WorldWideScience

Sample records for testis

  1. Primary melanoma of testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katiyar R

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary melanoma of testis is extremely rare and even the existence of such an entity is questioned. We present the case of a 60-year-old man with primary malignant melanoma in the testis. We report this case to emphasize the need for awareness of the possibility of the testis being the primary site in the patient with a melanoma and to underline the necessity of meticulous investigation of suspicious lesions of the testis in patients with or without a past history of malignant melanoma.

  2. The undescended testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikraman, Jaya; Hutson, John M; Li, Ruili

    2016-01-01

    Undescended testes (UDT), where one or both testes fail to migrate to the base of the scrotum, can be congenital (2-5% of newborn males) or acquired (1-2% of males). The testis may be found in any position along its usual line of descent. Cryptorchidism affects the developing testicular germ cell...

  3. Oncogenic cancer/testis antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerstorff, Morten F; Andersen, Mads H; Ditzel, Henrik J

    2015-01-01

    immunology and immune escape suggests that targeting oncogenic antigens may be beneficial, meaning that identification of cancer/testis antigens with oncogenic properties is of high priority. Recent work from our lab and others provide evidence that many cancer/testis antigens, in fact, have oncogenic...... functions, including support of growth, survival and metastasis. This novel insight into the function of cancer/testis antigens has the potential to deliver more effective cancer vaccines. Moreover, immune targeting of oncogenic cancer/testis antigens in combination with conventional cytotoxic therapies...

  4. Undescended testis in Spigelian hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Kumar V

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Spigelian hernias are uncommon in children. We report a 3-year-old boy with right spigelian hernia and right undescended testis. The hernial sac contained the testis, which is a rare presentation. The repair of the large defect with a prosthetic mesh and a concomitant orchidopexy were performed uneventfully.

  5. Pancreas Bone Testis Axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulfidan Coskun

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bone which has movement and support functions, is the largest organ of the body. Bone is regulated by hormonal signal but it also acts as an endocrine organ. Many peptide hormones such as osteocalcin are secreted from bone. Osteocalcin which is an osteoblast derived hormone, has two forms: and ldquo;carboxylated (inactive osteocalcin and decarboxylated (active osteocalcin and rdquo;. While inactive osteocalcin is found in bone matrix, active osteocalcin is given to blood circulation and acts as a multifunctional hormone. In the past ten years, numerous epidemiological, genetic and biochemical studies have revealed hormonal links between bone and pancreas, adipose tissue, gonads via active osteocalcin. In this review, a newly defined pathway called pancreas-bone-testis axis which stimulates testosterone synthesis independent of hypothalamic hypophyseal testicular axis, is discussed. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2015; 24(3.000: 355-367

  6. Hanging drop cultures of human testis and testis cancer samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anne; Young, J; Nielsen, J E

    2014-01-01

    limited by the lack of experimental models. The aim of this study was to establish an experimental tissue culture model to maintain normal and malignant germ cells within their niche and allow investigation of treatment effects. METHODS: Human testis and testis cancer specimens from orchidectomies were...... cultured in 'hanging drops' and effects of activin A and follistatin treatment were investigated in seminoma cultures. RESULTS: Testis fragments with normal spermatogenesis or CIS cells were cultured for 14 days with sustained proliferation of germ cells and CIS cells and without increased apoptosis....... Seminoma cultures survived 7 days, with proliferating cells detectable during the first 5 days. Activin A treatment significantly reduced KIT transcript and protein levels in seminoma cultures, thereby demonstrating a specific treatment response. CONCLUSIONS: Hanging drop cultures of human testis...

  7. SEMINOMA COMPLICATING ECTOPIC ABDOMINAL TESTIS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Departments of Surgery and Pathology, Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano, Nigeria. INTRODUCTION. Germ cell tumors of the testis are the most common solid tumors in men ... weight loss were also noticed, but he had no cough, bone pains, jaundice or urinary symp- toms. The past medical history revealed a his-.

  8. Risk factors for undescended testis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, M.M.; Bruijne, L.M. de; Gier, R.P.E. de; Zielhuis, G.A.; Feitz, W.F.J.; Roeleveld, N.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To contribute to the understanding of the etiology of undescended testis (UDT), by exploring a wide range of potential risk factors in a case-referent study. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Cases and referents were recruited at five hospitals and included 200 boys with surgically corrected UDT and

  9. Oncogenic cancer/testis antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerstorff, Morten F; Andersen, Mads H; Ditzel, Henrik J

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments have set the stage for immunotherapy as a supplement to conventional cancer treatment. Consequently, a significant effort is required to further improve efficacy and specificity, particularly the identification of optimal therapeutic targets for clinical testing. Cancer....../testis antigens are immunogenic, highly cancer-specific, and frequently expressed in various types of cancer, which make them promising candidate targets for cancer immunotherapy, including cancer vaccination and adoptive T-cell transfer with chimeric T-cell receptors. Our current understanding of tumor...... or novel immunotherapies such as checkpoint blockade or adoptive transfer, represents a highly synergistic approach with the potential to improve patient survival....

  10. Detection in testis, epididymis and ovary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-01-11

    Jan 11, 2017 ... in normal reproductive tissues of male and female mice. For the first time, we demonstrate that beyond the oviduct,. Ovgp1 mRNA is expressed in the testis, epididymis and ovary, but not in the uterus, cervix, vagina, breast, seminal vesicles and prostate gland. In the testis, Ovgp1 mRNA was localized in the ...

  11. Stralenbehandeling van 'germinal tumors' van de testis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijser, Sijbrand Pieter

    1957-01-01

    Na een kotte inleiding wordt in het eerste hoofdstuk een beknopt overzicht gegeven van de ontwikkeling van de testis bij het embryo. In het tweede hoofdstuk wordt de anatomie van de testis en zijn afvoersvsteem besproken, waarbij speciale aandacht wordt geschonken aan de afvoerende lymphvaten van de

  12. Treatment options for carcinoma in situ testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, M S; Gundgaard, M.G.; Daugaard, G

    2011-01-01

    Carcinoma in situ testis (CIS) is known as the precursor of germ cell cancer of the testis. International guidelines on diagnosis and treatment are inconsistent. Some countries offer routine biopsies of the contralateral testicle in relation to orchidectomy for testicular cancer, whereas other...... their androgen status measured on a regular basis to find those cases where hormone substitution is needed....

  13. HGF and postnatal testis development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catizone, A; Ricci, G; Galdieri, M

    2005-09-28

    Hepatocyte growth factor regulates many cellular functions acting through c-met, its specific receptor with tyrosine kinase activity. We have previously reported that in prepubertal rats HGF is secreted in the seminiferous tubules by purified peritubular myoid cells whereas Sertoli cells do not express HGF mRNA. In the present paper we report that HGF is expressed by the myoid cells during the entire postnatal testicular development studied and secreted in the culture medium. On the contrary, in Sertoli cells HGF starts to be clearly detectable by northern blot at 25 days of age. HGF is expressed and secreted by Sertoli cells isolated from 35-day-old rats and is able to increase the levels of c-met expression of the Sertoli cells. Although the role of HGF during the development of the postnatal testis need further research to be clarified, the data here presented indicate that HGF is one of the growth factors regulating mammalian testicular function.

  14. Seminoma in the testis presenting as hemospermia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beji, Sami; Hoejgaard, Martin; Lyngdorf, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Hemospermia is often considered idiopathic. We report a case of a patient who presented with hemospermia. Scrotal examination and ultrasonography found a testis tumor. This case underscores the importance of scrotal examination and eventually ultrasound in patients presenting with hemospermia....

  15. Papillary mesothelioma of the albuginea testis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjandra, B. S.; Daemen, M. J.; Weil, E. H.

    1994-01-01

    An eleven-year-old boy is presented with symptom of a torsion of the testis. Scrotal exploration revealed a papillary mesothelioma of the tunica albuginea which is extremely rare in childhood. We report 1 case and review the literature

  16. UNDESCENDED TESTIS, DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winarta Lesmana Handrea

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Undescended testis (UDT or cryptorchidism is one of the commonest abnormalities in male infants. In this anomaly, testes are not located normally in the scrotum. The incidence of UDT is 4-5% of term male infants, and 20-33% of premature male infants. The occurrence of abnormalities of hormones control or anatomy process that is required in the normal process of lowering the testes can cause UDT. UDT can be differentiated into palpable and nonpalpable. The diagnosis of UDT can be known through physical examination. However, if the testes are impalpable, laparoscopy can be done to determine the position of the testis. Hormonal therapy to overcome UDT is still under controversy. The action that often done is surgery, called orchidopexy. The most serious complication of orchidopexy is testicular atrophy. It occurs in a small percentage, which is about 5-10%. Infertility may occur in 1 to 3 of 4 adult males and the risk of occurrence of malignancies is increased by as much as 5-10 times higher in men with a history of UDT. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  17. [Undescended testis: current treatment guidelines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haid, B

    2016-01-01

    Cryptorchidism is the most common genital malformation in male newborns. In recent years, guidelines concerning diagnosis and therapy have undergone considerable evolution with the implementation of recent knowledge in pathophysiology, diagnosis, and therapy. The aim of this publication is to provide an overview of the current national and international guideline recommendations concerning diagnosis and treatment of cryptorchidism. Critical points are discussed in light of current scientific literature. The current guidelines of the European Association of Urology (EAU)/European Society for Pediatric Urology (ESPU), the American Association of Urology (AUA), the pediatric urologic task force of the Austrian Society of Urology (ÖGU), the international consultation on urological disease (ICUD) and the German Society of Urology (DGU)/German Association of Pediatric Surgery (DGKCh) have been analyzed concerning the most important aspects of treatment and diagnosis. There is broad consensus concerning most steps and decisions for the treatment of cryptorchidism. However, some aspects of diagnostic imaging, the use of hormonal therapy, and surgical access in nonpalpable testis warrant further discussion and are the fields of considerable changes.

  18. Development of the human fetal testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shaughnessy, Peter J; Fowler, Paul A

    2014-05-01

    Masculinisation and adult fertility in the male are dependent on appropriate fetal endocrine programming. There is also now increasing evidence to indicate that the same mechanisms which regulate masculinisation also affect the general wellbeing of males throughout their life and, particularly, during ageing. Testosterone, secreted by the fetal testes, is the main factor regulating these processes and an understanding of fetal testis development in the human male is essential if we are to prevent adult reproductive disorders. This review focuses on what is known about human testis development and describes the effects of maternal smoking, a surrogate of possible xenotoxicant exposure on fetal testis and fetal liver function. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  19. Xenografting of adult mammalian testis tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arregui, Lucía; Rathi, Rahul; Zeng, Wenxian; Honaramooz, Ali; Gomendio, Montserrat; Roldan, Eduardo R S; Dobrinski, Ina

    2008-06-01

    Xenografting of testis tissue from immature males from several mammalian species to immunodeficient mouse hosts results in production of fertilization-competent sperm. However, the efficiency of testis tissue xenografting from adult donors has not been critically evaluated. Testis tissue xenografting from sexually mature animals could provide an option to preserve the genetic material from valuable males when semen for cryopreservation cannot be collected. To assess the potential use of this technique for adult individuals, testes from adult animals of six species (pig, goat, cattle, donkey, horse and rhesus monkey) were ectopically grafted to host mice. Grafts were recovered and analyzed at three time points: less than 12 weeks, between 12 and 24 weeks and more than 24 weeks after grafting. Histological analysis of the grafts revealed effects of species and donor tissue maturity: all grafts from species with greater daily sperm production (pig and goat) were found to have degenerated tubules or grafts were completely degenerated. None of the xenografts from mature adult bull and monkeys contained differentiated spermatogenic cells when examined more than 12 weeks post-grafting but tubules with Sertoli cells only remained. In grafts from a young adult bull, Sertoli cells persisted much longer than with the mature adult grafts. In grafts from a young adult horse, spermatogenesis proceeded to meiosis. In grafts from a young adult donkey and monkey, however, complete spermatogenesis was found in the grafts. These results show that testis tissue grafts from mature adult donors did not support germ cell differentiation but seminiferous tubules with Sertoli cells only survived in some species. The timing and progression of tubular degeneration after grafting of adult testis tissue appear to be related to the intensity of spermatogenesis at the time of grafting. Testis tissue from sub-adult donors survives better as xenograft than tissue from mature adult donors, and

  20. Reliability of hypertrophy of the contralateral testis in prediction of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reliability of hypertrophy of the contralateral testis in prediction of the status of impalpable testis. Rafik Shalaby, Ahmad Alshamy, Mohamad Abd-Alrazek, Samir Gouda, Mohamad Mahfouz, Mohamad Shahin, Sabri Moussa, Sayed Elhady, Hassan Algallad ...

  1. Carcinoma in situ in the testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørth, M; Rajpert-De Meyts, E; Andersson, L

    2000-01-01

    Carcinoma in situ (CIS) of the testis is a common precursor of germ-cell tumours in adults and adolescents, with the exception of spermatocytic seminoma. This article reviews existing knowledge on the pathobiology, genetic aspects and epidemiology of CIS, discusses current hypotheses concerning...

  2. Comments to Recent Guidelines on Undescended Testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kutasy, Balazs; Thorup, Joergen M; Wester, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    During the past couple of decades, our understanding of the treatment of undescended testis (UDT) has hugely expanded and it is still dynamically changing: new diagnostic tools are available, and experimental procedures are becoming a real-life treatment options. Our community needs to continuous...

  3. Perineal Ectopic Testis in an Adult

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    testes are prone to trauma and testicular torsion. This is also associated with inguinal hernia and infertility. (2, 5). Functional prognosis is similar (9). Orchidopexy through an inguinal incision is the standard procedure as the cord structures are of normal length (2). If the testis is severely atrophic , orchidectomy is undertaken.

  4. Free radicals in adolescent varicocele testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, Carmelo; Santoro, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    We examine the relationship between the structure and function of the testis and the oxidative and nitrosative stress, determined by an excessive production of free radicals and/or decreased availability of antioxidant defenses, which occur in the testis of adolescents affected by varicocele. Moreover, the effects of surgical treatment on oxidative stress were provided. We conducted a PubMed and Medline search between 1980 and 2014 using "adolescent," "varicocele," "free radicals," "oxidative and nitrosative stress," "testis," and "seminiferous tubules" as keywords. Cross-references were checked in each of the studies, and relevant articles were retrieved. We conclude that increased concentration of free radicals, generated by conditions of hypoxia, hyperthermia, and hormonal dysfunction observed in adolescent affected by varicocele, can harm germ cells directly or indirectly by influencing nonspermatogenic cells and basal lamina. With regard to few available data in current literature, further clinical trials on the pre- and postoperative ROS and RNS levels together with morphological studies of the cellular component of the testis are fundamental for complete comprehension of the role played by free radicals in the pathogenesis of adolescent varicocele and could justify its pharmacological treatment with antioxidants.

  5. Germ cell development in the postnatal testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutson, John M; Li, Ruili; Southwell, Bridget R

    2012-01-01

    To permit normal postnatal germ cell development, the mammalian testis undergoes a complex, multi-staged process of descent to the scrotum. Failure of any part of this process leads to congenital cryptorchidism, wherein the malpositioned testis finds itself at the wrong temperature after birth......, which leads to secondary germ cell loss and later infertility and risk of cancer. Recent studies suggest that neonatal gonocytes transform into the putative spermatogenic stem cells between 3 and 9 months, and this initial postnatal step is deranged in cryptorchid testes. In addition, it is thought...... the abnormality high temperature may also impair apoptosis of remaining gonocytes, allowing some to persist to become the possible source of carcinoma in situ and malignancy after puberty. The biology of postnatal germ cell development is of intense interest, as it is likely to be the key to the optimal timing...

  6. Congenital Erythropoietic Porphyria with Undescended Testis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Sandeep; Harith, Arun Kumar; Sodhi, Neha

    2016-01-01

    Hereditary porphyrias are a group of metabolic disorders of heme biosynthesis pathway that are characterized by acute neurovisceral symptoms, skin lesions, or both. Congenital erythropoietic porphyria (CEP) is an extremely rare disease with a mutation in the gene that codes for uroporphyrinogen III synthase leading to accumulation of porphyrin in different tissues and marked cutaneous photosensitivity. We report a case of CEP with infancy onset blistering, photosensitivity, red colored urine, and teeth along with scarring. Examination revealed an undescended testis of the left side. Mutation analysis revealed mutation in the uroporphyrinogen III synthase gene (UROS) resulting in c. 56 A > G (Tyr19Cys). The presence of undescended testis with a rare mutation in a case of CEP which itself is an extremely rare condition make the case interesting. PMID:27512208

  7. Senfølger efter torsio testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, L; Brasso, K; Kay, L

    1995-01-01

    Thirty-five patients were examined six to eleven years after having been operated for torsion of the testis. Loss of testicular tissue was significantly associated with long preoperative duration of symptoms and with a low postoperative spermcount. No indications of autoimmunization affecting fer...... fertility nor evidence of bilateral defects were found. Apparently the reduced semen quality following testicular torsion is a matter of lost testicular tissue more than impairment of the quality of the remaining tissue....

  8. Thyroid hormone and leptin in the testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Fonte Ramos

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Leptin is primarily expressed in white adipose tissue; however, it is expressed in the hypothalamus and reproductive tissues as well. Leptin acts by activating the leptin receptors (Ob-Rs. Additionally, the regulation of several neuroendocrine and reproductive functions, including the inhibition of glucocorticoids and enhancement of thyroxine and sex hormone concentrations in humans and mice are leptin functions. It has been suggested that thyroid hormones (TH could directly regulate leptin expression. Additionally, hypothyroidism compromises the intracellular integration of leptin signaling specifically in the arcuate nucleus. Two TH receptor isoforms are expressed in the testis, TRa and TRb, with TRa being the predominant one that is present in all stages of development. The effects of TH involve the proliferation and differentiation of Sertoli and Leydig cells during development, spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis. In this context, TH disorders are associated with sexual dysfunction. An endocrine and/or direct paracrine effect of leptin on the gonads inhibits testosterone production in Leydig cells. Further studies are necessary to clarify the effects of both hormones in the testis during hypothyroidism. The goal of this review is to highlight the current knowledge regarding leptin and TH in the testis.

  9. Prenatal diagnosis of juvenile granulosa cell tumor of the testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Chad; Skoog, Steven

    2008-12-01

    Juvenile granulosa cell tumor is a rare benign neoplasm of the testicular stroma that accounts for 1-5% of all prepubertal testis tumors [Metcalfe PD, Farivar-Mohseni H, Farhat W, McLorie G, Khoury A, Bagli DJ. Pediatric testicular tumors: contemporary incidence and efficacy of testicular preserving surgery. J Urol 2003;170:2412-2416; Ross JH, Rybicki L, Kay R. Clinical behavior and a contemporary management algorithm for prepubertal testis tumors: a summary of the prepubertal testis tumor registry. J Urol 2002;168:1675-1679]. A prior case series retrospectively identified a cystic testis tumor on prenatal ultrasound images which was subsequently diagnosed as a juvenile granulosa cell tumor [Bryan DE, Cain MP, Casale AJ. Juvenile granulosa-theca cell (sex cord-stromal) tumor of the infant testis. J Urol 2003;169:1497-1498]. We report a case of a prenatally diagnosed testis tumor which was subsequently diagnosed as a juvenile granulosa cell tumor.

  10. Kihutav politseijuht Antropov testis Saaremaal Hummerit / Risto Berendson, Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Berendson, Risto, 1975-

    2003-01-01

    Politsei pressishefi sõnul testis politseijuht Robert Antropov Saaremaal julgestuspolitsei tarbeks maastikuautot Hummer. Endise politseijuhi Ain Seppiku kommentaare. Tabel: Tavaline politseimaastur võrreldes Hummeriga

  11. Laparoscopic classification of the impalpable testis: an update

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    inguinal tesis. (Type 4). Tesis found in the abdomen. (Type 4a) iliac. FSO. (Type 4b) pelvic. Primary orchiopexy. A flow chart to summarize management according to laparoscopic findings. Fig. 5. Four-year-old boy with nonpalpable testis. (a) Laparoscopic view of pelvic testis (type 4b); (b) stretch test for testicular vessels; ...

  12. Adult Patients Presenting with Undescended Testis in Awareness ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Management of adults with undescended testis was challenging due to irreversible complications, psychological effects and poor outcome of treatment which shows the importance of awareness programs that will result in childhood presentation. Key Words: Undescended testis, cryptorchidism, infertility, adults, ...

  13. ADP-ribosylation of nuclear proteins in mouse testis

    OpenAIRE

    Faraone Mennella, Maria R.; Quesada, Piera; Farina, Benedetta; Leone, Enzo; Jones, Roy

    1982-01-01

    The nuclear acceptor proteins for poly(ADP-ribose) were investigated in mouse liver and testis. In liver, histones are ribosylated preferentially, whereas in testis the major acceptors are non-histone proteins. An analysis of the purified testicular acceptor proteins suggests that they are high- and low-mobility-group-like proteins.

  14. An oncological view on the blood-testis barrier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bart, J; Groen, HJM; van der Graaf, WTA; Hollema, H; Hendrikse, NH; Vaalburg, W; Sleijfer, DT; de Vries, EGE

    The function of the blood-testis barrier is to protect germ cells from harmful influences; thus, it also impedes the delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs to the testis. The barrier has three components: first, a physicochemical barrier consisting of continuous capillaries, Sertoli cells in the tubular

  15. Torsion of the appendix testis in an undescended testicle | Hajji ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physical examination revealed a tender, swollen and painful undescended testis located in the inguinal area with an empty ipsilateral hemiscrotum. Men presenting with pain and undescended testis are more likely to have testicular torsion, malignancy, associated inguinal hernia or trauma. The extra-scrotal position of the ...

  16. Arterial supply of the human fetal testis during its migration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sampaio, FJB; Favorito, LA; Freitas, MA; Damiao, R; Gouveia, E

    Purpose: Irrespective of the surgical technique chosen to treat high undescended testis, preservation of an adequate arterial supply for the testis is crucial for successful orchiopexy with maintenance of normal testicular size and texture. To provide an anatomical background for such a procedure,

  17. Utilization Of Crude Testis Extract To Enhance Broiler Production In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the possibility of using aqueous testis extracts as growth promoters. In the first experiments, 100 Abore Acre chicks were assigned to four treatments in which the birds were given 0, 10,15 and 20% of a 3.3 % aqueous bull testis extract in drinking water ad libitum from week ...

  18. Development and descent of the testis in relation to cryptorchidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virtanen, Helena E; Cortes, Dina; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa

    2007-01-01

    The testis descends in two phases. Animal studies suggest, that the transabdominal descent of the testis depends on the insulin-like hormone 3 (INSL3). Androgens are important in the inguinoscrotal testicular descent in animals and humans. In general, the cause of cryptorchidism is unknown...

  19. Imaging of mesothelioma of tunica vaginalis testis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertolotto, M. [University of Trieste, Department of Radiology, Trieste (Italy); Boulay-Coletta, I. [Fondation Hopital Saint Joseph, Service d' Imagerie Medical, Paris (France); Butini, R. [Ospedale S. Giacomo, Department of Radiology, Castelfranco Veneto, TV (Italy); Dudea, S.M. [Univ. Med. Pharm. ' ' Iuliu Hatieganu' ' , Department of Radiology, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Grenier, N. [Pellegrin Hospital, Department of Radiology, Bordeaux (France); Oltmanns, G. [University Hospital of North Norway, Department of Radiology, Tromsoe (Norway); Ramchandani, P. [University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology, Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Stein, M.W. [Montefiore Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Valentino, M. [Sant' Antonio Hospital, Department of Radiology, Tolmezzo, UD (Italy); Derchi, Lorenzo E. [University of Genoa, Department of Health Sciences, Genova (Italy); IRCCS Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria San Martino IST, Radiologia d' Urgenza, Genova (Italy)

    2016-03-15

    To describe the imaging findings in a series of patients with mesothelioma of the tunica vaginalis testis. We reviewed clinical data, imaging findings and follow-up information in a series of 10 pathology-proven cases of mesothelioma (all had US; 2 had MR) of the tunica vaginalis. A variety of patterns could be observed, the most common (5/10) being a hydrocele with parietal, solid and hypervascular vegetations; one patient had a septated hydrocele with hypervascular walls; one had multiple, solid nodules surrounded by a small, physiological quantity of fluid; one a cystic lesion with thick walls and vegetations compressing the testis; two had a solid paratesticular mass. MR showed multiple small nodules on the surface of the tunica vaginalis in one case and diffuse thickening and vegetations in the other one; lesions had low signal intensity on T2-w images and were hypervascular after contrast injection. A preoperative diagnosis of mesotheliomas presenting as solid paratesticular masses seems very difficult with imaging. On the contrary, the diagnosis must be considered in patients in whom a hydrocele with parietal vegetations is detected, especially if these show high vascularity. (orig.)

  20. Proteomics analysis of adult testis from Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Dong, Zhaoming; Gu, Peiming; Zhang, Weiwei; Wang, Dandan; Guo, Xiaomeng; Zhao, Ping; Xia, Qingyou

    2014-10-01

    The development of the testis involves a large number of tissue-specific proteins, possibly because the sperms in it are the most divergent of all cell types. In this study, LC-MS/MS was employed to investigate the protein compositions of the adult testis of silkworm. A total of 14,431 peptides were identified in the adult testis of Bombyx mori, which were matched to 2292 proteins. Thirty-two HSPs constitute a group of most abundant proteins in the adult testis, suggesting that they are critical for the development, differentiation, and survival of germ cells. Other proteins in this analysis were also involved in testis-specific processes mainly including sperm motility, meiosis, germ cell development, and spermatogenesis. The data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000909 (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD000909). © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Aggressive surgical management of adenocarcinoma of the rete testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash Maganty

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Adenocarcinoma of the rete testis is a rare and aggressive malignancy arising from the epididymal epithelium. We present a case of a 66-year-old male who presented with left testis mass. Histopathological analysis of orchiectomy specimen was consistent with adenocarcinoma of the rete testis. Subsequent retroperitoneal lymph node dissection revealed metastatic disease not detected on preoperative PET-CT. Prior reports have suggested poor response rates to both systemic chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Aggressive surgical management of the retroperitoneum should be considered even in clinically node-negative patients given the paucity of other effective treatment regimens.

  2. Surgical treatment and follow up on undescended testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Jorgen; Cortes, Dina

    2009-01-01

    number at birth in some cryptorchid testes and Intratubular Germ Cell Neoplasia seen in early childhood. The hypothesis that the abnormal location of the testis exposes the testis to infertility and malignant transformation is supported by the findings of early treatment lowering the risk of both...... a common etiologic antenatal factor is associated with infertility and/or testicular malignancy is supported by the finding of the influence of maternal lifestyle factors on fertility, a relative cancer risk of OR: 2.0 in contralateral descended testis of unilateral cryptorchidism, impaired germ cell...... infertility and testicular cancer. Disrupted endocrine regulation may be combined with both hypotheses....

  3. Goat SRY induces testis development in XX transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannetier, Maëlle; Tilly, Gaëlle; Kocer, Ayhan; Hudrisier, Marthe; Renault, Lauriane; Chesnais, Nathalie; Costa, José; Le Provost, Fabienne; Vaiman, Daniel; Vilotte, Jean-Luc; Pailhoux, Eric

    2006-06-26

    The testis-determining gene SRY is not well-conserved among mammals, particularly between mouse and other mammals, both in terms of protein structure and of expression regulation. To evaluate SRY phylogenic conservation in regards to its function, we expressed the goat gene (gSRY) in XX transgenic mouse gonads. Here, we show that gSRY induces testis formation, despite a goat expression profile. Our results demonstrate that sex-reversal can be induced in XX-mice by a non-mouse SRY thus suggesting a conserved molecular mechanism of action of this testis-determining gene across mammalian species.

  4. Mixed Germ Cell Tumor of the Testis with Post- Chemotherapy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatinum) chemotherapy after left orchiectomy for mixed seminomatous and non- seminomatous germ cell tumor of the testis. He presented four months post-chemotherapy with a left scrotal mass which was excised and ...

  5. Penile ectopic testis: experience of an adolescent | Ongom | East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dartos pouch. Postoperative recovery was normal. It was concluded that a penile ectopic testis, normal in size, may present during adolescence. The condition is correctible though there is need for screening and early detection in children through ...

  6. The relationship between testis size and stimulated plasma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    serving capacity, libido score and serve:mount ratio) of 14 Dorper rams were measured in the breeding season (March) in order to determine the influence of testis size and testosterone concentration on mating performance. Results indicated ...

  7. Torsion of an undescended testis located in the inguinal canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Andrew P; Van Heukelom, Jon

    2012-05-01

    Torsion of undescended testis located within the inguinal canal is a rare finding in the emergency department (ED). This diagnosis can present as undifferentiated abdominal or groin pain, and a full genitourinary examination is essential to making this diagnosis. We present this case to increase awareness among emergency physicians regarding torsion of undescended testis. A 5-year-old boy presented to the ED with abdominal pain and a mass in his right groin. Physical examination and Doppler ultrasound were used to diagnose torsion of undescended testis. In a patient with undescended testis, torsion must be considered as a cause of abdominal or groin pain. Full genitourinary examination is essential to making this diagnosis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Epidermoid cyst of the testis: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Docal, I.; Crespo, C.; Pardo, A.; Prieto, A.; Alonso, P. [Servicio de Radiologia, Hospital Da Costa, Burela (Lugo) (Spain); Calzada, J. [Servicio de Anatomia Patologica, Hospital Da Costa, Burela (Lugo) (Spain)

    2001-05-01

    Epidermoid cyst of the testis is an uncommon benign tumour, with an overall incidence of 1-2 % of all resected testicular masses. When imaging findings suggest that an intratesticular mass is likely to be an epidermoid cyst, conservative management (enucleation with testicular preservation) can be performed rather than orchidectomy. This case report records an epidermoid cyst in a 12-year-old boy in whom the US findings allowed testis-sparing surgery instead of orchidectomy. (orig.)

  9. Laparoscopic diagnosis and treatment of nonpalpable testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco T. Denes

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Treatment of the cryptorchid testicle is justified due to the increased risk of infertility and malignancy as well as the risk of testicular trauma and psychological stigma on patients and their parents. Approximately 20% of cryptorchid testicles are nonpalpable. In these cases, the videolaparoscopic technique is a useful alternative method for diagnosis and treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We present data concerning 90 patients submitted to diagnostic laparoscopy for impalpable testicles. Forty-six patients (51.1% had intra-abdominal gonads. In 25 testicles of 19 patients, we performed a two stage laparoscopic Fowler-Stephens orchiopexy. The other 27 patients underwent primary laparoscopic orchiopexy, in a total of 29 testicles. RESULTS: We obtained an overall 88% success rate with the 2 stage Fowler-Stephens approach and only 33% rate success using one stage Fowler-Stephens surgery with primary vascular ligature. There was no intraoperative complication in our group of patients. In the laparoscopic procedures, the cosmetic aspect is remarkably more favorable as compared to open surgeries. Hospital stay and convalescence were brief. CONCLUSIONS: In pediatric age group, the laparoscopic approach is safe and feasible. Furthermore, the laparoscopic orchiopexy presents excellent results in terms of diagnosis and therapy of the impalpable testis, which is why this technique has been routinely incorporated in our Department.

  10. Undesended testis: How extensive should the work up be?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shera Altaf

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to highlight various anomalies associated with undescended testis and to determine how much work up is necessary for this condition. Material and Methods: The study was conducted in the department of Pediatric Surgery SKIMS Srinagar, Kashmir. All patients between 0-14 years of age who attended out patient department (OPD from January 2002 to December 2003 with maldescent of testes were included in the study. Detailed relevant history and physical examination findings were recorded in all the cases. Baseline investigations were performed along with ultrasonography of the abdomen. In relevant cases other investigations like intravenous urography, micturating cystourethrography, CT scan and laparoscopy were performed as and when indicated. Results: A total of 250 cases of undescended testis were registered during this period. Maximum number of cases were in the age group of 5-10 years. In 130 (52% cases the right testis was undescended while 75 (30% had left sided undescended testis and 45 (18% had bilateral undescended testis. Maldescended testis comprised 11% of the admissions. The majority of cases were having gestational age of 37 weeks or more. The associated anomalies picked up on investigations included duplication of upper urinary tract (3.2%, hydronephrosis and polycystic kidney (0.8% each, horseshoe kidney, ectopic kidney, crossed renal ectopia (0.4% each Posterior urethral valves, Prune belly syndrome (0.4% and spina bifida (0.4%. On detailed clinical examination of genitalia several abnormalities were picked which included hydrocele, hypospadias, hernia, chordee, micropenis and ambiguous genitalia. Conclusion: We recommend ultrasonography to be done in all cases of undescended testis in addition to a thorough history and physical examination. Intravenous pyelography, micturating cystourethrogram, CT scan and other investigations should be performed selectively based on history, physical examination or

  11. Undescended testis: how extensive should the work up be?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shera, Altaf Hussain; Baba, Aejaz Ahsan; Gupta, Shyam Kumar; Gupta, Geetanjali; Sherwani, Afak Yusuf

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to highlight various anomalies associated with undescended testis and to determine how much work up is necessary for this condition. The study was conducted in the department of Pediatric Surgery SKIMS Srinagar, Kashmir. All patients between 0-14 years of age who attended out patient department (OPD) from January 2002 to December 2003 with maldescent of testes were included in the study. Detailed relevant history and physical examination findings were recorded in all the cases. Baseline investigations were performed along with ultrasonography of the abdomen. In relevant cases other investigations like intravenous urography, micturating cystourethrography, CT scan and laparoscopy were performed as and when indicated. A total of 250 cases of undescended testis were registered during this period. Maximum number of cases were in the age group of 5-10 years. In 130 (52%) cases the right testis was undescended while 75 (30%) had left sided undescended testis and 45 (18%) had bilateral undescended testis. Maldescended testis comprised 11% of the admissions. The majority of cases were having gestational age of 37 weeks or more. The associated anomalies picked up on investigations included duplication of upper urinary tract (3.2%), hydronephrosis and polycystic kidney (0.8% each), horseshoe kidney, ectopic kidney, crossed renal ectopia (0.4% each) Posterior urethral valves, Prune belly syndrome (0.4%) and spina bifida (0.4%). On detailed clinical examination of genitalia several abnormalities were picked which included hydrocele, hypospadias, hernia, chordee, micropenis and ambiguous genitalia. We recommend ultrasonography to be done in all cases of undescended testis in addition to a thorough history and physical examination. Intravenous pyelography, micturating cystourethrogram, CT scan and other investigations should be performed selectively based on history, physical examination or ultrasound findings.

  12. Macrophages Contribute to the Spermatogonial Niche in the Adult Testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony DeFalco

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The testis produces sperm throughout the male reproductive lifespan by balancing self-renewal and differentiation of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs. Part of the SSC niche is thought to lie outside the seminiferous tubules of the testis; however, specific interstitial components of the niche that regulate spermatogonial divisions and differentiation remain undefined. We identified distinct populations of testicular macrophages, one of which lies on the surface of seminiferous tubules, in close apposition to areas of tubules enriched for undifferentiated spermatogonia. These macrophages express spermatogonial proliferation- and differentiation-inducing factors, such as colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF1 and enzymes involved in retinoic acid (RA biosynthesis. We show that transient depletion of macrophages leads to a disruption in spermatogonial differentiation. These findings reveal an unexpected role for macrophages in the spermatogonial niche in the testis and raise the possibility that macrophages play previously unappreciated roles in stem/progenitor cell regulation in other tissues.

  13. Pluripotent male germline stem cells from goat fetal testis and their survival in mouse testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Jinlian; Zhu, Haijing; Pan, Shaohui; Liu, Chao; Sun, Junwei; Ma, Xiaoling; Dong, Wuzi; Liu, Weishuai; Li, Wei

    2011-04-01

    Male germline stem cells (mGSCs) are stem cells present in male testis responsible for spermatogenesis during their whole life. Studies have shown that mGSCs can be derived in vitro and resemble embryonic stem cells (ESCs) properties both in the mouse and humans. However, little is know about these cells in domestic animals. Here we report the first successful establishment of goat GSCs derived from 2-5-month fetal testis, and developmental potential assay of these cells both in vitro and in vivo. These cells express pluripotent markers such as Oct4, Sox2, C-myc, and Tert when cultured as human ESCs conditions. Embryoid bodies (EBs) formed by goat mGSCs were induced with 2 × 10(-6) M retinoic acid (RA). Immunofluorescence analysis showed that some cells inside of the EBs were positive for meiosis marker-SCP3, STRA8, and germ cell marker-VASA, and haploid marker-FE-J1, PRM1, indicating their germ cell lineage differentiation. Some cells become elongated sperm-like cells after induction. Approximately 34.88% (30/86) embryos showed cleavage and four embryos were cultured on murine fibroblast feeder and formed small embryonic stem like colonies. However, most stalled at four-cell stage after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) of these cells. Transplantation of DAPI labeled mGSCs into the seminiferous tubules of busulfan-treated mice, and showed that mGSCs can colonize, self-renew, and differentiate into germ cells. Thus, we have established a goat GSC cell line and these cells could be differentiated into sperm-like cells in vivo and sperms in vitro, providing a promising platform for generation of transgenic goat for production of specific humanized proteins.

  14. Initial Development of an Electronic Testis Rigidity Tester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petros Mirilas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to develop our previously presented mechanical device, the Testis Rigidity Tester (TRT, into an electronic system (Electronic Testis Rigidity Tester, ETRT by applying tactile imaging, which has been used successfully with other solid organs. A measuring device, located at the front end of the ETRT incorporates a tactile sensor comprising an array of microsensors. By application of a predetermined deformation of 2 mm, increased pressure alters linearly the resistance of each microsensor, producing changes of voltage. These signals were amplified, filtered, and digitized, and then processed by an electronic collector system, which presented them as a color-filled contour plot of the area of the testis coming into contact with the sensor. Testis models of different rigidity served for initial evaluation of ETRT; their evacuated central spaces contained different, increasing glue masses. An independent method of rigidity measurement, using an electric weight scale and a micrometer, showed that the more the glue injected, the greater the force needed for a 2-mm deformation. In a preliminary test, a single sensor connected to a multimeter showed similar force measurement for the same deformation in these phantoms. For each of the testis models compressed in the same manner, the ETRT system offered a map of pressures, represented by a color scale within the contour plot of the contact area with the sensor. ETRT found certain differences in rigidity between models that had escaped detection by a blind observer. ETRT is easy to use and provides a color-coded “insight“ of the testis internal structure. After experimental testing, it could be valuable in intraoperative evaluation of testes, so that the surgeon can decide about orchectomy or orcheopexy.

  15. Testicular microlithiasis in boys and young men with congenital or acquired undescended (ascending) testis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goede, J.; Hack, W.W.M.; Voort-Doedens, L.M. van der; Pierik, F.H.; Looijenga, L.H.J.; Sijstermans, K.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: We assessed the prevalence of testicular microlithiasis by ultrasound in boys and young men with congenital or acquired undescended (ascending) testis. Materials and Methods: During followup for testicular growth patients with congenital or acquired undescended (ascending) testis were also

  16. Sex cord-gonadal stromal tumor of the rete testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajadi, Kamran P; Dalton, Rory R; Brown, James A

    2009-01-01

    A 34-year-old tetraplegic patient with suppurative epididymitis was found on follow-up examination and ultrasonography to have a testicular mass. The radical orchiectomy specimen contained an undifferentiated spindled sex cord-stromal tumor arising in the rete testis. Testicular sex cord-stromal tumors are far less common than germ cell neoplasms and are usually benign. The close relationship between sex cords and ductules of the rete testis during development provides the opportunity for these uncommon tumors to arise anatomically within the rete tesis. This undifferentiated sex cord-stromal tumor, occurring in a previously unreported location, is an example of an unusual lesion mimicking an intratesticular malignant neoplasm.

  17. Segmental infarction of the testis: can frozen sections avoid orchidectomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacella, E; Grillo, F; Lapetina, C; Cabiddu, F; Auriati, L; Tunesi, G; Mastracci, L

    2015-03-01

    Segmental infarction (SI) of the testis is a rare condition that can masquerade as a mass lesion, thus requiring exclusion of tumour. If clinical exams do not exclude a neoplastic lesion with certainty, orchidectomy is usually performed. A case of SI of the testis is presented; the use of frozen section of the enucleated mass demonstrated the ischaemic nature of the lesion, so avoiding orchidectomy. The 8 year follow-up was uneventful. The use of frozen section in SI could permit the selection of cases in which testicular-sparing surgery should be considered.

  18. An improved perfusion fixation method for the testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forssmann, W G; Ito, S; Weihe, E; Aoki, A; Dym, M; Fawcett, D W

    1977-07-01

    A reliable and uniform vascular perfusion fixation method for the testis has been developed by using an initial washout solution containing a vasodilator and an anticoagulant. This is followed by a brief fixation with a sodium phosphate buffered formaldehyde-glutaraldehyde solution of conventional strenght, and then a second more concentrated aldehyde fixative solution containing picric acid. The method takes into account some of the unique features of the vascular supply of the male genital tract for its favorable perfusion and fixation. The advantages of this method are: (1) consistently favorable preservation of the testis; (2) simple and inexpensive apparatus; and (3) stable and relatively innocuous stock solutions.

  19. [Treatment of an undescended testis with human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orkiszewski, M; Wieckowski, J; Zieliński, W

    1989-01-01

    Seventy one patients with ectopic testis of age between 2 and 11.5 years were treated with human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) at doses recommended by the International Health Foundation. The descent of testis to the scrotum was achieved in almost half of the treated boys (49.3%). The descent was successful mainly in cases of lower inguinal position of the undescended testicle, and only rarely when the testicle was situated higher. The descent was never successful in cases when the scrotum was small and underdeveloped.

  20. File list: ALL.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_testis mm9 All antigens Embryo Embryonic testis SRX14917...57137,SRX1156635,SRX149168,SRX149172,SRX1175150,SRX149166,SRX149170,SRX1175149 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_testis.bed ...

  1. File list: InP.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_testis mm9 Input control Embryo Embryonic testis SRX1491...74,SRX149168,SRX957136,SRX149172,SRX149166,SRX1175150,SRX1175149 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_testis.bed ...

  2. File list: DNS.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_testis mm9 DNase-seq Embryo Embryonic testis SRX1156635 ...http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Emb.20.AllAg.Embryonic_testis.bed ...

  3. File list: DNS.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_testis mm9 DNase-seq Embryo Embryonic testis SRX1156635 ...http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Emb.10.AllAg.Embryonic_testis.bed ...

  4. Absent testis: does it exist in 46,XY males? | El Gohary | Annals of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion Based on embryological process of testicular development and testicular descent, agentic absent testis cannot exist. Therefore we strongly recommend to re-scope all patients who were initially diagnosed as absent testis to look for a hidden testis at the initial site of development and along the line of descent.

  5. File list: His.Adl.05.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Adl.05.AllAg.Testis dm3 Histone Adult Testis SRX017854,SRX017856,SRX390501,SRX3...90502 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/His.Adl.05.AllAg.Testis.bed ...

  6. File list: His.Gon.50.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Gon.50.AllAg.Testis mm9 Histone Gonad Testis SRX803711,SRX118394,SRX803710,SRX8...SRX671900,SRX671899,SRX185788 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Gon.50.AllAg.Testis.bed ...

  7. File list: ALL.Adl.10.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Adl.10.AllAg.Testis dm3 All antigens Adult Testis SRX017857,SRX017854,SRX017856...,SRX390502,SRX390501,SRX390503 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/ALL.Adl.10.AllAg.Testis.bed ...

  8. File list: InP.Gon.10.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Gon.10.AllAg.Testis hg19 Input control Gonad Testis SRX663452,SRX663439,SRX6634...45,SRX663442 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Gon.10.AllAg.Testis.bed ...

  9. File list: ALL.Gon.20.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Gon.20.AllAg.Testis mm9 All antigens Gonad Testis SRX118394,SRX349391,SRX803711...SRX112541,SRX118388,SRX118389,ERX144545,ERX144532,SRX112536,SRX112537 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Gon.20.AllAg.Testis.bed ...

  10. File list: NoD.Gon.05.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Gon.05.AllAg.Testis mm9 No description Gonad Testis ERX144544,ERX144521,ERX2210...144545,ERX144532 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Gon.05.AllAg.Testis.bed ...

  11. File list: InP.Gon.50.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Gon.50.AllAg.Testis mm9 Input control Gonad Testis SRX112534,SRX349389,SRX02744...X112541,SRX118389 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Gon.50.AllAg.Testis.bed ...

  12. File list: InP.Gon.05.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Gon.05.AllAg.Testis mm9 Input control Gonad Testis SRX112977,SRX349389,SRX10110...X803713,SRX838550 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Gon.05.AllAg.Testis.bed ...

  13. File list: ALL.Adl.05.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Adl.05.AllAg.Testis dm3 All antigens Adult Testis SRX017854,SRX017856,SRX017857...,SRX390503,SRX390501,SRX390502 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/ALL.Adl.05.AllAg.Testis.bed ...

  14. File list: Oth.Gon.10.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Gon.10.AllAg.Testis hg19 TFs and others Gonad Testis SRX663450,SRX663441,SRX663...438,SRX663444,SRX663451 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Gon.10.AllAg.Testis.bed ...

  15. File list: ALL.Gon.20.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Gon.20.AllAg.Testis hg19 All antigens Gonad Testis ERX096851,SRX663448,SRX12124...444,SRX663451,SRX663439,SRX663438,SRX663445,SRX663442 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Gon.20.AllAg.Testis.bed ...

  16. File list: ALL.Adl.50.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Adl.50.AllAg.Testis dm3 All antigens Adult Testis SRX390502,SRX390501,SRX390503...,SRX017856,SRX017854 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/ALL.Adl.50.AllAg.Testis.bed ...

  17. File list: NoD.Gon.50.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Gon.50.AllAg.Testis hg19 No description Gonad Testis ERX096851,ERX161924,ERX096...870,ERX096849,ERX096875,ERX096874,ERX096842 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/NoD.Gon.50.AllAg.Testis.bed ...

  18. File list: InP.Gon.20.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Gon.20.AllAg.Testis mm9 Input control Gonad Testis SRX112534,SRX349389,SRX02744...X118388,SRX118389 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Gon.20.AllAg.Testis.bed ...

  19. File list: Pol.Gon.10.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Gon.10.AllAg.Testis mm9 RNA polymerase Gonad Testis SRX349391,SRX112975,SRX1437...96,SRX237511,SRX237510,SRX244355 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Gon.10.AllAg.Testis.bed ...

  20. File list: Pol.Gon.50.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Gon.50.AllAg.Testis mm9 RNA polymerase Gonad Testis SRX349391,SRX112975,SRX1437...96,SRX237511,SRX237510,SRX244355 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Gon.50.AllAg.Testis.bed ...

  1. File list: ALL.Gon.05.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Gon.05.AllAg.Testis mm9 All antigens Gonad Testis SRX803711,SRX118383,SRX118371...ERX144553,SRX803713,SRX838550,ERX144545,ERX144532,SRX112536,SRX112537 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Gon.05.AllAg.Testis.bed ...

  2. File list: InP.Gon.20.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Gon.20.AllAg.Testis hg19 Input control Gonad Testis SRX663452,SRX663439,SRX6634...45,SRX663442 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Gon.20.AllAg.Testis.bed ...

  3. File list: InP.Gon.10.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Gon.10.AllAg.Testis mm9 Input control Gonad Testis SRX349389,SRX1011025,SRX1183...X838550,SRX118389 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Gon.10.AllAg.Testis.bed ...

  4. File list: ALL.Adl.20.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Adl.20.AllAg.Testis dm3 All antigens Adult Testis SRX017857,SRX390502,SRX390501...,SRX017856,SRX390503,SRX017854 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/ALL.Adl.20.AllAg.Testis.bed ...

  5. File list: His.Adl.50.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Adl.50.AllAg.Testis dm3 Histone Adult Testis SRX390502,SRX390501,SRX017856,SRX0...17854 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/His.Adl.50.AllAg.Testis.bed ...

  6. File list: InP.Gon.05.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Gon.05.AllAg.Testis hg19 Input control Gonad Testis SRX663452,SRX663439,SRX6634...45,SRX663442 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Gon.05.AllAg.Testis.bed ...

  7. File list: NoD.Gon.20.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Gon.20.AllAg.Testis mm9 No description Gonad Testis ERX144521,ERX221032,ERX0968...144545,ERX144532 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Gon.20.AllAg.Testis.bed ...

  8. File list: NoD.Gon.10.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Gon.10.AllAg.Testis hg19 No description Gonad Testis ERX096851,ERX096870,ERX161...924,ERX096849,ERX096875,ERX096874,ERX096842 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/NoD.Gon.10.AllAg.Testis.bed ...

  9. File list: Pol.Gon.20.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Gon.20.AllAg.Testis mm9 RNA polymerase Gonad Testis SRX349391,SRX112975,SRX1437...96,SRX237511,SRX237510,SRX244355 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Gon.20.AllAg.Testis.bed ...

  10. File list: ALL.Gon.50.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Gon.50.AllAg.Testis mm9 All antigens Gonad Testis SRX689499,SRX027441,SRX027437...ERX144545,SRX118378,SRX112536,SRX112537,ERX144532,SRX112541,SRX118389 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Gon.50.AllAg.Testis.bed ...

  11. File list: NoD.Gon.10.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Gon.10.AllAg.Testis mm9 No description Gonad Testis ERX144544,ERX144521,ERX2210...144553,ERX144532 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Gon.10.AllAg.Testis.bed ...

  12. File list: InP.Gon.50.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Gon.50.AllAg.Testis hg19 Input control Gonad Testis SRX663452,SRX663439,SRX6634...45,SRX663442 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Gon.50.AllAg.Testis.bed ...

  13. File list: His.Gon.20.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Gon.20.AllAg.Testis mm9 Histone Gonad Testis SRX118394,SRX803711,SRX803710,SRX3...SRX112973,SRX185799,SRX185788 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Gon.20.AllAg.Testis.bed ...

  14. File list: His.Adl.10.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Adl.10.AllAg.Testis dm3 Histone Adult Testis SRX017854,SRX017856,SRX390502,SRX3...90501 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/His.Adl.10.AllAg.Testis.bed ...

  15. File list: His.Gon.10.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Gon.10.AllAg.Testis mm9 Histone Gonad Testis SRX118394,SRX803711,SRX803710,SRX0...SRX671899,SRX185788,SRX185866 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Gon.10.AllAg.Testis.bed ...

  16. File list: ALL.Gon.10.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Gon.10.AllAg.Testis mm9 All antigens Gonad Testis SRX118383,SRX112538,SRX118394...ERX144545,ERX144553,SRX118378,SRX118389,SRX112536,ERX144532,SRX112537 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Gon.10.AllAg.Testis.bed ...

  17. File list: NoD.Gon.50.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Gon.50.AllAg.Testis mm9 No description Gonad Testis ERX144521,ERX221032,ERX0968...144545,ERX144532 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Gon.50.AllAg.Testis.bed ...

  18. File list: NoD.Gon.05.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Gon.05.AllAg.Testis hg19 No description Gonad Testis ERX096851,ERX096875,ERX096...870,ERX161924,ERX096849,ERX096874,ERX096842 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/NoD.Gon.05.AllAg.Testis.bed ...

  19. File list: NoD.Gon.20.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Gon.20.AllAg.Testis hg19 No description Gonad Testis ERX096851,ERX161924,ERX096...849,ERX096874,ERX096842,ERX096870,ERX096875 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/NoD.Gon.20.AllAg.Testis.bed ...

  20. File list: ALL.Gon.05.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Gon.05.AllAg.Testis hg19 All antigens Gonad Testis ERX096851,ERX096875,SRX66344...441,SRX663438,SRX663451,SRX663439,SRX663445,SRX663442 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Gon.05.AllAg.Testis.bed ...

  1. File list: Oth.Gon.50.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Gon.50.AllAg.Testis hg19 TFs and others Gonad Testis SRX663441,SRX663451,SRX663...450,SRX663444,SRX663438 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Gon.50.AllAg.Testis.bed ...

  2. File list: ALL.Gon.50.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Gon.50.AllAg.Testis hg19 All antigens Gonad Testis ERX096851,SRX663448,SRX12124...439,ERX096875,SRX663445,SRX663442,ERX096874,ERX096842 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Gon.50.AllAg.Testis.bed ...

  3. File list: Pol.Gon.05.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Gon.05.AllAg.Testis mm9 RNA polymerase Gonad Testis SRX349391,SRX112975,SRX1437...96,SRX237511,SRX244355,SRX237510 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Gon.05.AllAg.Testis.bed ...

  4. File list: His.Adl.20.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Adl.20.AllAg.Testis dm3 Histone Adult Testis SRX390502,SRX390501,SRX017856,SRX0...17854 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/His.Adl.20.AllAg.Testis.bed ...

  5. File list: ALL.Gon.10.AllAg.Testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Gon.10.AllAg.Testis hg19 All antigens Gonad Testis ERX096851,SRX663448,ERX09687...438,SRX663444,SRX663451,SRX663439,SRX663445,SRX663442 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Gon.10.AllAg.Testis.bed ...

  6. File list: InP.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_testis [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_testis mm9 Input control Embryo Embryonic testis SRX1491...68,SRX149166,SRX957136,SRX149174,SRX149172,SRX1175150,SRX1175149 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Emb.05.AllAg.Embryonic_testis.bed ...

  7. Synchronous rhabdomyosarcoma of the testis and kidney: A case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... obstructed left inguinoscrotal hernia and a right renal mass. The patient had surgery, and a diagnosis of synchronous rhabdomyosarcoma of the left testis, paratesticular tissue and right kidney was made by histology and immunohistochemistry. Keywords: Rhabdomyosarcoma; Synchronous tumour; Immunohistochemistry ...

  8. Contemporary Role of Testis Sparing Surgery: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Ivan Russo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Testis-sparing surgery (TSS represents a therapeutic choice for testicular cancer (TC. However, international guidelines are very cautious about the use of the testis-sparing technique, namely due to the lack of certain indications and long-term oncological outcomes. The aim of this systematic-review is to illustrate current trends of what may today be the uses of organ-sparing surgery in TC, to evaluate the relationship between the organ-sparing safety and oncological features such as definitive histology, tumour size, and post-surgery oncological outcomes. This analysis was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis guidelines. An electronic search of the Medline and Embase was undertaken until September 2014. The search was limited to English-Language articles. Current indications of TSS are synchronous bilateral testicular tumours, metachronous contralateral tumours, or tumour in a solitary testis with normal preoperative testosterone levels. Moreover, histological characteristics should not be taken into account when performing a TSS approach. TSS outcomes for germ cell tumours are encouraging and we reported high rates of disease-free survival and a few cases of patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy or radiotherapy. In light of the examined, TSS could be considered a viable alternative to radical surgery of the testis but it should be performed in specialised centres with competence.

  9. Terminology and details of the diagnostic process for testis cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Connolly, Stephen S

    2011-03-01

    We examined the process and causes of diagnostic delay, defined as the interval from symptom onset to diagnosis, for testis (germ cell) cancer and the change with time. Diagnostic delay influences disease burden and may be subdivided into symptomatic interval, defined as symptom onset to first presentation, and diagnostic interval, defined as first presentation to diagnosis.

  10. Obestatin induces testosterone secretion from rat testis in vitro

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-05-09

    May 9, 2011 ... In this study, the effect of obestatin (23 amino acid peptide) on testosterone secretion in vitro, in the rat testis was observed. For this purpose, two ... ileum, stomach, pituitary and hypothalamus and testes. GPR39 was tested for its potency to ... temperature (22 to 25°C). Animals were provided with laboratory.

  11. Synchronous rhabdomyosarcoma of the testis and kidney: A case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Babatunde M. Duduyemi

    2015-04-15

    Apr 15, 2015 ... b Department of Paediatric Surgery, Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Kumasi, Ghana c Department of Medicine, Kwame Nkrumah ... The patient had surgery, and a diagnosis of synchronous rhabdomyosar- coma of the left testis, paratesticular ..... Children's cancer study group. Pediatric oncology group.

  12. Laparoscopic classification of the impalpable testis: an update ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose We present a classification for the nonpalpable testis (NPT) based on laparoscopic findings and suggest guidelines for the interpretation of these findings. Patients and methods From October 2002 to December 2010, 121 patients with NPT underwent laparoscopy at two tertiary centers of Pediatric surgery in Egypt.

  13. Steroidogenic Enzyme Histochemistry In The Testis Of Sprague ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We conclude that the water extract of papaya seed suppresses the activities of steroidogenic enzymes in the testis of Sprague Dawley rats, and that this may contribute to reversible suppression of spermatogenesis, a property that gives a possible male contraceptive potential. Key words: carica papaya seed extract; ...

  14. Ectopic testis in coati (Nasua nasua Linnaeus, 1766

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora C.V. Lima

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This paper reports a case of unilateral extracorporeal ectopic testes in a captive coati (Nasua nasua in the State Park of Dois Irmãos Zoo, Recife/PE, Brazil. The testicle was located in the subcutaneous tissue of the inguinal region not adhered to the surrounding tissues. After bilateral orchiectomy, both testes were measured, fixed with 10% formalin buffered and embedded in paraffin for histopathological evaluation. The left testis measured 1.2 cm width by 1.7cm length, and the right one measured 1.5 cm width by 2.0 cm length. The ectopic testes had seminiferous epithelium without post-meiotic germ cell lines. The non-ectopic testis had several changes in the seminiferous epithelium that indicated degeneration. In both epididymis, the lumen did not contain sperm and the major epithelial structural alterations were more distinct in the epididymis associated to the ectopic testicle. In conclusion, the ectopic testis and epididymis had lesions compatible with testicular exposition to body temperature. Non-ectopic epididymis and testis had minor lesions but could be related to the infertility of the coati.

  15. Prevalence and patterns of undescended testis among primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross sectional study was undertaken with the main objective of determining the prevalence and patterns of undescended testis (UDT) among 437 primary School pupils from randomly selected primary schools in one Division of ampala in Uganda. The study variables included age, tribe, scrotal findings, side and location ...

  16. Obestatin induces testosterone secretion from rat testis in vitro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the effect of obestatin (23 amino acid peptide) on testosterone secretion in vitro, in the rat testis was observed. For this purpose, two different doses of obestatin (10-9 M and 10-8 M) were used alone and in combination with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in fasting and fed conditions in two age groups.

  17. Perineal Ectopic Testis in an Adult | Maranya | Annals of African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Annals of African Surgery ... Testicular maldescent may be cryptorchid with descent being arrested along its normal pathway resulting in an abdominal, inguinal or high scrotal testis, or it may stray from the normal descent to settle in an ectopic site outside the scrotum; such as the perineum, pubic region, dorsum of the penis, ...

  18. Effects of endocrine disruptors on the human fetal testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouiller-Fabre, Virginie; Habert, René; Livera, Gabriel

    2014-05-01

    The modern societies are exposing us to a huge variety of potentially harmful pollutants. Among these endocrine disruptors (EDs) have been especially scrutinized as several were proven to display reprotoxic effects in rodent models. In the context of high and growing concerns about the reprotoxicity of EDs, it is crucial to carry out studies in order to assess their impact on the human reproductive function. However, such evidence remains scarce. The fetal period is critical for the proper development of the testis and is known as a period of high sensitivity to many EDs. Our team has shown in 2009 that a phthalate, mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), has a potential deleterious effect on the development of human male germ cells. This result was the first direct experimental proof of the toxic effect of an ED in human testis. More recently, we also reported that bisphenol A (BPA) impaired testosterone production in the human fetal testis. Here, we will summarize the known effects of EDs on the various cell types composing the human developing testis and discuss their relevancy to propose future directions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Absent testis: does it exist in 46,XY males?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    3 Hadziselimovic F, Herzog B, Buser M. Development of cryptorchid testes. Eur J Pediatr 1987; 146 (Suppl 2):S8–S12. 4 Marshall FF, Shermeta DW. Epididymal abnormalities associated with undescended testis. J Urol 1979; 121:341–343. 5 Emanuel ER, Kirsch AJ, Thall EH, Hensle TW. Complete separation of the.

  20. Testicular development and relationship between body weight, testis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-03-20

    Mar 20, 2009 ... measurements of TL and TW to obtain the dimensions of testis proper (Hahns et al., 1969). Thereafter, the average measurements. (corrected) of TL and TW of both testes were recorded to the nearest 0.01 cm. Training of boars and semen collection. All in situ measurements of the testes were discontinued ...

  1. Histopathological Effects on Testis of Adult Male Carp, Cyprinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the estrogenic effect of Bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine disruptor on the histological features in carp testis. Methods: Adult male fish, koi carp, Cyprinus carpio carpio, were exposed to three graded concentrations of BPA (10, 100 and 1000 µg/L) for a period of 21 days. A single dose of 17-β estradiol.

  2. Undesended testis: How extensive should the work up be? | Shera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: The aim of this study was to highlight various anomalies associated with undescended testis and to determine how much work up is necessary for this condition. Material and Methods: The study was conducted in the department of Pediatric Surgery SKIMS Srinagar, Kashmir. All patients between 0-14 years of age who ...

  3. Ontogeny of estrogen receptor-beta expression in rat testis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Pelt, A. M.; de rooij, D. G.; van der Burg, B.; van der Saag, P. T.; Gustafsson, J. A.; Kuiper, G. G.

    1999-01-01

    The recently discovered estrogen receptor-beta (ERbeta) is expressed in rodent and human testes. To obtain insight in the physiological role of ERbeta we have investigated the cell type-specific expression pattern of ERbeta messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein in the testis of rats of various ages by in

  4. Histopathological Effects on Testis of Adult Male Carp, Cyprinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the estrogenic effect of Bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine disruptor on the histological features in carp testis. Methods: Adult male fish, koi carp, Cyprinus carpio carpio, were exposed to three graded concentrations of BPA (10, 100 and 1000 μg/L) for a period of 21 days. A single dose of 17-β estradiol (1 ...

  5. Sox9 induces testis development in XX transgenic mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vidal, V. P.; Chaboissier, M. C.; de rooij, D. G.; Schedl, A.

    2001-01-01

    Mutations in SOX9 are associated with male-to-female sex reversal in humans. To analyze Sox9 function during sex determination, we ectopically expressed this gene in XX gonads. Here, we show that Sox9 is sufficient to induce testis formation in mice, indicating that it can substitute for the

  6. Ruptured Seminoma of Undescended Testis Presenting as Acute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Radiological and pre‑operative diagnosis of complications such as torsion or rupture is often difficult because, generally, the history of cryptorchidism is not provided and imaging findings can be non‑specific. In a male patient with undescended testis, and presence of a retroperitoneal mass on imaging, testicular malignancy.

  7. Efek Mangiferin terhadap Toksisitas Doksorubisin pada Testis Tikus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supraja Dwiyono

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Penggunaan doksorubisin (DOX sebagai antikanker dapat menyebabkan efek samping di organ lainseperti testis akibat peningkatan stres oksidatif. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui efek antioksidanmangiferin yang terkandung dalam Mangifera indica untuk mengurangi toksisitas testis. Sebanyak 24 ekortikus jantan sprague dawley, dibagi menjadi empat kelompok. Kelompok normal mendapatkan injeksi NaCl0,9%, kelompok kontrol negatif mendapatkan DOX total 15mg/kgBB; kelompok DOX mendapat mangiferin30mg/kgBB dan mangiferin 60mg/kgBB. Setelah 7 minggu, tikus dimatikan dan testis dikumpulkan untukanalisis parameter stres oksidatif biokimia yaitu kadar malonedyaldehide (MDA, aktivitas superoxidedysmutase (SOD, perubahan histologi dan apoptosis kaspase-9 dan kaspase-12. Pemberian mangiferindosis 30mg/kgBB dan 60mg/kgBB selama 7 minggu dapat mengurangi kerusakan sel spermatogenik dansel sertoli tubulus seminiferus testis, menurunkan kadar MDA dan menurunkan ekspresi kaspase-9 padakelompok yang diberikan DOX dan mangiferin. Perbaikan parameter tersebut mengindikasikan mangiferinmempunyai efek proteksi terhadap kerusakan sel spematogenik dan sel sertoli tubulus seminiferus testis tikusyang diberikan DOX. Kata kunci: toksisitas doksorubisin, stres oksidatif, apoptosis, mangiferin, testis.   Mangiferin Effects against Doxorubicin Toxicity in Rat Testis Abstract The use of doxorubicin (DOX as an anti-cancer agent might cause side effects to other organs suchas testicle due to increased oxidative stress. This study was aimed to investigate the antioxidant effect ofmangiferin inside Mangifera indica for lowering testicle toxicity. A total of 24 sprague dawley male rats wasdivided into 4 groups. The normal group was injected with 0.9% of NaCl, the negative control group receivedDOX with dosage of 15 mg/BW while DOX treated group received mangiferin with dosage of 30 mg/BW and60 mg/BW. After 7 weeks, all rats were killed and testicles from every rats were

  8. Post-hatching development of Alligator mississippiensis ovary and testis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Brandon C.; Hamlin, Heather J.; Botteri, Nicole L.; Lawler, Ashley N.; Mathavan, Ketan K.; Guillette, Louis J.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated ovary and testis development of Alligator mississippiensis during the first five months post-hatch. To better describe follicle assembly and seminiferous cord development, we employed histochemical techniques to detect carbohydrate-rich extracellular matrix components in one-week, one-month, three-month, and five-month-old gonads. We found profound morphological changes in both ovary and testis. During this time, oogenesis progressed up to diplotene arrest and meiotic germ cells increasingly interacted with follicular cells. Concomitant with follicles becoming invested with full complements of granulosa cells, a periodic acid Schiff’s (PAS)-positive basement membrane formed. As follicles enlarged and thecal layers were observed, basement membranes and thecal compartments gained periodic acid-methionine silver (PAMS)-reactive fibers. The ovarian medulla increased first PAS- and then PAMS-reactivity as it fragmented into wide lacunae lined with low cuboidal to squamous epithelia. During this same period, testicular germ cells found along the tubule margins were observed progressing from spermatogonia to round spermatids located within the center of tubules. Accompanying this meiotic development, interstitial Leydig cell clusters become more visible and testicular capsules thickened. During the observed testis development, the thickening tunica albuginea and widening interstitial tissues showed increasing PAS- and PAMS-reactivity. We observed putative inter-sex structures in both ovary and testis. On the coelomic aspect of testes were cell clusters with germ cell morphology and at the posterior end of ovaries, we observed “medullary rests” resembling immature testis cords. We hypothesize laboratory conditions accelerated gonad maturation due to optimum conditions, including nutrients and temperature. Laboratory alligators grew more rapidly and with increased body conditions compared to previous measured, field-caught animals. Additionally, we

  9. Expression and localization of aromatase during fetal mouse testis development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borday, Caroline; Merlet, Jorge; Racine, Chrystèle; Habert, René

    2013-01-01

    Both androgens and estrogens are necessary to ensure proper testis development and function. Studies on endocrine disruptors have highlighted the importance of maintaining the balance between androgens and estrogens during fetal development, when testis is highly sensitive to environmental disturbances. This balance is regulated mainly through an enzymatic cascade that converts irreversibly androgens into estrogens. The most important and regulated component of this cascade is its terminal enzyme: the cytochrome p450 19A1 (aromatase hereafter). This study was conducted to improve our knowledge about its expression during mouse testis development. By RT-PCR and western blotting, we show that full-length aromatase is expressed as early as 12.5 day post-coitum (dpc) with maximal expression at 17.5 dpc. Two additional truncated transcripts were also detected by RT-PCR. Immunostaining of fetal testis sections and of gonocyte-enriched cell cultures revealed that aromatase is strongly expressed in fetal Leydig cells and at variable levels in gonocytes. Conversely, it was not detected in Sertoli cells. This study shows for the first time that i) aromatase is expressed from the early stages of fetal testis development, ii) it is expressed in mouse gonocytes suggesting that fetal germ cells exert an endocrine function in this species and that the ratio between estrogens and androgens may be higher inside gonocytes than in the interstitial fluid. Furthermore, we emphasized a species-specific cell localization. Indeed, previous works found that in the rat aromatase is expressed both in Sertoli and Leydig cells. We propose to take into account this species difference as a new concept to better understand the changes in susceptibility to Endocrine Disruptors from one species to another.

  10. Cancer risk in mothers of men operated for undescended testis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadriano M Lacerda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Undescended testis, or cryptorchidism, occurs in 2-5% of boys born at term, and by 12 months of age about 1% of all boys have manifest cryptorchidism. Several hormonal substances control this process and disruption of the foetal sex-hormones balance is a potential cause of undescended testis, however, to a great extent the aetiology of cryptorchidism is unclear. METHODOLOGY: To study risk factors involved in the aetiology of undescended testis, we assessed cancer risk in 15,885 mothers of men operated for undescended testis in Sweden. Women were followed-up for a median period of 23 years during which 811 first primary malignancies occurred. Their cancer incidence was compared with that in the general population estimating standardized incidence ratio (SIR and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The overall cancer risk experienced by the mothers of cryptorchid men did not differ significantly from that of the general population (SIR = 0.94; 95% C.I. = 0.88-1.01. Specifically, there was a reduction in ovarian cancer risk (SIR = 0.72; 95% C.I. = 0.51-0.99, while the risk of lung (SIR = 1.38 95% C.I. 1.03-1.81 and biliary tract/liver cancer (SIR: 1.76, 95% CI: 1.03-2.82 were increased. CONCLUSIONS: Although we cannot rule out the role of chance, our data suggest a positive association between undescended testis and maternal lung cancer and a negative association with ovarian cancer, where the first may be partly attributable to smoking and the second to an altered hormonal milieu during pregnancy and thus both exposures may be risk factors for cryptorchidism.

  11. Asymmetrical size and functionality of the pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus) testes: Right testis is bigger but left testis is more efficient in spermatogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungerfeld, R; Villagrán, M; Lacuesta, L; Vazquez, N; Pérez, W

    2017-12-01

    Information about gonadal asymmetries in ruminants is very scarce. In this work, we performed three complementary studies to compare characteristics of both testes: (i) weight and size of offspring and adult dead males; (ii) the tissue:fluid relationship determined by ultrasound scanning; and (iii) the spermatogenic status using fine needle aspiration cytology. The right testis was heavier than the left one in both offspring and adult animals and had greater width and volume in adult males than the left one. The ultrasound pixel intensity was similar in both testes. The right testis tended to have more spermatogonia (p = .06) and had a greater percentage of early spermatids (p = .004) than the left testis. On the other hand, the left testis had a greater percentage of spermatozoa (p = .05). The left testis had a greater spermatozoa/spermatogonia ratio (p = .02) and tended to have more spermatozoa/Sertoli cells ratio (p = .07). The spermatogenic index tended to be greater in the left than in the right testis (p = .06). Overall, we concluded that the right testis of pampas deer males is bigger but according to the cytology, it seems to be less spermatogenically effective than the left one, but these differences are not explained by different tissue:fluid ratio in each testis. Although differences were greater in adults than in offspring, asymmetry was observed even in just born offspring. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumor of the Rete Testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran P. Sajadi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A 34-year-old tetraplegic patient with suppurative epididymitis was found on follow-up examination and ultrasonography to have a testicular mass. The radical orchiectomy specimen contained an undifferentiated spindled sex cord-stromal tumor arising in the rete testis. Testicular sex cord-stromal tumors are far less common than germ cell neoplasms and are usually benign. The close relationship between sex cords and ductules of the rete testis during development provides the opportunity for these uncommon tumors to arise anatomically within the rete tesis. This undifferentiated sex cord-stromal tumor, occurring in a previously unreported location, is an example of an unusual lesion mimicking an intratesticular malignant neoplasm.

  13. Impact of electronic-cigarette refill liquid on rat testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Golli, N; Rahali, D; Jrad-Lamine, A; Dallagi, Y; Jallouli, M; Bdiri, Y; Ba, N; Lebret, M; Rosa, J P; El May, M; El Fazaa, S

    2016-07-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are becoming the fashionable alternative to decrease tobacco smoking, although their impact on health has not been fully assessed yet. The present study was designed to compare the impact of e-cigarette refill liquid (e-liquid) without nicotine to e-liquid with nicotine on rat testis. For this purpose, e-liquid with nicotine and e-liquid without nicotine (0.5 mg/kg of body weight) were administered to adult male Wistar rats via the intraperitoneally route during four weeks. Results showed that e-liquid with or without nicotine leads to diminished sperm density and viability, such as a decrease in testicular lactate dehydrogenase activity and testosterone level. Furthermore, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis identified a reduction in cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage (P450 scc) and 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17βHSD) mRNA level, two key enzymes of steroidogenesis. Following e-liquid exposure, histopathological examination showed alterations in testis tissue marked by germ cells desquamation, disorganization of the tubular contents of testis and cell deposits in seminiferous tubules. Finally, analysis of oxidative stress status pointed an outbreak of antioxidant enzyme activities such as superoxide dismutase, catalase and gluthatione-S-transferase, as well as an important increase in sulfhydril group content. Taken together, these results indicate that e-liquid per se induces toxicity in Wistar rat testis, similar to e-liquid with nicotine, by disrupting oxidative balance and steroidogenesis.

  14. [Effects of infrasound on ultrastructure of testis cell in mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ya-Ning; Liu, Jing; Shu, Qing; Huang, Xiao-Feng; Chen, Jing-Zao

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the effects of infrasound on ultrastructure of testis in mouse. Twelve male BALB/C mice were randomly divided into three groups according to exposed duration on 1, 7 and 14 day. The mice were separately exposed to infrasound environment under 8 Hz/90 dB, 8 Hz/130 dB, 16 Hz/90 dB, 16 Hz/130 dB 2 hours per day. There was another control group which had three mice were separated into module with no infrasound. All the mice were killed on schedule. Then all the sections of testis were observed under electronic microscope. The alterations of structure and the chromatin were observed. Some acute alteration in one day group was found in testis cell, such as cellular denaturation and necrosis, intercellular edema, mitochondria swelling, liposome hyperplasia. When the infrasound was up to 8 Hz/130 dB, the damage showed seriously. In 7 and 14 day group, the acute alteration was gradually decreased. A plenty of abnormal sperm were found. And other alteration was chromatin condense. The effect of variational frequency was important in ultrastructure. The infrasound markedly effected to testicular cell morphology and secreting function. Infrasound will lead to the alteration of procreation in mouse.

  15. Undescended testis? How best to teach the physical examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zundel, S; Blumenstock, G; Herrmann-Werner, A; Trueck, M; Schmidt, A; Wiechers, S

    2016-12-01

    Undescended testis in boys is common. Guidelines recommend surgical treatment between the ages of 6 months and 2 years; nevertheless, orchidopexy is frequently performed at later ages. One reason is the belated diagnosis due to a perceived difficulty in the physical examination (PE) and correct localization of the testis. We aimed to find an effective method for teaching the physical examination of the testis in a child. An interdisciplinary team developed teaching sessions, including an educational video and a simulator. Medical students (n = 133) were randomized into three groups: self-study only, video, and video and simulator. The sessions were carried out and quantitative feedback was collected from the teachers and students. The learning achievements of the different groups were assessed with an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). The differences in mean OSCE results between all three groups were tested using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). For multiple pairwise comparisons, a closed testing procedure was performed using unpaired t-tests. The self-study only group acquired the poorest results in the OSCE, with a mean score of 5.1 out of 10. The video-only-group reached a mean of 6.7, and the video-and-simulator group performed best with a mean score of 8.5. The differences between all three groups were found to be statistically significant, with P = 0.007. The attached figure illustrates this data. If analyzed in pairs, this difference was particularly apparent between the groups self-study only vs video and simulator, with P = 0.002. Qualitative feedback revealed doubtful effectiveness for educational videos, but positive reactions to training on a simulator. The poor results of the self-study-only group were in accordance with the literature, where textbook learning was found not to increase OSCE results. The effectiveness of video tutorials remains doubtful; studies focusing on this teaching method are divergent and the present

  16. Nuclear protein in testis carcinoma of the mediastinum: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boleto, Gonçalo; Perotin, Jeanne-Marie; Launois, Claire; Uro-Coste, Emmanuelle; Birembaut, Philippe; Dury, Sandra; Vallerand, Hervé; Lebargy, François; Deslée, Gaëtan; Vella-Boucaud, Juliette

    2017-06-09

    Nuclear protein in testis carcinoma is a rare and very aggressive undifferentiated cancer which characteristically arises in the midline of the head, neck, and mediastinum. We describe the case of a 46-year-old white woman admitted for superior vena cava syndrome revealing a mediastinal tumor. Pathological examination of specimens obtained by mediastinoscopy revealed an undifferentiated tumor with solid growth and positive immunoreactivity for p40 and negative immunoreactivity for cytokeratin markers. Immunohistochemical staining was positive for nuclear protein in testis, allowing the diagnosis of nuclear protein in testis midline carcinoma of the mediastinum. We present a rare case of mediastinal nuclear protein in testis carcinoma with diagnosis based on nuclear protein in testis protein positivity and atypical immunohistochemical features including p40 positivity and anti-cytokeratin negativity. Physicians must remain aware of the possibility of nuclear protein in testis carcinoma especially in young patients with thoracic symptoms and suspicion of neoplasm.

  17. Effects of a simulated microgravity model on cell structure and function in rat testis and epididymis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Jill A.; Hall, Joseph C.; O'Brien, Ami; Ball, Richard

    1992-01-01

    The effect of simulated microgravity on the structure and function of the testis and epididymis cells was investigated in rats subjected to 7 days of tail suspension. Results of a histological examination revealed presence of disorganized seminiferous tubules and accumulation of large multinucleated cells and spermatids in the lumen of the epididymis. In addition, decreases in the content of testis protein and in testosterone levels in the testis, the interstitial fluid, and the epididymis were observed.

  18. Cadmium inhibits testis and epididymal acidification in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caflisch, C.r.p; DuBose, T.D. Jr.

    1986-03-01

    The testis is known to be highly sensitive to functional impairment by cadmium, a widely distributed trace metal. Both vascular compromise and inhibition of Leydig cell androgen production may result in impaired sperm maturation and motility. Recent studies by our laboratory have confirmed the presence of an acid mileau in the testis and epididymis which may play an important role in sperm maturation. In this study the effect of cadmium on luminal acidification was assessed in rat seminiferous tubules, caput and cauda epididymis by glass membrane double-barrelled pH microelectrodes in vivo. Four Sprague-Dawley rats received CdCl/sub 2/ (0.015 mM/kg s.c.) 24 hrs. prior to micropuncture and 4 rats served as controls. Arterial blood gas values were within the normal range and were not different in the two groups. Cadmium resulted in marked alkalinization of seminiferous tubule fluid compared to controls (7.30 +/- 0.01 (15) vs 6.97 +/- 0.01 (25)) (p < 0.001). Similarly, the pH in proximal caput after CdCl/sub 2/ was 7.07 +/- 0.02 (19) a value significantly more alkaline (p < 0.001) than 6.58 +/- 0.02 (24) in untreated animals. In contrast, however, pH in the distal caput was 6.90 +/- 0.03 (19), a value indistinguishable from that observed in controls. In summary, CdCl/sub 2/ administration is associated with marked impairment of acidification in the testis and proximal epididymus while acidification in the distal epididymus remains intact.

  19. Testicular sparing surgery in small testis masses: A multinstitutional experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea B. Galosi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The incidence of benign testicular tumors is increasing in particular in small lesion incidentally found at scrotal ultrasonography. Primary aim of this study was to perform radical surgery in malignant tumor. Secondary aim was to verify the efficacy of the diagnostic-therapeutic pathway recently adopted in management of small masses with testis sparing surgery in benign lesions. Materials and methods: In this multicenter study, we reviewed all patients with single testis lesion less than 15 mm at ultrasound as main diameter. We applied the diagnostic-therapeutic pathway described by Sbrollini et al. (Arch Ital Urol Androl 2014; 86:397 which comprises: 1 testicular tumor markers, 2 repeated scrotal ultrasound at the tertiary center, 3 surgical exploration with inguinal approach, intraoperative ultrasound, and intraoperative pathological examination. Definitive histology was reviewed by a dedicated uro-pathologist. Results: Twenty-eight patients completed this clinical flowchart. The mean lesion size was 9.3 mm (range 2.5-15. Testicular tumor markers were normal except in a case. Intraoperative ultrasound was necessary in 8/28 cases. We treated 11/28 (39.3% with immediate radical orchiectomy and 17/28 (60.7% with testis-sparing surgery. Definitive pathological results were: malignant tumor in 6 cases (seminoma, benign tumor in 10 cases (5 Leydig tumors, 2 Sertoli tumors, 1 epidermoid cyst, 1 adenomatoid tumor, 1 angiofibroma, benign disease in 11 (8 inflammation with haemorragic infiltration, 2 tubular atrophy, 1 fibrosis, and normal parenchyma in 1 case. We observed a good concordance between frozen section examination and definitive histology. Any malignant tumor was treated conservatively. Any delayed orchiectomy was necessary based on definitive histology. Conclusions: The incidence of benign lesions in 60% of small testis lesions with normal tumor markers makes orchiectomy an overtreatment. Testicular sparing surgery of single

  20. Screening for carcinoma in situ of the contralateral testis in patients with germinal testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthelsen, J G; Skakkebaek, N E; von der Maase, H

    1982-01-01

    Two hundred and fifty biopsy specimens from the contralateral testis in patients with unilateral germinal testicular cancer were analysed by light microscopy for carcinoma-in-situ changes. Changes were found in 13 (5.2%) patients. One-third of patients with an atrophic contralateral testis (volum...

  1. The value of ultrasonography in boys with a non-palpable testis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Alexander; Vries, Annebeth Meij-de; Smets, Anne; Verbeke, Jonathan; Heij, Hugo; van der Steeg, Alida

    2014-01-01

    In patients with a non-palpable testis (NPT) on physical examination, the testis is assumed either to be situated intra-abdominally or to be hypoplastic or absent. Diagnostic laparoscopy in these boys is considered the preferable first step. In this study the diagnostic value of pre-operative

  2. Diethylstilbestrol regulates mouse gubernaculum testis cell proliferation via PLC-Ca2+-CREB pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuan; Ping, Hong-Yan; Li, Jian-Hong; Duan, Shou-Xin; Jiang, Xue-Wu

    2018-01-01

    Recent evidence suggested a positive correlation between environmental estrogens (EEs) and high incidence of abnormalities in male urogenital system, but the mechanism remains unclear. Diethylstilbestrol (DES) is a nonsteroidal synthetic estrogen that disrupts the morphology and proliferation of gubernaculum testis cells, but the underlying mechanism is unclear. In this study, mouse gubernaculum testis cells were pretreated with phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor U-73122 and then treated with DES. The results demonstrated that U-73122 impaired DES-evoked intracellular Ca2+ mobilization in gubernaculum testis cells and inhibited DES-induced proliferation of gubernaculum testis cells. Mechanistically, we found that U-73122 inhibited DES-induced activation of cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB) in gubernaculum testis cells. In conclusion, these data suggest that the effects of DES on mouse gubernaculum testis cells are mediated by PLC-Ca 2+ -CREB pathway. Environmental estrogens remain a serious threat to male reproductive health, and it is important to understand the mechanism by which EEs affect the male productive system. Here we explore potential mechanisms how the proliferation and contractility of gubernaculum testis cells are regulated by diethylstilbestrol. Our findings provide the first evidence that PLC-Ca 2+ -CREB signalling pathway mediates the nongenomic effects of diethylstilbestrol on gubernaculum testis cells. These findings provide new insight into the role of diethylstilbestrol in the aetiology of male reproductive dysfunction and will help develop better approaches for the prevention and therapy of male reproductive malformation. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Gene expression profiles in testis of pigs with extreme high and low levels of androstenone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moe, Maren; Meuwissen, Theo; Lien, Sigbjørn

    2007-01-01

    Boar taint is a major obstacle when using uncastrated male pigs for swine production. One of the main compounds causing this taint is androstenone, a pheromone produced in porcine testis. Here we use microarrays to study the expression of thousands of genes simultaneously in testis of high and low...

  4. Flow cytometry of DNA in mouse sperm and testis nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meistrich, M.L. (Univ. of Texas, Houston); Lake, S.; Steinmetz, L.L.; Gledhill, B.L.

    1978-01-01

    Mutations that occur in spermatogenic cells may be expressed as changes in DNA content, but developmentally-dependent alteration of its staining properties complicates the quantitation of DNA in individual germ cells. These alterations have been studied with flow cytometric techniques. Nuclei from mouse testis cells and sperm were stained by the acriflavine--Feulgen method. The fluorescence intensity frequency distribution of nuclei of testis cells was characterized by 2 major and 5 minor peaks. Nuclei sorted from the various peaks with a fluorescence-activated cell sorter were identified microscopically. These data were confirmed by generation of peaks with nuclei prepared from cell suspensions enriched in specific cell types. One of the major peaks corresponded to round spermatid nuclei. The other major peak, located at 0.6 of the fluorescence intensity of the round nuclei, corresponded to elongated spermatid nuclei. Purified nuclei of epididymal and vas deferens spermatozoa displayed asymmetric fluorescence distributions. A minor peak at 0.8 the intensity of the round spermatid nuclei was tentatively assigned to elongating spermatids. 2 of the minor peaks, located at 1.7 and 2.0 times the fluorescence intensity of the round nuclei, corresponded to clumps of 2 haploid and diploid nuclei.

  5. HPLC quantification of the HIV-1 protease inhibitor saquinavir in brain and testis of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudigonda, Koteshwara; Jukanti, Raju; Apte, Shashank S; Ajjala, Devender R; Shrivastava, Wishu; Kandikere, Vishwottam N; Nirogi, Ramakrishna V S

    2006-10-01

    A rapid, reliable HPLC method with UV detection (240 nm) was developed and validated for quantitation of saquinavir in mice brain and testis. Saquinavir and the internal standard were isolated from homogenized tissue matrices using liquid-liquid extraction procedure and were then analyzed using an isocratic mobile phase by reversed-phase liquid chromatography. The lower limit of quantification was 50 ng/g for both brain and testis. A linear dynamic range of 50-5000 ng/g for both brain and testis was established. This HPLC method was validated with between-batch precision of 0.5-4.4 and 1.5-5.5% for brain and testis, respectively. The between-batch accuracy was 94.7-105.9% and 97.5-105.0% for brain and testis, respectively. The present method was applied for tissue distribution studies of the novel drug delivery systems of saquinavir in mice.

  6. Testis sparing surgery for sequential bilateral testicular tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canda, Abdullah Erdem; Atmaca, Ali Fuat; Ozdemir, Ahmet Tunc; Akbulut, Ziya; Balbay, M Derya

    2009-06-01

    We present our experience in performing testis sparing surgery (TSS) to treat sequential bilateral testicular tumors. We performed TSS on two patients with bilateral sequential testicular tumors. A 43-year-old patient (Case 1) and a 33-year-old patient (Case 2) had previous inguinal orchiectomy for seminoma. The patients were diagnosed with secondary testicular tumors in the contralateral testes on follow up. They were treated with TSS after frozen section analysis of the peritumoral testicular tissue. Pathologic evaluation of the removed tumors revealed immature teratoma and Leydig cell tumor. Both patients are disease free without local recurrence and do not have erectile dysfunction, and thus do not need androgen replacement therapy after a follow up of 6 months and 44 months, respectively. TSS after frozen section analysis appears to be a safe and feasible procedure that, in carefully selected cases, offers adequate cancer control, preserves sexual function, and provides psychological benefits.

  7. The role of GAGE cancer/testis antigen in metastasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerstorff, Morten Frier; Terp, Mikkel Green; Hansen, Malene Bredahl

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: GAGE cancer/testis antigens are frequently expressed in various types of malignancies and represent attractive targets for immunotherapy, however their role in cancer initiation and progression has remained elusive. GAGE proteins are expressed in normal cells during early development...... lines, which are equally tumorigenic in immunodeficient mice, but differ with their ability to generate metastases in the lungs and lymph nodes. RESULTS: Although GAGE proteins were strongly upregulated in the highly metastatic clone (CL16) compared to non-metastatic (NM2C5), weakly metastatic (M4A4......) and moderately metastatic clones (LM3), stable downregulation of GAGE expression did not affect the ability of CL16 cells to establish primary tumors and form metastasis in the lungs of immunodeficient mice. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that GAGE proteins per se do not support metastasis and that further...

  8. Recurrence of acute myeloid leukemia in cryptorchid testis: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Góes, Luccas Santos Patto de [Hospital do Servidor Público Municipal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Lopes, Roberto Iglesias [Hospital do Servidor Público Municipal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Hospital das Clínicas, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Campos, Octavio Henrique Arcos [Hospital do Servidor Público Municipal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Oliveira, Luiz Carlos Neves de; Sant' Anna, Alexandre Crippa; Dall' Oglio, Marcos Francisco; Srougi, Miguel [Hospital das Clínicas, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    A 23-year-old male with a history of bone marrow transplant for acute myeloid leukemia. He presented a large mass in the right inguinal region 5 years ago. Upon physical examination, right-sided cryptorchidism was observed. The tumor markers alpha-fetoprotein and beta-HCG were within normalcy range and lactate dehydrogenase was raised. Computed tomography of the abdomen and pelvis revealed right testicular mass in contiguity with the inguinal canal to the ipsilateral retroperitoneum, associated with right hydronephrosis. Due to the risk of germ-cell tumor in undescended testicle, the patient underwent radical right orchiectomy. The pathological examination showed recurrence of acute myeloid leukemia in the testis. He was referred to oncology for adjuvant therapy. Our literature review found no similar cases described.

  9. Local Actions of Melatonin in Somatic Cells of the Testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Beatriz Frungieri

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The pineal hormone melatonin regulates testicular function through the hypothalamic-adenohypophyseal axis. In addition, direct actions of melatonin in somatic cells of the testis have been described. Melatonin acts as a local modulator of the endocrine activity in Leydig cells. In Sertoli cells, melatonin influences cellular growth, proliferation, energy metabolism and the oxidation state, and consequently may regulate spermatogenesis. These data pinpoint melatonin as a key player in the regulation of testicular physiology (i.e., steroidogenesis, spermatogenesis mostly in seasonal breeders. In patients with idiopathic infertility, melatonin exerts anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory effects on testicular macrophages, and provides protective effects against oxidative stress in testicular mast cells. Consequently, melatonin is also involved in the modulation of inflammatory and oxidant/anti-oxidant states in testicular pathology. Overall, the literature data indicate that melatonin has important effects on testicular function and male reproduction.

  10. Taste perception: from the tongue to the testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng

    2013-06-01

    In mammals, the sense of taste helps in the evaluation and consumption of nutrients, and in avoiding toxic substances and indigestible materials. Distinct cell types expressing unique receptors detect each of the five basic tastes: salty, sour, bitter, sweet and umami. The latter three tastes are detected by two distinct families of G protein-coupled receptors: T2Rs and T1Rs. Interestingly, these taste receptors have been found in tissues other than the tongue, such as the digestive system, respiratory system, brain, testis and spermatozoa. The functional implications of taste receptors distributed throughout the body are unknown. We therefore reviewed the remarkable advances in our understanding of the molecular basis of taste perception in 'taste' and 'non-taste' tissues. We also present our speculations on the direction of further research in the field of male reproduction.

  11. Yolk-sac–derived macrophages regulate fetal testis vascularization and morphogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFalco, Tony; Bhattacharya, Indrashis; Williams, Alyna V.; Sams, Dustin M.; Capel, Blanche

    2014-01-01

    Organogenesis of the testis is initiated when expression of Sry in pre-Sertoli cells directs the gonad toward a male-specific fate. The cells in the early bipotential gonad undergo de novo organization to form testis cords that enclose germ cells inside tubules lined by epithelial Sertoli cells. Although Sertoli cells are a driving force in the de novo formation of testis cords, recent studies in mouse showed that reorganization of the vasculature and of interstitial cells also play critical roles in testis cord morphogenesis. However, the mechanism driving reorganization of the vasculature during fetal organogenesis remained unclear. Here we demonstrate that fetal macrophages are associated with nascent gonadal and mesonephric vasculature during the initial phases of testis morphogenesis. Macrophages mediate vascular reorganization and prune errant germ cells and somatic cells after testis architecture is established. We show that gonadal macrophages are derived from primitive yolk-sac hematopoietic progenitors and exhibit hallmarks of M2 activation status, suggestive of angiogenic and tissue remodeling functions. Depletion of macrophages resulted in impaired vascular reorganization and abnormal cord formation. These findings reveal a previously unappreciated role for macrophages in testis morphogenesis and suggest that macrophages are an intermediary between neovascularization and organ architecture during fetal organogenesis. PMID:24912173

  12. Anatomy and histology of the scrotal ligament in adults: inconsistency and variability of the gubernaculum testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalie, G; Bellier, Alexandre; Marnas, G; Boisson, B; Robert, Y; Rabattu, P Y; Chaffanjon, P

    2017-07-31

    The anatomy of gubernaculum testis (GT) is often discussed; however, the postnatal anatomy of the GT or scrotal ligament (SL) is rarely described. Hence, we performed an anatomical and histological study to analyze histologically the structures between testis and scrotum. We performed anatomical dissections on 25 human fresh cadavers' testes. Each testis was removed with its envelopes and macroscopically analyzed. Then samples were included for histological study. Finally, they were analyzed under microscope, looking for attachments between testis, epididymis and scrotal envelopes. The absence of proximal and distal attachment was found in 56.0% of cases. Looking at the proximal attachment of the SL, the main one found is the epididymal attachment (28.0%), whereas no cases of testis attachment was found. Distally, there are more variations with scrotal attachment (12%) and cremaster attachment (12.0%). We found a significant prevalence of multiple adherences in 16.0% of cases too. Finally, in 15 cases (57.7%) an attachment is present between testis and epididymis, as it is commonly described. In the majority of cases there is no attachment of the lower pole of the testis and epididymis and these structures remain free. So it seems that the SL disappears with aging. Moreover, there is not only one kind of ligamentous attachment, but a high variability of attachments at the lower pole of the testiculo-epididymal structure. When it exists, this structure is never a real ligament and it seems more appropriate to use the term "attachments".

  13. Findings concerning testis, vas deference, and epididymis in adult cases with nonpalpable testes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Coskun; Kalkan, Mehmet; Yalcinkaya, Soner

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to state the relationship between testis, epididymis and vas deference, in adult cases with nonpalpable testis. Between January 1996 and December 2009, we evaluated 154 adult cases with nonpalpable testes. Mean age was 23 years (20-27 years). Explorations were performed by open inguinal incision, laparoscopy, and by inguinal incision and laparoscopy together on 22, 131 and 1 patient, respectively. Of all the unilateral cases, 32 were accepted as vanishing testis. In five of these cases, vas deference was ending inside the abdomen, and in the others, it was ending inside the scrotum. In the remaining 99 unilateral and 22 bilateral cases, 143 testes were found in total. Testes were found in the inguinal canal as atrophic in one case, at the right renal pedicle level with dysmorphic testis in one case, and anterior to the internal ring between the bladder and the common iliac vessels at a smaller than normal size in 119 cases. One (0.69%) case did not have epididymis. While epididymis was attached to the testis only at the head and tail locations in 88 (61.53%) cases, it was totally attached to the testis in 54 (37.76%) cases. There is an obviously high incidence rate of testis and vas deference anomalies, where epididymis is the most frequent one. In cases with abdominal testes, this rate is highest for high localised abdominal testes.

  14. [Experimental varicocele affects the ipsilateral testis in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yi-Qun; Zhang, Xiao-Bin; Cheng, Fan; Zhou, Ben-Zheng; Rao, Ting; Fei, An-Hua

    2008-09-01

    To investigate the impact of experimental varicocele (EV) on the ipsilateral testis in rats. EV was induced by partial ligation of the left renal vein in male SD rats, the control rats subjected to sham operation, and the testes of the EV models and controls were extirpated 6, 12, and 18 weeks later. Johnson's score, ultrastructure of seminiferous tubules, intratesticular testosterone concentration (ITC) and germ cell apoptotic index (AI) of each left testis were evaluated. Johnson's scores were (6.92 +/- 0.52), (4.83 +/- 0.41) and (2.95 +/- 0.26), ITCswere (6.32 +/- 0.85), (5.17 +/- 0.76) and (4.11 +/- 0.69) and AIs were (5.32 +/- 1.23), (15.21 +/- 0.97) and (21.13 +/- 1.12) respectively in the 6 w , 12 w and 18 w EV groups, significantly lower than in the corresponding control groups, (9.56 +/- 0.35, 9.63 +/- 0.31, 9.39 +/- 0.46), (9.64 +/- 1.23, 9.38 +/- 0.69, 9.73 +/- 0.49) and (3.21 +/- 1.15, 3.43 +/- 1.21, 3.61 +/- 1. 15) (P < 0.05), the former two showing a gradual decline while the latter a significant elevation with the increasing duration of varicocele. The damage to the ultrastructure of seminiferous tubules was aggravated with the prolonging of varicocele. EV can cause a progressive decline of ITC, dyszoospermia and increased AI of germ cells.

  15. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Differentially Expressed Genes and Signaling Pathways between XY and YY Testis in Yellow Catfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Junjie; Xiong, Shuting; Jing, Jing; Chen, Xin; Wang, Weimin; Gui, Jian-Fang; Mei, Jie

    2015-01-01

    YY super-males have rarely been detected in nature and only been artificially created in some fish species including tilapia and yellow catfish (Pelteobagrusfulvidraco), which provides a promising model for testis development and spermatogenesis. In our previous study, significant differences in morphology and miRNA expression were detected between XY and YY testis of yellow catfish. Here, solexa sequencing technology was further performed to compare mRNA expression between XY and YY testis. Compared with unigenes expressed in XY testis, 1146 and 1235 unigenes have significantly higher and lower expression in YY testis, respectively. 605 differentially expressed unigenes were annotated to 1604 GO terms with 319 and 286 genes having relative higher expression in XY and YY testis. KEGG analysis suggested different levels of PI3K-AKT and G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling pathways between XY and YY testis. Down-regulation of miR-141/429 in YY testis was speculated to promote testis development and maturation, and several factors in PI3K-AKT and GPCR signaling pathways were found as predicted targets of miR-141/429, several of which were confirmed by dual-luciferase reporter assays. Our study provides a comparative transcriptome analysis between XY and YY testis, and reveals interactions between miRNAs and their target genes that are possibly involved in regulating testis development and spermatogenesis.

  16. Examination for intratubular germ cell neoplasia at operation for undescended testis in boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes, D; Thorup, J; Frisch, M

    1994-01-01

    A total of 843 consecutive boys (median age 12.7 years) who had undergone testicular biopsy at operation for undescended testis was followed into adulthood (median age 25.2 years) to examine for testicular germ cell neoplasia. Five cases of testicular germ cell neoplasia were identified, including...... 1 nonseminoma of the contralateral testis, which had been treated before surgery for an undescended testis, 1 nonseminoma found at followup, 1 seminoma and 2 intratubular germ cell neoplasms. Of the later 3 patients 1 had a 45,X/46,XY karyotype and 2 had abnormal external genitalia. Previous...

  17. Examination for intratubular germ cell neoplasia at operation for undescended testis in boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes, Dina; Thorup, Jørgen Mogens; Frisch, M

    1994-01-01

    1 nonseminoma of the contralateral testis, which had been treated before surgery for an undescended testis, 1 nonseminoma found at followup, 1 seminoma and 2 intratubular germ cell neoplasms. Of the later 3 patients 1 had a 45,X/46,XY karyotype and 2 had abnormal external genitalia. Previous...... testicular biopsy from the patient in whom nonseminoma was noted at followup showed Sertoli cells only. We recommend that testicular biopsy be performed at operation for undescended testis in boys with abnormal sex chromosomes, particularly 45,X/46,XY karyotype, and in those with abnormal external genitalia...

  18. Blueberry Extracts Protect Testis from Hypobaric Hypoxia Induced Oxidative Stress in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Zepeda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to hypobaric hypoxia causes oxidative damage to male rat reproductive function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of a blueberry extract (BB-4 in testis of rats exposed to hypobaric hypoxia. Morphometric analysis, cellular DNA fragmentation, glutathione reductase (GR, and superoxide dismutase (SOD activities were evaluated. Our results showed that supplementation of BB-4 reduced lipid peroxidation, decreased apoptosis, and increased GR and SOD activities in rat testis under hypobaric hypoxia conditions . Therefore, this study demonstrates that blueberry extract significantly reduced the harmful effects of oxidative stress caused by hypobaric hypoxia in rat testis by affecting glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase activities.

  19. Bilateral interstitial cell tumor of the testis: a report of a case in an adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leotta, A; Lio, S G

    1994-10-01

    We describe a case of metachronous bilateral interstitial-cell tumor of the testis in a 54-year-old man with no evidence of endocrine symptoms. About 300 Leydig cell tumor cases have been reported in literature and only in 3% the tumor was bilateral. Rare examples have been reported in cryptorchid testis. In adult patients with Leydig cell tumor of the testis, endocrinologic signs occur in 20 per cent of cases and often precede the onset of a palpable testicular mass. Pathological aspects are discussed and a survey of the literature is reported.

  20. Expression and Location of Glucose-regulated Protein 78 in Testis and Epididymis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To know the role of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78/BiP/HSPA5 in spermatogenesis and its expression and location in the testis and epididymis. Methods: Immunohistochemistry and Western blot were used to detect GRP78 location and expression in the testis and epididymis. Results: Glucose-regulated protein 78 was observed in spermatocytes, round spermatids and interstitial cells of the testis and in principal cells of the epididymis. Glucose-regulated protein 78 was first detected in the rat testis at postnatal day 14. Thereafter, the protein level increased gradually with age and was maintained at a high and stable state after postnatal day 28. In the rat, GRP78 was expressed in the principal cells but not in clear cells of the epididymis. Conclusion: Glucose-regulated protein 78 participates in the process of spermatogenesis.

  1. Human Fetal Testis Xenografts Are Resistant to Phthalate-Induced Endocrine Disruption

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nicholas E. Heger; Susan J. Hall; Moses A. Sandrof; Elizabeth V. McDonnell; Janan B. Hensley; Erin N. McDowell; Kayla A. Martin; Kevin W. Gaido; Kamin J. Johnson; Kim Boekelheide

    2012-01-01

    .... Impomntly, ex vivo phthalate exposure of the letal testis does not recapitulate the species-specific endocrine disruption, demonstrating me need for a new bioassay to assess the human response to phthalates. Objectives...

  2. Changes in the Spermatogenesis and Histology of Testis in Rat Treated with Matricaria recutita

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas Jamshidiyan; Dariush Saadati; Jasem Estakhr; Jina Khayatzade; Fereshteh Javadian

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates the anti-spermatogenic potential of ethanolic extract of Matricaria recutita a plant belonging to Asteraceae family. The effects of an ethanolic extract of theMatricaria recutita on spermatogenesis, histology of testis and level of testosterone were examined in control and experimental groups. Results showed that Matricaria recutita extract did not cause any changes in body weight, but significantly decreased the testis weight (p

  3. Tubular Ectasia of the Rete Testis: What Is Behind It?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Rogel

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tubular ectasia of the rete testis (TERT is a dilatation of the seminiferous tubules of the mediastinum testis. It tends to be asymptomatic and usually constitutes an incidental finding of imaging studies. Scrotal ultrasound (SU shows tubules with a cystic appearance, suggesting a number of possible diagnoses, including testicular tumours. Objective: To review our experience and describe the clinical and ultrasound features. Design: Retrospective descriptive review. Setting: The images were obtained by SU on an ambulatory basis. SU was performed with the Pro Focus Ultrasound System (BK Medical®, Massachusetts, USA. The indications of the exploration, the SU findings, and the associated conditions were the variables analysed. Participants: 460 SU studies performed in our hospital between 2010 and 2013. The subjects were men, with a median age of 66 years (range 47–78. Outcome Measurements and Statistical Analysis: SPSS® version 20 (IBM, New York, USA was used for the descriptive analysis of the data. Results and Limitations: TERT was identified in 23 out of 460 SU studies performed. SU was indicated due to the presence of scrotal swelling in 7 patients (30%, an epididymal mass in 8 patients (35%, mild testicular pain in 6 patients (26%, and post-surgical control in 2 asymptomatic patients. Within the 23 patients, 10 (43.4% were diagnosed with an epididymal cyst, 3 (13% with chronic epididymitis, and 9 (39% with a hydrocoele. With regard to associated conditions, 3 (13% had undergone ipsilateral inguinal hernia repair, 3 (13% had undergone ipsilateral hydrocoelectomy, and 1 (4% had a history of contralateral testicular cancer. TERT was unilateral in all cases. No malignant degeneration of the lesions was observed in our series. Conclusions: According to our experience, TERT is an incidental condition where detailed clinical history, adequate physical examination, and SU findings can lead to the diagnosis. Knowledge of this disease

  4. [Cloning and characterization of a novel rat gene RSD-7 differentially expressed in testis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-dong; Gou, Da-wei; Miao, Shi-ying; Zhang, Jian-chao; Zong, Shu-dong; Wang, Lin-fang

    2003-06-01

    To isolate and identify the differentially expressed genes in spermatogenesis for the understanding molecular mechanism of spermatogenesis. Screening of the cDNA library, Northern blot, expression and purification in E. coli with GST expression system, immunocytochemical staining of testis sections were used. (1) A cDNA fragment designated as RSD-7 was isolated from rat testis cDNA library. It was 1,238 bp in length, coding a protein of 232 amino acids with the GenBank accession number AF315467. The encoding protein of RSD-7 cDNA had a Ubiquitin-like domain. (2) Northern blot indicated that RSD-7 was uniquely expressed in rat testis, and in the testis RSD-7 emerged on the 30th postnatal day and expressed until 120th postnatal day. (3) Expression and purification of RSD-7 protein in E. coli with GST expression system and were used to obtain anti-RSD-7 antibody. (4) Immunolocalization of RSD-7 in rat testis revealed that it is expressed only in Sertoli cells. Transcription pattern of RSD-7 and localization of RSD-7 protein in testis have been made, which established the base for the functional study of RSD-7.

  5. Comparison of combined antioxidants and thymoquinone in the prevention of testis ischemia - reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erol, B; Sari, U; Amasyali, A S; Ozkanli, S; Sogut, S; Hanci, V; Efiloglu, O; Danacioglu, Y O; Engin, P; Yencilek, F; Atis, G; Yildirim, A; Alkoc, O A; Caskurlu, T

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to compare the preventive effects of combined antioxidants (CA1, 2) with a single antioxidant drug (thymoquinone; TQ) on experimental testis Ischemia/Reperfusion (I/R) injury. Thirty-five adult male Wistar rats were divided into five groups of seven rats each: control, testis I/R, testis I/R + CA1, testis I/R + CA2, and testis I/R + TQ. After 1 h of testicular ischemia, reperfusion was achieved by detorsion for 4 h. Antioxidants were intraperitoneally administered for 30 min prior to reperfusion. All rats were sacrificed 4 h after reperfusion to evaluate the tissue levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant status (TAS) and the immunohistochemical evaluation of tissue inducible and endothelial nitric acid synthase (iNOS, eNOS) and apoptosis protease-activating factor 1 (APAF-1). MDA levels were lower and TAS values were higher in the I/R + antioxidant groups than in the I/R group (p antioxidant groups were also lower than those in the I/R group (p antioxidant treatment may more effectively reduce apoptosis and increase preventive effects in testis I/R injury. © 2016 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  6. Chronic pain has a negative impact on sexuality in testis cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pühse, Gerald; Wachsmuth, Julia Urte; Kemper, Sebastian; Husstedt, Ingo W; Evers, Stefan; Kliesch, Sabine

    2012-01-01

    Testis cancer is a disease that directly affects a man's sense of masculinity and involves treatments compromising sexual function. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of sexual dysfunction and the influence of chronic pain on sexuality in long-term testis cancer survivors. Thus, we examined 539 patients after they had one testis removed because of a testicular germ cell tumor. Having completed oncologic therapy, all patients received a detailed questionnaire asking about the occurrence and clinical presentation of testis pain before and after orchiectomy. In addition, items from the abridged International Index of Erectile Function and Brief Sexual Function Inventory were used to gain precise information on individual sexual function. Overall, 34.5% of our testicular cancer survivors complained of reduced sexual desire, and sexual activity was reduced in 41.6%. Erectile dysfunction was present in up to 31.5% of patients. In 24.4%, the ability to maintain an erection during intercourse was impaired. Ejaculatory disorders (premature, delayed, retrograde, or anejaculation) occurred in 84.9% of our testis cancer survivors. A total of 32.4% of our participants experienced a reduced intensity of orgasm, and 95.4% experienced reduced overall sexual satisfaction. There was a significant correlation between the occurrence of chronic pain symptoms and the relative frequency and intensity of erectile dysfunction, inability to maintain an erection, ejaculation disorders, and reduced intensity of orgasm. In conclusion, chronic pain has a negative impact on sexuality in testis cancer survivors.

  7. Identification and in vitro derivation of spermatogonia in beagle testis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Hoon Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In vitro culture of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs is important for exploration of SSCs self-renewal, differentiation, and manipulation. There are several reports on rodent SSC cultures; however, data on SSC cultures in domestic animals are limited. To provide basic scientific information on canine SSC cultures, we report canine testes development, and the development of spermatogonia-derived colonies (SDCs for in vitro cultures. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Testes from 2-, 3-, and 12-month-old beagles were used for histology, immunohistochemistry, in vitro culture, immunocytochemistry, and PCR. Protein gene product 9.5 (PGP9.5-positive spermatogonia, both single and paired, were found to be abundant in the testes of 2-month-old beagles. stempro-34 and Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium with 5% fetal bovine serum provided as useful substrates for culture of SDCs, and fibroblast growth factor (FGF played a key role in colony formation. Colonies were positive for alkaline phosphatase and anti-PGP9.5 staining. The early spermatogonia and stem cell markers such as octamer binding protein 4 (Oct4, Nanog homeobox (Nanog, promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (PLZF, PGP9.5, and GDNF family receptor alpha-1 (GFRα-1 were expressed in the colonies at higher levels than in the testis tissue. CONCLUSIONS: Testes of the 2-month-old beagles had abundant single and paired spermatogonia, which can be used for derivation of SDCs, and FGF was important for colony formation.

  8. Endocrine disrupting compounds exposure and testis development in mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egbowona, Biola F.; Mustapha, Olajide A.

    2011-01-01

    In the last few decades, there is substantial evidence that male reproductive function is deteriorating in humans and wildlife and this is associated with unintentional exposure to widely used synthetic chemicals. Subsequently, much has been done to show that certain chemicals in the environment adversely interfere with the developing fetal gonads of the laboratory animals. Some in vitro studies have demonstrated treatment-induced reproductive problems in offspring exposed to endocrine disrupting compounds (EDC) which are similar to those observed in wildlife and human population. Few EDC studies have demonstrated that there are certain periods of gestation when the developing fetus is highly sensitive and at risk of small endocrine changes. Similar observations have been made in the sewage sludge model, however, while animal studies have been insightful in providing valuable information about the range of effects that can be attributed to in utero exposure to EDCs, varying levels of maternal doses administered in different studies exaggerated extrapolation of these results to human. Thus the EDC concentration representative of fetal exposure levels is uncertain because of the complexities of its nature. So far, the level of fetal exposure can only be roughly estimated. There is substantial evidence from animal data to prove that EDCs can adversely affect reproductive development and function in male and more has accumulated on the mechanisms by which they exert their effects. This paper therefore, reviews previous studies to highlight the extent to which testis development can be disrupted during fetal life. PMID:29255381

  9. Sertoliform cystadenoma: a rare benign tumour of the rete testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremmer, Felix; Schweyer, Stefan; Behnes, Carl Ludwig; Blech, Manfred; Radzun, Heinz Joachim

    2013-02-14

    Sertoliform cystadenoma of the rete testis represents an uncommon benign tumour. They appear in patients from 26 to 62 years of age. We describe a case of a 66-year-old man with a tumour in the area of the epididymal head. The tumour markers were not increased. Under the assumption of a malignant testicular tumour an inguinal orchiectomy was performed. The cut surface of this tumour was of grey/white color and showed small cysts. The tumour consisted of two compartments. The epithelial like tumour cells showed a sertoliform growth pattern and cystic dilatations. In between the tumour cells repeatedly actin expressing sclerotic areas could be recognized as the second tumour component. Proliferative activity was not increased. Immunohistochemically the tumour cells were positiv for inhibin, S-100, and CD 99. Alpha feto protein (AFP), human chorionic gonadotropin (ß-HCG) and placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP) as well as synaptophysin, epithelial membrane antigene (EMA), and BCL-2 were not expressed. As far as we know this is the sixth reported case of this tumour. Because of the benign nature of this tumour the correct diagnosis is important for the intra- and postoperative management. Here we present a case of this rare tumour and discuss potential differential diagnosis. The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1956026143857335.

  10. Cancer/testis antigen PASD1 silences the circadian clock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Alicia K.; Harvey, Stacy L.; Sammons, Patrick J.; Anderson, Amanda P.; Kopalle, Hema M.; Banham, Alison H.; Partch, Carrie L.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The circadian clock orchestrates global changes in transcriptional regulation on a daily basis via the bHLH-PAS transcription factor CLOCK:BMAL1. Pathways driven by other bHLH-PAS transcription factors have a homologous repressor that modulates activity on a tissue-specific basis, but none have been identified for CLOCK:BMAL1. We show here that the cancer/testis antigen PASD1 fulfills this role to suppress circadian rhythms. PASD1 is evolutionarily related to CLOCK and interacts with the CLOCK:BMAL1 complex to repress transcriptional activation. Expression of PASD1 is restricted to germline tissues in healthy individuals, but can be induced in cells of somatic origin upon oncogenic transformation. Reducing PASD1 in human cancer cells significantly increases the amplitude of transcriptional oscillations to generate more robust circadian rhythms. Our results describe a function for a germline-specific protein in regulation of the circadian clock and provide a molecular link from oncogenic transformation to suppression of circadian rhythms. PMID:25936801

  11. Capillary hemangioma of the testis. A case report of a rare benign tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Białek

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the case of a very rare capillary hemangioma of the testis in a 23-yearold patient. Physical examination revealed a tumor located in the upper pole of the left testis, which was suspected of being malignant due to its significantly increased density and irregular contours. Blood levels of the following tumor markers were determined: alpha-fetoprotein, human chorionic gonadotropin and lactate dehydrogenase. No abnormalities were found in any of these tests. A gray-scale ultrasound scan of the scrotum revealed a lesion located in the upper pole of the left testis, 24 mm in diameter with slightly decreased echogenicity and irregular contours, which suggested infiltration of the tunica albuginea of the testis. Color and power Doppler scans demonstrated a dense network of blood vessels and increased blood flow in the lesion described. In addition, 3D ultrasound scan images were obtained, which allowed for a thorough determination of the topography of the lesion. No abnormalities were found in the patient’s medical history, physical examination or ultrasound scan of the right testis. Taking into account the suspected malignancy with signs of infiltration of the tunica albuginea of the upper pole of the testis a decision was made to remove the left testis together with the spermatic cord using the inguinal approach. A histopathological examination of the whole specimen revealed a multifocal capillary hemangioma of the testis, signs of testicular fibrosis and significant atrophy of the spermatogenic epithelium of the seminiferous tubules. Immunohistochemistry: CD31 (+, CD34 (+, FVIII (−, vimentin (+, CK MNF116 (−, mesothelial cells (−, calretinin (−, MIB-1 = 8.4%. The tumor described is one of the few benign lesions originating from the tissues of the testis for which partial resection of the organ may be considered. Intraoperative histopathological examination and resection of the lesion with the preservation of a healthy

  12. De niet-scrotale testis: huidige standpunten van de Werkgroep Kinderurologie van de Nederlandse Vereniging voor Urologie [Undescended testis: Current views and advice for treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hack, W.W.M.; Sijstermans, K.; Voort-Doedens, L.M. van der; Meijer, R.W.; Heij, H.A.; Delemarre-van de Waal, H.A.; Pierik, F.H.

    2008-01-01

    Eerder dit jaar verschenen in dit tijdschrift drie artikelen gewijd aan de niet-scrotale testis (NST).1-3 Ze hebben tot veel discussie geleid binnen de Werkgroep Kinderurologie (WGKU) van de Nederlandse Vereniging voor Urologie (NVU), hetgeen resulteerde in dit commentaar. Vooral de artikelen van

  13. Evaluation of Culture Time and Media in an In Vitro Testis Organ Culture System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Noriko; Merry, Gwenn E; Inselman, Amy L; Sloper, Daniel T; Del Valle, Pedro L; Sato, Takuya; Ogawa, Takehiko; Hansen, Deborah K

    2017-04-17

    The complexity of spermatogenesis makes development of appropriate in vitro testis models challenging. A novel in vitro mouse testis culture system has been reported but not yet evaluated as an alternative model for male reproductive toxicity testing. We assessed the effects of media composition on sperm differentiation and testis morphology of cultured mouse testis fragments. Testes from postnatal day 5 B6:CBA-Tg(Acrv1-EGFP)2727Redd/J male mice were cultured in knockout serum replacement (KSR) or Albumax I (Albumax) medium. Enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) expression was examined on days 35, 42, 45, and 49 of culture. Histology and flow cytometry were performed for testis morphology and spermatid differentiation. EGFP signals were first observed in round spermatids on day 22 of culture (corresponding to postnatal day 27) and were observed until the end of culture, indicating testis-specific protein expression. A-kinase anchor protein 4 expression, a marker of elongated spermatid (step 15-16) occurred earlier in explants cultured in KSR than Albumax medium (typically day 35 and after day 42 of culture, respectively). The percentage of seminiferous tubules with elongated spermatid was higher in Albumax than KSR medium from days 45 to 49 of culture. Albumax medium may facilitate or support better morphology and spermatid production than KSR medium. Further studies need to improve spermatid production and refinement of this in vitro testis culture system that may be useful as a supplement to current male reproductive toxicity testing or an alternative model in cases where in vivo testing may be unfeasible. Birth Defects Research 109:465-474, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. TORSION TESTIS : ROLE OF COLOR DOPPLER : A STUDY OF 50 CASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: T orsion testis is one of the catast r ophic conditions in children and young a d u lts. Traditionally the diagnosis was made clinical presentation and suspicion. Critical decision making is essential to save the testis . OBJECTIVE: To study the usefu lness and efficacy of Doppler ultrasound in correctly diagnosing acute scrotal conditions in children and young adults to save the testis and to avoid negative explorations. METHODS: Over a period of two years 50 patients with acute scrotum were admitted i n general surgery department who underwent Doppler ultrasound scrotum and its efficacy in correctly diagnosing the pathology was analysed. RESULTS: 50 patients with age group <25 years were included in study. Scrotal pain was the most frequent presenting s ymptom of acute scrotum (98% followed by Swelling of the hemiscrolum on the involved side present in 86% of the patients. Doppler ultrasound showed torsion of testis in 18 patients. On Scrotal exploration, torsion of spermatic cord was confirmed in 16 pat ients, one patient had torsion of appendix of testis and the other had Epididymo - orchitis. Thus the sensitivity and specificity of Doppler ultrasonography for testicular torsion was 86.9% and 92.6% respectively. 2 patients with equivocal Doppler findings, but strong clinical suspicion of testicular torsion were explored, and testis was found to be torsed in both two patients. Doppler ultrasonography showed Epididymo - orchitis in 22 patients, torsion of testicular appendage in 2 patients, Idiopathic scrotal edema in one, and in 5 pts no significant pathology found. All twenty patients of epididymo - orchitis, two patients of torsion of testicular appendage, and one patient of idiopathic scrotal edema were managed conservatively. At three weeks follow up, all th e patients were free of symptoms. The sensitivity and specificity of Doppler ultrasonography for epididymo - orchitis was 95% and 100% respectively. CONCLUSIONS: color

  15. Histochemical identification of sialylated glycans in Xenopus laevis testis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valbuena, Galder; Alonso, Edurne; Ubago, María Martínez; Madrid, Juan Francisco; Díaz-Flores, Lucio; Sáez, Francisco José

    2012-01-01

    Carbohydrate chains of glycoprotein and glycosphingolipids are highly diverse molecules involved in many cell functions, including cell recognition, adhesion and signalling. Sialylated glycans are of special interest because the terminal position of sialic acid (NeuAc) in glycans linked by different ways to subterminal monosaccharides has been shown to be involved in several biological processes, as occurs with gangliosides, which have been reported as being essential in spermatogenesis in mammals. Some glycan-binding proteins, the lectins, which specifically recognize glycan sequences, have been extensively used to characterize tissue and cell carbohydrates by means of cytochemical techniques. The aim of the present work was to determine the presence of NeuAc by means of histochemical techniques in the testis of Xenopus laevis, an animal model widely used in cell and molecular biology research. However, considering that some NeuAc-binding lectins are capable of binding to N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc), other GlcNAc-binding lectins were also assayed. The results showed that NeuAc is mainly expressed in the interstitium, and only a weak labelling in the male germ cells was observed. Most NeuAc was located in O-linked oligosaccharides, but some masked NeuAc in N-glycans were identified in primary and secondary spermatogonia and spermatocytes. By contrast, GlcNAc was widely expressed in all germ cell types. Deglycosylative pre-treatments suggest that both N- and O-glycans and/or glycolipids could be responsible for this labelling. In addition, GlcNAc in O-linked oligosaccharides has been identified in spermatogonial cells. The acrosome of spermatids was always negative. Variations of glycan expression have been found in different cell types, suggesting that glycosylation is modified during spermatogenetic development. PMID:22881213

  16. Magnetization transfer imaging of normal and abnormal testis: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsili, Athina C.; Ntorkou, Alexandra; Maliakas, Vasilios; Argyropoulou, Maria I. [University of Ioannina, Department of Clinical Radiology, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece); Baltogiannis, Dimitrios; Sylakos, Anastasios; Sofikitis, Nikolaos [University of Ioannina, Department of Urology, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece); Stavrou, Sotirios [University of Ioannina, Department of Urology, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece); University Hospital of Ioannina, Leoforos S. Niarchou, Department of Urology, Ioannina (Greece); Astrakas, Loukas G. [University of Ioannina, Department of Medical Physics, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece)

    2016-03-15

    The aim was to determine the magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) of normal testes, possible variations with age and to assess the feasibility of MTR in characterizing various testicular lesions. Eighty-six men were included. A three-dimensional gradient-echo MT sequence was performed, with/without an on-resonance binomial prepulse. MTR was calculated as: (SIo-SIm)/(SIo) x 100 %, where SIm and SIo refers to signal intensities with and without the saturation pulse, respectively. Subjects were classified as: group 1, 20-39 years; group 2, 40-65 years; and group 3, older than 65 years of age. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by the least significant difference test was used to assess variations of MTR with age. Comparison between the MTR of normal testis, malignant and benign testicular lesions was performed using independent-samples t testing. ANOVA revealed differences of MTR between age groups (F = 7.51, P = 0.001). Significant differences between groups 1, 2 (P = 0.011) and 1, 3 (P < 0.001) were found, but not between 2, 3 (P = 0.082). The MTR (in percent) of testicular carcinomas was 55.0 ± 3.2, significantly higher than that of benign lesions (50.3 ± 4.0, P = 0.02) and of normal testes (47.4 ± 2.2, P < 0.001). MTR of normal testes decreases with age. MTR might be helpful in the diagnostic work-up of testicular lesions. (orig.)

  17. Trace elemental analysis in cancer-afflicted tissues of penis and testis by PIXE technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naga Raju, G.J. [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam 530 003 (India); John Charles, M. [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam 530 003 (India); Bhuloka Reddy, S. [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam 530 003 (India)]. E-mail: sbr_r@yahoo.com; Sarita, P. [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam 530 003 (India); Seetharami Reddy, B. [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam 530 003 (India); Rama Lakshmi, P.V.B. [Pathology Department, Andhra Medical College, Visakhapatnam 530 002 (India); Vijayan, V. [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar 751 001 (India)

    2005-04-01

    PIXE technique was employed to estimate the trace elemental concentrations in the biological samples of cancerous penis and testis. A 3 MeV proton beam was employed to excite the samples. From the present results it can be seen that the concentrations of Cl, Fe and Co are lower in the cancerous tissue of the penis when compared with those in normal tissue while the concentrations of Cu, Zn and As are relatively higher. The concentrations of K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Br, Sr and Pb are in agreement within standard deviations in both cancerous and normal tissues. In the cancerous tissue of testis, the concentrations of K, Cr and Cu are higher while the concentrations of Fe, Co and Zn are lower when compared to those in normal tissue of testis. The concentrations of Cl, Ca, Ti and Mn are in agreement in both cancerous and normal tissues of testis. The higher levels of Cu lead to the development of tumor. Our results also support the underlying hypothesis of an anticopper, antiangiogenic approach to cancer therapy. The Cu/Zn ratios of both penis and testis were higher in cancer tissues compared to that of normal.

  18. Transcriptome profiling of testis during sexual maturation stages in Eriocheir sinensis using Illumina sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin He

    Full Text Available The testis is a highly specialized tissue that plays dual roles in ensuring fertility by producing spermatozoa and hormones. Spermatogenesis is a complex process, resulting in the production of mature sperm from primordial germ cells. Significant structural and biochemical changes take place in the seminiferous epithelium of the adult testis during spermatogenesis. The gene expression pattern of testis in Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis has not been extensively studied, and limited genetic research has been performed on this species. The advent of high-throughput sequencing technologies enables the generation of genomic resources within a short period of time and at minimal cost. In the present study, we performed de novo transcriptome sequencing to produce a comprehensive transcript dataset for testis of E. sinensis. In two runs, we produced 25,698,778 sequencing reads corresponding with 2.31 Gb total nucleotides. These reads were assembled into 342,753 contigs or 141,861 scaffold sequences, which identified 96,311 unigenes. Based on similarity searches with known proteins, 39,995 unigenes were annotated based on having a Blast hit in the non-redundant database or ESTscan results with a cut-off E-value above 10(-5. This is the first report of a mitten crab transcriptome using high-throughput sequencing technology, and all these testes transcripts can help us understand the molecular mechanisms involved in spermatogenesis and testis maturation.

  19. Rare presentation of a testicular angiofibroma treated with testis sparing surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Leone

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Testicular benign tumors are very rare (< 5%. Testicular Angiofibroma (AF is one of those, however the gold standard of treatment and follow-up is still unclear. Case report: A 47 years-old man with only one functioning testis was referred to our clinic for a palpable right testicular mass and atrophic contralateral testis. Patient underwent testis-sparing surgery with inguinal approach and intraoperative frozen sections examination with diagnosis of AF. Final histology confirmed AF. Post-operative follow-up was uneventful. Clinical and ultrasonographic follow-up was negative after 8 months. Conclusion: We report a conservative surgery in a patient with AF of the solitary testis. AF is a benign para-testicular fibrous neoplasm that could be misinterpreted as malignant tumor and treated with orchiectomy. Testis-sparing surgery is recommended in this case with intraoperative pathological examination. The excision of the mass is enough but in front of a possible recurrence a long follow-up is advisable.

  20. Vulnerability of Prepubertal Mice Testis to Iron Induced Oxidative Dysfunctions In Vivo and Functional Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thyagaraju BM

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study describes the susceptibility of prepubertal testis of mice toprooxidant induced oxidative impairments both under in vitro and in vivo exposure conditions.Materials and Methods: Following in vitro exposure to iron (5,10 and 25 M, oxidative responsemeasured in terms of lipid peroxidation and hydroperoxide levels in testis of pre pubertal mice (4wk was more robust compared to that of pubertal mice (6 wk.Results: Further, in an in vivo study, pre pubertal mice administered (i.p sub lethal doses (12.5,25 and 50mg/100g bw/d, 5d of Iron dextran, showed significant induction of oxidative stressresponse in testis cytosol and mitochondria manifested as lipid peroxidation, generation of reactiveoxygen species, hydroperoxide levels and enhanced protein carbonyl levels (a measure of proteinoxidation. Diminished levels of GSH and total thiols in both cytosol and mitochondria of testissuggested an altered redox state. Significant perturbations in the activities of antioxidant enzymessuch as glutathione transferase, glutathione peroxidase and SOD were discernible suggesting theongoing oxidative stress in vivo. These oxidative impairments were accompanied by functionalimplications in testis as reflected in the altered activities of dehydrogenases and reduced activitiesof both 3 - and 17 -hydroxysteriod dehydrogenase.Conclusion: Collectively, these data provide an account of the susceptibility of prepubertal testisto iron-induced oxidative stress, associated functional consequences and this model is being furtherexploited for understanding the implications on the physiology of testis and consequent effect onfertility.

  1. Expression and function of HSP110 family in mouse testis after vasectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-Ning Du

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available HSP110 functions to protect cells, tissues, and organs from noxious conditions. Vasectomy induces apoptosis in the testis; however, little is known about the reason leading to this outcome. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the expression and function of HSP110 in mouse testis after vasectomy. Following bilateral vasectomy, we used fluorescent Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL to detect apoptosis, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry to examine HSP110 expression and localization. Serum antisperm antibody (AsAb and testosterone were measured by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and radioimmunoassay, respectively. Expression of endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS sensors and downstream signaling components was measured by Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR, and the phosphorylation of eIF2α and JNK was detected by Western blotting. Vasectomy induced morphologic changes, increased apoptosis in the testis, increased serum AsAb, and decreased testosterone levels. After vasectomy, ORP150 mRNA level was increased first and then decreased, Bcl-2 was decreased, and the expression of HSPA4l, GRP78, GADD153, PERK, ATF6, IRE-1, XBP-1s, Bax, Bak, and caspases and the phosphorylation of eIF2α and JNK were increased. We present that an ER stress-mediated pathway is activated and involved in apoptosis in the testis after vasectomy. HSPA4l and ORP150 may play important roles in maintaining the normal structure and function of testis.

  2. Effects of flour or flaxseed oil upon testis mass in rats subjected to early weaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Carlos Alberto Soares; da Camara Boueri, Bianca Ferolla; Pessanha, Carolina Ribeiro; Boaventura, Gilson Teles

    2017-09-07

    Study evaluates testis mass in rats subjected to early weaning and subsequently nourished with diet containing flour or flaxseed oil. Pups were weaned for separation from mothers at 14 days (early weaning, EW) and 21 days (control, C). After 21 days, the control group (C60) was nourished with control diet. EW was divided as: control (EWC60), flaxseed flour (EWFF60) and flaxseed oil (EWFO60) group diets for the next 60 days. At 21st and 60th day, body mass, serum cholesterol and triglycerides and testis mass were evaluated. At 21 day, EW group showed lower (p < 0.05) body mass, serum cholesterol and testis mass. At 60 days, EWC60 and EWFO60 groups showed lower (p < 0.05) body mass (vs. C60 and EWFF60). EWFF60 group showed lower (p < 0.05) serum cholesterol (vs. EWC60 and EWFO60) and higher (p < 0.05) testis mass (vs. C60, EWC60 and EWFO60). Flaxseed flour (vs. oil) was associated with higher testis mass following early weaning.

  3. Protective effect of Zingiber officinale extract on rat testis after cyclophosphamide treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, F; Nikzad, H; Taghizadeh, M; Taherian, A; Azami-Tameh, A; Hosseini, S M; Moravveji, A

    2014-08-01

    Decreasing the side effects of chemotherapy in testis has been the subjects of many studies. In this study, the protective effects of Zingiber officinale extract on rat testis were investigated after chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide. Histological and biochemical parameters were compared in cyclophosphamide-treated rats with or without ginger extract intake. Wistar male rats were randomly divided into four groups each 10. The control group received a single injection of 1 ml isotonic saline intraperitoneally. The Cyclophosphamide (CP) group received a single dose of cyclophosphamide (100 mg kg(-1) BW) intraperitoneally. CP + 300 and CP + 600 groups received orally 300 or 600 mg of ginger extract, respectively, for a period of 6 weeks after cyclophosphamide injection. The morphologic and histological structure of the testis was compared in different groups of the rats. Also, factors like malondialdehyde, reactive oxygen species, total antioxidant capacity and testosterone level were assessed in blood serum as well. Our results showed that although ginger extract could not change testis weight, malondialdehyde (MDA) and ROS, but antioxidant and testosterone levels in serum were increased significantly. Also, an obvious improved histological change was seen in CP + 300 and CP + 600 groups in comparison with CP group. These protective effects of ginger on rat testis after cyclophosphamide treatment could be attributed to the higher serum level of antioxidants. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Marlin-1 is expressed in testis and associates to the cytoskeleton and GABAB receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, René L; Ramírez, Alfredo; Castro, Maite; Concha, Ilona I; Couve, Andrés

    2008-02-15

    Marlin-1 is a GABA(B) receptor and Jak tyrosine kinase-binding protein that also associates with RNA and microtubules. In humans and rodents, expression of Marlin-1 is predominantly restricted to the brain, but expression in lymphoid cells has also been reported. Here, we have studied the distribution of Marlin-1 in testis and spermatozoa. Our results indicate that Marlin-1 is highly expressed in testis. The protein is abundant in spermatogonia, spermatocytes, spermatozoa, and Sertoli cells. We also have studied the subcellular distribution in spermatozoa. Marlin-1 is present in the tail and to a lesser degree in the head of the sperm cell. Finally, we have explored two protein interactions. Our findings demonstrate that Marlin-1 associates with a microtubule fraction and with GABA(B) receptors in testis suggesting that the set of protein interactions of Marlin-1 are conserved in different tissues. Copyright 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Hh signalling is essential for somatic stem cell maintenance in the Drosophila testis niche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Marcus; Kupinski, Adam P; Raabe, Isabel; Bökel, Christian

    2012-08-01

    In the Drosophila testis, germline stem cells (GSCs) and somatic cyst stem cells (CySCs) are arranged around a group of postmitotic somatic cells, termed the hub, which produce a variety of growth factors contributing to the niche microenvironment that regulates both stem cell pools. Here we show that CySC but not GSC maintenance requires Hedgehog (Hh) signalling in addition to Jak/Stat pathway activation. CySC clones unable to transduce the Hh signal are lost by differentiation, whereas pathway overactivation leads to an increase in proliferation. However, unlike cells ectopically overexpressing Jak/Stat targets, the additional cells generated by excessive Hh signalling remain confined to the testis tip and retain the ability to differentiate. Interestingly, Hh signalling also controls somatic cell populations in the fly ovary and the mammalian testis. Our observations might therefore point towards a higher degree of organisational homology between the somatic components of gonads across the sexes and phyla than previously appreciated.

  6. A case of highly aggressive anaplastic seminoma of the testis presenting as fungating scrotal lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Creta

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Anaplastic seminoma (AS is an uncommon histological variant of classical seminoma of the testis and account for 5%-15% of cases. It is poorly described in the scientific literature. We present the case of a 50-years-old homeless man presenting with fever, marked left scrotal hardness and a fungating left scrotal lesion. He underwent left orchiopexy 40 years before. A computed tomography with contrast media showed a suspect testis cancer with scrotal involvment, extensive intralesional necrosis and multiple systemic metastases. A wide excision of the left hemiscrotum including the testis was performed in order to prevent severe local and systemic infectious complications. Histological examination revealed an AS. General conditions showed a rapid deterioration and the patient died on post operative day 10.

  7. Lipid peroxidation in kidney and testis tissues in experimental hypothyroidism: the role of zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltaci, A K; Mogulkoc, R; Ayyildiz, M; Kafali, E; Koyuncuoglu, T

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of zinc supplementation and zinc deficiency on the lipid peroxidation in the testis and kidney tissues of rats with experimentally induced hypothyroidism. The experimental Groups were formed as follows: 1 - Control; 2 - Sham-Hypothyroidism; 3 - Hypothyroidism (intraperitoneal administration of 10 mg/kg/day PTU for 4 weeks); 4 - Hypothyroidism + 3 mg/kg/day zinc supplementation (4 weeks); 5 - Hypothyroidism + zinc deficiency (4 weeks). The examination of the study results revealed that hypothyroidism in testis and kidney tissues increased MDA levels and decreased GSH levels (phypothyroidism, however, reduced the increased MDA amount and elevated GSH levels (phypothyroidism, on the other hand, was found to produce the opposite results (phypothyroidism caused lipid peroxidation in kidney and testis tissues. Zinc deficiency together with hypothyroidism made lipid peroxidation more evident, while zinc supplementation significantly inhibited the increased oxidative stress by activating the antioxidant system (Tab. 1, Ref. 24).

  8. Effects of catuaba cristal® on the testis of wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Moura de Freitas

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible beneficial effects of Catuaba Cristal® (CC, an alcoholic drink made from wine and Erythroxylum catuaba Ar. Cam on testis. Wistar rats either received CC solution (n=8 or water (n=9. Results showed significant body weight reduction within the CC group, although, no weight changes were observed for liver, kidney, testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle and prostate. The volumetric proportion and volume of interstitial tissue and lymphatic space were reduced in the treated group. In the CC group, although the nuclear volume of Leydig cells (LC decreased, the number of LC per testis increased. These results suggested that CC had no beneficial effect on spermatogenesis of Wistar rats.

  9. Genome-scale analysis of positional clustering of mouse testis-specific genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Bernett TK

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genes are not randomly distributed on a chromosome as they were thought even after removal of tandem repeats. The positional clustering of co-expressed genes is known in prokaryotes and recently reported in several eukaryotic organisms such as Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster, and Homo sapiens. In order to further investigate the mode of tissue-specific gene clustering in higher eukaryotes, we have performed a genome-scale analysis of positional clustering of the mouse testis-specific genes. Results Our computational analysis shows that a large proportion of testis-specific genes are clustered in groups of 2 to 5 genes in the mouse genome. The number of clusters is much higher than expected by chance even after removal of tandem repeats. Conclusion Our result suggests that testis-specific genes tend to cluster on the mouse chromosomes. This provides another piece of evidence for the hypothesis that clusters of tissue-specific genes do exist.

  10. The protective effect of ischemic preconditioning on rat testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciralik Harun

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been demonstrated that brief episodes of sublethal ischemia-reperfusion, so-called ischemic preconditioning, provide powerful tissue protection in different tissues such as heart, brain, skeletal muscle, lung, liver, intestine, kidney, retina, and endothelial cells. Although a recent study has claimed that there are no protective effects of ischemic preconditioning in rat testis, the protective effects of ischemic preconditioning on testicular tissue have not been investigated adequately. The present study was thus planned to investigate whether ischemic preconditioning has a protective effect on testicular tissue. Methods Rats were divided into seven groups that each contained seven rats. In group 1 (control group, only unilateral testicular ischemia was performed by creating a testicular torsion by a 720 degree clockwise rotation for 180 min. In group 2, group 3, group 4, group 5, group 6, and group 7, unilateral testicular ischemia was performed for 180 min following different periods of ischemic preconditioning. The ischemic preconditioning periods were as follows: 10 minutes of ischemia with 10 minutes of reperfusion in group 2; 20 minutes of ischemia with 10 minutes of reperfusion in group 3; 30 minutes of ischemia with 10 minutes of reperfusion in group 4; multiple preconditioning periods were used (3 × 10 min early phase transient ischemia with 10 min reperfusion in all episodes in group 5; multiple preconditioning periods were used (5, 10, and 15 min early phase transient ischemia with 10 min reperfusion in all episodes in group 6; and, multiple preconditioning periods were used (10, 20, and 30 min early phase transient ischemia with 10 min reperfusion in all episodes in group 7. After the ischemic protocols were carried out, animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation and testicular tissue samples were taken for biochemical measurements (protein, malondialdehyde, nitric oxide and histological examination

  11. Undescended testis histology correlation with adult hormone levels and semen analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Kate H; Canning, Douglas A; Snyder, Howard M; Kolon, Thomas F

    2012-10-01

    Cryptorchidism has been associated with infertility. We hypothesize that a positive correlation exists between testicular histopathology at orchiopexy and future fertility potential in patients with cryptorchidism. Patients with cryptorchidism who underwent orchiopexy with bilateral testis biopsies were followed into adulthood. Testis histology was stratified into groups based on total germ cells per tubule and adult dark spermatogonia per tubule. After age 18 years, patients underwent hormonal testing and semen analysis. Mean semen analysis parameters and hormone levels were compared among histopathology groups. A total of 91 patients with unilateral undescended testes and 19 with bilateral undescended testes had data for review. No significant differences in semen analysis parameters were seen among the germ cells per tubule groups. In unilateral undescended testis, sperm density and sperm count in the abnormal adult dark spermatogonia per tubule group remained within normal range but were significantly decreased (p = 0.005 and p = 0.028). Follicle-stimulating hormone levels were significantly higher in patients with unilateral undescended testis with abnormal adult dark spermatogonia per tubule but remained within normal range (p = 0.009). Sperm density was below normal range and was significantly decreased in the abnormal adult dark spermatogonia per tubule group in the bilateral undescended testes cohort (p = 0.0496). In bilateral undescended testes follicle-stimulating hormone level, sperm count and percent motility in the abnormal adult dark spermatogonia per tubule group were outside normal clinical range but these results were not statistically significant (p = 0.07-0.2). Total germ cell histopathology at the time of orchiopexy was not associated with significant changes in hormone levels or semen analysis results in adulthood. Testis biopsy at orchiopexy may be limited in predicting future fertility in unilateral undescended testis but more clinically

  12. Long non-coding RNA expression profiling of mouse testis during postnatal development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Sun

    Full Text Available Mammalian testis development and spermatogenesis play critical roles in male fertility and continuation of a species. Previous research into the molecular mechanisms of testis development and spermatogenesis has largely focused on the role of protein-coding genes and small non-coding RNAs, such as microRNAs and piRNAs. Recently, it has become apparent that large numbers of long (>200 nt non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs are transcribed from mammalian genomes and that lncRNAs perform important regulatory functions in various developmental processes. However, the expression of lncRNAs and their biological functions in post-natal testis development remain unknown. In this study, we employed microarray technology to examine lncRNA expression profiles of neonatal (6-day-old and adult (8-week-old mouse testes. We found that 8,265 lncRNAs were expressed above background levels during post-natal testis development, of which 3,025 were differentially expressed. Candidate lncRNAs were identified for further characterization by an integrated examination of genomic context, gene ontology (GO enrichment of their associated protein-coding genes, promoter analysis for epigenetic modification, and evolutionary conservation of elements. Many lncRNAs overlapped or were adjacent to key transcription factors and other genes involved in spermatogenesis, such as Ovol1, Ovol2, Lhx1, Sox3, Sox9, Plzf, c-Kit, Wt1, Sycp2, Prm1 and Prm2. Most differentially expressed lncRNAs exhibited epigenetic modification marks similar to protein-coding genes and tend to be expressed in a tissue-specific manner. In addition, the majority of differentially expressed lncRNAs harbored evolutionary conserved elements. Taken together, our findings represent the first systematic investigation of lncRNA expression in the mammalian testis and provide a solid foundation for further research into the molecular mechanisms of lncRNAs function in mammalian testis development and spermatogenesis.

  13. Fluorescence and inmunohistological detection of estrogen receptors in dog testis and epidydimis after oral coumestrol administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Hector; Perez-Rivero, Juan Jose; Martinez-Maya, Jose Juan; Aguilar-Setien, Alvaro; Perez-Martinez, Mario; Garcia-Suarez, Maria-Dolores

    2008-12-01

    Estrogens are well recognized as important hormones in male reproduction and act as ligands to alpha and beta estrogen receptors. Both estrogen receptors could interact with estrogen-mimicking compounds such as the fluorescent phytoestrogen coumestrol, which acts both in an agonist or antagonist fashion. To investigate the presence of Coumestrol-Estrogen Receptor complexes by fluorescence in testis and epididymis, its effect in the ER expression by immunostain in the same tissues and the effect of this binding in the testis histological characteristics. Adult healthy and sexually active dogs were assigned to either the experimental or control group .Coumestrol impregnated dog biscuits were given to each animal from the experimental group once a week for a 4 week period. The control group received a biscuit with no Coumestrol, also once a week and for the same period. Testis morphology, ER immunodetection, and coumestrol-receptor binding were evaluated. The experiment was done in the facilities of the Mexico City canine shelter. Animals were caged individually with food and water ad libitum and having at least two daily hours for exercise. Morphological alterations in testis after oral administration of coumestrol were detected. The main alterations include decreased germinal epithelium in tubule, and the loss of a continuous proliferation and differentiation gamete layer. Fluorescence signals in testis interstitial Leydig cells and epididymus indicating ER-coumestrol complexes were detected at the same points to those Immunohystochemically detected ER. Coumestrol administration induces testis alterations and coumestrol-ER complexes can be co-localized by binding-enhanced fluorescence and immunoprecipitation.

  14. Placental site trophoblastic tumor in a late recurrence of a nonseminomatous germ cell tumor of the testis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suurmeijer, AJH; Gietema, JA; Hoekstra, HJ

    Placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) is a well-defined entity in the female genital tract. In the male genital tract, a single case of PSTT in the testis of a young boy has been reported. Despite its very rare occurrence, PSTT of the testis has been incorporated in the latest WHO classification

  15. Recent adverse trends in semen quality and testis cancer incidence among Finnish men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, N; Vierula, M; Jacobsen, R

    2011-01-01

    Impaired semen quality and testicular cancer may be linked through a testicular dysgenesis syndrome of foetal origin. The incidence of testis cancer has been shown to increase among Finnish men, whereas there is no recent publication describing temporal trends in semen quality. Therefore, we...... carried out a prospective semen quality study and a registry study of testis cancer incidence among Finnish men to explore recent trends. A total of 858 men were investigated in the semen quality study during 1998-2006. Median sperm concentrations were 67 (95% CI 57-80) million/mL, 60 (51-71) and 48 (39...

  16. Effects of long-term cadmium exposure on the testis of rabbits: ultrastructural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscolo, P; Sacchettoni-Logroscino, G; Ranelletti, F O; Gioia, A; Carmignani, M

    1985-01-01

    Six male rabbits received for 9 months drinking water containing 20 micrograms/ml of cadmium (Cd). At the end of the treatment, the Cd contents of kidney and testis were 175 +/- 34 and 0.8 +/- 0.2 micrograms/g wet weight, respectively. Ultrastructural examination by transmission electron microscopy (EM) showed that, in the Sertoli cells, the size of the lysosomes was increased; spermatogenetic cells, vessels and Leydig cells showed no significant alterations. Observations with both transmission and scanning EM did not evidence changes in the blood-testis barrier, but our results do not exclude that male fertility may be affected by chronic exposure to cadmium.

  17. Mucinous Cystadenoma of the Testis: A Case Report with Immunohistochemical Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilhyang Kim

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Mucinous cystadenoma of the testis is a very rare tumor. Herein, we report a case of mucinous cystadenoma arising in the testis of a 61-year-old man, along with a literature review. Computed tomography showed a 2.5-cm-sized poorly enhancing cystic mass. Grossly, the tumor was a unilocular cystic mass filled with mucinous material and confined to the testicular parenchyma. Histologically, the cyst had a fibrotic wall lined by mucinous columnar epithelium without atypia. Immunohistochemical staining was positive for cytokeratin 20 and CDX2, as well as focally positive for cytokeratin 7. The pathologic diagnosis was mucinous cystadenoma.

  18. Chloroma of the testis in a patient with a history of acute myeloid leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Sanei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chloroma, or granulocytic sarcoma, is a rare extramedullary solid hematologic cancer, found concomitant with acute myeloid leukemia. It is infrequently associated with other myeloproliferative disorders or chronic myelogenous leukemia. Chloroma of the testis after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation is particularly sparsely represented in the literature. It is suggested that an appropriate panel of marker studies be performed along with clinical correlation and circumspection to avoid misleading conclusions. We report an interesting case of a 32-year-old male with a clinical history of acute myelogenous leukemia, postallogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation that was found to have chloroma of the right testis.

  19. Primary malignant mesothelioma of the tunica vaginalis of the testis. Immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berti, E; Schiaffino, E; Minervini, M S; Longo, G; Schmid, C

    1997-02-01

    A case of primary malignant mesothelioma of the tunica vaginalis of the testis in a 75 year old man is here presented. Anamnesis for asbestos exposure was negative. Recurrent left hydrocele was the main symptom. Echography revealed a nodular mass in the caudal aspect of the epididymis and papillary projection on the surface of the tunica vaginalis of the testis. An inguinal left orchiectomy was performed. The tumor both in the solid area and in the papillary projections was identified as a malignant mesothelioma of epithelial type. The role of immunohistochemistry and ultrastructure for a correct definition of the tumor is underlined.

  20. Expression of MAGE-A1, MAGE-A3/4 and NY-ESO-1 cancer-testis antigens in fetal testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudolin, Tvrtko; Kastelan, Zeljko; Derezić, Danijel; Basić-Jukić, Nikolina; Cesare Spagnoli, Giulio; Juretić, Antonio; Jezek, Davor

    2009-01-01

    Immunohistochemical expression of MAGE-A1, MAGE-A3/4 and NY-ESO-1/LAGE-1 cancer testis antigens (CTA) was assessed in 24 fetal testes from 15th to 36th week of gestation. Three monoclonal antibodies were used for immunohistochemical staining: 77B recognizing MAGE-A1, 57B recognizing multiple MAGE-A CTA, and D8.38 recognizing NY-ESO-1/LAGE-1. Expression of MAGE-A1 was not observed in fetal testis samples, whereas multi-MAGE-A and NY-ESO-1/LAGE-1 specific reagents stained pro-spermatogonia in all samples with different expression levels during the period of fetal development observed. Significant expression of MAGE-A3/4 and almost continuous expression of NY-ESO-1 in fetal testes after 22nd week of gestation suggested their important role in the development of sex cords and pro-spermatogonia in particular.

  1. Identification of testis-relevant genes using in silico analysis from testis ESTs and cDNA microarray in the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wongsurawat Thidathip

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor reproductive maturation of the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon in captivity is one of the serious threats to sustainability of the shrimp farming industry. Understanding molecular mechanisms governing reproductive maturation processes requires the fundamental knowledge of integrated expression profiles in gonads of this economically important species. In P. monodon, a non-model species for which the genome sequence is not available, expressed sequence tag (EST and cDNA microarray analyses can help reveal important transcripts relevant to reproduction and facilitate functional characterization of transcripts with important roles in male reproductive development and maturation. Results In this study, a conventional testis EST library was exploited to reveal novel transcripts. A total of 4,803 ESTs were unidirectionally sequenced and analyzed in silico using a customizable data analysis package, ESTplus. After sequence assembly, 2,702 unique sequences comprised of 424 contigs and 2,278 singletons were identified; of these, 1,133 sequences are homologous to genes with known functions. The sequences were further characterized according to gene ontology categories (41% biological process, 24% molecular function, 35% cellular component. Through comparison with EST libraries of other tissues of P. monodon, 1,579 transcripts found only in the testis cDNA library were identified. A total of 621 ESTs have not been identified in penaeid shrimp. Furthermore, cDNA microarray analysis revealed several ESTs homologous to testis-relevant genes were more preferentially expressed in testis than in ovary. Representatives of these transcripts, homologs of saposin (PmSap and Dmc1 (PmDmc1, were further characterized by RACE-PCR. The more abundant expression levels in testis than ovary of PmSap and PmDmc1 were verified by quantitative real-time PCR in juveniles and wild broodstock of P. monodon. Conclusions Without a genome sequence, a

  2. Serological identification of Tektin5 as a cancer/testis antigen and its immunogenicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanafusa Tadashi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identification of new cancer antigens is necessary for the efficient diagnosis and immunotherapy. A variety of tumor antigens have been identified by several methodologies. Among those antigens, cancer/testis (CT antigens have became promising targets. Methods The serological identification of antigens by the recombinant expression cloning (SEREX methodology has been successfully used for the identification of cancer/testis (CT antigens. We performed the SEREX analysis of colon cancer. Results We isolated a total of 60 positive cDNA clones comprising 38 different genes. They included 2 genes with testis-specific expression profiles in the UniGene database, such as TEKT5 and a CT-like gene, A kinase anchoring protein 3 (AKAP3. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that the expression of TEKT5 was restricted to the testis in normal adult tissues. In malignant tissues, TEKT5 was aberrantly expressed in a variety of cancers, including colon cancer. A serological survey of 101 cancer patients with different cancers by ELISA revealed antibodies to TEKT5 in 13 patients, including colon cancer. None of the 16 healthy donor serum samples were reactive in the same test. Conclusion We identified candidate new CT antigen of colon cancer, TEKT5. The findings indicate that TEKT5 is immunogenic in humans, and suggest its potential use as diagnostic as well as an immunotherapeutic reagent for cancer patients.

  3. An original procedure for balanus repair with transposition of the testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Kurbatov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the unique clinical experience of successful sexual rehabilitation of a patient who has undergone penile amputation for cancer. Complex reconstruction of all parts of the lost organ, by using known methods and those proposed for the first time in global practice (balanus repair with transposition of the testis, was performed in the patient.

  4. Histological changes in the testis of rats treated with Alomo Bitter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Considering the increasing demand for herbal aphrodisiacs, this study investigates the effect of Alomo bitters on the histology of testis in adult rats. 36 male rats of comparable weight (151.67 ± 2.89 grams) and sizes were involved in this study. The animals were assigned into four groups; a control group (A) and three test ...

  5. The Blood Testis Barrier and Male Sexual Dysfunction following Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    lines represent the injured animals, the blue bars represent sham animals and the gray bars are naïve animals. The hollow red bar means significant... Queen JH, Grill RJ. Spinal cord injury causes sustained disruption of the blood-testis barrier in the rat. PloS one. 2011;6(1):e16456. PubMed PMID

  6. Protective effect of ginger on gentamicin-induced apoptosis in testis of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahedi, Afshin; Fathiazad, Fatemeh; Khaki, Arash; Ahmadnejad, Behnam

    2012-01-01

    Ginger, the rhizome of Zingiber officinale, is one of the most widely used spices for various foods and as an herbal medicine in Asian countries. It has been shown that ginger has antioxidant power. Gentamicin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic with a very broad spectrum against microbial pathogens, especially the gram-negative. Many studies revealed that gentamicin induces an oxidative stress-status in the testis by increasing free radical formation and lipid peroxidation. The present study was designed to investigate on the effects of Ginger as a natural anioxidant on testis apoptosis after treatment with gentamicin in rats. In order to study the recovery effects of ginger on testis apoptosis after treatment with gentamicin 40 adult Wistar male rats were selected and randomly divided into four groups. Normal salin control (group I) (n=10), gentamicin control (group II), ginger control (group III) and gentamicin + ginger (group IV) each 10 rats. There was observation of negative effect of Gentamicin on testis histology in rats. The results revealed that there was a significant increase in apoptosis in group III when compared with other groups (P<0.05).However, ginger could decrease apoptosis in group IV that received 100mg/kg/rat of Ginger. Regarding the results, it is recommended that administration of ginger with gentamicin might be beneficial in men who receive gentamicin to treat infections.

  7. Protective Effect of Ginger on Gentamicin-Induced Apoptosis in Testis of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Zahedi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Ginger, the rhizome of Zingiber officinale, is one of the most widely used spices for various foods and as an herbal medicine in Asian countries. It has been shown that ginger has antioxidant power. Gentamicin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic with a very broad spectrum against microbial pathogens, especially the gram-negative. Many studies revealed that gentamicin induces an oxidative stress-status in the testis by increasing free radical formation and lipid peroxidation. The present study was designed to investigate on the effects of Ginger as a natural anioxidant on testis apoptosis after treatment with gentamicin in rats. Methods: In order to study the recovery effects of ginger on testis apoptosis after treatment with gentamicin 40 adult Wistar male rats were selected and randomly divided into four groups. Normal salin control (group I (n=10, gentamicin control (group II, ginger control (group III and gentamicin + ginger (group IV each 10 rats. There was observation of negative effect of Gentamicin on testis histology in rats. Results: The results revealed that there was a significant increase in apoptosis in group III when compared with other groups (P<0.05.However, ginger could decrease apoptosis in group IV that received 100mg/kg/rat of Ginger. Conclusion: Regarding the results, it is recommended that administration of ginger with gentamicin might be beneficial in men who receive gentamicin to treat infections.

  8. a cause of therapy in Venous infarction of the testis non-response to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-09-15

    Sep 15, 1990 ... non-response to conservatIve epididymo-orchitis. A case ... The right side of the scrotum was enlarged with erythema of the overlying skin. The right testis was moderately enlarged with tenderness on palpation. The right epididymis was ... Four factors are thought to contribute: (I) oedema of the epididymis ...

  9. Testis sparing surgery for Leydig cell tumors: New three cases and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A. Chaabouni

    Testis sparing surgery for Leydig cell tumors: New three cases and review of the current literature. A. Chaabouni. ∗. , K. Chabchoub, N. Rebai, M. Bouacida, M.H. Slimen,. A. Bahloul, M.N. Mhiri. Department of Urology, Habib Bourguiba University Hospital, Majida Boulila Road, Sfax 3029, Tunisia. Received 25 January 2013 ...

  10. Antioxidant effects of alpha-tocopherol (vitamine E on testis regeneration in busulfan-treated mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Rohnavaz

    2016-09-01

    (35, 40 mg/kg body weight intraperitonealy. The effects of busulfan was examinned on destruction of testis tissue, semen parameters and catalase enzymatic activity compared with control group after 30 days. Finally, fter determining the effective dose of busulfan, Vitamin E was injected to the mice as an antioxidant enzyme  and its effects on semen parameters and testis tissue was examined after one month.  Results: The results showed that oxidative stress was increased in busulfan-treated mice during 30 days. Catalase enzymatic activity decreased significantly in testis of Busulfan-treated mice in comparison with control group. A significant decrease of sperm number was observed according to treatment by Busulfan. After finding the most damaging dose of busulfan (40 mg/kg in destruction of testis tissue, these mice were injected by vitamine E. The results showed that the oxidative stress and percentage of abnormal sperm were decreased in Busulfan-treated mice that exposed a dose of 100 mg/kg vitamin E. The number of sperm and antioxidant activity of catalase was increased. Conclusion: Vitamin E improves a revival of spermatogenesis and improves testicular parameters in these patients. 

  11. Testis-sparing surgery for the conservative management of small testicular masses: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunocilla, Eugenio; Gentile, Giorgio; Schiavina, Riccardo; Borghesi, Marco; Franceschelli, Alessandro; Pultrone, Cristian Vincenzo; Chessa, Francesco; Romagnoli, Daniele; Ghanem, Sadam Mahmoud; Gacci, Mauro; Martorana, Giuseppe; Colombo, Fulvio

    2013-11-01

    Malignant germ cell tumours represent the vast majority of palpable testicular masses, and radical orchiectomy is still considered the standard-of-care. Testis-sparing surgery (TSS) could be an alternative to radical orchiectomy in patients diagnosed with small testicular masses (STMs). The aim of this article was to review the current indications and the oncological and functional outcomes of TSS when performed for STMs. We performed a non-systematic review of literature using the Medline database, including a free-text protocol using the terms "testis sparing surgery", "partial orchiectomy", "testis tumour" and "sex cord tumour". Only the articles reporting data on organ-sparing surgery for testicular neoplasms were evaluated. No randomized controlled trials comparing TSS with radical orchiectomy have been reported. Indications for TSS are controversial, especially for patients with normal contra-lateral testis. For testicular masses of less then 2 cm, TSS seems to be the best treatment option. Frozen-section examination is an essential assessment at the time of TSS, and allows for discrimination of benign from malignant neoplasms. Intermediate- and long-term follow-up results showed no significant risk of local and distant recurrences in the main series reported in literature. According to currently available data, TSS is a safe and effective treatment for STMs in selected patients, and bypasses surgical overtreatment, without compromising oncological and functional outcomes. Further studies are needed in order to confirm the oncological safety of this procedure.

  12. Recent adverse trends in semen quality and testis cancer incidence among Finnish men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, N.; Vierula, M.; Jacobsen, R.

    2011-01-01

    Impaired semen quality and testicular cancer may be linked through a testicular dysgenesis syndrome of foetal origin. The incidence of testis cancer has been shown to increase among Finnish men, whereas there is no recent publication describing temporal trends in semen quality. Therefore, we...

  13. The SOX gene family: function and regulation in testis determination and male fertility maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ting; Hou, Cong-Cong; She, Zhen-Yu; Yang, Wan-Xi

    2013-03-01

    The Sox (Sry-type HMG box) genes encode a group of proteins characterized by the existence of an SRY (sex-determining region on Y chromosome) box, a 79 amino acid motif that encodes an HMG (high mobility group) domain which can bind and bend DNA, which is the only part in SRY that is conserved between species. The Sox gene family functions in many aspects in embryogenesis, including testis development, CNS neurogenesis, oligodendrocyte development, chondrogenesis, neural crest cell development and other respects. The Sox gene family was originally identified through homology with Sry. The Sry gene is the mammalian testis-determining gene. It functions to open the testis determination pathway directly and close the ovary pathway indirectly. Sry and Sox9 are the most important two genes expressed during testis determination. Besides, researchers have found that Sox8 and Sox9 have functions in the male fertility maintenance after birth. In this review, information was evaluated from mouse or from human if not mentioned otherwise.

  14. Two lectin-like receptors for alpha 1-acid glycoprotein in mouse testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, U O; Kirkeby, S; Bøg-Hansen, T C

    1997-01-01

    Three glycoforms of alpha 1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) were biotinylated to examine their binding in mouse testis by light microscopy. The transition from one stage to another in the spermatogenic cycle is marked with an appearance of a receptor for the Concanavalin A (Con A) non-reactive glycoform...

  15. Mesenchymal origin of multipotent human testis-derived stem cells in human testicular cell cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chikhovskaya, J. V.; van Daalen, S. K. M.; Korver, C. M.; Repping, S.; van Pelt, A. M. M.

    2014-01-01

    In contrast to mouse germ cell-derived pluripotent stem cells, the pluripotent state of human testis-derived embryonic stem cell (ESC)-like that spontaneously arise in primary testicular cell cultures remains controversial. Recent studies have shown that these cells closely resemble multipotent

  16. The effect of constant photoperiod on testis weight and the use of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As the birds aged, the effects of photorefractoriness wore off, but at the end of the experiment adult photorefractoriness was again evident, with birds on 14 h and longer having smaller average testis weights, and therefore, no longer .... However, measuring comb size would practically be easier than observing behaviour.

  17. Peritubular Contractile Cells in Testis and Epididymis of the Dog, Canis lupus familiaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunter F. Egger

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Contractile cells surrounding the tubular system of the mammalian testis and epididymis are supposed to contribute to the initial transport of spermatozoa from the testis to epididymis. Testicular peritubular smooth muscle cells have been characterised in detail especially in rodents and humans. The aim of our study was to assess the distribution of peritubular contractile cells of the canine tubuli seminiferi, rete testis channels, ductuli efferentes, and ductus epididymidis by immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy and to classify these cells with respect to their possible physiological function. The entire tubular system of the canine testis and epididymis is surrounded by contractile cells expressing smooth muscle actin, smooth muscle myosin and desmin, which are enveloped, at least partly, by a basal lamina. Some contractile cells of the tubuli seminiferi, rete channels, and efferent ducts and sometimes also single peritubular cells of the ductus epididymidis express vimentin. Contractile cells of seminiferous tubules and efferent ducts represent an intermediate cell type exhibiting characteristics of both smooth muscle cells (SMC and myofibroblasts, those of rete channels stellate myofibroblasts, and those of the ductus epididymidis SMC. Differences in structure and arrangement of the contractile cells between seminiferous tubules, rete channels, efferent ducts, and ductus epididymidis suggest different functions. Myofibroblasts and contractile cells similar to them could be mainly responsible for the maintenance of an appropriate tissue turgor, whereas contraction of SMC of the ductus epididymidis might cause propulsion of spermatozoa by peristaltic waves.

  18. L’accademia dei morti viventi.Parte terza: i testi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chiara Pievatolo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available [Segue da Parte seconda: il fantasma dell'autore] La rete fa interagire i testi tramite i link. Li fa interagire fra loro ma soprattutto con il lettore e fra i lettori. Gli autori scrivono frasi, i tipografi stampano pagine, mentre i libri sono fatti dai rilegatori. Le loro proprietà formali non derivano dalla stampa, ma dalla [...

  19. The comparative histology of the testis of two cultured clariid species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and subsequently viewed under light microscope. Our findings showed that the seminiferous tubules of the Clarias gariepinus testis had wider lumen than those found in Heterobranchus bidorsalis. On the other hand the interlobular spaces were extensive in the Heterobranchus bidorsalis than that of Clarias gariepinus.

  20. Endocrine roles of D-aspartic acid in the testis of lizard Podarcis s. sicula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raucci, F; D'Aniello, S; Di Fiore, M M

    2005-12-01

    In the lizard Podarcis s. sicula, a substantial amount of D-aspartate (D-Asp) is endogenous to the testis and shows cyclic changes of activity connected with sex hormone profiles during the annual reproductive phases. Testicular D-Asp content shows a direct correlation with testosterone titres and a reverse correlation with 17beta-estradiol titres. In vivo experiments, consisting of i.p. injections of 2.0 micromol/g body weight of D-Asp or other amino acids, in lizards collected during the three main phases of the reproductive cycle (pre-reproductive, reproductive and post-reproductive period), revealed that the testis can specifically take up and accumulate D-Asp alone. Moreover, this amino acid influences the synthesis of testosterone and 17beta-estradiol in all phases of the cycle. This phenomenon is particularly evident during the pre- and post-reproductive period, when endogenous testosterone levels observed in both testis and plasma were the lowest and 17beta-estradiol concentrations were the highest. D-Asp rapidly induces a fall in 17beta-estradiol and a rise in testosterone at 3 h post-injection in the testis and at 6 h post-injection in the blood. In vitro experiments show that testicular tissue converted L-Asp into D-Asp through an aspartate racemase. D-Asp synthesis was measured in all phases of the cycle, but was significantly higher during the reproductive period with a peak at pH 6.0. The exogenous D-Asp also induces a significant increase in the mitotic activity of the testis at 3 h (P proliferation cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). The effects of D-Asp on the testis appear to be specific since they were not seen in lizards injected with other D- or L-forms of amino acids with known excitatory effects on neurosecretion. Our results suggest a regulatory role for D-Asp in the steroido-genesis and spermatogenesis of the testis of the lizard Podarcis s. sicula.

  1. Protection of testis through antioxidant action of Mallotus roxburghianus in alloxan-induced diabetic rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Vikas Kumar; Chenkual, Lalramdinthara; Gurusubramanian, Guruswami

    2015-12-24

    Mallotus roxburghianus is used for its antihyperglycaemic properties in Southeast Asia especially in Northeast India (Mizoram) and is also recognized in traditional medicine. About 90% of diabetic patients have been associated with reproductive impairments. The primary aim of this investigation is to examine the effects of diabetes on oxidative stress, steroidogenesis, histopathology, proliferation of germ cells with proliferative cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and antioxidant status, and alleviative effect of M. roxburghianus on the testis dysfunction. Methanolic leaf extract of M. roxburghianus was given to male albino Wistar rats by oral gavage to study the acute toxicity. Phyto-chemical composition of the methanol extract of M. roxburghianus was analyzed by GC-MS. Male Wistar rats were divided into six groups with seven animals in each group: untreated control; M. roxburghianus methanolic extract control (MRME, 400mg/kg); Alloxan diabetic control group (150 mg/kg); diabetic with 100mg/kg MRME treatment; diabetic with 400mg/kg MRME treatment; and diabetic with glibenclamide (0.1mg/kg) treatment. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of 150 mg/kg alloxan and was confirmed by testing fasting plasma blood glucose levels 5 days after injection. MRME was administered orally for 28 days. Body and testis weights, serum testosterone, testis malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), glutathione S transferase (GST) and protein levels were measured, and testis tissue was examined histopathologically and immunohistochemically (PCNA). No sign of mortality and organ toxicity was observed up to 3000 mg/kg in acute toxicity assay of MRME and inferred to be non-toxic and safe. Bergenin and betulinic acid are the major components of MRME with many biological activities. MRME treatment rendered significant increases in body weight, testis weight, testes-body weight ratio, down regulated the MDA levels, reduced the

  2. The gut microbiota and developmental programming of the testis in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maha Al-Asmakh

    Full Text Available Nutrients and environmental chemicals, including endocrine disruptors, have been incriminated in the current increase in male reproductive dysfunction, but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. The gastrointestinal tract represents the largest surface area exposed to our environment and thereby plays a key role in connection with exposure of internal organs to exogenous factors. In this context the gut microbiome (all bacteria and their metabolites have been shown to be important contributors to body physiology including metabolism, cognitive functions and immunity. Pivotal to male reproduction is a proper development of the testis, including the formation of the blood-testis barrier (BTB that encapsulates and protects germ cells from stress induced environmental cues, e.g. pathogenic organisms and xenobiotics. Here we used specific pathogen free (SPF mice and germ-free (GF mice to explore whether gut microbiota and/or their metabolites can influence testis development and regulation of BTB. Lumen formation in the seminiferous tubules, which coincides with the development of the BTB was delayed in the testes of GF mice at 16 days postpartum. In addition, perfusion experiments (Evans blue demonstrated increased BTB permeability in these same mice. Reduced expressions of occludin, ZO-2 and E-cadherin in GF testis suggested that the microbiota modulated BTB permeability by regulation of cell-cell adhesion. Interestingly, exposure of GF mice to Clostridium Tyrobutyricum (CBUT, which secrete high levels of butyrate, restored the integrity of the BTB and normalized the levels of cell adhesion proteins. Moreover, the GF mice exhibited lower serum levels of gonadotropins (LH and FSH than the SPF group. In addition, the intratesticular content of testosterone was lower in GF compared to SPF or CBUT animals. Thus, the gut microbiome can modulate the permeability of the BTB and might play a role in the regulation of endocrine functions of the testis.

  3. CRISPR/Cas9 Promotes Functional Study of Testis Specific X-Linked Gene In Vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minyan Li

    Full Text Available Mammalian spermatogenesis is a highly regulated multistage process of sperm generation. It is hard to uncover the real function of a testis specific gene in vitro since the in vitro model is not yet mature. With the development of the CRISPR/Cas9 (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/CRISPR-associated 9 system, we can now rapidly generate knockout mouse models of testis specific genes to study the process of spermatogenesis in vivo. SYCP3-like X-linked 2 (SLX2 is a germ cell specific component, which contains a Cor1 domain and belongs to the XLR (X-linked, lymphocyte regulated family. Previous studies suggested that SLX2 might play an important role in mouse spermatogenesis based on its subcellular localization and interacting proteins. However, the function of SLX2 in vivo is still elusive. Here, to investigate the functions of SLX2 in spermatogenesis, we disrupted the Slx2 gene by using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Since Slx2 is a testis specific X-linked gene, we obtained knockout male mice in the first generation and accelerated the study process. Compared with wild-type mice, Slx2 knockout mice have normal testis and epididymis. Histological observation of testes sections showed that Slx2 knockout affected none of the three main stages of spermatogenesis: mitosis, meiosis and spermiogenesis. In addition, we further confirmed that disruption of Slx2 did not affect the number of spermatogonial stem cells, meiosis progression or XY body formation by immunofluorescence analysis. As spermatogenesis was normal in Slx2 knockout mice, these mice were fertile. Taken together, we showed that Slx2 itself is not an essential gene for mouse spermatogenesis and CRISPR/Cas9 technique could speed up the functional study of testis specific X-linked gene in vivo.

  4. Effect of varicocelectomy on testis volume and semen parameters in adolescents: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tie Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Varicocele repair in adolescent remains controversial. Our aim is to identify and combine clinical trials results published thus far to ascertain the efficacy of varicocelectomy in improving testis volume and semen parameters compared with nontreatment control. A literature search was performed using Medline, Embase and Web of Science, which included results obtained from meta-analysis, randomized and nonrandomized controlled studies. The study population was adolescents with clinically palpable varicocele with or without the testicular asymmetry or abnormal semen parameters. Cases were allocated to treatment and observation groups, and testis volume or semen parameters were adopted as outcome measures. As a result, seven randomized controlled trials (RCTs and nonrandomized controlled trials studying bilateral testis volume or semen parameters in both treatment and observation groups were identified. Using a random effect model, mean difference of testis volume between the treatment group and the observation group was 2.9 ml (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.6, 5.2; P< 0.05 for the varicocele side and 1.5 ml (95% CI: 0.3, 2.7; P< 0.05 for the healthy side. The random effect model analysis demonstrated that the mean difference of semen concentration, total semen motility, and normal morphology between the two groups was 13.7 × 10 6 ml−1 (95% CI: −1.4, 28.8; P = 0.075, 2.5% (95% CI: −3.6, 8.6; P= 0.424, and 2.9% (95% CI: −3.0, 8.7; P= 0.336 respectively. In conclusion, although varicocelectomy significantly improved bilateral testis volume in adolescents with varicocele compared with observation cases, semen parameters did not have any statistically significant difference between two groups. Well-planned, properly conducted RCTs are needed in order to confirm the above-mentioned conclusion further and to explore whether varicocele repair in adolescents could improve subsequently spontaneous pregnancy rates.

  5. Producing Recombinant mTEX101; a Murine Testis Specific Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzegar Yarmohammadi, Leila; Modarresi, Mohammad Hossein; Talebi, Saeed; Hadavi, Reza; Ostad Karampour, Mahyar; Mahmoudi, Ahmad Reza; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi; Rabbani, Hodjattallah; Jeddi-Tehrani, Mahmood

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Production of antibodies against specific proteins of testis germ cells is of great significance for the investigation of processes involved in spermatogenesis, study of infertility problems and determination of the probable role of these proteins as cancer-testis antigens. Murine Testis Specific Recombinant Protein 101 (mTEX101) is a 38kDa, GPI-anchored protein which is expressed in testis germ cells of adult mice but it seems to be absent in other tissues. The structure and function of mTEX101 is not completely understood yet, but it is speculated that it may transduce biochemical signals into the cytoplasm since mTEX101 does not have an intracellular domain but the precise mechanisms are still ambiguous. Materials and Methods RNA was extracted from three adult mice testis. The RNA was used in RT-PCR, employing a pair of specific primers for mTEX101 ORF region. TA-cloning technique was performed by the insertion of mTEX101 into a pGEM-T Easy Vector, followed by its subcloning into a His-tagged expression vector, pET-28a (+). The recombinant mTEX101 was then produced by transfection of the expression vector into BL 21 (DE3) E. coli strain. Results A recombinant protein, weighing 27kDa, was produced upon IPTG-induction of the bacterial host. The presence of mTEX101 protein was detected through Western blot analysis by anti-mTEX101 peptide antibodies. Conclusion We produced mTEX101 recombinant protein that could be used for the production of mono and polyclonal antibodies. PMID:23926468

  6. Influence of Aluminium Chloride on Antioxidant System in the Testis and Epididymis of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arumugam Kalaiselvi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, the use of chemicals in agriculture, industry, and public health has become so common that the environment is continuously contaminated by the toxic substance-like metals. Aluminum released due to anthropogenic activities such as mining and industrial uses. Aluminium has several industrial uses. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of aluminium chloride (AlCl3 on enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants in the testis and epididymis of rats. Methods: Adult male rats were administered with aluminium chloride at two different doses, 50 mg and 100 mg/kg body weight, orally, daily for 45 days. At the end of the experimental period, the animals were sacrificed and their testis and the epididymis were removed. Antioxidant enzymes like catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, glutathione reductase (GR, and glutathione-s-transferase (GST were assayed. Lipid peroxidation (LPO, vitamin C, and vitamin E levels were also determined. Results: Aluminium chloride administration had no effect on the bodyweight of the animals but the weight of the testis and epididymis was decreased. Almost all the antioxidant enzymes studied markedly diminished in the testis and epididymis of aluminium chloride treated animals. The non-enzymatic antioxidants, vitamin C and vitamin E, also declined. Lipid peroxidation, on the other hand, significantly increased. The influence was found to be more in 100 mg treated rats when compared to 50 mg treated rats. Conclusions: The present study suggests the reproductive toxicity of aluminium by inducing the oxidative stress in the testis and epididymis and possible interference in sperm production and further maturational processes.

  7. Unilateral orchidectomy in donkey (Equus asinus: Evaluation of different surgical techniques, histological and morphological changes on remaining testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroon Ali Yousef Hussein

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Unilateral orchidectomy (UO is required when further breeding potential is important. It is sometimes necessary to remove a single testis in a matured stallion for therapeutic reasons. In this study, twelve donkeys were used to evaluate three techniques of unilateral castration, histological and morphological changes on the remaining testis. Results of the study showed that each of the surgical techniques used had its advantages and disadvantages in comparison with the other two techniques. Therefore the selection among the three techniques depends on the surgeon preferences and the environment in which the unilateral orchidectomy is performed. The volume of the remaining testis recorded at the end of the study was significantly greater than that estimated at the start of the study (p < 0.05. The percentage of sperm motility obtained from the remaining testis was significantly decreased (p < 0.05. Histological examination of the testis in open surgery (group I (where the scrotum was left opened revealed severe hemorrhages, edema and fibrosis. The testis showed degenerative changes in the seminiferous tubules and interstitial orchitis. Histological examination of the testes removed using a closed technique, (in groups II and III where the scrotum wound was sutured, revealed hyperplasia of spermatogenic series and Leydig cells. In conclusion, unilateral orchidectomy had compensatory effects on the weight and volume of remaining testis. Adverse effects on sperm motility and viability can affect the fertility of the animal.

  8. Global transcriptome analysis of the C57BL/6J mouse testis by SAGE: evidence for nonrandom gene order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forejt Jiří

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We generated the gene expression profile of the total testis from the adult C57BL/6J male mice using serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE. Two high-quality SAGE libraries containing a total of 76 854 tags were constructed. An extensive bioinformatic analysis and comparison of SAGE transcriptomes of the total testis, testicular somatic cells and other mouse tissues was performed and the theory of male-biased gene accumulation on the X chromosome was tested. Results We sorted out 829 genes predominantly expressed from the germinal part and 944 genes from the somatic part of the testis. The genes preferentially and specifically expressed in total testis and testicular somatic cells were identified by comparing the testis SAGE transcriptomes to the available transcriptomes of seven non-testis tissues. We uncovered chromosomal clusters of adjacent genes with preferential expression in total testis and testicular somatic cells by a genome-wide search and found that the clusters encompassed a significantly higher number of genes than expected by chance. We observed a significant 3.2-fold enrichment of the proportion of X-linked genes specific for testicular somatic cells, while the proportions of X-linked genes specific for total testis and for other tissues were comparable. In contrast to the tissue-specific genes, an under-representation of X-linked genes in the total testis transcriptome but not in the transcriptomes of testicular somatic cells and other tissues was detected. Conclusion Our results provide new evidence in favor of the theory of male-biased genes accumulation on the X chromosome in testicular somatic cells and indicate the opposite action of the meiotic X-inactivation in testicular germ cells.

  9. Menaquinone-4 enhances testosterone production in rats and testis-derived tumor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohsaki Yusuke

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin K is essential for the posttranslational modification of various Gla proteins. Although it is widespread in several organs, including the testis, the function of vitamin K in these organs is not well characterized. In this study, we investigated the function of vitamin K in the testis and analyzed its role in steroidogenesis. Methods Eight-week-old male Wistar rats were fed a diet supplemented with menaquinone-4 (MK-4, 75 mg/kg diet, one of the predominant K2 vitamins present in the testis, for 5 weeks. In vivo testosterone levels of the rats' plasma and testes were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and in vitro testosterone levels of testis-derived tumor cells (I-10 cells maintained in Ham's F-10 medium with 10% fetal bovine serum were measured following treatment with MK-4 (0 to 100 μM at several time points. Testosterone and cellular protein levels were analyzed with respect to their effects on steroidogenesis. Results Testosterone levels in the plasma and testes of MK-4-fed rats were significantly increased compared to those of control rats, with no obvious differences in plasma luteinizing hormone levels. Secreted testosterone levels from I-10 cells were elevated by MK-4, but not by vitamin K1, in a dose-dependent manner independent of cAMP treatment. Western blot analysis revealed that expression of CYP11A, the rate-limiting enzyme in steroidogenesis, and phosphorylation levels of protein kinase A (PKA and the cAMP response element-binding protein were all stimulated by the presence of MK-4. Enhancement of testosterone production was inhibited by H89, a specific inhibitor of PKA, but not by warfarin, an inhibitor of γ-glutamylcarboxylation. Conclusions MK-4 stimulates testosterone production in rats and testis-derived tumor cells via activation of PKA. MK-4 may be involved in steroidogenesis in the testis, and its supplementation could reverse the downregulation of testosterone production in

  10. Effects of estradiol and FSH on maturation of the testis in the hypogonadal (hpg mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayhew Terry M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The hypogonadal (hpg mouse is widely used as an animal model with which to investigate the endocrine regulation of spermatogenesis. Chronic treatment of these GnRH-deficient mice with estradiol is known to induce testicular maturation and restore qualitatively normal spermatogenesis. The aim of the current studies was to investigate whether these effects of estradiol are direct effects in the testis, or indirect actions via paradoxical stimulation of FSH secretion from the pituitary gland. Methods Initially, Western blot and immunohistochemistry were used to analyse tissues from hpg mice to identify potential sites of action of estradiol. In the main study, hpg mice were treated for 50 days with either an estradiol implant or daily injections of recombinant human FSH, or a combination of both, to determine whether estradiol would have an additive or synergistic effect with FSH on testis development, as assessed by histological analysis and stereological quantification of Leydig, Sertoli and germ cell proliferation. Results Western blot analysis revealed ERα immunoreactive bands of appropriate molecular weight in extracts of testis and pituitary glands from hpg mice, and immunohistochemical studies confirmed ERα in nuclei of anterior pituitary cells and Leydig and peritubular cells in hpg mice. Histological and morphometric analyses revealed that estradiol treatment alone was as effective as FSH in promoting Sertoli cell production and proliferation of the seminiferous epithelium, resulting in the production of elongating spermatids. Combined estradiol and FSH treatment did not produce a greater effect than either treatment alone, though an increased dose of FSH significantly increased seminiferous tubule volume and testis weight and increase Sertoli cell numbers further within the same time frame. In contrast, estradiol caused substantial increases in the wet weight of the seminal vesicles, whereas FSH was without effect on

  11. Use of the processes vaginalis: A new technique for reinforcing the neourethra in hypospadias associated with undescended testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Acharya

    2009-01-01

    Conclusions: In patients of undescended testis with hypospadias, simultaneous repair with the processes vaginalis flap is an ideal technique with good results. Processes vaginalis is good vascular cover for neourethra.

  12. Lack of ADAM2, CALR3 and SAGE1 Cancer/Testis Antigen Expression in Lung and Breast Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maheswaran, Emeaga; Pedersen, Christina B; Ditzel, Henrik J

    2015-01-01

    cancers. Staining for the well-characterized MAGE-A proteins was included for comparison. Immunohistochemical staining confirmed previous mRNA analysis demonstrating that ADAM2, CALR3 and SAGE1 proteins are confined to testis in normal individuals. Negative tissues included plancenta, which express many...... inhibitors has been proposed as an attractive strategy to increase the expression of cancer/testis antigens in tumors before immunotargeting; however, neither ADAM2, CALR3 nor SAGE1 could be significantly induced in lung and breast cancer cell lines using this strategy. Our results suggest that ADAM2, CALR3...... and antigenic properties, but the expression patterns of most of the more than 200 identified cancer/testis antigens in various cancers remain largely uncharacterized. In this study, we investigated the expression of the cancer/testis antigens ADAM2, CALR3 and SAGE1 in lung and breast cancer, the two most...

  13. Wing Whiteness as an Indicator of Age, Immunocompetence, and Testis Size in the Eurasian Black-Billed Magpie (Pica pica)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guillermo Blanco; Juan A. Fargallo

    2013-01-01

    ... them. We investigated covariation of the white wing patch of the Eurasian Black-billed Magpie (Pica pica) with age, sex, feather wear, spleen size, parasite infection, and testis size to evaluate whether this trait is indicative of individual quality...

  14. An overview of the GAGE cancer/testis antigen family with the inclusion of newly identified members

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerstorff, M F; Ditzel, H J

    2008-01-01

    GAGE cancer/testis antigens are frequently expressed in many different types of cancer, whereas their expression in normal tissues is limited to the germ cells of the immune-privileged organs, testis and ovary. Thus, GAGE proteins may be attractive candidates for immunotherapy of cancer. This rev......GAGE cancer/testis antigens are frequently expressed in many different types of cancer, whereas their expression in normal tissues is limited to the germ cells of the immune-privileged organs, testis and ovary. Thus, GAGE proteins may be attractive candidates for immunotherapy of cancer....... This review describes the structure and phylogeny of the GAGE family members and presents a revised nomenclature, which will enable a more clear distinction of genes and gene products. The GAGE gene locus at chromosome X p11.23 consists of at least 16 genes, each of which is located in one of an equal number...

  15. Transcriptome analysis of spermatogenically regressed, recrudescent and active phase testis of seasonally breeding wall lizards Hemidactylus flaviviridis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Gautam

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Reptiles are phylogenically important group of organisms as mammals have evolved from them. Wall lizard testis exhibits clearly distinct morphology during various phases of a reproductive cycle making them an interesting model to study regulation of spermatogenesis. Studies on reptile spermatogenesis are negligible hence this study will prove to be an important resource. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Histological analyses show complete regression of seminiferous tubules during regressed phase with retracted Sertoli cells and spermatognia. In the recrudescent phase, regressed testis regain cellular activity showing presence of normal Sertoli cells and developing germ cells. In the active phase, testis reaches up to its maximum size with enlarged seminiferous tubules and presence of sperm in seminiferous lumen. Total RNA extracted from whole testis of regressed, recrudescent and active phase of wall lizard was hybridized on Mouse Whole Genome 8×60 K format gene chip. Microarray data from regressed phase was deemed as control group. Microarray data were validated by assessing the expression of some selected genes using Quantitative Real-Time PCR. The genes prominently expressed in recrudescent and active phase testis are cytoskeleton organization GO 0005856, cell growth GO 0045927, GTpase regulator activity GO: 0030695, transcription GO: 0006352, apoptosis GO: 0006915 and many other biological processes. The genes showing higher expression in regressed phase belonged to functional categories such as negative regulation of macromolecule metabolic process GO: 0010605, negative regulation of gene expression GO: 0010629 and maintenance of stem cell niche GO: 0045165. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first exploratory study profiling transcriptome of three drastically different conditions of any reptilian testis. The genes expressed in the testis during regressed, recrudescent and active phase of reproductive cycle are in concordance

  16. A Multiplex Cancer/Testis Antigen-Based Biomarker Panel to Predict the Aggressive Phenotype of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    confined to germ cells in normal testis and placenta , but aberrantly expressed in several types of cancers (Scanlan et al, 2004). Unfortunately, their...qRT-PCR 4 3. OVERALL PROJECT SUMMARY Summary of Tasks in SOW Tasks Summarized aims Time Major Task 1 Subtasks 1 and 2 Year 1 CTA gene expression...cells, except by normal testis that is an immune -privileged organ. Also, they are capable of inducing an immune response and though are good targets

  17. Persistent mullerian duct syndrome with teratoma in an ectopic testis: imaging features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narlawar, R.S.; Patankar, T. [Dept. of Radiology, Seth G. S. Medical College and K. E. M. Hospital, Parel, Mumbai (India); Shah, J.R.; Parikh, V. [Dept. of CT and Ultrasound, Research Centre, Mumbai, Maharashtra (India)

    2001-06-01

    The persistent mullerian duct syndrome represents a rare form of male pseudohermaphroditism, secondary to mullerian inhibiting factor (MIF) deficiency. We describe imaging findings in a 30-year-old male (46 XY karyotype) with bilateral cryptorchidism and mullerian duct anomalies (presence of uterus and fallopian tubes). Grade-III teratoma with yolk sac tumour was detected in one of the undescended testis, lying in the pelvic cavity. The other testis was in the inguinal canal. The rest of the wolffian duct structures (e. g. prostate, seminal vesicles) were nearly normal. Very few reports of imaging findings of this entity have been published thus far, probably because of the rarity of entity, incidental detection of most of the cases at surgery and relatively asymptomatic clinical presentation. (orig.)

  18. Distribution of terminal sugar residues in the testis of the spotted ray Torpedo marmorata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liguoro, Annamaria; Prisco, Marina; Mennella, Clotilde; Ricchiari, Loredana; Angelini, Francesco; Andreuccetti, Piero

    2004-08-01

    Lectins represent a class of proteins/glycoproteins binding specifically to terminal sugar residues. The present investigation aims to identify lectin-binding sites in testis of Torpedo marmorata. Using a panel of lectins coupled with fluoresceine isothiocyanate, we demonstrated that germ and somatic cells present in Torpedo testis contain glycoconjugates, whose distribution at the level of the surface, the cytoplasm and the nucleus changes during germ cell differentiation. Moreover our observations demonstrate that the germ cells undergoing apoptosis (Prisco et al., 2003a: Mol Reprod Dev 64:341-348) overexpress a residual sugar recognised by WFA lectin that can be considered a specific marker for apoptotic germ cells. Finally, our results indicate that there is a progressive increase in glycosilation during spermatogenesis, especially at the level of the acrosome in the spermatocyte-spermatid step, and that Leydig cells are differently stained in relation to the spermatogenetic cycle. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Oxidative stress in testis of animals during aging with and without reproductive activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, Tiago Boeira; Hackenhaar, Fernanda Schäfer; Almeida, Ana Carolina; Schüller, Arthur Krumberg; Gil Alabarse, Paulo V; Ehrenbrink, Guilherme; Benfato, Mara Silveira

    2013-09-01

    The free radical theory of aging postulates that an imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) and antioxidant defenses is important in senescence. To address this issue and gain insight into the aging process, we have evaluated the antioxidant defenses and have assessed oxidative damage in testis tissues in aging male rats. In order to relate aging and reproduction, animals with and without reproductive activity were studied. In reproductive animals the results showed a progressive increase in antioxidant enzyme activity until 12 months of age followed by an abrupt fall at 24 months. In non-reproductive animals, antioxidant activity was stable through 12 months of age, but again, fell abruptly at 24 months of age. In addition, increased aconitase activity and increased testosterone levels were found among reproductively active animals. The data demonstrate the existence of metabolic differences in testis of reproductively experienced animals and reproductively naïve animals. © 2013.

  20. Expression and localization of nerve growth factor (NGF in the testis of alpaca (llama pacos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haidong Wang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available During alpaca testis development and spermatogenesis, nerve growth factor (NGF may play an importantrole. The main aim of this study was to determine the expression and localization of NGF in the alpacatestis, and to discuss the important role of NGF in alpaca reproductive characteristics. Immunohistochemicalstaining technique and real-time PCR were used. The expression of NGF in the same cells one-month old(newborn alpacas 12-month, and 24-month old alpacas showed significant differences (p 0.05; NGF at different cell stages showed nosignificant differences (p > 0.05. It suggests that NGF may be involved in the regulation of spermatogenesis,which provides direct evidence for NGF action in the alpaca testis during postnatal development and spermatogenesis.

  1. Zika Virus Causes Testis Damage and Leads to Male Infertility in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wenqiang; Li, Shihua; Ma, Shuoqian; Jia, Lina; Zhang, Fuchun; Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Jingyuan; Wong, Gary; Zhang, Shanshan; Lu, Xuancheng; Liu, Mei; Yan, Jinghua; Li, Wei; Qin, Chuan; Han, Daishu; Qin, Chengfeng; Wang, Na; Li, Xiangdong; Gao, George Fu

    2016-12-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) persists in the semen of male patients, a first for flavivirus infection. Here, we demonstrate that ZIKV can induce inflammation in the testis and epididymidis, but not in the prostate or seminal vesicle, and can lead to damaged testes after 60 days post-infection in mice. ZIKV induces innate immune responses in Leydig, Sertoli, and epididymal epithelial cells, resulting in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines. However, ZIKV does not induce a rapid and abundant cytokine production in peritubular cell and spermatogonia, suggesting that these cells are vulnerable for ZIKV infection and could be the potential repositories for ZIKV. Our study demonstrates a correlation between ZIKV and testis infection/damage and suggests that ZIKV infection, under certain circumstances, can eventually lead to male infertility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A case of descending colon carcinoma metastasized to left spermatic cord, testis, and epididymis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin, Herbert; Popper, Helmut; Pummer, Karl

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of descending colon carcinoma metastasized to the left spermatic cord, testis, and epididymis. A 77-year old male patient underwent a left hemicolectomy for a descending colon cancer. He was referred to our department because of swelling and pain of the left scrotum two years and six months after surgery. High left orchiectomy was performed. Histological examination revealed a metastasis of the colon carcinoma within the spermatic cord and epididymis approaching the testicle. Reports on metastatic cancer of the testis are scarce, because this metastatic cancer is extremely rare. In general, testicular pain is rare in the elderly. We suggest that any elder presenting with testicular pain deserves a complete clinical and diagnostic evaluation. PMID:24578939

  3. Testis cancer: role of radiotherapy in 2003; Cancer du testicule: place de la radiotherapie en 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clippe, S. [Centre de Lutte Contre le Cancer Leon-Berard, Dept. de Radiotherapie, 69 - Lyon (France); Flechon, A.; Droz, J.P. [Centre de Lutte Contre le Cancer Leon-Berard, Dept. de Cancerologie Medicale, 69 - Lyon (France)

    2003-11-01

    Germ-cell minors of the testis are rare tumors of the young adult. Half of them are seminoma. The majority of patients have disease limited to the testis. Radiotherapy still remains the standard treatment of these patients. Almost all patients are cured by orchidectomy and radiotherapy on the lomboaortic area extended to homolateral iliac area. The dose is 24 to 30 Gy in a standard fractionation. Different studies are ongoing to reduce the irradiation field (omission of the pelvic irradiation), to decrease irradiation dose (to 20 Gy). Other treatment options are strict surveillance and adjuvant carbo-platin based chemotherapy. None of these options are standard treatments. A strict attention must be directed on controlateral germ-cell tumors and second cancers. (author)

  4. The Effects of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Matricaria Recutita on the Hormonal Pituitary-Testis Axis and Testis Tissue Changes of Mature Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laili Hatami

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Matricaria recutita is one of the most ancient and well- known medicinal plants, and its role in the treatment of a wide range of diseases has been studied . The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Matricaria recutita on spermatogenesis and the pituitary-gonadal axis in male adult rats.   Materials & Methods: In this experimental study, the animals were divided into two groups: the control group, which received 1 ml of distilled water orally, and the experimental group, which received 100 mg/kg of Matricaria recutita extract via gavage feeding once daily for an 8-week period. After the treatment period, several fertility indices such as the weight of the reproductive organs, sperm count, sperm motility and vitality, and testis histological changes as well as blood serum levels of testosterone, estrogen, FSH, and LH were measured.   Results: Our statistical analysis showed a significant increase in the weight of the reproductive organs, sperm count, and blood testosterone in the group which received 100 mg/kg of Matricaria recutita hydroalcholic extract .   Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrated that hydroalcholic extract of Matricaria recutita could increase the function of the hormonal pituitary-testis axis and spermatogenesis in male rats.  

  5. Molecular cloning of a novel nuclear factor, TDRP1, in spermatogenic cells of testis and its relationship with spermatogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xuanchun [Department of Endocrinology, Huashan Hospital, Institute of Endocrinology and Diabetology at Fudan University, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200040 (China); Jiang, Haowen [Department of Urology, Huashan Hospital, Institute of Urology at Fudan University, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200040 (China); Zhou, Wenbai; Zhang, Zhaoyun; Yang, Zhihong [Department of Endocrinology, Huashan Hospital, Institute of Endocrinology and Diabetology at Fudan University, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200040 (China); Lu, Yong [Department of Urology, Huashan Hospital, Institute of Urology at Fudan University, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200040 (China); Lu, Bin [Department of Endocrinology, Huashan Hospital, Institute of Endocrinology and Diabetology at Fudan University, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200040 (China); Wang, Xiang [Department of Urology, Huashan Hospital, Institute of Urology at Fudan University, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200040 (China); Ding, Qiang, E-mail: dingqiangd@hotmail.com [Department of Urology, Huashan Hospital, Institute of Urology at Fudan University, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200040 (China); Hu, Renming, E-mail: renminghu@fudan.edu.cn [Department of Endocrinology, Huashan Hospital, Institute of Endocrinology and Diabetology at Fudan University, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200040 (China)

    2010-03-26

    We reported the identification of a novel gene termed TDRP (encoding testis development-related protein) that might be involved in spermatogenesis. The human TDRP gene had two distinct transcripts, TDRP1 and TDRP2, which encoded proteins of 183 aa and 198 aa respectively. Tdrp mRNA was predominantly expressed in testis tissue. We generated rabbit polyclonal antibodies specific against human TDRP1. Immunohistochemistry analysis showed TDRP1 was expressed in spermatogenic cells, especially with high expression in spermatocytes. We provided evidence that TDRP1 distributed in both cytoplasm and nuclei of spermatogenic cells. Expression patterns of Tdrp1 mRNA and its protein were investigated in the rat testis tissues of different developmental stages. Both Tdrp1 mRNA and its protein were barely detected in the testis of neonatal rats, increased remarkably at 3 weeks postpartum, and peaked at 2 months postpartum. We also investigated TDRP1 expressions in testis tissues of azoospermic men with defective spermatogenesis. Western blot analysis showed that TDRP1 expressions were significantly lower in the testis tissues of azoospermic men compared with normal controls. These current data demonstrated that as a nuclear factor, TDRP1 might play an important role in spermatogenesis.

  6. Unilateral orchidectomy in donkey (Equus asinus): Evaluation of different surgical techniques, histological and morphological changes on remaining testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud Ali Omar, Magda; Mohamed Ahmed Hassanein, Khaled; Khalifa Abdel-Razek, Abdel-Razek; Ali Yousef Hussein, Haroon

    2013-01-01

    Unilateral orchidectomy (UO) is required when further breeding potential is important. It is sometimes necessary to remove a single testis in a matured stallion for therapeutic reasons. In this study, twelve donkeys were used to evaluate three techniques of unilateral castration, histological and morphological changes on the remaining testis. Results of the study showed that each of the surgical techniques used had its advantages and disadvantages in comparison with the other two techniques. Therefore the selection among the three techniques depends on the surgeon preferences and the environment in which the unilateral orchidectomy is performed. The volume of the remaining testis recorded at the end of the study was significantly greater than that estimated at the start of the study (p < 0.05). The percentage of sperm motility obtained from the remaining testis was significantly decreased (p < 0.05). Histological examination of the testis in open surgery (group I) (where the scrotum was left opened) revealed severe hemorrhages, edema and fibrosis. The test is showed degenerative changes in the seminiferous tubules and interstitial orchitis. Histological examination of the testes removed using a closed technique, (in groups II and III) where the scrotum wound was sutured, revealed hyperplasia of spermatogenic series and Leydig cells. In conclusion, unilateral orchidectomy had compensatory effects on the weight and volume of remaining testis. Adverse effects on sperm motility and viability can affect the fertility of the animal.

  7. Hepatocyte growth factor and c-MET are expressed in rat prepuberal testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catizone, A; Ricci, G; Arista, V; Innocenzi, A; Galdieri, M

    1999-07-01

    The hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) receptor (c-MET) is present in different mammalian tissues and transduces multiple biological effects. The HGF is known to regulate many fundamental cellular functions, such as cell growth, movement and differentiation, and is involved in embryonal morphogenesis. We have studied HGF and c-MET expression in prepuberal rat testis. c-MET gene expression was found in total testis and in homogeneous cell populations, as demonstrated by Northern blotting. In the seminiferous tubules, c-MET gene was only expressed in the myoid cells. In these cells, c-MET was detectable and constantly expressed for at least six days of culture. The interstitial tissue was also c-MET positive. The protein encoded by the MET proto-oncogene was detected in myoid cells, and HGF administration to these cells induced morphological changes in the cells. HGF expression was not detected by Northern blotting using RNA extracted from total testis. By contrast, when homogenous cell populations were used, HGF expression was detectable and exclusively localized in myoid cells. Myoid cell-conditioned medium was able to induce scattering of canine kidney epithelial (MDCK) cells, and the scatter effect of a 3-days conditioned medium was evident even after 7-fold dilution of the medium. Our findings demonstrate that HGF and its receptor are present in rat prepuberal testis. The coexpression of factor and receptor in the myoid cells suggests a new role for HGF as autocrine regulator of myoid cell function and, possibly, as regulator of mammalian testicular function.

  8. Primary mucinous cystadenocarcinoma of the testis: An extremely rare ovarian-type surface epithelial carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Onate Celdran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary mucinous epithelial tumors of the testis are extremely rare. Although isolated case reports and small series have been published, these interesting neoplasms are less well-known. We report a case of a primary intratesticular mucinous cystadenoma in an asymptomatic 44-year-old man. Right radical orchiectomy was performed because a malignant testicular tumor was suspected. We discuss the management of this uncommon testicular tumor based on the limited reports.

  9. Necrotic seminoma of the testis: establishing the diagnosis with Masson trichrome stain and immunostains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florentine, Barbara D; Roscher, Arno A; Garrett, Jerry; Warner, Nancy E

    2002-02-01

    We describe an infarcted mass in the testis containing "ghost" cells suspicious for neoplasm. The entire lesion was necrotic. A Masson trichrome stain greatly improved nuclear and cytologic detail, confirming the suspicion of neoplasm. Placental alkaline phosphatase revealed specific membrane staining of the neoplastic cells and established a diagnosis of seminoma. Masson trichrome plus selected immunostains offer a promising approach to the diagnosis of certain necrotic neoplasms.

  10. Tumor subtype-specific cancer-testis antigens as potential biomarkers and immunotherapeutic targets for cancers

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Jun; Caballero, Otavia L.; Yung, W.K. Alfred; Weinstein, John N.; Riggins, Gregory J.; Strausberg, Robert L.; Zhao, Qi

    2013-01-01

    Cancer-testis (CT) antigens are potential targets for cancer immunotherapy because of their restricted expression in immune-privileged germ cells and various malignancies. Current application of CT-based immunotherapy has been focused on CT expression-rich tumors such as melanoma and lung cancers. In this study, we surveyed CT expression using the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) datasets for ten common cancer types. We show that, CT expression is specific and enriched within certain cancer molecul...

  11. Dose- and time-related effects of caffeine on the testis in immature male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jaeman; Choi, Hyeonhae; Choi, Yuri; Roh, Jaesook

    2017-01-27

    We previously showed that prepubertal chronic caffeine exposure adversely affected the development of the testes in male rats. Here we investigated dose- and time-related effects of caffeine consumption on the testis throughout sexual maturation in prepubertal rats. A total of 80 male SD rats were randomly divided into four groups: controls and rats fed 20, 60, or 120 mg caffeine/kg/day, respectively, via gavage for 10, 20, 30, or 40 days. Preputial separation was monitored daily before the rats were sacrificed. Terminal blood samples were collected for hormone assay, and testes were grossly evaluated and weighed. One testis was processed for histological analysis, and the other was collected to isolate Leydig cells. Caffeine exposure significantly increased the relative weight of the testis in a dose-related manner after 30 days of exposure, whereas the absolute testis weight tended to decrease at the 120 mg dose of caffeine. The mean diameter of the seminiferous tubules and height of the germinal epithelium significantly decreased in the caffeine-fed groups after 40 days of caffeine exposure, which was accompanied by a reduced BrdU incorporation rate in germ cells. In addition, caffeine intake significantly reduced in vivo and ex vivo testosterone production in a dose-related manner. Our results demonstrate that caffeine exposure during sexual maturation alter the testicular microarchitecture and also slow germ cell proliferation even at the 20 mg dose level. Furthermore, caffeine may act directly on Leydig cells and interfere with testosterone production in a dose-related manner, consequently delaying onset of sexual maturation.

  12. Association of Human Development Index with global bladder, kidney, prostate and testis cancer incidence and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiman, Alyssa K; Rosoff, James S; Prasad, Sandip M

    2017-12-01

    To describe contemporary worldwide age-standardized incidence and mortality rates for bladder, kidney, prostate and testis cancer and their association with development. We obtained gender-specific, age-standardized incidence and mortality rates for 184 countries and 16 major world regions from the GLOBOCAN 2012 database. We compared the mortality-to-incidence ratios (MIRs) at national and regional levels in males and females, and assessed the association with socio-economic development using the 2014 United Nations Human Development Index (HDI). Age-standardized incidence rates were 2.9 (bladder) to 7.4 (testis) times higher for genitourinary malignancies in more developed countries compared with less developed countries. Age-standardized mortality rates were 1.5-2.2 times higher in more vs less developed countries for prostate, bladder and kidney cancer, with no variation in mortality rates observed in testis cancer. There was a strong inverse relationship between HDI and MIR in testis (regression coefficient 1.65, R2 = 0.78), prostate (regression coefficient -1.56, R2 = 0.85), kidney (regression coefficient -1.34, R2 = 0.74), and bladder cancer (regression coefficient -1.01, R2 = 0.80). While incidence and mortality rates for genitourinary cancers vary widely throughout the world, the MIR is highest in less developed countries for all four major genitourinary malignancies. Further research is needed to understand whether differences in comorbidities, exposures, time to diagnosis, access to healthcare, diagnostic techniques or treatment options explain the observed inequalities in genitourinary cancer outcomes. © 2017 The Authors BJU International © 2017 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Nuclear protein in testis carcinoma of the mediastinum: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Boleto, Gonçalo; Perotin, Jeanne-Marie; Launois, Claire; Uro-Coste, Emmanuelle; Birembaut, Philippe,; Dury, Sandra; Vallerand, Hervé; Lebargy, François; Deslée, Gaëtan; Vella-Boucaud, Juliette

    2016-01-01

    International audience; AbstractBackgroundNuclear protein in testis carcinoma is a rare and very aggressive undifferentiated cancer which characteristically arises in the midline of the head, neck, and mediastinum.Case presentationWe describe the case of a 46-year-old white woman admitted for superior vena cava syndrome revealing a mediastinal tumor. Pathological examination of specimens obtained by mediastinoscopy revealed an undifferentiated tumor with solid growth and positive immunoreacti...

  14. The Blood-testis-barrier and Male Sexual Dysfunction Following Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    dependent male infertility is characterized by a significant reduction in numbers and quality of functional sperm. The mechanism(s) underlying this...stem cells from the immune system. We reported that a contusive injury to the rat spinal cord causes a profound and sustained loss of BTB integrity...term effects on the blood-testis-barrier as a mechanism underlying male infertility following spinal cord injury. Goals/Milestones (Example) CY12/13

  15. Burned-out tumor of the testis presenting as supraclavicular lymphadenopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kebapci, Mahmut; Aslan, Ozgur [Dept. of Radiology, Osmangazi University School of Medicine, Meselik, Eskisehir (Turkey); Can, Cavit [Department of Urology, Osmangazi University School of Medicine, Meselik, Eskisehir (Turkey); Isiksoy, Serap; Oner, Ulku [Department of Pathology, Osmangazi University School of Medicine, Meselik, Eskisehir (Turkey)

    2002-02-01

    Burned-out tumor of the testis is a rare clinical entity. It generally presents with metastases and is nonpalpable in testicular palpation. We present a case of testicular burned-out tumor having supraclavicular and retroperitoneal lymph node metastases. Imaging findings of such tumors have insufficiently been documented in radiology literature. Scrotal sonography is crucial in detecting the regressed tumors especially in patients with extragonadal metastasis of a testicular primary. (orig.)

  16. Protective effects of some fruit juices with low-fat diet on rat testis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Histological sections of testis indicated that low-fat diet has obvious effects than basal diet in both the low-fat diet with CCl4 "LdC""con++", LdC with grape juice 2 ml "grpL2", LdC with pomegranate juice 2 ml "pomL2" and hyper effect in LdC with pomegranate juice 4 ml "pomL4" while it was equal in effect with basal diet in ...

  17. Burned-out testis tumour that metastasized to retroperitoneal lymph nodes: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yucel Mehmet

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Burned-out testicular tumour is a very rare clinical entity. There is no clinical finding in the testicle, because it regresses spontaneously with no treatment, and generally presents with metastases. Abdominal masses in young male patients may sometimes be caused by a metastatic burned-out testicular tumour. We report a patient with a burned-out testicular tumour that metastasized to retroperitoneal lymph nodes. Case presentation A 28-year-old man complained of an abdominal mass and continuously increasing pain over the previous 2 months. A midabdominal mass, atrophy and minimal induration in the right testis were revealed on physical examination. Ultrasound findings revealed focally increased echogenicity, which is typical of burned-out tumours. Inguinal orchiectomy was performed, and the histological examination of the biopsy specimen revealed a large area of hyalinization, tubular hyalinization, interstitial fibrosis and focal Leydig cell hyperplasia, with no abnormal pathological findings in the epididymis and spermatic cord. The final pathological diagnosis was concluded as "burned-out" testicular tumour. Surgical treatment was followed by appropriate chemotherapy and in the follow-up, the abdominal mass was observed to regress. The patient is currently free of disease 5 years after diagnosis. Conclusion For the detection of intratesticular lesions, especially in patients with extragonadal metastatic involvement and normal palpation findings for the testis, scrotal sonography is very important. A burned-out testicular tumour should be considered and testis biopsies should be performed if there is any risk factor of malignancy.

  18. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) receptor expression and role of HGF during embryonic mouse testis development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, G; Catizone, A; Innocenzi, A; Galdieri, M

    1999-12-01

    The hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) receptor, c-met, transduces the HGF multiple biological activities. During embryonic development the system HGF/c-met regulates the morphogenesis of different organs and tissues. In this study we examined c-met gene expression during mouse testis development and, by means of Northern blot and in situ hybridization, we report the receptor expression pattern. C-met expression is not detectable in male genital ridges isolated from embryos at 11.5 days postcoitum (dpc). In testes isolated from 12.5 and 13.5 dpc, c-met expression is detectable and essentially localized in the developing cords. Male genital ducts do not express c-met at the reported ages, whereas female ducts appear c-met positive. Moreover, we report that HGF is able to induce testicular morphogenesis in vitro. Male genital ridges isolated from embryos at 11.5 dpc are morphologically nonorganized. Culturing 11.5 dpc urogenital ridges in the presence of HGF we obtained testis organization and testicular cord formation. Our data demonstrate that c-met is expressed during the beginning period of testis differentiation and that HGF is able to support testicular differentiation in vitro. All these data indicate that this growth factor, besides its role as mitogenic factor, plays a fundamental role during testicular cord formation probably inducing cell migration and/or cell differentiation. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  19. Sertoli cells maintain Leydig cell number and peritubular myoid cell activity in the adult mouse testis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Rebourcet

    Full Text Available The Sertoli cells are critical regulators of testis differentiation and development. In the adult, however, their known function is restricted largely to maintenance of spermatogenesis. To determine whether the Sertoli cells regulate other aspects of adult testis biology we have used a novel transgenic mouse model in which Amh-Cre induces expression of the receptor for Diphtheria toxin (iDTR specifically within Sertoli cells. This causes controlled, cell-specific and acute ablation of the Sertoli cell population in the adult animal following Diphtheria toxin injection. Results show that Sertoli cell ablation leads to rapid loss of all germ cell populations. In addition, adult Leydig cell numbers decline by 75% with the remaining cells concentrated around the rete and in the sub-capsular region. In the absence of Sertoli cells, peritubular myoid cell activity is reduced but the cells retain an ability to exclude immune cells from the seminiferous tubules. These data demonstrate that, in addition to support of spermatogenesis, Sertoli cells are required in the adult testis both for retention of the normal adult Leydig cell population and for support of normal peritubular myoid cell function. This has implications for our understanding of male reproductive disorders and wider androgen-related conditions affecting male health.

  20. Amyloid precursor protein interaction network in human testis: sentinel proteins for male reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Joana Vieira; Yoon, Sooyeon; Domingues, Sara; Guimarães, Sofia; Goltsev, Alexander V; da Cruz E Silva, Edgar Figueiredo; Mendes, José Fernando F; da Cruz E Silva, Odete Abreu Beirão; Fardilha, Margarida

    2015-01-16

    Amyloid precursor protein (APP) is widely recognized for playing a central role in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis. Although APP is expressed in several tissues outside the human central nervous system, the functions of APP and its family members in other tissues are still poorly understood. APP is involved in several biological functions which might be potentially important for male fertility, such as cell adhesion, cell motility, signaling, and apoptosis. Furthermore, APP superfamily members are known to be associated with fertility. Knowledge on the protein networks of APP in human testis and spermatozoa will shed light on the function of APP in the male reproductive system. We performed a Yeast Two-Hybrid screen and a database search to study the interaction network of APP in human testis and sperm. To gain insights into the role of APP superfamily members in fertility, the study was extended to APP-like protein 2 (APLP2). We analyzed several topological properties of the APP interaction network and the biological and physiological properties of the proteins in the APP interaction network were also specified by gene ontologyand pathways analyses. We classified significant features related to the human male reproduction for the APP interacting proteins and identified modules of proteins with similar functional roles which may show cooperative behavior for male fertility. The present work provides the first report on the APP interactome in human testis. Our approach allowed the identification of novel interactions and recognition of key APP interacting proteins for male reproduction, particularly in sperm-oocyte interaction.

  1. Presumed normal ultrasonographic findings of the testis and epididymis of botos (Inia geoffrensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Flávio Ribeiro; da Silva, Vera Maria Ferreira; Martin, Anthony Richard; Ambrósio, Carlos Eduardo; Giglio, Robson Fortes; Miglino, Maria Angélica

    2012-12-01

    Fifteen live adult male botos, or Amazon river dolphins (Inia geoffrensis), were examined using ultrasonography during the yearly capture expedition, between October and November 2005, at the Mamirauá Sustainable Development Reserve, within the Brazilian Amazon (3 degrees S, 65 degrees W). All examinations were performed with a Sonosite 180 plus ultrasound unit in conjunction with a 2- to 5-MHz multifrequency transducer convex array 180 Plus/Elite-C60. Age and maturity estimates were determined considering the body length, weight, and external characteristics. In all examinations, the testes were discerned by the presence of a hyperechoic central line, called the mediastinum testis, a landmark for their identification during ultrasonography. No significant differences in echogenicity were detected on the ultrasonographic appearance of the testes among the studied animals. On adult male botos, apparent parenchymal nodulation of the testis was observed on scanning in most of the animals and probably constituted evidence of reproductive maturity. Using the color Doppler technique, blood flow was detected along the mediastinum testis that progressively decreased toward the periphery of this organ. Little blood flow could be identified by color Doppler. Power Doppler allowed better accuracy to identify testicular vessels, their topography, and their differentiation from adjacent structures. Ultrasonographic examination provides useful data for morphologic characterization of the boto's testes. Examination using Doppler techniques was considered a valuable tool to evidence blood flow through the testicular parenchyma.

  2. PIWIL2 and PL2L60 (Cancer/Testis genes Expression in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezvan Esmaeili

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cancer/testis antigens (CTAs are members of a group of proteins which are normally expressed in testis germ cells and to a lesser extent in the ovaries. Because of recent reports about their aberrant and specific expression in some tumoral tissues, they may play a role as new candidates for targeted therapy. Therefore, the study of the expression pattern of these biomarkers and its relationship with clinical features of the patients is a subject of great interest.Methods: In this study, expression of PIWIL2 and genes was studied by multiplex RT-PCR in 65 breast tissue samples including 30 invasive ductal carcinomas (IDC, 30 normal adjacent tissue samples and five normal breast tissue samples and 2 normal testicular tissue samples as positive controls. beta actin was considered as internal control.Results: Results of gel electrophoresis analysis demonstrated no significant expression of target genes in any sample except testis. Simultaneously, beta actin was expressed in all the samples.Conclusions: The present study indicates lack of PIWIL2 and PL2L60 expression at mRNA level in breast cancer. Although cell lines can be used in cancer research, they are not representative of tumor tissues. More studies investigating the expression of these genes at protein level will help us decide whether to apply these candidate genes as tumor markers or not.

  3. Cancer/Testis genes in relation to sperm biology and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kehinde Adebayo Babatunde

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cancer testis antigens (CTAs, a large family of tumor-associated and immunogenic antigens expressed in human tumors of various histological origins, are highly restricted to the testis and trophoblast. CTAs have been identified as potent targets for tumor-specific immunotherapeutic advances and have immensely lead to the development of different clinical trials of CTA-based vaccine therapy because of their resilient in vivo immunogenicity and tumor-restricted expression pattern. Bladder cancer, non-small cell lung carcinoma, and melanoma are grouped as high CT gene expressors. Prostate and breast cancer as moderate, and colon and renal cancers are considered as low CT gene expressors. Large percentages of these identified CT genes are expressed during spermatogenesis but their function is still vaguely unknown. Researchers have taken a keen interest in CT genes as pertaining to their role in tumor growth and spermatogenesis. Testis has many similarities with cancerous tissues like cell division, immigration, and immortalization. The aim is to give a concise in-depth review on the role of some specific CT genes in spermatogenesis.

  4. Copper nanoparticles differentially target testis of the catfish, Clarias batrachus: in vivo and in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raju Murugananthkumar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Present study examined the impact of copper (Cu as nanoparticle (Cu-NPs and soluble form (CuSO4 in adult male catfish Clarias batrachus. Following treatment, upregulation of transcripts of several testis-related genes and increased androgen levels were evident. Though profound promotional effect was seen at gene and androgen levels, structural analysis revealed completely different scenario. Histological observations of testis showed disruption of basal lamina, distinct spermatogonium and enlarged spermatocytes in the treated groups. Quite alarmingly, transmission electron microscopic analysis showed damage of testicular lumen with irregular basal lamina and distinctive spermatocytes. In addition, Sertoli cells and erythrocytes exhibited damage after Cu treatments. Cytotoxic effects of Cu in catfish primary testis and TM3 Leydig cells showed cytotoxicity which is correlated well with morphological and flow cytometric analysis. Taken together, the results demonstrated that low dose of Cu/Cu-NPs can be detrimental to catfish testicular recrudescence vis-à-vis reproduction and the toxic effect manifest drastically in in vitro cultures.

  5. Ultra-Structure Study of Lead Acetate Cytotoxic Effects on Testis in Rabbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Nassiri

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Lead is one the world wide using metals it has been used since ancient time. It is also a toxin, known to have adverse effects on the body even at low level of exposure and it induces a bread range of physiological, biochemical, and behavioral dysfunctions. Studies have been showed that this metal has harmful effects on several tissues such as: nervous system, blood tissues, and cardiovascular system, reproductive and urinary system. Because it damage human, animal and plants. Nowadays has been attended on this metal. Materials & Methods: White male rabbits of New Zealand race were used and divided into two groups. Experimental groups (N =10 6.5 Mg/Kg of lead acetate were injected intraperitoneally every other day to each animal for 7 weeks as chronic dose and control group (N=10 were injected only with demonized water. After taking biopsy from testis tissues of each group, tissue preparation was performed for LM and EM studies as standard method. Morphologic study was carried out on electron micrographs. Data have been compared using statistically methods. Results: Morphological findings showed that testis tissue in experimental group that chronic dose has been sever changed histologically compared with control group. Seminifar tubules diameter showed significant decrease (p<0.05. Primary spermotocyte nucleus showed heterochromatin and mitochondria showed vacuelaution Conclusion: These results (based on present study findings revealed that lead acetate could have vivid effects on testis tissue during chronic dose.

  6. Histopathological evaluation of the Zebrafish (Danio rerio testis following exposure to methyl paraben

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Hassanzadeh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Methyl paraben (MP is widely used as a preservative in various products. It frequently enters into aquatic environment and renders potential threat to fish. The aim of this study was to evaluate reproductive toxicity of MP on zebrafish (Danio rerio under laboratory conditions. Male zebrafish were exposed to four concentrations of MP (0.001, 0.01, 1, and 10 mg L-1 for 21 days in semi-static condition. Changes in mean length, mean weight, gonadosomatic index (GSI and histology of testis were studied. Treatment at 0.001 to 10 mg L-1 MP had no significant effect on the survival, mean length and mean weight of fish. But, GSI decreased in a dose dependent manner and the decrease was significant in the group that received the highest dose. Histological alteration of testis consisted of general testicular atrophy, multi-nucleated gonocytes (MNGs, impaired germ cell, spermatogonial proliferation, Leydig cell hyperplasia, interstitial fibrosis and apoptosis of Sertoli cells. It was concluded that sub-chronic exposures of MP could adversely affect GSI, disrupt the histology of testis and produce estrogenic and antispermatogenic activity in male zebra fish.

  7. Intravaginal testicular torsion in newborns. To fix or not to fix the contralateral testis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bordin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Scrotal swelling suggesting testicular torsion is a rare urological emergency which requires a clinical urgent evaluation and most of the times must be managed surgically. In newborns it can occur in the postnatal period, usually within the twenty-eighth day of life, or more frequently in utero, during the descent of the testis into the scrotum. Usually its poor fixedness allows the testis an abnormal mobility inside the scrotum, configuring the framework of extravaginal torsion. On the contrary during the perinatal period a twist that takes place inside the tunica vaginalis, known as intravaginal torsion, is extremely uncommon and only few cases are well documented in the literature. Authors present a rare case of intravaginal testicular torsion occurred in perinatal period. In this situation only the early surgical exploration of the scrotum may allow the rescue of the gonad, although in rare cases. Timing of surgical treatment and need for contralateral testicular fixation remain controversial. However since the anatomical defect of the tunica vaginalis can be bilateral the surgical fixation even of the contralateral testis is important, now or later, in order to prevent any future torsion of this gonad. The authors also present a brief review of recent literature on the subject.

  8. [Torsion of spermatic cord: can we trust a previous orchidopexy? A case report with loss of a single testis with medico-legal issue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Glabeke, E; Ferhi, K; Maloum, C

    2010-10-01

    The authors report the case of a patient aged of 27 years who presented in the past a testicular torsion with loss of the ipsilateral testis and fixation of the contralateral one. Ten years later, he presented with pain on the remaining testis, which evolved to necrosis, and led to a second orchidectomy. In retrospective, it appears that the assumption that the testis had been adequately fixed ten years earlier led to the loss of the remaining testis. We thus recommend an urgent surgical exploration when facing a suspicion of spermatic cord torsion, regardless of previous history of orchidopexy. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Administration of noradrenaline in the autonomic ganglia modifies the testosterone release from the testis using an ex vivo system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, Zulema Y; Palmada, Miguel N; Fóscolo, Mabel R; Capani, Francisco; Conill, Alberto; Cavicchia, Juan Carlos

    2009-08-01

    The male gonad receives nerve fibres from the autonomic ganglionic system. These fibres converge on the testis along two pathways, the superior and the inferior spermatic nerves. The superior spermatic nerve runs from the superior mesenteric ganglion alongside the testicular artery, whereas the inferior spermatic nerve originates in inferior mesenteric ganglion, accompanies the vas deferens and penetrates the inferior pole of the testis. The aim of this work was to evaluate androgen release after the addition of noradrenaline or adrenoreceptor antagonists (propranolol or phentolamine) to the ganglionic compartment. An ex vivo system used in a previous work was incubated in two separate containers, one for the testis and the other for the ganglion. Both organs remain interconnected (as in vivo) by the respective spermatic nerve. When noradrenaline was added to the inferior mesenteric ganglion, testosterone release in the gonad container underwent a progressive and significant increment. Propranolol diminishes and phentolamine increases the androgen release. When using the superior mesenteric ganglion, no changes were observed. These results indicate that the ganglionic stimulation of the autonomic system clearly participates in testosterone release from the testis. This effect depends on the ganglion involved. These results make it evident that not only the classical and well-known hypothalamus-hypophysial axis, but also the peripheral nervous system, via the autonomic ganglia, are directly involved in the endocrine control of the testis.

  10. Is testis-sparing surgery safe in small testicular masses? Results of a multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keske, Murat; Canda, Abdullah Erdem; Yalcin, Serdar; Kilicarslan, Aydan; Kibar, Yusuf; Tuygun, Can; Onder, Evrim; Atmaca, Ali Fuat; Yildirim, Asif; Ozkanli, Sidika Seyma; Kandemir, Olcay; Kargi, Taner; Sar, Mehmet; Tugcu, Volkan; Resorlu, Berkan; Aslan, Yilmaz; Sarikaya, Selcuk; Boylu, Ugur; Cicek, Ali Fuat; Basar, Halil; Tuncel, Altug; Balbay, Mevlana Derya

    2017-01-01

    Our goal was to evaluate benign and malignant lesions and testicular intraepithelial neoplasia (TIN) in the neighbouring normal-appearing testis tissue in men who underwent radical orchiectomy for testicular mass with a pathologic tumour size of ≤3cm. In this retrospective, multicentre study, data of 252 patients from 11 different institutions were included. Patients were divided into three groups based on tumour size: Group 1 (0-1 cm; n=35), Group 2 (1.1-2cm; n=99), and Group 3 (2.1-3 cm; n=118). Benign lesions and TIN were sought in the neighbouring testicular tissue and compared between groups. Mean patient age was 32.3 years. Benign lesions were reported in 54.3%, 33.3%, and 14.4% of Groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively (p0.05 for Groups 2 vs. 3). Multifocality was detected in 8.6%, 4%, and 0% of Groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively (p0.05 for Group 1 vs. Group 2). A tumour cutoff size of 1.5 cm was found to be significant for detecting benign tumour. TIN and multifocality rates were similar in patients with a tumour size of ≤1.5 vs. >1.5 cm (p>0.05). Benign lesions and TIN in the neighbouring testis were significantly decreased and multifocality was increased in patients with a tumour mass size of ≤1 cm. Testis-sparing surgery should be performed with caution and a safety rim of normal tissue should also be excised.

  11. Pleiotropic activity of hepatocyte growth factor during embryonic mouse testis development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, G; Catizone, A; Galdieri, M

    2002-10-01

    The hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a pleiotropic cytokine whose action is mediated by c-met, a glycoproteic receptor with tyrosine kinase activity which transduces its multiple biological activities including cell proliferation, motility and differentiation. During embryonic development HGF acts as a morphogenetic factor as previously demonstrated for metanephric and lung development. Recently, culturing male genital ridges, we demonstrated that HGF is able to support in vitro testicular cord formation. In the present paper we report the expression pattern of the HGF gene during embryonic testis development and the multiple roles exerted by this factor during the morphogenesis of this organ. Northern blot analysis reveals a positive signal in urogenital ridges isolated from 11.5 days post coitum (dpc) embryos and in testes isolated from 13.5 and 15.5 dpc male embryos. On the contrary HGF mRNA is undetectable in ovaries isolated from 13.5 and 15.5 dpc embryos. Moreover, we demonstrate that HGF is synthesized and secreted by the male gonad and is biologically active. These data indicate a male specific biological function of HGF during embryonic gonadal development. This hypothesis is supported by the in vitro demonstration that HGF acts as a migratory factor for male mesonephric cells which is a male specific event. In addition we demonstrate that during testicular development, HGF acts as a morphogenetic factor able to reorganize dissociated testicular cells which, under HGF stimulation, form a tridimensional network of cord-like structures. Finally, we demonstrate that HGF induces testicular cell proliferation in this way being responsible for the size increase of the testis. All together the data presented in this paper demonstrate that HGF is expressed during the embryonic development of the testis and clarify the multiple roles exerted by this factor during the morphogenesis of the male gonad.

  12. DUX4 binding to retroelements creates promoters that are active in FSHD muscle and testis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet M Young

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The human double-homeodomain retrogene DUX4 is expressed in the testis and epigenetically repressed in somatic tissues. Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD is caused by mutations that decrease the epigenetic repression of DUX4 in somatic tissues and result in mis-expression of this transcription factor in skeletal muscle. DUX4 binds sites in the human genome that contain a double-homeobox sequence motif, including sites in unique regions of the genome as well as many sites in repetitive elements. Using ChIP-seq and RNA-seq on myoblasts transduced with DUX4 we show that DUX4 binds and activates transcription of mammalian apparent LTR-retrotransposons (MaLRs, endogenous retrovirus (ERVL and ERVK elements, and pericentromeric satellite HSATII sequences. Some DUX4-activated MaLR and ERV elements create novel promoters for genes, long non-coding RNAs, and antisense transcripts. Many of these novel transcripts are expressed in FSHD muscle cells but not control cells, and thus might contribute to FSHD pathology. For example, HEY1, a repressor of myogenesis, is activated by DUX4 through a MaLR promoter. DUX4-bound motifs, including those in repetitive elements, show evolutionary conservation and some repeat-initiated transcripts are expressed in healthy testis, the normal expression site of DUX4, but more rarely in other somatic tissues. Testis expression patterns are known to have evolved rapidly in mammals, but the mechanisms behind this rapid change have not yet been identified: our results suggest that mobilization of MaLR and ERV elements during mammalian evolution altered germline gene expression patterns through transcriptional activation by DUX4. Our findings demonstrate a role for DUX4 and repetitive elements in mammalian germline evolution and in FSHD muscular dystrophy.

  13. Transcriptome profiling of the murine testis during the first wave of spermatogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asta Laiho

    Full Text Available Correct gene expression patterns form the basis for male germ cell differentiation and male fertility. Although previous studies have elucidated the importance of testis specific gene expression, the exact transcripts and comprehensive gene expression patterns remain unknown. Large scale sequencing techniques have enabled cost effective analysis of gene expression and isoform studies. Using the SOLiD 4 next-generation sequencing platform we have investigated the gene expression patterns at five different time points during the first wave on murine spermatogenesis. Our results highlight the upregulation of spermatogenesis related biological processes and associated cellular components. Elucidation of differential gene expression at important time points during the sperm development emphasizes the importance of correct timing of gene expression within biological processes. Differential gene level expression was analyzed with R/Bioconductor's Limma package and isoform analysis was conducted with the Cufflinks pipeline. At gene level total of 2494 differentially expressed genes were identified and Cufflinks characterized over 160,000 gene isoforms, of which 29% were novel transcripts assigned to known genes. Isoforms were detected for 57% of expressed genes and in a total over 26,000 genes were expressed in the testis. Differential promoter and transcription start site usage appears also to play a role in regulation of gene expression during spermatogenesis. Furthermore, we identified 947 upregulated long non-coding RNAs during the first wave of spermatogenesis. These RNAs appeared to be highly specific to different time points. Transcriptomic analysis of testis tissue samples is highly informative due to the large number of expressed genes and identified isoforms. Our study provides a very valuable basis for investigation of gene isoforms and regulation and factors contributing to male fertility.

  14. Protective effects of Launaea procumbens on rat testis damage by CCl4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Rahmat

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditionally various human diseases of kidneys, hormonal imbalance and sexual diseases are treated with Launaea procumbens (L. In the present study protective effects of methanolic extract of Launaea procumbens (LPME was evaluated against CCl4-induced oxidative damages in rat testis. Methods To examine the protective effects of Launaea procumbens on testis against oxidative stress of carbon tetrachloride in male rat, 30 male albino rats were equally divided into 5 groups (6 rats. First group was given standard diet and drinking water. Second group received CCl4 3 ml/kg intraperitoneally (30% in olive oil. Third and forth were given orally 100; 200 mg/kg b.w., in 99.8% dimethyl sulphooxide (DMSO, Launaea procumbens methanolic extracts (LPME after 48 h of CCl4 treatment twice a week and sixth group received only LPME in DMSO at a dose of 200 mg/kg b.w., for four weeks. Protective effects of Launaea procumbens were observed on sperm concentration, motility and morphology, serum reproductive hormonal level, activity of antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation (TBARS and DNA damages. Results Results of the present study revealed that treatment of CCl4 significantly (p  reduced sperm concentration and motility comparatively to controls. Level of testosterone, luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone, were depleted markedly (p with treatment of CCl4. In addition, CCl4 induction in rats reduced activities of antioxidant enzymes while increased lipid peroxidation and DNA damages. Co-administration of LPME significantly (p improved these alterations in improving of hormonal level, activities of antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation near to control rats. Conclusion From the results it is suggested that Launaea procumbens methanolic extract has the ability to protect testis against oxidative damages, possibly through antioxidant effects of its bioactive compounds.

  15. The Effect of Heparin on the Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Changes in Rat Testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elçin Hakan Terzi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate the preventive effects of low molecular weight heparin on testis destruction created by low dose (0.25 ml/kg carbon tetrachloride (CCl4application.    Materials and Methods: Sixteen Spraque Dawley male rats were used. CCl4 induced testicular destruction was created. There were 4 rats in each group; Group I recieved 1 ml of intraperitoneal olive oil, Group recieved intraperitoneal 0,25ml/kg CCL4 in1 ml of olive oil, Group III recieved intraperitoneal 0,25ml/kg CCL4 in1 ml of olive oil plus subcutaneous 180 IU/kg low molecular weight heparin and Grup IV received only subcutaneous 180 IU/kg low molecular weight heparin. At the end of 4 weeks of study period, rats were sacrified and tissue samples were fixed in glutaraldehyde solution.Results: There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in terms of testis weight (p>0.05. Light microscopy showed vacuolization in the basal portion of the seminiferous tubules in Group II. Intercellular dehiscence between the spermatogenetic cells was significant in Group II compared to control group at the level of fine structure. Intercellular dehiscence was not significant in Group III compared to Group II. The seminiferous tubules structures in Group IV were found comparable with the control group. Low dose of CCl4 caused germ cell loss, inhibition of mitosis, and structural deterioration of the Sertoli cells in seminiferous tubules of rat testes. Conclusions: Low molecular weight heparin was found to be effective preventing CCl4 induced testis destruction.  

  16. Mechanisms of the Testis Toxicity Induced by Chronic Exposure to Mequindox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianying Liu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Mequindox (MEQ is a synthetic antimicrobial agent widely used in China since the 1980s. Although the toxicity of MEQ is well recognized, its testis toxicity has not been adequately investigated. In the present study, we provide evidence that MEQ triggers oxidative stress, mitochondrion dysfunction and spermatogenesis deficiency in mice after exposure to MEQ (0, 25, 55, and 110 mg/kg in the diet for up to 18 months. The genotoxicity and adrenal toxicity may contribute to sperm abnormalities caused by MEQ. Moreover, using LC/MS-IT-TOF analysis, two metabolites, 3-methyl-2-(1-hydroxyethyl quinoxaline-N4-monoxide (M4 and 3-methyl-2-(1-hydroxyethyl quinoxaline-N1-monoxide (M8, were detected in the serum of mice, which directly confirms the relationship between the N→O group reduction metabolism of MEQ and oxidative stress. Interestingly, only M4 was detected in the testes, suggesting that the higher reproductive toxicity of M4 than M8 might be due to the increased stability of M4-radical (M4-R compared to M8-radical (M8-R. Furthermore, the expression of the blood-testis barrier (BTB-associated junctions such as tight junctions, gap junctions and basal ectoplasmic specializations were also examined. The present study demonstrated for the first time the role of the M4 in testis toxicity, and illustrated that the oxidative stress, mitochondrion dysfunction and interference in spermatogenesis, as well as the altered expression of BTB related junctions, were involved in the reproductive toxicity mediated by MEQ in vivo.

  17. Carcinoma in situ of the testis. Some ultrastructural characteristics of germ cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtsen, R; Nielsen, M H; Skakkebaek, N E

    1982-01-01

    The two cytoplasmic organelles, dense-cored vesicles and "nuages" have been considered to allow positive identification of primordial germ cells in rodents, but no use of these potential markers has been applied to human material. We have observed dense-cored vesicles and "nuages" in the abnormal...... germ cells of carcinoma in situ of the testis and thus brought further evidence for the germ cell origin of this lesion. These organelles may be useful cytoplasmic markers in the study of germ cell tumors....

  18. Lipoprotein lipase and endothelial lipase in human testis and in germ cell neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J E; Lindegaard, M L; Friis-Hansen, L

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate endothelial lipase (EL, LIPG) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) mRNA and protein expression in normal human testis and testicular germ cell tumours (GCT). Both EL and LPL were expressed in normal seminiferous tubules and in the interstitial compartment. EL m......RNA and protein were found in all germ cells as well as in Sertoli and Leydig cells. EL mRNA was abundant in pre-invasive carcinoma in situ (CIS) cells and GCTs, and EL protein was present in the cytoplasm of these cells. LPL mRNA was also relatively abundant in germ cells, Sertoli cells, CIS cells and GCTs...

  19. Embryonic mouse testis development: role of platelet derived growth factor (PDGF-BB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, G; Catizone, A; Galdieri, M

    2004-09-01

    Platelet-derived growth factors (PDGFs) are paracrine growth factors mediating epithelial-mesenchymal interactions and exerting multiple biological activities which include cell proliferation, motility, and differentiation. As previously demonstrated, PDGFs act during embryonic development and recently, by culturing male genital ridges, we have demonstrated that PDGF-BB is able to support in vitro testicular cord formation. In the present paper, we report that PDGF-BB is present during embryonic testis development and, in organ culture, induces cord formation although with reduced diameters compared with the cords formed in the genital ridges cultured in the presence of HGF. Moreover we have analyzed the roles exerted by this growth factor during the morphogenesis of the testis. We demonstrate by immunohistochemical experiments that PDGF-BB and its receptors are synthesized by the male UGRs isolated from 11.5 and 13.5 dpc embryos and by Western blot that the factor is secreted in a biologically active form by testicular cells isolated from 13.5 dpc embryos. The biological roles of the factor have also been studied and we demonstrate that PDGF-BB acts as a migratory factor for male mesonephric cells whose migration is a male specific event necessary for a normal testicular morphogenesis. In addition we demonstrate that during testicular development, PDGF-BB induces testicular cell proliferation being in this way responsible for the increase in size of the testis. Finally we demonstrate that PDGF-BB is able to reorganize dissociated testicular cells inducing the formation of large cellular aggregates. However the structures formed in vitro under PDGF-BB stimulation never had a cord-like morphology similar to the cord-like structures formed in the presence of HGF (Ricci et al., 2002, Mech Dev 118:19-28), suggesting that this factor does not act as a morphogenetic factor during testicular development. All together the data presented in this paper demonstrate that PDGF

  20. Expression and function analysis of metallothionein in the testis of Portunus trituberculatus exposed to cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiang, Dong-Fang [School of Marine Sciences, Ningbo University, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315211 (China); The Sperm Laboratory, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058 (China); Zhu, Jun-Quan; Jin, Shan [School of Marine Sciences, Ningbo University, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315211 (China); Hu, Yan-Jun [Department of Reproductive Endocrinology, Women' s Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310006 (China); Tan, Fu-Qing [The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310003 (China); Yang, Wan-Xi, E-mail: wxyang@spermlab.org [The Sperm Laboratory, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058 (China)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: •We identified P. trituberculatus MT-1 and MT-2 complete cDNA sequence. •We analyzed the protein alignment comparisons and phylogenetic trees of MT-1 and MT-2. •RT-PCR analysis the tissue expression of MT-1 and MT-2 mRNA. •The spatial and temporal distribution pattern of MT-1 and MT-2 mRNA during spermiogenesis. •Testis MT-1 and MT-2 mRNA expression are dramatically affected after the cadmium exposure. -- Abstract: Metallothioneins (MTs) possess a unique molecular structure that provides metal-binding and redox capabilities. These capabilities include the maintenance of metal equilibria that protect against heavy metals (especially cadmium) and oxidative damage. Past studies have focused on the function of MTs in vertebrates. However, the functions of MTs during spermiogenesis in invertebrates remain unclear. In order to investigate the function of MTs during spermiogenesis in Portunus trituberculatus, we used RT-PCR and RACE to identify two MT complete cDNA sequences in the total RNA from the P. trituberculatus testis. The 450 bp MT-1 cDNA consists of a 77 bp 5′ untranslated region, a 196 bp 3′ untranslated region, and a 177 bp open reading frame that encodes 58 amino acids including 19 cysteines. The 581 bp MT-2 cDNA consists of 73 bp 5′ untranslated region, a 328 bp 3′ untranslated region, and a 180 bp open reading frame that encodes 59 amino acids including 18 cysteines. MT-1 and MT-2 of P. trituberculatus more closely resemble invertebrate (especially crab) MT homologues than vertebrate MT homologues as indicated by protein alignment comparisons and phylogenetic tree analysis. MT-1 and MT-2 were detected in the heart, testis, muscle, hepatopancreas, and gill of P. trituberculatus by tissue expression analysis. In addition, MT-1 and MT-2 are present during the entire process of spermiogenesis in P. trituberculatus as indicated by H and E staining and in situ hybridization. MT-1 and MT-2 expression levels significantly increase

  1. The Blood-Testis Barrier and Male Sexual Dysfunction following Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    the urea metabolic cycle and energy metabolism in the testis at 72 hours post-SCI. carnosine 24 hours 72 hours 28 days 90 days 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 3...of licofelone on these pathways. Methionine Sulfoxide: Oxidation of the sulfur motifs of methionine can indicate a pro-oxidative environment. We...Subsequent data was analyzed using ANOVA. Cell Death in the Testes at 72 Hours SCI caused an increase in  urea  and ornithine and a  decrease in creatinine

  2. An unexpected finding of a rare intrascrotal lesion: the sertoliform cystadenoma of the rete testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahnan, Kapil; Manjunath, Aditya; Vaughan-Shaw, Peter G; Mitsopoulos, Grigorios

    2013-02-20

    A 19-year-old man presented with a right testicular swelling. Testicular ultrasound demonstrated areas suspicious for malignancy and so it was decided to proceed for a right radical inguinal orchiectomy. Initial histological examination revealed a multiloculated cystic lesion at the area of the rete testis yet normal testicular parenchyma elsewhere. Specialist histological opinion was sought from the regional teratoma multi-disciplinary team which confirmed the diagnosis of a sertoliform cystadenoma, an extremely rare benign testicular neoplasm. The recognition of the benign nature of the mass enabled complete reassurance to be offered to the patient and avoided further oncological treatment.

  3. Testicular dysgenesis syndrome and the origin of carcinoma in situ testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Si Brask; Kristensen, David Møbjerg; Novotny, Guy W

    2008-01-01

    the development of CIS cells, is a result of disturbed signalling between nurse cells and germ cells that allow embryonic germ cells to survive in the pre-pubertal and adult testis. The post-pubertal proliferation of CIS cells combined with aberrant signalling then leads to an accumulation of genetic changes...... foetus, but the genetic background may also play a role. The morphological similarity of carcinoma in situ (CIS) cells (the precursor of the majority of invasive testicular cancers) with primordial germ cells and gonocytes, and overlap in expression of protein markers suggests an origin of CIS from...

  4. Experience in staging testis tumors with bleomycin cobalt 57 and present role of gallium 67 scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukerjee, M.G.; Mittemeyer, B.T.

    1976-10-01

    A technique was developed using bleomycin and cobalt 57 to study nodal metastases in testis tumors. Comparative studies were made on 15 cases with gallium 67, lymphangiography, supraclavicular node biopsy, liver and spleen scans, chest x-ray, excretory urogram, bone survey and pathological study of surgical specimens when possible. The results with the bleomycin-cobalt 57 complex and gallium 67 were discouraging. The bleomycin-cobalt 57 study was discontinued. Pathological staging is still the most accurate of all modalities available for staging testicular malignancies.

  5. Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma associated with deep vein thrombosis following radiotherapy for seminoma of the testis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Fuminori; Yamazaki, Hajime; Ataka, Ken; Mashima, Ichiro; Suzuki, Kenta; Takahashi, Toru; Umezu, Hajime; Gejyo, Fumitake [Niigata Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2000-11-01

    A 52-year-old man developed malignant peritoneal mesothelioma 17 years after radiotherapy for seminoma of the testis. Although asbestos exposure is considered to be the major risk factor for the development of malignant mesothelioma, prior therapeutic radiation has also been postulated as a causative factor. The unexplained appearance of ascites or pleural effusion within a previously irradiated area should be considered suggestive of malignant mesothelioma in any long-term survivor of cancer. In addition, the patient suffered a deep vein thrombosis four years before the diagnosis of mesothelioma. Deep vein thrombosis is a common complication of malignant disease, and is often the first clue to occult malignancy. (author)

  6. Adenomatous hyperplasia of the rete testis: A rare intrascrotal lesion managed with limited testicular excision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Catanzariti

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Testicular cancer is one of the most frequent in young men and its incidence is increasing in recent years because of incidental finding during routine ultrasound exams. Adenomatous hyperplasia of the rete testis is one of the benign and rare pathological types incidentally detected and very few cases are described in the literature. Case report: A 40 years old man come to our attention for a balanoposthitis without testicular pain. During andrological examination we performed palpation of the testes and we noticed a palpable nodule of hard consistency in the left testicle. We then performed an ultrasound exam of the testis which highlighted the presence of an intra-didymus neoformation with diameters of 1.2 x 1.6 cm and with the presence of cysts inside. We also performed blood tests to check tumor markers alpha fetoprotein, beta hCG and LDH which resulted inside the normal range. We then conducted a chest and abdomen CT scan that showed no pathological elements. Therefore, as we suspected that this tumor was benign, we performed an enucleation of the neoplasm. The definitive histological examination revealed the presence of dilated ducts lined with epithelial cubic-columnar cells with clear cytoplasm rich in glycogen and the pathologist so concluded that the tumor could be classified as adenomatous hyperplasia of the rete testis. At three months of follow up, the patient doesn’t have any recurrent lesion to either testicles. Discussion: Adenomatous hyperplasia of the rete testis is a very rare intrascrotal lesion. This histological type is the most frequent between benign lesion of the ovary, but few works in literature reported this histological type in the male gonad and, in most of these works, authors described these lesion at epididymis. Conclusion: We believe that a conservative approach must be considered mandatory in case of testicular lesions 1.5 cm in diameter. A radical approach might have alterate fertility of the

  7. Expression and localization of N- and E-cadherin in the human testis and epididymis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, A M; Edvardsen, K; Skakkebaek, N E

    1994-01-01

    Cellular interactions in the testis and epididymis are an important prerequisite for spermatogenesis and sperm maturation, and involve a well-developed complex of intercellular junctions. Cadherins are cell surface proteins which mediate intercellular Ca(2+)-dependent adhesion and are believed...... epididymis E-cadherin, but not N-cadherin, was expressed and localized to the surface of the principal epithelial cells as shown by immunohistochemistry. These observations indicate that cadherins play an important role in the organization of the seminiferous and epididymal epithelium....

  8. Effect of Graded Testicular Doses of Radiotherapy in Patients Treated for Carcinoma-In-Situ in the Testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Peter Meidahl; Giwercman, Aleksander; Daugaard, Gedske

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine the effect of radiotherapy in doses 14 to 20 Gy on eradication of carcinoma-in-situ (CIS) testis and on the Leydig cell function. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Forty-eight patients presented with unilateral testicular germ cell cancer and CIS of the contralateral testis. The CIS...... without signs of recurrence of CIS after an observation period of more than 5 years. One of 14 patients treated at dose level 14 Gy had a relapse of CIS 20 months after irradiation. Leydig cell function was examined before and regularly after radiotherapy in 44 of 48 patients. The levels of testosterone......-bearing testis was treated with daily irradiation doses of 2 Gy, 5 days a week, to a cumulative dose of 20 Gy (21 patients), 18 Gy (three patients), 16 Gy (10 patients), and 14 Gy (14 patients). RESULTS: All patients treated at dose levels 20 Gy to 16 Gy achieved histologically verified complete remission...

  9. The testis of the mice C57/BL6 offspring in adulthood have alterations due to maternal caffeine consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcante, Fernanda Silveira; Aiceles, Verônica; Moraes, Diana de Freitas Serapião; Alves-Pereira, Jorge Luiz; Faria, Tatiane Silva; Ramos, Cristiane da Fonte

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effects of the maternal caffeine consumption during pregnancy to adult male testis mice offspring. Twenty pregnant mice were divided into control group (c) and caffeine group (cf). dams received daily saline or 20 mg/kg of caffeine subcutaneously. Male offspring were monitored daily until 13th week. The testis were used to evaluate both the proliferation (pcna) and apoptosis (bax); leptin receptor (ob-r); aromatase; follicle stimulating hormone (fshr), luteinizing hormone (lhr) and androgen receptors (ar); steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (star); vascular endothelial growth factor (vegf) and estrogen receptors (erα and erβ) by western blotting. Serum concentrations of testosterone, estradiol and leptin were measured. There was a significant reduction in food intake and the body mass gain (pcaffeine. The serum testosterone levels in the cf offspring were 90% lower than in the c offspring (p=0.04). Maternal caffeine consumption has a role and alters the testis of the offspring in adulthood.

  10. Identification of genetic networks that act in the somatic cells of the testis to mediate the developmental program of spermatogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael John Fairchild

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Spermatogenesis is a dynamic developmental process requiring precisely timed transitions between discrete stages. Specifically, the germline undergoes three transitions: from mitotic spermatogonia to spermatocytes, from meiotic spermatocytes to spermatids, and from morphogenetic spermatids to spermatozoa. The somatic cells of the testis provide essential support to the germline throughout spermatogenesis, but their precise role during these developmental transitions has not been comprehensively explored. Here, we describe the identification and characterization of genes that are required in the somatic cells of the Drosophila melanogaster testis for progress through spermatogenesis. Phenotypic analysis of candidate genes pinpointed the stage of germline development disrupted. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that particular gene classes were associated with specific developmental transitions. Requirement for genes associated with endocytosis, cell polarity, and microtubule-based transport corresponded with the development of spermatogonia, spermatocytes, and spermatids, respectively. Overall, we identify mechanisms that act specifically in the somatic cells of the testis to regulate spermatogenesis.

  11. Expression and localization of nerve growth factor (NGF in the testis of alpaca (llama pacos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changsheng Dong

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available During alpaca testis development and spermatogenesis, nerve growth factor (NGF may play an important role. The main aim of this study was to determine the expression and localization of NGF in the alpaca testis, and to discuss the important role of NGF in alpaca reproductive characteristics. Immunohistochemical staining technique and real-time PCR were used. The expression of NGF in the same cells one-month old (newborn alpacas 12-month, and 24-month old alpacas showed significant differences (p < 0.05; 12- and 24-month old alpacas showed no significant differences (p > 0.05; NGF at different cell stages showed no significant differences (p > 0.05. It suggests that NGF may be involved in the regulation of spermatogenesis, which provides direct evidence for NGF action in the alpaca testis during postnatal development and spermatogenesis. (Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica 2011; Vol. 49, No. 1, pp. 55–61

  12. The Number of Grafted Fragments Affects the Outcome of Testis Tissue Xenografting from Piglets into Recipient Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepideh Abbasi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To optimize the procedure for testis tissue xenografting, we grafted 2, 4, 8, or 16 small fragments of immature porcine testis tissue under the back skin of immunodeficient castrated mice (n=10 mice/group. At 8 months post grafting, the graft recovery rate did not differ between groups; however, not only the total but also the average graft weights were higher (by ∼12-fold and ∼2.5-fold, resp. in mice receiving 16 fragments than those receiving 2 fragments (P<.05. The recipient mice with 16 fragments had the largest vesicular glands (indicators of testosterone release by the grafts compared with those with 2 fragments (P=.007. The grafts in the group of 16 fragments also had more (P<.05 percentage of tubules with round spermatids than those of the group of mice receiving 2 fragments. Therefore, recipient mice can be grafted with at least 16 testis tissue fragments for optimal results.

  13. Expression and functional role of hepatocyte growth factor receptor (C-MET) during postnatal rat testis development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catizone, A; Ricci, G; Galdieri, M

    2001-05-01

    The met protooncogene encodes the hepatocyte growth factor receptor (HGFR, c-met). C-met, a tyrosine kinase receptor protein, is widely expressed in different cell types including the male reproductive tract. As we recently demonstrated, both c-met messenger RNA and protein are expressed in prebuberal rat testis. The aim of this work was to detect the expression of c-met during postnatal testis development and to study its functional role. Our findings show that in total rat testis c-met is expressed during postnatal life until the sexual maturation of the animals. To evaluate the receptor expression in the different cell types in the testis, homogeneous cell populations of Sertoli and peritubular myoid cells were isolated from the seminiferous tubules of 10- and 35-day-old animals. c-met gene is expressed in myoid cells at the ages considered and its expression decreases with increasing age. By contrast, in Sertoli cells c-met expression is first detectable at 25 days of life and its expression increases with the increasing age being well evident at 35 days of age. C-met protein was detected by immunocytochemistry and its expression correlates with gene expression. The receptor is functionally active because HGF administration induces morphological changes in myoid cells and in c-met-expressing Sertoli cells. As a consequence of HGF addition, Sertoli cells cultured on reconstituted basement membrane reorganize into cord-like structures that resemble testicular seminiferous cords. The data here reported demonstrate for the first time that in Sertoli cells c-met expression is developmentally regulated being present and functionally active in postpuberal Sertoli cells. Given that c-met expression persists in myoid cells during postnatal testis development and that in Sertoli cells its expression correlates over time with germ cell differentiation and lumen formation, we conclude that the c-met/HGF system is involved in testis development and function.

  14. Towards a rational terminology in the study of the gubernaculum testis: arguments in support of the notion that the cremasteric sac should be considered the gubernaculum in postnatal rats and other mammals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. van der Schoot

    1996-01-01

    textabstractThere is need for a consistent definition of structures caudal to the testis that variously are termed 'gubernaculum testis' as a basis for understanding the emergence and sexually dimorphic further growth and differentiation of this specifically mammalian

  15. The distribution of drug-efflux pumps, P-gp, BCRP, MRP1 and MRP2, in the normal blood-testis barrier and in primary testicular tumours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bart, J; Hollema, H; Groen, HJM; de Vries, EGE; Hendrikse, NH; Sleijfer, DT; Wegman, TD; Vaalburg, W; van der Graaf, WTA

    The drug-efflux pumps P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1) are present in the blood-testis barrier (BTB) and may hamper the delivery of cytotoxic drugs to the testis. The precise localisation of P-gp and MRP1 in testicular tissue and the presence of the efflux

  16. Analysis of GAGE, NY-ESO-1 and SP17 cancer/testis antigen expression in early stage non-small cell lung carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerstorff, Morten F; Pøhl, Mette; Olsen, Karen E

    2013-01-01

    NSCLC has shown promising results. However, little is known about the expression of other cancer/testis antigens in NSCLC. In the present study the expression of cancer/testis antigens GAGE, NY-ESO-1 and SP17 was investigated in patients with completely resected, early stage, primary NSCLC....

  17. [Morphological verification problems of Chernobyl factor influence on the testis of coal miners of Donbas-liquidators of Chernobyl accident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danylov, Iu V; Motkov, K V; Shevchenko, T I

    2013-01-01

    Problem of a diagnostic of Chernobyl factor influences on different organs and systems of Chernobyl accident liquidators are remain actually until now. Though morbidly background which development at unfavorable work conditions in underground coalminers prevents from objective identification features of Chernobyl factor influences. The qualitative and quantitative histological and immunohistochemical law of morphogenesis changes in testis of Donbas's coalminer - non-liquidators Chernobyl accident in comparison with the group of Donbas's coalminers-liquidators Chernobyl accident, which we were stationed non determined problem. This reason stipulates to development and practical use of mathematical model of morphogenesis of a testis changes.

  18. Nephroblastoma Arising in a Primary Testicular Teratoma in a Nonatrophic Testis of a 50-Year-Old Man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kromka, Joseph J; Turner, Kevin; Elisco, Anthony; Hale, Nathan

    2018-01-01

    Extrarenal nephroblastoma is an extremely rare tumor thought to be related to teratoid tumors of germ cell origin. Because few cases have been reported, no standard method for categorizing and managing these tumors exists. To our knowledge, there have only been 3 adult cases of nephroblastoma arising in a germ cell tumor of testicular origin in a nonatrophic testis, all in men aged 19 to 22 years and with aggressive clinical courses. We report a case of nephroblastoma in a nonatrophic testis, with nephroblastoma being the only non-germ cell component, in an older patient and with a more indolent clinical course that was responsive to localized treatment.

  19. Characterization of MAGEG2 with testis-specific expression in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juri Jeong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Male germ cell development is a well-defined process occurring in numerous seminiferous tubules of the testis. Uncovering testicular novel genes related to intrinsic regulation of spermatogenesis is essential for the understanding of spermatogenesis. In the present study, we investigated mouse Mageg2, which belongs to a group of melanoma-associated antigens (MAGEs. Mageg2 is transcribed in the testis specifically, and its expression level is increased at the pachytene spermatocyte stage, indicating that Mageg2 is expressed predominantly in germ cells. We generated an antibody against mouse MAGEG2 for further characterization at the protein level. Immunoblot analysis suggested that MAGEG2 has specific testicular expression and the expression primarily occurred in pachytene spermatocytes. Proteomic analyses demonstrated that mouse MAGEG2 binded to testicular germ cell-specific serine/threonine-protein kinase 31 (STK31 and heat shock protein 9 (HSPA9. Direct binding with both interaction partners was confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation. We found that STK31 and HSPA9 bind MAGEG2 directly but not with each other. Interestingly, MAGEG2 reduced the kinase activity of STK31. Our study suggests that mouse MAGEG2 has at least two functions, including chaperone activity related to HSPA9 and regulation of pachytene spermatocyte-specific kinase, STK31. Altogether, our results provide the first information about MAGEG2 at the transcript and protein levels and suggest its potential molecular functions.

  20. A Panel of Cancer Testis Antigens and Clinical Risk Factors to Predict Metastasis in Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molania, Ramyar; Mahjoubi, Frouzandeh; Mirzaei, Rezvan; Khatami, Saeed-Reza; Mahjoubi, Bahar

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third common carcinoma with a high rate of mortality worldwide and several studies have investigated some molecular and clinicopathological markers for diagnosis and prognosis of its malignant phenotypes. The aim of this study is to evaluate expression frequency of PAGE4, SCP-1, and SPANXA/D cancer testis antigen (CTA) genes as well as some clinical risk markers to predict liver metastasis of colorectal cancer patients. The expression frequency of PAGE4, SCP-1, and SPANXA/D cancer/testis antigen (CTA) genes was obtained using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay in 90 colorectal tumor samples including both negative and positive liver metastasis tumors. Statistical analysis was performed to assess the association of three studied genes and clinical risk factors with CRC liver metastasis. The frequency of PAGE4 and SCP-1 genes expression was significantly higher in the primary tumours with liver metastasis when statistically compared with primary tumors with no liver metastasis (P < 0.05). Among all clinical risk factors studied, the lymph node metastasis and the depth of invasion were statistically correlated with liver metastasis of CRC patients. In addition, using multiple logistic regression, we constructed a model based on PAGE4 and lymph node metastasis to predict liver metastasis of CRC. PMID:26317029

  1. The SSX Family of Cancer-Testis Antigens as Target Proteins for Tumor Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heath A. Smith

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer-testis antigens (CTAs represent an expanding class of tumor-associated proteins defined on the basis of their tissue-restricted expression to testis or ovary germline cells and frequent ectopic expression in tumor tissue. The expression of CTA in MHC class I-deficient germline cells makes these proteins particularly attractive as immunotherapeutic targets because they serve as essentially tumor-specific antigens for MHC class I-restricted CD8+ T cells. Moreover, because CTAs are expressed in many types of cancer, any therapeutic developed to target these antigens might have efficacy for multiple cancer types. Of particular interest among CTAs is the synovial sarcoma X chromosome breakpoint (SSX family of proteins, which includes ten highly homologous family members. Expression of SSX proteins in tumor tissues has been associated with advanced stages of disease and worse patient prognosis. Additionally, both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses to SSX proteins have been demonstrated in patients with tumors of varying histological origin, which indicates that natural immune responses can be spontaneously generated to these antigens in cancer patients. The current review will describe the history and identification of this family of proteins, as well as what is known of their function, expression in normal and malignant tissues, and immunogenicity.

  2. Spinacia oleracea Modulates Radiation-Induced Biochemical Changes in Mice Testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisodia, Rashmi; Yadav, Ritu K; Sharma, K V; Bhatia, A L

    2008-01-01

    The present study is an attempt to investigate the radioprotective efficacy of spinach against radiation induced oxidative stress, since its leaves are rich in antioxidants like carotenoids (beta-carotene, lutein and zeaxanthin) and high content of proteins, minerals, vitamin C. For the experimental study, healthy Swiss mice were selected from an inbred colony and divided into four groups. Group I (normal) it did not receive any treatment. Group II (drug treated) was orally supplemented with extract of spinach extract once daily at the dose of 1100 mg/kg for fifteen consecutive days. Group III (control) received distilled water orally equivalent to spinach extract for fifteen days than exposed to 5 Gy of gamma radiation. Group IV (experimental) was also administered orally with spinach extract for 15 consecutive days once daily. Thereafter, exposed to single dose of 5Gy of gamma radiation. After the exposure mice were than sacrificed at different autopsy intervals viz. 1, 3, 7, 15 and 30 days. Testis was removed for various biochemical estimations viz. LPO, protein, cholesterol and glycogen. Radiation induced augmentation in lipid peroxidation, glycogen and cholesterol values were significantly ameliorated by supplementation of SE extract, whereas radiation induced deficit in protein content could be elevated. This indicates that spinach extract pre - treatment renders protection against various biochemical changes in the mice testis to some extent if taken continuously which might be due to synergistic effect of antioxidant constituents present in the spinach.

  3. Cadmium-induced oxidative stress and apoptotic changes in the testis of freshwater crab, Sinopotamon henanense.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Wang

    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd, one of the most toxic environmental and industrial pollutants, is known to exert gonadotoxic and spermiotoxic effects. In the present study, we examined the toxic effect of Cd on the testis of freshwater crab, Sinopotamon henanense. Crabs were exposed to different Cd concentrations (from 0 to 116.00 mg·L(-1 for 7 d. Oxidative stress and apoptotic changes in the testes were detected. The activities of SOD, GPx and CAT initially increased and subsequently decreased with increasing Cd concentrations, which was accompanied with the increase in malondialdehyde (MDA and H(2O(2 content in a concentration-dependent manner. Typical morphological characteristic and physiological changes of apoptosis were observed using a variety of methods (HE staining, AO/EB double fluorescent staining, Transmission Electron Microscope observation and DNA fragmentation analysis, and the activities of caspase-3 and caspase-9 were increased in a concentration-dependent manner after Cd exposure. These results led to the conclusion that Cd could induced oxidative damage as well as apoptosis in the testis, and the apoptotic processes may be mediated via mitochondria-dependent apoptosis pathway by regulating the activities of caspase-3 and caspase-9.

  4. Chronic effects of cadmium on kidney, liver, testis, and fertility of male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saygi, S; Deniz, G; Kutsal, O; Vural, N

    1991-12-01

    Male Wistar rats (n:20), at 5 wk of age, were given cadmium in drinking water (10 mg/L water) for 52 wk; 8 males and 20 female rats, as controls, were given tap water. At the end of 28 and 40 wk, some of the cadmium-treated males and control group male rats were sacrificed for the histopathological examination of testis, kidney, and liver. At the end of 56 wk, histopathological examinations were performed in the same way. Liver, kidney, and testis cadmium levels were also determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. All the cadmium-treated male rats showed pathological testicular alterations, and liver and kidney damage after chronic exposure. Cadmium levels were found to be highest in the kidney (1.009 +/- 0.034 microgram/g wet tissue in the infertile group). At the end of the 52-wk period, reproductive capacity of the cadmium-treated rats was investigated and was found to be lost in 39.89% of the animals.

  5. Escargot Restricts Niche Cell to Stem Cell Conversion in the Drosophila Testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Voog

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells reside within specialized microenvironments, or niches, that control many aspects of stem cell behavior. Somatic hub cells in the Drosophila testis regulate the behavior of cyst stem cells (CySCs and germline stem cells (GSCs and are a primary component of the testis stem cell niche. The shutoff (shof mutation, characterized by premature loss of GSCs and CySCs, was mapped to a locus encoding the evolutionarily conserved transcription factor Escargot (Esg. Hub cells depleted of Esg acquire CySC characteristics and differentiate as cyst cells, resulting in complete loss of hub cells and eventually CySCs and GSCs, similar to the shof mutant phenotype. We identified Esg-interacting proteins and demonstrate an interaction between Esg and the corepressor C-terminal binding protein (CtBP, which was also required for maintenance of hub cell fate. Our results indicate that niche cells can acquire stem cell properties upon removal of a single transcription factor in vivo.

  6. A Panel of Cancer Testis Antigens and Clinical Risk Factors to Predict Metastasis in Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramyar Molania

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third common carcinoma with a high rate of mortality worldwide and several studies have investigated some molecular and clinicopathological markers for diagnosis and prognosis of its malignant phenotypes. The aim of this study is to evaluate expression frequency of PAGE4, SCP-1, and SPANXA/D cancer testis antigen (CTA genes as well as some clinical risk markers to predict liver metastasis of colorectal cancer patients. The expression frequency of PAGE4, SCP-1, and SPANXA/D cancer/testis antigen (CTA genes was obtained using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR assay in 90 colorectal tumor samples including both negative and positive liver metastasis tumors. Statistical analysis was performed to assess the association of three studied genes and clinical risk factors with CRC liver metastasis. The frequency of PAGE4 and SCP-1 genes expression was significantly higher in the primary tumours with liver metastasis when statistically compared with primary tumors with no liver metastasis (P<0.05. Among all clinical risk factors studied, the lymph node metastasis and the depth of invasion were statistically correlated with liver metastasis of CRC patients. In addition, using multiple logistic regression, we constructed a model based on PAGE4 and lymph node metastasis to predict liver metastasis of CRC.

  7. Single high scrotal incision orchidopexy for unilateral palpable testis: A randomised controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almoutaz A. Eltayeb

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bianchi and Squire introduced single high trans-scrotal incision for mobilisation of palpable undescended testes to decrease the potential morbidity of the traditional inguinal approach. This incision has not gained widespread acceptance and there is still a considerable debate about its efficacy. This study evaluated the outcome of high single scrotal incision in comparison to the classic inguinal exploration for unilateral palpable testes regardless to its pre-operative location to assure its validity and safety. Patients and Methods: This was a randomised controlled study conducted on seventy males with palpable unilateral undescended testicles from November 2009 to October 2013. They were divided into two equal groups; group I had high single scrotal incision and group II had the classic inguinal approach. The comparative parameters between both groups were the operative time, intra-and post-operative complications, post-operative pain and scar. Results: There was statistical significant difference between both groups regarding the operative time (P < 0.001. The high scrotal approach (Group I was not completed in three cases and were converted to the classic inguinal approach. No statistical significant difference between both groups regarding the post-operative complications. Conclusions: Single high scrotal incision orchidopexy for palpable undescended testis is safe, has shorter operative time but may not be suitable for proximally lying testis.

  8. Selective use of percutaneous testis biopsy to optimize IVF-ICSI outcomes: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Russell P; Wright, Diane L; Toth, Thomas L; Tanrikut, Cigdem

    2016-01-01

    Sperm quality may degrade during transit through the male reproductive tract in some individuals. In this setting surgically retrieved testicular sperm may outperform ejaculated samples for use with in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF-ICSI). We sought to describe one center's experience with the use of fresh testicular sperm after prior failed IVF-ICSI with ejaculated samples. A retrospective review was conducted evaluating IVF-ICSI cycles performed at a tertiary IVF unit between 2009 and 2014. Couples who were managed with percutaneous testis biopsy to obtain sperm, despite availability of ejaculated sperm, were included. Four couples who underwent a total of 6 percutaneous testis biopsy/IVF-ICSI cycles were identified. Collectively, the couples had undergone 9 prior IVF-ICSI cycles using fresh ejaculated sperm without successful pregnancy. From the six cycles that used fresh testicular sperm four live births resulted (1 twin gestation, 3 singletons). Only 1 of the 4 couples remained childless. For patients who have had prior failed IVF-ICSI attempts, this small case series demonstrates a possible therapeutic benefit when freshly procured testicular sperm are used in lieu of ejaculated samples.

  9. The Effect of the Alcoholic Extract of Walnut on the Testis Tissue of Adult Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Abedinzade

    2012-08-01

    Methods: In the present experimental study, forty adult male Wistar rats weighing 250-300 grams were divided into five groups. The control group did not receive any treatment. Normal saline was intraperitoneally injected to the control group. Experimental groups received three different doses of alcoholic extract of walnut: 10, 20 and 50 mg/ kg intraperitoneally/daily, respectively. The testes were removed from the abdomen and the tissue sections were studied. The gathered data were analyzed using One-way Analysis of variance and Tukey's range test. Results: Results indicated that walnut extract affect the development and maintenance of spermatogenesis to its final stages, and increased the number of sperms and interstitial cells in the testis. Alcoholic extract of walnut during the test instrument did not have much impact on the structure of the sperm tube tissue. Conclusion: The alcoholic extract of walnut led to the increased activity of the testis and interstitial cells, followed by an increase in sperm cells and reproductive activity of male rats.

  10. Exposure of the mouse perinatal testis to radiation leads to hypospermia at sexual maturity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forand, A.; Messiaen, S.; Habert, R.; Bernardino-Sgherri, J. [Laboratory of Differentiation and Radiobiology of the Gonads, CEA, DSV, iRCM, SCSR, Fontenay aux Roses F-92265 (France); Unit of Gametogenesis and Genotoxicity, Universite Paris 7 Denis Diderot, Fontenay aux Roses F-92265 (France); INSERM, U566, Fontenay aux Roses F-92265 (France)

    2009-07-01

    The first round of mouse spermatogenesis begins from 3 to 4 days after birth through differentiation of gonocytes into spermatogonial-stem cells and type A spermatogonia. Consequently, this step of differentiation may determine generation of the original population of stem cells and the fertility potential of the adult mouse. We aimed to determine the effect of perinatal exposure to ionizing radiation on the testis at the end of the first wave of spermatogenesis and at sexual maturity. Our results show that, radiation sensitivity of the testis substantially decreases from late foetal life to the end of the first week after birth. In addition, partial or full recovery from radiation induced testicular weight loss occurred between the first round of spermatogenesis and sexual maturity, and this was associated with the stimulation of spermatogonial proliferation. Exposure of mice at 17.5 days after conception or at 1 day after birth to {gamma}-rays decreased the sperm counts at sexual maturity, while exposure of 8 day-old mice had no effect. This suggests that irradiation of late foetal or early neonatal testes has a direct impact on the generation of the neonatal spermatogonial-stem cell pool. (authors)

  11. Association between testicular microlithiasis, testicular cancer, cryptorchidism and history of ascending testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamatiou Konstantinos

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To prospectively determine the prevalence of testicular microlithiasis in symptomatic patients who were referred for scrotal ultrasound examination and to evaluate the possible association of testicular microlithiasis with testicular cancer and other conditions such as cryptorchidism or history of ascending testis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 391 men who were referred to our institutions between July 2002 and May 2005 for any type of symptoms from the testicles, underwent physical and scrotal ultrasound examination. The presence of testicular microlithiasis, the number of lesions and the involvement of both testicles in relation to the symptoms as well as the coexistence of other lesions were studied. RESULTS: Eighteen (4.6% of 391 men enrolled into the study had testicular microlithiasis. Two out of the eighteen patients (11% had concomitant testicular cancer, which was confirmed by pathological evaluation of the orchidectomy specimen. One of the patients with testicular microlithiasis presented a rising in biochemical tumor markers (LDH, and HCG and underwent orchidectomy one year later. Five of the remaining 373 (1.3% patients without microlithiasis were diagnosed with testicular cancer. Thirty six men reported having a history of ascending testis, but none of them was found with testicular cancer. Two cases of testicular torsion in a cryptorchid position had testicular microlithiasis, but the orchidectomy specimen (after surgery was negative for testicular cancer. The correlation between testicular cancer and testicular microlithiasis found in our study was statistically significant (p < 0.05. CONCLUSION: There seems to be an association between testicular microlithiasis and testicular cancer.

  12. Chronic lead exposure effects in the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, W G; Singh, A; McMahon, A; Rice, D C

    1998-01-01

    Although reproductive consequences of high circulating blood lead levels (> or = 60 micrograms/dL) have been reported, potential adverse effects of chronic lead exposure in males that result in low to moderate blood lead levels (10-25 and 26-60 micrograms/dL, respectively) are unknown. Effects of chronic lead exposure to testis ultrastructure were determined in the cynomolgus monkey after oral administration of lead acetate (1500 micrograms/kg BW/day) in a vehicle in the following groups: from birth to 10 years (lifetime), postnatal day 300 to 10 years (postinfancy), and postnatal day 0-400 (infancy); monkeys in the control group received only the vehicle (95% glycerol and 5% distilled water). At age 10 years, circulating lead concentrations in lifetime and postinfancy-dosed monkeys were approximately 35 micrograms/dL, and in control and infancy animals the concentrations were exposure to lead that results in moderate blood lead concentrations induced persistent ultrastructural alterations in the cynomolgus monkey testis. Results of this study on the primate, following extrapolation to humans, could influence further refining of the impact of environmental lead contamination concentrations vis-à-vis the health of children, adults, and aged human beings.

  13. [Histological characteristics of the testis and epididymis of calves during postnatal development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semkov, M; Kovachev, K; Dzhurova, I

    1984-01-01

    A histologic investigation was carried out of the testis and epididymis of a total of 42 calves of the Black-and-white grouped in 14 test groups. The animals were currently castrated after the age of 2 months and were raised in the open. Material for investigation was taken on the 1st and 15th day, and once in every following month up to the completion of 12 months of age. It was found that up to the 3rd month there was no lumen in the testicular tubules, but only differentiating Sertoli cells and gonocytes were seen. Spermatogonia and spermatocytes were first observed at the age of 4 months, and prespermatids and sporadic spermatids--in the 8th month. Single spermatozoa in the phase of final shaping appeared in the 10th month, and completed spermatogenesis--in the 11th month. The histogenesis of the wall of the tubules of the epididymis completed earlier as compared to the histogenesis process in the testis--by the age of 8 months. Later on there were morphologically in the epididymis some proliferation and folding of the tubules with widening of the lumen, whereupon the amount of the surrounding connective tissue relatively decreased.

  14. Growing indications for CEUS: The kidney, testis, lymph nodes, thyroid, prostate, and small bowel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantisani, V., E-mail: vito.cantisani@uniroma1.it [Department of Radiology, Anatomopathology and Oncology, “Sapienza” University of Rome (Italy); Bertolotto, M. [Department of Radiology, University of Trieste (Italy); Weskott, H.P. [Central Ultrasound Department, Klinikum Siloah , Hannover (Germany); Romanini, L. [University Hospital of Pavia (Italy); Grazhdani, H. [Department of Radiology, Anatomopathology and Oncology, “Sapienza” University of Rome (Italy); Passamonti, M. [Dipartimento di Scienze Radiologiche, Ospedale di Lodi (Italy); Drudi, F.M.; Malpassini, F. [Department of Radiology, Anatomopathology and Oncology, “Sapienza” University of Rome (Italy); Isidori, A. [Department of Experimental Medicine, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Rome (Italy); Meloni, F.M. [Dipartimento servizi diagnostici, Ospedale Valduce, Como (Italy); Calliada, F. [University Hospital of Pavia (Italy); D’Ambrosio, F. [Department of Radiology, Anatomopathology and Oncology, “Sapienza” University of Rome (Italy)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Contrast enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) is increasingly used for non-hepatic applications. • There is a growing clinical use for a variety of pathologies of the kidney, testis, and small bowel. • Updated knowledge for proper use of CEUS in uncommon fields is provided. - Abstract: Contrast enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) is increasingly used for non-hepatic applications as well, so that nearly all organs have been investigated. Among them, there is a growing clinical use for a variety of pathologies of the kidney, testis, and small bowel. The possibility to differentiate benign from malignant nodes in cancer patients has been investigated. A new application is in the detection of sentinel nodes after intradermal microbubble injection. The need to distinguish thyroid nodules eligible for fine needle aspiration cytology has led to the use of CEUS in thyroid examinations as well. The potential of CEUS for prostate cancer detection has been extensively investigated, with encouraging initial results. Early promise, however, has not been fulfilled. New perspective regards evaluation of the extent of prostate tissue devascularization following ablative treatments.

  15. Toxic effects of cadmium on testis of birds and mammals: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marettová, E; Maretta, M; Legáth, J

    2015-04-01

    In humans and other mammals, cadmium (Cd) causes various damages to different organs and tissues of the body. This review presents a comprehensive overview on the effect of Cd on the structure of seminiferous tubules, Leydig cells and blood vessels in the testis. The main observation of the effect of Cd is destruction of the seminiferous tubules with severe necrotic areas. Damage is to all stages of developing germ cells by inducing their structural changes and the apoptotic cell death. Sertoli supporting cells are considered the most vulnerable cells. Their damage results in cytoplasmic rearrangement and disruption of inter-Sertoli tight junctions resulting in increased permeability of the blood-testis barrier, structural changes in the Leydig cells and decreased testosterone secretion. After long time of Cd exposure an increase of the amount of interstitial connective tissue occurs. In blood vessels Cd exposure causes various morphological and physiological changes in vascular endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells. In humans and other mammals, the range of effect depends on the dose, route, ways, and duration of exposure. After necrosis of the sensitive cells Cd produced lesions in surrounding tissue and activate free cells. Atrophy of the seminiferous tubules is followed by Leydig cell regeneration and interstitial revascularization. In birds, spermatogenic cells underwent irreversible degeneration or atrophy of seminiferous tubules in the absence of significant vascular lesions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Cellular Source and Mechanisms of High Transcriptome Complexity in the Mammalian Testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magali Soumillon

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the extent of genomic transcription and its functional relevance is a central goal in genomics research. However, detailed genome-wide investigations of transcriptome complexity in major mammalian organs have been scarce. Here, using extensive RNA-seq data, we show that transcription of the genome is substantially more widespread in the testis than in other organs across representative mammals. Furthermore, we reveal that meiotic spermatocytes and especially postmeiotic round spermatids have remarkably diverse transcriptomes, which explains the high transcriptome complexity of the testis as a whole. The widespread transcriptional activity in spermatocytes and spermatids encompasses protein-coding and long noncoding RNA genes but also poorly conserves intergenic sequences, suggesting that it may not be of immediate functional relevance. Rather, our analyses of genome-wide epigenetic data suggest that this prevalent transcription, which most likely promoted the birth of new genes during evolution, is facilitated by an overall permissive chromatin in these germ cells that results from extensive chromatin remodeling.

  17. Kasuistik 3: 49-jähriger Patient mit Zustand nach Ablatio testis links nach Trauma und späterer Ablatio testis rechts nach Seminom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wetterauer U

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available 49-jähriger Patient, der als Kind ein Hodentrauma links erlitten hatte, was zur Ablatio testis führte. Mit 34 Jahren kam es bei einem organbegrenzten Hodentumor (Seminom zum Verlust des kontralateralen Hodens. Zunächst erfolgte über 4-5 Jahre keine Hormonsubstitution. Der Patient erinnert sich an eine deutlich reduzierte Leistungsfähigkeit und einen Libidoverlust mit depressiven Verstimmungen. Die Muskulatur hätte abgenommen. Gleichzeitig hätten Gelenkbeschwerden bestanden. Eine Diagnostik sei damals nicht erfolgt. Nachdem er dann wieder einen Urologen aufgesucht habe, sei eine Testosteronsubstitution in Form einer Injektion durchgeführt worden. Die bisherige Therapie bestand in der Injektion von Testosteronenantat 250 mg alle 4 Wochen. Hierunter hätte sich die Libido wieder teilweise verbessert. Insbesondere in den ersten zwei Wochen nach Injektion wäre die Libido normal und die Sexualität zufriedenstellend gewesen. Die Muskulatur habe mit zusätzlichem körperlichen Training auch wieder zugenommen. In der dritten Woche nach der i.m.-Injektion ließen die Leistungsfähigkeit und die Libido wieder nach und es traten depressive Verstimmungen auf. Gelegentlich seien Hitzewallungen hinzugekommen.

  18. Human testis-derived embryonic stem cell-like cells are not pluripotent, but possess potential of mesenchymal progenitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chikhovskaya, J. V.; Jonker, M. J.; Meissner, A.; Breit, T. M.; Repping, S.; van Pelt, A. M. M.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Spontaneous in vitro transition of undifferentiated spermatogonia into the pluripotent cell state has been achieved using neonatal and adult mouse testis tissue. In an effort to establish an analogous source of human patient-specific pluripotent stem cells, several research groups have

  19. Human testis-derived embryonic stem cell-like cells are not pluripotent, but possess potential of mesenchymal progenitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chikhovskaya, J.V.; Jonker, M.J.; Meissner, A.; Breit, T.M.; Repping, S.; van Pelt, A.M.M.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Spontaneous in vitro transition of undifferentiated spermatogonia into the pluripotent cell state has been achieved using neonatal and adult mouse testis tissue. In an effort to establish an analogous source of human patient-specific pluripotent stem cells, several research groups have

  20. Expression of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system and steroidgenic enzymes in canine testis tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, M.A.J.; Mol, J.A.; Wolferen, van M.E.; Oosterlaken-Dijksterhuis, M.A.; Teerds, K.J.; Sluijs, van F.J.

    2003-01-01

    Testis tumors occur frequently in dogs. The main types of tumors are Sertoli cell tumors, seminomas, and Leydig cell tumors. Mixed tumors and bilateral occurrence of tumors may be encountered frequently. To elucidate the possible relationship between the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system and

  1. Molecular Cloning, mRNA Expression, and Localization of the G-protein Subunit Galphaq in Sheep Testis and Epididymis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Li

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive function of G-protein subunit Galphaq (GNAQ, a member of the G protein alpha subunit family, has been extensively studied in humans and rats. However, no data is available on its status in ruminants. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the expression pattern of the GNAQ in the testis and epididymis of sheep by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The mRNA expression levels were detected by real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR, and cellular localization of GNAQ in the testis and epididymis was examined by immunohistochemistry. Additionally, GNAQ protein was qualitatively evaluated via western blot, with the results indicating that similarities between GNAQ mRNA levels from sheep was highly conserved with those observed in Bos taurus and Sus scrofa. Our results also indicated that GNAQ exists in the caput and cauda epididymis of sheep, while GNAQ in the testis and epididymis was localized to Leydig cells, spermatogonial stem cells, spermatocytes, Sertoli cells, spermatid, principal cells, and epididymis interstitial cells. The concentrations of GNAQ mRNA and protein in the caput and cauda epididymis were significantly greater than those observed in the corpus epididymis (p<0.01 and testis (p<0.05. Our results indicated that GNAQ exists at high concentrations in the caput and cauda epididymis of sheep, suggesting that GNAQ may play an important role in gonad development and sperm maturation.

  2. The Type 3 Deiodinase is a Critical Determinant of Appropriate Thyroid Hormone Action in the Developing Testis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Martinez, M. (Elena); A. Karaczyn, A. (Aldona); J. Stohn, J. (Patrizia); W. Donnelly, W. (William); W. Croteau, W. (Walburga); P. Peeters, P. (Robin); V.A. Galton (Valerie Anne); D. Forrest (Douglas); D.L. St Germain (Donald); A. Hernandez (Arturo)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractTimely and appropriate levels of thyroid hormone (TH) signaling are necessary to ensure normal developmental outcomes in many tissues. Studies using pharmacological models of altered TH status have revealed an influence of these hormones on testis development and size, but little

  3. Breakdown of immune homeostasis in the testis of mice lacking Tyro3, Axl and Mer receptor tyrosine kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Li, Nan; Chen, Qiaoyuan; Yan, Keqin; Liu, Zhenghui; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Liu, Peng; Chen, Yongmei; Han, Daishu

    2013-07-01

    Tyro3, Axl and Mer (TAM) receptor tyrosine kinases triple knockout (TAM(-/-)) mice are male infertile due to impaired spermatogenesis. However, the mechanism by which TAM receptors regulate spermatogenesis remains unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that the testicular immune homeostasis was impaired in TAM(-/-) mice. As development after the onset of sexual maturity, germ cells were progressively degenerated. Macrophages and lymphocytes infiltrated into the testis as TAM(-/-) mice aged. Moreover, the integrity of blood-testis barrier was impaired, and the autoantibodies against germ cell antigens were produced. Major inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6 and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 were upregulated in the testis of TAM(-/-) mice, and predominantly located in Sertoli cells (SCs). In vitro assays showed that TAM(-/-) SCs secrete significantly high levels of inflammatory cytokines compared with wild-type SCs after coculture with apoptotic germ cells. These results suggest that TAM receptors are important in the maintenance of the immune homeostasis in the testis.

  4. The type 3 deiodinase is a critical determinant of appropriate thyroid hormone action in the developing testis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez, M.E. (M. Elena); Karaczyn, A. (Aldona); Stohn, J.P. (J. Patrizia); Donnelly, W.T. (William T.); Croteau, W. (Walburga); R.P. Peeters (Robin); V.A. Galton (Valerie Anne); D. Forrest (Douglas); Germain, D.S. (Donald ST.); Hernandez, A. (Arturo)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractTimely and appropriate levels of thyroid hormone (TH) signaling are necessary to ensure normal developmental outcomes in many tissues. Studies using pharmacological models of altered TH status have revealed an influence of these hormones on testis development and size, but little is

  5. Appearance and cellular distribution of lectin-like receptors for alpha 1-acid glycoprotein in the developing rat testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, U O; Bøg-Hansen, T C; Kirkeby, S

    1996-01-01

    A histochemical avidin-biotin technique with three different alpha 1-acid glycoprotein glycoforms showed pronounced alterations in the cellular localization of two alpha 1-acid glycoprotein lectin-like receptors during cell differentiation in the developing rat testis. The binding of alpha 1-acid...

  6. Effect of sildenafil citrate (Viagra) and ethanol on the Albino rat testis: a scanning electron microscopic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivasankaran, T G; Udayakumar, R; Elanchezhiyan, C; Sabhanayakam, Selvi

    2008-02-01

    The effects of sildenafil citrate with ethanol on the rat testis was studied using scanning electron microscopy. Male Albino rats were divided into 8 groups, each being treated for a maximum of 45 days as follows. In the 4 short-term treatment groups, control rats were administered normal saline orally, whereas experimental animals were fed sildenafil citrate (Viagra) 1 microg/g with 18% ethanol (5 g/kg body weight), which was given orally as a single dose. After 1, 2.5, 4 and 24h the rats were killed. In the 4 long-term treatment groups, daily continuous doses of drug and ethanol with a single dosage were given for 15, 30 and 45 days and the animals killed 4h after the last dosage. Changes in the testis were compared with the normal healthy rat testis. The use of a scanning electron microscope for evaluation of the changes in the testis is more suitable for observation of the surface and morphological shapes of the tissue structures.

  7. Identification of metalloprotease/disintegrins in Xenopus laevis testis with a potential role in fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilling, F M; Krätzschmar, J; Cai, H; Weskamp, G; Gayko, U; Leibow, J; Myles, D G; Nuccitelli, R; Blobel, C P

    1997-06-15

    Proteins containing a membrane-anchored metalloprotease domain, a disintegrin domain, and a cysteine-rich region (MDC proteins) are thought to play an important role in mammalian fertilization, as well as in somatic cell-cell interactions. We have identified PCR sequence tags encoding the disintegrin domain of five distinct MDC proteins from Xenopus laevis testis cDNA. Four of these sequence tags (xMDC9, xMDC11.1, xMDC11.2, and xMDC13) showed strong similarity to known mammalian MDC proteins, whereas the fifth (xMDC16) apparently represents a novel family member. Northern blot analysis revealed that the mRNA for xMDC16 was only expressed in testis, and not in heart, muscle, liver, ovaries, or eggs, whereas the mRNAs corresponding to the four other PCR products were expressed in testis and in some or all somatic tissues tested. The xMDC16 protein sequence, as predicted from the full-length cDNA, contains a metalloprotease domain with the active-site sequence HEXXH, a disintegrin domain, a cysteine-rich region, an EGF repeat, a transmembrane domain, and a short cytoplasmic tail. To study a potential role for these xMDC proteins in fertilization, peptides corresponding to the predicted integrin-binding domain of each protein were tested for their ability to inhibit X. laevis fertilization. Cyclic and linear xMDC16 peptides inhibited fertilization in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas xMDC16 peptides that were scrambled or had certain amino acid replacements in the predicted integrin-binding domain did not affect fertilization. Cyclic and linear xMDC9 peptides and linear xMDC13 peptides also inhibited fertilization similarly to xMDC16 peptides, whereas peptides corresponding to the predicted integrin-binding site of xMDC11.1 and xMDC11.2 did not. These results are discussed in the context of a model in which multiple MDC protein-receptor interactions are necessary for fertilization to occur.

  8. Expression profiling of rainbow trout testis development identifies evolutionary conserved genes involved in spermatogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esquerré Diane

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spermatogenesis is a late developmental process that involves a coordinated expression program in germ cells and a permanent communication between the testicular somatic cells and the germ-line. Current knowledge regarding molecular factors driving male germ cell proliferation and differentiation in vertebrates is still limited and mainly based on existing data from rodents and human. Fish with a marked reproductive cycle and a germ cell development in synchronous cysts have proven to be choice models to study precise stages of the spermatogenetic development and the germ cell-somatic cell communication network. In this study we used 9K cDNA microarrays to investigate the expression profiles underlying testis maturation during the male reproductive cycle of the trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Results Using total testis samples at various developmental stages and isolated spermatogonia, spermatocytes and spermatids, 3379 differentially expressed trout cDNAs were identified and their gene activation or repression patterns throughout the reproductive cycle were reported. We also performed a tissue-profiling analysis and highlighted many genes for which expression signals were restricted to the testes or gonads from both sexes. The search for orthologous genes in genome-sequenced fish species and the use of their mammalian orthologs allowed us to provide accurate annotations for trout cDNAs. The analysis of the GeneOntology terms therefore validated and broadened our interpretation of expression clusters by highlighting enriched functions that are consistent with known sequential events during male gametogenesis. Furthermore, we compared expression profiles of trout and mouse orthologs and identified a complement of genes for which expression during spermatogenesis was maintained throughout evolution. Conclusion A comprehensive study of gene expression and associated functions during testis maturation and germ cell differentiation in

  9. Testis size, peripheral concentrations of testosterone, semen criteria and Sertoli and germ cell numbers in Nelore bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Bezerra de Menezes

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to evaluate the associations among testis size, testosterone concentrations, semen parameters and aspects of spermatogenesis in Nelore bulls (n = 28. Testis size was measured from 10 to 29 months of age. Bulls were treated with GnRH (12 to 21 months and semen samples also collected from 25 to 29 months. At 30 months, animals were slaughtered. Correlations were significant when p < 0.05. Basal testosterone was highest at 18 months, suggesting that bulls reached puberty at this age. At 30 months, seminiferous tubules represented 77.9 ± 3.8 % of the testicular parenchyma and there were 33.6 ± 8.4 round spermatids/A1 spermatogonium/tubule section, indicating a 47.5% degeneration rate during spermatogenesis. At 30 months, heavier testis correlated with Sertoli cell numbers/testis (r = 0.77, and round spermatids/tubule section, Sertoli cell and A1 spermatogonium (r = 0.50 – 0.60. Scrotal circumference (SC taken between 10 and 29 months correlated with the percentage of tubules with spermatids (r = 0.42 – 0.59 and number of A1 spermatogonium and round spermatids/Sertoli cell (r = 0.49 – 0.68. Epididymal weight was related to Sertoli cell numbers/testis, and round spermatids/ Sertoli cell and A1 spermatogonium (r = 0.51 – 0.61. GnRH-stimulated testosterone from 17 to 21 months correlated with SC between 14 and 29 months (r = 0.48 – 0.60, testis and epididymal weights (r = 0.41 – 0.64 and with parameters of spermatogenesis (r = 0.44 – 0.58. Additionally, sperm motility and vigor from 25 to 29 months correlated with the number of tubules with spermatids (r = 0.42 – 0.59 and GnRH-stimulated testosterone at 12, 13 and 18 months (r = 0.46 – 0.57. In conclusion, testis size during and after the period of pronounced increases in testosterone is an indicator of quantitative parameters of spermatogenesis of post-pubertal bulls.

  10. RNA deep sequencing reveals novel candidate genes and polymorphisms in boar testis and liver tissues with divergent androstenone levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asep Gunawan

    Full Text Available Boar taint is an unpleasant smell and taste of pork meat derived from some entire male pigs. The main causes of boar taint are the two compounds androstenone (5α-androst-16-en-3-one and skatole (3-methylindole. It is crucial to understand the genetic mechanism of boar taint to select pigs for lower androstenone levels and thus reduce boar taint. The aim of the present study was to investigate transcriptome differences in boar testis and liver tissues with divergent androstenone levels using RNA deep sequencing (RNA-Seq. The total number of reads produced for each testis and liver sample ranged from 13,221,550 to 33,206,723 and 12,755,487 to 46,050,468, respectively. In testis samples 46 genes were differentially regulated whereas 25 genes showed differential expression in the liver. The fold change values ranged from -4.68 to 2.90 in testis samples and -2.86 to 3.89 in liver samples. Differentially regulated genes in high androstenone testis and liver samples were enriched in metabolic processes such as lipid metabolism, small molecule biochemistry and molecular transport. This study provides evidence for transcriptome profile and gene polymorphisms of boars with divergent androstenone level using RNA-Seq technology. Digital gene expression analysis identified candidate genes in flavin monooxygenease family, cytochrome P450 family and hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase family. Moreover, polymorphism and association analysis revealed mutation in IRG6, MX1, IFIT2, CYP7A1, FMO5 and KRT18 genes could be potential candidate markers for androstenone levels in boars. Further studies are required for proving the role of candidate genes to be used in genomic selection against boar taint in pig breeding programs.

  11. {sup 18F} FDG Uptake of Human Testis on PET/CT: Correlation with Age, Sex Hormones, and Vasectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Seung Hwan; Eo, Jae Sun; Lee, Jong Jin; Chung, June Key; Lee, Dong Soo; Lee, Myung Chul [Seoul National Univ. Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate glucose metabolism of normal human testis on {sup 18F} FDG PET/CT and to assess possible correlation among age, the serum levels of sex hormones, and vasectomy. {sup 18F} FDG PET/CT was performed in 66 normal healthy men (50.8{+-}13.6 years, range 22-81), and mean standard uptake values (SUV) of {sup 18F} FDG in testis and adductor muscle were measured. Testis muscle SUV ratios (T/M ratios) were calculated. Serum levels of total testosterone, free testosterone, estradiol, and of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were measured. We searched for correlations between T/M ratios and age and the serum concentrations of sex hormones. {sup 18F} FDG PET/CT was also performed in 32 vasectomized men (55.7{+-}7.8 years, range 38-71) and 52 nonvasectomized men (55.4{+-}11.6 years, range 37-72). Mean SUVs of testis and adductor muscle were measured, and T/M ratios were calculated. A significant age related decline was found in T/M ratio (r=-0.509, p<0.0001). Serum levels of total testosterone and free testosterone were also found to be positively correlated with T/M ratio (r=-0.427, p=0.0003; r=0.435, p=0.0003, respectively). The mean SUV and T/M ratio of vasectomized men were significantly lower than those of nonvasectomized men (p<0.0378 and p=0.0001, respectively). Glucose metabolism in the testis in an adult population was found to be correlated with age, serum sex hormone level, and vasectomy history. These results indicate that testicular {sup 18F} FDG uptake may have attributed to testicular function and testicular histology. Our findings may have important implications for the interpretation of testicular {sup 18F} FDG uptake in the normal adult population.

  12. Cancer-testis antigen expression in synovial sarcoma: NY-ESO-1, PRAME, MAGEA4, and MAGEA1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iura, Kunio; Maekawa, Akira; Kohashi, Kenichi; Ishii, Takeaki; Bekki, Hirofumi; Otsuka, Hiroshi; Yamada, Yuichi; Yamamoto, Hidetaka; Harimaya, Katsumi; Iwamoto, Yukihide; Oda, Yoshinao

    2017-03-01

    Synovial sarcoma (SS) is regarded as a relatively chemosensitive sarcoma, but the prognosis of advanced SSs remains poor. Here we identified highly expressed cancer-testis antigens that could be promising immunotherapy targets for SS, using a previously conducted cDNA microarray, and we assessed the clinicopathological or prognostic relationships of these antigens in SS. We compared the gene expression profiles of 11 SSs with those of 3 normal adipose tissues. Among the up-regulated cancer-testis antigens, we analyzed PRAME, MAGEA1, and MAGEA4 and another cancer-testis antigen (NY-ESO-1) together, by immunohistochemistry and real-time polymerase chain reaction in 108 SSs. Immunohistochemically, NY-ESO-1, PRAME, MAGEA4, and MAGEA1 were positive in 66 (61%), 93 (86%), 89 (82%), and 16 (15%) of 108 SSs, respectively, and 104 (96%) of 108 SSs showed the immunohistochemical expression of at least 1 of NY-ESO-1, PRAME, and MAGEA4. Moreover, the high expression of at least 1 of these 3 antigens was observed in 83% of the SSs. High expression of NY-ESO-1 and MAGEA4 was significantly correlated with the presence of necrosis and advanced clinical stage. The immunohistochemical expression of these cancer-testis antigens was not correlated with prognosis, but the coexpression of NY-ESO-1, PRAME, and MAGEA4 was significantly associated with adverse prognosis. The real-time polymerase chain reaction results were closely related to the immunohistochemical results: NY-ESO-1 (P = .0019), PRAME (P = .039), MAGEA4 (P = .0149), and MAGEA1 (P = .0766). These data support the potential utility of NY-ESO-1, PRAME, and MAGEA4 as immunotherapy targets and ancillary prognostic parameters, suggesting the possible benefit of the combined use of these cancer-testis antigens as an SS immunotherapy target. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Laparoscopic repair of pediatric inguinal hernia--is vascularity of the testis at risk? A study of 125 testes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parelkar, Sandesh V; Oak, Sanjay; Bachani, Mitesh K; Sanghvi, Beejal; Prakash, Advait; Patil, Rajashekhar; Sahoo, Subrat; Patel, Jiwanlal

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to study the effects of laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair on testicular perfusion and size. A prospective study concerning laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair was performed for an 18-month period to evaluate testicular perfusion and size in the preoperative, early postoperative (within 48 hours of surgery), and late postoperative periods (6 months after surgery) using Doppler ultrasound (DUS) (both duplex and power Doppler mode). Laparoscopic closure of the deep inguinal ring was accomplished with a purse string suture (Nylon 3-0) using standard 3-port technique. The testis units were divided in 2 groups: group 1 comprising testis units in which a resistive index (RI) could be calculated and group 2 with instances in which an RI could not be calculated but showed blood flow consistently on DUS. A total of 112 boys underwent laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair with 100 available for complete follow-up and data analysis. One hundred twenty-five inguinal (25 bilateral) hernia repairs were performed. Group 1 had 80 testis units. There was no significant difference in values of RI between preoperative, early postoperative, and late postoperative periods. Group 2 had 45 testis units. Resistive index could not be calculated. Seventy-five percent showed only systolic blood flow on spectral analysis; hence, RI, 1; and the rest showed the presence of blood flow on power Doppler scan. All testis units consistently showed blood flow in the early and late postoperative period. No testicular atrophy was found at 6-month follow-up examination on DUS. Laparoscopic repair of inguinal hernia in children does not affect testicular perfusion or growth. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of oral zinc administration on long-term ipsilateral and contralateral testes damage after experimental testis ischaemia-reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oral, A; Halici, Z; Bayir, Y; Topcu, A; Un, H; Bilgin, A O; Atmaca, H T

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine potential long-term post-torsion changes that can occur in the histopathology, biochemistry and spermatogenesis of both torsioned and nontorsioned opposite testes. The study also determines the effect of zinc (Zn) administration on the testicular torsion/detorsion (T/D) damage on both testes. Forty-eight male rats, divided equally into eight groups: (SHAM), (SHAM+,Zn+), (T/D+, Zn- 1 month), (T/D+,Zn- 2 months), (T/D+,Zn- 3 months), (T/D+,Zn+ 1 months), (T/D+,Zn+ 2 months), (T/D+,Zn+ 3 months), have been used. Drug administration was carried out by adding 100 μg (0.016 ml/rat) Zn per rat to drinking water in related groups. Testicular damage decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) and increased malondialdehyde (MDA) in the testis tissues of rats, while Zn administration increased SOD and GSH and decreased MDA in the testis tissues in comparison with the SHAM group. The beneficial effect of zinc sulphate was more evident on the nonrotated testis than the rotated testis. In the histopathological study, a significant decrease in torsion and detorsion injuries was observed in the treatment groups compared to the torsion and detorsion groups. We found a protective effect of zinc sulphate on oxidative stress as a result of T/D injuries in rats, especially for the nonrotated testis; results were supported histopathologically. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Protective effect of Urtica dioica L against nicotine-induced damage on sperm parameters, testosterone and testis tissue in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalili, Cyrus; Salahshoor, Mohammad Reza; Naseri, Ali

    2014-06-01

    Nicotine consumption can decrease fertility drive in males by inducing oxidative stress and DNA damage. Urtica dioica L (U.dioica) is a multipurpose herb in traditional medicine for which some anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties have been identified. The main goal is to investigate whether the U.dioica could inhibit nicotine adverse effects on sperm cells viability, count, motility, and testis histology and testosterone hormone. In this study, hydro-alcoholic extract of U.dioica was prepared and various doses of U.dioica (0, 10, 20, and 50 mg/kg) and U.dioica plus nicotine (0, 10, 20, and 50 mg/kg) were administered intraperitoneally to 56 male mice for 28 consequent days. These mice were randomly assigned to 8 groups (n=7) and sperm parameters (sperm cells viability, count, motility, and morphology), testis and prostate weight, testis histology and testosterone hormone were analyzed and compared. The results indicated that nicotine administration (0.5 mg/kg) significantly decreased testosterone level, count and motility of sperm cells, and testis weight compared to control group (p=0.00). However, increasing the dose of U.dioica significantly boosted motility, count, normal morphology of sperm cells, seminiferous tubules diameter, and testosterone in all groups compared to control (p=0.00) and testis weight in 20 and 50 mg/kg doses in comparison with control group (p=0.00). It seems that U.dioica hydro-alcoholic extract administration could increase the quality of spermatozoa and inhibits nicotine-induced adverse effects on sperm parameters.

  16. Expression and localization of N- and E-cadherin in the human testis and epididymis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, A M; Edvardsen, K; Skakkebaek, N E

    1994-01-01

    and primary spermatocytes, and possibly also around some early spermatids, whereas late spermatids were always negative. Endothelial cells also stained for N-cadherin, whereas peritubular cells and Leydig cells did not. No expression of E-cadherin could be demonstrated in the human testis. In the human...... epididymis E-cadherin, but not N-cadherin, was expressed and localized to the surface of the principal epithelial cells as shown by immunohistochemistry. These observations indicate that cadherins play an important role in the organization of the seminiferous and epididymal epithelium....... to be fundamentally important for maintaining multicellular structures. In the present study we report the expression of a 135 kDa N-cadherin polypeptide in the human seminiferous epithelium by immunoblotting. The presence of N-cadherin was demonstrated by immunohistochemistry on the surface of spermatogonia...

  17. Injury of the blood-testies barrier after low-dose-rate chronic radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Young Hoon; Bae Min Ji; Lee, Chang Geun; Yang, Kwang Mo; Jur, Kyu; Kim, Jong Sun [Dongnam Institute of Radiological and Medical Science, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    The systemic effect of radiation increases in proportionally with the dose and dose rate. Little is known concerning the relationships between harmful effects and accumulated dose, which is derived from continuous low-dose rate radiation exposure. Recent our studies show that low-dose-rate chronic radiation exposure (3.49 mGy/h) causes adverse effects in the testis at a dose of 2 Gy (6 mGy/h). However, the mechanism of the low-dose-rate 2 Gy irradiation induced testicular injury remains unclear. The present results indicate that low-dose rate chronic radiation might affect the BTB permeability, possibly by decreasing levels of ZO-1, Occludin-1, and NPC-2. Furthermore, our results suggest that there is a risk of male infertility through BTB impairment even with low-dose-rate radiation if exposure is continuous.

  18. Testis-Specific Histone Variant H3t Gene Is Essential for Entry into Spermatogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Ueda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellular differentiation is associated with dynamic chromatin remodeling in establishing a cell-type-specific epigenomic landscape. Here, we find that mouse testis-specific and replication-dependent histone H3 variant H3t is essential for very early stages of spermatogenesis. H3t gene deficiency leads to azoospermia because of the loss of haploid germ cells. When differentiating spermatogonia emerge in normal spermatogenesis, H3t appears and replaces the canonical H3 proteins. Structural and biochemical analyses reveal that H3t-containing nucleosomes are more flexible than the canonical nucleosomes. Thus, by incorporating H3t into the genome during spermatogonial differentiation, male germ cells are able to enter meiosis and beyond.

  19. Developmental and cell type specificity of LINE-1 expression in mouse testis: implications for transposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branciforte, D; Martin, S L

    1994-04-01

    The LINE-1, or L1, family of interspersed repeated DNA constitutes roughly 10% of the mammalian genome. Its abundance is due to duplicative transposition via an RNA intermediate, L1-encoded proteins, and reverse transcription. Although, in principle, transposition may occur in any cell type, expression and transposition of a full-length functional element in the germ line are necessary to explain the evolutionary genetics of L1. We have found differential expression of L1 protein and RNA in germ and somatic cells of the mouse testis during development. Of particular interest is the coexpression of full-length, sense-strand L1 RNA and L1-encoded protein in leptotene and zygotene spermatocytes at postnatal day 14 of development. Expression in meiotic prophase precedes the strand breakage that occurs during chromosomal recombination; this offers an avenue for L1 insertion into new locations in chromosomal DNA in a cell type that ensures L1 propagation in future generations.

  20. Pseudogenization of testis-specific Lfg5 predates human/Neanderthal divergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariotti, Marco; Smith, Temple F; Sudmant, Peter H; Goldberger, Gabriel

    2014-05-01

    Recent reviews discussed the critical roles of apoptosis in human spermatogenesis and infertility. These reviews highlight the FasL-induced caspase cascade in apoptosis lending importance to our discovery of the pseudogene status of the Lfg5 gene in modern humans, Neanderthal and the Denisovan. This gene is a member of the ancient and highly conserved apoptosis Lifeguard family. This pseudogenization is the result of a premature stop codon at the 3'-end of exon 8 not found in any other ortholog. With the current exception of the domesticated bovine and buffalo, Lfg5's expression in mammals is testis-specific. A full analysis of this gene, its phylogenetic context and its recent hominin changes suggest its inactivation was likely under selection in human evolution.

  1. Meiosis and spermiogenesis in the testis of Salamandra salamandra (L.) (Amphibia, Urodela).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindelmeiser, J; Greven, H; Bergmann, M

    1985-01-01

    Meiosis and spermiogenesis in the fire salamander, Salamandra salamandra, take place in an intermediate zone of the testis between the cephal immature and the more caudal mature part. Primary spermatocytes in zytogene and pachytene are characterized by synaptonemal complexes, flattened vesicles at the periphery of the cytoplasm and mitochondria with dilated cristae. Mitochondria in primary spermatocytes during meiosis, in secondary spermatocytes and early spermatids are typically arranged beneath the plasmalemma. Secondary spermatocytes are provided with pro-acrosomal granules, nucleolus-like bodies and complexes of annulate lamellae. Cytoplasmic parts with numerous vesicles seem to become extruded from secondary spermatocytes and spermatids. In testicular lobules containing pachytene spermatocytes the normally fibroblast-like follicle cells transform into glandular Sertoli cells. Already after the second meiotic division of germ cells lobule boundary cells show morphological features of steroid hormone secreting cells.

  2. Developmental toxicity of toluene in male rats: effects on semen quality, testis morphology, and apoptotic neurodegeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, M.; Hossaini, A.; Hougaard, K.S.

    2001-01-01

    In one study, pregnant Wistar rats were exposed to 1200 ppm toluene by inhalation 6 h a day from gestational day (GD) 7 to postnatal day (PND) 18. Sperm analysis was performed in the adult male offspring at PND 110 bp using computer-assisted sperm analysis. Toluene if id not affect the semen...... weight of toluene-exposed males tended to approach that of the controls. Absolute and relative testes weights were reduced in all three age groups, although not to a statistically significant degree. Histopathological examinations of the testis and immune-expression of vimentin did not reveal any...... differences between toluene-exposed animals and control animals. In the hippocampus! almost no apoptosis was observed in any age group, and there were no differences in apoptotic neurodegeneration between male rats exposed to 1800 ppm and control animals at PND 11, 21 or 90. Generally. a marked increase...

  3. TCF21 is related to testis growth and development in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Na, Wei; Zhang, Hong-Li; Wang, Ning; Du, Zhi-Qiang; Wang, Shou-Zhi; Wang, Zhi-Peng; Zhang, Zhiwu; Li, Hui

    2017-02-24

    Large amounts of fat deposition often lead to loss of reproductive efficiency in humans and animals. We used broiler chickens as a model species to conduct a two-directional selection for and against abdominal fat over 19 generations, which resulted in a lean and a fat line. Direct selection for abdominal fat content also indirectly resulted in significant differences (P growth and development. Of the nine candidate genes identified with database mining, a significant association was confirmed for one gene, TCF21, based on mRNA expression analysis. Gene expression analysis of the TCF21 gene was conducted again across 30 G19 individuals (15 individuals from each line) and the results confirmed the findings on the G16 animals. This study revealed that the TCF21 gene is related to testis growth and development in male broilers. This finding will be useful to guide future studies to understand the genetic mechanisms that underlie reproductive efficiency.

  4. Late neurological complications after irradiation of malignant tumors of the testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knap, Marianne; Bentzen, Søren M.; Overgaard, Jens

    2007-01-01

    To identify and describe late neurological complications in a Danish testis cancer cohort treated by radiotherapy. Clinical retrospective material of 94 consecutive patients with malignant testicular tumours treated at Aarhus County Hospital from 1964 to 1973. The irradiated dose in the paraaortic...... complications after irradiation. One developed symptoms 9 months after treatment, but in the six other cases we found a latency period between 10 and 20 years from radiotherapy until the initial neurological symptoms began. The clinical picture in all seven patients was dominated by muscle atrophy, flaccid...... and 13 patients with long-term gastrointestinal morbidity. Seven patients were identified with late neurological complications, and a clear dose-incidence relationship was shown. The latency period, from irradiation to the initial neurological symptoms began, ranged from 9 months to 20 years...

  5. Malignant mesothelioma of the tunica vaginalis testis: a malignancy associated with recurrent epididymitis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen Ching-Heng

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A 53-year-old Taiwanese male had several episodes of left epididymitis with hydrocele refractory to antibiotic treatment. Partial epididymectomy plus preventive vasectomy were planned, and, incidentally, an ill-defined nodule was found lying on the tunica vaginalis near the epididymal head. The pathological diagnosis was malignant mesothelioma of the tunica vaginalis testis. Radical orchiectomy with wide excision of the hemi-scrotal wall was performed. So far, there is no evidence of recurrence after more than 3 years of follow-up. Malignant tumor should be considered in the case of recurrent epididymitis refractory to empirically effective antibiotic treatment. Although the nature of this tumor is highly fatal, the malignancy can possibly be cured by early and aggressive surgical treatment.

  6. Organization of the cysts in bee (Hymenoptera, Apidae testis: number of spermatozoa per cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz-Landim Carminda da

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The morphology of the cyst cells in Apis mellifera Linné, 1758, Scaptotrigona postica Latreille, 1804, and Melipona bicolor bicolor Lepeletier, 1836 testis, as well as the average number of spermatic cells are reported. The data indicates a supporting and nourrishing role of the cyst cells to the developing cystocytes. The counts of immature spermatozoa in the cysts show an average of 202.8 ± 21.2 spermatozoa for A. mellifera, 117.4 ± 8.68 for S. postica and 88.8 ± 15.57 for M. bicolor, which predict the occurrence of 8 mitotic cycles in the cystocytes of A. mellifera and 7 in the meliponines, considering that only one spermatozoom originates of each final spermatogonium.

  7. Antioxidant enzymes activity, lipid peroxidation, oxidative damage in the testis and epididymis, and steroidogenesis in rats after co-exposure to atrazine and ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abarikwu, S O; Duru, Q C; Chinonso, O V; Njoku, R-C

    2016-06-01

    Concomitant alcohol use and exposure to xenobiotics can adversely affect gonadal functions. This study investigated the oxidative status of the testis and epididymis and steroidogenesis of rats co-exposed to ethanol (EtoH, 5 mg kg(-1) b.wt.) and atrazine (ATZ, 50, 100, 300 mg kg(-1) b.wt.) for 3 weeks. The activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, as well as the concentrations of glutathione and malondialdehyde, as indicators of oxidative stress were measured in the homogenates of the testis and epididymis. Testosterone and cholesterol concentrations as well as 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSD) activity were assayed in the plasma and testis respectively. After the administration of EtoH alone, or in combination with different doses of ATZ, oxidative damage as evident by malondialdehyde level was not observed in both the testis and epididymis. The combine exposure group showed dose-dependent decrease in plasma testosterone and testis cholesterol level and increase in testis 17β-HSD activity compared to the EtoH group. Furthermore, the testes and epididymis of the EtoH-exposed rats treated with high dose of ATZ had severe histopathological damage. Therefore, ATZ-exposed alcohol-treated rats have histological damage of the testis and epididymis and lower testosterone level than EtoH-treated rats. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Characteristics of PCR-SSCP and RAPD-HPCE methods for identifying authentication of Penis et testis cervi in Traditional Chinese Medicine based on cytochrome b gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingcheng; Gao, Lijun; Qu, Li; Sun, Jingyu; Yuan, Guangxin; Xia, Wei; Niu, Jiamu; Fu, Guilian; Zhang, Lihua

    2016-07-01

    The use of Penis et testis cervi, as a kind of precious Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), which is derived from dry deer's testis and penis, has been recorded for many years in China. There are abundant species of deer in China, the Penis et testis from species of Cervus Nippon and Cervus elaphusL were authentic, others species were defined as adulterant (different subspecies of deer) or counterfeits (different species). Identification of their origins or authenticity becomes a key in controlling the herbal products. A modified column chromatography was used to extract mitochondrial DNA of dried deer's testis and penis from sika deer (C. Nippon) and red deer (C. elaphusL) in addition to adulterants and counterfeits. Column chromatography requires for a short time to extract mitochondrial DNA of high purity with little damage of DNA molecules, which provides the primary structure of guarantee for the specific PCR; PCR-SSCP method showed a clear intra-specific difference among patterns of single-chain fragments, and completely differentiate Penis et testis origins from C. Nippon and C. elaphusL. RAPD-HPCE was based on the standard electropherograms to compute a control spectrum curve as similarity reference (R) among different samples. The similarity analysis indicated that there were significant inter-species differences among Penis et testis' adulterant or counterfeits. Both techniques provide a fast, simple, and accurate way to directly identify among inter-species or intra-species of Penis et testis.

  9. Differential expression of divalent metal transporter DMT1 (Slc11a2) in the spermatogenic epithelium of the developing and adult rat testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Kathleen P; Ward, Donald T; Liu, Wei; Stewart, Gavin; Morris, Ian D; Smith, Craig P

    2005-01-01

    Iron is essential for male fertility, and disruptions in iron balance lead to impairment of testicular function. The divalent metal transporter DMT1 is a key modulator of transferrin- and non-transferrin-bound iron homeostasis. As a first step in determining the role of DMT1 in the testis, we have characterized the pattern of DMT1 expression in the developing and adult rat testis. Northern blot analysis and RT-PCR of testis polyadenylated RNA revealed the presence of iron-responsive element (IRE) and non-IRE transcripts. Semiquantitative immunoblotting of immature and adult rat testis uncovered the expression of two distinct DMT1 protein species. Immunohistochemistry showed that DMT1 was widespread throughout each seminiferous tubule and was expressed in the intracellular compartment. In the adult rat testis, DMT1 was immunolocalized to both the Sertoli and germ cells. In contrast to the immature testis, expression was dependent on the stage of the spermatogenic cycle. DMT1 was not detected on any plasma membranes in either the developing or the adult testis, suggesting that DMT1 is not primarily responsible for translocating iron across this epithelium. Our data suggest an important role for DMT1 in intracellular iron handling during spermatogenesis and imply that germ cells have a need for a precisely targeted and timed supply of iron. We suggest that DMT1 may, as it does in other tissues, play a role in transporting iron between intracellular compartments and thus may play an important role in male fertility.

  10. Expression analysis of HSP70 in the testis of Octopus tankahkeei under thermal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Ling-Li; Han, Ying-Li; Sheng, Zhang; Du, Chen; Wang, You-Fa; Zhu, Jun-Quan

    2015-09-01

    The gene encoding heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) was identified in Octopus tankahkeei by homologous cloning and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The full-length cDNA (2471 bp) consists of a 5'-untranslated region (UTR) (89 bp), a 3'-UTR (426 bp), and an open reading frame (1956 bp) that encodes 651 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular mass of 71.8 kDa and an isoelectric point of 5.34. Based on the amino acid sequence analysis and multiple sequence alignment, this cDNA is a member of cytoplasmic hsp70 subfamily of the hsp70 family and was designated as ot-hsp70. Tissue expression analysis showed that HSP70 expression is highest in the testes when all examined organs were compared. Immunohistochemistry analysis, together with hematoxylin-eosin staining, revealed that the HSP70 protein was expressed in all spermatogenic cells, but not in fibroblasts. In addition, O. tankahkeei were heat challenged by exposure to 32 °C seawater for 2 h, then returned to 13 °C for various recovery time (0-24 h). Relative expression of ot-hsp70 mRNA in the testes was measured at different time points post-challenge by quantitative real-time PCR. A clear time-dependent mRNA expression of ot-hsp70 after thermal stress indicates that the HSP70 gene is inducible. Ultrastructural changes of the heat-stressed testis were observed by transmission electron microscopy. We suggest that HSP70 plays an important role in spermatogenesis and testis protection against thermal stress in O. tankahkeei. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Protective role of L-carnitine and vitamin E on the testis of atherosclerotic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Afrah F; Kasem, Safwat M; Tousson, Ehab; Elsisy, Mohammed K H

    2015-05-01

    Atherosclerosis is a condition caused by lipid build-up and inflammation in the arteries, so hyperlipidemia is the major reason for atherosclerosis. Testis was found to be negatively affected by hyperlipidemia which leads to its impaired functions. Vitamin E and l-carnitine have well-known lipid-lowering and antioxidative activities. Triton WR 1339 is a non-ionic detergent, which induces severe hyperlipidemia by inhibition of lipoprotein lipase. The present study evaluates the protective role of vitamin E and l-carnitine on the testis in atherosclerosis and detects the most effective choice for protection against atherosclerosis; vitamin E, l-carnitine or a combination of both. A total of 80 albino male rats were divided into eight groups (10 rats for each group): control (G1), triton (G2), l-carnitine (G3), triton + l-carnitine (G4), vitamin E (G5), triton + vitamin E (G6), l-carnitine + vitamin E (G7) and triton + l-carnitine + vitamin E (G8). Data showed a significant increase in the levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TGs), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), 17 beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17 β HSD), testicular catalase and malondialdehyde (MDA) in G2 when compared with G1, whereas high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), serum testosterone, testicular 17 ketosteroid reductase (17 KSR), total thiol and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) data showed a significant decrease in G2 when compared with G1. Treatment with l-carnitine or/and vitamin E helps in improving the adverse effect of triton; also the histological changes confirm this finding. So the present study recommends all people to include l-carnitine and vitamin E in their diet to be protected against atherosclerosis. © The Author(s) 2012.

  12. Intratubular germ cell neoplasia of the human testis: heterogeneous protein expression and relation to invasive potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Rod T; Camacho-Moll, Maria; Macdonald, Joni; Anderson, Richard A; Kelnar, Christopher JH; O’Donnell, Marie; Sharpe, Richard M; Smith, Lee B; Grigor, Ken M; Wallace, W Hamish B; Stoop, Hans; Wolffenbuttel, Katja P; Donat, Roland

    2014-01-01

    Testicular germ cell cancer develops from pre-malignant intratubular germ cell neoplasia, unclassified cells that are believed to arise from failure of normal maturation of fetal germ cells from gonocytes (OCT4+/ MAGEA4−) into pre-spermatogonia (OCT4−/MAGEA4+). Intratubular germ cell neoplasia cell subpopulations based on stage of germ cell differentiation have been described, however the importance of these subpopulations in terms of invasive potential has not been reported. We hypothesised that cells expressing an immature (OCT4+/MAGEA4−) germ cell profile would exhibit an increased proliferation rate compared to those with a mature profile (OCT4+/ MAGEA4+). Therefore, we performed triple immunofluorescence and stereology to quantify the different intratubular germ cell neoplasia cell subpopulations, based on expression of germ cell (OCT4, PLAP, AP2γ, MAGEA4, VASA) and proliferation (Ki67) markers, in testis sections from patients with pre-invasive disease, seminoma and non-seminoma. We compared these subpopulations with normal human fetal testis and with seminoma cells. Heterogeneity of protein expression was demonstrated in intratubular germ cell neoplasia cells with respect to gonocyte and spermatogonial markers. It included an embryonic/fetal germ cell subpopulation lacking expression of the definitive intratubular germ cell neoplasia marker OCT4, that did not correspond to a physiological (fetal) germ cell subpopulation. OCT4+/MAGEA4- cells showed a significantly increased rate of proliferation compared with the OCT4+/MAGEA4+ population (12.8 v 3.4%, pneoplasia, which appears to be an important factor in determining invasive potential of intratubular germ cell neoplasia to seminomas. PMID:24457464

  13. The protective effect of goji berry extract in ischemic reperfusion in testis torsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dursun, Recep; Zengin, Yılmaz; Gündüz, Ercan; İçer, Mustafa; Durgun, Hasan Mansur; Dağgulli, Mansur; Kaplan, İbrahim; Alabalık, Ulaş; Güloğlu, Cahfer

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether goji berry extract (GBE), a known antioxidant, reduces ischemic reperfusion injury when administered to rats exposed to experimental testis torsion. A total of 32 Sprague-Dawley male rats were randomized into 4 groups, including the control (sham), goji, torsion, and torsion-goji groups. The treatment groups received intraperitoneal GBE prior to torsion. The left testes of the animals were subjected to torsion via 5 hours of ischemia and 6 hours of reperfusion. TAC (total antioxidant capacity), TOS (total oxidant status) and OSI (oxidative stress index) levels were calculated. Approximately 5-μm-thick sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) and examined under a light microscope. Statistical analyses were performed with the SPSS 15 software package. The mean serum TAC level was significantly increased in Groups 2 and 4 compared with Groups 1 and 3 in biochemical analyses (for both P < 0.001). The mean serum TOS level was significantly increased in Group 3 compared with Groups 1, 2, and 4 (P < 0.001, P < 0.001, and P = 0.003, respectively). Comparison of the groups with regard to histopathological examination revealed that Group 4 exhibited a significantly higher rate of hemorrhage and congestion compared with Groups 1 and 2 (P = 0.038). The groups did not differ significantly with respect to degeneration. Ischemic reperfusion injury associated with testis torsion was reduced by the antioxidant effect of GBE. Further experimental and clinical studies are needed to confirm the agent's efficacy for this indication.

  14. Hepatocyte growth factor modulates in vitro survival and proliferation of germ cells during postnatal testis development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catizone, A; Ricci, G; Del Bravo, J; Galdieri, M

    2006-04-01

    The hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a pleiotropic cytokine that influences mitogenesis, motility and differentiation of many different cell types by its tyrosine kinase receptor c-Met. We previously demonstrated that the c-Met/HGF system is present and functionally active during postnatal testis development. We found also that spermatozoa express c-Met and that HGF has a positive effect on the maintenance of sperm motility. In the present paper, we extend our study on the germ cells at different stages of differentiation during the postnatal development of the testis. We demonstrate that c-met is present in rat spermatogonia, pachytene spermatocytes and round spermatids and that HGF significantly increases spermatogonial proliferation in 8- to 10-day-old pre-pubertal rats. At this age HGF does not affect Sertoli cells and peritubular myoid cells proliferation. In addition, we studied the effect of the factor on germ cell apoptosis and we show that HGF prevents the germ cell apoptotic process. We also studied the effect of HGF on 18- to 20-day-old and 28- to 30-day-old rat testes. At these ages also the factor significantly increases germ cell duplication and decreases the number of apoptotic cells. However, the effect on programmed cell death is higher in the 8- to 10-day-old rats and declines in the older animals. In conclusion, we report that rat germ cells (spermatogonia, pachytene spermatocytes and round spermatids) express c-met and that HGF modulates germ cell proliferating activity and apoptosis in vitro. These data indicate that the c-Met/HGF system is involved in male germ cell homeostasis and, consequently, has a role in male fertility.

  15. Testicular prosthesis: Patient satisfaction and sexual dysfunctions in testis cancer survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Catanzariti

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We studied patient satisfaction about sexual activity after prosthesis implantation using validated questionnaires with the aim to discover if testicular prosthesis could be responsible of sexual dysfunctions (erectile dysfunction or premature ejaculation. Materials and Methods: We evaluated a total of 67 men who underwent radical orchiectomy for testicular cancer and a silicon testicular prosthesis implantation from January 2008 to June 2014 at our Hospital. These patients completed 5 validated questionnaires the day before orchiectomy and 6 months after surgery: the International Index of Erectile Function 5 (IIEF5, the Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool (PEDT, the Body Exposure during Sexual Activities Questionnaire (BESAQ, the Body-Esteem Scale and the Rosenberg Self- Esteem Scale. We also evaluated 6 months after surgery any defects of the prosthesis complained by the patients. Results: The questionnaires completed by patients didn’t show statistically significant changes for erectile dysfunction (p > 0.05 and premature ejaculation (p > 0.05. On the contrary the psychological questionnaires showed statistically significant change for the BESAQ (p < 0.001 and the Body Esteem Scale (p < 0.001, but not for the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (p > 0,05. A total of 15 patients (22.37% were dissatisfied about the prosthesis: the most frequent complaint (8 patients; 11.94% was that the prosthesis was firmer than the normal testis. Conclusions: Testicular prosthesis implantation is a safe surgical procedure that should be always proposed before orchiectomy for cancer of the testis. The defects complained by patients with testicular prosthesis are few, they don’t influence sexual activity and they aren’t able to cause erectile dysfunction or premature ejaculation.

  16. Expression of the cancer-testis antigen BORIS correlates with prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheema, Zubair; Hari-Gupta, Yukti; Kita, Georgia-Xanthi; Farrar, Dawn; Seddon, Ian; Corr, John; Klenova, Elena

    2014-02-01

    BORIS, a paralogue of the transcription factor CTCF, is a member of the cancer-testis antigen (CT) family. BORIS is normally present at high levels in the testis; however it is aberrantly expressed in various tumors and cancer cell lines. The main objectives of this study were to investigate BORIS expression together with sub-cellular localization in both prostate cell lines and tumor tissues, and assess correlations between BORIS and clinical/pathological characteristics. We examined BORIS mRNA expression, protein levels and cellular localization in a panel of human prostate tissues, cancer and benign, together with a panel prostate cell lines. We also compared BORIS levels and localization with clinical/pathological characteristics in prostate tumors. BORIS was detected in all inspected prostate cancer cell lines and tumors, but was absent in benign prostatic hyperplasia. Increased levels of BORIS protein positively correlated with Gleason score, T-stage and androgen receptor (AR) protein levels in prostate tumors. The relationship between BORIS and AR was further highlighted in prostate cell lines by the ability of ectopically expressed BORIS to activate the endogenous AR mRNA and protein. BORIS localization in the nucleus plus cytoplasm was also associated with higher BORIS levels and Gleason score. Detection of BORIS in prostate tumors suggests potential applications of BORIS as a biomarker for prostate cancer diagnosis, as an immunotherapy target and, potentially, a prognostic marker of more aggressive prostate cancer. The ability of BORIS to activate the AR gene indicates BORIS involvement in the growth and development of prostate tumors. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. IL PROCESSO DI PRODUZIONE SCRITTA: LA COESIONE VERBALE IN TESTI DI SCUOLA PRIMARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Rosi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Una delle principali difficoltà che incontrano i bambini della scuola primaria nella produzione scritta riguarda la coesione verbale, ovvero il mantenimento lungo il testo della dimensione temporale inizialmente selezionata per riportare gli eventi. L’articolo esamina questo specifico tipo di competenza testuale negli alunni di sei classi del secondo ciclo della scuola primaria, tre delle quali hanno partecipato alla sperimentazione educativa sulla produzione di testi scritti “Osservare l’interlingua”. Il confronto fra i dati raccolti all’inizio e alla fine dell’anno scolastico mostra una riduzione dei salti immotivati da un tempo verbale all’altro, definiti shift temporali, nei testi prodotti nelle classi del campione sperimentale in misura maggiore rispetto a quelle di controllo e sottolinea gli effetti positivi, a breve e lungo termine, di una didattica task-based condotta con approccio inclusivo, cooperativo ed attivo.  The process of writing: verb cohesion in primary school textsOne of principal difficulties in producing written texts for primary school pupils concerns verb cohesion, i.e. maintaining the temporal dimension initially chosen for expressing events throughout the text. The paper examines this specific textual competence in pupils from six classes within second cycle of primary school. Three of these classes were involved in the “Observing interlanguage” project focused on written production. The comparison of data collected at the beginning and the end of school year shows a decrease in temporal shifts (transitions from one verb tense to another in the texts produced by the students involved in the project with regard to the control group. These findings highlight the positive effects, both short-term and long-term, of task-based teaching through an inclusive, cooperative and active approach. 

  18. Origin of a rapidly evolving homeostatic control system programming testis function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Pengli; Yagi, Shintaro; Shiota, Kunio; Alam, S M Khorshed; Vivian, Jay L; Wolfe, Michael W; Rumi, M A Karim; Chakraborty, Damayanti; Kubota, Kaiyu; Dhakal, Pramod; Soares, Michael J

    2017-08-01

    Mammals share common strategies for regulating reproduction, including a conserved hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis; yet, individual species exhibit differences in reproductive performance. In this report, we describe the discovery of a species-restricted homeostatic control system programming testis growth and function. Prl3c1 is a member of the prolactin gene family and its protein product (PLP-J) was discovered as a uterine cytokine contributing to the establishment of pregnancy. We utilized mouse mutagenesis of Prl3c1 and revealed its involvement in the regulation of the male reproductive axis. The Prl3c1-null male reproductive phenotype was characterized by testiculomegaly and hyperandrogenism. The larger testes in the Prl3c1-null mice were associated with an expansion of the Leydig cell compartment. Prl3c1 locus is a template for two transcripts (Prl3c1-v1 and Prl3c1-v2) expressed in a tissue-specific pattern. Prl3c1-v1 is expressed in uterine decidua, while Prl3c1-v2 is expressed in Leydig cells of the testis. 5'RACE, chromatin immunoprecipitation and DNA methylation analyses were used to define cell-specific promoter usage and alternative transcript expression. We examined the Prl3c1 locus in five murid rodents and showed that the testicular transcript and encoded protein are the result of a recent retrotransposition event at the Mus musculus Prl3c1 locus. Prl3c1-v1 encodes PLP-J V1 and Prl3c1-v2 encodes PLP-J V2. Each protein exhibits distinct intracellular targeting and actions. PLP-J V2 possesses Leydig cell-static actions consistent with the Prl3c1-null testicular phenotype. Analysis of the biology of the Prl3c1 gene has provided insight into a previously unappreciated homeostatic setpoint control system programming testicular growth and function. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  19. Valproic acid induces histologic changes and decreases androgen receptor levels of testis and epididymis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitthichai Iamsaard

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Valproic acid (VPA, an anti-epileptic drug, can cause male subfertility. However, the degree to which testicular and epididymal histopathologies and androgen receptor (AR expression are changed under VPA treatment has never been reported. Objective: To investigate the histopathological changes and AR protein levels of testis and epididymis in VPA-treated rats for every single day. Materials and Methods: Sixty-four adult male Wistar rats were divided into control and VPA-treated groups (n=8/ each. Treated rats were injected with 500 mg/ kgBW, intraperitoneally, VPA for 10 consecutive days. At the end of every experimental day, all reproductive parameters including histology by hematoxylin and eosin staining and protein expression of AR by Immuno-Western blot in testis and epididymis were examined. Results: VPA-treated rats showed dramatically changes in testicular and epididymal histopathologies compared to control group. The multinucleated giant cells and sloughing of germ cells were observed on day 6. The germ cell disintegration and increased intercellular spaces of seminiferous tubular epithelium appeared in days 7-10 of VPA treatment. Additionally, extensive multinucleated giant cells and complete exfoliation were clearly found from days 8-10. Such exfoliated germ cells were clearly seen in its epididymal lumen at day 10. The increasing rate of sperm concentration was approximately 32.31% of that in control group at day 10 (p=0.03. Moreover, the protein expressions of testicular and epididymal AR (% intensity/ 80 μg protein lysate was decreased in VPA-treated rats compared with control. Conclusion: VPA treatment induces histologic changes of germ cell epithelium in seminiferous tubules and decreases the expression of testicular and epididymal androgen receptors

  20. Protective effects of propolis on methotrexate-induced testis injury in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sönmez, Mehmet Fatih; Çilenk, Kübra Tuğçe; Karabulut, Derya; Ünalmış, Sunay; Deligönül, Erkan; Öztürk, İsmet; Kaymak, Emin

    2016-04-01

    Propolis is an adhesive substance which is collected and used by honeybees. Propolis is a potent antioxidant and a free radical scavenger. This study was designed to determine whether propolis could protect against dysfunction and oxidative stress induced by methotrexate-induced injury in rat testis. A total of 40 male Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups: group 1 was the untreated control. On the eighth day of the experiment, groups 2 and 3 received single intraperitoneal injections of methotrexate (MTX) at 20mg/kg. Groups 3 and 4 received 100mg/kg/day propolis (by oral gavage) for 15 days by the first day of the experimental protocol. Then the rats were decapitated under anesthesia, and their testes were removed. The histopathological and biochemical analysis along with apoptosis assessment of testis tissues were compared. Immunohistochemical analysis of Heat shock protein-70 (HSP-70) and Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) were performed. The phenolic characterization of propolis was performed by Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Methotrexate caused tended to increase in malondialdehyde level and in the number of apoptotic cells; it also caused a decrease in MSTD and JTBS, PCNA and HSP-70 expression and xanthine oxidase levels in group 2. Propolis prevented the rise in malondialdehyde, xanthine oxidase levels and HSP-70 expression and improved testicular morphology and JTBS. It was found that, methorexate gives rise to serious damage in the testes and propolis is a potent antioxidant agent in preventing testicular injury. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  1. Cancer/Testis antigens as potential predictors of biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer following radical prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trock Bruce

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Cancer/Testis Antigens (CTAs are an important group of proteins that are typically restricted to the testis in the normal adult but are aberrantly expressed in several types of cancers. As a result of their restricted expression patterns, the CTAs could serve as unique biomarkers for cancer diagnosis/prognosis. The aim of this study was to identify promising CTAs that are associated with prostate cancer (PCa recurrence following radical prostatectomy (RP. Methods The expression of 5 CTAs was measured by quantitative multiplex real-time PCR using prostate tissue samples obtained from 72 patients with apparently clinically localized PCa with a median of two years follow-up (range, 1 to 14 years. Results The expression of CTAs namely, CEP55, NUF2, PBK and TTK were significantly higher while PAGE4 was significantly lower in patients with recurrent disease. All CTAs with the exception of TTK were significantly correlated with the prostatectomy Gleason score, but none were correlated with age, stage, or preoperative PSA levels. In univariate proportional hazards models, CEP55 (HR = 3.59, 95% CI: 1.50-8.60, p = 0.004; NUF2 (HR = 2.28, 95% CI: 1.11-4.67, p = 0.024; and PAGE4 (HR = 0.44, 95% CI: 0.21-0.93, p = 0.031 were significantly associated with the risk of PCa recurrence. However, the results were no longer significant after adjustment for prostatectomy Gleason score. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first study to identify CTAs as biomarkers that can differentiate patients with recurrent and non-recurrent disease following RP and underscores its potential impact on PCa prognosis and treatment.

  2. Expression Analysis of ARMC3, a Testis-Specific Gene, in Breast Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zare

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer among women. Biomarkers that are expressed in tumors play a pivotal role in diagnosis and treatment. Cancer-testis (CT antigens are predominantly expressed in the testis and also have inappropriate expression in various tumor types. In the case of expression in tumors, they will be used as immunotherapy targets. Objectives Expression of ARMC3, a CT antigen, was analyzed to determine its potential as a tumor marker for breast cancer. Materials and Methods Eighty samples including 40 tumor samples and 40 normal adjacent tissue samples, were gathered from the ICBC biobank. RNA extraction was carried out on all samples. The extracted RNA was treated by DNaseI, after which cDNA was synthesized. Expression of ARMC3 with ACTB (internal control was studied using Real-Time PCR (polymerase chain reaction. Results Overall, 43.6% of tumors and 25.6% of normal adjacent tissues expressed ARMC3. ARMC3 was overexpressed in 41% of tumor samples (P = 0.00 and showed decreased expression in 46.2% (P = 0.00. Also, the expression of this gene in 12.8% of tumors was unchanged, which was statistically significant. It should be noted that all samples expressed ACTB gene. Conclusions Expression of ARMC3 in tumor samples and normal adjacent tissue is very important. The expression of this gene in tumor-adjacent tissue may be associated with the stage of cancer; it may be that these tissues are affected by epigenetic and oncogenic changes of breast cancer. Accordingly, aberrant expression of ARMC3 in tumor samples may be an attractive candidate for use as a tumor marker.

  3. Validation of endogenous normalizing genes for expression analyses in adult human testis and germ cell neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svingen, T; Jørgensen, A; Rajpert-De Meyts, E

    2014-08-01

    The measurement of gene expression levels in cells and tissues typically depends on a suitable point of reference for inferring biological relevance. For quantitative (or real-time) RT-PCR assays, the method of choice is often to normalize gene expression data to an endogenous gene that is stably expressed across the samples analysed: a so-called normalizing or housekeeping gene. Although this is a valid strategy, the identification of stable normalizing genes has proved challenging and a gene showing stable expression across all cells or tissues is unlikely to exist. Therefore, it is necessary to define suitable normalizing genes for specific cells and tissues. Here, we report on the performance of a panel of nine commonly employed normalizing genes in adult human testis and testicular pathologies. Our analyses revealed significant variability in transcript abundance for commonly used normalizers, highlighting the importance of selecting appropriate normalizing genes as comparative measurements can yield variable results when different normalizing genes are employed. Based on our results, we recommend using RPS20, RPS29 or SRSF4 when analysing relative gene expression levels in human testis and associated testicular pathologies. OCT4 and SALL4 can be used with caution as second-tier normalizers when determining changes in gene expression in germ cells and germ cell tumour components, but the relative transcript abundance appears variable between different germ cell tumour types. We further recommend that such studies should be accompanied by additional assessment of histology and cellularity of each sample. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Gadd45g is essential for primary sex determination, male fertility and testis development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiko Johnen

    Full Text Available In humans and most mammals, differentiation of the embryonic gonad into ovaries or testes is controlled by the Y-linked gene SRY. Here we show a role for the Gadd45g protein in this primary sex differentiation. We characterized mice deficient in Gadd45a, Gadd45b and Gadd45g, as well as double-knockout mice for Gadd45ab, Gadd45ag and Gadd45bg, and found a specific role for Gadd45g in male fertility and testis development. Gadd45g-deficient XY mice on a mixed 129/C57BL/6 background showed varying degrees of disorders of sexual development (DSD, ranging from male infertility to an intersex phenotype or complete gonadal dysgenesis (CGD. On a pure C57BL/6 (B6 background, all Gadd45g(-/- XY mice were born as completely sex-reversed XY-females, whereas lack of Gadd45a and/or Gadd45b did not affect primary sex determination or testis development. Gadd45g expression was similar in female and male embryonic gonads, and peaked around the time of sex differentiation at 11.5 days post-coitum (dpc. The molecular cause of the sex reversal was the failure of Gadd45g(-/- XY gonads to achieve the SRY expression threshold necessary for testes differentiation, resulting in ovary and Müllerian duct development. These results identify Gadd45g as a candidate gene for male infertility and 46,XY sex reversal in humans.

  5. Is prnt a pseudogene? Identification of ram Prt in testis and ejaculated spermatozoa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Pimenta

    Full Text Available A hallmark of prion diseases or transmissible spongiform encephalopaties is the conversion of the cellular prion protein (PrP(C, expressed by the prion gene (prnp, into an abnormally folded isoform (PrP(Sc with amyloid-like features that causes scrapie in sheep among other diseases. prnp together with prnd (which encodes a prion-like protein designated as Doppel, and prnt (that encodes the prion protein testis specific--Prt with sprn (shadow of prion protein gene, that encodes Shadoo or Sho genes, constitute the "prion gene complex". Whereas a role for prnd in the proper functioning of male reproductive system has been confirmed, the function of prnt, a recently discovered prion family gene, comprises a conundrum leading to the assumption that ruminant prnt is a pseudogene with no protein expression. The main objective of the present study was to identify Prt localization in the ram reproductive system and simultaneously to elucidate if ovine prnt gene is transcribed into protein-coding RNA. Moreover, as Prt is a prnp-related protein, the amyloid propensity was also tested for ovine and caprine Prt. Recombinant Prt was used to immunize BALB/c mice, and the anti-Prt polyclonal antibody (APPA immune response was evaluated by ELISA and Western Blot. When tested by indirect immunofluorescence, APPA showed high avidity to the ram sperm head apical ridge subdomain, before and after induced capacitation, but did not show the same behavior against goat spermatozoa, suggesting high antibody specificity against ovine-Prt. Prt was also found in the testis when assayed by immunohistochemistry during ram spermatogenesis, where spermatogonia, spermatocytes, spermatids and spermatozoa, stained positive. These observations strongly suggest ovine prnt to be a translated protein-coding gene, pointing to a role for Prt protein in the ram reproductive physiology. Besides, caprine Prt appears to exhibit a higher amyloid propensity than ovine Prt, mostly associated

  6. Paracetamol (acetaminophen), aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) and indomethacin are anti-androgenic in the rat foetal testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, D M; Lesné, L; Le Fol, V; Desdoits-Lethimonier, C; Dejucq-Rainsford, N; Leffers, H; Jégou, B

    2012-06-01

    More than half the pregnant women in the Western world report taking mild analgesics. These pharmaceutical compounds have been associated with congenital cryptorchidism in humans, the best-known risk factor for low semen quality and testicular germ cell cancer. Furthermore, some of these mild analgesics exert potent anti-androgenic effects in the male rat and several endocrine-disrupting compounds, known to alter masculinization, have also been shown to be potent inhibitors of prostaglandin (PG) synthesis similar to mild analgesics. Using a 3-day ex vivo organotypic model system based on gestational day 14.5 rat testes, we herein show that testosterone production was inhibited by paracetamol, at doses of 0.1 μm to 100 μm. Similar results were obtained for aspirin (1-100 μm) and indomethacin (10 μm). The production of the other Leydig cell hormone, Insl3, was not disrupted by exposure to paracetamol. Investigations of the gross anatomy of the testis as well as Leydig cells number and rate of gonocyte apoptosis after the 3 days of ex vivo differentiation showed no significant effect of the analgesics tested compared with controls. These data indicate therefore that mild analgesics specifically inhibit testosterone production in rat foetal testes in vitro and that these compounds had no effect on gonocyte survival. Parallel determinations of prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) production indicated that the effects of paracetamol and aspirin on PGD2 and testosterone were not connected, whereas the effects of indomethacin were correlated. We conclude that mild analgesics exert direct and specific anti-androgenic effects in rat foetal testis in our experimental setup and that the mechanism of action is probably uncoupled from the inhibition of PG synthesis. © 2012 The Authors. International Journal of Andrology © 2012 European Academy of Andrology.

  7. Antioxidant and protective effects of Royal jelly on histopathological changes in testis of diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Ghanbari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes is the most common endocrine disease. It has adverse effects on male reproductive function. Royal Jelly (RJ has antioxidant and anti-diabetic effects and show protective effects against diabetes. Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of RJ on histopathological alterations of the testicular tissue in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 28 adult Wistar rats were randomly divided into control (C, royal jelly (R, diabetic (D and RJ-treated diabetic (D+R groups. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of STZ at 50 mg/kg body weight (BW. The rats from the R and D+R groups received daily RJ (100 mg/kg BW for 6 wks orally. Hematoxylin-Eosin staining was used to analyze histopathological changes including: tunica albuginea thickness (TAT, seminiferous tubules diameter (STsD, Johnsen’s score, tubular differentiation index (TDI, spermiogenesis index (SPI, Sertoli cell index (SCI, meiotic index (MI, and mononuclear immune cells (MICs in testes. The antioxidant status was examined by evaluating testicular levels of ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and catalase (CAT activity. Results: Histological results of the testis from diabetic rats showed significant decrease in STsD, Johnsen’s score, TDI, SPI, SCI and MI, and significant increase in TAT and MICs, while administration of RJ significantly reverted these changes (p<0.05. RJ treatment markedly increased activity of CAT and FRAP. There were significant differences in FRAP levels among C (13.0±0.5, RJ (13.4±0.3, D (7.8±0.6 and D+R (12.4±0.7 groups (p<0.05. Conclusion: RJ improved diabetes-induced impairment in testis, probably through its antioxidant property.

  8. Continual maintenance of the blood-testis barrier during spermatogenesis: the intermediate compartment theory revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazama, Futoshi

    2008-10-01

    Tight junctions occur between the lateral processes of neighboring Sertoli cells that divide the seminiferous epithelium into two compartments: basal and adluminal compartments. These tight junctions constitute the blood-testis barrier (BTB). The established theory that the BTB must open when spermatocytes translocate from the basal compartment to the adluminal compartment is marked by one contradiction, that is, normal spermatogenesis occurs in the testis because the BTB is expected to constantly seclude the adluminal compartment from the basal compartment in order to protect haploid germ cells from the autoimmune system. Subsequently, another concept was proposed in which two BTBs divide the seminiferous epithelium into three compartments: basal, intermediate and adluminal compartments. It has been suggested that the transition from the basal region to the adluminal region without the BTB open occurs through the agency of a short-lived intermediate compartment embodying some primary spermatocytes. In contrast, the results of recent findings in the molecular architecture of the BTB suggest that the BTB in the seminiferous epithelium must "open". In this paper, I re-examine the BTBs of boar and experimental cryptorchid mouse testes by transmission electron microscope (TEM). TEM analysis showed that an atypical basal compartment existed in the thin seminiferous epithelium of 14-day post-cryptorchid mice testes. In developmental boar testes, ectoplasmic specialization (ES) of the seminiferous epithelium showed dynamic behavior. The intermediate compartment was clearly observed between the basal and adluminal compartments of the mature boar seminiferous epithelium. ESs were observed between Sertoli cells and spermatids at all developmental stages, including early, late and mature. Furthermore, ESs were situated on the apical surface of the seminiferous epithelium. From these results, I propose that the BTB is continually maintained during spermatogenesis and suggest a

  9. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells repair cadmium-induced rat testis injury by inhibiting mitochondrial apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong-Jie; Yan, Jun; Zou, Xiao-Li; Guo, Ke-Jun; Zhao, Yue; Meng, Chun-Yang; Yin, Fei; Guo, Li

    2017-06-01

    Cadmium is a highly toxic metal with widespread exposure to people that can cause tissue injuries that lack effective treatment. The aim of this project was to uncover whether bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) can repair cadmium-induced rat testis injury and to explore the role of mitochondrial apoptosis in this process. To this end, 21 adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into control, model and therapy groups, 7 each, and were administered 0, 0.4 and 0.4 mg/kg body weight CdCl2 saline solution, respectively, by intraperitoneal injection 5 times per week for 5 weeks. Then, rats in the therapy group were treated with 10(7) BMSCs by retro-orbital injections, while the others were given equal volumes of phosphate buffered saline. Following 2-week BMSCs-treatment, the therapy rats were heavier than the model rats, despite there being no difference in testicular cadmium contents between these groups, which were both significantly higher than the control group. BMSCs were observed in the testis of the therapy rats, in which pathological changes improved significantly compared with the model group. Expression of the apoptosis-associated proteins Bim, Bax, Cytochrome C, Caspase-3, active-Caspase-3 and AIF increased, while Bcl-2 was reduced significantly in rat testes of model group compared with the other groups. Based on these findings, we conclude that cadmium can accumulate in rat testes where it caused severe tissue injury, BMSCs can be localized to the injured testicular tissue of rats and repair the tissue injury, these reparative effects may be highly related with mitochondrial apoptosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. High expression level of Tra2-β1 is responsible for increased SMN2 exon 7 inclusion in the testis of SMA mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chia Chen

    Full Text Available Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA is an inherited neuromuscular disease caused by deletion or mutation of SMN1 gene. All SMA patients carry a nearly identical SMN2 gene, which produces low level of SMN protein due to mRNA exon 7 exclusion. Previously, we found that the testis of SMA mice (smn-/- SMN2 expresses high level of SMN2 full-length mRNA, indicating a testis-specific mechanism for SMN2 exon 7 inclusion. To elucidate the underlying mechanism, we established primary cultures of testis cells from SMA mice and analyzed them for SMN2 exon 7 splicing. We found that primary testis cells after a 2-hour culture still expressed high level of SMN2 full-length mRNA, but the level decreased after longer cultures. We then compared the protein levels of relevant splicing factors, and found that the level of Tra2-β1 also decreased during testis cell culture, correlated with SMN2 full-length mRNA downregulation. In addition, the testis of SMA mice expressed the highest level of Tra2-β1 among the many tissues examined. Furthermore, overexpression of Tra2-β1, but not ASF/SF2, increased SMN2 minigene exon 7 inclusion in primary testis cells and spinal cord neurons, whereas knockdown of Tra2-β1 decreased SMN2 exon 7 inclusion in primary testis cells of SMA mice. Therefore, our results indicate that high expression level of Tra2-β1 is responsible for increased SMN2 exon 7 inclusion in the testis of SMA mice. This study also suggests that the expression level of Tra2-β1 may be a modifying factor of SMA disease and a potential target for SMA treatment.

  11. Characterizing Transcriptional Networks in Male Rainbow Darter (Etheostoma caeruleum that Regulate Testis Development over a Complete Reproductive Cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina A Bahamonde

    Full Text Available Intersex is a condition that has been associated with exposure to sewage effluents in male rainbow darter (Etheostoma caeruleum. To better understand changes in the transcriptome that are associated with intersex, we characterized annual changes in the testis transcriptome in wild, unexposed fish. Rainbow darter males were collected from the Grand River (Ontario, Canada in May (spawning, August (post-spawning, October (recrudescence, January (developing and March (pre-spawning. Histology was used to determine the proportion of spermatogenic cell types that were present during each period of testicular maturation. Regression analysis determined that the proportion of spermatozoa versus spermatocytes in all stages of development (R2 ≥ 0.58 were inversely related; however this was not the case when males were in the post-spawning period. Gene networks that were specific to the transition from developing to pre-spawning stages included nitric oxide biosynthesis, response to wounding, sperm cell function, and stem cell maintenance. The pre-spawning to spawning transition included gene networks related to amino acid import, glycogenesis, Sertoli cell proliferation, sperm capacitation, and sperm motility. The spawning to post-spawning transition included unique gene networks associated with chromosome condensation, ribosome biogenesis and assembly, and mitotic spindle assembly. Lastly, the transition from post-spawning to recrudescence included gene networks associated with egg activation, epithelial to mesenchymal transition, membrane fluidity, and sperm cell adhesion. Noteworthy was that there were a significant number of gene networks related to immune system function that were differentially expressed throughout reproduction, suggesting that immune network signalling has a prominent role in the male testis. Transcripts in the testis of post-spawning individuals showed patterns of expression that were most different for the majority of transcripts

  12. Queen conch (Strombus gigas testis regresses during the reproductive season at nearshore sites in the Florida Keys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Spade

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Queen conch (Strombus gigas reproduction is inhibited in nearshore areas of the Florida Keys, relative to the offshore environment where conchs reproduce successfully. Nearshore reproductive failure is possibly a result of exposure to environmental factors, including heavy metals, which are likely to accumulate close to shore. Metals such as Cu and Zn are detrimental to reproduction in many mollusks. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Histology shows gonadal atrophy in nearshore conchs as compared to reproductively healthy offshore conchs. In order to determine molecular mechanisms leading to tissue changes and reproductive failure, a microarray was developed. A normalized cDNA library for queen conch was constructed and sequenced using the 454 Life Sciences GS-FLX pyrosequencer, producing 27,723 assembled contigs and 7,740 annotated transcript sequences. The resulting sequences were used to design the microarray. Microarray analysis of conch testis indicated differential regulation of 255 genes (p<0.01 in nearshore conch, relative to offshore. Changes in expression for three of four transcripts of interest were confirmed using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis indicated changes in biological processes: respiratory chain (GO:0015992, spermatogenesis (GO:0007283, small GTPase-mediated signal transduction (GO:0007264, and others. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry analysis indicated that Zn and possibly Cu were elevated in some nearshore conch tissues. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Congruence between testis histology and microarray data suggests that nearshore conch testes regress during the reproductive season, while offshore conch testes develop normally. Possible mechanisms underlying the testis regression observed in queen conch in the nearshore Florida Keys include a disruption of small GTPase (Ras-mediated signaling in testis development. Additionally, elevated tissue

  13. Expression of vitellogenin in the testis and kidney of the spotted ray Torpedo marmorata exposed to 17β-estradiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Giudice, Giuseppina; Prisco, Marina; Agnese, Marisa; Verderame, Mariailaria; Limatola, Ermelinda; Andreuccetti, Piero

    2011-12-01

    In vertebrates, the liver was long thought to be the only site of vitellogenin (Vtg) production, but recent studies demonstrated that Vtg is also expressed in extrahepatic districts. The aim of this paper is to assess, by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, the expression of Vtg in the testis and kidney of Torpedo marmorata exposed to 17β-estradiol (E(2)). In treated samples vtg mRNA and Vtg were detected contemporaneously only in the testis; differently the kidney cells were positive to Vtg antibody, but negative to vtg mRNA. This is the first study to assess that male germ cells, after an exposure to E(2), synthesize Vtg in a stage-dependent manner. The presence of Vtg and the modifications observed in the kidney after E(2) treatment are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. MAGE-A1, GAGE and NY-ESO-1 cancer/testis antigen expression during human gonadal development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerstorff, Morten F; Kock, Kirsten; Nielsen, Ole

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cancer/testis antigens (CTAs) are expressed in several cancers and during normal adult male germ cell differentiation. Little is known about their role in fetal development of human germ cells. METHODS: We examined expression of the CTAs MAGE-A1, GAGE and NY-ESO-1 in fetal gonads...... by single and double immunohistochemical staining. RESULTS: We found that GAGE was expressed in the primordial germ cells of the gonadal primordium, whereas MAGE-A1 and NY-ESO-1 were first detected in germ cells of both testis and ovary after sexual differentiation was initiated. The number of positive germ...... cells and the staining intensity of all three CTAs peaked during the second trimester and gradually decreased towards birth in both male and female germ cells. In oocytes, MAGE-A1 expression terminated around birth, whereas NY-ESO-1 expression persisted through the neonatal stage and GAGE expression...

  15. Repression of Abd-B by Polycomb is critical for cell identity maintenance in adult Drosophila testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuo; Pan, Chenyu; Lv, Xiangdong; Wu, Wei; Chen, Hao; Wu, Wenqing; Wu, Hailong; Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Yun

    2017-07-11

    Hox genes play a fundamental role in regulating animal development. However, less is known about their functions on homeostasis maintenance in adult stem cells. Here, we report that the repression of an important axial Hox gene, Abdominal-B (Abd-B), in cyst stem cells (CySCs) is essential for the homeostasis and cell identity maintenance in the adult Drosophila testis. Derepression of Abd-B in CySCs disrupts the proper self-renewal of both germline stem cells (GSCs) and CySCs, and leads to an excessive expansion of early stage somatic cells, which originate from both lineages. We further demonstrate that canonical Polycomb (Pc) and functional pathway of Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are responsible for maintaining the germline cell identity non-autonomously via repressing Abd-B in CySCs in the adult Drosophila testis.

  16. Metachronous Bilateral Granulocytic Sarcoma of the Testis in a Young Adult: A Report of an Unusual Entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Hızlı

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Granulocytic sarcomas are rare tumors composed of neoplastic blood cells, typically occurring during the course of acute nonlymphoblastic leukemia or before its onset. We present a case of a 23-year-old young adult man with metachronous granulocytic sarcoma of the testis without hematologic manifestations who was diagnosed with granulocytic sarcoma (GS. The patient was treated with right orchiectomy but relapsed with a left testicular mass 16 months later when a left orchiectomy was performed. The patient has been free of disease for 13 months following the left orchiectomy. This case highlights a rare hematologic cancer that urologists and pathologists should be aware of since it can present as a testicular mass. Only 3 cases of testicular GS without an associated hematologic disorder have been described. To the best of our knowledge, our patient is the first reported case in the English literature of metachronous GS of the testis with no evidence of hematologic disorder.

  17. Protective role of hesperidin against γ-radiation-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in rat testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaban, Nadia Z; Ahmed Zahran, Ahmed M; El-Rashidy, Fatma H; Abdo Kodous, Ahmad S

    2017-12-01

    Gamma (γ) ray, an electromagnetic radiation, is occasionally accompanying the emission of an alpha or beta particle. Exposure to such radiation can cause cellular changes such as mutations, chromosome aberration and cellular damage which depend upon the total amount of energy, duration of exposure and the dose. Ionizing radiation can impair spermatogenesis and can cause mutations in germ cells. In general, type B spermatogonia are sensitive to this type of radiation. The current study was carried out to evaluate the protective role of hesperidin (H), as a polyphenolic compound, on rat testis injury induced by γ-radiation. Rats were divided into groups including C group (control rats), R (irradiated) group (rats irradiated with γ-radiation), Vehicle (V) group (rats administered with dimethylsulfoxide "DMSO"), H group (rats administered with H only), HR and RH groups (rats treated with H before and after exposure to γ-radiation, respectively). Malondialdehyde (MDA: the end product of lipid peroxidation "LPO") and xanthine oxidase (XO: it generates reactive oxygen species "ROS") in testes homogenate as well as nitric oxide (NO: as ROS) in mitochondrial matrix were determined. The apoptotic markers including DNA-fragmentation (DNAF) in testes homogenate and calcium ions (Ca(2+)) in mitochondrial matrix were determined. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities in testes homogenate, while reduced glutathione "GSH" in nuclear matrix were determined. Also histopathological examination for testes tissues through electron microscope was studied. Exposure of rats to γ-radiation (R group) increased the levels of MDA, NO, DNAF, Ca(2+) and XO activity, while it decreased GSH level, SOD and CAT activities as compared to the C groups; γ-radiation increased oxidative stress (OS), LPO, apoptosis and induced testes injuries. These results are in agreement with the histopathological examination. In contrast, treatment with H before or after exposure to

  18. Yolk protein is expressed in the insect testis and interacts with sperm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachimiak Ewa

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Male and female gametes follow diverse developmental pathways dictated by their distinct roles in fertilization. While oocytes of oviparous animals accumulate yolk in the cytoplasm, spermatozoa slough off most of their cytoplasm in the process of individualization. Mammalian spermatozoa released from the testis undergo extensive modifications in the seminal ducts involving a variety of glycoproteins. Ultrastructural studies suggest that glycoproteins are involved in sperm maturation in insects; however, their characterization at the molecular level is lacking. We reported previously that the circadian clock controls sperm release and maturation in several insect species. In the moth, Spodoptera littoralis, the secretion of glycoproteins into the seminal fluid occurs in a daily rhythmic pattern. The purpose of this study was to characterize seminal fluid glycoproteins in this species and elucidate their role in the process of sperm maturation. Results We collected seminal fluid proteins from males before and after daily sperm release. These samples were separated by 2-D gel electrophoresis, and gels were treated with a glycoprotein-detecting probe. We observed a group of abundant glycoproteins in the sample collected after sperm release, which was absent in the sample collected before sperm release. Sequencing of these glycoproteins by mass spectroscopy revealed peptides bearing homology with components of yolk, which is known to accumulate in developing oocytes. This unexpected result was confirmed by Western blotting demonstrating that seminal fluid contains protein immunoreactive to antibody against yolk protein YP2 produced in the follicle cells surrounding developing oocytes. We cloned the fragment of yp2 cDNA from S. littoralis and determined that it is expressed in both ovaries and testes. yp2 mRNA and YP2 protein were detected in the somatic cyst cells enveloping sperm inside the testis. During the period of sperm

  19. Expression of NANOG, but not POU5F1, points to the stem cell potential of primitive germ cells in neonatal pig testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Sandeep; Fujihara, Mayako; Minami, Naojiro; Yamada, Masayasu; Imai, Hiroshi

    2008-06-01

    Gonocytes are primitive germ cells that are present in the neonatal testis and are committed to male germline development. Gonocytes differentiate to spermatogonia, which establish and maintain spermatogenesis in the postnatal testis. However, it is unknown whether large animal species have pluripotency-specific proteins in the testis. Nanog and Pou5f1 (Oct3/4) have been identified as transcription factors essential for maintaining pluripotency of embryonic stem cells in mice. Here, we show that NANOG protein was expressed in the germ cells of neonatal pig testes, but was progressively lost with age. NANOG was expressed in most of the lectin Dolichos biflorus agglutinin- and ZBTB16-positive gonocytes, which are known gonocyte-specific markers in pigs. NANOG was also expressed in Sertoli and interstitial cells of neonatal testes. Interestingly, POU5F1 expression was not detected at either the transcript or the protein level in neonatal pig testis. In the prepubertal testis, NANOG and POU5F1 proteins were primarily detected in differentiated germ cells, such as spermatocytes and spermatids, and rarely in undifferentiated spermatogonia. By using a testis transplantation assay, we found that germ cells from 2- to 4-day-old pigs could colonize and proliferate in the testes of the recipient mice, suggesting that primitive germ cells from neonatal pig testes have stem cell potential.

  20. Effects of aging and calorie restriction on the global gene expression profiles of mouse testis and ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharov, Alexei A; Falco, Geppino; Piao, Yulan; Poosala, Suresh; Becker, Kevin G; Zonderman, Alan B; Longo, Dan L; Schlessinger, David; Ko, Minoru Sh

    2008-06-03

    The aging of reproductive organs is not only a major social issue, but of special interest in aging research. A long-standing view of 'immortal germ line versus mortal soma' poses an important question of whether the reproductive tissues age in similar ways to the somatic tissues. As a first step to understand this phenomenon, we examine global changes in gene expression patterns by DNA microarrays in ovaries and testes of C57BL/6 mice at 1, 6, 16, and 24 months of age. In addition, we compared a group of mice on ad libitum (AL) feeding with a group on lifespan-extending 40% calorie restriction (CR). We found that gene expression changes occurred in aging gonads, but were generally different from those in somatic organs during aging. For example, only two functional categories of genes previously associated with aging in muscle, kidney, and brain were confirmed in ovary: genes associated with complement activation were upregulated, and genes associated with mitochondrial electron transport were downregulated. The bulk of the changes in gonads were mostly related to gonad-specific functions. Ovaries showed extensive gene expression changes with age, especially in the period when ovulation ceases (from 6 to 16 months), whereas testes showed only limited age-related changes. The same trend was seen for the effects of CR: CR-mediated reversal of age-associated gene expression changes, reported in somatic organs previously, was limited to a small number of genes in gonads. Instead, in both ovary and testis, CR caused small and mostly gonad-specific effects: suppression of ovulation in ovary and activation of testis-specific genes in testis. Overall, the results are consistent with unique modes of aging and its modification by CR in testis and ovary.

  1. Basic properties and annual changes of follicle-stimulating hormone receptors in the testis of horseshoe bats, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Toshiyuki; Uchida, Katsuya; Kawamoto, Keiichi

    2002-02-15

    The unique reproductive patterns, delayed fertilization in females, and asynchrony between spermatogenesis and mating behavior in males are well documented in bats living in temperate latitudes. The present study was undertaken to examine follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) receptors in the testis of bats, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, during the annual reproductive cycle. Male bats were captured at natural roosting sites and testicular preparations were subjected to a radioligand binding assay for FSH receptors. The weight of paired testes increased considerably in the spermatogenic period and decreased from the mating to hibernation periods. Meiotic division in the testis was observed in the spermatogenic period but not the mating period. Serum testosterone concentrations increased in the spermatogenic period and rapidly decreased in the mating period. The binding of FSH was specific for mammalian FSHs and detected primarily in the testis. Scatchard plot analyses of the binding of FSH to bat testicular preparations showed straight lines, suggesting the presence of a single class of binding sites. The affinities (equilibrium association constant) of FSH receptors were consistent throughout the annual reproductive cycle. The specific binding per unit weight of testis and total binding in the paired testes were highest in the mating period and in the spermatogenic period, respectively, among reproductive periods. The accumulation of cyclic adenosine 3', 5'-monophosphate to FSH stimulation was higher in the spermatogenic period than in the hibernation period. These findings suggest that testicular function of bats is associated with seasonal changes in the number of binding sites, while the number per target cell and the activation of adenylate cyclase led by FSH-receptor complex considerably decreases in the hibernation period. Copyright 2002 Wiley‐Liss, Inc.

  2. Effects of aging and calorie restriction on the global gene expression profiles of mouse testis and ovary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longo Dan L

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aging of reproductive organs is not only a major social issue, but of special interest in aging research. A long-standing view of 'immortal germ line versus mortal soma' poses an important question of whether the reproductive tissues age in similar ways to the somatic tissues. As a first step to understand this phenomenon, we examine global changes in gene expression patterns by DNA microarrays in ovaries and testes of C57BL/6 mice at 1, 6, 16, and 24 months of age. In addition, we compared a group of mice on ad libitum (AL feeding with a group on lifespan-extending 40% calorie restriction (CR. Results We found that gene expression changes occurred in aging gonads, but were generally different from those in somatic organs during aging. For example, only two functional categories of genes previously associated with aging in muscle, kidney, and brain were confirmed in ovary: genes associated with complement activation were upregulated, and genes associated with mitochondrial electron transport were downregulated. The bulk of the changes in gonads were mostly related to gonad-specific functions. Ovaries showed extensive gene expression changes with age, especially in the period when ovulation ceases (from 6 to 16 months, whereas testes showed only limited age-related changes. The same trend was seen for the effects of CR: CR-mediated reversal of age-associated gene expression changes, reported in somatic organs previously, was limited to a small number of genes in gonads. Instead, in both ovary and testis, CR caused small and mostly gonad-specific effects: suppression of ovulation in ovary and activation of testis-specific genes in testis. Conclusion Overall, the results are consistent with unique modes of aging and its modification by CR in testis and ovary.

  3. Protective effect of Urtica dioica L against nicotine-induced damage on sperm parameters, testosterone and testis tissue in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Cyrus Jalili; Mohammad Reza Salahshoor; Ali Naseri

    2014-01-01

    Background: Nicotine consumption can decrease fertility drive in males by inducing oxidative stress and DNA damage. Urtica dioica L (U.dioica) is a multipurpose herb in traditional medicine for which some anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties have been identified. Objective: The main goal is to investigate whether the U.dioica could inhibit nicotine adverse effects on sperm cells viability, count, motility, and testis histology and testosterone hormone. Materials and Methods: In thi...

  4. A Multiplex Cancer/Testis Antigen-Based Biomarker Panel to Predict Aggressive Phenotype of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    normally confined to germ cells in normal testis and placenta , but aberrantly expressed in several types of cancers (Scanlan et al, 2004...Nanostring 10. qRT-PCR 4 3. OVERALL PROJECT SUMMARY Summary of Tasks in SOW Tasks Summarized aims Time Major Task 1 Subtasks 1 and 2 Year 1 CTA...obtain new TMAs for validation of our biomarkers. In an attempt to determine if CTA expression by the PCa cells can induce cellular mediated immune

  5. Gene discovery in the hamster: a comparative genomics approach for gene annotation by sequencing of hamster testis cDNAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oduru, Sreedhar; Campbell, Janee L; Karri, SriTulasi; Hendry, William J; Khan, Shafiq A; Williams, Simon C

    2003-01-01

    Background Complete genome annotation will likely be achieved through a combination of computer-based analysis of available genome sequences combined with direct experimental characterization of expressed regions of individual genomes. We have utilized a comparative genomics approach involving the sequencing of randomly selected hamster testis cDNAs to begin to identify genes not previously annotated on the human, mouse, rat and Fugu (pufferfish) genomes. Results 735 distinct sequences were analyzed for their relatedness to known sequences in public databases. Eight of these sequences were derived from previously unidentified genes and expression of these genes in testis was confirmed by Northern blotting. The genomic locations of each sequence were mapped in human, mouse, rat and pufferfish, where applicable, and the structure of their cognate genes was derived using computer-based predictions, genomic comparisons and analysis of uncharacterized cDNA sequences from human and macaque. Conclusion The use of a comparative genomics approach resulted in the identification of eight cDNAs that correspond to previously uncharacterized genes in the human genome. The proteins encoded by these genes included a new member of the kinesin superfamily, a SET/MYND-domain protein, and six proteins for which no specific function could be predicted. Each gene was expressed primarily in testis, suggesting that they may play roles in the development and/or function of testicular cells. PMID:12783626

  6. Morphometry of testis and seminiferous tubules of the adult crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous, Linnaeus, 1766

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Cabral Caldeira

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Body and testicular biometric parameters are very important for establishing reproductive patterns and, consequently, the development of protocols for assisted reproduction in different species. A direct correlation between the testis weight and the sperm population was observed in other studied species, because the testis size primarily reflects the total volume of the seminiferous tubule, its main component. The objective of this study was to determine the testicular volume parameters and correlate data from morphometry of testis and seminiferous tubules with body mass in six adult crab-eating foxes. The mean body weight of the crab-eating foxes in this study was 6.53 kg, with approximately 0.068% allocated to the testicular mass and 0.042% specifically to seminiferous tubules, which represented 87.5% of the testicular parenchyma. The albuginea comprised 12.5% of the testicular mass. The mean diameter of seminiferous tubules was 236 µm, and the mean thickness of the seminiferous epithelium was 62.9 µm. Values of tubular parameters indicate a sperm productivity close to those observed in previously studied carnivores.

  7. Gene discovery in the hamster: a comparative genomics approach for gene annotation by sequencing of hamster testis cDNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Shafiq A

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complete genome annotation will likely be achieved through a combination of computer-based analysis of available genome sequences combined with direct experimental characterization of expressed regions of individual genomes. We have utilized a comparative genomics approach involving the sequencing of randomly selected hamster testis cDNAs to begin to identify genes not previously annotated on the human, mouse, rat and Fugu (pufferfish genomes. Results 735 distinct sequences were analyzed for their relatedness to known sequences in public databases. Eight of these sequences were derived from previously unidentified genes and expression of these genes in testis was confirmed by Northern blotting. The genomic locations of each sequence were mapped in human, mouse, rat and pufferfish, where applicable, and the structure of their cognate genes was derived using computer-based predictions, genomic comparisons and analysis of uncharacterized cDNA sequences from human and macaque. Conclusion The use of a comparative genomics approach resulted in the identification of eight cDNAs that correspond to previously uncharacterized genes in the human genome. The proteins encoded by these genes included a new member of the kinesin superfamily, a SET/MYND-domain protein, and six proteins for which no specific function could be predicted. Each gene was expressed primarily in testis, suggesting that they may play roles in the development and/or function of testicular cells.

  8. Cell and region specificity of Aryl hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR) system in the testis and the epididymis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajda, A; Łapczuk, J; Grabowska, M; Pius-Sadowska, E; Słojewski, M; Laszczynska, M; Urasinska, E; Machalinski, B; Drozdzik, M

    2017-04-01

    Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) plays multiple important functions in adaptive responses. Exposure to AhR ligands may produce an altered metabolic activity controlled by the AhR pathways, and consequently affect drug/toxin responses, hormonal status and cellular homeostasis. This research revealed species-, cell- and region-specific pattern of the AhR system expression in the rat and human testis and epididymis, complementing the existing knowledge, especially within the epididymal segments. The study showed that AhR level in the rat and human epididymis is higher than in the testis. The downregulation of AhR expression after TCDD treatment was revealed in the spermatogenic cells at different stages and the epididymal epithelial cells, but not in the Sertoli and Leydig cells. Hence, this basic research provides information about the AhR function in the testis and epididymis, which may provide an insight into deleterious effects of drugs, hormones and environmental pollutants on male fertility. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. High Doses of Caffeine during the Peripubertal Period in the Rat Impair the Growth and Function of the Testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minji Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal caffeine exposure adversely affects the development of the reproductive organs of male rat offspring. Thus, it is conceivable that peripubertal caffeine exposure would also influence physiologic gonadal changes and function during this critical period for sexual maturation. This study investigated the impact of high doses of caffeine on the testes of prepubertal male rats. A total of 45 immature male rats were divided randomly into three groups: a control group and 2 groups fed 120 and 180 mg/kg/day of caffeine, respectively, via the stomach for 4 weeks. Caffeine caused a significant decrease in body weight gain, accompanied by proportional decreases in lean body mass and body fat. The caffeine-fed animals had smaller and lighter testes than those of the control that were accompanied by negative influences on the histologic parameters of the testes. In addition, stimulated-testosterone ex vivo production was reduced in Leydig cells retrieved from the caffeine-fed animals. Our results demonstrate that peripubertal caffeine consumption can interfere with the maturation and function of the testis, possibly by interrupting endogenous testosterone secretion and reducing the sensitivity of Leydig cells to gonadotrophic stimulation. In addition, we confirmed that pubertal administration of caffeine reduced testis growth and altered testis histomorphology.

  10. Expression and function analysis of metallothionein in the testis of stone crab Charybdis japonica exposed to cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao Huan [Sperm Laboratory, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China); Tan Fuqing [The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China); Wang Dahui [Sperm Laboratory, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Zhu Junquan [Faculty of Life Science and Bioengineering, Ningbo University, Zhejiang 315211 (China); Zhou Hong [Sperm Laboratory, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Yang Wanxi, E-mail: wxyang@spermlab.org [Sperm Laboratory, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China)

    2012-11-15

    Metallothionein (MT) participates in metallic homeostasis and detoxification in living animals. Previous studies have focused mainly on the functions of MT in vertebrates, but the functions of MT during spermiogenesis in invertebrates remain unclear. In order to investigate the functions of MT during spermiogenesis in the Japanese stone crab (Charybdis japonica), we identified the C. japonica MT complete cDNA sequence from the total RNA of the testis using RT-PCR and RACE. The 587 bp MT cDNA contains: an 80 bp 5 Prime untranslated region, a 333 bp 3 Prime untranslated region, and a 174 bp open reading frame. MT has 57 amino acids including 19 cysteines. The protein alignment between MT sequences of C. japonica and other crabs shows a high similarity and a strong identity in cysteine residues vital for the metal-binding affinity of MT. After the cadmium (Cd) exposure, the testis displays both abnormal morphology and MT mRNA expression both of which indicate a sensitive response of testis MT to Cd. Therefore, we suggest that MT is an excellent biomarker candidate for evaluating Cd pollution.

  11. The testis and ovary transcriptomes of the rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus: A bony fish with a unique neo Y chromosome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongdong Xu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus is considerably one of the most economically important marine fish in East Asia and has a unique neo-Y chromosome system that is a good model to study the sex determination and differentiation in fish. In the present study, we used Illumina sequencing technology (HiSeq2000 to sequence, assemble and annotate the transcriptome of the testis and ovary tissues of rock bream. A total of 40,004,378 (NCBI SRA database SRX1406649 and 53,108,992 (NCBI SRA database SRX1406648 high quality reads were obtained from testis and ovary RNA sequencing, respectively, and 60,421 contigs (with average length of 1301 bp were obtained after de novo assembling with Trinity software. Digital gene expression analysis reveals 14,036 contigs that show gender-enriched expressional profile with either testis-enriched (237 contigs or ovary-enriched (581 contigs with RPKM >100. There are 237 male- and 582 female-abundant expressed genes that show sex dimorphic expression. We hope that the gonad transcriptome and those gender-enriched transcripts of rock bream can provide some insight into the understanding of genome-wide transcriptome profile of teleost gonad tissue and give useful information in fish gonad development.

  12. Effects of Common Fig (Ficus carica Leaf Extracts on Sperm Parameters and Testis of Mice Intoxicated with Formaldehyde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Naghdi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Formaldehyde (FA is the leading cause of cellular injury and oxidative damage in testis that is one of the main infertility causes. There has been an increasing evidence of herbal remedies use in male infertility treatment. This assay examines the role of Ficus carica (Fc leaf extracts in sperm parameters and testis of mice intoxicated with FA. Twenty-five adult male mice were randomly divided into control; sham; FA-treated (10 mg/kg twice per day; Fc-treated (200 mg/kg; and FA + Fc-treated groups. Cauda epididymal spermatozoa were analyzed for viability, count, and motility. Testes were weighed and gonadosomatic index (GSI was calculated. Also, histoarchitecture of seminiferous tubules was assessed in the Haematoxylin and Eosin stained paraffin sections. The findings showed that FA significantly decreased GSI and increased percentage of immotile sperm compared with control group. Disorganized and vacuolated seminiferous epithelium, spermatogenic arrest, and lumen filled with immature germ cells were also observed in the testes. However, Fc leaf extracts improved sperm count, nonprogressive motility of spermatozoa, and GSI in FA-treated testes. Moreover, seminiferous tubule with spermatogenic arrest was rarely seen, indicating that Fc has the positive effects on testis and epididymal sperm parameters exposed with FA.

  13. PENGARUH EKSTRAK ETANOL BIJI JARAK (Ricinus communis L. TERHADAP STRUKTUR HISTOLOGIS TESTIS TIKUS SAWAH (Ratus Argentiventer ROBINSON & KLOSS (The Effect of Castor-bean (Ricinus communis L. Seeds Ethanol Extract on Microscopic Structure of Testis of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Istriyati Istriyati

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK  Tikus sawah (Rattus argentivenler Robinson dan Kloss merupakan jenis hewan mammal yang menimbulkan kerugian besar di sektor pertanian. Selain daya adaptasi yang tinggi terhadap lingkungan, tikus sawah memiliki kemampuan reproduksi yang tinggi dalam waktu singkat, sehingga populasi tikus sawah dapat meningkat dengan cepat Untuk mengatasi hal ini, diperlukan suatu teknik pengendalian, dengan mempengaruhi tingkat fertilitasnya. Biji jarak (Ricinus communis L. diduga mempunyai efek antifertilitas yang diharapkan dapat mengurangi jumlah populasi tikus sawah. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mempelajari pengaruh ekstrak biji jarak terhadap struktur mikroskopis testis tikus sawah. Tiga puluh ekor tikus sawah jantan dengan rata-rata berat badan 99,4 g dibagi menjadi 6 kelompok, masing-masing 5 ekor. Satu kelompok kontrol diperlakukan dengan akuabides, 5 kelompok lainnya masing-masing diperlakukan dengan ekstrak etanol biji jarak secara oral dengan metode one way single dose 0.2 ml: 0.4 ml: 0.6 ml: 0.8 ml dan 1.0 ml/100 g bb. Setelah perlakuan tikus sawah dipelihara selama 12 hari. Kemudian tikus dikorbankan dan diambil testisnya untuk dibuat preparat dengan metode parafin, fiksasi dalam larutan Bouin, tebal sayatan 6 um, pewarnaan dengan hematoksilin dan Eosin (HE. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan struktur mikroskopis testis mengalami degenerasi. Uji statistik menunjukkan adanya penurunan secara nyata jumlah spermatogonia, spermatosit dan spermatid testis tikus sawah antara kelompok kontrol dan perlakuan. Makin tinggi dosis, makin tinggi tingkat kerusakan struktur mikroskopis dan jumlah spermatogonia, spermatosit dan spermatid makin sedikit.   ABSTRACT  Rice-field rat (Rattus argentiventer Robinson & Kloss is a mammal pest that causes serious lost on agriculture crop. Beside high adaptation, rice-field rats also have high reproduction ability in a short time, so that the population of the rats increase rapidly. To control population of rice

  14. Effects of a Simulated Microgravity Model on cell structure and function in mouse testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Masini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Decreased testicular blood flow shift occurring under microgravity conditions causes impaired spermatogenesis in males. The tail suspended model has been used mainly in studies of muscle atrophy/osteoporosis and of body fluid shift in few studies aimed at spermatogenesis. We examined serum testosterone levels, testis morphology and apoptotic phenomena in tail suspended mice, a model used to reproduce some of the effects of the absence of gravity. Male C57BL mice (6months old were divided into two groups: tail suspended (TS and controls (C. After 14 days of treatment testosterone levels were determined. On fixed sections histological stain (HE was performed; DNA fragmentation was visualized using TUNEL technique. On the frozen samples immunoblotting for BAX, Bcl2, Caspase 39 and p53 was carried out. Testosterone levels were 0.18±0.09 and 3.74±2.2 ng/ml (mean±DS in suspended and control animals, respectively. HE staining showed disturbed cell arrangement and a markedly decreased number of spermatozoa in the testes, TUNEL revealed an increased apoptotic index and immunoblotting provided evidence of apoptotic markers in TS animals. These data support results previously obtained by other groups showing a significant influence of short duration microgravity conditions on testicular function.

  15. Tumour-marker levels and prognosis in malignant teratoma of the testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germa-Lluch, J. R.; Begent, R. H.; Bagshawe, K. D.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of 6 putative prognostic factors on survival was studied in patients with Stages III and IV malignant teratoma of the testis. Differences between survival curves were tested for statistical significance. A diameter greater than 5 cm in the largest tumour mass, and greater than 8 pulmonary metastases were adverse prognostic factors (P = 0.004 and 0.008 respectively). Patients with malignant teratoma, trophoblastic, fared worse than those with malignant teratoma, undifferentiated, and malignant teratoma, intermediate (P = 0.011 and 0.023 respectively). Previous chemotherapy or radiotherapy had no significant effect. Serum alpha-foetoprotein (AFP) above 10(3) MRC u/ml and serum beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) above 10(5) miu/ml, were found to predict a poor prognosis (P = 0.010 and 0.001 respectively). A combination of measurements of the tumour markers gave the most consistent indication of prognosis, in that patients with either AFP greater than 10(3) MRC u/ml or hCG greater than 10(5) miu/ml, or both, fared much worse than those with neither factor (P = 0.001). Serum concentrations of AFP and hCG should be stated in reports of treatment of testicular teratoma in order to provide a basis for comparison with other series. Regular and frequent measurements of these markers are appropriate throughout the clinical management of patients with malignant teratoma. PMID:6161630

  16. Inutero exposure to diisononyl phthalate caused testicular dysgenesis of rat fetal testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linxi; Bu, Tiao; Su, Huina; Chen, Zhichuan; Liang, Yuyuan; Zhang, Gaolong; Zhu, Danyan; Shan, Yuanyuan; Xu, Renai; Hu, Yuanyuan; Li, Junwei; Hu, Guoxin; Lian, Qingquan; Ge, Ren-Shan

    2015-01-22

    Diisononyl phthalate (DINP) is a synthetic material that has been widely used as a substitute for other plasticizers prohibited due to reproductive toxicity in consumer products. Some phthalates have been associated with testicular dysgenesis syndrome in male fetus when female pregnant dams were exposed to them. The present study investigated effects of DINP on fetal Leydig cell function and testis development. Female pregnant Sprague Dawley rats received control vehicle (corn oil) or DINP (10, 100, 500, and 1000 mg/kg) by oral gavage from gestational day (GD) 12 to 21. At GD 21.5, testicular testosterone production, fetal Leydig cell numbers and distribution, testicular gene and protein expression levels were examined. DINP showed dose-dependent increase of fetal Leydig cell aggregation with the low observed adverse-effect level (LOAEL) of 10 mg/kg and multinucleated gonocyte with LOAEL of 100 mg/kg. At 10 mg/kg, DINP also significantly increased fetal Leydig cell size, but inhibited insulin-like 3 and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase gene expression and protein levels. DINP inhibited testicular testosterone levels at 1000 mg/kg. The results indicate that in utero exposure to DINP affects the expression levels of some fetal Leydig cell steroidogenic genes, gonocyte multinucleation and Leydig cell aggregation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The lack of histological changes of CDMA cellular phone-based radio frequency on rat testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hae-June; Pack, Jeong-Ki; Kim, Tae-Hong; Kim, Nam; Choi, Soo-Yong; Lee, Jae-Seon; Kim, Sung-Ho; Lee, Yun-Sil

    2010-10-01

    We examined the histological changes by radiofrequency (RF) fields on rat testis, specifically with respect to sensitive processes such as spermatogenesis. Male rats were exposed to 848.5 MHz RF for 12 weeks. The RF exposure schedule consisted of two 45-min RF exposure periods, separated by a 15-min interval. The whole-body average specific absorption rate (SAR) of RF was 2.0 W/kg. We then investigated correlates of testicular function such as sperm counts in the cauda epididymis, malondialdehyde concentrations in the testes and epididymis, frequency of spermatogenesis stages, germ cell counts, and appearance of apoptotic cells in the testes. We also performed p53, bcl-2, caspase 3, p21, and PARP immunoblotting of the testes in sham- and RF-exposed animals. Based on these results, we concluded that subchronic exposure to 848.5 MHz with 2.0 W/kg SAR RF did not have any observable adverse effects on rat spermatogenesis.

  18. Cancer testis antigen vaccination affords long-term protection in a murine model of ovarian cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Chiriva-Internati

    Full Text Available Sperm protein (Sp17 is an attractive target for ovarian cancer (OC vaccines because of its over-expression in primary as well as in metastatic lesions, at all stages of the disease. Our studies suggest that a Sp17-based vaccine can induce an enduring defense against OC development in C57BL/6 mice with ID8 cells, following prophylactic and therapeutic treatments. This is the first time that a mouse counterpart of a cancer testis antigen (Sp17 was shown to be expressed in an OC mouse model, and that vaccination against this antigen significantly controlled tumor growth. Our study shows that the CpG-adjuvated Sp17 vaccine overcomes the issue of immunologic tolerance, the major barrier to the development of effective immunotherapy for OC. Furthermore, this study provides a better understanding of OC biology by showing that Th-17 cells activation and contemporary immunosuppressive T-reg cells inhibition is required for vaccine efficacy. Taken together, these results indicate that prophylactic and therapeutic vaccinations can induce long-standing protection against OC and delay tumor growth, suggesting that this strategy may provide additional treatments of human OC and the prevention of disease onset in women with a family history of OC.

  19. Cancer-testis antigen expression is shared between epithelial ovarian cancer tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Soto, Arlene E; Schreiber, Taylor; Strbo, Natasa; Ganjei-Azar, Parvin; Miao, Feng; Koru-Sengul, Tulay; Simpkins, Fiona; Nieves-Neira, Wilberto; Lucci, Joseph; Podack, Eckhard R

    2017-06-01

    Cancer-testis (CT) antigens have been proposed as potential targets for cancer immunotherapy. Our objective was to evaluate the expression of a panel of CT antigens in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) tumor specimens, and to determine if antigen sharing occurs between tumors. RNA was isolated from EOC tumor specimens, EOC cell lines and benign ovarian tissue specimens. Real time-PCR analysis was performed to determine the expression level of 20 CT antigens. A total of 62 EOC specimens, 8 ovarian cancer cell lines and 3 benign ovarian tissues were evaluated for CT antigen expression. The majority of the specimens were: high grade (62%), serous (68%) and advanced stage (74%). 58 (95%) of the EOC tumors analyzed expressed at least one of the CT antigens evaluated. The mean number of CT antigen expressed was 4.5 (0-17). The most frequently expressed CT antigen was MAGE A4 (65%). Antigen sharing analysis showed the following: 9 tumors shared only one antigen with 62% of the evaluated specimens, while 37 tumors shared 4 or more antigens with 82%. 5 tumors expressed over 10 CT antigens, which were shared with 90% of the tumor panel. CT antigens are expressed in 95% of EOC tumor specimens. However, not a single antigen was universally expressed across all samples. The degree of antigen sharing between tumors increased with the total number of antigens expressed. These data suggest a multi-epitope approach for development of immunotherapy for ovarian cancer treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Deep sequencing of transcriptome profiling of GSTM2 knock-down in swine testis cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yuqi; Jin, Yi; Zhou, Yongqiang; Jin, Jianjun; Ma, Zhenfa; Ren, Zhuqing

    2016-01-01

    Glutathione-S-transferases mu 2 (GSTM2), a kind of important Phase II antioxidant enzyme of eukaryotes, is degraded by nonsense mediated mRNA decay due to a C27T substitution in the fifth exon of pigs. As a reproductive performance-related gene, GSTM2 is involved in embryo implantation, whereas, functional deficiency of GSTM2 induces pre- or post-natal death in piglets potentially. To have some insight into the role of GSTM2 in embryo development, high throughput RNA sequencing is performed using the swine testis cells (ST) with the deletion of GSTM2. Some embryo development-related genes are observed from a total of 242 differentially expressed genes, including STAT1, SRC, IL-8, DUSP family, CCL family and integrin family. GSTM2 affects expression of SRC, OPN, and SLCs. GSTM2 suppresses phosphorylation of STAT1 by binding to STAT1. In addition, as an important transcription factor, STAT1 regulates expression of uterus receptive-related genes including CCLs, IRF9, IFITs, MXs, and OAS. The present study provides evidence to molecular mechanism of GSTM2 modulating embryo development. PMID:27905550

  1. A Testis-Specific Chaperone and the Chromatin Remodeler ISWI Mediate Repackaging of the Paternal Genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile M. Doyen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available During spermatogenesis, the paternal genome is repackaged into a non-nucleosomal, highly compacted chromatin structure. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that Drosophila sperm chromatin proteins are characterized by a motif related to the high-mobility group (HMG box, which we termed male-specific transcript (MST-HMG box. MST77F is a MST-HMG-box protein that forms an essential component of sperm chromatin. The deposition of MST77F onto the paternal genome requires the chaperone function of tNAP, a testis-specific NAP protein. MST77F, in turn, enables the stable incorporation of MST35Ba and MST35Bb into sperm chromatin. Following MST-HMG-box protein deposition, the ATP-dependent chromatin remodeler ISWI mediates the appropriate organization of sperm chromatin. Conversely, at fertilization, maternal ISWI targets the paternal genome and drives its repackaging into de-condensed nucleosomal chromatin. Failure of this transition in ISWI mutant embryos is followed by mitotic defects, aneuploidy, and haploid embryonic divisions. Thus, ISWI enables bi-directional transitions between two fundamentally different forms of chromatin.

  2. The immature part of the testis in Salamandra salamandra (L.) (Amphibia, Urodela).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindelmeiser, J; Greven, H; Bergmann, M

    1983-04-01

    The immature part of the testis in the European fire salamander, Salamandra salamandra, consists of cephalo-caudally orientated zones of primary spermatogonia, secondary spermatogonia, primary spermatocytes, secondary spermatocytes and spermatids associated with follicle cells. Germ cells and follicle cells are arranged in lobules separated from each other by a vascularized connective tissue. Primordial germ cells are dispersed throughout the testicular stroma, preferably near the efferent ductules. They possess a multilobated nucleus, irregularly arranged mitochondria, nuage material, and a few lipid droplets. Primary spermatogonia are characterized by a more spherical nucleus, a coronal distribution of cell organelles--mainly mitochondria--small amounts of smooth endoplasmic reticulum, and lipid droplets. Secondary spermatogonia exhibit an irregular distribution of cell organelles with increased amounts of vesicular profiles of smooth endoplasmic reticulum; they are highly interdigitated and connected by intercellular bridges. In this stage degenerative processes may take place. Primary spermatocytes are provided with basal bodies and peripheral microtubules. Secondary spermatocytes and spermatids will be described elsewhere. Follicle cells and their projections surround each germinal cyst. Their nucleated parts are commonly localized in the central part of the lobule. Follicle cells and lobule boundary cells are very similar to fibrocytes. Already in the primary spermatocyte zone, both cell types show ultrastructural features indicating a setting in glandular activity.

  3. Morphological and biochemical studies on the innervation of the testis of Salamandra salamandra (L.) (Amphibia, Urodela).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindelmeiser, J; Bergmann, M; Straub, H; Greven, H

    1983-05-01

    The innervation of the male gonad of Salamandra salamandra was studied by fluorescence microscopy using the glyoxylic acid method, acetylcholinesterase histochemistry, electron microscopy using glutaraldehyde/osmium tetroxide and chromate/dichromate fixation, and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with electrochemical detection of biogenic amines in homogenates of the testicular tissue. Noradrenaline has been found to be the prevailing neurotransmitter in the testicular nerves; dopamine could be identified only in minor concentration. The relatively scarce noradrenergic innervation is mainly restricted to the connective tissue septa between the immature and the mature part of the testis and between the mature part and the glandular tissue. Most of the fluorescent fibers have a close connection to blood vessels. After chromate/dichromate fixation the nerve profiles contain in most cases small vesicles with electron-dense reaction products, indicating the presence of catecholamines. Varicosities are to be found near the capillaries, in the vicinity of vascular (in the wall of arterioles) and non-vascular (near the testicular surface) smooth muscle cells; no relationships were found between nerve fibers and glandular (steroid hormone-secreting) or germinal cells. Cholinergic fibers could not be identified, non-adrenergic/non-cholinergic fibers were present only in very small numbers.

  4. Integrated proteomics and metabolomics analysis of rat testis: Mechanism of arsenic-induced male reproductive toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qingyu; Luo, Lianzhong; Alamdar, Ambreen; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Liangpo; Tian, Meiping; Eqani, Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah; Shen, Heqing

    2016-09-01

    Arsenic is a widespread metalloid in environment, whose exposure has been associated with a broad spectrum of toxic effects. However, a global view of arsenic-induced male reproductive toxicity is still lack, and the underlying mechanisms remain largely unclear. Our results revealed that arsenic exposure decreased testosterone level and reduced sperm quality in rats. By conducting an integrated proteomics and metabolomics analysis, the present study aims to investigate the global influence of arsenic exposure on the proteome and metabolome in rat testis. The abundance of 70 proteins (36 up-regulated and 34 down-regulated) and 13 metabolites (8 increased and 5 decreased) were found to be significantly altered by arsenic treatment. Among these, 19 proteins and 2 metabolites were specifically related to male reproductive system development and function, including spermatogenesis, sperm function and fertilization, fertility, internal genitalia development, and mating behavior. It is further proposed that arsenic mainly impaired spermatogenesis and fertilization via aberrant modulation of these male reproduction-related proteins and metabolites, which may be mediated by the ERK/AKT/NF-κB-dependent signaling pathway. Overall, these findings will aid our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for arsenic-induced male reproductive toxicity, and from such studies useful biomarkers indicative of arsenic exposure could be discovered.

  5. Ultrastructural examination of spermiogenesis within the testis of the ground skink, Scincella laterale (Squamata, Sauria, Scincidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribbins, Kevin M; Mills, Erin M; Sever, David M

    2007-02-01

    Although the events of spermiogenesis are commonly studied in amniotes, the amount of research available for lizards (Sauria) is lacking. Many studies have described the morphological characteristics of mature spermatozoa in lizards, but few detail the ultrastructural changes that occur during spermiogenesis. The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of the subcellular events of spermiogenesis within the temperate ground skink (Scincella laterale). The morphological data presented here represent the first complete ultrastructural study of spermiogenesis within the Scincidae clade. Samples of testes from 20 specimens were prepared using standard techniques for transmission electron microscopy. Many of the ultrastructural changes occurring during spermiogenesis within the ground skink are similar to that of other saurians. However, there were a few unique characteristics that to date have not been described during spermiogenesis in other lizards. For example, during early round spermatid development within the ground skink testis, proacrosomal granules begin to form within the acrosomal vesicle before making contact with the apex of the nucleus. Also, a prominent microtubular manchette develops during spermiogenesis; however, the circular component of the manchete is absent in this species of skink. This developmental difference in manchette formation may lead to the more robust and straight mature spermatozoa that are common within the Scincidae family. These anatomical character differences may be valuable nontraditional sources that along with more traditional sources (i.e., mitochondrial DNA) may help elucidate phylogenetic relationships, which are historically considered controversial at best, among species within Scincidae and Sauria.

  6. Tumor subtype-specific cancer-testis antigens as potential biomarkers and immunotherapeutic targets for cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jun; Caballero, Otavia L; Yung, W K Alfred; Weinstein, John N; Riggins, Gregory J; Strausberg, Robert L; Zhao, Qi

    2014-04-01

    Cancer-testis (CT) antigens are potential targets for cancer immunotherapy because of their restricted expression in immune-privileged germ cells and various malignancies. Current application of CT-based immunotherapy has been focused on CT expression-rich tumors such as melanoma and lung cancers. In this study, we surveyed CT expression using The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) datasets for ten common cancer types. We show that CT expression is specific and enriched within certain cancer molecular subtypes. For example, HORMAD1, CXorf61, ACTL8, and PRAME are highly enriched in the basal subtype of breast cancer; MAGE and CSAG are most frequently activated in the magnoid subtype of lung adenocarcinoma; and PRAME is highly upregulated in the ccB subtype of clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Analysis of CT gene expression and DNA methylation indicates that some CTs are regulated epigenetically, whereas others are controlled primarily by tissue- and subtype-specific transcription factors. Our results suggest that although for some CT expression is associated with patient outcome, not many are independent prognostic markers. Thus, CTs with shared expression pattern are heterogeneous molecules with distinct activation modes and functional properties in different cancers and cancer subtypes. These data suggest a cancer subtype-orientated application of CT antigen as biomarkers and immunotherapeutic targets.

  7. Garlic (Allium sativum) feeding impairs Sertoli cell junctional proteins in male Wistar rat testis: microscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammami, I; Nahdi, A; Atig, F; El May, A; El May, M V

    2016-12-01

    Sertoli cell junctions, such as adhesion junction (AJ), gap junction (GJ) and tight junction (TJ), are important for maintaining spermatogenesis. In previous studies, we showed the inhibitory effect of crude garlic (Allium sativum, As) on spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis. The aim of this work was to complete our investigation on the impact of this plant, especially on Sertoli cell junctional proteins (SCJPs). During 1 month, 24 male rats were divided into groups: group control (0% of As) and treated groups fed 5%, 10% and 15% of As. Light and electron microscopy observations were performed to localise junctional proteins: connexin-43, Zona Occluding-1 and N-cadherin (immunohistochemistry) and to describe junctions. We showed that the specific cells involved in the localisation of the SCJP were similar in both control and treated groups, but with different immunoreactivity intensity between them. The electron microscopy observation focused on TJs between Sertoli cells, constituting the blood-testis barrier, showed ultrastructural changes such as fragmentation of TJs between adjacent Sertoli cell membranes and dilatation of rough endoplasmic reticulum saccules giving an aspect of scale to these junctions. We concluded that crude garlic consumption during 1 month induces perturbations on Sertoli cell junctions. These alterations can explain apoptosis in testicular germ cells previously showed. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. [Stem cells and regenerative medicine in urology, part 1: General concepts, kidney, testis and urinary incontinence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor-Navarro, T; Moratalla-Charcos, L M; Bermell-Marco, L; Beamud-Cortés, M; Osca-García, J M; Gil-Salom, M

    2010-06-01

    Progress in stem cell study and tissue engineering reached during the last times proves that this may be one of the most promising research fields in the future. Most urological diseases could profit from the development of disciplines such as regenerative medicine as, up to now, there have been encouraging results in this subject. We performed an electronic research through the Pubmed database, of both original and review publications, with the following search criteria: stem cells urology, kidney stem cells, testis stem cells, urinary sphincter, cell therapy urology, tissue engineering urology y regenerative medicine urology. We reviewed 33 articles published up to January 2010, trying to summarize the most relevant findings within the last years, the clinical applications and the point we have come to this day. Cell therapy and regenerative medicine are showing themselves to be one of the most promising fields within urological basic investigation in the last years. However, there is much work to be done yet, to make the advances reached in basic research be applicable to the clinic.

  9. [Funcion sparing surgery in uro-oncology: germ cell tumors of the testis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catanzaro, Mario; Piva, Luigi; Torelli, Tullio; Biasoni, Davide; Stagni, Silvia; Milani, Angelo; Necchi, Andrea; Giannatempo, Patrizia; Nicolai, A; Salvioni, Roberto

    2012-12-30

    Surgery in germ cell tumors of the testis (TGT) may result in andrological disorders, both after orchiectomy and after retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy (RPLND). Bilateral orchiectomy suppresses both testicular functions: exocrine and endocrine. In selected cases with bilateral TGT (metachronous/synchronous), or in the case of TGT in monorchid patients, partial orchiectomy (enucleation of the tumor) can preserve both functions with a low risk of relapse in residual testicular parenchyma, in the absence of intraepithelial neoplasia (TIN). In cases of TIN and normal testosterone levels (80%), the fertility is maintained in 50% of patients. In these cases the use of radiotherapy on the residual testicular parenchyma can prevent the future development of invasive cancer, though compromising the hormonal function. The RPLND (open or laparoscopic) can produce major side effects, such as retrograde ejaculation. Knowledge of the adrenergic fiber retroperitoneal neuroanatomy enables to implement a "nerve sparing" surgery with an almost total reduction of this serious side effect, but that option is only available in few centers of excellence. Semen cryopreservation has become a common practice performed before any treatment that might impact on the andrological function of patients.

  10. Effects of caffeine and its reactive metabolites theophylline and theobromine on the differentiating testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, I; Locquet, O; Solvar, A; Magre, S

    2001-01-01

    A previous study in the rat (Pollard et al. 1990) established that caffeine, when administered during pregnancy, significantly inhibited the differentiation of the seminiferous cords and subsequent Leydig cell development in the interstitium. However, that study could not distinguish between the direct effects of caffeine and/or the intermediary secondary toxic effects of metabolites such as theophylline and theobromine. Because the fetus lacks the appropriate enzyme systems, clearance of toxic substances takes place via the placenta and maternal liver. Thus, a suitable in vitro system can effectively differentiate between primary and secondary drug effects. In the present study, 13-day-old fetal testis, at the stage of incipient differentiation, were cultured for 4 days in vitro in the presence of graded doses of caffeine, theophylline or theobromine. It was found that explants exposed to caffeine or theobromine differentiated normally, developing seminiferous cords made up of Sertoli and germ cells, soon followed by the differentiation of functionally active Leydig cells appearing in the newly formed interstitium. However, explants exposed to theophylline failed to develop seminiferous cords and, as a consequence, Leydig cells. In conclusion, insights obtained from different experimental methods, such as organ culture or whole organism studies, are not always identical. It may be prudent, therefore, to take into account that certain experimental techniques, despite providing valuable information, may require confirmation by other test methods in order to obtain an in-depth understanding of mechanisms of action involved.

  11. STUDIARE IN ITALIANO: ELABORAZIONE DI ESERCIZI SU TESTI UNIVERSITARI DI GEOGRAFIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Gilardi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Nella prospettiva indicata dal CLIL (Content and Language Integrated Learning l'articolo presenta un modello di unità didattica in cui si collocano esercizi per lo sviluppo della capacità di lettura per l'apprendimento disciplinare destinati a studenti universitari stranieri con l'obiettivo di sviluppare un livello di competenza linguistico-comunicativa corrispondente ai livelli B1 e B2 del Quadro Comune Europeo di Riferimento per le Lingue. Gli esercizi proposti sono finalizzati alla comprensione di testi, tratti da manuali di geografia, di cui viene indicato il livello di difficoltà in base all'indice di difficoltà Gulpease.   Following the CLIL (Content and Language Integrated Learning guidlines, this article presents a model for a didactic unit which includes reading skills exercises in a specific field of study for foreign university students.  The aim for the students was to reach a B1 linguistic and a B2 comunicative language level according to the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages. The  reading comprehension exercises utilize texts from Geography textbooks, which are marked with the level of difficulty based on the Gulpease difficulty index.

  12. Testis-Specific Bb8 Is Essential in the Development of Spermatid Mitochondria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Vedelek

    Full Text Available Mitochondria are essential organelles of developing spermatids in Drosophila, which undergo dramatic changes in size and shape after meiotic division, where mitochondria localized in the cytoplasm, migrate near the nucleus, aggregate, fuse and create the Nebenkern. During spermatid elongation the two similar mitochondrial derivatives of the Nebenkern start to elongate parallel to the axoneme. One of the elongated mitochondrial derivatives starts to lose volume and becomes the minor mitochondrial derivative, while the other one accumulates paracrystalline and becomes the major mitochondrial derivative. Proteins and intracellular environment that are responsible for cyst elongation and paracrystalline formation in the major mitochondrial derivative need to be identified. In this work we investigate the function of the testis specific big bubble 8 (bb8 gene during spermatogenesis. We show that a Minos element insertion in bb8 gene, a predicted glutamate dehydrogenase, causes recessive male sterility. We demonstrate bb8 mRNA enrichment in spermatids and the mitochondrial localisation of Bb8 protein during spermatogenesis. We report that megamitochondria develop in the homozygous mutant testes, in elongating spermatids. Ultrastructural analysis of the cross section of elongated spermatids shows enlarged mitochondria and the production of paracrystalline in both major and minor mitochondrial derivatives. Our results suggest that the Bb8 protein and presumably glutamate metabolism has a crucial role in the normal development and establishment of the identity of the mitochondrial derivatives during spermatid elongation.

  13. Estrogen alters gonadal soma-derived factor (Gsdf)/Foxl2 expression levels in the testes associated with testis-ova differentiation in adult medaka, Oryzias latipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tohru; Chiba, Ayaka; Sato, Tadashi; Myosho, Taijun; Yamamoto, Jun; Okamura, Tetsuro; Onishi, Yuta; Sakaizumi, Mitsuru; Hamaguchi, Satoshi; Iguchi, Taisen; Horie, Yoshifumi

    2017-10-01

    Testis-ova differentiation in sexually mature male medaka (Oryzias latipes) is easily induced by estrogenic chemicals, indicating that spermatogonia persist in sexual bipotentiality, even in mature testes in medaka. By contrast, the effects of estrogen on testicular somatic cells associated with testis-ova differentiation in medaka remain unclear. In this study, we focused on the dynamics of sex-related genes (Gsdf, Dmrt1, and Foxl2) expressed in Sertoli cells in the mature testes of adult medaka during estrogen-induced testis-ova differentiation. When mature male medaka were exposed to estradiol benzoate (EB; 800ng/L), testis-ova first appeared after EB treatment for 14days (observed as the first oocytes of the leptotene-zygotene stage). However, the testis remained structurally unchanged, even after EB treatment for 28days. Although Foxl2 is a female-specific sex gene, EB treatment for 7days induced Foxl2/FOXL2 expression in all Sertoli cell-enclosed spermatogonia before testis-ova first appeared; however, Foxl2 was not detected in somatic cells in control testes. Conversely, Sertoli-cell-specific Gsdf mRNA expression levels significantly decreased after EB treatment for 14days, and no changes were observed in DMRT1 localization following EB treatment, whereas Dmrt1 mRNA levels increased significantly. Furthermore, after EB exposure, FOXl2 and DMRT1 were co-localized in Sertoli cells during testis-ova differentiation, although FOXL2 localization was undetectable in Sertoli-cell-enclosed apoptotic testis-ova, whereas DMRT1 remained localized in Sertoli cells. These results indicated for the first time that based on the expression of female-specific sex genes, feminization of Sertoli cells precedes testis-ova differentiation induced by estrogen in mature testes in medaka; however, complete feminization of Sertoli cells was not induced in this study. Additionally, it is suggested strongly that Foxl2 and Gsdf expression constitute potential molecular markers for

  14. Regulation of steroidogenesis by atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) in the rat testis: differential involvement of GC-A and C receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Virgínia Mara; Costa, Amilton P Raposo; Rosa-E-Silva, Alzira Amelia Martins; Vieira, Maria Aparecida Ribeiro; Reis, Adelina Martha Dos

    2008-11-01

    Previous studies have established a stimulatory effect of natriuretic peptides (NP) on testosterone production in mouse Leydig cells as intense as that of LH. Chronic administration of ANP in mice, on the other side, reduced testosterone levels. So, the understanding of the role of ANP on testicular steroidogenesis has been impaired by discrepant findings. The aim of the present study was to clarify the physiological role of ANP in the rat testis steroidogenesis using a model that preserves the interactions between testis cells and a medium devoid of any circulating factors that could interfere with testosterone production. First, ANP was immunolocalized in the interstitial compartment of the rat testis, mainly in Leydig cells. We also determined the presence of ANP and both GC-A (guanylyl cyclase A) and C receptors by real-time PCR in testis. Perfusion in vitro of testis with ANP (1 and 3x10(-7)M) stimulated testosterone production in a time- and dose-dependent manner. On the other side, testosterone secretion induced by LH was blunted by ANP. Similar effect was obtained using the specific C receptor ligand, cANF, indicating the involvement of C receptor in such response. In conclusion, ANP stimulated testosterone production in the rat testis perfused in vitro but decreased testosterone production LH-induced, effect that seems to involve C receptor. To this extent, our results suggest the existence of a local and complex peptidergic system in the rat testis, involving ANP and its receptors that could importantly modulate the androgen biosynthesis.

  15. Leprosy and the testis La lepra y el testículo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando López

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Damage of testicles is frequent in lepromatous leprosy worsen by the presence of erythema nodosum leprosum.
    Objective. One patient is presented who developed lepromatous leprosy and erythema nodosum leprosum with important testicular compromise.
    Material and methods. A 28 year old man patient who had lepromatous leprosy since his 22 was studied. During a polychemotherapy treatment for the lepromatous leprosy, he presented chronic erythema nodosum leprosum that affected both testicles and did not respond to the conventional treatment. A left orchidectomy was practiced to treat the persistent pain.
    Results. The extracted testis evidenced the following findings: tubular atrophy, remarkable fibrosis, cumulus of foamy macrophages without rods, focal Leydig cell hyperplasia, linfocitary and granulomatous arteritis and endarteritis of small and medium size vessels. These changes were also observed in the epididymis. Two years after the polychemoterapy and the orchidectomy, the patient revealed azoospermy, normal total testosterone, discretely diminished free testosterone and elevated luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone. No loss of libido or sexual activity. We reviewed general concepts about erythema nodosum leprosum and the pathologic changes produced by leprosy in the testis.
    Conclusion. Lepromatous leprosy may lead to hypogonadism. This should be considered by the leprosy programs in order to avoid and treat the consequences of the possible hypogonadism.
    Introducción. La afección testicular es frecuente en la lepra lepromatosa, daño que se incrementa cuando cursa con eritema nodoso leproso.
    Objetivo. Presentar un paciente con lepra lepromatosa y eritema nodoso leproso con severo compromiso testicular.
    Materiales y métodos. Estudiamos un hombre de 28 años con lepra lepromatosa desde los 22, que durante el tratamiento con poliquimioterapia para la lepra presentó eritema nodoso

  16. Pengaruh Iodium dan Selenium terhadap Jumlah Sel Spermatogonium dan Struktur Histologis Tubulus Seminiferus Testis Tikus Wistar Hipotiroid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prihatin Broto Sukandar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available   PENGARUH IODIUM DAN SELENIUM TERHADAP JUMLAH SEL SPERMATOGONIUM DAN STRUKTUR HISTOLOGIS TUBULUS SEMINIFERUS TESTIS TIKUS WISTAR HIPOTIROID Iodine and Selenium Effect on Spermatogonia Cell Numbers and Histologist Structure of Seminiferous Tubules Testis Hypothyroid Wistar Rats ABSTRACT Background. Thyroid hormones are proven to have a direct effect on sexual development and reproductive function. Hypothyroidism in men cause decreased libido, impotence, and oligospermie. Thyroid disorders associated with abnormal testicular morphology and function. Selenium was closely related to male fertility. Glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPx4 was first known as the antioxidant enzymes is selenoenzyme which is dominant in testis allegedly important for spermatogenesis. Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate spermatogonia cell numbers and the histological structure of seminiferous tubules of hypothyroid rats as a result of the intervention with iodine and selenium. Method. An experimental study with post-test only control group design. Fifty hypothyroidism male Wistar rats induced by Propylthiouracil (PTU for four week were divided into three groups through simple random sampling. Group I treated with iodine, group II treated with iodine + selenium and group III is control group. Sampling to determine groups by randomization. Blood sample was taken and then Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH blood level was measured using an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA. Whereas, spermatogonia cell numbers and the histological structure of seminiferous tubules was measured using Hematoxylin Eosin (HE histologist. Anova test was used to compare the data obtained from treated and control groups of TSH blood level and spermatogonia cell numbers. Data of seminiferous tubules histological structure were analyzed by comparing between groups. Result. TSH blood level in group I (3.5 ± 4.9 μIU/mL, group II (1.9 ± 1.5 μIU/mL, and group III (13.5 ± 8.3 μIU/mL was

  17. Cancer testis antigen Sperm Protein 17 as a new target for triple negative breast cancer immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirandola, Leonardo; Pedretti, Elisa; Figueroa, Jose A; Chiaramonte, Raffaella; Colombo, Michela; Chapman, Caroline; Grizzi, Fabio; Patrinicola, Federica; Kast, W Martin; Nguyen, Diane D; Rahman, Rakhshanda Layeequr; Daver, Naval; Ruvolo, Peter; Post, Sean M; Bresalier, Robert S; Chiriva-Internati, Maurizio

    2017-09-26

    Breast carcinoma is a major health issue for millions of women. Current therapies have serious side effects, and are only partially effective in patients with metastatic tumors. Thus, the need for novel and less toxic therapies is urgent. Moreover, hormonal and antibody therapies effective in other subtypes are not effective in Triple Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC). Immunotherapeutic strategies directed against specific tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) and mediated by specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) have been largely underexplored in this disease. Cancer-testis antigens (CTA) are a group of TAAs displaying the ideal characteristics of promising vaccine targets, i.e. strong immunogenicity and cancer specificity. The CTA, Sperm Protein 17 (SP17), has been found to be aberrantly expressed in different neoplasms, including ovarian and esophageal cancers, nervous system tumors and multiple myeloma, and has been suggested as a candidate target for immunotherapy. Here, we evaluated SP17 expression levels in breast cancer cell lines, invasive ductal breast carcinoma, including patients with TNBC, and adjacent non-neoplastic breast tissue, and determined whether SP17 was capable of generating SP17-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes in vitro. We showed that SP17 is expressed in breast cancer cell lines and primary breast tumors and importantly in TNBC subtype, but not in adjacent non-tumoral breast tissue or unaffected tissues, except in male germinal cells. Furthermore, we detected specific anti-SP17 antibodies in patients' sera and we generated SP17-specific, HLA class I-restricted, cytotoxic T lymphocytes capable of efficiently killing breast cancer cells.

  18. The eyestalk-androgenic gland-testis endocrine axis in the crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaila, Isam; Manor, Rivka; Weil, Simy; Granot, Yosef; Keller, Rainer; Sagi, Amir

    2002-06-15

    In decapod crustaceans, a number of neurohormones regulating a variety of physiological processes, including reproduction, are to be found in the X-organ-sinus gland complex of the eyestalk. Bilateral eyestalk ablation was thus performed in mature males of the Australian red claw crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus with the aim of studying the role of eyestalk-borne hormones on spermatogenic activity in the testis and on the androgenic gland (AG). The latter gland controls the differentiation and functioning of male sexual characteristics in crustaceans. Eyestalk ablation caused hypertrophy of the AG, as indicated by an increase in gland weight (3.9 +/- 0.44 mg vs < 0.1mg in intact males) and by overexpression of AG polypeptides. In the testes of eyestalk-ablated males, empty spermatogenic lobules were common, while lobules containing primary spermatocytes were infrequent. These findings were reflected in decreased amounts of DNA in these testes and a consequent increase in the relative weights of the sperm ducts. Since it was found that eyestalk ablation affected both the AG and the reproductive system, in vitro experiments were conducted to study the direct effects of the sinus gland on the AG and testes and of the AG on the testes. Sinus gland extracts inhibited by 30% the incorporation of radiolabeled amino acids into AG polypeptides and almost totally inhibited the secretion of radiolabeled AG polypeptides into the culture medium. However, sinus gland extracts had no significant effects on testicular tissue. On the other hand, AG extracts affected the in vitro phosphorylation of a testicular polypeptide (of 28 kDa), in a time- and dose-dependent manner, suggesting a direct effect of AG-borne hormones on the testes. The above findings, together with the evidence for direct inhibition by the sinus gland on the AG, suggest an endocrine axis-like relationship between the sinus gland, the AG, and the male reproductive system in decapod crustaceans. Copyright 2002

  19. NY-ESO-1 cancer testis antigen demonstrates high immunogenicity in triple negative breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ademuyiwa, Foluso O; Bshara, Wiam; Attwood, Kristopher; Morrison, Carl; Edge, Stephen B; Karpf, Adam R; James, Smith A; Ambrosone, Christine B; O'Connor, Tracey L; Levine, Ellis G; Miliotto, Anthony; Ritter, Erika; Ritter, Gerd; Gnjatic, Sacha; Odunsi, Kunle

    2012-01-01

    NY-ESO-1 cancer testis (CT) antigen is an attractive candidate for immunotherapy as a result of its high immunogenicity. The aim of this study was to explore the potential for NY-ESO-1 antigen directed immunotherapy in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) by determining the frequency of expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and the degree of inherent immunogenicity to NY-ESO-1. 168 TNBC and 47 ER+/HER2- primary breast cancer specimens were used to determine NY-ESO-1 frequency by IHC. As previous studies have shown that patients with a robust innate humoral immune response to CT antigens are more likely to develop CD8 T-cell responses to NY-ESO-1 peptides, we evaluated the degree to which patients with NY-ESO-1 expression had inherent immunogenicity by measuring antibodies. The relationship between NY-ESO-1 expression and CD8+ T lymphocytes was also examined. The frequency of NY-ESO-1 expression in the TNBC cohort was 16% versus 2% in ER+/HER2- patients. A higher NY-ESO-1 score was associated with a younger age at diagnosis in the TNBC patients with NY-ESO-1 expression (p = 0.026). No differences in OS (p = 0.278) or PFS (p = 0.238) by NY-ESO-1 expression status were detected. Antibody responses to NY-ESO-1 were found in 73% of TNBC patients whose tumors were NY-ESO-1 positive. NY-ESO-1 positive patients had higher CD8 counts than negative patients (p = 0.018). NY-ESO-1 is expressed in a substantial subset of TNBC patients and leads to a high humoral immune response in a large proportion of these individuals. Given these observations, patients with TNBC may benefit from targeted therapies directed against NY-ESO-1.

  20. Movement of spermatocytes from the basal to the adluminal compartment of the rat testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, L

    1977-03-01

    The progressive movement of primary spermatocytes from the basal to the adluminal compartment of the seminiferous tubule was studied after testes were fixed with standard and hypertonic solutions. In stages VI, VII and VIII of the cycle (classification of Leblond and Clermont, '52), preleptotene spermatocytes were observed within the basal compartment of the seminiferous tubule. Resting on the basal lamina, these cells were bound tightly to neighboring Sertoli cells by desmosome-like junctions. In late stage VIII and early stage IX, basal processes of Sertoli cells were observed between the newly formed leptotene cells and the basal lamina, and in stage IX, the Sertoli processes met to form a junction of the zonula adherens type. This junction formed a permeability barrier which restricted the free access of fixative into the spaces around leptotene cells. Evidence for this was found in the absence of the shrinkage artifact produced with hypertonic solutions in earlier stages. In longitudinal sections, the permeability barrier was first observed in an area of the tubule in which sperm release was also taking place. In mid-stage IX and in stage X, sertoli-Sertoli junctional specializations formed de novo below the leptotene spermatocyte, while those from the preceding stages, present above the leptotene spermatocytes, remained intact. Thus, tight junctions were in evidence for a considerable period of the time, both above and below the leptotene spermatocytes. At no time in the process of germ cell movement toward the lumen did these cells exhibit evidence of amoeboid movement or lose desmosome-like contacts with the surrounding Sertoli cells. From this study it is concluded that the Sertoli cells play an active role in the transfer of spermatocytes to the adluminal compartment. A transient intermediate compartment of the seminiferous tubule is described, one which allows for the continual maintenance of the blood-testis barrier during transit of spermatocytes from

  1. Nano-sized titanium dioxide toxicity in rat prostate and testis: Possible ameliorative effect of morin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahin, Nancy N; Mohamed, Maha M

    2017-11-01

    This study investigated the effect of short-term oral exposure to nano-sized titanium dioxide (nTiO2) on Wistar rat prostate and testis, and the associating reproductive-related alterations. The study also evaluated the potential ameliorative effect of the natural flavonoid, morin, on nTiO2-induced aberrations. Intragastric administration of nTiO2 (50mg/kg/day for 1, 2 and 3weeks) increased testicular gamma-glutamyltransferase (γ-GT) activity and decreased testicular steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and c-kit gene expression, serum testosterone level and sperm count. nTiO2-treated rats also exhibited prostatic and testicular altered glutathione levels, elevated TNF-α levels, up-regulated Fas, Bax and caspase-3 gene expression, down-regulated Bcl-2 gene expression and enhanced prostatic lipid peroxidation. Sperm malformation and elevated testicular acid phosphatase (ACP) activity and malondialdehyde level, serum prostatic acid phosphatase activity, prostate specific antigen (PSA), gonadotrophin and estradiol levels occurred after the 2 and 3week regimens. Morin (30mg/kg/day administered intragastrically for 5weeks) mitigated nTiO2-induced prostatic and testicular injury as evidenced by lowering serum PSA level, testicular γ-GT and ACP activities and TNF-α level, along with hampering both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways. Moreover, morin alleviated prostatic lipid peroxidation, raised prostatic glutathione level, and relieved testicular reductive stress. Additionally, morin increased testicular StAR and c-kit mRNA expression, raised the sperm count, reduced sperm deformities and modified the altered hormone profile. Histopathological evaluation supported the biochemical findings. In conclusion, morin could ameliorate nTiO2-induced prostatic and testicular injury and the corresponding reproductive-related aberrations via redox regulatory, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic mechanisms, promoting steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis, and

  2. Rapid evolution of cancer/testis genes on the X chromosome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simpson Andrew J

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer/testis (CT genes are normally expressed only in germ cells, but can be activated in the cancer state. This unusual property, together with the finding that many CT proteins elicit an antigenic response in cancer patients, has established a role for this class of genes as targets in immunotherapy regimes. Many families of CT genes have been identified in the human genome, but their biological function for the most part remains unclear. While it has been shown that some CT genes are under diversifying selection, this question has not been addressed before for the class as a whole. Results To shed more light on this interesting group of genes, we exploited the generation of a draft chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes genomic sequence to examine CT genes in an organism that is closely related to human, and generated a high-quality, manually curated set of human:chimpanzee CT gene alignments. We find that the chimpanzee genome contains homologues to most of the human CT families, and that the genes are located on the same chromosome and at a similar copy number to those in human. Comparison of putative human:chimpanzee orthologues indicates that CT genes located on chromosome X are diverging faster and are undergoing stronger diversifying selection than those on the autosomes or than a set of control genes on either chromosome X or autosomes. Conclusion Given their high level of diversifying selection, we suggest that CT genes are primarily responsible for the observed rapid evolution of protein-coding genes on the X chromosome.

  3. Primary angiosarcoma of the testis: report of a rare entity and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Uma NM

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary testicular angiosarcomas are extremely rare, and their clinicopathologic features are not well described. Our objective was to further define the clinical features and pathologic spectra of primary testicular angiosarcomas. Methods Six previously reported case reports were identified in the English language medical literature using MEDLINE and a subsequent bibliographic search of all pertinent reports and reviews was performed. After excluding 2 cases because they did not involve the testis, we identified 4 previously reported cases of true primary testicular angiosarcoma. We also searched the electronic medical archival records of our institution and identified one additional unreported case of true primary testicular angiosarcomas. Data were extracted on the demographics, predisposing factors, clinical presentation, gross pathology, microscopic pathology, immunophenotype, therapy, and outcomes of each of these 5 cases of true primary testicular angiosarcomas. Results Primary testicular angiosarcomas were found at a mean age of 43.4 years. None of the cases was associated with exposure to radiation, arsenic, thorium dioxide, or vinyl chloride. However, 1 case was associated with hydrocele. It typically presented with painless mass (mean size, 6.3 cm. Histologically, all showed classic anastomosing channels lined by plump hyperchromatic cells, though most showed epithelioid cytology and some showed solid architectural pattern. One patient had multiple metastatic recurrences but eventual outcome was not available, and 1 patient died a month after diagnosis from stroke but no autopsy was performed. The remaining 3 patients were alive at the time of publication of their respective cases (mean, 17 months. Conclusion Primary testicular angiosarcomas are typically rare tumors of men of all ages that appear to segregate into 2 groups; one associated with teratoma and occurring in young people, and the other occurring in the

  4. Kloning Gen Melanoma Antigen 1 (Mage-1 dari Jaringan Testis untuk mendapatkan Plasmid Rekombinan Mage-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gondo Mastutik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma antigen-1 (Mage-1 is expressed by spermatogonia cells of normal testicular tissue and 60−80% is expressed by the liver of hepatocellular carcinoma (HC patients. Mage-1 expression is a marker for diagnosing HC and predicting gastric and colorectal cancers. Isolation of messenger ribonucleid acid (mRNA Mage-1 from the liver tissue of HC patients is difficult; therefore, Mage-1 mRNA isolates can be obtained from tissues that express Mage-1 such as normal testicular tissues . This is an explorative research that was conducted at the Institute of Tropical Diseases of Airlangga University during August 2006–August 2008. The aim was to clone the coding sequence of Mage-1 gene from testicular tissues into a vector and to get recombinant plasmid Mage-1. Isolation of the full-length Mage-1 was performed using semi-nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR which was then cloned into plasmid pET101/D-TOPO and transformed into Escherichia coli (E. coli Top10 to get recombinant plasmid Mage-1. The length of pET101/D-TOPO was 5,753 bp and Mage-1 was 927 bp. The length of recombinant plasmid was 6,680 bp (5,753+927. Restriction analysis using EcoRV showed 4,230 and 2,450 bp bands (4,230+2,450=6,680. Sequence analyses showed that Mage-1 was 100% homologous with M77481 and NM_004988, 99% homologous with BC01755. In conclusion, according to the results of the restriction and sequences analysis, the recombinant plasmid pETGM/MAGE1-Testis contains the full length coding region of Mage-1 and is useful for developing the hepatocellular carcinoma diagnostic kits.

  5. Expression characteristics of the SUMOylation genes SUMO-1 and Ubc9 in the developing testis and ovary of Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qun; Wang, Ying; Chen, Lili; He, Lin; Li, Weiwei; Jiang, Hui

    2012-06-15

    The small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) pathway in eukaryotes is an essential post-translational modification required for a variety of cellular processes, development and organelle biogenesis. SUMO-conjugating enzyme (Ubc9) is an important conjunction enzyme in the SUMO pathway. SUMO-1 and Ubc9 have been found in vertebrates; however, their expression in crustaceans was poorly characterized. In this study, the SUMO-1 and Ubc9 genes were identified in the developing testis and ovary of Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis, and designated EsSUMO-1 and EsUbc9, respectively. Quantitative real-time PCR demonstrated the expression level of both mRNAs varied significantly during testis and ovary development. In the testis, EsSUMO-1 and EsUbc9 were expressed at moderate levels in stage II-1, increased at stage II-2, and then gradually declined in stage IV. In the ovary, EsSUMO-1 and EsUbc9 expression were low in the early stage, reach the highest level at stage III-2, and then gradually decreased in stage IV. Transcripts from both genes were detected using in situ hybridization throughout the testis and ovary, in the spermatids and oocytes. The pattern of EsSUMO-1 and EsUbc9 expression in the testis and ovary suggests that SUMOylation may play an important role in spermatogenesis and oogenesis in E. sinensis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Expression and functional role of hepatocyte growth factor and its receptor (c-met) during fetal mouse testis development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, G; Catizone, A; Galdieri, M

    2006-12-01

    The hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a pleiotropic cytokine able to regulate different cellular functions. HGF action is mediated by its receptor, c-met, a glycoprotein with tyrosine kinase activity. We previously demonstrated that c-met is expressed in the newly formed seminiferous cords of the mice embryonic testes and that HGF acts as a morphogenetic factor. In this paper, we report that at 15.5 days post-coitum (dpc) c-met is expressed in the testicular cords, whereas at 18.5 dpc c-met expression is almost exclusively localized in the interstitial tissue of the testis in particular in the fetal Leydig cells. In addition, we demonstrate that HGF gene is expressed during the fetal period of testis development, heavily detectable in the interstitial compartment of 18.5 dpc testes. Interestingly, HGF is not expressed in the Leydig cells that, as above reported, express the HGF receptor. Looking for the functional role of HGF on Leydig cells, we evaluated the amount of testosterone secreted by testes isolated from 18.5 dpc embryos and cultured in the presence of HGF. The results of the in vitro organ culture show that, at this age, HGF increases the amount of testosterone secreted in the culture medium. On the contrary, HGF does not modulate the amount of testosterone secreted by testes isolated from 15.5 dpc embryos. In conclusion, we report that HGF is produced in the interstitial compartment of the developing testis but not by the Leydig cells. Conversely, the HGF receptor c-met is expressed in the Leydig cells and HGF modulates Leydig cell function during the late period of prenatal development.

  7. Effects of the polypropylene mesh implanted through inguinotomy in the spermatic funiculus, epididium and testis of dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldenberg Alberto

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of polypropylene mesh, implanted by inguinotomy, in the spermatic funiculus, epididium and testis of dogs. METHODS: Eighteen dogs were considered (12-23 Kg, separated in three groups. Group A (n=7: left side (with mesh versus right side (without mesh; Group B (n=7: left side (without mesh versus right side (with mesh and Group C (n=4: without any surgical manipulation (control group. After being observed for 60 days, the animals were subjected to bilateral removal of the spermatic funiculus, epididium and testis that were submitted to histological analysis. During the re-operation, a macroscopic evaluation was performed. RESULTS: On the mesh side, we noted 100% of mesh adherence to the posterior wall of the inguinal canal, as well as the adherence of the spermatic funiculus to the mesh. A congestion of the pampiniform plexus was noted in three animals. Chronic inflammation reaction and foreign body reaction in the spermatic funiculus was observed in 100% of the animals. On the side that did not carry a mesh, chronic inflammatory reaction was observed in 71% of the animals. All the animals presented chronic inflammatory reaction in the deferent duct in the mesh side and in eleven animals in the side without the mesh. These alterations were not found in Group C. There was a considerable statistical reduction in the average difference of the diameter of the lumen of the deferent duct in the mesh side. In the epididium and testis, macro and microscopic alterations were not significant, although one animal presented a marked reduction of spermatogenesis on the mesh side. CONCLUSION: The polypropylene mesh, when in contact with the spermatic funiculus of dogs, causes a more intense chronic inflammatory reaction and a significant reduction in the diameter of the lumen of the deferent duct.

  8. Construction and analysis of a human testis/sperm-enriched interaction network: Unraveling the PPP1CC2 interactome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Joana Vieira; Yoon, Sooyeon; De Bock, Pieter-Jan; Goltsev, Alexander V; Gevaert, Kris; Mendes, José Fernando F; Fardilha, Margarida

    2017-02-01

    Phosphoprotein phosphatase 1 catalytic subunit gamma 2 (PPP1CC2), a PPP1CC tissue-specific alternative splice restricted to testicular germ cells and spermatozoa, is essential for spermatogenesis and spermatozoa motility. The key to understand PPP1CC2 regulation lies on the characterization of its interacting partners. We construct a testis/sperm-enriched protein interaction network and analyzed the topological properties and biological context of the network. Further the interaction of a potential target for pharmacological intervention was validated in human spermatozoa. A total of 1778 proteins and 32,187 interactions between them were identified in the testis/sperm-enriched network. The network analysis revealed the members of functional modules that interact more tightly with each other. In the network, PPP1CC was located in the fourth maximum core part (k=41) and had 106 direct interactors. Sixteen PPP1CC interactors were involved in spermatogenesis-related categories. Also, PPP1CC had 50 direct interactors, highly interconnected and many of them part of the network maximum core (k=44), associated with motility-related annotations, including several previously uncharacterized interactors, such as, LMNA, JAK2 and RIPK3. In this study we integrated tissue-specific protein expression and protein-protein interaction data in order to identify key PPP1CC2 complexes for male reproductive functions. One of the most intriguing interactors was A-kinase anchor protein 4 (AKAP4), a testis-specific protein related to infertility phenotypes and involved in all major motility-related annotations. We demonstrated for the first time the interaction between PPP1CC2 and AKAP4 in human spermatozoa and the potential of the complex as contraceptive target. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Coexpression of nuclear receptors and histone methylation modifying genes in the testis: implications for endocrine disruptor modes of action.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison M Anderson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Endocrine disruptor chemicals elicit adverse health effects by perturbing nuclear receptor signalling systems. It has been speculated that these compounds may also perturb epigenetic mechanisms and thus contribute to the early origin of adult onset disease. We hypothesised that histone methylation may be a component of the epigenome that is susceptible to perturbation. We used coexpression analysis of publicly available data to investigate the combinatorial actions of nuclear receptors and genes involved in histone methylation in normal testis and when faced with endocrine disruptor compounds. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The expression patterns of a set of genes were profiled across testis tissue in human, rat and mouse, plus control and exposed samples from four toxicity experiments in the rat. Our results indicate that histone methylation events are a more general component of nuclear receptor mediated transcriptional regulation in the testis than previously appreciated. Coexpression patterns support the role of a gatekeeper mechanism involving the histone methylation modifiers Kdm1, Prdm2, and Ehmt1 and indicate that this mechanism is a common determinant of transcriptional integrity for genes critical to diverse physiological endpoints relevant to endocrine disruption. Coexpression patterns following exposure to vinclozolin and dibutyl phthalate suggest that coactivity of the demethylase Kdm1 in particular warrants further investigation in relation to endocrine disruptor mode of action. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides proof of concept that a bioinformatics approach that profiles genes related to a specific hypothesis across multiple biological settings can provide powerful insight into coregulatory activity that would be difficult to discern at an individual experiment level or by traditional differential expression analysis methods.

  10. Testis-specific products of the Drosophila melanogaster sbr gene, encoding nuclear export factor 1, are necessary for male fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginanova, Victoria; Golubkova, Elena; Kliver, Sergei; Bychkova, Elina; Markoska, Katerina; Ivankova, Natalia; Tretyakova, Irina; Evgen'ev, Michael; Mamon, Ludmila

    2016-02-15

    The evolutionarily conserved nuclear export factor 1 (NXF1) provides mRNA export from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. We described several testis-specific transcripts of the Drosophila melanogaster nxf1 gene designated “sbr” in this species via different PCR approaches and CAGE-seq analysis. Characteristically, most of them have truncated 3′UTRs compared with those in other organs. In addition to regular transcripts, there are shorter transcripts that begin in intron 3 of the sbr gene. These short, 5′-truncated testis-specific transcripts vary in terms of transcription start site and their ability to exclude or retain the last 237 nucleotides of intron 3 in their 5′UTR. Using an anti-SBR antibody against the C-terminal portion of this protein, we detected the major SBR protein (74 kDa) in all analyzed organs of the fly as well as a new smaller protein (60 kDa) found only in the testes. This protein corresponds to the detected sbr transcripts that start in intron 3, based on its molecular mass. We investigated the sbr12 allele of the sbr gene, which is lethal in homozygous females and causes dominant sterility in heterozygous males. Sequencing of the sbr12 gene allele revealed a 30-bp deletion in exon 9 without a frame shift.Western blot analysiswith an SBR-specific antibody revealed two bands of the expected size in the testes of heterozygous males. Thus, a mutant protein along with the normal protein presents in the testes of lethal allele-bearing flies and the described shorter testis-specific variant of SBR may account for male sterility.

  11. Effects of Maternal Lead Acetate Exposure during Lactation on Postnatal Development of Testis in Offspring Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehran Dorostghoal

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective(sDuring recent years, there has been an increasing interest in contribution of environmental pollutants as heavy metals to human male infertility. Present study was aimed to investigate the effects of maternal lead acetate exposure during lactation on postnatal development of testis in offspring rats.Materials and MethodsA total of 60 female rats randomly divided into four equal groups; control and three treatment groups received 20, 100 and 300 mg/kg/day lead acetate via drinking water from day 2 to day 21 of lactation. At 7, 14, 21, 28, 60, 90 and 120 days after birth, the testis weight and volume of offspring were measured and their epididymal semen analyzed. Following tissue processing, 5 μm sections were stained with haematoxylin-eosin and evaluated with quantitative techniques. Testicular parameters in different groups were compared by one-way ANOVA.ResultsTestis weight and volume of offspring decreased significantly in a dose-related manner in moderate (P< 0.05 and high (P< 0.01 doses groups. Dose-dependent significant reductions were seen in seminiferous tubules diameter and germinal epithelium height during neonatal, prepubertal and postpubertal periods in moderate (P< 0.05 and high (P< 0.01 doses groups until 90 and 120 days after birth, respectively. Significant decreases were observed in mean sperm density of offspring at puberty in moderate and high doses groups until 90 and 120 days after birth, respectively. Testosterone levels decreased significantly in a dose-related manner at puberty in moderate and high doses groups. ConclusionPresent study showed maternal lead acetate exposure during lactation caused dose-related and long-term alterations of testicular parameters in offspring rats.

  12. Effect of modified Wuzi Yanzong Pill () on Tip60-mediated apoptosis in testis of male rats after microwave radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hai-Xiang; Sun, Jing; Gao, Ya-Jing; Fang, Hong; Xu, Shao-Qiang; Dong, Jing; Wei, Li-Zhao; Luo, Shao-Bo; Shen, Chuan-Yun; Zhang, Qi-Long; Xie, Ya-Lan

    2017-10-24

    To investigate the effect of a modified Wuzi Yanzong Pill (, WZYZP) on the male rats' testis after microwave radiation, as well as its potential mechanism. Forty-five male rats were randomly assigned to three groups: the control group, the radiation group, and the WZYZP group. The rats in the radiation group and WZYZP group were exposed to microwave radiation for 15 min once, while the rats in the control group were not exposed to any radiation. The rats in the WZYZP group were given a modified of WZYZP by gavage daily for 7 days. Apoptosis in the testis was evaluated using terminal-deoxynucleoitidyl transferase mediated nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Histopathological alterations of the testis were observed by haematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining. Tat-interactive protein, 60kD (Tip60) and p53 expressions were determined by Western blotting. The apoptosis index (AI) in the radiation group was higher than that of the WZYZP group and control group on day 1 (D1), day 7 (D7) day 14 (D14) after radiation (Pradiation group, the partial seminiferous tubules were collapsed, basement membranes of the seminiferous epithelia became detached. WZYZP could restore the morphological changes. There was no expression of Tip60 among the three groups on D7 and D14. The expression of p53 was higher in the radiation group than in the control group (Pradiation on D7 and D14 (P<0.05). A modified WZYZP may affect germ cells, and its protective effects may partly result from its ability to intervene in Tip60 mediated apoptosis.

  13. Comparative transcriptome analysis of ovary and testis reveals potential sex-related genes and pathways in spotted knifejaw Oplegnathus punctatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xinxin; Wang, Bo; Liu, Xiumei; Liu, Xiaobing; He, Yan; Zhang, Quanqi; Wang, Xubo

    2017-12-30

    The spotted knifejaw (Oplegnathus punctatus) is a newly emerging fishery species inhabiting the Pacific Ocean around Hawaii, China, Japan and Korean Peninsula. Little information on the mechanism of gonadal development and gametogenesis in this species could be used for research and breeding work. In this study, RNA-seq technology was applied to generate a deep-coverage sequencing data of spotted knifejaw testis and ovary. A total of 262,392,754 reads (ovary 133,403,270, testis 128,989,484) were generated from the cDNA library. After filtering and assembling, a total of 113,794 unigenes were obtained with the N50 of 1658bp. Unigenes were annotated with multiple public databases, including non-redundant protein databases (NR) (42,460, 37.31%), Swiss-Prot (33,632, 29.56%), eukaryotic Orthologus Groups (KOG) (26,195, 23.02%), Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) (10,978, 9.65%), and Gene Ontology (GO) (30,514, 26.82%). By comparing ovary and testis, 4496 differentially expressed unigenes (1986 in female, 2510 in male) were identified, in which 469 were specially expressed in females and 859 in males. The expression levels of 12 unigenes were confirmed by qRT-PCR. In addition, 35,054 simple sequence repeats were identified. By GO and KEGG analyses, a set of unigenes related to gonadal development and gametogenesis were filtered. foxl2 was deduced to be a key regulator for gonadal development and gametogenesis in females and dmrt1 in males. bmp15, nanos3, sox9 and amh were likely to function in the regulation of gonad physiology and germ line cells maintenance in ovary and testis. Interestingly, p53, apoptosis, Jak-STAT and neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction pathways were found to be pivotal in regulating gonadal development and gametogenesis of spotted knifejaw in various aspects. This study provides a fundamental support for further research in reproduction biology, population genetics and functional genomics in spotted knifejaw. Copyright © 2017

  14. CADMIUM AND DIAZINON-INDUCED CHANGES IN THE RAT TESTIS STRUCTURE AFTER A PERORAL ADMINISTRATION IN DRIKING WATER

    OpenAIRE

    Róbert Toman; Mária Adamkovičová; Peter Massányi; Michal Cabaj; Norbert Lukáč; Monika Martiniaková; Radoslav Omelka

    2012-01-01

    The present study was carried out to elucidate the effects of heavy metal cadmium (Cd) and a nonselective organophosphorus insecticide diazinon (DZN) administration on the testis structures in adult male rats in subchronic toxicity experiments. A total of 40 Wistar 4 weeks old rats were randomized into 4 groups of 10 animals each and dosed with cadmium (Cd) 30 mg/l (group A), diazinon (DZN) 40 mg/l (group B), and in combination of Cd and DZN (30 and 40 mg/l, respectively, group C) per os in d...

  15. Connexin 43 reboots meiosis and reseals blood-testis barrier following toxicant-mediated aspermatogenesis and barrier disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan; Mruk, Dolores D; Mok, Ka-Wai; Li, Michelle W M; Wong, Chris K C; Lee, Will M; Han, Daishu; Silvestrini, Bruno; Cheng, C Yan

    2016-04-01

    Earlier studies have shown that rats treated with an acute dose of 1-(2,4-dichlorobenzyl)-1H-indazole-3-carbohydrazide (adjudin, a male contraceptive under development) causes permanent infertility due to irreversible blood-testis barrier (BTB) disruption even though the population of undifferentiated spermatogonia remains similar to normal rat testes, because spermatogonia fail to differentiate into spermatocytes to enter meiosis. Since other studies have illustrated the significance of connexin 43 (Cx43)-based gap junction in maintaining the homeostasis of BTB in the rat testis and the phenotypes of Sertoli cell-conditional Cx43 knockout mice share many of the similarities of the adjudin-treated rats, we sought to examine if overexpression of Cx43 in these adjudin-treated rats would reseal the disrupted BTB and reinitiate spermatogenesis. A full-length Cx43 cloned into mammalian expression vector pCI-neo was used to transfect testes of adjudin-treated ratsversusempty vector. It was found that overexpression of Cx43 indeed resealed the Sertoli cell tight junction-permeability barrier based on a functionalin vivoassay in tubules displaying signs of meiosis as noted by the presence of round spermatids. Thus, these findings suggest that overexpression of Cx43 reinitiated spermatogenesis at least through the steps of meiosis to generate round spermatids in testes of rats treated with an acute dose of adjudin that led to aspermatogenesis. It was also noted that the round spermatids underwent eventual degeneration with the formation of multinucleated cells following Cx43 overexpression due to the failure of spermiogenesis because no elongating/elongated spermatids were detected in any of the tubules examined. The mechanism by which overexpression of Cx43 reboots meiosis and rescues BTB function was also examined. In summary, overexpression of Cx43 in the testis with aspermatogenesis reboots meiosis and reseals toxicant-induced BTB disruption, even though it fails to

  16. Argirein alleviates stress-induced and diabetic hypogonadism in rats via normalizing testis endothelin receptor A and connexin 43.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ming; Hu, Chen; Khan, Hussein-hamed; Shi, Fang-hong; Cong, Xiao-dong; Li, Qing; Dai, Yin; Dai, De-zai

    2016-02-01

    Argirein (rhein-arginine) is a derivative of rhein isolated from Chinese rhubarb (Rheum Officinale Baill.) that exhibits antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. In the present study we investigated the effects of argirein on stress-induced (hypergonadotrophic) and diabetic (hypogonadotrophic) hypogonadism in male rats. Stress-induced and diabetic hypogonadism was induced in male rats via injection of isoproterenol (ISO) or streptozotocin (STZ). ISO-injected rats were treated with argirein (30 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1), po) or testosterone replacement (0.5 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1), sc) for 5 days, and STZ-injected rats were treated with argirein (40-120 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1), po) or aminoguanidine (100 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1), po) for 4 weeks. After the rats were euthanized, blood samples and testes were collected. Serum hormone levels were measured, and the expression of endothelin receptor A (ETA), connexin 43 (Cx43) and other proteins in testes was detected. For in vitro experiments, testis homogenate was prepared from normal male rats, and incubated with ISO (1 μmol/L) or high glucose (27 mmol/L). ISO injection induced hyper-gonadotrophic hypogonadism characterized by low testosterone and high FSH and LH levels in the serum, whereas STZ injection induced hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism as evidenced by low testosterone and low FSH and LH levels in the serum. In the testes of ISO- and STZ-injected rats, the expression of ETA, MMP-9, NADPH oxidase and pPKCε was significantly increased, and the expression of Cx43 was decreased. Administration of argirein attenuated both the abnormal serum hormone levels and the testis changes in ISO- and STZ-injected rats, and aminoguanidine produced similar actions in STZ-injected rats; testosterone replacement reversed the abnormal serum hormone levels, but did not affect the testis changes in ISO-injected rats. Argirein (0.3-3 μmol/L) exerted similar effects in testis homogenate incubated with ISO or high glucose in vitro. Two types of

  17. Transcriptome profiling of fetal Klinefelter testis tissue reveals a possible involvement of long non-coding RNAs in gonocyte maturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winge, Sofia B.; Dalgaard, Marlene Danner; Jensen, Jacob M.

    2017-01-01

    In humans, the most common sex chromosomal disorder is Klinefelter syndrome (KS), caused by the presence of one or more extra X-chromosomes. KS patients display a varying adult phenotype but usually present with azoospermia due to testicular degeneration, which accelerates at puberty. The timing...... into pre-spermatogonia. Transcriptome analysis by RNA-sequencing of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded testes originating from 4 fetal KS and 5 age-matched controls revealed 211 differentially expressed transcripts in the fetal KS testis. We found a significant enrichment of upregulated X-chromosomal...

  18. Henoch-Schönlein purpura without systemic involvement beginning with acute scrotum and mimicking torsion of testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levent Verim

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP is the most common systemic vasculitis in children. Typical presentations of HSP are palpable purpura of the small vessels in the hips and lower limbs, abdominal pain, arthritis, and hematuria. Scrotal involvement manifested by the presence of scrotal pain and swelling during the course of the disease is rarely seen. HSP without systemic involvement with acute scrotum mimicking testicular torsion is even rare in the medical literature. In most cases, patients with this disease achieve complete recovery. Herein, we report an interesting HSP case with skin symptoms but without systemic involvement and then progression to acute scrotum resembling torsion of testis.

  19. Biglycan is a novel binding partner of fibroblast growth factor receptor 3c (FGFR3c) in the human testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winge, S B; Nielsen, J; Jørgensen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    identified FGF1, FGF2, and FGF9 as the best candidates for natural ligands of FGFR3c in the testis. In addition, we screened non-FGF proteins and found that a proteoglycan biglycan (BGN) contains a sequence homologous to the FGFR3c binding site on FGF1, and is expressed in peritubular cells adjacent to FGFR3...... in spermatocytic seminoma, thought to originate from clonal expansion of spermatogonia. In this study we aimed to characterize potential binding partners of FGFR3, and specifically its mesenchymal "c" splice isoform, in human spermatogonia. Based on expression patterns and homology to the binding site, we...

  20. Cadmium exposure inhibits MMP2 and MMP9 activities in the prostate and testis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacorte, Livia M.; Rinaldi, Jaqueline C.; Justulin, Luis A.; Delella, Flávia K. [Univ Estadual Paulista – UNESP, Institute of Biosciences, Department of Morphology, Extracellular Matrix Laboratory, Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Moroz, Andrei [Univ Estadual Paulista – UNESP, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Bioprocess and Biotechnology, Cell Culture Laboratory, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Felisbino, Sérgio L., E-mail: felisbin@ibb.unesp.br [Univ Estadual Paulista – UNESP, Institute of Biosciences, Department of Morphology, Extracellular Matrix Laboratory, Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2015-02-20

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are zinc (Zn{sup 2+}) and calcium (Ca{sup 2+}) dependant endopeptidases, capable of degradation of numerous components of the extracellular matrix. Cadmium (Cd{sup 2+}) is a well known environmental contaminant which could impair the activity of MMPs. In this sense, this study was conducted to evaluate if Cd{sup 2+} intake inhibits these endopeptidases activities at the rat prostate and testicles and if it directly inhibits the activity of MMP2 and MMP9 at gelatinolytic assays when present in the incubation buffer. To investigate this hypothesis, Wistar rats (5 weeks old), were given tap water (untreated, n = 9), or 15 ppm CdCl{sub 2} diluted in drinking water, during 10 weeks (n = 9) and 20 weeks (n = 9). The animals were euthanized and their ventral prostate, dorsal prostate, and testicles were removed. These tissue samples were processed for protein extraction and subjected to gelatin zymography evaluation. Additionally, we performed an experiment of gelatin zymography in which 5 μM or 2 mM cadmium chloride (CdCl{sub 2}) was directly dissolved at the incubation buffer, using the prostatic tissue samples from untreated animals that exhibited the highest MMP2 and MMP9 activities in the previous experiment. We have found that CdCl{sub 2} intake in the drinking water led to the inhibition of 35% and 30% of MMP2 and MMP9 (p < 0.05) at the ventral prostate and testis, respectively, in Cd{sup 2+} treated animals when compared to controls. Moreover, the activities of the referred enzymes were 80% and 100% inhibited by 5 μM and 2 mM of CdCl{sub 2}, respectively, even in the presence of 10 mM of CaCl{sub 2} within the incubation buffer solution. These important findings demonstrate that environmental cadmium contamination may deregulate the natural balance in the extracellular matrix turnover, through MMPs downregulation, which could contribute to the toxic effects observed in prostatic and testicular tissue after its

  1. Unraveling the proteomic profile of mice testis during the initiation of meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Binbin; Guo, Yueshuai; Wang, Lei; Zhou, Quan; Gao, Tingting; Zheng, Bo; Zheng, Haoyu; Zhou, Tao; Zhou, Zuomin; Guo, Xuejiang; Huang, Xiaoyan; Sha, Jiahao

    2015-04-29

    In mice, once primordial germ cells (PGCs) are generated, they continue to proliferate and migrate to eventually reach the future gonads. They initiate sexual differentiation after their colonization of the gonads. During this process, retinoic acid (RA) induces meiosis in the female germ cells, which proceeds to the diplotene stage of meiotic prophase I, whereas the male germ cells initiate growth arrest. After birth, meiosis is initiated in mice spermatogonia by their conversion to preleptotene spermatocytes. There are evidences showing the roles of RA in the regulation of spermatogonial differentiation and meiosis initiation. However, it is still not well known on what responds to RA and how RA signaling engages meiosis. Thus, we constructed a proteomic profile of proteins associated with meiosis onset during testis development in mouse and identified 104 differentially expressed proteins (≥1.5 folds). Bioinformatic analysis showed proteins functioning in specific cell processes. The expression patterns of five selected proteins were verified via Western blot, of which we found that Tfrc gene was RA responsive, with a RA responsive element, and could be up regulated by RA in spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) line. Taken together, the results provide an important reference profile for further functional study of meiosis initiation. Spermatogenesis involves mitosis of spermatogonia, meiosis of spermatocytes and spermiogenesis, in which meiosis is a unique event to germ cells, and not in the somatic cells. Till now, the detailed molecular mechanisms of the transition from mitosis to meiosis are still not elucidated. With high-throughput proteomic technology, it is now possible to systemically identify proteins possibly involved. With TMT-6plex based quantification, we identified 104 proteins differentially between testes without meiosis (day 8.5) and those that were meiosis initiated (day 10.5). And a well-known protein essential for meiosis initiation, stra8, was

  2. A novel gene, RSD-3/HSD-3.1, encodes a meiotic-related protein expressed in rat and human testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Liu, Huixian; Zhang, Yan; Qiao, Yuan; Miao, Shiying; Wang, Linfang; Zhang, Jianchao; Zong, Shudong; Koide, S S

    2003-06-01

    The expression of stage-specific genes during spermatogenesis was determined by isolating two segments of rat seminiferous tubule at different stages of the germinal epithelium cycle delineated by transillumination-delineated microdissection, combined with differential display polymerase chain reaction to identify the differential transcripts formed. A total of 22 cDNAs were identified and accepted by GenBank as new expressed sequence tags. One of the expressed sequence tags was radiolabeled and used as a probe to screen a rat testis cDNA library. A novel full-length cDNA composed of 2228 bp, designated as RSD-3 (rat sperm DNA no.3, GenBank accession no. AF094609) was isolated and characterized. The reading frame encodes a polypeptide consisting of 526 amino acid residues, containing a number of DNA binding motifs and phosphorylation sites for PKC, CK-II, and p34cdc2. Northern blot of mRNA prepared from various tissues of adult rats showed that RSD-3 is expressed only in the testis. The initial expression of the RSD-3 gene was detected in the testis on the 30th postnatal day and attained adult level on the 60th postnatal day. Immunolocalization of RSD-3 in germ cells of rat testis showed that its expression is restricted to primary spermatocytes, undergoing meiosis division I. A human testis homologue of RSD-3 cDNA, designated as HSD-3.1 (GenBank accession no. AF144487) was isolated by screening the Human Testis Rapid-Screen arrayed cDNA library panels by RT-PCR. The exon-intron boundaries of HSD-3.1 gene were determined by aligning the cDNA sequence with the corresponding genome sequence. The cDNA consisted of 12 exons that span approximately 52.8 kb of the genome sequence and was mapped to chromosome 14q31.3.

  3. Determination of Vitamin A and its Metabolites in Rat Testis: Possible Involvement of Vitamin A in Testicular Toxicity Caused by Molinate

    OpenAIRE

    Zuno-Floriano, Fabiola G.; Holstege, Dirk; Matt J Hengel; Gaikwad, Nilesh W.; Maria L Aldana-Madrid; Miller, Marion G.

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of molinate on retinoids homeostasis in rat testis. Molinate was administrated to male Sprague–Dawley rats (200 mg kg−1 in corn oil, ip). Retinoid measurements were made at 6, 12, 48 and 168 h time points after administration. Testis levels of retinoic acid decreased (32 %) in a statistically significant manner at the 12 and 48 h time points. However, retinol and retinaldehyde were not significantly affected by molinate. These results suggest th...

  4. Rare variant of inguinal hernia, interparietal hernia and ipsilateral abdominal ectopic testis, mimicking a spiegelian hernia. Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirabayashi, Takeshi; Ueno, Shigeru

    2013-07-20

    We report a case in which the combination of an interparietal inguinal hernia and ipsilateral ectopic testicle mimicked a spigelian hernia. The patient was a 22-day-old boy who presented with a reducible mass that extended from the right lumbar region to the iliac fossa region. The right testis was palpable in the right lumbar region. Ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed that a small bowel had herniated through the inguinal region below the external oblique aponeurosis. Surgery was performed when the patient was 23 months old. Laparoscopic examination to identify the hernia orifice revealed that it was the deep inguinal ring, and the testicular vessels and the vas deferens passed beneath the hernia sac. An inguinal incision was made, and a hernia sac was observed passing through the deep inguinal ring and extending superiorly below the aponeurosis. The testis was found in the hernia sac. Traditional inguinal herniorrhaphy and traditional orchidopexy were performed, and the postoperative course was uneventful. It is difficult to understand the surgical anatomy of interparietal hernias, but once the surgical anatomy is understood, surgical repair is simple. We report the case with a review of the literature and also emphasize that laparoscopic exploration is helpful during surgery.

  5. Public awareness of testis cancer and the prevalence of testicular self-examination-changing patterns over 20 years.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Casey, Rowan G

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVES: Delay in treatment of testis cancer (TC) has a proven negative impact on disease stage, treatment outcome, and mortality. Poor public awareness of the disease and lack of testis self-examination (TSE) may account for late presentation. The aim of this study was to examine the knowledge of TC and performance of TSE in a group of men over 2 time periods 20 years apart. METHODS: In the current study, 677 men from a banking institution were surveyed on their knowledge of TC and their performance of TSE. Comparisons were made from the current data and those from the original study in 1986. RESULTS: This study demonstrates an increase in public awareness and modest concomitant increase in TSE since first studied in this country in 1986. There was no difference in knowledge across age groups in this study. Furthermore, men who demonstrate a superior degree of knowledge were more likely to perform TSE. Limitations included possible selection bias in the 2 studies conducted in a banking institution. CONCLUSIONS: Increased testicular cancer knowledge combined with TSE may have a role in improving detection of significant testicular pathology.

  6. Multiple cancer/testis antigens are preferentially expressed in hormone-receptor negative and high-grade breast cancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Tseng Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cancer/testis (CT antigens are protein antigens normally expressed only in germ cells of testis, and yet are expressed in a proportion of a wide variety of human cancers. CT antigens can elicit spontaneous immune responses in cancer patients with CT-positive cancers, and CT antigen-based therapeutic cancer vaccine trials are ongoing for "CT-rich" tumors. Although some previous studies found breast cancer to be "CT-poor", our recent analysis identified increased CT mRNA transcripts in the ER-negative subset of breast cancer. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we performed a comprehensive immunohistochemical study to investigate the protein expression of eight CT genes in 454 invasive ductal carcinomas, including 225 ER/PR/HER2-negative (triple-negative carcinomas. We found significantly more frequent expression of all eight CT antigens in ER-negative cancers, and five of them--MAGEA, CT7, NY-ESO-1, CT10 and CT45, were expressed in 12-24% of ER-negative cancers, versus 2-6% of ER-positive cancers (p2 cm. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: CT antigens are preferentially expressed in hormone receptor-negative and high-grade breast cancer. Considering the limited treatment options for ER/PR/HER2 triple-negative breast cancer, the potential of CT-based immunotherapy should be explored.

  7. The Effects of Trifluralin on LH, FSH and Testosterone Hormone Levels and Testis Histological Changes in Adult Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Shariati

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Trifluralin is a herbicide and used in agriculture widely. It enters plants throughdeveloping roots and stops plant cells from division and elongation (meristemic inhibitor.Extensive application of trifluralin to control annual grasses and broadleaf weeds in agriculture,horticulture and horn garden, leads to environmental pollution and its entrance into the food chaincould have determined effects on human and other species. In this research the effects of trifluralinon reproductive parameters of the male rats including serum luteinizing hormone (LH, folliclestimulatinghormone (FSH, testosterone levels, and changes in testicular tissue and body weightwere investigated.Materials and Methods: For this purpose male rats were randomly divided in 5 groups, to includecontrol, sham (received normal saline as a solvent, and three experimental groups which received500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg oral trifluralin respectively. After 16 days, body and testis weight weremeasured and blood samples were taken from heart and used for measurement of LH, FSH andtestosterone levels. To evaluate histological changes, testes were removed and weighed and, afterobtaining tissue section, stained by HE.Results: Serum testosterone, FSH, and LH levels showed significant decrease in experimentalgroups (p<0.05. There was significant decrease in the number of germinal and somatic cells intestis in experimental groups. There was also a significant decrease in body and testis weight inexperimental groups.Conclusion: It can be concluded that oral administration of trifluralin could decrease gonadotropinsand testosterone hormone levels and also this herbicide could have hazardous effects on testistissue.

  8. Improvement of Mercuric Chloride-Induced Testis Injuries and Sperm Quality Deteriorations by Spirulina platensis in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Desoky, Gaber E.; Bashandy, Samir A.; Alhazza, Ibrahim M.; Al-Othman, Zeid A.; Aboul-Soud, Mourad A. M.; Yusuf, Kareem

    2013-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the protective effect of the filamentous cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis (S. platensis) on mercury (II) chloride (HgCl2)-induced oxidative damages and histopathological alterations in the testis of Wistar albino rats. The animals were divided into four equal groups, i) control, ii) HgCl2, iii) S. platensis and iv) combination of HgCl2+S. platensis. Oxidative stress, induced by a single dose of HgCl2 (5 mg/kg, bw; subcutaneously, s.c.), substantially decreased (PSpirulina (300 mg/kg, bw) lowered the extent of the observed HgCl2-mediated toxicity, whereby significantly reducing the resulting lipid peroxidation products, mercury accumulation in the testis, histopathological changes of the testes and spermatozoal abnormalities. In parallel, the pretreatment with Spirulina also completely reverted the observed Hg-Cl2-induced inhibition in enzymatic activities of antioxidant biomarkers (SOD, CAT and GPx) back to control levels. The pretreatment of rats with S. platensis significantly recovered the observed HgCl2-mediated decrease in the weight of accessory sex organs. Taken together, our findings clearly highlight the role of S. platensis as a protective modulator of HgCl2-induced testicular injuries and suggest some therapeutic potential in mammals. Further investigation of therapeutic strategies employing Spirulina against heavy metals toxicity in humans is therefore warranted. PMID:23555627

  9. PATE, a gene expressed in prostate cancer, normal prostate, and testis, identified by a functional genomic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Tapan K.; Maitra, Rangan; Iavarone, Carlo; Salvatore, Giuliana; Kumar, Vasantha; Vincent, James J.; Sathyanarayana, B. K.; Duray, Paul; Lee, B. K.; Pastan, Ira

    2002-03-01

    To identify target antigens for prostate cancer therapy, we have combined computer-based screening of the human expressed sequence tag database and experimental expression analysis to identify genes that are expressed in normal prostate and prostate cancer but not in essential human tissues. Using this approach, we identified a gene that is expressed specifically in prostate cancer, normal prostate, and testis. The gene has a 1.5-kb transcript that encodes a protein of 14 kDa. We named this gene PATE (expressed in prostate and testis). In situ hybridization shows that PATE mRNA is expressed in the epithelial cells of prostate cancers and in normal prostate. Transfection of the PATE cDNA with a Myc epitope tag into NIH 3T3 cells and subsequent cell fractionation analysis shows that the PATE protein is localized in the membrane fraction of the cell. Analysis of the amino acid sequence of PATE shows that it has structural similarities to a group of proteins known as three-finger toxins, which includes the extracellular domain of the type transforming growth factor receptor. Restricted expression of PATE makes it a potential candidate for the immunotherapy of prostate cancer.

  10. A testis-mediated germline chimera production based on transfer of chicken testicular cells directly into heterologous testes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Mok; Jung, Jin Gyoung; Kim, Jin Nam; Park, Tae Sub; Kim, Tae Min; Shin, Sang Su; Kang, Dae Kyung; Lim, Jeong Mook; Han, Jae Yong

    2006-09-01

    In this study, we proposed a testis-mediated germline chimera production system based on the transplantation of testicular cells directly into heterologous testes. The testicular cells of juvenile (4-wk-old) or adult (24-wk-old) Korean Ogol chickens with a recessive pigmentation inhibitory gene, with or without prior culture, were injected (2 x 10(7) cells/head) into the seminiferous tubules of juvenile or adult recipients with White Leghorn with a dominant pigmentation inhibitory gene in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement. The localization of transplanted cells into the inner space of the seminiferous tubules was confirmed within 24 h after injection. Subsequent testcross analyses showed that 7.8% (5/64) of the recipients had chimeric status in their testes. The periods of time from transfer to hatching of the first progeny with black feathers were 38 and 45 days for adult cells transplanted into an adult recipient, 188 days for adult cells into a juvenile recipient, and 137 days for juvenile cells into a juvenile recipient. Culture of the testicular cells derived both colony-forming and monolayer-forming cells. The colony-forming cells were stained positively for periodic acid Schiff solution, and further reacted with anti-SSEA-1, anti-SSEA-3, and anti-SSEA-4 antibodies both before and after culture for 15 days. In conclusion, it may be possible to develop the testis-mediated germline chimera production technique, which extends the feasibility of genetic manipulations in avian species.

  11. Reproductive phase determination in male meagre (Argyrosomus regius, Sciaenidae: testis development and histologic corroboration of a gross anatomical scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Prista

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive stage determination of male gonads has received sparse attention in fish biology literature with few studies detailing the building of gross anatomical- and histologic scales. The meagre (Argyrosomus regius is one of the world’s largest sciaenids and supports a significant regional fishery in European and North African waters whose reproductive patterns are yet to be fully investigated. In the present study, we derive a macroscopic grading system for meagre testis using semi-quantitative graphs that feature the testis variability along the species size range and time of the year. We then describe the histological stages and reproductive phases of male testes and determine the extent to which they corroborate the anatomical scale. Our results indicate that gross anatomical analyses are accurate in assessments of the meagre spawning season but may not precisely distinguish the testes of well-mature fish and first spawning virgins. Furthermore, we show that milt expression varies widely with size and misclassifies as immature many smaller fish in spawning-capable condition. We discuss these findings in terms of their contribution to the understanding of testes development and the uncertainties involved in determining the size-at-maturity of male fish using gross anatomical scales.

  12. Repeated Evolution of Testis-Specific New Genes: The Case of Telomere-Capping Genes in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphaëlle Dubruille

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative genome analysis has allowed the identification of various mechanisms involved in gene birth. However, understanding the evolutionary forces driving new gene origination still represents a major challenge. In particular, an intriguing and not yet fully understood trend has emerged from the study of new genes: many of them show a testis-specific expression pattern, which has remained poorly understood. Here we review the case of such a new gene, which involves a telomere-capping gene family in Drosophila. hiphop and its testis-specific paralog K81 are critical for the protection of chromosome ends in somatic cells and male gametes, respectively. Two independent functional studies recently proposed that these genes evolved under a reproductive-subfunctionalization regime. The 2011 release of new Drosophila genome sequences from the melanogaster group of species allowed us to deepen our phylogenetic analysis of the hiphop/K81 family. This work reveals an unsuspected dynamic of gene birth and death within the group, with recurrent duplication events through retroposition mechanisms. Finally, we discuss the plausibility of different evolutionary scenarios that could explain the diversification of this gene family.

  13. Steroidogenic enzyme histochemistry in the testis of Sprague Dawley rats following the administration the water extracts from Carica papaya seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uche-Nwachi, E O; Mitchell, C V; McEwen, C

    2011-01-01

    Water extracts from pawpaw seed have been reported to reversibly decrease the testicular weight and to suppress spermatogenesis, and fertility of Wistar rats. The reversible changes become evident, 30 - 45 days after the withdrawal of the extract. The possible effect of this extract on the activities of steroidogenic enzymes of the testis has not been investigated. Water extract of papaya seeds was administered to male Sprague Dawley rats ad libitum for 84 days. Following the discontinuation of the extracts, ten rats each were sacrificed on days 0, 10, 20 and 30 after the withdrawal. Their testes were quickly dissected out and frozen. Cryostat sections, 10µm thick were cut. These sections were used for immunohistochemical stains for side chain cleavage enzyme and aromatase, and for histochemical stains for 17-β Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 3-β Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. We conclude that the water extract of papaya seed suppresses the activities of steroidogenic enzymes in the testis of Sprague Dawley rats, and that this may contribute to reversible suppression of spermatogenesis, a property that gives a possible male contraceptive potential.

  14. Comparative Study on Histopatological and Histomorphometric Effect of Raw and Cooked Garlic on Spermatogenesis in Testis and Epidydims of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    khadijeh bahrami

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background &Objective: The present study aims at studying two forms of raw and cooked garlic to identify the effect of this plant on the amount of change in histopatological of spermatogenesis of wistar rat.Materials & Methods: 40 male rats were divided into five equal groups (4 treatment 1 control group the first and second treatment were received palete food consisted of 5% and 15% of raw garlic every day. The third and fourth reatment were received palete food consisted of 5%and 15% of cooked garlic as a food . The control group received standard palete food every day in a month. Finally,the testis were taken out of stomach and after preparing tissue and coloring, they were gone under microscopic studies. Thence, the data were analyzed using SPSS and Duncan test.Results: The study indicated that the amount of sexual cells in the group having cook garlic for 15% compared with that of controlled group had a significant increase and the amount of sexual cells in the group using raw garlic as a food had a significant decrease compared with that of the controlled group.Conclusion: Prescription of cooked garlic has an influence on Proliferation of sexual cells in testicular tubules and epidydymes and so increased spermatogenesis in this group in caparison with the control group. However, prescribing raw garlic has harmful effects on tissue of testis and process of spermatogenes in empric compared with the control group.

  15. Advantage of early orchiopexy for undescended testis: Analysis of testicular growth percentage ratio in patients with unilateral undescended testicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Chi-Shin; Chiang, I-Ni; Hong, Chung-Hung; Lu, Yu-Chuan; Hong, Jian-Hua; Chang, Hong-Chiang; Huang, Kuo-How; Pu, Yeong-Shiau

    2017-12-12

    This study reports the experience of our tertiary referral center and proposes a new indicator, the growth percentage ratio (GPR), for determining the optimal timing of surgical intervention. A retrospective review of boys who underwent orchiopexy for undescended testis from 2001 to 2013 was conducted. We analyzed testicular volumes in different age groups using the UDT to normally descended testis ratio and testicular GPR. A total of 134 boys with unilateral undescended testicle underwent regular ultrasonography follow-up examinations for more than a mean of 3.9 years. Forty-five (33.4%) of them underwent orchiopexy before the age of one year. Orchiopexy at this age resulted in a GPR (2.02 ± 0.40) that was significantly higher than the GPRs in the second (1  2 years, 1.24 ± 0.14 p = 0.008) age groups. The undescended testicle grew faster when orchiopexy was performed before one year of age. Orchiopexy performed within one year from birth significantly accelerates the growth of the UDT, as determined using the GPR, compared to other age groups. The present clinical evidence indicates that orchiopexy should be performed before one year of age.

  16. lines and bowl affect the specification of cyst stem cells and niche cells in the Drosophila testis

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiNardo, Stephen; Okegbe, Tishina; Wingert, Lindsey; Freilich, Sarah; Terry, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    To function properly, tissue-specific stem cells must reside in a niche. The Drosophila testis niche is one of few niches studied in vivo. Here, a single niche, comprising ten hub cells, maintains both germline stem cells (GSC) and somatic stem cells (CySC). Here, we show that lines is an essential CySC factor. Surprisingly, lines-depleted CySCs adopted several characteristics of hub cells, including the recruitment of new CySCs. This led us to examine the developmental relationship between CySCs and hub cells. In contrast to a previous report, we did not observe significant conversion of steady-state CySC progeny to hub fate. However, we found that these two cell types derive from a common precursor pool during gonadogenesis. Furthermore, lines mutant embryos exhibited gonads containing excess hub cells, indicating that lines represses hub cell fate during gonadogenesis. In many tissues, lines acts antagonistically to bowl, and we found that this is true for hub specification, establishing bowl as a positively acting factor in the development of the testis niche. PMID:21486923

  17. Leveraging Online Resources to Prioritize Candidate Genes for Functional Analyses: Using the Fetal Testis as a Test Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Kathryn S; Yao, Humphrey H-C

    2017-01-01

    With each new microarray or RNA-seq experiment, massive quantities of transcriptomic information are generated with the purpose to produce a list of candidate genes for functional analyses. Yet an effective strategy remains elusive to prioritize the genes on these candidate lists. In this review, we outline a prioritizing strategy by taking a step back from the bench and leveraging the rich range of public databases. This in silico approach provides an economical, less biased, and more effective solution. We discuss the publicly available online resources that can be used to answer a range of questions about a gene. Is the gene of interest expressed in the system of interest (using expression databases)? Where else is this gene expressed (using added-value transcriptomic resources)? What pathways and processes is the gene involved in (using enriched gene pathway analysis and mouse knockout databases)? Is this gene correlated with human diseases (using human disease variant databases)? Using mouse fetal testis as an example, our strategies identified 298 genes annotated as expressed in the fetal testis. We cross-referenced these genes to existing microarray data and narrowed the list down to cell-type-specific candidates (35 for Sertoli cells, 11 for Leydig cells, and 25 for germ cells). Our strategies can be customized so that they allow researchers to effectively and confidently prioritize genes for functional analysis. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Comparative effects of phencyclidine (PCP) and. delta. /sup 9/-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on glucose oxidation in the rat testis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Husain, S.; Bauer, V.

    1986-03-05

    Glucose and fructose are important fuels of cellular energetics in organs like testis and brain. The previous in-vitro studies indicated that THC may disrupt many gonadal functions by inhibiting energy metabolism in the testis. PCP is sold on the street as any one of a variety of psychoactive drugs. Most commonly it is misrepresented as THC. Therefore, to compare the effects of PCP and THC on glucose utilization, in-vitro radiorespirometric experiments were conducted in rat testicular tissues. The /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ production from 5.5 mM radiolabelled glucose was followed in the presence and absence of 0.2, 0.1, 0.05, 0.01, 0.005, 0.0025 mM PCP. PCP produced a dose-dependent biphasic effect, stimulating /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ production by 6.2, 17 and 5.8% and then inhibiting it by 13.2, 15.4 and 8.9% with respective concentrations of PCP. This is in contrast to THC which produced a dose-related inhibition of 15.2, 18.1, 20.1 and 25.3% in /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ production with 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 mM THC. These observations are significant due to the possible abuse of PCP together with THC either deliberately or by misrepresentation.

  19. Normal Levels of Sox9 Expression in the Developing Mouse Testis Depend on the TES/TESCO Enhancer, but This Does Not Act Alone

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gonen, Nitzan; Quinn, Alexander; O’Neill, Helen C; Koopman, Peter; Lovell-Badge, Robin

    2017-01-01

    ... a 3.2 kb testis specific enhancer of Sox9 (TES), which includes a core 1.4 kb element, TESCO. SOX9 activity leads to differentiation of Sertoli cells, rather than granulosa cells from the bipotential supporting cell precursor lineage...

  20. Cell context-specific expression of primary cilia in the human testis and ciliary coordination of Hedgehog signalling in mouse Leydig cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg Nygaard, Marie; Almstrup, Kristian; Lindbæk, Louise

    2015-01-01

    Primary cilia are sensory organelles that coordinate numerous cellular signalling pathways during development and adulthood. Defects in ciliary assembly or function lead to a series of developmental disorders and diseases commonly referred to as ciliopathies. Still, little is known about the form......Primary cilia are sensory organelles that coordinate numerous cellular signalling pathways during development and adulthood. Defects in ciliary assembly or function lead to a series of developmental disorders and diseases commonly referred to as ciliopathies. Still, little is known about...... the formation and function of primary cilia in the mammalian testis. Here, we characterized primary cilia in adult human testis and report a constitutive expression of cilia in peritubular myoid cells and a dynamic expression of cilia in differentiating Leydig cells. Primary cilia are generally absent from...... cells of mature seminiferous epithelium, but present in Sertoli cell-only tubules in Klinefelter syndrome testis. Peritubular cells in atrophic testis produce overly long cilia. Furthermore cultures of growth-arrested immature mouse Leydig cells express primary cilia that are enriched in components...

  1. Endocrine Disruptors Differentially Target ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters in the Blood-Testis Barrier and Affect Leydig Cell Testosterone Secretion In Vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dankers, A.C.A.; Roelofs, M.J.; Piersma, A.H.; Sweep, F.C.; Russel, F.G.M.; Berg, M. van den; Duursen, M.B. van; Masereeuw, R.

    2013-01-01

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are considered to cause testicular toxicity primarily via interference with steroid hormone function. Alternatively, EDCs could possibly exert their effects by interaction with ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters that are expressed in the blood-testis

  2. Histopathologic investigation of the protective effects of omega-3 fatty acids against boric acid-induced injury in kidney and testis tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1 Hacettepe Üniversitesi, Tıp Fakültesi, Histoloji ve Embriyoloji Anabilim Dalı, Ankara, Türkiye 2 Mustafa Kemal Üniversitesi, Tıp Fakültesi, Histoloji ve Embriyoloji Anabilim Dalı, Hatay, Türkiye 3 Mustafa Kemal Üniversitesi, Hatay Sağlık Hizmetleri Meslek Yüksek Okulu, Hatay , Türkiye 4 Antakya Doğumevi, Hatay, Türkiye 5 Fatih Üniversitesi, Tıp Fakültesi, Histoloji ve Embriyoloji Anabilim Dalı, İstanbul, Türkiye 6 Turgut Özal Üniversitesi, Sağlık Bilimleri Meslek Yüksek Okulu, Ankara, Türkiye Yazışma Adresi / Correspondence : Ahmet Nacar, Hacettepe Üniversitesi, Tıp Fakültesi, Histoloji ve Embriyoloji Anabilim Dalı, Ankara, Türkiye Email: drnacar@gmail.com Geliş Tarihi / Received: 09.01.2014, Kabul Tarihi / Accepted: 10.02.2014 Copyright © Dicle Tıp Dergisi 2014, Her hakkı saklıdır / All rights reserved Dicle Tıp Dergisi / 2014; 41 (2: 385-390 Dicle Medical Journal doi: 10.5798/diclemedj.0921.2014.02.0436 ÖZGÜN ARAŞTIRMA / ORIGINAL ARTICLE Borik asit uygulamasının sıçan böbrek ve testis dokusunda oluşturduğu hasara karşı Omega-3 yağ asitlerinin koruyucu etkisinin histopatolojik olarak incelenmesi Histopathologic investigation of the protective effects of omega-3 fatty acids against boric acid-induced injury in kidney and testis tissue Ahmet Nacar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study, it was aimed to evaluate the effects of boric acid on rat kidney and testis tissues histopathologically. Secondly, the protective effects of omega-3 fatty acid against boric acid-induced renal and testicular toxicity were investigated. Methods: 32 wistar albino rats were divided into 4 groups as follows: Control, Omega-3 (400 mg/kg/day for 10 days, Boric acid (375 mg/kg/day for 10 days and Boric acid+omega-3 (both drugs same dosage for same day. Kidney and testis tissues were evaluated using a scoring system based on the extent of certain histopathological changes. Results: In histopathological examination, boric acid caused significant degeneration in both testis and kidney tissues. Most evident findings were glomerular shrinkage and necrosis, hemorrhage and tubular cell degeneration in kidneys, and exfoliation of seminiferous tubule cells, detachement of epithelium from basement membrane, decreased cellularity and degeneration in epithelial cells in testis tissues. Omega-3 administration significantly attenuated these changes. Conclusion: To our literature search, this is the first study reporting protective effects of omega-3 fatty acid against boric-acid-induced testicular and renal injury.

  3. Seasonal variations of androgens, estrogens, and progesterone in the different lobules of the testis and in the plasma of Salamandra salamandra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecouteux, A; Garnier, D H; Bassez, T; Joly, J

    1985-05-01

    Progesterone, 4-androstenedione, testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, 5 alpha-androstane-3 alpha,17 beta-diol (3 alpha-diol), 5 alpha-androstane-3 beta, 17 beta-diol (3 beta-diol), estrone, and estradiol levels were determined by radioimmunoassay in the different lobules of the testis of Salamandra salamandra throughout the year according to the seasonal cycle. 3 beta-diol levels were not detectable. High levels of steroids were found in the grandular tissue (enlarged pericystic cells after spermiation) and large variations were showed for progesterone, 4-androstenedione, testosterone, 3 alpha-diol, and estrone. In the mature lobule (formed by cysts with mature spermatozoa), only testosterone showed seasonal variations and in the immature lobule (with early stages of meiosis), 3 alpha-diol showed fluctuations. The major estrogen found in the testis of Salamandra was estrone; estradiol stayed at a low level throughout the cycle. The steroids fluctuation seems to be related to the histological evolution of the testis throughout the cycle. The present data were the first on steroid seasonal variations in the testis of an urodele.

  4. The expression pattern of the glucose transporter GLUT-5 in the testis during the spermatogenic cycle of the vespertilionid bat Scotophilus heathi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Vikas Kumar; Krishna, Amitabh

    2013-09-15

    The aims of this study were to investigate the localization and rate of expression of GLUT-5 protein during the spermatogenic cycle of Scotophilus heathi and to determine whether the expression of testicular GLUT-5 was under androgenic control. This study showed localization of GLUT-5 mainly in the spermatogonia, spermatids, spermatozoa and Leydig cells of the testis in S. heathi. Western blot analysis showed marked variation in the rate of expression of GLUT-5 protein in the testis during the reproductive cycle, in which peak expression of GLUT-5 in the testis coincided with the period of peak spermatogenesis and mating. Treatment with flutamide (an anti-androgen) caused a dose-dependent decrease in the expression of GLUT-5 protein in the testis that suggested that the expression of GLUT-5 was under androgenic control. We propose that GLUT-5 plays an important role in the transport into spermatozoa of the fuel that is required for prolonged storage in the female genital tract in S. heathi. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. PHTHALATE ESTER-INDUCED GUBERNACULAR LIGAMENT LESIONS ARE ASSOCIATED WITH REDUCED INSL3 GENE EXPRESSION IN THE FETAL RAT TESTIS DURING SEXUAL DIFFERENTIATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phthalate ester-induced gubernacular ligament lesions are associated with reduced Insl3 gene expression in the fetal rat testis during sexual differentiation.Vickie S Wilson, Christy Lambright, Johnathan Furr, Joseph Ostby, Carmen Wood, Gary Held, L.Earl Gray Jr.U.S. EPA,...

  6. MALFORMATIONS IN GUBERNACULAR LIGAMENT DEVELOPMENT INDUCED BY DEHP, DBP, AND BBP ARE ASSOCIATED WITH DECREASES IN INSL3 GENE EXPRESSION IN THE FETAL RAT TESTIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malformations in gubernacular ligament development induced by DEHP, DBP, and BBP are associated with decreases in insl3 gene expression in the fetal rat testis. Vickie S.Wilson, Christy Lambright, Johnathan Furr, Carmen Wood, Gary Held, L. Earl Gray Jr. U.S. EPA, ORD, NHEER...

  7. Cancer‐testis antigens PRAME and NY‐ESO‐1 correlate with tumour grade and poor prognosis in myxoid liposarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iura, Kunio; Kohashi, Kenichi; Hotokebuchi, Yuka; Ishii, Takeaki; Maekawa, Akira; Yamada, Yuichi; Yamamoto, Hidetaka; Iwamoto, Yukihide

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Myxoid liposarcoma is the second most common liposarcoma. Although myxoid liposarcoma is relatively chemosensitive and thus a good candidate for chemotherapy, cases with relapsed or metastatic disease still have poor outcome. Here, we performed a gene microarray analysis to compare the gene expression profiles in six clinical myxoid liposarcoma samples and three normal adipose tissue samples, and to identify molecular biomarkers that would be useful as diagnostic markers or treatment targets in myxoid liposarcoma. This showed that the cancer‐testis antigen PRAME was up‐regulated in myxoid liposarcoma. We then performed immunohistochemical, western blotting and real‐time polymerase chain reaction analyses to quantify the expression of PRAME and another cancer‐testis antigen, NY‐ESO‐1, in clinical samples of myxoid liposarcoma (n = 93), dedifferentiated (n = 46), well‐differentiated (n = 32) and pleomorphic liposarcomas (n = 14). Immunohistochemically, positivity for PRAME and NY‐ESO‐1 was observed in 84/93 (90%) and 83/93 (89%) of the myxoid liposarcomas, and in 20/46 (43%) and 3/46 (7%) of the dedifferentiated, 3/32 (9%) and 1/32 (3%) of the well‐differentiated and 7/14 (50%) and 3/21 (21%) of the pleomorphic liposarcomas, respectively. High immunohistochemical expression of PRAME and/or NY‐ESO‐1 was significantly correlated with tumour diameter, the existence of tumour necrosis, a round‐cell component of >5%, higher histological grade and advanced clinical stage. High PRAME and NY‐ESO‐1 expression correlated significantly with poor prognosis in a univariate analysis. The myxoid liposarcomas showed significantly higher protein and mRNA expression levels of PRAME and NY‐ESO‐1 (CTAG1B) than the other liposarcomas. In conclusion, PRAME and NY‐ESO‐1 (CTAG1B) were expressed in the vast majority of myxoid liposarcomas, and their high‐level expression correlated with tumour grade and poor prognosis. Our

  8. Cancer-testis antigens PRAME and NY-ESO-1 correlate with tumour grade and poor prognosis in myxoid liposarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iura, Kunio; Kohashi, Kenichi; Hotokebuchi, Yuka; Ishii, Takeaki; Maekawa, Akira; Yamada, Yuichi; Yamamoto, Hidetaka; Iwamoto, Yukihide; Oda, Yoshinao

    2015-07-01

    Myxoid liposarcoma is the second most common liposarcoma. Although myxoid liposarcoma is relatively chemosensitive and thus a good candidate for chemotherapy, cases with relapsed or metastatic disease still have poor outcome. Here, we performed a gene microarray analysis to compare the gene expression profiles in six clinical myxoid liposarcoma samples and three normal adipose tissue samples, and to identify molecular biomarkers that would be useful as diagnostic markers or treatment targets in myxoid liposarcoma. This showed that the cancer-testis antigen PRAME was up-regulated in myxoid liposarcoma. We then performed immunohistochemical, western blotting and real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses to quantify the expression of PRAME and another cancer-testis antigen, NY-ESO-1, in clinical samples of myxoid liposarcoma (n = 93), dedifferentiated (n = 46), well-differentiated (n = 32) and pleomorphic liposarcomas (n = 14). Immunohistochemically, positivity for PRAME and NY-ESO-1 was observed in 84/93 (90%) and 83/93 (89%) of the myxoid liposarcomas, and in 20/46 (43%) and 3/46 (7%) of the dedifferentiated, 3/32 (9%) and 1/32 (3%) of the well-differentiated and 7/14 (50%) and 3/21 (21%) of the pleomorphic liposarcomas, respectively. High immunohistochemical expression of PRAME and/or NY-ESO-1 was significantly correlated with tumour diameter, the existence of tumour necrosis, a round-cell component of >5%, higher histological grade and advanced clinical stage. High PRAME and NY-ESO-1 expression correlated significantly with poor prognosis in a univariate analysis. The myxoid liposarcomas showed significantly higher protein and mRNA expression levels of PRAME and NY-ESO-1 (CTAG1B) than the other liposarcomas. In conclusion, PRAME and NY-ESO-1 (CTAG1B) were expressed in the vast majority of myxoid liposarcomas, and their high-level expression correlated with tumour grade and poor prognosis. Our results support the potential use of PRAME and NY

  9. Study of Tnp1, Tekt1, and Plzf Genes Expression During an in vitro Three-Dimensional Neonatal Male Mice Testis Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrahel, Ahmad; Movahedin, Mansoureh; Mazaheri, Zohre; Amidi, Fardin

    2018-02-04

    In vitro spermatogenesis has a long research history beginning in the early 20th century. This organ culture method was therefore abandoned, and alternative cell culture methods were chosen by many researchers. Here, whether Tnp1, Tekt1, and Plzf, which play a crucial role in spermatogenesis, can be expressed during testis organ culture was assessed. Testes of 10 mouse pups were first removed, and the testis tissue was then separated into smaller pieces of seminiferous tubules. The size of the pieces was arbitrary; approximately 1 mg in weight or 1 mm3 in size when compacted. Afterwards, the testis tissue fragments (1–3) were transferred to the hexahedrons, incubated in a culture incubator and cultured for 12 weeks. Histological assessment and molecular evaluation were carried out at the end of the study. The results showed that the expression of Tekt1 as a mitotic gene in mouse pups decreased significantly (p ≤ 0.05) in comparison to adult mouse testis. Meanwhile, the expression of Tnp1 as a meiotic gene increased significantly (p ≤ 0.05) as compared to neonate mouse testis at the beginning of the culture. The expression of Plzf showed no significant difference during the 12 weeks of culture (p ≥ 0.05). Based on histological study only, different types of spermatocytes and post-meiotic stages of germ cells could not be detected. This kind of three-dimensional culture can induce expression of post-meiotic gene, Tnp1, but only at the molecular level and not beyond meiosis.

  10. A transcriptome-wide screen for mRNAs enriched in fetal Leydig cells: CRHR1 agonism stimulates rat and mouse fetal testis steroidogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin N McDowell

    Full Text Available Fetal testis steroidogenesis plays an important role in the reproductive development of the male fetus. While regulators of certain aspects of steroidogenesis are known, the initial driver of steroidogenesis in the human and rodent fetal testis is unclear. Through comparative analysis of rodent fetal testis microarray datasets, 54 candidate fetal Leydig cell-specific genes were identified. Fetal mouse testis interstitial expression of a subset of these genes with unknown expression (Crhr1, Gramd1b, Itih5, Vgll3, and Vsnl1 was verified by whole-mount in situ hybridization. Among the candidate fetal Leydig cell-specific factors, three receptors (CRHR1, PRLR, and PROKR2 were tested for a steroidogenic function using ex vivo fetal testes treated with receptor agonists (CRH, PRL, and PROK2. While PRL and PROK2 had no effect, CRH, at low (approximately 1 to 10 nM concentration, increased expression of the steroidogenic genes Cyp11a1, Cyp17a1, Scarb1, and Star in GD15 mouse and GD17 rat testes, and in conjunction, testosterone production was increased. Exposure of GD15 fetal mouse testis to a specific CRHR1 antagonist blunted the CRH-induced steroidogenic gene expression and testosterone responses. Similar to ex vivo rodent fetal testes, ≥ 10 nM CRH exposure of MA-10 Leydig cells increased steroidogenic pathway mRNA and progesterone levels, showing CRH can enhance steroidogenesis by directly targeting Leydig cells. Crh mRNA expression was observed in rodent fetal hypothalamus, and CRH peptide was detected in rodent amniotic fluid. Together, these data provide a resource for discovering factors controlling fetal Leydig cell biology and suggest that CRHR1 activation by CRH stimulates rat and mouse fetal Leydig cell steroidogenesis in vivo.

  11. Expression of FGFR3 during human testis development and in germ cell-derived tumours of young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ewen, Katherine A; Olesen, Inge A; Winge, Sofia B

    2013-01-01

    Observations in patients with an activating mutation of fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) suggest a role for FGFR3 signalling in promoting proliferation or survival of germ cells. In this study, we aimed to identify the FGFR3 subtype and the ontogeny of expression during human testis...... development and to ascertain whether FGFR3 signalling is linked to germ cell proliferation and the pathogenesis of testicular germ cell tumours (TGCTs) of young adult men. Using RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and Western blotting, we examined 58 specimens of human testes throughout development for FGFR3...... expression, and then compared expression of FGFR3 with proliferation markers (PCNA or Ki67). We also analysed for FGFR3 expression 30 TGCTs and 28 testes containing the tumour precursor cell, carcinoma in situ (CIS). Fetal and adult testes expressed exclusively the FGFR3IIIc isoform. FGFR3 protein expression...

  12. Testis and vas deferens morphology of the red-clawed mangrove tree crab (Goniopsis cruentata (Latreille, 1803

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia Tatiane Martins

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes the structure of the testes and vas deferens of the red-clawed mangrove tree crab, Goniopsis cruentata. Testes and vas deferens were fixed with cold Bouin's solution and submitted to histological routine examinations. Light microscopy showed the testis to be divided into three regions: anterior, containing the germinal zone; intermediary, including the collecting duct; and posterior. The vas deferens, which was continuous with the testes, could be divided into two regions: one corresponding to the expansions and another lined by cubical epithelium, collagenous fibers and a circular layer of muscle cells and containing the androgenic gland. Spermatophores were observed in both vas deferens regions suggesting that they participated in the maturation of the spermatozoids preparing the male functionally for fertilization.

  13. Expression of VIP and its receptors in the testis of the spotted ray Torpedo marmorata (Risso 1880).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnese, Marisa; Rosati, Luigi; Muriano, Francesco; Valiante, Salvatore; Laforgia, Vincenza; Andreuccetti, Piero; Prisco, Marina

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this work was to study, by immunoprecipitation, in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, and the expression of the vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and of its receptors (VPAC(1)R and VPAC(2)R) in the testis of a nonmammalian vertebrate, the cartilaginous fish Torpedo marmorata. We demonstrated that, differently from mammals, VIP and VPAC(2)R were widely distributed in the testicular cells while the VPAC(1)R had a limited distribution. In details, we showed that VIP and VPAC(2)R were present in mitotic and differentiating germ cells as well as in the cells involved in the steroidogenesis, i.e., Leydig, Sertoli cells, and prespermatogonia and spermatogonia. The possibility that VIP is involved in the spermatogenesis and particularly in the steroidogenesis of T. marmorata is discussed.

  14. Expression of Cancer/Testis genes in ductal carcinoma in situ and benign lesions of the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, Otavia L; Shousha, Sami; Zhao, Qi; Simpson, Andrew J G; Coombes, R Charles; Neville, A Munro

    2014-01-01

    Cancer/testis (CT) genes represent a unique class of genes, which are expressed by germ cells, normally silenced in somatic cells, but activated in various cancers. CT proteins can elicit spontaneous immune responses in cancer patients and this feature makes them attractive targets for immunotherapy-based approaches. We have previously reported that CTs are relatively commonly expressed in estrogen receptor (ER) negative, high risk carcinomas. In this study, we examined the expression of selected CT genes in ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) and benign proliferative lesions of the breast. ER negative DCIS were found to be associated with significant CT gene expression together with HER2 positivity and a marked stromal immune response.

  15. Light and electron microscopic study on complex carbohydrates in the testis of Salamandra salamandra L. (Amphibia, Urodela).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindelmeiser, J

    1986-01-01

    The distribution of complex carbohydrates was studied in the testis of the European fire salamander, Salamandra salamandra, by light- and electron-microscopic methods. The basal laminae and fibrous structures in the connective tissue between the lobules are PAS-positive. After alcianblue staining (at pH = 2.8), acid mucopolysaccharides could be demonstrated in steroid hormone-producing cells in the interstitial tissue between lobules containing spermatids, spermatozoa, and lobules after spermiation, as well as in most of the Sertoli cells in lobules after spermiation. In all spermatogenic stages from secondary spermatocytes to mature sperms, dictyosome-like structures and flat vesicles showed a distinct contrast enhancement, as did parts of the acrosome after treatment with the phosphotungstic acid-chromic acid method for electron microscopy.

  16. Carcinoma in situ of contralateral testis in patients with testicular germ cell cancer: study of 27 cases in 500 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von der Maase, H; Rørth, M; Walbom-Jørgensen, S

    1986-01-01

    Carcinoma in situ in the contralateral testis was diagnosed in 27 of 500 patients (5.4%) with unilateral testicular germ cell cancer. Eight of the 27 patients received intensive chemotherapy for spread of their initial testicular cancer. Follow up biopsy studies did not detect changes of carcinoma...... in situ in any of these patients, and none developed a contralateral testicular tumour (observation time 12-88 months). Of the remaining 19 patients with carcinoma in situ, seven developed contralateral testicular cancer. The estimated risk of developing invasive growth was 40% within three years and 50......% within five years. None of the 473 patients without carcinoma in situ detected by screening biopsy developed contralateral testicular cancer (observation time 12-96 months). No serious complications arose from the biopsy procedures. All patients with unilateral testicular germ cell cancer should...

  17. Scrotal ultrasound findings in previously congenital and acquired unilateral undescended testes and their contralateral normally descended testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Brakel, J; de Muinck Keizer-Schrama, S M P F; van Casteren, N J; Hazebroek, F W; Dohle, G R

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to report on different anomalies found by physical examination and scrotal ultrasound in men with previously unilateral congenital undescended testes (UDT; N = 50), acquired UDT (N = 49), their contralateral normally descended testis (CNDT) and control testes (N = 53). Acquired UDT significantly more often had a testicular volume being testes 15.8 mL), testicular volume testes 8%). Few differences between congenital and acquired unilateral UDT and congenital and acquired CNDT support the hypothesis of a spectrum of maldescended testes containing congenital and acquired UDT instead of them being two different entities. The CNDT also has anomalies albeit less severe than the UDT, indicating that in unilateral UDT both testes are affected. © 2015 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  18. Zika Virus Infects Human Sertoli Cells and Modulates the Integrity of theIn VitroBlood-Testis Barrier Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemann, David N; Strange, Daniel P; Maharaj, Payal N; Shi, Pei-Yong; Verma, Saguna

    2017-11-15

    Confirmed reports of Zika virus (ZIKV) in human seminal fluid for months after the clearance of viremia suggest the ability of ZIKV to establish persistent infection in the seminiferous tubules, an immune-privileged site in the testis protected by the blood-testis barrier, also called the Sertoli cell (SC) barrier (SCB). However, cellular targets of ZIKV in human testis and mechanisms by which the virus enters seminiferous tubules remain unclear. We demonstrate that primary human SCs were highly susceptible to ZIKV compared to the closely related dengue virus and induced the expression of alpha interferon (IFN-α), key cytokines, and cell adhesion molecules (vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 [VCAM-1] and intracellular adhesion molecule 1 [ICAM-1]). Furthermore, using an in vitro SCB model, we show that ZIKV was released on the adluminal side of the SCB model with a higher efficiency than in the blood-brain barrier model. ZIKV-infected SCs exhibited enhanced adhesion of leukocytes that correlated with decreases in SCB integrity. ZIKV infection did not affect the expression of tight and adherens junction proteins such as ZO-1, claudin, and JAM-A; however, exposure of SCs to inflammatory mediators derived from ZIKV-infected macrophages led to the degradation of the ZO-1 protein, which correlated with increased SCB permeability. Taken together, our data suggest that infection of SCs may be one of the crucial steps by which ZIKV gains access to the site of spermatozoon development and identify SCs as a therapeutic target to clear testicular infections. The SCB model opens up opportunities to assess interactions of SCs with other testicular cells and to test the ability of anti-ZIKV drugs to cross the barrier. IMPORTANCE Recent outbreaks of ZIKV, a neglected mosquito-borne flavivirus, have identified sexual transmission as a new route of disease spread, which has not been reported for other flaviviruses. To be able to sexually transmit for months after the clearance of

  19. Comparative Analyses of H3K4 and H3K27 Trimethylations Between the Mouse Cerebrum and Testis

    KAUST Repository

    Cui, Peng

    2012-06-08

    The global features of H3K4 and H3K27 trimethylations (H3K4me3 and H3K27me3) have been well studied in recent years, but most of these studies were performed in mammalian cell lines. In this work, we generated the genome-wide maps of H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 of mouse cerebrum and testis using ChIP-seq and their high-coverage transcriptomes using ribominus RNA-seq with SOLiD technology. We examined the global patterns of H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 in both tissues and found that modifications are closely-associated with tissue-specific expression, function and development. Moreover, we revealed that H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 rarely occur in silent genes, which contradicts the findings in previous studies. Finally, we observed that bivalent domains, with both H3K4me3 and H3K27me3, existed ubiquitously in both tissues and demonstrated an invariable preference for the regulation of developmentally-related genes. However, the bivalent domains tend towards a “winner-takes-all” approach to regulate the expression of associated genes. We also verified the above results in mouse ES cells. As expected, the results in ES cells are consistent with those in cerebrum and testis. In conclusion, we present two very important findings. One is that H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 rarely occur in silent genes. The other is that bivalent domains may adopt a “winner-takes-all” principle to regulate gene expression.

  20. Effect of mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate on human and mouse fetal testis: In vitro and in vivo approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muczynski, V. [Univ. Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Laboratory of Development of the Gonads, Unit of Stem Cells and Radiation, BP 6, 92265 Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); CEA, DSV, iRCM, SCSR, LDRG, 92265 Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); INSERM, Unité 967, F-92265, Fontenay aux Roses (France); Cravedi, J.P. [INRA, INP, Université de Toulouse, UMR1331 TOXALIM, F-31027, Toulouse (France); Lehraiki, A.; Levacher, C.; Moison, D.; Lecureuil, C.; Messiaen, S. [Univ. Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Laboratory of Development of the Gonads, Unit of Stem Cells and Radiation, BP 6, 92265 Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); CEA, DSV, iRCM, SCSR, LDRG, 92265 Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); INSERM, Unité 967, F-92265, Fontenay aux Roses (France); Perdu, E. [INRA, INP, Université de Toulouse, UMR1331 TOXALIM, F-31027, Toulouse (France); Frydman, R. [Service de Gynécologie-Obstétrique, Hôpital A. Béclère, Université Paris Sud F-92141 Clamart (France); Habert, R. [Univ. Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Laboratory of Development of the Gonads, Unit of Stem Cells and Radiation, BP 6, 92265 Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); CEA, DSV, iRCM, SCSR, LDRG, 92265 Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); INSERM, Unité 967, F-92265, Fontenay aux Roses (France); and others

    2012-05-15

    The present study was conducted to determine whether exposure to the mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) represents a genuine threat to male human reproductive function. To this aim, we investigated the effects on human male fetal germ cells of a 10{sup −5} M exposure. This dose is slightly above the mean concentrations found in human fetal cord blood samples by biomonitoring studies. The in vitro experimental approach was further validated for phthalate toxicity assessment by comparing the effects of in vitro and in vivo exposure in mouse testes. Human fetal testes were recovered during the first trimester (7–12 weeks) of gestation and cultured in the presence or not of 10{sup −5} M MEHP for three days. Apoptosis was quantified by measuring the percentage of Caspase-3 positive germ cells. The concentration of phthalate reaching the fetal gonads was determined by radioactivity measurements, after incubations with {sup 14}C-MEHP. A 10{sup −5} M exposure significantly increased the rate of apoptosis in human male fetal germ cells. The intratesticular MEHP concentration measured corresponded to the concentration added in vitro to the culture medium. Furthermore, a comparable effect on germ cell apoptosis in mouse fetal testes was induced both in vitro and in vivo. This study suggests that this 10{sup −5} M exposure is sufficient to induce changes to the in vivo development of the human fetal male germ cells. -- Highlights: ► 10{sup −5} M of MEHP impairs germ cell development in the human fetal testis. ► Organotypic culture is a suitable approach to investigate phthalate effects in human. ► MEHP is not metabolized in the human fetal testis. ► In mice, MEHP triggers similar effects both in vivo and in vitro.

  1. A Novel Testis-Specific Gene, Ccdc136, Is Required for Acrosome Formation and Fertilization in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Qiang; Ni, Liwei; Ouyang, Bin; Hu, Yanhua; Zhao, Yu; Guo, Jun

    2016-10-01

    Testis-specific genes are essential for the spermatogenesis in mammalian male reproduction. In this study, we have identified a novel testis-specific gene, Ccdc136 (coiled-coil domain containing 136), from the results of high-throughput gene expression profiling in the developmental stage of mouse testes. Ccdc136 was conserved across species in evolution. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analyses showed that Ccdc136 messenger RNA and protein were extraordinarily expressed in mouse testes, which was first presented at postnatal 3 week and increased in an age-dependent manner before adulthood. Immunofluorescence staining revealed that CCDC136 protein was most abundantly located in the acrosome of round spermatids and elongating spermatids within seminiferous tubules of the adult mouse testes. To investigate the function of Ccdc136 in mouse testes, we generated the Ccdc136-knockout mice using Cas9/RNA-mediated gene targeting technology. Interestingly, we found Ccdc136(-/-) males were infertile, due to severe defect of disrupting acrosome formation. The expression levels of proteins (SPACA1 and PICK1) involved in acrosome formation were significantly downregulated in the testes of Ccdc136(-/-) mice than wide-type mice. Moreover, in vitro fertilization assay revealed that anti-CCDC136 antibody could remarkably inhibit fertilization, suggesting CCDC136 also plays an important role in fertilization. All of these demonstrated the essential role of CCDC136-mediated acrosome formation in spermatogenesis and fertilization, which might also provide new insight into the genetic causes of human infertility. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Immunolocalization of 3beta-HSD and 17beta-HSD in the testis of the spotted ray Torpedo marmorata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prisco, Marina; Liguoro, Annamaria; Ricchiari, Loredana; Del Giudice, Giuseppina; Angelini, Francesco; Andreuccetti, Piero

    2008-01-01

    Using polyclonal antibodies, we examined the localization of 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3beta-HSD) and 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17beta-HSD) as markers of the site of steroidogenetic activity during the spermatogenesis of Torpedo marmorata. These enzymes play a central role in the biosynthesis of steroid hormones, including androgen and oestrogen production. We demonstrated that in the spotted ray testis, Sertoli and Leydig cells, as well as spermatogonia, show a positive reaction to anti 3beta-HSD and 17beta-HSD antibodies. In particular, we demonstrated that Sertoli cells show a positive reaction to anti 3beta-HSD and 17beta-HSD antibodies in cysts containing spermatogonia and spermatozoa, while Leydig cells present a positive reaction only when they are located between cysts containing meiotic cells. This study strongly suggests that, as hypothesised in our previous study [Prisco, M., Liguoro, A., D'Onghia, B., Ricchiari, L., Andreuccetti, P., Angelini, F., 2002. Fine structure of Leydig and Sertoli cells in the testis of immature and mature spotted ray Torpedo marmorata. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 63, 192-201.], Sertoli and Leydig cells are differently involved in the hormonal control of spermatogenesis: Sertoli cells before the beginning of meiosis and after spermiation, Leydig cells only during meiosis phase. Moreover, the present paper deals with the possibility that also spermatogonia are engaged in the production of androgen hormones, as they are characterized by the presence of 3beta-HSD and 17beta-HSD enzymes, and show the ultrastructural features of steroid hormone-producing cells.

  3. Effects on rat testis of 1.95-GHz W-CDMA for IMT-2000 cellular phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Norio; Kawabe, Mayumi; Hikage, Takashi; Nojima, Toshio; Takahashi, Satoru; Shirai, Tomoyuki

    2011-08-01

    In recent years concern has arisen whether carrying a cellular phone near the reproductive organs such as the testes may cause dysfunction and particularly decrease in sperm development and production, and thus fertility in men. The present study was performed to investigate the effects of a 1.95 GHz electromagnetic field on testicular function in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Five week old animals were divided into 3 groups of 24 each and a 1.95-GHz wide-band code division multiple access (W-CDMA) signal, which is used for the freedom of mobile multimedia access (FOMA), was employed for whole body exposure for 5 hours per day, 7 days a week for 5 weeks (the period from the age of 5 to 10 weeks, corresponding to reproductive maturation in the rat). Whole-body average specific absorption rates (SAR) for individuals were designed to be 0.4 and 0.08 W/kg respectively. The control group received sham exposure. There were no differences in body weight gain or weights of the testis, epididymis, seminal vesicles, and prostate among the groups. The number of sperm in the testis and epididymis were not decreased in the electromagnetic field (EMF) exposed groups, and, in fact, the testicular sperm count was significantly increased with the 0.4 SAR. Abnormalities of sperm motility or morphology and the histological appearance of seminiferous tubules, including the stage of the spermatogenic cycle, were not observed. Thus, under the present exposure conditions, no testicular toxicity was evident.

  4. Effects of Arctium lappa on Cadmium-Induced Damage to the Testis and Epididymis of Adult Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predes, Fabricia de Souza; Diamante, M A S; Foglio, M A; Dolder, H

    2016-10-01

    The protective role of Arctium lappa (AL) on the testes of rats acutely exposed to cadmium (Cd) was tested. The rats were randomly divided into a control group (C-group) and three major experimental groups, which were further subdivided into minor groups (n = 6) according to the experimental period (7 or 56 days). The C-group was subdivided into C-7 and C-56 [receiving a single saline solution, intraperitoneal (i.p.), on the first day]; the AL-group, AL-7, and AL-56, received AL extract (300 mg/kg/daily); the Cd group, Cd-7 and Cd-56, received a single i.p. dose of CdCl2 (1.2 mg/kg body weight (BW)) on the first day; the CdAL group, CdAL-7 and CdAL-56, received the same Cd dose, followed by AL extract. Water or AL extract was administered daily by gavage. After either 7 or 56 days, the testis and accessory glands were removed after whole-body perfusion. Exposure to Cd and CdAL decreased the weight of the testis and epididymis, the gonadosomatic index, seminiferous tubular (ST) diameter, and ST volumetric proportion, and increased the volumetric proportion of interstitium after 56 days. In the epididymis caput, the tubular volumetric proportion decreased along with an increase of interstitial volumetric proportion and epithelium height after 56 days. The alterations observed were less severe only after 7 days. A progressive testicular damage resulted mainly in tubules lined only by Sertoli cells. The sperm number and cell debris decreased in the epididymis. We demonstrated that the testicular damage induced by single acute i.p. exposure to Cd occurred despite the daily oral intake of AL extract.

  5. Effects of gamma rays on rat testis tissue according to the morphological parameters and immunohistochemistry: radioprotective role of silymarin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzban, Mohsen; Anjamshoa, Maryam; Jafari, Parnia; Masoumi, Hossien; Ahadi, Reza; Fatehi, Daryoush

    2017-01-01

    Objective To determine the radioprotective effects of Silymarin in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats irradiated with γ-rays. Methods The present experimental study was performed in Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran from December 2009 to March 2010. The study was performed on 40 rats, which were randomly and equally divided into four groups: 1) control group: neither received Silymarin nor irradiated with γ-rays; 2) γ-irradiation group: testis region exposed to 2Gy of γ-rays; 3) Silymarin & γ-irradiation: rats received 100 mg/kg of Silymarin 24hrs before exposure to 2Gy of γ-rays; 4) Silymarin & γ-irradiation: rats received 200 mg/kg of Silymarin 24hrs before exposure to 2Gy of γ-rays. After animal experiments and preparing the tissue sections, different histological and histomorphological parameters of seminiferous tubules and the biological characteristics of Leydig cells were evaluated applying quantitative assessment, Johnson scoring, and Leydig cell apoptosis assay by TUNEL method. The data were analyzed applying ANOVA and Tukey’s post hoc test, using SPSS software (V.19). Results Irradiation of 2 Gy γ-rays to the testis of the rats significantly affected the frequency of spermatogonia, primary spermatocyte, round spermatid, spermatozoa, seminiferous tube and lumen diameters, thickness of the epithelium, Leydig cell nuclear diameter and volume, epithelium height, and apoptotic cells (p<0.05). However, administration of Silymarin improved the mentioned parameters specifically in 200 mg/kg of dosage. Conclusion Silymarin could act as a potent radioprotector and it can be used in modulation as well as improvement to radiation therapy to prevent male reproductive function, specifically seminiferous tubules in an animal model; however, its molecular mechanism is still not clear and needs more molecular researches. PMID:28848626

  6. Effect of neonatal hypothyroidism on prepubertal mouse testis in relation to thyroid hormone receptor alpha 1 (THRα1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Debarshi; Singh, Shio Kumar

    2017-09-15

    Thyroid hormones (THs) are important for growth and development of many tissues, and altered thyroid status affects various organs and systems. Testis also is considered as a thyroid hormone responsive organ. Though THs play an important role in regulation of testicular steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis, the exact mechanism of this regulation remains poorly understood. The present study, therefore, is designed to examine the effect of neonatal hypothyroidism on prepubertal Parkes (P) strain mice testis in relation to thyroid hormone receptor alpha 1 (THRα1). Hypothyroidism was induced by administration of 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU) in mother's drinking water from birth to day 28; on postnatal day (PND) 21 only pups, and on PND 28, both pups and lactating dams were euthanized. Serum T 3 and T 4 were markedly reduced in pups at PND 28 and in lactating mothers, while serum and intra-testicular testosterone levels were considerably decreased in pups of both age groups. Further, serum and intra-testicular levels of estrogen were significantly increased in hypothyroid mice at PND 28 with concomitant increase in CYP19 expression. Histologically, marked changes were noticed in testes of PTU-treated mice; immunohistochemical and western blot analyses of testes in treated mice also revealed marked decrease in the expression of THRα1 at both age groups. Semiquantitative RT-PCR and western blot analyses also showed reductions in both testicular mRNA and protein levels of SF-1, StAR, CYP11A1 and 3β-HSD in these mice. In conclusion, our results suggest that neonatal hypothyroidism alters localization and expression of THRα1 and impairs testicular steroidogenesis by down-regulating the expression SF-1, thereby affecting spermatogenesis in prepubertal mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of gamma rays on rat testis tissue according to the morphological parameters and immunohistochemistry: radioprotective role of silymarin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzban, Mohsen; Anjamshoa, Maryam; Jafari, Parnia; Masoumi, Hossien; Ahadi, Reza; Fatehi, Daryoush

    2017-06-01

    To determine the radioprotective effects of Silymarin in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats irradiated with γ-rays. The present experimental study was performed in Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran from December 2009 to March 2010. The study was performed on 40 rats, which were randomly and equally divided into four groups: 1) control group: neither received Silymarin nor irradiated with γ-rays; 2) γ-irradiation group: testis region exposed to 2Gy of γ-rays; 3) Silymarin & γ-irradiation: rats received 100 mg/kg of Silymarin 24hrs before exposure to 2Gy of γ-rays; 4) Silymarin & γ-irradiation: rats received 200 mg/kg of Silymarin 24hrs before exposure to 2Gy of γ-rays. After animal experiments and preparing the tissue sections, different histological and histomorphological parameters of seminiferous tubules and the biological characteristics of Leydig cells were evaluated applying quantitative assessment, Johnson scoring, and Leydig cell apoptosis assay by TUNEL method. The data were analyzed applying ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc test, using SPSS software (V.19). Irradiation of 2 Gy γ-rays to the testis of the rats significantly affected the frequency of spermatogonia, primary spermatocyte, round spermatid, spermatozoa, seminiferous tube and lumen diameters, thickness of the epithelium, Leydig cell nuclear diameter and volume, epithelium height, and apoptotic cells (p<0.05). However, administration of Silymarin improved the mentioned parameters specifically in 200 mg/kg of dosage. Silymarin could act as a potent radioprotector and it can be used in modulation as well as improvement to radiation therapy to prevent male reproductive function, specifically seminiferous tubules in an animal model; however, its molecular mechanism is still not clear and needs more molecular researches.

  8. Integrative testis transcriptome analysis reveals differentially expressed miRNAs and their mRNA targets during early puberty in Atlantic salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaftnesmo, K O; Edvardsen, R B; Furmanek, T; Crespo, D; Andersson, E; Kleppe, L; Taranger, G L; Bogerd, J; Schulz, R W; Wargelius, A

    2017-10-18

    Our understanding of the molecular mechanisms implementing pubertal maturation of the testis in vertebrates is incomplete. This topic is relevant in Atlantic salmon aquaculture, since precocious male puberty negatively impacts animal welfare and growth. We hypothesize that certain miRNAs modulate mRNAs relevant for the initiation of puberty. To explore which miRNAs regulate mRNAs during initiation of puberty in salmon, we performed an integrated transcriptome analysis (miRNA and mRNA-seq) of salmon testis at three stages of development: an immature, long-term quiescent stage, a prepubertal stage just before, and a pubertal stage just after the onset of single cell proliferation activity in the testis. Differentially expressed miRNAs clustered into 5 distinct expression profiles related to the immature, prepubertal and pubertal salmon testis. Potential mRNA targets of these miRNAs were predicted with miRmap and filtered for mRNAs displaying negatively correlated expression patterns. In summary, this analysis revealed miRNAs previously known to be regulated in immature vertebrate testis (miR-101, miR-137, miR-92b, miR-18a, miR-20a), but also miRNAs first reported here as regulated in the testis (miR-new289, miR-30c, miR-724, miR-26b, miR-new271, miR-217, miR-216a, miR-135a, miR-new194 and the novel predicted n268). By KEGG enrichment analysis, progesterone signaling and cell cycle pathway genes were found regulated by these differentially expressed miRNAs. During the transition into puberty we found differential expression of miRNAs previously associated (let7a/b/c), or newly associated (miR-15c, miR-2184, miR-145 and the novel predicted n7a and b) with this stage. KEGG enrichment analysis revealed that mRNAs of the Wnt, Hedgehog and Apelin signaling pathways were potential regulated targets during the transition into puberty. Likewise, several regulated miRNAs in the pubertal stage had earlier been associated (miR-20a, miR-25, miR-181a, miR-202, let7c/d/a, miR-125b

  9. Analysis of GAGE, NY-ESO-1 and SP17 cancer/testis antigen expression in early stage non-small cell lung carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjerstorff, Morten F; Pøhl, Mette; Olsen, Karen E; Ditzel, Henrik J

    2013-10-08

    The unique expression pattern and immunogenic properties of cancer/testis antigens make them ideal targets for immunotherapy of cancer. The MAGE-A3 cancer/testis antigen is frequently expressed in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and vaccination with MAGE-A3 in patients with MAGE-A3-positive NSCLC has shown promising results. However, little is known about the expression of other cancer/testis antigens in NSCLC. In the present study the expression of cancer/testis antigens GAGE, NY-ESO-1 and SP17 was investigated in patients with completely resected, early stage, primary NSCLC. Tumor biopsies from normal lung tissue and from a large cohort (n = 169) of NSCLC patients were examined for GAGE, NY-ESO-1 and SP17 protein expression by immunohistochemical analysis. The expression of these antigens was further matched to clinical and pathological features using univariate cox regression analysis. GAGE and NY-ESO-1 cancer/testis antigens were not expressed in normal lung tissue, while SP17 was expressed in ciliated lung epithelia. The frequency of GAGE, NY-ESO-1 and SP17 expression in NSCLC tumors were 26.0% (44/169), 11.8% (20/169) and 4.7% (8/169), respectively, and 33.1% (56/169) of the tumors expressed at least one of these antigens. In general, the expression of GAGE, NY-ESO-1 and SP17 was not significantly associated with a specific histotype (adenocarcinoma vs. squamous cell carcinoma), but high-level GAGE expression (>50%) was more frequent in squamous cell carcinoma (p = 0.02). Furthermore, the frequency of GAGE expression was demonstrated to be significantly higher in stage II-IIIa than stage I NSCLC (17.0% vs. 35.8%; p = 0.02). Analysis of the relation between tumor expression of GAGE and NY-ESO-1 and survival endpoints revealed no significant associations. Our study demonstrates that GAGE, NY-ESO-1 and SP17 cancer/testis antigens are candidate targets for immunotherapy of NSCLC and further suggest that multi-antigen vaccines may be beneficial.

  10. Parallel assessment of the effects of bisphenol A and several of its analogs on the adult human testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desdoits-Lethimonier, C; Lesné, L; Gaudriault, P; Zalko, D; Antignac, J P; Deceuninck, Y; Platel, C; Dejucq-Rainsford, N; Mazaud-Guittot, S; Jégou, B

    2017-07-01

    Are bisphenol A (BPA) and BPA analogs (BPA-A) safe for male human reproductive function? The endocrine function of human testes explants [assessed by measuring testosterone and insulin-like factor 3 (INSL3)] was impacted by exposure of the human adult testis explants to BPA/BPA-A. The few epidemiologic studies performed suggest that bisphenols have potential endocrine disruptive properties, but they did not identify clear and direct patterns of endocrine disruption. Adult human testis explants in culture were exposed to BPA and the analogs bisphenol F (BPF), bisphenol S (BPS), bisphenol E (BPE), bisphenol B (BPB) and bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) at 10-9-10-5 M for 24 or 48 h. Human adult testes were obtained from prostate cancer patients who had no hormone therapy, or from multiorgan donors. After ex vivo exposure to the investigated bisphenols, the measured outcomes were related to histopathology (gross morphology and germ cell viability determined by anti-caspase three immunohistochemistry), and the levels of testosterone, INSL3 and inhibin B were measured using immunoassays. The levels of mRNA encoding key enzymes of bisphenol biotransformation were investigated by quantitative PCR: UGT2B15 UDP (glucuronosyltransferase two family, polypeptide B15), GUSB (glucuronidase beta), SULT1A1 and 3 (sulfotransferase family 1 A member 1 and 3) and STS (steroid sulfatase). A significant dose-dependent inhibition was found between testosterone levels measured in the culture medium and concentrations of BPA (P = 0.00778 at 24 h and P = 0.0291 at 48 h), BPE (P = 0.039) and BPF (P = 0.00663). The observed BPA and BPA-A-induced inhibition of testosterone production varied according to duration of exposure and BPA/BPA-A concentrations. BPA (10-9 M; P bisphenols. N/A. Environmental compounds cannot be deliberately administered to men, justifying the use of an ex vivo approach. A relatively low number of testes samples were available for analysis (n = 3, except for

  11. Loss of Function of the Nuclear Receptor NR2F2, Encoding COUP-TF2, Causes Testis Development and Cardiac Defects in 46,XX Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bashamboo, Anu; Eozenou, Caroline; Jorgensen, Anne

    2018-01-01

    Emerging evidence from murine studies suggests that mammalian sex determination is the outcome of an imbalance between mutually antagonistic male and female regulatory networks that canalize development down one pathway while actively repressing the other. However, in contrast to testis formation......, the gene regulatory pathways governing mammalian ovary development have remained elusive. We performed exome or Sanger sequencing on 79 46,XX SRY-negative individuals with either unexplained virilization or with testicular/ovotesticular disorders/differences of sex development (TDSD/OTDSD). We identified...... establish COUP-TF2 as a human "pro-ovary" and "anti-testis" sex-determining factor in female gonads. Furthermore, the data presented here provide additional evidence of the emerging importance of nuclear receptors in establishing human ovarian identity and indicate that nuclear receptors may have divergent...

  12. Follistatin-like 3 (FSTL3) mediated silencing of transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) signaling is essential for testicular aging and regulating testis size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldknow, Karla J; Seebacher, Jan; Goswami, Tapasree; Villen, Judit; Pitsillides, Andrew A; O'Shaughnessy, Peter J; Gygi, Steven P; Schneyer, Alan L; Mukherjee, Abir

    2013-03-01

    Follistatin-like 3 (FSTL3) is a glycoprotein that binds and inhibits the action of TGFβ ligands such as activin. The roles played by FSTL3 and activin signaling in organ development and homeostasis are not fully understood. The authors show mice deficient in FSTL3 develop markedly enlarged testes that are also delayed in their age-related regression. These FSTL3 knockout mice exhibit increased Sertoli cell numbers, allowing for increased spermatogenesis but otherwise showing normal testicular function. The data show that FSTL3 deletion leads to increased AKT signaling and SIRT1 expression in the testis. This demonstrates a cross-talk between TGFβ ligand and AKT signaling and leads to a potential mechanism for increased cellular survival and antiaging. The findings identify crucial roles for FSTL3 in limiting testis organ size and promoting age-related testicular regression.

  13. Geranylgeraniol enhances testosterone production via the cAMP/protein kinase A pathway in testis-derived I-10 tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Hsin-Jung; Shirakawa, Hitoshi; Yoshida, Risa; Ito, Asagi; Maeda, Misato; Goto, Tomoko; Komai, Michio

    2016-01-01

    Testosterone levels in men decrease with age; this decline has been linked to various diseases and can shorten life expectancy. Geranylgeraniol (GGOH) is an isoprenoid found in plants that plays an important role in several biological processes; however, its role in steroidogenesis is unknown. Here, we report that GGOH enhances the production of testosterone and its precursor progesterone in testis-derived I-10 tumor cells. GGOH induced protein kinase A (PKA) activity and increased cAMP levels and was found to regulate cAMP/PKA signaling by activating adenylate cyclase without altering phosphodiesterase activity. GGOH also stimulated mRNA and protein levels of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, a downstream effector in the cAMP/PKA pathway. These results demonstrate that GGOH enhances steroidogenesis in testis-derived cells by modulating cAMP/PKA signaling. Our findings have potential applications for the development of therapeutics that increase testosterone levels in aging men.

  14. Association between testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS) and testicular neoplasia: evidence from 20 adult patients with signs of maldevelopment of the testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skakkebæk, Niels Erik; Holm, Mette; Hoei-Hansen, Christina

    2003-01-01

    Based on a well established association between testicular cancer and undescended testis and more recent publications on epidemiological links between these disorders and male infertility, we proposed the existence of a testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS). In most cases TDS presents with impaired...... testicular biopsies derived from patients with infertility, hypospadias and undescended testis. We searched for histological signs of testicular dysgenesis: microliths, Sertoli-cell-only tubules, immature seminiferous tubules with undifferentiated Sertoli cells, and tubules containing carcinoma in situ (CIS...... of semen sampling and testicular histology. In conclusion, our study of 20 patients with various reproductive abnormalities provided evidence that TDS is a real clinical entity. We speculate that most of these abnormalities are caused by adverse environmental effects rather than specific gene mutations....

  15. NY-ESO-1/LAGE-1 coexpression with MAGE-A cancer/testis antigens: a tissue microarray study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolli, Martin; Schultz-Thater, Elke; Zajac, Paul; Guller, Ulrich; Feder, Chantal; Sanguedolce, Francesca; Carafa, Vincenza; Terracciano, Luigi; Hudolin, Tvrtko; Spagnoli, Giulio C; Tornillo, Luigi

    2005-07-20

    The characterization of the expression pattern of different families of cancer/testis (C/T) antigens in different tumors, at the protein level, might be of relevance in the development of multiantigen vaccine preparations for active specific immunotherapy. We have used tissue microarray (TMA) technology to explore in large numbers of tumor specimens the expression of NY-ESO-1/LAGE-1 C/T antigens and its correlation with MAGE-A expression by using D8.38 and 57B monoclonal antibodies (MAb). The epitopes recognized by these reagents in C/T antigens were identified by molecular mapping by using a bacterial expression system. Out of 2,052 samples, 119 (5.8%) scored positive upon staining with D8.38 NY-ESO-1/LAGE-1-specific MAb. Expression in >10% of cases was detectable in melanoma and basalioma (31.6 and 18.2%, respectively), large cell carcinomas and adenocarcinomas of the lung (17.8 and 10.5%, respectively), stomach adenocarcinomas of the intestinal type (13.2%), pT2-4 bladder TCC (18.2%), nonseminomatous carcinomas of the testis (10.4%) and liposarcomas (15.4%). Simultaneous expression of NY-ESO-1/LAGE-1 and MAGE-A C/T antigens was then addressed in a TMA where 101/845 and 73/845 samples (12 and 8.6%, respectively) showed evidence of MAGE-A or NY-ESO-1/LAGE-1 specific staining, respectively. In 35/845 specimens (4.1%) concomitant expression of MAGE-A and NY-ESO-1/LAGE-1 was observed (p = 0.0002). Discrepancies in the expression of NY-ESO-1/LAGE-1 and MAGE-A were conspicuously detectable in squamous cell carcinomas of the skin (MAGE-A positive but NY-ESO-1/LAGE-1 negative) and in liposarcomas (NY-ESO-1/LAGE-1 positive, but MAGE-A negative). Taken together, these data suggest novel areas of application of C/T antigens targeted active specific immunotherapy possibly based on multiantigen vaccine preparations. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Effects of ischaemic post-conditioning on the early and late testicular damage after experimental testis ischaemia-reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minutoli, L; Irrera, N; Squadrito, F; Marini, H; Nicotina, P A; Arena, S; Romeo, C; Antonuccio, P; Altavilla, D

    2014-01-01

    Ischaemic post-conditioning (IPostC) might represent an innovative surgical approach to protect organs from ischaemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury. We investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the contrasting effects of IPostC on the early and late damage induced by testicular I/R injury. Testis I/R was induced by occluding the right testicular vessels using a clip. Male rats were divided into the following groups: sham, I/R and I/R + IPostC. In the I/R group, the clip was removed after 60 min of ischaemia, and reperfusion was allowed for 30 min, 1 and 30 days. In the I/R + IPostC group, three cycles of 30-sec reperfusion and 30-sec ischaemia were performed after 60 min of ischaemia and then reperfusion followed up for 30 min, 1 and 30 days. Following 30-min reperfusion, there was an increase in mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in I/R rats; after 1 day of reperfusion, interleukin-6, tumour necrosis factor-α and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) expression were significantly increased; IκB-α expression reduced; and a marked damage in both testes was observed. IPostC inhibited MAPKs, cytokines and NF-κB expression, augmented IκB-α expression and decreased histological damage in testes subjected to I/R. After 30 days of reperfusion, I/R injury activated the apoptosis machinery, caused severe histological damage and reduced spermatogenic activity. By contrast, IPostC did not modify the apoptotic markers, the histological alterations as well as spermatogenic activity following 30 days of reperfusion. Our data demonstrate that IPostC protects the testis from the early damage induced by I/R injury, but it does not protect against the late damage. © 2013 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  17. Has active immunization against gonadotrophin-releasing hormone any effect on testis innervation in the pig? An immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sienkiewicz, W; Molenaar, G J; Kaleczyc, J; Falkowski, J; Lakomy, M

    2000-08-01

    The innervation of porcine testes was studied in intact animals and in boars undergoing active immunization against gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) by means of immunohistochemistry using antibodies to tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine beta-hydroxylase (D beta H), vasoactive intestinal polypolypeptide (VIP), neuropeptide Y (NPY), synaptosome-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP-25) and protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5). Moreover, the distribution of luteinizing hormone (LH) receptors in clusters of Leydig cells was also investigated. To identify these cells easily, either the NADPH-diaphorase histochemical technique or the Mayer counter-staining procedure was applied. Differences in the distribution pattern and relative density of particular subsets of intratesticular nerve fibres were observed in immunized boars as compared to those found in the intact animals. In the testes of non-treated animals, only single TH-immunoreactive (TH-IR) nerve fibres were observed. However, many D beta H-IR nerve terminals surrounded blood vessels in the tunica albuginea and parenchyma. Very scarce VIP-IR nerves occurred only in the tunica albuginea, mainly in close vicinity to blood vessels. Immunoreactivity to NPY occurred in single nerve fibres. Immunoreactivity to SNAP-25 and PGP 9.5 was found in single nerve fibres distributed mainly in the tunica albuginea. The interstitial cells were heavily stained for LH-receptors and NADPH-diaphorase. In the testes of immunized animals, only single TH-IR nerve fibres, scattered mainly in the tunica albuginea, were observed. Some TH-IR nerve terminals were also encountered in the parenchyma of the organ, where they were always associated with blood vessels. D beta H-IR nerve fibres formed a dense network distributed throughout the testis in association with the capsule, vasculature and interstitium. Some fibres were observed to run between seminiferous tubules. VIP-IR nerve fibres were located in the neighbourhood of blood vessels in

  18. Evaluation of an ovine testis cell line (OA3.Ts) for propagation of capripoxvirus isolates and development of an immunostaining technique for viral plaque visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babiuk, Shawn; Parkyn, Geoff; Copps, John; Larence, June E; Sabara, Marta I; Bowden, Timothy R; Boyle, David B; Kitching, R Paul

    2007-09-01

    An ovine testis cell line (OA3.Ts) was evaluated and compared with primary lamb kidney (LK) cells for its utility in capripoxvirus propagation and titration. A comparison of OA3.Ts cell growth kinetics and morphology at low (Capripoxvirus infection of OA3.Ts and LK cells resulted in a similar cytopathic effect, which allowed for the detection of discrete viral plaques following immunostaining with capripoxvirus-specific antiserum.

  19. Immunohistochemical analysis of the expression of MAGE-A and NY-ESO-1 cancer/testis antigens in diffuse large B-cell testicular lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    Hudolin, Tvrtko; Kaštelan, Željko; Ilić, Ivana; Levarda-Hudolin, Katarina; Bašić-Jukić, Nikolina; Rieken, Malte; Spagnoli, Giulio C; Juretić, Antonio; Mengus, Chantal

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Primary testicular lymphoma (PTL) is a rare and lethal disease. The most common histological subtype is diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Standard treatments are frequently ineffective. Thus, the development of novel forms of therapy is urgently required. Specific immunotherapy generating immune responses directed against antigen predominantly expressed by cancer cells such as cancer-testis antigens (CTA) may provide a valid alternative treatment for patients bearing PTL...

  20. Metabolic syndrome-associated sperm alterations in an experimental rabbit model: relation with metabolic profile, testis and epididymis gene expression and effect of tamoxifen treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchiani, Sara; Vignozzi, Linda; Filippi, Sandra; Gurrieri, Bruna; Comeglio, Paolo; Morelli, Annamaria; Danza, Giovanna; Bartolucci, Gianluca; Maggi, Mario; Baldi, Elisabetta

    2015-02-05

    The influence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) on sperm quality and function is debated. Using a well-established high fat diet (HFD) rabbit model resembling human MetS, including development of hypogonadism, we demonstrate that HFD decreased sperm motility, morphology and acrosome reaction in response to progesterone and increased sperm cholesterol content. All the above parameters were associated with most MetS features, its severity and plasma testosterone (T) at univariate analysis. After T adjustment, sperm morphology and motility retained a significant association, respectively, with mean arterial pressure and circulating cholesterol levels. MetS modified the expression of inflammatory and tissue remodelling genes in the testis and of aquaporins in the epididymis. In a multivariate analysis, sperm morphology resulted associated with testis expression of fibronectin and collagen type 1 genes, whereas motility with epididymis aquaporin 1 gene. Administration of tamoxifen, used in the treatment of idiopathic male infertility, to HFD rabbits partially restored motility, but further decreased morphology and increased spontaneous acrosome reaction, without restoring responsiveness to progesterone. Overall our results indicate that development of MetS produces detrimental effects on sperm quality and functionality by inducing metabolic disorders leading to alterations in testis and epididymis functions and evidence a role of hypertension as a new determinant of abnormal sperm morphology, in line with a previous human study from our group. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.