tooth level and of 70.88 beatings/min, respectively, at finger level. The results of the present study may confirm that pulse oximetry represents a simple, non-traumatic, efficient and objective method for testing the vitality condition of the dental pulp.

  10. Locations and summary of types of data available by borehole or other underground openings, Mercury Core Library and Data Center, Nye County, Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This geospatial data set represents about 2,500 locations of boreholes, shafts, tunnels, and drifts on and around the Nevada Test Site (NTS) where rock-samples have...

  11. Location and dimensions of the mental foramen: a radiographic analysis by using cone-beam computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Arx, Thomas; Friedli, Monika; Sendi, Pedram; Lozanoff, Scott; Bornstein, Michael M

    2013-12-01

    The mental foramen (MF) is an important landmark in dentistry. Knowledge of its position is central to perform block anesthesia of the mental nerve or to avoid nerve damage during surgical procedures in the premolar area of the mandible. The present radiographic study aimed at evaluating the location and dimension of the MF and measuring distances to neighboring structures by using limited cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Sagittal, axial, and coronal CBCT images of 142 patients (26 bilateral and 116 unilateral cases) were retrospectively screened to determine the location of the MF with respect to adjacent teeth and to take linear measurements of the size of the MF and its distances to the upper and lower borders of the mandible. In addition, the course and angulation of the mental canal exiting the MF were assessed. The majority of MF (56%) were located apically between the 2 premolars, and another 35.7% of MF were positioned below the second premolar. On average, the MF was localized 5.0 mm from the closest root of the adjacent tooth (range, 0.3-9.8 mm). The mean size of the MF showed a height of 3.0 mm and a length of 3.2 mm; however, individual cases showed large differences in height (1.8-5.1 mm) and in length (1.8-5.5 mm). All mental canals exiting the MF demonstrated an upward course in the coronal plane, with 70.1% of the mental canal presenting an anterior loop (AL) in the axial view. The mean extension of AL in cases with an AL was 2.3 mm. This study is consistent with previous radiographic studies regarding size and location of MF and distances between MF and adjacent anatomic structures. The assessed bilateral cases showed a high intraindividual concordance for certain features when comparing right and left sides. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. All rights reserved.

  12. Material Nondestructive Evalution by Eddy Current Testing Material Nondestructive Evalution by Eddy Current Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Marek

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Eddy current method is one of many methods of nondestructive testing. The aim of nondestructive testing is prevention of equipment breakdown without any impact on equipment operation. Especially breakdowns coused by hidden material defect from witch is equipment or part of equipment made. This paper explains the basic principles of method and present its functionality by simulation.
    Eddy current method is one of many methods of nondestructive testing. The aim of nondestructive testing is prevention of equipment breakdown without any impact on equipment operation. Especially breakdowns coused by hidden material defect from witch is equipment or part of equipment made. This paper explains the basic principles of method and present its functionality by simulation.

  13. Geotechnical Design Asssisted by Laboratory Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Niels; Dysli, Michel; Head, Ken H.

    1997-01-01

    Eurocode 7 Part 2 is intended to serve as a reference document for the use of laboratory tests for geotechnical design. It covers the execution and interpretation of the most commonly used laboratory tests. The standard aims at ensuring that adequate quality is reached in the execution...... of laboratory tests and their interpretation. Within the framework of European Standardisation, Eurocode 7 Part 1 on the design of geotechnical structures was established. Complementary, Eurocode 7 Part 3 addresses field testing....

  14. Sourcebook of locations of geophysical surveys in tunnels and horizontal holes, including results of seismic refraction surveys, Rainier Mesa, Aqueduct Mesa, and Area 16, Nevada Test Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, R.D.; Kibler, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    Seismic refraction surveys have been obtained sporadically in tunnels in zeolitized tuff at the Nevada Test Site since the late 1950's. Commencing in 1967 and continuing to date (1982), .extensive measurements of shear- and compressional-wave velocities have been made in five tunnel complexes in Rainier and Aqueduct Mesas and in one tunnel complex in Shoshone Mountain. The results of these surveys to 1980 are compiled in this report. In addition, extensive horizontal drilling was initiated in 1967 in connection with geologic exploration in these tunnel complexes for sites for nuclear weapons tests. Seismic and electrical surveys were conducted in the majority of these holes. The type and location of these tunnel and borehole surveys are indexed in this report. Synthesis of the seismic refraction data indicates a mean compressional-wave velocity near the nuclear device point (WP) of 23 tunnel events of 2,430 m/s (7,970 f/s) with a range of 1,846-2,753 m/s (6,060-9,030 f/s). The mean shear-wave velocity of 17 tunnel events is 1,276 m/s (4,190 f/s) with a range of 1,140-1,392 m/s (3,740-4,570 f/s). Experience indicates that these velocity variations are due chiefly to the extent of fracturing and (or) the presence of partially saturated rock in the region of the survey.

  15. Evaluation of farmed cod products by a trained sensory panel and consumers in different test settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sveinsdottir, K.; Martinsdottir, E.; Thorsdottir, F.; Schelvis-Smit, A.A.M.; Kole, A.; Thorsdottir, I.

    2010-01-01

    Sensory characteristics of farmed cod exposed to low or conventional stress levels prior to slaughter were evaluated by a trained sensory panel. Consumers in two different settings, central location test (CLT) and home-use test (HUT), also tasted the products and rated them according to overall

  16. The Accuracy of the Five-planet Locations Calculated by the Chinese Ancient Calendar Named Shoushi Li

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.

    2011-01-01

    The calendar Shoushi Li is one of the most famous calendars in ancient China, which was recorded in the Lizhi (ancient calendar book of China) of Yuanshi (annals of the Yuan Dynasty from 1279 to 1367). There are seven important calculation parts, including solar terms, syzygies, corrections of the sun and the moon, eclipses and so on. The locations of the five-planet are also in the list. Almost every part has a corresponding section in the modern astronomical year book. It is the last calendar formulated only by Chinese astronomers and its period of usage (from 1281 to 1644) is the longest one in ancient China. It was also a new calendar system which cast off the traditional method by which calculations were carried out from the epoch of the distant past. The basic constants were obtained by meticulous observations and then used in calculations. In this paper, the calculation methods of planetary locations in Shoushi Li are investigated and recovered by studying the official texts of Yuanshi. (1) The locations of the ephemeris of Jupiter in 1299 are derived and our recovering method is affirmed by comparing with other studies. (2) The calculated accuracies of celestial longitudes of the five-planet from 1280 to 1650 are obtained. For Jupiter, Mars, Saturn, Venus and Mercury, the average values of absolute errors are 0.49°, 1.91°, 0.70°, 2.82° and 5.01°. Jupiter and Saturn have comparatively higher accuracies. (3) Zhoulu, Lilu, Dulu, Heying and Liying are used for planetary calculations in Shoushi Li. Their accurate values, instead of those adopted in Shoushi Li, are derived and calculated by modern astronomical methods and then inputted into Shoushi models. It is found that the accuracies of planetary locations are not improved. The errors of Jupiter and Saturn are 1.83°and 1.21°. But the errors of Mercury, Venus and Mars ascend to 30.04°, 54.86°and 10.82°, respectively. It is indicated that the accuracies can not be increased by revising some of the

  17. Inflammation Caused by Praziquantel Treatment Depends on the Location of the Taenia solium Cysticercus in Porcine Neurocysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cangalaya, Carla; Zimic, Mirko; Marzal, Miguel; González, Armando E; Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Nash, Theodore E; García, Hector H

    2015-12-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC), infection of the central nervous system by Taenia solium cysticerci, is a pleomorphic disease. Inflammation around cysticerci is the major cause of disease but is variably present. One factor modulating the inflammatory responses may be the location and characteristics of the brain tissue adjacent to cysticerci. We analyzed and compared the inflammatory responses to cysticerci located in the parenchyma to those in the meninges or cysticerci partially in contact with both the parenchyma and the meninges (corticomeningeal). Histological specimens of brain cysticerci (n = 196) from 11 pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium cysticerci were used. Four pigs were sacrificed after 2 days and four after 5 days of a single dose of praziquantel; 3 pigs did not receive treatment. All pigs were intravenously injected with Evans Blue to assess disruption of the blood-brain barrier. The degree of inflammation was estimated by use of a histological score (ISC) based on the extent of the inflammation in the pericystic areas as assessed in an image composed of several photomicrographs taken at 40X amplification. Parenchymal cysticerci provoked a significantly greater level of pericystic inflammation (higher ISC) after antiparasitic treatment compared to meningeal and corticomeningeal cysticerci. ISC of meningeal cysticerci was not significantly affected by treatment. In corticomeningeal cysticerci, the increase in ISC score was correlated to the extent of the cysticercus adjacent to the brain parenchyma. Disruption of the blood-brain barrier was associated with treatment only in parenchymal tissue. Inflammatory response to cysticerci located in the meninges was significantly decreased compared to parenchymal cysticerci. The suboptimal inflammatory response to cysticidal drugs may be the reason subarachnoid NCC is generally refractory to treatment compared to parenchymal NCC.

  18. Robustness in facility location

    OpenAIRE

    Van Lokven, Sander W.M.

    2009-01-01

    Facility location concerns the placement of facilities, for various objectives, by use of mathematical models and solution procedures. Almost all facility location models that can be found in literature are based on minimizing costs or maximizing cover, to cover as much demand as possible. These models are quite efficient for finding an optimal location for a new facility for a particular data set, which is considered to be constant and known in advance. In a real world situation, input da...

  19. Two Distally Located Right SCA Aneurysms: Endovascular Treatment by Parent Artery Occlusion with GDC Coils and N-BCA Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szajner, M.; Obszaska, K.; Nestorowicz, A.; Szczerbo-Trojanowska, M.

    2003-01-01

    Summary Peripheral aneurysms of the superior cerebellar artery are considered difficult to treat surgically and endovascularly because of their inaccessibility. Parent artery occlusion is therefore frequently the preferred method. Embolic materials previously reported in this situation are either GDC coils or a polymerizing agent (n-BCA). We report a patient with two distally located, wide-neck aneurysms of the right superior cerebellar artery who presented with hemorrhage and was treated by endovascular embolization of the parent artery using a combination of GDC coils and n-BCA. PMID:20591270

  20. Estimating melanin location in the pigmented skin lesions by hue-saturation-lightness color space values of dermoscopic images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Hiroshi; Ando, Yoshimi; Ikinaga, Kuniko; Tanaka, Masaru

    2017-05-01

    The depth of melanin in the skin can be estimated roughly by observation of the color exhibited on dermoscopy. Currently, there are no objective methods to estimate it. The aim of the present study was to clarify the relationship between the depth of melanin in the skin and the color variation exhibited, and to objectively estimate the 3-D location of melanin in the pigmented skin lesions from dermoscopic images. Representative colors in dermoscopic images of acral compound nevus, Spitz nevus and blue nevus were evaluated by the subjectively perceived color on dermoscopy and objective values in hue-saturation-lightness color space values. Brown colors due to small quantities of superficial melanin in the skin had high saturation and low lightness values, whereas black colors due to large quantities of superficial melanin had low saturation and low lightness values. On the other hand, colors due to melanin in the dermis were perceived as blue-gray on dermoscopy, but extracted colors showed gray-brown hue and intermediate saturation and high lightness values. In all cases, extracted representative colors of pigmented skin lesions had similar hue values within the red-orange range. Objective estimation of the 3-D location of melanin in the pigmented skin lesions is possible by the saturation and lightness values of the colors extracted from dermoscopic images. Subjectively perceived colors of melanin, especially in the dermis, can be modified by the surrounding environment effect and blue color perception. © 2017 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  1. Volume fraction and location of voids and gaps in ultraconservative restorations by X-ray computed micro-tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Lagouvardos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Volume fraction (Vf and location of internal voids and gaps in relation to material type and cavity dimensions in ultraconservative restorations were investigated in this study. Materials and Methods: Forty-eight round cavities of 1.3 mm mean diameter and 2.6 mm mean depth were made on buccal and lingual surfaces of recently extracted human teeth. These were filled and thermocycled with two low viscosity composites (AeliteFlo LV [AF], PermaFlo [PF], one high viscosity composite (Aelite aesthetic enamel [AA] and one glass-ionomer (GCFuji IX GP. X-ray microtomography, following a specific procedure, was applied to all cavities before and after their restoration, using SkyScan-1072 microtomographer. Vf percent (Vf% and location of voids and gaps were recorded and analysed statistically at a = 0.05. Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric analysis of variance, post-hoc analysis, Mann-Whitney test, Spearman′s correlation analysis were used to analyze data. Results: Cavities filled with AF and PF showed significantly lower V f % of voids and gaps than all other restorations (P 0.05. The proportion of cavities with gaps at the bottom and side walls was lower in those filled with AF and PF (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Cavities filled with low viscosity composites presented the lowest amount of internal voids and gaps. Glass-ionomer and high viscosity composite restorative materials showed the highest amount of interfacial gaps. Only in the high viscosity composite restorations the amount of voids and gaps correlated with the cavity depth, width and volume.

  2. Preferential location of lidocaine and etidocaine in lecithin bilayers as determined by EPR, fluorescence and 2H NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula, Eneida; Schreier, Shirley; Jarrell, Harold C; Fraceto, Leonardo Fernandes

    2008-01-01

    We have examined the effect of the uncharged species of lidocaine (LDC) and etidocaine (EDC) on the acyl chain moiety of egg phosphatidylcholine liposomes. Changes in membrane organization caused by both anesthetics were detected through the use of EPR spin labels (5, 7 and 12 doxyl stearic acid methyl ester) or fluorescence probes (4, 6, 10, 16 pyrene-fatty acids). The disturbance caused by the LA was greater when the probes were inserted in more external positions of the acyl chain and decreased towards the hydrophobic core of the membrane. The results indicate a preferential insertion of LDC at the polar interface of the bilayer and in the first half of the acyl chain, for EDC. Additionally, (2)H NMR spectra of multilamellar liposomes composed by acyl chain-perdeutero DMPC and EPC (1:4 mol%) allowed the determination of the segmental order (S(mol)) and dynamics (T(1)) of the acyl chain region. In accordance to the fluorescence and EPR results, changes in molecular orientation and dynamics are more prominent if the LA preferential location is more superficial, as for LDC while EDC seems to organize the acyl chain region between carbons 2-8, which is indicative of its positioning. We propose that the preferential location of LDC and EDC inside the bilayers creates a "transient site", which is related to the anesthetic potency since it could modulate the access of these molecules to their binding site(s) in the voltage-gated sodium channel.

  3. A Novel Hybrid Intelligent Indoor Location Method for Mobile Devices by Zones Using Wi-Fi Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Castañón–Puga

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The increasing use of mobile devices in indoor spaces brings challenges to location methods. This work presents a hybrid intelligent method based on data mining and Type-2 fuzzy logic to locate mobile devices in an indoor space by zones using Wi-Fi signals from selected access points (APs. This approach takes advantage of wireless local area networks (WLANs over other types of architectures and implements the complete method in a mobile application using the developed tools. Besides, the proposed approach is validated by experimental data obtained from case studies and the cross-validation technique. For the purpose of generating the fuzzy rules that conform to the Takagi–Sugeno fuzzy system structure, a semi-supervised data mining technique called subtractive clustering is used. This algorithm finds centers of clusters from the radius map given by the collected signals from APs. Measurements of Wi-Fi signals can be noisy due to several factors mentioned in this work, so this method proposed the use of Type-2 fuzzy logic for modeling and dealing with such uncertain information.

  4. Solving a bi-objective location routing problem by a NSGA-II combined with clustering approach: application in waste collection problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbani, Masoud; Farrokhi-Asl, Hamed; Asgarian, Bahare

    2017-10-01

    It is observed that the separated design of location for depots and routing for servicing customers often reach a suboptimal solution. So, solving location and routing problem simultaneously could achieve better results. In this paper, waste collection problem is considered with regard to economic and societal objective functions. A non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) is used to locate depots and treatment facilities and design the routes starting from depots to serve customers. A new mathematical model is proposed and two objective functions including economic objective (opening cost of depots and treatment facility and transportation cost) and societal objective; that is, negative impact of treatment facilities which are close to towns are addressed in this study. A straightforward order based solution representation is applied for coding solutions of the problem and clustering approach is used to generate appropriate initial solutions. Moreover, three multi-objective decomposition methods including weighted sum, goal programming, and goal attainment are applied to validate the performance of the proposed algorithm. Number of test problems are conducted and the results obtained by algorithms are compared with respect to some comparison metrics. Finally, the experimental results show that the proposed hybrid NSGA-II outperforms all decomposition methods, but the computational times for decomposition methods are less than NSGA-II.

  5. Lost in Location

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lone Koefoed

    2009-01-01

    performance, the article examines how the growing locative media industry can learn from the location-aware performative strategies employed by artists who create situated and urban performances for the curious participant. The academic frames employed in the analysis draw on psychogeography, site......-specific performance, social and cultural geography, and aspects of phenomenology....... traversed. While becoming destination aware, the individual loses her location awareness. The article proposes that the reason people get lost when using sat-nav is due to a wrong location-performative paradigm. As an alternative, the article introduces and analyzes two performance-related examples...

  6. Test of quantum mechanics by neutron interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, H.

    2008-06-01

    Interferometry with massive elementary particles combines particle and wave features in a direct way. In this respect, neutrons are proper tools for testing quantum mechanics because they are massive, they couple to electromagnetic fields due to their magnetic moment, and they are subject to all basic interactions, and they are sensitive to topological effects, as well. They play a pionieering role in the development of interferometry with even heavier objects, like atoms, molecules and clusters. Deterministic and stochastic partial absorption experiments can be described by Bell-type inequalities. Recent neutron interferometry experiments based on postselection methods renewed the discussion about quantum nonlocality and the quantum measuring process. It has been shown that interference phenomena can be revived even when the overall interference pattern has lost its contrast. This indicates persisting coupling in phase space even in cases of spatially separated Schrödinger cat-like situations. These states are extremely fragile and sensitive to any kind of fluctuations or other decoherence processes. More complete quantum experiments also show that a complete retrieval of quantum states behind an interaction region becomes impossible in principle. The transition from a quantum world to a classical one is still an open question and will be tackled by means of dedicated decoherence experiments. Recent measurements deal with quantum contextuality and quantum state reconstruction. The observed results agree with quantum mechanical laws and may stimulate further discussions about their interpretations.

  7. Examining Test Speededness by Native Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talento-Miller, Eileen; Guo, Fanmin; Han, Kyung T.

    2013-01-01

    When power tests include a time limit, it is important to assess the possibility of speededness for examinees. Past research on differential speededness has examined gender and ethnic subgroups in the United States on paper and pencil tests. When considering the needs of a global audience, research regarding different native language speakers is…

  8. Incremental sheet forming analyzed by tensile tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmens, W.C.; van den Boogaard, Antonius H.; Shirvani, B

    2009-01-01

    To study material behaviour under conditions encountered in ISF operations tensile tests have been carried out on material taken from the walls of pyramidal products. The shape of the stress-strain curves depend on orientation. Tests in the direction of punch movement show an overshoot indicating a

  9. The Selection of Dry Port Location by a Hybrid CFA-MACBETH-PROMETHEE Method: A Case Study of Southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kraisee Komchornrit

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available An intermodal transport could be the potential solution for reduction of logistics cost, including an acceleration of product flow, by way of dry port, where is regarded as a key component of combined transport. To promote a dry port in southern Thailand, the aim of this study is to propose an integrated method based on multi-criteria decision making (MCDM for selecting its best location. Thus, a new hybrid CFA-MACBETH-PROMETHEE model is presented. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA is applied to determine loads for sorting out the importance of criteria and also investigate the relationship of logistic policy and geographical determination of dry port establishment. Later, measuring attractiveness by a categorical based evaluation technique (MACBETH is utilized to build weights of those criteria. Eventually, preference ranking organization method for enrichment of evaluations (PROMETHEE is engaged to rank from the most to least attractive alternatives of dry port. In this study, results indicate that Phatthalung railway station is the most attractive location for being a new dry port.

  10. An Overview of Transmission Line Protection by Artificial Neural Network: Fault Detection, Fault Classification, Fault Location, and Fault Direction Discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamika Yadav

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary power systems are associated with serious issues of faults on high voltage transmission lines. Instant isolation of fault is necessary to maintain the system stability. Protective relay utilizes current and voltage signals to detect, classify, and locate the fault in transmission line. A trip signal will be sent by the relay to a circuit breaker with the purpose of disconnecting the faulted line from the rest of the system in case of a disturbance for maintaining the stability of the remaining healthy system. This paper focuses on the studies of fault detection, fault classification, fault location, fault phase selection, and fault direction discrimination by using artificial neural networks approach. Artificial neural networks are valuable for power system applications as they can be trained with offline data. Efforts have been made in this study to incorporate and review approximately all important techniques and philosophies of transmission line protection reported in the literature till June 2014. This comprehensive and exhaustive survey will reduce the difficulty of new researchers to evaluate different ANN based techniques with a set of references of all concerned contributions.

  11. Consumption of added sugars among US children and adults by food purchase location and food source123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewnowski, Adam; Rehm, Colin D

    2014-01-01

    Background: The proposed changes to the Nutrition Facts Label by the US Food and Drug Administration will include information on added sugars for the first time. Objective: The objective was to evaluate the sources of added sugars in the diets of a representative sample of US children and adults by food purchase location and food source (eg, food group). Design: This cross-sectional study among 31,035 children, adolescents, and adults aged ≥6 y from the 2003–2004, 2005–2006, 2007–2008, and 2009–2010 NHANES used data from a 24-h dietary recall to evaluate consumption of added sugars. Food locations of origin were identified as stores (supermarket or grocery store), quick-service restaurants/pizza (QSRs), full-service restaurants (FSRs), schools, and others (eg, vending machines or gifts). Added sugars consumption by food purchase location was evaluated by age, family income-to-poverty ratio, and race-ethnicity. Food group sources of added sugars were identified by using the National Cancer Institute food categories. Results: Added sugars accounted for ∼14.1% of total dietary energy. Between 65% and 76% of added sugars came from stores, 6% and 12% from QSRs, and 4% and 6% from FSRs, depending on age. Older adults (aged ≥51 y) obtained a significantly greater proportion of added sugars from stores than did younger adults. Lower-income adults obtained a significantly greater proportion of added sugars from stores than did higher-income adults. Intake of added sugars did not vary by family income among children/adolescents. Soda and energy and sports drinks were the largest food group sources of added sugars (34.4%), followed by grain desserts (12.7%), fruit drinks (8.0%), candy (6.7%), and dairy desserts (5.6%). Conclusions: Most added sugars came from foods obtained from stores. The proposed changes to the Nutrition Facts Label should capture the bulk of added sugars in the US food supply, which suggests that the recommended changes have the potential to

  12. Seven hundred seventy eight bite marks: analysis by anatomic location, victim and biter demographics, type of crime, and legal disposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Adam J; Senn, David R; Arendt, Douglas M

    2005-11-01

    A study of the etiology, anatomic location, victim demographics and legal disposition of bite mark cases was made with the purpose of updating and augmenting previous research in the field. The information may be of interest to a myriad of professional disciplines including Forensic Odontologists, Medical Examiners, Detectives, Profilers, Emergency Room Personnel, Coroners, Psychologists, and Family Service Counselors, as bite marks provide both physical and biological data. While bite marks were found on all anatomic regions of the body some sites are significantly more likely to receive bites, and the frequency that an area is bitten may vary with the type of crime. Sex and age of the victim may also impact the resulting location and frequency of bites. A survey form for bite mark cases was created and mailed to all Diplomates of the American Board of Forensic Odontology. The survey form was also included in the American Society of Forensic Odontology newsletter. The survey requested that the recipient fill out a separate form for each case for which the recipient was the primary investigator of a patterned injury. The data from the resulting surveys were entered into a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet. The responses detailed two hundred thirty two (259) bite mark cases that included seven hundred (778) individual bite marks. Harvey (1976) and Sweet and Pretty (2000) published studies finding the highest percentage of bites to the breasts. In 1983 Vale and Noguchi published the paper indicating that the most frequently bitten area was the upper extremities. The survey forms were sent to approximately 1100 forensic dentist in 26 countries. The forensic experience level of the dentists varied from neophyte to very experienced. The data were analyzed and the results reported and organized in the following categories; Victim Distribution by Gender, Victim Distribution by Age, Child Abuse Distribution by Age and Gender, Sexual Assault Distribution by age and Gender

  13. First roman pot tested by TOTEM

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    TOTEM, one of the smaller experiments of the LHC, successfully tested its first 'roman pot' detectors on 3 November. A total of eight will be installed in the LHC near the CMS cavern. Marco Oriunno, project engineer of TOTEM (right), with Jean-Michel Lacroix from TS/MME (Mechanical and Materials Engineering) (left), standing behind one of the roman pot detectors. There is a small tribe in the land of CERN. Among its artefacts you may find colourfully painted rocks, a totem made of cardboard boxes, and a few roman pots. Known by the name of TOTEM, or 'TOTal, Elastic and diffractive cross-section Measurement' (not a tribe motto), they are a relatively small collaborative group in comparison to the main LHC experiments, with approximately 50 'tribe members'. Unlike the four larger experiments that will analyse new particles produced as a result of the collisions, TOTEM will investigate the ones that almost missed each other. When two beams of protons travelling in opposite di...

  14. Comparison of three small-break loss-of-coolant accident tests with different break locations using the system-integrated modular advanced reactor-integral test loop facility to estimate the safety of the smart design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwang Bae

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Three small-break loss-of-coolant accident (SBLOCA tests with safety injection pumps were carried out using the integral-effect test loop for SMART (System-integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor, i.e., the SMART-ITL facility. The types of break are a safety injection system line break, shutdown cooling system line break, and pressurizer safety valve line break. The thermal–hydraulic phenomena show a traditional behavior to decrease the temperature and pressure whereas the local phenomena are slightly different during the early stage of the transient after a break simulation. A safety injection using a high-pressure pump effectively cools down and recovers the inventory of a reactor coolant system. The global trends show reproducible results for an SBLOCA scenario with three different break locations. It was confirmed that the safety injection system is robustly safe enough to protect from a core uncovery.

  15. Comparison of three small-break loss-of-coolant accident tests with different break locations using the system-integrated modular advanced reactor-integral test loop facility to estimate the safety of the smart design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Hwang; Ryu, Sung Uk; Yi, Sung Jae; Park, Hyun Sik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong Eok [Dept. of Precision Mechanical Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Sangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-15

    Three small-break loss-of-coolant accident (SBLOCA) tests with safety injection pumps were carried out using the integral-effect test loop for SMART (System-integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor), i.e., the SMART-ITL facility. The types of break are a safety injection system line break, shutdown cooling system line break, and pressurizer safety valve line break. The thermal–hydraulic phenomena show a traditional behavior to decrease the temperature and pressure whereas the local phenomena are slightly different during the early stage of the transient after a break simulation. A safety injection using a high-pressure pump effectively cools down and recovers the inventory of a reactor coolant system. The global trends show reproducible results for an SBLOCA scenario with three different break locations. It was confirmed that the safety injection system is robustly safe enough to protect from a core uncovery.

  16. Generic Network Location Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laban Mwansa

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the Generic Network Location Service based on the Chord implementation utilizing data structures called distributed hash tables (DHT or structured overlay networks, which are used to build scalable self-managing distributed systems. The provided algorithms guarantee resilience in the presence of dynamism: they guarantee consistent lookup results in the presence of nodes failing and leaving. Generic Network Location Service provides a Location Service system based on DHT technology, which is storing device location records in nodes within a Chord DHT. Location records are consisting of network device identification keys as attributes, which are used to create replicas of additional location records through established Chord hashing mechanisms. Storing device location records, in places address-able (using the DHT lookup by individual location record keys provides a simple way of implementing transla¬tion functions similar to well¬ known network services (e.g. ARP, DNS, ENUM. The generic network location ser¬vice presented in the paper is not supposed to be a substitu¬tion of the existing translation techniques (e.g. ARP, DNS, ENUM, but it is considered as an overlay service that uses data available in existing systems and provides some translations currently unavailable.

  17. Sources of Caffeine in Diets of US Children and Adults: Trends by Beverage Type and Purchase Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewnowski, Adam; Rehm, Colin D.

    2016-01-01

    New sources of caffeine, besides coffee and tea, have been introduced into the US food supply. Data on caffeine consumption age and purchase location can help guide public health policy. National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) were used to estimate population-level caffeine intakes, using data from 24-h dietary recall. First, caffeine intakes by age-group and beverage type were estimated using the most recent 2011–2012 data (n = 7456). Second, fourteen years trends in caffeine consumption, overall and by beverage type, were evaluated for adults and children. Trend analyses were conducted by age groups. Last, trends in caffeine intakes by purchase location and beverage type were estimated. In 2011–2012, children aged four to eight years consumed the least caffeine (15 mg/day), and adults aged 51–70 years consumed the most (213 mg/day). The population mean (age ≥ four years) was 135 mg/day, driven largely by coffee (90 mg/day), tea (25 mg/day), and soda (21 mg/day). For the 14–19 years and 20–34 years age-groups, energy drinks contributed 6 mg/day (9.9%) and 5 mg/day (4.5%), respectively. The bulk of caffeine came from store-bought coffee and tea. Among both children and adults combined, caffeine intakes declined from 175 mg/day (1999–2000) to 142 mg/day (2011–2012), largely driven by a drop in caffeine from soda (41 mg/day to 21 mg/day). Store-bought coffee and tea remain principal drivers of caffeine intake in the US. Sodas and energy drinks make minor contributions to overall caffeine intakes. PMID:26978391

  18. Sources of Caffeine in Diets of US Children and Adults: Trends by Beverage Type and Purchase Location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Drewnowski

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available New sources of caffeine, besides coffee and tea, have been introduced into the US food supply. Data on caffeine consumption age and purchase location can help guide public health policy. National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES were used to estimate population-level caffeine intakes, using data from 24-h dietary recall. First, caffeine intakes by age-group and beverage type were estimated using the most recent 2011–2012 data (n = 7456. Second, fourteen years trends in caffeine consumption, overall and by beverage type, were evaluated for adults and children. Trend analyses were conducted by age groups. Last, trends in caffeine intakes by purchase location and beverage type were estimated. In 2011–2012, children aged four to eight years consumed the least caffeine (15 mg/day, and adults aged 51–70 years consumed the most (213 mg/day. The population mean (age ≥ four years was 135 mg/day, driven largely by coffee (90 mg/day, tea (25 mg/day, and soda (21 mg/day. For the 14–19 years and 20–34 years age-groups, energy drinks contributed 6 mg/day (9.9% and 5 mg/day (4.5%, respectively. The bulk of caffeine came from store-bought coffee and tea. Among both children and adults combined, caffeine intakes declined from 175 mg/day (1999–2000 to 142 mg/day (2011–2012, largely driven by a drop in caffeine from soda (41 mg/day to 21 mg/day. Store-bought coffee and tea remain principal drivers of caffeine intake in the US. Sodas and energy drinks make minor contributions to overall caffeine intakes.

  19. Sources of Caffeine in Diets of US Children and Adults: Trends by Beverage Type and Purchase Location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewnowski, Adam; Rehm, Colin D

    2016-03-10

    New sources of caffeine, besides coffee and tea, have been introduced into the US food supply. Data on caffeine consumption age and purchase location can help guide public health policy. National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) were used to estimate population-level caffeine intakes, using data from 24-h dietary recall. First, caffeine intakes by age-group and beverage type were estimated using the most recent 2011-2012 data (n = 7456). Second, fourteen years trends in caffeine consumption, overall and by beverage type, were evaluated for adults and children. Trend analyses were conducted by age groups. Last, trends in caffeine intakes by purchase location and beverage type were estimated. In 2011-2012, children aged four to eight years consumed the least caffeine (15 mg/day), and adults aged 51-70 years consumed the most (213 mg/day). The population mean (age ≥ four years) was 135 mg/day, driven largely by coffee (90 mg/day), tea (25 mg/day), and soda (21 mg/day). For the 14-19 years and 20-34 years age-groups, energy drinks contributed 6 mg/day (9.9%) and 5 mg/day (4.5%), respectively. The bulk of caffeine came from store-bought coffee and tea. Among both children and adults combined, caffeine intakes declined from 175 mg/day (1999-2000) to 142 mg/day (2011-2012), largely driven by a drop in caffeine from soda (41 mg/day to 21 mg/day). Store-bought coffee and tea remain principal drivers of caffeine intake in the US. Sodas and energy drinks make minor contributions to overall caffeine intakes.

  20. Orchid seeds viability identification by tetrazolium test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackeline Schultz Soares

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of germinal potential optimizes the practice of in vitro germination of Orchidaceae. This work evaluated of the type and concentrations of tetrazolium solutions on reaction time and on the identification of viable orchid seeds. Were used seeds of the species Brassavola tuberculata Rchb f., Cattleya labiata Lindley var Amoema, Cattleya intermedia and Dendrobium antenatum and of two primary hybrids of Cattleya labiata autumnalis x Cattleya labiata Lindley var. Alba. The seeds (0.01g of each species or hybrid were soaked in 3 mL of aqueous and neutral solutions of 2, 3, 5 triphenyltetrazolium chloride at 0.0625%, 0.125%, 0.25%, 0.5% ou 1,0% concentrations and stored in a light-free environment at 25±2 °C, being evaluated every 30 minutes for identification of the time needed for embryos coloring and later counting of the number of viable seeds by milligram of seed. A completely randomized design was used, in a factorial scheme 6 x 2 x 5 (six genotypes of orchids, two types of tetrazolium solutions and five concentrations with 3 replications. The genotypes responded differently response both for viable seeds by milligram of seed and for the time required for embryos coloring and C. intermedia not respond to the test. Irrespective of solution type, concentrations only interfered in reaction time for the hybrids. It is recommended, therefore, the use of neutral tetrazolium solution at 0.5% for indentification of viable seeds of hybrids of Cattleya labiata autumnalis x Cattleya labiata var. Alba and use of aqueous solution at 0.125% for Brassavola tuberculata, Cattleya labiata var Amoema e Dendrobium antenatum.

  1. Synthesis and catalysis of location-specific cobalt nanoparticles supported by multiwall carbon nanotubes for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yuan; Ye, Yingchun; Zhang, Shiran; Leong, Mark E; Tao, Franklin Feng

    2012-05-29

    Cobalt nanoparticles located on the concave internal surface of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (Co-in-MW-CNTs) and the convex external surface of MW-CNTs (Co-on-MW-CNTs) were synthesized. Their catalytic performances in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) were investigated. A correlation between the location, pretreatment, and surface chemistry of the cobalt nanoparticles and the catalytic selectivity in FTS was built. It is found that the selectivity in production of C(5+) molecules through FTS on cobalt catalysts supported by MW-CNTs depends on activation temperatures and surface chemistry of the cobalt nanoparticles. A pretreatment at 300 °C in H(2) flow results in a different surface chemistry for Co-in-MW-CNTs than for Co-on-MW-CNTs, which leads to a difference in selectvity to the production of C(5+) molecules. Pretreatment at a relatively high temperature, 400 °C, in H(2) flow produces completely reduced Co nanoparticles in Co-in-MW-CNTs and Co-on-MW-CNTs. There is no signifcant difference in catalytic selectivity between the two catalysts upon pretreatment at 400 °C. The absence of a significant difference in catalytic selectivity of metallic Co-on-MW-CNTs and metallic Co-in-MW-CNTs suggests that the electronic effect of the MW-CNT support does not significantly affect the C(5+) selectivity of cobalt catalysts in FTS.

  2. Dip distribution of Oita-Kumamoto Tectonic Line located in central Kyushu, Japan, estimated by eigenvectors of gravity gradient tensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusumoto, Shigekazu

    2016-09-01

    We estimated the dip distribution of Oita-Kumamoto Tectonic Line located in central Kyushu, Japan, by using the dip of the maximum eigenvector of the gravity gradient tensor. A series of earthquakes in Kumamoto and Oita beginning on 14 April 2016 occurred along this tectonic line, the largest of which was M = 7.3. Because a gravity gradiometry survey has not been conducted in the study area, we calculated the gravity gradient tensor from the Bouguer gravity anomaly and employed it to the analysis. The general dip distribution of the Oita-Kumamoto Tectonic Line was found to be about 65° and tends to be higher towards its eastern end. In addition, we estimated the dip around the largest earthquake to be about 60° from the gravity gradient tensor. This result agrees with the dip of the earthquake source fault obtained by Global Navigation Satellite System data analysis.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  3. Solving a multi-objective chance-constrained hub covering location problem by discrete invasive weed optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hossein Nikokalam-Mozafar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a stochastic bi-objective model for a single-allocation hub covering problem (HCP with the variable capacity and uncertainty parameters. Locating hubs can influence the performance of hub and spoke networks, as a strategic decision. The presented model optimizes two objectives minimizing the total transportation cost and the maximum transportation time from an origin to a destination simultaneously. Then, due to the NP-hardness of the multi-objective chance-constrained HCP, the presented model is solved by a well-known meta-heuristic algorithm, namely multi-objective invasive weed optimization. Additionally, the associated results are compared with a well-known multi-objective evolutionary algorithm, namely non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm. Furthermore, the computational results of the foregoing algorithms are reported in terms four well-known metrics, namely quality, spacing, diversification, and mean ideal distance. Finally, the conclusion is reported.

  4. Active coated nano-particle excited by an arbitrarily located electric Hertzian dipole — resonance and transparency effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arslanagic, Samel; Ziolkowski, Richard W.

    2010-01-01

    The present work investigates the optical properties of active coated spherical nano-particles excited by an arbitrarily located electric Hertzian dipole. The nano-particles are made of specific dielectric and plasmonic materials. The spatial near-field distribution as well as the normalized...... radiation resistance is examined. Both enhanced as well as reduced radiation effects are demonstrated. In particular, it is shown that specific active coated nano-particles can be designed to be resonant, leading to much larger values of the normalized radiation resistance than is the case...... with the corresponding passive coated nano-particles, thereby overcoming the intrinsic losses present in the plasmonic materials. Moreover, it is shown that other active coated nano-particle designs can significantly reduce the normalized radiation resistance; thus both the resonant as well as non...

  5. Image reconstruction of the location of macro-inhomogeneity in random turbid medium by using artificial neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veksler, Boris A.; Maksimova, Irina L.; Meglinski, Igor V.

    2007-07-01

    Nowadays the artificial neural network (ANN), an effective powerful technique that is able denoting complex input and output relationships, is widely used in different biomedical applications. In present study the applying of ANN for the determination of characteristics of random highly scattering medium (like bio-tissue) is considered. Spatial distribution of the backscattered light calculated by Monte Carlo method is used to train ANN for multiply scattering regimes. The potential opportunities of use of ANN for image reconstruction of an absorbing macro inhomogeneity located in topical layers of random scattering medium are presented. This is especially of high priority because of new diagnostics/treatment developing that is based on the applying gold nano-particles for labeling cancer cells.

  6. Comparing methods for Earthquake Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkaya, Semih; Bodin, Thomas; Sylvander, Matthieu; Parroucau, Pierre; Manchuel, Kevin

    2017-04-01

    There are plenty of methods available for locating small magnitude point source earthquakes. However, it is known that these different approaches produce different results. For each approach, results also depend on a number of parameters which can be separated into two main branches: (1) parameters related to observations (number and distribution of for example) and (2) parameters related to the inversion process (velocity model, weighting parameters, initial location etc.). Currently, the results obtained from most of the location methods do not systematically include quantitative uncertainties. The effect of the selected parameters on location uncertainties is also poorly known. Understanding the importance of these different parameters and their effect on uncertainties is clearly required to better constrained knowledge on fault geometry, seismotectonic processes and at the end to improve seismic hazard assessment. In this work, realized in the frame of the SINAPS@ research program (http://www.institut-seism.fr/projets/sinaps/), we analyse the effect of different parameters on earthquakes location (e.g. type of phase, max. hypocentral separation etc.). We compare several codes available (Hypo71, HypoDD, NonLinLoc etc.) and determine their strengths and weaknesses in different cases by means of synthetic tests. The work, performed for the moment on synthetic data, is planned to be applied, in a second step, on data collected by the Midi-Pyrénées Observatory (OMP).

  7. Leptospirosis serodiagnosis by the microscopic agglutination test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goris, Marga G. A.; Hartskeerl, Rudy A.

    2014-01-01

    The microscopic agglutination test (MAT) is the gold standard for sero-diagnosis of leptospirosis because of its unsurpassed diagnostic specificity. It uses panels of live leptospires, ideally recent isolates, representing the circulating serovars from the area where the patient became infected. A

  8. Reducing travel by design: a micro analysis of new household location and the commute to work in Surrey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, Robin

    Traffic volumes (and hence energy consumption) from the transport sector continue to rise, yet the potential fundamental role of urban planning in helping to reduce transport energy consumption remains to be poorly understood and hugely underplayed. Current urban planning practice, particularly in suburban areas, tends to increase traffic volumes by dispersing activities and hence facilitates private car travel rather than travel by public transport, walking or cycling. Public transport orientated development as an evolving practice tends to be focused very much on urban areas. This thesis seeks to understand the logic behind travel and suggests that urban planning can be applied more fully, at the strategic and local levels, to reduce energy consumption in car use (at least in the journey to work). The detailed analysis assesses the extent to which the design of the urban environment affects travel behaviour. The research hypothesis is that: "Journey to work travel behaviour generated by new residential development is dependent on a number of land use and socio-economic variables. The strength, significance and range of interaction vary spatially and over time." Within the analysis, the journey to work is used as the dependent variable, and is measured in terms of journey length and time, mode share and composite energy consumption. The independent variables considered include: Land use: resident population density, resident employment density, workplace population density, workplace employment density, resident population size, workplace population size, distance from urban centres and strategic transport networks, jobs-housing balance, resident classification (relative to the urban area), type of journey to work, neighbourhood streetscape design, public transport accessibility, and resident location (relative to the green belt). Socio-economic: household tenure, house type, house size, number of children, car availability, company car ownership, household income

  9. PSYCHOMETRIC TESTS APPLICATIONS BY ALBANIAN HR MANAGERS

    OpenAIRE

    Sidita Dibra

    2013-01-01

    Human resources are already acknowledged for the contribution towards sustained competitive advantage, especially in today’s rapidly changing environment (Barney, 1991), that’s why Human Resources Management (HRM) practices should be based on techniques able to identify and use the personnel professional and personal competencies. Personal characteristics such as personality, are in the same time more intriguing and more difficult to measure and manage. Several workplace personality testing t...

  10. Processed and Unprocessed Red Meat and Risk of Colorectal Cancer: Analysis by Tumor Location and Modification by Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuehong; Pan, An; Wang, Molin; Fuchs, Charles S.; Le, Ngoan; Chan, Andrew T.; Willett, Walter C.; Ogino, Shuji; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Wu, Kana

    2015-01-01

    Although the association between red meat consumption and colorectal cancer (CRC) is well established, the association across subsites of the colon and rectum remains uncertain, as does time of consumption in relation to cancer development. As these relationships are key for understanding the pathogenesis of CRC, they were examined in two large cohorts with repeated dietary measures over time, the Nurses’ Health Study (n = 87,108 women, 1980–2010) and Health Professionals Follow-up Study (n = 47,389 men, 1986–2010). Cox proportional hazards regression models generated hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), which were pooled by random-effects meta-analysis. In combined cohorts, there were 2,731 CRC cases (1,151 proximal colon, 816 distal colon, and 589 rectum). In pooled analyses, processed red meat was positively associated with CRC risk (per 1 serving/day increase: HR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.01–1.32; P for trend 0.03) and particularly with distal colon cancer (per 1 serving/day increase; HR = 1.36; 95% CI: 1.09–1.69; P for trend 0.006). Recent consumption of processed meat (within the past 4 years) was not associated with distal cancer. Unprocessed red meat was inversely associated with risk of distal colon cancer and a weak non-significant positive association between unprocessed red meat and proximal cancer was observed (per 1 serving/day increase: distal HR = 0.75; 95% CI: 0.68–0.82; P for trend processed meat intake was positively associated with risk of CRC, particularly distal cancer, with little evidence that higher intake of unprocessed red meat substantially increased risk of CRC. Future studies, particularly those with sufficient sample size to assess associations by subsites across the colon are needed to confirm these findings and elucidate potentially distinct mechanisms underlying the relationship between processed meat and subtypes of unprocessed red meat with CRC. PMID:26305323

  11. SMRT recruitment by PPARgamma is mediated by specific residues located in its carboxy-terminal interacting domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutanto, Maria M; Symons, Melissa S; Cohen, Ronald N

    2006-10-19

    The silencing mediator of retinoid and thyroid hormone receptors (SMRT) has been shown to play an important role in adipogenesis and PPARgamma transcriptional activity. SMRT contains two interacting domains that mediate interactions with nuclear receptors. Interestingly, SMRT is recruited to PPARgamma via its C-terminal interacting domain, and mutation of the proximal interacting domain does not interfere with recruitment via PPARgamma. To understand how the distal interacting domain mediates recruitment by PPARgamma, we have now mutated residues in this domain to the corresponding amino acids found in the proximal domain. We show that specific residues in this distal domain are vital for interactions with PPARgamma, but not for a related receptor, RARalpha. Furthermore, naturally-occuring SMRT isoforms that differ in interacting domain sequences have different effects on PPARgamma as opposed to RARalpha recruitment. These data suggest that PPARgamma and RARalpha interact with SMRT via distinct mechanisms. These differences will be important as ligands are designed that lead to specific patterns of nuclear receptor recruitment of corepressors.

  12. SGA Project Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The stream geomorphic assessment is a physical assessment competed by geomorphologists to determine the condition and sensitivity of a stream. The SGA locations...

  13. USAID Activity Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The USAID Activities dataset is a snapshot of activities supported by USAID including their geographical locations within countries at the time of the snapshot. The...

  14. The Synthesis of the Locating Substitution Derivatives of Chitosan by Click Reaction at the 6-Position of Chitin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel method to prepare the macrocyclic compound locating substitution derivatives of chitosan was investigated, by using cyclodextrin as the model of macrocyclic compound. The method combines the advantages of activated 6-OH of chitin and high efficiency of click reaction. Chitin C6-OH p-toluenesulfonate (CTN-6-OTs was generated and subsequently transferred to chitin C6-N3 via nucleophilic substitution. Afterwards, β-cyclodextrin was immobilized at 6-OH of chitin via click reaction to afford CTN-6-CD. Ultimately, CTS-6-CD was obtained by removing the acetyl group of chitin unit. The structures and properties of these products were characterized by FTIR, TG, and XRD, respectively. It was found that CTN-6-CD synthesized at the optimum conditions has an immobilized loading of 1.6126×10-4 mol/g and that of the corresponding CTS-6-CD, generated by removal of the acetyl group, was 1.6891×10-4 mol/g.

  15. Location capability of a sparse regional network (RSTN) using a multi-phase earthquake location algorithm (REGLOC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchings, L.

    1994-01-01

    The Regional Seismic Test Network (RSTN) was deployed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to determine whether data recorded by a regional network could be used to detect and accurately locate seismic events that might be clandestine nuclear tests. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the location capability of the RSTN. A major part of this project was the development of the location algorithm REGLOC and application of Basian a prior statistics for determining the accuracy of the location estimates. REGLOC utilizes all identifiable phases, including backazimuth, in the location. Ninty-four events, distributed throughout the network area, detected by both the RSTN and located by local networks were used in the study. The location capability of the RSTN was evaluated by estimating the location accuracy, error ellipse accuracy, and the percentage of events that could be located, as a function of magnitude. The location accuracy was verified by comparing the RSTN results for the 94 events with published locations based on data from the local networks. The error ellipse accuracy was evaluated by determining whether the error ellipse includes the actual location. The percentage of events located was assessed by combining detection capability with location capability to determine the percentage of events that could be located within the study area. Events were located with both an average crustal model for the entire region, and with regional velocity models along with station corrections obtained from master events. Most events with a magnitude <3.0 can only be located with arrivals from one station. Their average location errors are 453 and 414 km for the average- and regional-velocity model locations, respectively. Single station locations are very unreliable because they depend on accurate backazimuth estimates, and backazimuth proved to be a very unreliable computation.

  16. The sound source distance dependence of the acoustical cues to location and their encoding by neurons in the inferior colliculus: implications for the Duplex theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Heath G; Koka, Kanthaiah; Thornton, Jennifer; Tollin, Daniel J

    2013-01-01

    For over a century, the Duplex theory has posited that low- and ­high-frequency sounds are localized using two different acoustical cues, interaural time (ITDs) and level (ILDs) differences, respectively. Psychophysical data have generally supported the theory for pure tones. Anatomically, ITDs and ILDs are separately encoded in two parallel brainstem pathways. Acoustically ILDs are a function of location and frequency such that lower and higher frequencies exhibit smaller and larger ILDs, respectively. It is well established that neurons throughout the auditory neuraxis encode high-frequency ILDs. Acoustically, low-frequency ILDs are negligible (∼1–2 dB); however, humans are still sensitive to them and physiological studies often report low-frequency ILD-sensitive neurons. These ­latter findings are at odds with the Duplex theory. We suggest that these discrepancies arise from an inadequate characterization of the acoustical environment. We hypothesize that low-frequency ILDs become large and useful when sources are located near the head. We tested this hypothesis by making measurements of the ILDs in chinchillas as a function of source distance and the sensitivity to ILDs in 103 neurons in the inferior colliculus (IC). The ILD sensitivity of IC neurons was found to be frequency independent even though far-field acoustical ILDs were frequency dependent. However, as source distance was decreased, the magnitudes of low-frequency ILDs increased. Using information theoretic methods, we ­demonstrate that a population of IC neurons can encode the full range of acoustic ILDs across frequency that would be experienced as a joint function of source location and distance.

  17. [Evidence-based medicine in surgical practice - locating clinical studies and systematic reviews by searching the Medline database].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grummich, K; Jensen, K; Obst, O; Seiler, C M; Diener, M K

    2014-12-01

    Every day approximately 75 clinical trials and 11 systematic reviews are published in the health-care intervention and medical field. Due to this growing number of publications it is a challenge for every practicing clinician to keep track with the latest research. The implementation of new and effective diagnostic and therapeutic interventions into daily clinical routine may thus be delayed. Conversely, ineffective or even harmful interventions might still be in use. Decision-making in evidence-based medicine (EBM) requires consideration of the most recent high quality evidence. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) are regarded as the "gold standard" to prove the efficacy of surgical interventions in patient-oriented research. Systematic reviews combine results from RCTs by summarising single RCTs which answer a particular clinical question. Some basic knowledge in systematic literature searching is required and helpful for detecting relevant publications. This article shows various possibilities for locating clinical studies and systematic reviews in the database Medline on the basis of illustrative step-by-step instructions. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION. Depending on the aim and topic of the literature search, the time required for the task may vary. In routine practice, a systematic literature search is unrealistic in most cases. Clinicians in need of a quick update of current evidence on a certain clinical topic may make use of up-to-date systematic reviews. During a systematic literature search, different approaches and strategies might be necessary. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Potential factors affecting survival differ by run-timing and location: linear mixed-effects models of Pacific salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp. in the Klamath River, California.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca M Quiñones

    Full Text Available Understanding factors influencing survival of Pacific salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp. is essential to species conservation, because drivers of mortality can vary over multiple spatial and temporal scales. Although recent studies have evaluated the effects of climate, habitat quality, or resource management (e.g., hatchery operations on salmonid recruitment and survival, a failure to look at multiple factors simultaneously leaves open questions about the relative importance of different factors. We analyzed the relationship between ten factors and survival (1980-2007 of four populations of salmonids with distinct life histories from two adjacent watersheds (Salmon and Scott rivers in the Klamath River basin, California. The factors were ocean abundance, ocean harvest, hatchery releases, hatchery returns, Pacific Decadal Oscillation, North Pacific Gyre Oscillation, El Niño Southern Oscillation, snow depth, flow, and watershed disturbance. Permutation tests and linear mixed-effects models tested effects of factors on survival of each taxon. Potential factors affecting survival differed among taxa and between locations. Fall Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha survival trends appeared to be driven partially or entirely by hatchery practices. Trends in three taxa (Salmon River spring Chinook salmon, Scott River fall Chinook salmon; Salmon River summer steelhead trout O. mykiss were also likely driven by factors subject to climatic forcing (ocean abundance, summer flow. Our findings underscore the importance of multiple factors in simultaneously driving population trends in widespread species such as anadromous salmonids. They also show that the suite of factors may differ among different taxa in the same location as well as among populations of the same taxa in different watersheds. In the Klamath basin, hatchery practices need to be reevaluated to protect wild salmonids.

  19. Location and logistics

    OpenAIRE

    Alumura, Sibel A.; Karab, Bahar Y.; Melo, M. Teresa

    2013-01-01

    Facility location decisions play a critical role in designing logistics networks. This article provides some guidelines on how location decisions and logistics functions can be integrated into a single mathematical model to optimize the configuration of a logistics network. This will be illustrated by two generic models, one supporting the design of a forward logistics network and the other addressing the specific requirements of a reverse logistics network. Several special cases and extensio...

  20. AT excursion: a new approach to predict replication origins in viral genomes by locating AT-rich regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi Kwok

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Replication origins are considered important sites for understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in DNA replication. Many computational methods have been developed for predicting their locations in archaeal, bacterial and eukaryotic genomes. However, a prediction method designed for a particular kind of genomes might not work well for another. In this paper, we propose the AT excursion method, which is a score-based approach, to quantify local AT abundance in genomic sequences and use the identified high scoring segments for predicting replication origins. This method has the advantages of requiring no preset window size and having rigorous criteria to evaluate statistical significance of high scoring segments. Results We have evaluated the AT excursion method by checking its predictions against known replication origins in herpesviruses and comparing its performance with an existing base weighted score method (BWS1. Out of 43 known origins, 39 are predicted by either one or the other method and 26 origins are predicted by both. The excursion method identifies six origins not predicted by BWS1, showing that the AT excursion method is a valuable complement to BWS1. We have also applied the AT excursion method to two other families of double stranded DNA viruses, the poxviruses and iridoviruses, of which very few replication origins are documented in the public domain. The prediction results are made available as supplementary materials at 1. Preliminary investigation shows that the proposed method works well on some larger genomes too. Conclusion The AT excursion method will be a useful computational tool for identifying replication origins in a variety of genomic sequences.

  1. Spine Calcium Transients Induced by Synaptically-Evoked Action Potentials Can Predict Synapse Location and Establish Synaptic Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Rhiannon M.; van Ooyen, Arjen

    2012-01-01

    CA1 pyramidal neurons receive hundreds of synaptic inputs at different distances from the soma. Distance-dependent synaptic scaling enables distal and proximal synapses to influence the somatic membrane equally, a phenomenon called “synaptic democracy”. How this is established is unclear. The backpropagating action potential (BAP) is hypothesised to provide distance-dependent information to synapses, allowing synaptic strengths to scale accordingly. Experimental measurements show that a BAP evoked by current injection at the soma causes calcium currents in the apical shaft whose amplitudes decay with distance from the soma. However, in vivo action potentials are not induced by somatic current injection but by synaptic inputs along the dendrites, which creates a different excitable state of the dendrites. Due to technical limitations, it is not possible to study experimentally whether distance information can also be provided by synaptically-evoked BAPs. Therefore we adapted a realistic morphological and electrophysiological model to measure BAP-induced voltage and calcium signals in spines after Schaffer collateral synapse stimulation. We show that peak calcium concentration is highly correlated with soma-synapse distance under a number of physiologically-realistic suprathreshold stimulation regimes and for a range of dendritic morphologies. Peak calcium levels also predicted the attenuation of the EPSP across the dendritic tree. Furthermore, we show that peak calcium can be used to set up a synaptic democracy in a homeostatic manner, whereby synapses regulate their synaptic strength on the basis of the difference between peak calcium and a uniform target value. We conclude that information derived from synaptically-generated BAPs can indicate synapse location and can subsequently be utilised to implement a synaptic democracy. PMID:22719238

  2. Lunar pickup ions observed by ARTEMIS: Spatial and temporal distribution and constraints on species and source locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halekas, J. S.; Poppe, A. R.; Delory, G. T.; Sarantos, M.; Farrell, W. M.; Angelopoulos, V.; McFadden, J. P.

    2012-06-01

    ARTEMIS observes pickup ions around the Moon, at distances of up to 20,000 km from the surface. The observed ions form a plume with a narrow spatial and angular extent, generally seen in a single energy/angle bin of the ESA instrument. Though ARTEMIS has no mass resolution capability, we can utilize the analytically describable characteristics of pickup ion trajectories to constrain the possible ion masses that can reach the spacecraft at the observation location in the correct energy/angle bin. We find that most of the observations are consistent with a mass range of ˜20-45 amu, with a smaller fraction consistent with higher masses, and very few consistent with masses below ˜15 amu. With the assumption that the highest fluxes of pickup ions come from near the surface, the observations favor mass ranges of ˜20-24 and ˜36-40 amu. Although many of the observations have properties consistent with a surface or near-surface release of ions, some do not, suggesting that at least some of the observed ions have an exospheric source. Of all the proposed sources for ions and neutrals about the Moon, the pickup ion flux measured by ARTEMIS correlates best with the solar wind proton flux, indicating that sputtering plays a key role in either directly producing ions from the surface, or producing neutrals that subsequently become ionized.

  3. Sub-lethal effects of fenbutatin oxide on prey location by the predatory mite Iphiseiodes zuluagai (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodoro, Adenir V; Pallini, Angelo; Oliveira, Claudinei

    2009-04-01

    We used a Y-tube olfactometer to assess the sub-lethal effects of the acaricide fenbutatin oxide on the olfactory response of the predatory mite Iphiseiodes zuluagai towards odours from: (1) air or undamaged coffee plants; (2) undamaged or red spider mite Oligonychus ilicis-infested coffee plants; (3) undamaged or false spider mite Brevipalpus phoenicis-infested coffee plants. Predatory mite adult females were exposed to residues of fenbutatin oxide or distilled water on leaf discs during a period of 72 h prior experiments. When exposed to distilled water (control treatments), predatory mites significantly preferred undamaged plants over air, O. ilicis-infested plants over undamaged plants, and they did not prefer B. phoenicis-infested plants over undamaged plants. However, predatory mites that had been exposed to residues of fenbutatin oxide were neither attracted towards undamaged plants nor to O. ilicis-infested plants. Thus, fenbutatin oxide affected negatively the olfactory response of I. zuluagai. We conclude that sub-lethal-effect studies should be considered in pesticide selectivity programs since the ability of predatory mites to locate their prey may be negatively affected by non-lethal concentrations of pesticides.

  4. Optimum coagulant forecasting by modeling jar test experiments using ANNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Haghiri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the proper utilization of water treatment plants and optimizing their use is of particular importance. Coagulation and flocculation in water treatment are the common ways through which the use of coagulants leads to instability of particles and the formation of larger and heavier particles, resulting in improvement of sedimentation and filtration processes. Determination of the optimum dose of such a coagulant is of particular significance. A high dose, in addition to adding costs, can cause the sediment to remain in the filtrate, a dangerous condition according to the standards, while a sub-adequate dose of coagulants can result in the reducing the required quality and acceptable performance of the coagulation process. Although jar tests are used for testing coagulants, such experiments face many constraints with respect to evaluating the results produced by sudden changes in input water because of their significant costs, long time requirements, and complex relationships among the many factors (turbidity, temperature, pH, alkalinity, etc. that can influence the efficiency of coagulant and test results. Modeling can be used to overcome these limitations; in this research study, an artificial neural network (ANN multi-layer perceptron (MLP with one hidden layer has been used for modeling the jar test to determine the dosage level of used coagulant in water treatment processes. The data contained in this research have been obtained from the drinking water treatment plant located in Ardabil province in Iran. To evaluate the performance of the model, the mean squared error (MSE and correlation coefficient (R2 parameters have been used. The obtained values are within an acceptable range that demonstrates the high accuracy of the models with respect to the estimation of water-quality characteristics and the optimal dosages of coagulants; so using these models will allow operators to not only reduce costs and time taken to perform

  5. Production Subcontracting and Location

    OpenAIRE

    Holl, Adelheid

    2007-01-01

    Using data from a panel of Spanish manufacturing firms, I examine factors that explain firms’ production subcontracting decisions and test whether there is any evidence that production subcontracting is facilitated in areas typically associated with higher agglomeration economies. The results show that location matters. Firms in industry agglomerations are more likely to subcontract production activities. While in general, larger and older firms as well as high wage firms show a greater proba...

  6. Microbiological evaluation of hot beverages dispensed by vending machines from the Army barracks of Brigata Meccanizzata Aosta located in Messina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Beninati

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of hot beverages dispensed by vending machines (VMs. The study was carried out on 203 samples from 15 VMs located in 5 Army barracks in Messina. The samples included: water used for preparation of beverages, swab of water tank, swab of blender machine, chocolate powder, milk powder, cappuccino and chocolate drink (29 samples for each types. All samples were examined for total bacterial count (TBC, coliforms, Escherichia coli, enterococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Clostri - dium perfringens, Aeromonas spp., Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes. For the water samples the colony count (CC at 22°C and at 37°C was made. The average values of CC at 22°C and at 37°C were of 10.86x10²±8.72x10² CFU/mL and of 21.72x10²±16.44x10² CFU/mL, respectively. P. aeruginosa, coliform bacteria, S. aureus, E. coli and molds were detected from water. The TBC ranged from 176 CFU/g (±275.2 for chocolate powder to 294.8±69.4 CFU/g for milk powder. S. aureus and molds were isolated from milk powder, while coliforms, E. coli and S. aureus were observed in chocolate powder. The average TBC for hot beverages ranged from 34.32x10³±97.77x10³ CFU/mL for cappuccino to 36.59x10³±10.47x104 CFU/mL for chocolate drink. Coliforms, E. coli, enterococci and molds were detected from cappuccino, while enterococci and molds were observed in chocolate drink. The microbiological characteristics of the water and powders, hygiene, and the periodic cleaning of machines, influenced the microbiological quality of the hot beverages dispensed by VMs.

  7. By Their Tests We Will Know Them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabers, Darrell L.

    1996-01-01

    This article considers the models and beliefs of language clinicians, as reflected by their choice of specific assessment instruments or measurement methods. Differences in construct and philosophy are demonstrated in a review of personality and vocational preference inventories and several subtests of sentence production. (DB)

  8. testing a consensus conference method by discussing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2000-10-10

    Oct 10, 2000 ... controversial subjects(1-3). Consensus conference methods were developed by the ... Selection of the topic: The current topic was selected after observing the treatment modalities of traumatic dental injuries ... require improvement. The topic was considered appropriate and of potential importance to dental ...

  9. Vocabulary test Strategies used by the Students to answer Vocabulary Test the Reading Comprehension of TOEFL

    OpenAIRE

    Suyatman Suyatman; Dzul Rachman

    2017-01-01

    Test of English as a foreign Language or TOEFL is a standardized test of English for non-native speaker. It consists of three parts or three sections of tests. In Reading Comprehension test, it consists of vocabulary test. To get better result of score, it needs strategies. The purposes of this study are to know the strategies used by the students to answer the vocabulary test on reading section of TOEFL, to know the most strategy used by the students, to know the least strategy used by the s...

  10. Evaluation of Shelter Ventilation by Model Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-03-01

    ventilation is created by mechanical devices such as pedal venti- lators and Kearny pumps. If natural ventilation in a shelter. can be predicted with...past have centered around the design, performance analysis and deployment of mechanical ventilating units (Ref. 11-14). Other studies include one on...calculated as the sum of the air volume flow rates through all the windward openings. The variation of model ventilation througnput versus wind speed

  11. Location, location, location: the BRMS1 protein and melanoma progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riker Adam I

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The metastasis suppressor, BRMS1, has been demonstrated to cause dramatic regression of metastatic lesions without blocking orthotopic tumor growth. The role of BRMS1 is well-documented for several non-melanoma malignancies, such as breast cancer, ovarian cancer and non-small-cell lung cancer. However, its role in melanoma is just beginning to be understood, with a recent article by Slipicevic et al. highlighting the levels of expression of BRMS1 in benign nevi, primary and metastatic melanoma samples. Their findings emphasize that the intracellular location of BRMS1 protein (cytoplasmic or nuclear, appears to have a significant impact upon the metastatic capacity of melanoma cells. Interestingly, this selective localization translates into a statistically significant decrease in the relapse-free period in melanoma patients, further associated with a thicker Breslow's depth of primary melanomas. However, and more importantly, this study begins to define a clearer role for BRMS1 in melanoma that is strictly dependent upon its cellular location, with nuclear expression associated with invasive and metastatic capacity and cytoplasmic expression resulting in repressive effects upon progression and metastasis. Please see related article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2407/12/73

  12. Overcoming trends in irregularly spaced locations by regional polish - exemplified by estimation of the range of influence between Salmonella Dublin-seropositive cattle herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to develop a procedure to remove spatial trends in irregularly spaced data, with trends partly due to regional differences. Median polish is often used on regularly spaced (lattice) data where column and row medians are removed. For irregularly spaced data a low-resolutio......The aim of the study was to develop a procedure to remove spatial trends in irregularly spaced data, with trends partly due to regional differences. Median polish is often used on regularly spaced (lattice) data where column and row medians are removed. For irregularly spaced data a low......-resolution map of the spatial locations is often used where data locations are assigned to the nearest lattice node followed by median polish. In this study regional polish was developed. The inverse distance weighted median was calculated based on observations from locations in the neighbourhood of the actual...... observation. The regional polish residual is obtained as the difference between the observed value and the weighted median. The regional polish procedure was applied to Salmonella Dublin data showing strong regional trends. Estimation of the range of influence between cattle herds with positive S. Dublin herd...

  13. Bile Acids Trigger GLP-1 Release Predominantly by Accessing Basolaterally Located G Protein-Coupled Bile Acid Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brighton, Cheryl A; Rievaj, Juraj; Kuhre, Rune E; Glass, Leslie L; Schoonjans, Kristina; Holst, Jens J; Gribble, Fiona M; Reimann, Frank

    2015-11-01

    Bile acids are well-recognized stimuli of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion. This action has been attributed to activation of the G protein-coupled bile acid receptor GPBAR1 (TGR5), although other potential bile acid sensors include the nuclear farnesoid receptor and the apical sodium-coupled bile acid transporter ASBT. The aim of this study was to identify pathways important for GLP-1 release and to determine whether bile acids target their receptors on GLP-1-secreting L-cells from the apical or basolateral compartment. Using transgenic mice expressing fluorescent sensors specifically in L-cells, we observed that taurodeoxycholate (TDCA) and taurolithocholate (TLCA) increased intracellular cAMP and Ca(2+). In primary intestinal cultures, TDCA was a more potent GLP-1 secretagogue than taurocholate (TCA) and TLCA, correlating with a stronger Ca(2+) response to TDCA. Using small-volume Ussing chambers optimized for measuring GLP-1 secretion, we found that both a GPBAR1 agonist and TDCA stimulated GLP-1 release better when applied from the basolateral than from the luminal direction and that luminal TDCA was ineffective when intestinal tissue was pretreated with an ASBT inhibitor. ASBT inhibition had no significant effect in nonpolarized primary cultures. Studies in the perfused rat gut confirmed that vascularly administered TDCA was more effective than luminal TDCA. Intestinal primary cultures and Ussing chamber-mounted tissues from GPBAR1-knockout mice did not secrete GLP-1 in response to either TLCA or TDCA. We conclude that the action of bile acids on GLP-1 secretion is predominantly mediated by GPBAR1 located on the basolateral L-cell membrane, suggesting that stimulation of gut hormone secretion may include postabsorptive mechanisms.

  14. Bile Acids Trigger GLP-1 Release Predominantly by Accessing Basolaterally Located G Protein–Coupled Bile Acid Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brighton, Cheryl A.; Rievaj, Juraj; Kuhre, Rune E.; Glass, Leslie L.; Schoonjans, Kristina; Holst, Jens J.

    2015-01-01

    Bile acids are well-recognized stimuli of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion. This action has been attributed to activation of the G protein–coupled bile acid receptor GPBAR1 (TGR5), although other potential bile acid sensors include the nuclear farnesoid receptor and the apical sodium-coupled bile acid transporter ASBT. The aim of this study was to identify pathways important for GLP-1 release and to determine whether bile acids target their receptors on GLP-1–secreting L-cells from the apical or basolateral compartment. Using transgenic mice expressing fluorescent sensors specifically in L-cells, we observed that taurodeoxycholate (TDCA) and taurolithocholate (TLCA) increased intracellular cAMP and Ca2+. In primary intestinal cultures, TDCA was a more potent GLP-1 secretagogue than taurocholate (TCA) and TLCA, correlating with a stronger Ca2+ response to TDCA. Using small-volume Ussing chambers optimized for measuring GLP-1 secretion, we found that both a GPBAR1 agonist and TDCA stimulated GLP-1 release better when applied from the basolateral than from the luminal direction and that luminal TDCA was ineffective when intestinal tissue was pretreated with an ASBT inhibitor. ASBT inhibition had no significant effect in nonpolarized primary cultures. Studies in the perfused rat gut confirmed that vascularly administered TDCA was more effective than luminal TDCA. Intestinal primary cultures and Ussing chamber–mounted tissues from GPBAR1-knockout mice did not secrete GLP-1 in response to either TLCA or TDCA. We conclude that the action of bile acids on GLP-1 secretion is predominantly mediated by GPBAR1 located on the basolateral L-cell membrane, suggesting that stimulation of gut hormone secretion may include postabsorptive mechanisms. PMID:26280129

  15. Radiofrequency ablation assisted by real-time virtual sonography for hepatocellular carcinoma inconspicuous under sonography and high-risk locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Han Lee

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Radiofrequency ablation (RFA is an effective and real-time targeting modality for small hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs. However, mistargeting may occur when the target tumor is confused with cirrhotic nodules or because of the poor conspicuity of the index tumor under ultrasonography (US. Real-time virtual sonography (RVS can provide the same reconstruction computed tomography images as US images. The aim of this study is to investigate the usefulness of RVS-assisted RFA for HCCs that are inconspicuous or conspicuous under US. A total of 21 patients with 28 HCC tumors—divided into US inconspicuous and high-risk subgroup (3 tumors in 3 patients, US inconspicuous and nonhigh-risk subgroup (5 tumors in 4 patients, US conspicuous and high-risk subgroup (16 tumors in 14 patients, and US conspicuous and nonhigh-risk subgroup (4 tumors in 3 patients—underwent RVS-assisted RFA between May 2012 and June 2014 in our institution. The mean diameter of the nodules was 2.0 ± 1.1 cm. The results showed that the complete ablation rate is 87.5% (7/8 in the US undetectable group and 75% (15/20 in the US detectable group. A comparison between six tumors with incomplete ablation and 22 tumors with complete ablation showed higher alpha-fetoprotein level (mean, 1912 ng/mL vs. 112 ng/mL and larger tumor size (mean diameter, 26 mm vs. 16 mm in the incomplete ablation nodules (both p < 0.05. In conclusion, RVS-assisted RFA is useful for tumors that are difficult to detect under conventional US and may also be useful for tumors in high-risk locations because it may prevent complication induced by mistargeting.

  16. Diabetic Erythrocytes Test by Correlation Coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korol, A.M; Foresto, P; Darrigo, M; Rosso, O.A

    2008-01-01

    Even when a healthy individual is studied, his/her erythrocytes in capillaries continually change their shape in a synchronized erratic fashion. In this work, the problem of characterizing the cell behavior is studied from the perspective of bounded correlated random walk, based on the assumption that diffractometric data involves both deterministic and stochastic components. The photometric readings are obtained by ektacytometry over several millions of shear elongated cells, using a home-made device called Erythrodeformeter. We have only a scalar signal and no governing equations; therefore the complete behavior has to be reconstructed in an artificial phase space. To analyze dynamics we used the technique of time delay coordinates suggested by Takens, May algorithm, and Fourier transform. The results suggest that on random-walk approach the samples from healthy controls exhibit significant differences from those from diabetic patients and these could allow us to claim that we have linked mathematical nonlinear tools with clinical aspects of diabetic erythrocytes’ rheological properties. PMID:19415139

  17. uhv test program sponsored by EEI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1967-07-01

    A four million, five-year program to extend research into power transmission at 1,000,000 volts and higher has been announced by the Institute. The two principal objectives of this new program are to devise means for reducing cost and increasing reliability and performance of transmission lines in the 765,000 to 1,500,000 volt range, and to supply the necessary engineering to enable evaluation and engineering design of ultra high voltage lines in the same range. Specific emphasis will be placed on problems that represent the most serious present day limits in line design. Among the most important of these problems are the efficient utilization of insulation clearances at the tower, and radio noise as a factor in conductor selection.

  18. Merging digital and urban play spaces: Learning by playing and creating location-based games in secondary education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizenga, J.; Admiraal, W.; ten Dam, G.; Gouscos, D.; Meimaris, M.

    2011-01-01

    With handhelds, it is possible to mix virtual with real-world data (i.e. locations and contexts) connecting virtual worlds to real life. Handheld games can be used to engage students with learning in their (school) environment. In a project called 'Games Atelier' innovative pedagogy was developed

  19. Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) emissions from feedlot pen surface materials as affected by within pen location, moisture, and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    A laboratory study was conducted to evaluate the effects of pen location, moisture, and temperature on emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from surface materials obtained from feedlot pens where beef cattle were fed a diet containing 30% wet distillers grain plus solubles. Surface material...

  20. Wi-Fi and Satellite-Based Location Techniques for Intelligent Agricultural Machinery Controlled by a Human Operator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domagoj Drenjanac

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the new agricultural scenarios, the interaction between autonomous tractors and a human operator is important when they jointly perform a task. Obtaining and exchanging accurate localization information between autonomous tractors and the human operator, working as a team, is a critical to maintaining safety, synchronization, and efficiency during the execution of a mission. An advanced localization system for both entities involved in the joint work, i.e., the autonomous tractors and the human operator, provides a basis for meeting the task requirements. In this paper, different localization techniques for a human operator and an autonomous tractor in a field environment were tested. First, we compared the localization performances of two global navigation satellite systems’ (GNSS receivers carried by the human operator: (1 an internal GNSS receiver built into a handheld device; and (2 an external DGNSS receiver with centimeter-level accuracy. To investigate autonomous tractor localization, a real-time kinematic (RTK-based localization system installed on autonomous tractor developed for agricultural applications was evaluated. Finally, a hybrid localization approach, which combines distance estimates obtained using a wireless scheme with the position of an autonomous tractor obtained using an RTK-GNSS system, is proposed. The hybrid solution is intended for user localization in unstructured environments in which the GNSS signal is obstructed. The hybrid localization approach has two components: (1 a localization algorithm based on the received signal strength indication (RSSI from the wireless environment; and (2 the acquisition of the tractor RTK coordinates when the human operator is near the tractor. In five RSSI tests, the best result achieved was an average localization error of 4 m. In tests of real-time position correction between rows, RMS error of 2.4 cm demonstrated that the passes were straight, as was desired for the

  1. Increasing Trustworthiness of Face Authentication in Mobile Devices by Modeling Gesture Behavior and Location Using Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blerim Rexha

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Personal mobile devices currently have access to a significant portion of their user’s private sensitive data and are increasingly used for processing mobile payments. Consequently, securing access to these mobile devices is a requirement for securing access to the sensitive data and potentially costly services. Face authentication is one of the promising biometrics-based user authentication mechanisms that has been widely available in this era of mobile computing. With a built-in camera capability on smartphones, tablets, and laptops, face authentication provides an attractive alternative of legacy passwords for its memory-less authentication process, which is so sophisticated that it can unlock the device faster than a fingerprint. Nevertheless, face authentication in the context of smartphones has proven to be vulnerable to attacks. In most current implementations, a sufficiently high-resolution face image displayed on another mobile device will be enough to circumvent security measures and bypass the authentication process. In order to prevent such bypass attacks, gesture recognition together with location is proposed to be additionally modeled. Gestures provide a faster and more convenient method of authentication compared to a complex password. The focus of this paper is to build a secure authentication system with face, location and gesture recognition as components. User gestures and location data are a sequence of time series; therefore, in this paper we propose to use unsupervised learning in the long short-term memory recurrent neural network to actively learn to recognize, group and discriminate user gestures and location. Moreover, a clustering-based technique is also implemented for recognizing gestures and location.

  2. Dawn: Testing Paradigms by Exploring Dichotomies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, C. T.; Schmidt, B. E.; Wise, J.; Ristvey, J.; Raymond, C. A.

    2010-12-01

    NASA’s Dawn mission represents a series of “firsts” for major NASA missions. Dawn is the first major NASA science mission to use ion propulsion engines, allowing Dawn to be the first mission to orbit one target and then leave its gravity well to explore a second destination. Dawn is the first science mission to the main asteroid belt, reaching protoplanet Vesta in summer 2011, and will be the first mission to reach a “dwarf planet” when it arrives at Ceres in 2015. By targeting both Vesta and Ceres, Dawn explores two intriguing dichotomies in the solar system, that of the dry rocky planets and the wet icy bodies (Fire and Ice) and the dichotomy between planets and asteroids. Is there a clear dividing line here? Vesta, the second most massive asteroid, is a protoplanet: a round, mostly intact asteroid that bears more resemblance to a planet than to smaller asteroids. Vesta is also the likely parent body of the HED meteorites that richly populate Earth’s meteorite collections. It is possible to hold a piece of Vesta in your hands. From the HED meteorites, scientists have learned the Vesta is one of few differentiated asteroids. And from its spectrum, rich in basaltic minerals, it is known to be much like a mini-version of Earth’s Moon and Mercury. Vesta’s surface once was home to floods of lava not unlike those found still today on the Earth. Vesta is very similar to a terrestrial planet. Ceres is the giant of the asteroid belt with a hydrostatic shape that earns it a dwarf planet classification. Like its larger cousins, Ceres’ round shape suggests that the body may be differentiated, but due to its low density, Ceres’ interior is more like an icy moon of Jupiter. Beneath a relatively thin clay veneer probably lies an ice-rich mantle and rocky core, and even possibly a liquid ocean. With such enticing questions posed for Vesta and Ceres, Dawn will enable scientists and the public alike to explore how planets were born, how fire and ice have shaped

  3. Pressure Transducer Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Files are located here, defining the locations of the pressure transducers on the HIRENASD model. These locations also correspond to the locations that analysts...

  4. Penile vascular diagnostic categorization using penile duplex Doppler ultrasound: Differences in vascular hemodynamics parameters by differences in anatomic sampling location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzoni, Fabio; Scroppo, Fabrizio Ildefonso

    2016-10-05

    In 2013 the International Society for Sexual Medicine(ISSM) published the guidelines regarding the standard operating procedure (SOP) for penile duplex Doppler ultrasound (PDDU). Although ISSM-SOP have given important strides in reducing interobserver variability in PDDU by procedural protocol and parameters these guidelines do not address the anatomic location along the penis at which hemodynamic measurements have to be done. In our opinion a "double sampling" may be interesting to detect the arteriogenic or venogenic nature of the erectile dysfunction (ED). In particular sampling measurements at the "crus" (at the level of the peno-scrotal junction) may be significative for detection of veno-occlusive dysfunction (VOD),whereas an evaluation at "mid penis" (1/2 distance between peno-scrotal junction and coronal sulcus), may be useful to diagnose an arterial insufficiency (AI). We evalued 90 men, mean age 56.3, affected with ED of medium degree, responder to PDE5-I that urdergone to PDDU and also responder after pharmacologic intracavernosal injection (PII)of prostaglandin E1 20 mcg, with rigid erection and normal maintenance. We moreover evalued 90 men in youthful age (mean 35.2), in absence of vascular risk factors, no responder to PDE5-I that undergone to PDDU by PII at high dosage (bimix: prostaglandin E1 20 mcg, papaverine 20 mg). In the first pool the sampling at "mid penis" resulted significative for arterial insuffciency (AI) in 81% (73), in presence of normal or borderline end diastolic velocity (EDV). Sampling at the "crus" resulted negative for VOD in 90% (81). In the second pool, 66.6% (60) resulted responder with rigid erection and normal maintenance in presence of normal hemodynamic parameters: peak systolic velocity (PSV) and end diastolic velocity (EDV) both at the "crus" and at "mid penis" sampling. 33.4% (30) responded with a semirigid erection and manifested a constant deficit of maintenance; at the "crus"and at "mid penis" the hemodynamic

  5. Penile vascular diagnostic categorization using penile duplex Doppler ultrasound: Differences in vascular hemodynamics parameters by differences in anatomic sampling location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Pezzoni

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. In 2013 the International Society for Sexual Medicine(ISSM published the guidelines regarding the standard operating procedure (SOP for penile duplex Doppler ultrasound (PDDU. Although ISSM-SOP have given important strides in reducing interobserver variability in PDDU by procedural protocol and parameters these guidelines do not address the anatomic location along the penis at which hemodynamic measurements have to be done. In our opinion a “double sampling” may be interesting to detect the arteriogenic or venogenic nature of the erectile dysfunction (ED. In particular sampling measurements at the “crus” (at the level of the peno-scrotal junction may be significative for detection of veno-occlusive dysfunction (VOD,whereas an evaluation at “mid penis” (1/2 distance between peno-scrotal junction and coronal sulcus, may be useful to diagnose an arterial insufficiency (AI. Material and Methods. We evalued 90 men, mean age 56.3, affected with ED of medium degree, responder to PDE5-I that urdergone to PDDU and also responder after pharmacologic intracavernosal injection (PIIof prostaglandin E1 20 mcg, with rigid erection and normal maintenance. We moreover evalued 90 men in youthful age (mean 35.2, in absence of vascular risk factors, no responder to PDE5-I that undergone to PDDU by PII at high dosage (bimix: prostaglandin E1 20 mcg, papaverine 20 mg. Results. In the first pool the sampling at “mid penis” resulted significative for arterial insuffciency (AI in 81% (73, in presence of normal or borderline end diastolic velocity (EDV. Sampling at the “crus” resulted negative for VOD in 90% (81. In the second pool, 66.6% (60 resulted responder with rigid erection and normal maintenance in presence of normal hemodynamic parameters: peak systolic velocity (PSV and end diastolic velocity (EDV both at the “crus” and at “mid penis” sampling. 33.4% (30 responded with a semirigid erection and manifested a constant

  6. Robust facility location

    OpenAIRE

    Carrizosa Priego, Emilio José; Nickel, Stefan

    2003-01-01

    Let A be a nonempty finite subset of the plane representing the geographical coordinates of a set of demand points (towns, …), to be served by a facility, whose location within a given region S is sought. Assuming that the unit cost for a∈A if the facility is located at x∈S is proportional to dist(x,a) — the distance from x to a — and that demand of point a is given by ωa, minimizing the total transportation cost TC(ω,x) amounts to solving the Weber problem. In practice, it may be the case, h...

  7. Geostar - Navigation location system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyser, Donald A.

    The author describes the Radiodetermination Satellite Service (RDSS). The initial phase of the RDSS provides for a unique service enabling central offices and headquarters to obtain position-location information and receive short digital messages from mobile user terminals throughout the contiguous United States, southern Canada, and northern Mexico. The system employs a spread-spectrum, CDMA modulation technique allowing multiple customers to use the system simultaneously, without preassigned coordination with fellow users. Position location is currently determined by employing an existing radio determination receiver, such as Loran-C, GPS, or Transit, in the mobile user terminal. In the early 1990s position location will be determined at a central earth station by time-differential ranging of the user terminals via two or more geostationary satellites. A brief overview of the RDSS system architecture is presented with emphasis on the user terminal and its diverse applications.

  8. Correlation between depth perception by three-rods test and stereoacuity by distance Randot Stereotest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Toshihiko; Negayama, Ryo; Sakata, Hiroyuki; Hasebe, Kayoko

    2014-09-01

    The examination of depth perception with three-rods test, in addition to visual acuity testing, is required to obtain motor vehicle license to drive taxies and trucks, according to the Road Traffic Act in Japan. The aim of this study was to examine whether the results of the three-rods test would correlate with the results of static stereopsis tests, used in ophthalmic practice. This study involved 54 normal subjects, 9 women and 45 men, with ages ranging from 18 to 25 (mean, 20.8) years. All had visual acuity of 0.8 or better with or without glasses or contact lenses correction and had no strabismus at the distant (5 m) or near (0.3 m) fixation. TNO Stereotest and Titmus Stereotest were examined at 40 cm while Distance Randot Stereotest was at 3 m. At three-rods test, a central rod was moved at the speed of 50 mm/sec forward and backward automatically against two laterally located fixed rods, placed inside the illuminated box. An examinee at the distance of 2.5 m observed the rods inside the box from a small viewing window and pushed a button to stop the central rod in alignment with the fixed rods. Erred distance (mm) of the central rod from the fixed rods as a mean of 4 measurements was correlated with stereoacuity in second of arc, measured by three kinds of the stereopsis tests. The erred distance of three-rods test was positively correlated with static stereoacuity at distance measured with Distance Randot Stereotest (ρ=0.418, p=0.0023, Spearman rank correlation test) and also with the other stereopsis tests at near fixation. The stereoacuity at near fixation, measured by TNO Stereotest and Titmus Stereotest, was positively correlated with each other (ρ=0.431, p=0.0017). Three-rods test, examining depth perception, together with the response by eye-hand coordination, gave consistent results with distant static stereoacuity when measured with Distance Randot Stereotest.

  9. Outcomes of Out‐of‐Hospital Cardiac Arrest by Public Location in the Public‐Access Defibrillation Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Yukiko; Iwami, Taku; Kitamura, Tetsuhisa; Nishiyama, Chika; Nishiuchi, Tatsuya; Hayashi, Yasuyuki; Kawamura, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Background The strategy to place public‐access automated external defibrillators (AEDs) has not yet been established in real settings. Methods and Results This, prospective, population‐based observational study in Osaka, Japan, included consecutive out‐of‐hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients with resuscitation attempts during 7 years, from January 2005 through December 2011. The trends in the proportion of public‐access AED use and 1‐month survival with neurologically favorable outcome were evaluated by location. Factors associated with neurologically favorable outcome (defined as cerebral performance category 1 or 2) after ventricular fibrillation were also assessed using multiple logistic regression analysis. A total of 9453 bystander‐witnessed OHCAs of cardiac origin were documented and 894 (9.5%) of them occurred at public places. The proportion of public‐access AED use significantly increased from 0.0% (0/20) in 2005 to 41.2% (7/17) in 2011 at railway stations and from 0.0% (0/7) to 56.5% (13/23) at sports facilities. Mean time from collapse to shock was 5.0 minutes among those who received shocks with public‐access AEDs. The proportion of neurologically favorable outcome was 28.0% (33/118) at railway stations, 51.6% (48/93) at sports facilities, 23.3% (20/86) in public buildings, and 41.9% (13/31) in schools. In multivariate analysis, early defibrillation, irrespective of bystander or emergency medical service (EMS) personnel, was significantly associated with neurologically favorable outcome (adjusted odds ratio for 1‐minute increment, 0.89; 95% confidence interval, 0.87 to 0.92). Conclusions This large, population‐based OHCA registry demonstrated that earlier shock, irrespective the shock provider (bystander or EMS personnel), contributed to improving outcome, and a public‐access defibrillation program was successfully implemented so that shocks with public‐access AEDs were delivered to over 40% of bystander‐witnessed OHCAs

  10. Multi-Location Study of Soil Enzyme Activities as Affected by Types and Rates of Manure Application and Tillage Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richie Erickson

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Significant amounts of manure are produced in the USA; however, information on the changes in ecosystem services related to soil biogeochemical cycling for agroecosystems supported with organic amendments such as manure is limited. A multi-location field study was initiated in Colorado (CO, Kansas (KS and Kentucky (KY, USA in loam soils to evaluate the effects of manure and tillage practices on enzyme activities that are key to biogeochemical cycling such as β-glucosidase (C cycling, α-galactosidase (C cycling, β-glucosaminidase (C and N cycling and phosphomonoesterases (P cycling. The treatments were as follows: (i two years of beef manure applications to a fine sandy loam at different rates (control: 0, low: 34 kg N ha−1 and high: 96 kg N ha−1 and tillage practices in CO; (ii three years of beef manure applications to a silt loam at different rates (0, low: 67 kg N ha−1 and high: 134 kg N ha−1 and tillage practices in KS and; (iii three years of poultry and dairy manure applications to a silt loam with different tillage practices at the same rate (403 kg N ha−1 in KY. Tillage practices (none vs. conventional had no effect on the enzyme activities. Principal Component Analyses (PCA grouped all enzyme activities with the high beef manure application rate after the first year in CO at 0–5 cm. By the second year, the low and high beef manure rates differed in enzyme activities for the KS soil with no difference between the low rate and control in CO. Since the first year of the KY study, acid phosphatase activity was greater in the poultry treated soil compared to dairy or the control; whereas, C cycling enzyme activities were similar in soil treated with dairy or poultry manure. For all studies, PCAs for soil samples from 5–10 cm depth did not reveal treatment separation until the second year, i.e., only high application rate differed from the other treatments. Results of the study indicated significant responses in C and P

  11. Risk based requirements for long term stewardship: A proof-of-principle analysis of an analytic method tested on selected Hanford locations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvis, T.T.; Andrews, W.B.; Buck, J.W. [and others

    1998-03-01

    Since 1989, the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) Program has managed the environmental legacy of US nuclear weapons production, research and testing at 137 facilities in 31 states and one US territory. The EM program has conducted several studies on the public risks posed by contaminated sites at these facilities. In Risks and the Risk Debate [DOE, 1995a], the Department analyzed the risks at sites before, during, and after remediation work by the EM program. The results indicated that aside from a few urgent risks, most hazards present little inherent risk because physical and active site management controls limit both the releases of site contaminants, and public access to these hazards. Without these controls, these sites would pose greater risks to the public. Past risk reports, however, provided little information about post-cleanup risk, primarily because of uncertainty about future site uses and site characteristics at the end of planned cleanup activities. This is of concern because in many cases current cleanup technologies, and remedies, will last a shorter period of time than the waste itself and the resulting contamination will remain hazardous.

  12. A Novel Hierarchical Model to Locate Health Care Facilities with Fuzzy Demand Solved by Harmony Search Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Alinaghian

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the field of health losses resulting from failure to establish the facilities in a suitable location and the required number, beyond the cost and quality of service will result in an increase in mortality and the spread of diseases. So the facility location models have special importance in this area. In this paper, a successively inclusive hierarchical model for location of health centers in term of the transfer of patients from a lower level to a higher level of health centers has been developed. Since determination the exact number of demand for health care in the future is difficult and in order to make the model close to the real conditions of demand uncertainty, a fuzzy programming model based on credibility theory is considered. To evaluate the proposed model, several numerical examples are solved in small size. In order to solve large scale problems, a meta-heuristic algorithm based on harmony search algorithm was developed in conjunction with the GAMS software which indicants the performance of the proposed algorithm.

  13. Review of Tests Used by Patients in Monitoring Diabetes Mellitus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Home tests for blood â-hydroxybutyrate for diagnosing and monitoring ketoacidosis are available for use by diabetic patients. Urine glucose and ketone tests used by patients are unreliable. Government, non-governmental organizations and individuals should strive to make SMBG and HbA1C testing accessible and ...

  14. TrigDB for improving the reliability of the epicenter locations by considering the neighborhood station's trigger and cutting out of outliers in operation of Earthquake Early Warning System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, H. C.; Park, J. H.; Lim, I. S.; Seong, Y. J.

    2016-12-01

    TrigDB is initially developed for the discrimination of teleseismic-origin false alarm in the case with unreasonably associated triggers producing mis-located epicenters. We have applied TrigDB to the current EEWS(Earthquake Early Warning System) from 2014. During the early stage of testing EEWS from 2011, we adapted ElarmS from US Berkeley BSL to Korean seismic network and applied more than 5 years. We found out that the real-time testing results of EEWS in Korea showed that all events inside of seismic network with bigger than magnitude 3.0 were well detected. However, two events located at sea area gave false location results with magnitude over 4.0 due to the long period and relatively high amplitude signals related to the teleseismic waves or regional deep sources. These teleseismic-relevant false events were caused by logical co-relation during association procedure and the corresponding geometric distribution of associated stations is crescent-shaped. Seismic stations are not deployed uniformly, so the expected bias ratio varies with evaluated epicentral location. This ratio is calculated in advance and stored into database, called as TrigDB, for the discrimination of teleseismic-origin false alarm. We upgraded this method, so called `TrigDB back filling', updating location with supplementary association of stations comparing triggered times between sandwiched stations which was not associated previously based on predefined criteria such as travel-time. And we have tested a module to reject outlier trigger times by setting a criteria comparing statistical values(Sigma) to the triggered times. The criteria of cutting off the outlier is slightly slow to work until the number of stations more than 8, however, the result of location is very much improved.

  15. Location-based games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejsing-Duun, Stine

    to create meaningful experiences; and of the prerequisites of a meaningful meeting between players and locations. The dissertation contributes to the field of LBG research by offering an enhanced understanding of LBGs, and LBG player experiences, as well as providing an expanded vocabulary describing LBG...... elements. In addition, the dissertation provides design knowledge concerning creating LBGs that uses certain emergent opportunities when combining location-aware technologies with game mechanics to make use of the six dimensions of LBGs and to involve the player’s body – i.e. make a meaningful meeting...

  16. What is meant by the term acceptance of technology and locating the acceptance of the CCS Technology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harz, Mario; Vesper, Anton

    2013-04-01

    abstract: The formal language of logic expresses concepts and statements exactly. The logic of relations can serve as an important ressource for the philosophical analysis of technology and the construction of philosophical propositions about acceptance of technology. The theory of logical relations is used to investigate the theoretical structure of how acceptance of technologies can be revealed. The term "ordered tuple" helps to define the basis of the concept of logical relations. The term "acceptance of technology" refers to neither a thing nor a property; but to a complex relationship. The research refers to the study of the properties of this complex relationship. It examines the properties of reflexivity, total reflexivity, symmetry, transitivity, irreflexivity and asymmetry. Using these properties and the rules for forming converses-relations and partial-relations the question is analyzed: What, in general, is meant by the term "acceptance of technology?" These properties have been observed empirically at a discussion forum for the key players in the Brandenburg discourse on the acceptance of CCS technology. The meeting was held on the 8th of May 2012 in St. Nicholas Church, Cottbus (GER). The pragma-dialectical theory of argumentation is used to locate the acceptance of the CCS technology. With the ideal model of critical discussion as the methodological starting point the term "acceptance" can be defined in terms of the four meta-theoretical principles of the theory. That boils down to the findings that acceptance is the externalization of a positive commitment towards a proposition, acceptance is expressed by the speech act "to accept" and acceptance occurs in the dialogical, interactional setting of a critical discussion with the aim of resolving a difference of opinion. In the study differences of opinion about (descriptive, normative, evaluative) standpoints about the CCS technology from everyday problem-solving discussions are investigated. The

  17. Mold testing by RAST and skin test methods in patients with allergic fungal sinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabry, R L; Marple, B F; Mabry, C S

    1999-09-01

    RAST tests have traditionally been considered less sensitive than skin tests during investigation of atopy involving molds. This has been attributed to technical problems such as difficulty in binding the mold antigen to the carrier substrate. Ten patients with proven allergic fungal sinusitis were evaluated for sensitivity to 11 important molds by both RAST and dilutional intradermal testing. A predictable correlation between RAST and skin test scores was observed in many, but not all, cases. Most often this disparity was in the form of greater sensitivity indicated by skin testing than by RAST, sometimes differing by as many as 3 classes. The lack of concordance was not confined to testing for the fungi cultured from the sinuses, nor was it more or less pronounced in the case of dematiaceous fungi. The most likely causes for the disparity noted in this series are subtle differences in antigens used in skin test material and for RAST standards. Skin tests allow for evaluation of delayed and late-phase reactions, a measurement not possible by specific IgE testing with RAST. Delayed skin test reactions were not noted in this series of patients. An additional important finding was the sensitivity of patients with allergic fungal sinusitis to virtually every fungal antigen to which they were tested.

  18. General minisum circle location

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Körner, Mark; Brimberg, Jack; Juel, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    In our paper we approximate a set of given points by a general circle. More precisely, we consider the problem of locating and scaling the unit ball of some given norm k1 with respect to xed points on the plane such that the sum of weighted distances between the circle and the xed points...

  19. The identification and characterization of Clostridium perfringens by real-time PCR, location of enterotoxin gene, and heat resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Kathie A; Kenyon, Sarah; Nwafor, Ijeoma; Plowman, June; Ohai, Charles; Halford-Maw, Robin; Peck, Michael W; McLauchlin, Jim

    2008-10-01

    Clostridium perfringens carrying the enterotoxin gene is an important cause of both foodborne and non-foodborne diarrheal disease. Rapid identification of isolates carrying the enterotoxin gene is invaluable for outbreak investigation whilst information on the genomic location of the enterotoxin (cpe) gene can improve our understanding of disease transmission. This paper describes the validation of a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for the identification of C. perfringens and assessment of the potential to cause diarrhea, together with an investigation into the genomic location of the cpe genes in isolates from confirmed incidents of C. perfringens diarrhea. The real-time assay was shown to be specific for the identification of 253 C. perfringens cultures and gave results concordant with those from motility nitrate and lactose gelatine media, the Nagler reaction, and a conventional block-based PCR assay. The cpe gene was detected in 223 of 253 C. perfringens cultures isolated in association with human gastrointestinal disease. A subset of cpe-positive C. perfringens isolates associated with separate incidents of diarrheal disease were investigated further for plasmid or chromosomal location of the cpe gene using a multiplex PCR assay. The cpe gene was plasmid encoded in two isolates from cases of sporadic diarrhea and six isolates from cases of food poisoning. The cpe gene from the remaining 11 isolates from different food poisoning outbreaks was found to be chromosomally encoded. One of the C. perfringens strains with a plasmid encoded cpe gene formed spores of high heat resistance and five formed spores that were sensitive to heating. Eight of the isolates with a chromosomal cpe gene formed heat-resistant spores, and two formed spores with an intermediate heat resistance.

  20. Gastroenteritis outbreak caused by norovirus associated with the children's club of a hotel located in Majorca, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doménech-Sánchez, A

    2011-06-01

    A possible gastroenteritis outbreak in a hotel located in northern Majorca was reported on June 2009. The subsequent investigation revealed a total of 14 cases with onset of symptoms from 18 June to 26 June. Symptoms affected mainly the children, their parents and the staff related to the children's club; a vomiting episode was described at the beginning of the outbreak. Genotype 2 norovirus was detected in stool samples, demonstrating its role as the aetiological agent. The special hygienic measures implemented allowed the outbreak to be controlled. © 2010 The Authors. Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2010 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  1. A Comparison of the Abilities Measured by the Cambridge and Educational Testing Service EFL Test Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, Lyle F.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    The abilities measured by the First Certificate of English (FCE) administered by the Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate are compared with the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) administered by the Educational Testing Service. The analyses suggest that the FCE and TOEFL appear to measure the same common aspect of language…

  2. Necrotic pulp tissue dissolution by passive ultrasonic irrigation in simulated accessory canals: impact of canal location and angulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jadaa, A; Paqué, F; Attin, T; Zehnder, M

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate whether passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI) of 2.5% NaOCl would dissolve necrotic pulp tissue from simulated accessory root canals (SACs) better than passive placement of the irrigant, when temperature was equilibrated between the two treatments. Transparent root canal models (n = 6) were made from epoxy resin. SACs of 0.2 mm diameter were placed at defined angles and positions in the mid-canal and apical area. SACs were filled with necrotic bovine pulp tissue. PUI was performed five times for 1 min each with irrigant replenishment after every minute. Main canal temperature was measured after each minute, and a digital photograph was taken. In control experiments, mock treatments were performed with the same set-up without activation of the file using heated NaOCl to mimic the temperature created by PUI. Experiments were repeated five times. Digital photographs were analysed for the distance of dissolved tissue into the SACs in mm. Overall comparison (sum of dissolved tissue from all five accessory canals) between treatments was performed using paired t-test. Differences between SAC angulation and position after PUI were investigated using anova/Bonferroni (alpha temperature in the main canal to 53.5 +/- 2.7 degrees C after the fifth minute. PUI dissolved a total of 6.4 +/- 2.1 mm, mock treatment controlled for heat: 1.4 +/- 0.6 mm (P temperature.

  3. Locations of radical species in black pepper seeds investigated by CW EPR and 9 GHz EPR imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Kouichi; Epel, Boris

    2014-10-01

    In this study, noninvasive 9 GHz electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR)-imaging and continuous wave (CW) EPR were used to investigate the locations of paramagnetic species in black pepper seeds without further irradiation. First, lithium phthalocyanine (LiPC) phantom was used to examine 9 GHz EPR imaging capabilities. The 9 GHz EPR-imager easily resolved the LiPC samples at a distance of ∼2 mm. Then, commercially available black pepper seeds were measured. We observed signatures from three different radical species, which were assigned to stable organic radicals, Fe3+, and Mn2+ complexes. In addition, no EPR spectral change in the seed was observed after it was submerged in distilled H2O for 1 h. The EPR and spectral-spatial EPR imaging results suggested that the three paramagnetic species were mostly located at the seed surface. Fewer radicals were found inside the seed. We demonstrated that the CW EPR and 9 GHz EPR imaging were useful for the determination of the spatial distribution of paramagnetic species in various seeds.

  4. The Identification of Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve by Injection of Blue Dye into the Inferior Thyroid Artery in Elusive Locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulcin Hepgul

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Thyroidectomy creates a potential risk for all parathyroid glands and the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN. The identification and dissection of the RLN is the gold standard for preserving its function. In some cases, it may be quite difficult to identify the nerve localization. In such elusive locations, we aimed to identify RLNs using peroperative injection of a blue dye into the inferior thyroid artery. Materials and Methods. This study included 10 selected patients whose RLN identification had been difficult peroperatively during the period from April 2008 to June 2009. When the RLNs became elusive in location, the branches of the inferior thyroid artery (ITA on the capsule of the thyroid lobe were isolated, and then 0.5 mL isosulphan blue dye was injected into the artery. Results. RLN was carefully dissected in the tracheoesophageal groove. RLN was clearly visualized, in all patients. All RLNs were identified along their course in the dyed surrounding tissue. No RLN palsy was encountered. Conclusion. The injection of blue dye into the ITA branches can be used as an alternate method in case of difficulty in identification of RLNs.

  5. Object-location memory in adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring, Melanie; Gaigg, Sebastian B; Bowler, Dermot M

    2015-10-01

    This study tested implicit and explicit spatial relational memory in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Participants were asked to study pictures of rooms and pictures of daily objects for which locations were highlighted in the rooms. Participants were later tested for their memory of the object locations either by being asked to place objects back into their original locations or into new locations. Proportions of times when participants choose the previously studied locations for the objects irrespective of the instruction were used to derive indices of explicit and implicit memory [process-dissociation procedure, Jacoby, 1991, 1998]. In addition, participants performed object and location recognition and source memory tasks where they were asked about which locations belonged to the objects and which objects to the locations. The data revealed difficulty for ASD individuals in actively retrieving object locations (explicit memory) but not in subconsciously remembering them (implicit memory). These difficulties cannot be explained by difficulties in memory for objects or locations per se (i.e., the difficulty pertains to object-location relations). Together these observations lend further support to the idea that ASD is characterised by relatively circumscribed difficulties in relational rather than item-specific memory processes and show that these difficulties extend to the domain of spatial information. They also lend further support to the idea that memory difficulties in ASD can be reduced when support is provided at test. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Final environmental impact statement for the Nevada Test Site and off-site locations in the state of Nevada: Mitigation action plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    The DOE Notice of Availability for this environmental impact statement was published in the Federal Register on Friday, October 18, 1996 (61 FR 54437). The final environmental impact statement identifies potential adverse effects resulting from the four use alternatives evaluated and discusses measures that DOE considered for the mitigation of these potential adverse effects. The Secretary of Energy signed the Record of Decision on the management and operation of the Nevada Test Site and other DOE sites in the state of Nevada on December 9, 1996. These decisions will result in the continuation of the multipurpose, multi-program use of the Nevada Test Site, under which DOE will pursue a further diversification of interagency, private industry, and public-education uses while meeting its Defense Program, Waste Management, and Environmental Restoration mission requirements at the Nevada Test Site and other Nevada sites, including the Tonopah Test Range, the Project Shoal Site, the Central Nevada Test Area, and on the Nellis Air Force Range Complex. The Record of Decision also identifies specific mitigation actions beyond the routine day-to-day physical and administrative controls needed for implementation of the decisions. These specific mitigation actions are focused on the transportation of waste and on groundwater availability. This Mitigation Action Plan elaborates on these mitigation commitments.

  7. Determining risk for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest by location type in a Canadian urban setting to guide future public access defibrillator placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Steven C; Hsu, Jonathan H; Tang, Sabrina K; Jeyakumar, Roshan; Chan, Timothy C Y

    2013-05-01

    Automated external defibrillator use by lay bystanders during out-of-hospital cardiac arrest rarely occurs but can improve survival. We seek to estimate risk for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest by location type and evaluate current automated external defibrillator deployment in a Canadian urban setting to guide future automated external defibrillator deployment. This was a retrospective analysis of a population-based out-of-hospital cardiac arrest database. We included consecutive public location, nontraumatic, out-of-hospital cardiac arrests occurring in Toronto from January 1, 2006, to June 30, 2010, captured in the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium Epistry database. Two investigators independently categorized each out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and automated external defibrillator location into one of 38 categories. Total site counts in each location category were used to estimate average annual per-site cardiac arrest incidence and determine the relative automated external defibrillator coverage for each location type. There were 608 eligible out-of-hospital cardiac arrest cases. The top 5 location categories by average annual out-of-hospital cardiac arrests per site were race track/casino (0.67; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0 to 1.63), jail (0.62; 95% CI 0.3 to 1.06), hotel/motel (0.15; 95% CI 0.12 to 0.18), hostel/shelter (0.14; 95% CI 0.067 to 0.19), and convention center (0.11; 95% CI 0 to 0.43). Although schools were relatively lower risk for cardiac arrest, they represented 72.5% of automated external defibrillator-covered locations in the study region. Some higher-risk location types such as hotel/motel, hostel/shelter, and rail station were severely underrepresented with respect to automated external defibrillator coverage. We have identified types of locations with higher per-site risk for cardiac arrest relative to others. We have also identified potential mismatches between cardiac arrest risk by location type and registered automated external

  8. Assessment of the environmental impact of landfill sites with open combustion located in arid regions by combined chemical and ecotoxicological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichmann, H; Kolb, M; Jopke, P; Schmidt, C; Alawi, M; Bahadir, M

    2006-12-01

    Two different waste disposal sites in Jordan were investigated in order to determine the environmental situation in context with waste disposal techniques. One landfill, located at Marka/Amman, had been closed about 25 years ago and covered with soil. Here, the waste had been actively open combusted and openings in the cover, still emitting smoke, indicated that waste was still smoldering inside the landfill's body. The second disposal site close to Ekeeder/Irbid is still operated. On this ground, the solid waste is not intentionally burned, although spontaneous fires frequently come up. Samples of waste, soil, and entrained dust were collected and analyzed. From the solid samples, respectively, their eluates, sum parameters, ecotoxicological effects as well as contents of elements/heavy metals and organic pollutants (PAH, PCDD/F) were determined. In general, the Ekeeder-samples were low-contaminated. The investigation of the Marka-samples showed higher contamination of the site's center, clearly being influenced by combustion processes. A significant contamination of the landfill's vicinity by its emissions could not be derived from the analytical data. Ecotoxicological investigations, applying a bio-test battery, revealed correlations with the sum parameters but not with the trace pollutants. Thus, the Marka-samples with the highest measured values of sum parameters caused adverse effects on three different test species, whereas other samples from Marka and Ekeeder had small or no effects. The results of these investigations depict the influence of different disposal techniques on the contamination situation of a landfill and they shall contribute to assess the conditions of other disposal sites in (semi)arid regions.

  9. Apparatus for testing for infection by a retrovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layne, Scott P.; Beugelsdijk, Tony J.

    1999-01-01

    An apparatus for testing specimens for infection by a retrovirus is described. The apparatus comprises a process controller including a communications module for translating user commands into test instrument suite commands and a means for communicating specimen test results to a user. The apparatus further comprises a test instrument suite including a means for treating the specimen to manifest an observable result and a detector for measuring the observable result.

  10. The Analysis of North Korea's Nuclear Tests by Turkish National Data Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semin, K.; Meral Ozel, N.; Destici, T. C.; Necmioglu, O.; Kocak, S.

    2013-12-01

    The Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) announced the conduct of a third underground nuclear test on 12 February 2013 in the northeastern part of the country as the previous tests that were conducted in 2009 and 2006. The latest nuclear test is the best detected nuclear event by the global seismic networks. The magnitude estimates show that each new test increased in size when compared with the previous one. As Turkish NDC (National Data Center), we have analyzed the 2013 and 2009 nuclear tests using seismic data from International Monitoring System (IMS) stations through the International Data Center (IDC) located in Vienna. Discrimination analysis was performed based on mb:Ms magnitude ratio and spectral analysis. We have also applied array based waveform cross-correlation to show the similarity of the nuclear tests and precise arrival time measurements for relative location estimates and basic infrasound analysis using two IMS infrasound stations for the 2013 event. Seismic analysis were performed using softwares such as Geotool, EP (Event processor from Norsar) and Seismic Analysis Code (SAC) and the infrasound data were analyzed by using PMCC from CEA-France. The IMS network is operating under the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO). The CTBTO verification system is under continuous development, also making use of the state of the art technologies and methodologies.

  11. What You See Is What You Get: Lead Location Within Deep Brain Structures Is Accurately Depicted by Stereotactic Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyam, Jonathan A; Akram, Harith; Foltynie, Thomas; Limousin, Patricia; Hariz, Marwan; Zrinzo, Ludvic

    2015-09-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-verified deep brain stimulation relies on the correct interpretation of stereotactic imaging documenting lead location in relation to visible anatomic target. However, it has been suggested that local signal distortion from the lead itself renders its depiction on MRI unreliable. To compare lead location on stereotactic MRI with subsequent location of its brain track after removal. Patients underwent deep brain stimulation with the use of MRI-guided and MRI-verified Leksell frame approach. Infection or suboptimal efficacy required lead removal and subsequent reimplantation by using the same technique. Postimplantation stereotactic MR images were analyzed. Lateral (x) and anteroposterior (y) distances from midcommissural point to center of the lead hypointensity were recorded at the anterior commissure-posterior commissure plane (pallidal electrode) or z = -4 (subthalamic electrode). Stereotactic MRI before the second procedure, x and y distances from the center of the visible lead track hypointensity to midcommissural point were independently recorded. Vectorial distance from center of the lead hypointensity to the center of its track was calculated. Sixteen electrode tracks were studied in 10 patients. Mean differences between lead artifact location and lead track location were: x coordinate 0.4 mm ± 0.2; y coordinate 0.6 mm ± 0.3. Mean vectorial distance was 0.7 mm ± 0.2. Stereotactic distance between lead location and subsequent brain track location on MRI was small. The mean discrepancy was approximately half the deep brain stimulation lead width. This suggests that lead hypointensity seen on postimplantation MRI is indeed an accurate representation of its real location within deep brain structures.

  12. The impact of subcellular location on the near infrared-mediated thermal ablation of cells by targeted carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murali, Vasanth S.; Wang, Ruhung; Mikoryak, Carole A.; Pantano, Paul; Draper, Rockford K.

    2016-10-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) are used in the near infrared (NIR)-mediated thermal ablation of tumor cells because they efficiently convert absorbed NIR light into heat. Despite the therapeutic potential of SWNTs, there have been no published studies that directly quantify how many SWNTs need be associated with a cell to achieve a desired efficiency of killing, or what is the most efficient subcellular location of SWNTs for killing cells. Herein we measured dose response curves for the efficiency of killing correlated to the measured amounts of folate-targeted SWNTs that were either on the surface or within the vacuolar compartment of normal rat kidney cells. Folate-targeted SWNTs on the cell surface were measured after different concentrations of SWNTs in medium were incubated with cells for 30 min at 4 °C. Folate-targeted SWNTs within the vacuolar compartments were measured after cells were incubated with different concentrations of SWNTs in medium for 6 h at 37 °C. It was observed that a SWNT load of ∼13 pg/cell when internalized was sufficient to kill 90% of the cells under standardized conditions of NIR light irradiation. When ∼3.5 pg/cell of SWNTs were internalized within the endosomal/lysosomal compartments, ∼50% of the cells were killed, but when ∼3.5 pg/cell of SWNTs were confined to the cell surface only ∼5% of the cells were killed under the same NIR irradiation conditions. The SWNT subcellular locations were verified using Raman imaging of SWNTs merged with fluorescence images of known subcellular markers. To our knowledge, this is the first time that SWNT amounts at known subcellular locations have been correlated with a dose-normalized efficacy of thermal ablation and the results support the idea that SWNTs confined to the plasma membrane are not as effective in NIR-mediated cell killing as an equivalent amount of SWNTs when internalized within the endosomal/lysosomal vesicles.

  13. A Location Privacy Aware Friend Locator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siksnys, Laurynas; Thomsen, Jeppe Rishede; Saltenis, Simonas

    2009-01-01

    to trade their location privacy for quality of service, limiting the attractiveness of the services. The challenge is to develop a communication-efficient solution such that (i) it detects proximity between a user and the user’s friends, (ii) any other party is not allowed to infer the location of the user...

  14. On the ups and downs of emotion: testing between conceptual-metaphor and polarity accounts of emotional valence-spatial location interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynott, Dermot; Coventry, Kenny

    2014-02-01

    In the past decade, many studies have focused on the relationship between emotional valence and vertical spatial positions from a processing perspective. Lakoff and Johnson's (1980) work on conceptual metaphor has traditionally motivated these investigations, but recent work (Lakens in J Exp Psychol: Learn, Mem Cogn, 38: 726-736, 2012) has suggested that polarity-based perspectives offer an alternative account of response time patterns. We contrasted the predictions of these two theories using a new facial emotion recognition task, in which participants made speeded responses to happy or sad faces on a display, with the spatial location of those faces being manipulated. In three experiments (two-alternative forced choice tasks and a go/no-go task), we found a pattern of responses consistent with a polarity-based account, but inconsistent with key predictions of the conceptual-metaphor account. Overall, congruency effects were observed for positively valenced items, but not for negatively valenced items. These findings demonstrate that polarity effects extend to nonlinguistic stimuli and beyond two-alternative forced choice tasks. We discuss the results in terms of common-coding approaches to task-response mappings.

  15. Draft Supplement to the Environmental Statement Fiscal Year 1976 Proposed Program : Facility Location Evaluation for Prototype 1100-kV Test Facilities Study Area 75-15.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1974-10-22

    Long-term impacts associated with the adoption of 1100 kV in the Pacific Northwest transmission grid include increased visual impacts from taller towers, potential effects resulting from ozone production, electrical fields, noise, and potential radio and television interference. Increased capacity/acre ratios and improved transmission efficiency are expected. Short term, localized impacts include requirements for approximately 42 acres of land for tower, equipment, and test sites. This includes 15 acres of agricultural land and 7 acres of timber land. In addition, 7000 to 13,000 feet of improved access may be required. Some erosion will occur during, and immediately following, construction. Disturbance to wildlife and elimination of habitat associated with the above land uses will occur. The tall towers will add to the visual impacts of the existing facilities. Noise, dust, and construction and testing activities may disturb local residents. Interference with radio and television reception may occur.

  16. Modelling of the transfer of Cs-137 from air to crops, milk, beef and human body following the Chernobyl accident in a location in Central Bohemia. Test of the model PRYMA T1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrasco, E.; Garcia-Olivares, A.; Suanez, A.; Robles, B.; Simon, I.; Cancio, D.

    1994-07-01

    This work was made in the frame of the research programme on validation od models for the transfer of radionuclides in the terrestrial, urban and aquatic environments. the acronym of this programme is VAMP (Validation of Model Predictions) and is co-ordinated by the International Atomic energy Agency (IAEA) and the Commission of the european Communities (CEC). The scenario was named CB and Was presented by the Multiple Pathway Working group. the scenario description was at the beginning a blind test, that is without knowing the location or the measured concentrations and doses. the input information included data of contamination in Cs-137 from the Chernobyl accident in Central Europe, in air and soils and ore, description of the scenario (data about crops, cattle, demography, human diet, etc.). the aim of the exercise was the contrast between model results and between observed data and model predictions. In this work the results obtained by the CIEMAT-IMA group of modelers are shown and discussed. (Author) 24 refs.

  17. Testing and verifying nursing theory by confirmatory factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kääriäinen, Maria; Kanste, Outi; Elo, Satu; Pölkki, Tarja; Miettunen, Jouko; Kyngäs, Helvi

    2011-05-01

    This paper presents a discussion of the use of confirmatory factor analysis to test nursing theory. Theory testing is an important phase in nursing theory development. Testing of theory is intended to give more information about concepts and their usefulness in nursing practice. Confirmatory factor analysis is commonly used in instrument development in nursing science studies, but also in theory testing. However, there has been little discussion of its use in theory testing in nursing science research. Multidisciplinary methodological and research publications from 1990 to 2009 were used. The aim of confirmatory factor analysis is to test nursing theory that has already been established, i.e. researchers have an a priori hypothesis based on theoretical knowledge or empirical indications. Analysis is represented as three phases: preparation, model testing and reporting the results. Preparation involves data screening and preliminary analyses. Model testing is divided into model specification, model identification, model estimation, model evaluation and model modification. The results are reported with standardized regression coefficients of the items related to the latent variables, squared multiple correlations (R²) related to error terms and the model's goodness of fit indexes. Implications for nursing. Testing of theory is intended to give more valid information about the concepts and their usefulness in nursing practice. Confirmatory factor analysis is a good method to test the structure of theory, for example to test the concepts built by concept synthesis or analysis. Tested theories are needed to develop nursing science itself. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Aquatic Nuisance Species Locator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data in this map has been collected by the United States Geological Survey's Nonindigenous Aquatic Species program located in Gainesville, Florida (http://nas.er.usgs.gov/default.aspx). This dataset may have some inaccuracies and is only current to June 15, 2012. The species identified in this dataset are not inclusive of all aquatic nuisance species, but rather a subset identified to be at risk for transport by recreational activities such as boating and angling. Additionally, the locations where organisims have been identified are also not inclusive and should be treated as a guide. Organisms are limited to the following: American bullfrog, Asian clam, Asian shore crab, Asian tunicate, Australian spotted jellyfish, Chinese mitten crab, New Zealand mudsnail, Colonial sea squirt, Alewife, Bighead carp, Black carp, Flathead catfish, Grass carp, Green crab, Lionfish, Northern snakehead, Quagga mussel, Round Goby, Ruffe, Rusty crayfish, Sea lamprey, Silver carp, Spiny water flea, Veined rapa whelk, Zebra mussel

  19. Verifying seismic design of nuclear reactors by testing. Volume 1: test plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-07-20

    This document sets forth recommendations for a verification program to test the ability of operational nuclear power plants to achieve safe shutdown immediately following a safe-shutdown earthquake. The purpose of the study is to develop a program plan to provide assurance by physical demonstration that nuclear power plants are earthquake resistant and to allow nuclear power plant operators to (1) decide whether tests should be conducted on their facilities, (2) specify the tests that should be performed, and (3) estimate the cost of the effort to complete the recommended test program.

  20. Variation in blood selenium and serum vitamin E in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus described by location, husbandry, and season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karyn Bischoff

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus are important livestock for arctic and subarctic herders, including those in North America, but as climate change affects traditional herding practices, alternative methods of rearing (such as captive rearing will likely become common. Proper nutrition is critical in livestock production, but there is minimal information available on circulating nutrient concentrations in reindeer, who are adapted to a unique climate. This study looks at 2 important antioxidants. Blood and serum were taken from female reindeer from three herds:  a free-ranging herd from the Seward Peninsula, Alaska (AK, during the summer, and two captive herds (one in Fairbanks, AK and one in Upstate New York (NY during the summer and winter. Selenium (Se and vitamin E concentrations were described stratified on season (when possible, location, and management practices (captive or free range. Herd mean values across seasons for Se ranged from 2.42 to 4.88 µmol/L. Herd mean values across seasons for vitamin E ranged from 5.27 to 6.89 µmol/L.

  1. Preliminary analyses for HTTR`s start-up physics tests by Monte Carlo code MVP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nojiri, Naoki [Science and Technology Agency, Tokyo (Japan); Nakano, Masaaki; Ando, Hiroei; Fujimoto, Nozomu; Takeuchi, Mitsuo; Fujisaki, Shingo; Yamashita, Kiyonobu

    1998-08-01

    Analyses of start-up physics tests for High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) have been carried out by Monte Carlo code MVP based on continuous energy method. Heterogeneous core structures were modified precisely, such as the fuel compacts, fuel rods, coolant channels, burnable poisons, control rods, control rod insertion holes, reserved shutdown pellet insertion holes, gaps between graphite blocks, etc. Such precise modification of the core structures was difficult with diffusion calculation. From the analytical results, the followings were confirmed; The first criticality will be achieved around 16 fuel columns loaded. The reactivity at the first criticality can be controlled by only one control rod located at the center of the core with other fifteen control rods fully withdrawn. The excess reactivity, reactor shutdown margin and control rod criticality positions have been evaluated. These results were used for planning of the start-up physics tests. This report presents analyses of start-up physics tests for HTTR by MVP code. (author)

  2. Was the Conconi test validated by sporting success, expert opinion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The application of the scientific method in sport demands that regular and standardised testing must be implemented by the coach or scientist to determine whether the intervention, for instance training, has had the desired effect on sporting performance. However, the test administered by the coach or scientist must have ...

  3. 40 CFR 205.56 - Testing by the Administrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Testing by the Administrator. 205.56 Section 205.56 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Medium and Heavy Trucks § 205.56 Testing by the...

  4. 19 CFR 151.54 - Testing by Customs laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Testing by Customs laboratory. 151.54 Section 151.54 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF... Other Metal-Bearing Materials § 151.54 Testing by Customs laboratory. Samples taken in accordance with...

  5. Weatherability of Polypropylene by Accelerated Weathering Tests and Outdoor Exposure Tests in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichi Shimizu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As a joint study of the Polymer Subcommittee in the Industrial Technology Cooperative Promotion Committee, in which members are Japanese local governmental research institutes and National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST, Japan, carried out from 2010 to 2012, polyethylene reference sample (PE-RS pieces and six types of polypropylene (PP were subjected to accelerated weathering tests and outdoor exposure tests, resulting in the following findings. (1 The PE-RS was subjected to eight 100 h exposure tests in the same test machine. The accelerated weathering test machines of the participating institutes had high reproducibility. (2 The PE-RS CI values were greater when the temperature in the chamber was greater during accelerated weathering tests, and there was a high correlation with the average temperature in the outdoor exposure tests at 20 places in Japan. (3 By comparing the change in PP strength by normalizing the degradation environment using the PE-RS CI values, the accelerated weathering test with results showing the highest correlation with the outdoor exposure test results was the one with the xenon arc lamp at an irradiance of 60 W/m2 and a BPT of 63°C.

  6. Toxoplasmosis Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pregnancy hCG Tumor Marker HDL Cholesterol Heavy Metals Helicobacter pylori Testing Hematocrit Hemoglobin Hemoglobin A1c Hemoglobinopathy Evaluation ... humid locations and is influenced by the regional diet. It is higher in areas that routinely eat ...

  7. Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes fail a what-where-when task but find rewards by using a location-based association strategy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marusha Dekleva

    Full Text Available Recollecting the what-where-when of an episode, or episodic-like memory, has been established in corvids and rodents. In humans, a linkage between remembering the past and imagining the future has been recognised. While chimpanzees can plan for the future, their episodic-like memory has hardly been investigated. We tested chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes with an adapted food-catching paradigm. They observed the baiting of two locations amongst four and chose one after a given delay (15 min, 1 h or 5 h. We used two combinations of food types, a preferred and a less preferred food that disappeared at different rates. The subjects had to base their choices on the time elapsed since baiting, and on their memory of which food was where. They could recover either their preferred food or the one that remained present. All animals failed to obtain the preferred or present foods above chance levels. They were like-wise unsuccessful at choosing baited cups above chance levels. The subjects, thus, failed to use any feature of the baiting events to guide their choices. Nonetheless, their choices were not random, but the result of a developed location-based association strategy. Choices in the second half of the study correlated with the rewards obtained at each location in the first half of the study, independent from the choices made for each location in the first half of the study. This simple location-based strategy yielded a fair amount of food. The animals' failure to remember the what-where-when in the presented set-up may be due to the complexity of the task, rather than an inability to form episodic-like memories, as they even failed to remember what was where after 15 minutes.

  8. The Location of Peak Upper Trapezius Muscle Activity During Submaximal Contractions is not Associated With the Location of Myofascial Trigger Points: New Insights Revealed by High-density Surface EMG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbero, Marco; Falla, Deborah; Mafodda, Luca; Cescon, Corrado; Gatti, Roberto

    2016-12-01

    To apply topographical mapping of the electromyography (EMG) amplitude recorded from the upper trapezius muscle to evaluate the distribution of activity and the location of peak activity during a shoulder elevation task in participants with and without myofascial pain and myofascial trigger points (MTrP) and compare this location with the site of the MTrP. Thirteen participants with myofascial pain and MTrP in the upper trapezius muscle and 12 asymptomatic individuals participated. High-density surface EMG was recorded from the upper trapezius muscle using a matrix of 64 surface electrodes aligned with an anatomic landmark system (ALS). Each participant performed a shoulder elevation task consisting of a series of 30 s ramped contractions to 15% or 60% of their maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) force. Topographical maps of the EMG average rectified value were computed and the peak EMG amplitude during the ramped contractions was identified and its location determined with respect to the ALS. The location of the MTrP was also determined relative to the ALS and Spearman correlation coefficients were used to examine the relationship between MTrP and peak EMG amplitude location. The location of the peak EMG amplitude was significantly (PEMG amplitude during the ramped contractions at either force level (15%: rs=0.039, P=0.9; 60%: rs=-0.087, P=0.778). People with myofascial pain and MTrP displayed a caudal shift of the distribution of upper trapezius muscle activity compared with asymptomatic individuals during a submaximal shoulder elevation task. For the first time, we show that the location of peak muscle activity is not associated with the location of the MTrP.

  9. Contact allergy to popular perfumes; assessed by patch test, use test and chemical analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, J D; Rastogi, Suresh Chandra; Menné, T

    1996-01-01

    The frequency of contact allergy to the 10 best-selling women's perfumes was studied in 335 consecutive female eczema patients by patch testing. The diagnostic ability of the fragrance mix, in relation to these products, was evaluated. Of eczema patients, 6.9% had a positive patch test to one...... or more of the perfumes, and 56.5% of these had a concurrent positive reaction to the fragrance mix. Hence, testing with the patients' own cosmetics is a significant part of diagnosing perfume allergy. The clinical relevance of the patch-test reactions to the commercial perfumes was equal...... to that of the fragrance mix, as judged from the patient's history and use testing with one of the perfumes. At least three of the chemically defined sensitizers in the fragrance mix were detected in all the perfumes by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, which indicates that the fragrance mix is a good imitation...

  10. Vocabulary test Strategies used by the Students to answer Vocabulary Test the Reading Comprehension of TOEFL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suyatman Suyatman

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Test of English as a foreign Language or TOEFL is a standardized test of English for non-native speaker. It consists of three parts or three sections of tests. In Reading Comprehension test, it consists of vocabulary test. To get better result of score, it needs strategies. The purposes of this study are to know the strategies used by the students to answer the vocabulary test on reading section of TOEFL, to know the most strategy used by the students, to know the least strategy used by the students and to know the distribution of strategies used by the students to answer the Vocabulary test of Reading Comprehension of the TOEFL. The researcher used descriptive qualitative research. The subject was twelve students. The instrument was questionnaire that consisted of thirty questions. Data analyzes technique was by using mean score. The result of the research showed that; (1 students used all strategies to answer the vocabulary test of reading comprehension of TOEFL. (2 the most strategies used by the students was ‘Looking for contextual clues to the meaning of unknown words.(3 the least strategy used by the students to answer vocabulary test was ‘Developing a new vocabulary study system, and (4 the distribution of the strategy number 1 was 3.88,strategy number 2 was 3.61, number 3 was 2.94, number four was 2.91, strategy number 5 was3.88, strategy number six was 3.47, strategy number seven was 3.69, strategy number eight was 3.02, strategy number nine was 3.00 and the last strategy was 3.13.

  11. Bacterial diversity and composition in major fresh produce growing soils affected by physiochemical properties and geographic locations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Jincai [Key Laboratory of Groundwater Resources and Environment, Ministry of Education, Jilin University, Changchun 130021 (China); USDA-ARS U. S. Salinity Laboratory, Riverside, CA 92507 (United States); Ibekwe, A. Mark, E-mail: Mark.Ibekwe@ars.usda.gov [USDA-ARS U. S. Salinity Laboratory, Riverside, CA 92507 (United States); Yang, Ching-Hong [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53211 (United States); Crowley, David E. [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Microbial diversity of agricultural soils has been well documented, but information on leafy green producing soils is limited. In this study, we investigated microbial diversity and community structures in 32 (16 organic, 16 conventionally managed soils) from California (CA) and Arizona (AZ) using pyrosequencing, and identified factors affecting bacterial composition. Results of detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) and dissimilarity analysis showed that bacterial community structures of conventionally managed soils were similar to that of organically managed soils; while the bacterial community structures in soils from Salinas, California were different (P < 0.05) from those in soils from Yuma, Arizona and Imperial Valley, California. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) and artificial neural network (ANN) analysis of bacterial community structures and soil variables showed that electrical conductivity (EC), clay content, water-holding capacity (WHC), pH, total nitrogen (TN), and organic carbon (OC) significantly (P < 0.05) correlated with microbial communities. CCA based variation partitioning analysis (VPA) showed that soil physical properties (clay, EC, and WHC), soil chemical variables (pH, TN, and OC) and sampling location explained 16.3%, 12.5%, and 50.9%, respectively, of total variations in bacterial community structure, leaving 13% of the total variation unexplained. Our current study showed that bacterial community composition and diversity in major fresh produce growing soils from California and Arizona is a function of soil physiochemical characteristics and geographic distances of sampling sites. - Highlights: • Geographic distance was the most significant factor affecting microbial composition. • Physical and chemical properties significantly impacted microbial communities. • Higher numbers of OTUs were observed in organic soils than in convention soils.

  12. Upper and lower mesophotic coral reef fish communities evaluated by underwater visual censuses in two Caribbean locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, H. T.; Goodbody-Gringley, G.; Jessup, M. E.; Shepherd, B.; Chequer, A. D.; Rocha, L. A.

    2016-03-01

    Despite more than 60 yr of coral reef research using scuba diving, mesophotic coral ecosystems (MCEs) between 30 and 150 m depth remain largely unknown. This study represents the first underwater visual census of reef fish communities in the Greater Caribbean on MCEs at depths up to 80 m in Bermuda and 130 m in Curaçao. Sampling was performed using mixed-gas closed-circuit rebreathers. Quantitative data on reef fish communities were obtained for four habitats: coral reefs (45-80 m), rhodolith beds (45-80 m), ledges (85-130 m) and walls (85-130 m). A total of 38 species were recorded in Bermuda and 66 in Curaçao. Mesophotic reef fish communities varied significantly between the two localities. MCEs in Bermuda had lower richness and abundance, but higher biomass than those in Curaçao. Richness, abundance and biomass increased with depth in Bermuda, but decreased in Curaçao. A high turnover of species was found among depth strata and between Bermuda and other Caribbean upper MCEs (45-80 m), indicating that depth was an important driver of community structure at all localities. However, local and evolutionary factors (habitat and endemism) are likely the main factors shaping communities in isolated locations such as Bermuda. High fishing pressure is evident in both localities, as total biomass of apex predators was generally low, and thus may be driving a "refugia" scenario in Bermuda, as the abundance and biomass of macro-carnivores increased with depth and distance from the coast.

  13. A perennial ryegrass CBF gene cluster is located in a region predicted by conserved synteny between Poaceae species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, K; Yamada, T

    2007-01-01

    CBF/DREB1 proteins are the most important regulators of the cold temperature signaling pathway in many plants. CBF genes are candidates for low-temperature tolerance QTL in wheat and barley. Ten novel putative CBF cDNAs of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) have been isolated from cold-treated leaf tissue. Their primary structures contain some conserved motifs, characteristic of the gene class. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that LpCBF genes were attributable to the HvCBF3-, and HvCBF4-subgroups following the previously proposed classification of barley CBF genes. RT-PCR analysis revealed that the expression of LpCBF genes was rapidly induced in response to low temperature and that the expression pattern under the low-temperature conditions for a long period was different between the various LpCBF genes. Five of the ten LpCBF genes were assigned to the genetic linkage map using the p150/112 reference mapping population. LpCBFIb, LpCBFII, LpCBFIIIb and LpCBFIIIc were mapped on LG5 forming a cluster within 2.2 cM, while LpCBFVb was located on LG1. Based on comparative genetic studies, conserved synteny for CBF gene family was observed between the Triticeae cereals and perennial ryegrass. Information on the perennial ryegrass CBF genes at both the molecular and genetic level obtained in this study would be useful for the further study on the role of CBF genes and low-temperature tolerance in grasses.

  14. The Ibibio Locative Copular Constructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogbonna Anyanwu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The Ibibio language, a member of the Lower Cross group of languages is predominantly spoken in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Ibibio has two types of copular construction. One is locative while the other is predicative. Using a purely descriptive approach/method, this paper provides a descriptive account of the copular locative constructions in Ibibio. This study is based on a database collected from adult speakers of Ibibio by the author using an elicitation list. The database includes both actual and potential words/sentences, which standard Ibibio speakers found to be in consistent with their language rules.The paper has observed that Ibibio copular locatives make use of locative copular verbs which have semantic content, but are however, with indeterminate locative precision except when they co- occur with an appropriate locative complement. It has further observed that in Ibibio, the location of a subject entity can be marked with locative elements in two ways. In the first instance, a locative copular verb which can be dórò, ‘be on’ síne ‘be in’ bà ‘be at’ obligatorily co-occurs with a deitic locative complement or a locative prepositional phrase (PP complement headed by a multipurpose preposition (P, ké. The P is semantically, interpreted as either on, in, at or under depending on the particular locative copular verb that it co-occurs with. In the second instance, in addition to the locative copular verb and the locative PP complement headed by the P ké, there is also within the PP complement (headed by the P ké , a locative relational noun modifier which, modifies the head noun, a complement to the locative P ké. Based on Ameka andOgbonna Anyanwu71Levinson’s (2007 cross-linguistic classification of positional and locative verbs, the paper concludes that Ibibio belongs to the multi-verb type of languages with inherently locative copular verbs which are used to express the spatial locative orientation of subject

  15. VCSEL fault location apparatus and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeler, Gordon A [Albuquerque, NM; Serkland, Darwin K [Albuquerque, NM

    2007-05-15

    An apparatus for locating a fault within an optical fiber is disclosed. The apparatus, which can be formed as a part of a fiber-optic transmitter or as a stand-alone instrument, utilizes a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) to generate a test pulse of light which is coupled into an optical fiber under test. The VCSEL is subsequently reconfigured by changing a bias voltage thereto and is used as a resonant-cavity photodetector (RCPD) to detect a portion of the test light pulse which is reflected or scattered from any fault within the optical fiber. A time interval .DELTA.t between an instant in time when the test light pulse is generated and the time the reflected or scattered portion is detected can then be used to determine the location of the fault within the optical fiber.

  16. Automatic path-oriented test data generation by boundary hypercuboids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Moadab

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Designing test cases and generating data are very important phases in software engineering these days. In order to generate test data, some generators such as random test data generators, data specification generators and path-oriented (Path-Wise test data generators are employed. One of the most important problems in the path-oriented test data generator is the lack of attention given to discovering faults by the test data. In this paper an approach is proposed to generate some test data automatically so that we can realize the goal of discovering more faults in less time. The number of faults near the boundaries of the input domain is more than the center, according to the Pareto 80–20 principle the test data of this approach will be generated at 20% of the allowable area boundary. To do this, we extracted the boundary hypercuboids and then the test data will be generated by exploiting these hypercuboids. The experimental results show that the fault detection probability and the fault detection speed are improved significantly, compared with the previous approaches. By generating data in this way, more faults are discovered in a short period of time which makes it more possible to deliver products on time.

  17. Results of Investigative Tests of Gas Turbine Engine Compressor Blades Obtained by Electrochemical Machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozhina, T. D.; Kurochkin, A. V.

    2016-04-01

    The paper highlights results of the investigative tests of GTE compressor Ti-alloy blades obtained by the method of electrochemical machining with oscillating tool-electrodes, carried out in order to define the optimal parameters of the ECM process providing attainment of specified blade quality parameters given in the design documentation, while providing maximal performance. The new technological methods suggested based on the results of the tests; in particular application of vibrating tool-electrodes and employment of locating elements made of high-strength materials, significantly extend the capabilities of this method.

  18. The preparation of Dermatophilus congolensis antigen and its testing by means of immunodiffusion test and electrophoresis

    OpenAIRE

    Djaenudin Gholib; Subiyanto

    1998-01-01

    The filtrate antigen ofDermatophilus congolensis was prepared based on the Makinde method, whereas the whole cell antigen was based on the Bida and Kelley method. Filtrate antigen of Dermatophilus congolensis has been tested with positive serum from experimental animals, guinea pigs and sheep by means of immurrodiffitsion test and electrophoresis . Positive serum was produced by inoculation of whole cell antigen of D. congolensis to the animals . The results showed that the immunodiffusion te...

  19. Distinguish Dynamic Basic Blocks by Structural Statistical Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petit, Matthieu; Gotlieb, Arnaud

    of satisfying a structural coverage criterion for instance. In this paper, we propose a new statistical testing method that generates sequences of random test data that respect the following probabilistic properties: 1) each sequence guarantees the uniform selection of feasible paths only and 2) the uniform...... selection of test data over the subdomain associated with these paths. Baudry et al. present a testing for-diagnosis method where the essential notion of Dynamic Basic Block was identified to be strongly correlated to the effectiveness of fault-localization technique. We show that generating a sequence...... of random test data respecting these properties allows to well-distinguished Dynamic Basic Blocks. Thanks to Constraint programming techniques, we propose an efficient algorithm that uniformly selects feasible paths only by drastically decreasing the number of rejects (test data that activate another...

  20. Fatigue testing of materials under extremal conditions by acoustic method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baranov, VM; Bibilashvili, YK; Karasevich, VA; Sarychev, GA

    2004-01-01

    Increasing fuel cycle time requires fatigue testing of the fuel clad materials for nuclear reactors. The standard high-temperature fatigue tests are complicated and tedious. Solving this task is facilitated by the proposed acoustic method, which ensures observation of the material damage dynamics,

  1. Immunogenicity test of tetanus component in adsorbed vaccines by toxin binding inhibition test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Cristina Souza Matos

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Samples from 20 lots of diphtheria-tetanus (adult use dT vaccine and from 20 lots of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP vaccine were used to standardize and validate the in vitro toxin binding inhibition (ToBI test for the immunogenicity test of the tetanus component. The levels of tetanus antitoxin obtained by ToBI test were compared to those obtained using the toxin neutralization (TN test in mice routinely employed to perform the quality control of the tetanus component in adsorbed vaccines. The results ranged from 1.8 to 3.5 IU/ml for dT and 2 to 4 IU/ml for DTP by ToBI test and 1.4 to 3 IU/ml for dT and 1.8 to 3.5 IU/ml for DTP by TN in mice. These results were significantly correlated. From this study, it is concluded that the ToBI test is an alternative to the in vivo neutralization procedure in the immunogenicity test of the tetanus component in adsorbed vaccines. A substantial refinement and a reduction in use of animals can be achieved.

  2. THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MALE AND FEEMALE SDUTENTS IN CERTAIN TEST WHICH WERE MEASURED BY FOOTSCAN SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijela Kuna

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Footscan system is an advance technology which allows measuring the pressure applied by a foot on a special platform. With a high speed and resolution, the system allows precise analysis of the pressure discrepancies in all the regions of a foot. With an intention of determining the differences and correlations between the male and female students in the tests for barycenter projection and apportionment of balance through the quadrants of the Footscan system, 32 male and 23 female students between 18 and 20 years of age were tested. Variables causes were constituted by tests for estimation of balance, projections of body’s barycenter location, and the foot’s status measured on Footscan system. According to the results from the correlation matrix, male students had a larger number of important correlations than female students. Analysis of results from multivariate and univariate analysis of variance, important differences were obtained between examinees in the tests for estimation of the balance on one leg and transformation the barycenter left and right, while the general differences between the subsample were not determined. Obtained differences point to the conclusion that there are disparate mechanisms based on which male and female students function in some tests for determination of balance and projection of the barycenter location

  3. Gonadotropin regulation of in vitro androgen production by reptilian testes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wo Tsui, H; Licht, P

    1977-04-01

    The hormonal regulation of in vitro androgen production by minced testes from 7 species of reptiles representing the 3 major orders was studied using purified follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) from tetrapod species. Androgen content was measured by radioimmunoassay. All 7 species showed a dose-dependent response to all preparations of FSH and LH tested. However, variations were found depending on the species tested and the source of the hormone. All snake hormones were particularly inactive in turtles. Some of the variation in relative potencies of hormone reflect phylogenetic specificity in the testes. Synergism between FSH and LH was tested in the sea turtle. While subliminal doses of FSH and LH produced a small stimulation of androgen production, each alone was ineffective. Both gonadotropins have intrinsic activity with regard to the stimulation of steroidogenesis.

  4. Location Systems An Introduction to the Technology Behind Location Awareness

    CERN Document Server

    LaMarca, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    Advances in electronic location technology and the coming of age of mobile computing have opened the door for location-aware applications to permeate all aspects of everyday life. Location is at the core of a large number of high-value applications ranging from the life-and-death context of emergency response to serendipitous social meet-ups. For example, the market for GPS products and services alone is expected to grow to US200 billion by 2015. Unfortunately, there is no single location technology that is good for every situation and exhibits high accuracy, low cost, and universal coverage.

  5. Determination of radial location of rotating magnetic islands by use of poloidal soft x-ray detector arrays in the STOR-M tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreval, M.; Xiao, C.; Elgriw, S.; Trembach, D.; Wolfe, S.; Hirose, A.

    2011-05-01

    A technique is presented for determining the radial location of the rotating magnetic islands in the STOR-M tokamak by use of soft x-ray (SXR) detector arrays. The location is determined by examining the difference in the integrated SXR emission intensities through two adjacent lines of sight. A model for calculating dependence of the line integrated SXR emission intensity on the radius, the mode numbers and the magnetic island geometry, has been developed. The SXR difference signal shows phase inversion when the impact parameter of the line of sight sweeps across the magnetic islands. Experimentally, the difference SXR signals significantly reduce noise and suppress the influence of background plasma fluctuations through common mode rejection when a dominant mode exists in the STOR-M tokamak. The radial locations of the m = 2 magnetic islands have been determined under several experimental conditions in the STOR-M discharges. With the decrease in the tokamak discharge current and thus the increase of the safety factor at the edge, the radial location of the m = 2 magnetic islands has been found to move radially inward.

  6. Mutagenicity of flavonoids assayed by bacterial reverse mutation (Ames) test

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Resende, Flavia Aparecida; Vilegas, Wagner; Dos Santos, Lourdes Campaner; Varanda, Eliana Aparecida

    2012-01-01

    The mutagenicity of ten flavonoids was assayed by the Ames test, in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98, TA100 and TA102, with the aim of establishing hydroxylation pattern-mutagenicity relationship profiles...

  7. Measures used by medical students to reduce test anxiety

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Afzal, Hasnain; Afzal, Sara; Siddique, Saad Ahmed; Naqvi, Syed Anwar Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    .... The 10-item Westside Test Anxiety Scale, was used to measure anxiety and the pre-designed questionnaire asked the students about the frequent measures used by them to overcome anxiety during exams...

  8. Improving agglutination tests by working in microfluidic channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degré, G; Brunet, E; Dodge, A; Tabeling, P

    2005-06-01

    Latex agglutination tests are used for the diagnosis of diseases in man and animals. They are generally simple, cheap, and do not require sophisticated equipment, nor highly specialized skills. In this Technical Note, we put latex agglutination tests in a microfluidic format. The experiment is performed in PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) microchannels, using streptavidin-coated superparamagnetic beads and a magnetic field. The target molecule is biotinylated protein A. By taking full advantage of the microfluidic conditions (scaling down of the detection volume and controlled action of the shear flow), we achieved an analytical sensitivity of 10 fmol l(-1)(several hundreds of fg ml(-1)) and a fast response (a few minutes) ; the test is also quantitative. Performances of agglutination tests can thus be improved by orders of magnitude by adapting them to a microfluidic format; this comes in addition to the usual advantages offered by this technology (integration, high throughput etc.).

  9. Tertiary Education: An Investigation of Location Selection Criteria and Preferences by International Students--The Case of Two Australian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubakar, Binta; Shanka, Tekle; Muuka, Gerry Nkombo

    2010-01-01

    This paper identifies and analyzes factors that influence international student selection of universities and the role that education marketing plays in the process. The research for the paper was inspired by work done by Canterbury on education marketing, published in the "Journal of Marketing for Higher Education". The study…

  10. A food-borne outbreak of gastroenteritis caused by norovirus GII in a university located in Xiamen City, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhinan Guo

    2014-11-01

    Conclusions: The outbreak of gastroenteritis was caused mainly by bread products contaminated with norovirus GII. A food handler with an asymptomatic norovirus GII infection was the possible source of infection.

  11. Law Enforcement Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Law Enforcement Locations in Kansas Any location where sworn officers of a law enforcement agency are regularly based or stationed. Law enforcement agencies "are...

  12. Determination of Material Strengths by Hydraulic Bulge Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hankui Wang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The hydraulic bulge test (HBT method is proposed to determine material tensile strengths. The basic idea of HBT is similar to the small punch test (SPT, but inspired by the manufacturing process of rupture discs—high-pressure hydraulic oil is used instead of punch to cause specimen deformation. Compared with SPT method, the HBT method can avoid some of influence factors, such as punch dimension, punch material, and the friction between punch and specimen. A calculation procedure that is entirely based on theoretical derivation is proposed for estimate yield strength and ultimate tensile strength. Both conventional tensile tests and hydraulic bulge tests were carried out for several ferrous alloys, and the results showed that hydraulic bulge test results are reliable and accurate.

  13. Determination of Material Strengths by Hydraulic Bulge Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hankui; Xu, Tong; Shou, Binan

    2016-01-01

    The hydraulic bulge test (HBT) method is proposed to determine material tensile strengths. The basic idea of HBT is similar to the small punch test (SPT), but inspired by the manufacturing process of rupture discs—high-pressure hydraulic oil is used instead of punch to cause specimen deformation. Compared with SPT method, the HBT method can avoid some of influence factors, such as punch dimension, punch material, and the friction between punch and specimen. A calculation procedure that is entirely based on theoretical derivation is proposed for estimate yield strength and ultimate tensile strength. Both conventional tensile tests and hydraulic bulge tests were carried out for several ferrous alloys, and the results showed that hydraulic bulge test results are reliable and accurate. PMID:28772379

  14. Stability of referential signalling across time and locations: testing alarm calls of Australian magpies (Gymnorhina tibicen in urban and rural Australia and in Fiji

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela Kaplan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In many avian species, vocal repertoire expands and changes throughout life as new syllables are added and sounds adapted to neighbours and circumstances. Referential signals, on the other hand, demand stability and lack of variation so that their meaning can be understood by conspecifics at all times. It is not known how stable such signals may be when the context is changed entirely but the point of reference remains unchanged. We investigated these questions in a rare case of forced translocation of an avian species, the Australian magpie (Gymnorhina tibicen, from Australia to the remote Fijian island of Taveuni decades ago. By using playbacks of vocalisations to 45 magpie groups in Australia, we first established that magpies use functionally referential signals in their alarm call repertoire signalling aerial danger (measured as looking up in response to a specific alarm call even though the speakers were on the ground. With these results in hand, we then used the same playbacks to magpie groups on the island of Taveuni. Our results showed that the meaning of one specific call (eagle alarm call is stable and maintained even in populations that have been isolated from Australian conspecifics over many (at least 10 generations. To our knowledge, this is the first time such a stability of a referential signal has been shown in the natural habitat.

  15. Effects of size and location of regions of interest examined by use of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography on renal perfusion variables of dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macrì, Francesco; Di Pietro, Simona; Liotta, Luigi; Piccionello, Angela Palumbo; Pugliese, Michela; De Majo, Massimo

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine effects of the size and location of regions of interest (ROIs) in the renal cortex of unsedated dogs on renal perfusion variables determined by use of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS). ANIMALS 12 client-owned adult (1.5 to 2 years old) Labrador Retrievers (8 males and 4 females; mean ± SD body weight, 27 ± 1.6 kg). PROCEDURES Each dog received 2 bolus injections of sulfur hexafluoride during CEUS. Three small oval ROIs (area of each ROI, 0.11 cm(2)) located in a row with a distance of 1 mm between adjacent ROIs and 1 large oval ROI (area, 1 cm(2)) that encompassed the 3 smaller ROIs were manually drawn in the renal cortex. The ROIs were located at a depth of 1.5 to 2.0 cm in the near field of the renal cortex. Software analysis of time-intensity curves within each ROI was used to identify peak enhancement, time to peak enhancement, regional blood flow, and mean transit time. RESULTS The location and size of the ROIs of unsedated dogs did not cause significant differences in the mean values of the renal perfusion variables. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The development of CEUS has provided a unique means for visually examining and quantifying tissue perfusion. Results of this study indicated that it was possible to use small or large ROIs during renal CEUS to evaluate renal perfusion in dogs.

  16. Random Tagging Genotyping by Sequencing (rtGBS, an Unbiased Approach to Locate Restriction Enzyme Sites across the Target Genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Hilario

    Full Text Available Genotyping by sequencing (GBS is a restriction enzyme based targeted approach developed to reduce the genome complexity and discover genetic markers when a priori sequence information is unavailable. Sufficient coverage at each locus is essential to distinguish heterozygous from homozygous sites accurately. The number of GBS samples able to be pooled in one sequencing lane is limited by the number of restriction sites present in the genome and the read depth required at each site per sample for accurate calling of single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Loci bias was observed using a slight modification of the Elshire et al.some restriction enzyme sites were represented in higher proportions while others were poorly represented or absent. This bias could be due to the quality of genomic DNA, the endonuclease and ligase reaction efficiency, the distance between restriction sites, the preferential amplification of small library restriction fragments, or bias towards cluster formation of small amplicons during the sequencing process. To overcome these issues, we have developed a GBS method based on randomly tagging genomic DNA (rtGBS. By randomly landing on the genome, we can, with less bias, find restriction sites that are far apart, and undetected by the standard GBS (stdGBS method. The study comprises two types of biological replicates: six different kiwifruit plants and two independent DNA extractions per plant; and three types of technical replicates: four samples of each DNA extraction, stdGBS vs. rtGBS methods, and two independent library amplifications, each sequenced in separate lanes. A statistically significant unbiased distribution of restriction fragment size by rtGBS showed that this method targeted 49% (39,145 of BamH I sites shared with the reference genome, compared to only 14% (11,513 by stdGBS.

  17. Information provided by diagnostic and screening tests: improving probabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherall, Mark

    2017-11-13

    Uncertainty in clinical encounters is inevitable and despite this uncertainty clinicians must still work with patients to make diagnostic and treatment decisions. Explicit diagnostic reasoning based on probabilities will optimise information in relation to uncertainty. In clinical diagnostic encounters, there is often pre-existing information that reflects the probability any particular patient has a disease. Diagnostic testing provides extra information that refines diagnostic probabilities. However, in general diagnostic tests will be positive in most, but not all cases of disease (sensitivity) and may not be negative in all cases of disease absence (specificity). Bayes rule is an arithmetic method of using diagnostic testing information to refine diagnostic probabilities. In this method, when probabilities are converted to odds, multiplication of the odds of disease before diagnostic testing, by the positive likelihood ratio (LR+), the sensitivity of a test divided by 1 minus the specificity refines the probability of a particular diagnosis. Similar arithmetic applies to the probability of not having a disease, where the negative likelihood ratio is the specificity divided by 1 minus the sensitivity. A useful diagnostic test is one where the LR+ is greater than 5-10. This can be clarified by creating a contingency table for hypothetical groups of patients in relation to true disease prevalence and test performance predicted by sensitivity and specificity. Most screening tests in populations with a low prevalence of disease have a very high ratio of false positive results to true positive results, which can also be illustrated by contingency tables. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. Ability evaluation by binary tests: Problems, challenges & recent advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashkansky, E.; Turetsky, V.

    2016-11-01

    Binary tests designed to measure abilities of objects under test (OUTs) are widely used in different fields of measurement theory and practice. The number of test items in such tests is usually very limited. The response to each test item provides only one bit of information per OUT. The problem of correct ability assessment is even more complicated, when the levels of difficulty of the test items are unknown beforehand. This fact makes the search for effective ways of planning and processing the results of such tests highly relevant. In recent years, there has been some progress in this direction, generated by both the development of computational tools and the emergence of new ideas. The latter are associated with the use of so-called “scale invariant item response models”. Together with maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) approach, they helped to solve some problems of engineering and proficiency testing. However, several issues related to the assessment of uncertainties, replications scheduling, the use of placebo, as well as evaluation of multidimensional abilities still present a challenge for researchers. The authors attempt to outline the ways to solve the above problems.

  19. Survey Response in a Statewide Social Experiment: Differences in Being Located and Collaborating, by Race and Hispanic Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Yunju; Mason, Lisa Reyes; Kim, Youngmi; Clancy, Margaret; Sherraden, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether and how survey response differs by race and Hispanic origin, using data from birth certificates and survey administrative data for a large-scale statewide experiment. The sample consisted of mothers of infants selected from Oklahoma birth certificates using a stratified random sampling method (N = 7,111). This study…

  20. Location, Location, Location: Where Do Location-Based Services Fit into Your Institution's Social Media Mix?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekritz, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Foursquare is a location-based social networking service that allows users to share their location with friends. Some college administrators have been thinking about whether and how to take the leap into location-based services, which are also known as geosocial networking services. These platforms, which often incorporate gaming elements like…

  1. Effects of source and receiver locations in predicting room transfer functions by a phased beam tracing method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Ih, Jeong-Guon

    2012-01-01

    The accuracy of a phased beam tracing method in predicting transfer functions is investigated with a special focus on the positions of the source and receiver. Simulated transfer functions for various source-receiver pairs using the phased beam tracing method were compared with analytical Green’s...... increases the error, which might be ascribed to wave phenomena evoked by the impedance-discontinuous boundary....

  2. Locating Intermediality: Socialization by Communication and Consumption in the Popular Cultural Third Places of the Music Club and Football Stadium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Jacke

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on two different case studies in the realm of popular culture, my contribu-tion will clarify the mechanisms involved in the (symbolic production and con-sumption of space. The music club and the soccer stadium function much in the same way, as interfaces between producers and consumers of places, prompting "pro-sumption of space" (Raumprosumenten. A loss of function in such "third places" cannot be linked to the transition from informal cellar clubs to (soberly designed regional discos outside the city - or from the national-league stadium to the World Cup arena (also outside the city. Nor can it be attributed to the me-diatization of these spaces by technology. On the contrary, we find an exponentia-tion of what third places had always already been, spaces of "intermediality" (be-tween work and leisure, between seriousness and play, between young people and adults. In the World Cup stadium, unique events, experiences and communicative propensities are produced in a highly consistent manner by means of communica-tion on different levels in series. In such cases, the spectators in the stadium, just like visitors to music clubs, rarely behave as passive consumers of what is staged, yet both groups contribute by their presence and symbolic activity to the success of such productions in the stadium and the club.

  3. Pheromone-Mediated Mate Location and Discrimination by Two Syntopic Sibling Species of Dendroctonus Bark Beetles in Chiapas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niño-Domínguez, Alicia; Sullivan, Brian T; López-Urbina, José H; Macías-Sámano, Jorge E

    2015-08-01

    Where their geographic and host ranges overlap, sibling species of tree-killing bark beetles may simultaneously attack and reproduce on the same hosts. However, sustainability of these potentially mutually beneficial associations demands effective prezygotic reproductive isolation mechanisms between the interacting species. The pine bark beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann, is syntopic in the Central American region with a recently described sibling species, Dendroctonus mesoamericanus Armendáriz-Toledano and Sullivan, but mechanisms for their reproductive isolation are uncertain. We investigated whether semiochemicals mediate species discrimination by mate-seeking males of both species. In olfactometer bioassays, walking males of both species strongly preferred odors from gallery entrances of conspecific females. Coupled gas chromatography-electroantennographic detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry isolated 16 olfactory stimulants for males in these odors, but only two, ipsdienol and endo-brevicomin (both from D. mesoamericanus females), differed in quantity in female-associated odors between the species. In olfactometer bioassays, with 10, 1, or 0.1 female entrance equivalents of synthetic semiochemicals, the combination of ipsdienol and endo-brevicomin inhibited responses of male D. frontalis and enhanced responses of male D. mesoamericanus to two compounds associated with female entrances of both species (the pheromone component frontalin and host odor α-pinene). We conclude that ipsdienol and endo-brevicomin, pheromone components produced by females of just one of the two species (D. mesoamericanus), mediate interspecific mate discrimination by males of both species and provide an apparently symmetrical reproductive isolation mechanism.

  4. Location of brown recluse venom attachment sites on human erythrocytes by the firritin-labeled antibody technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futrell, J. M.; Morgan, P. N.; Su, S. P.; Roth, S. I.

    1979-01-01

    Brown recluse spider (loxosceles reclusa) venom has been demonstrated by a ferritin-labeled antibody technique to attach to human erythrocyte cell membranes. The number of individual attachment sites per cell is proportional to the concentration of the venom used to sensitize the erythrocytes. Structural changes in the red cell membrane are associated with the venom attachment. These sites may be related to the red cell hemolysis which sometimes occurs in the human as a result of the spider bite. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:377995

  5. Microbial communities in sunken wood are structured by wood-boring bivalves and location in a submarine canyon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja K Fagervold

    Full Text Available The cornerstones of sunken wood ecosystems are microorganisms involved in cellulose degradation. These can either be free-living microorganisms in the wood matrix or symbiotic bacteria associated with wood-boring bivalves such as emblematic species of Xylophaga, the most common deep-sea woodborer. Here we use experimentally submerged pine wood, placed in and outside the Mediterranean submarine Blanes Canyon, to compare the microbial communities on the wood, in fecal pellets of Xylophaga spp. and associated with the gills of these animals. Analyses based on tag pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA bacterial gene showed that sunken wood contained three distinct microbial communities. Wood and pellet communities were different from each other suggesting that Xylophaga spp. create new microbial niches by excreting fecal pellets into their burrows. In turn, gills of Xylophaga spp. contain potential bacterial symbionts, as illustrated by the presence of sequences closely related to symbiotic bacteria found in other wood eating marine invertebrates. Finally, we found that sunken wood communities inside the canyon were different and more diverse than the ones outside the canyon. This finding extends to the microbial world the view that submarine canyons are sites of diverse marine life.

  6. Spine formation pattern of adult-born neurons is differentially modulated by the induction timing and location of hippocampal plasticity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriaki Ohkawa

    Full Text Available In the adult hippocampus dentate gyrus (DG, newly born neurons are functionally integrated into existing circuits and play important roles in hippocampus-dependent memory. However, it remains unclear how neural plasticity regulates the integration pattern of new neurons into preexisting circuits. Because dendritic spines are major postsynaptic sites for excitatory inputs, spines of new neurons were visualized by retrovirus-mediated labeling to evaluate integration. Long-term potentiation (LTP was induced at 12, 16, or 21 days postinfection (dpi, at which time new neurons have no, few, or many spines, respectively. The spine expression patterns were investigated at one or two weeks after LTP induction. Induction at 12 dpi increased later spinogenesis, although the new neurons at 12 dpi didn't respond to the stimulus for LTP induction. Induction at 21 dpi transiently mediated spine enlargement. Surprisingly, LTP induction at 16 dpi reduced the spine density of new neurons. All LTP-mediated changes specifically appeared within the LTP-induced layer. Therefore, neural plasticity differentially regulates the integration of new neurons into the activated circuit, dependent on their developmental stage. Consequently, new neurons at different developmental stages may play distinct roles in processing the acquired information by modulating the connectivity of activated circuits via their integration.

  7. Biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests: Reducing test time by early parameter estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, C; Astals, S; Peces, M; Campos, J L; Guerrero, L

    2018-01-01

    Biochemical methane potential (BMP) test is a key analytical technique to assess the implementation and optimisation of anaerobic biotechnologies. However, this technique is characterised by long testing times (from 20 to >100days), which is not suitable for waste utilities, consulting companies or plants operators whose decision-making processes cannot be held for such a long time. This study develops a statistically robust mathematical strategy using sensitivity functions for early prediction of BMP first-order model parameters, i.e. methane yield (B 0 ) and kinetic constant rate (k). The minimum testing time for early parameter estimation showed a potential correlation with the k value, where (i) slowly biodegradable substrates (k≤0.1d -1 ) have a minimum testing times of ≥15days, (ii) moderately biodegradable substrates (0.1testing times between 8 and 15 days, and (iii) rapidly biodegradable substrates (k≥0.2d -1 ) have testing times lower than 7days. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Smartphones as locative media

    CERN Document Server

    Frith, Jordan

    2015-01-01

    Smartphone adoption has surpassed 50% of the population in more than 15 countries, and there are now more than one million mobile applications people can download to their phones. Many of these applications take advantage of smartphones as locative media, which is what allows smartphones to be located in physical space. Applications that take advantage of people's location are called location-based services, and they are the focus of this book. Smartphones as locative media raise important questions about how we understand the complicated relationship between the Internet and physical space

  9. Noise Source Location Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ed O’Keefe

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a method to determine locations of noise sources that minimize modal coupling in complex acoustic volumes. Using the acoustic source scattering capabilities of the boundary element method, predictions are made of mode shape and pressure levels due to various source locations. Combining knowledge of the pressure field with a multivariable function minimization technique, the source location generating minimum pressure levels can be determined. The analysis also allows for an objective comparison of “best/worst” locations. The technique was implemented on a personal computer for the U.S. Space Station, predicting 5–10 dB noise reduction using optimum source locations.

  10. An Evaluation of North Korea’s Nuclear Test by Belbasi Nuclear Tests Monitoring Center-KOERI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necmioglu, O.; Meral Ozel, N.; Semin, K.

    2009-12-01

    Bogazici University and Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI) is acting as the Turkish National Data Center (NDC) and responsible for the operation of the International Monitoring System (IMS) Primary Seismic Station (PS-43) under Belbasi Nuclear Tests Monitoring Center for the verification of compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) since February 2000. The NDC is responsible for operating two arrays which are part of the IMS, as well as for transmitting data from these stations to the International Data Centre (IDC) in Vienna. The Belbasi array was established in 1951, as a four-element (Benioff 1051) seismic array as part of the United States Atomic Energy Detection System (USAEDS). Turkish General Staff (TGS) and U.S. Air Force Technical Application Center (AFTAC) under the Defense and Economic Cooperation Agreement (DECA) jointly operated this short period array. The station was upgraded and several seismometers were added to array during 1951 and 1994 and the station code was changed from BSRS (Belbasi Seismic Research Station) to BRTR-PS43 later on. PS-43 is composed of two sub-arrays (Ankara and Keskin): the medium-period array with a ~40 km radius located in Ankara and the short-period array with a ~3 km radius located in Keskin. Each array has a broadband element located at the middle of the circular geometry. Short period instruments are installed at depth 30 meters from the surface while medium and broadband instruments are installed at depth 60 meters from surface. On 25 May 2009, The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK) claimed that it had conducted a nuclear test. Corresponding seismic event was recorded by IMS and IDC released first automatic estimation of time (00:54:43 GMT), location (41.2896°N and 129.0480°E) and the magnitude (4.52 mb) of the event in less than two hours time (USGS: 00:54:43 GMT; 41.306°N, 129.029°E; 4.7 mb) During our preliminary analysis of the 25th May 2009 DPRK

  11. Supercapacitor Degradation Assesment by Power Cycling and Calendar Life Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedlakova Vlasta

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Degradation of Supercapacitors (SC is quantified by accelerated ageing tests. Energy cycling tests and calendar life tests are used since they address the real operating modes. The periodic characterization is used to analyse evolution of the SC parameters as a whole, and its Helmholtz and diffusion capacitances. These parameters are determined before the ageing tests and during 3 × 105 cycles of both 75% and 100% energy cycling, respectively. Precise evaluation of the capacitance and Equivalent Series Resistance (ESR is based on fitting the experimental data by an exponential function of voltage vs. time. The ESR increases linearly with the number (No of cycles for both 75% and 100% energy cycling, whereas a super-linear increase of ESR vs. time of cycling is observed for the 100% energy cycling. A decrease of capacitance in time had been evaluated for 2000 hours of ageing of SC. A relative change of capacitance is ΔC/C0 = 16% for the 75% energy cycling test and ΔC/C0 = 20% for the 100% energy cycling test at temperature 25°C, while ΔC/C0 = 6% for the calendar test at temperature 22°C for a voltage bias V = 1.0 Vop. The energy cycling causes a greater decrease of capacitance in comparison with the calendar test; such results may be a consequence of increasing the temperature due to the Joule heat created in the SC structure. The charge/discharge current value is the same for both 75% and 100% energy cycling tests, so it is the Joule heat created on both the equivalent series resistance and time-dependent diffuse resistance that should be the source of degradation of the SC structure. The diffuse resistance reaches a value of up to 30Ω within each 75% energy cycle and up to about 43Ω within each 100% energy cycle.

  12. Task type affects location of language-positive cortical regions by repetitive navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, Theresa; Tanigawa, Noriko; Probst, Monika; Wohlschlaeger, Afra; Ille, Sebastian; Sollmann, Nico; Maurer, Stefanie; Zimmer, Claus; Ringel, Florian; Meyer, Bernhard; Krieg, Sandro M

    2015-01-01

    Recent repetitive TMS (rTMS) mapping protocols for language mapping revealed deficits of this method, mainly in posterior brain regions. Therefore this study analyzed the impact of different language tasks on the localization of language-positive brain regions and compared their effectiveness, especially with regard to posterior brain regions. Nineteen healthy, right-handed subjects performed object naming, pseudoword reading, verb generation, and action naming during rTMS language mapping of the left hemisphere. Synchronically, 5 Hz/10 pulses were applied with a 0 ms delay. The object naming task evoked the highest error rate (14%), followed by verb generation (13%) and action naming (11%). The latter revealed more errors in posterior than in anterior areas. Pseudoword reading barely generated errors, except for phonological paraphasias. In general, among the evaluated language tasks, object naming is the most discriminative task to detect language-positive regions via rTMS. However, other tasks might be used for more specific questions.

  13. Reversed double PCL sign: unusual location of a meniscal fragment of the knee observed by MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niitsu, M.; Itai, Y. [Dept. of Radiology, Inst. of Clinical Medicine, Univ. of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Ikeda, K. [Inst. of Clinical Medicine, Univ. of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2003-12-01

    A 36-year-old woman with tears of the anterior cruciate ligament and medial meniscus received a meniscectomy. The MR images obtained prior to the partial meniscectomy showed a bucket-handle meniscal tear with centrally displaced fragment lying anterior to the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL), representing a ''double PCL sign''; however, after the meniscectomy, MR images demonstrated a fragment in the space posterior to the PCL where no structure is generally recognized except for the ligament of wrisberg. This article reports a ''reversed'' double PCL sign, caused by inadequate surgical clearance of a bucket-handle tear of the medial meniscus. (orig.)

  14. Effect of the probe location on the absorption by an array of gold nano-particles on a dielectric surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talebi Moghaddam, Sina; Avşar, Dilan; Ertürk, Hakan; Pınar Mengüç, M.

    2017-08-01

    Effect of silicon atomic force microscope probe position and particle spacing on the local absorption of an array of gold nanoparticles placed over a dielectric borosilicate glass surface are evaluated. An improved, vectorized version of discrete dipole approximation coupled with surface interactions is employed throughout the study. It is shown that surface evanescent waves interacting with the system of nanoparticles and atomic force microscope probe result in a near-field coupling between them. This coupling can enhance or reduce the local absorption by the nanoparticles depending on the position of atomic force microscope tip in three-dimensional space and direction of propagation of the surface evanescent wave. The position of the atomic force microscope's tip and spacing that maximize the absorption are identified. This concept can be used for selective heating of nanoparticles placed over a surface that enables precision manufacturing at nanometer scales.

  15. Natural regeneration of deforested areas dominated by Pteridium aquilinum (L. Kuhn located in the serra da mantiqueira mountain range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Cristina Ribeiro

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was set out with the objective of analyzing successional process in areas which are deforested and dominated by Pteridium aquilinum in the Serra da Mantiqueira mountain range, by researching the natural regeneration of shrub and tree species and evaluating both disturbance history and the edaphic conditions on the natural regeneration community. This research investigated two abandoned pasture areas in Bocaina de Minas county exposed to natural regeneration intervals ranging from six years (area named 6A to twenty years (area named 20A. The inventory occurred from sixty plots of 10 m², where all samples surveyed were between 0.15 m and 3 m high. All samples were identified and both the diameter in ground level and total height of the specimens were measured. The survey totaled 1,159 samples and 53 species. Melastomataceae was registered with the highest species richness and the highest specimen abundance. The two sampled areas showed species composition differences, with Jaccard similarity coefficient equal to 3.7%. The canonical correspondence analysis showed the correlations between natural regeneration stratum and non-labile phosphorus and clay in the 6A area. On the other hand, the 20A area showed correlations between plant regeneration and the K, P, Ca²+, Al³+ levels, with higher pH levels, and with the sum of exchangeable bases. In addition, the vegetation surveyed in area 20A was correlated with higher Pteridium population density. The results showed that the dominance of Pteridium aquilinum leads to successional process under inhibition, in which the ferns act negatively on the richness and abundance of shrub populations. It was also confirmed the Pteridium's affinity to steep areas, mainly in higher altitudes, where the soil is acid, as well as its preference to disturbed areas. Moreover, we highlight the fragilities of the mountain environments and the importance of preserving natural vegetation, as well as the bracken

  16. Pathological fracture of the patella due to an atypical located aneurysmal bone cyst: verification by means of ultrasound-guided biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaikner, Michaela; Gruber, Hannes; Henninger, Benjamin; Gruber, Leonhard; Kosiol, Juana; Loizides, Alexander

    2016-03-01

    We report on a rare case of an atypical located aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) in the patella presenting with pathological fracture after trauma. Using all available diagnostic modalities and by means of ultrasound-guided core-needle biopsy an unclear and suspected pathological fractured cystic bone lesion in the patella of a young man could be further clarified. The acquired images suggested the diagnosis of a pathological fractured aneurysmal bone cyst after mild trauma. However, due to the extraordinary location and clinical presentation the diagnosis was secured by means of ultrasound-guided biopsy through a small cortical gap. As shown in this rare case of an atypical aneurysmal bone cyst of the patella, the quite seldom but sometimes possible ultrasound-guided biopsy of intraosseous lesions can help to achieve the diagnostic clarification and should also be taken into account as a non-standard procedure.

  17. The preparation of Dermatophilus congolensis antigen and its testing by means of immunodiffusion test and electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djaenudin Gholib

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available The filtrate antigen ofDermatophilus congolensis was prepared based on the Makinde method, whereas the whole cell antigen was based on the Bida and Kelley method. Filtrate antigen of Dermatophilus congolensis has been tested with positive serum from experimental animals, guinea pigs and sheep by means of immurrodiffitsion test and electrophoresis . Positive serum was produced by inoculation of whole cell antigen of D. congolensis to the animals . The results showed that the immunodiffusion test resulted in one and two precipitation lines with positive serum of sheep and guinea pigs respectively. Electrophoresis SDS-PAGE presented about 8 bands with molecular weight in the range from above 30 kD to more than 94 kD. The bands were then transferred into nitrocellulose membrane and gave positive reaction with positive serum from sheep.

  18. Simulation of the K-function in the analysis of spatial clustering for non-randomly distributed locations-Exemplified by bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV) infection in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2009-01-01

    The K-function is often used to detect spatial clustering in spatial point processes, e.g. clustering of infected herds. Clustering is identified by testing the observed K-function for complete spatial randomness modelled, e.g. by a homogeneous Poisson process. The approach provides information a...... of the herd locations in general. The approach also overcomes edge effects and problems with complex shapes of the study region. An application to bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV) infection in Denmark is described....

  19. Three-dimensional location of target fish by monocular infrared imaging sensor based on a L-z correlation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kai; Zhou, Chao; Xu, Daming; Guo, Qiang; Yang, Xinting; Sun, Chuanheng

    2018-01-01

    Monitoring of fish behavior has drawn extensive attention in pharmacological research, water environmental assessment, bio-inspired robot design and aquaculture. Given that an infrared sensor is low cost, no illumination limitation and electromagnetic interference, interest in its use in behavior monitoring has grown considerably, especially in 3D trajectory monitoring to quantify fish behavior on the basis of near infrared absorption of water. However, precise position of vertical dimension (z) remains a challenge, which greatly impacts on infrared tracking system accuracy. Hence, an intensity (L) and coordinate (z) correlation model was proposed to overcome the limitation. In the modelling process, two cameras (top view and side view) were employed synchronously to identify the 3D coordinate of each fish (x-y and z, respectively), and the major challenges were the distortion caused by the perspective effect and the refraction at water boundaries. Therefore, a coordinate correction formulation was designed firstly for the calibration. Then the L-z correlation model was established based on Lambert's absorption law and statistical data analysis, and the model was estimated through monitoring 3D trajectories of four fishes during the day and night. Finally, variations of individuals and limits of the depth detection of the model were discussed. Compared with previous studies, the favorable prediction performance of the model is achieved for 3D trajectory monitoring, which could provide some inspirations for fish behavior monitoring, especially for nocturnal behavior study.

  20. Cold War Geopolitics: Embassy Locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogeler, Ingolf

    1995-01-01

    Asserts that the geopolitics of the Cold War can be illustrated by the diplomatic ties among countries, particularly the superpowers and their respective allies. Describes a classroom project in which global patterns of embassy locations are examined and compared. Includes five maps and a chart indicating types of embassy locations. (CFR)

  1. PrPSc accumulation in fetal cotyledons of scrapie-resistant lambs is influenced by fetus location in the uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alverson, Janet; O'Rourke, Katherine I; Baszler, Timothy V

    2006-04-01

    Placentae from scrapie-infected ewes have been shown to accumulate PrPSc when the genotype of the fetus is of a susceptible genotype (VRQ/VRQ, ARQ/VRQ or ARQ/ARQ). Cotyledons from fetuses of genotypes ARR/ARR, ARQ/ARR and ARQ/VRR have previously been shown to be resistant to PrPSc accumulation. By using ewes from a naturally infected scrapie flock, cotyledons from fetuses of multiple births of different genotypes were examined. PrPSc was detected in fetal cotyledons of genotype ARQ/ARQ, but not in cotyledons from their dizygotic twin of genotype ARQ/ARR. This confirms earlier reports of single fetuses of these genotypes, but is the first description of such a finding in twin fetuses, one of each genotype. It is also demonstrated that cotyledons from sibling fetuses of genotypes ARQ/VRQ and ARQ/ARQ have different patterns of PrPSc accumulation depending on whether the dam is of genotype ARQ/ARQ or ARQ/VRQ. Lastly, it is shown that cotyledons from fetuses with resistant genotypes are weakly positive for PrPSc when they have shared the same pregnant uterine horn with a fetus of a susceptible genotype with cotyledons positive for the detection of PrPSc. Additionally, a PCR product for the Sry gene, a product specific to males, was found in cotyledons from female fetuses that had shared a uterine horn with a male fetus. This indicates that some sharing of fetal blood occurs between placentomes and fetuses residing in the same uterine horn, which can result in PrPSc accumulation in cotyledons with resistant genotypes.

  2. Early diagnosis of acoustic neuroma by the vestibular test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haid, T.; Rettinger, G.; Berg, M.; Wigand, M.E.

    1981-11-01

    In a series of 390 cases with suspicion of acoustic neurinomas 78 such tumors could be diagnosed, including 12 early stage neurinomas. This relatively high detection quote of small neurinomas is due to a special diagnostical programme: Every patient with unilateral and sensoneural hearingloss, independent of vertigo anamnesis or of the result of X-rays must be further examined by a vestibular test. All 78 patients with acoustic neuroma had pathological vestibular findings. The positional test turned out to be the most sensitive examination in the early diagnosis of acoustic neuromas and yields a still higher incidence than the thermic test: 95% of the patients with a neuroma showed pathological findings in the positional test. Every patient suffering from an unidentified unilateral and sensoneural hearingloss combined with a pathological result in the positional test must be further checked by a cisternomeatography or computerized tomography using airinsufflation. Every fifth of these patients showed typical signs of an acoustic neuroma in the neuroradiological tests. 68 neuromas are operated today and verfied histologically, 10 patients are still waiting for surgical treatment.

  3. Indoor Location Technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Goswami, Subrata

    2013-01-01

    Focusing on the special challenges posed by accurately pinpointing a location indoors, this volume reflects the distance we have come in the handful of decades since the germination of GPS technology. Not only can we locate a signal to within a meter’s accuracy, but we now have this technology in the most basic mobile phone. Tracing recent practical developments in positioning technology and in the market it supplies, the author examines the contributions of the varied research—in silicon, signal and image processing, radio communications and software—to a fast-evolving field. The book looks forward to a time when, in addition to directing your road journey, positioning systems can peer indoors and guide you to an available photocopier in your office building. Featuring standalone chapters each dealing with a specific aspect of the subject, including treatments of systems such as Zebra, Awarepoint, Aeroscout, IEEE 802.11, etc. This study has all the detail needed to get up to speed on a key modern techn...

  4. Location-only satellite telemetry data for gray whales in the Bering and Chukchi Sea collected by Alaska Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Mammal Laboratory from 2012-08-25 to 2013-10-27 (NCEI Accession 0139361)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains ARGOS location data (latitude and longitude in decimal format) and associated time (date and time) and location quality (as defined by Argos...

  5. Location-only satellite telemetry data for North Pacific Humpback Whales in the Bering Sea collected by Alaska Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Mammal Laboratory from 2007-08-11 to 2011-10-08 (NCEI Accession 0138946)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains ARGOS location data (latitude and longitude in decimal format) and associated time (date and time) and location quality (as defined by Argos...

  6. Modeling discrete competitive facility location

    CERN Document Server

    Karakitsiou, Athanasia

    2015-01-01

    This book presents an up-to-date review of modeling and optimization approaches for location problems along with a new bi-level programming methodology which captures the effect of competition of both producers and customers on facility location decisions. While many optimization approaches simplify location problems by assuming decision making in isolation, this monograph focuses on models which take into account the competitive environment in which such decisions are made. New insights in modeling, algorithmic and theoretical possibilities are opened by this approach and new applications are possible. Competition on equal term plus competition between market leader and followers are considered in this study, consequently bi-level optimization methodology is emphasized and further developed. This book provides insights regarding modeling complexity and algorithmic approaches to discrete competitive location problems. In traditional location modeling, assignment of customer demands to supply sources are made ...

  7. Decentralization by Function and Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochen, Manfred; Deutsch, Karl W.

    1973-01-01

    Examines under what conditions decentralization of facilities is rational for a client-centered system of service or administration, and under what conditions great centralization is more cost effective. Possible extensions of a simple model are suggested for application to school systems and numerous other organizations. (Author/DN)

  8. Identification of Candida spp. by phenotypic tests and PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Aparecida Marinho

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The correct identification of Candida species is of great importance, as it presents prognostic and therapeutical significance, allowing an early and appropriate antifungical therapy. The purpose of this study was to identify isolates of Candida spp. from oral mucosa of 38 patients with oral candidosis evaluated in 2004 by phenotypic methods and PCR, discriminating C. albicans from the other Candida species. The tests used for phenotypic analysis were germ-tube and chlamydoconidia production, culture in CHROMAgarTM Candida, carbohydrate assimilation test, growth at 45ºC and culture in Tween 80 agar. Genotypic confirmation was performed by PCR. Phenotypic tests showed that 63.2% strains formed germ-tubes, 73.7% produced chlamydoconidia, and 63.2% showed green colonies in chromogenic medium, presumptively indicating C. albicans or C. dubliniensis. The carbohydrate assimilation test confirmed these results. A total of 21% strains were identified as C. krusei and 13.2% were indicative of C. tropicalis. Of these later strains, three produced chlamydoconidia. The association of other phenotypic tests with culture in Tween 80 agar identified 95.8% of strains as C. albicans and 4.2% as C. dubliniensis. All 24 strains indicative of C. albicans and C. dubliniensis were confirmed by PCR as C. albicans.

  9. Aerodynamic Characteristics of Individual Ballast Particle by Wind Tunnel Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.Q. Jing

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Ballast flying has been considered as a problem in train aerodynamics with increasing the maximal speed. And this phenomenon seriously threats the safety of train operation. However, aerodynamic characteristics of individual ballast were less studied in the previous literature. This paper describes an investigation of the aerodynamic effect of ballast particles by wind tunnel tests. It considers the nature of the wind and ballast physical characteristics. A simple method for calculating the wind effects by CFD is set out, ballast particles were classified according to their shapes and mass in order to investigate the influence of the wind velocity, wind pressure and other parameters on displacement of ballast particles. Two sets of wind tunnel tests were performed under the conditions that ballast particles were movable and unmovable on the platform respectively. The tests data and reasonable explanations were given, as well as the CFD simulations of individual ballast particles.

  10. Smart Location Database - Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Smart Location Database (SLD) summarizes over 80 demographic, built environment, transit service, and destination accessibility attributes for every census block...

  11. Smart Location Database - Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Smart Location Database (SLD) summarizes over 80 demographic, built environment, transit service, and destination accessibility attributes for every census block...

  12. Conformation and location of amorphous and semi-crystalline regions in C-type starch granules revealed by SEM, NMR and XRD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shujun; Yu, Jinglin; Yu, Jiugao

    2008-09-01

    The conformations and locations of amorphous and semi-crystalline regions in C-type starch granules from Chinese yam were evaluated by a combination of morphology and spectroscopy studies during acid hydrolysis. Scanning electron micrographs showed that amorphous or less crystalline areas were essentially located in the centre part of C-type starch granules, whereas the semi-crystalline and amorphous growth rings were found mainly in the outer part of the granules. (13)C cross-polarization magic angle spinning NMR ((13)C CP/MAS NMR) showed that amorphous regions were hydrolyzed faster than the crystalline ones. In addition, B-type polymorphs were shown to be hydrolyzed more rapidly than A-types. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) also revealed that the B-polymorph was hydrolyzed more rapidly than the A-type. XRD showed that the amorphous or less crystalline areas were mainly located in the core of starch granules, while the amorphous growth rings are distributed toward the outside of the granules and alternatively arranged with semi-crystalline growth rings. The amorphous or less crystalline areas predominantly consisted of the B-polymorph whereas the outer semi-crystalline and amorphous growth rings were mostly composed of the A-polymorph. Copyright © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Identifying Active Faults by Improving Earthquake Locations with InSAR Data and Bayesian Estimation: The 2004 Tabuk (Saudi Arabia) Earthquake Sequence

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Wenbin

    2015-02-03

    A sequence of shallow earthquakes of magnitudes ≤5.1 took place in 2004 on the eastern flank of the Red Sea rift, near the city of Tabuk in northwestern Saudi Arabia. The earthquakes could not be well located due to the sparse distribution of seismic stations in the region, making it difficult to associate the activity with one of the many mapped faults in the area and thus to improve the assessment of seismic hazard in the region. We used Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) data from the European Space Agency’s Envisat and ERS‐2 satellites to improve the location and source parameters of the largest event of the sequence (Mw 5.1), which occurred on 22 June 2004. The mainshock caused a small but distinct ∼2.7  cm displacement signal in the InSAR data, which reveals where the earthquake took place and shows that seismic reports mislocated it by 3–16 km. With Bayesian estimation, we modeled the InSAR data using a finite‐fault model in a homogeneous elastic half‐space and found the mainshock activated a normal fault, roughly 70 km southeast of the city of Tabuk. The southwest‐dipping fault has a strike that is roughly parallel to the Red Sea rift, and we estimate the centroid depth of the earthquake to be ∼3.2  km. Projection of the fault model uncertainties to the surface indicates that one of the west‐dipping normal faults located in the area and oriented parallel to the Red Sea is a likely source for the mainshock. The results demonstrate how InSAR can be used to improve locations of moderate‐size earthquakes and thus to identify currently active faults.

  14. A Probabilistic, Facility-Centric Approach to Lightning Strike Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddleston, Lisa L.; Roeder, William p.; Merceret, Francis J.

    2012-01-01

    A new probabilistic facility-centric approach to lightning strike location has been developed. This process uses the bivariate Gaussian distribution of probability density provided by the current lightning location error ellipse for the most likely location of a lightning stroke and integrates it to determine the probability that the stroke is inside any specified radius of any location, even if that location is not centered on or even with the location error ellipse. This technique is adapted from a method of calculating the probability of debris collisionith spacecraft. Such a technique is important in spaceport processing activities because it allows engineers to quantify the risk of induced current damage to critical electronics due to nearby lightning strokes. This technique was tested extensively and is now in use by space launch organizations at Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. Future applications could include forensic meteorology.

  15. Is GPS telemetry location error screening beneficial?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ironside, Kirsten E.; Mattson, David J.; Arundel, Terry; Hansen, Jered R.

    2017-01-01

    The accuracy of global positioning system (GPS) locations obtained from study animals tagged with GPS monitoring devices has been a concern as to the degree it influences assessments of movement patterns, space use, and resource selection estimates. Many methods have been proposed for screening data to retain the most accurate positions for analysis, based on dilution of precision (DOP) measures, and whether the position is a two dimensional or three dimensional fix. Here we further explore the utility of these measures, by testing a Telonics GEN3 GPS collar's positional accuracy across a wide range of environmental conditions. We found the relationship between location error and fix dimension and DOP metrics extremely weak (r2adj ∼ 0.01) in our study area. Environmental factors such as topographic exposure, canopy cover, and vegetation height explained more of the variance (r2adj = 15.08%). Our field testing covered sites where sky-view was so limited it affected GPS performance to the degree fix attempts failed frequently (fix success rates ranged 0.00–100.00% over 67 sites). Screening data using PDOP did not effectively reduce the location error in the remaining dataset. Removing two dimensional fixes reduced the mean location error by 10.95 meters, but also resulted in a 54.50% data reduction. Therefore screening data under the range of conditions sampled here would reduce information on animal movement with minor improvements in accuracy and potentially introduce bias towards more open terrain and vegetation.

  16. Executive cognitive impairment detected by simple bedside testing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Executive cognitive impairment detected by simple bedside testing is associated with poor glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes. H de Wet, N Levitt, B Tipping. Abstract. Aims. Cognitive impairment in people with type 2 diabetes is a barrier to successful disease management. We sought to determine whether impaired ...

  17. Executive cognitive impairment detected by simple bedside testing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims. Cognitive impairment in people with type 2 diabetes is a barrier to successful disease management. We sought to determine whether impaired executive function as detected by a battery of simple bedside cognitive tests of executive function was associated with inadequate glycaemic control. Methods. People with ...

  18. Expanded newborn screening by mass spectrometry: New tests, future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ombrone, Daniela; Giocaliere, Elisa; Forni, Giulia; Malvagia, Sabrina; la Marca, Giancarlo

    2016-01-01

    Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) has become a leading technology used in clinical chemistry and has shown to be particularly sensitive and specific when used in newborn screening (NBS) tests. The success of tandem mass spectrometry is due to important advances in hardware, software and clinical applications during the last 25 years. MS/MS permits a very rapid measurement of many metabolites in different biological specimens by using filter paper spots or directly on biological fluids. Its use in NBS give us the chance to identify possible treatable metabolic disorders even when asymptomatic and the benefits gained by this type of screening is now recognized worldwide. Today the use of MS/MS for second-tier tests and confirmatory testing is promising especially in the early detection of new disorders such as some lysosomal storage disorders, ADA and PNP SCIDs, X-adrenoleucodistrophy (X-ALD), Wilson disease, guanidinoacetate methyltransferase deficiency (GAMT), and Duchenne muscular dystrophy. The new challenge for the future will be reducing the false positive rate by using second-tier tests, avoiding false negative results by using new specific biomarkers and introducing new treatable disorders in NBS programs. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Entrained Flow Reactor Test of Potassium Capture by Kaolin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Guoliang; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Wu, Hao

    2015-01-01

    In the present study a method to simulate the reaction between gaseous KCl and kaolin at suspension fired condition was developed using a pilot-scale entrained flow reactor (EFR). Kaolin was injected into the EFR for primary test of this method. By adding kaolin, KCl can effectively be captured...

  20. Residential Location, Job Location, and Wages: Theory and Empirics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejlin, Rune Majlund

    I develop a stylized partial on-the-job equilibrium search model which incorporate a spatial dimension. Workers reside on a circle and can move at a cost. Each point on the circle has a wage distribution. Implications about wages and job mobility are drawn from the model and tested on Danish...... matched employer-employee data. The model predictions hold true. I find that workers working farther away from their residence earn higher wages. When a worker is making a job-to-job transition where he changes workplace location he experiences a higher wage change than a worker making a job-to-job...... transition without changing workplace location. However, workers making a job-to-job transition which makes the workplace location closer to the residence experiences a wage drop. Furthermore, low wage workers and workers with high transportation costs are more likely to make job-to-job transitions, but also...

  1. Test-retest Reliability in Reporting the Pain Induced by a Pain Provocation Test: Further Validation of a Novel Approach for Pain Drawing Acquisition and Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leoni, Diego; Falla, Deborah; Heitz, Carolin; Capra, Gianpiero; Clijsen, Ron; Egloff, Michele; Cescon, Corrado; Baeyens, Jean-Pierre; Barbero, Marco

    2017-02-01

    Pain drawings (PD) are frequently used in research to illustrate the pain response to pain provocation tests. However, there is a lack of data on the reliability in defining the extent and location of pain. We investigated the test-retest reliability in reporting an acute painful sensation induced by a pain provocation test using a novel approach for PD acquisition and analysis in healthy volunteers. Forty healthy volunteers participated. Each participant underwent 2 upper limb neurodynamic tests 1 (ULNT1), once to the point of pain onset (PO) and once until the point of submaximal pain (SP). After each ULNT1, participants completed 2 consecutive PD with an interval of 1 minute. Custom software was used to quantify the pain extent and analyze the pain overlap. The test-retest reliability of pain extent was examined using Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC 2,1 ) and Bland-Altman plots. Pain location reliability was examined using the Jaccard similarity coefficient (JSC). The ICC values for PO and SP were 0.98 (95% CI: 0.96-0.99) and 0.97 (95% CI: 0.95-0.98), respectively. The mean difference and 95% limits of agreement (± 1.96 SD) in the Bland-Altman plots were 14 pixels (-1080;1110) for PO, and 145 (-1610;1900) for SP. The median JSCs (Q1;Q3) were 0.73 (0.64;0.80) for PO and 0.76 (0.65;0.79) for SP. Pain drawings is a reliable instrument to investigate pain extent and pain location in healthy individuals experiencing an acute painful sensation induced by a pain provocation test. © 2016 World Institute of Pain.

  2. Design Assisted by Testing of Cold Formed Steel Trusses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Zaharia

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the experimental program developed in the Laboratory of Civil Engineering Faculty of the ”Politehnica” University of Timișoara, Romania, in order to establish the real behavior of bolted connections in cold formed steel trusses. First, the semi-rigid behavior of cold formed steel truss joints is demonstrated by means of test of typical T joints. A formula for the axial rigidity of single lap joint is determined, and, based on this formula, theoretical models are proposed for the rotational rigidity of cold formed steel truss bolted joints. In the third step of the experimental program, a cold formed steel truss is tested, in order to observe the structural behavior of joints and to validate the theoretical assumptions. A numerical analysis of the tested structure is also performed, and comparisons with the experimental results are given.

  3. Industrial location and competitiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Brakman (Steven); J.H. Garretsen (Harry); J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThe interaction between the extent of location advantages and the intensity of firm competition relative to the size of the market jointly determines the location of industrial activity. Technology, factor endowments, geography, and scale economies are influential for determining

  4. Mechanism of nuclear calcium signaling by inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate produced in the nucleus, nuclear located protein kinase C and cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Christian; Malviya, Anant N

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear phospholipase C-gamma 1 can be phosphorylated by nuclear membrane located epidermal growth factor receptor sequel to epidermal growth factor-mediated signaling to the nucleus. The function of mouse liver phospholipase C-gamma 1 is attributed to a 120 kDa protein fragment which has been found to be a proteolytic product of the 150 kDa native nuclear enzyme. The tyrosine-phosphorylated 120 kDa protein band interacts with activated EGFR, binds phosphatidyl-3-OH kinase enhancer, and activates nuclear phosphatidylinositol-3-OH-kinase, and is capable of generating diacylglycerol in response to the epidermal growth factor signal to the nucleus in vivo. Thus a mechanism for nuclear production of inositol-1,4,5-trisphophate is unraveled. Nuclear generated inositol-1,4,5-trisphophate interacts with the inner membrane located inositol-1,4,5-trisphophate receptor and sequesters calcium into the nucleoplasm. Nuclear inositol-1,4,5-trisphophate receptor is phosphorylated by native nuclear protein kinase C which enhances the receptor-ligand interaction. Nuclear calcium-ATPase and inositol-1,3,4,5-tetrakisphophate receptor are located on the outer nuclear membrane, thus facilitating calcium transport into the nuclear envelope lumen either by ATP or inositol-1,3,4,5-tetrakisphophate depending upon the external free calcium concentrations. Nuclear calcium ATPase is phosphorylated by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase with enhanced calcium pumping activity. A holistic picture emerges here where tyrosine phosphorylation compliments serine phosphorylation of key moieties regulating nuclear calcium signaling. Evidence are forwarded in favor of proteolysis having a profound implications in nuclear calcium homeostasis in particular and signal transduction in general.

  5. Demographics and remote locations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coppus, G. [Dynawise Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Within the next decade, the number of people leaving the workforce will exceed the number of new entrants. The demand for workers is expected to increase in Alberta due to oil sands industry growth. Sixty-four per cent of all responding federal, provincial, and municipal government organizations have reported shortages in their work environments, and almost 8 in 10 organizations predict they will continue to be understaffed in the next 3 to 5 years. Tightness in the general labour market will have an impact on employers in remote locations, and planning is essential to avoid the creation of a mercenary culture and a reliance on compensation. Challenges found in remote locations include high turnover rates among recent hires; critical gaps in service length; aggressive retirement; and the fact that the local population is often seen as unqualified for many industrial jobs. This Power Point presentation suggested that although decisions to join or quit a company are often based on considerations such as the organizational environment and amount of compensation, the relationship between employees and management is the most important attribute in many career decisions. Rigorous quantitative analysis of current demographics combined with forecasting analysis may help to forestall recruitment difficulties for many companies. Productivity analyses, and the effects of work overload on absenteeism, attrition and quality of workmanship must also be examined. Many companies are now focusing on retention and development strategies on mid-career staff to address depletion, as well as redesigning procedures to operate with less skilled staff. It was concluded that extra efforts are now being made to attract non-traditional employees, and non-traditional employment models are being considered by some companies. refs., tabs., figs.

  6. Inflation of type I error rates by unequal variances associated with parametric, nonparametric, and Rank-Transformation Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald W. Zimmerman

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the two-sample Student t test fails to maintain its significance level when the variances of treatment groups are unequal, and, at the same time, sample sizes are unequal. However, introductory textbooks in psychology and education often maintain that the test is robust to variance heterogeneity when sample sizes are equal. The present study discloses that, for a wide variety of non-normal distributions, especially skewed distributions, the Type I error probabilities of both the t test and the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test are substantially inflated by heterogeneous variances, even when sample sizes are equal. The Type I error rate of the t test performed on ranks replacing the scores (rank-transformed data is inflated in the same way and always corresponds closely to that of the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test. For many probability densities, the distortion of the significance level is far greater after transformation to ranks and, contrary to known asymptotic properties, the magnitude of the inflation is an increasing function of sample size. Although nonparametric tests of location also can be sensitive to differences in the shape of distributions apart from location, the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test and rank-transformation tests apparently are influenced mainly by skewness that is accompanied by specious differences in the means of ranks.

  7. NON-INVASIVE DETERMINATION OF THE LOCATION AND DISTRIBUTION OF FREE-PHASE DENSE NONAQUEOUS PHASE LIQUIDS (DNAPL) BY SEISMIC REFLECTION TECHNIQUES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael G. Waddell; William J. Domoracki; Tom J. Temples

    2001-12-01

    This annual technical progress report is for part of Task 4 (site evaluation), Task 5 (2D seismic design, acquisition, and processing), and Task 6 (2D seismic reflection, interpretation, and AVO analysis) on DOE contact number DE-AR26-98FT40369. The project had planned one additional deployment to another site other than Savannah River Site (SRS) or DOE Hanford Site. After the SUBCON midyear review in Albuquerque, NM, it was decided that two additional deployments would be performed. The first deployment is to test the feasibility of using non-invasive seismic reflection and AVO analysis as a monitoring tool to assist in determining the effectiveness of Dynamic Underground Stripping (DUS) in removal of DNAPL. The second deployment is to the Department of Defense (DOD) Charleston Naval Weapons Station Solid Waste Management Unit 12 (SWMU-12), Charleston, SC to further test the technique to detect high concentrations of DNAPL. The Charleston Naval Weapons Station SWMU-12 site was selected in consultation with National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and DOD Naval Facilities Engineering Command Southern Division (NAVFAC) personnel. Based upon the review of existing data and due to the shallow target depth, the project team collected three Vertical Seismic Profiles (VSP) and an experimental P-wave seismic reflection line. After preliminary data analysis of the VSP data and the experimental reflection line data, it was decided to proceed with Task 5 and Task 6. Three high resolution P-wave reflection profiles were collected with two objectives; (1) design the reflection survey to image a target depth of 20 feet below land surface to assist in determining the geologic controls on the DNAPL plume geometry, and (2) apply AVO analysis to the seismic data to locate the zone of high concentration of DNAPL. Based upon the results of the data processing and interpretation of the seismic data, the project team was able to map the channel that is controlling the DNAPL plume

  8. READINESS PROFILE OF JUNIOR CYCLISTS DETERMINED BY LEIPZIG TEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovan Zlatković

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to define the readiness profile of junior cyclists determined by the Leipzig test. The second aim was to find out if there were differences in functional performance among cyclists in different disciplines, such as: road cyclists, mountain bikers and sprinters. All cyclists (n=18 were tested with Leipzig test protocol on a bicycle ergometer by increasing the load by 40W per minute, pedalling cadence 90- 100rev/min. The hearth rate was measured at the beginning and at the end of the test, together with the maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max. The results have shown that the maximal oxygen uptake among national junior cyclists in all disciplines was VO2max 56.42±5.82 ml•min-1kg-1, among mountain biking cyclist VO2max was 61.43±4.94, sprinters VO2max 56.78±3.33 and for cross-country cyclists VO2max 53.37±7.82. The statistical analysis of the functional performance results has snown that between subsamples of cyclists there were no significant differences on general level. However, the partial analysis has snown that there is a statistically significant difference between the groups in the hart rate values on an anaerobic threshold (F value 4.547, p=0.032. In conclusion, the tested cyclists were prepared using general training methods even if they had competitions in different disciplines. Therefore, the level of readiness shows that the training process for young cyclists which is used in Serbia is not specific for the competition level and discipline.

  9. Achievement test performance in children conceived by IVF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mains, L; Zimmerman, M; Blaine, J; Stegmann, B; Sparks, A; Ansley, T; Van Voorhis, B

    2010-10-01

    Long-term follow-up studies of children conceived by IVF are limited. We examine academic performance on standardized tests [Iowa Tests of Basic Skills/Educational Development (ITBS/ITED)] of children conceived by IVF. Parents of children 8-17 years of age at the onset of the study (March 2008) who were conceived by IVF at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics and living in the state of Iowa were contacted by mail. Parents completed questionnaires on their child's health and education and parental education. ITBS/ITED scores from school grades 3-12 were obtained on IVF children and a group of anonymous children matched by grade, year, gender and school district. Scores were analyzed using linear mixed models. Four hundred and ninety-seven couples were contacted. Two hundred and ninety-five couples (463 children) agreed to participate (59.4% of parents), with ITBS/ITED scores available on 423 children (91.4% of participants). IVF children scored higher than the national mean (P divorce and child's BMI. Cryopreservation, length of embryo culture and method of insemination did not affect scores. IVF children scored higher on standardized tests than their matched peers, suggesting that IVF does not have a negative effect on cognitive development. However, long-term follow-up of IVF children is still limited. Further research should be performed on the effect of multiple gestation on academic performance.

  10. Two Distally Located Right SCA Aneurysms: Endovascular Treatment by Parent Artery Occlusion with GDC Coils and N-BCA Injection. Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szajner, M; Obszaska, K; Nestorowicz, A; Szczerbo-Trojanowska, M

    2003-06-30

    Peripheral aneurysms of the superior cerebellar artery are considered difficult to treat surgically and endovascularly because of their inaccessibility. Parent artery occlusion is therefore frequently the preferred method. Embolic materials previously reported in this situation are either GDC coils or a polymerizing agent (n- BCA). We report a patient with two distally located, wide-neck aneurysms of the right superior cerebellar artery who presented with hemorrhage and was treated by endovascular embolization of the parent artery using a combination of GDC coils and n-BCA.

  11. Methanogenic activity tests by Infrared Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Cruz, Karla; Sepulveda-Jauregui, Armando; Escobar-Orozco, Nayeli; Thalasso, Frederic

    2012-10-01

    Methanogenic activity (MA) tests are commonly carried out to estimate the capability of anaerobic biomass to treat effluents, to evaluate anaerobic activity in bioreactors or natural ecosystems, or to quantify inhibitory effects on methanogenic activity. These activity tests are usually based on the measurement of the volume of biogas produced by volumetric, pressure increase or gas chromatography (GC) methods. In this study, we present an alternative method for non-invasive measurement of methane produced during activity tests in closed vials, based on Infrared Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (MA-TDLAS). This new method was tested during model acetoclastic and hydrogenotrophic methanogenic activity tests and was compared to a more traditional method based on gas chromatography. From the results obtained, the CH(4) detection limit of the method was estimated to 60 ppm and the minimum measurable methane production rate was estimated to 1.09(.)10(-3) mg l(-1) h(-1), which is below CH(4) production rate usually reported in both anaerobic reactors and natural ecosystems. Additionally to sensitivity, the method has several potential interests compared to more traditional methods among which short measurements time allowing the measurement of a large number of MA test vials, non-invasive measurements avoiding leakage or external interferences and similar cost to GC based methods. It is concluded that MA-TDLAS is a promising method that could be of interest not only in the field of anaerobic digestion but also, in the field of environmental ecology where CH(4) production rates are usually very low. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Fatigue damage observed non-destructively in fibre composite coupon test specimens by X-ray CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Kristine Munk; Mikkelsen, Lars Pilgaard

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a method for monitoring the 3D fatigue damage progression on a micro-structural level in a glass fibre/polymer coupon test specimen by means of laboratory X-ray Computed Tomography (CT). A modified mount and holder made for the standard test samples to fit into the X-ray CT...... scanner along with a tension clamp solution is presented. Initially, the same location of the test specimen is inspected by ex-situ X-ray CT during the fatigue loading history, which shows the damage progression on a micro-structural level. The openings of individual uni-directional (UD) fibre fractures...

  13. Is a positive intracutaneous test induced by penicillin mediated by histamine?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tannert, Line K; Falkencrone, Sidsel; Mortz, Charlotte G

    2017-01-01

    Background: Diagnostic workup of penicillin allergy comprises skin testing with penicillins, and patients are deemed allergic if skin test is positive. However, the literature suggests that skin test-positive patients may be challenge-negative, indicating that the skin test may be falsely positive....... Objective: To investigate real-time histamine release from a positive intracutaneous test induced by penicillin in patients with positive and negative challenges to penicillin. Methods: Skin microdialysis was performed in 21 penicillin-allergic patients with positive skin test, 13 non-allergic volunteers...... serving as negative controls, and 7 grass pollen-allergic patients serving as positive controls. Histamine was measured by microdialysis after skin test with penicillin/grass/NaCl. Penicillin challenge was subsequently performed in 12 of the patients. Results: Only 10/21 patients (47.6%) were skin test...

  14. Forensic Medicine: Age Written in Teeth by Nuclear Bomb Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    2005-05-04

    Establishing the age of individuals is an important step in identification and a frequent challenge in forensic medicine. This can be done with high precision up to adolescence by analysis of dentition, but establishing the age of adults has remained difficult. Here we show that measuring {sup 14}C from nuclear bomb tests in tooth enamel provides a sensitive way to establish when a person was born.

  15. Locative inferences in medical texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, P S; Bailey, G H; Mayer, R J; Hillis, A; Dvoracek, J E

    1987-06-01

    Medical research relies on epidemiological studies conducted on a large set of clinical records that have been collected from physicians recording individual patient observations. These clinical records are recorded for the purpose of individual care of the patient with little consideration for their use by a biostatistician interested in studying a disease over a large population. Natural language processing of clinical records for epidemiological studies must deal with temporal, locative, and conceptual issues. This makes text understanding and data extraction of clinical records an excellent area for applied research. While much has been done in making temporal or conceptual inferences in medical texts, parallel work in locative inferences has not been done. This paper examines the locative inferences as well as the integration of temporal, locative, and conceptual issues in the clinical record understanding domain by presenting an application that utilizes two key concepts in its parsing strategy--a knowledge-based parsing strategy and a minimal lexicon.

  16. The detection of sensitivity of proprioception by a new clinical test: the dual joint position test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, Yesim Yetimalar; Çiftçi, Yeliz; Ertekin, Cumhur

    2013-07-01

    To date, very few studies have paid attention to the joint sense (proprioception) of toes other than the big toe. We evaluated the sensitivity of joint position sense at the joint of the great toe in comparison to other digits, and with that determined by the dual digit stimulation test, in a sample of healthy normal controls and patients with clinical diagnosis of the lemniscal system dysfunction. Seventy-two patients with lemniscal system dysfunction (55 clinically definitive multiple sclerosis, 17 vasculitis) and 110 healthy volunteers participated in the study. All subjects underwent the joint position sense test of all digits of upper and lower extremities. The position sense resulting from the combined operation of the joints of the second and the fourth digits (simultaneous two digits position sense) was also measured and subsequently compared with the results of the great toe position sense. Upper extremities: no difference was found in recognition of the position sense in the single digits of the upper extremities between patients and healthy volunteers. There was a significant difference in the dual joint position test of the right upper extremity between patients and the case group (pproprioception of the great toe neither in the right and nor in the left side between patients and normal subjects. However, the joint position sense of other single digits was deteriorated in the patients, a difference that was significant compared to normal controls (pproprioception of simultaneous dual digits is diminished in patients when compared to a single digit position sense. Moreover, the great toe proprioception is less sensitive than other digits. Taken together, these observations lend evidence for a new clinical method which we named as dual joint position test. We suggest this novel method offers clinical utility to demonstrate lemniscal system dysfunction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Location of the internal carotid artery and ophthalmic artery segments for non-invasive intracranial pressure measurement by multi-depth TCD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamarat, Yasin; Deimantavicius, Mantas; Kalvaitis, Evaldas; Siaudvytyte, Lina; Januleviciene, Ingrida; Zakelis, Rolandas; Bartusis, Laimonas

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to locate the ophthalmic artery by using the edge of the internal carotid artery (ICA) as the reference depth to perform a reliable non-invasive intracranial pressure measurement via a multi-depth transcranial Doppler device and to then determine the positions and angles of an ultrasonic transducer (UT) on the closed eyelid in the case of located segments. High tension glaucoma (HTG) patients and healthy volunteers (HVs) undergoing non-invasive intracranial pressure measurement were selected for this prospective study. The depth of the edge of the ICA was identified, followed by a selection of the depths of the IOA and EOA segments. The positions and angles of the UT on the closed eyelid were measured. The mean depth of the identified ICA edge for HTG patients was 64.3 mm and was 63.0 mm for HVs (p = 0.21). The mean depth of the selected IOA segment for HTG patients was 59.2 mm and 59.3 mm for HVs (p = 0.91). The mean depth of the selected EOA segment for HTG patients was 48.5 mm and 49.8 mm for HVs (p = 0.14). The difference in the located depths of the segments between groups was not statistically significant. The results showed a significant difference in the measured UT angles in the case of the identified edge of the ICA and selected ophthalmic artery segments (p = 0.0002). We demonstrated that locating the IOA and EOA segments can be achieved using the edge of the ICA as a reference point. OA: ophthalmic artery; IOA: intracranial segments of the ophthalmic artery; EOA: extracranial segments of the ophthalmic artery; ICA: internal carotid artery; UT: ultrasonic transducer; HTG: high tension glaucoma; SD: standard deviation; ICP: intracranial pressure; TCD: transcranial Doppler.

  18. Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers.......Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers....

  19. Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori Infection in Children and Adult by Serological Test and Stool Antigen Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Azizi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Helicobacter pylori infection causes chronic gastritis that is related to duodenal ulcer, gastric ulcer, and possibly gastric adenocarcinoma. Noninvasive diagnostic tests consist of the urea breath test, serology, and stool antigen testing. Serodiagnosis of H.pylori infection is inaccurate for children. In order to investigate the immune response to H.pylori in children and adult, we compared anti-H pylori IgG and IgA antibodies with H. pylori antigen (HpSA in the stool. Methods: Serum and stool samples were obtained from 218 children and adult patients with clinical symptom in the range of 4 to 77 years old. Paired results of H. pylori serology (IgG and IgA and HpSA were analyzed by enzyme immunoassay methods. Results: There were 218 paired serology and HpSA results for 39 children (≤17 years and 179 adult (≥18 years. The positivity rate of HpSA (45.8% was significantly lower (P<0.001 than those for H. pylori IgG (54.6% and IgA (28.9%. Moreover in child patients specificity for serological test IgG and IgA were higher than adult. Conclusion: In this study, HpSA was sensitive and specific as a clinical and epidemiological tool to evaluate H. pylori infection. IgG correlated better with HpSA than IgA, and also IgG was much more specific in children than adults confirm the fact that adults are more possible to have been exposed to H. pylori in the past. Using HpSA as the gold standard, we found that the performances of IgG and IgA serology tests differ significantly by age because immature immune response or tolerance to H. pylori is present in childhood and serodiagnosis of H. pylori infection is less useful. Hence, we recommend that laboratories reevaluate reference serologic titers based on age and further clinical correlation is needed to establish the optimal ranges.

  20. Explicit Deconvolution of Well Test Data Dominated by Wellbore Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Razminia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses some methods for interpretation of oil and gas well test data distorted by wellbore storage effects. Using these techniques, we can deconvolve pressure and rate data from drawdown and buildup tests dominated by wellbore storage. Some of these methods have the advantage of deconvolving the pressure data without rate measurement. The two important methods that are applied in this study are an explicit deconvolution method and a modification of material balance deconvolution method. In cases with no rate measurements, we use a blind deconvolution method to restore the pressure response free of wellbore storage effects. Our techniques detect the afterflow/unloading rate function with explicit deconvolution of the observed pressure data. The presented techniques can unveil the early time behavior of a reservoir system masked by wellbore storage effects and thus provide powerful tools to improve pressure transient test interpretation. Each method has been validated using both synthetic data and field cases and each method should be considered valid for practical applications.