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Sample records for testosterone

  1. Testosterone

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to evaluate signs of abnormal testosterone such as: Early or late puberty (in boys) Infertility, erectile dysfunction, low level of ... brain that control hormones Low thyroid function Delayed ... much body fat (obesity) Increased total testosterone level may be due to: ...

  2. Testosterone Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Related Content View Sources Also Known As Total Testosterone Free Testosterone Bioavailable Testosterone Formal Name Testosterone This article ... small percent (less than 4%) circulates as free testosterone. Free testosterone plus the testosterone bound to albumin is ...

  3. Testosterone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and testosterone pellet (Testopel) are forms of testosterone injection used to treat symptoms of low testosterone in ... are low before you begin to use testosterone injection. Testosterone enanthate (Delatestryl) and testosterone pellet (Testopel) are ...

  4. Testosterone Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... growth, development, and functioning of the male sexual organs and typical male characteristics. Testosterone topical works by ... clean and completely dry. Open your testosterone topical container. If you are using a packet, fold the ...

  5. Blood Test: Testosterone

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a Voice in Health Care Decisions Blood Test: Testosterone KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood Test: Testosterone Print A A A What's in this article? ... Análisis de sangre: testosterona What It Is A testosterone test measures the blood level of the male ...

  6. Could you have low testosterone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000722.htm Could you have low testosterone? To use the sharing features on ... Symptoms Some men with low testosterone do not have any symptoms. Others may have: Low sex drive ...

  7. Testosterone and Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambo, Amos; Roshan, Mohsin H.K.; Pace, Nikolai P.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease [CVD] is a leading cause of mortality accounting for a global incidence of over 31%. Atherosclerosis is the primary pathophysiology underpinning most types of CVD. Historically, modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors were suggested to precipitate CVD. Recently, epidemiological studies have identified emerging risk factors including hypotestosteronaemia, which have been associated with CVD. Previously considered in the realms of reproductive biology, testosterone is now believed to play a critical role in the cardiovascular system in health and disease. The actions of testosterone as they relate to the cardiac vasculature and its implication in cardiovascular pathology is reviewed. PMID:27014372

  8. Testosterone: action, deficiency, substitution

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nieschlag, E; Nieschlag, S. (Susan); Behre, H. M. (Hermann M.)

    2004-01-01

    ... reviews applications in male contraception, the role of 5 -reductase inhibitors and the controversial use of DHEA. For this book the editors have assembled the world leaders in testosterone research and clinical andrology and endocrinology. A special feature of the book is the fact that its 24 chapters were submitted simultaneously to ens...

  9. Testosterone Transdermal Patch

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... growth, development, and functioning of the male sexual organs and typical male characteristics. Testosterone transdermal patches work ... Keep this medication in the container it came in, tightly closed, and out of reach of children. Store it at room temperature and away from excess heat ...

  10. Testosterone Nasal Gel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... growth, development, and functioning of the male sexual organs and typical male characteristics. Testosterone works by replacing ... Keep this medication in the container it came in, tightly closed, and out of reach of children. Store it at room temperature and away from excess heat ...

  11. The many faces of testosterone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerald Bain

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Jerald BainDepartment of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, CanadaAbstract: Testosterone is more than a “male sex hormone”. It is an important contributor to the robust metabolic functioning of multiple bodily systems. The abuse of anabolic steroids by athletes over the years has been one of the major detractors from the investigation and treatment of clinical states that could be caused by or related to male hypogonadism. The unwarranted fear that testosterone therapy would induce prostate cancer has also deterred physicians form pursuing more aggressively the possibility of hypogonadism in symptomatic male patients. In addition to these two mythologies, many physicians believe that testosterone is bad for the male heart. The classical anabolic agents, 17-alkylated steroids, are, indeed, potentially harmful to the liver, to insulin action to lipid metabolism. These substances, however, are not testosterone, which has none of these adverse effects. The current evidence, in fact, strongly suggests that testosterone may be cardioprotective. There is virtually no evidence to implicate testosterone as a cause of prostate cancer. It may exacerbate an existing prostate cancer, although the evidence is flimsy, but it does not likely cause the cancer in the first place. Testosterone has stimulatory effects on bones, muscles, erythropoietin, libido, mood and cognition centres in the brain, penile erection. It is reduced in metabolic syndrome and diabetes and therapy with testosterone in these conditions may provide amelioration by lowering LDL cholesterol, blood sugar, glycated hemoglobin and insulin resistance. The best measure is bio-available testosterone which is the fraction of testosterone not bound to sex hormone binding globulin. Several forms of testosterone administration are available making compliance

  12. Prenatal testosterone and stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montag, Christian; Bleek, Benjamin; Breuer, Svenja; Prüss, Holger; Richardt, Kirsten; Cook, Susanne; Yaruss, J Scott; Reuter, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of stuttering is much higher in males compared to females. The biological underpinnings of this skewed sex-ratio is poorly understood, but it has often been speculated that sex hormones could play an important role. The present study investigated a potential link between prenatal testosterone and stuttering. Here, an indirect indicator of prenatal testosterone levels, the Digit Ratio (2D:4D) of the hand, was used. As numerous studies have shown, hands with more "male" characteristics (putatively representing greater prenatal testosterone levels) are characterized by a longer ring finger compared to the index finger (represented as a lower 2D:4D ratio) in the general population. We searched for differences in the 2D:4D ratios between 38 persons who stutter and 36 persons who do not stutter. In a second step, we investigated potential links between the 2D:4D ratio and the multifaceted symptomatology of stuttering, as measured by the Overall Assessment of the Speaker's Experience of Stuttering (OASES), in a larger sample of 44 adults who stutter. In the first step, no significant differences in the 2D:4D were observed between individuals who stutter and individuals who do not stutter. In the second step, 2D:4D correlated negatively with higher scores of the OASES (representing higher negative experiences due to stuttering), and this effect was more pronounced for female persons who stutter. The findings indicate for the first time that prenatal testosterone may influence individual differences in psychosocial impact of this speech disorder. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Exogenous Testosterone Stimulates Gluconeogenesis In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... source of energy for the mammalian brain. The mechanism of action of steroid hormones on target organ cells, and the role of testosterone as a performance enhancing drug are discussed. Keywords: Exogenous testosterone, Protein, Glucose, Gluconeogenesis, Hypoproteinemic rat. Animal Research International Vol.

  14. Testosterone and the Heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodale, Travis; Sadhu, Archana; Petak, Steven; Robbins, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Testosterone (T) has a number of important effects on the cardiovascular system. In men, T levels begin to decrease after age 40, and this decrease has been associated with an increase in all-cause mortality and cardiovascular (CV) risk. Low T levels in men may increase their risk of developing coronary artery disease (CAD), metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes. Reduced T levels in men with congestive heart failure (CHF) portends a poor prognosis and is associated with increased mortality. Studies have reported a reduced CV risk with higher endogenous T concentration, improvement of known CV risk factors with T therapy, and reduced mortality in T-deficient men who underwent T replacement therapy versus untreated men. Testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) has been shown to improve myocardial ischemia in men with CAD, improve exercise capacity in patients with CHF, and improve serum glucose levels, HbA1c, and insulin resistance in men with diabetes and prediabetes. There are no large long-term, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials to provide definitive conclusions about TRT and CV risk. However, there currently is no credible evidence that T therapy increases CV risk and substantial evidence that it does not. In fact, existing data suggests that T therapy may offer CV benefits to men.

  15. 21 CFR 556.710 - Testosterone propionate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Testosterone propionate. 556.710 Section 556.710... Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.710 Testosterone propionate. No residues of testosterone, resulting from the use of testosterone propionate, are permitted in excess of the following increments above...

  16. Testosterone signaling and the regulation of spermatogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, William H

    2011-01-01

    Spermatogenesis and male fertility are dependent upon the presence of testosterone in the testis. In the absence of testosterone or the androgen receptor, spermatogenesis does not proceed beyond the meiosis stage. The major cellular target and translator of testosterone signals to developing germ cells is the Sertoli cell. In the Sertoli cell, testosterone signals can be translated directly to changes in gene expression (the classical pathway) or testosterone can activate kinases that may reg...

  17. Testosterone for Poor Ovarian Responders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polyzos, Nikolaos P; Davis, Susan R; Drakopoulos, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    Testosterone, an androgen that directly binds to the androgen receptor, has been shown in previous small randomized controlled trials to increase the reproductive outcomes of poor ovarian responders. In most of these studies, transdermal testosterone in relatively high doses was administered before...... ovarian stimulation with a duration varying from 5 to 21 days. Nevertheless, the key question to be asked is whether, based on ovarian physiology and testosterone pharmacokinetics, a short course of testosterone administration of more than 10 mg could be expected to have any beneficial effect...... on reproductive outcome. The rationale for asking this question lies in the existing scientific evidence derived from basic research and animal studies regarding the action of androgens during folliculogenesis, showing that their main effect in follicular development is defined during the earlier developmental...

  18. A brief history of testosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, E R; Bloom, D A; McGuire, E J

    2001-02-01

    We explore the history of testosterone in the context of medical and scientific developments. A review of the scientific and historical literature was conducted. The origins and effects of testosterone have been recognized throughout the history of humankind. Hunter performed testicular transplantation experiments in 1767 while studying tissue transplantation techniques, and almost a century later Berthold linked the physiological and behavioral changes of castration to a substance secreted by the testes. Brown-Séquard gave birth to the field of organotherapy in 1889 when he announced that his auto-injection of testicular extracts resulted in rejuvenated physical and mental abilities. Steinach and Niehans expanded upon Brown-Séquard's work with rejuvenation treatments involving vasoligation, tissue grafts and cellular injections. In 1935 David et al isolated the critical ingredient in organotherapeutic treatments, testosterone. The effects of the powerful hormone testosterone continue to inspire research and controversy 65 years later.

  19. Low Testosterone and Men's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... typical male characteristics, such as facial, pubic, and body hair as well as muscle. This hormone also helps ... low testosterone may cause a man to lose body hair, muscle bulk, and strength and to gain body ...

  20. Controversies in testosterone supplementation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohit Khera

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Testosterone has now become one of the most widely used medications throughout the world. The rapid growth of the testosterone market in the past 10 years is due to many factors. We currently have a worldwide aging population. In the US, the number of men 65 years old or older is increasing 2-3 times faster than the number of men younger than 65 years. In addition, poor general health and certain medical conditions such as diabetes/metabolic syndrome (MetS, cardiovascular disease (CVD, and osteoporosis have been associated with low serum testosterone levels. [1],[2],[3] There are now fewer concerns regarding the development of prostate cancer (PCa after testosterone therapy, making it a more attractive treatment option. Finally, the introduction of different forms of testosterone supplementation therapy (TST with increased promotion, marketing, and direct-to-consumer advertising is also driving market growth. As the demand for TST continues to grow, it is becoming more important for clinicians to understand how to diagnose and treat patients with low testosterone.

  1. Testosterone deficiency: a historical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eberhard Nieschlag

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The biological effects of the testes and testosterone are known since antiquity. Aristotle knew the effects of castration and his hypothesis on fertilization is one of the first scientific encounters in reproductive biology. Over centuries, castration has been performed as punishment and to produce obedient slaves, but also to preserve the soprano voices of prepubertal boys. The Chinese imperial (and other oriental courts employed castrates as overseers in harems who often obtained high-ranking political positions. The era of testis transplantation and organotherapy was initiated by John Hunter in London who transplanted testes into capons in 1786. The intention of his experiments was to prove the 'vital principle' as the basis for modern transplantation medicine, but Hunter did not consider endocrine aspects. Arnold Adolph Berthold postulated internal secretion from his testicular transplantation experiments in 1849 in Göttingen and is thus considered the father of endocrinology. Following his observations, testicular preparations were used for therapy, popularized by self-experiments by Charles-Edouard Brown-Séquard in Paris (1889, which can at best have placebo effects. In the 1920s Sergio Voronoff transplanted testes from animals to men, but their effectiveness was disproved. Today testicular transplantation is being refined by stem cell research and germ cell transplantation. Modern androgen therapy started in 1935 when Enrest Lacquer isolated testosterone from bull testes in Amsterdam. In the same year testosterone was chemically synthesized independently by Adolf Butenandt in Göttingen and Leopold Ruzicka in Basel. Since testosterone was ineffective orally it was either compressed into subcutaneous pellets or was used orally as 17α-methyl testosterone, now obsolete because of liver toxicity. The early phases of testosterone treatment coincide with the first description of the most prominent syndromes of hypogonadism by Klinefelter, by

  2. Testosterone and weight loss: the evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traish, Abdulmaged M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review The purpose of this article is to examine the contemporary data linking testosterone therapy in overweight and obese men with testosterone deficiency to increased lean body mass, decreased fat mass, improvement in overall body composition and sustained weight loss. This is of paramount importance because testosterone therapy in obese men with testosterone deficiency represents a novel and a timely therapeutic strategy for managing obesity in men with testosterone deficiency. Recent findings Long-term testosterone therapy in men with testosterone deficiency produces significant and sustained weight loss, marked reduction in waist circumference and BMI and improvement in body composition. Further, testosterone therapy ameliorates components of the metabolic syndrome. The aforementioned improvements are attributed to improved mitochondrial function, increased energy utilization, increased motivation and vigor resulting in improved cardio-metabolic function and enhanced physical activity. Summary The implication of testosterone therapy in management of obesity in men with testosterone deficiency is of paramount clinical significance, as it produces sustained weight loss without recidivism. On the contrary, alternative therapeutic approaches other than bariatric surgery failed to produce significant and sustained outcome and exhibit a high rate of recidivism. These findings represent strong foundations for testosterone therapy in obese men with testosterone deficiency and should spur clinical research for better understanding of usefulness of testosterone therapy in treatment of underlying pathophysiological conditions of obesity. PMID:25105998

  3. Testosterone reduces amygdala-orbitofrontal cortex coupling.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wingen, G.A. van; Mattern, C.; Verkes, R.J.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Fernandez, G.S.E.

    2010-01-01

    Testosterone influences various aspects of affective behavior, which is mediated by different brain regions within the emotion circuitry. Previous neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that testosterone increases neural activity in the amygdala. To investigate whether this could be due to altered

  4. Testosterone reduces amygdala-orbitofrontal cortex coupling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wingen, Guido; Mattern, Claudia; Verkes, Robbert Jan; Buitelaar, Jan; Fernández, Guillén

    2010-01-01

    Testosterone influences various aspects of affective behavior, which is mediated by different brain regions within the emotion circuitry. Previous neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that testosterone increases neural activity in the amygdala. To investigate whether this could be due to altered

  5. Testosterone Deficiency - Establishing A Biochemical Diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Krakowsky, Yonah; Grober, Ethan D.

    2015-01-01

    Testosterone deficiency is a common and often unrecognized disorder impacting the lives of many men. Symptoms related to low testosterone are relatively non-specific and clinicians must therefore ensure that a patients? symptomatology is supported by a biochemical profile suggestive of testosterone deficiency. There are many options available to determine a patient?s testosterone level and laboratories will vary in the type of biochemical assessment they provide. In assessing patients with su...

  6. Gender-Typed Play and Amniotic Testosterone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knickmeyer, Rebecca Christine; Wheelwright, Sally; Taylor, Kevin; Raggatt, Peter; Hackett, Gerald; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2005-01-01

    Sex differences in play are apparent in a number of mammalian species, including humans. Prenatal testosterone may contribute to these differences. The authors report the first attempt to correlate gender-typed play in a normative sample of humans with measurements of amniotic testosterone (aT). Testosterone was measured in the amniotic fluid of…

  7. Testosterone in biosociology: A memoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Allan

    2017-06-01

    A contribution to a special issue on Hormones and Human Competition. The author looks back at his four decades of research on testosterone in the context of biosociology - its accomplishments, pitfalls, outstanding questions, and future directions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Encapsulation of testosterone by chitosan nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanphai, P; Tajmir-Riahi, H A

    2017-05-01

    The loading of testosterone by chitosan nanoparticles was investigated, using multiple spectroscopic methods, thermodynamic analysis, TEM images and modeling. Thermodynamic parameters showed testosterone-chitosan bindings occur mainly via H-bonding and van der Waals contacts. As polymer size increased more stable steroid-chitosan conjugates formed and hydrophobic contact was also observed. The loading efficacy of testosterone-nanocarrier was 40-55% and increased as chitosan size increased. Testosterone encapsulation markedly alters chitosan morphology. Chitosan nanoparticles are capable of transporting testosterone in vitro. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Testosterone in women-the clinical significance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Susan R; Jacobsen, Sarah Wåhlin

    2015-01-01

    Testosterone is an essential hormone for women, with physiological actions mediated directly or via aromatisation to oestradiol throughout the body. Despite the crucial role of testosterone and the high circulating concentrations of this hormone relative to oestradiol in women, studies of its...... action and the effects of testosterone deficiency and replacement in women are scarce. The primary indication for the prescription of testosterone for women is loss of sexual desire, which causes affected women substantial concern. That no formulation has been approved for this purpose has not impeded...... the widespread use of testosterone by women-either off-label or as compounded therapy. Observational studies indicate that testosterone has favourable cardiovascular effects measured by surrogate outcomes; however, associations between endogenous testosterone and the risk of cardiovascular disease and total...

  10. Maximal testosterone suppression in prostate cancer--free vs total testosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rove, Kyle O; Crawford, E David; Perachino, Massimo; Morote, Juan; Klotz, Laurence; Lange, Paul H; Andriole, Gerald L; Matsumoto, Alvin M; Taneja, Samir S; Eisenberger, Mario A; Reis, Leonardo O

    2014-06-01

    Testosterone remains a key target in the treatment of advanced prostate cancer. The relationship of free testosterone to prostate cancer treatment and outcomes remains largely unexplored. A consensus of prostate cancer experts was convened in 2013 to review current knowledge surrounding relationship of total and free testosterone to prostate cancer, discuss the free hormone hypothesis, and highlight future avenues for therapeutics. Free testosterone may better reflect prostate cancer tissue androgen levels than serum total testosterone concentration. Free testosterone deserves more research regarding its relation to clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Testosterone Therapy: Review of Clinical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petering, Ryan C; Brooks, Nathan A

    2017-10-01

    Testosterone therapy is increasingly common in the United States, and many of these prescriptions are written by primary care physicians. There is conflicting evidence on the benefit of male testosterone therapy for age-related declines in testosterone. Physicians should not measure testosterone levels unless a patient has signs and symptoms of hypogonadism, such as loss of body hair, sexual dysfunction, hot flashes, or gynecomastia. Depressed mood, fatigue, decreased strength, and a decreased sense of vitality are less specific to male hypogonadism. Testosterone therapy should be initiated only after two morning total serum testosterone measurements show decreased levels, and all patients should be counseled on the potential risks and benefits before starting therapy. Potential benefits of therapy include increased libido, improved sexual function, improved mood and well-being, and increased muscle mass and bone density; however, there is little or mixed evidence confirming clinically significant benefits. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration warns that testosterone therapy may increase the risk of cardiovascular complications. Other possible risks include rising prostate-specific antigen levels, worsening lower urinary tract symptoms, polycythemia, and increased risk of venous thromboembolism. Patients receiving testosterone therapy should be monitored to ensure testosterone levels rise appropriately, clinical improvement occurs, and no complications develop. Testosterone therapy may also be used to treat hypoactive sexual desire disorder in postmenopausal women and to produce physical male sex characteristics in female-to-male transgender patients.

  12. The many faces of testosterone

    OpenAIRE

    Bain, Jerald

    2007-01-01

    Jerald BainDepartment of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, CanadaAbstract: Testosterone is more than a “male sex hormone”. It is an important contributor to the robust metabolic functioning of multiple bodily systems. The abuse of anabolic steroids by athletes over the years has been one of the major detractors from the investigation an...

  13. 21 CFR 862.1680 - Testosterone test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Testosterone test system. 862.1680 Section 862....1680 Testosterone test system. (a) Identification. A testosterone test system is a device intended to measure testosterone (a male sex hormone) in serum, plasma, and urine. Measurement of testosterone are...

  14. Testosterone Deficiency, Cardiac Health, and Older Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Hackett

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Low levels of testosterone are manifested by erectile dysfunction, reduced sexual desire, and loss of morning erections with increasing numbers of men are being diagnosed and require treatment. The prevalence rates of testosterone deficiency vary according to different studies but may be as high as 40% in populations of patients with type 2 diabetes. There is increasing evidence that testosterone deficiency is associated with increased cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. Screening for low testosterone is recommended in a number of high risk groups including those with type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. There are recent data to suggest that testosterone replacement therapy may reduce cardiovascular mortality as well as improving multiple surrogate markers for cardiovascular events. Specific clinical trials of testosterone replacement therapy are needed in selected populations but in the meantime we must treat patients based on the best current evidence.

  15. Performance of total testosterone measurement to predict free testosterone for the biochemical evaluation of male hypogonadism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anawalt, Bradley D; Hotaling, James M; Walsh, Thomas J; Matsumoto, Alvin M

    2012-04-01

    Guidelines recommend serum total testosterone measurement as the initial test to evaluate male hypogonadism, reserving free testosterone assessment for men with suspected sex hormone-binding globulin abnormalities or total testosterone near the lower limit of normal. We determined the performance of total testosterone measurement as a test to identify men with normal vs low free testosterone. We examined the electronic medical records of all 3,672 men evaluated for hypogonadism by a serum testosterone panel, including total testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin, albumin and calculated free testosterone, from January 1, 1997 through December 31, 2007 in a network that serves veterans in Washington. The sensitivity and specificity of low total testosterone (less than 280 ng/dl) to rule out and predict low calculated free testosterone was 91.0% and 73.7%, respectively. At thresholds of less than 350 and less than 400 ng/dl the sensitivity of total testosterone for low calculated free testosterone increased to 96.8% and 98.2%, and at thresholds of less than 150 and less than 200 ng/dl specificity increased to 98.9% and 92.6%, respectively. Total testosterone between 280 and 350 ng/dl is not sensitive enough to reliably exclude hypogonadism. Total testosterone must exceed 350 to 400 ng/dl to reliably predict normal free testosterone. Except when levels are less than 150 ng/dl total testosterone measurement has low specificity for the biochemical diagnosis of hypogonadism. Copyright © 2012 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Maximal Testosterone Suppression in Prostate Cancer—Free vs Total Testosterone

    OpenAIRE

    Rove, Kyle O.; Crawford, E. David; Perachino, Massimo; Morote, Juan; Klotz, Laurence; Lange, Paul H.; Andriole, Gerald L.; Matsumoto, Alvin M.; Taneja, Samir S.; Eisenberger, Mario A.; Reis, Leonardo O.

    2014-01-01

    Testosterone remains a key target in the treatment of advanced prostate cancer. The relationship of free testosterone to prostate cancer treatment and outcomes remains largely unexplored. A consensus of prostate cancer experts was convened in 2013 to review current knowledge surrounding relationship of total and free testosterone to prostate cancer, discuss the free hormone hypothesis, and highlight future avenues for therapeutics. Free testosterone may better reflect prostate cancer tissue a...

  17. Testosterone a female hormone : Testing the function and evolution of testosterone in female birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Berber

    2013-01-01

    Hoewel testosteron vaak het mannelijk geslachtshormoon wordt genoemd produceren vrouwen van heel veel diersoorten ook testosteron, zij het veelal in mindere mate. Wat de functie van dit hormoon is in vrouwtjes is, in tegenstelling tot bij mannetjes, slecht onderzocht. Hebben vrouwtjes testosteron,

  18. Reduction in 24-Hour Plasma Testosterone Levels in Subjects Who Showered 15 or 30 Minutes After Application of Testosterone Gel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ronde, W.; Vogel, S.; Bui, H.N.; Heijboer, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    Study Objective. To investigate whether showering, to prevent the involuntary transfer of testosterone to others through skin contact, either 15 or 30 minutes after application of testosterone gel would significantly affect plasma testosterone levels. Design. Prospective 3-way crossover trial.

  19. Effects of In Vivo Testosterone Manipulation on Ovarian Morphology, Follicular Development, and Follicle Yolk Testosterone in the Homing Pigeon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goerlich, Vivian C.; Dijkstra, Cor; Groothuis, Ton G. G.

    2010-01-01

    To date, our understanding of the function of testosterone in female reproductive physiology is only marginal although there are indications that testosterone is involved in modulating follicular recruitment, growth, atresia, and ovulation. Studies elevating testosterone in breeding female birds

  20. Review Article: Practical Aspects of Testosterone Deficiency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this review we describe the clinical manifestations associated with testosterone deficiency in aging men, termed the testosterone deficiency syndrome (TDS). Since aging men suffer from multiple urological and andrological symptoms, TDS is an important medical condition to be suspected, recognized, clinically ...

  1. [Salivary testosterone and cognitive ability in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostatnikova, D; Dohnanyiova, M; Mataseje, A; Putz, Z; Laznibatova, J; Hajek, J

    2000-01-01

    There are suggestive data with indicate the link of testosterone levels with specific cognitive abilities in humans. As soon as during intrauterine development, testosterone is supposed to influence to organization of fetal specific brain structures. This influence is permanent and it is reflected in cognitive abilities during prepubetal period. In puberty, the testosterone level rapidly increases mainly in boys and it appears to influence the definitive development of cognitive functions. In this paper, results of the first four years of our logitudinal study are presented. Salivary testosterone levels in children were determined, and their effect on spatial ability was studied. Radioimmunoanalytical method of testosterone determination in saliva was developed, since saliva reflects free fraction of testosterone directly available for uptake by receptors in the central nervous system. The sampling of saliva is non-invasive and unstressful, which is important for relevant evaluation of cognitive performance. One hundred and forty-seven children (78 boys and 69 girls) at the ae of 8 to 12 were examined. The data received from intellectually gifted children attending the School for gifted children in Bratislava (100 measurements) were compared with the data received from age-matched children attending randomly chosen elementary schools (151 measurements). Lower salivary testosterone levels were found in intellectually gifted children of both sexes, and negative relationship between testosterone levels and cognitive abilities in preadolescent children was observed.

  2. Free Testosterone During Androgen Deprivation Therapy Predicts Castration-Resistant Progression Better Than Total Testosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regis, Lucas; Planas, Jacques; Carles, Joan; Maldonado, Xavier; Comas, Inma; Ferrer, Roser; Morote, Juan

    2017-01-01

    The optimal degree of testosterone suppression in patients with prostate cancer undergoing androgen deprivation therapy remains in question. Furthermore, serum free testosterone, which is the active form of testosterone, seems to correlate with intraprostatic testosterone. Here we compared free and total serum testosterone as predictors of survival free of castration resistance. Total testosterone (chemiluminescent assay, lower sensitivity 10 ng/dl) and free testosterone (analogue-ligand radioimmunoassay, lower sensitivity 0.05 pg/ml) were determined at 6 months of LHRH agonist treatment in a prospective cohort of 126 patients with prostate cancer. During a mean follow-up of 67 months (9-120), 75 (59.5%) events of castration-resistant progression were identified. Multivariate analysis and survival analysis according to total testosterone cutoffs of 50, 32, and 20 ng/dl, and free testosterone cutoffs of 1.7, 1.1, and 0.7 pg/ml were performed. Metastatic spread was the most powerful predictor of castration resistance, HR: 2.09 (95%CI: 1.18-3.72), P = 0.012. Gleason score, baseline PSA and PSA at 6 months were also independents predictors, but not free and total testosterone. Stratified analysis was conducted on the basis of the status of metastatic diseases and free testosterone was found to be an independent predictor of survival free of castration resistance in the subgroup of patients without metastasis, HR: 2.12 (95%CI: 1.16-3.85), P = 0.014. The lowest threshold of free testosterone which showed significant differences was 1.7 pg/ml, P = 0.003. Free testosterone at 6 months of LHRH agonist treatment seems to be a better surrogate than total testosterone to predict castration resistance in no metastatic prostate cancer patients. Prostate 77:114-120, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Testosterone Replacement Therapy and the Cardiovascular System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi, Sahar

    2016-04-01

    As testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) has emerged as a commonly prescribed therapy for symptomatic low testosterone, conflicting data have been reported in terms of both its efficacy and potential adverse outcomes. One of the most controversial associations has been that of TRT and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This review briefly provides background on the history of TRT, the indications for TRT, and the data behind TRT for symptomatic low testosterone. It then specifically delves into the rather limited data for cardiovascular outcomes of those with low endogenous testosterone and those who receive TRT. The available body of literature strongly suggests that more work, by way of clinical trials, needs to be done to better understand the impact of testosterone and TRT on the cardiovascular system.

  4. [Testosterone deficiency, metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Miró, Mercè; Chillarón, Juan J; Pedro-Botet, Juan

    2016-01-15

    Testosterone deficiency in adult age is associated with a decrease in libido, energy, hematocrit, muscle mass and bone mineral density, as well as with depression. More recently, testosterone deficiency has also been associated with various components of the metabolic syndrome, which in turn is associated with a five-fold increase in the risk of cardiovascular disease. Low testosterone levels are associated with increased insulin resistance, increase in fat mass, low HDL cholesterol, higher triglyceride levels and hypertension. Testosterone replacement therapy in patients with testosterone deficiency and type 2 diabetes mellitus and/or metabolic syndrome has shown reductions in insulin resistance, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglycerides and improvement in glycemic control and anthropometric parameters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Testosterone ethosomes for enhanced transdermal delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainbinder, Denize; Touitou, Elka

    2005-01-01

    Physiological decrease in testosterone levels in men with age causes various changes with clinical significance. Recent testosterone replacement therapy is based mainly on transdermal nonpatch delivery systems. These products have the drawback of application on extremely large areas to achieve required hormone blood levels. The objective of the present study was to design and test a testosterone nonpatch formulation using ethosomes for enhanced transdermal absorption. The ethosomal formulation was characterized by transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering for structure and size distribution and by ultracentrifugation for entrapment capacity. To evaluate the feasibility of this delivery system to enhance testosterone permeation through the skin, first the systemic absorption in rats was compared with a currently used gel (AndroGel). Further, theoretical estimation of testosterone blood concentration following ethosomal application in men was made. For this purpose, in vitro permeation experiments through human skin were performed to establish testosterone skin permeation values. In the design of these experiments, testosterone solubility in various solutions was measured and the effect of the receiver medium on the skin barrier function was assessed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Theoretical estimation shows that testosterone human plasma concentration value in the upper part of the physiological range could be achieved by application of the ethosomal formulation on an area of 40 cm(2). This area is about 10 times smaller than required with current nonpatch formulations. Our work shows that the ethosomal formulation could enhance testosterone systemic absorption and also be used for designing new products that could solve the weaknesses of the current testosterone replacement therapies.

  6. Marital sex frequency and midcycle female testosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, N M; Udry, J R; Khan-Dawood, F; Dawood, M Y

    1987-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to attempt to replicate a finding of Persky et al. (1978) that midcycle peak values of testosterone (T) in women predicted differences in frequency of intercourse among married couples. Luteinizing hormone (LH), total testosterone (TT), and free testosterone (FT) values from 10 to 14 daily midcycle blood samples donated by 43 volunteering wives were analyzed against sexual activity patterns reported by the couples over a longer period of time. All couples were contracepting by means other than exogenous hormones or the rhythm method. Each morning through three menstrual cycles husbands and wives recorded independently and on separate forms answers to a series of questions concerning sexual activity in the previous 24 hr. Wives also recorded basal body temperatures (BBT). We designated midcycle values of TT and FT according to several definitions of midcycle. Total testosterone levels at the day of the BBT nadir and the day before the nadir correlated significantly with average intercourse frequency. Correlations with FT were statistically significant regardless of which midcycle measure was used; the day before the BBT nadir gave the highest correlation, 0.618, p = 0.01. Mean testosterone (TT or FT) values were not significantly related. We conclude that female midcycle total testosterone or free testosterone is indexing some unobserved event that affects the frequency of intercourse of couples. We speculate that this event affects the motivation of females, which influences the set point of the compromise frequency characteristic of couples.

  7. Testosterone and cardiovascular disease in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Paul D; Channer, Kevin S

    2012-01-01

    Despite regional variations in the prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD), men are consistently more at risk of developing and dying from CAD than women, and the gender-specific effects of sex hormones are implicated in this inequality. This ‘Perspectives' article reviews the current evidence regarding the cardiovascular effects of testosterone in men including an examination of the age-related decline in testosterone, the relationship between testosterone levels and coronary disease, coronary risk factors and mortality. We also review the vaso-active effects of testosterone, and discuss how these have been used in men with heart failure and angina. We discuss the ‘cause' versus ‘effect' controversy, regarding low testosterone levels in men with coronary heart disease, as well as concerns over the use of testosterone replacement therapy in middle aged and elderly men. The article concludes with a discussion regarding the future direction for work in this interesting area, including the relative merits of screening for, and treating hypogonadism with testosterone replacement therapy in men with heart disease. PMID:22522504

  8. Use of parenteral testosterone in hypospadias cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikram Satav

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim was to evaluate the effect of parenteral testosterone on penile length, preputial hood, vascularity of dartos pedicle in patients with hypospadias. Materials and Methods: A total of 42 patients with hypospadias were included in this study. Injection aquaviron (oily solution each ml containing testosterone propionate 25 mg was given deep intramuscularly in three doses with an interval of 3 weeks before reconstructive surgery at the dose of 2 mg/kg body weight. Preoperatively penile length, transverse preputial width and diameter at the base of the penis were measured. Basal testosterone levels were obtained before the institution of therapy and on the day of operation. Results: Following parenteral testosterone administration, the mean increase in penile length, transverse preputial width and diameter at the base of penis was 1.01 ± 0.25 cm (P < 0.001, 1.250 ± 0.52 cm and 0.61 ± 0.35 cm, respectively, (P < 0.001. Serum testosterone level after injection was well within normal range for that age. Conclusion: Parenteral testosterone increased phallus size, diameter and prepuce hypertrophy without any adverse effects. However, due to lack of a control group we cannot make any inferences. Controlled studies are required to establish the benefits of parenteral testosterone.

  9. Testosterone and aggressive behavior in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batrinos, Menelaos L

    2012-01-01

    Atavistic residues of aggressive behavior prevailing in animal life, determined by testosterone, remain attenuated in man and suppressed through familial and social inhibitions. However, it still manifests itself in various intensities and forms from; thoughts, anger, verbal aggressiveness, competition, dominance behavior, to physical violence. Testosterone plays a significant role in the arousal of these behavioral manifestations in the brain centers involved in aggression and on the development of the muscular system that enables their realization. There is evidence that testosterone levels are higher in individuals with aggressive behavior, such as prisoners who have committed violent crimes. Several field studies have also shown that testosterone levels increase during the aggressive phases of sports games. In more sensitive laboratory paradigms, it has been observed that participant's testosterone rises in the winners of; competitions, dominance trials or in confrontations with factitious opponents. Aggressive behavior arises in the brain through interplay between subcortical structures in the amygdala and the hypothalamus in which emotions are born and the prefrontal cognitive centers where emotions are perceived and controlled. The action of testosterone on the brain begins in the embryonic stage. Earlier in development at the DNA level, the number of CAG repeats in the androgen receptor gene seems to play a role in the expression of aggressive behavior. Neuroimaging techniques in adult males have shown that testosterone activates the amygdala enhancing its emotional activity and its resistance to prefrontal restraining control. This effect is opposed by the action of cortisol which facilitates prefrontal area cognitive control on impulsive tendencies aroused in the subcortical structures. The degree of impulsivity is regulated by serotonin inhibiting receptors, and with the intervention of this neurotransmitter the major agents of the neuroendocrine

  10. Non-classical actions of testosterone and spermatogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, William H.

    2010-01-01

    Testosterone is essential to maintain spermatogenesis and male fertility. In the absence of testosterone stimulation, spermatogenesis does not proceed beyond the meiosis stage. After withdrawal of testosterone, germ cells that have progressed beyond meiosis detach from supporting Sertoli cells and die, whereas mature sperm cannot be released from Sertoli cells resulting in infertility. The classical mechanism of testosterone action in which testosterone activates gene transcription by causing...

  11. Kinetics of removal of intravenous testosterone pulses in normal men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhuis, Johannes D; Keenan, Daniel M; Liu, Peter Y; Takahashi, Paul Y

    2010-04-01

    Testosterone is secreted into the bloodstream episodically, putatively distributing into total, bioavailable (bio) nonsex hormone-binding globulin (nonSHBG-bound), and free testosterone moieties. The kinetics of total, bio, and free testosterone pulses are unknown. Design Adrenal and gonadal steroidogenesis was blocked pharmacologically, glucocorticoid was replaced, and testosterone was infused in pulses in four distinct doses in 14 healthy men under two different paradigms (a total of 220 testosterone pulses). Testosterone kinetics were assessed by deconvolution analysis of total, free, bioavailable, SHBG-bound, and albumin-bound testosterone concentration-time profiles. Independently of testosterone dose or paradigm, rapid-phase half-lives (min) of total, free, bioavailable, SHBG-bound, and albumin-bound testosterone were comparable at 1.4+/-0.22 min (grand mean+/-S.E.M. of geometric means). Slow-phase testosterone half-lives were highest for SHBG-bound testosterone (32 min) and total testosterone (27 min) with the former exceeding that of free testosterone (18 min), bioavailable testosterone (14 min), and albumin-bound testosterone (18 min; Pmimicry of physiological pulses, and deconvolution analysis may have utility in estimating the in vivo kinetics of other hormones, substrates, and metabolites.

  12. Relationship between Testosterone, Oxidative Stress Biomarkers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hypogonadism attributable to males with metabolic syndrome was also observed in automechanics occupationally exposed to mixed chemicals accompanied by oxidative stress (OS). We evaluated associations among testosterone, OS biomarkers, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants in normal weight ...

  13. Testosterone and disinhibited personality in healthy males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluja, Anton; García, Luis F; García, Óscar; Blanco, Eduardo

    2016-10-01

    The relationship among testosterone (T), free testosterone (FT), bioavailable testosterone (BT) and personality were studied in a sample of 105 healthy males (26.71±9.68years old). The possible effects of age and other hormones, such as luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), and albumin (ALB) were controlled. Personality was assessed by the novelty seeking scale of Cloninger's Temperament-Character Inventory (TCI), and a reduced version of the Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire (ZKPQ). Main results show that there is a weak association among three measures of testosterone with novelty seeking, sociability and, to a lesser extent, with impulsive sensation seeking. Our data, as expected, confirmed previous results and also suggest that these relationships are strongly affected by the age variable. LH, FSH and SHBG hormones play no role in the reported relationships. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Testosterone Deficiency and Nocturia: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyoshi Shigehara

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Nocturia causes lack of sleep and excessive daytime somnolence, reducing overall well-being, vitality, productivity, and mental health. Nocturia is significantly associated with testosterone deficiency, lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS, and sleep disorders. The development of LUTS is commonly associated with testosterone deficiency in elderly men, and recent studies have suggested that testosterone has an ameliorative effect on nocturia. In hypogonadal men with nocturia, a negative feedback cycle can arise, in which testosterone deficiency leads to the development of nocturia, and nocturia contributes to the decline in testosterone levels. Therefore, patients with nocturia should receive appropriate treatment in order to improve their quality of life. Nocturia is generally treated by restricting nighttime water intake, as well as by the administration of medications, such as alpha-1 blockers, anticholinergic drugs, and desmopressin. Testosterone replacement therapy (TRT is used worldwide as a treatment for many hypogonadal conditions. TRT represents an alternative treatment option for nocturia in hypogonadal men. However, limited information is currently available regarding the effects of TRT on nocturia in hypogonadal men, and further studies are required to reach more definitive conclusions.

  15. Diagnosis and management of testosterone deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, James A; Carson, Culley C; Coward, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    Testosterone supplementation therapy (TST) use has dramatically increased over the past decade, due to the availability of newer agents, aggressive marketing, and an increasing incidence of testosterone deficiency (TD). Despite the increase in TST, a degree of ambiguity remains as to the exact diagnostic criteria of TD, and administration and monitoring of TST. One explanation for this phenomenon is the complex role testosterone plays in multiple physiologic pathways. Numerous medical co-morbidities and medications can alter testosterone levels resulting in a wide range of nonspecific clinical signs and symptoms of TD. The diagnosis is also challenging due to the lack of a definitive serum total testosterone level that reliably correlates with symptoms. This observation is particularly true in the aging male and is exacerbated by inconsistencies between different laboratory assays. Several prominent medical societies have developed guideline statements to clarify the diagnosis, but they differ from each other and with expert opinion in several ways. Aside from diagnostic dilemmas, there are numerous subtle advantages and disadvantages of the various testosterone agents to appreciate. The available TST agents have changed significantly over the past decade similar to the trends in the diagnosis of TD. Therefore, as the usage of TST increases, clinicians will be challenged to maintain an up-to-date understanding of TD and TST. The purpose of this review is to provide a clear description of the current strategies for diagnosis and management of TD. PMID:25532575

  16. Testosterone Deficiency and Nocturia: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigehara, Kazuyoshi; Izumi, Koji; Mizokami, Atsushi; Namiki, Mikio

    2017-04-01

    Nocturia causes lack of sleep and excessive daytime somnolence, reducing overall well-being, vitality, productivity, and mental health. Nocturia is significantly associated with testosterone deficiency, lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), and sleep disorders. The development of LUTS is commonly associated with testosterone deficiency in elderly men, and recent studies have suggested that testosterone has an ameliorative effect on nocturia. In hypogonadal men with nocturia, a negative feedback cycle can arise, in which testosterone deficiency leads to the development of nocturia, and nocturia contributes to the decline in testosterone levels. Therefore, patients with nocturia should receive appropriate treatment in order to improve their quality of life. Nocturia is generally treated by restricting nighttime water intake, as well as by the administration of medications, such as alpha-1 blockers, anticholinergic drugs, and desmopressin. Testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) is used worldwide as a treatment for many hypogonadal conditions. TRT represents an alternative treatment option for nocturia in hypogonadal men. However, limited information is currently available regarding the effects of TRT on nocturia in hypogonadal men, and further studies are required to reach more definitive conclusions. Copyright © 2017 Korean Society for Sexual Medicine and Andrology.

  17. Total testosterone in young men is more closely associated than free testosterone with prostate cancer disparities

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarado, Louis Calistro

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Early adulthood has been suggested as the most relevant time to determine the influence of testosterone on prostate carcinogenesis. For a more detailed assessment of this hypothesis, the present study examined whether serum total or free testosterone in young men was more closely associated with prostate cancer disparities.

  18. Adult testosterone and calculated free testosterone reference ranges by tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neale, S M; Hocking, R; Biswas, M; Turkes, A; Rees, D; Rees, D A; Evans, C

    2013-03-01

    Testosterone is measured for the investigation of female hyperandrogenism and male hypogonadism. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (tandem MS) is becoming the method of choice but comprehensive reference ranges are lacking. Testosterone was measured by tandem MS on 90 healthy women, 67 young healthy men and pregnant women (59 first trimester and 60 second trimester). The male, male calculated free, first trimester and second trimester testosterone reference ranges (derived using the antilog of mean ± 1.96 SD of log transformed data) were 10.6-31.9, 0.23-0.63, 0.6-4.9 and 0.9-4.9 nmol/L, respectively. The female testosterone upper reference range limit, derived non-parametrically from the 97.5th centile, was testosterone reference ranges to support clinical services.

  19. DDT increases hepatic testosterone metabolism in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra-Santoyo, Adolfo; Albores, Arnulfo; Cebrian, Mariano E. [Cinvestav-IPN, Seccion de Toxicologia, Mexico (Mexico); Hernandez, Manuel [Cinvestav-IPN, Departamento de Biologia Celular (Mexico)

    2005-01-01

    DDT and its metabolites are considered as endocrine disruptors able to promote hormone-dependent pathologies. We studied the effects of technical-grade DDT on hepatic testosterone metabolism and testosterone hydroxylase activity ratios in the rat. Male and female Wistar rats were treated by gavage with a single dose of technical-grade DDT (0, 0.1, 1, 10, and 100 mg/kg body weight) and killed 24 h later. Hepatic microsomes were incubated with [4-{sup 14}C]-testosterone and the metabolites were separated by thin-layer chromatography and quantified by radio scanning. DDT increased testosterone biotransformation and modified the profile of metabolites produced in a sex-dependent manner. Males treated with a representative dose (10 mg/kg) produced relatively less androstenedione (AD), 2{alpha}-hydroxytestosterone (OHT), and 16{alpha}-OHT but higher 6{beta}-OHT whereas treated females produced less 7{alpha}-OHT and AD but higher 6{beta}-OHT and 6{alpha}-OHT than their respective controls. In both sexes DDT decreased the relative proportion of AD and increased that of 6{beta}-OHT suggesting that the androgen-saving pathway was affected. The testosterone 6{alpha}-/15{alpha}-OHT ratio, a proposed indicator of demasculinization, was increased in treated males. This effect was in agreement with the demasculinizing ability proposed for DDT. The effects on 6{alpha}-/16{alpha}-OHT and 6-dehydrotestosterone/16{alpha}-OHT ratios followed a similar tendency, with the ratio 6{alpha}-/16{alpha}-OHT being the most sensitive marker. Interestingly, these ratios were reduced in treated females suggesting that technical-grade DDT shifted testosterone hydroxylations toward a more masculine pattern. Thus, technical-grade DDT altered the hepatic sexual dimorphism in testosterone metabolism and decreased the metabolic differences between male and female rats. (orig.)

  20. A novel testosterone catabolic pathway in bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leu, Yann-Lii; Wang, Po-Hsiang; Shiao, Ming-Shi; Ismail, Wael; Chiang, Yin-Ru

    2011-09-01

    Forty years ago, Coulter and Talalay (A. W. Coulter and P. Talalay, J. Biol. Chem. 243:3238-3247, 1968) established the oxygenase-dependent pathway for the degradation of testosterone by aerobes. The oxic testosterone catabolic pathway involves several oxygen-dependent reactions and is not available for anaerobes. Since then, a variety of anaerobic bacteria have been described for the ability to degrade testosterone in the absence of oxygen. Here, a novel, oxygenase-independent testosterone catabolic pathway in such organisms is described. Steroidobacter denitrificans DSMZ18526 was shown to be capable of degrading testosterone in the absence of oxygen and was selected as the model organism in this study. In a previous investigation, we identified the initial intermediates involved in an anoxic testosterone catabolic pathway, most of which are identical to those of the oxic pathway demonstrated in Comamonas testosteroni. In this study, five additional intermediates of the anoxic pathway were identified. We demonstrated that subsequent steps of the anoxic pathway greatly differ from those of the established oxic pathway, which suggests that a novel pathway for testosterone catabolism is present. In the proposed anoxic pathway, a reduction reaction occurs at C-4 and C-5 of androsta-1,4-diene-3,17-dione, the last common intermediate of both the oxic and anoxic pathways. After that, a novel hydration reaction occurs and a hydroxyl group is thus introduced to the C-1α position of C(19)steroid substrates. To our knowledge, an enzymatic hydration reaction occurring at the A ring of steroid compounds has not been reported before.

  1. Serum Testosterone Kinetics After Brachytherapy for Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taira, Al V. [Western Radiation Oncology, Mountain View, CA (United States); Merrick, Gregory S., E-mail: gmerrick@urologicresearchinstitute.org [Schiffler Cancer Center, Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, WV (United States); Galbreath, Robert W.; Butler, Wayne M.; Lief, Jonathan H.; Allen, Zachariah A. [Schiffler Cancer Center, Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, WV (United States); Wallner, Kent E. [Puget Sound Healthcare Corporation Group Health Cooperative, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate temporal changes in testosterone after prostate brachytherapy and investigate the potential impact of these changes on response to treatment. Methods and Materials: Between January 2008 and March 2009, 221 consecutive patients underwent Pd-103 brachytherapy without androgen deprivation for clinically localized prostate cancer. Prebrachytherapy prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and serum testosterone were obtained for each patient. Repeat levels were obtained 3 months after brachytherapy and at least every 6 months thereafter. Multiple clinical, treatment, and dosimetric parameters were evaluated to determine an association with temporal testosterone changes. In addition, analysis was conducted to determine if there was an association between testosterone changes and treatment outcomes or the occurrence of a PSA spike. Results: There was no significant difference in serum testosterone over time after implant (p = 0.57). 29% of men experienced an increase {>=}25%, 23% of men experienced a decrease {>=}25%, and the remaining 48% of men had no notable change in testosterone over time. There was no difference in testosterone trends between men who received external beam radiotherapy and those who did not (p = 0.12). On multivariate analysis, preimplant testosterone was the only variable that consistently predicted for changes in testosterone over time. Men with higher than average testosterone tended to experience drop in testosterone (p < 0.001), whereas men with average or below average baseline testosterone had no significant change. There was no association between men who experienced PSA spike and testosterone temporal trends (p = 0.50) nor between initial PSA response and testosterone trends (p = 0.21). Conclusion: Prostate brachytherapy does not appear to impact serum testosterone over time. Changes in serum testosterone do not appear to be associated with PSA spike phenomena nor with initial PSA response to treatment; therefore, PSA response

  2. Genetic Determinants of Serum Testosterone Concentrations in Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggio, Marcello; Coviello, Andrea D.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Heier, Margit; Hofman, Albert; Holliday, Kate L.; Jansson, John-Olov; Kähönen, Mika; Karasik, David; Karlsson, Magnus K.; Kiel, Douglas P.; Liu, Yongmei; Ljunggren, Östen; Lorentzon, Mattias; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Meitinger, Thomas; Mellström, Dan; Melzer, David; Miljkovic, Iva; Nauck, Matthias; Nilsson, Maria; Penninx, Brenda; Pye, Stephen R.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Reincke, Martin; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Tajar, Abdelouahid; Teumer, Alexander; Uitterlinden, André G.; Ulloor, Jagadish; Viikari, Jorma; Völker, Uwe; Völzke, Henry; Wichmann, H. Erich; Wu, Tsung-Sheng; Zhuang, Wei Vivian; Ziv, Elad; Wu, Frederick C. W.; Raitakari, Olli; Eriksson, Anna; Bidlingmaier, Martin; Harris, Tamara B.; Murray, Anna; de Jong, Frank H.; Murabito, Joanne M.; Bhasin, Shalender; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Haring, Robin

    2011-01-01

    Testosterone concentrations in men are associated with cardiovascular morbidity, osteoporosis, and mortality and are affected by age, smoking, and obesity. Because of serum testosterone's high heritability, we performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association data in 8,938 men from seven cohorts and followed up the genome-wide significant findings in one in silico (n = 871) and two de novo replication cohorts (n = 4,620) to identify genetic loci significantly associated with serum testosterone concentration in men. All these loci were also associated with low serum testosterone concentration defined as testosterone concentration (rs12150660, p = 1.2×10−41 and rs6258, p = 2.3×10−22). Subjects with ≥3 risk alleles of these variants had 6.5-fold higher risk of having low serum testosterone than subjects with no risk allele. The rs5934505 polymorphism near FAM9B on the X chromosome was also associated with testosterone concentrations (p = 5.6×10−16). The rs6258 polymorphism in exon 4 of SHBG affected SHBG's affinity for binding testosterone and the measured free testosterone fraction (ptestosterone concentrations and increased risk of low testosterone. rs6258 is the first reported SHBG polymorphism, which affects testosterone binding to SHBG and the free testosterone fraction and could therefore influence the calculation of free testosterone using law-of-mass-action equation. PMID:21998597

  3. Testosterone treatment of hypogonadal men participating in competitive sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooren, L J; Behre, H M

    2008-06-01

    Testosterone has a steeply dose-dependent effect on muscle mass and strength irrespective of gonadal status. So, for reasons of fairness, people who engage in competitive sports should not administer exogenous testosterone raising their blood testosterone levels beyond the range of normal. There is a ban on exogenous androgens for men and women in sports, but an exception has been made for men with androgen deficiency due to pituitary or testicular disease. Men who receive testosterone administration for the indication hypogonadism have an interest in the use of testosterone preparations generating blood testosterone levels within the normal range of healthy, eugonadal men. On the grounds of a positive correlation between blood testosterone concentrations muscle and volume/strength, they are best served with a parenteral testosterone preparation, rather than transdermal testosterone, but they should not run the risk of being excluded from competition because of supraphysiological testosterone levels. The latter is a realistic risk with the traditional parenteral testosterone esters. The new parenteral testosterone undecanoate preparation offers much better perspectives. Its pharmacokinetics have been investigated in detail and there is a fair degree of predictability of resulting blood testosterone levels with use of this preparation.

  4. Prenatal Testosterone and Preschool Disruptive Behavior Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Bethan A; Martel, Michelle M

    2013-11-01

    Disruptive Behaviors Disorders (DBD), including Oppositional-Defiant Disorder (ODD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), are fairly common and highly impairing childhood behavior disorders that can be diagnosed as early as preschool. Prenatal exposure to testosterone may be particularly relevant to these early-emerging DBDs that exhibit a sex-biased prevalence rate favoring males. The current study examined associations between preschool DBD symptom domains and prenatal exposure to testosterone measured indirectly via right 2D:4D finger-length ratios. The study sample consisted of 109 preschool-age children between ages 3 and 6 (64% males;72% with DBD) and their primary caregivers. Primary caregivers completed a semi-structured interview (i.e., Kiddie Disruptive Behavior Disorder Schedule), as well as symptom questionnaires (i.e., Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale, Peer Conflict Scale); teachers and/or daycare providers completed symptom questionnaires and children provided measures of prenatal testosterone exposure, measured indirectly via finger-length ratios (i.e., right 2D:4D). Study results indicated a significant association of high prenatal testosterone (i.e., smaller right 2D:4D) with high hyperactive-impulsive ADHD symptoms in girls but not boys, suggesting that the effect may be driven by, or might only exist in, girls. The present study suggests that prenatal exposure to testosterone may increase risk for early ADHD, particularly hyperactivity-impulsivity, in preschool girls.

  5. Evaluation of testosterone metabolites/dehydroepiandrosterone as the indicators of testosterone administration in horse doping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J.Y.; Kim, S.J. [Korea Racing Association, Kyonggi (Korea); Kyong, J.B. [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea); Choi, M.H.; Chung, B.C. [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea)

    1999-06-01

    The metabolism of testosterone (17{beta}-hydroxy-androst-4-en-3-one) was confirmed in horse after a single intramuscular administration of testosterone cypionate (750 mg). Solvent extracts of urine obtained with enzymatic hydrolysis and methanolysis were analyzed by GC/MS after oxime t-butyldimethylsilyl (oxime-TBDMS) derivatization. the structures of four urinary metabolite after testosterone administration in horse were determined based on EI mass spectra and 5{alpha}-androstane-3{beta}, 17{alpha}-diol and 5a-androstane-3{beta}-ol--17one as major was confirmed with authentic standard. Also the concentrations of 5{alpha}--androstane-3{beta}, 17{alpha}-diol, 5{alpha}-androstane-3{beta}, 17{beta}-diol, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), 5{alpha}-androstane-3{beta}-ol-17-one and testosterone were determined in the urine of normal subjects and the urine after administration. The recovery and detection limit in the most drugs were 86.3{approx}94.7% and 1{approx}3 ppb, respectively. Correlation coefficients for calibration were in the range of 0.984{approx}0.999. Excretion profile of testosterone presents the rapid and large increasement up to maximum values as days 5 after administration and the slow regression. The relative ratios of testosterone, its metabolites over DHEA were determined for indication of testosterone administration in horse doping. 13 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Effects of dutasteride on serum free-testosterone and clinical significance of testosterone changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enatsu, N; Miyake, H; Haraguchi, T; Chiba, K; Fujisawa, M

    2016-12-01

    Sixty-two patients with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) who were being treated with dutasteride participated in this study. Prostate volume, uroflowmetry, blood tests, the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) were determined before and 1, 3 and 12 months after the treatment with dutasteride. Patients were divided into two groups based on changes in serum testosterone after 1 month: Group A (>20% increase; n = 33) or Group B (free-testosterone levels were 20.4% higher after 1 month and remained constant thereafter. When Groups A and B were compared, baseline free-testosterone levels were significantly lower in Group A, IPSS QOL was significantly better in Group A at 3 and 12 months, and no significant differences were observed in uroflowmetry, prostate volume, IPSS or IIEF-5. A univariate analysis identified serum free-testosterone levels and the IPSS storage symptom subscore as significant factors influencing IPSS QOL at 12 months, and only the IPSS storage symptom subscore appeared to be independently related to IPSS QOL. These results indicate that dutasteride increases serum free-testosterone levels in BPH patients, particularly with low baseline free-testosterone levels, and the increase in free-testosterone may have further add-on impacts on their urinary tract symptoms. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Fathers' decline in testosterone and synchrony with partner testosterone during pregnancy predicts greater postpartum relationship investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxbe, Darby E; Edelstein, Robin S; Lyden, Hannah M; Wardecker, Britney M; Chopik, William J; Moors, Amy C

    2017-04-01

    The transition to parenthood has been associated with declines in testosterone among partnered fathers, which may reflect males' motivation to invest in the family. Moreover, preliminary evidence has found that couples show correlations in hormone levels across pregnancy that may also be linked to fathers' preparation for parenthood. The current study used repeated-measures sampling of testosterone across pregnancy to explore whether fathers' change in T, and correlations with mothers' T, were associated with fathers' and mothers' postpartum investment. In a sample of 27 couples (54 individuals) expecting their first child, both parents' salivary testosterone was measured multiple times across pregnancy. At approximately 3.5months postpartum, participants rated their investment, commitment, and satisfaction with their partner. A multilevel model was used to measure change in testosterone over time and associations between mother and father testosterone. Fathers who showed stronger declines in T across pregnancy, and stronger correlations with mothers' testosterone, reported higher postpartum investment, commitment, and satisfaction. Mothers reported more postpartum investment and satisfaction if fathers showed greater prenatal declines in T. These results held even after controlling for paternal investment, commitment, and satisfaction measured prenatally at study entry. Our results suggest that changes in paternal testosterone across pregnancy, and hormonal linkage with the pregnant partner, may underlie fathers' dedication to the partner relationship across the transition to parenthood. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Testosterone therapy decreases subcutaneous fat and adiponectin in aging men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, L.; Højlund, K.; Hougaard, D. M.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Testosterone therapy increases lean body mass and decreases total fat mass in aging men with low normal testosterone levels. The major challenge is, however, to determine whether the metabolic consequences of testosterone therapy are overall positive. We have previously reported that 6......-month testosterone therapy did not improve insulin sensitivity. We investigated the effect of testosterone therapy on regional body fat distribution and on the levels of the insulin-sensitizing adipokine, adiponectin, in aging men with low normal bioavailable testosterone levels. DESIGN: A randomized......, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study on 6-month testosterone treatment (gel) in 38 men, aged 60–78 years, with bioavailable testosterone 94 cm. METHODS: Central fat mass (CFM) and lower extremity fat mass (LEFM) were measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry. Subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAT...

  9. Wirkung von Testosteron auf Haut und Haare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopera D

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Testosteron – das wichtigste Androgen – wird ab der Adrenarche bei beiden Geschlechtern in mehr oder weniger großen Mengen gebildet. Die Bildung erfolgt bei Männern in den Hoden, bei Frauen in den Ovarien und bei beiden Geschlechtern in geringen Mengen in den Nebennieren. Im Blut zirkuliert es einerseits SHBG-gebunden, andererseits als wirksames und freies Testosteron, das auf die verschiedenen Organe eine unterschiedlich starke Wirkung ausübt. Es beeinflusst die Ausbildung des männlichen Phänotyps, den Aufbau der Muskelmasse, die Knochendichte sowie den Fett- und Zuckerstoffwechsel. Auf Haut und Hautanhangsgebilde hat Testosteron eine besondere Wirkung: Es stimuliert die Talgdrüsen (führt zu Seborrhö und reguliert das Haarwachstum.

  10. Wirkung von Testosteron auf Haut und Haare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopera D

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Testosteron – das wichtigste Androgen – wird ab der Adrenarche bei beiden Geschlechtern in mehr oder weniger großen Mengen gebildet. Die Bildung erfolgt bei Männern in den Hoden, bei Frauen in den Ovarien und bei beiden Geschlechtern in geringen Mengen in den Nebennieren. Im Blut zirkuliert es einerseits SHBG-gebunden, andererseits als wirksames und freies Testosteron, das auf die verschiedenen Organe eine unterschiedlich starke Wirkung ausübt. Es beeinflusst die Ausbildung des männlichen Phänotyps, den Aufbau der Muskelmasse, die Knochendichte sowie den Fett- und Zuckerstoffwechsel. Auf Haut und Hautanhangsgebilde hat Testosteron eine besondere Wirkung: Es stimuliert die Talgdrüsen (führt zu Seborrhö und reguliert das Haarwachstum.

  11. A Novel Testosterone Catabolic Pathway in Bacteria ▿ ‡

    OpenAIRE

    Leu, Yann-Lii; Wang, Po-Hsiang; Shiao, Ming-Shi; Ismail, Wael; Chiang, Yin-Ru

    2011-01-01

    Forty years ago, Coulter and Talalay (A. W. Coulter and P. Talalay, J. Biol. Chem. 243:3238–3247, 1968) established the oxygenase-dependent pathway for the degradation of testosterone by aerobes. The oxic testosterone catabolic pathway involves several oxygen-dependent reactions and is not available for anaerobes. Since then, a variety of anaerobic bacteria have been described for the ability to degrade testosterone in the absence of oxygen. Here, a novel, oxygenase-independent testosterone c...

  12. Association between low serum free testosterone and adverse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. The association of serum free testosterone (FT) with prostate cancer is not fully understood. Studies on the results of the relationship between serum testosterone level and prostate cancer are conflicting. However, there is a reported association between lower serum testosterone levels and high-grade prostate ...

  13. 21 CFR 522.842 - Estradiol benzoate and testosterone propionate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Estradiol benzoate and testosterone propionate... ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.842 Estradiol benzoate and testosterone propionate. (a) Sponsors. See sponsors in... testosterone propionate (one implant consisting of 8 pellets, each pellet containing 2.5 mg estradiol benzoate...

  14. Pharmacokinetics of testosterone cream applied to scrotal skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, R; Mok, S F; Savkovic, S; Turner, L; Fraser, G; Desai, R; Jayadev, V; Conway, A J; Handelsman, D J

    2017-07-01

    Scrotal skin is thin and has high steroid permeability, but the pharmacokinetics of testosterone via the scrotal skin route has not been studied in detail. The aim of this study was to define the pharmacokinetics of testosterone delivered via the scrotal skin route. The study was a single-center, three-phase cross-over pharmacokinetic study of three single doses (12.5, 25, 50 mg) of testosterone cream administered in random sequence on different days with at least 2 days between doses to healthy eugonadal volunteers with endogenous testosterone suppressed by administration of nandrolone decanoate. Serum testosterone, DHT and estradiol concentrations were measured by liquid chromatograpy, mass spectrometry in extracts of serum taken before and for 16 h after administration of each of the three doses of testosterone cream to the scrotal skin. Testosterone administration onto the scrotal skin produced a swift (peak 1.9-2.8 h), dose-dependent (p testosterone with the 25 mg dose maintaining physiological levels for 16 h. Serum DHT displayed a time- (p testosterone. There were no significant changes in serum estradiol over time after testosterone administration. We conclude that testosterone administration to scrotal skin is well tolerated and produces dose-dependent peak serum testosterone concentration with a much lower dose relative to the non-scrotal transdermal route. © 2017 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  15. Progressive Improvement of T-Scores in Men with Osteoporosis and Subnormal Serum Testosterone Levels upon Treatment with Testosterone over Six Years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haider, A.; Meergans, U.; Traish, A.; Saad, F.; Doros, G.; Lips, P.T.A.M.; Gooren, L.

    2014-01-01

    Testosterone deficiency leads to bone loss and testosterone treatment has a beneficial effect. This study investigated the effects of normalizing serum testosterone on bone mineral density in 45 men with osteoporosis, diagnosed with testosterone deficiency (serum testosterone levels <12.1 nmol/L,

  16. Testosterone treatment is immunosuppressive in superb fairy-wrens, yet free-living males with high testosterone are more immunocompetent.

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, A

    2000-01-01

    The immunocompetence handicap hypothesis proposes that the immunosuppressive effect of testosterone enforces honesty of sexual signalling via a physiological trade-off between signal intensity and immunocompetence. However, evidence that testosterone is immunosuppressive is scant, particularly in birds. I studied the correlation between immunocompetence and testosterone in superb fairy-wrens (Malurus cyaneus), a species with intense intersexual selection. Males are seasonally dichromatic and ...

  17. Comparison of methods for determination of testosterone and non-protein bound testosterone in men with alcoholic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C; Bennett, Patrick

    1986-01-01

    The serum concentrations of testosterone and of non-protein bound testosterone were determined in 28 men with alcoholic liver disease having normal to decreased serum albumin concentrations and normal to raised SHBG concentrations. Serum testosterone concentrations determined with two radioimmuno...

  18. Testosterone Inhibits Trust but Promotes Reciprocity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boksem, M.A.S.; Mehta, P.H.; Bergh, B. van den; Son, V. van; Trautmann, S.T.; Roelofs, K.; Smidts, A.; Sanfey, A.G.

    2013-01-01

    The steroid hormone testosterone has been associated with behavior intended to obtain or maintain high social status. Although such behavior is typically characterized as aggressive and competitive, it is clear that high social status is achieved and maintained not only through antisocial behavior

  19. Testosterone inhibits trust, but promotes reciprocity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boksem, M.A.S.; Mehta, P.H.; van den Bergh, B.; van Son, V.; Trautmann, S.T.; Roelofs, K.; Smids, A.; Sanfey, A.G.

    2013-01-01

    The steroid hormone testosterone has been associated with behavior intended to obtain or maintain high social status. Although such behavior is typically characterized as aggressive and competitive, it is clear that high social status is achieved and maintained not only through antisocial behavior

  20. Postnatal Testosterone Concentrations and Male Social Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerianne M Alexander

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Converging evidence from over 40 years of behavioral research indicates that higher testicular androgens in prenatal life and at puberty contribute to the masculinization of human behavior. However, the behavioral significance of the transient activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axis in early postnatal life remains largely unknown. Although early research on nonhuman primates indicated suppression of the postnatal surge in testicular androgens had no measurable effects on the later expression of the male behavioral phenotype, recent research from our laboratory suggests that postnatal testosterone concentrations influence male infant preferences for larger social groups and temperament characteristics associated with the later development of aggression. In later assessment of gender-linked behavior in the second year of life, concentrations of testosterone at 3-4 months of age were unrelated to toy choices and activity levels during toy play. However, higher concentrations of testosterone predicted less vocalization in toddlers and higher parental ratings on an established screening measure for autism spectrum disorder. These findings suggest a role of the transient activation of the HPG axis in the development of typical and atypical male social relations and suggest that it may be useful in future research on the exaggerated rise in testosterone secretion in preterm infants or exposure to hormone disruptors in early postnatal life to include assessment of gender-relevant behavioral outcomes, including childhood disorders with sex-biased prevalence rates.

  1. Serum testosterone concentration in chloroquine- treated rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-07-05

    Jul 5, 2010 ... The effects of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) were studied on serum testosterone concentration in chloroquine-treated rats. Thirty five (35) adult male rats weighing 160 - 200 g were divided into seven groups of five (5) rats each. Group I rats served as the control and received 2.

  2. Body weight, scrotal circumference and testosterone concentration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to compare testosterone concentration, body weight, scrotal circumference and age to penis detachment from days 30 to 240 in young Boer goat males (n = 22) born during the dry (n = 11) and the rainy (n = 11) seasons. In the dry season the parameters varied as follows: body weight from 3.7 ± 1.1 ...

  3. Serum testosterone concentration in chloroquinetreated rats: effects ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) were studied on serum testosterone concentration in chloroquine-treated rats. Thirty five (35) adult male rats weighing 160 - 200 g were divided into seven groups of five (5) rats each. Group I rats served as the control and received 2 ml/kg of normal ...

  4. Exogenous testosterone, finasteride and castration effects on testosterone, insulin, zinc and chromium in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousofvand, Namdar; Zarei, Fatemeh; Ghanbari, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Although effects of trace elements on secretion of sex steroids and insulin have been studied, the effects of these hormones on serum level of trace elements have been rarely investigated. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of testosterone and finasteride administration and castration on serum levels of testosterone, insulin, zinc and chromium. Male adult rats (n = 32) were divided into 4 groups (n = 8). Group 1, control; Group 2, castration, castration was done at the first day of the study; Group 3, finasteride (20 mg/kg/day, dissolved in drinking water) and Group 4, testosterone (5 mg/kg/day, i.p.). At the end of the period of the study (35 days), serum testosterone, insulin, zinc and chromium levels were determined in the blood samples collected directly from the right atrium of the heart of the animals. The data indicated that the serum levels of testosterone, insulin and zinc were significantly increased (Pfinasteride groups, but the level of chromium was decreased in both groups (Pfinasteride increases insulin and zinc levels and decreases chromium levels in the serum of male adult rats. According to these data, it seems that testosterone may affect glucose cycle through effect on serum insulin levels and trace elements such as zinc and chromium.

  5. Association of Free Testosterone With Hypogonadal Symptoms in Men With Near-normal Total Testosterone Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, Ranjith; Golan, Ron; Wilken, Nathan; Scovell, Jason M; Lipshultz, Larry I

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the association between hypogonadal symptoms and free testosterone (FT) levels in men with near-normal total testosterone (T) levels (250-350 ng/dL) and to determine whether a discriminatory threshold for FT exists below which hypogonadal symptoms become more prevalent. We reviewed the charts of 3167 men who presented to an outpatient men's health clinic. Two hundred thirty-one men had symptoms of "low testosterone" and serum testosterone levels between 250 and 350 ng/dL. We evaluated hypogonadal symptoms using the Androgen Deficiency in the Adult Male (ADAM) and quantitative ADAM (qADAM) questionnaires. Serum levels of T and sex hormone-binding globulin were collected on the same day that men completed their questionnaires. We used linear regression to determine whether a threshold of FT exists for hypogonadal symptoms. We performed univariate and multivariable analyses to evaluate factors that predicted a low FT level. The median age was 43.5 years, and the median testosterone and FT levels were 303 ng/dL and 6.3 ng/dL, respectively. Prevalence and severity of hypogonadal symptoms (ADAM and qADAM) were similar between men with low (testosterone levels. Symptom-specific FT thresholds could not be defined, as age remains an important confounder. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Genetic determinants of serum testosterone concentrations in men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claes Ohlsson

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Testosterone concentrations in men are associated with cardiovascular morbidity, osteoporosis, and mortality and are affected by age, smoking, and obesity. Because of serum testosterone's high heritability, we performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association data in 8,938 men from seven cohorts and followed up the genome-wide significant findings in one in silico (n = 871 and two de novo replication cohorts (n = 4,620 to identify genetic loci significantly associated with serum testosterone concentration in men. All these loci were also associated with low serum testosterone concentration defined as <300 ng/dl. Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms at the sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG locus (17p13-p12 were identified as independently associated with serum testosterone concentration (rs12150660, p = 1.2×10(-41 and rs6258, p = 2.3×10(-22. Subjects with ≥ 3 risk alleles of these variants had 6.5-fold higher risk of having low serum testosterone than subjects with no risk allele. The rs5934505 polymorphism near FAM9B on the X chromosome was also associated with testosterone concentrations (p = 5.6×10(-16. The rs6258 polymorphism in exon 4 of SHBG affected SHBG's affinity for binding testosterone and the measured free testosterone fraction (p<0.01. Genetic variants in the SHBG locus and on the X chromosome are associated with a substantial variation in testosterone concentrations and increased risk of low testosterone. rs6258 is the first reported SHBG polymorphism, which affects testosterone binding to SHBG and the free testosterone fraction and could therefore influence the calculation of free testosterone using law-of-mass-action equation.

  7. The testosterone metabolism of the estuarine invertebrate Neomysis integer (Crustacea: Mysidacea): Identification of testosterone metabolites and endogenous vertebrate-type steroids

    OpenAIRE

    Verslycke, T.; De Wasch, K.; De Brabander, H.F.; Janssen, C.R.

    2002-01-01

    Testosterone metabolism by Neomysis integer (Crustacea; Mysidacea) was assessed to obtain initial data on its metabolic capacity. N. integer were exposed to both testosterone and [14]testosterone. Identification of testosterone metabolites and endogenous steroids was performed using thin-layer chromatography and liquid chromatography with multiple mass spectrometry. Endogenous production of testosterone in mysids was detected for the first time. N. integer were exposed to testosterone and met...

  8. The TRPM8 Protein Is a Testosterone Receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asuthkar, Swapna; Demirkhanyan, Lusine; Sun, Xiaohui; Elustondo, Pia A.; Krishnan, Vivek; Baskaran, Padmamalini; Velpula, Kiran Kumar; Thyagarajan, Baskaran; Pavlov, Evgeny V.; Zakharian, Eleonora

    2015-01-01

    Testosterone is a key steroid hormone in the development of male reproductive tissues and the regulation of the central nervous system. The rapid signaling mechanism induced by testosterone affects numerous behavioral traits, including sexual drive, aggressiveness, and fear conditioning. However, the currently identified testosterone receptor(s) is not believed to underlie the fast signaling, suggesting an orphan pathway. Here we report that an ion channel from the transient receptor potential family, TRPM8, commonly known as the cold and menthol receptor is the major component of testosterone-induced rapid actions. Using cultured and primary cell lines along with the purified TRPM8 protein, we demonstrate that testosterone directly activates TRPM8 channel at low picomolar range. Specifically, testosterone induced TRPM8 responses in primary human prostate cells, PC3 prostate cancer cells, dorsal root ganglion neurons, and hippocampal neurons. Picomolar concentrations of testosterone resulted in full openings of the purified TRPM8 channel in planar lipid bilayers. Furthermore, acute applications of testosterone on human skin elicited a cooling sensation. Our data conclusively demonstrate that testosterone is an endogenous and highly potent agonist of TRPM8, suggesting a role of TRPM8 channels well beyond their well established function in somatosensory neurons. This discovery may further imply TRPM8 channel function in testosterone-dependent behavioral traits. PMID:25480785

  9. Testosterone-Related Cortical Maturation Across Childhood and Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Vi; McCracken, James; Ducharme, Simon; Botteron, Kelly N.; Mahabir, Megan; Johnson, Wendy; Israel, Mimi; Evans, Alan C.; Karama, Sherif

    2013-01-01

    Neuroendocrine theories of brain development hold testosterone as the predominant factor mediating sex-specific cortical growth and the ensuing lateralization of hemispheric function. However, studies to date have focussed on prenatal testosterone rather than pubertal changes in testosterone. Yet, animal studies have shown a high density of androgen-sensitive receptors in multiple key cortical areas, and puberty is known to coincide with both a significant rise in testosterone and the emergence of behavioral sex differences, suggesting peripubertal influences of testosterone on brain development. Here, we used linear mixed models to examine sex-specific cortical maturation associated with changes in testosterone levels in a longitudinal sample of developmentally healthy children and adolescents. A significant “sex by age by testosterone” interaction on cortical thickness (CTh) involving widespread areas of the developing brain was found. Testosterone levels were associated with CTh changes in regions of the left hemisphere in males and of the right hemisphere in females. In both sexes, the relationship between testosterone and CTh varied across the age span. These findings show the association between testosterone and CTh to be complex, highly dynamic, and to vary, depending on sex and age; they also suggest sex-related hemispheric lateralization effects of testosterone in humans. PMID:22617851

  10. Physiological levels of testosterone kill salmonid leukocytes in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, C.H.; Schreck, C.B.

    1997-01-01

    Adult spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) elaborate high plasma concentrations of testosterone during sexual maturation, and these levels of testosterone have been shown to reduce the salmonid immune response in vitro. Our search for the mechanism of testosterone's immunosuppressive action has led to the characterization of an androgen receptor in salmonid leukocytes. In the present study we examined the specific effects that testosterone had on salmonid leukocytes. Direct counts of viable leukocytes after incubation with and without physiological levels of testosterone demonstrate a significant loss of leukocytes in cultures exposed to testosterone. At least 5 days of contact with testosterone was required to produce significant immunosuppression and addition of a 'conditioned media' (supernatant from proliferating lymphocytes not exposed to testosterone) did not reverse the immunosuppressive effects of testosterone. These data lead us to conclude that testosterone may exert its immunosuppressive effects by direct action on salmonid leukocytes, through the androgen receptor described, and that this action leads to the death of a significant number of these leukocytes.

  11. Effects of gendered behavior on testosterone in women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Anders, Sari M; Steiger, Jeffrey; Goldey, Katherine L

    2015-11-10

    Testosterone is typically understood to contribute to maleness and masculinity, although it also responds to behaviors such as competition. Competition is crucial to evolution and may increase testosterone but also is selectively discouraged for women and encouraged for men via gender norms. We conducted an experiment to test how gender norms might modulate testosterone as mediated by two possible gender→testosterone pathways. Using a novel experimental design, participants (trained actors) performed a specific type of competition (wielding power) in stereotypically masculine vs. feminine ways. We hypothesized in H1 (stereotyped behavior) that wielding power increases testosterone regardless of how it is performed, vs. H2 (stereotyped performance), that wielding power performed in masculine but not feminine ways increases testosterone. We found that wielding power increased testosterone in women compared with a control, regardless of whether it was performed in gender-stereotyped masculine or feminine ways. Results supported H1 over H2: stereotyped behavior but not performance modulated testosterone. These results also supported theory that competition modulates testosterone over masculinity. Our findings thus support a gender→testosterone pathway mediated by competitive behavior. Accordingly, cultural pushes for men to wield power and women to avoid doing so may partially explain, in addition to heritable factors, why testosterone levels tend to be higher in men than in women: A lifetime of gender socialization could contribute to "sex differences" in testosterone. Our experiment opens up new questions of gender→testosterone pathways, highlighting the potential of examining nature/nurture interactions and effects of socialization on human biology.

  12. Light induced degradation of testosterone in waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vulliet, Emmanuelle, E-mail: e.vulliet@sca.cnrs.fr [Service Central d' Analyse du CNRS - USR59, Chemin du Canal, F-69360 Solaize (France); Falletta, Marine; Marote, Pedro [Laboratoire des Sciences Analytiques - UMR 5180, Universite Claude Bernard, 43 bd du 11 Novembre 1918, F-69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Lomberget, Thierry [Laboratoire de Chimie Therapeutique, Universite de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, Faculte de Pharmacie-ISPB, EA 4443 Biomolecules, Cancer et Chimioresistances, INSERM U863 Hormones steroides et proteines de liaison, IFR 62, 8 avenue Rockefeller, F-69373, Lyon Cedex 08 (France); Paisse, Jean-Olivier; Grenier-Loustalot, Marie-Florence [Service Central d' Analyse du CNRS - USR59, Chemin du Canal, F-69360 Solaize (France)

    2010-08-01

    The degradation of testosterone under simulated irradiations was studied in phosphate buffers and in natural waters at various excitation wavelengths. The quantum yield of photolysis was significantly lower at 313 nm (2.4 x 10{sup -3}) than at 254 nm (0.225). The formation of several photoproducts was observed, some of them being rapidly transformed in turn while others show higher stability towards subsequent irradiations. The nature of the main products was tentatively identified, both deduced from their spectral and spectrometric data and by comparison with synthesised standard compounds. Among the obtained photoproducts, the main one is possibly a spiro-compound, hydroxylated derivative of testosterone originating from the photohydratation of the enone group. The photodegradation pathway includes also photorearrangements. One of them leads to (1,5,10)-cyclopropyl-17{beta}-hydroxyandrostane-2-one. The pH of the water does not seem to affect the rate of phototransformation and the nature of the by-products.

  13. Testosterone and metabolic syndrome: The link

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranabir Salam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MetS or "Syndrome X" which is a constellation of insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, hypertension, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, and increased very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL and triglyceride (TG levels. It is one of the main threats for public health in the 21st century with its associated risk of cardiovascular disease. This condition affects a major chunk of mankind. International Diabetes Federation (IDF estimated that around 20-25% of the adult population of the world has MetS. Several definitions have been put forward by different expert bodies leading to confusion. To overcome this, joint new statement of many expert group have been issued. Serum testosterone (T has been shown to be associated with MetS. Several studies have shown a higher prevalence of MetS in subjects with low testosterone. There are also several studies showing a significant difference in serum T between those with MetS and those without. Serum T has also been shown to be associated with components of MetS and testosterone replacement therapy (TRT improves various metabolic and anthropometric parameters in MetS. Patients with androgen deprivation for treatment of various cancers have also been reported to have higher prevalence of MetS. But the evidence of association is not sufficient evidence for the causation of MetS by low testosterone and long-term studies are needed to confirm whether T deficiency is the cause or is a feature of MetS.

  14. Prenatal Testosterone and Preschool Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Bethan A.; Martel, Michelle M.

    2013-01-01

    Disruptive Behaviors Disorders (DBD), including Oppositional-Defiant Disorder (ODD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), are fairly common and highly impairing childhood behavior disorders that can be diagnosed as early as preschool. Prenatal exposure to testosterone may be particularly relevant to these early-emerging DBDs that exhibit a sex-biased prevalence rate favoring males. The current study examined associations between preschool DBD symptom domains and prenatal exposu...

  15. Transdermal testosterone replacement therapy in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, M Iftekhar; Riche, Daniel M; Koch, Christian A

    2014-01-01

    Androgen deficiency syndrome in men is a frequently diagnosed condition associated with clinical symptoms including fatigue, decreased libido, erectile dysfunction, and metabolic syndrome. Serum testosterone concentrations decline steadily with age. The prevalence of androgen deficiency syndrome in men varies depending on the age group, known and unknown comorbidities, and the respective study group. Reported prevalence rates may be underestimated, as not every man with symptoms of androgen deficiency seeks treatment. Additionally, men reporting symptoms of androgen deficiency may not be correctly diagnosed due to the vagueness of the symptom quality. The treatment of androgen deficiency syndrome or male hypogonadism may sometimes be difficult due to various reasons. There is no consensus as to when to start treating a respective man or with regards to the best treatment option for an individual patient. There is also lack of familiarity with treatment options among general practitioners. The formulations currently available on the market are generally expensive and dose adjustment protocols for each differ. All these factors add to the complexity of testosterone replacement therapy. In this article we will discuss the general indications of transdermal testosterone replacement therapy, available formulations, dosage, application sites, and recommended titration schedule. PMID:24470750

  16. The TRPM8 protein is a testosterone receptor: II. Functional evidence for an ionotropic effect of testosterone on TRPM8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asuthkar, Swapna; Demirkhanyan, Lusine; Sun, Xiaohui; Elustondo, Pia A; Krishnan, Vivek; Baskaran, Padmamalini; Velpula, Kiran Kumar; Thyagarajan, Baskaran; Pavlov, Evgeny V; Zakharian, Eleonora

    2015-01-30

    Testosterone is a key steroid hormone in the development of male reproductive tissues and the regulation of the central nervous system. The rapid signaling mechanism induced by testosterone affects numerous behavioral traits, including sexual drive, aggressiveness, and fear conditioning. However, the currently identified testosterone receptor(s) is not believed to underlie the fast signaling, suggesting an orphan pathway. Here we report that an ion channel from the transient receptor potential family, TRPM8, commonly known as the cold and menthol receptor is the major component of testosterone-induced rapid actions. Using cultured and primary cell lines along with the purified TRPM8 protein, we demonstrate that testosterone directly activates TRPM8 channel at low picomolar range. Specifically, testosterone induced TRPM8 responses in primary human prostate cells, PC3 prostate cancer cells, dorsal root ganglion neurons, and hippocampal neurons. Picomolar concentrations of testosterone resulted in full openings of the purified TRPM8 channel in planar lipid bilayers. Furthermore, acute applications of testosterone on human skin elicited a cooling sensation. Our data conclusively demonstrate that testosterone is an endogenous and highly potent agonist of TRPM8, suggesting a role of TRPM8 channels well beyond their well established function in somatosensory neurons. This discovery may further imply TRPM8 channel function in testosterone-dependent behavioral traits. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. Oxytocin, testosterone, and human social cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespi, Bernard J

    2016-05-01

    I describe an integrative social-evolutionary model for the adaptive significance of the human oxytocinergic system. The model is based on a role for this hormone in the generation and maintenance of social familiarity and affiliation across five homologous, functionally similar, and sequentially co-opted contexts: mothers with offspring, female and male mates, kin groups, individuals with reciprocity partners, and individuals within cooperating and competing social groups defined by culture. In each situation, oxytocin motivates, mediates and rewards the cognitive and behavioural processes that underlie the formation and dynamics of a more or less stable social group, and promotes a relationship between two or more individuals. Such relationships may be positive (eliciting neurological reward, reducing anxiety and thus indicating fitness-enhancing effects), or negative (increasing anxiety and distress, and thus motivating attempts to alleviate a problematic, fitness-reducing social situation). I also present evidence that testosterone exhibits opposite effects from oxytocin on diverse aspects of cognition and behaviour, most generally by favouring self-oriented, asocial and antisocial behaviours. I apply this model for effects of oxytocin and testosterone to understanding human psychological disorders centrally involving social behaviour. Reduced oxytocin and higher testosterone levels have been associated with under-developed social cognition, especially in autism. By contrast, some combination of oxytocin increased above normal levels, and lower testosterone, has been reported in a notable number of studies of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and depression, and, in some cases, higher oxytocin involves maladaptively 'hyper-developed' social cognition in these conditions. This pattern of findings suggests that human social cognition and behaviour are structured, in part, by joint and opposing effects of oxytocin and testosterone, and that extremes of such joint

  18. Testosterone Regulates Tight Junction Proteins and Influences Prostatic Autoimmune Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Meng, Jing; Mostaghel, Elahe A.; Vakar-Lopez, Funda; Montgomery, Bruce; True, Larry; Nelson, Peter S.

    2011-01-01

    Testosterone and inflammation have been linked to the development of common age-associated diseases affecting the prostate gland including prostate cancer, prostatitis, and benign prostatic hypertrophy. We hypothesized that testosterone regulates components of prostate tight junctions which serve as a barrier to inflammation, thus providing a connection between age- and treatment-associated testosterone declines and prostatic pathology. We examined the expression and distribution of tight jun...

  19. The relationship between sleep disorders and testosterone in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittert, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Plasma testosterone levels display circadian variation, peaking during sleep, and reaching a nadir in the late afternoon, with a superimposed ultradian rhythm with pulses every 90 min reflecting the underlying rhythm of pulsatile luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion. The increase in testosterone is sleep, rather than circadian rhythm, dependent and requires at least 3 h of sleep with a normal architecture. Various disorders of sleep including abnormalities of sleep quality, duration, circadian rhythm disruption, and sleep-disordered breathing may result in a reduction in testosterone levels. The evidence, to support a direct effect of sleep restriction or circadian rhythm disruption on testosterone independent of an effect on sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), or the presence of comorbid conditions, is equivocal and on balance seems tenuous. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) appears to have no direct effect on testosterone, after adjusting for age and obesity. However, a possible indirect causal process may exist mediated by the effect of OSA on obesity. Treatment of moderate to severe OSA with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) does not reliably increase testosterone levels in most studies. In contrast, a reduction in weight does so predictably and linearly in proportion to the amount of weight lost. Apart from a very transient deleterious effect, testosterone treatment does not adversely affect OSA. The data on the effect of sleep quality on testosterone may depend on whether testosterone is given as replacement, in supratherapeutic doses, or in the context abuse. Experimental data suggest that testosterone may modulate individual vulnerability to subjective symptoms of sleep restriction. Low testosterone may affect overall sleep quality which is improved by replacement doses. Large doses of exogenous testosterone and anabolic/androgenic steroid abuse are associated with abnormalities of sleep duration and architecture.

  20. The relationship between sleep disorders and testosterone in men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Wittert

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Plasma testosterone levels display circadian variation, peaking during sleep, and reaching a nadir in the late afternoon, with a superimposed ultradian rhythm with pulses every 90 min reflecting the underlying rhythm of pulsatile luteinizing hormone (LH secretion. The increase in testosterone is sleep, rather than circadian rhythm, dependent and requires at least 3 h of sleep with a normal architecture. Various disorders of sleep including abnormalities of sleep quality, duration, circadian rhythm disruption, and sleep-disordered breathing may result in a reduction in testosterone levels. The evidence, to support a direct effect of sleep restriction or circadian rhythm disruption on testosterone independent of an effect on sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG, or the presence of comorbid conditions, is equivocal and on balance seems tenuous. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA appears to have no direct effect on testosterone, after adjusting for age and obesity. However, a possible indirect causal process may exist mediated by the effect of OSA on obesity. Treatment of moderate to severe OSA with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP does not reliably increase testosterone levels in most studies. In contrast, a reduction in weight does so predictably and linearly in proportion to the amount of weight lost. Apart from a very transient deleterious effect, testosterone treatment does not adversely affect OSA. The data on the effect of sleep quality on testosterone may depend on whether testosterone is given as replacement, in supratherapeutic doses, or in the context abuse. Experimental data suggest that testosterone may modulate individual vulnerability to subjective symptoms of sleep restriction. Low testosterone may affect overall sleep quality which is improved by replacement doses. Large doses of exogenous testosterone and anabolic/androgenic steroid abuse are associated with abnormalities of sleep duration and architecture.

  1. KAJIAN TERAPI AKUPUNKTUR TERHADAP KADAR HORMON TESTOSTERON PRIA USIA LANJUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Wasito Tjipto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Testosterone was the most important androgen secreted into the blood in males. It was responsible for development of secondary male sex characteristics and its measurements are helpful in evaluating the hypogonadal states. Decreasing of testosterone in males started in middle age, about 45–59 years old. It is responsible of decreasing muscle mass and strength, increasing of body fat especially abdominal fat and gynecomastia, less of libido and sexual intercourse frequency, increase of erectile dysfunction. Objective: The objective of this study was conducted stimulation on acupuncture reproduction point to increase testosterone hormone level in elder’s men. Methods: The study used non randomized experiment pre- post test without control group design, the samples was 40 older men, about 50 – more than 70 years old. The stimulation on acupuncture point CV-4, Sp-6, LV-3, and ST-36, on older men were given five times per week, for ten treatments, before treatment each patient was determined the concentration of testosterone hormone and after ten times acupuncture treatment. Results: 15 old men, have increased testosterone level, 20 old men have decreased testosterone level, and 16 old men have no changes in libido after ten times acupuncture treatment. Not all responder after therapy acupuncture ten times at reproduction point have increased of hormone testosterone. Most of 50–69 year men have increased testosterone level. Men above 70 year have no changes testosterone level. There were 24 old men have changes in libido without increased testosterone level. Conclusion: acupuncture may used as alternative therapy to increased testosterone level and libido for elderly men. Key words: Acupuncture, testosterone hormone, old men

  2. Lipophagy Contributes to Testosterone Biosynthesis in Male Rat Leydig Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yi; Zhou, Yan; Zhu, Yin-Ci; Wang, Si-Qi; Ping, Ping; Chen, Xiang-Feng

    2018-02-01

    In recent years, autophagy was found to regulate lipid metabolism through a process termed lipophagy. Lipophagy modulates the degradation of cholesteryl esters to free cholesterol (FC), which is the substrate of testosterone biosynthesis. However, the role of lipophagy in testosterone production is unknown. To investigate this, primary rat Leydig cells and varicocele rat models were administered to inhibit or promote autophagy, and testosterone, lipid droplets (LDs), total cholesterol (TC), and FC were evaluated. The results demonstrated that inhibiting autophagy in primary rat Leydig cells reduced testosterone production. Further studies demonstrated that inhibiting autophagy increased the number and size of LDs and the level of TC, but decreased the level of FC. Furthermore, hypoxia promoted autophagy in Leydig cells. We found that short-term hypoxia stimulated testosterone secretion; however, the inhibition of autophagy abolished stimulated testosterone release. Hypoxia decreased the number and size of LDs in Leydig cells, but the changes could be largely rescued by blocking autophagy. In experimental varicocele rat models, the administration of autophagy inhibitors substantially reduced serum testosterone. These data demonstrate that autophagy contributes to testosterone biosynthesis at least partially through degrading intracellular LDs/TC. Our observations might reveal an autophagic regulatory mode regarding testosterone biosynthesis. Copyright © 2018 Endocrine Society.

  3. Treatment of Men for "Low Testosterone": A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Huo

    Full Text Available Testosterone products are recommended by some prescribers in response to a diagnosis or presumption of "low testosterone" (low-T for cardiovascular health, sexual function, muscle weakness or wasting, mood and behavior, and cognition. We performed a systematic review of 156 eligible randomized controlled trials in which testosterone was compared to placebo for one or more of these conditions. We included studies in bibliographic databases between January 1, 1950 and April 9, 2016, and excluded studies involving bodybuilding, contraceptive effectiveness, or treatment of any condition in women or children. Studies with multiple relevant endpoints were included in all relevant tables. Testosterone supplementation did not show consistent benefit for cardiovascular risk, sexual function, mood and behavior, or cognition. Studies that examined clinical cardiovascular endpoints have not favored testosterone therapy over placebo. Testosterone is ineffective in treating erectile dysfunction and controlled trials did not show a consistent effect on libido. Testosterone supplementation consistently increased muscle strength but did not have beneficial effects on physical function. Most studies on mood-related endpoints found no beneficial effect of testosterone treatment on personality, psychological well-being, or mood. The prescription of testosterone supplementation for low-T for cardiovascular health, sexual function, physical function, mood, or cognitive function is without support from randomized clinical trials.

  4. Serum testosterone levels in non-dosed females after secondary exposure to 1.62% testosterone gel: effects of clothing barrier on testosterone absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahlman, Jodi; Britto, Margaret; Fitzpatrick, Sherahe; McWhirter, Cecilia; Testino, Samuel A; Brennan, John J; Zumbrunnen, Troy L

    2012-02-01

    To evaluate secondary exposure of testosterone transferred to females from a male partner, dosed with 1.62% testosterone gel after direct skin-to-skin contact with the application site, and to investigate the effect of wearing a t-shirt on testosterone transfer. Across three studies, a total of 72 healthy males applied 5.0 g 1.62% testosterone gel to their abdomen alone, upper arms/shoulders alone, or a combination of their upper arms/shoulders and abdomen (single dose or once daily for 7 days). Male-female contact occurred 2 or 12 hours after testosterone gel application, with males either wearing or not wearing a t-shirt. There were 15 minutes of supervised contact with the application site between the male and his female partner. Blood samples were collected over a 24 hour period in females for assessment of serum testosterone levels at baseline and after contact. Pharmacokinetic parameters included C(max) (maximum serum concentration), AUC(0-24) (area under the serum concentration-time curve from 0-24 hours), and C(av) (time-averaged concentration over the 24-hour period post-contact). Subjects were monitored for adverse events. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION NCT NUMBERS: Study 1 was not registered (first subject enrolled 8 March 2007); Study 2: 00998933; Study 3, 01130298. Testosterone levels (C(av) and C(max)) in females increased 86-185% from baseline after direct abdominal skin contact, although C(av) levels remained within female eugonadal range. Testosterone concentrations returned to baseline within 48 hours after last skin contact. A t-shirt barrier reduced testosterone transfer by approximately 40-48% when 5.0 g of testosterone gel was applied to the abdomen alone. A t-shirt barrier prevented transfer when 5.0 g of testosterone gel was applied to the upper arms and shoulders or to a combination of the upper arms and shoulders and the abdomen (C(max) and C(av) increased by approximately 5-11%). No major safety events were observed during the studies

  5. Testosterone, Plumage Colouration and Extra-Pair Paternity in Male North-American Barn Swallows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eikenaar, Cas; Whitham, Megan; Komdeur, Jan; van der Velde, Marco; Moore, Ignacio T.; McGraw, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    In most monogamous bird species, circulating testosterone concentration in males is elevated around the social female's fertile period. Variation in elevated testosterone concentrations among males may have a considerable impact on fitness. For example, testosterone implants enhance behaviours

  6. NIH-Supported Trials Test Hormonal Therapy in Older Men with Low Testosterone Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... test hormonal therapy in older men with low testosterone levels Testosterone treatment improved sexual function, had smaller effect on walking, vitality. A preliminary study of testosterone therapy in older men with low levels of ...

  7. Who Gets Testosterone? Patient Characteristics Associated with Testosterone Prescribing in the Veteran Affairs System: a Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasuja, Guneet K; Bhasin, Shalender; Reisman, Joel I; Hanlon, Joseph T; Miller, Donald R; Morreale, Anthony P; Pogach, Leonard M; Cunningham, Francesca E; Park, Angela; Berlowitz, Dan R; Rose, Adam J

    2017-03-01

    There has been concern about the growing off-label use of testosterone. Understanding the context within which testosterone is prescribed may contribute to interventions to improve prescribing. To evaluate patient characteristics associated with receipt of testosterone. Cross-sectional. A national cohort of male patients, who had received at least one outpatient prescription within the Veterans Affairs (VA) system during Fiscal Year 2008- Fiscal Year 2012. The study sample consisted of 682,915 non-HIV male patients, of whom 132,764 had received testosterone and a random 10% sample, 550,151, had not. Conditions and medications associated with testosterone prescription. Only 6.3% of men who received testosterone from the VA during the study period had a disorder of the testis, pituitary or hypothalamus associated with male hypogonadism. Among patients without a diagnosed disorder of hypogonadism, the use of opioids and obesity were the strongest predictors of testosterone prescription. Patients receiving >100 mg/equivalents of oral morphine daily (adjusted odds ratio = 5.75, p 40 kg/m2 (adjusted odds ratio = 3.01, p testosterone than non-opioid users and men with BMI testosterone receipt, all with an adjusted odds ratio less than 2 (p testosterone did not have a diagnosed condition of the testes, pituitary, or hypothalamus. The strongest predictors of testosterone receipt (e.g., obesity, receipt of opioids), which though are associated with unapproved, off-label use, may be valid reasons for therapy. Interventions should aim to increase the proportion of testosterone recipients who have a valid indication.

  8. Hubungan Obesitas dengan Hormon Testosteron pada Mahasiswa STIKes Indonesia Padang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim ,

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Obesitas menjadi epidemik seluruh dunia dan dua pertiga penduduk negara berkembang menderita obesitas. Pada pria obesitas terdapat lebih banyak sel lemak melepaskan enzim aromatase yang mengkatalisis testosteron menjadi estradiol. Bertambahnya berat badan akan mempercepat penurunan hormon testosteron. Tujuan penelitian iniadalah menentukan hubungan obesitas dengan hormon testosteron. Penelitian ini menggunakan desain observasional dengan pendekatan cross sectional.  Total sampling berjumlah 32 orang. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan dari  Oktober 2013 sampai Januari 2015 di STIKes Indonesia dan Laboratorium Biokimia FK Unand. Analisa data diolah secara komputerisasi dengan uji statistik korelasi dan regresi linier sederhana dengan derajat penolakan 5”%”, p=0,05. Hasil penelitian menunjukan hubungan yang lemah dan berpola negatif lemah artinya semakin meningkat berat badan maka semakin rendah hormon testosteron. Kesimpulan penelitian ini tidak ada hubungan yang bermakna antara obesitas dengan hormon testosteron. Penelitian ini memberikan informasi dan pengetahuan tentang terjadinya infertilitas akibatterganggunya hormon testosteron pada pria yang menderita obesitas.Kata kunci: obesitas, testosteron, adiponektin, enzim aromatase Abstract Obesity is becoming a worldwide epidemic and two-thirds of people developing countries suffer obesity. Obese men have fat cells that release the enzyme aromatase which catalyse testosterone to estradiol. Weight gain, the faster decline in testosterone. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship of obesity to testosterone. The design of this study was observational, cross-sectional approach to sampling amounted 32 people. The research was conducted from October 2013 January 2015 in STIKes Indonesia and Biochemistry Laboratory Faculty of Medicine, University of Andalas. Data analysis was processed by a computerized with statistical tests correlation and simple linear regression and the

  9. Environmental and genetic contributors to salivary testosterone levels in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai eXia

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Transient activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in early infancy plays an important role in male genital development and sexual differentiation of the brain, but factors contributing to individual variation in testosterone levels during this period are poorly understood. We measured salivary testosterone levels in 222 infants (119 males, 103 females, 108 singletons, 114 twins between 2.70 and 4.80 months of age. We tested 16 major demographic and medical history variables for effects on inter-individual variation in salivary testosterone. Using the subset of twins, we estimated genetic and environmental contributions to salivary testosterone levels. Finally, we tested single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs within ± 5kb of genes involved in testosterone synthesis, transport, signaling, and metabolism for associations with salivary testosterone using univariate tests and random forest (RF analysis. We report an association between 5 minute APGAR scores and salivary testosterone levels in males. Twin modelling indicated that individual variability in testosterone levels was primarily explained by environmental factors. Regarding genetic variation, univariate tests did not reveal any variants significantly associated with salivary testosterone after adjusting for false discovery rate. The top hit in males was rs10923844, a SNP of unknown function located downstream of HSD3B1 and HSD3B2. The top hits in females were two SNPs located upstream of ESR1 (rs3407085 and rs2295190. RF analysis, which reflects joint and conditional effects of multiple variants, indicated that genes involved in regulation of reproductive function, particularly LHCGR, are related to salivary testosterone levels in male infants, as are genes involved in cholesterol production, transport, and removal, while genes involved in estrogen signaling are related to salivary testosterone levels in female infants.

  10. Free testosterone: clinical utility and important analytical aspects of measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Jennifer L; Wong, Pui-Yuen; Chen, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Testosterone, the most abundant androgen in men, is a steroid hormone that is synthesized predominantly by the testes. In women, minor amounts are synthesized in the ovaries. Androgen precursors are also produced and secreted from the adrenal glands in both sexes, where they undergo peripheral conversion to testosterone. Circulating concentrations are approximately 15-25 times higher in adult men compared to women. Maintenance of these levels is necessary for development and maintenance of secondary sexual characteristics, libido, growth, prevention of osteoporosis, and most importantly in men, spermatogenesis. Most testosterone circulates tightly bound to sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) or weakly bound to albumin. A minor amount circulates as free testosterone, and it is believed that this is the metabolically active fraction. Measurement of free testosterone is important in the diagnosis of many diseases, most importantly disorders of androgen deficiency in men (i.e., hypogonadism) and androgen excess in women (i.e., polycystic ovary syndrome and hirsutism). Many methodologies are available for free testosterone measurement including the reference methods (equilibrium dialysis and ultrafiltration), analog immunoassay, and calculated free testosterone based on measurement of total testosterone, SHBG, and albumin. Moreover, measurement of bioavailable testosterone, a combination of albumin-bound and free testosterone, also has clinical utility and can be measured by selective protein precipitation or calculation. In this review, the advantages and limitations of each of these methods will be discussed in the context of clinical utility and implementation into a routine hospital laboratory. Furthermore, up and coming methodologies for free testosterone measurement, including liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, will also be discussed.

  11. The assessment of testosterone and radioisotopic index of bone metabolism and bone mineral density in men with testosterone deficiency after one year of testosterone therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryniszewski, Wieslaw; Kamiński, Grzegorz; Maziarz, Zbigniew; Nowak, Michal; Gadzicki, Mariusz; Radek, Maciej

    2018-01-10

    Testosterone deficiency in men is characterized by typical symptoms of hypogonadism and negative influence on the preservation of bone mass. In this study, we analysed the relationship between testosterone concentration and bone metabolism. Moreover, we assessed the impact of one-year compensation of testosterone deficiency in elderly men on bone metabolism and bone mineral density. Radioisotopic methods of bone metabolism assessment provide new research opportunities. Men with total testosterone concentration (TT) ≤ 3 ng/ml were included into this study. Patients with disorders or injuries of bone system, elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA), enlarged prostate, disorders of thyroid and liver, diabetes mellitus or a history of chemotherapy as well as those treated for a long time with antibiotics were excluded from this study. The results of 50 men aged 57.52 ± 6.71 years obtained before the treatment (I test) and after one year of oral testosterone supplementation (test II) were analysed in this study. The following examinations and analyses were performed: interview and physical examination, orthopaedic, neurological and urological consultations, blood biochemistry, determination of hormones levels, assessment of Testosterone Deficiency Syndrome (TDS), densitometric and radioisotope assessment of bone metabolism. Moreover, radioisotopic index of bone metabolism was calculated. Testosterone therapy with oral preparation Undestor Testo Caps (Organon) containing 40 mg of testosterone lasted for 12 months. Statistical analysis was performed using Statistica 12 and Excel 2010 programs. Correlations between results before and after treatment were analysed. After 12 months of treatment, testosterone concentration increased by mean 78% and the level of luteinizing hormone (LH) decreased by 62%. TDS index increased from 0.53 ± 0.21 (in test I) to 1.91 ± 0.60 (in test II). After the therapy this index was significantly higher in all men (p Metabolism). We observed

  12. Association between low serum free testosterone and adverse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of aging in normal men on bioavailable testosterone and luteinizing hormone secretion: response to clomiphene citrate. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1987;65:1118-1226. 22. Mitchell R, Hollis S, Rothwell C, et al. Age-related changes in the pituitary-testicular axis in normal men: lower serum testosterone results from ...

  13. Relationship between Serum Testosterone Levels and Features of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: There are increasing reports on the association between the testosterone deficiency syndrome (TDS) and increased risk of development of the metabolic syndrome – a well recognized cardiovascular risk factor in men with diabetes mellitus. Objective: To determine the relationship between serum testosterone ...

  14. Testosterone Regulates Tight Junction Proteins and Influences Prostatic Autoimmune Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jing; Mostaghel, Elahe A.; Vakar-Lopez, Funda; Montgomery, Bruce; True, Larry; Nelson, Peter S.

    2015-01-01

    Testosterone and inflammation have been linked to the development of common age-associated diseases affecting the prostate gland including prostate cancer, prostatitis, and benign prostatic hypertrophy. We hypothesized that testosterone regulates components of prostate tight junctions which serve as a barrier to inflammation, thus providing a connection between age- and treatment-associated testosterone declines and prostatic pathology. We examined the expression and distribution of tight junction proteins in prostate biospecimens from mouse models and a clinical study of chemical castration, using transcript profiling, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. We determined that low serum testosterone is associated with reduced transcript and protein levels of Claudin 4 and Claudin 8, resulting in defective tight junction ultrastructure in benign prostate glands. Expression of Claudin 4 and Claudin 8 was negatively correlated with the mononuclear inflammatory infiltrate caused by testosterone deprivation. Testosterone suppression also induced an auto-immune humoral response directed toward prostatic proteins. Testosterone supplementation in castrate mice resulted in re-expression of tight junction components in prostate epithelium and significantly reduced prostate inflammatory cell numbers. These data demonstrate that tight junction architecture in the prostate is related to changes in serum testosterone levels, and identify an androgen-regulated mechanism that potentially contributes to the development of prostate inflammation and consequent pathology. PMID:21761342

  15. Preliminary study on the effect of castration and testosterone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To study the effect of castration and testosterone replacement on the testosterone level of the New Zealand rabbit, 16 apparently healthy adult male rabbits were used. The animals were divided into four groups with each group having four rabbits. The first group served as the control group. The rabbits in the second group ...

  16. Lowered testosterone in male obesity: mechanisms, morbidity and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fui, Mark Ng Tang; Dupuis, Philippe; Grossmann, Mathis

    2014-01-01

    With increasing modernization and urbanization of Asia, much of the future focus of the obesity epidemic will be in the Asian region. Low testosterone levels are frequently encountered in obese men who do not otherwise have a recognizable hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular (HPT) axis pathology. Moderate obesity predominantly decreases total testosterone due to insulin resistance-associated reductions in sex hormone binding globulin. More severe obesity is additionally associated with reductions in free testosterone levels due to suppression of the HPT axis. Low testosterone by itself leads to increasing adiposity, creating a self-perpetuating cycle of metabolic complications. Obesity-associated hypotestosteronemia is a functional, non-permanent state, which can be reversible, but this requires substantial weight loss. While testosterone treatment can lead to moderate reductions in fat mass, obesity by itself, in the absence of symptomatic androgen deficiency, is not an established indication for testosterone therapy. Testosterone therapy may lead to a worsening of untreated sleep apnea and compromise fertility. Whether testosterone therapy augments diet- and exercise-induced weight loss requires evaluation in adequately designed randomized controlled clinical trials. PMID:24407187

  17. Testosterone and glucose metabolism in men: current concepts and controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossmann, Mathis

    2014-03-01

    A wealth of observational studies show that low testosterone is associated with insulin resistance and with an increased risk of diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. Experimental studies have identified potential mechanisms by which low testosterone may lead to insulin resistance. Visceral adipose tissue is an important intermediate in this relationship. Actions of testosterone or its metabolite oestradiol on other tissues such as muscle, liver, bone or the brain, and body composition-independent effects may also play a role. However, definitive evidence from randomised controlled trials (RCTs) to clarify whether the association of low testosterone with disordered glucose metabolism is causative is currently lacking. It therefore remains possible that this association is due to reverse causation, or simply originates by association with common health and lifestyle factors. RCTs of testosterone therapy in men with or without diabetes consistently show modest metabolically favourable changes in body composition. Despite this, testosterone effects on glucose metabolism have been inconsistent. Recent evidence suggests that the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis suppression in the majority of obese men with metabolic disorders is functional, and may be, at least in part, reversible with weight loss. Until further evidence is available, lifestyle measures with emphasis on weight reduction, treatment of comorbidities and optimisation of diabetic control should remain the first-line treatment in these men. Such measures, if successful, may be sufficient to normalise testosterone levels in men with metabolic disorders, who typically have only modest reductions in circulating testosterone levels.

  18. Association of testosterone levels with socio-demographic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-06-02

    Jun 2, 2014 ... a sample of Ugandan men with socio-demographic characteristics, and compare the testosterone levels of Ugandan men ... Conclusion: Testosterone levels were lower in association with several socio-demographic characteristics including ..... Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism; 2000, 88.

  19. Seasonal changes in plasma testosterone levels in the male South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-02-18

    Feb 18, 1991 ... Saboureau & Boissin (1983b) showed that the peripheral metabolism of testosterone and its metabolic clearance rate may also change seasonally. For this reason the additional factors involved in the seasonal patterns of testosterone recorded await further investigation. Acknowledgements. The antiserum ...

  20. Lowered testosterone in male obesity: Mechanisms, morbidity and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Ng Tang Fui

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available With increasing modernization and urbanization of Asia, much of the future focus of the obesity epidemic will be in the Asian region. Low testosterone levels are frequently encountered in obese men who do not otherwise have a recognizable hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular (HPT axis pathology. Moderate obesity predominantly decreases total testosterone due to insulin resistance-associated reductions in sex hormone binding globulin. More severe obesity is additionally associated with reductions in free testosterone levels due to suppression of the HPT axis. Low testosterone by itself leads to increasing adiposity, creating a self-perpetuating cycle of metabolic complications. Obesity-associated hypotestosteronemia is a functional, non-permanent state, which can be reversible, but this requires substantial weight loss. While testosterone treatment can lead to moderate reductions in fat mass, obesity by itself, in the absence of symptomatic androgen defi ciency, is not an established indication for testosterone therapy. Testosterone therapy may lead to a worsening of untreated sleep apnea and compromise fertility. Whether testosterone therapy augments diet- and exercise-induced weight loss requires evaluation in adequately designed randomized controlled clinical trials.

  1. Lowered testosterone in male obesity: mechanisms, morbidity and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fui, Mark Ng Tang; Dupuis, Philippe; Grossmann, Mathis

    2014-01-01

    With increasing modernization and urbanization of Asia, much of the future focus of the obesity epidemic will be in the Asian region. Low testosterone levels are frequently encountered in obese men who do not otherwise have a recognizable hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular (HPT) axis pathology. Moderate obesity predominantly decreases total testosterone due to insulin resistance-associated reductions in sex hormone binding globulin. More severe obesity is additionally associated with reductions in free testosterone levels due to suppression of the HPT axis. Low testosterone by itself leads to increasing adiposity, creating a self-perpetuating cycle of metabolic complications. Obesity-associated hypotestosteronemia is a functional, non-permanent state, which can be reversible, but this requires substantial weight loss. While testosterone treatment can lead to moderate reductions in fat mass, obesity by itself, in the absence of symptomatic androgen defi ciency, is not an established indication for testosterone therapy. Testosterone therapy may lead to a worsening of untreated sleep apnea and compromise fertility. Whether testosterone therapy augments diet- and exercise-induced weight loss requires evaluation in adequately designed randomized controlled clinical trials.

  2. The Effect of Castration and Testosterone Administration on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SOS

    2012-04-18

    Apr 18, 2012 ... To study the effect of castration and testosterone replacement on the testosterone level of the New. Zealand rabbit, 16 apparently ... After two weeks, the rabbits were castrated and the effect of castration and ... infiltration of the local anesthetic around the neck of scrotum (Hall,. 1979). Each testicle was then ...

  3. Evaluation of Serum Testosterone Levels as Immuno-Enhancer in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This thus showed that the observed increase in the serum free testosterone level in women with anti TPO antibody was significant and may vary with different physiological conditions in women. Keywords: Testosterone, Pregnancy, Secondary Infertility and Anti-microsomal antibodies. Nigerian Journal of Health and ...

  4. Combined usage of testosterone and nandrolone may cause heart ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study is to determine the effects of combined application of testosterone and nandrolone on male rabbits during adolescence period for biochemical values which are indicators of damage to heart, liver and kidney. Seven male New Zealand white rabbits, 60-days old, were used in this study. Testosterone (10 ...

  5. Aluminum-induced testosterone decrease results in physiological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-01-10

    Jan 10, 2011 ... Recently, there has been much controversy on the role of testosterone on social and aggression behaviors. This work aimed to determine the effect of testosterone decrease, induced by aluminum exposure on the level of aggression. Male Swiss-Webster strain mice were classified into three groups.

  6. Causal relationship between obesity and serum testosterone status in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Joel; Haring, Robin; Grarup, Niels

    2017-01-01

    CONTEXT: Obesity in men is associated with low serum testosterone and both are associated with several diseases and increased mortality. OBJECTIVES: Examine the direction and causality of the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and serum testosterone. DESIGN: Bi-directional Mendelian...

  7. Association of testosterone levels with socio-demographic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Testosterone, a male reproductive hormone, affects several physiological processes, such as sperm production, energy, strength, sexual behavior, sleep and the general well being of men. Normal levels of testosterone are necessary to effect these physiological processes. The objective of this study was to ...

  8. Hypogonadism and testosterone replacement theraphy: the controversy and the evidence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2007-01-01

    ... with energy loss; impaired cognition; decreased bone density, muscle mass, and strength; and sexual dysfunction. (2) In addition, low serum testosterone levels have been linked with an adverse metabolic profile and increased mortality of all causes (3,4) Testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) is available in several formulations that are approved by ...

  9. A cohort effect on serum testosterone levels in Finnish men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perheentupa, A; Mäkinen, J; Laatikainen, T

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether a population-level decline in serum testosterone exists in Finnish men. In comparison with other European populations, Finnish men have compared well in the studies of reproductive health (i.e. semen quality, incidence of cryptorchidism and testicular cancer); thus, we...... expected no significant cohort-dependent decrease in serum testosterone....

  10. A Study of Serum Testosterone and Luteinizing Hormone Levels in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Low libido is considered to be the most prominent symptomatic reflection of low serum testosterone and it is unclear how frequent an individual who reported to the clinic with low libido indicates low serum testosterone levels. Objective: This study seeks to know how many of the self reported patients with low ...

  11. Fetal Testosterone, Socio-Emotional Engagement and Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrant, Brad M.; Mattes, Eugen; Keelan, Jeff A.; Hickey, Martha; Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the relations among fetal testosterone, child socio-emotional engagement and language development in a sample of 467 children (235 boys) from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. Bioavailable testosterone concentration measured in umbilical cord blood taken at birth was found to be significantly…

  12. Serum testosterone concentrations in men with alcoholic cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C

    1987-01-01

    Median serum testosterone concentration of men with alcoholic cirrhosis (n = 216) did not differ significantly from normal controls (n = 51), but serum testosterone concentrations varied by a factor 43.9 in patients compared to 3.2 in controls (P less than .001). Nineteen percent of the patients...... had serum testosterone concentrations above 30 nmol/L. Serum concentrations of sex-hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were significantly (P less than .001) raised, and serum concentrations of calculated nonprotein-bound and non-SHBG-bound testosterone were significantly (P less than .001) decreased...... in patients compared to normal control values. A number of background variables were analyzed with reference to serum testosterone concentrations by means of multiple regression techniques after having divided the patients into groups (A, B, C) with decreasing liver function by a modification of the Child...

  13. Testosterone and BMD in Elite Male Lightweight Rowers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, A.; Christiansen, E.; Ekdahl, C.

    2008-01-01

    ), free testosterone (IFT), dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and additional parameters related to bone metabolism were measured. Plasma concentrations of TT, FT and DHT were in the lower part of the normal range, while BMD was close to or above normal. BMD of total body......The purpose of the present study was to investigate if a relationship between BMD and testosterone levels could be identified in elite male lightweight rowers. Thirteen male lightweight national team rowers had their BMD measured in a DEXA scanner. Plasma concentrations of total testosterone (TT...... a significant correlation between L2-L4 BMD and TT (r(s): 0.61, p testosterone levels and years of training in elite male lightweight rowers. The relatively high BMD and low testosterone levels indicate that the mechanical loading induced by rowing is more important...

  14. Testosterone and BMD in elite male lightweight rowers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, A; Kanstrup, I-L; Christiansen, E

    2008-01-01

    ), free testosterone (FT), dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and additional parameters related to bone metabolism were measured. Plasma concentrations of TT, FT and DHT were in the lower part of the normal range, while BMD was close to or above normal. BMD of total body......The purpose of the present study was to investigate if a relationship between BMD and testosterone levels could be identified in elite male lightweight rowers. Thirteen male lightweight national team rowers had their BMD measured in a DEXA scanner. Plasma concentrations of total testosterone (TT...... a significant correlation between L2 - L4 BMD and TT (r (s): 0.61, p testosterone levels and years of training in elite male lightweight rowers. The relatively high BMD and low testosterone levels indicate that the mechanical loading induced by rowing is more...

  15. Causal relationship between obesity and serum testosterone status in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Joel; Haring, Robin; Grarup, Niels

    2017-01-01

    CONTEXT: Obesity in men is associated with low serum testosterone and both are associated with several diseases and increased mortality. OBJECTIVES: Examine the direction and causality of the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and serum testosterone. DESIGN: Bi-directional Mendelian...... randomization (MR) analysis on prospective cohorts. SETTING: Five cohorts from Denmark, Germany and Sweden (Inter99, SHIP, SHIP Trend, GOOD and MrOS Sweden). PARTICIPANTS: 7446 Caucasian men, genotyped for 97 BMI-associated SNPs and three testosterone-associated SNPs. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: BMI and serum...... testosterone adjusted for age, smoking, time of blood sampling and site. RESULTS: 1 SD genetically instrumented increase in BMI was associated with a 0.25 SD decrease in serum testosterone (IV ratio: -0.25, 95% CI: -0.42--0.09, p = 2.8*10-3). For a body weight reduction altering the BMI from 30 to 25 kg/m2...

  16. Short-term parenteral and peroral testosterone administration in men with alcoholic cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C; Bennett, Patrick; Dietrichson, O

    1981-01-01

    Serum concentrations of testosterone were measured in 24 male patients with alcoholic cirrhosis during testosterone administration. The purpose was to compare serum concentrations of testosterone during peroral with those during parenteral testosterone administration in these patients. Patients who...... were injected intramuscularly with a combination of short- and long-acting testosterone (Triolandren, 348 mg testosterone) had median peak values of serum testosterone of about 40 ng/ml, which fell to basal levels after a fortnight. During testosterone propionate injections (84 mg testosterone) every...... other day, rather constant serum concentrations with median values of about 30 ng/ml were reached after 4 days. Peroral testosterone administration (800 mg micronized free testosterone) each day also resulted in fairly constant serum concentrations after 4 days, and the median values were about 50 ng...

  17. Testosterone therapy in women: myths and misconceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Rebecca; Dimitrakakis, Constantine

    2013-03-01

    Although testosterone therapy is being increasingly prescribed for men, there remain many questions and concerns about testosterone (T) and in particular, T therapy in women. A literature search was performed to elucidate the origin of, and scientific basis behind many of the concerns and assumptions about T and T therapy in women. This paper refutes 10 common myths and misconceptions, and provides evidence to support what is physiologically plausible and scientifically evident: T is the most abundant biologically active female hormone, T is essential for physical and mental health in women, T is not masculinizing, T does not cause hoarseness, T increases scalp hair growth, T is cardiac protective, parenteral T does not adversely affect the liver or increase clotting factors, T is mood stabilizing and does not increase aggression, T is breast protective, and the safety of T therapy in women is under research and being established. Abandoning myths, misconceptions and unfounded concerns about T and T therapy in women will enable physicians to provide evidenced based recommendations and appropriate therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Testosterone deficiency in dialysis patients: Difference between dialysis techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cigarrán, Secundino; Coronel, Francisco; Florit, Enrique; Calviño, Jesús; Villa, Juan; Gonzalez Tabares, Lourdes; Herrero, José Antonio; Carrero, Juan Jesús

    Testosterone deficiency is a prevalent condition in male patients with chronic kidney disease. However, it is not known whether the type of renal replacement therapy has an impact on testosterone deficiency that accompanies loss of renal function. The cross-sectional study enrolled 79 prevalent male patients on dialysis; 43 on haemodialysis (HD) and 36 on peritoneal dialysis (PD). The median age was 69 years and 31.6% were diabetics. Endogenous testosterone levels were measured by immunoluminescence assay (normal range 3-10.5ng/ml), while nutritional/inflammatory markers, bone and mineral metabolism markers, anaemia, type of dialysis technique and time on dialysis were also assessed. Body composition was evaluated by bioimpedance vector analysis and bioimpedance spectroscopy. Testosterone deficiency was defined as levels below 3ng/ml. Mean testosterone levels were 8.81±6.61ng/ml. Testosterone deficiency affected 39.5% of HD patients and only 5.6% of PD patients. In the univariate analysis, testosterone levels were directly correlated with type of dialysis technique (HD) (Rho Spearman 0.366; P<.001) and time on dialysis (Rho -0.412; P=.036) and only with the HD technique in the multivariate analysis. No other significant correlations were found. Circulating testosterone levels in men on dialysis were independently associated with HD technique. It can be concluded that a new factor -namely the dialysis technique- may be associated with falling testosterone levels and the associated loss of muscle mass and inflammation. Further studies are needed to establish whether the dialysis technique itself triggers testosterone elimination. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Testosterone, free testosterone, and free androgen index in women: Reference intervals, biological variation, and diagnostic value in polycystic ovary syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bui, H.N.; Sluss, P.M.; Hayes, F.J.; Blincko, S.; Knol, D.L.; Blankenstein, M.A.; Heijboer, A.C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective of our study was to determine reference intervals and biologic variation for testosterone (T), free testosterone (fT), and free androgen index (FAI) in women with accurate methods and to test the discriminative value of these parameters in a polycystic ovary syndrome

  20. Testosterone, free testosterone, and free androgen index in women: Reference intervals, biological variation, and diagnostic value in polycystic ovary syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bui, H. N.; Sluss, P. M.; Hayes, F. J.; Blincko, S.; Knol, D. L.; Blankenstein, M. A.; Heijboer, A. C.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of our study was to determine reference intervals and biologic variation for testosterone (T), free testosterone (fT), and free androgen index (FAI) in women with accurate methods and to test the discriminative value of these parameters in a polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)-population.

  1. Comparison of methods for determination of testosterone and non-protein bound testosterone in men with alcoholic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C; Bennett, Patrick

    1986-01-01

    The serum concentrations of testosterone and of non-protein bound testosterone were determined in 28 men with alcoholic liver disease having normal to decreased serum albumin concentrations and normal to raised SHBG concentrations. Serum testosterone concentrations determined with two...... radioimmunoassays using different purification procedures and antibody batches did not differ significantly and correlated significantly (r=0.91; p less than 0.001). The median serum concentration of non-protein bound testosterone was 0.265 nmol/l (range 0.068-0.495 nmol/l) when determined by equilibrium dialysis...... and 0.232 nmol/l (range 0.042-0.610 nmol/l) when calculated according to the law of mass action. This difference is insignificant. The concentrations of non-protein bound testosterone determined by the two methods correlated significantly (r=0.83; p less than 0.001). In the calculation of non...

  2. Serum testosterone and depressive symptoms in severe OSA patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercea, R M; Patacchioli, F R; Ghiciuc, C M; Cojocaru, E; Mihaescu, T

    2013-10-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), also characterised by hypoxia-related sleep- fragmentation, has been studied in relation to depression and serum testosterone deficit. In middle-aged men, it has been reported the association between depressive mood and low serum testosterone level; however, no data are available about this association in OSA patients. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate in adult obese males, affected by severe OSA, the relationship between serum testosterone concentration and depressive symptoms, in order to identify among all measured parameters (serum testosterone morning concentration, polysomnography parameters, body mass index, Epworth Sleepiness Scale) those predictors for OSA-related depression. Forty patients diagnosed with severe OSA and forty subjects for the control-matched group were enroled in the study. The results indicated that the serum testosterone in OSA group was significantly lower than in controls. In addition, the OSA group presented a level of depression although moderate, yet significantly higher than controls. Furthermore, a statistically significant inverse correlation has been found between serum testosterone level and depressive symptoms. Among all variables, serum testosterone level was shown to be the only independent variable significantly predictor for depression in OSA patients. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Reactive oxygen species: players in the cardiovascular effects of testosterone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Fernando S.; Carvalho, Maria Helena C.; Reckelhoff, Jane F.

    2015-01-01

    Androgens are essential for the development and maintenance of male reproductive tissues and sexual function and for overall health and well being. Testosterone, the predominant and most important androgen, not only affects the male reproductive system, but also influences the activity of many other organs. In the cardiovascular system, the actions of testosterone are still controversial, its effects ranging from protective to deleterious. While early studies showed that testosterone replacement therapy exerted beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease, some recent safety studies point to a positive association between endogenous and supraphysiological levels of androgens/testosterone and cardiovascular disease risk. Among the possible mechanisms involved in the actions of testosterone on the cardiovascular system, indirect actions (changes in the lipid profile, insulin sensitivity, and hemostatic mechanisms, modulation of the sympathetic nervous system and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system), as well as direct actions (modulatory effects on proinflammatory enzymes, on the generation of reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide bioavailability, and on vasoconstrictor signaling pathways) have been reported. This mini-review focuses on evidence indicating that testosterone has prooxidative actions that may contribute to its deleterious actions in the cardiovascular system. The controversial effects of testosterone on ROS generation and oxidant status, both prooxidant and antioxidant, in the cardiovascular system and in cells and tissues of other systems are reviewed. PMID:26538238

  4. [Correlation analysis between serum free testosterone and total testosterone in Chengdu females].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tingting; Xu, Liangzhi; Liu, Ying; Liu, Xiaofang; Kang, Deying; Qiu, Dongsheng; Han, Daiwen

    2013-04-01

    This paper is aimed to analyze the correlation between serum free testosterone (FT) and total testosterone (TT) to acquire a cutoff about using total testosterone to diagnose hyperandrogenism in Chengdu females. We investigated 1854 women by cluster sampling method, detected their serum FT levels and TT levels, scored relative items, analyzed the correlation and made the ROC curve to get a cutoff of TT levels. Serum FT had a linear correlation with serum TT (r = 0.597, r2 = 0.356, P < 0.001). The cutoff value was 0.635 ng/mL. The specificity and sensitivity were 76.3% and 77.24%, respectively. No correlation found between serum FT and Ferriman-Gallway Score (P = 0.392). Positive correlations were seen between serum FT and Plewig-Kligman Score (r = 0.137, P < 0.001), serum TT and Ferriman-Gallway Score (r = 0.069, P = 0.003) and serum TT and Plewig-Kligman Score (r = 0.092, P < 0.001). There is a linear correlation between serum FT and TT. We can diagnose hyperandrogenism according to the serum TT cutoff value (0.635 ng/mL). Its clinical symptoms are not paralleled with the biochemical test results.

  5. Mouse Spermatogenesis Requires Classical and Nonclassical Testosterone Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toocheck, Corey; Clister, Terri; Shupe, John; Crum, Chelsea; Ravindranathan, Preethi; Lee, Tae-Kyung; Ahn, Jung-Mo; Raj, Ganesh V; Sukhwani, Meena; Orwig, Kyle E; Walker, William H

    2016-01-01

    Testosterone acts though the androgen receptor in Sertoli cells to support germ cell development (spermatogenesis) and male fertility, but the molecular and cellular mechanisms by which testosterone acts are not well understood. Previously, we found that in addition to acting through androgen receptor to directly regulate gene expression (classical testosterone signaling pathway), testosterone acts through a nonclassical pathway via the androgen receptor to rapidly activate kinases that are known to regulate spermatogenesis. In this study, we provide the first evidence that nonclassical testosterone signaling occurs in vivo as the MAP kinase cascade is rapidly activated in Sertoli cells within the testis by increasing testosterone levels in the rat. We find that either classical or nonclassical signaling regulates testosterone-mediated Rhox5 gene expression in Sertoli cells within testis explants. The selective activation of classical or nonclassical signaling pathways in Sertoli cells within testis explants also resulted in the differential activation of the Zbtb16 and c-Kit genes in adjacent spermatogonia germ cells. Delivery of an inhibitor of either pathway to Sertoli cells of mouse testes disrupted the blood-testis barrier that is essential for spermatogenesis. Furthermore, an inhibitor of nonclassical testosterone signaling blocked meiosis in pubertal mice and caused the loss of meiotic and postmeiotic germ cells in adult mouse testes. An inhibitor of the classical pathway caused the premature release of immature germ cells. Collectively, these observations indicate that classical and nonclassical testosterone signaling regulate overlapping and distinct functions that are required for the maintenance of spermatogenesis and male fertility. © 2016 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  6. Testosterone Replacement Therapy and Polycythemia in HIV-infected Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorkas, Charles Kyriakos; Vaamonde, Carlos M.; Glesby, Marshall J.

    2013-01-01

    We conducted a case-control study to assess testosterone use as a primary risk factor for polycythemia in 21 HIV-infected men. Any testosterone use within two months of first elevated hemoglobin was associated with polycythemia (matched odds ratio 6.55; 95% CI 1.83-23.4; P=0.004) and intramuscular administration demonstrated a stronger association than topical use. No adverse cardiovascular or thrombotic events were observed. HIV-infected patients taking testosterone should undergo routine hematologic monitoring with adjustment of therapy when appropriate. PMID:22008652

  7. Testosterone treatment in the aging male: myth or reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigro, Nicole; Christ-Crain, Mirjam

    2012-03-19

    The definition of late onset hypogonadism in the aging male is controversially debated, and according to the latest literature consists of at least three especially sexual symptoms such as loss of morning erection, low sexual desire and erectile dysfunction as well as a total testosterone <8-11 nmol/l. Testosterone replacement therapy in the aging male has been shown to have a beneficial effect on muscle and fat mass as well as on bone mineral density, with more conflicting effects observed on muscle strength, sexual function, mood and quality of life. The prescriptions for testosterone products for the aging male increased by over 170% in the previous five years. Furthermore, there is a lot of epidemiological data showing an inverse relationship between testosterone levels and obesity, insulin resistance, the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, only few small randomised placebo-controlled studies have investigated the effect of testosterone replacement therapy on insulin resistance and HbA1c levels, with controversial results. Importantly, so far the long-term safety and efficacy of testosterone replacement therapy has not been established. Although until now no clear evidence has been found that testosterone replacement therapy has a causative role in prostate cancer or indeed in changes of the biology of the prostate, in a recent meta-analysis a 4-fold increased risk of prostate-associated event rates in testosterone treated elderly men sounds a note of caution. Also the risk for cardiovascular events is still not clear and caution is warranted especially in elderly men with cardiovascular disease and limited mobility. In summary, the actual available evidence of long-term risks and outcome of testosterone replacement therapy is still very limited and carefully designed placebo-controlled trials of testosterone administration to assess the risks and benefits of such a therapy are required. Until then, testosterone treatment in elderly men

  8. Testosterone Treatment and Cognitive Function in Older Men With Low Testosterone and Age-Associated Memory Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Susan M; Matsumoto, Alvin M; Stephens-Shields, Alisa J; Ellenberg, Susan S; Gill, Thomas M; Shumaker, Sally A; Pleasants, Debbie D; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Bhasin, Shalender; Cauley, Jane A; Cella, David; Crandall, Jill P; Cunningham, Glenn R; Ensrud, Kristine E; Farrar, John T; Lewis, Cora E; Molitch, Mark E; Pahor, Marco; Swerdloff, Ronald S; Cifelli, Denise; Anton, Stephen; Basaria, Shehzad; Diem, Susan J; Wang, Christina; Hou, Xiaoling; Snyder, Peter J

    2017-02-21

    Most cognitive functions decline with age. Prior studies suggest that testosterone treatment may improve these functions. To determine if testosterone treatment compared with placebo is associated with improved verbal memory and other cognitive functions in older men with low testosterone and age-associated memory impairment (AAMI). The Testosterone Trials (TTrials) were 7 trials to assess the efficacy of testosterone treatment in older men with low testosterone levels. The Cognitive Function Trial evaluated cognitive function in all TTrials participants. In 12 US academic medical centers, 788 men who were 65 years or older with a serum testosterone level less than 275 ng/mL and impaired sexual function, physical function, or vitality were allocated to testosterone treatment (n = 394) or placebo (n = 394). A subgroup of 493 men met criteria for AAMI based on baseline subjective memory complaints and objective memory performance. Enrollment in the TTrials began June 24, 2010; the final participant completed treatment and assessment in June 2014. Testosterone gel (adjusted to maintain the testosterone level within the normal range for young men) or placebo gel for 1 year. The primary outcome was the mean change from baseline to 6 months and 12 months for delayed paragraph recall (score range, 0 to 50) among men with AAMI. Secondary outcomes were mean changes in visual memory (Benton Visual Retention Test; score range, 0 to -26), executive function (Trail-Making Test B minus A; range, -290 to 290), and spatial ability (Card Rotation Test; score range, -80 to 80) among men with AAMI. Tests were administered at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. Among the 493 men with AAMI (mean age, 72.3 years [SD, 5.8]; mean baseline testosterone, 234 ng/dL [SD, 65.1]), 247 were assigned to receive testosterone and 246 to receive placebo. Of these groups, 247 men in the testosterone group and 245 men in the placebo completed the memory study. There was no significant mean

  9. Testosterone Treatment and Cognitive Function in Older Men With Low Testosterone and Age-Associated Memory Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Susan M.; Matsumoto, Alvin M.; Stephens-Shields, Alisa J.; Ellenberg, Susan S.; Gill, Thomas M.; Shumaker, Sally A.; Pleasants, Debbie D.; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Bhasin, Shalender; Cauley, Jane A.; Cella, David; Crandall, Jill P.; Cunningham, Glenn R.; Ensrud, Kristine E.; Farrar, John T.; Lewis, Cora E.; Molitch, Mark E.; Pahor, Marco; Swerdloff, Ronald S.; Cifelli, Denise; Anton, Stephen; Basaria, Shehzad; Diem, Susan J.; Wang, Christina; Hou, Xiaoling; Snyder, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    Importance Most cognitive functions decline with age. Prior studies suggest that testosterone treatment may improve these functions. Objective To determine if testosterone treatment compared with placebo is associated with improved verbal memory and other cognitive functions in older men with low testosterone and age-associated memory impairment (AAMI). Design, Setting, and Participants The Testosterone Trials (TTrials) were 7 trials to assess the efficacy of testosterone treatment in older men with low testosterone levels. The Cognitive Function Trial evaluated cognitive function in all TTrials participants. In 12 US academic medical centers, 788 men who were 65 years or older with a serum testosterone level less than 275 ng/mL and impaired sexual function, physical function, or vitality were allocated to testosterone treatment (n = 394) or placebo (n = 394). A subgroup of 493 men met criteria for AAMI based on baseline subjective memory complaints and objective memory performance. Enrollment in the TTrials began June 24, 2010; the final participant completed treatment and assessment in June 2014. Interventions Testosterone gel (adjusted to maintain the testosterone level within the normal range for young men) or placebo gel for 1 year. Main Outcomes and Measures The primary outcome was the mean change from baseline to 6 months and 12 months for delayed paragraph recall (score range, 0 to 50) among men with AAMI. Secondary outcomes were mean changes in visual memory (Benton Visual Retention Test; score range, 0 to −26), executive function (Trail-Making Test B minus A; range, −290 to 290), and spatial ability (Card Rotation Test; score range, −80 to 80) among men with AAMI. Tests were administered at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. Results Among the 493 men with AAMI (mean age, 72.3 years [SD, 5.8]; mean baseline testosterone, 234 ng/dL [SD, 65.1]), 247 were assigned to receive testosterone and 246 to receive placebo. Of these groups, 247 men in the

  10. Testosterone therapy increased muscle mass and lipid oxidation in aging men

    OpenAIRE

    Frederiksen, Louise; Højlund, Kurt; Hougaard, David M.; Brixen, Kim; Andersen, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    The indication for testosterone therapy in aging hypogonadal men without hypothalamic, pituitary, or testicular disease remains to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of testosterone therapy on insulin sensitivity, substrate metabolism, body composition, and lipids in aging men with low normal bioavailable testosterone levels using a predefined cutoff level for bioavailable testosterone. A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study of testosterone trea...

  11. Comparison of the Values of Free Testosterone with Free Androgen Index

    OpenAIRE

    1, Mehmet TOSUN; 2, Emin Savaş KILAVIZ; 3, Ahmet Rıza URAS

    2015-01-01

    Background: Testosterone is primarily responsible for the development of male primary and secondary sex characters. However, like many biochemical parameters, biologically active portion of testosterone is the free one. Free androgen index is the ratio of the total testosterone to sex hormone-binding globulin. In this study, we aimed to investigate possibility of using free androgen index instead of the free testosterone when the free testosterone can not be measured routine laboratory. Mater...

  12. Comparison of testosterone fractions between Framingham Heart Study participants and Japanese participants

    OpenAIRE

    Taya, Masaki; Koh, Eitetsu; Izumi, Kouji; Iijima, Masashi; Maeda, Yuji; Matsushita, Tomohiko; Iwamoto, Teruaki; Namiki, Mikio

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To determine testosterone fractions in Japanese men and to compare these values with those of Framingham Heart Study participants. Methods: We enrolled 498 healthy Japanese men. Total testosterone was assayed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, sex hormone-binding globulin was assayed by immunoassay and free testosterone was calculated by a laboratory at the Boston Medical Center. Analog-based free testosterone and immunoassay-based total testosterone were determine...

  13. Testosterone affects language areas of the adult human brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hahn, Andreas; Kranz, Georg S; Sladky, Ronald; Kaufmann, Ulrike; Ganger, Sebastian; Hummer, Allan; Seiger, Rene; Spies, Marie; Vanicek, Thomas; Winkler, Dietmar; Kasper, Siegfried; Windischberger, Christian; Swaab, Dick F; Lanzenberger, Rupert

    2016-01-01

    Although the sex steroid hormone testosterone is integrally involved in the development of language processing, ethical considerations mostly limit investigations to single hormone administrations. To circumvent this issue we assessed the influence of continuous high-dose hormone application in

  14. Testosterone correlates with Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus infection in macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koterski James

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Here we briefly report testosterone and cytokine responses to Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV in macaques which were used as part of a larger study conducted by the Department of Defense to better characterize pathological responses to aerosolized VEEV in non-human primates. Serial samples were collected and analyzed for testosterone and cytokines prior to and during infection in 8 captive male macaques. Infected animals exhibited a febrile response with few significant changes in cytokine levels. Baseline testosterone levels were positively associated with viremia following exposure and were significantly higher than levels obtained during infection. Such findings suggest that disease-induced androgen suppression is a reasonable area for future study. Decreased androgen levels during physiological perturbations may function, in part, to prevent immunosuppression by high testosterone levels and to prevent the use of energetic resources for metabolically-expensive anabolic functions.

  15. Effects of Testosterone Administration on Strategic Gambling in Poker Play

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Honk, Jack|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/188602801; Will, Geert-Jan; Terburg, David|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/32304087X; Raub, Werner|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/07031764X; Eisenegger, Christoph; Buskens, Vincent|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/181299313

    2016-01-01

    Testosterone has been associated with economically egoistic and materialistic behaviors, but -defensibly driven by reputable status seeking- also with economically fair, generous and cooperative behaviors. Problematically, social status and economic resources are inextricably intertwined in humans,

  16. On the effects of testosterone on brain behavioral functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter eCelec

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Testosterone influences the brain via organizational and activational effects. Numerous relevant studies on rodents and a few on humans focusing on specific behavioral and cognitive parameters have been published. The results are, unfortunately, controversial and puzzling. Dosing, timing, even the application route seem to considerably affect the outcomes. In addition, the methods used for the assessment of psychometric parameters are a bit less than ideal regarding their validity and reproducibility. Metabolism of testosterone contributes to the complexity of its actions. Reduction to dihydrotestosterone by 5-alpha reductase increases the androgen activity; conversion to estradiol by aromatase converts the androgen to estrogen activity. Recently, the non-genomic effects of testosterone on behavior bypassing the nuclear receptors have attracted the interest of researchers. This review tries to summarize the current understanding of the complexity of the effects of testosterone on brain with special focus on their role in the known sex differences.

  17. Effect of pineal gland on testosterone release in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrige, J F; Thieblot, P; Boucher, D

    1986-01-01

    We studied the effect of hCG, aminoglutethimide and pineal effluent on the basal testosterone secretion by superfused adult rat interstitial cells. The period used to determine the mean rates of release was 120-240 min. after the start of superfusion i.e. when basal secretory rate was stable. A 2 h administration of hCG (10 mUI/ml) induced a rapid increase in testosterone output while aminoglutethimide (100 microM) decreased it. Basal testosterone release was not modified when interstitial cells were superfused with effluent of a chamber containing 1, 2 or 4 pineal glands. These results suggest that pineal secretory products exert no direct acute action on testosterone biosynthesis by rat interstitial cells.

  18. Factitious increases in serum testosterone concentrations related to phenylbutazone therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzzan, Bernard; Dumont-Fischer, Dominique; Lahlou, Najiba; Bihan, Hélène; Boissier, Marie-Christophe; Alvarez, Jean-Claude; Perret, Gérard-Yves; Cohen, Régis

    2008-04-01

    We report 6 additional observations of a drug/hormone assay interaction between serum testosterone and phenylbutazone intake. This interaction had been described previously only once. We discuss its potential mechanisms, based upon our experimental findings, and its clinical implications.

  19. Genetic polymorphisms related to testosterone metabolism in intellectually gifted boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celec, Peter; Tretinárová, Denisa; Minárik, Gabriel; Ficek, Andrej; Szemes, Tomáš; Lakatošová, Silvia; Schmidtová, Eva; Turňa, Ján; Kádaši, Ľudevít; Ostatníková, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Prepubertal testosterone levels are lower in intellectually gifted boys. The aim of this pilot study was to analyze potential genetic factors related to testosterone metabolism in control and gifted boys. Intellectually gifted (IQ>130; n = 95) and control (n = 67) boys were genotyped. Polymorphisms of interests were chosen in genes including androgen and estrogen receptors, 5-alpha reductase, aromatase and sex hormone binding globulin. Significant differences between control and gifted boys in genotype distributions were found for ESR2 (rs928554) and SHBG (rs1799941). A significantly lower number of CAG repeats in the AR gene were found in gifted boys. Our results support the role of genetic factors related to testosterone metabolism in intellectual giftedness. Increased androgen signaling might explain previous results of lower testosterone levels in intellectually gifted boys and add to the understanding of variability in cognitive abilities.

  20. Bepaling van testosteron, testosteronacetaat, testosteronpropionaat en testosteronbenzoaat in toedieningsplaatsen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooijerink, H.; Ruig, de W.G.

    1984-01-01

    Doel van het onderzoek was het ontwikkelen van een analysemethode voor de bepaling van testosteron, testosteronacetaat, testosteronpropionaat en testosteronbenzoaat in toedieningsplaatsen door middel van HPLC-UV en driedimensionale HPLC-HPTLC.

  1. Effect of testosterone on antler growth in yearling male reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Ryg

    1983-05-01

    Full Text Available 1. The effect of exogenous testosterone on ander growth in yearling male reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus was tested. 2. Testosterone (33 mg/kg inhibited antler growth, and in one animal induced cleaning and subsequent casting of the antlers. This animal grew a new set of antlers, which were cleaned at the normal time. 3. During treatment, there was an inverse relationship between peak testosterone levels and antler growth rate. 4. There was no effect of treatment on body weight or food intake. 5. It is concluded that the effects of testosterone on antler growth are qualitatively the same in reindeer as in other deer. However, because high testosterone doses were necessary to produce effects, it is questionable whether this hormone normally is responsible for the cessation of antler growth in reindeer.Virkningen av testosteron på gevirvekst hos ettårige reinbukker.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: 1. Virkningen av testosteron på gevirvekst hos ett-årige reinbukker (Rangifer tarandus tarandus ble undersøkt. 2. Testosteron (33 mg/kg hemmet gevirveksten, og hos ett dyr førte behandlingen til at geviret ble feiet og deretter felt. Deretter vokste det ut ett nytt gevir, som ble feiet til vanlig tid. 3. Det var en negativ korrelasjon mellom maksimale testosteronnivåer og gevirvekst under behandlingen. 4. Det var ingen effekt på forinntak eller vektutvikling. 5. Det blir konkludert med at virkningen av testosteron på gevirvekst er kvalitativt den samme hos rein som hos andre hjortedyr. Det er likevel tvilsomt om testosteron normalt er ansvarlig for avslutningen av gevirvekst hos rein, fordi store testosterondoser måtte til for å få noen virkning.Testosteronin vaikutus vuodenikåisten urosporojen sarvien kasvuun.Abstract in Finnish / Tiivistelmä: 1. Tutkimuksessa seurattiin ruiskeena annetun testosteronin vaikutusta vuodenikåisten urosporojen (Rangifer tarandus tarandus sarvien kasvuun. 2. Testosteron! (33 mg/kg hidasti sarvien

  2. Mechanism of testosterone deficiency in the transgenic sickle cell mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musicki, Biljana; Zhang, Yuxi; Chen, Haolin; Brown, Terry R; Zirkin, Barry R; Burnett, Arthur L

    2015-01-01

    Testosterone deficiency is associated with sickle cell disease (SCD), but its underlying mechanism is not known. We investigated the possible occurrence and mechanism of testosterone deficiency in a mouse model of human SCD. Transgenic sickle male mice (Sickle) exhibited decreased serum and intratesticular testosterone and increased luteinizing hormone (LH) levels compared with wild type (WT) mice, indicating primary hypogonadism in Sickle mice. LH-, dbcAMP-, and pregnenolone- (but not 22-hydroxycholesterol)- stimulated testosterone production by Leydig cells isolated from the Sickle mouse testis was decreased compared to that of WT mice, implying defective Leydig cell steroidogenesis. There also was reduced protein expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (STAR), but not cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), in the Sickle mouse testis. These data suggest that the capacity of P450scc to support testosterone production may be limited by the supply of cholesterol to the mitochondria in Sickle mice. The sickle mouse testis exhibited upregulated NADPH oxidase subunit gp91phox and increased oxidative stress, measured as 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, and unchanged protein expression of an antioxidant glutathione peroxidase-1. Mice heterozygous for the human sickle globin (Hemi) exhibited intermediate hypogonadal changes between those of WT and Sickle mice. These results demonstrate that testosterone deficiency occurs in Sickle mice, mimicking the human condition. The defects in the Leydig cell steroidogenic pathway in Sickle mice, mainly due to reduced availability of cholesterol for testosterone production, may be related to NADPH oxidase-derived oxidative stress. Our findings suggest that targeting testicular oxidative stress or steroidogenesis mechanisms in SCD offers a potential treatment for improving phenotypic changes associated with testosterone deficiency in this disease.

  3. Mechanism of testosterone deficiency in the transgenic sickle cell mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Musicki

    Full Text Available Testosterone deficiency is associated with sickle cell disease (SCD, but its underlying mechanism is not known. We investigated the possible occurrence and mechanism of testosterone deficiency in a mouse model of human SCD. Transgenic sickle male mice (Sickle exhibited decreased serum and intratesticular testosterone and increased luteinizing hormone (LH levels compared with wild type (WT mice, indicating primary hypogonadism in Sickle mice. LH-, dbcAMP-, and pregnenolone- (but not 22-hydroxycholesterol- stimulated testosterone production by Leydig cells isolated from the Sickle mouse testis was decreased compared to that of WT mice, implying defective Leydig cell steroidogenesis. There also was reduced protein expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (STAR, but not cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc, in the Sickle mouse testis. These data suggest that the capacity of P450scc to support testosterone production may be limited by the supply of cholesterol to the mitochondria in Sickle mice. The sickle mouse testis exhibited upregulated NADPH oxidase subunit gp91phox and increased oxidative stress, measured as 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, and unchanged protein expression of an antioxidant glutathione peroxidase-1. Mice heterozygous for the human sickle globin (Hemi exhibited intermediate hypogonadal changes between those of WT and Sickle mice. These results demonstrate that testosterone deficiency occurs in Sickle mice, mimicking the human condition. The defects in the Leydig cell steroidogenic pathway in Sickle mice, mainly due to reduced availability of cholesterol for testosterone production, may be related to NADPH oxidase-derived oxidative stress. Our findings suggest that targeting testicular oxidative stress or steroidogenesis mechanisms in SCD offers a potential treatment for improving phenotypic changes associated with testosterone deficiency in this disease.

  4. Supra-physiological dose of testosterone induces pathological cardiac hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirompol, Prapawadee; Teekabut, Vassana; Weerachatyanukul, Wattana; Bupha-Intr, Tepmanas; Wattanapermpool, Jonggonnee

    2016-04-01

    Testosterone and androgenic anabolic steroids have been misused for enhancement of physical performance despite many reports on cardiac sudden death. Although physiological level of testosterone provided many regulatory benefits to human health, including the cardiovascular function, supra-physiological levels of the hormone induce hypertrophy of the heart with unclear contractile activation. In this study, dose- and time-dependent effects of high-testosterone treatment on cardiac structure and function were evaluated. Adult male rats were divided into four groups of testosterone treatment for 0, 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg BW for 4, 8, or 12 weeks. Increases in both percentage heart:body weight ratio and cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area in representing hypertrophy of the heart were significantly shown in all testosterone-treated groups to the same degree. In 4-week-treated rats, physiological cardiac hypertrophy was apparent with an upregulation of α-MHC without any change in myofilament contractile activation. In contrast, pathological cardiac hypertrophy was observed in 8- and 12-week testosterone-treated groups, as indicated by suppression of myofilament activation and myocardial collagen deposition without transition of MHC isoforms. Only in 12-week testosterone-treated group, eccentric cardiac hypertrophy was demonstrated with unaltered myocardial stiffness, but significant reductions in the phosphorylation signals of ERK1/2 and mTOR. Results of our study suggest that the outcome of testosterone-induced cardiac hypertrophy is not dose dependent but is rather relied on the factor of exposure to duration in inducing maladaptive responses of the heart. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  5. Mechanical muscle function and lean body mass during supervised strength training and testosterone therapy in aging men with low-normal testosterone levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvorning, Thue; Christensen, Louise L; Madsen, Klavs

    2013-01-01

    To examine the effect of strength training and testosterone therapy on mechanical muscle function and lean body mass (LBM) in aging men with low-normal testosterone levels in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled 24-week study.......To examine the effect of strength training and testosterone therapy on mechanical muscle function and lean body mass (LBM) in aging men with low-normal testosterone levels in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled 24-week study....

  6. Testosterone levels in benign prostatic hypertrophy and prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mearini, Luigi; Costantini, Elisabetta; Zucchi, Alessandro; Mearini, Ettore; Bini, Vittorio; Cottini, Emanuele; Porena, Massimo

    2008-01-01

    Although hormones play fundamental roles in prostate growth, their clinical significance is not completely clear. In the present study we assessed whether serum hormone levels are markers of prostate disease. In 128 patients with benign prostatic hypertrophy or prostate cancer, testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and prolactin levels were correlated with disease. In patients with prostate cancer, the hormone levels were also correlated with prognostic factors. Predictive values were assessed for prostate-specific antigen and testosterone levels only, using multiple logistic regression analysis and receiver operating characteristic curves. The testosterone concentrations were significantly lower in patients with prostate cancer than in those with benign prostatic hypertrophy and were also significantly lower in patients with advanced-stage disease than in patients with organ-confined disease. Testosterone appears to be an independent predictor of disease and enhances the predictive accuracy for benign prostatic hypertrophy and prostate cancer. This study supports experimental findings that prostate cancer is frequently associated with low testosterone concentrations. In the diagnostic workup for prostate cancer, associating prostate-specific antigen and testosterone levels may improve the predictive accuracy of prostate disease tests.

  7. Acute Testosterone Deficiency Alters Adipose Tissue Fatty Acid Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santosa, Sylvia; Bush, Nikki C; Jensen, Michael D

    2017-08-01

    Although the long-term effects of testosterone on adipose tissue lipid metabolism in men have been defined, the short-term regulation of these effects is not well understood. We examined the effects of acute testosterone withdrawal on subcutaneous abdominal and femoral adipose tissue fatty acid (FA) storage and cellular mechanisms. This was a prospective, randomized trial. Mayo Clinic Clinical Research Unit. Thirty-two male volunteers ages 18 to 50 participated in these studies. Volunteers were randomized to receive (1) no treatment (control), (2) injections (7.5 mg) of Lupron®, or (3) Lupron and testosterone (L+T) replacement for 49 days, resulting in 4 weeks of sex steroid suppression in the Lupron group. We measured body composition, fat cell size, adipose tissue meal FA and direct free FA storage, lipoprotein lipase (LPL), acyl coenzyme A synthetase (ACS), diacylglycerol acyltransferase activities, and CD36 content. Compared with control and L+T groups, acute testosterone deficiency resulted in greater femoral adipose tissue meal FA storage rates, fasting and fed LPL activity, and ACS activity. These results suggest that in men, testosterone plays a tonic role in restraining FA storage in femoral adipose tissue via suppression of LPL and ACS activities. FA storage mechanisms in men appear sensitive to short-term changes in testosterone concentrations.

  8. Inhibitors of testosterone biosynthetic and metabolic activation enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Leping; Su, Zhi-Jian; Ge, Ren-Shan

    2011-12-02

    The Leydig cells of the testis have the capacity to biosynthesize testosterone from cholesterol. Testosterone and its metabolically activated product dihydrotestosterone are critical for the development of male reproductive system and spermatogenesis. At least four steroidogenic enzymes are involved in testosterone biosynthesis: Cholesterol side chain cleavage enzyme (CYP11A1) for the conversion of cholesterol into pregnenolone within the mitochondria, 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD3B), for the conversion of pregnenolone into progesterone, 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase (CYP17A1) for the conversion of progesterone into androstenedione and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD17B3) for the formation of testosterone from androstenedione. Testosterone is also metabolically activated into more potent androgen dihydrotestosterone by two isoforms 5α-reductase 1 (SRD5A1) and 2 (SRD5A2) in Leydig cells and peripheral tissues. Many endocrine disruptors act as antiandrogens via directly inhibiting one or more enzymes for testosterone biosynthesis and metabolic activation. These chemicals include industrial materials (perfluoroalkyl compounds, phthalates, bisphenol A and benzophenone) and pesticides/biocides (methoxychlor, organotins, 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane and prochloraz) and plant constituents (genistein and gossypol). This paper reviews these endocrine disruptors targeting steroidogenic enzymes.

  9. Exposure to urban stressors and free testosterone plasma values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancini, Angela; Tomei, Francesco; Tomei, Gianfranco; Ciarrocca, Manuela; Palermo, Paola; Gioffrè, Pier Agostino; Tasciotti, Zaira; Fiaschetti, Maria; Cetica, Carlotta; Caciari, Tiziana

    2011-08-01

    The chemical agents present in the environment, such as traffic pollutants, may affect male fertility. Traffic policemen are daily exposed to traffic pollutants. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether occupational exposure to urban stressors could cause alterations in free testosterone plasma values in male traffic policemen versus administrative staff of Municipal Police of a big Italian city. Both groups were divided into two subgroups based on age (first group: 30-40 years; second group: 41-50 years) to assess whether age could affect laboratory results of free testosterone plasma levels in traffic policemen versus controls. The characterization of exposure to urban pollutants for traffic policemen was assessed using the concentrations of pollutants monitored in fixed stations. A total of 220 subjects were studied: 110 traffic policemen and 110 controls, after excluding subjects with main confounding factors. Mean free testosterone values were significantly lower in traffic policemen than in controls (P testosterone values for classes of age (30-40 and 41-50 year) of workers (respectively P testosterone values in traffic policemen and in controls was significant (P free testosterone plasma levels could be used as an early biological marker, to be employed in occupational sets, valuable for the group, even before the onset of values out of range and of fertility disorders.

  10. Correlation between serum testosterone levels and peripartal mood states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohlagschwandtner, M; Husslein, P; Klier, C; Ulm, B

    2001-04-01

    We conducted a prospective study at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital of Vienna to investigate associations between serum testosterone levels and maternal peripartal mood states. Two hundred and fifty-two pregnant women at term (38 to 40 weeks' gestation) took part in the study. Blood samples for plasma testosterone levels and other biochemicals were obtained prepartum, and on the 1st and 3rd day postpartum. Mood was assessed with the McNair Profile of Mood States (POMS) at term pregnancy and daily from the first day after delivery until discharge from the hospital. The final study population consisted of 193 women. Serum testosterone levels correlated significantly with maternal depression scores, both pre- and post partum (at term r=0.148, p=0.04; 1st day postpartum r=0.156, p=0.03; and 2nd day postpartum r=0.186, p=0.02, respectively). Testosterone concentrations also correlated with anger prepartum (r=0.164, p=0.02) and on the third day after delivery (r=0.188, p=0.02). No significant correlation between testosterone concentration and fatigue and vigor both pre- and post partum, respectively were found. Serum testosterone levels correlate with depression and anger in the first postpartum days.

  11. Inhibitors of Testosterone Biosynthetic and Metabolic Activation Enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leping Ye

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Leydig cells of the testis have the capacity to biosynthesize testosterone from cholesterol. Testosterone and its metabolically activated product dihydrotestosterone are critical for the development of male reproductive system and spermatogenesis. At least four steroidogenic enzymes are involved in testosterone biosynthesis: Cholesterol side chain cleavage enzyme (CYP11A1 for the conversion of cholesterol into pregnenolone within the mitochondria, 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD3B, for the conversion of pregnenolone into progesterone, 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase (CYP17A1 for the conversion of progesterone into androstenedione and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD17B3 for the formation of testosterone from androstenedione. Testosterone is also metabolically activated into more potent androgen dihydrotestosterone by two isoforms 5α-reductase 1 (SRD5A1 and 2 (SRD5A2 in Leydig cells and peripheral tissues. Many endocrine disruptors act as antiandrogens via directly inhibiting one or more enzymes for testosterone biosynthesis and metabolic activation. These chemicals include industrial materials (perfluoroalkyl compounds, phthalates, bisphenol A and benzophenone and pesticides/biocides (methoxychlor, organotins, 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane and prochloraz and plant constituents (genistein and gossypol. This paper reviews these endocrine disruptors targeting steroidogenic enzymes.

  12. Testosterone replacement therapy in the climacteric: benefits beyond sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Hugo; Casoy, Julio; Valente, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    Testosterone therapy during menopause has a wide range of benefits that reach beyond the realm of human sexuality. This is a consequence not only of the widespread distribution of androgen receptors in various extragonadal tissues but also of the conversion of androgens to estrogens in the tissues in which aromatase expression is present. For this reason, testosterone therapy during the climacteric years will not only supply androgens but will also stimulate estrogen production in tissues that express aromatase. Furthermore, the bioavailability of androgens to the tissues depends not only on the rate of their production by the postmenopausal ovaries and adrenals but also on the circulating levels of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). Tibolone inhibits SHBG production in the liver, thus increasing free testosterone levels. The association of tibolone with testosterone as a form of androgen replacement therapy during the climacteric is discussed, as is the use of low-dose testosterone, tibolone or the association of both in perimenopausal patients with signs of androgen deficiency. Testosterone treatment has a boosting effect not only on human sexuality but also on the sensation of well-being, a stimulatory effect conferred by the increase in beta-endorphins.

  13. [Patient with testosterone deficit syndrome and dyslipemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sola Galarza, Ignacio; López López, Borja; Llorente Abarca, Carlos

    2013-09-01

    erectile dysfunction due to endothelial dysfunction, but also it generally appears years before the cardiovascular event. On the other hand, and in relation to the hypogonadotropic hypogonadism of patients with MS, we urologists may contributein greatly to the detection of patients with MS whose only symptom is erectile dysfunction or diminished libido, but specially we may play a key role in the improvement of these patients, since it is known that testosterone replacement therapy has a major potential to diminish or stop the progression of MS or its cardiovascular effects. Testosterone treatment not only improves the lipid profile, hypertension, insulin resistance, or reduces the abdominal circumference, but also it may help to get a better adherence to diet and exercise, so contributing to change unhealthy lifestyle habits whch are the origin of the problem.

  14. Chronic Testosterone Replacement Exerts Cardioprotection against Cardiac Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury by Attenuating Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Testosterone-Deprived Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongkan, Wanpitak; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C.; Chattipakorn, Nipon

    2015-01-01

    Background Although testosterone deficiency is associated with increased risks of heart disease, the benefits of testosterone therapy are controversial. Moreover, current understanding on the cardiac effect of testosterone during cardiac ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) periods is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that testosterone replacement attenuates the impairment of left ventricular (LV) function and heart rate variability (HRV), and reduces the infarct size and arrhythmias caused by I/R injury in orchiectomized (ORX) rats. Methodology ORX or sham-operated male Wistar rats (n = 24) were randomly divided and received either testosterone (2 mg/kg, subcutaneously administered) or the vehicle for 8 weeks. The ejection fraction (EF) and HRV were determined at baseline and the 4th and 8th week. I/R was performed by left anterior descending coronary artery ligation for 30 minutes, followed by a 120-minute reperfusion. LV pressure, arrhythmia scores, infarct size and cardiac mitochondrial function were determined. Results Prior to I/R, EF and HRV were impaired in the ORX group, but were restored in the testosterone-treated group. During I/R, arrhythmia scores and the infarct size were greater, and cardiac mitochondrial function was impaired, whereas the time to 1st VT/VF onset and the LV end-systolic pressure were decreased in the ORX group when compared to the sham group. Testosterone replacement attenuated the impairment of these parameters in ORX rats during I/R injury, but did not show any benefit or adverse effect in non-ORX rats. Conclusions Testosterone replacement restores cardiac function and autonomic regulation, and exerts cardioprotective effects during the I/R period via mitochondrial protection in ORX rats. PMID:25822979

  15. Effects of testosterone administration on liver structure and function in aging rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nucci, Ricardo Aparecido Baptista; Teodoro, Ana Caroline de Souza; Krause Neto, Walter; Silva, Wellington de Assis; de Souza, Romeu Rodrigues; Anaruma, Carlos Alberto; Gama, Eliane Florencio

    2017-06-01

    Aging males have a decrease in testosterone levels, by which the testosterone treatment may influence in a negatively fashion the liver. This study aimed to analyze the effects of aging with or without testosterone administration on the liver components of animals. Wistar rats were divided into three groups: 20 months' group (G20), 24 months' group (G24), group treated with testosterone for 16 weeks (GT). All groups were sacrificed at 24 months except for G20 that was sacrificed at 20 months. Aging and testosterone treatment alters the body weight (BW), liver weight (LW) and relative liver weight. Besides, testosterone increased the mitogen capacity of hepatocytes. Nonetheless, we reinforce the negative effects of testosterone on old animals' liver as chronic hepatic congestion and/or cholestasis. In addition, we observed that testosterone plays an important role on hepatic glycogen stores. Our study showed many implications for the knowledge about the effects of aging with or without testosterone administration on old animals' liver.

  16. Testosterone Trajectories and Reference Ranges in a Large Longitudinal Sample of Male Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairullah, Ammar; Cousino Klein, Laura; Ingle, Suzanne M.; May, Margaret T.; Whetzel, Courtney A.; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Paus, Tomáš

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Pubertal dynamics plays an important role in physical and psychological development of children and adolescents. We aim to provide reference ranges of plasma testosterone in a large longitudinal sample. Furthermore, we describe a measure of testosterone trajectories during adolescence that can be used in future investigations of development. Methods We carried out longitudinal measurements of plasma testosterone in 2,216 samples obtained from 513 males (9 to 17 years of age) from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. We used integration of a model fitted to each participant’s testosterone trajectory to calculate a measure of average exposure to testosterone over adolescence. We pooled these data with corresponding values reported in the literature to provide a reference range of testosterone levels in males between the ages of 6 and 19 years. Results The average values of total testosterone in the ALSPAC sample range from 0.82 nmol/L (Standard Deviation [SD]: 0.09) at 9 years of age to 16.5 (SD: 2.65) nmol/L at 17 years of age; these values are congruent with other reports in the literature. The average exposure to testosterone is associated with different features of testosterone trajectories such as Peak Testosterone Change, Age at Peak Testosterone Change, and Testosterone at 17 years of age as well as the timing of the growth spurt during puberty. Conclusions The average exposure to testosterone is a useful measure for future investigations using testosterone trajectories to examine pubertal dynamics. PMID:25268961

  17. Yolk testosterone, postnatal growth and song in male canaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Wendt; Vergauwen, Jonas; Eens, Marcel

    2008-06-01

    Avian eggs contain substantial amounts of maternal yolk androgens, which have been shown to modulate offspring phenotype. The first studies on the functional consequences of maternal yolk androgens have focused on early life stages and their role in sibling competition. However, recent longitudinal studies reported long-lasting effects of maternal yolk androgens on offspring phenotype, mostly concerning traits that are sensitive to androgens. This suggests that maternal yolk androgens could play an important role in sexual selection, since the expression of many male sexual characters is testosterone-dependent. Using male canaries as a model, we examined the consequences of an experimental elevation of yolk testosterone concentrations on early development as well as long-lasting effects particularly on song, which is one of the most important sexual characters in male songbirds. Elevated yolk testosterone concentrations inhibited male growth, possibly in interaction with an existent ectoparasite exposure. Males hatched from testosterone-treated eggs (T-males) did not have enhanced competitive skills, in contrast to previous studies. The elevation of yolk testosterone concentrations delayed song development but did not affect adult song phenotype. This is intriguing, as yolk testosterone possibly induced developmental stress, which is known to reduce song quality. We hypothesize that yolk testosterone has either no direct effect on adult song phenotype, or that positive effects are merged by the negative effects of developmental stress. Finally, females mated with T-males invested more in their clutch indicating that females either assess T-males as more attractive (differential allocation hypothesis) or compensated for lower offspring viability (compensation hypothesis).

  18. Testosterone Antagonizes Doxorubicin-Induced Senescence of Cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altieri, Paola; Barisione, Chiara; Lazzarini, Edoardo; Garuti, Anna; Bezante, Gian Paolo; Canepa, Marco; Spallarossa, Paolo; Tocchetti, Carlo Gabriele; Bollini, Sveva; Brunelli, Claudio; Ameri, Pietro

    2016-01-08

    Chronic cardiotoxicity is less common in male than in female patients receiving doxorubicin and other anthracyclines at puberty and adolescence. We hypothesized that this sex difference might be secondary to distinct activities of sex hormones on cardiomyocyte senescence, which is thought to be central to the development of long-term anthracycline cardiomyopathy. H9c2 cells and neonatal mouse cardiomyocytes were exposed to doxorubicin with or without prior incubation with testosterone or 17β-estradiol, the main androgen and estrogen, respectively. Testosterone, but not 17β-estradiol, counteracted doxorubicin-elicited senescence. Downregulation of telomere binding factor 2, which has been pinpointed previously as being pivotal to doxorubicin-induced senescence, was also prevented by testosterone, as were p53 phosphorylation and accumulation. Pretreatment with the androgen receptor antagonist flutamide, the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase inhibitor LY294002, and the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester abrogated the reduction in senescence and the normalization of telomere binding factor 2 levels attained by testosterone. Consistently, testosterone enhanced the phosphorylation of AKT and nitric oxide synthase 3. In H9c2 cells, doxorubicin-stimulated senescence was still observed up to 21 days after treatment and increased further when cells were rechallenged with doxorubicin 14 days after the first exposure to mimic the schedule of anthracycline-containing chemotherapy. Remarkably, these effects were also inhibited by testosterone. Testosterone protects cardiomyocytes against senescence caused by doxorubicin at least in part by modulating telomere binding factor 2 via a pathway involving the androgen receptor, phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase, AKT, and nitric oxide synthase 3. This is a potential mechanism by which pubescent and adolescent boys are less prone to chronic anthracycline cardiotoxicity than girls. © 2016 The Authors. Published on

  19. The benefits and risks of testosterone replacement therapy: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazem Bassil

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Nazem Bassil1, Saad Alkaade2, John E Morley1,31Division of Geriatric Medicine; 2Internal Medicine, Saint Louis University Health Sciences Center, St. Louis, Missouri, USA; 3GRECC, VA Medical Center, St. Louis, Missouri, USAAbstract: Increased longevity and population aging will increase the number of men with late onset hypogonadism. It is a common condition, but often underdiagnosed and undertreated. The indication of testosterone-replacement therapy (TRT treatment requires the presence of low testosterone level, and symptoms and signs of hypogonadism. Although controversy remains regarding indications for testosterone supplementation in aging men due to lack of large-scale, long-term studies assessing the benefits and risks of testosterone-replacement therapy in men, reports indicate that TRT may produce a wide range of benefits for men with hypogonadism that include improvement in libido and sexual function, bone density, muscle mass, body composition, mood, erythropoiesis, cognition, quality of life and cardiovascular disease. Perhaps the most controversial area is the issue of risk, especially possible stimulation of prostate cancer by testosterone, even though no evidence to support this risk exists. Other possible risks include worsening symptoms of benign prostatic hypertrophy, liver toxicity, hyperviscosity, erythrocytosis, worsening untreated sleep apnea or severe heart failure. Despite this controversy, testosterone supplementation in the United States has increased substantially over the past several years. The physician should discuss with the patient the potential benefits and risks of TRT. The purpose of this review is to discuss what is known and not known regarding the benefits and risks of TRT.Keywords: hypogonadism, testosterone replacement therapy, erectile dysfunction, osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease

  20. Association of Serum Testosterone with Acne Vulgaris in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Moksedur Rahman

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Androgens enhance the sebum production and follicular keratosis that plays the key role in the aetiology of acne. Objective: To find out the association between serum testosterone and acne vulgaris. Methods: A case control study was carried out for a period of two years in the outpatient department of Dermatology and Venereology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Female patients having acne vulgaris were selected as case. Healthy control (age and sex matched were enrolled from the community. Results: The study showed that the mean age of the cases was 22.43 with standard deviation 5.2 years and the mean age of the control was 23.23 with standard deviation 5.9 years. The mean duration of disease was 62.6 months ranging from 12 months to 300 months. All the patients had presented with comedones (blackheads and whiteheads followed by 94.3% had papules and 58.6% had pustules. Considering the site of lesion, all the patients had acne in the face. Data analysis revealed that the percentage of serum testosterone above normal was found to be high among the cases with acne (10% whereas below normal level of serum testosterone was found among the control and the difference was statistically significant (p<0.001. Conclusion:The study found a significant association between serum testosterone and acne vulgaris. As serum testosterone is associated with acne vulgaris, testosterone levels should be measured in patients presenting with acne vulgaris especially in treatment resistant cases and anti-androgen treatment may be indicated in cases with elevated testosterone level.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3329/bsmmuj.v5i1.10980 BSMMU J 2012; 5(1:1-5 

  1. Intelligence and salivary testosterone levels in prepubertal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostatníková, Daniela; Celec, Peter; Putz, Zdenĕk; Hodosy, Július; Schmidt, Filip; Laznibatová, Jolana; Kúdela, Matús

    2007-04-08

    Hormones are one of the regulatory systems influencing brain-cognition interactions and subsequent emotions and behavior in humans and animals. Sex hormones have been found to influence brain structures prenatally, so as to prepare targeted neuronal circuits for activation during and after puberty. Testosterone is believed to affect cognition and thinking in humans as well as between-sex differences in cognitive abilities. The aim of this paper was to investigate associations between testosterone and different levels of intelligence in young prepubertal children of both sexes. Two hundred and eighty four prepubertal children of both sexes between 6 and 9 years of age provided saliva samples. Of these, 107 were intellectually gifted (IQ above 130), 100 children of average intelligence--randomly chosen from general population (IQ between 70 and 130), and 77 children mentally challenged (IQ less than 70). Our results have revealed the differences in salivary testosterone levels in boys grouped according to IQ, intellectually gifted and mentally challenged boys having lower salivary testosterone levels than their peers characterized by average intelligence proposing the common biological characteristic of minority IQ groups on both ends of the Gauss curve. In girls, no differences in salivary testosterone levels were found among IQ groups. Our findings are the first that present the relationship between testosterone and the broad range of general IQ in childhood. The boys of average intelligence had significantly higher testosterone levels than both mentally challenged and intellectually gifted boys, with the latter two groups showing no significant difference between each other. The functional implications of the brain-cognition interactions remain to be fully explored with regard to the internal milieu influencing neural substrate.

  2. Basic study on measurement of serum free testosterone concentration using DPC free testosterone RIA kit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Togashi, Kazuyoshi; Umeda, Seiji; Ochiai, Takeshi; Toriumi, Kazuhiro; Sudo, Yoshimasa; Kihira, Kouji

    1987-07-01

    A commercial 'analogue' radioimmunoassay (RIA) kit, a DPC kit, is capable of directly measuring plasma free testosterone (FT) in the evaluation of gonadal activity and androgenicity. Basic study for this kit yielded the following findings. 1) An incubation of four hours was enough to measure FT. 2) Reproducibility of the assay encouraged the use of this kit for the clinical purpose. 3) Binding to albumin, commonly observed in the ''analogue tracer'' assay, was not encountered. 4) Plasma FT concentrations were significantly increased in all three samples treated with ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid, compared with the other serum and heparin-treated samples. 5) There was a significantly positive correlation between FT concentrations and total testosterone (TT)/sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). 6) Plasma FT concentrations lay within the normal range in patients with Graves' disease who had normal gonadal activity and high levels of TT and SHBG. This seemed to reflext gonadal activity without any effect of SHBG. 7) For pregnant women, plasma FT concentrations were slightly higher in the third trimester, although the levels in the second trimester were similar to those in the nonpregnant state. (Namekawa, K.).

  3. Exogenous testosterone in women enhances and inhibits competitive decision-making depending on victory-defeat experience and trait dominanc

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehta, P.H.; Son, V. van; Welker, K.M.; Prasad, S.; Sanfey, A.G.; Smidts, A.; Roelofs, K.

    2015-01-01

    The present experiment tested the causal impact of testosterone on human competitive decision-making. According to prevailing theories about testosterone's role in social behavior, testosterone should directly boost competitive decisions. But recent correlational evidence suggests that

  4. Testosterone replacement therapy for treatment refractory cluster headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillman, Mark J

    2006-06-01

    To describe the clinical characteristics and laboratory findings of cluster headache patients whose headaches responded to testosterone replacement therapy. Current evidence points to hypothalamic dysfunction, with increased metabolic hyperactivity in the region of the suprachiasmatic nucleus, as being important in the genesis of cluster headaches. This is clinically borne out in the circadian and diurnal behavior of these headaches. For years it has been recognized that male cluster headache patients appear overmasculinized. Recent neuroendocrine and sleep studies now point to an association between gonadotropin and corticotropin levels and hypothalamically entrained pineal secretion of melatonin. Seven male and 2 female patients, seen between July 2004 and February 2005, and between the ages of 32 and 56, are reported with histories of treatment resistant cluster headaches accompanied by borderline low or low serum testosterone levels. The patients failed to respond to individually tailored medical regimens, including melatonin doses of 12 mg a day or higher, high flow oxygen, maximally tolerated verapamil, antiepileptic agents, and parenteral serotonin agonists. Seven of the 9 patients met 2004 International Classification for the Diagnosis of Headache criteria for chronic cluster headaches; the other 2 patients had episodic cluster headaches of several months duration. After neurological and physical examination all patients had laboratory investigations including fasting lipid panel, PSA (where indicated), LH, FSH, and testosterone levels (both free and total). All 9 patients demonstrated either abnormally low or low, normal testosterone levels. After supplementation with either pure testosterone in 5 of 7 male patients or combination testosterone/estrogen therapy in both female patients, the patients achieved cluster headache freedom for the first 24 hours. Four male chronic cluster patients, all with abnormally low testosterone levels, achieved remission

  5. Assessment of testicular testosterone production and Leydig cell structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, L L; Zirkin, B R; Chubb, C

    1981-01-01

    Advances in two techniques have made the problem of assessing the acute and/or chronic effects of toxic agents on Leydig cell structure and testosterone synthesis and secretion amenable to study. First, in vitro testicular perfusion has been perfected to a point where it closely resembles in situ testosterone secretion. Second, now it is possible to quantify the proportion of Leydig cell cytoplasm occupied by the cellular organelles which contain steroidogenic enzymes. Herein, we report that inhibition of Leydig cell steroidogenic enzymes is reflected by reduced testosterone secretion by in vitro perfused rat and rabbit testes. Moreover, the activity of specific steroidogenic reactions can be monitored by measuring the secretion of reaction substrate(s) and product(s) from in vitro perfused testes. Testosterone secretion by in vitro perfused testes from five species is highly and positively correlated with the volume density of smooth endoplasmic reticulum in Leydig cell cytoplasm. Exploitation of these findings will allow toxicologists to quantitatively assess the effect of toxicants on Leydig cell testosterone biosynthesis and secretion, to identify the specific steroidogenic enzymes affected, to assess whether the membranous environment of the steroidogenic enzymes is compromised, and perhaps even to predict the deleterious effect of a toxic agent on Leydig cell steroidogenic function from a stereological assessment of Leydig cell ultrastructure. PMID:7238445

  6. Sphaeranthus indicus attenuates testosterone induced prostatic hypertrophy in albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahata, Alok; Dixit, Vinod Kumar

    2011-12-01

    The present study reports the attenuating effect of Sphaeranthus indicus extracts (SI) on prostatic hyperplasia induced by testosterone in albino rats. In vitro studies were conducted to assess the 5α-reductase inhibitory potential of the petroleum ether, ethanolic and aqueous extracts of SI. A biochemical marker, β-sitosterol, was isolated and extracts were characterized utilizing HPTLC. Testosterone (3 mg/kg s.c.) was administered to the rats along with the test extracts and isolated β-sitosterol for a period of 28 days. The weight of the rats, the urine output, serum testosterone concentrations and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels were recorded. The prostate/body weight ratio (P/BW) was calculated and histological studies were performed to observe the changes in the histoarchitecture of the prostate. Finasteride was used as a positive control (1 mg/kg p.o.). Sphaeranthus indicus extracts attenuated the increase in the P/BW ratio induced by testosterone in the treated groups. The petroleum ether extract exhibited the best activity, although the ethanol and aqueous extracts also exhibited significant activity. Urine output was also improved significantly, demonstrating the clinical implications of the study. Histological studies, testosterone levels which were measured weekly and PSA levels measured at the end of the study also support claims for the potential use of Sphaeranthus indicus in the treatment of prostatic hyperplasia. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Neuroprotective effects of testosterone treatment in men with multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Kurth

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is an inflammatory and neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system. While current medication reduces relapses and inflammatory activity, it has only a modest effect on long-term disability and gray matter atrophy. Here, we have characterized the potential neuroprotective effects of testosterone on cerebral gray matter in a pilot clinical trial. Ten men with relapsing–remitting MS were included in this open-label phase II trial. Subjects were observed without treatment for 6 months, followed by testosterone treatment for another 12 months. Focal gray matter loss as a marker for neurodegeneration was assessed using voxel-based morphometry. During the non-treatment phase, significant voxel-wise gray matter decreases were widespread (p≤ 0.05 corrected. However, during testosterone treatment, gray matter loss was no longer evident. In fact, a significant gray matter increase in the right frontal cortex was observed (p≤ 0.05 corrected. These observations support the potential of testosterone treatment to stall (and perhaps even reverse neurodegeneration associated with MS. Furthermore, they warrant the investigation of testosterone's neuroprotective effects in larger, placebo controlled MS trials as well as in other neurodegenerative diseases. This is the first report of gray matter increase as the result of treatment in MS.

  8. Women's estradiol predicts preference for facial cues of men's testosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roney, James R; Simmons, Zachary L

    2008-01-01

    A growing body of research has shown that women express stronger attraction to more masculine traits when they are tested near ovulation than when tested during other times in the menstrual cycle. Although these effects have been interpreted as increased preferences for markers of elevated testosterone during times in the cycle when conception is most likely, no previous studies have directly demonstrated that women express stronger attraction to higher testosterone men at different times in the cycle. In addition, little research has addressed which hormonal or other physiological mechanisms may regulate temporal shifts in women's attractiveness judgments. In this research, we demonstrate that women with higher estradiol concentrations exhibit stronger preferences for the faces of men with higher testosterone concentrations, and that women's testosterone preference and estradiol curves track one another across days of the cycle. The findings are the first direct demonstration in humans that hormone concentrations in one sex are associated with attraction to cues of hormonal status in the opposite sex. The results support a functional role for estradiol in calibrating women's mating psychology to indices of their current fertility, analogous to similar processes that have been documented in nonhuman species. A strong correlation between estradiol and testosterone preference specifically during the luteal phase further suggests that women's mate preferences may track their fertility between different cycles in addition to being calibrated to the timing of ovulation within individual cycles.

  9. The roles of testosterone and cortisol in friendship formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketay, Sarah; Welker, Keith M; Slatcher, Richard B

    2017-02-01

    Although research has investigated the neuroendocrine correlates of romantic relationships, the neuroendocrine correlates of friendship formation are largely unexplored. In two conditions, participants' salivary testosterone and cortisol were measured before and after a high versus low closeness activity with another same-sex participant. In the high closeness task, participants took turns answering questions that fostered increases in self-disclosure. The low closeness task fostered low levels of self-disclosure. Dyadic multilevel models indicated that lower basal testosterone and decreases in testosterone were associated with increased closeness between recently acquainted strangers. Our results suggest that people high in testosterone felt less close to others and desired less closeness. Further, lower basal cortisol and dynamic cortisol decreases were associated with greater closeness and desired closeness in the high closeness condition. Finally, we found that the partners of those who had lower cortisol desired more closeness. These findings suggest that lower testosterone and cortisol are linked to the facilitation of initial social bonds and that these social bonds may, in turn, be associated with changes in these hormones. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Hypothalamic control of the male neonatal testosterone surge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkson, Jenny; Herbison, Allan E.

    2016-01-01

    Sex differences in brain neuroanatomy and neurophysiology underpin considerable physiological and behavioural differences between females and males. Sexual differentiation of the brain is regulated by testosterone secreted by the testes predominantly during embryogenesis in humans and the neonatal period in rodents. Despite huge advances in understanding how testosterone, and its metabolite oestradiol, sexually differentiate the brain, little is known about the mechanism that actually generates the male-specific neonatal testosterone surge. This review examines the evidence for the role of the hypothalamus, and particularly the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons, in generating the neonatal testosterone surge in rodents and primates. Kisspeptin–GPR54 signalling is well established as a potent and critical regulator of GnRH neuron activity during puberty and adulthood, and we argue here for an equally important role at birth in driving the male-specific neonatal testosterone surge in rodents. The presence of a male-specific population of preoptic area kisspeptin neurons that appear transiently in the perinatal period provide one possible source of kisspeptin drive to neonatal GnRH neurons in the mouse. PMID:26833836

  11. Testosterone administration decreases generosity in the ultimatum game.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J Zak

    Full Text Available How do human beings decide when to be selfish or selfless? In this study, we gave testosterone to 25 men to establish its impact on prosocial behaviors in a double-blind within-subjects design. We also confirmed participants' testosterone levels before and after treatment through blood draws. Using the Ultimatum Game from behavioral economics, we find that men with artificially raised T, compared to themselves on placebo, were 27% less generous towards strangers with money they controlled (95% CI placebo: (1.70, 2.72; 95% CI T: (.98, 2.30. This effect scales with a man's level of total-, free-, and dihydro-testosterone (DHT. Men in the lowest decile of DHT were 560% more generous than men in the highest decile of DHT. We also found that men with elevated testosterone were more likely to use their own money punish those who were ungenerous toward them. Our results continue to hold after controlling for altruism. We conclude that elevated testosterone causes men to behave antisocially.

  12. Testosterone-secreting adrenal adenoma in a peripubertal girl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamilaris, T.C.; DeBold, C.R.; Manolas, K.J.; Hoursanidis, A.; Panageas, S.; Yiannatos, J.

    1987-11-13

    A 15-year-old girl who presented with primary amenorrhea and virilization had an adrenocortical adenoma that secreted predominantly testosterone. To the authors' knowledge, she is the first peripubertal and second youngest patient with a testosterone-secreting adrenal tumor described. Serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and urinary 17-ketosteroid an 17-hydroxycorticosteroid levels were normal. A tumor was located by a computed tomographic (CT) scan and by uptake of 6-..beta..-(/sup 75/Se) selenomethylnorcholesterol. Microscopic examination of the tumor showed typical features of an adrenocortical adenoma with no histologic features characteristic of Leydig cells. Postoperatively, her hirsutism regressed, she rapidly went through puberty, and regular monthly menstruation started four months later. Finding the source of testosterone in a virilized patient can be difficult. Eleven of the 14 previously described patients with testosterone-secreting adrenal tumors initially underwent misdirected surgery on the ovaries. Review of these cases revealed that results of hormone stimulation and suppression tests are unreliable and that these tumors are usually large. Therefore, CT scanning of the adrenal glands is recommended in all patients suspected of having a testosterone-secreting tumor.

  13. Anaerobic testosterone degradation in Steroidobacter denitrificans - Identification of transformation products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahrbach, Michael, E-mail: michael.fahrbach@web.d [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Uberlandstrasse 133, P.O. Box 611, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Krauss, Martin, E-mail: martin.krauss@eawag.c [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Uberlandstrasse 133, P.O. Box 611, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Preiss, Alfred, E-mail: alfred.preiss@item.fraunhofer.d [Fraunhofer Institute of Toxicology and Experimental Medicine (ITEM), Nikolai-Fuchs-Strasse 1, D-30625 Hannover (Germany); Kohler, Hans-Peter E., E-mail: hkohler@eawag.c [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Uberlandstrasse 133, P.O. Box 611, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Hollender, Juliane, E-mail: juliane.hollender@eawag.c [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Uberlandstrasse 133, P.O. Box 611, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland)

    2010-08-15

    The transformation of the androgenic steroid testosterone by gammaproteobacterium Steroidobacter denitrificans was studied under denitrifying conditions. For the first time, growth experiments showed that testosterone was mineralized under consumption of nitrate and concurrent biomass production. Experiments with cell suspensions using [4-{sup 14}C]-testosterone revealed the intermediate production of several transformation products (TPs). Characterisation of ten TPs was carried out by means of HPLC coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization as well as {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy. 3{beta}-hydroxy-5{alpha}-androstan-17-one (trans-androsterone) was formed in the highest amount followed by 5{alpha}-androstan-3,17-dione. The data suggests that several dehydrogenation and hydrogenation processes take place concurrently in ring A and D because no consistent time-resolved pattern of TP peaks was observed and assays using 2 TPs as substrates resulted in essentially the same TPs. The further transformation of testosterone in S. denitrificans seems to be very efficient and fast without formation of detectable intermediates. - Testosterone is completely mineralized by Steroidobacter denitrificans under denitrifying conditions with initial formation of several reduced and oxidized transformation products.

  14. Comparison of testosterone fractions between Framingham Heart Study participants and Japanese participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taya, Masaki; Koh, Eitetsu; Izumi, Kouji; Iijima, Masashi; Maeda, Yuji; Matsushita, Tomohiko; Iwamoto, Teruaki; Namiki, Mikio

    2014-07-01

    To determine testosterone fractions in Japanese men and to compare these values with those of Framingham Heart Study participants. We enrolled 498 healthy Japanese men. Total testosterone was assayed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, sex hormone-binding globulin was assayed by immunoassay and free testosterone was calculated by a laboratory at the Boston Medical Center. Analog-based free testosterone and immunoassay-based total testosterone were determined by immunoassay. We compared mass spectrometry assay-based total testosterone and calculated free testosterone values in the Japanese participants with values in the American Framingham Heart Study third generation cohort. The mean serum mass spectrometry assay-based total testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin, and calculated free testosterone values were 439.4 ± 167 ng/dL, 65.34 ± 30.61 nmol/L, and 58.75 ± 20.0 pg/mL, respectively. The correlation coefficients with age for mass spectrometry assay-based total testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin, and calculated free testosterone were 0.0010, 0.5041, and -0.496, respectively. There were no age-related changes in mass spectrometry assay-based total testosterone values in healthy men (P = 0.981), whereas sex hormone-binding globulin and calculated free testosterone levels showed similar age-related changes (P free testosterone levels (8.24 ± 2.9 pg/mL) showed age-related changes (P testosterone levels (P = 0.828). Serum immunoassay-based total testosterone values (486.1 ± 162.5 ng/dL) correlated with serum mass spectrometry assay-based total testosterone values (r = 0.740, 95% confidence interval 0.6965-0.7781, P free testosterone and calculated free testosterone values showed a highly significant correlation (r = 0.706, 95% confidence interval 0.6587-0.7473, P free testosterone values were approximately 10% of the calculated free testosterone values. In contrast to the Framingham

  15. Shaped and Balanced by Hormones : cortisol, testosterone and the psychoneuroendocrinology of human socio-emotional behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montoya, E.R.

    2015-01-01

    The steroid hormones testosterone and cortisol can be considered hormones for environmental challenges; they are involved in adaptive neural and behavioral responses towards emotional stimuli. A key challenge of human psychoneuroendocrinology is to unravel the neural mechanisms by which testosterone

  16. Strength training and testosterone treatment have opposing effects on migration inhibitor factor levels in ageing men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, D.; Christensen, L. L.; Kvorning, T.

    2013-01-01

    Strength Training and Testosterone Treatment Have Opposing Effects on Migration Inhibitor Factor Levels in Ageing Men......Strength Training and Testosterone Treatment Have Opposing Effects on Migration Inhibitor Factor Levels in Ageing Men...

  17. Testosterone Stimulates Duox1 Activity through GPRC6A in Skin Keratinocytes*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Eunbi; Choi, Hyun; Kim, Borim; Kim, Minsun; Park, Kkot-Nara; Bae, Il-Hong; Sung, Young Kwan; Lee, Tae Ryong; Shin, Dong Wook; Bae, Yun Soo

    2014-01-01

    Testosterone is an endocrine hormone with functions in reproductive organs, anabolic events, and skin homeostasis. We report here that GPRC6A serves as a sensor and mediator of the rapid action of testosterone in epidermal keratinocytes. The silencing of GPRC6A inhibited testosterone-induced intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) mobilization and H2O2 generation. These results indicated that a testosterone-GPRC6A complex is required for activation of Gq protein, IP3 generation, and [Ca2+]i mobilization, leading to Duox1 activation. H2O2 generation by testosterone stimulated the apoptosis of keratinocytes through the activation of caspase-3. The application of testosterone into three-dimensional skin equivalents increased the apoptosis of keratinocytes between the granular and stratified corneum layers. These results support an understanding of the molecular mechanism of testosterone-dependent apoptosis in which testosterone stimulates H2O2 generation through the activation of Duox1. PMID:25164816

  18. Phthalate-Induced Pathology in the Foetal Testis Involves More Than Decreased Testosterone Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foetal exposure to phthalates is known to adversely impact male reproductive development and function. Developmental anomalies of reproductive tract have been attributed to impaired testosterone synthesis. However, species differences in the ability to produce testosterone have...

  19. Testosterone shifts the balance between sensitivity for punishment and reward in healthy young women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honk, E.J. van; Schutter, D.J.L.G.; Hermans, E.J.; Putman, P.L.J.; Tuiten, A.; Koppeschaar, H.P.F.

    2004-01-01

    Animal research has demonstrated reductions in punishment sensitivity and enhanced reward dependency after testosterone administration. In humans, elevated levels of testosterone have been associated with violent and antisocial behavior. Interestingly, extreme forms of violent and antisocial

  20. Testosterone biotransformation by the isolated perfused canine pancreas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-del Castillo, C.; Diaz-Sanchez, V.; Varela-Fascinetto, G.; Altamirano, A.; Odor-Morales, A.; Lopez-Medrano, R.M.; Robles-Diaz, G. (Instituto Nacional de la Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Mexico City (Mexico))

    1991-01-01

    There is strong evidence indicating that the pancreas is under the influence of sex steroid hormones, and that it may even participate in their biosynthesis and metabolism. In the present study, (3H)testosterone was perfused into the isolated canine pancreas, and measured in the effluent with several of its metabolites (5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone, androstenedione, and estradiol). Results show that testosterone is readily transformed by the canine pancreas. The main product found in the effluent is androstenedione. The testis and spleen were also perfused with (3H)testosterone and used as controls. In both cases, this hormone appeared mostly unchanged in the effluent as compared to the pancreatic perfusion (p less than 0.0001). From our data, we conclude that the canine pancreas has the capacity to transform sex steroid hormones, and could be considered an extragonadal site of sex steroid biosynthesis.

  1. Testosterone Induces Molecular Changes in Dopamine Signaling Pathway Molecules in the Adolescent Male Rat Nigrostriatal Pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Purves-Tyson, Tertia D.; Owens, Samantha J.; Double, Kay L.; Desai, Reena; Handelsman, David J.; Weickert, Cynthia Shannon

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent males have an increased risk of developing schizophrenia, implicating testosterone in the precipitation of dopamine-related psychopathology. Evidence from adult rodent brain indicates that testosterone can modulate nigrostriatal dopamine. However, studies are required to understand the role testosterone plays in maturation of dopamine pathways during adolescence and to elucidate the molecular mechanism(s) by which testosterone exerts its effects. We hypothesized that molecular indi...

  2. Testosterone and nonverbal intelligence in right-handed men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, U

    1990-10-01

    The relationship between serum testosterone level and nonverbal intelligence was studied in right-handed young adults. Hand preference was assessed by the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory. Serum testosterone level was determined using tritium-marked-radioimmunoassay. Only in men, nonverbal intelligence (Cattell's Culture Fair Intelligence Test) was found to be significantly and directly related to serum testosterone levels. It was concluded that the serum testosterone in young adults is associated with nonverbal intelligence exhibiting fundamental differences between men and women.

  3. Interaction between testosterone and growth hormone on whole-body protein anabolism occurs in the liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birzniece, Vita; Meinhardt, Udo J; Umpleby, Margot A; Handelsman, David J; Ho, Ken K Y

    2011-04-01

    GH and testosterone both exert protein-anabolic effects and may act synergistically. Liver and muscle are major sites of protein metabolism. Our objective was to determine whether the site of GH and testosterone interaction on protein metabolism is primarily hepatic or extrahepatic. In this open-label randomized crossover study, the impact on whole-body protein metabolism of oral (solely hepatic testosterone exposure) and transdermal (systemic testosterone exposure) testosterone replacement in the presence or absence of GH was compared. Eleven hypopituitary men with GH and testosterone deficiency were randomized to 2-wk treatments with transdermal testosterone (10 mg) or oral testosterone (40 mg), with or without GH replacement (0.6 mg/d). The dose of testosterone administered orally achieves physiological portal testosterone concentrations without spillover into the systemic circulation. Whole-body leucine turnover was measured, from which leucine rate of appearance (LRa), an index of protein breakdown, and leucine oxidation (Lox), a measure of irreversible protein loss, were estimated at the end of each treatment. In the absence of GH, neither transdermal nor oral testosterone affected LRa or Lox. GH therapy significantly increased LRa, an effect equally reduced by transdermal and oral testosterone administration. GH replacement alone did not significantly change Lox, whereas addition of testosterone treatment reduced Lox, with the effect not significantly different between transdermal and oral testosterone. In the doses used, testosterone stimulates protein anabolism by reducing protein breakdown and oxidation only in the presence of GH. Because the net effect on protein metabolism during GH therapy is not different between systemic and solely hepatic testosterone administration, we conclude that the liver is the primary site of this hormonal interaction.

  4. Association between plasma testosterone and work-related neck and shoulder disorders among female workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaergaard, A; Hansen, Åse Marie; Rasmussen, K

    2000-01-01

    The aims were to study the association between anabolic hormone testosterone in plasma and the presence of musculoskeletal disorders among female workers and to study the association between changes in testosterone and changes in musculoskeletal complaints.......The aims were to study the association between anabolic hormone testosterone in plasma and the presence of musculoskeletal disorders among female workers and to study the association between changes in testosterone and changes in musculoskeletal complaints....

  5. The effect of baseline testosterone on the efficacy of degarelix and leuprolide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damber, Jan-Erik; Tammela, Teuvo L J; Iversen, Peter

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the effects of baseline testosterone on testosterone control and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) suppression using data from a phase III trial (CS21) comparing degarelix and leuprolide in prostate cancer.......To investigate the effects of baseline testosterone on testosterone control and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) suppression using data from a phase III trial (CS21) comparing degarelix and leuprolide in prostate cancer....

  6. Testosterone and bioavailable testosterone help to distinguish between mild Cushing's syndrome and polycystic ovarian syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pall, M E; Lao, M C; Patel, S S; Lee, M L; Ghods, D E; Chandler, D W; Friedman, T C

    2008-11-01

    Women with Cushing's syndrome (CS) and polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) may present with similar symptoms. Subjects with mild CS lack clinical stigmata of classical CS and often have normal laboratory tests measuring hypercortisolism. Thus, distinguishing mild CS from PCOS may be difficult. We hypothesized that either total testosterone (TT) or bioavailable testosterone (BT) levels or the calculation of the free androgen index (FAI) would be low in patients with mild CS and elevated in patients with PCOS, and could help differentiate the two conditions. TT, BT, and FAI were measured in a group of 20 patients of reproductive age with mild CS and 20 PCOS patients matched for age and BMI. We used receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves to assess the sensitivity and specificity of these measurements for the diagnosis of CS. TT (pBT (p=0.02), and FAI (p=0.003) were significantly elevated in PCOS patients compared to mild CS patients. Sex hormone-binding globulin was similar in both groups. The optimal cut-point for TT was 1.39 nmol/L, yielding a sensitivity of 95% and a specificity of 70%. The cut-point for BT was 0.24 nmol/L, resulting in a sensitivity of 75% and a specificity of 80%. The cut-point for FAI was 5.7, with a sensitivity of 88% and a specificity of 60%. We conclude that TT levels may be useful to discriminate between mild CS and PCOS. In patients with signs and symptoms consistent with CS and PCOS, a TT level of <1.39 nmol/L warrants a workup for CS.

  7. Growth hormone and testosterone: anabolic effects on muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Randall J

    2011-01-01

    The loss of skeletal muscle mass that occurs with aging, chronic disease or acute injury is clinically important in the health of humans. The mechanisms relating to the synthesis and breakdown of skeletal muscle are now being intensely investigated. Current studies and possible mechanisms for skeletal muscle protein synthesis and degradation will be reviewed with a specific focus on growth hormone and testosterone. Investigation of the mechanisms of action of growth hormone and testosterone in skeletal muscle will likely lead to new therapies to prevent skeletal muscle loss and new awareness of the importance of skeletal muscle in health and disease. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. The effect of sex and time of day on testosterone concentrations in equine saliva and serum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rikke Munk; Jensen, R.B.; Palme, R.

    2016-01-01

    In terms of exercise, testosterone is important for the growth and maintenance of skeletal muscle mass. Sampling saliva could be a non-invasive alternative to blood sampling for the quantification of testosterone levels in horses. The objective of this study was to compare testosterone concentrat...

  9. Testosterone deficiency in dialysis patients: Differences according to the dialysis techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Secundino Cigarrán

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions: Circulating testosterone levels in men on dialysis were independently associated with HD technique. It can be concluded that a new factor—namely the dialysis technique—may be associated with falling testosterone levels and the associated loss of muscle mass and inflammation. Further studies are needed to establish whether the dialysis technique itself triggers testosterone elimination.

  10. Marriage and motherhood are associated with lower testosterone concentrations in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Emily S; Tran, Van; Thurston, Sally; Jasienska, Grazyna; Furberg, Anne-Sofie; Ellison, Peter T; Thune, Inger

    2013-01-01

    Testosterone has been hypothesized to modulate the trade-off between mating and parenting effort in males. Indeed, evidence from humans and other pair-bonded species suggests that fathers and men in committed relationships have lower testosterone levels than single men and men with no children. To date, only one published study has examined testosterone in relation to motherhood, finding that mothers of young children have lower testosterone than non-mothers. Here, we examine this question in 195 reproductive-age Norwegian women. Testosterone was measured in morning serum samples taken during the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle, and marital and maternal status were assessed by questionnaire. Mothers of young children (age ≤3) had 14% lower testosterone than childless women and 19% lower testosterone than women who only had children over age 3. Among mothers, age of the youngest child strongly predicted testosterone levels. There was a trend towards lower testosterone among married women compared to unmarried women. All analyses controlled for body mass index (BMI), age, type of testosterone assay, and time of serum sample collection. This is the first study to look at testosterone concentrations in relation to marriage and motherhood in Western women, and it suggests that testosterone may differ with marital and maternal status in women, providing further corroboration of previous findings in both sexes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Low free testosterone levels predict disease reclassification in men with prostate cancer undergoing active surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Francisco, Ignacio F; Rojas, Pablo A; DeWolf, William C; Morgentaler, Abraham

    2014-08-01

    To determine whether total testosterone and free testosterone levels predict disease reclassification in a cohort of men with prostate cancer (PCa) on active surveillance (AS). Total testosterone and free testosterone concentrations were determined at the time the men began the AS protocol. Statistical analysis was performed using Student's t-test and a chi-squared test to compare groups. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were obtained using univariate logistic regression. Receiver-operator characteristic curves were generated to determine the investigated testosterone thresholds. Kaplan-Meier curves were used to estimate time to disease reclassification. A Cox proportional hazard regression model was used for multivariate analysis. A total of 154 men were included in the AS cohort, of whom 54 (35%) progressed to active treatment. Men who had disease reclassification had significantly lower free testosterone levels than those who were not reclassified (0.75 vs 1.02 ng/dL, P = 0.03). Men with free testosterone levels free testosterone levels ≥0.45 (P = 0.032). Free testosterone levels free testosterone and family history of PCa were independent predictors of disease reclassification. Free testosterone levels were lower in men with PCa who had reclassification during AS. Men with moderately severe reductions in free testosterone level are at increased risk of disease reclassification. © 2014 The Authors. BJU International © 2014 BJU International.

  12. Testosterone in human studies: Modest associations between plasma and salivary measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, A.E.; Bosker, F.J.; Giltay, E.J.; Kloet, C.S. de; Roelofs, K.; Pelt, J. van; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Schoevers, R.A.

    2018-01-01

    Testosterone is involved in many processes like aggression and mood disorders. As it may easily diffuse from blood into saliva, salivary testosterone is thought to reflect plasma free testosterone level. If so, it would provide a welcome noninvasive and less stressful alternative to blood sampling.

  13. Testosterone replacement does not normalize carcass composition in chronically decerebrate male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Ruth B S; Kelso, Emily W; Flatt, William P; Grill, Harvey J; Bartness, Timothy J

    2009-06-01

    Chronically decerebrate (CD) rats, in which the forebrain and its descending projections are completely neurally isolated from hindbrain and rostral projections, gain substantial amounts of body fat, lose lean tissue, and have low circulating testosterone concentrations. We tested whether testosterone replacement would normalize body composition of male CD rats. Five groups of rats were used: CD placebo, CD testosterone, control placebo, castrate placebo, and castrate testosterone. Testosterone replacement was initiated at the first stage of CD surgery in both CDs and castrate controls. The second stage of CD surgery occurred 8 days later, and the study ended 15 days later. Testosterone implants produced 10-fold normal circulating concentrations. Food intake was fixed for all rats by tube feeding. CD rats had substantially more body fat and less lean tissue than neurally intact rats. Testosterone replacement did not affect adiposity of CD rats but did increase carcass water content. Energy expenditure of CD rats was significantly lower than that of control placebo and castrated rats. Testosterone lowered respiratory equivalency ratio and ameliorated a fall in energy expenditure late in the intermeal interval in CD rats. Castration increased, and testosterone decreased luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) in neurally intact controls. LH was undetectable, and FSH was equivalent to neurally intact controls in CD rats, and neither was affected by testosterone. Collectively, low testosterone did not explain obesity or decreased lean body mass of CD rats, although CD rats exhibited abnormal levels of circulating reproductive hormones and disrupted testosterone negative feedback.

  14. Serum testosterone as a prognostic factor in patients with advanced prostatic carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, P; Rasmussen, F; Christensen, I J

    1994-01-01

    In 245 patients with previously untreated advanced carcinoma of the prostate, serum concentrations of testosterone have been measured before androgen deprivation therapy, and patients were divided in quartiles according to their serum concentration. Pretreatment level of serum testosterone...... parameters suggest that low serum testosterone merely is a consequence of the advanced malignancy rather than a causative factor in the pathogenesis of prostatic cancer....

  15. Heritability of testosterone levels in 12-year-old twins and its relation to pubertal development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, R.A.; Bartels, M.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the heritability of variation in testosterone levels in 12-year-old children, and to explore the overlap in genetic and environmental influences on circulating testosterone levels and androgen-dependent pubertal development. Midday salivary testosterone samples

  16. Plasma testosterone in fetal rats and their mothers on day 19 of gestation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.J. Houtsmuller (Elisabeth Judith); F.H. de Jong (Frank); D. Rowland (David); A.K. Slob (Koos)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractPlasma testosterone levels were higher in pooled samples from male fetuses than from female fetuses on day 19 of pregnancy. Plasma testosterone from female fetuses with males located caudally in the uterus was higher than from females that lacked such males. Testosterone level of both

  17. De testosteron produktietest. Een specifieke in vitro biologische bepaling van luteiniserend hormoon (LH)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ginkel LA; Loeber JG

    1983-01-01

    Een in vitro biologische bepaling voor luteiniserend hormoon (LH), de testosteron produktietest (TPA) in muize Leydig cellen, werd opgezet. De meting van het geproduceerde testosteron vindt plaats met behulp van een radioimmunochemische methode. De dosis-werkingscurve geeft, indien de testosteron

  18. Testosterone, social status and parental care in a cooperatively breeding bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikus, Alyxandra E; Guindre-Parker, Sarah; Rubenstein, Dustin R

    2017-11-13

    The steroid hormone testosterone not only plays an important role in gamete production, but also influences social and aggressive behavior. Testosterone varies seasonally, peaking when competition for mates is high and declining during parental care. Surprisingly, little is known about how testosterone mediates social conflict and parental care behavior in highly social species like cooperative breeders, where group members compete for breeding opportunities and provide parental or alloparental care. We examined how testosterone differs across breeding roles in the tropical cooperatively breeding superb starling, Lamprotornis superbus. We determined whether testosterone was elevated in larger groups, and whether testosterone was negatively related to total levels of parental and alloparental care. We found that male breeders had higher testosterone than male helpers and female breeders and helpers during incubation. However, breeding males exhibited a significant decline in testosterone from incubation to chick rearing, and all individuals had similar levels during the chick rearing stage. Additionally, helpers-but not breeders-in large social groups had higher testosterone than those in small groups. Finally, testosterone was not correlated with nestling provisioning rates during chick rearing, suggesting that natural variation in the low levels of testosterone observed during periods of high parental care does not affect nestling provisioning. Together, these results offer insight into how testosterone is related to breeding roles, intra-group conflict, and parental care in a highly social species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Low testosterone levels may be associated with suicidal behavior in older men while high testosterone levels may be related to suicidal behavior in adolescents and young adults: a hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, Leo

    2013-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that there is an association between testosterone and suicidal behavior. A link between testosterone and the neurobiology of suicidal behavior may be related to: a) a direct effect of testosterone on suicidality via certain brain mechanisms; and/or b) a testosterone influence on aggression and, consequently, suicidality; and/or c) a testosterone effect on mood and, consequently, suicidality; and/or d) a testosterone effect on cognition and, consequently, suicidality. At least one study has demonstrated a relation between high levels of testosterone and suicide in young people. A significant number of studies suggest that high testosterone levels are associated with aggression in adolescents and adults. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that aggression is associated with suicidal behavior. The effect of high testosterone levels on suicidality in adolescents and young adults may be mediated by testosterone-related elevated aggression. It is also possible that, in young people, high testosterone levels are directly linked to suicidality via certain brain mechanisms. In older men, decreased testosterone levels are associated with depressive symptoms and reduced cognitive function, whereas higher blood levels of testosterone are associated with better mood and cognitive functioning. Depression and reduced cognition are associated with suicidal behavior and may mediate the effect of decreased testosterone levels on suicidality. Therefore, it is reasonable to propose that suicidal behavior in adolescents and young adults is associated with high testosterone levels, whereas suicidality in older men is associated with decreased testosterone secretion.

  20. Obestatin induces testosterone secretion from rat testis in vitro

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-05-09

    May 9, 2011 ... In this study, the effect of obestatin (23 amino acid peptide) on testosterone secretion in vitro, in the rat testis was observed. For this purpose, two ... ileum, stomach, pituitary and hypothalamus and testes. GPR39 was tested for its potency to ... temperature (22 to 25°C). Animals were provided with laboratory.

  1. Serum testosterone in Arabian stallions during breeding and non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-12

    Oct 12, 2011 ... The results confirm a seasonal rhythm in the reproductive cycle of Arabian stallions over the year in this specific region. Key words: Arabian stallion, season, testosterone, photoperiod. INTRODUCTION. The horse is a seasonal polyestrous species associated with increase in day light (Guillaume, 1996; ...

  2. The prevalence and association of low testosterone levels in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0. Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes of South Africa is co-published by Medpharm Publications, NISC (Pty) Ltd and Cogent,. Taylor & Francis Group. The prevalence and association of low testosterone levels ...

  3. Effects of Cigarette Smoking on Urinary Testosterone Excretion in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JTEkanem

    2008-04-29

    Apr 29, 2008 ... The enzyme is known to increase the metabolism of testosterone. In vitro studies indicate that nicotine inhibits. LH-stimulated steroidogenesis in isolated mouse Leydig cells5. High nicotine cigarette smoking may stimulate rapid release of prolactin by increasing endogenous opiods12, which in turn may.

  4. Interleukin 6, interleukin 1β, estradiol and testosterone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-22

    Aug 22, 2011 ... at the time of oocyte retrieval and concentration of testosterone, estradiol, interleukin 6 and interleukin. 1β were measured. ..... J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metabolism. 53: 128-134. Brannstrom M and Norman RJ (1993). Involvement of leukocytes and cytokines in the ovulatory process and corpus luteum function.

  5. Foetal Testosterone, Social Relationships, and Restricted Interests in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knickmeyer, Rebecca; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Raggatt, Peter; Taylor, Kevin

    2005-01-01

    Background: Sex-differences exist in some areas of human social behaviour. In animals, foetal testosterone (fT) plays a central role in organising the brain and in later social behaviour. fT has also been implicated in language development, eye-contact, and spatial ability in humans. Methods: Fifty-eight children (35 male and 23 female), whose fT…

  6. IQ, Fetal Testosterone and Individual Variability in Children's Functional Lateralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercure, Evelyne; Ashwin, Emma; Dick, Frederic; Halit, Hanife; Auyeung, Bonnie; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Johnson, Mark H.

    2009-01-01

    Previous event-related potential (ERP) studies have revealed that faces and words show a robust difference in the lateralization of their N170. The present study investigated the development of this differential lateralization in school-age boys. We assessed the potential role of fetal testosterone (FT) level as a factor biasing the prenatal…

  7. Aluminum-induced testosterone decrease results in physiological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In contrast, at the high dose, acetylcholine recorded significantly high value. In conclusion, aluminum-induced testosterone decrease resulted in a significant decline in aggression, several blood parameters and levels of neurotransmitters. Keywords: Aluminum, Swiss-Webster mice, standard opponent test, social behavior, ...

  8. Obestatin induces testosterone secretion from rat testis in vitro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the effect of obestatin (23 amino acid peptide) on testosterone secretion in vitro, in the rat testis was observed. For this purpose, two different doses of obestatin (10-9 M and 10-8 M) were used alone and in combination with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in fasting and fed conditions in two age groups.

  9. Serum testosterone levels in Nigerian male marijuana and cigarette ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of marijuana and cigarette use on serum levels of testosterone, the principal androgen in man has been a matter of serious controversy; and there is a paucity of reports on the subject in Nigeria in West Africa south of Sahara. We therefore investigated the effects of the use of these substances on serum levels of ...

  10. Effects of Cigarette Smoking on Urinary Testosterone Excretion in Men

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cigarette smoking is a major public health problem that is associated with high morbidity and mortality. This study was designed to investigate the relationship between cigarette smoking and concentration of testosterone in the urine. Forty young men age between 23 to 31 years were used for this study. The subjects were ...

  11. [Hemoglobin and testosterone: importance on high altitude acclimatization and adaptation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Gustavo F

    2011-03-01

    The different types of response mechanisms that the organism uses when exposed to hypoxia include accommodation, acclimatization and adaptation. Accommodation is the initial response to acute exposure to high altitude hypoxia and is characterized by an increase in ventilation and heart rate. Acclimatization is observed in individuals temporarily exposed to high altitude, and to some extent, it enables them to tolerate the high altitudes. In this phase, erythropoiesis is increased, resulting in higher hemoglobin and hematocrit levels to improve oxygen delivery capacity. Adaptation is the process of natural acclimatization where genetical variations and acclimatization play a role in allowing subjects to live without any difficulties at high altitudes. Testosterone is a hormone that regulates erythropoiesis and ventilation and could be associated to the processes of acclimatization and adaptation to high altitude. Excessive erythrocytosis, which leads to chronic mountain sickness, is caused by low arterial oxygen saturation, ventilatory inefficiency and reduced ventilatory response to hypoxia. Testosterone increases during acute exposure to high altitude and also in natives at high altitude with excessive erythrocytosis. Results of current research allow us to conclude that increase in serum testosterone and hemoglobin is adequate for acclimatization, as they improve oxygen transport, but not for high altitude adaptation, since high serum testosterone levels are associated to excessive erythrocytosis.

  12. The effect of intramuscular implantation of testosterone on growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of intramuscular implantation of testosterone on growth and carcass characteristics of zebu steers. D.H. Hale, J Oliver. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

  13. The effect of unilateral vasectomy on testosterone and testicular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The effects of vasectomy on spermatogenesis and reproductive parameters are recognized to be speciedependent with marked differences in levels of perturbations observed. Objectives: To assess the impact of unilateral vasectomy on testosterone level and other testicular parameters in the male African giant ...

  14. The effect of orchidectomy and administration of testosterone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of orchidectomy and administration of testosterone propionate or nandrolone phenylpropionate to orchidectomised rats on their growth and carcass composition. D.H. Hale. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  15. The effect of unilateral vasectomy on testosterone and testicular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    Discipline of Clinical Anatomy, Nelson R Mandela School of Medicine, University of KwaZulu-Natal,. Private Bag X54001, Durban, South Africa. ... on testicular histology, testosterone and seminal parameters in the AGR. Methods .... Flickinger et al.24 since there is an association between testicular changes and serum ...

  16. Antipsychotic-Induced Hyperprolactinemia and Testosterone Levels in Boys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roke, Yvette; van Harten, Peter N.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Tenback, Diederik E.; de Rijke, Yolanda B.; Boot, Annemieke M.

    2012-01-01

    Aims: This cross-sectional study investigates the effect of antipsychotic (AP)-induced hyperprolactinemia on testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), inhibin B, and puberty in boys with mainly autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Method: One hundred and four physically

  17. Antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia and testosterone levels in boys.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roke, Y.; Harten, P.N. van; Buitelaar, J.K.; Tenback, D.E.; Rijke, Y.B. de; Boot, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    AIMS: This cross-sectional study investigates the effect of antipsychotic (AP)-induced hyperprolactinemia on testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), inhibin B, and puberty in boys with mainly autism spectrum disorders (ASD). METHOD: One hundred and four physically

  18. Comparison of the pre-treatment testosterone levels in benign ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To compare serum testosterone and prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels of patients diagnosed of prostate cancer to those with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Subjects and methods: One hundred and thirteen male patients with or without LUTS who had indication(s) for prostate biopsies were recruited.

  19. An Investigation into the Effect of Testosterone on Plasma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experiments were carried out on 30 intact adult male rats weighing 200-300gm. The rats were divided randomly into six groups that received different treatments of testosterone, adrenaline, and propranolol. Blood samples were obtained from all the rats by cardiac puncture and plasma samples were assayed for triglyceride ...

  20. Effect of testosterone and growth hormone injection before puberty ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egg shell quality and egg internal quality are of major importance to the egg industry worldwide. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of testosterone and growth hormone (hGH) on egg production and characteristics. The aim of this trial is to test this hypothesis that one injection of these two hormones ...

  1. Comparison of the pre-treatment testosterone levels in benign ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    D.E. Orakwe

    2017-01-26

    Jan 26, 2017 ... Abstract. Objectives: To compare serum testosterone and prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels of patients diagnosed of prostate cancer to those with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Subjects and methods: One hundred and thirteen male patients with or without LUTS who had indica- tion(s) for prostate ...

  2. Assessment of testosterone level among infertile Sudanese ladies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives The aim of this study is to determine the level of serum testosterone among infertile ladies and to assess its role in female infertility. Materials and Methods A case-controlled study of 150 Sudanese ladies suffering from infertility was compared to 50 fertile subjects as a control group with a mean age of 31 years.

  3. Effect of obestatin on morphometry of testes and testosterone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to evaluate the effects of chronic intra peritoneal administration of obestatin on plasma testosterone concentrations and cellular morphometry of the testes in male Sprague Dawly rats. The treatment groups were injected with obestatin (1 nmol/100 μl saline i.p), while the control groups received ...

  4. The Prevalence and Association of Low Testosterone Levels in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: According to the literature, low serum testosterone levels are associated with diabetes mellitus. No or minimal data exist for its prevalence or predictors in South Africa. Design: This was a cross-sectional study. Setting: The setting was an academic centre, i.e. the University of Pretoria and Steve Biko Academic ...

  5. Testosterone supplementation restores vasopressin innervation in the senescent rat brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goudsmit, E.; Fliers, E.; Swaab, D. F.

    1988-01-01

    The vasopressin (AVP) innervation in the male rat brain is decreased in senescence. This decrease is particularly pronounced in brain regions where AVP fiber density is dependent on plasma levels of sex steroids. Since plasma testosterone levels decrease progressively with age in the rat, the

  6. Testosterone Enhances the Early Onset and Promotes the Increase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood pressure has been reported to be consistently higher in males compared with females from puberty onwards and men show an increased risk for hypertension compared to women, a risk that interacts with genes and with diet. Experiments were designed to assess the effect of testosterone deficiency on blood ...

  7. Anogenital distance and umbilical cord testosterone level in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the anogenital distance (AGD) and anthropometric measurements such as birth weight, birth length, head circumference and placenta weight of 200 newborns (100 male, 100 female) were taken and umbilical cord serum was assayed for testosterone concentration using Radioimmunoassay (Microwell).

  8. Polycystic Ovary Induction in Mouse by Testosterone Enanthate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Kalhori

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background &Objective: Polycystic ovary is the most common cause of infertility in Women. Animal models are required for understanding the pathogenesis of polycystic ovary. The objective of this study then was to develop an animal model for inducing the polycystic ovaries using testosterone enanthate.Materials & Methods: In this study, for inducing the polycystic ovary phenotype, female rats about12-14 days-old were injected daily with testosterone enanthate for 2 and 4 weeks (experiment groups: 1 and 2, while the control groups (1 and 2 were injected only with vehicle.The ovaries from both groups were fixed and then were used for histological studies.Results: Testosterone enanthate treatment causes the histological changes in mouse ovary and significantly increased the percentage of preantral and cystic follicles and decreased the percentage of antral follicles in the experiment group, comparing with the control group (P<0.05.Conclusion: It concluded that testosterone enanthate can induces polycystic ovary in mouse.

  9. The Effect of Special Operations Training on Testosterone, Lean Body Mass, and Strength and the Potential for Therapeutic Testosterone Replacement: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    and muscle function during SOF training or sustained operations.  15. SUBJECT TERMS Androgenic, anabolic, cachexia, fatigue 16. SECURITY...Testosterone. Both testosterone and AAS have been used therapeutically to prevent cachexia, muscle wasting, and fatigue in patients living with HIV and...stopped. JAMA . 1992; 267(3):397-399. 26. Griggs RC, Kingston W, Jozefowicz RF, Herr BE, Forbes G, Halliday D. Effect of testosterone on muscle mass

  10. Progressive Improvement of T-Scores in Men with Osteoporosis and Subnormal Serum Testosterone Levels upon Treatment with Testosterone over Six Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Haider

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Testosterone deficiency leads to bone loss and testosterone treatment has a beneficial effect. This study investigated the effects of normalizing serum testosterone on bone mineral density in 45 men with osteoporosis, diagnosed with testosterone deficiency (serum testosterone levels <12.1 nmol/L, T-scores: (mean ± SD −3.12 ± 0.45, minimum: −4.10, and maximum: −2.60. In a cumulative, prospective, registry study of hypogonadal men (mean age: 53 ± 7 years they received parenteral testosterone undecanoate of 1000 mg/12 weeks for up to six years. After one year 44 men were included in the registry, after two years 36 men, after three years 32 men, after four years 25 men, after five years 10 men and after six years 4 men. The declining numbers do not reflect drop-out rates but are a result of the registry design. Over the 6 year period there was a significant and progressive improvement of the T-scores in these men. Normalizing of serum testosterone leads to an improvement of bone mineral density and this improvement was progressive with the time period of testosterone administration. In this study of 6-years many men with testosterone deficiency suffered from classical diagnoses (Klinefelter’s syndrome and testicular pathology hitherto undiagnosed.

  11. High free testosterone index increases lung function in adult males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martiem Mawi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Increasing age and decreased testosterone concentrations in males influence muscle strength and muscle mass, particularly in skeletal muscle. There have been few studies on decreased lung function resulting from reduced mass and strength of respiratory muscles. The aim of the present study was to investigate the existence of an association between free testosterone index (FTI and lung function in males aged between 40 and 80 years. Methods This cross-sectional study involved 167 males aged between 40 and 80 years in Cilandak subdistrict, South Jakarta. Total serum testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG concentrations were determined by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA using Roche Elecsys Reagent Kit Cat 11776061 and Elecsys 2010 reagent (Cobas e601, respectively FTI was calculated using the formula free testosterone/SHBG x 100%. Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (VEP1 was assessed by means of an AS 500 spirometer. Results Mean age of the subjects was 53.32 ± 8.26 years, mean total serum testosterone concentration was 532.59 ± 206.92 ng/dL, mean SHBG concentration 41.26 ± 21.14 nmol/L, mean FTI 48.22 ± 14.34 %, and mean VEP1 was 1.63 ± 0.54 L. There was a significant association between both SHBG and FTI on the one hand and VEP1 on the other, with Pearson correlation coefficients of -0.199 (p=0.010 and 0.271 (p=0.000, respectively. Linear multiple regression analysis indicated that FTI was the most influential variable on lung function (VEP1, higher FTI values indicating higher VEP1 (â=0.008: p=0.004. Conclusion In males aged 40-80 years, higher FTI values indicate better lung function as determined by means of VEP1.

  12. Marketing and Testosterone Treatment in the USA: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandari, Jathin; Ayyash, Omar M; Emery, Sherry L; Wessel, Charles B; Davies, Benjamin J

    2017-10-01

    Testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) is currently approved by the Food and Drug Administration only for classic hypogonadism, although off-label indications have resulted in a dramatic expansion in prescriptions in the USA. Marketing may significantly affect prescriber behavior. To systematically review all available evidence on marketing and TRT in the USA. PubMed, Embase, and Scopus were searched up to July 2017 for all relevant publications reporting on assessments of the TRT market size, economic costs associated with hypogonadism, trends in TRT prescriptions, drug discontinuation rates, and advertising and sales efforts in the USA. Twenty retrospective studies were included in the final analysis. The market size for hypogonadism constitutes 5.6-76.8% of men in the USA, with the lower end of the range representing the strictest criteria for diagnosis. Men with a diagnosis of hypogonadism consume $14 118 in direct and indirect costs to the payer. Over the last 2 decades, TRT prescriptions have increased between 1.8- and 4-fold. After 1 yr, 80-85% of men discontinue TRT. There is an association between direct-to-consumer advertising and testosterone testing, TRT prescriptions, and TRT without testosterone testing. There is a high prevalence of misinformation on Internet advertising. Off-label indications have driven the dramatic expansion of TRT prescriptions over the last 2 decades. Direct-to-consumer advertising poses a unique challenge in the USA. Overtreatment can be avoided by applying strict diagnostic criteria for hypogonadism, which limits the addressable market for TRT. In this report, we reviewed the relationship between marketing and testosterone therapy in the USA. We found that many patients are prescribed testosterone without an appropriate diagnosis of hypogonadism, which may be related to the marketing efforts for off-label prescribing. Copyright © 2017 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Men's health, low testosterone, and diabetes: individualized treatment and a multidisciplinary approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Donna; Brannigan, Robert E; Campbell, R Keith; Fine, Shari; Jack, Leonard; Nelson, Joseph B; Regan-Klich, Janet

    2008-01-01

    Testosterone plays a critical role in male reproductive and metabolic functioning. Serum testosterone levels decrease with age, and low testosterone is associated with a variety of comorbidities, including insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, obesity, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease. Men with type 2 diabetes have been shown to have significantly lower testosterone levels than men without diabetes. Several forms of testosterone replacement therapy (eg, oral, injectable, buccal, transdermal preparations) are available for use in the United States. The primary goals of testosterone therapy are to restore physiologic testosterone levels and reduce the symptoms of hypogonadism. Testosterone therapy may be a viable option in some men with diabetes and low testosterone; however, clinicians must be aware of contraindications to therapy (eg, prostate cancer and male breast cancer), implement appropriate monitoring procedures, and ensure that patient expectations are realistic regarding treatment outcome. Data suggest that testosterone therapy may have a positive effect on bones, muscles, erythropoiesis and anemia, libido, mood and cognition, penile erection, cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin, insulin resistance, visceral adiposity, and quality of life. Sexual health may be a window into men's health; thus, more effective communication strategies are needed between clinicians and men with diabetes to ensure that sexual health topics are adequately addressed. Diabetes educators can play a key role in screening for low testosterone, providing relevant information to patients, and increasing clinician awareness of the need to address men's sexual health and implement appropriate strategies. Multidisciplinary care and individualized treatment are needed to optimize outcome.

  14. "Low Testosterone Levels in Body Fluids Are Associated With Chronic Periodontitis".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellesarian, Sergio Varela; Malmstrom, Hans; Abduljabbar, Tariq; Vohra, Fahim; Kellesarian, Tammy Varela; Javed, Fawad; Romanos, Georgios E

    2017-03-01

    There is a debate over the association between low testosterone levels in body fluids and the occurrence of chronic periodontitis (CP). The aim of the present systematic review was to assess whether low testosterone levels in body fluids reflect CP. In order to identify studies relevant to the focus question: "Is there a relationship between low testosterone levels in body fluids and CP?" an electronic search without time or language restrictions was conducted up to June 2016 in indexed databases using different keywords: periodontitis, chronic periodontitis, periodontal diseases, testosterone, and gonadal steroid hormones. A total of eight studies were included in the present systematic review. The number of study participants ranged from 24 to 1,838 male individuals with ages ranging from 15 to 95 years. Seven studies measured testosterone levels in serum, two studies in saliva, and one study in gingiva. Four studies reported a negative association between serum testosterone levels and CP. Two studies reported a positive association between decreased testosterone levels in serum and CP. Increased levels of salivary testosterone among patients with CP were reported in one study; whereas one study reported no significant difference in the concentration of salivary testosterone between patients with and without CP. One study identified significant increase in the metabolism of testosterone in the gingiva of patients with CP. Within the limits of the evidence available, the relationship between low testosterone levels and CP remains debatable and further longitudinal studies and control trials are needed.

  15. Exogenous testosterone decreases men's personal distance in a social threat context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagels, Lisa; Radke, Sina; Goerlich, Katharina Sophia; Habel, Ute; Votinov, Mikhail

    2017-04-01

    Testosterone can motivate human approach and avoidance behavior. Specifically, the conscious recognition of and implicit reaction to angry facial expressions is influenced by testosterone. The study tested whether exogenous testosterone modulates the personal distance (PD) humans prefer in a social threat context. 82 healthy male participants underwent either transdermal testosterone (testosterone group) or placebo application (placebo group). Each participant performed a computerized stop-distance task before (T1) and 3.5h after (T2) treatment, during which they indicated how closely they would approach a human, animal or virtual character with varying emotional expression. Men's PD towards humans and animals varied as a function of their emotional expression. In the testosterone group, a pre-post comparison indicated that the administration of 50mg testosterone was associated with a small but significant reduction of men's PD towards aggressive individuals. Men in the placebo group did not change the initially chosen PD after placebo application independent of the condition. However comparing the testosterone and placebo group after testosterone administration did not reveal significant differences. While the behavioral effect was small and only observed as within-group effect it was repeatedly and selectively shown for men's PD choices towards an angry woman, angry man and angry dog in the testosterone group. In line with the literature, our findings in young men support the influential role of exogenous testosterone on male's approach behavior during social confrontations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Testosterone therapy increased muscle mass and lipid oxidation in aging men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Louise; Højlund, Kurt; Hougaard, David M

    2011-01-01

    The indication for testosterone therapy in aging hypogonadal men without hypothalamic, pituitary, or testicular disease remains to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of testosterone therapy on insulin sensitivity, substrate metabolism, body composition, and lipids...... in aging men with low normal bioavailable testosterone levels using a predefined cutoff level for bioavailable testosterone. A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study of testosterone treatment (gel) was done on 38 men, aged 60-78 years, with bioavailable testosterone 94 cm. Insulin......-stimulated glucose disposal (Rd) and substrate oxidation were assessed by euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamps combined with indirect calorimetry. Lean body mass (LBM) and total fat mass (TFM) were measured by dual x-ray absorptiometry, and serum total testosterone was measured by tandem mass spectrometry...

  17. Testosterone affects hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) activity and lipid metabolism in the left ventricle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langfort, Jozef; Jagsz, Slawomir; Dobrzyn, Pawel

    2010-01-01

    levels, caused an inhibitory effect on carbohydrate metabolism in the heart, and elevated left ventricular phosphocreatine and ATP levels as compared to control rats. These data indicate that testosterone is involved in cardiac HSL activity regulation which, in turn, may affect cardiac lipid...... tissue suggests that testosterone regulates HSL activity. To test whether this is also true in the heart, we measured HSL activity in the left ventricle of sedentary male rats that had been treated with testosterone supplementation or orchidectomy with or without testosterone substitution. Left ventricle...... HSL activity against TG was significantly elevated in intact rats supplemented with testosterone. HSL activity against both TG and diacylglyceride was reduced by orchidectomy, whereas testosterone replacement fully reversed this effect. Moreover, testosterone increased left ventricle free fatty acid...

  18. Endogenous Testosterone and Exogenous Oxytocin Modulate Attentional Processing of Infant Faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtfrerich, Sarah K C; Schwarz, Katharina A; Sprenger, Christian; Reimers, Luise; Diekhof, Esther K

    2016-01-01

    Evidence indicates that hormones modulate the intensity of maternal care. Oxytocin is known for its positive influence on maternal behavior and its important role for childbirth. In contrast, testosterone promotes egocentric choices and reduces empathy. Further, testosterone decreases during parenthood which could be an adaptation to increased parental investment. The present study investigated the interaction between testosterone and oxytocin in attentional control and their influence on attention to baby schema in women. Higher endogenous testosterone was expected to decrease selective attention to child portraits in a face-in-the-crowd-paradigm, while oxytocin was expected to counteract this effect. As predicted, women with higher salivary testosterone were slower in orienting attention to infant targets in the context of adult distractors. Interestingly, reaction times to infant and adult stimuli decreased after oxytocin administration, but only in women with high endogenous testosterone. These results suggest that oxytocin may counteract the adverse effects of testosterone on a central aspect of social behavior and maternal caretaking.

  19. Oral testosterone load related to liver function in men with alcoholic liver cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C; Bahnsen, M; Bennett, P

    1983-01-01

    The relation between liver function and an oral testosterone load was examined in 42 consecutive patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis. Administration of an oral load of 400 mg micronized free testosterone increased the serum concentration of testosterone (range, 31.9-694.4 nmol/l; median, 140...... with wedged-to-free hepatic vein pressure (r = +0.54; P less than 0.01). The increase of testosterone after the load did not correlate significantly with sex hormone-binding globulin (r = +0.35; P greater than 0.05). It is concluded that the hepatic extraction of testosterone is significantly decreased.......8 nmol/l) in male patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis to significantly (P less than 0.01) higher levels than in male subjects without liver disease (range, 25.4-106.6 nmol/l; median, 61.5 nmol/l). The increase of testosterone after the load (log delta testosterone) in patients correlated inversely...

  20. First case report of testosterone assay-interference in a female taking maca (Lepidium meyenii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikugan, L; Sankaralingam, A; McGowan, B

    2011-03-25

    A young female with prolonged intermenstrual bleeding was found to have raised total plasma testosterone of 25.8 nmol/l (NRmaca extract to improve her lethargy and low libido. Maca is traditionally used for its aphrodisiac and fertility-enhancing properties. Maca use has not been shown to affect serum testosterone in mice and human studies. Immunoassay interference with maca was suspected. Testosterone immunoassays use monoclonal antibodies specifically directed against testosterone. They are prone to interference from androgenic compounds. Reanalysis of the original serum sample using Elecsys Testosterone II assay, a higher affinity assay, revealed a total testosterone level of 2.9 nmol/l. It is important to exclude assay interference when testosterone level is greater than 5 nmol/l without supportive clinical signs.

  1. Testosterone affects hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) activity and lipid metabolism in the left ventricle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langfort, Jozef; Jagsz, Slawomir; Dobrzyn, Pawel

    2010-01-01

    tissue suggests that testosterone regulates HSL activity. To test whether this is also true in the heart, we measured HSL activity in the left ventricle of sedentary male rats that had been treated with testosterone supplementation or orchidectomy with or without testosterone substitution. Left ventricle...... HSL activity against TG was significantly elevated in intact rats supplemented with testosterone. HSL activity against both TG and diacylglyceride was reduced by orchidectomy, whereas testosterone replacement fully reversed this effect. Moreover, testosterone increased left ventricle free fatty acid...... levels, caused an inhibitory effect on carbohydrate metabolism in the heart, and elevated left ventricular phosphocreatine and ATP levels as compared to control rats. These data indicate that testosterone is involved in cardiac HSL activity regulation which, in turn, may affect cardiac lipid...

  2. Salivary testosterone in female-to-male transgender adolescents during treatment with intra-muscular injectable testosterone esters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bui, Hong N.; Schagen, Sebastian E. E.; Klink, Daniel T.; Delemarre-van de Waal, Henriette A.; Blankenstein, Marinus A.; Heijboer, Annemieke C.

    2013-01-01

    In our hospital, female-to-male (FtM) transgender adolescents from the age of 16 are treated with two- or four-weekly intra-muscular injections of testosterone-esters. Some patients treated with four-weekly injections have complaints of fatigue and experience mood swings towards the end of the

  3. Salivary testosterone in female-to-male transgender adolescents during treatment with intra-muscular injectable testosterone esters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bui, H.N.; Schagen, S.E.; Klink, D.T.; Delemarre-van de Waal, H.A.; Blankenstein, M.A.; Heijboer, A.C.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: In our hospital, female-To-male (FtM) transgender adolescents from the age of 16 are treated with two- or four-weekly intra-muscular injections of testosterone-esters. Some patients treated with four-weekly injections have complaints of fatigue and experience mood swings towards the

  4. Symptomatic reduction in free testosterone levels secondary to crizotinib use in male cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weickhardt, Andrew J; Doebele, Robert C; Purcell, W Thomas; Bunn, Paul A; Oton, Ana B; Rothman, Micol S; Wierman, Margaret E; Mok, Tony; Popat, Sanjay; Bauman, Julie; Nieva, Jorge; Novello, Silvia; Ou, Sai-Hong Ignatius; Camidge, D Ross

    2013-07-01

    Crizotinib is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor active against ALK, MET, and ROS1. We previously reported that crizotinib decreases testosterone in male patients. The detailed etiology of the effect, its symptomatic significance, and the effectiveness of subsequent testosterone replacement have not been previously reported. Male cancer patients treated with crizotinib had total testosterone levels measured and results compared with non-crizotinib-treated patients. Albumin, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and/or luteinizing hormone (LH) were tracked longitudinally. A subset of patients had free testosterone levels measured and a hypogonadal screening questionnaire administered. Patients receiving subsequent testosterone supplementation were assessed for symptomatic improvement. Mean total testosterone levels were -25% below the lower limit of normal (LLN) in 32 crizotinib-treated patients (27 of 32 patients below LLN, 84%) compared with +29% above LLN in 19 non-crizotinib-treated patients (6 of 19 below LLN, 32%), P = .0012. Levels of albumin and SHBG (which both bind testosterone) declined rapidly with crizotinib, but so did FSH, LH, and free testosterone, suggesting a centrally mediated, true hypogonadal effect. Mean free testosterone levels were -17% below LLN (19 of 25 patients below LLN, 76%). Eighty-four percent (16 of 19) with low free levels, and 79% (19/24) with low total levels had symptoms of androgen deficiency. Five of 9 patients (55%) with low testosterone given testosterone supplementation had improvement in symptoms, coincident with increases in testosterone above LLN. Symptoms of androgen deficiency and free or total/free testosterone levels should be tracked in male patients on crizotinib with consideration of testosterone replacement as appropriate. Copyright © 2013 American Cancer Society.

  5. Serum Testosterone Levels and Mortality in Men With CKD Stages 3–4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurana, Kiranpreet K.; Navaneethan, Sankar D.; Arrigain, Susana; Schold, Jesse D.; Nally, Joseph V.; Shoskes, Daniel A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Hypogonadism in men (total testosterone level testosterone measured for-cause between January 1, 2005 and October 31, 2011 at a tertiary care center in Cleveland, Ohio. Predictors Total testosterone measured using an immunoassay measurement in 3 forms: a) categorized as low or testosterone replacement therapy versus normal, b) continuous log testosterone, and c) quintiles (100–226, 227–305, 306–392, 393–511, 512–3153 ng/dL). Outcomes Factors associated with low total testosterone, and association between low total testosterone and all-cause mortality were evaluated using logistic regression, Cox proportional hazard models, and Kaplan-Meier survival curves. Results Hypogonadism was found in 1288/2419 (53%) of men. In a multivariable logistic regression analysis, African American ethnicity and higher eGFR were associated with lower odds of having hypogonadism. Diabetes and higher body mass index were associated with higher odds of having hypogonadism. 357/2419 (15%) patients died during a median follow up of 2.3 years. In the multivariate Cox model, testosterone testosterone replacement therapy were not associated with mortality. In a multivariable model also adjusted for testosterone supplementation, higher log testosterone was associated with significantly lower mortality (HR per 1 log unit, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.55–0.89). When compared to the highest quintile, the second lowest quintile of testosterone was associated with higher mortality (HR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.09–2.16). Limitations Single center study, timing of testosterone testing, lack of adjustment for proteinuria, and sampling bias. Conclusions Low total testosterone may be associated with higher mortality in men with CKD stages 3–4 but more studies are needed. PMID:24726629

  6. Testosterone Administration Inhibits Hepcidin Transcription and is Associated with Increased Iron Incorporation into Red Blood Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wen; Bachman, Eric; Li, Michelle; Roy, Cindy N.; Blusztajn, Jerzy; Wong, Siu; Chan, Stephen Y.; Serra, Carlo; Jasuja, Ravi; Travison, Thomas G.; Muckenthaler, Martina U.; Nemeth, Elizabeta; Bhasin, Shalender

    2013-01-01

    Testosterone administration increases hemoglobin levels and has been used to treat anemia of chronic disease. Erythrocytosis is the most frequent adverse event associated with testosterone therapy of hypogonadal men, especially older men. However, the mechanisms by which testosterone increases hemoglobin remain unknown. Testosterone administration in male and female mice was associated with a greater increase in hemoglobin and hematocrit, reticulocyte count, reticulocyte hemoglobin concentration, and serum iron and transferring saturation than placebo. Testosterone downregulated hepatic hepcidin mRNA expression, upregulated renal erythropoietin mRNA expression, and increased erythropoietin levels. Testosterone-induced suppression of hepcidin expression was independent of its effects on erythropoietin or hypoxia-sensing mechanisms. Transgenic mice with liver-specific constitutive hepcidin over-expression failed to exhibit the expected increase in hemoglobin in response to testosterone administration. Testosterone upregulated splenic ferroportin expression and reduced iron retention in spleen. After intravenous administration of transferrin-bound 58Fe, the amount of 58Fe incorporated into red blood cells was significantly greater in testosterone-treated mice than in placebo-treated mice. Serum from testosterone-treated mice stimulated hemoglobin synthesis in K562 erythroleukemia cells more than that from vehicle-treated mice. Testosterone administration promoted the association of androgen receptor (AR) with Smad1 and Smad4 to reduce their binding to BMP-response elements in hepcidin promoter in the liver. Ectopic expression of AR in hepatocytes suppressed hepcidin transcription; this effect was blocked dose-dependently by AR antagonist flutamide. Testosterone did not affect hepcidin mRNA stability. Conclusion: Testosterone inhibits hepcidin transcription through its interaction with BMP-Smad signaling. Testosterone administration is associated with increased iron

  7. Does Calculated Free Testosterone Overcome Total Testosterone in Protecting From Sexual Symptom Impairment? Findings of a Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeri, Luca; Capogrosso, Paolo; Ventimiglia, Eugenio; Cazzaniga, Walter; Pederzoli, Filippo; Moretti, Donatella; Dehò, Federico; Montanari, Emanuele; Montorsi, Francesco; Salonia, Andrea

    2017-12-01

    Although erectile dysfunction (ED) has been associated with low circulating total testosterone (TT) levels, the utility of free testosterone (FT) over TT is debatable. To assess the relative impact of low TT and low calculated FT (cFT) on androgen-related sexual symptoms in men with ED. Data from 485 men were analyzed. Comorbidities were scored with the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI). Patients completed the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) and the Beck Inventory for Depression (BDI). Descriptive statistics tested differences between patients with normal TT levels (>3 ng/mL) and normal cFT levels (>65 pg/mL; group 1) and men with normal TT and low cFT (group 2), low TT and normal cFT (group 3), and low TT and low cFT (group 4). Linear regression models tested the association between clinical predictors and sexual function impairment. We assessed the impact of different hormonal categories on androgen-related symptoms and the clinical utility of measuring cFT in men with ED. Groups 1, 2, 3, and 4 were composed of 338 (69.6%), 44 (9.1%), 34 (7.0%), and 69 (14.3%) patients, respectively. Compared with group 1, patients in group 2 were older (P testosterone deficiency, even when concomitant with low TT or low cFT irrespective of TT values, it was indicative of poorer clinical profiles and impaired sexual and depressive parameters compared with normal TT and normal cFT in a cohort of patients with ED. Boeri L, Capogrosso P, Ventimiglia E, et al. Does Calculated Free Testosterone Overcome Total Testosterone in Protecting From Sexual Symptom Impairment? Findings of a Cross-Sectional Study. J Sex Med 2017;14:1549-1557. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Quantitative determination of testosterone levels with biolayer interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Li, Wei; Luo, Hong; Xiong, Guangming; Yu, Yuanhua

    2017-10-01

    Natural and synthetic steroid hormones are widely spread in the environment and are considered as pollutants due to their endocrine activities, even at low concentrations, which are harmful to human health. To detect steroid hormones in the environment, a novel biosensor system was developed based on the principle of biolayer interferometry. Detection is based on changes in the interference pattern of white light reflected from the surface of an optical fiber with bound biomolecules. Monitoring interactions between molecules does not require radioactive, enzymatic, or fluorescent labels. Here, 2 double-stranded DNA fragments of operator 1 (OP1) and OP2 containing 10-bp palindromic sequences in chromosomal Comamonas testosteroni DNA (ATCC11996) were surface-immobilized to streptavidin sensors. Interference changes were detected when repressor protein RepA bound the DNA sequences. DNA-protein interactions were characterized and kinetic parameters were obtained. The dissociation constants between the OP1 and OP2 DNA sequences and RepA were 9.865 × 10-9 M and 2.750 × 10-8 M, respectively. The reactions showed high specifically and affinity. Because binding of the 10-bp palindromic sequence and RepA was affected by RepA-testosterone binding, the steroid could be quantitatively determined rapidly using the biosensor system. The mechanism of the binding assay was as follows. RepA could bind both OP1 and testosterone. RepA binding to testosterone changed the protein conformation, which influenced the binding between RepA and OP1. The percentage of the signal detected negative correlation with the testosterone concentration. A standard curve was obtained, and the correlation coefficient value was approximately 0.97. We could quantitatively determine testosterone levels between 2.13 and 136.63 ng/ml. Each sample could be quantitatively detected in 17 min. These results suggested that the specific interaction between double-stranded OP1 DNA and the RepA protein

  9. Sociosexuality moderates the association between testosterone and relationship status in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelstein, Robin S; Chopik, William J; Kean, Emily L

    2011-08-01

    Single individuals typically have higher testosterone compared to those who are partnered, suggesting that individual differences in testosterone are associated with mating effort, or people's motivation to find a sexual partner. However, there is less consistent evidence for links between testosterone and sociosexuality, or people's orientation toward uncommitted sexual activity. Based on Penke and Asendorpf's (2008) conceptualization, we propose that a more nuanced measure of sociosexuality may reveal more robust associations with testosterone. In the current study, we assessed relations between three components of sociosexuality--desire, behavior, and attitudes--and endogenous testosterone levels in men and women. We found that partnered status was indeed associated with lower testosterone in both men and women, but only among those who reported more restricted sociosexuality. Partnered men who reported greater desire for uncommitted sexual activity had testosterone levels that were comparable to those of single men; partnered women who reported more frequent uncommitted sexual behavior had testosterone levels that were comparable to those of single women. These findings provide new evidence that people's orientations toward sexual relationships, in combination with their relationship status, are associated with individual differences in testosterone. The current results are also among the first to demonstrate sociosexuality-testosterone associations in both men and women, and they reveal that the nature of these associations varies by gender. Together, these findings highlight the utility of a multifaceted conceptualization of sociosexuality and the implications of this conceptualization for neuroendocrine processes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Cognitive effects of testosterone and finasteride administration in older hypogonadal men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borst, Stephen E; Yarrow, Joshua F; Fernandez, Carmen; Conover, Christine F; Ye, Fan; Meuleman, John R; Morrow, Matthew; Zou, Baiming; Shuster, Jonathan J

    2014-01-01

    Serum concentrations of neuroactive androgens decline in older men and, in some studies, low testosterone is associated with decreased cognitive function and incidence of depression. Existing studies evaluating the effect of testosterone administration on cognition in older men have been largely inconclusive, with some studies reporting minor to moderate cognitive benefit, while others indicate no cognitive effect. Our objective was to assess the cognitive effects of treating older hypogonadal men for 1 year with a supraphysiological dose of testosterone, either alone or in combination with finasteride (a type II 5α-reductase inhibitor), in order to determine whether testosterone produces cognitive benefit and whether suppressed dihydrotestosterone influences cognition. Sixty men aged ≥ 60 years with a serum testosterone concentration of ≤ 300 ng/dL or bioavailable testosterone ≤ 70 ng/dL and no evidence of cognitive impairment received testosterone-enanthate (125 mg/week) versus vehicle, paired with finasteride (5 mg/day) versus placebo using a 2×2 factorial design. Testosterone caused a small decrease in depressive symptoms as assessed by the Geriatric Depression Scale and a moderate increase in visuospatial memory as assessed by performance on a recall trial of the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test. Finasteride caused a small increase in performance on the Benton Judgment of Line Orientation test. In total, major improvements in cognition were not observed either with testosterone or finasteride. Further studies are warranted to determine if testosterone replacement may improve cognition in other domains.

  11. Testosterone Plasma Concentration is Associated with Insulin Resistance in Male Hypertensive Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schianca, Gian Piero Carnevale; Fra, Gian Paolo; Brustia, Fabio; Bellan, Mattia; Pirovano, Alice; Gualerzi, Alessandro; Gentile, Michela; Gibbin, Antonello; Menegatti, Mirta; Bartoli, Ettore; Pirisi, Mario

    2017-03-01

    Background: Low testosterone levels are a common finding among men with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) and are inversely related to insulin resistance. Whether this relationship holds true in patients with hypertension, but normal glucose tolerance or prediabetes, is unclear. Methods: We recruited 87 male outpatients with essential arterial hypertension, aged 35-70 years. Anthropometric data were collected, an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) performed, and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) score calculated. Follicle-Stimulating Hormone, Luteinizing Hormone, testosterone, Sex Hormone-Binding-Globulin and free-testosterone were measured. The concentrations of sex hormones were compared between normoglucotolerant, prediabetic and diabetic patients. Non-parametric tests were applied as appropriate to verify differences among groups, while multiple linear regression was used to predict the variability of testosterone and free-testosterone. Results: Total serum testosterone concentration was significantly lower in T2DM in comparison to normoglucotolerant subjects (pfree testosterone; HOMA-IR was related to testosterone and free-testosterone even in patients with normal glucose tolerance (r=- 0.47, ptestosterone (pfree-testosterone (p<0.05) plasma concentration. Conclusions: In males with hypertension, the link between insulin sensitivity and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis is maintained along the entire spectrum of glucose tolerance. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Age-independent increases in male salivary testosterone during horticultural activity among Tsimane forager-farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumble, Benjamin C; Cummings, Daniel K; O'Connor, Kathleen A; Holman, Darryl J; Smith, Eric A; Kaplan, Hillard S; Gurven, Michael D

    2013-09-01

    Testosterone plays an important role in mediating male reproductive trade-offs in many vertebrate species, augmenting muscle and influencing behavior necessary for male-male competition and mating-effort. Among humans, testosterone may also play a key role in facilitating male provisioning of offspring as muscular and neuromuscular performance are deeply influenced by acute changes in testosterone. This study examines acute changes in salivary testosterone among 63 Tsimane men ranging in age from 16-80 (mean 38.2) years during one-hour bouts of tree-chopping while clearing horticultural plots. The Tsimane forager-horticulturalists living in the Bolivian Amazon experience high energy expenditure associated with food production, have high levels of parasites and pathogens, and display significantly lower baseline salivary testosterone than age-matched US males. Mixed-effects models controlling for BMI and time of specimen collection reveal increased salivary testosterone (psoccer tournament in the same population reveals larger relative changes in testosterone following resource production (tree chopping), compared to competition (soccer). These findings highlight the importance of moving beyond a unidimensional focus on changes in testosterone and male-male aggression to investigate the importance of testosterone-behavior interactions across additional male fitness-related activities. Acutely increased testosterone during muscularly intensive horticultural food production may facilitate male productivity and provisioning.

  13. Serum testosterone levels after medical or surgical androgen deprivation: a comprehensive review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    Androgens and the androgen receptor play a role in the progression of prostate cancer. Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is a mainstay in the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer. ADT is expected to reduce serum testosterone levels from a normal level of about 500 to 600 ng/dl (17.3-20.8 nmol) down to castration levels. Traditionally, castration was considered to be achieved if testosterone levels were lowered to a threshold of 50 ng/dl (1.73 nmol/l), a definition determined more by measurement methods derived from the use of old assay methods than by evidence. Serum testosterone levels in three-quarter patients after surgical castration drop to less than 20 ng/dl (0.69 nmol/l). Ineffective suppression of testosterone is currently poorly recognized and may possibly have an effect of prostate cancer mortality. Persistent levels of serum testosterone after castration are mainly derived from adrenal androgens. Furthermore, the arrival of new therapies targeting androgen synthesis and androgen receptor activity has renewed interest on serum testosterone. This review discusses the biosynthetic pathway for androgen synthesis in humans and provides a comprehensive review of serum testosterone levels after surgical or medical castration. This review assesses serum testosterone levels after surgical castration and different pharmacologic castration in patients with prostate cancer under ADT, and ineffective testosterone suppression. The author proposes methods to better lower serum testosterone levels during ADT. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Biochemical Mechanisms and Microorganisms Involved in Anaerobic Testosterone Metabolism in Estuarine Sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Jen Shih

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Current knowledge on the biochemical mechanisms underlying microbial steroid metabolism in anaerobic ecosystems is extremely limited. Sulfate, nitrate, and iron [Fe (III] are common electron acceptors for anaerobes in estuarine sediments. Here, we investigated anaerobic testosterone metabolism in anaerobic sediments collected from the estuary of Tamsui River, Taiwan. The anaerobic sediment samples were spiked with testosterone (1 mM and individual electron acceptors (10 mM, including nitrate, Fe3+, and sulfate. The analysis of androgen metabolites indicated that testosterone biodegradation under denitrifying conditions proceeds through the 2,3-seco pathway, whereas testosterone biodegradation under iron-reducing conditions may proceed through an unidentified alternative pathway. Metagenomic analysis and PCR-based functional assays suggested that Thauera spp. were the major testosterone degraders in estuarine sediment samples incubated with testosterone and nitrate. Thauera sp. strain GDN1, a testosterone-degrading betaproteobacterium, was isolated from the denitrifying sediment sample. This strain tolerates a broad range of salinity (0–30 ppt. Although testosterone biodegradation did not occur under sulfate-reducing conditions, we observed the anaerobic biotransformation of testosterone to estrogens in some testosterone-spiked sediment samples. This is unprecedented since biotransformation of androgens to estrogens is known to occur only under oxic conditions. Our metagenomic analysis suggested that Clostridium spp. might play a role in this anaerobic biotransformation. These results expand our understanding of microbial metabolism of steroids under strictly anoxic conditions.

  15. Use of Exogenous Testosterone for the Treatment of Male Factor Infertility: A Survey of Nigerian Doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omisanjo, Olufunmilade Akinfolarin; Ikuerowo, Stephen Odunayo; Abdulsalam, Moruf Adekunle; Ajenifuja, Sheriff Olabode; Shittu, Khadijah Adebisi

    2017-01-01

    Though exogenous testosterone is known for its contraceptive effects in men, it is sometimes prescribed by medical practitioners for the treatment of male factor infertility in the mistaken belief that exogenous testosterone improves sperm count. The aim of this study was to evaluate the scope of testosterone use in the treatment of male factor infertility by medical practitioners in Lagos, Nigeria. A survey using a structured questionnaire was carried out amongst doctors attending a regular Continuing Medical Education (CME) programme in Lagos, Nigeria. There were 225 respondents. Most of the respondents (69.8%, n = 157) indicated that exogenous testosterone increases sperm count. Only 22 respondents (9.8%) indicated (correctly) that exogenous testosterone decreases sperm count. Seventy-seven respondents (34.2%) had prescribed some form of exogenous testosterone in the treatment of male factor infertility. The vast majority of respondents who had prescribed testosterone (81.8%, n = 63) thought exogenous testosterone increases sperm count. There was no statistically significant difference in the pattern of prescription across the respondents' specialty (p = 0.859) or practice type (p = 0.747). The misuse of exogenous testosterone for the treatment of male infertility was common amongst the respondents, with most of them wrongly believing that exogenous testosterone increases sperm count.

  16. Prediction of Long-term Post-operative Testosterone Replacement Requirement Based on the Pre-operative Tumor Volume and Testosterone Level in Pituitary Macroadenoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cheng-Chi; Chen, Chung-Ming; Lee, Shih-Tseng; Wei, Kuo-Chen; Pai, Ping-Ching; Toh, Cheng-Hong; Chuang, Chi-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Non-functioning pituitary macroadenomas (NFPAs) are the most prevalent pituitary macroadenomas. One common symptom of NFPA is hypogonadism, which may require long-term hormone replacement. This study was designed to clarify the association between the pre-operative tumor volume, pre-operative testosterone level, intraoperative resection status and the need of long-term post-operative testosterone replacement. Between 2004 and 2012, 45 male patients with NFPAs were enrolled in this prospective study. All patients underwent transsphenoidal surgery. Hypogonadism was defined as total serum testosterone levels of operative magnetic resonance images. We prescribed testosterone to patients with defined hypogonadism or clinical symptoms of hypogonadism. Hormone replacement for longer than 1 year was considered as long-term therapy. The need for long-term post-operative testosterone replacement was significantly associated with larger pre-operative tumor volume (p = 0.0067), and lower pre-operative testosterone level (p = 0.0101). There was no significant difference between the gross total tumor resection and subtotal resection groups (p = 0.1059). The pre-operative tumor volume and testosterone level impact post-operative hypogonadism. By measuring the tumor volume and the testosterone level and by performing adequate tumor resection, surgeons will be able to predict post-operative hypogonadism and the need for long-term hormone replacement. PMID:26537232

  17. A simple method for estimating equilibrium constants for serum testosterone binding resulting in an optimal free testosterone index for use in elderly men.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ross, H.A.; Meuleman, E.J.H.; Sweep, C.G.J.

    2005-01-01

    An algorithm was developed to evaluate equilibrium constants for testosterone (Te) and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) or albumin from serum free testosterone (FTe) measurements performed in a panel of 30 healthy elderly men by means of a near-reference method, i.e., symmetric dialysis (affinity

  18. Exogenous testosterone, cardiovascular events, and cardiovascular risk factors in elderly men: a review of trial data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Culley C; Rosano, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    Increasing interest in the use of supplemental testosterone has led to a heightened focus on the safety of testosterone in elderly males, with a particular emphasis on cardiovascular risk. To evaluate, based on available clinical trial data, whether exogenous testosterone administration in middle-aged to elderly men increases cardiovascular risk, and to assess whether these effects differ in hypogonadal vs. eugonadal subjects. MEDLINE search from 2004 to present of all meta-analyses and randomized, controlled clinical trials of testosterone administration in male subjects ≥ 45 years old that included measurements of cardiovascular outcomes or known cardiovascular risk factors before and after treatment with testosterone. The effects of testosterone treatment on cardiovascular events and cardiovascular risk factors were assessed. In clinical trials where testosterone has been used in patients with preexisting cardiovascular conditions, the effect on disease symptoms has typically been either neutral or beneficial. Based on clinical trial data, testosterone treatment has minimal effect on cardiovascular risk factors with the exception of an increase in hematocrit, which is consistently seen with testosterone treatment, and a decrease in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, which is an inconsistent response. Responses of hypogonadal and eugonadal men to testosterone treatment in terms of cardiovascular risk are generally similar. Testosterone treatment has not been reported to increase the incidence of cardiovascular events with the possible exception of one trial in frail elderly men. Available clinical trial data indicate that the use of testosterone in middle-aged to elderly men does not increase cardiovascular risk nor does it unfavorably modify cardiovascular risk profile. Prospective data from large, well-designed, long-term trials of testosterone treatment are lacking and will be required to verify the cardiovascular efficacy/safety of chronic treatment.

  19. Direct total and free testosterone measurement by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry across two different platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhea, Jeanne M; French, Deborah; Molinaro, Ross J

    2013-05-01

    To develop and validate liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods for the direct measurement of total and free testosterone in patient samples on two different analytical systems. An API 4000 and 5000 triple quadropoles were used and compared; the former is reported to be 3-5 times less sensitive, as was used to set the quantitation limits. Free testosterone was separated from the protein-bound fraction by equilibrium dialysis followed by derivatization. Either free or total testosterone, and a deuterated internal standard (d3-testosterone) were extracted by liquid-liquid extraction. The validation results were compared to two different clinical laboratories. The use of d2-testosterone was found to be unacceptable for our method. The total testosterone LC-MS/MS methods on both systems were linear over a wide concentration range of 1.5-2000ng/dL. Free testosterone was measured directly using equilibrium dialysis coupled LC-MS/MS and linear over the concentration range of 2.5-2500pg/mL. Good correlation (total testosterone, R(2)=0.96; free testosterone, R(2)=0.98) was observed between our LC-MS/MS systems and comparator laboratory. However, differences in absolute values for both free and total testosterone measurements were observed while a comparison to a second published LC-MS/MS method showed excellent correlation. Free and total testosterone measurements correlated well with clinical observations. To our knowledge, this is the first published validation of free and total testosterone methods across two analytical systems of different analytical sensitivities. A less sensitive system does not sacrifice analytical or clinical sensitivity to directly measure free and total testosterone in patient samples. Copyright © 2013 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Testosterone Lab Testing and Initiation in the United Kingdom and the United States, 2000 to 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongmei; Meier, Christoph R.; Sharpless, Julie L.; Stürmer, Til; Jick, Susan S.; Brookhart, M. Alan

    2014-01-01

    Context: New formulations, increased marketing, and wider recognition of declining testosterone levels in older age may have contributed to wider testosterone testing and supplementation in many countries. Objective: Our objective was to describe testosterone testing and testosterone treatment in men in the United Kingdom and United States. Design: This was a retrospective incident user cohort. Setting: We evaluated commercial and Medicare insurance claims from the United States and general practitioner healthcare records from the United Kingdom for the years 2000 through 2011. Participants: We identified 410 019 US men and 6858 UK men who initiated a testosterone formulation as well as 1 114 329 US men and 66 140 UK men with a new testosterone laboratory measurement. Main Outcome Measures: Outcome measures included initiation of any injected testosterone, implanted testosterone pellets, or prescribed transdermal or oral testosterone formulation. Results: Testosterone testing and supplementation have increased pronouncedly in the United States. Increased testing in the United Kingdom has identified more men with low levels, yet US testing has increased among men with normal levels. Men in the United States tend to initiate at normal levels more often than in the United Kingdom, and many men initiate testosterone without recent testing. Gels have become the most common initial treatment in both countries. Conclusions: Testosterone testing and use has increased over the past decade, particularly in the United States, with dramatic shifts from injections to gels. Substantial use is seen in men without recent testing and in US men with normal levels. Given widening use despite safety and efficacy questions, prescribers must consider the medical necessity of testosterone before initiation. PMID:24423353

  1. Testosterone as potential effective therapy in treatment of obesity in men with testosterone deficiency: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Farid; Aversa, Antonio; Isidori, Andrea M; Gooren, Louis J

    2012-03-01

    Obesity negatively affects human health. Limiting food intake, while producing some weight loss, results in reduction of lean body mass. Combined with moderate exercise it produces significant weight loss, maintains lean body mass and improves insulin sensitivity, but appears difficult to adhere to. Bariatric surgery is clinically effective for severely obese individuals compared with non-surgical interventions, but has limitations. Clinical and pre-clinical studies have implicated a role for testosterone (T) in the patho-physiology of obesity. A literature search in PubMed on the role of T in counteracting obesity and its complications. Obesity per se impairs testicular T biosynthesis. Furthermore, lower-than-normal T levels increase accumulation of fat depots, particularly abdominal (visceral) fat. This fat distribution is associated with development of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its sequels, namely type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). T treatment reverses fat accumulation with significant improvement in lean body mass, insulin sensitivity and biochemical profiles of cardiovascular risk. The contribution of T to combating obesity in hypogonadal men remains largely unknown to medical professionals managing patients with obesity and metabolic syndrome. Many physicians associate T treatment in men with risks for prostate malignancy and CVD. These beliefs are not supported by recent insights. While overall treatment of obesity is unsuccessful, T treatment of hypogonadal men may be effective, also because it improves mood, energy, reduces fatigue and may motivate men to adhere to diet and exercise regimens designed to combat obesity. © 2012 Bentham Science Publishers

  2. Testicular descent: INSL3, testosterone, genes and the intrauterine milieu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Katrine; Main, Katharina M; Toppari, Jorma

    2011-01-01

    Complete testicular descent is a sign of, and a prerequisite for, normal testicular function in adult life. The process of testis descent is dependent on gubernacular growth and reorganization, which is regulated by the Leydig cell hormones insulin-like peptide 3 (INSL3) and testosterone. Investi......Complete testicular descent is a sign of, and a prerequisite for, normal testicular function in adult life. The process of testis descent is dependent on gubernacular growth and reorganization, which is regulated by the Leydig cell hormones insulin-like peptide 3 (INSL3) and testosterone....... Investigation of the role of INSL3 and its receptor, relaxin-family peptide receptor 2 (RXFP2), has contributed substantially to our understanding of the hormonal control of testicular descent. Cryptorchidism is a common congenital malformation, which is seen in 2-9% of newborn boys, and confers an increased...

  3. Testosterone predicts initiation of coitus in adolescent females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, C T; Udry, J R; Suchindran, C

    1997-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to demonstrate, using longitudinal data, that the pubertal rise in testosterone (T) is associated with subsequent increases in female sexual interest and activity, and to examine these relationships within the context of a social control variable. Using data from a 2-year panel study of approximately 200 black and white postmenarcheal adolescent females, the relationships among semiannual measures of T, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), pubertal development, and self-reports of coital and noncoital sexual activity were assessed. Testosterone and changes in T were significantly related to the timing of subsequent transition to first coitus for blacks and whites. Frequency of attendance at religious services operated as a social control variable among white females, and was found to moderate T effects on sexual transition for this group. These results are consistent with a biosocial model proposing T as a causal factor in female sexual activity, and suggest that biological effects are moderated by relevant social variables.

  4. Association of metabolic syndrome with testosterone and inflammation in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramatilake, Chandima Madhu; Mohideen, Mohamed R; Pathirana, Chitra

    2015-07-01

    There is limited data on the assessment of relationship between sex hormones, metabolic syndrome (MS) and inflammation. Therefore, our objective was to examine the relationship between metabolic syndrome, testosterone and inflammation. It was a cross-sectional study which included 309 subjects in the age range of 30-70years. Blood was analyzed for plasma glucose, serum lipids, total testosterone (TT) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). There were 153 patients with metabolic syndrome and 156 without MS according to modified NCEP guidelines. Age, BMI, obesity, dyslipidaemia, smoking (OR=2.35, CI=1.35-4.09), LDL-Ch, low TT (OR=0.76, CI=0.38-1.52) and elevated hs-CRP (OR=1.56, CI=0.87-2.80) were significant independent predictors of MS (all Psyndrome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Partial Androgen Deficiency, Depression, and Testosterone Supplementation in Aging Men

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Amore; Marco Innamorati; Sara Costi; Leo Sher; Paolo Girardi; Maurizio Pompili

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this review was to summarize current knowledge on the correlation between depressive symptoms with a syndrome called partial androgen deficiency of the aging male (PADAM) and on the potential benefits of testosterone (T) treatment on mood. Despite, the causative nature of the relationship between low T levels and depression is uncertain, many hypogonadal men suffer from depression and vice versa several depressed patients are affected by hypogonadism. Supplementation with testoster...

  6. A testosterone specific competitive enzyme immunoassay for monitoring water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uraipong, Chatchaporn; Wong, Victor; Lee, Nanju Alice

    2013-05-01

    Testosterone, an androgen and a primary male sex hormone, migrates through the environment in ways which could pose a threat to water quality and, subsequently, environmental and human health. This paper describes the development of a direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that is capable of measuring testosterone with high specificity. The testosterone ELISA displayed the IC20 (as the limit of detection) and IC50 values of 0.05 ± 0.01 μg L(-1) and 0.33 ± 0.18 μg L(-1), respectively. In addition, the assay showed metal ions, pH, and high humic acids, and sample clean-up to remove such interference was necessary before analysis. The analyses of 50 surface water samples collected in rural and urban areas in New South Wales, Australia showed that ELISA results correlated well with the androgenic activity measured by the recombinant yeast-based androgen screen assay.

  7. The effects of prenatal testosterone on wages: Evidence from Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nye, John V C; Bryukhanov, Maksym; Kochergina, Ekaterina; Orel, Ekaterina; Polyachenko, Sergiy; Yudkevich, Maria

    2017-02-01

    Is in utero exposure to testosterone correlated with earnings? The question matters for understanding determinants of wage differences that have attracted so much attention among economists in the past decade. Evidence indicates that markers for early testosterone exposure are correlated with traits like risk-taking and aggressiveness. But it is not at all clear how such findings might map into labor market success. We combine unique data from the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey with measured markers (2D:4D ratios) for testosterone exposure and find that lower digit ratios (higher T) correlate with higher wages for women and for men, when controlling for age, education and occupation. There is also some evidence of a potential non-linear, inverse U-effect of digit ratios on wages but this is sensitive to choice of specification. These findings are consistent with earlier work on prenatal T and success in careers (Coates et al., 2009) but inconsistent with the work of Gielen et al. (2016) who find differing effects for men and women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. ENDOCRINE EVALUATION OF ATHLETE FOR TESTOSTERONE OR ITS ANALOGUES ABUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joško Osredkar

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Doping involves the use of substances and methods prohibited by international and national sports institutions. The use of certain substances and methods is harmful to the human organism, so all sports organisations are trying to protect athletes from the harmful side effects of such substances and methods.Methods. The article deals with special protocol, which is used in the case, when the testosterone/epitestosterone ratio in urine is higher than 6 and less then 10. When establishing the use of testosterone or analogues, ketoconazol is used. If after the application the presence of a testosterone (T to epitestosterone (E ratio is greater than six (6 to one (1, there is an evidence of doping offence.Conclusions. In the case of T/E greater than 6, it is mandatory that the relevant medical authority conducts an investigation before the sample is declared positive. A full report should be written and should include a review of previous tests, subsequent tests and any results of endocrine investigations.

  9. Testosterone replacement, cardiovascular system and risk factors in the aging male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigna, G B; Bergami, E

    2005-01-01

    Investigations concerning the role of testosterone replacement on cardiovascular risk show conflicting results. Treatments with supraphysiological doses seem detrimental in animal models and men. On the other hand, cross-sectional, prospective and angiographic studies frequently find an inverse, favorable relationship between plasma testosterone and cardiovascular events. Testosterone replacement therapy in the hypogonadic elderly has a positive or at least neutral effect on several coronary disease risk factors. Testosterone appears to decrease LDL-cholesterol without adversely affecting HDL cholesterol, and improve insulin sensibility and the thrombotic/fibrinolytic balance; testosterone does not negatively influence the inflammatory response and arterial wall vasoreactivity. These findings provide a measure of reassurance concerning potential adverse heart effects of testosterone substitutional therapy in older men, even if more specific trials than reported are needed to overcome residual suspicions.

  10. The effect of exogenous testosterone on ectoparasite loads in free-ranging western fence lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Nicholas B; Vredevoe, Larisa K; Taylor, Emily N

    2012-08-01

    Numerous factors impact the dynamics of host-parasite relationships, such as host sex, hormonal state, reproductive condition, host health, and behavior. In particular, males from a variety of taxa frequently carry heavier parasite burdens than females, particularly during breeding season when testosterone concentrations are elevated. Using western fence lizards (Sceloporus occidentalis), we tested the hypothesis that high circulating testosterone concentrations in male lizards induce high tick and mite loads. We implanted male lizards with either testosterone or control implants in the field during the spring, when tick and mite loads are highest. One month later, testosterone-implanted males had significantly higher tick loads, but lower mite loads, than control males. These results suggest that testosterone differentially impacts ectoparasitic acarine burdens. Testosterone may modulate aspects of lizard physiology and behavior that enhance or diminish parasitism by certain acarines during periods of peak reproductive effort. © 2012 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  11. Free testosterone and free dihydrotestosterone throughout the life span of men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stárka, Luboslav; Pospísilová, Hana; Hill, Martin

    2009-08-01

    The dihydrotestosterone/testosterone ratio seems to be an important factor in the expression of androgenic activity, especially in the prostate and pilosebaceous unit. Whereas the decline of testosterone in aging men is well known, controversial data can be found concerning the age dependence of dihydrotestosterone levels. Hormonal values from our database served for the construction of the life span curve of free dihydrotestosterone/free testosterone ratio. The results of testosterone, dihydrotestosterone and SHBG determination obtained by immunoassays from 13,152 male patients were used for the calculation of free steroid content and the construction of the age dependence curves. After initial high free dihydrotestosterone: free testosterone ratio in infancy it decreases at the start of puberty and remains practically without change from approx. 20 years of age till senescence. The course of free dihydrotestosterone/free testosterone ratio demonstrates the role of dihydrotestosterone for androgen functions especially in prepubertal age.

  12. Influence of maternal testosterone on the strategies in the open field behaviour of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krsková, Lucia; Talaroviová, Alzbeta

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to characterize the influence of testosterone administered to pregnant females on offsprings postnatal behavioral strategies in the open field. The influence of maternal testosterone on behaviour of 23 day old male and female offsprings was studied in a 20-minute open field test. A total of 9 behavioural events were compared between a control (male n=12, female n=8) and a testosterone group (male n=9, female n=9). Dynamics and patterns of association of these behavioural events were analyzed. The testosterone group was prenatally exposed to testosterone (a single intramuscular injection of 2.5 mg testosteroni isobutyras on gestation day 14). Male offsprings exposed prenatally to testosterone displayed significantly high levels of ambulation (Pair (Pair (Pair (Pdefecation (Popen field strategies.

  13. Salivary testosterone change following monetary wins and losses predicts future financial risk-taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apicella, Coren L; Dreber, Anna; Mollerstrom, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    While baseline testosterone has recently been implicated in risk-taking in men, less is known about the effects of changing levels of testosterone on financial risk. Here we attempt to influence testosterone in men by having them win or lose money in a chance-based competition against another male opponent. We employ two treatments where we vary the amount of money at stake so that we can directly compare winners to losers who earn the same amount, thereby abstracting from income effects. We find that men who experience a greater increase in bioactive testosterone take on more risk, an association that remains when controlling for whether the participant won the competition. In fact, whether subjects won the competition did not predict future risk. These results suggest that testosterone change, and thus individual differences in testosterone reactivity, rather than the act of winning or losing, influence financial risk-taking. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Lack of melatonin action on testosterone production by superfused rat interstitial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrige, J F; Thieblot, P; Boucher, D

    1984-09-01

    The direct effect of increasing doses of melatonin (10(-8) to 10(-5) M) on testosterone production by superfused rat interstitial cells was studied. A constant basal testosterone output was observed for approximately 3 h after the initial high release. A continuous hypothalamo-pituitary stimulation induced a rapid testosterone response reaching peak values in 40-60 min, then decreasing progressively. Basal testosterone release was not modified by 20 or 140 min melatonin infusions. Furthermore, melatonin induced no alteration of the stimulative testosterone response when directly infusing the cells. This study demonstrates that melatonin in vitro has no direct effect on testosterone production by adult rat interstitial cells. It would seem, therefore, that the well known inhibitory influence of melatonin on rat reproductive function is not produced by a direct effect on Leydig cells.

  15. Lack of evidence for meteorological effects on infradian dynamics of testosterone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celec, Peter; Smreková, Lucia; Ostatníková, Daniela; Čabajová, Zlata; Hodosy, Július; Kúdela, Matúš

    2009-09-01

    Climatic factors are known to influence the endocrine system. Previous studies have shown that circannual seasonal variations of testosterone might be partly explained by changes in air temperature. Whether infradian variations are affected by meteorological factors is unknown. To analyze possible effects of meteorological parameters on infradian variations of salivary testosterone levels in both sexes, daily salivary testosterone levels were measured during 1 month in 14 men and 17 women. A correlation analysis between hormonal levels and selected meteorological parameters was performed. The results indicate that high testosterone levels are loosely associated with cold, sunny and dry weather in both sexes. However, only the correlations between testosterone and air temperature (men) and actual cloudiness (women) were statistically significant ( p testosterone levels remain unclear. Further longer-term studies concentrating on air temperature, cloudiness and average relative humidity in relation to the sex hormone axis are needed.

  16. Testosterone and modifiable risk factors associated with diabetes in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlantis, Evan; Lange, Kylie; Martin, Sean; Haren, Matthew T; Taylor, Anne; O'Loughlin, Peter D; Marshall, Villis; Wittert, Gary A

    2011-03-01

    The role of endogenous testosterone in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus remains vague. We investigated whether associations between endogenous testosterone and diabetes prevalence in men could be partially explained by modifiable risk factors. A random population-based cross-sectional study of 1195 men aged 35-80 years living in the north-west regions of Adelaide, Australia. Data collections occurred between 2002 and 2005, and response rate was 45.1%. Diabetes (non-specific) was classified by either: (1) self-report for doctor diagnosis of diabetes; (2) prescription medication for diabetes; (3) fasting plasma glucose ≥ 7 mmol/L; or (4) glycosylated haemoglobin ≥ 6.2%. Logistic regressions were used to estimate odds ratios (OR [with 95% confidence intervals]) for diabetes, with stepwise adjustments for demographic, lifestyle, and clinical factors. Diabetes prevalence was positively associated with age groups 45-54 years (2.8 [1.4, 5.8]), 55-64 years (3.9 [1.9, 8.3]) and ≥ 65 years (4.0 [1.8, 8.9]), lowest income group (1.8 [1.0, 3.4]), ex-smoker (1.8 [1.2, 2.9]), lowest (3.2 [1.9, 5.5]) and middle (1.9 [1.1, 3.4]) alcohol tertiles, cardiovascular disease (1.9 [1.2, 2.8]), metabolic syndrome (4.0 [2.6, 6.1]), and lowest plasma total testosterone tertile (1.8 [1.1, 3.0]), but negatively associated with middle (0.5 [0.3, 0.8]) and highest (0.4 [0.3, 0.7]) sugar intake tertiles, arthritis (0.6 [0.3, 1.0]), and elevated LDL cholesterol (0.5 [0.3, 0.8]); ORs showed an inverted 'U' shape for middle and highest voiding lower urinary tract symptoms tertiles. Body composition, muscle strength, and cardio-metabolic factors partially explained the association between low plasma total testosterone and diabetes. Plasma total testosterone was inversely and independently associated with diabetes prevalence, that might have been partially explained by several modifiable risk factors. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Testosterone restoration using enclomiphene citrate in men with secondary hypogonadism: a pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic study

    OpenAIRE

    Wiehle, Ronald; Cunningham, Glenn R; Pitteloud, Nelly; Wike, Jenny; Hsu, Kuang; Fontenot, Gregory K; Rosner, Michele; Dwyer, Andrew; Podolski, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To determine the pharmacodynamic profile of serum total testosterone and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels in men with secondary hypogonadism after initial and chronic daily oral doses of enclomiphene citrate vs transdermal testosterone. To determine the effects of daily oral doses of enclomiphene citrate in comparison with transdermal testosterone on other hormones and markers in men with secondary hypogonadism. Patients and Methods This was a randomized, single-blind, two-centre, p...

  18. Sex Hormone Binding Globulin Modifies Testosterone Action and Metabolism in Prostate Cancer Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Huika; Pham, Thy; McWhinney, Brett C.; Ungerer, Jacobus P.; Pretorius, Carel J.; Richard, Derek J.; Mortimer, Robin H.; d'Emden, Michael C.; Richard, Kerry

    2016-01-01

    Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) is the major serum carrier of sex hormones. However, growing evidence suggests that SHBG is internalised and plays a role in regulating intracellular hormone action. This study was to determine whether SHBG plays a role in testosterone uptake, metabolism, and action in the androgen sensitive LNCaP prostate cancer cell line. Internalisation of SHBG and testosterone, the effects of SHBG on testosterone uptake, metabolism, regulation of androgen responsive gen...

  19. Deregulated hepatic metabolism exacerbates impaired testosterone production in Mrp4-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Jessica A; Cheepala, Satish B; Wang, Yao; Neale, Geoff; Adachi, Masashi; Nachagari, Deepa; Leggas, Mark; Zhao, Wenchen; Boyd, Kelli; Venkataramanan, Raman; Schuetz, John D

    2012-04-27

    The physiological role of multidrug resistance protein 4 (Mrp4, Abcc4) in the testes is unknown. We found that Mrp4 is expressed primarily in mouse and human Leydig cells; however, there is no current evidence that Mrp4 regulates testosterone production. We investigated its role in Leydig cells, where testosterone production is regulated by cAMP, an intracellular messenger formed when the luteinizing hormone (LH) receptor is activated. Because Mrp4 regulates cAMP, we compared testosterone levels in Mrp4(-/-) and Mrp4(+/+) mice. Young Mrp4(-/-) mice had significantly impaired gametogenesis, reduced testicular testosterone, and disruption of Leydig cell cAMP homeostasis. Both young and adult mice had impaired testosterone production. In Mrp4(-/-) primary Leydig cells treated with LH, intracellular cAMP production was impaired and cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation was strongly attenuated. Notably, expression of CREB target genes that regulate testosterone biosynthesis was reduced in Mrp4(-/-) Leydig cells in vivo. Therefore, Mrp4 is required for normal Leydig cell testosterone production. However, adult Mrp4(-/-) mice are fertile, with a normal circulating testosterone concentration. The difference is that in 3-week-old Mrp4(-/-) mice, disruption of gonadal testosterone production up-regulates hepatic Cyp2b10, a known testosterone-metabolizing enzyme. Therefore, defective testicular testosterone production de-regulates hepatic Cyp-mediated testosterone metabolism to disrupt gametogenesis. These findings have important implications for understanding the side effects of therapeutics that disrupt Mrp4 function and are reported to alter androgen production.

  20. Deregulated Hepatic Metabolism Exacerbates Impaired Testosterone Production in Mrp4-deficient Mice*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Jessica A.; Cheepala, Satish B.; Wang, Yao; Neale, Geoff; Adachi, Masashi; Nachagari, Deepa; Leggas, Mark; Zhao, Wenchen; Boyd, Kelli; Venkataramanan, Raman; Schuetz, John D.

    2012-01-01

    The physiological role of multidrug resistance protein 4 (Mrp4, Abcc4) in the testes is unknown. We found that Mrp4 is expressed primarily in mouse and human Leydig cells; however, there is no current evidence that Mrp4 regulates testosterone production. We investigated its role in Leydig cells, where testosterone production is regulated by cAMP, an intracellular messenger formed when the luteinizing hormone (LH) receptor is activated. Because Mrp4 regulates cAMP, we compared testosterone levels in Mrp4−/− and Mrp4+/+ mice. Young Mrp4−/− mice had significantly impaired gametogenesis, reduced testicular testosterone, and disruption of Leydig cell cAMP homeostasis. Both young and adult mice had impaired testosterone production. In Mrp4−/− primary Leydig cells treated with LH, intracellular cAMP production was impaired and cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation was strongly attenuated. Notably, expression of CREB target genes that regulate testosterone biosynthesis was reduced in Mrp4−/− Leydig cells in vivo. Therefore, Mrp4 is required for normal Leydig cell testosterone production. However, adult Mrp4−/− mice are fertile, with a normal circulating testosterone concentration. The difference is that in 3-week-old Mrp4−/− mice, disruption of gonadal testosterone production up-regulates hepatic Cyp2b10, a known testosterone-metabolizing enzyme. Therefore, defective testicular testosterone production de-regulates hepatic Cyp-mediated testosterone metabolism to disrupt gametogenesis. These findings have important implications for understanding the side effects of therapeutics that disrupt Mrp4 function and are reported to alter androgen production. PMID:22375007

  1. Endogenous Testosterone and Exogenous Oxytocin Modulate Attentional Processing of Infant Faces

    OpenAIRE

    Holtfrerich, Sarah K. C.; Schwarz, Katharina A.; Sprenger, Christian; Reimers, Luise; Diekhof, Esther K.

    2016-01-01

    Evidence indicates that hormones modulate the intensity of maternal care. Oxytocin is known for its positive influence on maternal behavior and its important role for childbirth. In contrast, testosterone promotes egocentric choices and reduces empathy. Further, testosterone decreases during parenthood which could be an adaptation to increased parental investment. The present study investigated the interaction between testosterone and oxytocin in attentional control and their influence on att...

  2. A condition dependent link between testosterone and disease resistance in the house finch.

    OpenAIRE

    Duckworth, R A; Mendonça, M T; Hill, G E

    2001-01-01

    Testosterone has recently been proposed as a link between male quality and health and the expression of sexual traits. We investigated the relationship between testosterone and measures of the individual condition and health of males in a natural population of house finches (Carpodacus mexicanus). We also conducted a captive experiment in order to test for the effects of testosterone on resistance to coccidia, which is a common parasite of house finches. Free-living males in better condition ...

  3. Genetic influence on the association between bone mineral density and testosterone in Korean men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, J; Sung, J; Lee, K; Song, Y-M

    2016-02-01

    Low bone mineral density (BMD) leads to an increased risk of osteoporotic fracture. Total testosterone and free testosterone were positively associated with BMD, which was significantly influenced by the additive genetic effects. This cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate an association between testosterone and BMD and the influence of genetic factors on the association. Study subjects were 1070 Korean men including 144 pairs of monozygotic twins and their family members. Levels of serum total testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were measured by chemiluminescence immunoassay. Calculated free testosterone (cFT) was then determined using Vermeulen's method. BMDs of the whole body and specific regions were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Linear mixed regression analyses showed that total testosterone and cFT were positively associated with BMD at most regions, after considering intra-familial relationship and covariates including fat mass, lean mass, and SHBG. SHBG had an inverse association with BMD at the pelvis but not with the BMD at other regions after adjusting for all covariates and cFT. Co-twin control analysis in monozygotic twins found no association between pairwise difference of testosterone and pairwise difference of BMD. Bivariate variance component analysis showed that both total testosterone and cFT had a significant positive additive genetic correlation with BMD at rib, spine, and arm, whereas SHBG had no significant genetic correlation with BMD. Inverse environmental correlations were seen between total testosterone and BMDs at the lumbar spine and arm. This Korean twin and family study showed that both total testosterone and free testosterone were positively associated with BMD and that genetic effects were significant on the association between testosterone and BMD.

  4. Testosterone and DHEA activate the glucose metabolism-related signaling pathway in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Koji; Iemitsu, Motoyuki; Aizawa, Katsuji; Ajisaka, Ryuichi

    2008-05-01

    Circulating dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is converted to testosterone or estrogen in the target tissues. Recently, we demonstrated that skeletal muscles are capable of locally synthesizing circulating DHEA to testosterone and estrogen. Furthermore, testosterone is converted to 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) by 5alpha-reductase and exerts biophysiological actions through binding to androgen receptors. However, it remains unclear whether skeletal muscle can synthesize DHT from testosterone and/or DHEA and whether these hormones affect glucose metabolism-related signaling pathway in skeletal muscles. We hypothesized that locally synthesized DHT from testosterone and/or DHEA activates glucose transporter-4 (GLUT-4)-regulating pathway in skeletal muscles. The aim of the present study was to clarify whether DHT is synthesized from testosterone and/or DHEA in cultured skeletal muscle cells and whether these hormones affect the GLUT-4-related signaling pathway in skeletal muscles. In the present study, the expression of 5alpha-reductase mRNA was detected in rat cultured skeletal muscle cells, and the addition of testosterone or DHEA increased intramuscular DHT concentrations. Addition of testosterone or DHEA increased GLUT-4 protein expression and its translocation. Furthermore, Akt and protein kinase C-zeta/lambda (PKC-zeta/lambda) phosphorylations, which are critical in GLUT-4-regulated signaling pathways, were enhanced by testosterone or DHEA addition. Testosterone- and DHEA-induced increases in both GLUT-4 expression and Akt and PKC-zeta/lambda phosphorylations were blocked by a DHT inhibitor. Finally, the activities of phosphofructokinase and hexokinase, main glycolytic enzymes, were enhanced by testosterone or DHEA addition. These findings suggest that skeletal muscle is capable of synthesizing DHT from testosterone, and that DHT activates the glucose metabolism-related signaling pathway in skeletal muscle cells.

  5. Testosterone Therapy in a Man with Intermediate-risk Prostate Cancer: Pro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgentaler, Abraham

    2017-10-05

    The original prohibition of testosterone therapy for men with prostate cancer was based on outdated concepts developed more than 70 yr ago. Current evidence, although limited, provides consistently reassuring results that testosterone therapy may be reasonably offered to many men with prostate cancer. These men may experience valuable benefits in quality of life if they suffer from symptoms of testosterone deficiency (hypogonadism). Copyright © 2017 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Testosterone Deficiency Causes Endothelial Dysfunction via Elevation of Asymmetric Dimethylarginine and Oxidative Stress in Castrated Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Tomoya; Hotta, Yuji; Maeda, Yasuhiro; Kimura, Kazunori

    2017-12-01

    Testosterone is believed to mediate the penile erectile response by producing adequate nitric oxide; therefore, testosterone deficiency results in erectile dysfunction through decreased nitric oxide bioavailability. However, the mechanisms underlying endothelial dysfunction in testosterone deficiency remain unclear. To investigate the mechanism of endothelial dysfunction in a rat model of testosterone deficiency. Rats were distributed into 3 groups: castrated (Cast), castrated and supplemented with testosterone (Cast + T), and sham (Sham). In the Cast + T group, castrated rats were treated daily with subcutaneous testosterone (3 mg/kg daily) for 4 weeks; Sham and Cast rats received only the vehicle. Erectile function using intracavernosal pressure and mean arterial pressure measurements after electrical stimulation of the cavernous nerve, endothelial function using isometric tension, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) levels using ultra-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry, and inflammatory biomarker expression were performed 4 weeks after the operation. In the Cast group, the ratio of intracavernosal pressure to mean arterial pressure significantly decreased, acetylcholine-induced relaxation was lower, and serum ADMA, oxidative stress, and inflammation biomarker levels were significantly increased (P Testosterone injection significantly improved each of these parameters (P testosterone deficiency on erectile function and the effect of testosterone replacement therapy. This study provides evidence of the influence of testosterone deficiency on endothelial function by investigating ADMA and oxidative stress. A major limitation of this study is the lack of a direct link of increased ADMA by oxidative stress to inflammation. Testosterone deficiency increased not only ADMA levels but also oxidative stress and inflammation in castrated rats, which can cause damage to the corpus cavernosum, resulting in erectile dysfunction. Kataoka T, Hotta Y

  7. Suppression of endogenous testosterone production attenuates the response to strength training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvorning, Thue; Andersen, Marianne; Brixen, Kim

    2006-01-01

    We hypothesized that suppression of endogenous testosterone would inhibit the adaptations to strength training in otherwise healthy men. Twenty-two young men with minor experience with strength training participated in this randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded intervention study......-repetition maximum (RM) loads, 3/wk]. A strength test, blood sampling, and whole body DEXA scan were performed at weeks 4 and 12. Endogenous testosterone decreased significantly (P ... that endogenous testosterone is of paramount importance to the adaptation to strength training....

  8. Low Free Testosterone Is Associated with Hypogonadal Signs and Symptoms in Men with Normal Total Testosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonio, Leen; Wu, Frederick C W; O'Neill, Terence W; Pye, Stephen R; Ahern, Tomas B; Laurent, Michaël R; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo T; Lean, Michael E J; Keevil, Brian G; Rastrelli, Giulia; Forti, Gianni; Bartfai, György; Casanueva, Felipe F; Kula, Krzysztof; Punab, Margus; Giwercman, Aleksander; Claessens, Frank; Decallonne, Brigitte; Vanderschueren, Dirk

    2016-07-01

    During aging, total testosterone (TT) declines and SHBG increases, resulting in a greater decrease in calculated free T (cFT). Currently, guidelines suggest using TT to diagnose androgen deficiency and to reserve cFT only for men with borderline TT. Our objective was to investigate if either low cFT or low TT is more strongly associated with androgen-related clinical endpoints. A total of 3334 community-dwelling men, aged 40-79 years, were included in this study. Differences in clinical variables between the referent group of men with both normal TT (≥10.5 nmol/liter) and normal cFT (≥220 pmol/liter) with those who had normal TT/low cFT, low TT/normal cFT, and low TT/low cFT were assessed by regression models adjusted for age, center, body mass index, and comorbidities. A total of 2641 men had normal TT (18.4 ± 5.5 [mean ± SD] nmol/liter)/normal cFT (326 ± 74 pmol/liter), 277 men had normal TT (14.2 ± 3.7)/low cFT (194 ± 23), 96 men had low TT (9.6 ± 0.7)/normal cFT (247 ± 20), and 320 men had low TT (7.8 ± 2.5)/low cFT (160 ± 55). Men with normal TT/low cFT were older and in poorer health. They had higher SHBG and LH and reported more sexual and physical symptoms, whereas hemoglobin and bone ultrasound parameters were lower compared to the referent group. Men with low TT/normal cFT were younger and more obese. They had lower SHBG, but LH was normal, whereas features of androgen deficiency were lacking. Low cFT, even in the presence of normal TT, is associated with androgen deficiency-related symptoms. Normal cFT, despite low TT, is not associated with cognate symptoms; therefore, cFT levels should be assessed in men with suspected hypogonadal symptoms.

  9. Is rising obesity causing a secular (age-independent decline in testosterone among American men?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Mazur

    Full Text Available The testosterone of men in industrial societies peaks in their twenties and tends to decline with increasing age. Apart from this individual-level decline, there have been reports of a secular (age-independent population-level decline in testosterone among American and Scandinavian men during the past few decades, possibly an indication of declining male reproductive health. It has been suggested that both declines in testosterone (individual-level and population-level are due to increasing male obesity because men in industrial society tend to add body fat as they age, and overall rates of obesity are increasing. Using an unusually large and lengthy longitudinal dataset (991 US Air Force veterans examined in six cycles over 20 years, we investigate the relationship of obesity to individual and population-level declines in testosterone. Over twenty years of study, longitudinal decline in mean testosterone was at least twice what would be expected from cross-sectional estimates of the aging decline. Men who put on weight intensified their testosterone decline, some greatly so, but even among those who held their weight constant or lost weight during the study, mean testosterone declined 117 ng/dl (19% over 20 years. We have not identified the reason for secular decline in testosterone, but we exclude increasing obesity as a sufficient or primary explanation, and we deny the supposition that men who avoid excessive weight will maintain their youthful levels of testosterone.

  10. Testosterone prevents protein loss via the hepatic urea cycle in human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Teresa; Poljak, Anne; McLean, Mark; Bahl, Neha; Ho, Ken K Y; Birzniece, Vita

    2017-04-01

    The urea cycle is a rate-limiting step for amino acid nitrogen elimination. The rate of urea synthesis is a true indicator of whole-body protein catabolism. Testosterone reduces protein and nitrogen loss. The effect of testosterone on hepatic urea synthesis in humans has not been studied. To determine whether testosterone reduces hepatic urea production. An open-label study. Eight hypogonadal men were studied at baseline, and after two weeks of transdermal testosterone replacement (Testogel, 100 mg/day). The rate of hepatic urea synthesis was measured by the urea turnover technique using stable isotope methodology, with 15 N 2 -urea as tracer. Whole-body leucine turnover was measured, from which leucine rate of appearance (LRa), an index of protein breakdown and leucine oxidation (Lox), a measure of irreversible protein loss, were calculated. Testosterone administration significantly reduced the rate of hepatic urea production (from 544.4 ± 71.8 to 431.7 ± 68.3 µmol/min; P  Testosterone treatment significantly reduced net protein loss, as measured by percent Lox/LRa, by 19.3 ± 5.8% ( P  testosterone administration ( r 2  = 0.59, P  Testosterone replacement reduces protein loss and hepatic urea synthesis. We conclude that testosterone regulates whole-body protein metabolism by suppressing the urea cycle. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  11. The Effects of Testosterone on Oxidative Stress Markers in Mice with Spinal Cord Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Choobineh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Spinal cord injury (SCI causes infertility in male patients through erectile dysfunction, ejaculatory dysfunction, semen and hormone abnormalities. Oxidative stress (OS is involved in poor semen quality and subsequent infertility in males with SCI. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of SCI on the level of testosterone hormone. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, we evaluated the effects of exogenous testosterone on the activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPx as well as the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA and protein carbonylation (PCO, as markers of OS, in 10 groups of SCI mice. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC was determined using the 2,29-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline- 6-sulfonic acid (ABTS radical cation assay. Results: Exogenous testosterone administration in mice with SCI significantly reduced SOD and GPx enzyme activities and MDA level. There was no significant decrease in PCO content. In addition, TAC remarkably increased in the sham and SCI groups not treated with testosterone but remained unchanged in all other experimental groups. Exogenous testosterone also reduced serum testosterone levels in all groups except the positive control group. Conclusion: Our cumulative data indicated that SCI could cause sterility by disturbing the plasmatic testosterone balance. The normal level of endogenous testosterone was not completely restored by exogenous testosterone administration.

  12. Testosterone, plumage colouration and extra-pair paternity in male North-American barn swallows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cas Eikenaar

    Full Text Available In most monogamous bird species, circulating testosterone concentration in males is elevated around the social female's fertile period. Variation in elevated testosterone concentrations among males may have a considerable impact on fitness. For example, testosterone implants enhance behaviours important for social and extra-pair mate choice. However, little is known about the relationship between natural male testosterone concentration and sexual selection. To investigate this relationship we measured testosterone concentration and sexual signals (ventral plumage colour and tail length, and determined within and extra-pair fertilization success in male North American barn swallows (Hirundo rustica erythrogaster. Dark rusty coloured males had higher testosterone concentrations than drab males. Extra-pair paternity was common (42% and 31% of young in 2009 and 2010, respectively, but neither within- nor extra-pair fertilization success was related to male testosterone concentration. Dark rusty males were less often cuckolded, but did not have higher extra-pair or total fertilization success than drab males. Tail length did not affect within- or extra-pair fertilization success. Our findings suggest that, in North American barn swallows, male testosterone concentration does not play a significant direct role in female mate choice and sexual selection. Possibly plumage colour co-varies with a male behavioural trait, such as aggressiveness, that reduces the chance of cuckoldry. This could also explain why dark males have higher testosterone concentrations than drab males.

  13. Inhibitory effect of melatonin on testosterone synthesis is mediated via GATA-4/SF-1 transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Fenju; Zhang, Jie; Zan, Linsen; Guo, Weiqiang; Wang, Jin; Chen, Lili; Cao, Yi; Shen, Ouxi; Tong, Jian

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to elucidate whether the GATA-4/SF-1 signalling pathway is involved in the inhibitory effects of melatonin on testosterone production in both the TM3 Leydig cell line and in C57BL/6J mice. In-vitro experiments demonstrated that melatonin treatment significantly reduced testosterone levels in cell culture medium (P testosterone production (P testosterone production are mediated via down-regulation of GATA-4 and SF-1 expression. Copyright © 2015 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Testosterone and Jamaican Fathers : Exploring Links to Relationship Dynamics and Paternal Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Peter B; Reece, Jody; Coore-Desai, Charlene; Dinall, Twana; Pellington, Sydonnie; Samms-Vaughan, Maureen

    2017-06-01

    This paper investigates relationships between men's testosterone and family life in a sample of approximately 350 Jamaican fathers of children 18-24 months of age. The study recognizes the role of testosterone as a proximate mechanism coordinating and reflecting male life history allocations within specific family and cultural contexts. A sample of Jamaican fathers and/or father figures reported to an assessment center for an interview based on a standardized questionnaire and provided a saliva sample for measuring testosterone level. Outcomes measured include subject demographics such as age and relationship status as well as partnership quality and sexuality and paternal attitudes and behavior. The variation in these fathers' relationship status (e.g., married co-residential fathers, fathers in new non-residential relationships) was not associated with men's testosterone. Too few stepfathers participated to enable a direct test of the prediction that stepfathers would have higher testosterone than biological fathers, although fathers who reported living with partners' (but not his own) children did not have higher testosterone than fathers not reporting residing with a non-biological child. Fathers' relationship quality was negatively related to their testosterone. Measures of paternal attitudes and behavior were not related to fathers' testosterone. Consistent with previous ethnography, this sample of Jamaican fathers exhibited variable life history profiles, including residential status. We discuss why fathers' relationship quality was found to be negatively related to their testosterone level, but other predictions were not upheld.

  15. The hidden dimensions of the competition effect: basal cortisol and basal testosterone jointly predict changes in salivary testosterone after social victory in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilioli, Samuele; Watson, Neil V

    2012-11-01

    Dominance struggles appear to affect hormone concentrations in many mammalian species, such that higher concentrations of testosterone are seen in winners of competitions, compared to losers. This so-called, "competition effect" has received inconsistent empirical support, suggesting that additional psychological (e.g., mood), situational (i.e., nature of the competition) and physiological (e.g., cortisol) variables might intervene in modulating testosterone fluctuations after social contests. We investigated possible interactions between the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) stress axis in predicting transient changes in testosterone after social victory or defeat on a familiar competitive task. In particular, the present study examined the dual-hormone hypothesis - proposing that baseline cortisol potently modulates the competition effect (Mehta and Josephs, 2010) - in a sample of healthy young men engaged in head-to-head competition on a widely played commercial videogame, Tetris. We found a significant interaction between HPG and HPA axes status and the competition effect on testosterone in the randomly assigned videogame winners, such that winners with a pre-competition combination of high baseline testosterone and low baseline cortisol exhibited significantly greater post-competition testosterone concentrations. The randomly assigned videogame losers showed significantly decreased post-competition levels of testosterone. Possible biological and evolutionary mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The role of testosterone in sexuality and paraphilia--a neurobiological approach. Part II: testosterone and paraphilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Kirsten; Fromberger, Peter; Stolpmann, Georg; Müller, Jürgen Leo

    2011-11-01

    Antiandrogen therapy has been used for 30 years to treat paraphilic patients and sexual offenders. Yet the therapeutic success of antiandrogens is uncertain. Furthermore, there is still a lack of comprehensive knowledge about the effects of androgen-lowering therapy in paraphilic patients. We discuss endocrinological, neurobiological, and therapeutic aspects of paraphilia with the aim of integrating these on the basis of the current neurobiological and clinical knowledge on testosterone that was set out in Part I of this review. Our review of the human literature comprises the current knowledge about the neurobiology of paraphilia and the known endocrinological, pathophysiological, and genetic aspects of this disorder. The role of testosterone is discussed. A survey of antiandrogen therapy and its outcome in paraphilic patients and sex offenders is provided. Although not all data are consistent, current imaging research suggests that structural and functional changes in pedophilia appear for the most part in brain regions also involved in sexual functions. Not exclusively testosterone but also some other endocrinological and neurochemical parameters could be disturbed in pedophilic patients and child molesters; these include changes in hypothalamic-pituitary function, prolactin levels, and dopaminergic or serotonergic functions. There appears to be a sex-steroid-related genetic influence on antisocial traits, externalizing behavior, and sexual behavior. Most of the studies in which antiandrogen therapy in paraphilic patients and sex offenders have been examined were case reports, or observational or open-label studies, and many did not include adequate control groups. Only a few placebo-controlled double-blind studies have been published with inconsistent results concerning treatment effects. Outcome measures differ between the studies and do not seem ideally suited to their purpose. On the basis of the current knowledge about testosterone and its effects on brain

  17. Dynamics of serum testosterone during the menstrual cycle evaluated by daily measurements with an ID-LC-MS/MS method and a 2nd generation automated immunoassay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bui, Hong N.; Sluss, Patrick M.; Blincko, Stuart; Knol, Dirk L.; Blankenstein, Marinus A.; Heijboer, Annemieke C.

    2013-01-01

    Testosterone concentrations in normally cycling women are assumed to be elevated around the time of ovulation. The clinical relevance of changing testosterone concentrations during the menstrual cycle, however, is unclear. Poor performance of current direct immunoassays for testosterone at low

  18. Testosterone effect on the expression of genes that mediate testosterone metabolism and genes that mediate the effect of those metabolites on the prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shidaifat, Falah; Lin, Young C

    2012-09-04

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of testosterone treatment on the proliferation index and the mRNA expression levels of 5α-reductase, CYP7B1, androgen receptor (AR), and estrogen receptor β (ΕRβ) in the canine prostate. Immature dogs were treated with testosterone for one month, after which prostate gland growth was assessed by comparing the proliferation index in prostates from testosterone-treated dogs with that of untreated control dogs. The relative mRNA expression levels of the aforementioned genes in the prostate glands of testosterone-treated and untreated dogs were determined by real time PCR. Testosterone treatment induced a highly significant reduction in proliferation index in prostate gland. This inhibition of prostate gland growth was associated with differential mRNA expression of 5α-reductase, CYP7B1, AR, and ΕRβ by the prostate gland of testosterone-treated dogs, as compared to that of untreated dogs. While the expression levels of 5α-reductase and CYP7B1 mRNA were significantly down-regulated by testosterone treatment, the expression level of ER-β mRNA was highly up-regulated. In contrast, AR mRNA expression was not significantly altered. Prostate gland proliferation appeared to be associated with the expression levels of genes that encode proteins that control intra-prostatic levels of testosterone metabolites and their respective receptors. Testosterone treatment may regulate gene expression in the prostate to generate a phenotype that suppresses growth-promoting signaling through AR and enhances anti-proliferative signaling through ERβ. Therefore, targeting disturbances of this genetic machinery in benign prostate hyperplasia and prostate cancer is of a therapeutic potential. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of transdermal testosterone gel or an aromatase inhibitor on serum concentration and pulsatility of growth hormone in older men with age-related low testosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Jenny Pena; Veldhuis, Johannes D; Carlson, Olga; Shardell, Michelle; Chia, Chee W; Melvin, Denise; Egan, Josephine M; Basaria, Shehzad

    2017-04-01

    Growth hormone is the major regulator of growth and body composition. Pulsatile GH secretion declines exponentially with age. Testosterone replacement is being increasingly offered to older men with age-related low testosterone. Testosterone administration has been shown to stimulate GH secretion. However, little is known about the effect of testosterone aromatization to estradiol on GH pulsatility and its impact on IGF-1 in older men. This randomized controlled proof-of-concept trial investigated the relative effects of testosterone and estradiol on GH pulsatility and IGF-1 in older men with low testosterone. Thirty-seven men, ≥65years with total testosterone testosterone gel (TT), 1mg oral aromatase inhibitor (AI) or placebo daily for 12months. Primary outcome was deconvolution and approximate entropy analyses of pulsatile including basal and entropic modes of secretion performed at baseline and 3months. Secondary outcomes included IGF-1 evaluated at baseline, 3 and 6months. At 3months, mean GH and in IGF-1 were similar between the three groups. At 6months, IGF-1 significantly increased by Δ 15.3±10.3ng/ml in the TT-group compared to placebo (P=0.03). Both intervention groups significantly increased GH pulse frequency (TT-group, P=0.04; AI-group, P=0.05) compared to placebo. The GH secretory-burst mode (duration) significantly decreased in the TT-group (P=0.0018) compared to placebo while it remained unchanged in the AI-group (P=0.059). In older men, testosterone increases GH pulse frequency while the aromatization to estradiol is involved in the rise of IGF-1 levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of application site, clothing barrier, and application site washing on testosterone transfer with a 1.62% testosterone gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahlman, Jodi; Britto, Margaret; Fitzpatrick, Sherahe; McWhirter, Cecilia; Testino, Samuel A; Brennan, John J; Zumbrunnen, Troy L

    2012-02-01

    To evaluate the effect of application site location, clothing barrier, and application site washing on testosterone transfer from males dosed with 1.62% testosterone gel to female partners. Open-label, randomized, parallel group, crossover study performed in 24 healthy male/female couples. 2.5 or 5.0 g of gel was applied to upper arms and shoulders or abdomens of male subjects. Skin contact occurred 2 hours after gel application between male and female subjects to compare the effect of wearing or not wearing a t-shirt, washing or not washing before contact, and the effect of differing application sites. Treatments were separated by a 1-week washout period. On each dosing day, 15 minutes of supervised skin contact occurred between the dosed male and female partner. Contact was either abdomen to abdomen (male to female), or upper arms/shoulders (male) to upper arms/shoulders, wrists and hands (female), depending on the male application site. Serum samples were collected from females at baseline and after contact to assess secondary testosterone exposure. C(max) (maximum serum concentration), AUC(0-24) (area under serum concentration-time curve from 0-24 hours), and C(av) (time-averaged concentration over 24-hour post-contact period) were assessed. Subjects were monitored for adverse events. Testosterone exposure (C(av) and C(max)) in females increased by up to 27% (2.5 g) or up to 280% (5.0 g) from baseline after direct skin contact at 2 hours after gel application, although C(av) remained within the female eugonadal range. Transfer from the abdomen was prevented when a t-shirt was worn (2.5-g dose). When the application site was washed before contact, mean C(av) was comparable to baseline, and C(max) was slightly higher (14%). Transfer was higher after direct skin-to-skin contact when the application and contact sites were upper arms/shoulders versus the abdomen. Testosterone concentrations returned to baseline within 48 hours after last skin contact. There is

  1. The relationship between total testosterone levels and prostate cancer: a review of the continuing controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klap, Julia; Schmid, Marianne; Loughlin, Kevin R

    2015-02-01

    For many years it was believed that higher total testosterone contributed to prostate cancer and caused rapid cancer growth. International guidelines consider that adequate data are not available to determine whether there is additional risk of prostate cancer from testosterone replacement. Numerous studies with multiple designs and contradictory conclusions have investigated the relationship between total testosterone and prostate cancer development. To establish current knowledge in this field we reviewed the literature on total testosterone and the subsequent risk of prostate cancer as well as the safety of exogenous testosterone administration in patients with a history of prostate cancer. We searched the literature to identify articles from 1994 to 2014 related to the relationship between total testosterone and prostate cancer. Emphasis was given to prospective studies, series with observational data and randomized, controlled trials. Case reports were excluded. Articles on testosterone replacement safety were selected by patient population (under active surveillance or with a prostate cancer history). We organized our results according to the relationship between total testosterone and prostate cancer, including 1) the possible link between low total testosterone and prostate cancer, 2) the effect of high levels and 3) the absence of any link. Finally, we summarized studies of the risk of exogenous testosterone administration in patients already diagnosed with prostate cancer, treated or on active surveillance. We selected 45 articles of the relationship between total testosterone and prostate cancer, of which 18 and 17 showed a relationship to low and high total testosterone, respectively, and 10 showed no relation. Total testosterone was defined according to the definition in each article. Contradictory findings have been reported, largely due to the disparate methodologies used in many studies. Most studies did not adhere to professional society guidelines

  2. Muscles of the trunk and pelvis are responsive to testosterone administration: data from testosterone dose-response study in young healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapper, J; Arver, S; Pencina, K M; Martling, A; Blomqvist, L; Buchli, C; Li, Z; Gagliano-Jucá, T; Travison, T G; Huang, G; Storer, T W; Bhasin, S; Basaria, S

    2018-01-01

    Testosterone dose-dependently increases appendicular muscle mass. However, the effects of testosterone administration on the core muscles of the trunk and the pelvis have not been evaluated. The present study evaluated the effects of testosterone administration on truncal and pelvic muscles in a dose-response trial. Participants were young healthy men aged 18-50 years participating in the 5α-Reductase (5aR) Trial. All participants received monthly injections of 7.5 mg leuprolide acetate to suppress endogenous testosterone production and weekly injections of 50, 125, 300, or 600 mg of testosterone enanthate and were randomized to receive either 2.5 mg dutasteride (5aR inhibitor) or placebo daily for 20 weeks. Muscles of the trunk and the pelvis were measured at baseline and the end of treatment using 1.5-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging. The dose effect of testosterone on changes in the psoas major muscle area was the primary outcome; secondary outcomes included changes in paraspinal, abdominal, pelvic floor, ischiocavernosus, and obturator internus muscles. The association between changes in testosterone levels and muscle area was also assessed. Testosterone dose-dependently increased areas of all truncal and pelvic muscles. The estimated change (95% confidence interval) of muscle area increase per 100 mg of testosterone enanthate dosage increase was 0.622 cm2 (0.394, 0.850) for psoas; 1.789 cm2 (1.317, 2.261) for paraspinal muscles, 2.530 cm2 (1.627, 3.434) for total abdominal muscles, 0.455 cm2 (0.233, 0.678) for obturator internus, and 0.082 cm2 (0.003, 0.045) for ischiocavernosus; the increase in these volumes was significantly associated with the changes in on-treatment total and free serum testosterone concentrations. In conclusion, core muscles of the trunk and pelvis are responsive to testosterone administration. Future trials should evaluate the potential role of testosterone administration in frail men who are predisposed to falls and men with

  3. UGT2B17 genotype and the pharmacokinetic serum profile of testosterone during substitution therapy with testosterone undecanoate. A retrospective experience from 207 men with hypogonadism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Anne Kirstine; Jørgensen, Niels; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa

    2013-01-01

    Background: Testosterone (T) is mainly excreted in the urine as testosterone glucuronide (TG). This glucuronidation is partly dependent on the UGT2B17 genotype, and TG excretion is therefore lower in men having the UGT2B17 deletion. However, the possible influence of UGT2B17 genotype on serum T...... during androgen therapy is unknown. We retrospectively investigated the possible association between the UGT2B17 gene polymorphism and serum T levels in hypogonadal men during Testosterone undecanoate (TU) substitution therapy. Subjects and Methods: Two hundred and seven patients treated with TU (Nebido...

  4. External Beam Radiotherapy Affects Serum Testosterone in Patients With Localized Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompe, Raisa S; Karakiewicz, Pierre I; Zaffuto, Emanuele; Smith, Ariane; Bandini, Marco; Marchioni, Michele; Tian, Zhe; Leyh-Bannurah, Sami-Ramzi; Schiffmann, Jonas; Delouya, Guila; Lambert, Carole; Bahary, Jean-Paul; Beauchemin, Marie Claude; Barkati, Maroie; Ménard, Cynthia; Graefen, Markus; Saad, Fred; Tilki, Derya; Taussky, Daniel

    2017-07-01

    Previous studies have examined testosterone levels after external beam radiation (EBRT) monotherapy, but since 2002 only sparse contemporary data have been reported. To examine testosterone kinetics in a large series of contemporary patients after EBRT. The study was conducted in 425 patients who underwent definitive EBRT for localized prostate cancer from 2002 through 2014. Patients were enrolled in several phase II and III trials. Exclusion criteria were neoadjuvant or adjuvant androgen-deprivation therapy or missing data. Testosterone was recorded at baseline and then according to each study protocol (not mandatory in all protocols). Statistical analyses consisted of means and proportions, Kaplan-Meier plots, and logistic and Cox regression analyses. Testosterone kinetics after EBRT monotherapy and their influence on biochemical recurrence. Median follow-up of 248 assessable patients was 72 months. One hundred eighty-six patients (75.0%) showed a decrease in testosterone. Median time to first decrease was 6.4 months. Median percentage of decrease to the nadir was 30% and 112 (45.2%) developed biochemical hypogonadism (serum testosterone testosterone decrease, 117 (62.9%) recovered to at least 90% of baseline levels. Advanced age, increased body mass index, higher baseline testosterone level, and lower nadir level were associated with a lower chance of testosterone recovery. Subgroup analyses of 166 patients treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy confirmed the results recorded for the entire cohort. In survival analyses, neither testosterone decrease nor recovery was predictive for biochemical recurrence. EBRT monotherapy influences testosterone kinetics, and although most patients will recover, approximately 45% will have biochemical hypogonadism. We report on the largest contemporary series of patients treated with EBRT monotherapy in whom testosterone kinetics were ascertained. Limitations are that testosterone follow-up was not uniform and the study

  5. Examining factors that may influence accurate measurement of testosterone in sea turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Katherine M; Mylniczenko, Natalie D; Burns, Charlene M; Bettinger, Tammie L; Wheaton, Catharine J

    2016-01-01

    Differences in reported testosterone concentrations in male sea turtle blood samples are common in the veterinary literature, but may be accounted for by differences in sample handling and processing prior to assay. Therefore, our study was performed to determine best practices for testosterone analysis in male sea turtles (Caretta caretta and Chelonia mydas). Blood samples were collected into 5 collection tube types, and assay validation and measured testosterone concentrations were compared across different sample storage (fresh, refrigerated 1 week, or frozen), extraction (unextracted or ether-extracted), and processing treatment (untreated, homogenized, or dissociation reagent) conditions. Ether-extracted and dissociation reagent-treated samples validated in all conditions tested and are recommended for use, as unextracted samples validated only if assayed fresh. Dissociation reagent treatment was simpler to perform than ether extraction and resulted in total testosterone concentrations ~2.7-3.5 times greater than free testosterone measured in ether-extracted samples. Sample homogenization did not affect measured testosterone concentrations, and could be used to increase volume in gelled samples. An annual seasonal testosterone increase was observed in both species when ether extraction or dissociation reagent treatment was used. Annual deslorelin implant treatments in a Chelonia mydas male resulted in suppression of seasonal testosterone following the fourth treatment. Seasonal testosterone patterns resumed following discontinuation of deslorelin. Comparison of in-house and commercially available enzyme immunoassay kits revealed similar patterns of seasonal testosterone increases and deslorelin-induced suppression. Our study highlights the importance of methodological validation and provides laboratorians with best practices for testosterone enzyme immunoassay in sea turtles. © 2015 The Author(s).

  6. Sex-specific associations of testosterone with prefrontal-hippocampal development and executive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Vi; Lew, Jimin; Albaugh, Matthew D; Botteron, Kelly N; Hudziak, James J; Fonov, Vladimir S; Collins, D Louis; Ducharme, Simon; McCracken, James T

    2017-02-01

    Testosterone is thought to play a crucial role in mediating sexual differentiation of brain structures. Examinations of the cognitive effects of testosterone have also shown beneficial and potentially sex-specific effects on executive function and mnemonic processes. Yet these findings remain limited by an incomplete understanding of the critical timing and brain regions most affected by testosterone, the lack of documented links between testosterone-related structural brain changes and cognition, and the difficulty in distinguishing the effects of testosterone from those of related sex steroids such as of estradiol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). Here we examined associations between testosterone, cortico-hippocampal structural covariance, executive function (Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function) and verbal memory (California Verbal Learning Test-Children's Version), in a longitudinal sample of typically developing children and adolescents 6-22 yo, controlling for the effects of estradiol, DHEA, pubertal stage, collection time, age, handedness, and total brain volume. We found prefrontal-hippocampal covariance to vary as a function of testosterone levels, but only in boys. Boys also showed a specific association between positive prefrontal-hippocampal covariance (as seen at higher testosterone levels) and lower performance on specific components of executive function (monitoring the action process and flexibly shifting between actions). We also found the association between testosterone and a specific aspect of executive function (monitoring) to be significantly mediated by prefrontal-hippocampal structural covariance. There were no significant associations between testosterone-related cortico-hippocampal covariance and verbal memory. Taken together, these findings highlight the developmental importance of testosterone in supporting sexual differentiation of the brain and sex-specific executive function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  7. Testosterone induces molecular changes in dopamine signaling pathway molecules in the adolescent male rat nigrostriatal pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves-Tyson, Tertia D; Owens, Samantha J; Double, Kay L; Desai, Reena; Handelsman, David J; Weickert, Cynthia Shannon

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent males have an increased risk of developing schizophrenia, implicating testosterone in the precipitation of dopamine-related psychopathology. Evidence from adult rodent brain indicates that testosterone can modulate nigrostriatal dopamine. However, studies are required to understand the role testosterone plays in maturation of dopamine pathways during adolescence and to elucidate the molecular mechanism(s) by which testosterone exerts its effects. We hypothesized that molecular indices of dopamine neurotransmission [synthesis (tyrosine hydroxylase), breakdown (catechol-O-methyl transferase; monoamine oxygenase), transport [vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT), dopamine transporter (DAT)] and receptors (DRD1-D5)] would be changed by testosterone or its metabolites, dihydrotestosterone and 17β-estradiol, in the nigrostriatal pathway of adolescent male rats. We found that testosterone and dihydrotestosterone increased DAT and VMAT mRNAs in the substantia nigra and that testosterone increased DAT protein at the region of the cell bodies, but not in target regions in the striatum. Dopamine receptor D2 mRNA was increased and D3 mRNA was decreased in substantia nigra and/or striatum by androgens. These data suggest that increased testosterone at adolescence may change dopamine responsivity of the nigrostriatal pathway by modulating, at a molecular level, the capacity of neurons to transport and respond to dopamine. Further, dopamine turnover was increased in the dorsal striatum following gonadectomy and this was prevented by testosterone replacement. Gene expression changes in the dopaminergic cell body region may serve to modulate both dendritic dopamine feedback inhibition and reuptake in the dopaminergic somatodendritic field as well as dopamine release and re-uptake dynamics at the presynaptic terminals in the striatum. These testosterone-induced changes of molecular indices of dopamine neurotransmission in males are primarily androgen receptor

  8. Seasonal Variations and Correlations between Vitamin D and Total Testosterone Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Moo-Yeol; Kim, Soo-Hyun; Kim, Kwang-Min

    2017-09-01

    Some studies have provided evidence for a possible association between vitamin D and testosterone levels; however, the evidence from studies in Koreans is inconsistent. In addition, insufficient evidence is available to support an association between seasonal variations in vitamin D and testosterone levels in Koreans. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the association between vitamin D and testosterone levels, and between seasonal variations in these levels in Korean men. This cross-sectional study included 1,559 men, aged 25-86 years, who underwent a medical examination. We measured serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) and total testosterone levels, and compared other laboratory test results and patient lifestyle characteristics. On the basis of sample collection time, we categorized patients into four seasons, and analyzed seasonal variability in 25(OH)D and total testosterone levels. The average participant age (±standard deviation) was 53.3±8.8 years, and the average serum 25(OH)D and total testosterone levels were 15.9±7.0 ng/mL and 5.1±1.6 ng/mL, respectively. In the analysis of variance (ANOVA) model, no significant association was found between 25(OH)D and testosterone levels (P=0.51). ANOVA of the average 25(OH)D levels in season-based groups revealed significant seasonal variations in 25(OH)D levels (P-value for trend <0.001). No significant association was found between seasonal variations in total testosterone levels (P=0.06). However, after adjustment for confounding variables, total testosterone and 25(OH)D showed significant seasonal variability (P=0.007 and P<0.001, respectively). We found no significant correlation between serum 25(OH)D and total testosterone levels in Korean men. Moreover, serum 25(OH)D and total testosterone levels showed significant seasonal variations.

  9. Testosterone induces molecular changes in dopamine signaling pathway molecules in the adolescent male rat nigrostriatal pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tertia D Purves-Tyson

    Full Text Available Adolescent males have an increased risk of developing schizophrenia, implicating testosterone in the precipitation of dopamine-related psychopathology. Evidence from adult rodent brain indicates that testosterone can modulate nigrostriatal dopamine. However, studies are required to understand the role testosterone plays in maturation of dopamine pathways during adolescence and to elucidate the molecular mechanism(s by which testosterone exerts its effects. We hypothesized that molecular indices of dopamine neurotransmission [synthesis (tyrosine hydroxylase, breakdown (catechol-O-methyl transferase; monoamine oxygenase, transport [vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT, dopamine transporter (DAT] and receptors (DRD1-D5] would be changed by testosterone or its metabolites, dihydrotestosterone and 17β-estradiol, in the nigrostriatal pathway of adolescent male rats. We found that testosterone and dihydrotestosterone increased DAT and VMAT mRNAs in the substantia nigra and that testosterone increased DAT protein at the region of the cell bodies, but not in target regions in the striatum. Dopamine receptor D2 mRNA was increased and D3 mRNA was decreased in substantia nigra and/or striatum by androgens. These data suggest that increased testosterone at adolescence may change dopamine responsivity of the nigrostriatal pathway by modulating, at a molecular level, the capacity of neurons to transport and respond to dopamine. Further, dopamine turnover was increased in the dorsal striatum following gonadectomy and this was prevented by testosterone replacement. Gene expression changes in the dopaminergic cell body region may serve to modulate both dendritic dopamine feedback inhibition and reuptake in the dopaminergic somatodendritic field as well as dopamine release and re-uptake dynamics at the presynaptic terminals in the striatum. These testosterone-induced changes of molecular indices of dopamine neurotransmission in males are primarily androgen

  10. Melatonin and its correlation with testosterone in polycystic ovarian syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Jain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS is considered to be the most common endocrine disorder affecting women. Melatonin, a small lipophilic indoleamine, and reproductive hormones may be interrelated. Melatonin influences sex steroid production at different stages of ovarian follicular maturation as melatonin receptors have been demonstrated at multiple sites in ovary and in intrafollicular fluid. It plays role as an antioxidant and free radical scavanger which protects follicles from oxidative stress, rescuing them from atresia, leading to complete follicular maturation and ovulation. Aims: To study the role of melatonin in PCOS and to investigate its correlation with testosterone in patients suffering from PCOS. Settings and Design: A total of 50 women with PCOS (Rotterdam criteria, 2003 and 50 age and weight matched healthy controls were selected and serum melatonin estimation was done in both the groups and correlated with serum total testosterone levels. Materials and Methods: In a case-control study, detailed history, clinical examination and hormonal evaluation [basal levels of leutinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, prolactin, insulin, total testosterone, progesterone and melatonin] were carried out in all the participants including both cases and controls. For melatonin estimation, blood samples were collected between 12:00 am and 04:00 am on day 2 nd of menstrual cycle and analyzed by using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Statistical Analysis: Student′s t-test was used to compare the significant difference in mean values between cases and control groups. Chi-square test was used to test the significant association between the qualitative variables. Linear correlation coefficient and regression analysis were done to see the amount and direction of relationship between quantitative variables. Results: The mean melatonin level was observed to be significantly

  11. Testosterone Replacement Therapy and Mortality in Older Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, G I

    2016-02-01

    While US testosterone prescriptions have tripled in the last decade with lower trends in Europe, debate continues over the risks, benefits and appropriate use of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT). Several authors blame advertising and the availability of more convenient formulations, whilst others have pointed out that the routine testing of men with erectile dysfunction (ED) (a significant marker of cardiovascular risk) and those with diabetes would inevitably increase the diagnosis of hypogonadism and lead to an increase in totally appropriate prescribing. They commented that this was merely an appropriate correction of previous under-diagnosis and under-treatment in line with evidence based guidelines. It is unlikely that persuasive advertising or convenient formulations could grow a market over such a sustained period if the treatment was not effective. Urologists and primary care physicians are the most frequent initiators of TRT usually for ED. Benefits are clearly established for sexual function, increase in lean muscle mass and strength, mood and cognitive function, with a possible reduction in frailty and osteoporosis. There remains no evidence that TRT is associated with increased risk of prostate cancer or symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia, yet the decision to initiate and continue therapy is often decided by urologists. The cardiovascular issues associated with TRT have been clarified by recent studies showing that therapy associated with clear increases in serum testosterone levels to the normal range is associated with reduced all-cause mortality. Studies reporting to show increased risk have been subject to flawed designs with inadequate baseline diagnosis and follow-up testing. Effectively, they have compared non-treated patients with under-treated or non-compliant subjects involving a range of different therapy regimes. Recent evidence suggests long-acting injections may be associated with decreased cardiovascular risk, but the

  12. Testosterone therapy and cardiovascular risk: advances and controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgentaler, Abraham; Miner, Martin M; Caliber, Monica; Guay, Andre T; Khera, Mohit; Traish, Abdulmaged M

    2015-02-01

    Two recent studies raised new concerns regarding cardiovascular (CV) risks with testosterone (T) therapy. This article reviews those studies as well as the extensive literature on T and CV risks. A MEDLINE search was performed for the years 1940 to August 2014 using the following key words: testosterone, androgens, human, male, cardiovascular, stroke, cerebrovascular accident, myocardial infarction, heart attack, death, and mortality. The weight and direction of evidence was evaluated and level of evidence (LOE) assigned. Only 4 articles were identified that suggested increased CV risks with T prescriptions: 2 retrospective analyses with serious methodological limitations, 1 placebo-controlled trial with few major adverse cardiac events, and 1 meta-analysis that included questionable studies and events. In contrast, several dozen studies have reported a beneficial effect of normal T levels on CV risks and mortality. Mortality and incident coronary artery disease are inversely associated with serum T concentrations (LOE IIa), as is severity of coronary artery disease (LOE IIa). Testosterone therapy is associated with reduced obesity, fat mass, and waist circumference (LOE Ib) and also improves glycemic control (LOE IIa). Mortality was reduced with T therapy in 2 retrospective studies. Several RCTs in men with coronary artery disease or heart failure reported improved function in men who received T compared with placebo. The largest meta-analysis to date revealed no increase in CV risks in men who received T and reduced CV risk among those with metabolic disease. In summary, there is no convincing evidence of increased CV risks with T therapy. On the contrary, there appears to be a strong beneficial relationship between normal T and CV health that has not yet been widely appreciated.

  13. Teeth, Sex, and Testosterone: Aging in the World's Smallest Primate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohdy, Sarah; Gerber, Brian D.; Tecot, Stacey; Blanco, Marina B.; Winchester, Julia M.; Wright, Patricia C.; Jernvall, Jukka

    2014-01-01

    Mouse lemurs (Microcebus spp.) are an exciting new primate model for understanding human aging and disease. In captivity, Microcebus murinus develops human-like ailments of old age after five years (e.g., neurodegeneration analogous to Alzheimer's disease) but can live beyond 12 years. It is believed that wild Microcebus follow a similar pattern of senescence observed in captive animals, but that predation limits their lifespan to four years, thus preventing observance of these diseases in the wild. Testing whether this assumption is true is informative about both Microcebus natural history and environmental influences on senescence, leading to interpretation of findings for models of human aging. Additionally, the study of Microcebus longevity provides an opportunity to better understand mechanisms of sex-biased longevity. Longevity is often shorter in males of species with high male-male competition, such as Microcebus, but mouse lemurs are sexually monomorphic, suggesting similar lifespans. We collected individual-based observations of wild brown mouse lemurs (Microcebus rufus) from 2003–2010 to investigate sex-differences in survival and longevity. Fecal testosterone was measured as a potential mechanism of sex-based differences in survival. We used a combination of high-resolution tooth wear techniques, mark-recapture, and hormone enzyme immunoassays. We found no dental or physical signs of senescence in M. rufus as old as eight years (N = 189, ages 1–8, mean = 2.59±1.63 SE), three years older than captive, senescent congeners (M. murinus). Unlike other polygynandrous vertebrates, we found no sex difference in age-dependent survival, nor sex or age differences in testosterone levels. While elevated male testosterone levels have been implicated in shorter lifespans in several species, this is one of the first studies to show equivalent testosterone levels accompanying equivalent lifespans. Future research on captive aged individuals can determine

  14. Individual testosterone decline and future mortality risk in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmboe, Stine Agergaard; Skakkebaek, Niels E.; Juul, Anders

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Male aging is characterized by a decline in testosterone (T) levels with a substantial variability between subjects. However, it is unclear whether differences in age-related changes in T are associated with general health. We investigated associations between mortality and intra-individual......-up examination ten years later (MONICA10) were included. From MONICA10 the men were followed up to 18 years (mean: 15.2 years) in national mortality registries via their unique personal ID number. METHODS: Cox proportional hazard models were used to investigate the association between intra-individual hormone...

  15. Teeth, sex, and testosterone: aging in the world's smallest primate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Zohdy

    Full Text Available Mouse lemurs (Microcebus spp. are an exciting new primate model for understanding human aging and disease. In captivity, Microcebus murinus develops human-like ailments of old age after five years (e.g., neurodegeneration analogous to Alzheimer's disease but can live beyond 12 years. It is believed that wild Microcebus follow a similar pattern of senescence observed in captive animals, but that predation limits their lifespan to four years, thus preventing observance of these diseases in the wild. Testing whether this assumption is true is informative about both Microcebus natural history and environmental influences on senescence, leading to interpretation of findings for models of human aging. Additionally, the study of Microcebus longevity provides an opportunity to better understand mechanisms of sex-biased longevity. Longevity is often shorter in males of species with high male-male competition, such as Microcebus, but mouse lemurs are sexually monomorphic, suggesting similar lifespans. We collected individual-based observations of wild brown mouse lemurs (Microcebus rufus from 2003-2010 to investigate sex-differences in survival and longevity. Fecal testosterone was measured as a potential mechanism of sex-based differences in survival. We used a combination of high-resolution tooth wear techniques, mark-recapture, and hormone enzyme immunoassays. We found no dental or physical signs of senescence in M. rufus as old as eight years (N = 189, ages 1-8, mean = 2.59 ± 1.63 SE, three years older than captive, senescent congeners (M. murinus. Unlike other polygynandrous vertebrates, we found no sex difference in age-dependent survival, nor sex or age differences in testosterone levels. While elevated male testosterone levels have been implicated in shorter lifespans in several species, this is one of the first studies to show equivalent testosterone levels accompanying equivalent lifespans. Future research on captive aged individuals can

  16. Low-dose spironolactone ameliorates insulin resistance and suppresses elevated plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 during gestational testosterone exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatunji, Lawrence A; Usman, Taofeek O; Akinade, Aminat I; Adeyanju, Oluwaseun A; Kim, InKyeom; Soladoye, Ayodele O

    2017-12-01

    Elevated gestational circulating testosterone has been associated with pathological pregnancies that increase the risk of development of cardiometabolic disorder in later life. We hypothesised that gestational testosterone exposure, in late pregnancy, causes glucose deregulation and atherogenic dyslipidaemia that would be accompanied by high plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). The study also hypothesise that low-dose spironolactone treatment would ameliorate these effects. Pregnant Wistar rats received vehicle, testosterone (0.5 mg/kg; sc), spironolactone (0.5 mg/kg, po) or testosterone and spironolactone daily between gestational days 15 and 19. Gestational testosterone exposure led to increased HOMA-IR, circulating insulin, testosterone, 1-h post-load glucose, atherogenic dyslipidaemia, PLR, PAI-1 and MDA. However, all these effects, except that of circulating testosterone, were ameliorated by spironolactone. These results demonstrate that low-dose spironolactone ameliorates glucose deregulation and atherogenic dyslipidaemia during elevated gestational testosterone exposure, at least in part, by suppressing elevated PAI-1.

  17. [Levels of testosterone-estradiol-binding globulin TeBG and of testosterone in pregnancy with relation to the sex of the foetus (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafurt, C A; De Estrada, R; García, J

    1976-01-01

    A practical and economic method for the quantification of testosterone-estradiol-binding globulin TeBG is described. The procedure premits the differentiation without overlap of the TeBP levels in males, non-pregnant females and during pregnancy. Mean titles were 1/5, 1/93 and 1/360 respectively. During pregnancy, we found high levels of TeBG and increased plasma testosterone, with mean values of 143.4 nanograms/100 ml. We have found no significant differences in TeBG levels, or in maternal blood testosterone levels in relation to fetal sex; however, plasma testosterone levels were significantly different among new born of different sex, with mean values of 96.25 nanograms per cent for males and 78.21 nanograms per cent for females.

  18. Effect of testosterone on markers of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and lipid metabolism in muscle of aging men with subnormal bioavailable testosterone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson, Stine J; Christensen, Louise L; Kristensen, Jonas M

    2014-01-01

    therapy on regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis and markers of OxPhos and lipid metabolism in the skeletal muscle of aging men with subnormal bioavailable testosterone levels. METHODS: Skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained before and after treatment with either testosterone gel (n=12) or placebo (n=13...... metabolism (ACADVL, CD36, CPT1B, HADH, and PDK4). Consistently, protein abundance of OxPhos subunits encoded by both nuclear (SDHA and UQCRC1) and mitochondrial DNA (ND6) and protein abundance and phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase and p38 MAPK were unaffected by testosterone therapy. CONCLUSION......: The beneficial effect of testosterone treatment on lipid oxidation is not explained by increased abundance or phosphorylation-dependent activity of enzymes known to regulate mitochondrial biogenesis or markers of OxPhos and lipid metabolism in the skeletal muscle of aging men with subnormal bioavailable...

  19. Microvesicles Correlated with Components of Metabolic Syndrome in Men with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Lowered Testosterone Levels But Were Unaltered by Testosterone Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Botha, Jaco; Velling Magnussen, Line; Nielsen, Morten Hjuler

    2017-01-01

    not correlate with any microvesicle phenotypes. Microvesicle levels were unaffected by testosterone therapy. Conclusions. Metabolic syndrome components and hepatic fat accumulation correlated with microvesicle phenotypes, supporting the involvement of especially CD36 on monocytes in metabolic syndrome......Aims. To investigate how circulating microvesicle phenotypes correlate with insulin sensitivity, body composition, plasma lipids, and hepatic fat accumulation. We hypothesized that changes elicited by testosterone replacement therapy are reflected in levels of microvesicles. Methods. Thirty......-nine type 2 diabetic males with lowered testosterone levels were assigned to either testosterone replacement therapy or placebo and evaluated at baseline and after 24 weeks. Microvesicles were analysed by flow cytometry and defined as lactadherin-binding particles within the 0.1-1.0 μm gate. Microvesicles...

  20. Testosterone administration in women increases amygdala responses to fearful and happy faces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, P.A.; Honk, J. van; Ramsey, N.F.; Stein, D.J.; Hermans, E.J.

    2013-01-01

    Data from both rodents and humans show that testosterone reduces fear. This effect is hypothesized to result from testosterone's down regulating effects on the amygdala, a key region in the detection of threat and instigator of fight-or-flight behavior. However, neuroimaging studies employing

  1. Fulfilling desire: evidence for negative feedback between men's testosterone, sociosexual psychology, and sexual partner number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puts, David A; Pope, Lauramarie E; Hill, Alexander K; Cárdenas, Rodrigo A; Welling, Lisa L M; Wheatley, John R; Marc Breedlove, S

    2015-04-01

    Across human societies and many nonhuman animals, males have greater interest in uncommitted sex (more unrestricted sociosexuality) than do females. Testosterone shows positive associations with male-typical sociosexual behavior in nonhuman animals. Yet, it remains unclear whether the human sex difference in sociosexual psychology (attitudes and desires) is mediated by testosterone, whether any relationships between testosterone and sociosexuality differ between men and women, and what the nature of these possible relationships might be. In studies to resolve these questions, we examined relationships between salivary testosterone concentrations and sociosexual psychology and behavior in men and women. We measured testosterone in all men in our sample, but only in those women taking oral contraception (OC-using women) in order to reduce the influence of ovulatory cycle variation in ovarian hormone production. We found that OC-using women did not differ from normally-ovulating women in sociosexual psychology or behavior, but that circulating testosterone mediated the sex difference in human sociosexuality and predicted sociosexual psychology in men but not OC-using women. Moreover, when sociosexual psychology was controlled, men's sociosexual behavior (number of sexual partners) was negatively related to testosterone, suggesting that testosterone drives sociosexual psychology in men and is inhibited when those desires are fulfilled. This more complex relationship between androgens and male sexuality may reconcile some conflicting prior reports. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. In ovo testosterone treatment reduces long-term survival of female pigeons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matson, K.D.; Riedstra, B.; Tieleman, B.I.

    2016-01-01

    Early exposure to steroid hormones, as in the case of an avian embryo exposed yolk testosterone, can impact the biology of an individual in different ways over the course of its life. While many early-life effects of yolk testosterone have been documented, later-life effects remain poorly

  3. Testosterone increases amygdala reactivity in middle-aged women to a young adulthood level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wingen, Guido A.; Zylicz, Staś A.; Pieters, Sara; Mattern, Claudia; Verkes, Robbert Jan; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Fernández, Guillén

    2009-01-01

    Testosterone modulates mood and sexual function in women. However, androgen levels decline with age, which may relate to the age-associated change in sexual functioning and the prevalence of mood and anxiety disorders. These effects of testosterone are potentially mediated by the amygdala. In the

  4. Interaction of APOE genotype and testosterone on episodic memory in middle-aged men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panizzon, Matthew S.; Hauger, Richard; Xian, Hong; Vuoksimaa, Eero; Spoon, Kelly M.; Mendoza, Sally P.; Jacobson, Kristen C.; Vasilopoulos, Terrie; Rana, Brinda K.; McKenzie, Ruth; McCaffery, Jeanne M.; Lyons, Michael J.; Kremen, William S.; Franz, Carol E.

    2014-01-01

    Age-related changes in testosterone are believed to be a key component of the processes that contribute to cognitive aging in men. The APOE-ε4 allele may interact with testosterone and moderate the hormone’s association with cognition. The goals of the present study were to examine the degree to which free testosterone is associated with episodic memory in a community-based sample of middle-aged men, and examine the potential interaction between free testosterone and the APOE-ε4 allele. Data were utilized from 717 participants in the Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging (VETSA). Average age was 55.4 years (SD = 2.5). Significant positive associations were observed between free testosterone level and verbal episodic memory, as well as a significant interaction between free testosterone and APOE-ε4 status. In ε4 carriers free testosterone was positively associated with verbal episodic memory performance (story recall), whereas no association was observed in ε4 non-carriers. Results support the hypothesis that APOE-ε4 status increases susceptibility to other risk factors, such as low testosterone, which may ultimately contribute to cognitive decline or dementia. PMID:24444806

  5. Prospective longitudinal study of testosterone and incident depression in older men: The Health In Men Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Andrew H; Yeap, Bu B; Flicker, Leon; Hankey, Graeme J; Chubb, S A Paul; Handelsman, David J; Golledge, Jonathan; Almeida, Osvaldo P

    2016-02-01

    Depression in older men has been associated with low circulating testosterone concentration but data from prospective studies are limited. We conducted a prospective longitudinal study in a community representative cohort of 3179 older men free of clinically significant depressive symptoms at baseline. The main objective of this study was to determine if low serum testosterone, dihydrotestosterone and estradiol concentrations are associated with the development of depressive symptoms. Incident depression was assessed with the Patient Health Questionnaire and via an electronic health record database (The West Australian Data Linkage System). The main exposures of interest were serum testosterone, dihydrotestosterone and estradiol measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and calculated free testosterone in baseline blood samples (collected between 2001 and 2004). One hundred and thirty five men (4.2%) developed depression over a median follow up time of 9.4 years (range 8.4-10.9). Men with incident depression were older (median age 77.7 vs 76.1 years, z=-3.82, p=0testosterone (free testosterone were not associated with risk of depression. Low serum total testosterone, but not calculated free testosterone, was associated with incident depression in this sample of older men. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Low free testosterone levels are associated with prevalence and incidence of depressive symptoms in older men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joshi, D.; van Schoor, N.M.; de Ronde, W.; Schaap, L.A.; Comijs, H.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Lips, P.T.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The prevalence of both low testosterone levels and depression increases with age. Currently, there is no consensus regarding the existence of an association. Our study analyses the cross-sectional association of testosterone levels with depressive symptoms and its prospective association

  7. Men report stronger attraction to femininity in women's faces when their testosterone levels are high.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welling, Lisa L M; Jones, Benedict C; DeBruine, Lisa M; Smith, Finlay G; Feinberg, David R; Little, Anthony C; Al-Dujaili, Emad A S

    2008-11-01

    Many studies have shown that women's judgments of men's attractiveness are affected by changes in levels of sex hormones. However, no studies have tested for associations between changes in levels of sex hormones and men's judgments of women's attractiveness. To investigate this issue, we compared men's attractiveness judgments of feminized and masculinized women's and men's faces in test sessions where salivary testosterone was high and test sessions where salivary testosterone was relatively low. Men reported stronger attraction to femininity in women's faces in test sessions where salivary testosterone was high than in test sessions where salivary testosterone was low. This effect was found to be specific to judgments of opposite-sex faces. The strength of men's reported attraction to femininity in men's faces did not differ between high and low testosterone test sessions, suggesting that the effect of testosterone that we observed for judgments of women's faces was not due to a general response bias. Collectively, these findings suggest that changes in testosterone levels contribute to the strength of men's reported attraction to femininity in women's faces and complement previous findings showing that testosterone modulates men's interest in sexual stimuli.

  8. Primary testicular failure in Klinefelter's syndrome: the use of bivariate luteinizing hormone-testosterone reference charts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aksglaede, Lise; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Jørgensen, Niels

    2007-01-01

    The diagnosis of androgen deficiency is based on clinical features and confirmatory low serum testosterone levels. In early primary testicular failure, a rise in serum LH levels suggests inadequate androgen action for the individual's physiological requirements despite a serum testosterone level ...

  9. A review on the relationship between testosterone and life-course persistent antisocial behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yildirim, B.O.; Derksen, J.J.L.

    2012-01-01

    Life-course persistent antisocial behavior is 10 to 14 times more prevalent in males and it has been suggested that testosterone levels could account for this gender bias. Preliminary studies with measures of fetal testosterone find inconsistent associations with antisocial behavior, especially

  10. Exogenous testosterone enhances responsiveness to social threat in the neural circuitry of social aggression in humans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, E.J.; Ramsey, N.F.; Honk, J van

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In a range of species, the androgen steroid testosterone is known to potentiate neural circuits involved in intraspecific aggression. Disorders of impulsive aggression in humans have likewise been associated with high testosterone levels, but human evidence for the link between

  11. To survive and protect: testosterone and the neuroendocrinology of human social behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, P.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/337018995

    2012-01-01

    The studies reported in this thesis show that despite the development that the human brain has undergone during evolution, this organ and the behavior it brings forth is still strongly sensitive to the effects of testosterone. Testosterone strengthens the neural response to sounds of crying babies,

  12. STUDIES ON WILD HOUSE MICE .4. ON THE HEREDITY OF TESTOSTERONE AND READINESS TO ATTACK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANOORTMERSSEN, GA; BENUS, RF; SLUYTER, F

    1992-01-01

    An attempt was made to determine the role of the Y chromosome in the development of aggression in wild house mice. The aggression-eliciting property of testosterone depends not only on circulating adult testosterone, but also on perinatal sensitization of the central nervous system to this steroid.

  13. Endogenous testosterone is not associated with the trade-off between paternal and mating effort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eikenaar, Cas; Whitham, Megan; Komdeur, Jan; van der Velde, Marco; Moore, Ignacio T.

    2011-01-01

    Males may face a trade-off between caring for offspring and pursuing additional matings. In birds, the androgen testosterone has been suggested to be a key proximate mediator in this trade-off for several reasons. At the population level, high testosterone is typically associated with the period of

  14. Assessment of the effect of testosterone on the acrosome reaction of human spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigil, P; Barrientos, V M; Vargas, G G; Machuca, D A; Cortés, M E

    2012-05-01

    In the acrosome reaction, the spermatozoon plasma membrane fuses with the outer acrosomal membrane, resulting in the release of the acrosomal content. Several compounds, such as sex steroids, are known to modulate the acrosomal exocytosis. Testosterone regulates various functions in male reproductive physiology; however, little is known about the relationship between testosterone and the acrosome reaction. Thus, our objective was to study the effect of testosterone on the acrosome reaction of human spermatozoa. To evaluate the acrosomal exocytosis, spermatozoa were incubated with testosterone (0.2, 2.0 and 20 nmol l(-1)), progesterone and control medium for 60, 120, 240 and 1440 min. The acrosome reaction was assessed by staining with Hoechst 33258 and fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated P. sativum agglutinin lectin. In general, spermatozoa incubated with progesterone had the highest percentage of acrosomal exocytosis. The percentage of acrosome reaction obtained in the three treatments with testosterone differed from that observed for progesterone at 120, 240 and 1440 min (24 h). Additionally, significant differences were found between testosterone (2.0 and 20 nmol l(-1)) and progesterone after 60 min. Differences between control and the three testosterone treatments studied were obtained only at 1440 min. In general terms, these results show that testosterone exerts no inductor effects on the acrosome reaction of human spermatozoa. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. The female menstrual cycle does not influence testosterone concentrations in male partners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strom Jakob O

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The time of ovulation has since long been believed to be concealed to male heterosexual partners. Recent studies have, however, called for revision of this notion. For example, male testosterone concentrations have been shown to increase in response to olfactory ovulation cues, which could be biologically relevant by increasing sexual drive and aggressiveness. However, this phenomenon has not previously been investigated in real-life human settings. We therefore thought it of interest to test the hypothesis that males' salivary testosterone concentrations are influenced by phases of their female partners' menstrual cycle; expecting a testosterone peak at ovulation. Methods Thirty young, healthy, heterosexual couples were recruited. During the course of 30-40 days, the women registered menses and ovulation, while the men registered sexual activity, physical exercise, alcohol intake and illness (confounders, and obtained daily saliva samples for testosterone measurements. All data, including the registered confounders, were subjected to multiple regression analysis. Results In contrast to the hypothesis, the ovulation did not affect the testosterone levels, and the resulting testosterone profile during the menstrual cycle was on the average flat. The specific main hypothesis, that male testosterone levels on the day of ovulation would be higher than day 4 of the cycle, was clearly contradicted by a type II error(β-analysis ( Conclusions Even though an ovulation-related salivary testosterone peak was observed in individual cases, no significant effect was found on a group level.

  16. Paternal and Maternal Testosterone in Parents of NICU Infants Transitioning Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfield, Craig F; Simon, Clarissa D; Rutsohn, Joshua; Lee, Young S

    Lower testosterone during the transition to new parenthood is considered beneficial to help parents better engage with their infants. No data currently exist studying salivary testosterone of parents with infants in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) during the transition to home. We examine testosterone levels for parents of very low-birth-weight infants, including links between salivary testosterone and infant factors (such as breast-feeding), psychosocial stress, and changes over time.Testosterone salivary samples were assayed after self-collection by 86 parents (43 fathers and 43 mothers) with NICU infants at wakeup and bedtime prior to discharge and at 3 additional times at home. Self-reported survey measures, including psychosocial reports, were also collected at these times.Using multilevel modeling approaches, we report significant associations between paternal testosterone by time and psychosocial adjustment and between both paternal and maternal testosterone and infant feeding mode (P accounting for covariates. Our study is the first to examine the time course of diurnal testosterone for parents of premature infants over the transition home; as such, we suggest further research into better understanding parental physiology in this vulnerable parent population.

  17. Parental care, loss of paternity and circulating levels of testosterone and corticosterone in a socially monogamous song bird

    OpenAIRE

    Villavicencio, Camila P; Apfelbeck, Beate; Goymann, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Introduction:\\ud In biparental birds testosterone levels of males are typically high during the mating phase and decrease during the parental phase. Testosterone implants may enhance mating behaviors, increase the likelihood of males to engage in extra-pair mating behavior and may reduce paternal care. Thus, sex steroids such as testosterone influence reproductive behaviors. Little is known, however, as to whether the more subtle differences in physiological concentrations of testosterone tha...

  18. Consistent individual variation in day, night, and GnRH-induced testosterone concentrations in house sparrows (Passer domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needham, Katie B; Dochtermann, Ned A; Greives, Timothy J

    2017-05-15

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) initiating the endocrine cascade, regulates testosterone secretion. Testosterone, through its pleiotropic effects, plays a crucial role in coordinating morphology, physiology and behavior in a reproductive context. The concentration of circulating testosterone, however, varies over the course of the day and in response to other internal or external stimuli, potentially making it difficult to relate testosterone sampled at one time point with traits of interest. Many researchers now utilize the administration of exogenous GnRH to elicit a standardized stimulation of testosterone secretion. However, it has remained unclear if and how this exogenously stimulated activation of the HPG axis is related with endogenously regulated testosterone that is capable of influencing testosterone related traits. Repeated measures of a hormone can uncover consistent individual variation in hormonal differences at the HPG axis level, variation that potentially stems from underlying genetic variation in a population experiencing identical environmental cues. Thus, we asked, using the house sparrow (Passer domesticus), how daily endogenous variation in testosterone profiles relates to GnRH-induced testosterone secretion. Further, we explore the relationship between endogenous daily testosterone peaks and GnRH-induced testosterone with badge size, a morphological trait related with status within a social group. We found that GnRH-induced testosterone levels reflect a highly repeatable hormonal phenotype that is strongly correlated with nighttime testosterone levels. The results demonstrate the usefulness of GnRH-induced testosterone in studies aimed at understanding individual variation and selection on endogenously regulated testosterone levels and the potential importance of nighttime testosterone levels to physiology and behavior. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of testosterone on markers of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and lipid metabolism in muscle of aging men with subnormal bioavailable testosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersson, Stine J; Christensen, Louise L; Kristensen, Jonas M; Kruse, Rikke; Andersen, Marianne; Højlund, Kurt

    2014-07-01

    Recent studies have indicated that serum testosterone in aging men is associated with insulin sensitivity and expression of genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos), and that testosterone treatment increases lipid oxidation. Herein, we investigated the effect of testosterone therapy on regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis and markers of OxPhos and lipid metabolism in the skeletal muscle of aging men with subnormal bioavailable testosterone levels. Skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained before and after treatment with either testosterone gel (n=12) or placebo (n=13) for 6 months. Insulin sensitivity and substrate oxidation were assessed by euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp and indirect calorimetry. Muscle mRNA levels and protein abundance and phosphorylation of enzymes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis, OxPhos, and lipid metabolism were examined by quantitative real-time PCR and western blotting. Despite an increase in lipid oxidation (Ptestosterone therapy had no effect on insulin sensitivity or mRNA levels of genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis (PPARGC1A, PRKAA2, and PRKAG3), OxPhos (NDUFS1, ETFA, SDHA, UQCRC1, and COX5B), or lipid metabolism (ACADVL, CD36, CPT1B, HADH, and PDK4). Consistently, protein abundance of OxPhos subunits encoded by both nuclear (SDHA and UQCRC1) and mitochondrial DNA (ND6) and protein abundance and phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase and p38 MAPK were unaffected by testosterone therapy. The beneficial effect of testosterone treatment on lipid oxidation is not explained by increased abundance or phosphorylation-dependent activity of enzymes known to regulate mitochondrial biogenesis or markers of OxPhos and lipid metabolism in the skeletal muscle of aging men with subnormal bioavailable testosterone levels. © 2014 European Society of Endocrinology.

  20. Women's Preference for Attractive Makeup Tracks Changes in Their Salivary Testosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Claire I; Hahn, Amanda C; DeBruine, Lisa M; Jones, Benedict C

    2015-12-01

    Previous research suggests that women's motivation to appear attractive is increased around the time of ovulation. However, the specific hormonal correlates of within-woman changes in motivation to appear attractive have not been investigated. To address this issue, we used a longitudinal design and a data-driven visual preference task. We found that women's preference for attractive makeup increases when their salivary testosterone levels are high. The relationship between testosterone level and preference for attractive makeup was independent of estradiol level, progesterone level, and estradiol-to-progesterone ratio. These results suggest that testosterone may contribute to changes in women's motivation to wear attractive makeup and, potentially, their motivation to appear attractive in general. Our results are also consistent with recent models of the role of testosterone in social behavior, according to which testosterone increases the probability of behaviors that could function to support the acquisition of mates and competition for resources. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Plasma testosterone in the general population, cancer prognosis and cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orsted, D D; Nordestgaard, B G; Bojesen, S E

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Testosterone is an important anabolic hormone in humans and in vitro testosterone stimulates growth of lung and colon cancer cells. We tested the hypothesis that plasma testosterone associate with increased risk of cancer and with increased risk of early death after cancer. MATERIALS...... years, increased levels of testosterone were associated with a 30%-80% increased risk of early death after cancer, but unchanged risk of incident cancer....... AND METHODS: Plasma testosterone was measured in 8771 20- to 94-year-old men and women who participated in a prospective study of the general population. Participants were included in 1981-1983 and followed for a median of 22 years (range: 0-30 years). RESULTS: During follow-up, 1140 men and 809 women...

  2. Testosterone and religiosity as predictors of sexual attitudes and activity among adolescent males: a biosocial model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, C T; Udry, J R; Campbell, B; Suchindran, C; Mason, G A

    1994-04-01

    A biosocial model of the effects of early adolescent testosterone levels and religiosity on adolescent males' sexual attitudes and activity over a 3-year period was examined. Using panel data for approximately 100 boys who were 12.5/13.0 years old at study entry, significant additive effects of free testosterone and frequency of attendance at religious services were demonstrated on the transition to first intercourse and other aspects of sexual behaviour and attitudes. No interactive effects of the two predictors were found. Boys with higher free testosterone levels at study entry who never or infrequently attended religious services were the most sexually active and had the most permissive attitudes. Boys with lower free testosterone who attended services once a week or more were the least active and reported the least permissive attitudes. For some behaviours, differences between free testosterone/attendance groups increased over time, resulting in substantial behavioural differences by the final round of measurement 3 years later.

  3. The association between perinatal testosterone concentration and early vocabulary development: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollier, Lauren P; Mattes, Eugen; Maybery, Murray T; Keelan, Jeffrey A; Hickey, Martha; Whitehouse, Andrew J O

    2013-02-01

    Prenatal exposure to testosterone is known to affect fetal brain maturation and later neurocognitive function. However, research on the effects of prenatal testosterone exposure has been limited by indirect measures of testosterone and small unrepresentative samples. This study investigated whether bioavailable testosterone (BioT) concentrations in umbilical cord blood are associated with expressive vocabulary development, in a large birth cohort. Cord blood samples were taken immediately after delivery and expressive vocabulary was measured at two years of age using the language development survey (LDS). BioT concentration significantly predicted vocabulary size in males (n=197), such that higher concentrations were associated with lower LDS scores, indicating smaller vocabulary. This relationship between BioT concentrations and vocabulary at aged 2 years was not observed in girls (n=176). Higher circulating prenatal testosterone concentrations at birth may be associated with reduced vocabulary in early childhood among boys. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Reduction of calprotectin and phosphate during testosterone therapy in aging men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, L; Christensen, L. L.; Pedersen, Susanne Møller

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the effect of testosterone treatment on biomarkers calprotectin, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), soluble Klotho, phosphate, calcium, parathyroid hormone, creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate. Design: Randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study....... Setting: Odense Androgen Study—the effect of Testim and training in hypogonadal men. Participants: Men aged 60–78 years old with a low normal concentration of free of bioavailable testosterone 94 cm recruited from 2008 to 2009 (N = 48) by advertisement. Intervention......: Participants were randomized to receive 5–10 g gel/50–100 mg testosterone (Testim®, Ipsen, France) or 5–10 g gel/placebo. Results: The plasma levels of calprotectin and phosphate were significantly reduced in the group receiving testosterone therapy (gel) compared to the placebo group (p Testosterone...

  5. Testosterone levels in healthy men correlate negatively with serotonin 4 receptor binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perfalk, Erik; Cunha-Bang, Sofi da; Holst, Klaus K

    2017-01-01

    receptor (5-HT4R) indexes central serotonergic tonus, which may be related to endogenous sex-steroid levels in the mentally healthy state even though this remains elusive. Here we evaluate if peripheral levels of estradiol and testosterone are associated with 5-HT4R binding as imaged by [(11)C]SB207145...... and neocortex). We tested whether testosterone and estradiol predict global 5-HT4R, adjusting for age. We found that testosterone, but not estradiol, correlated negatively with global 5-HT4R levels (p=0.02) suggesting that men with high levels of testosterone have higher cerebral serotonergic tonus. Our...... findings corroborate the link between sex hormone levels and serotonin signalling. Future longitudinal studies in clinical relevant populations are needed to elucidate the potential importance of testosterone in the pathophysiology of e.g. major depression and its treatment....

  6. Prolonged exposure to acetaminophen reduces testosterone production by the human fetal testis in a xenograft model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Driesche, Sander; Macdonald, Joni; Anderson, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    Most common male reproductive disorders are linked to lower testosterone exposure in fetal life, although the factors responsible for suppressing fetal testosterone remain largely unknown. Protracted use of acetaminophen during pregnancy is associated with increased risk of cryptorchidism in sons......, but effects on fetal testosterone production have not been demonstrated. We used a validated xenograft model to expose human fetal testes to clinically relevant doses and regimens of acetaminophen. Exposure to a therapeutic dose of acetaminophen for 7 days significantly reduced plasma testosterone (45...... the final dose) in exposed host mice were substantially below those reported in humans after a therapeutic oral dose. Subsequent in utero exposure studies in rats indicated that the acetaminophen-induced reduction in testosterone likely results from reduced expression of key steroidogenic enzymes (Cyp11a1...

  7. Correlation between sperm characteristics and testosterone in bovine seminal plasma by direct radioimmunoassay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Waldemar de Oliveira Souza

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to validate a non-extractive RIA for seminal testosterone and quantify the hormone using a solid-phase commercial kit, and study the correlation between testosterone in seminal plasma and sperm characteristics. Parallelism showed a correlation index r = 0.992 (Y = -5.47 + 1.073X; R² = 0.985, indicating that the non-extractive method presented is indicated particularly for assessment of testosterone when establishing comparisons between samples. Overall mean (±SD of testosterone level was 0.60±0.65 ng/mL. Correlation was only found between the seminal concentrations of testosterone and pH of the semen.

  8. Hyperandrogenemia in polycystic ovary syndrome: exploration of the role of free testosterone and androstenedione in metabolic phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerchbaum, Elisabeth; Schwetz, Verena; Rabe, Thomas; Giuliani, Albrecht; Obermayer-Pietsch, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the association between androstenedione, testosterone, and free testosterone and metabolic disturbances in polycystic ovary syndrome. We analyzed the association between androstenedione, testosterone, and free testosterone and metabolic parameters in a cross-sectional study including 706 polycystic ovary syndrome and 140 BMI-matched healthy women. Polycystic ovary syndrome women were categorized into 4 groups: normal androstenedione and normal free testosterone (NA/NFT), elevated androstenedione and normal free testosterone (HA/NFT), normal androstenedione and elevated free testosterone (NA/HFT), elevated androstenedione and free testosterone (HA/HFT). Polycystic ovary syndrome women with elevated free testosterone levels (HA/HFT and NA/HFT) have an adverse metabolic profile including 2 h glucose, HbA1c, fasting and 2 h insulin, area under the insulin response curve, insulin resistance, insulin sensitivity index (Matsuda), triglycerides, total and high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels compared to NA/NFT (pfree testosterone-ratio and area under the insulin response curve, insulin resistance, and total cholesterol/high density lipoprotein cholesterol-ratio and a positive association with Matsuda-index, and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (pfree testosterone levels but not with isolated androstenedione elevation have an adverse metabolic phenotype. Further, a higher androstenedione/free testosterone-ratio was independently associated with a beneficial metabolic profile.

  9. Testosterone stimulates glucose uptake and GLUT4 translocation through LKB1/AMPK signaling in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsuhashi, Kazuteru; Senmaru, Takafumi; Fukuda, Takuya; Yamazaki, Masahiro; Shinomiya, Katsuhiko; Ueno, Morio; Kinoshita, Shigeru; Kitawaki, Jo; Katsuyama, Masato; Tsujikawa, Muneo; Obayashi, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Naoto; Fukui, Michiaki

    2016-01-01

    Decreases in serum testosterone concentrations in aging men are associated with metabolic disorders. Testosterone has been reported to increase GLUT4-dependent glucose uptake in skeletal muscle cells and cardiomyocytes. However, studies on glucose uptake occurring in response to testosterone stimulation in adipocytes are currently not available. This study was designed to determine the effects of testosterone on glucose uptake in adipocytes. Glucose uptake was assessed with 2-[(3)H] deoxyglucose in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. GLUT4 translocation was evaluated in plasma membrane (PM) sheets and PM fractions by immunofluorescence and immunoblotting, respectively. Activation of GLUT4 translocation-related protein kinases, including Akt, AMPK, LKB1, CaMKI, CaMKII, and Cbl was followed by immunoblotting. Expression levels of androgen receptor (AR) mRNA and AR translocation to the PM were assessed by real-time RT-PCR and immunoblotting, respectively. The results showed that both high-dose (100 nM) testosterone and testosterone-BSA increased glucose uptake and GLUT4 translocation to the PM, independently of the intracellular AR. Testosterone and testosterone-BSA stimulated the phosphorylation of AMPK, LKB1, and CaMKII. The knockdown of LKB1 by siRNA attenuated testosterone- and testosterone-BSA-stimulated AMPK phosphorylation and glucose uptake. These results indicate that high-dose testosterone and testosterone-BSA increase GLUT4-dependent glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes by inducing the LKB1/AMPK signaling pathway.

  10. Examining a pathway for hormone mediated maternal effects--yolk testosterone affects androgen receptor expression and endogenous testosterone production in young chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfannkuche, K A; Gahr, M; Weites, I M; Riedstra, B; Wolf, C; Groothuis, T G G

    2011-07-01

    In vertebrates maternal androgens can substantially influence developing offspring, inducing both short and long term changes in physiology and behavior, including androgen sensitive traits. However, how the effects of maternal hormones are mediated remains unknown. Two possible pathways are that maternal androgens affect parts of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPG axis) or the sensitivity to androgens by affecting androgen receptor (AR) densities within the brain. To investigate both pathways, testosterone within the physiological range or vehicle only was injected into the egg yolk of unincubated chicken eggs and AR mRNA expression in different brain nuclei as well as plasma testosterone levels were measured in two week old male and female chicks that had hatched from these eggs. Our results showed a significant sex difference in plasma testosterone levels with males showing higher levels than females. Furthermore, AR mRNA expression as well as plasma testosterone levels were significantly lower in chicks hatched from testosterone treated eggs. These results suggest a compensatory mechanism for avoiding potential detrimental effects of high testosterone levels. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Androgens (dehydroepiandrosterone or testosterone) for women undergoing assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagels, Helen E; Rishworth, Josephine R; Siristatidis, Charalampos S; Kroon, Ben

    2015-11-26

    Infertility is a condition affecting 10% to 15% of couples of reproductive age. It is generally defined as "the failure to achieve a clinical pregnancy after 12 months or more of regular unprotected sexual intercourse". The treatment of infertility may involve manipulation of gametes or of the embryos themselves. These techniques are together known as assisted reproductive technology (ART). Practitioners are constantly seeking alternative or adjunct treatments, or both, in the hope that they may improve the outcome of assisted reproductive techniques. This Cochrane review focusses on the adjunct use of synthetic versions of two naturally-produced hormones, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and testosterone (T), in assisted reproduction.DHEA and its derivative testosterone are steroid hormones proposed to increase conception rates by positively affecting follicular response to gonadotrophin stimulation, leading to greater oocyte yields and, in turn, increased chance of pregnancy. To assess the effectiveness and safety of DHEA and testosterone as pre- or co-treatments in subfertile women undergoing assisted reproduction. We searched the following electronic databases, trial registers and websites up to 12 March 2015: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), the Menstrual Disorders and Subfertility Group (MDSG) Specialised Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, electronic trial registers for ongoing and registered trials, citation indexes, conference abstracts in the Web of Science, PubMed and OpenSIGLE. We also carried out handsearches. There were no language restrictions. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing DHEA or testosterone as an adjunct treatment to any other active intervention, placebo, or no treatment in women undergoing assisted reproduction. Two review authors independently selected studies, extracted relevant data and assessed them for risk of bias. We pooled studies using fixed-effect models. We calculated

  12. Exercise training improves free testosterone in lifelong sedentary aging men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence D Hayes

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available As the impact of high-intensity interval training (HIIT on systemic hormones in aging men is unstudied to date, we investigated whether total testosterone (TT, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG, free testosterone (free-T and cortisol (all in serum were altered following HIIT in a cohort of 22 lifelong sedentary (62 ± 2 years older men. As HIIT requires preconditioning exercise in sedentary cohorts, participants were tested at three phases, each separated by six-week training; baseline (phase A, following conditioning exercise (phase B and post-HIIT (phase C. Each measurement phase used identical methods. TT was significantly increased following HIIT (~17%; P < 0.001 with most increase occurring during preconditioning (~10%; P = 0.007. Free-T was unaffected by conditioning exercise (P = 0.102 but was significantly higher following HIIT compared to baseline (~4.5%; P = 0.023. Cortisol remained unchanged from A to C (P = 0.138. The present data indicate a combination of preconditioning, and HIIT increases TT and SHBG in sedentary older males, with the HIIT stimulus accounting for a small but statistically significant increase in free-T. Further study is required to determine the biological importance of small improvements in free-T in aging men.

  13. Exercise training improves free testosterone in lifelong sedentary aging men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Lawrence D; Herbert, Peter; Sculthorpe, Nicholas F; Grace, Fergal M

    2017-07-01

    As the impact of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on systemic hormones in aging men is unstudied to date, we investigated whether total testosterone (TT), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), free testosterone (free-T) and cortisol (all in serum) were altered following HIIT in a cohort of 22 lifelong sedentary (62 ± 2 years) older men. As HIIT requires preconditioning exercise in sedentary cohorts, participants were tested at three phases, each separated by six-week training; baseline (phase A), following conditioning exercise (phase B) and post-HIIT (phase C). Each measurement phase used identical methods. TT was significantly increased following HIIT (~17%; P  HIIT compared to baseline (~4.5%; P  = 0.023). Cortisol remained unchanged from A to C ( P  = 0.138). The present data indicate a combination of preconditioning, and HIIT increases TT and SHBG in sedentary older males, with the HIIT stimulus accounting for a small but statistically significant increase in free-T. Further study is required to determine the biological importance of small improvements in free-T in aging men. © 2017 The authors.

  14. A concise review of testosterone and bone health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad NV

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nur-Vaizura Mohamad, Ima-Nirwana Soelaiman, Kok-Yong Chin Department of Pharmacology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Kuala Lampur, Malaysia Abstract: Osteoporosis is a condition causing significant morbidity and mortality in the elderly population worldwide. Age-related testosterone deficiency is the most important factor of bone loss in elderly men. Androgen can influence bone health by binding to androgen receptors directly or to estrogen receptors (ERs indirectly via aromatization to estrogen. This review summarized the direct and indirect effects of androgens on bone derived from in vitro, in vivo, and human studies. Cellular studies showed that androgen stimulated the proliferation of preosteoblasts and differentiation of osteoblasts. The converted estrogen suppressed osteoclast formation and resorption activity by blocking the receptor activator of nuclear factor κ-B ligand pathway. In animal studies, activation of androgen and ERα, but not ERβ, was shown to be important in acquisition and maintenance of bone mass. Human epidemiological studies demonstrated a significant relationship between estrogen and testosterone in bone mineral density and fracture risk, but the relative significance between the two remained debatable. Human experimental studies showed that estrogen was needed in suppressing bone resorption, but both androgen and estrogen were indispensable for bone formation. As a conclusion, maintaining optimal level of androgen is essential in preventing osteoporosis and its complications in elderly men. Keywords: androgen, men, osteopenia, osteoporosis, estrogen, skeleton

  15. Testosterone sorption and desorption: Effects of soil particle size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Yong, E-mail: yqi01@unomaha.edu [Civil Engineering Dept., University of Nebraska-Lincoln at Omaha Campus, Omaha, NE 68182 (United States); Zhang, Tian C. [Civil Engineering Dept., University of Nebraska-Lincoln at Omaha Campus, Omaha, NE 68182 (United States); Ren, Yongzheng [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2014-08-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Smaller soil particles have higher sorption and lower desorption rates. • The sorption capacity ranks as clay > silt > sand. • Small particles like clays have less potential for desorption. • Colloids (clays) have high potential to facilitate the transport of hormones in soil–water environments. - Abstract: Soils contain a wide range of particles of different diameters with different mobility during rainfall events. Effects of soil particles on sorption and desorption behaviors of steroid hormones have not been investigated. In this study, wet sieve washing and repeated sedimentation methods were used to fractionate the soils into five ranges. The sorption and desorption properties and related mechanisms of testosterone in batch reactors filled with fractionated soil particles were evaluated. Results of sorption and desorption kinetics indicate that small soil particles have higher sorption and lower desorption rates than that of big ones. Thermodynamic results show the sorption processes are spontaneous and exothermal. The sorption capacity ranks as clay > silt > sand, depending mainly on specific surface area and surface functional groups. The urea control test shows that hydrogen bonding contributes to testosterone sorption onto clay and silt but not on sand. Desorption tests indicate sorption is 36–65% irreversible from clay to sand. Clays have highest desorption hysteresis among these five soil fractions, indicating small particles like clays have less potential for desorption. The results provide indirect evidence on the colloid (clay)-facilitated transport of hormones (micro-pollutants) in soil environments.

  16. A review on the relationship between testosterone and life-course persistent antisocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Bariş O; Derksen, Jan J L

    2012-12-30

    Life-course persistent antisocial behavior is 10 to 14 times more prevalent in males and it has been suggested that testosterone levels could account for this gender bias. Preliminary studies with measures of fetal testosterone find inconsistent associations with antisocial behavior, especially studies that use the 2D:4D ratio as a proxy for fetal testosterone. However, circulating testosterone consistently shows positive associations with antisocial behaviors throughout childhood, adolescence, and adulthood, particularly in males. It is suggested that high fetal/circulating testosterone interactively influence the maturation and functionality of mesolimbic dopaminergic circuitry, right orbitofrontal cortex, and cortico-subcortical connectivity, resulting in a strong reward motivation, low social sensitivity, and dampened regulation of strong motivational/emotional processes. The link between these testosterone induced endophenotypes and actual display of antisocial behavior is strongly modulated by different social (e.g., social rejection, low SES) and genetic (e.g., MAOA, 5HTT) risk factors that can disturb socio-, psycho-, and biological development and interact with testosterone in shaping behavior. When these additional risk factors are present, the testosterone induced endophenotypes may increase the risk for a chronic antisocial lifestyle. However, behavioral endophenotypes induced by testosterone can also predispose towards socially adaptive traits such as a strong achievement motivation, leadership, fair bargaining behaviors, and social assertiveness. These adaptive traits are more likely to emerge when the high testosterone individual has positive social experiences that promote prosocial behaviors such as strong and secure attachments with his caregivers, affiliation with prosocial peers, and sufficient socioeconomic resources. A theoretical model is presented, various hypotheses are examined, and future venues for research are discussed. Copyright

  17. Activational action of testosterone on androgen receptors protects males preventing temporomandibular joint pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanton, L E; Macedo, C G; Torres-Chávez, K E; Fischer, L; Tambeli, C H

    2017-01-01

    Testosterone protects male rats from Temporomandibular Joint (TMJ) pain. This study investigated whether this protective effect is mediated by an organizational action of testosterone during nervous system development, by central estrogen and androgen receptors and by the 5α-reduced metabolite of testosterone, dihydrotestosterone. A pharmacological approach was used to assess the ability of the androgen receptor antagonist flutamide, the estrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182 780 and the 5-α reductase inhibitor dutasteride to block the protective effect of testosterone, evaluated through the behavioral response induced by a TMJ injection of 0.5% formalin. Flutamide and ICI 182 780 were injected into the medullary subarachnoid space, and dutasteride and testosterone were systemically administered. The TMJ injection of 0.5% formalin induced a significant nociceptive behavioral response in gonadectomized male and naïve female, but not in sham gonadectomized male rats, confirming that endogenous testosterone prevents TMJ nociception in males. Testosterone administration prevented formalin-induced TMJ nociception in males gonadectomized either in the neonatal (at the day of birth) or adult period and in naïve female rats, suggesting that the protective effect of testosterone on TMJ nociception does not depend on its organizational actions during critical periods of development. The administration of flutamide and dutasteride but not of ICI 182 780 blocked the protective effect of testosterone. We conclude that the protective effect of testosterone on TMJ nociception depends on activational actions of dihydrotestosterone on androgen receptors rather than on organizational androgenic actions during central nervous system development or estrogenic actions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Peculiar observations in measuring testosterone in women treated with oral contraceptives supplemented with dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijboer, Annemieke C; Zimmerman, Yvette; de Boer, Theo; Coelingh Bennink, Herjan; Blankenstein, Marinus A

    2014-03-20

    Total testosterone is considered to be decreased during the use of combined oral contraceptives. There is, however, considerable concern about the quality of testosterone assays, especially at low levels. We aimed to confirm testosterone levels measured by direct radioimmunoassay in a recent clinical trial with a state-of-the-art LC-MSMS method. Surplus specimens with known testosterone levels collected during the study (Clinical Trial Registration number ISRCTN06414473) were reanalyzed with an LC-MSMS method. This method was compared to another LC-MSMS method that had shown to concur excellently to a reference method. Follow-up experiments were designed to explain the results. In contrast to our expectation, LC-MSMS measurements did not corroborate the data obtained by radioimmunoassay. Subsequent experiments showed that this could be attributed to a strong dependency of the radioimmunoassay on SHBG. Testosterone results (n = 198) obtained by direct radioimmunoassay showed a negative correlation to SHBG levels (r = -0.676; p<0.001). By contrast, testosterone results obtained by LC-MSMS were not related to SHBG (r = 0.100; NS). In conclusion, our results indicate that total testosterone measurements during oral contraceptive use are unreliable when performed with assays sensitive to the SHBG concentration. The discrepancy with the literature can most likely be explained by the sensitivity of the immunoassay used to SHBG. Given the sharp increase in SHBG during the use of many oral contraceptives, total testosterone may not decrease, whereas its bioavailability, estimated by free testosterone levels, will be diminished. Studies aiming at restoration of testosterone homeostasis during oral contraception need to take this into account. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Low free testosterone predicts frailty in older men: the health in men study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Zoë; Flicker, Leon; Almeida, Osvaldo P; Hankey, Graeme J; McCaul, Kieran A; Chubb, S A Paul; Yeap, Bu B

    2010-07-01

    The prevalence of frailty increases, whereas testosterone decreases, as men age. Low testosterone may be a risk factor for development of this syndrome. Our objective was to determine whether testosterone levels are associated with frailty. We conducted a prospective cohort study. Between 2001 and 2004, frailty was assessed in 3616 community-dwelling men aged 70-88 yr. Frailty was reassessed in 1586 men aged 76-93 yr in 2008-2009. Frailty was assessed with the FRAIL scale, comprising five domains: fatigue, difficulty climbing a flight of stairs, difficulty walking more than 100 m, more than five illnesses present, or weight loss greater than 5%. Testosterone, SHBG, and LH were assayed at baseline. Free testosterone was calculated using mass action equations. At baseline, 15.2% of men (n = 548) were frail (at least three deficits), increasing to 23.0% (n = 364) at follow-up. At baseline, each 1 sd decrease in total or free testosterone level was associated with increased odds of frailty [odds ratio (OR) = 1.23; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.11-1.38, and OR = 1.29; 95% CI = 1.15-1.44 for total and free testosterone, respectively]. Lower LH was associated with reduced odds of frailty (OR = 0.88; 95% CI = 0.81-0.95). Adjustments were made for age, body mass index, smoking, diabetes, social support, and other covariates. At follow-up, only lower free testosterone levels (OR = 1.22; 95% CI = 1.05-1.42) predicted frailty. Lower free testosterone was independently associated with frailty at baseline and follow-up. Randomized trials should explore whether testosterone therapy can prevent the development of frailty.

  20. Testosterone Levels in Pre-Menopausal Women are Associated With Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Midlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Monika; Wellons, Melissa; Cedars, Marcelle I; VanWagner, Lisa; Gunderson, Erica P; Ajmera, Veeral; Torchen, Laura; Siscovick, David; Carr, J Jeffrey; Terry, James G; Rinella, Mary; Lewis, Cora E; Terrault, Norah

    2017-05-01

    Young women with hyperandrogenism have high risk of metabolic co-morbidities, including increased risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Whether testosterone (the predominant androgen) is associated with NAFLD independent of metabolic co-factors is unclear. Additionally, whether testosterone confers increased risk of NAFLD in women without hyperandrogenism is unknown. Among women in the prospective population-based multicenter Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study, we assessed whether free testosterone levels measured at Year 2 (1987-1988) were associated with prevalent NAFLD at Year 25 (2010-2011) (n=1052). NAFLD was defined using noncontrast abdominal CT scan with liver attenuation≤40 Hounsfield units after excluding other causes of hepatic fat. The association of free testosterone with prevalent NAFLD was assessed by logistic regression. Increasing quintiles of free testosterone were associated with prevalent NAFLD at Year 25 (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.25, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.50, P=0.015), independent of insulin resistance, body mass index, waist circumference, and serum lipids. Importantly, the association persisted among n=955 women without androgen excess (AOR 1.27, 95% CI 1.05-1.53, P=0.016). Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) volume partially mediated the association of free testosterone with NAFLD (mediating effect 41.0%, 95% CI 22-119%). Increasing free testosterone is associated with prevalent NAFLD in middle age, even in women without androgen excess. Visceral adiposity appears to play an important role in the relationship between testosterone and NAFLD in women. Testosterone may provide a potential novel target for NAFLD therapeutics, and future studies in pre-menopausal women should consider the importance of testosterone as a risk factor for NAFLD.

  1. Testosterone is associated with cooperation during intergroup competition by enhancing parochial altruism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimers, Luise; Diekhof, Esther K

    2015-01-01

    The steroid hormone testosterone is widely associated with negative behavioral effects, such as aggression or dominance. However, recent studies applying economic exchange tasks revealed conflicting results. While some point to a prosocial effect of testosterone by increasing altruistic behavior, others report that testosterone promotes antisocial tendencies. Taking into account additional factors such as parochial altruism (i.e., ingroup favoritism and outgroup hostility) might help to explain this contradiction. First evidence for a link between testosterone and parochial altruism comes from recently reported data of male soccer fans playing the ultimatum game. In this study high levels of endogenous testosterone predicted increased altruistic punishment during outgroup interactions and at the same time heightened ingroup generosity. Here, we report findings of another experimental task, the prisoner's dilemma, applied in the same context to examine the role of testosterone on parochial tendencies in terms of cooperation. In this task, 50 male soccer fans were asked to decide whether or not they wanted to cooperate with partners marked as either fans of the subject's own favorite team (ingroup) or fans of other teams (outgroups). Our results show that high testosterone levels were associated with increased ingroup cooperation during intergroup competition. In addition, subjects displaying a high degree of parochialism during intergroup competition had significantly higher levels of testosterone than subjects who did not differentiate much between the different groups. In sum, the present data demonstrate that the behavioral effects of testosterone are not limited to aggressive and selfish tendencies but may imply prosocial aspects depending on the context. By this means, our results support the previously reported findings on testosterone-dependent intergroup bias and indicate that this social hormone might be an important factor driving parochial altruism.

  2. Testosterone reduces AGTR1 expression to prevent β-cell and islet apoptosis from glucotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooptiwut, Suwattanee; Hanchang, Wanthanee; Semprasert, Namoiy; Junking, Mutita; Limjindaporn, Thawornchai; Yenchitsomanus, Pa-thai

    2015-03-01

    Hypogonadism in men is associated with an increased incidence of type 2 diabetes. Supplementation with testosterone has been shown to protect pancreatic β-cell against apoptosis due to toxic substances including streptozotocin and high glucose. One of the pathological mechanisms of glucose-induced pancreatic β-cell apoptosis is the induction of the local rennin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). The role of testosterone in regulation of the pancreatic RAAS is still unknown. This study aims to investigate the protective action of testosterone against glucotoxicity-induced pancreatic β-cell apoptosis via alteration of the pancreatic RAAS pathway. Rat insulinoma cell line (INS-1) cells or isolated male mouse islets were cultured in basal and high-glucose media in the presence or absence of testosterone, losartan, and angiotensin II (Ang II), then cell apoptosis, cleaved caspase 3 expression, oxidative stress, and expression of angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AGTR1) and p47(phox) mRNA and protein were measured. Testosterone and losartan showed similar effects in reducing pancreatic β-cell apoptosis. Testosterone significantly reduced expression of AGTR1 protein in INS-1 cells cultured in high-glucose medium or high-glucose medium with Ang II. Testosterone decreased the expression of AGTR1 and p47(phox) mRNA and protein in comparison with levels in cells cultured in high-glucose medium alone. Furthermore, testosterone attenuated superoxide production when co-cultured with high-glucose medium. In contrast, when cultured in basal glucose, supplementation of testosterone did not have any effect on cell apoptosis, oxidative stress, and expression of AGT1R and p47(phox). In addition, high-glucose medium did not increase cleaved caspase 3 in AGTR1 knockdown experiments. Thus, our results indicated that testosterone prevents pancreatic β-cell apoptosis due to glucotoxicity through reduction of the expression of ATGR1 and its signaling pathway. © 2015 Society for

  3. The Anxiolytic and Antidepressant-like Effects of Testosterone and Estrogen in Gonadectomized Male Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrier, Nicole; Saland, Samantha K; Duclot, Florian; He, Huan; Mercer, Roger; Kabbaj, Mohamed

    2015-08-15

    While the influence of testosterone levels on vulnerability to affective disorders is not straightforward, research suggests this hormone may confer some degree of resiliency in men. We recently demonstrated a role for the dentate gyrus in mediating testosterone's protective effects on depressive-like behavior in gonadectomized male rats. Here, testosterone may exert its effects through androgen receptor-mediated mechanisms or via local aromatization to estradiol. Gonadectomized male rats were implanted with a placebo, testosterone, or estradiol pellet, and subsequent protective anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like effects of testosterone and its aromatized metabolite, estradiol, were then investigated in the open field and sucrose preference tests, respectively. Moreover, their influence on gene expression in the hippocampus was analyzed by genome-wide complementary DNA microarray analysis. Finally, the contribution of testosterone's aromatization within the dentate gyrus was assessed by local infusion of the aromatase inhibitor fadrozole, whose efficacy was confirmed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Both hormones had antidepressant-like effects associated with a substantial overlap in transcriptional regulation, particularly in synaptic plasticity- and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway-related genes. Further, chronic aromatase inhibition within the dentate gyrus blocked the protective effects of testosterone. Both testosterone and estradiol exhibit anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like effects in gonadectomized male rats, while similarly regulating critical mediators of these behaviors, suggesting common underlying mechanisms. Accordingly, we demonstrated that testosterone's protective effects are mediated, in part, by its aromatization in the dentate gyrus. These findings thus provide further insight into a role for estradiol in mediating the protective anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like effects of testosterone. Copyright © 2015 Society

  4. Testosterone induces cardiomyocyte hypertrophy through mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altamirano, Francisco; Oyarce, César; Silva, Patricio; Toyos, Marcela; Wilson, Carlos; Lavandero, Sergio; Uhlén, Per; Estrada, Manuel

    2009-08-01

    Elevated testosterone concentrations induce cardiac hypertrophy but the molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. Anabolic properties of testosterone involve an increase in protein synthesis. The mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway is a major regulator of cell growth, but the relationship between testosterone action and mTORC1 in cardiac cells remains unknown. Here, we investigated whether the hypertrophic effects of testosterone are mediated by mTORC1 signaling in cultured cardiomyocytes. Testosterone increases the phosphorylation of mTOR and its downstream targets 40S ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1; also known as RPS6KB1) and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1). The S6K1 phosphorylation induced by testosterone was blocked by rapamycin and small interfering RNA to mTOR. Moreover, the hormone increased both extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) and protein kinase B (Akt) phosphorylation. ERK1/2 inhibitor PD98059 blocked the testosterone-induced S6K1 phosphorylation, whereas Akt inhibition (Akt-inhibitor-X) had no effect. Testosterone-induced ERK1/2 and S6K1 phosphorylation increases were blocked by either 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N,N-tetraacetic acid-acetoxymethylester or by inhibitors of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3)) pathway: U-73122 and 2-aminoethyl diphenylborate. Finally, cardiomyocyte hypertrophy was evaluated by, the expression of beta-myosin heavy chain, alpha-skeletal actin, cell size, and amino acid incorporation. Testosterone increased all four parameters and the increase being blocked by mTOR inhibition. Our findings suggest that testosterone activates the mTORC1/S6K1 axis through IP(3)/Ca(2+) and MEK/ERK1/2 to induce cardiomyocyte hypertrophy.

  5. Transcriptional regulation of myotrophic actions by testosterone and trenbolone on androgen-responsive muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Fan; McCoy, Sean C; Ross, Heather H; Bernardo, Joseph A; Beharry, Adam W; Senf, Sarah M; Judge, Andrew R; Beck, Darren T; Conover, Christine F; Cannady, Darryl F; Smith, Barbara K; Yarrow, Joshua F; Borst, Stephen E

    2014-09-01

    Androgens regulate body composition and skeletal muscle mass in males, but the molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. Recently, we demonstrated that trenbolone (a potent synthetic testosterone analogue that is not a substrate for 5-alpha reductase or for aromatase) induces myotrophic effects in skeletal muscle without causing prostate enlargement, which is in contrast to the known prostate enlarging effects of testosterone. These previous results suggest that the 5α-reduction of testosterone is not required for myotrophic action. We now report differential gene expression in response to testosterone versus trenbolone in the highly androgen-sensitive levator ani/bulbocavernosus (LABC) muscle complex of the adult rat after 6weeks of orchiectomy (ORX), using real time PCR. The ORX-induced expression of atrogenes (Muscle RING-finger protein-1 [MuRF1] and atrogin-1) was suppressed by both androgens, with trenbolone producing a greater suppression of atrogin-1 mRNA compared to testosterone. Both androgens elevated expression of anabolic genes (insulin-like growth factor-1 and mechano-growth factor) after ORX. ORX-induced increases in expression of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) mRNA were suppressed by trenbolone treatment, but not testosterone. In ORX animals, testosterone promoted WNT1-inducible-signaling pathway protein 2 (WISP-2) gene expression while trenbolone did not. Testosterone and trenbolone equally enhanced muscle regeneration as shown by increases in LABC mass and in protein expression of embryonic myosin by western blotting. In addition, testosterone increased WISP-2 protein levels. Together, these findings identify specific mechanisms by which testosterone and trenbolone may regulate skeletal muscle maintenance and growth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Testosterone is associated with cooperation during intergroup competition by enhancing parochial altruism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luise eReimers

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The steroid hormone testosterone is widely associated with negative behavioral effects, such as aggression or dominance. However, recent studies applying economic exchange tasks revealed conflicting results. While some point to a prosocial effect of testosterone by increasing altruistic behavior, others report that testosterone promotes antisocial tendencies. Taking into account additional factors such as parochial altruism (i.e., ingroup favoritism and outgroup hostility might help to explain this contradiction. First evidence for a link between testosterone and parochial altruism comes from recently reported data of male soccer fans playing the ultimatum game. In this study high levels of endogenous testosterone predicted increased altruistic punishment during outgroup interactions and at the same time heightened ingroup generosity. Here, we report findings of another experimental task, the prisoner’s dilemma, applied in the same context to examine the role of testosterone on parochial tendencies in terms of cooperation. In this task, fifty male soccer fans were asked to decide whether or not they wanted to cooperate with partners marked as either fans of the subject’s own favorite team (ingroup or fans of other teams (outgroups. Our results show that high testosterone levels were associated with increased ingroup cooperation during intergroup competition. In addition, subjects displaying a high degree of parochialism during intergroup competition had significantly higher levels of testosterone than subjects who did not differentiate much between the different groups. In sum, the present data demonstrate that the behavioral effects of testosterone are not limited to aggressive and selfish tendencies but may imply prosocial aspects depending on the context. By this means, our results support the previously reported findings on testosterone-dependent intergroup bias and indicate that this social hormone might be an important factor driving

  7. Effects of testosterone on spatial learning and memory in adult male rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spritzer, Mark D.; Daviau, Emily D.; Coneeny, Meagan K.; Engelman, Shannon M.; Prince, W. Tyler; Rodriguez-Wisdom, Karlye N.

    2011-01-01

    A male advantage over females for spatial tasks has been well documented in both humans and rodents, but it remains unclear how the activational effects of testosterone influence spatial ability in males. In a series of experiments, we tested how injections of testosterone influenced the spatial working and reference memory of castrated male rats. In the eight-arm radial maze, testosterone injections (0.500 mg/rat) reduced the number of working memory errors during the early blocks of testing but had no effect on the number of reference memory errors relative to the castrated control group. In a reference memory version of the Morris water maze, injections of a wide range of testosterone doses (0.0625-1.000 mg/rat) reduced path lengths to the hidden platform, indicative of improved spatial learning. This improved learning was independent of testosterone dose, with all treatment groups showing better performance than the castrated control males. Furthermore, this effect was only observed when rats were given testosterone injections starting seven days prior to water maze testing and not when injections were given only on the testing days. We also observed that certain doses of testosterone (0.250 and 1.000 mg/rat) increased perseverative behavior in a reversal-learning task. Finally, testosterone did not have a clear effect on spatial working memory in the Morris water maze, although intermediate doses seemed to optimize performance. Overall, the results indicate that testosterone can have positive activational effects on spatial learning and memory, but the duration of testosterone replacement and the nature of the spatial task modify these effects. PMID:21295035

  8. GSK-3β/NFAT Signaling Is Involved in Testosterone-Induced Cardiac Myocyte Hypertrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Duran

    Full Text Available Testosterone induces cardiac hypertrophy through a mechanism that involves a concerted crosstalk between cytosolic and nuclear signaling pathways. Nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT is associated with the promotion of cardiac hypertrophy, glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β is considered to function as a negative regulator, mainly by modulating NFAT activity. However, the role played by calcineurin-NFAT and GSK-3β signaling in testosterone-induced cardiac hypertrophy has remained unknown. Here, we determined that testosterone stimulates cardiac myocyte hypertrophy through NFAT activation and GSK-3β inhibition. Testosterone increased the activity of NFAT-luciferase (NFAT-Luc in a time- and dose-dependent manner, with the activity peaking after 24 h of stimulation with 100 nM testosterone. NFAT-Luc activity induced by testosterone was blocked by the calcineurin inhibitors FK506 and cyclosporine A and by 11R-VIVIT, a specific peptide inhibitor of NFAT. Conversely, testosterone inhibited GSK-3β activity as determined by increased GSK-3β phosphorylation at Ser9 and β-catenin protein accumulation, and also by reduction in β-catenin phosphorylation at residues Ser33, Ser37, and Thr41. GSK-3β inhibition with 1-azakenpaullone or a GSK-3β-targeting siRNA increased NFAT-Luc activity, whereas overexpression of a constitutively active GSK-3β mutant (GSK-3βS9A inhibited NFAT-Luc activation mediated by testosterone. Testosterone-induced cardiac myocyte hypertrophy was established by increased cardiac myocyte size and [3H]-leucine incorporation (as a measurement of cellular protein synthesis. Calcineurin-NFAT inhibition abolished and GSK-3β inhibition promoted the hypertrophy stimulated by testosterone. GSK-3β activation by GSK-3βS9A blocked the increase of hypertrophic markers induced by testosterone. Moreover, inhibition of intracellular androgen receptor prevented testosterone-induced NFAT-Luc activation. Collectively, these results

  9. Marijuana use and serum testosterone concentrations among U.S. males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thistle, J E; Graubard, B I; Braunlin, M; Vesper, H; Trabert, B; Cook, M B; McGlynn, K A

    2017-07-01

    Marijuana has been reported to have several effects on the male reproductive system. Marijuana has previously been linked to reduced adult testosterone, however, a study in Denmark reported increased testosterone concentrations among marijuana users. This study was performed to estimate the effect of marijuana use on testosterone in U.S. males. Data on serum testosterone, marijuana use, and covariates for 1577 men from the 2011-2012 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were analyzed. Information on marijuana use was collected by a self-administered computer-assisted questionnaire. Serum testosterone was determined using isotope dilution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The effects of marijuana use on serum testosterone concentrations were examined by frequency, duration, and recency of use. Adjusted means and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of serum testosterone across levels of marijuana use were estimated using multiple linear regression weighted by the survey weights. The majority (66.2%) of the weighted study population reported ever using marijuana with 26.6% reporting current marijuana use. There was no difference in serum testosterone between ever users (adjusted mean = 3.69 ng/mL, 95% CI: 3.46, 3.93) and never users (adjusted mean = 3.70 ng/mL, 95% CI: 3.45, 3.98) upon multivariable analysis. However, serum testosterone was inversely associated with time since last regular use of marijuana (p-value for trend = 0.02). When restricted to men aged 18-29 years, this relationship strengthened (p-value for trend testosterone was also inversely associated with time since last use (p-value for trend testosterone levels. Serum testosterone concentrations were higher in men with more recent marijuana use. Studies are needed to determine the extent to which circulating testosterone concentrations mediate the relationship of marijuana use with male reproductive outcomes. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government

  10. Korelasi antara Kadar Testosteron dan Proses Remodeling Ventrikel Kiri pada Penderita Infark Miokardium Akut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rizki Akbar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Infark miokardium akut merupakan penyebab utama kematian di dunia. Perbedaan jenis kelamin berperan terhadap mortalitas jangka panjang pascainfark miokardium yang menunjukkan gambaran pola fisiologi regenerasi miokardium yang spesifik. Kematian setelah infark miokardium lebih tinggi pada perempuan. Remodeling ventrikel kiri merupakan proses penyembuhan luka pascainfark miokardium yang menjadi petunjuk keadaan gagal jantung maupun kematian. Proses ini berpengaruh penting pada fungsi ventrikel dan prognosis survival yang dapat didiagnosis dengan pemeriksaan ekokardiografi. Terdapat kontroversi berkaitan dengan peranan androgen pada proses remodeling jantung. Walaupun masih terdapat perdebatan, androgen memiliki peran terhadap remodeling ventrikel kiri dan bersifat protektif terhadap proses fibrosis yang maladaptif. Dilakukan penelitian observasional analitik yang bersifat prospektif untuk mengkaji peranan testosteron terhadap remodeling ventrikel kiri pada pasien infark miokardium akut di RSUP Dr. Hasan Sadikin Bandung selama Maret–Oktober 2015. Penelitian dilakukan pada 60 orang laki-laki usia 40–77 tahun penderita infark miokardium akut. Pemeriksaan ekokardiografi, pengukuran kadar testosteron total, testosteron bebas, dan testosteron bioavailabel dilakukan sebanyak dua kali. Pemeriksaan pertama dilakukan saat pasien didiagnosis infark miokardium akut dan pengulangan 4–6 minggu kemudian. Usia rata-rata penderita 56,16±8,48 tahun. Bila dibanding dengan pemeriksaan pertama dan kedua, tampak peningkatan kadar testosteron total yang signifikan (785,00±661,76 ng/dL vs 822,33±365,64 ng/dL; p=0,004, penurunan kadar testosteron bebas (24,66±17,91 ng/dL vs 19,00±15,24 ng/dL; p=0,067, dan penurunan kadar testosteron bioavailabel (475,21±353,10 ng/dL vs 394,98±314,85 ng/dL; p=0,166. Analisis korelasi Rank Spearman memperlihatkan korelasi bermakna antara testosteron bebas dan relative wall thickness (p=0,019, serta testosteron

  11. Varicocelectomy is associated with increases in serum testosterone independent of clinical grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Wayland; Rosoff, James S; Pale, Joseph R; Powell, Jonathan L; Goldstein, Marc

    2013-06-01

    To determine whether the varicocele grade is related to the degree of improvement in serum testosterone levels after varicocelectomy. We performed a retrospective review of men with a total serum testosterone level levels available. For patients with bilateral varicoceles, the greatest grade on either side was used to stratify the patients. The men with an isolated, left-side, grade I varicocele were not offered varicocelectomy. The changes in the testosterone levels were evaluated, with the results expressed as the mean ± standard error. P ≤.05 was considered statistically significant. A total of 59 patients had undergone bilateral varicocelectomy and 19 unilateral varicocelectomy. Overall, an increase in testosterone was seen in 65 of the 78 men (83%) in the present study. The mean follow-up was 7 months. The mean serum testosterone level increased from 308.4 to 417.5 ng/dL, with a mean increase of 109.1 ± 12.8 ng/dL (n = 78). The improvements in the serum testosterone levels were seen regardless of the clinical grade. Microsurgical varicocelectomy resulted in significant increases in the serum testosterone level, independent of the varicocele grade. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Paternal behavior and testosterone plasma levels in the Volcano Mouse Neotomodon alstoni (Rodentia: Muridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis, Juana; Ramírez, Lorena; Carmona, Agustín; Ortiz, Guadalupe; Delgado, Jesús; Cárdenas, René

    2009-01-01

    Paternal behavior and testosterone plasma levels in the Volcano Mouse Neotomodon alstoni (Rodentia: Muridae). Although initially it was thought that testosterone inhibited the display of paternal behavior in males of rodents, it has been shown that in some species high testosterone levels are needed for exhibition of paternal care. In captivity, males of Volcano Mouse (Neotomodon alstoni) provide pups the same care provided by the mother, with the exception of suckling. Here we measured plasmatic testosterone concentrations 10 days after mating, five and 20 days postpartum, and 10 days after males were isolated from their families in order to determine possible changes in this hormone, associated to the presence and age of pups. Males of Volcano Mouse exhibited paternal behavior when their testosterone levels were relatively high. Although levels of this hormone did not change with the presence or pups age, males that invested more time in huddling showed higher testosterone levels. It is possible that in the Volcano Mouse testosterone modulates paternal behavior indirectly, as in the California mouse.

  13. Behavioral cross-sensitization between testosterone and fenproporex in adolescent and adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.Q. Conceição

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The abuse of psychoactive drugs is considered a global health problem. During the last years, a relevant number of studies have investigated the relationship between anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS and other psychoactive drugs. AAS, such as testosterone, can cause a dependence syndrome that shares many features with the classical dependence to psychoactive substances. Pre-clinical evidence shows that there are interactions between testosterone and psychoactive drugs, such as cocaine. However, few studies have been performed to investigate the effect of repeated testosterone treatment on behavioral effects of amphetamine derivatives, such as fenproporex. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of repeated testosterone administration on fenproporex-induced locomotor activity in adolescent and adult rats. Adolescent male Wistar rats were injected with testosterone (10 mg/kg sc for 10 days. After 3 days, animals received an acute injection of fenproporex (3.0 mg/kg ip and the locomotor activity was recorded during 40 min. Thirty days later, the same animals received the same treatment with testosterone followed by a fenproporex challenge injection as described above. Our results demonstrated that repeated testosterone induced behavioral sensitization to fenproporex in adolescent but not in adult rats. These findings suggest that repeated AAS treatment might increase the dependence vulnerability to amphetamine and its derivatives in adolescent rats.

  14. Effect of exogenous testosterone, finasteride, and castration on serum level of thyroxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, Fatemeh; Yousofvand, Namdar; Khazaei, Mozafar; Ghanbari, Ali

    2013-01-01

    The secretion of thyroxin (T4) as the main hormone of thyroid gland is regulated by androgens. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of testosterone and finasteride administration and castration on serum levels of T4 and to show the effect of this regulation on total body weight, weight of testis, and the weight of prostate. Male adult rats (n = 32) were divided into 4 groups (n = 8): Group 1 (control), Group 2 (castration), Group 3 (finasteride: 20 mg/kg/day) and Group 4 (testosterone: 5 mg/kg/day). At the end of the study (35 days), serum level of thyroxin, body weight, weight of testis, and prostate were determined. The data showed that the body weight increased in castrated (P = 0.04) and decreased in testosterone (P = 0.00) groups but did not differ in finasteride (P>0.05) group. There were not any differences in the weight of testis among control, finasteride, and testosterone groups but the weight of prostate increased in testosterone group (P = 0.00) and decreased in castrated (P = 0.03) and finasteride groups (P = 0.04). In addition, the serum level of T4 (nmo/ml) decreased in the three groups: finasteride (P = 0.03), testosterone (P = 0.04), and castrated (P = 0.00). Testosterone in both high and low levels decreased the amount of T4 with a time-dependent manner.

  15. Basal testosterone, leadership and dominance: A field study and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meij, Leander; Schaveling, Jaap; van Vugt, Mark

    2016-10-01

    This article examines the role of basal testosterone as a potential biological marker of leadership and hierarchy in the workplace. First, we report the result of a study with a sample of male employees from different corporate organizations in the Netherlands (n=125). Results showed that employees with higher basal testosterone levels reported a more authoritarian leadership style, but this relationship was absent among those who currently held a real management position (i.e., they had at least one subordinate). Furthermore, basal testosterone levels were not different between managers and non-managers, and testosterone was not associated with various indicators of status and hierarchy such as number of subordinates, income, and position in the organizational hierarchy. In our meta-analysis (second study), we showed that basal testosterone levels were not associated with leadership in men nor in women (9 studies, n=1103). Taken together, our findings show that basal testosterone is not associated with having a leadership position in the corporate world or related to leadership styles in leaders. We suggest that basal testosterone could play a role in acquiring leadership positions through dominant and authoritarian behavior. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Testosterone affects hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) activity and lipid metabolism in the left ventricle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langfort, Jozef; Jagsz, Slawomir; Dobrzyn, Pawel; Brzezinska, Zofia; Klapcinska, Barbara; Galbo, Henrik; Gorski, Jan

    2010-09-03

    Fatty acids, which are the major cardiac fuel, are derived from lipid droplets stored in cardiomyocytes, among other sources. The heart expresses hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), which regulates triglycerides (TG) breakdown, and the enzyme is under hormonal control. Evidence obtained from adipose tissue suggests that testosterone regulates HSL activity. To test whether this is also true in the heart, we measured HSL activity in the left ventricle of sedentary male rats that had been treated with testosterone supplementation or orchidectomy with or without testosterone substitution. Left ventricle HSL activity against TG was significantly elevated in intact rats supplemented with testosterone. HSL activity against both TG and diacylglyceride was reduced by orchidectomy, whereas testosterone replacement fully reversed this effect. Moreover, testosterone increased left ventricle free fatty acid levels, caused an inhibitory effect on carbohydrate metabolism in the heart, and elevated left ventricular phosphocreatine and ATP levels as compared to control rats. These data indicate that testosterone is involved in cardiac HSL activity regulation which, in turn, may affect cardiac lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Environmental exposure to metals and male reproductive hormones: Circulating testosterone is inversely associated with blood molybdenum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeker, John D.; Rossano, Mary G.; Protas, Bridget; Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Diamond, Michael P.; Puscheck, Elizabeth; Daly, Douglas; Paneth, Nigel; Wirth, Julia J.

    2010-01-01

    Study Objective To explore associations between exposure to metals and male reproductive hormone levels. Design Cross-sectional epidemiology study with adjustment for potential confounders. Setting Metal concentrations and reproductive hormone levels were measured in blood samples collected from 219 men. Patients: Men recruited through two Michigan, USA infertility clinics. Interventions None Main Outcome Measures Serum FSH, LH, inhibin B, testosterone, and SHBG. Results Cadmium, copper and lead were all significantly or suggestively positively associated with testosterone when modeled individually (p-values = 0.1, 0.03, and 0.07, respectively), findings that are consistent with limited previous human and animal studies. Conversely, molybdenum was associated with reduced testosterone (p-value for trend = 0.001). A significant inverse trend between molybdenum and testosterone remained when additionally considering other metals in the model, where a positive association between testosterone and zinc was also found. Finally, in exploratory analysis there was evidence for an interaction between molybdenum and zinc, where high molybdenum was associated with a 37% reduction in testosterone (relative to the population median level) among men with low zinc. Conclusions While reductions in testosterone and reproductive toxicity following molybdenum exposure have been previously demonstrated in animal studies, more research is needed to determine whether molybdenum poses a risk to human reproductive health. PMID:18990371

  18. Endogenous Testosterone and Exogenous Oxytocin Modulate Attentional Processing of Infant Faces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah K C Holtfrerich

    Full Text Available Evidence indicates that hormones modulate the intensity of maternal care. Oxytocin is known for its positive influence on maternal behavior and its important role for childbirth. In contrast, testosterone promotes egocentric choices and reduces empathy. Further, testosterone decreases during parenthood which could be an adaptation to increased parental investment. The present study investigated the interaction between testosterone and oxytocin in attentional control and their influence on attention to baby schema in women. Higher endogenous testosterone was expected to decrease selective attention to child portraits in a face-in-the-crowd-paradigm, while oxytocin was expected to counteract this effect. As predicted, women with higher salivary testosterone were slower in orienting attention to infant targets in the context of adult distractors. Interestingly, reaction times to infant and adult stimuli decreased after oxytocin administration, but only in women with high endogenous testosterone. These results suggest that oxytocin may counteract the adverse effects of testosterone on a central aspect of social behavior and maternal caretaking.

  19. Testosterone as a marker of coronary artery disease severity in middle aged males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gururani, Kunal; Jose, John; George, Paul V

    2016-12-01

    Historically, higher levels of serum testosterone were presumed deleterious to the cardiovascular system. In the last two decades, studies have suggested that low testosterone levels are associated with increased prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD), including dyslipidemia and diabetes. This is a cross sectional study. The aim of our study was to determine the relationship between serum testosterone levels and angiographic severity of coronary artery disease (CAD). Serum testosterone levels were also correlated with flow mediated dilation of brachial artery (BAFMD) - an indicator of endothelial function. Consecutive male patients, aged 40-60 years, admitted for coronary angiography (CAG) with symptoms suggestive of CAD, were included in the study. Out of the 92 patients included in the study, 32 patients had normal coronaries and 60 had CAD on coronary angiography. Severity of CAD was determined by Gensini coronary score. The group with CAD had significantly lower levels of total serum testosterone (363±147.1 vs 532.09±150.5ng/dl, pfree testosterone (7.1215±3.012 vs 10.4419±2.75ng/dl, ptestosterone (166.17±64.810 vs 247.94±62.504ng/dl, ptestosterone was an independent predictor of severity of CAD (β=-0.007, pfree and bioavailable testosterone correlated positively with BAFMD %. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Aging US males with multiple sources of emotional social support have low testosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gettler, Lee T; Oka, Rahul C

    2016-02-01

    Among species expressing bi-parental care, males' testosterone is often low when they cooperate with females to raise offspring. In humans, low testosterone men might have an advantage as nurturant partners and parents because they are less prone to anger and reactive aggression and are more empathetic. However, humans engage in cooperative, supportive relationships beyond the nuclear family, and these prosocial capacities were likely critical to our evolutionary success. Despite the diversity of human prosociality, no prior study has tested whether men's testosterone is also reduced when they participate in emotionally supportive relationships, beyond partnering and parenting. Here, we draw on testosterone and emotional social support data that were collected from older men (n=371; mean: 61.2years of age) enrolled in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a US nationally-representative study. Men who reported receiving emotional support from two or more sources had lower testosterone than men reporting zero support (all psupport (4+ sources) also had lower testosterone than those with one source of support (pemotional support from diverse (kin+non-kin or multiple kin) sources had lower testosterone than those with no support (psupportive social relationships. Our results contribute novel insights on the intersections between health, social support, and physiology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. High levels of testosterone inhibit ovarian follicle development by repressing the FSH signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Cui, Yu-qian; Zhao, Han; Liu, Hong-bin; Zhao, Shi-dou; Gao, Yuan; Mu, Xiao-li; Gao, Fei; Chen, Zi-jiang

    2015-10-01

    The effect of high concentrations of testosterone on ovarian follicle development was investigated. Primary follicles and granulosa cells were cultured in vitro in media supplemented with a testosterone concentration gradient. The combined effects of testosterone and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) on follicular growth and granulosa cell gonadotropin receptor mRNA expression were also investigated. Follicle growth in the presence of high testosterone concentrations was promoted at early stages (days 1-7), but inhibited at later stage (days 7-14) of in vitro culture. Interestingly, testosterone-induced follicle development arrest was rescued by treatment with high concentrations of FSH (400 mIU/mL). In addition, in cultured granulosa cells, high testosterone concentrations induced cell proliferation, and increased the mRNA expression level of FSH receptor (FSHR), and luteinized hormone/choriogonadotropin receptor. It was concluded that high concentrations of testosterone inhibited follicle development, most likely through regulation of the FSH signaling pathway, although independently from FSHR downregulation. These findings are an important step in further understanding the pathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome.

  2. Accuracy-based proficiency testing for testosterone measurements with immunoassays and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhimin Tim; Botelho, Julianne Cook; Rej, Robert; Vesper, Hubert

    2017-06-01

    Accurate testosterone measurements are needed to correctly diagnose and treat patients. Proficiency Testing (PT) programs using modified specimens for testing can be limited because of matrix effects and usage of non-reference measurement procedure (RMP)-defined targets for evaluation. Accuracy-based PT can overcome such limitations; however, there is a lack of information on accuracy-based PT and feasibility of its implementation in evaluation for testosterone measurements. Unaltered, single-donor human serum from 2 male and 2 female adult donors were analyzed for testosterone by 142 NYSDH-certified clinical laboratories using 16 immunoassays and LC-MS/MS methods. Testosterone target values were determined using an RMP. The testosterone target concentrations for the 4 specimens were 15.5, 30.0, 402 and 498ng/dl. The biases ranged from -17.8% to 73.1%, 3.1% to 21.3%, -24.8% to 8.6%, and -22.1% to 6.8% for the 4 specimens, respectively. Using a total error target of ±25.1%, which was calculated using the minimum allowable bias and imprecision, 73% of participating laboratories had ≥3 of the 4 results within these limits. The variability in total testosterone measurements can affect clinical decisions. Accuracy-based PT can significantly contribute to improving testosterone testing by providing reliable data on accuracy in patient care to laboratories, assay manufacturers, and standardization programs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Behavioral cross-sensitization between testosterone and fenproporex in adolescent and adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conceição, C Q; Engi, S A; Cruz, F C; Planeta, C S

    2017-11-17

    The abuse of psychoactive drugs is considered a global health problem. During the last years, a relevant number of studies have investigated the relationship between anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) and other psychoactive drugs. AAS, such as testosterone, can cause a dependence syndrome that shares many features with the classical dependence to psychoactive substances. Pre-clinical evidence shows that there are interactions between testosterone and psychoactive drugs, such as cocaine. However, few studies have been performed to investigate the effect of repeated testosterone treatment on behavioral effects of amphetamine derivatives, such as fenproporex. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of repeated testosterone administration on fenproporex-induced locomotor activity in adolescent and adult rats. Adolescent male Wistar rats were injected with testosterone (10 mg/kg sc for 10 days). After 3 days, animals received an acute injection of fenproporex (3.0 mg/kg ip) and the locomotor activity was recorded during 40 min. Thirty days later, the same animals received the same treatment with testosterone followed by a fenproporex challenge injection as described above. Our results demonstrated that repeated testosterone induced behavioral sensitization to fenproporex in adolescent but not in adult rats. These findings suggest that repeated AAS treatment might increase the dependence vulnerability to amphetamine and its derivatives in adolescent rats.

  4. Maternal and female fetal testosterone levels are associated with maternal age and gestational weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallak, Theodora Kunovac; Hellgren, Charlotte; Skalkidou, Alkistis; Sandelin-Francke, Lotta; Ubhayasekhera, Kumari; Bergquist, Jonas; Axelsson, Ove; Comasco, Erika; Campbell, Rebecca E; Sundström Poromaa, Inger

    2017-10-01

    Prenatal androgen exposure has been suggested to play a role in polycystic ovary syndrome. Given the limited information on what maternal characteristics influence maternal testosterone levels, and the even less explored routes by which female fetus androgen exposure would occur, the aim of this study was to investigate the impact of maternal age, BMI, weight gain, depressed mood and aromatase SNPs on testosterone levels in maternal serum and amniotic fluid of female fetuses. Blood samples from pregnant women (n = 216) obtained in gestational weeks 35-39, and pre-labor amniotic fluid samples from female fetuses (n = 56), taken at planned Caesarean section or in conjunction with amniotomy for induction of labor, were analyzed. Maternal serum testosterone and amniotic fluid testosterone and cortisol were measured by tandem mass spectrometry. Multiparity (β = -0.28, P testosterone levels. Maternal age (β = -0.34, P testosterone in female fetuses, explaining 64.3% of the variability in amniotic fluid testosterone. Young maternal age and excessive maternal weight gain may increase the prenatal androgen exposure of female fetuses. Further studies are needed to explore this finding. © 2017 The authors.

  5. Oral testosterone load related to liver function in men with alcoholic liver cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C; Bahnsen, M; Bennett, Patrick

    1983-01-01

    The relation between liver function and an oral testosterone load was examined in 42 consecutive patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis. Administration of an oral load of 400 mg micronized free testosterone increased the serum concentration of testosterone (range, 31.9-694.4 nmol/l; median, 140.......8 nmol/l) in male patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis to significantly (P less than 0.01) higher levels than in male subjects without liver disease (range, 25.4-106.6 nmol/l; median, 61.5 nmol/l). The increase of testosterone after the load (log delta testosterone) in patients correlated inversely...... with wedged-to-free hepatic vein pressure (r = +0.54; P less than 0.01). The increase of testosterone after the load did not correlate significantly with sex hormone-binding globulin (r = +0.35; P greater than 0.05). It is concluded that the hepatic extraction of testosterone is significantly decreased...

  6. Reduction of calprotectin and phosphate during testosterone therapy in aging men: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, L; Christensen, L L; Pedersen, S M; Andersen, M

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the effect of testosterone treatment on biomarkers calprotectin, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), soluble Klotho, phosphate, calcium, parathyroid hormone, creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate. Randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study. Odense Androgen Study-the effect of Testim and training in hypogonadal men. Men aged 60-78 years old with a low normal concentration of free of bioavailable testosterone 94 cm recruited from 2008 to 2009 (N = 48) by advertisement. Participants were randomized to receive 5-10 g gel/50-100 mg testosterone (Testim®, Ipsen, France) or 5-10 g gel/placebo. The plasma levels of calprotectin and phosphate were significantly reduced in the group receiving testosterone therapy (gel) compared to the placebo group (p Testosterone treatment did not have any significant effect on plasma levels of FGF23 or soluble Klotho. The reduction in phosphate levels was inversely associated with bioavailable testosterone. Compared to the placebo group, 6 months of testosterone therapy (gel) reduced calprotectin and phosphate levels suggesting decreased inflammation and decreased cardiovascular risk.

  7. Association of Obesity-Related Hemodilution of Prostate-Specific Antigen, Dihydrotestosterone, and Testosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaassen, Zachary; Howard, Lauren E; Moreira, Daniel M; Andriole, Gerald L; Terris, Martha K; Freedland, Stephen J

    2017-04-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) hemodilution is the leading theory for lower PSA values in obese men. However, testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT), which are necessary for PSA production, are reduced in obese men. We assessed the relationship of body mass index (BMI) and PSA, taking into consideration the effect of testosterone and DHT. Among 8,122 participants in Reduction by Dutasteride of Prostate Cancer Events (REDUCE), complete data were available for 7,275. BMI was categorized as normal (testosterone, and DHT and the outcome variable of PSA were examined using linear regression. There were 1,964 (27.0%) normal weight, 3,826 (52.6%) overweight, 1,200 (16.5%) obese, and 285 (3.9%) moderately + severely obese patients. With increasing BMI, there was a progressive decrease in PSA (P = 0.02), increase in prostate volume (P testosterone (P testosterone and DHT, as well as when adjusting for testosterone and DHT in the same model. Decreased androgen levels accounted for only 19% of the lower PSA in men with higher BMI. Only a fraction of lower PSA in obese men could be attributed to testosterone and DHT levels. The remaining factors explaining lower PSA are unaccounted for, presumably secondary to hemodilution associated with increased plasma volume in obese men. Prostate 77:466-470, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Testosterone in human studies: Modest associations between plasma and salivary measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wit, A E; Bosker, F J; Giltay, E J; de Kloet, C S; Roelofs, K; van Pelt, J; Penninx, B W J H; Schoevers, R A

    2018-02-01

    Testosterone is involved in many processes like aggression and mood disorders. As it may easily diffuse from blood into saliva, salivary testosterone is thought to reflect plasma free testosterone level. If so, it would provide a welcome noninvasive and less stressful alternative to blood sampling. Past research did not reveal consensus regarding the strength of the association, but sample sizes were small. This study aimed to analyse the association in a large cohort. In total, 2,048 participants (age range 18-65 years; 696 males and 1,352 females) were included and saliva (using cotton Salivettes) and plasma were collected for testosterone measurements. Levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and radioimmunoassay respectively. Free testosterone was calculated by the Vermeulen algorithm. Associations were determined using linear regression analyses. Plasma total and free testosterone showed a significant association with salivary testosterone in men (adjusted β = .09, p = .01; and β = .15, p < .001, respectively) and in women (adjusted β = .08, p = .004; and crude β = .09, p = .002 respectively). The modest associations indicate that there are many influencing factors of both technical and biological origin. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Cortisol and testosterone increase financial risk taking and may destabilize markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueva, Carlos; Roberts, R. Edward; Spencer, Tom; Rani, Nisha; Tempest, Michelle; Tobler, Philippe N.; Herbert, Joe; Rustichini, Aldo

    2015-01-01

    It is widely known that financial markets can become dangerously unstable, yet it is unclear why. Recent research has highlighted the possibility that endogenous hormones, in particular testosterone and cortisol, may critically influence traders’ financial decision making. Here we show that cortisol, a hormone that modulates the response to physical or psychological stress, predicts instability in financial markets. Specifically, we recorded salivary levels of cortisol and testosterone in people participating in an experimental asset market (N = 142) and found that individual and aggregate levels of endogenous cortisol predict subsequent risk-taking and price instability. We then administered either cortisol (single oral dose of 100 mg hydrocortisone, N = 34) or testosterone (three doses of 10 g transdermal 1% testosterone gel over 48 hours, N = 41) to young males before they played an asset trading game. We found that both cortisol and testosterone shifted investment towards riskier assets. Cortisol appears to affect risk preferences directly, whereas testosterone operates by inducing increased optimism about future price changes. Our results suggest that changes in both cortisol and testosterone could play a destabilizing role in financial markets through increased risk taking behaviour, acting via different behavioural pathways. PMID:26135946

  10. Testosterone metabolism: a possible biological underpinning of non-verbal IQ in intellectually gifted girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durdiaková, Jaroslava; Celec, Peter; Laznibatová, Jolana; Minárik, Gabriel; Ostatníková, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    The extraordinary giftedness is apparently a unique manifestation of a mutual interconnection between genes and environment. One of the possible etiological factors of intellectual giftedness is testosterone which is believed to affect the brain organization and function. The aim of our study was to analyze associations between 2D:4D digit ratio (a proxy of prenatal testosterone) and/or salivary testosterone levels with non-verbal IQ in intellectually gifted girls. Fifty-one girls with an age range of 10 to18 years and IQ scores higher than 130 were tested. Saliva samples were collected to obtain levels of salivary testosterone. 2D:4D digit ratio was measured on both hands as an indicator of prenatal testosterone. IQ parameters were assessed employing standardized set of tests. The CAG repeat polymorphism in exon 1 of the androgen receptor gene was analyzed to assess the sensitivity of androgen receptor. Testing of between-subjects effects proved significant interactions between right and left 2D:4D ratio, genetic variability in androgen receptor, and also salivary testosterone level with non-verbal IQ in gifted girls. Our results point out that the variability in parameters of androgenicity contributes to the variability of nonverbal IQ in gifted girls. However, the exact molecular mechanism of how testosterone acts on the brain and affects this cognitive domain remains still unclear.

  11. Testosterone synthesis in patients with 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 3 deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, R; Kulle, A; Sommerfeld, I; Riepe, F G; Wudy, S; Hartmann, M F; Merz, H; Döhnert, U; Bertelloni, S; Holterhus, P-M; Hiort, O

    2012-01-01

    17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 3 (17β-HSD 3) deficiency is a rare cause of 46,XY disorders of sex development (DSD). At puberty, these patients experience a surge of androstenedione and also testosterone, leading to substantial virilization. The origin of testosterone synthesis in these patients remains elusive. We investigated the expression of the isoenzyme AKR1C3 (17β-HSD 5) in the testis and patient-derived genital skin fibroblasts (GSF) as well as the ability of GSF to synthesize testosterone. Supernatants of GSF cultures and serum samples of one patient before and after gonadectomy were analyzed by liquid and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The androgenic potential of GSF-derived supernatants was also assessed by androgen receptor-mediated transactivation of a reporter gene in transiently transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells. Although AKR1C3 is expressed both in the testes and in GSF, androstenedione is rapidly metabolized and is not synthesized to testosterone. The transactivation potential of GSF supernatants towards the androgen receptor is declining within 48 h. However, under testis-equivalent androstenedione concentration, testosterone can be synthesized in 17β-HSD 3-negative GSF. After gonadectomy, both androstenedione and testosterone decline rapidly in vivo. In 17β-HSD 3 deficiency, relevant amounts of testosterone are synthesized most probably through AKR1C3 in the testis and not peripherally in GSF. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Cortisol and testosterone increase financial risk taking and may destabilize markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueva, Carlos; Roberts, R Edward; Spencer, Tom; Rani, Nisha; Tempest, Michelle; Tobler, Philippe N; Herbert, Joe; Rustichini, Aldo

    2015-07-02

    It is widely known that financial markets can become dangerously unstable, yet it is unclear why. Recent research has highlighted the possibility that endogenous hormones, in particular testosterone and cortisol, may critically influence traders' financial decision making. Here we show that cortisol, a hormone that modulates the response to physical or psychological stress, predicts instability in financial markets. Specifically, we recorded salivary levels of cortisol and testosterone in people participating in an experimental asset market (N = 142) and found that individual and aggregate levels of endogenous cortisol predict subsequent risk-taking and price instability. We then administered either cortisol (single oral dose of 100 mg hydrocortisone, N = 34) or testosterone (three doses of 10 g transdermal 1% testosterone gel over 48 hours, N = 41) to young males before they played an asset trading game. We found that both cortisol and testosterone shifted investment towards riskier assets. Cortisol appears to affect risk preferences directly, whereas testosterone operates by inducing increased optimism about future price changes. Our results suggest that changes in both cortisol and testosterone could play a destabilizing role in financial markets through increased risk taking behaviour, acting via different behavioural pathways.

  13. The Ratio of Testosteron and Follicle Stimulating Hormone in the Amniotic Fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Suk Shin [Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1982-09-15

    To evaluate fetal sex-hormonal status before delivery, testosterone and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) levels were measured in 64 amniotic fluid samples at midgestation by radioimmunoassay method. The mean concentration of testosterone in amniotic fluid of 37 cases carrying male fetus was 90.7 pg/ml and 27 cases carrying female fetus was 62.3 pg/ml. The mean amniotic fluid FSH concentration of male fetus was 1.15 mIU/ml and of female fetus was 11.98 mIU/ml. The amniotic fluid testosterone and FSH' concentrations had statistical difference between male and female fetuses. The ratio of testosterone over FSH in the amniotic fluid was 231.2 in female, 9.8 in female respectively and very significant difference was noticed. The levels of testosterone/FSH greater than 25 were found over 92% of male fetus and lesser than 25 were found over 92% female fetus. Measurement of testosterone and FSH especially testosterone/FSH ratio in amniotic fluid in midgestation may be an adjunct to other method of fetal sex determination.

  14. TESTOSTERONE CHANGES IN PATIENTS WITH LIVER CIRRHOSIS BEFORE AND AFTER ORTHOTOPIC LIVER TRANSPLANTATION AND ITS CORRELATION WITH MELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo NITSCHE

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Context Hypogonadism is a common clinical situation in male patients with liver cirrhosis. Objectives The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of orthotopic liver transplantation on testosterone, free testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin in male with advanced liver disease and also to determine the relationship of these changes with Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD score. Methods In a prospective study, serum levels of testosterone, free testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin of 30 male adult patients with end-stage liver disease were measured 2 to 4 hours before and 6 months after orthotopic liver transplantation. Results Total testosterone levels increased after orthotopic liver transplantation and the number of patients with normal testosterone levels increased from 18 to 24. Free testosterone mean level in the pre-transplant group was 7.8 pg/mL and increased to 11.5 pg/mL (P = 0.10 and sex hormone-binding globulin level decreased after orthotopic liver transplantation returning to normal levels in MELD ≤18 - group (A (P<0.05. Conclusions Serum level changes of testosterone, free testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin are more pronounced in cirrhotic males with MELD ≤18. Serum levels of testosterone and free testosterone increase and serum levels of sex hormone-binding globulin decrease after orthotopic liver transplantation.

  15. Hyperandrogenemia in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Exploration of the Role of Free Testosterone and Androstenedione in Metabolic Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerchbaum, Elisabeth; Schwetz, Verena; Rabe, Thomas; Giuliani, Albrecht; Obermayer-Pietsch, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the association between androstenedione, testosterone, and free testosterone and metabolic disturbances in polycystic ovary syndrome. Methods We analyzed the association between androstenedione, testosterone, and free testosterone and metabolic parameters in a cross-sectional study including 706 polycystic ovary syndrome and 140 BMI-matched healthy women. Polycystic ovary syndrome women were categorized into 4 groups: normal androstenedione and normal free testosterone (NA/NFT), elevated androstenedione and normal free testosterone (HA/NFT), normal androstenedione and elevated free testosterone (NA/HFT), elevated androstenedione and free testosterone (HA/HFT). Results Polycystic ovary syndrome women with elevated free testosterone levels (HA/HFT and NA/HFT) have an adverse metabolic profile including 2 h glucose, HbA1c, fasting and 2 h insulin, area under the insulin response curve, insulin resistance, insulin sensitivity index (Matsuda), triglycerides, total and high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels compared to NA/NFT (pmetabolic disorders in polycystic ovary syndrome women with HA/NFT. In multiple linear regression analyses (age- and BMI-adjusted), we found a significant negative association between androstenedione/free testosterone-ratio and area under the insulin response curve, insulin resistance, and total cholesterol/high density lipoprotein cholesterol-ratio and a positive association with Matsuda-index, and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (ptestosterone levels but not with isolated androstenedione elevation have an adverse metabolic phenotype. Further, a higher androstenedione/free testosterone-ratio was independently associated with a beneficial metabolic profile. PMID:25310562

  16. Changes in testosterone related to body composition in late midlife: Findings from the 1946 British birth cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Frederick C. W.; Keevil, Brian; Lashen, Hany; Adams, Judith; Hardy, Rebecca; Muniz, Graciela; Kuh, Diana; Ben‐Shlomo, Yoav; Ong, Ken K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Randomized trials in men with testosterone deficiency have provided evidence of short‐term effects of testosterone therapy on muscle and fat mass but it is unclear whether this persists over a longer period or how testosterone affects women. We examined whether the midlife decline in testosterone relates to fat and lean mass in both sexes. Methods Data were collected from 440 men and 560 women participating in the 1946 British birth cohort study with testosterone measured at 53 and/or 60‐64 years. Fat and appendicular lean mass were measured at 60‐64 years using dual‐energy X‐ray absorptiometry. Results Mean free testosterone concentrations were lower at 60‐64 than 53 years, by 26% in both sexes. At both ages testosterone was negatively associated with fat mass in men and positively associated in women. A larger decline in free testosterone was associated with higher fat mass in men but with lower fat mass among women. In contrast, declines in testosterone were not associated with lean mass in either sex. Conclusions Our findings suggest sex‐divergent relationships between testosterone and fat mass and their distribution but do not support the hypothesis that midlife declines in testosterone lead to lower lean mass. PMID:26053924

  17. Androgens and oestrogens before and following oral testosterone administration in male patients with and without alcoholic cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C; Dejgaard, A; Bennett, Patrick

    1987-01-01

    testosterone, serum concentrations of testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, androstenedione, and oestrone increased significantly (P less than 0.05) in both groups, cirrhotic patients reaching significantly (P less than 0.01) higher concentrations than controls. Further, in the cirrhotic group, the serum...... concentrations of oestrone sulphate, oestradiol, non-protein bound oestradiol, and non-SHBG bound oestradiol, and the urinary excretion of oestrogen increased significantly P less than 0.05). In conclusion, peroral testosterone administration decreases the serum oestradiol/testosterone ratio in patients...... than 0.05) lower concentrations of albumin and non-SHBG bound testosterone; no significant differences regarding concentrations of testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, non-protein bound testosterone, oestrone sulphate, and SHBG bound oestradiol. Following oral administration of 400 mg of micronized...

  18. Osteoprotegerin Levels Decrease During Testosterone Therapy in Aging Men and are Associated with Changed Distribution of Regional Fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, L; Glintborg, D; Højlund, K

    2013-01-01

    The cardiovascular effects of testosterone treatment are debated. Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is an independent marker of cardiovascular risk. We investigated the effect of testosterone therapy on OPG levels in aging men with low normal bioavailable testosterone levels. A randomized, double......-blinded, placebo-controlled study of 6 months testosterone therapy (gel) in 38 men aged 60-78 years with bioavailable testosterone 94 cm was performed. Clinical evaluation, OPG, and C-reactive protein (CRP) measurements were carried out. Lean body mass (LBM), total fat mass, and bone mineral density (BMD) were...... established by dual X-ray absorptiometry. Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) were measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Power calculation was based on an increase in LBM during testosterone therapy and responders were defined as testosterone treated patients with increased...

  19. Influence of paradoxical sleep deprivation and sleep recovery on testosterone level in rats of different ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Mi Mi; Kim, Jin Wook; Jin, Myeong Heon; Kim, Je Jong; Moon, Du Geon

    2012-03-01

    This study was performed to assess serum testosterone alterations induced by paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) and to verify their attenuation during sleep recovery (SR) based on different durations and ages. Wistar male rats aged 12 weeks for the younger group and 20 weeks for the elder group were randomly distributed into one of the following groups: a control group (cage and platform), 3-day SD, 5-day SD, 7-day SD, 1-day SR, 3-day SR and 5-day SR groups. For PSD, the modified multiple platform method was used to specifically limit rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Differences in the testosterone and luteinizing hormone levels between the younger group and the elder group according to duration of PSD and SR recovery were analysed. Testosterone continued to fall during the sleep deprivation period in a time-dependent manner in both the younger (P=0.001, correlation coefficient r=-0.651) and elder groups (P=0.001, correlation coefficient r=-0.840). The elder group showed a significantly lower level of testosterone compared with the younger group after PSD. Upon SR after 3 days of PSD, the testosterone level continued to rise for 5 days after sleep recovery in the younger group (P=0.013), whereas testosterone concentrations failed to recover until day 5 in the elder group. PSD caused a more detrimental effect on serum testosterone in the elder group compared to the younger group with respect to decreases in luteinizing hormone (LH) levels. The replenishment of serum testosterone level was prohibited in the elder group suggesting that the effects of SD/SR may be age-dependent. The mechanism by which SD affects serum testosterone and how age may modify the process are still unclear.

  20. Circulating free testosterone in obese men after bariatric surgery increases in parallel with insulin sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botella-Carretero, J I; Balsa, J A; Gómez-Martin, J M; Peromingo, R; Huerta, L; Carrasco, M; Arrieta, F; Zamarron, I; Martin-Hidalgo, A; Vazquez, C

    2013-04-01

    Male hypogonadism has been linked to obesity and diabetes. We aimed to study the association of changes in insulin sensitivity and testosterone levels in severe obese patients submitted to bariatric surgery. Prospective intervention study with twenty consecutive patients who underwent bariatric surgery studied before and after significant weight loss. Serum testosterone, SHBG, fasting glucose, and insulin were measured among others. Free testosterone was calculated with the Vermeulen formula and insulin sensitivity with the homeostatic model assessment (HOMA). At baseline, thirteen patients had low total testosterone levels, whereas eight of these patients also had free testosterone levels below the reference range obtained from the control group. After bariatric surgery total testosterone, SHBG, and free testosterone significantly increased and achieved normal values in all evaluated patients. Insulin sensitivity improved in all of them. Multivariate linear regression showed that changes in fasting glucose (β=-1.868, p=0.001), insulin (β=-3.782, p=0.001), weight (β=-0.622, p=0.002), and SHBG (β=-0.635, p=0.022) were associated with changes in free testosterone (adjusted R2=0.936, F=26.613, p=0.001). When insulin resistance calculated by HOMA was in the model instead of insulin and glucose, it also was associated (β=-3.488, p=0.008) with free testosterone (adjusted R2=0.821, F=11.111, p=0.005). Circulating tes tos terone in obese men increases after bariatric surgery in parallel with an improvement in insulin sensitivity.

  1. Is Free Testosterone Concentration a Prognostic Factor of Survival in Chronic Renal Failure (CRF)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemczyk, Stanislaw; Niemczyk, Longin; Szamotulska, Katarzyna; Bartoszewicz, Zbigniew; Romejko-Ciepielewska, Katarzyna; Gomółka, Malgorzata; Saracyn, Marek; Matuszkiewicz-Rowińska, Joanna

    2015-11-07

    Lowered testosterone level in CRF patients is associated with elevated risk of death due to cardiovascular reasons, and is influenced by many factors, including acid-base balance disorders. evaluation of testoste-rone concentration (TT) and free testosterone concentration (fT) in pre-dialysis and dialysis patients; assessment of TT and fT relationships with biochemical parameters; evaluation of prognostic importance of TT and fT in predicting patient survival. 4 groups of men: 14 - on hemodialysis (HD), 13 - on peritoneal dialysis (PD), 9 - with chronic renal failure (CRF) and 8 - healthy (CG), aged 56±17, 53±15, 68±12, 43±10 years, respectively. TT and biochemical para-meters were measured; fT was calculated. The lowest TT and fT were observed in HD and CRF, the highest - in CG (p=0.035 for TT; p=0.007 for fT). fT in CRF and CG were different (p=0.031). TT and age was associated in HD (p=0.026). Age and fT was strongly associated in PD (pfree testosterone in decompensated acidosis was observed (ptrend=0.027). Such a trend was not seen for testosterone concentrations (ptrend=0.107). Total and free testosterone levels were lower in HD and pre-dialysis than in healthy patients. Free testost-erone level may predict long-term survival better than age. Total and free testosterone levels are lower in metabolic acidosis and total and free testosterone levels were positively associated with HCO3 level.

  2. Testosterone suppresses oxidative stress via androgen receptor-independent pathway in murine cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Wu, Saizhu; Ruan, Yunjun; Hong, Lei; Xing, Xiaowen; Lai, Wenyan

    2011-01-01

    Evidence supports that oxidative stress exerts significant effects on the pathogenesis of heart dysfunction. On the other hand, the presence of specific androgen receptor (AR) in mammalian cardiomyocytes implies that androgen plays a physiological role in cardiac function, myocardial injury and the regulation of the redox state in the heart. This study used the testicular feminized (Tfm) and castrated male mice to investigate the effects of testosterone deficiency, physiological testosterone therapy and AR on oxidative stress in cardiomyocytes. Tfm mice have a non-functional AR and reduced circulating testosterone levels. Male littermates and Tfm mice were separated into 5 experimental groups: non-castrated littermate controls, castrated littermates, sham-operated Tfm, testosterone-treated castrated littermates and testosterone-treated sham-operated Tfm mice. Cardiomyocytes that were isolated from the left ventricle were used for determination of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH‑Px) enzyme activities, and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Additionally, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletion mutations were detected by nested PCR. The SOD and GSH-Px enzyme activities of cardiomyocytes were decreased, and the MDA levels and the proportion of mtDNA mutations were increased in castrated and sham-operated Tfm mice compared to control mice. However, an increase was observed in the activities of SOD and GSH-Px enzyme as well as a decrease in MDA levels and the proportion of mtDNA mutations in the mice that had received testosterone therapy. These changes were statistically similar in castrated and sham-operated Tfm mice after testosterone therapy. In conclusion, it is testosterone deficiency that induces oxidative stress in cardiomyocytes. Physiological testosterone therapy is able to suppress oxidative stress mediated via the AR-independent pathway.

  3. Testosterone improves erectile function through inhibition of reactive oxygen species generation in castrated rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Testosterone is overwhelmingly important in regulating erectile physiology. However, the associated molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to explore the effects and mechanisms of testosterone in erectile dysfunction (ED in castrated rats. Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to four groups (control, sham-operated, castration and castration-with-testosterone-replacement. Reactive oxygen species (ROS production was measured by dihydroethidium (DHE staining. Erectile function was assessed by the recording of intracavernous pressure (ICP and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP. Protein expression levels were examined by western blotting. We found that castration reduced erectile function and that testosterone restored it. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS activity was decrease in the castrated rats, and testosterone administration attenuated this decrease (each p < 0.05. The testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP concentrations were lower in the castrated rats, and testosterone restored these levels (each p < 0.05. Furthermore, the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 and prostacyclin synthase (PTGIS expression levels and phospho-endothelial nitric oxide synthase (p-eNOS, Ser1177/endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS ratio were reduced in the castrated rats compared with the controls (each p < 0.05. In addition, the p40phox and p67phox expression levels were increased in the castrated rats, and testosterone reversed these changes (each p < 0.05. Overall, our results demonstrate that testosterone ameliorates ED after castration by reducing ROS production and increasing the activity of the eNOS/cGMP and COX-2/PTGIS/cAMP signaling pathways.

  4. Modulation of SHBG binding to testosterone and estradiol by sex and morbid obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasa, María Del Mar; Gulfo, José; Camps, Núria; Alcalá, Rosa; Monserrat, Laura; Moreno-Navarrete, José María; Ortega, Francisco José; Esteve, Montserrat; Remesar, Xavier; Fernández-López, José Antonio; Fernández-Real, José Manuel; Alemany, Marià

    2017-04-01

    Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) binds and transports testosterone and estradiol in plasma. The possibility that SHBG is a mixture of transporting proteins has been postulated. We analyzed in parallel the effects of obesity status on the levels and binding capacity of circulating SHBG and their relationship with testosterone and estradiol. Anthropometric measures and plasma were obtained from apparently healthy young (i.e. 35 ± 7 years) premenopausal women (n = 32) and men (n = 30), with normal weight and obesity (BMI >30 kg/m(2)). SHBG protein (Western blot), as well as the plasma levels of testosterone, estradiol, cortisol and insulin (ELISA) were measured. Specific binding of estradiol and testosterone to plasma SHBG was analyzed using tritium-labeled hormones. Significant differences in SHBG were observed within the obesity status and gender, with discordant patterns of change in testosterone and estradiol. In men, testosterone occupied most of the binding sites. Estrogen binding was much lower in all subjects. Lower SHBG of morbidly obese (BMI >40 kg/m(2)) subjects affected testosterone but not estradiol. The ratio of binding sites to SHBG protein levels was constant for testosterone, but not for estradiol. The influence of gender was maximal in morbid obesity, with men showing the highest binding/SHBG ratios. The results reported here are compatible with SHBG being a mixture of at least two functionally different hormone-binding globulins, being affected by obesity and gender and showing different structure, affinities for testosterone and estradiol and also different immunoreactivity. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  5. Provider and Site-Level Determinants of Testosterone Prescribing in the Veterans Healthcare System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasuja, Guneet K; Bhasin, Shalender; Rose, Adam J; Reisman, Joel I; Hanlon, Joseph T; Miller, Donald R; Morreale, Anthony P; Pogach, Leonard M; Cunningham, Francesca E; Park, Angela; Wiener, Renda S; Gifford, Allen L; Berlowitz, Dan R

    2017-09-01

    Testosterone prescribing rates have increased substantially in the past decade. However, little is known about the context within which such prescriptions occur. We evaluated provider- and site-level determinants of receipt of testosterone and of guideline-concordant testosterone prescribing. This study was cross-sectional in design. This study was conducted at the Veterans Health Administration (VA). Study participants were a national cohort of male patients who had received at least one outpatient prescription within the VA during fiscal year (FY) 2008 to FY 2012. A total of 38,648 providers and 130 stations were associated with these patients. This study measured receipt of testosterone and guideline-concordant testosterone prescribing. Providers ranging in age from 31 to 60 years, with less experience in the VA [all adjusted odds ratio (AOR), testosterone compared with older providers, providers of longer VA tenure, and primary care providers, respectively. Sites located in the West compared with the Northeast [AOR, 1.75; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.45-2.11] and care received at a community-based outpatient clinic compared with a medical center (AOR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.20-1.24) also predicted testosterone use. Although they were more likely to prescribe testosterone, endocrinologists were also more likely to obtain an appropriate workup before prescribing compared with primary care providers (AOR, 2.14; 95% CI, 1.54-2.97). Our results highlight the opportunity to intervene at both the provider and the site levels to improve testosterone prescribing. This study also provides a useful example of how to examine contributions to prescribing variation at different levels of the health care system.

  6. Circadian variation in salivary testosterone across age classes in Ache Amerindian males of Paraguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bribiescas, Richard G; Hill, Kim R

    2010-01-01

    Testosterone levels exhibit a circadian rhythm in healthy men, with morning levels tending to be higher compared to evening titers. However, circadian rhythms wane with age. Although this has been described in males living within industrialized settings, age-related changes have not received similar attention in populations outside these contexts. Because many nonindustrialized populations, such as Ache Amerindians of Paraguay, exhibit testosterone levels that are lower than what is commonly reported in the clinical literature and lack age-associated variation in testosterone, it was hypothesized that Ache men would not show age-related variation in testosterone circadian rhythms. Diurnal rhythmicity in testosterone within and between Ache men in association with age (n = 52; age range, 18-64) was therefore examined. A significant negative association was evident between the ratio of morning and evening salivary testosterone and age (r = -0.28, P = 0.04). Men in their third decade of life exhibited significant diurnal variation (P = 0.0003), whereas older and younger age classes did not. Men between the ages of 30 and 39 also exhibited a higher AM:PM testosterone ratio compared to 40-49 and 50< year old men (P = 0.002, 0.006). Overall, declines in testosterone with aging may not be universal among human males, however, within-individual analyses of diurnal variation capture age-related contrasts in daily testosterone fluctuations. Circadian rhythmicity differs with age among the Ache and may be a common aspect of reproductive senescence among men regardless of ecological context. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Neonatal testosterone suppresses a neuroendocrine pulse generator required for reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Jean-Marc; Cabelguen, Jean-Marie; Le Masson, Gwendal; Oliet, Stéphane H.; Ciofi, Philippe

    2014-02-01

    The pituitary gland releases hormones in a pulsatile fashion guaranteeing signalling efficiency. The determinants of pulsatility are poorly circumscribed. Here we show in magnocellular hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal oxytocin (OT) neurons that the bursting activity underlying the neurohormonal pulses necessary for parturition and the milk-ejection reflex is entirely driven by a female-specific central pattern generator (CPG). Surprisingly, this CPG is active in both male and female neonates, but is inactivated in males after the first week of life. CPG activity can be restored in males by orchidectomy or silenced in females by exogenous testosterone. This steroid effect is aromatase and caspase dependent, and is mediated via oestrogen receptor-α. This indicates the apoptosis of the CPG network during hypothalamic sexual differentiation, explaining why OT neurons do not burst in adult males. This supports the view that stereotypic neuroendocrine pulsatility is governed by CPGs, some of which are subjected to gender-specific perinatal programming.

  8. Differential effects of strength training and testosterone treatment on soluble CD36 in aging men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, Dorte; Christensen, Louise L; Kvorning, Thue

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: We measured soluble CD36 (sCD36) and body composition to determine the effects of testosterone treatment (TT) and/or strength training (ST) on cardiovascular risk in men with low normal testosterone levels. METHODS: Double-blinded, placebo-controlled study in 54 men aged 60-78 years...... central fat mass (r = 0.84). CONCLUSIONS: Compared to testosterone treatment, six months of strength training reduced sCD36 levels suggesting decreased cardiovascular risk, possibly due to a reduction in central fat mass....

  9. The effect of oral testosterone on serum TBG levels in alcoholic cirrhotic men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, U; Gluud, C; Bennett, Patrick

    1988-01-01

    Seventy-three euthyroid male patients with alcoholic cirrhosis of the liver were randomly allocated to oral testosterone (200 mg t.i.d.) or placebo and followed for up to 36 months. Triiodothyronine (T3), tetraiodothyronine (T4), thyroxine binding globulin (TBG) and T4/TBG ratio were determined......, it is demonstrated that testosterone treatment significantly reduced TBG concentrations in cirrhotic men with preserved liver function, like normal men, but not in patients with moderate liver dysfunction. The lack of effect of testosterone in patients with more advanced cirrhosis may be due to a decreased function...

  10. Testosterone deficiency in testicular cancer survivors - a systematic review and meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandak, Mikkel; Jørgensen, N; Juul, A.

    2016-01-01

    Results concerning treatment of Testicular Germ Cell Cancer (TGCC) and subsequent risk of testosterone deficiency are conflicting. To systematically evaluate and estimate the risk of testosterone deficiency (TD) in TGCC-patients according to treatment to optimize follow-up and for prevention...... between studies in the three treatment groups. Strong evidence exists that standard CT, non-conventional therapy and infradiaphragmatic RT are associated with an increased risk of TD in TGCC-patients when compared with orchiectomy alone. The risk of testosterone defficiency appears to be highest...

  11. Pengaruh Gangguan Tidur Terhadap Kadar Hormon Testosteron dan Jumlah Spermatozoa pada Tikus Jantan Wistar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leni Tri Wahyuni

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Tingginya angka infertilitas pada pria disebabkan antara lain oleh kualitas produksi spermatozoa dan gangguan hormonal. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh gangguan tidur terhadap kadar hormon testosteron dan jumlah spermatozoa. Jenis penelitian adalah eksperimen laboratorium dengan desain post test only control groupdesign. Populasi tikus jantan Wistar berumur 2-3 bulan, dan berat badan 300 – 350 gr. Sampel sebanyak 24 ekor dibagi atas 4 kelompok yaitu: 1 kelompok kontrol dan 3 kelompok perlakuan. Variabel independen adalah gangguan tidur dan variabel dependen adalah kadar hormon testosteron dan jumlah spermatozoa. Analisa data mengunakan metode ANOVA dan dilanjutkan dengan uji statistik Multiple Comparisons jenis Bonferroni. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan ada perbedaan bermakna rerata kadar hormon testosteron kelompok kontrol dan perlakuan dengan nilaip=0,000. Gangguan tidur memberikan perbedaan bermakna terhadap kadar hormon testosteron. Terdapat perbedaan bermakna rerata jumlah spermatozoa kelompok kontrol dengan perlakuan dengan nilai p=0.000. Gangguan tidur juga memberikan perbedaan bermakna terhadap jumlah spermatozoa. Kesimpulan penelitian ini ialah terdapat pengaruh yang bermakna antara gangguan tidur terhadap kadar hormon testosteron dan jumlah spermatozoa pada tikus jantan wistar. Kata kunci: gangguan tidur, hormon testosteron, jumlah spermatozoaAbstract The increasing of infertility is caused by the quality of sperm production and hormonal disturbance. The objective of this study was to find out the effect of sleeping disturbance to the quality of testosterone hormone and the number of sperm. This was a laboratory experimental research with post-test only control group design. The populations were 2-3 months, 300-350 grams of weight, male rats. The sample was 24 rats which consisted of 4 groups: one control group and three experimental groups. Sleeping disturbance was an independent variable, whilethe

  12. Effect of Testosterone Administration on Liver Fat in Older Men With Mobility Limitation: Results From a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background. Androgen receptor (AR) knockout male mice display hepatic steatosis, suggesting that AR signaling may regulate hepatic fat. However, the effects of testosterone replacement on hepatic fat in men are unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of testosterone administration on hepatic fat in older men with mobility limitation and low testosterone levels who were participating in a randomized trial (the Testosterone in Older Men trial). Methods. Two hundred and nine men with mobility limitation and low total or free testosterone were randomized in the parent trial to either placebo or 10-g testosterone gel daily for 6 months. Hepatic fat was determined by magnetic resonance imaging in 73 men (36 in placebo and 37 in testosterone group) using the volumetric method. Insulin sensitivity (homeostatic model assessment–insulin resistance) was derived from fasting glucose and insulin. Results. Baseline characteristics were similar between the two groups, including liver volumes (1583±363 in the testosterone group vs 1522±271mL in the placebo group, p = .42). Testosterone concentrations increased from 250±72 to 632±363ng/dL in testosterone group but did not change in placebo group. Changes in liver volume during intervention did not differ significantly between groups (p = .5) and were not related to on-treatment testosterone concentrations. The change in homeostatic model assessment–insulin resistance also did not differ significantly between groups and was not related to either baseline or change in liver fat. Conclusion. Testosterone administration in older men with mobility limitation and low testosterone levels was not associated with a reduction in hepatic fat. Larger trials are needed to determine whether testosterone replacement improves liver fat in men with nonalcoholic hepatic steatosis. PMID:23292288

  13. Testosterone attenuates and the selective estrogen receptor modulator, raloxifene, potentiates amphetamine-induced locomotion in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves-Tyson, Tertia D; Boerrigter, Danny; Allen, Katherine; Zavitsanou, Katerina; Karl, Tim; Djunaidi, Vanezha; Double, Kay L; Desai, Reena; Handelsman, David J; Weickert, Cynthia Shannon

    2015-04-01

    Although sex steroids are known to modulate brain dopamine, it is still unclear how testosterone modifies locomotor behaviour controlled, at least in part, by striatal dopamine in adolescent males. Our previous work suggests that increasing testosterone during adolescence may bias midbrain neurons to synthesise more dopamine. We hypothesised that baseline and amphetamine-induced locomotion would differ in adult males depending on testosterone exposure during adolescence. We hypothesised that concomitant stimulation of estrogen receptor signaling, through a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), raloxifene, can counter testosterone effects on locomotion. Male Sprague-Dawley rats at postnatal day 45 were gonadectomised (G) or sham-operated (S) prior to the typical adolescent testosterone increase. Gonadectomised rats were either given testosterone replacement (T) or blank implants (B) for six weeks and sham-operated (i.e. intact or endogenous testosterone group) were given blank implants. Subgroups of sham-operated, gonadectomised and gonadectomised/testosterone-replaced rats were treated with raloxifene (R, 5mg/kg) or vehicle (V), daily for the final four weeks. There were six groups (SBV, GBV, GTV, SBR, GBR, GTR). Saline and amphetamine-induced (1.25mg/kg) locomotion in the open field was measured at PND85. Gonadectomy increased amphetamine-induced locomotion compared to rats with endogenous or with exogenous testosterone. Raloxifene increased amphetamine-induced locomotion in rats with either endogenous or exogenous testosterone. Amphetamine-induced locomotion was negatively correlated with testosterone and this relationship was abolished by raloxifene. Lack of testosterone during adolescence potentiates and testosterone exposure during adolescence attenuates amphetamine-induced locomotion. Treatment with raloxifene appears to potentiate amphetamine-induced locomotion and to have an opposite effect to that of testosterone in male rats. Copyright © 2015

  14. Symptomatic response to testosterone treatment in dieting obese men with low testosterone levels in a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng Tang Fui, M; Hoermann, R; Prendergast, L A; Zajac, J D; Grossmann, M

    2017-03-01

    Obese men commonly have reductions in circulating testosterone and report symptoms consistent with androgen deficiency. We hypothesized that testosterone treatment improves constitutional and sexual symptoms over and above the effects of weight loss alone. We conducted a pre-specified analysis of a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial at a tertiary referral center. About 100 obese men (body mass index (BMI)⩾30 kg m-2) with a repeated total testosterone level ⩽12 nmol l-1 and a median age of 53 years (interquartile range 47-60) receiving 10 weeks of a very-low-energy diet (VLED) followed by 46 weeks of weight maintenance were randomly assigned at baseline to 56 weeks of intramuscular testosterone undecanoate (n=49, cases) or matching placebo (n=51, controls). Pre-specified outcomes were the between-group differences in Aging Male Symptoms scale (AMS) and international index of erectile function (IIEF-5) questionnaires. Eighty-two men completed the study. At study end, cases showed significant symptomatic improvement in AMS score, compared with controls, and improvement was more marked in men with more severe baseline symptoms (mean adjusted difference (MAD) per unit of change in AMS score -0.34 (95% confidence interval (CI) -0.65, -0.02), P=0.04). This corresponds to improvements of 11% and 20% from baseline scores of 40 and 60, respectively, with higher scores denoting more severe symptoms. Men with erectile dysfunction (IIEF-5⩽20) had improved erectile function with testosterone treatment. Cases and controls lost the same weight after VLED (testosterone -12.0 kg; placebo -13.5 kg, P=0.40) and maintained this at study end (testosterone -11.4 kg; placebo -10.9 kg, P=0.80). The improvement in AMS following VLED was not different between the groups (-0.05 (95% CI -0.28, 0.17), P=0.65). In otherwise healthy obese men with mild to moderate symptoms and modest reductions in testosterone levels, testosterone treatment improved androgen

  15. Safety of physiological testosterone therapy in women: lessons from female-to-male transsexuals (FMT) treated with pharmacological testosterone therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traish, Abdulmaged M; Gooren, Louis J

    2010-11-01

    The safety of long-term physiological doses of testosterone (T) therapy in women with sexual dysfunction is a contentious issue, in part, because of fear of adverse effects, such as breast cancer, vascular disease, and excessive virilization. This unsubstantiated fear has hampered progress in treating women with sexual dysfunction using T therapy in physiological doses to achieve circulating levels in the normal range. To examine evidence derived from studies in female-to-male transsexuals (FMT) treated with supraphysiological (pharmacological) doses of T for long periods of time with no apparent major adverse effects. A comprehensive literature search of relevant articles published between 1980 and 2010 pertaining to the topic of T in FMTs was performed using PubMed. The following key words were used: female-to-male transsexuals; testosterone; virilization; gender re-assignment; and androgen therapy in women. Relevant articles were retrieved, reviewed, and the information was analyzed and evaluated for study methodology and major findings. Data from peer-reviewed publications were critically analyzed and the information was summarized. The data from the studies reported in the literature to date strongly suggest that treatment of FMTs with supra-physiological doses of T had minimal adverse effects. No increase in mortality, breast cancer, vascular disease, or other major health problems were reported. No significant serious adverse effects were reported in FMTs treated with pharmacological doses of T. In light of the findings with supraphysiological doses of T, we suggest that treatment with T at doses producing physiological levels in women with sexual dysfunction are expected to produce limited and minimal adverse effects. © 2010 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  16. Testosterone, free testosterone, and free androgen index in women: Reference intervals, biological variation, and diagnostic value in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, H N; Sluss, P M; Hayes, F J; Blincko, S; Knol, D L; Blankenstein, M A; Heijboer, A C

    2015-10-23

    The objective of our study was to determine reference intervals and biologic variation for testosterone (T), free testosterone (fT), and free androgen index (FAI) in women with accurate methods and to test the discriminative value of these parameters in a polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)-population. Serum was obtained daily during a normal menstrual cycle from 25 healthy women (677 data-points). A single serum sample was obtained from 44 PCOS-patients. T was measured by LC–MS/MS and by Architect® 2nd generation T Immunoassay. Sex hormone-binding globulin was measured to calculate fT and FAI. Results: Reference intervals which were established in healthy women with an ovulatory menstrual cycle were T = 0.3-1.6 nmol/L and 0.5-2.0 nmol/L, fT = 5.2-26 pmol/L and 7.2-33 pmol/L, and FAI = 0.4-2.9 and 0.6-4.4, by LC-MS/MS and immunoassay, respectively. T, fT and FAI were higher in PCOS patients than in controls (p b 0.0001). The areas under the curve of receiver operator characteristic (ROC) plots were not different for T, fT, or FAI when T was measured by LC–MS/MS versus immunoassay based on prediction of PCOS. FAI and fT were the strongest predictors of PCOS. When based upon the appropriate reference intervals and ROC analysis, LC-MS/MS and second generation immunoassay have equivalent clinical utility for the diagnosis of PCOS.

  17. Testosterone and Bioavailable Testosterone Help to Distinguish between Mild Cushing’s Syndrome and Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pall, M. E.; Lao, M. C.; Patel, S. S.; Lee, M. L.; Ghods, D. E.; Chandler, D. W.; Friedman, T. C.

    2010-01-01

    Women with Cushing’s syndrome (CS) and polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) may present with similar symptoms. Subjects with mild CS lack clinical stigmata of classical CS and often have normal laboratory tests measuring hypercortisolism. Thus, distinguishing mild CS from PCOS may be difficult. We hypothesized that either total testosterone (TT) or bioavailable testosterone (BT) levels or the calculation of the free androgen index (FAI) would be low in patients with mild CS and elevated in patients with PCOS, and could help differentiate the two conditions. TT, BT, and FAI were measured in a group of 20 patients of reproductive age with mild CS and 20 PCOS patients matched for age and BMI. We used receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves to assess the sensitivity and specificity of these measurements for the diagnosis of CS. TT (pBT (p=0.02), and FAI (p=0.003) were significantly elevated in PCOS patients compared to mild CS patients. Sex hormone-binding globulin was similar in both groups. The optimal cut-point for TT was 1.39 nmol/L, yielding a sensitivity of 95 % and a specificity of 70%. The cut-point for BT was 0.24 nmol/L, resulting in a sensitivity of 75 % and a specificity of 80%. The cut-point for FAI was 5.7, with a sensitivity of 88 % and a specificity of 60 %. We conclude that TT levels may be useful to discriminate between mild CS and PCOS. In patients with signs and symptoms consistent with CS and PCOS, a TT level of <1.39nmol/L warrants a workup for CS. PMID:18819057

  18. THE BIOCIDE TRIBUTYLTIN ALTERS TESTOSTERONE ESTERIFICATION IN MUD SNAILS (ILYANASSA OBSOLETA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Biocide Tributyltin Alters Testosterone Esterification in Mud Snails (Ilyanassa obsoleta)Meredith P. Gooding and Gerald A. LeBlanc Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7633Tributyltin (TBT...

  19. Uterine and ovarian changes during testosterone administration in young female-to-male transsexuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Loverro

    2016-10-01

    Conclusion: Our data suggest that long-term testosterone administration to female-to-male patients during reproductive age induces a low proliferative active endometrium, associated with some hypertrophic myometrial changes.

  20. Randomized controlled trials – mechanistic studies of testosterone and the cardiovascular system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Hugh Jones

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Testosterone deficiency is common in men with cardiovascular disease (CVD, and randomized placebo-controlled trials (RCTs have reported beneficial effects of testosterone therapy on exercise-induced cardiac ischemia in chronic stable angina, functional exercise capacity, maximum oxygen consumption during exercise (VO2max and muscle strength in chronic heart failure (CHF, shortening of the Q-T interval, and improvement of some cardiovascular risk factors. Testosterone deficiency is associated with an adverse CV risk profile and mortality. Clinical and scientific studies have provided mechanistic evidence to support and explain the findings of the RCTs. Testosterone is a rapid-onset arterial vasodilator within the coronary circulation and other vascular beds including the pulmonary vasculature and can reduce the overall peripheral systemic vascular resistance. Evidence has demonstrated that testosterone mediates this effect on vascular reactivity through calcium channel blockade (L-calcium channel and stimulates potassium channel opening by direct nongenomic mechanisms. Testosterone also stimulates repolarization of cardiac myocytes by stimulating the ultra-rapid potassium channel-operated current. Testosterone improves cardiac output, functional exercise capacity, VO2maxand vagally mediated arterial baroreceptor cardiac reflex sensitivity in CHF, and other mechanisms. Independent of the benefit of testosterone on cardiac function, testosterone substitution may also increase skeletal muscle glucose metabolism and enhance muscular strength, both factors that could contribute to the improvement in functional exercise capacity may include improved glucose metabolism and muscle strength. Testosterone improves metabolic CV risk factors including body composition, insulin resistance, and hypercholesterolemia by improving both glucose utilization and lipid metabolism by a combination of genomic and nongenomic actions of glucose uptake and utilization

  1. Self-confidence, Overconfidence and Prenatal Testosterone Exposure: Evidence from the Lab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Patricio S; Ghosal, Sayantan

    2018-01-01

    This paper examines whether foetal testosterone exposure predicts the extent of confidence and over-confidence in own absolute ability in adulthood. To study this question, we elicited incentive-compatible measures of confidence and over-confidence in the lab and correlate them with measures of right hand 2D:4D, used as as a marker for the strength of prenatal testosterone exposure. We provide evidence that men with higher prenatal testosterone exposure (i.e., low 2D:4D ratio) are less likely to set unrealistically high expectations about their own performance. This in turn helps them to gain higher monetary rewards. Men exposed to low prenatal testosterone levels, instead, set unrealistically high expectations which results in self-defeating behavior.

  2. Association between plasma testosterone and work-related neck and shoulder disorders among female workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaergaard, A.; Hansen, A. M.; Rasmussen, K.

    2000-01-01

    factors, and stress reactions were evaluated by questionnaires. In a follow-up study a subgroup of 73 sewing machine operators from the cross-sectional study was reexamined after 1 year. RESULTS: The group of women with clinically verified neck or shoulder disorders had significantly lower plasma...... testosterone than the women with no disorders. Furthermore, the testosterone level showed a negative association with age and a positive association with smoking and body mass index. Changes in pain status or clinically diagnosed musculoskeletal disorders were not associated with changes in testosterone levels....... However, this finding may well be due to a strong plant influence in that marked changes in testosterone levels were observed for 2 of the 3 participating plants. CONCLUSIONS: There is some indication of an association between musculoskeletal disorders in the neck and shoulders and a low level of free...

  3. Randomized controlled trials - mechanistic studies of testosterone and the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, T Hugh; Kelly, Daniel M

    2018-02-09

    Testosterone deficiency is common in men with cardiovascular disease (CVD), and randomized placebo-controlled trials (RCTs) have reported beneficial effects of testosterone therapy on exercise-induced cardiac ischemia in chronic stable angina, functional exercise capacity, maximum oxygen consumption during exercise (VO 2max ) and muscle strength in chronic heart failure (CHF), shortening of the Q-T interval, and improvement of some cardiovascular risk factors. Testosterone deficiency is associated with an adverse CV risk profile and mortality. Clinical and scientific studies have provided mechanistic evidence to support and explain the findings of the RCTs. Testosterone is a rapid-onset arterial vasodilator within the coronary circulation and other vascular beds including the pulmonary vasculature and can reduce the overall peripheral systemic vascular resistance. Evidence has demonstrated that testosterone mediates this effect on vascular reactivity through calcium channel blockade (L-calcium channel) and stimulates potassium channel opening by direct nongenomic mechanisms. Testosterone also stimulates repolarization of cardiac myocytes by stimulating the ultra-rapid potassium channel-operated current. Testosterone improves cardiac output, functional exercise capacity, VO 2max and vagally mediated arterial baroreceptor cardiac reflex sensitivity in CHF, and other mechanisms. Independent of the benefit of testosterone on cardiac function, testosterone substitution may also increase skeletal muscle glucose metabolism and enhance muscular strength, both factors that could contribute to the improvement in functional exercise capacity may include improved glucose metabolism and muscle strength. Testosterone improves metabolic CV risk factors including body composition, insulin resistance, and hypercholesterolemia by improving both glucose utilization and lipid metabolism by a combination of genomic and nongenomic actions of glucose uptake and utilization expression of

  4. The relation between serum testosterone levels and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with kidney transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hulya Colak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to evaluate the relationship between serum testos-terone levels and cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF in patients after kidney transplantation and with chronic kidney disease (CKD. Seventy-five male patients, aged between 18 and 68 years, who had kidney transplantation at least six months earlier, were enrolled into the study. Only renal transplant recipients and CKD patients with a creatinine level of 0.05. Serum testosterone levels were independent risk factors affecting IVC collapse index, systolic BP and LA. m-TORi and CNIs drugs might have no negative effect on serum testosterone levels, and improvement of the serum testosterone levels after transplantation might have a positive contribution on cardiac risk factors.

  5. Are Men's Perceptions of Sexually Dimorphic Vocal Characteristics Related to Their Testosterone Levels?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Michal Kandrik; Amanda C Hahn; Joanna Wincenciak; Claire I Fisher; Katarzyna Pisanski; David R Feinberg; Lisa M DeBruine; Benedict C Jones

    2016-01-01

    .... Previous research on men's judgments of women's facial attractiveness suggests that men show stronger preferences for feminine characteristics in women's faces when their own testosterone levels are relatively high...

  6. Sex-specific effects of maternal testosterone on lateralization in a cichlid fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, Sara M.; Groothuis, Ton G. G.

    Lateralization of cerebral functions is a fundamental aspect of the organization of brain and behaviour in vertebrates. Sex differences in human lateralization have inspired researchers to postulate several hypotheses concerning the effect of prenatal testosterone on lateralization, but few

  7. Testosterone and alcoholic cirrhosis. Epidemiologic, pathophysiologic and therapeutic studies in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C

    1988-01-01

    testosterone concentrations, but 20% have values above and 20% have values below the normal limits. The majority of patients have raised sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) concentrations. This increase accounts for the supranormal plasma testosterone concentrations. With decreasing liver function, plasma...... as well. Oral testosterone treatment significantly reduces the prevalence of gynecomastia, but is without significant effects on liver biochemistry, morphology, haemodynamics, and function, general well being, sexual dysfunction and survival of alcoholic cirrhotic men. A pooled estimate of the mortality...... risk of cirrhotic patients treated with anabolic-androgenic steroids does not disclose any significant difference compared with placebo treatment (relative risk 0.98; 95% confidence limits 0.77-1.22). Seldom, but serious, side-effects of oral testosterone treatment can not be excluded....

  8. Testosterone therapy and prostate cancer--safety concerns are well founded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotz, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    Testosterone is a potent hormone with a variety of physiological effects. The diagnosis of androgen deficiency has increased dramatically over the past decade, along with the widespread use of testosterone supplementation therapy (TST). The long-term effects of TST are uncertain, and the risk of overdiagnosis and overtreatment of men who have a normal age-related decline in testosterone is substantial. The biology of the androgen receptor (AR) pathway is complex, and the saturation model does not take the heterogeneity of human prostate cancer into account. Large-scale trials to confirm the safety of testosterone with respect to the risks of prostate cancer and cardiovascular disease with reasonable confidence limits have not been done, and existing data are insufficient to exclude these adverse events. Instead, evidence suggests that prostate cancer could, in fact, be stimulated by TST, and that the risk of cardiovascular events is increased. Overall, TST seems to impose significant risks, and should be used with caution.

  9. Testosterone replacement maintains smooth muscle content in the corpus cavernosum of orchiectomized rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziele Halmenschlager

    2017-10-01

    Conclusion: Normal testosterone levels maintain CC smooth muscle content and do not influence elastic fibers, collagen content and apoptotic index. Further studies should be performed in order to investigate the mechanisms by which androgen mediates its effects on CC structure.

  10. Pola Diurnal Metabolit Testosteron dan Kortisol di dalam Feses Owa Jawa (Hylobates moloch di Penangkaran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PUDJI ASTUTI

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this research were to determine diurnal patterns of testosterone and cortisol metabolites to predict the testis functional status. In this study, fecal testosterone and cortisol were quantified in 77 samples from three male Hylobates moloch during a course of three months period. These data showed that the highest concentration of fecal testosterone occured at 18.00-06.00 (23.61 ng/g dried feces, then declined gradually. The lowest concentration was in the evening (5.54 ng/g dried feces. Our tests showed that there was a decrease in the mean testosterone concentration from 06.00-10.00 to 10.00-14.00 to 14.00-18.00. For cortisol, the highest concentration occured at 06.00-10.00 (597.84 ng/g dried feces, then decline gradually in the evening (225.73 ng/g dried feces.

  11. Testosterone promotes either dominance or submissiveness in the Ultimatum Game depending on players’ social rank

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yukako Inoue; Taiki Takahashi; Robert P Burriss; Sakura Arai; Toshikazu Hasegawa; Toshio Yamagishi; Toko Kiyonari

    2017-01-01

    .... Here, we explored the relationship between pre-existing social status and salivary testosterone level among members of a rugby team at a Japanese university, where a strong seniority norm maintains...

  12. Cognitive effects of testosterone and finasteride administration in older hypogonadal men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borst SE

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Stephen E Borst,1 Joshua F Yarrow,2 Carmen Fernandez,1 Christine F Conover,2 Fan Ye,2 John R Meuleman,1 Matthew Morrow,3 Baiming Zou,4 Jonathan J Shuster5 1Geriatric Research, Education and Clinical Center, 2Research Service, 3Pharmacy Service, Malcom Randall VA Medical Center, Gainesville Florida; 4Department of Biostatistics, 5Department of Health Outcomes and Policy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA Abstract: Serum concentrations of neuroactive androgens decline in older men and, in some ­studies, low testosterone is associated with decreased cognitive function and incidence of depression. Existing studies evaluating the effect of testosterone administration on cognition in older men have been largely inconclusive, with some studies reporting minor to moderate cognitive benefit, while others indicate no cognitive effect. Our objective was to assess the cognitive effects of treating older hypogonadal men for 1 year with a supraphysiological dose of testosterone, either alone or in combination with finasteride (a type II 5α-reductase inhibitor, in order to determine whether testosterone produces cognitive benefit and whether suppressed dihydrotestosterone influences cognition. Sixty men aged ≥60 years with a serum testosterone concentration of ≤300 ng/dL or bioavailable testosterone ≤70 ng/dL and no evidence of cognitive impairment received testosterone-enanthate (125 mg/week versus vehicle, paired with finasteride (5 mg/day versus placebo using a 2×2 factorial design. Testosterone caused a small decrease in depressive symptoms as assessed by the Geriatric Depression Scale and a moderate increase in visuospatial memory as assessed by performance on a recall trial of the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test. Finasteride caused a small increase in performance on the Benton Judgment of Line Orientation test. In total, major improvements in cognition were not observed either with testosterone or finasteride. Further studies

  13. Testosterone, territorial response, and song in seasonally breeding tropical and temperate stonechats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apfelbeck, Beate; Mortega, Kim G; Flinks, Heiner; Illera, Juan Carlos; Helm, Barbara

    2017-04-17

    Testosterone facilitates physiological, morphological, and behavioral changes required for breeding in male vertebrates. However, testosterone concentrations and the link between its seasonal changes and those in reproductive behaviors vary greatly among species. To better understand the impact of tropical and temperate environments and life history factors on this variation, we have compared testosterone, territorial behavior and song performance across sequential stages of the breeding season in males of 16 closely related taxa of East African tropical and West European temperate stonechats (Saxicola spp), which all breed during a short breeding season, but differ in migratory behavior, seasonal territory-acquisition and pace of life. We found that generally, the profiles of testosterone and territorial behavior were similar across latitudes. African stonechats with a slow pace of life had equally high peak testosterone concentrations and responded as aggressively to an intruder as European stonechats with a fast pace of life. However, song performance at the beginning of the breeding season was lower in African than in European stonechats. The differences in song performance were not associated with variation in testosterone levels between tropical and temperate stonechats. The results suggest a very similar role for testosterone as a mediator of high intensity territorial aggression during the fertile period of females in tropical and temperate stonechats, which all are highly seasonal, locally synchronous breeders. A potential explanation may be high risk of extra-pair copulations which has been associated with synchronous breeding. Interestingly, an association was not consistent for song performance. Our data suggest that song performance can be disassociated from peak testosterone levels depending on its role in breeding behavior. Despite similar testosterone levels, European males, which early in the breeding season acquire territories and mates, showed

  14. Right-left digit ratio (2D:4D) predicts free testosterone levels associated with a physical challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilduff, Liam; Cook, Christian J; Bennett, Mark; Crewther, Blair; Bracken, Richard Michael; Manning, John

    2013-01-01

    There is evidence that the digit ratio (2D:4D) is a negative correlate of prenatal levels of testosterone, but there is no association between 2D:4D and the circulating levels of both total and free testosterone. Sports provide a physical challenge and participants often show increased levels of free testosterone immediately preceding and during competition. We tested this hypothesis of a link between 2D:4D and testosterone under challenge in 79 professional rugby players using the following procedures; (i) 25 players were physically challenged using a repeated sprint agility test, and saliva samples were assayed for testosterone immediately preceding the repeated sprint agility test (time 1) and 5 minutes (time 2) and 20 minutes after completion of the repeated sprint ability (time 3); (ii) 54 players were also tested for salivary testosterone in an unchallenged condition. We found that right-left 2D:4D was significantly and negatively related to testosterone concentrations at times 1, 2 and 3 following the repeated sprint agility test (P testosterone levels in the unchallenged group. We suggest that low right-left 2D:4D is a predictive marker of free testosterone responsiveness when trained men are physically challenged, and that this association is programmed by the action of prenatal testosterone.

  15. Protective Effects of Testosterone on Presynaptic Terminals against Oligomeric β-Amyloid Peptide in Primary Culture of Hippocampal Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Chi-Fai; Ho, Yuen-Shan; Hung, Clara Hiu-Ling; Poon, Chun-Hei; Chiu, Kin; Yang, Xifei

    2014-01-01

    Increasing lines of evidence support that testosterone may have neuroprotective effects. While observational studies reported an association between higher bioavailable testosterone or brain testosterone levels and reduced risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD), there is limited understanding of the underlying neuroprotective mechanisms. Previous studies demonstrated that testosterone could alleviate neurotoxicity induced by β-amyloid (Aβ), but these findings mainly focused on neuronal apoptosis. Since synaptic dysfunction and degeneration are early events during the pathogenesis of AD, we aim to investigate the effects of testosterone on oligomeric Aβ-induced synaptic changes. Our data suggested that exposure of primary cultured hippocampal neurons to oligomeric Aβ could reduce the length of neurites and decrease the expression of presynaptic proteins including synaptophysin, synaptotagmin, and synapsin-1. Aβ also disrupted synaptic vesicle recycling and protein folding machinery. Testosterone preserved the integrity of neurites and the expression of presynaptic proteins. It also attenuated Aβ-induced impairment of synaptic exocytosis. By using letrozole as an aromatase antagonist, we further demonstrated that the effects of testosterone on exocytosis were unlikely to be mediated through the estrogen receptor pathway. Furthermore, we showed that testosterone could attenuate Aβ-induced reduction of HSP70, which suggests a novel mechanism that links testosterone and its protective function on Aβ-induced synaptic damage. Taken together, our data provide further evidence on the beneficial effects of testosterone, which may be useful for future drug development for AD. PMID:25045655

  16. Protective Effects of Testosterone on Presynaptic Terminals against Oligomeric β-Amyloid Peptide in Primary Culture of Hippocampal Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Fai Lau

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing lines of evidence support that testosterone may have neuroprotective effects. While observational studies reported an association between higher bioavailable testosterone or brain testosterone levels and reduced risk of Alzheimer’s disease (AD, there is limited understanding of the underlying neuroprotective mechanisms. Previous studies demonstrated that testosterone could alleviate neurotoxicity induced by β-amyloid (Aβ, but these findings mainly focused on neuronal apoptosis. Since synaptic dysfunction and degeneration are early events during the pathogenesis of AD, we aim to investigate the effects of testosterone on oligomeric Aβ-induced synaptic changes. Our data suggested that exposure of primary cultured hippocampal neurons to oligomeric Aβ could reduce the length of neurites and decrease the expression of presynaptic proteins including synaptophysin, synaptotagmin, and synapsin-1. Aβ also disrupted synaptic vesicle recycling and protein folding machinery. Testosterone preserved the integrity of neurites and the expression of presynaptic proteins. It also attenuated Aβ-induced impairment of synaptic exocytosis. By using letrozole as an aromatase antagonist, we further demonstrated that the effects of testosterone on exocytosis were unlikely to be mediated through the estrogen receptor pathway. Furthermore, we showed that testosterone could attenuate Aβ-induced reduction of HSP70, which suggests a novel mechanism that links testosterone and its protective function on Aβ-induced synaptic damage. Taken together, our data provide further evidence on the beneficial effects of testosterone, which may be useful for future drug development for AD.

  17. A clinical update on female androgen insufficiency--testosterone testing and treatment in women presenting with low sexual desire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Henry G; Papalia, Mary-Anne

    2006-05-01

    The diagnosis of female androgen deficiency syndrome is suggested by complaints of a diminished sense of well being, persistent unexplained fatigue and decreased sexual desire, sexual receptivity and pleasure in a woman who is oestrogen-replete and in whom no other significant contributing factors can be identified. The diagnosis is supported by the finding of low circulating concentrations of free testosterone. Barriers to its recognition include the non-specificity of the symptoms and methodological problems due to insensitive testosterone assays. Barriers to its treatment include the unavailability of satisfactory forms of testosterone for administration to women and lack of data regarding long-term safety. Although several conditions lead to clear-cut androgen deficiency, such as hypopituitarism, adrenal and ovarian insufficiency, glucocorticoid therapy and use of oral contraceptives and oral oestrogens, it is important for clinicians to recognise that in normal women, androgen levels decline by 50% from the early 20s to the mid 40s, and hence age-related androgen insufficiency may occur in women in their late 30s and 40s, as well as postmenopausally. Satisfactory measurements of free testosterone requires a sensitive and reliable assay for total testosterone, and quantitation of sex hormone binding globulin, from which free testosterone is readily calculated. Adverse effects of testosterone treatment are few if replacement is monitored to achieve physiological circulating testosterone concentrations. Currently, available methods include testosterone implants and testosterone creams, and transdermal patches and sprays are in development.

  18. Circulating microRNA-122 as Potential Biomarker for Detection of Testosterone Abuse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Salamin

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression and thus influence many cellular and physiological processes. miRNAs are also present in cell-free body fluids such as plasma or serum, and these circulating miRNAs are very stable, sensitive, and specific biomarkers of pathophysiological states. In this study, we investigated whether circulating miRNAs could serve as biomarkers of exogenous testosterone administration. Misuse of testosterone as a performance-enhancing drug is thought to be widespread in sports. Detection of testosterone through the urinary steroid profile of the Athlete Biological Passport faces several obstacles, indicating that new biomarkers are required. To this end, we analyzed plasma miRNA levels by high-throughput quantitative real-time PCR. Plasma samples were obtained before and at several time points after transdermal and oral testosterone administration. Screening identified three potential candidate miRNAs that were altered by both routes of testosterone administration. Longitudinal monitoring of these candidates revealed that variation in two of them (miR-150 and miR-342, relative to the corresponding levels in control samples, was testosterone-independent. However, levels of the liver-specific miR-122 increased 3.5-fold 1 day after drug intake. Given that testosterone is metabolized by the liver, this observation suggests that miR-122 in cell-free fluids may be used as a sensitive biomarker of testosterone misuse via multiple dosing routes and could therefore be integrated into a blood-based multiparametric follow-up.

  19. Testosterone conjugating activities in invertebrates: are they targets for endocrine disruptors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janer, G; Sternberg, R M; LeBlanc, G A; Porte, C

    2005-02-10

    Testosterone conjugation activities, microsomal acyltransferases and cytosolic sulfotransferases, were investigated in three invertebrate species, the gastropod Marisa cornuarietis, the amphipod Hyalella azteca, and the echinoderm Paracentrotus lividus. The goals of the study were to characterize steroid conjugation pathways in different invertebrate phyla and to assess the susceptibility of those processes to disruption by environmental chemicals. All three species exhibited palmitoyl-CoA: testosterone acyltransferase activity (ATAT) in the range of 100-510 pmol/min/mg protein. Despite similarities in specific activities, kinetic studies indicated that ATAT had a higher affinity for testosterone but a lower V(max) in M. cornuarietis than in P. lividus, and intermediate values were found for H. azteca. In contrast, the activity of testosterone sulfotransferase (SULT) was rather low (0.05-0.18 pmol/min/mg protein) in M. cornuarietis and H. azteca. The low activity precluded kinetic analyses and inhibition studies with these species. P. lividus digestive tube displayed high SULT activity (50-170 pmol/min/mg protein) at moderate testosterone concentrations, but was inhibited at high testosterone concentrations. The interference of model pollutants (triphenyltin (TPT), tributyltin (TBT), and fenarimol) with these conjugation pathways was investigated in vitro. Both TPT and TBT (100 microM) inhibited ATAT in P. lividus (68 and 42% inhibition, respectively), and appeared to act as non-competitive inhibitors. ATAT activity in M. cornuarietis was less affected by organotins, and a significant inhibition (20% inhibition) was detected only with TBT. Fenarimol (100 microM) did not affect ATAT in any of the species tested. Sulfation of testosterone was suppressed by the organotins as well as fenarimol when using cytosolic preparations from P. lividus. These results demonstrated the existence of interphyla differences in testosterone conjugation, and revealed that these

  20. 17β-estradiol and testosterone sorption in soil with and without poultry litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, M; Radcliffe, D E; Cabrera, M L; Vencill, W K; Thompson, A; Hassan, S

    2011-01-01

    17β-estradiol and testosterone are naturally occurring steroids that co-occur in poultry litter. The effects of litter on sorption of these hormones to soil are not known. Sorption isotherms were developed for C-labeled testosterone and H-labeled estradiol in a Cecil sandy clay loam with and without poultry litter addition. The effect of applying the hormones alone (single-sorbate) or together (multisorbate) was also investigated. C-testosterone sorption in soil increased from 2 to 48 h and remained relatively constant thereafter. H-estradiol sorption in soil was relatively constant from 2 to 24 h and then decreased to 72 h. These differences may reflect transformation of the parent hormones to products with different solid-phase affinity. The maximum sorption coefficient () in soil for C-testosterone (20.2 mL g) was similar to that for H-estradiol (19.6 mL g) in single-sorbate experiments. When hormones were applied together, sorption of both hormones in soil decreased, but the C-testosterone (12.5 mL g) was nearly twice as large as the H-estradiol (7.4 mL g). We propose this resulted from competition between the hormones and their transformation products for sorption sites, with C-testosterone and its expected transformation product (androstenedione) being better competitors than H-estradiol and its expected transformation product (estrone). When poultry litter was mixed with soil, sorption increased for H-estradiol but decreased for C-testosterone. This may have been because poultry litter slowed the transformation of parent hormones. Our results show that poultry litter could have important effects on the mobility of estradiol and testosterone. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  1. [Contribution of bioavailable testosterone assay for the diagnosis of androgen deficiency in elderly men].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejeune, H; Déchaud, H; Pugeat, M

    2003-04-01

    With age, some men develop symptoms resembling hypogonadism. Several cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have shown a decrease in testosterone levels with ageing in men. This finding has equally been observed in elderly men in good health. Testosterone levels decline progressively as of the thirties, at a rate which remains constant throughout life. While total testosterone levels decrease, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels on the contrary increase with age, with the result that the levels of free and non-SHBG-bound testosterone (corresponding to the fraction which is bioavailable to target cells) decrease more abruptly than that of total testosterone. Higher LH levels, decreased testosterone response to hCG and less Leydig cells all indicate that ageing induces partial testicular failure. However, the gonadotropic function is also affected in ageing. The hypothalamus-pituitary becomes more sensitive to gonad steroid feedback, LH pulse amplitude decreases, and the LH response to GnRH is blunted compared to the situation in young men. Thus LH level is not a valid index of androgen deficiency in elderly males. None of the androgen-dependent functions (libido, erection, sense of well-being, muscle mass and strength, fat mass, bone mass, erythropoiesis, etc.) are under exclusively androgen control, and there is no elderly male symptom which is completely specific to androgen deficiency. Thus, in elderly men, when clinical symptoms might indicate androgen deficiency, biological confirmation is needed. An assay which is independent of SHBG fluctuations is mandatory. Bioavailable testosterone assay by ammonium sulfate precipitation seems to us to be the optimum method for diagnosing androgen deficiency: it gives a reliable measurement for the testosterone fraction available to target cells, is adapted to clinical practice, and provides results that can be directly compared with current reference values for healthy young men.

  2. Effect of strength training on serum levels of adiponectin, testosterone, and cortisol in sedentary lean men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatah Moradi

    2013-08-01

    Conclusion: Performing a period of strength training can improve body weight, body mass index, and cardio respiratory function of sedentary lean men, while it results in no significant change in body fat percent. Also, since testosterone has anti-diabetic role, strength training can be useful through increasing testosterone levels in sedentary lean men. It doesn’t appear that twelve weeks strength training has effect on circulating levels of adiponectin and cortisol in sedentary lean men.

  3. Tissue culture media supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum contains a castrate level of testosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedelaar, J P Michiel; Isaacs, John T

    2009-12-01

    Human prostate cancer cells are routinely maintained in media supplemented with 10% Fetal Calf Serum (FCS) to provide androgen. In the present study, total and free testosterone levels in 10%FCS supplemented tissue culture media were determined and compared to levels in intact and castrated human males. Dextran-coated charcoal stripped FCS (i.e., DC-FCS) is often used instead of FCS to minimize the level of androgen provided in 10% serum supplemented media. Therefore, total and free testosterone levels in 10%DC-FCS containing media were likewise determined. Total testosterone, free testosterone, and total dihydrotestosterone (DHT) were determined on RPMI-1640 media supplemented with either 10%FCS or 10%DC-FCS by ELISA assays before and after exposure to LNCaP human prostate cancer cells in culture. The growth and PSA secretion by these cells was also determined. Ten percentage FCS supplemented media contains a castrate level of testosterone. However, even with this castrate starting level of testosterone, LNCaP cells concentrate and metabolize the testosterone to produce a physiologic (i.e., 10 nM) level of intracellular DHT which optimally stimulates the growth of these cells in vitro. The present studies document that prostate cancer cells auto-regulate their androgen metabolism so that an optimal level of DHT for growth is maintained during both up and down fluctuations in the supply of testosterone. These results have significant implications for whether exogenous androgen should be added to the 10%FCS supplemented media to grow prostate cancer cells from intact versus castrated patients. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Relationships among musical aptitude, digit ratio and testosterone in men and women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy C Borniger

    Full Text Available Circulating adult testosterone levels, digit ratio (length of the second finger relative to the fourth finger, and directional asymmetry in digit ratio are considered sexually dimorphic traits in humans. These have been related to spatial abilities in men and women, and because similar brain structures appear to be involved in both spatial and musical abilities, neuroendocrine function may be related to musical as well as spatial cognition. To evaluate relationships among testosterone and musical ability in men and women, saliva samples were collected, testosterone concentrations assessed, and digit ratios calculated using standardized protocols in a sample of university students (N = 61, including both music and non-music majors. Results of Spearman correlations suggest that digit ratio and testosterone levels are statistically related to musical aptitude and performance only within the female sample: A those females with greater self-reported history of exposure to music (p = 0.016 and instrument proficiency (p = 0.040 scored higher on the Advanced Measures of Music Audiation test, B those females with higher left hand digit ratio (and perhaps lower fetal testosterone levels were more highly ranked (p = 0.007 in the orchestra, C female music students exhibited a trend (p = 0.082 towards higher testosterone levels compared to female non-music students, and D female music students with higher rank in the orchestra/band had higher testosterone levels (p = 0.003 than lower ranked students. None of these relationships were significant in the male sample, although a lack of statistical power may be one cause. The effects of testosterone are likely a small part of a poorly understood system of biological and environmental stimuli that contribute to musical aptitude. Hormones may play some role in modulating the phenotype of musical ability, and this may be the case for females more so than males.

  5. Genetic and Environmental Contributions to Covariation Between DHEA and Testosterone in Adolescent Twins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Mollie N.; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A.; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Goldsmith, H. Hill

    2015-01-01

    Although several studies have shown that pubertal tempo and timing are shaped by genetic and environmental factors, few studies consider to what extent endocrine triggers of puberty are shaped by genetic and environmental factors. Doing so moves the field from examining correlated developmentally-sensitive biomarkers toward understanding what drives those associations. Two puberty related hormones, dehydroepiandrosterone and testosterone, were assayed from salivary samples in 118 MZ (62 % female), 111 same sex DZ (46 % female) and 103 opposite-sex DZ twin pairs, aged 12–16 years (M = 13.1, SD = 1.3). Pubertal status was assessed with a composite of mother- and self-reports. We used biometric models to estimate the genetic and environmental influences on the variance and covariance in testosterone and DHEA, with and without controlling for their association with puberty, and to test for sex differences. In males, the variance in testosterone and pubertal status was due to shared and non-shared environmental factors; variation in DHEA was due to genetic and non-shared environmental factors. In females, variance in testosterone was due to genetic and non-shared environmental factors; genetic, shared, and non-shared environmental factors contributed equally to variation in DHEA. In males, the testosterone-DHEA covariance was primarily due to shared environmental factors that overlapped with puberty as well as shared and non-shared environmental covariation specific to testosterone and DHEA. In females, the testosterone-DHEA covariance was due to genetic factors overlapping with pubertal status, and shared and non-shared environmental covariation specific to testosterone and DHEA. PMID:25633628

  6. Biochemical Mechanisms and Microorganisms Involved in Anaerobic Testosterone Metabolism in Estuarine Sediments

    OpenAIRE

    Shih, Chao-Jen; Chen, Yi-Lung; Wang, Chia-Hsiang; Wei, Sean T.-S.; Lin, I-Ting; Ismail, Wael A.; Chiang, Yin-Ru

    2017-01-01

    Current knowledge on the biochemical mechanisms underlying microbial steroid metabolism in anaerobic ecosystems is extremely limited. Sulfate, nitrate, and iron [Fe (III)] are common electron acceptors for anaerobes in estuarine sediments. Here, we investigated anaerobic testosterone metabolism in anaerobic sediments collected from the estuary of Tamsui River, Taiwan. The anaerobic sediment samples were spiked with testosterone (1 mM) and individual electron acceptors (10 mM), including nitra...

  7. Effects of Testosterone Supplementation for 3 Years on Muscle Performance and Physical Function in Older Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basaria, Shehzad; Traustadottir, Tinna; Harman, S. Mitchell; Pencina, Karol; Li, Zhuoying; Travison, Thomas G.; Miciek, Renee; Tsitouras, Panayiotis; Hally, Kathleen; Huang, Grace; Bhasin, Shalender

    2017-01-01

    Context: Findings of studies of testosterone’s effects on muscle strength and physical function in older men have been inconsistent; its effects on muscle power and fatigability have not been studied. Objective: To determine the effects of testosterone administration for 3 years in older men on muscle strength, power, fatigability, and physical function. Design, Setting, and Participants: This was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of healthy men ≥60 years old with total testosterone levels of 100 to 400 ng/dL or free testosterone levels testosterone or placebo gel daily for 3 years. Outcome Measures: Loaded and unloaded stair-climbing power, muscle strength, power, and fatigability in leg press and chest press exercises, and lean mass at baseline, 6, 18, and 36 months. Results: The groups were similar at baseline. Testosterone administration for 3 years was associated with significantly greater performance in unloaded and loaded stair-climbing power than placebo (mean estimated between-group difference, 10.7 W [95% confidence interval (CI), −4.0 to 25.5], P = 0.026; and 22.4 W [95% CI, 4.6 to 40.3], P = 0.027), respectively. Changes in chest-press strength (estimated mean difference, 16.3 N; 95% CI, 5.5 to 27.1; P testosterone than in those randomized to placebo. Lean body mass significantly increased more in the testosterone group. Conclusion: Compared with placebo, testosterone replacement in older men for 3 years was associated with modest but significantly greater improvements in stair-climbing power, muscle mass, and power. Clinical meaningfulness of these treatment effects and their impact on disability in older adults with functional limitations remains to be studied. PMID:27754805

  8. Testosterone not associated with violent dreams or REM sleep behavior disorder in men with Parkinson's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Kelvin L; Moro-De-Casillas, Maria L; Amick, Melissa M; Borek, Leora L; Friedman, Joseph H

    2007-02-15

    We examined the relationship between testosterone levels, violent dreams, and REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) in 31 men with Parkinson's disease (PD): 12 with clinical RBD and 19 without. All PD patients with clinical RBD experienced violent dreams, but none of the 19 non-RBD patients reported violent dreams. While dream content appears to be more aggressive in PD patients with clinical RBD, the presence of violent dreams or clinical RBD is not associated with testosterone levels in men with PD.

  9. Gold Electrodes Modified with Molecular Imprinted Acrylate Polymer for Impedimetric Determination of Testosterone

    OpenAIRE

    Amina Betatache; Florence Lagarde; Corinne SANGLAR; Anne BONHOMME; Didier LEONARD; Nicole JAFFREZIC-RENAULT

    2014-01-01

    A moleculary imprinted polymer (MIP) sensor was developed for impedimetric detection of testosterone. 4,4’-azobis(4-cyanovaleric acid) initiator was first grafted onto a gold electrode modified by a self-assembled monolayer of thiolamine (11-amino-1-undecanethiol). Methacrylic acid and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate were prepolymerized by photo-polymerization in presence of testosterone as template and then spincoated and polymerized on the functionalized electrode surface. The different step...

  10. Endogenous testosterone, muscle strength, and fat-free mass in men with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cigarrán, Secundino; Pousa, Montserrat; Castro, María Jesús; González, Berta; Martínez, Aurelia; Barril, Guillermina; Aguilera, Abelardo; Coronel, Francisco; Stenvinkel, Peter; Carrero, Juan Jesús

    2013-09-01

    Testosterone deficiency is a common finding in men with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Testosterone is thought to play an important anabolic role in muscle synthesis, and muscle wasting is an important and deleterious characteristic of protein-energy wasting (PEW) in CKD. It is presently unknown if reduced endogenous testosterone associates with features of muscle wasting in men with CKD. This was a cross-sectional observational study of 267 men with CKD stages 2-4 (mean ± standard deviation age 67 ± 13 years, estimated glomerular filtration rate 42.9 [interquartile range 30.2-56.7] mL/min/1.73 m²) with measurements of endogenous testosterone and surrogates of PEW such as albumin, prealbumin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) and normalized protein nitrogen appearance (nPNA). Fat-free mass was estimated by bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA) and muscle strength by handgrip dynamometry. Across decreasing thirds of testosterone distribution, patients were incrementally older and CRP levels rose significantly. Prealbumin, hemoglobin, nPNA, handgrip strength, and BIVA estimated surrogates of muscle mass and nutritional status (fat-free mass, body cell mass, and phase angle) were progressively reduced (P testosterone significantly and independently contributed to explain the variances of handgrip strength and fat-free mass (P testosterone independently associates with muscle strength and fat-free mass in men with moderate CKD. It is plausible that the reduction in testosterone levels that accompanies CKD may further contribute to the procatabolic environment leading to muscle wasting. Copyright © 2013 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Relationship between pregame concentrations of free testosterone and outcome in rugby union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaviglio, Christopher M; Crewther, Blair T; Kilduff, Liam P; Stokes, Keith A; Cook, Christian J

    2014-03-01

    To assess the measures of salivary free testosterone and cortisol concentrations across selected rugby union matches according to game outcome. Twenty-two professional male rugby union players were studied across 6 games (3 wins and 3 losses). Hormone samples were taken 40 min before the game and 15 min after. The hormonal data were grouped and compared against competition outcomes. These competition outcomes included wins and losses and a game-ranked performance score (1-6). Across the entire team, pregame testosterone concentrations were significantly higher during winning games than losses (P = 5.8 × 10-5). Analysis by playing position further revealed that, for the backs, pregame testosterone concentrations (P = 3.6 × 10-5) and the testosterone-to-cortisol ratio T:C (P = .038) were significantly greater before a win than a loss. Game-ranked performance score correlated to the team's pregame testosterone concentrations (r = .81, P = .049). In backs, pregame testosterone (r = .91, P = .011) and T:C (r = .81, P = .05) also correlated to game-ranked performance. Analysis of the forwards' hormone concentrations did not distinguish between game outcomes, nor did it correlate with game-ranked performance. Game venue (home vs away) only affected postgame concentrations of testosterone (P = .018) and cortisol (P = 2.58 × 10-4). Monitoring game-day concentrations of salivary free testosterone may help identify competitive readiness in rugby union matches. The link between pregame T:C and rugby players in the back position suggests that monitoring weekly training loads and enhancing recovery modalities between games may also assist with favorable performance and outcome in rugby union matches.

  12. Rosuvastatin decreases testosterone levels but not sexual function in men with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ching Jung; Huang, Bin

    2016-10-01

    Statins may decrease serum testosterone levels via decreasing cholesterol, a precursor to testosterone. This case series studied the effects of rosuvastatin on free testosterone levels and sexual function in men with type 2 diabetes. We enrolled 151 men with type 2 diabetes and hypercholesterolemia. Biochemical assessments included serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein, triglyceride, prolactin, thyroid-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, total testosterone and serum sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). All parameters were measured before statin treatment, after 6months of statin treatment, and 6months after discontinuing statin treatment. The Sexual Health Inventory for Men (SHIM) was also administered at these times. Serum TC and LDL levels were high before statin therapy, decreased after six months of statin therapy, and increased significantly six months after discontinuing statin therapy (198.1±28.1mg/dl vs. 147.1±22.8mg/dl vs. 205.2±25.6mg/dl, p-valuefree testosterone levels calculated from total testosterone and SHBG calculated by formula were higher before statin therapy, obviously decreased after six months of statin therapy, and subsequently increased six months after discontinuing statin therapy (22.4±3.1ng/ml vs. 20.9±2.8ng/ml vs. 22.6±2.6ng/ml p value=0.006). SHIM scores did not obviously differ among the three stages (16.3±4.8 vs. 16.0±4.9 vs. 16.3±5.0 p=0.944). After adjustment for age, serum free testosterone levels correlated with SHIM scores and LDL (r=0.39, p=free testosterone levels but does not influence sexual function in men with type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Testosterone enhances tubuloglomerular feedback by increasing superoxide production in the macula densa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yiling; Lu, Yan; Liu, Eddie Y.; Zhu, Xiaolong; Mahajan, Gouri J.; Lu, Deyin; Roman, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    Males have higher prevalence of hypertension and renal injury than females, which may be attributed in part to androgen-mediated effects on renal hemodynamics. Tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) is an important mechanism in control of renal microcirculation. The present study examines the role of testosterone in the regulation of TGF responses. TGF was measured by micropuncture (change of stop-flow pressure, ΔPsf) in castrated Sprague-Dawley rats. The addition of testosterone (10−7 mol/l) into the lumen increased the ΔPsf from 10.1 ± 1.2 to 12.2 ± 1.2 mmHg. To determine whether androgen receptors (AR) are involved, mRNA of AR was measured in the macula dense cells isolated by laser capture microdissection from kidneys, and a macula densa-like cell line (MMDD1). AR mRNA was expressed in the macula densa of rats and in MMDD1 cells. We next examined the effects of the AR blocker, flutamide (10−5 mol/l) on the TGF response. The addition of flutamide blocked the effects of testosterone on TGF. The addition of Tempol (10−4 mol/l) or polyethylene glycol-superoxide dismutase (100 U/ml) to scavenge superoxide blocked the effect of testosterone to augment TGF. We then applied apocynin to inhibit NAD(P)H oxidase and oxypurinol to inhibit xanthine oxidase and found the testosterone-induced augmentation of TGF was blocked. In additional experiments in MMDD1 cells, we found that testosterone increased O2− generation. Apocynin or oxypurinol blocked the testosterone-induced increases of O2−, while blockade of COX-2 with NS-398 had no effect. These findings suggest that testosterone enhances TGF response by stimulating O2− production in macula densa via an AR-dependent pathway. PMID:23467324

  14. Modulating testosterone pathway: a new strategy to tackle male skin aging?

    OpenAIRE

    Bernard P; Scior T; Do QT

    2012-01-01

    Philippe Bernard1, Thomas Scior2, Quoc Tuan Do11Greenpharma SAS, Orléans, France; 2Pharmacy Department, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Puebla, MexicoAbstract: In men, the level of testosterone decreases with age. At the skin level, the result is observed as a decrease in density and in a lower elasticity. Identifying compounds that are able to increase the level of testosterone appears to be an attractive strategy to develop new antiaging bioactive ingredients for men. ...

  15. [Testosterone therapy improves cardiac function of male rats with right heart failure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zong-Bin; Wang, Jing; Wang, Ju-Xiang; Chen, Xun-Min; Jiang, Shi-Sen

    2009-11-01

    Clinical studies have shown decreased levels of sexual hormones, particularly testosterone deficiency, in men with chronic heart failure (CHF). The authors aimed to investigate the effect of testosterone on cardiac function and the possible mechanism of androgen protecting the heart in male rats. Forty-three male SD rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: right heart failure (RHF, n = 15), physiologic testosterone treatment (TT, n = 15) and control (n = 13). The RHF group was given intraperitoneal injection of monocrotaline at 60 mg/kg to make RHF models; the TT group was injected with testosterone at 5 mg/kg 3 days after monocrotaline administration; and the control group received equal volume of saline. The CD34+ cells in the peripheral blood of each rat were counted by flow cytometry. The levels of serum testosterone and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) were measured by chemiluminescence immunoassay and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. The hearts, lungs and livers of all the surviving rats were excised at 6 weeks for pathological and immunohistochemical examinations. The level of serum testosterone was gradually decreased, while that of TNF-alpha obviously increased in the RHF group. After testosterone treatment, the TT group showed a remarkable improvement of cardiac performance and a significant decrease in the level of serum TNF-alpha as compared with the RHF group. Statistically significant differences were observed neither in the CD34+ cell count in the peripheral blood nor in the CD34+ expression of the myocardial cells between the TT and RHF groups. Physiological supplementation of testosterone can improve the cardiac function of RHF male rats, probably through its inhibition of TNF-alpha rather than by autologous mobilization of bone marrow stem cells.

  16. Plasma Testosterone and the Course of Major Depressive Disorder in Older Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giltay, Erik J; van der Mast, Roos C; Lauwen, Esther; Heijboer, Annemieke C; de Waal, Margot W M; Comijs, Hannie C

    2017-04-01

    To investigate associations between testosterone levels and major depressive disorder (MDD) in older men and women. In a cross-sectional, 2-year prospective analyses within the Netherlands Study on Depression in Older persons cohort study, 469 participants comprised 350 patients with MDD and 119 nondepressed participants in the comparison group (mean age 70.5 ± 7.3 years; 166 [35.4%] men). MDD was assessed by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Baseline plasma total testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were assessed to calculate free testosterone. The Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology was assessed every 6 months. Whereas SHBG levels did not differ between the depressed/nondepressed groups (F(1,149) = 0.075, p = 0.78), men with MDD had lower mean total and free testosterone levels than the comparison group in the multivariate adjusted analyses (F(1,150) = 7.249, p = 0.008, Cohen's d = 0.51; and F(1,149) = 8.548, p = 0.004 Cohen's d = 0.55, respectively). This could be ascribed to lower testosterone in men with "pure" MDD and not in men with MDD and comorbid anxiety. Nine men (5.4%) had a total testosterone level women, hormone levels showed no significant difference between the groups. In men (using all five measurement points during follow-up) baseline free testosterone was inversely associated with depression severity in the adjusted analyses (β = -0.15, t(151) = -2.15, p = 0.03). Testosterone levels were lower in men with MDD compared with healthy men after adjustment for confounders, such as body mass index. No significant associations were found in women. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Gender differences in serum testosterone and cortisol in patients with major depressive disorder compared with controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaka, Hisashi; Maeshima, Hitoshi; Kida, Sayaka; Kurita, Hirofumi; Shimano, Takahisa; Nakano, Yoshiyuki; Baba, Hajime; Suzuki, Toshihito; Arai, Heii

    2013-01-01

    Testosterone may have a role distinct from cortisol in the pathophysiology of depression. The hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis affects the functions of sex steroid hormones through interaction with corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). The objective of this study was to investigate differences in serum levels of testosterone and cortisol in male and female patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Participants included 87 inpatients with MDD at Juntendo University Koshigaya Hospital. Serum levels of testosterone and cortisol were assessed at admission. Matched controls included 128 healthy individuals. Data from MDD patients and controls were compared separately for men and women. Correlations between serum hormone levels and scores on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D) of patients were assessed by sex. Effects of various factors on testosterone and cortisol were analyzed using multiple regression analysis. In male patients with MDD, a significant negative correlation was seen between testosterone levels and the "retardation" score of HAM-D. However, serum testosterone levels were not significantly different in either male or female MDD patients compared with controls. Serum testosterone was negatively associated with the number of depressive episodes in male patients with MDD. Serum cortisol levels in female patients were significantly increased compared with female controls with no significant correlations between cortisol levels and HAM-D scores. The negative correlation between the sub-score of the HAM-D and testosterone may be associated with the biological pathophysiology of male depression. Findings of serum cortisol levels in women may suggest distinct characteristics of these hormones in men and women with MDD.

  18. Maternal and female fetal testosterone levels are associated with maternal age and gestational weight gain

    OpenAIRE

    Kallak, Theodora Kunovac; Hellgren, Charlotte; Skalkidou, Alkistis; Sandelin-Francke, Lotta; Ubhayasekhera, Kumari; Bergquist, Jonas; Axelsson, Ove; Comasco, Erika; Campbell, Rebecca E.; Sundstr?m Poromaa, Inger

    2017-01-01

    Objective Prenatal androgen exposure has been suggested to play a role in polycystic ovary syndrome. Given the limited information on what maternal characteristics influence maternal testosterone levels, and the even less explored routes by which female fetus androgen exposure would occur, the aim of this study was to investigate the impact of maternal age, BMI, weight gain, depressed mood and aromatase SNPs on testosterone levels in maternal serum and amniotic fluid of female fetuses. Method...

  19. An update on the role of testosterone replacement therapy in the management of hypogonadism

    OpenAIRE

    Hackett, Geoffrey

    2015-01-01

    While US testosterone prescriptions have tripled in the last decade with lower trends in Europe, debate continues over the risks, benefits and appropriate use of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT). Some authors blame advertising and the availability of more convenient formulations whilst other have pointed out that the routine testing of men with erectile dysfunction (a significant marker of cardiovascular risk) and those with diabetes would inevitably increase the diagnosis of hypogonadi...

  20. Protective role of testosterone in ischemia-reperfusion-induced acute kidney injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soljancic, Andrea; Ruiz, Arnaldo Lopez; Chandrashekar, Kiran; Maranon, Rodrigo; Liu, Ruisheng; Juncos, Luis A.

    2013-01-01

    Men are at greater risk for renal injury and dysfunction after acute ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) than are women. Studies in animals suggest that the reason for the sex difference in renal injury and dysfunction after I/R is the protective effect of estrogens in females. However, a reduction in testosterone in men is thought to play an important role in mediating cardiovascular and renal disease, in general. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that I/R of the kidney reduces serum testosterone, and that contributes to renal dysfunction and injury. Male rats that were subjected to renal ischemia of 40 min followed by reperfusion had a 90% reduction in serum testosterone by 3 h after reperfusion that remained at 24 h. Acute infusion of testosterone 3 h after reperfusion attenuated the increase in plasma creatinine and urinary kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) at 24 h, prevented the reduction in outer medullary blood flow, and attenuated the increase in intrarenal TNF-α and the decrease in intrarenal VEGF at 48 h. Castration of males caused greater increases in plasma creatinine and KIM-1 at 24 h than in intact males with renal I/R, and treatment with anastrozole, an aromatase inhibitor, plus testosterone almost normalized plasma creatinine and KIM-1 in rats with renal I/R. These data show that renal I/R is associated with sustained reductions in testosterone, that testosterone repletion protects the kidney, whereas castration promotes renal dysfunction and injury, and that the testosterone-mediated protection is not conferred by conversion to estradiol. PMID:23552495

  1. Corticosteroid modulation and testosterone changes during alcohol intoxication affects voluntary alcohol drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, C J P; Etelälahti, T J; Apter, S J

    2017-06-01

    A number of studies have shown that stress and an activated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis are associated with increased voluntary alcohol drinking. Recently, associations have been found between activated HPA and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axes in alcohol-preferring AA and non-preferring ANA, F2 (crossbred second generation from original AA and ANA), and Wistar rats. The aim of the present study has been to determine the role of corticosterone and alcohol-related testosterone-effects in subsequent alcohol drinking in AA, ANA, F2 and Wistar rats. The present study comprises of four substudies presenting new analyses of existing data, by which correlations between basal corticosterone levels, changes in testosterone levels during alcohol intoxications and subsequent voluntary alcohol consumption are investigated. The results displayed positive correlations between basal corticosterone levels and subsequent alcohol-mediated testosterone elevations, which was positively associated with voluntary alcohol consumption. The results also showed a negative correlation between basal corticosterone levels and alcohol-mediated testosterone decreases, which was negatively associated with alcohol consumption. In conclusion, the present study displays novel results, according to which the HPA axis, one hand, relates to testosterone elevation (potentially causing and/or strengthening reinforcement) during alcohol intoxication, which in turn may relate to higher voluntary alcohol consumption (AA rats). Vice versa, the HPA axis may also relate to alcohol-mediated testosterone decrease (causing testosterone reduction and disinforcement) and low-alcohol drinking (ANA, F2 and Wistar rats). In addition, the present results showed that alcohol-mediated testosterone changes may also, independently of the HPA axis, correlate with voluntary alcohol drinking, which indicate the impact of genetic factors. Thus, the role of the HPA-axis may be more related to situational

  2. Serum testosterone and heart rate response to short-term intense ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The serum testosterone and heart rate responses to short strenuous physical exercise were studied in twenty-one non-athletic male students. The body mass index was also determined. Serum testosterone rose significantly (p<0.05) from 0.8±0.2 ng/ml to 1.7±0.2 ng/ml (273.5±100.2%, p<0.05). Likewise, the heart rate rose ...

  3. Effects of testosterone on skeletal muscle architecture in intermediate-frail and frail elderly men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Ross A; Srinivas-Shankar, U; Roberts, Stephen A; Connolly, Martin J; Adams, Judith E; Oldham, Jackie A; Wu, Frederick C W; Seynnes, Olivier R; Stewart, Claire E H; Maganaris, Constantinos N; Narici, Marco V

    2010-11-01

    Testosterone increases lean mass and may help to counter the changes in muscle architecture associated with sarcopenia. This study was designed to investigate the effects of testosterone replacement therapy on skeletal muscle architecture in intermediate-frail and frail elderly men. A subgroup of 30 intermediate-frail and frail elderly men (65-89 years) with low to borderline-low testosterone levels were enrolled from a single-center randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Participants received either a transdermal testosterone (50 mg) or placebo gel daily for 6 months. Architecture (muscle thickness, fascicle length, and pennation angle) of the gastrocnemius medialis muscle was assessed by ultrasound imaging at baseline and after 6 months of treatment. Serum testosterone increased from 11.6 ± 3.5 to 18.0 ± 8.1 nmol/L by 10 days after randomization in the active group (but not the placebo group) and was maintained throughout the treatment period. Testosterone treatment resulted in a preservation of muscle thickness at 6 months while it decreased in the placebo group (effect size 1.4 [95% confidence interval = 0.3-2.5; p = .015]). There was no significant effect of treatment on fascicle length (effect size 1.9 mm [95% confidence interval = -1.2 to 5.0 mm; p = .22]) or pennation angle (effect size 1.2° [95% confidence interval = -1.3 to 3.7°; p = .32]). Testosterone replacement in intermediate-frail and frail elderly men is associated with preservation of muscle thickness. The results suggest that testosterone mitigates sarcopenia by improving muscle tissue to maintain a state of normality in aging men.

  4. Total Testosterone Levels and the Effect of Sildenafil on Type 2 Diabetics with Erectile Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabeel Najib Fadhil Hadeed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Hypotestosteronemia has been reported in approximately half of type 2 diabetic men in general. This study aims to assess serum total testosterone levels in type 2 diabetics with erectile dysfunction and to correlate the degree of improvement between sildenafil citrate and testosterone levels. Methods: A cross sectional and prospective comparative interventional study was conducted at the Diabetic Clinic of Assalam Teaching Hospital in Mosul, during the period from January 1, 2009 through to December 31, 2011. The study enrolled 120 type 2 diabetic males with erectile dysfunction who were analyzed with regard to age, duration of diabetes, duration and severity of erectile dysfunction, serum total testosteron levels and the degree of response to sildenafil citrate in terms of testosterone levels. The data were statistically analyzed using the independent two-sample Student t test, χ2 test and Pearson correlation test. A p-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Thirty six percent of type 2 diabetic males with erectile dysfunction were found to have low serum testosterone levels. The hypotestosteronemic and normotestosteronemic subgroups were not significantly different in terms of mean age, duration of diabetes, reduction of libido, and reduction in erectile function. The rate and the degree of improvement of erection by sildenafil in the normo-and-hypotestosteronemic respondents were not significantly different, but the degree of improvement by sildenafil was significantly correlated to testosterone levels among the hypotestosteronemic group. Conclusion: Hypotestosteronemia was found in 36% of type 2 diabetic males with erectile dysfunction. The degree of improvement of erectile dysfunction by sildenafil was directly proportional to the serum testosterone levels among the hypotestosteronemic group. Therapeutic supplement with testosterone preparation in the hypotestosteronemic diabetics with erectile

  5. The role of maternal free testosteron and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate in preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cagdas Colluoglu

    2016-03-01

    Discussion: Levels of the potent androgen free testosterone were significantly higher in women with preeclampsia than in normotensive women with similar maternal ages. Although the statistical analysis revealed that these markers were weak predictors of preeclampsia to be used in clinical practice the difference may indicate a role for testosterone in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(1.000: 41-46

  6. Self-Confidence, Overconfidence and Prenatal Testosterone Exposure: Evidence from the Lab

    OpenAIRE

    Patricio S. Dalton; Sayantan Ghosal

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines whether the degree of confidence and overconfidence in one’s ability is determined biologically. In particular, we study whether foetal testosterone exposure correlates with an incentive-compatible measure of confidence within an experimental setting. We find that men (rather than women) who were exposed to high testosterone levels in their mother’s womb are less likely to overestimate their actual performance, which in turn helps them to gain higher monetary rewards. Men ...

  7. Potential for sexual conflict assessed via testosterone-mediated transcriptional changes in liver and muscle of a songbird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Mark P.; Rosvall, Kimberly A.; Taylor, Charlene A.; Lopez, Jacqueline Ann; Choi, Jeong-Hyeon; Ziegenfus, Charles; Tang, Haixu; Colbourne, John K.; Ketterson, Ellen D.

    2014-01-01

    Males and females can be highly dimorphic in metabolism and physiology despite sharing nearly identical genomes, and both sexes respond phenotypically to elevated testosterone, a steroid hormone that alters gene expression. Only recently has it become possible to learn how a hormone such as testosterone affects global gene expression in non-model systems, and whether it affects the same genes in males and females. To investigate the transcriptional mechanisms by which testosterone exerts its metabolic and physiological effects on the periphery, we compared gene expression by sex and in response to experimentally elevated testosterone in a well-studied bird species, the dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis). We identified 291 genes in the liver and 658 in the pectoralis muscle that were differentially expressed between males and females. In addition, we identified 1727 genes that were differentially expressed between testosterone-treated and control individuals in at least one tissue and sex. Testosterone treatment altered the expression of only 128 genes in both males and females in the same tissue, and 847 genes were affected significantly differently by testosterone treatment in the two sexes. These substantial differences in transcriptional response to testosterone suggest that males and females may employ different pathways when responding to elevated testosterone, despite the fact that many phenotypic effects of experimentally elevated testosterone are similar in both sexes. In contrast, of the 121 genes that were affected by testosterone treatment in both sexes, 78% were regulated in the same direction (e.g. either higher or lower in testosterone-treated than control individuals) in both males and females. Thus, it appears that testosterone acts through both unique and shared transcriptional pathways in males and females, suggesting multiple mechanisms by which sexual conflict can be mediated. PMID:24198265

  8. Gestational exposure to elevated testosterone levels induces hypertension via heightened vascular angiotensin II type 1 receptor signaling in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnathambi, Vijayakumar; More, Amar S; Hankins, Gary D; Yallampalli, Chandra; Sathishkumar, Kunju

    2014-07-01

    Pre-eclampsia is a life-threatening pregnancy disorder whose pathogenesis remains unclear. Plasma testosterone levels are elevated in pregnant women with pre-eclampsia and polycystic ovary syndrome, who often develop gestational hypertension. We tested the hypothesis that increased gestational testosterone levels induce hypertension via heightened angiotensin II signaling. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with vehicle or testosterone propionate from Gestational Day 15 to 19 to induce a 2-fold increase in plasma testosterone levels, similar to levels observed in clinical conditions like pre-eclampsia. A subset of rats in these two groups was given losartan, an angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist by gavage during the course of testosterone exposure. Blood pressure levels were assessed through a carotid arterial catheter and endothelium-independent vascular reactivity through wire myography. Angiotensin II levels in plasma and angiotensin II type 1 receptor expression in mesenteric arteries were also examined. Blood pressure levels were significantly higher on Gestational Day 20 in testosterone-treated dams than in controls. Treatment with losartan during the course of testosterone exposure significantly attenuated testosterone-induced hypertension. Plasma angiotensin II levels were not significantly different between control and testosterone-treated rats; however, elevated testosterone levels significantly increased angiotensin II type 1 receptor protein levels in the mesenteric arteries. In testosterone-treated rats, mesenteric artery contractile responses to angiotensin II were significantly greater, whereas contractile responses to K(+) depolarization and phenylephrine were unaffected. The results demonstrate that elevated testosterone during gestation induces hypertension in pregnant rats via heightened angiotensin II type 1 receptor-mediated signaling, providing a molecular mechanism linking elevated maternal testosterone levels with gestational

  9. Combined administration of testosterone plus an ornithine decarboxylase inhibitor as a selective prostate-sparing anabolic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasuja, Ravi; Costello, James C; Singh, Rajan; Gupta, Vandana; Spina, Catherine S; Toraldo, Gianluca; Jang, Hyeran; Li, Hu; Serra, Carlo; Guo, Wen; Chauhan, Pratibha; Narula, Navjot S; Guarneri, Tyler; Ergun, Ayla; Travison, Thomas G; Collins, James J; Bhasin, Shalender

    2014-04-01

    Because of its anabolic effects on muscle, testosterone is being explored as a function-promoting anabolic therapy for functional limitations associated with aging; however, concerns about testosterone's adverse effects on prostate have inspired efforts to develop strategies that selectively increase muscle mass while sparing the prostate. Testosterone's promyogenic effects are mediated through upregulation of follistatin. We show here that the administration of recombinant follistatin (rFst) increased muscle mass in mice, but had no effect on prostate mass. Consistent with the results of rFst administration, follistatin transgenic mice with constitutively elevated follistatin levels displayed greater muscle mass than controls, but had similar prostate weights. To elucidate signaling pathways regulated differentially by testosterone and rFst in prostate and muscle, we performed microarray analysis of mRNAs from prostate and levator ani of castrated male mice treated with vehicle, testosterone, or rFst. Testosterone and rFst shared the regulation of many transcripts in levator ani; however, in prostate, 593 transcripts in several growth-promoting pathways were differentially expressed after testosterone treatment, while rFst showed a negligible effect with only 9 transcripts differentially expressed. Among pathways that were differentially responsive to testosterone in prostate, we identified ornithine decarboxylase (Odc1), an enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis, as a testosterone-responsive gene that is unresponsive to rFst. Accordingly, we administered testosterone with and without α-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), an Odc1 inhibitor, to castrated mice. DFMO selectively blocked testosterone's effects on prostate, but did not affect testosterone's anabolic effects on muscle. Co-administration of testosterone and Odc1 inhibitor presents a novel therapeutic strategy for prostate-sparing anabolic therapy. © 2013 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical

  10. Morphological changes induced by testosterone in the mammary glands of female Wistar rats

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    A. Chambô-Filho

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Increased levels of androgens in postmenopausal women are considered to be a risk factor for breast cancer. Testosterone, alone or in combination with estrogen, induces epithelial dysplasia and mammary tumors in Noble rats. Since this model of hormone-induced neoplasia has not been reported in other rat strains, we studied the effect of testosterone on the mammary gland morphology of female Wistar rats. Sixty adult, non-castrated, female Wistar rats were implanted in the dorsum midline with a silicone tube containing 50 mg testosterone (testosterone propionate in 30 animals and non-esterified testosterone in the remaining 30 animals and 20 additional animals were implanted with empty tubes and used as control. Five animals per group were killed 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180 days after implantation, and the mammary glands were dissected, fixed and embedded in paraffin. Histological sections were then stained with hematoxylin and eosin and picrosyrius red for collagen visualization. Morphological and morphometric analysis demonstrated ductal proliferation and acinotubular differentiation with secretory activity in all treated animals, peaking at 90 days of androgen exposure. After 90 days the proliferation of acinar epithelial cells was evident, but there was a progressive reduction of secretory differentiation and an increase in intralobular collagen fibers. There was no morphological evidence of dysplastic changes or other pre-neoplastic lesions. Testosterone treatment applied to adult, non-castrated female Wistar rats induced a mammary gland hyperplasia resembling the lactating differentiation, with progressive reduction in secretory differentiation.

  11. Cardiovascular complications following chronic treatment with cocaine and testosterone in adolescent rats.

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    Sheila A Engi

    Full Text Available Concomitant use of anabolic androgenic steroids and cocaine has increased in the last years. However, the effects of chronic exposure to these substances during adolescence on cardiovascular function are unknown. Here, we investigated the effects of treatment for 10 consecutive days with testosterone and cocaine alone or in combination on basal cardiovascular parameters, baroreflex activity, hemodynamic responses to vasoactive agents, and cardiac morphology in adolescent rats. Administration of testosterone alone increased arterial pressure, reduced heart rate (HR, and exacerbated the tachycardiac baroreflex response. Cocaine-treated animals showed resting bradycardia without changes in arterial pressure and baroreflex activity. Combined treatment with testosterone and cocaine did not affect baseline arterial pressure and HR, but reduced baroreflex-mediated tachycardia. None of the treatments affected arterial pressure response to either vasoconstrictor or vasodilator agents. Also, heart to body ratio and left and right ventricular wall thickness were not modified by drug treatments. However, histological analysis of left ventricular sections of animals subjected to treatment with testosterone and cocaine alone and combined showed a greater spacing between cardiac muscle fibers, dilated blood vessels, and fibrosis. These data show important cardiovascular changes following treatment with testosterone in adolescent rats. However, the results suggest that exposure to cocaine alone or combined with testosterone during adolescence minimally affect cardiovascular function.

  12. The putative effects of D-Aspartic acid on blood testosterone levels: A systematic review

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    Farzad Roshanzamir

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: D-Aspartic acid (D-Asp is in invertebrate and vertebrate neuroendocrine tissues, where it carries out important physiological functions. Recently, it has been reported that D-Asp is involved in the synthesis and release of testosterone and is assumed can be used as a testosterone booster for infertile men, and by athletes to increase muscle mass and strength. Objective: The aim of this review is to summarize available evidence related to the effects of D-Asp on serum testosterone levels. Materials and Methods: We conducted a systematic review of all type studies, which evaluated the effect of the D-Asp on blood testosterone including published papers until October 2015, using PubMed, ISI Web of Science, ProQuest and Scopus database. Results: With 396 retrieved records, 23 animal studies and 4 human studies were included. In vivo and in vitro animal studies revealed the effect of D-Asp depending on species, sex and organ-specific. Our results showed that exogenous D-Asp enhances testosterone levels in male animal’s studies, whereas studies in human yielded inconsistent results. The evidence for this association in man is still sparse, mostly because of limited number and poor quality studies. Conclusion: There is an urgent need for more and well-designed human clinical trials with larger sample sizes and longer duration to investigate putative effects of D-Asp on testosterone concentrations.

  13. Relationship between 22-kHz calls and testosterone in male rats.

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    Inagaki, Hideaki; Mori, Yuji

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasonic calls in rats induced by the presence of a predator, referred to as "22-kHz calls," are mainly emitted by socially dominant male rats. Testosterone levels are closely related to social dominance in male rats. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between the emission of stress-induced 22-kHz calls and circulating testosterone levels in male rats, using a combination of surgery (castration or sham operation) and chronic steroid administration (testosterone or cholesterol) to modify circulating testosterone levels. We also assessed the effects of androgen and/or estrogen receptor antagonists on the emission of 22-kHz calls in male rats. An air puff stimulus, known to reliably induce 22-kHz calls in rats, was used as a stressor. Castrated rats with cholesterol implants exhibited significantly fewer 22-kHz calls than rats that had received a sham operation and cholesterol implants, and there was no significant difference between castrated rats with testosterone implants and rats that had received a sham operation and cholesterol implants. Only male rats pretreated with a binary mixture of androgen and estrogen antagonists exhibited significantly fewer 22-kHz calls than controls. These results show that testosterone in male rats has a positive effect on the emission of stress-induced 22-kHz calls, and the calls may be regulated by the activation of both androgen and estrogen receptors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. An interlaboratory comparison between similar methods for determination of melatonin, cortisol and testosterone in saliva.

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    Jensen, Marie A; Mortier, Leen; Koh, Eitetsu; Keevil, Brian; Hyttinen, Sirpa; Hansen, Åse M

    2014-08-01

    An interlaboratory comparison study for melatonin, cortisol and testosterone in saliva in which five laboratories participated is reported in this study. Each laboratory blindly measured eight samples prepared from natural saliva spiked with melatonin, cortisol and testosterone in the range 0-579 pmol/L for melatonin, 0-90 nmol/L for cortisol, and 0-622 pmol/L for testosterone. The recovery of spiked material for melatonin ranged from 91-110%, from 83-100% for cortisol and from 80-94% for testosterone. The content of natural hormone in saliva was estimated to be between 0.278 and 6.90 pmol/L for melatonin, 0.56 and 6.72 nmol/L for cortisol and 11.9 and 73.8 pmol/L for testosterone. This indicates a large interlaboratory variation. The present study emphasizes the importance of external quality control for the analysis of melatonin, cortisol and testosterone in saliva.

  15. An interlaboratory comparison between similar methods for determination of melatonin, cortisol and testosterone in saliva

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Marie Aarrebo; Mortier, Leen; Koh, Eitetsu

    2014-01-01

    An interlaboratory comparison study for melatonin, cortisol and testosterone in saliva in which five laboratories participated is reported in this study. Each laboratory blindly measured eight samples prepared from natural saliva spiked with melatonin, cortisol and testosterone in the range 0......-579 pmol/L for melatonin, 0-90 nmol/L for cortisol, and 0-622 pmol/L for testosterone. The recovery of spiked material for melatonin ranged from 91-110%, from 83-100% for cortisol and from 80-94% for testosterone. The content of natural hormone in saliva was estimated to be between 0.278 and 6.90 pmol....../L for melatonin, 0.56 and 6.72 nmol/L for cortisol and 11.9 and 73.8 pmol/L for testosterone. This indicates a large interlaboratory variation. The present study emphasizes the importance of external quality control for the analysis of melatonin, cortisol and testosterone in saliva....

  16. Modulating testosterone pathway: a new strategy to tackle male skin aging?

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    Bernard P

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Philippe Bernard1, Thomas Scior2, Quoc Tuan Do11Greenpharma SAS, Orléans, France; 2Pharmacy Department, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Puebla, MexicoAbstract: In men, the level of testosterone decreases with age. At the skin level, the result is observed as a decrease in density and in a lower elasticity. Identifying compounds that are able to increase the level of testosterone appears to be an attractive strategy to develop new antiaging bioactive ingredients for men. Reverse pharmacognosy was successfully applied to identify new natural compounds able to modulate testosterone levels. Among several in silico hits, honokiol was retained as a candidate as it has the greatest potential to become an active ingredient. This result was then validated in vitro on aromatase and 5-alpha-reductase type 1 and 2, which are two types of enzymes implicated in the degradation of free testosterone. Indeed, honokiol was identified as an inhibitor of aromatase, with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 of about 50 µM. In addition, honokiol was shown to be an inhibitor of 5-alpha-reductase type 1, with an IC50 of about 75 µM. Taken together, these data indicate that honokiol modulates testosterone levels, and its structure has the potential to serve as a lead for future designs of highly selective inhibitors of 5-alpha-reductase type 1.Keywords: reverse pharmacognosy, honokiol, testosterone, man cosmetics, dermopharmacy

  17. Does exposure to testosterone significantly alter endogenous metabolism in the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis?

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    Fernandes, Denise; Navarro, Juan Carlos; Riva, Consuelo; Bordonali, Silvia; Porte, Cinta

    2010-11-15

    Mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) were exposed to different concentrations of testosterone (T: 20, 200 and 2000ng/L) in a semi-static water regime (1-day dosing intervals) for up to 5 days in an attempt to see whether endogenous steroid levels and steroid metabolism were altered by exogenous exposure to testosterone. Whole tissue levels of total testosterone (free+esterified) sharply increased in a concentration-dependent manner, from 2ng/g in controls to 290ng/g in organisms exposed to the highest concentration. In contrast, levels of free testosterone were only significantly elevated at the high-exposure group (5-fold increase with respect to controls). Increased activity of palmitoyl-CoA:testosterone acyltransferase (ATAT) was detected in organisms exposed to the highest concentration of testosterone, while those exposed to low and medium concentrations showed significant alterations in their polyunsaturated fatty acid profiles. The obtained results suggest that esterification of the excess of T with fatty acids might act as a homeostatic mechanism to maintain endogenous levels of free T stable. Interestingly, a decrease in CYP3A-like activity was detected in T-exposed mussels together with a significant decrease in the metabolism of the androgen precursor androstenedione to dihydrotestosterone (5α-DHT). Overall, the work contributes to the better knowledge of androgen metabolism in mussels. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Perinatal testosterone exposure potentiates vascular dysfunction by ERβ suppression in endothelial progenitor cells.

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    Xie, Weiguo; Ren, Mingming; Li, Ling; Zhu, Yin; Chu, Zhigang; Zhu, Zhigang; Ruan, Qiongfang; Lou, Wenting; Zhang, Haimou; Han, Zhen; Huang, Xiaodong; Xiang, Wei; Wang, Tao; Yao, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Recent clinical cohort study shows that testosterone therapy increases cardiovascular diseases in men with low testosterone levels, excessive circulating androgen levels may play a detrimental role in the vascular system, while the potential mechanism and effect of testosterone exposure on the vascular function in offspring is still unknown. Our preliminary results showed that perinatal testosterone exposure in mice induces estrogen receptor β (ERβ) suppression in endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in offspring but not mothers, while estradiol (E2) had no effect. Further investigation showed that ERβ suppression is due to perinatal testosterone exposure-induced epigenetic changes with altered DNA methylation on the ERβ promoter. During aging, EPCs with ERβ suppression mobilize to the vascular wall, differentiate into ERβ-suppressed mouse endothelial cells (MECs) with downregulated expression of SOD2 (mitochondrial superoxide dismutase) and ERRα (estrogen-related receptor α). This results in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and DNA damage, and the dysfunction of mitochondria and fatty acid metabolism, subsequently potentiating vascular dysfunction. Bone marrow transplantation of EPCs that overexpressed with either ERβ or a SIRT1 single mutant SIRT1-C152(D) that could modulate SIRT1 phosphorylation significantly ameliorated vascular dysfunction, while ERβ knockdown worsened the problem. We conclude that perinatal testosterone exposure potentiates vascular dysfunction through ERβ suppression in EPCs.

  19. Testosterone levels in healthy men are related to amygdala reactivity and memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, Sandra; Spalek, Klara; Rasch, Björn; Gschwind, Leo; Coynel, David; Fastenrath, Matthias; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas; de Quervain, Dominique J-F

    2012-09-01

    Testosterone is a steroid hormone thought to influence both emotional and cognitive functions. It is unknown, however, if testosterone also affects the interaction between these two domains, such as the emotional arousal-induced enhancement of memory. Healthy subjects (N=234) encoded pictures taken from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and underwent a free recall test 10 min after memory encoding. We show that higher endogenous testosterone levels at encoding were associated with higher arousal ratings of neutral pictures in men. fMRI analysis revealed that higher testosterone levels were related to increased brain activation in the amygdala during encoding of neutral pictures. Moreover, endogenous testosterone levels were positively correlated with the number of freely recalled neutral pictures. No such relations were found in women. These findings point to a male-specific role for testosterone in enhancing memory by increasing the biological salience of incoming information. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Changes in estradiol predict within-women shifts in attraction to facial cues of men's testosterone.

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    Roney, James R; Simmons, Zachary L; Gray, Peter B

    2011-06-01

    Many studies have demonstrated that women express stronger attraction to androgen-related traits when tested near ovulation than when tested at other times in the cycle. Much less research, however, has directly addressed which hormonal or other physiological signals may regulate these temporal shifts in women's attractiveness judgments. In the present study, we measured women's preferences for facial cues of men's testosterone concentrations on two occasions spaced two weeks apart, while also measuring women's salivary estradiol and testosterone concentrations at each testing session. Changes in women's estradiol concentrations across sessions positively predicted changes in their preferences for facial cues of high testosterone; there was no such effect for changes in women's testosterone concentrations. For the subset of women who had a testing session fall within the estimated fertile window, preferences for high testosterone faces were stronger in the fertile window session, and change in estradiol from outside to inside the fertile window positively predicted the magnitude of the ovulatory preference shift. These patterns were not replicated when testing preferences for faces that were rated as high in masculinity, suggesting that facial cues of high testosterone can be distinguished from the cues used to subjectively judge facial masculinity. Our findings suggest that women's estradiol promotes attraction to androgen-dependent cues in men (similar to its effects in females of various nonhuman species), and support a role for this hormone as a physiological regulator of cycle phase shifts in mating psychology. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.